WorldWideScience

Sample records for indirect negative effect

  1. The indirect effect of emotion dysregulation in terms of negative affect and smoking-related cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adrienne L; McLeish, Alison C

    2016-02-01

    Although negative affect is associated with a number of smoking-related cognitive processes, the mechanisms underlying these associations have yet to be examined. The current study sought to examine the indirect effect of emotion regulation difficulties in terms of the association between negative affect and smoking-related cognitive processes (internal barriers to cessation, negative affect reduction smoking motives, negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies). Participants were 126 daily cigarette smokers (70.4% male, Mage=36.5years, SD=13.0; 69.8% Caucasian) who smoked an average of 18.5 (SD=8.7) cigarettes per day and reported moderate nicotine dependence. Formal mediation analyses were conducted using PROCESS to examine the indirect effect of negative affect on internal barriers to cessation and negative affect reduction smoking motives and outcome expectancies through emotion regulation difficulties. After accounting for the effects of gender, daily smoking rate, and anxiety sensitivity, negative affect was indirectly related to internal barriers to cessation and negative affect reduction smoking motives through emotion regulation difficulties. There was no significant indirect effect for negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies. These findings suggest that greater negative affect is associated with a desire to smoke to reduce this negative affect and perceptions that quitting smoking will be difficult due to negative emotions because of greater difficulties managing these negative emotions. Thus, emotion regulation difficulties may be an important target for smoking cessation interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Interactive and Indirect Effects of Anxiety and Negative Urgency on Alcohol-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menary, Kyle R.; Corbin, William R.; Leeman, Robert F.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Toll, Benjamin A.; DeMartini, Kelly; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although drinking for tension reduction has long been posited as a risk factor for alcohol-related problems, studies investigating anxiety in relation to risk for alcohol problems have returned inconsistent results, leading researchers to search for potential moderators. Negative urgency (the tendency to become behaviorally dysregulated when experiencing negative affect) is a potential moderator of theoretical interest because it may increase risk for alcohol problems among those high in negative affect. The present study tested a cross-sectional mediated moderation hypothesis whereby an interactive effect of anxiety and negative urgency on alcohol problems is mediated through coping-related drinking motives. Method The study utilized baseline data from a hazardously drinking sample of young adults (N = 193) evaluated for participation in a randomized controlled trial of naltrexone and motivational interviewing for drinking reduction. Results The direct effect of anxiety on physiological dependence symptoms was moderated by negative urgency such that the positive association between anxiety and physiological dependence symptoms became stronger as negative urgency increased. Indirect effects of anxiety and negative urgency on alcohol problems (operating through coping motives) were also observed. Conclusions Although results of the current cross-sectional study require replication using longitudinal data, the findings suggest that the simultaneous presence of anxiety and negative urgency may be an important indicator of risk for AUDs via both direct interactive effects and indirect additive effects operating through coping motives. These findings have potentially important implications for prevention/intervention efforts for individuals who become disinhibited in the context of negative emotional states. PMID:26031346

  3. Direct and indirect effects of paliperidone extended-release tablets on negative symptoms of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Bossie, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    Ibrahim Turkoz, Cynthia A Bossie, Bryan Dirks, Carla M CanusoOrtho-McNeil Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USAAbstract: Direct and indirect effects of the new psychotropic paliperidone extended-release (paliperidone ER) tablets on negative symptom improvement in schizophrenia were investigated using path analysis. A post hoc analysis of pooled data from three 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of paliperidone ER in patients experiencing acute exacerbation was con...

  4. Brain activation during direct and indirect processing of positive and negative words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, Thomas; Sauer, Andreas; Miltner, Wolfgang H R

    2011-09-12

    The effects of task conditions on brain activation to emotional stimuli are poorly understood. In this event-related fMRI study, brain activation to negative and positive words (matched for arousal) and neutral words was investigated under two task conditions. Subjects either had to attend to the emotional meaning (direct task) or to non-emotional features of the words (indirect task). Regardless of task, positive vs. negative words led to increased activation in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex, while negative vs. positive words induced increased activation of the insula. Compared to neutral words, all emotional words were associated with increased activation of the amygdala. Finally, the direct condition, as compared to the indirect condition, led to enhanced activation to emotional vs. neutral words in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. These results suggest valence and arousal dependent brain activation patterns that are partially modulated by participants' processing mode of the emotional stimuli. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Parents' job insecurity affects children's grade performance through the indirect effects of beliefs in an unjust world and negative mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barling, J; Mendelson, M B

    1999-10-01

    The authors postulated a model in which children's perceptions of their parents' job insecurity indirectly affect their grade performance through the effects of beliefs in an unjust world and negative mood. A total of 127 undergraduate students (55 male, 72 female) completed questionnaires on their perceptions of their parents' job insecurity and their own beliefs in an unjust world and negative mood. The parents reported on their own job insecurity. In addition, students provided their course grades from the previous semester 3 months after completing the questionnaires. Support for the proposed model was provided using LISREL 8.

  6. Thioredoxin-1 Negatively Modulates ADAM17 Activity Through Direct Binding and Indirect Reductive Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Daniela C; E Costa, Rute A P; Kawahara, Rebeca; Yokoo, Sami; Aragão, Annelize Z; Domingues, Romênia R; Pauletti, Bianca A; Honorato, Rodrigo V; Fattori, Juliana; Figueira, Ana Carolina M; Oliveira, Paulo S L; Consonni, Silvio R; Fernandes, Denise; Laurindo, Francisco; Hansen, Hinrich P; Paes Leme, Adriana F

    2018-02-27

    A disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17) modulates signaling events by releasing surface protein ectodomains such as TNFa and the EGFR-ligands. We have previously characterized cytoplasmic thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) as a partner of ADAM17 cytoplasmic domain. Still, the mechanism of ADAM17 regulation by Trx-1 is unknown, and it has become of paramount importance to assess the degree of influence that Trx-1 has on metalloproteinase ADAM17. Combining discovery and targeted proteomic approaches, we uncovered that Trx-1 negatively regulates ADAM17 by direct and indirect effect. We performed cell-based assays with synthetic peptides and site-directed mutagenesis, and we demonstrated that the interaction interface of Trx-1 and ADAM17 is important for the negative regulation of ADAM17 activity. However, both Trx-1 K72A and catalytic site mutant Trx-1 C32/35S rescued ADAM17 activity, although the interaction with Trx-1 C32/35S was unaffected, suggesting an indirect effect of Trx-1. We confirmed that the Trx-1 C32/35S mutant showed diminished reductive capacity, explaining this indirect effect on increasing ADAM17 activity through oxidant levels. Interestingly, Trx-1 K72A mutant showed similar oxidant levels to Trx-1 C32/35S , even though its catalytic site was preserved. We further demonstrated that the general reactive oxygen species inhibitor, Nacetylcysteine (NAC), maintained the regulation of ADAM17 dependent of Trx-1 reductase activity levels; whereas the electron transport chain modulator, rotenone, abolished Trx-1 effect on ADAM17 activity. We show for the first time that the mechanism of ADAM17 regulation, Trx-1 dependent, can be by direct interaction and indirect effect, bringing new insights into the cross-talk between isomerases and mammalian metalloproteinases. This unexpected Trx-1 K72A behavior was due to more dimer formation and, consequently, the reduction of its Trx-1 reductase activity, evaluated through dimer verification, by gel filtration and mass

  7. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Suicidal Behavior: Indirect Effects of Impaired Social Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Courtney E; Rojas, Sasha M; Badour, Christal L; Wanklyn, Sonya G; Feldner, Matthew T

    2016-01-01

    Social functioning is negatively impacted by the presence of PTSD, while increasing risk of suicidal behavior among individuals with PTSD. However, little research has examined the specific role of social functioning in the association between PTSD and suicidal behavior. Parallel multiple indirect effects analyses were performed to understand the unique indirect effects of four aspects of social functioning. Indirect effects of PTSD on suicidal ideation were significant through three pathways: interpersonal conflict, perceived family support, and interpersonal apprehension. Perceived family support was the only indirect pathway significantly associated with suicide attempt. Findings suggest that social functioning should be assessed and potentially targeted during treatment to help modify the risk for suicidal behavior among individuals with PTSD.

  8. Cruel intentions on television and in real life: can viewing indirect aggression increase viewers' subsequent indirect aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were shown an indirect, direct, or no-aggression video and their subsequent indirect aggression was measured by negative evaluation of a confederate and responses to a vignette. Participants viewing indirect or direct aggression gave a more negative evaluation of and less money to a confederate than participants viewing no-aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave less money to the confederate than those viewing direct aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave more indirectly aggressive responses to an ambiguous situation and participants viewing direct aggression gave more directly aggressive responses. This study provides the first evidence that viewing indirect aggression in the media can have an immediate impact on subsequent aggression.

  9. Indirect effect of financial strain on daily cortisol output through daily negative to positive affect index in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puterman, Eli; Haritatos, Jana; Adler, Nancy E; Sidney, Steve; Schwartz, Joseph E; Epel, Elissa S

    2013-12-01

    Daily affect is important to health and has been linked to cortisol. The combination of high negative affect and low positive affect may have a bigger impact on increasing HPA axis activity than either positive or negative affect alone. Financial strain may both dampen positive affect as well as increase negative affect, and thus provides an excellent context for understanding the associations between daily affect and cortisol. Using random effects mixed modeling with maximum likelihood estimation, we examined the relationship between self-reported financial strain and estimated mean daily cortisol level (latent cortisol variable), based on six salivary cortisol assessments throughout the day, and whether this relationship was mediated by greater daily negative to positive affect index measured concurrently in a sample of 776 Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study participants. The analysis revealed that while no total direct effect existed for financial strain on cortisol, there was a significant indirect effect of high negative affect to low positive affect, linking financial strain to elevated cortisol. In this sample, the effects of financial strain on cortisol through either positive affect or negative affect alone were not significant. A combined affect index may be a more sensitive and powerful measure than either negative or positive affect alone, tapping the burden of chronic financial strain, and its effects on biology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Strong impacts on aerosol indirect effects from historical oxidant changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafsahl Karset, Inger Helene; Koren Berntsen, Terje; Storelvmo, Trude; Alterskjær, Kari; Grini, Alf; Olivié, Dirk; Kirkevåg, Alf; Seland, Øyvind; Iversen, Trond; Schulz, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Uncertainties in effective radiative forcings through aerosol-cloud interactions (ERFaci, also called aerosol indirect effects) contribute strongly to the uncertainty in the total preindustrial-to-present-day anthropogenic forcing. Some forcing estimates of the total aerosol indirect effect are so negative that they even offset the greenhouse gas forcing. This study highlights the role of oxidants in modeling of preindustrial-to-present-day aerosol indirect effects. We argue that the aerosol precursor gases should be exposed to oxidants of its era to get a more correct representation of secondary aerosol formation. Our model simulations show that the total aerosol indirect effect changes from -1.32 to -1.07 W m-2 when the precursor gases in the preindustrial simulation are exposed to preindustrial instead of present-day oxidants. This happens because of a brightening of the clouds in the preindustrial simulation, mainly due to large changes in the nitrate radical (NO3). The weaker oxidative power of the preindustrial atmosphere extends the lifetime of the precursor gases, enabling them to be transported higher up in the atmosphere and towards more remote areas where the susceptibility of the cloud albedo to aerosol changes is high. The oxidation changes also shift the importance of different chemical reactions and produce more condensate, thus increasing the size of the aerosols and making it easier for them to activate as cloud condensation nuclei.

  11. Strong impacts on aerosol indirect effects from historical oxidant changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. H. H. Karset

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainties in effective radiative forcings through aerosol–cloud interactions (ERFaci, also called aerosol indirect effects contribute strongly to the uncertainty in the total preindustrial-to-present-day anthropogenic forcing. Some forcing estimates of the total aerosol indirect effect are so negative that they even offset the greenhouse gas forcing. This study highlights the role of oxidants in modeling of preindustrial-to-present-day aerosol indirect effects. We argue that the aerosol precursor gases should be exposed to oxidants of its era to get a more correct representation of secondary aerosol formation. Our model simulations show that the total aerosol indirect effect changes from −1.32 to −1.07 W m−2 when the precursor gases in the preindustrial simulation are exposed to preindustrial instead of present-day oxidants. This happens because of a brightening of the clouds in the preindustrial simulation, mainly due to large changes in the nitrate radical (NO3. The weaker oxidative power of the preindustrial atmosphere extends the lifetime of the precursor gases, enabling them to be transported higher up in the atmosphere and towards more remote areas where the susceptibility of the cloud albedo to aerosol changes is high. The oxidation changes also shift the importance of different chemical reactions and produce more condensate, thus increasing the size of the aerosols and making it easier for them to activate as cloud condensation nuclei.

  12. The Direct and Indirect Effects of Paliperidone Extended-release on Depressive Symptoms in Schizoaffective Disorder: A Path Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoz, Ibrahim; Fu, Dong-Jing; Bossie, Cynthia A; Alphs, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This analysis evaluates improvement in symptoms of depression in patients with schizoaffective disorder administered oral paliperidone extended-release by accounting for the magnitude of direct and indirect (changes in negative and positive symptoms and worsening of extrapyramidal symptoms) treatment effects on depressive symptoms. Data for this post hoc analysis were drawn from two six-week, randomized, placebo-controlled studies of paliperidone extended-release versus placebo in adult subjects with schizoaffective disorder (N=614; NCT00412373, NCT00397033). Subjects with baseline 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores of 16 or greater were included. Structural equation models (path analyses) were used to separate total effects into direct and indirect effects on depressive symptoms. Change from baseline in 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score at the Week 6 end point was the dependent variable; changes in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale positive and negative factors and Simpson-Angus Scale (to evaluate extrapyramidal symptoms) scores were independent variables. At baseline, 332 of 614 (54.1%) subjects had a 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score of 16 or greater. Path analysis determined that up to 26.4 percent of the paliperidone extended-release versus placebo effect on depressive symptoms may be attributed to a direct treatment effect, and 45.8 percent and 28.4 percent were mediated indirectly through improvements on positive and negative symptoms, respectively. No effects were identified as mediated through extrapyramidal symptoms changes (-0.7%). RESULTS of this analysis suggest that paliperidone's effect on depressive symptoms in subjects with schizoaffective disorder participating in two six-week, randomized, placebo-controlled studies is mediated through indirect effects (e.g., positive and negative symptom changes) and a direct treatment effect.

  13. Quantifying Direct and Indirect Effects of Elevated CO2 on Ecosystem Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatichi, S.; Leuzinger, S.; Paschalis, A.; Donnellan-Barraclough, A.; Hovenden, M. J.; Langley, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide are expected to affect carbon assimilation, evapotranspiration (ET) and ultimately plant growth. Direct leaf biochemical effects have been widely investigated, while indirect effects, although documented, are very difficult to quantify in experiments. We hypothesize that the interaction of direct and indirect effects is a possible reason for conflicting results concerning the magnitude of CO2 fertilization effects across different climates and ecosystems. A mechanistic ecohydrological model (Tethys-Chloris) is used to investigate the relative contribution of direct (through plant physiology) and indirect (via stomatal closure and thus soil moisture, and changes in Leaf Area Index, LAI) effects of elevated CO2 across a number of ecosystems. We specifically ask in which ecosystems and climate indirect effects are expected to be largest. Data and boundary conditions from flux-towers and free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments are used to force the model and evaluate its performance. Numerical results suggest that indirect effects of elevated CO2, through water savings and increased LAI, are very significant and sometimes larger than direct effects. Indirect effects tend to be considerably larger in water-limited ecosystems, while direct effects correlate positively with mean air temperature. Increasing CO2 from 375 to 550 ppm causes a total effect on Net Primary Production in the order of 15 to 40% and on ET from 0 to -8%, depending on climate and ecosystem type. The total CO2 effect has a significant negative correlation with the wetness index and positive correlation with vapor pressure deficit. These results provide a more general mechanistic understanding of relatively short-term (less than 20 years) implications of elevated CO2 on ecosystem response and suggest plausible magnitudes for the expected changes.

  14. Negative affect, negative urgency, thought suppression, and bulimic symptoms: a moderated mediation analysis in a sample at-risk for bulimic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M; Green, Daniel; Anestis, Michael D; Tull, Matthew T; Gratz, Kim L

    2015-05-01

    Research suggests that negative affect, negative urgency, and thought suppression are related to bulimic symptoms, either directly or indirectly. This study examined associations between these constructs in a sample at-risk for bulimic symptoms. Participants (N = 80) recruited from a residential substance abuse treatment facility completed self-report questionnaires. A regression-based bootstrapping approach was used to examine the indirect effect of negative affect on bulimic symptoms through negative urgency and the moderating role of thought suppression in the association between negative affect and negative urgency. Results revealed a significant indirect effect, significant moderation, and a significant moderated mediation effect, with an indirect effect of negative affect on bulimic symptoms through negative urgency, conditional upon low to moderate (but not high) levels of thought suppression. These findings suggest that negative affect may promote rash actions, particularly in the context of low to moderate thought suppression, leading to increased risk of bulimic symptoms. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  15. The direct and indirect effects of corruption on motor vehicle crash deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Law Teik; Noland, Robert B; Evans, Andrew W

    2010-11-01

    Recent empirical research has found that there is an inverted U-shaped or Kuznets relationship between income and motor vehicle crash (MVC) deaths, such that MVC deaths increase as national income increases and decrease after reaching a critical level. Corruption has been identified as one of the underlying factors that could affect this relationship, primarily by undermining institutional development and effective enforcement schemes. The total effect of corruption can be decomposed into two components, a direct and an indirect effect. The direct effect measures the immediate impact of corruption on MVC deaths by undermining effective enforcement and regulations, while the indirect effect captures the impact of corruption on hindering increases in per capita income and the consequent impact of reduced income on MVC deaths. By influencing economic growth, corruption can lead to an increase or decrease in MVC deaths depending on the income level. Using data from 60 countries between 1982 and 2003, these effects are estimated using linear panel and fixed effects negative binomial models. The estimation results suggest that corruption has different direct effects for less developed and highly developed countries. It has a negative (decreasing) effect on MVC deaths for less developed countries and a positive (increasing) effect on MVC deaths for highly developed countries. For highly developed countries, the total effect is positive at lower per capita income levels, but decreases with per capita income and becomes negative at per capita income levels of about US$ 38,248. For less developed countries, the total effect is negative within the sample range and decreases with increased per capita income. In summary, the results of this study suggest that reduction of corruption is likely a necessary condition to effectively tackle road safety problems. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Known unknowns: indirect energy effects of information and communication technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Nathaniel C.; Shehabi, Arman; Azevedo, Inês L.

    2016-10-01

    Background. There has been sustained and growing interest in characterizing the net energy impact of information and communication technology (ICT), which results from indirect effects offsetting (or amplifying) the energy directly consumed by ICT equipment. These indirect effects may be either positive or negative, and there is considerable disagreement as to the direction of this sign as well as the effect magnitude. Literature in this area ranges from studies focused on a single service (such as e-commerce versus traditional retail) to macroeconomic studies attempting to characterize the overall impact of ICT. Methods. We review the literature on the indirect energy effect of ICT found via Google Scholar, our own research, and input from other researchers in the field. The various studies are linked to an effect taxonomy, which is synthesized from several different hierarchies present in the literature. References are further grouped according to ICT service (e.g., e-commerce, telework) and summarized by scope, method, and quantitative and qualitative findings. Review results. Uncertainty persists in understanding the net energy effects of ICT. Results of indirect energy effect studies are highly sensitive to scoping decisions and assumptions made by the analyst. Uncertainty increases as the impact scope broadens, due to complex and interconnected effects. However, there is general agreement that ICT has large energy savings potential, but that the realization of this potential is highly dependent on deployment details and user behavior. Discussion. While the overall net effect of ICT is likely to remain unknown, this review suggests several guidelines for improving research quality in this area, including increased data collection, enhancing traditional modeling studies with sensitivity analysis, greater care in scoping, less confidence in characterizing aggregate impacts, more effort on understanding user behavior, and more contextual integration across the

  17. Religiousness and hazardous alcohol use: a conditional indirect effects model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Peter J; Hardy, Sam A; Zamboanga, Byron L; Ham, Lindsay S

    2013-08-01

    The current study examined a conditional indirect effects model of the association between religiousness and adolescents' hazardous alcohol use. In doing so, we responded to the need to include both mediators and moderators, and the need for theoretically informed models when examining religiousness and adolescents' alcohol use. The sample consisted of 383 adolescents, aged 15-18, who completed an online questionnaire. Results of structural equation modeling supported the proposed model. Religiousness was indirectly associated with hazardous alcohol use through both positive alcohol expectancy outcomes and negative alcohol expectancy valuations. Significant moderating effects for alcohol expectancy valuations on the association between alcohol expectancies and alcohol use were also found. The effects for alcohol expectancy valuations confirm valuations as a distinct construct to that of alcohol expectancy outcomes, and offer support for the protective role of internalized religiousness on adolescents' hazardous alcohol use as a function of expectancy valuations. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Indirect reciprocity with negative assortment and limited information can promote cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, Eleanor; Brännström, Åke; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2018-04-14

    Cooperation is ubiquitous in biological and social systems, even though cooperative behavior is often costly and at risk of exploitation by non-cooperators. Several studies have demonstrated that indirect reciprocity, whereby some members of a group observe the behaviors of their peers and use this information to discriminate against previously uncooperative agents in the future, can promote prosocial behavior. Some studies have shown that differential propensities of interacting among and between different types of agents (interaction assortment) can increase the effectiveness of indirect reciprocity. No previous studies have, however, considered differential propensities of observing the behaviors of different types of agents (information assortment). Furthermore, most previous studies have assumed that discriminators possess perfect information about others and incur no costs for gathering and storing this information. Here, we (1) consider both interaction assortment and information assortment, (2) assume discriminators have limited information about others, and (3) introduce a cost for information gathering and storage, in order to understand how the ability of discriminators to stabilize cooperation is affected by these steps toward increased realism. We report the following findings. First, cooperation can persist when agents preferentially interact with agents of other types or when discriminators preferentially observe other discriminators, even when they have limited information. Second, contrary to intuition, increasing the amount of information available to discriminators can exacerbate defection. Third, introducing costs of gathering and storing information makes it more difficult for discriminators to stabilize cooperation. Our study is one of only a few studies to date that show how negative interaction assortment can promote cooperation and broadens the set of circumstances in which it is know that cooperation can be maintained. Copyright © 2018

  19. Determining the Environmental Effects of Indirect Subsidies. A Methodological Approach with an Application to the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Beers, C. [Department of Economics, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M. [Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); De Moor, A. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Oosterhuis, F. [Institute for Environmental Studies IVM, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-04-01

    Up to now a clear theoretical and methodological framework for economic-environmental analysis of environmentally damaging subsidies is lacking. Environmentally damaging subsidies are all kinds of direct and indirect subsidies aimed at achieving a certain (often non-environmental) goal that produce negative external effects to the natural environment. This article develops a transparent method to determine the environmental impact of indirect government subsidies and derive policy lessons. This method has been applied to several major subsidies in the Netherlands, namely in agriculture, energy, and transport. The results reveal large environmental effects, which need to be taken seriously by policy makers. The method enables policy makers to evaluate the environmental impacts of indirect government subsidies.

  20. Manifestation of Aerosol Indirect Effects in Arctic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, D.; Vogelmann, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    The first aerosol indirect effect has traditionally been conceived as an enhancement of shortwave cloud reflectance in response to decreased effective droplet size at fixed liquid water path, as cloud nucleating aerosol becomes entrained in the cloud. The high Arctic, with its pervasive low-level stratiform cloud cover and frequent episodes of anthropogenic aerosol (Artic "haze"), has in recent years served as a natural laboratory for research on actual manifestations of aerosol indirect effects. This paper will review the surprising set of developments: (1) the detection of the indirect effect as a source of surface warming, rather than cooling, throughout early spring, (2) a transition to a cooling effect in late spring, corresponding to the beginning of the sea ice melt season, and (3) detection of an indirect effect during summer, outside of the "Arctic haze" season. This paper will also discuss measurements of spectral shortwave irradiance (350-2200 nm) made at Barrow, Alaska, during the U.S. Department of Energy's Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), which reveal complications in our conception of the indirect effect related to the ice phase in Arctic stratiform clouds.

  1. Indirect Genetic Effects for group-housed animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku

    This thesis investigated social interactions in group-housed animals. The main findings of this thesis: 1) Statistical methods to estimate indirect genetic effects when interactions differ between kin vs. non-kin were developed. 2) Indirect genetic effects contribute a substantial amount...... of heritable variation for bite mark traits in group-housed min. 3) Indirect genetic effects estimation needs to take into account systematic interactions due to sex or kin for bite mark trait in group-housed min. 4) Genomic selection can be used to increase the response to selection for survival time in Brown...

  2. The Role of Mediators in the Indirect Effects of Religiosity on Therapeutic Compliance in African Migrant HIV-Positive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mambet Doue, Constance; Roussiau, Nicolas

    2016-12-01

    This research investigates the indirect effects of religiosity (practice and belief) on therapeutic compliance in 81 HIV-positive patients who are migrants from sub-Saharan Africa (23 men and 58 women). Using analyses of mediation and standard multiple regression, including a resampling procedure by bootstrapping, the role of these mediators (magical-religious beliefs and nonuse of toxic substances) was tested. The results show that, through magical-religious beliefs, religiosity has a negative indirect effect, while with the nonuse of toxic substances, religious practice has a positive indirect effect. Beyond religiosity, the role of mediators is highlighted in the interaction with therapeutic compliance.

  3. System markets: Indirect network effects in action, or inaction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.G. Binken (Jeroen)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, I empirically examine system markets up close. More specifically I examine indirect network effects, both demand-side and supply-side indirect network effects. Indirect network effects are the source of positive feedback in system markets, or so network effect

  4. Indirect effects in dual radiation action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaider, M.; Rossi, H.H.

    1988-01-01

    The basic aim in this paper is to establish the link between indirect effects of radiation action and the spatial distribution of radicals at the time of energy deposition as well as throughout subsequent diffusion and interaction. The fact that radicals diffuse for a finite distance before damaging a biomolecule has dramatic effects on their subsequent probability to result in lesions. Thus at very low DMSO concentrations, where p = 0.5, one expects - all other things being equal - some 75% of the lesions to result from indirect or semidirect lesions. The number calculated here is lower (15%), a direct result of the fact that such lesions involve proximity functions modulated by diffusion. At higher DMSO concentrations this percentage becomes progressively smaller, as expected. It appears thus that for low-LET radiation, the relative amount of indirect damage in single tracks (also termed intratrack or single events) action is very small. By contrast, intertrack (or two-event) contributions will have the ratio between direct and (indirect + semidirect) contributions given by p 2 /(1-p 2 ). The reason for this is that sublesions from different tracks are uniformly distributed throughout the cell nucleus; their probability of interaction should not depend on any previous diffusional processes. For the example given above (p = 0.5) they do expect 65% of intertrack (two-hit) lesions to have resulted from indirect or semidirect mechanisms. This contrast between the almost exclusively direct character of intratrack lesions and the dominant role of indirect action in intertrack lesions produced by low-LET radiation is an important conclusion of this study

  5. Global indirect aerosol effects: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Lohmann

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols affect the climate system by changing cloud characteristics in many ways. They act as cloud condensation and ice nuclei, they may inhibit freezing and they could have an influence on the hydrological cycle. While the cloud albedo enhancement (Twomey effect of warm clouds received most attention so far and traditionally is the only indirect aerosol forcing considered in transient climate simulations, here we discuss the multitude of effects. Different approaches how the climatic implications of these aerosol effects can be estimated globally as well as improvements that are needed in global climate models in order to better represent indirect aerosol effects are discussed in this paper.

  6. Indirect Self-Destructiveness and Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos

    2016-06-01

    While emotional intelligence may have a favourable influence on the life and psychological and social functioning of the individual, indirect self-destructiveness exerts a rather negative influence. The aim of this study has been to explore possible relations between indirect self-destructiveness and emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 females and 130 males) aged 20-30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the chronic self-destructiveness scale and INTE, i.e., the Polish version of the assessing emotions scale. Indirect self-destructiveness has significant correlations with all variables of INTE (overall score, factor I, factor II), and these correlations are negative. The intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates significantly the height of the emotional intelligence and vice versa: the height of the emotional intelligence differentiates significantly the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness. Indirect self-destructiveness has negative correlations with emotional intelligence as well as its components: the ability to recognize emotions and the ability to utilize emotions. The height of emotional intelligence differentiates the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness, and vice versa: the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates the height of emotional intelligence. It seems advisable to use emotional intelligence in the prophylactic and therapeutic work with persons with various types of disorders, especially with the syndrome of indirect self-destructiveness.

  7. System markets: Indirect network effects in action, or inaction?

    OpenAIRE

    Binken, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, I empirically examine system markets up close. More specifically I examine indirect network effects, both demand-side and supply-side indirect network effects. Indirect network effects are the source of positive feedback in system markets, or so network effect theory tells us. Systems are composed of complementary and interdependent products, such as hardware and software. For instance, a video game system is composed of the video game console, on the one han...

  8. Tipping and Concentration in Markets with Indirect Network Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Pierre H. Dubé; Günter J. Hitsch; Pradeep K. Chintagunta

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a framework for measuring “tipping”—the increase in a firm's market share dominance caused by indirect network effects. Our measure compares the expected concentration in a market to the hypothetical expected concentration that would arise in the absence of indirect network effects. In practice, this measure requires a model that can predict the counterfactual market concentration under different parameter values capturing the strength of indirect network effects. We build...

  9. Indirect effects in community ecology: Their definition, study and importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, S Y

    1991-07-01

    The diversity of indirect interactions that can occur within communities is large. Recent research on indirect interactions is scattered in the literature under numerous labels. The definition of indirect effects is an important aspect of their study, and clarifies some of the subtle differences among indirect effects found in natural communities. Choosing which species to study, how to manipulate species and for what duration, which attributes to measure and, finally, which analytical techniques to use are all problems facing the community ecologist. Ultimately, we are striving for the best means of determining the relative importance of direct and indirect effects in structuring communities. Copyright © 1991. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Resilience as a moderator of the indirect effects of conflict and workload on job outcomes among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanz, Julie Jean; Bruk-Lee, Valentina

    2017-12-01

    To examine the relative effects of interpersonal conflict and workload on job outcomes (turnover intentions, burnout, injuries) and examine if resilience moderates the indirect effects of conflict and workload on job outcomes via job-related negative effect. There is interest in understanding resilience in the nursing profession. Placing resilience in the context of the Emotion-Centred Model of Occupational Stress (Spector, ) is a novel approach to understanding how resilience ameliorates the negative effects of workplace stressors. This study used a two-wave survey design to collect data from 97 nurses across medical units. Nurses working in the US were recruited in June 2014 using Qualtrics Panels, an online survey platform service that secures participants for research. Nurses were contacted via email at two time points, two weeks apart and provided a link to an online survey. SPSS v. 23 and PROCESS v2.15 were used to analyse regressions and moderated mediation. Interpersonal conflict predicted turnover intentions and burnout; workload predicted injuries. Job-related negative affect mediated the relationships between stressors and job outcomes except for the direct effect of workload on injuries. Low resilience increased the magnitude of the indirect effects of conflict on job outcomes. Job characteristics like workload predicted unique variability in self-reported physical injuries. Conflict at work, a social stressor, predicted well-being and job attitudes. Highly resilient nurses bounced back after experiencing conflict in the workplace. Resilience should be explored for its potential as a method to reduce the negative effects of social stressors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Jasmonate-deficient plants have reduced direct and indirect defences against herbivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thaler, J.S.; Farag, M.A.; Paré, P.W.; Dicke, M.

    2002-01-01

    Plants employ a variety of defence mechanisms, some of which act directly by having a negative effect on herbivores and others that act indirectly by attracting natural enemies of herbivores. In this study we asked if a common jasmonate-signalling pathway links the regulation of direct and indirect

  12. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Indirect Effect of Violence Exposure on Future Orientation Through Perceived Stress and the Buffering Effect of Family Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Carissa J; Zimmerman, Marc A; Stoddard, Sarah A

    2018-06-07

    Exposure to violence (ETV) during adolescence has been associated with negative effects in later life, and may negatively affect an individual's future orientation. Future orientation has important health implications and warrants being studied. Yet, few researchers have examined how ETV affects an individual's future orientation as a young adult. The purpose of this study was to examine the indirect effect of ETV during adolescence on future orientation as a young adult through perceived stress. We also tested the moderating effect of family participation on the relationship between perceived stress and future orientation. Longitudinal data from a sample of 316 African American participants (42.10% male and 57.90% female, Mage = 14.76 at Wave 1) from low socioeconomic backgrounds recruited from a Midwestern school district were used in the analysis. Multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test our hypotheses. Our findings indicated that greater ETV during adolescence is associated with higher levels of perceived stress and, in turn, a more negative outlook on one's future as a young adult. This indirect effect occurred for individuals with lower family participation, but was not evident for individuals with greater family participation. These findings provide important implications for youth development interventions. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  13. Manifestations of Indirect Self-Destructiveness and Dimensions of Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    While indirect self-destructiveness exerts a rather negative influence on the life and psychological and social functioning of the individual, emotional intelligence may have a favourable effect. The aim of this study has been to explore possible relationships between manifestations of indirect self-destructiveness and dimensions of emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 females and 130 males) aged 20-30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale and INTE, i.e., the Polish version of the Assessing Emotions Scale. Manifestations of indirect self-destructiveness show many significant correlations with variables of the INTE, and those correlations are negative. Generally, it can be said that low emotional intelligence is associated with poor psychosocial and social functioning, which, in turn, is associated with indirect self-destructiveness and its manifestations. It seems advisable to use emotional intelligence in the prophylactic and therapeutic work with individuals suffering from various types of disorders, especially the syndrome of indirect self-destructiveness.

  14. Indirect genetic effects and kin recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku; Berg, Peer; Janss, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions among individuals are widespread, both in natural and domestic populations. As a result, trait values of individuals may be affected by genes in other individuals, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects (IGEs). IGEs can be estimated using linear mixed models. The tradi......Social interactions among individuals are widespread, both in natural and domestic populations. As a result, trait values of individuals may be affected by genes in other individuals, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects (IGEs). IGEs can be estimated using linear mixed models...... present a reduced model that yields estimates of the total heritable effects on kin, on non-kin and on all social partners of an individual, as well as the total heritable variance for response to selection. Finally we discuss the consequences of analysing data in which IGEs depend on relatedness using...

  15. A longitudinal mediation analysis of the effect of negative-self-schemas on positive symptoms via negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, E S; Ascone, L; Lincoln, T M

    2018-06-01

    Cognitive models postulate that negative-self-schemas (NSS) cause and maintain positive symptoms and that negative affect mediates this link. However, only few studies have tested the temporal mediation claim systematically using an appropriate design. A longitudinal cohort design in an online community sample (N = 962) from Germany, Indonesia, and the USA was used. NSS, negative affect and positive symptoms were measured at four time-points (T0-T3) over a 1-year period. Cross-lagged panel and longitudinal mediation analyses with structural equation modeling were used to test the temporal mediation. Independent cross-lagged panel models showed a significant unidirectional longitudinal path from NSS to positive symptoms (T2-T3, β = 0.18, p negative affect (T0-T1, γ = 0.14, p negative affect at T1 and T2 to positive symptoms at T3 (unstandardized indirect effect coefficient = 0.020, p affective pathway from NSS to positive symptoms via negative affect. Specifically, our data indicate that NSS and negative affect influence each other and build up over the course of several months before leading on to positive symptoms. We conclude that interrupting this process by targeting NSS and negative affect early in the process could be a promising strategy to prevent the exacerbation of positive symptoms.

  16. Direct and indirect effects of land use on floral resources and flower-visiting insects across an urban landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, K.C.; Grace, James B.; Minor, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    Although urban areas are often considered to have uniformly negative effects on biodiversity, cities are most accurately characterized as heterogeneous mosaics of buildings, streets, parks, and gardens that include both ‘good’ and ‘bad’ areas for wildlife. However, to date, few studies have evaluated how human impacts vary in direction and magnitude across a heterogeneous urban landscape. In this study, we assessed the distribution of floral resources and flower-visiting insects across a variety of land uses in New York City. We visited both green spaces (e.g. parks, cemeteries) and heavily developed neighborhood blocks (e.g. with high or low density residential zoning) and used structural equation modeling (SEM) to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of median income, vegetation, and development intensity on floral resources and insects in both settings. Abundance and taxonomic richness of flower-visiting insects was significantly greater in green spaces than neighborhood blocks. The SEM results indicated that heavily-developed neighborhoods generally had fewer flower-visiting insects consistent with reductions in floral resources. However, some low-density residential neighborhoods maintained high levels of floral resources and flower-visiting insects. We found that the effects of surrounding vegetation on floral resources, and thus indirect effects on insects, varied considerably between green spaces and neighborhood blocks. Along neighborhood blocks, vegetation consisted of a mosaic of open gardens and sparsely distributed trees and had a positive indirect effect on flower-visiting insects. In contrast, vegetation in urban green spaces was associated with increased canopy cover and thus had a negative indirect effect on flower-visiting insects through reductions in floral resources. In both neighborhood blocks and green spaces, vegetation had a positive direct effect on flower-visiting insects independent of the influence of vegetation on floral

  17. School leadership effects revisited: a review of empirical studies guided by indirect-effect models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Maria A.; Scheerens, Jaap

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen leadership effect studies that used indirect-effect models were quantitatively analysed to explore the most promising mediating variables. The results indicate that total effect sizes based on indirect-effect studies appear to be low, quite comparable to the results of some meta-analyses of

  18. Environmental effects of indirect subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beers, C.P.; De Moor, A.P.G.; Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Oosterhuis, F.H.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study on the title subject is to develop a transparent integrated method to determine and analyze the environmental impacts of indirect subsidies, applied in the sectors agriculture, energy, mobility, and tourism. From the results it appears that the hazardous effects of subsidies are big. Examples are milk, the regulating energy levy, and kerosene [nl

  19. An improved recommendation algorithm via weakening indirect linkage effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guang; Qiu Tian; Shen Xiao-Quan

    2015-01-01

    We propose an indirect-link-weakened mass diffusion method (IMD), by considering the indirect linkage and the source object heterogeneity effect in the mass diffusion (MD) recommendation method. Experimental results on the MovieLens, Netflix, and RYM datasets show that, the IMD method greatly improves both the recommendation accuracy and diversity, compared with a heterogeneity-weakened MD method (HMD), which only considers the source object heterogeneity. Moreover, the recommendation accuracy of the cold objects is also better elevated in the IMD than the HMD method. It suggests that eliminating the redundancy induced by the indirect linkages could have a prominent effect on the recommendation efficiency in the MD method. (paper)

  20. Water developments and canids in two North American deserts: a test of the indirect effect of water hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas K Hall

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic modifications to landscapes intended to benefit wildlife may negatively influence wildlife communities. Anthropogenic provisioning of free water (water developments to enhance abundance and distribution of wildlife is a common management practice in arid regions where water is limiting. Despite the long-term and widespread use of water developments, little is known about how they influence native species. Water developments may negatively influence arid-adapted species (e.g., kit fox, Vulpes macrotis by enabling water-dependent competitors (e.g., coyote, Canis latrans to expand distribution in arid landscapes (i.e., indirect effect of water hypothesis. We tested the two predictions of the indirect effect of water hypothesis (i.e., coyotes will visit areas with free water more frequently and kit foxes will spatially and temporally avoid coyotes and evaluated relative use of free water by canids in the Great Basin and Mojave Deserts from 2010 to 2012. We established scent stations in areas with (wet and without (dry free water and monitored visitation by canids to these sites and visitation to water sources using infrared-triggered cameras. There was no difference in the proportions of visits to scent stations in wet or dry areas by coyotes or kit foxes at either study area. We did not detect spatial (no negative correlation between visits to scent stations or temporal (no difference between times when stations were visited segregation between coyotes and kit foxes. Visitation to water sources was not different for coyotes between study areas, but kit foxes visited water sources more in Mojave than Great Basin. Our results did not support the indirect effect of water hypothesis in the Great Basin or Mojave Deserts for these two canids.

  1. Anxiety symptoms mediate the relationship between exposure to stressful negative life events and depressive symptoms: A conditional process modelling of the protective effects of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyan, Frederick; Worsley, Lyn; Hjemdal, Odin

    2017-10-01

    Resilience has provided a useful framework that elucidates the effects of protective factors to overcome psychological adversities but studies that address the potential contingencies of resilience to protect against direct and indirect negative effects are lacking. These obvious gaps have also resulted in oversimplification of complex processes that can be clarified by moderated mediation associations. This study examines a conditional process modelling of the protective effects of resilience against indirect effects. Two separate samples were recruited in a cross-sectional survey from Australia and Norway to complete the Patient Health Questionnaire -9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Stressful Negative Life Events Questionnaire and the Resilience Scale for Adults. The final sample sizes were 206 (females=114; males=91; other=1) and 210 (females=155; males=55) for Australia and Norway respectively. Moderated mediation analyses were conducted across the samples. Anxiety symptoms mediated the relationship between exposure to stressful negative life events and depressive symptoms in both samples. Conditional indirect effects of exposure to stressful negative life events on depressive symptoms mediated by anxiety symptoms showed that high subgroup of resilience was associated with less effect of exposure to stressful negative life events through anxiety symptoms on depressive symptoms than the low subgroup of resilience. As a cross-sectional survey, the present study does not answer questions about causal processes despite the use of a conditional process modelling. These findings support that, resilience protective resources can protect against both direct and indirect - through other channels - psychological adversities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Negative affect and smoking motives sequentially mediate the effect of panic attacks on tobacco-relevant processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J; Blalock, Janice A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-05-01

    Empirical work has documented a robust and consistent relation between panic attacks and smoking behavior. Theoretical models posit smokers with panic attacks may rely on smoking to help them manage chronically elevated negative affect due to uncomfortable bodily states, which may explain higher levels of nicotine dependence and quit problems. The current study examined the effects of panic attack history on nicotine dependence, perceived barriers for quitting, smoking inflexibility when emotionally distressed, and expired carbon monoxide among 461 treatment-seeking smokers. A multiple mediator path model was evaluated to examine the indirect effects of negative affect and negative affect reduction motives as mediators of the panic attack-smoking relations. Panic attack history was indirectly related to greater levels of nicotine dependence (b = 0.039, CI95% = 0.008, 0.097), perceived barriers to smoking cessation (b = 0.195, CI95% = 0.043, 0.479), smoking inflexibility/avoidance when emotionally distressed (b = 0.188, CI95% = 0.041, 0.445), and higher levels of expired carbon monoxide (b = 0.071, CI95% = 0.010, 0.230) through the sequential effects of negative affect and negative affect smoking motives. The present results provide empirical support for the sequential mediating role of negative affect and smoking motives for negative affect reduction in the relation between panic attacks and a variety of smoking variables in treatment-seeking smokers. These mediating variables are likely important processes to address in smoking cessation treatment, especially in panic-vulnerable smokers.

  3. Estimating the direct and indirect effects of secondary organic aerosols using ECHAM5-HAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O'Donnell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA has been introduced into the global climate-aerosol model ECHAM5/HAM. The SOA module handles aerosols originating from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources. The model simulates the emission of precursor gases, their chemical conversion into condensable gases, the partitioning of semi-volatile condenable species into the gas and aerosol phases. As ECHAM5/HAM is a size-resolved model, a new method that permits the calculation of partitioning of semi-volatile species between different size classes is introduced. We compare results of modelled organic aerosol concentrations against measurements from extensive measurement networks in Europe and the United States, running the model with and without SOA. We also compare modelled aerosol optical depth against measurements from the AERONET network of grond stations. We find that SOA improves agreement between model and measurements in both organic aerosol mass and aerosol optical depth, but does not fully correct the low bias that is present in the model for both of these quantities. Although many models now include SOA, any overall estimate of the direct and indirect effects of these aerosols is still lacking. This paper makes a first step in that direction. The model is applied to estimate the direct and indirect effects of SOA under simulated year 2000 conditions. The modelled SOA spatial distribution indicates that SOA is likely to be an important source of free and upper tropospheric aerosol. We find a negative shortwave (SW forcing from the direct effect, amounting to −0.31 Wm−2 on the global annual mean. In contrast, the model indicates a positive indirect effect of SOA of +0.23 Wm−2, arising from the enlargement of particles due to condensation of SOA, together with an enhanced coagulation sink of small particles. In the longwave, model results are a direct effect of +0.02 Wm−2 and an indirect effect of −0.03 Wm−2

  4. Direct and indirect influences of fate control belief, gambling expectancy bias, and self-efficacy on problem gambling and negative mood among Chinese college students: a multiple mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Wu, Anise M S

    2010-12-01

    A multiple mediation model was proposed to integrate core concepts of the social axioms framework and the social cognitive theory in order to understand gambling behavior. It was hypothesized that the influence of general fate control belief on problem gambling and negative mood would be mediated by gambling-specific beliefs. Data from 773 Chinese college recreational gamblers were collected. The bootstrapping procedure was used to test the multiple mediation hypotheses. Significant indirect effects of fate control belief on problem gambling and negative mood through two gambling-specific mediators were found. Gambling expectancy bias was a more salient mediator than gambling self-efficacy. Fate control belief was also found to have a significant direct effect on negative mood. In general, a high level of general fate control belief was related to greater gambling expectancy bias and lower self-efficacy in resisting gambling, which were in turn related to problem gambling and negative mood. Limitations and implications of the study were discussed.

  5. Indirect effects of an invasive annual grass on seed fates of two native perennial grass species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Susan E; Merrill, Katherine T; Allen, Phil S; Beckstead, Julie; Norte, Anna S

    2014-04-01

    Invasive plants exhibit both direct and indirect negative effects on recruitment of natives following invasion. We examined indirect effects of the invader Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) on seed fates of two native grass species, Elymus elymoides and Pseudoroegneria spicata, by removing B. tectorum and by adding inoculum of the shared seed pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda in factorial experiments at xeric and mesic field sites. We also included a supplemental watering treatment to increase emergence and also the potential for pathogen escape. We recorded emergence and survival of native seedlings and also determined the fate of unemerged seeds. At the xeric site, Pyrenophora-caused mortality was high (34%), and effects of other pathogens and failed emergence of germinants were smaller. Cheatgrass removal negatively affected both emergence (35 vs. 25%) and spring survival (69 vs. 42%). Pyrenophora-caused seed mortality increased with inoculum augmentation for both species (22 vs. 47% overall), but emergence was negatively impacted only for P. spicata (20 vs. 34%). At the mesic site, Pyrenophora-caused mortality was low (6%). Cheatgrass removal doubled emergence (26 vs. 14%). Seed mortality increased significantly with inoculum augmentation for P. spicata (12 vs. 5%) but not E. elymoides, while emergence was not significantly affected in either species. A large fraction of seeds produced germinants that failed to emerge (37%), while another large fraction (35%) was killed by other pathogens. We conclude that facilitation by cheatgrass at the xeric site but interference at the mesic site was probably mediated through litter effects that could be ameliorative or suppressive. Apparent competition between cheatgrass and native grasses could occur through Pyrenophora, especially in a xeric environment, but effects were weak or absent at emergence. This was probably because Pyrenophora attacks the same slow-germinating fraction that is subject to pre-emergence mortality from

  6. Assessing the indirect effects due to natural hazards on a mesoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfurtscheller, C.; Schwarze, R.

    2009-04-01

    Measuring indirect economic costs and other effects from natural hazards, especially floods in alpine and other mountainous regions, are a necessary part of a comprehensive economic assessment. Their omission seriously affects the relative economic benefits of structural or non structural measures of flood defence. Surpassing controversial, IO-model-based economic estimates, analysing indirect economic effects lead to the key question of identifying and evaluating the drivers of indirect economic effects and resilience to system effects in the regional economy, i.e. at the meso-level. This investigation takes place for the catastrophic floods in summer 2005 in the provinces of Tyrol and Vorarlberg, Austria, which caused an estimated € 670 Mio direct loss on private and public assets and severe interruptions in lifeline services. The paper starts out with differentiating the concept of indirect economic costs from direct costs, examing different temporal (short vs. long-term) and spatial (macro-, meso- vs. microeconomic) system boundaries. It surveys common theories of economic resilience and vulnerability at the regional economy level. Indirect effects at the regional economy level can be defined as interferences of the economic exchange of goods and services triggered by breakdowns of transport lines and critical production inputs. The extent and persistence of indirect effects of natural hazards is not only by parameters of the extreme event, such as duration and amplitude of the flood, but much more by resilience parameters of the regional economy such as size of enterprises, the network structure (linkages) of the regional economy, availability of insurance and relief funds, and the stock of inventory. These effects can only be dissected by means of expert judgement and event studies. This paper presents the results of a survey conducted among business practioneers, members of chamber of commerce, civil protection agencies to identify and scale the drivers of

  7. Estimation of indirect effect when the mediator is a censored variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Shete, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    A mediation model explores the direct and indirect effects of an initial variable ( X) on an outcome variable ( Y) by including a mediator ( M). In many realistic scenarios, investigators observe censored data instead of the complete data. Current research in mediation analysis for censored data focuses mainly on censored outcomes, but not censored mediators. In this study, we proposed a strategy based on the accelerated failure time model and a multiple imputation approach. We adapted a measure of the indirect effect for the mediation model with a censored mediator, which can assess the indirect effect at both the group and individual levels. Based on simulation, we established the bias in the estimations of different paths (i.e. the effects of X on M [ a], of M on Y [ b] and of X on Y given mediator M [ c']) and indirect effects when analyzing the data using the existing approaches, including a naïve approach implemented in software such as Mplus, complete-case analysis, and the Tobit mediation model. We conducted simulation studies to investigate the performance of the proposed strategy compared to that of the existing approaches. The proposed strategy accurately estimates the coefficients of different paths, indirect effects and percentages of the total effects mediated. We applied these mediation approaches to the study of SNPs, age at menopause and fasting glucose levels. Our results indicate that there is no indirect effect of association between SNPs and fasting glucose level that is mediated through the age at menopause.

  8. Economic impact of indirects effects of tourism on the South Bohemian production

    OpenAIRE

    Michaela Antoušková

    2010-01-01

    Tourism is characterized as a sector of economy with high multiplier effect; tourism significantly influences other sectors of national economy. Through the multiplier the indirect effect of tourism might be measured. The value of tourist multiplier is a strongly discussed topic, especially in the Czech Republic. The indirect effects of tourism are commonly measured by multiplier in other countries. The article aims to quantify the indirect effects of tourism in the Southern Bohemia. To quant...

  9. Color indirect effects on melatonin regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Tian; Liu, Timon C.; Li, Yan

    2002-04-01

    Color indirect effect (CIE) is referred to as the physiological and psychological effects of color resulting from color vision. In previous papers, we have studied CIE from the viewpoints of the integrated western and Chinese traditional medicine, put forward the color-autonomic- nervous-subsystem model (CAM), and provided its time-theory foundation. In this paper, we applied it to study light effects on melatonin regulation in humans, and suggested that it is CIE that mediates light effects on melatonin suppression.

  10. Direct and indirect effects of body weight on adult wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Euna; Norton, Edward C; Powell, Lisa M

    2011-12-01

    Previous estimates of the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been conditional on education and occupation. In addition to the effect of current body weight status (body mass index (BMI) or obesity) on wages, this paper examines the indirect effect of body weight status in the late-teenage years on wages operating through education and occupation choice. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 data, for women, we find that a one-unit increase in BMI is directly associated with 1.83% lower hourly wages whereas the indirect BMI wage penalty is not statistically significant. Neither a direct nor an indirect BMI wage penalty is found for men. However, results based on clinical weight classification reveal that the indirect wage penalty occurs to a larger extent at the upper tail of the BMI distribution for both men and women via the pathways of education and occupation outcomes. Late-teen obesity is indirectly associated with 3.5% lower hourly wages for both women and men. These results are important because they imply that the total effect of obesity on wages is significantly larger than has been estimated in previous cross-sectional studies. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct and indirect effects of a potential aquatic contaminant on grazer-algae interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-White, Michelle A; Lamberti, Gary A

    2009-02-01

    Contaminants have direct, harmful effects across multiple ecological scales, including the individual, the community, and the ecosystem levels. Less, however, is known about how indirect effects of contaminants on consumer physiology or behavior might alter community interactions or ecosystem processes. We examined whether a potential aquatic contaminant, an ionic liquid, can indirectly alter benthic algal biomass and primary production through direct effects on herbivorous snails. Ionic liquids are nonvolatile organic salts being considered as an environmentally friendly potential replacement for volatile organic compounds in industry. In two greenhouse experiments, we factorially crossed four concentrations of 1-N-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (bmimBr; experiment 1: 0 or 10 mg/L; experiment 2: 0, 1, or 100 mg/L) with the presence or absence of the snail Physa acuta in aquatic mesocosms. Experimental results were weighted by their respective control (no bmimBr or P. acuta) and combined for statistical analysis. When both bmimBr and snails were present, chlorophyll a abundance and algal biovolume were higher than would be expected if both factors acted additively. In addition, snail growth rates, relative to those of controls, declined by 41 to 101% at 10 and 100 mg/L of bmimBr. Taken together, these two results suggest that snails were less efficient grazers in the presence of bmimBr, resulting in release of algae from the grazer control. Snails stimulated periphyton primary production in the absence, but not in the presence, of bmimBr, suggesting that bmimBr also can indirectly alter ecosystem function. These findings suggest that sublethal contaminant levels can negatively impact communities and ecosystem processes via complex interactions, and they provide baseline information regarding the potential effects of an emergent industrial chemical on aquatic systems.

  12. Acclimation to higher VPD and temperature minimized negative effects on assimilation and grain yield of wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rashid, Muhammad Adil; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2018-01-01

    Adapting to climate change and minimizing its negative impact on crop production requires detailed understanding of the direct and indirect effects of different climate variables (i.e. temperature, VPD). We investigated the direct (via heat stress) and indirect effects (through increased VPD....... Treatments included hot humid (HH: 36° C; 1.96 kPa VPD), hot dry (HD: 36° C; 3.92 kPa VPD) and normal (NC: 24° C; 1.49 kPa VPD). Difference between HH and HD was considered as the indirect effect of temperature through increased VPD. HD increased transpiration by 2–22% and decreased photosynthetic water......-use efficiency (WUEp) by 24–64% over HH during stress but whole-plant WUE at final harvest was not affected. HD reduced grainfilling duration (3 days), resulted in relatively lower green leaf area (GLA) after the stress and showed a tendency of lower net assimilation rate during the stress compared to HH...

  13. SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preacher, Kristopher J; Hayes, Andrew F

    2004-11-01

    Researchers often conduct mediation analysis in order to indirectly assess the effect of a proposed cause on some outcome through a proposed mediator. The utility of mediation analysis stems from its ability to go beyond the merely descriptive to a more functional understanding of the relationships among variables. A necessary component of mediation is a statistically and practically significant indirect effect. Although mediation hypotheses are frequently explored in psychological research, formal significance tests of indirect effects are rarely conducted. After a brief overview of mediation, we argue the importance of directly testing the significance of indirect effects and provide SPSS and SAS macros that facilitate estimation of the indirect effect with a normal theory approach and a bootstrap approach to obtaining confidence intervals, as well as the traditional approach advocated by Baron and Kenny (1986). We hope that this discussion and the macros will enhance the frequency of formal mediation tests in the psychology literature. Electronic copies of these macros may be downloaded from the Psychonomic Society's Web archive at www.psychonomic.org/archive/.

  14. An improved recommendation algorithm via weakening indirect linkage effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang; Qiu, Tian; Shen, Xiao-Quan

    2015-07-01

    We propose an indirect-link-weakened mass diffusion method (IMD), by considering the indirect linkage and the source object heterogeneity effect in the mass diffusion (MD) recommendation method. Experimental results on the MovieLens, Netflix, and RYM datasets show that, the IMD method greatly improves both the recommendation accuracy and diversity, compared with a heterogeneity-weakened MD method (HMD), which only considers the source object heterogeneity. Moreover, the recommendation accuracy of the cold objects is also better elevated in the IMD than the HMD method. It suggests that eliminating the redundancy induced by the indirect linkages could have a prominent effect on the recommendation efficiency in the MD method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11175079) and the Young Scientist Training Project of Jiangxi Province, China (Grant No. 20133BCB23017).

  15. Determining the Environmental Effects of Indirect Subsidies: Integrated Method and Application to the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beers, C.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; de Moor, A.; Oosterhuis, F.H.

    2007-01-01

    The term 'environmentally damaging subsidies' covers all sorts of direct and indirect subsidies with negative consequences for the environment. This article presents a method to determine the environmental impact of these subsidies. It combines a microeconomic framework with an environmental impact

  16. Indirect radiation effects related to the environmental structure of targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankenberg, D.

    1976-01-01

    It is supposed, that in biological systems there are direct as well as indirect radiation effects. Their contributions to lethal effects depend mainly on two different kinds of structures within irradiated systems: the microscopic energy deposition patterns of radiation and the environmental structures of targets. The approach to determine these contributions of the lethal action of ionizing radiation in yeast cells was, to use chemical compounds, which specifically change the radical spectrum of water radiolysis. The efficiency of such chemical compounds in scavenging specifically water radicals was tested in aqueous solutions of thymine molecules, in which indirect radiation effects occur exclusively. The main result is, that the OH'-radical is by far the most effective radical to destroy thymine molecules. The relative contributions of direct and indirect radiation effects to lethal actions of ionizing radiation was investigated in yeast cells. The radical spectrum of water radiolysis was changed by bubbling the cell suspensions with different gases. The main result is, that there are no lethal radiation effects du to the action of water radicals

  17. Collembola and macroarthropod community responses to carbamate, organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides: Direct and indirect effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frampton, Geoff K. [Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, Bassett Crescent East, Southampton SO16 7PX (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: gkf@soton.ac.uk; Brink, Paul J. van den [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Wageningen University, Department of Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8080, 6700 DD Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2007-05-15

    Non-target effects on terrestrial arthropod communities of the broad-spectrum insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin and the selective insecticide pirimicarb were investigated in winter wheat fields in summer. Effects of chlorpyrifos on arthropod abundance and taxonomic richness were consistently negative whereas effects of cypermethrin were negative for predatory arthropods but positive for soil surface Collembola. Pirimicarb effects were marginal, primarily on aphids and their antagonists, with no effect on the Collembola community. Collembola-predator ratios were significantly higher following cypermethrin treatment, suggesting that cypermethrin-induced increases in collembolan abundance represent a classical resurgence. Observations in other studies suggest Collembola resurgences may be typical after synthetic pyrethroid applications. Collembola responses to insecticides differed among species, both in terms of effect magnitude and persistence, suggesting that coarse taxonomic monitoring would not adequately detect pesticide risks. These findings have implications for pesticide risk assessments and for the selection of indicator species. - Direct and indirect insecticide effects differ among closely-related arthropod taxa; resurgence of Collembola may occur widely after synthetic pyrethroid insecticide applications.

  18. Collembola and macroarthropod community responses to carbamate, organophosphate and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides: Direct and indirect effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, Geoff K.; Brink, Paul J. van den

    2007-01-01

    Non-target effects on terrestrial arthropod communities of the broad-spectrum insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin and the selective insecticide pirimicarb were investigated in winter wheat fields in summer. Effects of chlorpyrifos on arthropod abundance and taxonomic richness were consistently negative whereas effects of cypermethrin were negative for predatory arthropods but positive for soil surface Collembola. Pirimicarb effects were marginal, primarily on aphids and their antagonists, with no effect on the Collembola community. Collembola-predator ratios were significantly higher following cypermethrin treatment, suggesting that cypermethrin-induced increases in collembolan abundance represent a classical resurgence. Observations in other studies suggest Collembola resurgences may be typical after synthetic pyrethroid applications. Collembola responses to insecticides differed among species, both in terms of effect magnitude and persistence, suggesting that coarse taxonomic monitoring would not adequately detect pesticide risks. These findings have implications for pesticide risk assessments and for the selection of indicator species. - Direct and indirect insecticide effects differ among closely-related arthropod taxa; resurgence of Collembola may occur widely after synthetic pyrethroid insecticide applications

  19. Direct and indirect effects for neighborhood-based clustered and longitudinal data

    OpenAIRE

    VanderWeele, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    Definitions of direct and indirect effects are given for settings in which individuals are clustered in groups or neighborhoods and in which treatments are administered at the group level. A particular intervention may affect individual outcomes both through its effect on the individual and by changing the group or neighborhood itself. Identification conditions are given for controlled direct effects and for natural direct and indirect effects. The interpretation of these identification condi...

  20. Coexistence in a One-Predator, Two-Prey System with Indirect Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Colucci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the dynamics of a one-predator, two-prey system in which the predator has an indirect effect on the preys. We show that, in presence of the indirect effect term, the system admits coexistence of the three populations while, if we disregard it, at least one of the populations goes to extinction.

  1. Testing indirect effect of consumer attitudes toward a product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hrubá, Renata; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    a questionnaire in 2010-2011. The model is estimated using probit analysis to predict relationship between producer and consumer in decision-making when buying a new type of cheese and to examine consumer attitudes toward food origins and nutrient food security. It can be concluded that the indirect effect (e...... and on the indirect and direct effects of the perception of information through information behavior and the use of the model ordered. It is proposed that consumer levels of product familiarity of attributes affects behavior. Consumer attitudes towards agri-food products and behaviour were analyzed through...

  2. Adaptive evolution of body size subject to indirect effect in trophic cascade system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Fan, Meng; Hao, Lina

    2017-09-01

    Trophic cascades represent a classic example of indirect effect and are wide-spread in nature. Their ecological impact are well established, but the evolutionary consequences have received even less theoretical attention. We theoretically and numerically investigate the trait (i.e., body size of consumer) evolution in response to indirect effect in a trophic cascade system. By applying the quantitative trait evolutionary theory and the adaptive dynamic theory, we formulate and explore two different types of eco-evolutionary resource-consumer-predator trophic cascade model. First, an eco-evolutionary model incorporating the rapid evolution is formulated to investigate the effect of rapid evolution of the consumer's body size, and to explore the impact of density-mediate indirect effect on the population dynamics and trait dynamics. Next, by employing the adaptive dynamic theory, a long-term evolutionary model of consumer body size is formulated to evaluate the effect of long-term evolution on the population dynamics and the effect of trait-mediate indirect effect. Those models admit rich dynamics that has not been observed yet in empirical studies. It is found that, both in the trait-mediated and density-mediated system, the body size of consumer in predator-consumer-resource interaction (indirect effect) evolves smaller than that in consumer-resource and predator-consumer interaction (direct effect). Moreover, in the density-mediated system, we found that the evolution of consumer body size contributes to avoiding consumer extinction (i.e., evolutionary rescue). The trait-mediate and density-mediate effects may produce opposite evolutionary response. This study suggests that the trophic cascade indirect effect affects consumer evolution, highlights a more comprehensive mechanistic understanding of the intricate interplay between ecological and evolutionary force. The modeling approaches provide avenue for study on indirect effects from an evolutionary perspective

  3. Analysing the Unequal Effects of Positive and Negative Information on the Behaviour of Users of a Taiwanese On-Line Bulletin Board.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Li Cheng

    Full Text Available The impact of social influence causes people to adopt the behaviour of others when interacting with other individuals. The effects of social influence can be direct or indirect. Direct social influence is the result of an individual directly influencing the opinion of another, while indirect social influence is a process taking place when an individual's opinion and behaviour is affected by the availability of information about others' actions. Such indirect effect may exhibit a more significant impact in the on-line community because the internet records not only positive but also negative information, for example on-line written text comments. This study focuses on indirect social influence and examines the effect of preceding information on subsequent users' opinions by fitting statistical models to data collected from an on-line bulletin board. Specifically, the different impacts of information on approval and disapproval comments on subsequent opinions were investigated. Although in an anonymous situation where social influence is assumed to be at minimum, our results demonstrate the tendency of on-line users to adopt both positive and negative information to conform to the neighbouring trend when expressing opinions. Moreover, our results suggest unequal effects of the local approval and disapproval comments in affecting the likelihood of expressing opinions. The impact of neighbouring disapproval densities was stronger than that of neighbouring approval densities on inducing subsequent disapproval relative to approval comments. However, our results suggest no effects of global social influence on subsequent opinion expression.

  4. Confidence Limits for the Indirect Effect: Distribution of the Product and Resampling Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, David P.; Lockwood, Chondra M.; Williams, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The most commonly used method to test an indirect effect is to divide the estimate of the indirect effect by its standard error and compare the resulting z statistic with a critical value from the standard normal distribution. Confidence limits for the indirect effect are also typically based on critical values from the standard normal distribution. This article uses a simulation study to demonstrate that confidence limits are imbalanced because the distribution of the indirect effect is normal only in special cases. Two alternatives for improving the performance of confidence limits for the indirect effect are evaluated: (a) a method based on the distribution of the product of two normal random variables, and (b) resampling methods. In Study 1, confidence limits based on the distribution of the product are more accurate than methods based on an assumed normal distribution but confidence limits are still imbalanced. Study 2 demonstrates that more accurate confidence limits are obtained using resampling methods, with the bias-corrected bootstrap the best method overall. PMID:20157642

  5. Distribution of the product confidence limits for the indirect effect: Program PRODCLIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, David P.; Fritz, Matthew S.; Williams, Jason; Lockwood, Chondra M.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a program, PRODCLIN (distribution of the PRODuct Confidence Limits for INdirect effects), written for SAS, SPSS, and R, that computes confidence limits for the product of two normal random variables. The program is important because it can be used to obtain more accurate confidence limits for the indirect effect, as demonstrated in several recent articles (MacKinnon, Lockwood, & Williams, 2004; Pituch, Whittaker, & Stapleton, 2005). Tests of the significance of and confidence limits for indirect effects based on the distribution of the product method have more accurate Type I error rates and more power than other, more commonly used tests. Values for the two paths involved in the indirect effect and their standard errors are entered in the PRODCLIN program, and distribution of the product confidence limits are computed. Several examples are used to illustrate the PRODCLIN program. The PRODCLIN programs in rich text format may be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive. PMID:17958149

  6. Effective dose from direct and indirect digital panoramic units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gun Sun; Kim, Jin Soo; Seo, Yo Seob; Kim, Jae Duk [School of Dentistry, Oral Biology Research Institute, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    This study aimed to provide comparative measurements of the effective dose from direct and indirect digital panoramic units according to phantoms and exposure parameters. Dose measurements were carried out using a head phantom representing an average man (175 cm tall, 73.5 kg male) and a limbless whole body phantom representing an average woman (155 cm tall, 50 kg female). Lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips were used for the dosimeter. Two direct and 2 indirect digital panoramic units were evaluated in this study. Effective doses were derived using 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations. The effective doses of the 4 digital panoramic units ranged between 8.9 {mu}Sv and 37.8 {mu}Sv. By using the head phantom, the effective doses from the direct digital panoramic units (37.8 {mu}Sv, 27.6 {mu}Sv) were higher than those from the indirect units (8.9 {mu}Sv, 15.9 {mu}Sv). The same panoramic unit showed the difference in effective doses according to the gender of the phantom, numbers and locations of TLDs, and kVp. To reasonably assess the radiation risk from various dental radiographic units, the effective doses should be obtained with the same numbers and locations of TLDs, and with standard hospital exposure. After that, it is necessary to survey the effective doses from various dental radiographic units according to the gender with the corresponding phantom.

  7. Indirect environmental effects of nuclear war affecting health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaf, A.

    1984-01-01

    The indirect effects of a nuclear war that will affect the health of survivors are considered to include consequences to: (a) the economies of nations, (b) food and nutrition, (c) water supplies, (d) the climate and the ecosphere, and (e) sanitation and public health; and they include long-term radiation effects

  8. Direct and Indirect Influence of Non-Native Neighbours on Pollination and Fruit Production of a Native Plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Montero-Castaño

    Full Text Available Entomophilous non-native plants can directly affect the pollination and reproductive success of native plant species and also indirectly, by altering the composition and abundance of floral resources in the invaded community. Separating direct from indirect effects is critical for understanding the mechanisms underlying the impacts of non-native species on recipient communities.Our aims are: (a to explore both the direct effect of the non-native Hedysarum coronarium and its indirect effect, mediated by the alteration of floral diversity, on the pollinator visitation rate and fructification of the native Leopoldia comosa and (b to distinguish whether the effects of the non-native species were due to its floral display or to its vegetative interactions.We conducted field observations within a flower removal experimental setup (i.e. non-native species present, absent and with its inflorescences removed at the neighbourhood scale.Our study illustrates the complexity of mechanisms involved in the impacts of non-native species on native species. Overall, Hedysarum increased pollinator visitation rates to Leopoldia target plants as a result of direct and indirect effects acting in the same direction. Due to its floral display, Hedysarum exerted a direct magnet effect attracting visits to native target plants, especially those made by the honeybee. Indirectly, Hedysarum also increased the visitation rate of native target plants. Due to the competition for resources mediated by its vegetative parts, it decreased floral diversity in the neighbourhoods, which was negatively related to the visitation rate to native target plants. Hedysarum overall also increased the fructification of Leopoldia target plants, even though such an increase was the result of other indirect effects compensating for the observed negative indirect effect mediated by the decrease of floral diversity.

  9. Indirect Climatic Effects of Major Volcanic Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, D. J.

    2007-05-01

    The direct effects on climate, related to atmospheric emissions to the atmosphere following major volcanic eruptions, are well-known although the sparseness of such eruptions make detailed study on the range of such variations difficult. In general terms, infrared absorption by volcanic emissions to the stratosphere result in local heating early in the event when gaseous sulfur compounds exist. This early period is followed by gas to particle conversion, on a time scale of 1-2 months, promoting the formation of sulfuric acid-water droplets. Coagulation and droplet growth result in the "volcanic stratospheric aerosol layer" which is related to the predominant direct climatic effect of large eruptions, the cooling of the troposphere by backscattering of solar visible radiation to space with a recovery time scale of 1-2 years. In this paper we will discuss some of the less-known "indirect" effects of the volcanic stratospheric aerosol on climate. We label them indirect as they act on climate through intermediary atmospheric constituents. The intermediaries in the volcanic indirect climatic effect are generally atmospheric greenhouse gases or other atmospheric gases and conditions which affect greenhouse gases. For example, cooling of the troposphere following major eruptions reduces the growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide related to respiration by the terrestrial biosphere. In addition, redirection of part of the direct solar beam into diffuse radiation by the volcanic stratospheric aerosol stimulates plant photosynthesis, further reducing the carbon dioxide growth rate. The growth rate of the second-most important atmospheric greenhouse gas, methane, is also affected by volcanic emissions. Volcanic stratospheric aerosol particles provide surface area which catalyzes heterogeneous chemical reactions thus stimulating removal of stratospheric ozone, also a greenhouse gas. Although major droughts usually related to ENSO events have opposite effects on carbon

  10. Contaminants as viral cofactors: assessing indirect population effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springman, Katherine R.; Kurath, Gael; Anderson, James J.; Emlen, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Current toxicological methods often miss contaminant effects, particularly when immune suppression is involved. The failure to recognize and evaluate indirect and sublethal effects severely limits the applicability of those methods at the population level. In this study, the Vitality model is used to evaluate the population level effects of a contaminant exerting only indirect, sublethal effects at the individual level. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were injected with 2.5 or 10.0 mg/kg doses of the model CYP1A inducer, β-naphthoflavone (BNF) as a pre-stressor, then exposed to a challenge dose of 102 or 104 pfu/fish of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), an important viral pathogen of salmonids in North America. At the end of the 28-d challenge, the mortality data were processed according to the Vitality model which indicated that the correlation between the average rate of vitality loss and the pre-stressor dose was strong:R2 = 0.9944. Average time to death and cumulative mortality were dependent on the BNF dose, while no significant difference between the two viral dosages was shown, implying that the history of the organism at the time of stressor exposure is an important factor in determining the virulence or toxicity of the stressor. The conceptual framework of this model permits a smoother transfer of results to a more complex stratum, namely the population level, which allows the immunosuppressive results generated by doses of a CYP1A inducer that more accurately represent the effects elicited by environmentally-relevant contaminant concentrations to be extrapolated to target populations. The indirect effects of other environmental contaminants with similar biotransformation pathways, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), could be assessed and quantified with this model and the results applied to a more complex biological hierarchy.

  11. Indirect Effects of Global Change: From Physiological and Behavioral Mechanisms to Ecological Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Alex R; Tsukimura, Brian; Stillman, Jonathon H

    2017-07-01

    A major focus of current ecological research is to understand how global change makes species vulnerable to extirpation. To date, mechanistic ecophysiological analyses of global change vulnerability have focused primarily on the direct effects of changing abiotic conditions on whole-organism physiological traits, such as metabolic rate, locomotor performance, cardiac function, and critical thermal limits. However, species do not live in isolation within their physical environments, and direct effects of climate change are likely to be compounded by indirect effects that result from altered interactions with other species, such as competitors and predators. The Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology 2017 Symposium "Indirect Effects of Global Change: From Physiological and Behavioral Mechanisms to Ecological Consequences" was designed to synthesize multiple approaches to investigating the indirect effects of global change by bringing together researchers that study the indirect effects of global change from multiple perspectives across habitat, type of anthropogenic change, and level of biological organization. Our goal in bringing together researchers from different backgrounds was to foster cross-disciplinary insights into the mechanistic bases and higher-order ecological consequences of indirect effects of global change, and to promote collaboration among fields. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Direct and Indirect Effects of PM on the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelin, Timothy D.; Joseph, Allan M.; Gorr, Matthew W.; Wold, Loren E.

    2011-01-01

    Human exposure to particulate matter (PM) elicits a variety of responses on the cardiovascular system through both direct and indirect pathways. Indirect effects of PM on the cardiovascular system are mediated through the autonomic nervous system, which controls heart rate variability, and inflammatory responses, which augment acute cardiovascular events and atherosclerosis. Recent research demonstrates that PM also affects the cardiovascular system directly by entry into the systemic circulation. This process causes myocardial dysfunction through mechanisms of reactive oxygen species production, calcium ion interference, and vascular dysfunction. In this review, we will present key evidence in both the direct and indirect pathways, suggest clinical applications of the current literature, and recommend directions for future research. PMID:22119171

  13. Direct and indirect associations between social anxiety and nicotine dependence and cessation problems: multiple mediator analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Farris, Samantha G; Schmidt, Norman B; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2014-06-01

    Little empirical work has evaluated why socially anxious smokers are especially vulnerable to more severe nicotine dependence and cessation failure. Presumably, these smokers rely on cigarettes to help them manage their chronically elevated negative affect elicited by a wide array of social contexts. The current study examined the direct and indirect effects of social anxiety cross-sectionally in regard to a range of smoking processes among 466 treatment-seeking smokers. Negative affect and negative affect reduction motives were examined as mediators of the relations of social anxiety with nicotine dependence and cessation problems. Social anxiety was directly and robustly associated with perceived barriers to smoking cessation and problems experienced during past quit attempts. Social anxiety was also associated with greater nicotine dependence and smoking inflexibility indirectly through negative affect and negative affect smoking motives. Negative affect and smoking to reduce negative affect mediated these relations. These findings document the important role of negative affect and negative affect reduction motives in the relationships of social anxiety with nicotine dependence and cessation problems.

  14. Total, Direct, and Indirect Effects in Logit Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt; Holm, Anders; Breen, Richard

    It has long been believed that the decomposition of the total effect of one variable on another into direct and indirect effects, while feasible in linear models, is not possible in non-linear probability models such as the logit and probit. In this paper we present a new and simple method...... average partial effects, as defined by Wooldridge (2002). We present the method graphically and illustrate it using the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988...

  15. Impact of cloud-borne aerosol representation on aerosol direct and indirect effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Ghan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol particles attached to cloud droplets are much more likely to be removed from the atmosphere and are much less efficient at scattering sunlight than if unattached. Models used to estimate direct and indirect effects of aerosols employ a variety of representations of such cloud-borne particles. Here we use a global aerosol model with a relatively complete treatment of cloud-borne particles to estimate the sensitivity of simulated aerosol, cloud and radiation fields to various approximations to the representation of cloud-borne particles. We find that neglecting transport of cloud-borne particles introduces little error, but that diagnosing cloud-borne particles produces global mean biases of 20% and local errors of up to 40% for aerosol, droplet number, and direct and indirect radiative forcing. Aerosol number, aerosol optical depth and droplet number are significantly underestimated in regions and seasons where and when wet removal is primarily by stratiform rather than convective clouds (polar regions during winter, but direct and indirect effects are less biased because of the limited sunlight there and then. A treatment that predicts the total mass concentration of cloud-borne particles for each mode yields smaller errors and runs 20% faster than the complete treatment. The errors are much smaller than current estimates of uncertainty in direct and indirect effects of aerosols, which suggests that the treatment of cloud-borne aerosol is not a significant source of uncertainty in estimates of direct and indirect effects.

  16. Direct and indirect effects of organizational justice on work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanier, K; Radoschewski, F M; Gutenbrunner, C; Bethge, M

    2014-12-01

    Organizational justice (OJ), involving transparent workplace procedures and treating staff members with respect, has been of growing concern in recent epidemiological research as a determinant of health-related outcomes. To examine the factorial validity of the German version of Moorman's Organizational Justice Questionnaire (OJQ), to investigate the direct cross-sectional effect of OJ on self-rated work ability and to analyse if there is an additional indirect effect of OJ on work ability mediated by effort-reward imbalance. An analysis of cross-sectional data from the Second German Sociomedical Panel of Employees, involving white-collar workers employed at least half time. We performed confirmatory factor analyses to test the factorial validity of the OJQ and analysed the direct and indirect associations of OJ and self-rated work ability by path model analysis. Of the 1217 participants (47% female; mean age: 51) 36% had poor work ability. Factor analyses confirmed the two-factor structure of the German OJQ. Work ability was explained directly by OJ (β = 0.30) and effort-reward imbalance (β = -0.27). Additionally, we identified an indirect effect of OJ that was mediated by effort-reward imbalance (β = 0.14). The total effect of OJ on work ability was remarkably strong (β = 0.44). Associations remained unchanged after adjustment for socio-demographic parameters. This study showed the importance of considering additional indirect pathways when examining the impact of OJ on the work ability of employees. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Negative psychological responses of injury and rehabilitation adherence effects on return to play in competitive athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivarsson A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Andreas Ivarsson,1 Ulrika Tranaeus,2,3 Urban Johnson,1 Andreas Stenling 4 1Center of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport, School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Halmstad, 2Performance and Training Unit, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (GIH, 3Musculoskeletal & Sports Injury Epidemiology Center, IMM, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, 4Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Abstract: Previous research offers evidence that psychological factors influence an injured athlete during the rehabilitation process. Our first objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the results from all published studies that examined the relationships among negative affective responses after sport injuries, rehabilitation adherence, and return to play (RTP. The second objective was to use a meta-analytic path analysis to investigate whether an indirect effect existed between negative affective responses and RTP through rehabilitation adherence. This literature review resulted in seven studies providing 14 effect sizes. The results from the meta-analysis showed that negative affective responses had a negative effect on successful RTP, whereas rehabilitation adherence had a positive effect on RTP. The results from the meta-analytic path analysis showed a weak and nonsignificant indirect effect of negative affective responses on RTP via rehabilitation adherence. These results underline the importance of providing supportive environments for injured athletes to increase the chances of successful RTP via a decrease in negative affective responses and increase in rehabilitation adherence. Keywords: affective responses, rehabilitation behaviors, return to play, sport injuries

  18. Test of direct and indirect effects of agrochemicals on the survival of fecal indicator bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Zachery R; Rohr, Jason R; Harwood, Valerie J

    2011-12-01

    Water bodies often receive agrochemicals and animal waste carrying fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and zoonotic pathogens, but we know little about the effects of agrochemicals on these microbes. We assessed the direct effects of the pesticides atrazine, malathion, and chlorothalonil and inorganic fertilizer on Escherichia coli and enterococcal survival in simplified microcosms held in the dark. E. coli strain composition in sediments and water column were positively correlated, but none of the agrochemicals had significant direct effects on E. coli strain composition or on densities of culturable FIBs. In a companion study, microcosms with nondisinfected pond water and sediments were exposed to or shielded from sunlight to examine the potential indirect effects of atrazine and inorganic fertilizer on E. coli. The herbicide atrazine had no effect on E. coli in dark-exposed microcosms containing natural microbial and algal communities. However, in light-exposed microcosms, atrazine significantly lowered E. coli densities in the water column and significantly increased densities in the sediment compared to controls. This effect appears to be mediated by the effects of atrazine on algae, given that atrazine significantly reduced phytoplankton, which was a positive and negative predictor of E. coli densities in the water column and sediment, respectively. These data suggest that atrazine does not directly affect the survival of FIB, rather that it indirectly alters the distribution and abundance of E. coli by altering phytoplankton and periphyton communities. These results improve our understanding of the influence of agricultural practices on FIB densities in water bodies impacted by agricultural runoff.

  19. Test of Direct and Indirect Effects of Agrochemicals on the Survival of Fecal Indicator Bacteria▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Zachery R.; Rohr, Jason R.; Harwood, Valerie J.

    2011-01-01

    Water bodies often receive agrochemicals and animal waste carrying fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and zoonotic pathogens, but we know little about the effects of agrochemicals on these microbes. We assessed the direct effects of the pesticides atrazine, malathion, and chlorothalonil and inorganic fertilizer on Escherichia coli and enterococcal survival in simplified microcosms held in the dark. E. coli strain composition in sediments and water column were positively correlated, but none of the agrochemicals had significant direct effects on E. coli strain composition or on densities of culturable FIBs. In a companion study, microcosms with nondisinfected pond water and sediments were exposed to or shielded from sunlight to examine the potential indirect effects of atrazine and inorganic fertilizer on E. coli. The herbicide atrazine had no effect on E. coli in dark-exposed microcosms containing natural microbial and algal communities. However, in light-exposed microcosms, atrazine significantly lowered E. coli densities in the water column and significantly increased densities in the sediment compared to controls. This effect appears to be mediated by the effects of atrazine on algae, given that atrazine significantly reduced phytoplankton, which was a positive and negative predictor of E. coli densities in the water column and sediment, respectively. These data suggest that atrazine does not directly affect the survival of FIB, rather that it indirectly alters the distribution and abundance of E. coli by altering phytoplankton and periphyton communities. These results improve our understanding of the influence of agricultural practices on FIB densities in water bodies impacted by agricultural runoff. PMID:22003017

  20. Aerosol indirect effects ? general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Grandey, Benjamin; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2010-03-12

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterises aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth ({tau}{sub a}) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (N{sub d}) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between {tau}{sub a} and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. This suggests that the implementation of the second aerosol indirect effect mainly in terms of an autoconversion parameterisation has to be revisited in the GCMs. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (f{sub cld}) and {tau}{sub a} as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong f{sub cld} - {tau}{sub a} relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as a unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between {tau}{sub a} and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - {tau}{sub a} relationship show a strong positive correlation between {tau}{sub a} and f{sub cld} The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is

  1. Interaction effects between sender and receiver processes in indirect transmission of Campylobacter jejuni between broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bunnik, Bram A D; Hagenaars, Thomas J; Bolder, Nico M; Nodelijk, Gonnie; de Jong, Mart C M

    2012-07-25

    Infectious diseases in plants, animals and humans are often transmitted indirectly between hosts (or between groups of hosts), i.e. via some route through the environment instead of via direct contacts between these hosts. Here we study indirect transmission experimentally, using transmission of Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) between spatially separated broilers as a model system. We distinguish three stages in the process of indirect transmission; (1) an infectious "sender" excretes the agent, after which (2) the agent is transported via some route to a susceptible "receiver", and subsequently (3) the receiver becomes colonised by the agent. The role of the sender and receiver side (stage 1 and stage 3) was studied here by using acidification of the drinking water as a modulation mechanism. In the experiment one control group and three treatment groups were monitored for the presence of C. jejuni by taking daily cloacal swabs. The three treatments consisted of acidification of the drinking water of the inoculated animals (the senders), acidification of the drinking water of the susceptible animals (the receivers) or acidification of the drinking water of both inoculated and susceptible animals. In the control group 12 animals got colonised out of a possible 40, in each treatment groups 3 animals out of a possible 40 were found colonised with C. jejuni. The results of the experiments show a significant decrease in transmission rate (β) between the control groups and treatment groups (p water (p = 0.01). This negative interaction effect could be due to selection of bacteria already at the sender side thereby diminishing the effect of acidification at the receiver side.

  2. Total, direct, and indirect effects of paan on oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Anwar T; Pitiphat, Waranuch

    2015-03-01

    Paan (betel leaf and betel nut quid) used with or without tobacco has been positively associated with oral cancer. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), a precancerous condition caused by paan, lies on the causal pathway between paan use and oral cancer. The purpose of this analysis was to estimate the effect of paan consumption on oral cancer risk when it is mediated by OSMF. We used mediation methods proposed by VanderWeele, which are based on causal inference principles, to characterize the total, direct, and indirect effects of paan, consumed with and without tobacco, on oral cancer mediated by OSMF. We reanalyzed case-control data collected from three hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan, between July 1996 and March 1998. For paan without tobacco, the total effect on oral cancer was OR 7.39, 95 % CI 1.01, 38.11, the natural indirect effect (due to OSMF among paan users) was OR 2.48, 95 % CI 0.99, 10.44, and the natural direct effect (due to paan with OSMF absent) was OR 3.32, 95 % CI 0.68, 10.07. For paan with tobacco, the total direct effect was OR 15.68, 95 % CI 3.00, 54.90, the natural indirect effect was OR 2.18, 95 % CI 0.82, 5.52, and the natural direct effect was OR 7.27, 95 % CI 2.15, 20.43. Paan, whether or not it contained tobacco, raised oral cancer risk irrespective of OSMF. Oral cancer risk was higher among those who used paan with tobacco.

  3. Parenting stress mediates the association between negative affectivity and harsh parenting: A longitudinal dyadic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Yunying; Fredman, Steffany J; Feinberg, Mark E

    2017-09-01

    The current study examined parenting stress (disaggregated into personal distress and child rearing stress) at 12 months postpartum as a mediator of the longitudinal association between parental negative affectivity at 6 months postpartum and harsh parenting at 3 years postpartum for first-time parents with a child transitioning from late toddlerhood to the early preschool years. Analyses were conducted using Mediation for Actor Partner Interdependence Modeling in a sample of 164 couples who participated in a randomized controlled trial of a universal, couple-based transition to parenthood program. There were indirect actor effects of negative affect on a parent's own harsh parenting through both dimensions of parenting stress, with a stronger mediating effect for personal distress than child rearing stress. There were also indirect partner effects of negative affect on one's partner's harsh parenting through the partner's parenting stress, with a stronger indirect partner effect from mothers' negative affect to fathers' harsh parenting than vice versa. Specifically, the mediating effect of personal distress was found for both mothers and fathers, whereas the mediating effect of child rearing stress was found from mothers' negative affect to fathers' harsh parenting only. Findings highlight the importance of a dyadic approach in examining the longitudinal association between negative affect and harsh parenting and suggest that reducing parenting stress in the first year postpartum may decrease the risk of future harsh parenting among couples in which one or both partners experience negative affectivity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Identification of Indirect Effects in a Cognitive Patient Education (COPE) Intervention for Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Gemma; Storheim, Kjersti; Løchting, Ida; Werner, Erik L; Grotle, Margreth

    2017-12-01

    Many interventions for the treatment of low back pain exist, but the mechanisms through which such treatments work are not always clear. This situation is especially true for biopsychosocial interventions that incorporate several different components and methods of delivery. The study objective was to examine the indirect effects of the Cognitive Patient Education (COPE) intervention via illness perceptions, back pain myths, and pain catastrophizing on disability outcome. This study was a secondary analysis of the COPE randomized controlled trial. Mediation analysis techniques were employed to examine the indirect effects of the COPE intervention via residualized change (baseline - posttreatment) in the 3 variables hypothesized to be targeted by the COPE intervention on posttreatment disability outcome. Pain intensity at baseline, pain duration, clinician type, and a treatment-mediator interaction term were controlled for in the analysis. Preliminary analyses confirmed that changes in pain catastrophizing and illness perceptions (not back pain myths) were related to both allocation to the intervention arm and posttreatment disability score. The treatment exerted statistically significant indirect effects via changes in illness perceptions and pain catastrophizing on posttreatment disability score (illness perceptions standardized indirect effect = 0.09 [95% CI = 0.03 to 0.16]; pain catastrophizing standardized indirect effect = 0.05 [95% CI = 0.01 to 0.12]). However, the inclusion of an interaction term led to the indirect effects being significantly reduced, with the effects no longer being statistically significant. This study presents a secondary analysis of variables not identified a priori as being potentially important treatment targets; other, unmeasured factors could also be important in explaining treatment effects. The finding that small indirect effects of the COPE intervention via changes in illness perceptions and pain catastrophizing on posttreatment

  5. Aerosol indirect effects -- general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2009-04-10

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterizes aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth (Ta) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between Ta and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. It is shown that this is partly related to the representation of the second aerosol indirect effect in terms of autoconversion. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (fcld) and Ta as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong fcld - Ta relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between Ta and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - Ta relationship show a strong positive correlation between Ta and fcld The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is strongly influenced by the simulated anthropogenic fraction of Ta, and parameterisation assumptions such as a lower bound on Nd

  6. Global modelling of direct and indirect effects of sea spray aerosol using a source function encapsulating wave state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-I. Partanen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently developed parameterizations for the sea spray aerosol source flux, encapsulating wave state, and its organic fraction were incorporated into the aerosol–climate model ECHAM-HAMMOZ to investigate the direct and indirect radiative effects of sea spray aerosol particles. Our simulated global sea salt emission of 805 Tg yr−1 (uncertainty range 378–1233 Tg yr−1 was much lower than typically found in previous studies. Modelled sea salt and sodium ion concentrations agreed relatively well with measurements in the smaller size ranges at Mace Head (annual normalized mean model bias −13% for particles with vacuum aerodynamic diameter Dva Da Da Da −2, in contrast to previous studies. This positive effect was ascribed to the tendency of sea salt aerosol to suppress both the in-cloud supersaturation and the formation of cloud condensation nuclei from sulfate. These effects can be accounted for only in models with sufficiently detailed aerosol microphysics and physics-based parameterizations of cloud activation. However, due to a strong negative direct effect, the simulated effective radiative forcing (total radiative effect was −0.2 W m−2. The simulated radiative effects of the primary marine organic emissions were small, with a direct effect of 0.03 W m−2 and an indirect effect of −0.07 W m−2.

  7. Longitudinal analysis of direct and indirect effects on average daily gain in rabbits using a structured antedependence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Ingrid; Sánchez, Juan-Pablo; Piles, Miriam

    2018-05-10

    Indirect genetic effects (IGE) are important components of various traits in several species. Although the intensity of social interactions between partners likely vary over time, very few genetic studies have investigated how IGE vary over time for traits under selection in livestock species. To overcome this issue, our aim was: (1) to analyze longitudinal records of average daily gain (ADG) in rabbits subjected to a 5-week period of feed restriction using a structured antedependence (SAD) model that includes IGE and (2) to evaluate, by simulation, the response to selection when IGE are present and genetic evaluation is based on a SAD model that includes IGE or not. The direct genetic variance for ADG (g/d) increased from week 1 to 3 [from 8.03 to 13.47 (g/d) 2 ] and then decreased [6.20 (g/d) 2 at week 5], while the indirect genetic variance decreased from week 1 to 4 [from 0.43 to 0.22 (g/d) 2 ]. The correlation between the direct genetic effects of different weeks was moderate to high (ranging from 0.46 to 0.86) and tended to decrease with time interval between measurements. The same trend was observed for IGE for weeks 2 to 5 (correlations ranging from 0.62 to 0.91). Estimates of the correlation between IGE of week 1 and IGE of the other weeks did not follow the same pattern and correlations were lower. Estimates of correlations between direct and indirect effects were negative at all times. After seven generations of simulated selection, the increase in ADG from selection on EBV from a SAD model that included IGE was higher (~ 30%) than when those effects were omitted. Indirect genetic effects are larger just after mixing animals at weaning than later in the fattening period, probably because of the establishment of social hierarchy that is generally observed at that time. Accounting for IGE in the selection criterion maximizes genetic progress.

  8. Attention training through gaze-contingent feedback: Effects on reappraisal and negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Alvaro; Everaert, Jonas; Koster, Ernst H W

    2016-10-01

    Reappraisal is central to emotion regulation but its mechanisms are unclear. This study tested the theoretical prediction that emotional attention bias is linked to reappraisal of negative emotion-eliciting stimuli and subsequent emotional responding using a novel attentional control training. Thirty-six undergraduates were randomly assigned to either the control or the attention training condition and were provided with different task instructions while they performed an interpretation task. Whereas control participants freely created interpretations, participants in the training condition were instructed to allocate attention toward positive words to efficiently create positive interpretations (i.e., recruiting attentional control) while they were provided with gaze-contingent feedback on their viewing behavior. Transfer to attention bias and reappraisal success was evaluated using a dot-probe task and an emotion regulation task which were administered before and after the training. The training condition was effective at increasing attentional control and resulted in beneficial effects on the transfer tasks. Analyses supported a serial indirect effect with larger attentional control acquisition in the training condition leading to negative attention bias reduction, in turn predicting greater reappraisal success which reduced negative emotions. Our results indicate that attentional mechanisms influence the use of reappraisal strategies and its impact on negative emotions. The novel attention training highlights the importance of tailored feedback to train attentional control. The findings provide an important step toward personalized delivery of attention training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Effects of indirect bandgap top cells in a monolithic cascade cell structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, H. B.; Godlewski, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of having a slightly indirect top cell in a three junction cascade monolithic stack is calculated. The minority carrier continuity equations are utilized to calculate individual junction performance. Absorption coefficient curves for general III-V compounds are calculated for a variety of direct and indirect gap materials. The results indicate that for a small excursion into the indirect region, (about 0.1 eV), the loss of efficiency is acceptably small (less than 2.5 percent) and considerably less than attempting to make the top junction a smaller direct bandgap.

  10. Indirection and computer security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    The discipline of computer science is built on indirection. David Wheeler famously said, 'All problems in computer science can be solved by another layer of indirection. But that usually will create another problem'. We propose that every computer security vulnerability is yet another problem created by the indirections in system designs and that focusing on the indirections involved is a better way to design, evaluate, and compare security solutions. We are not proposing that indirection be avoided when solving problems, but that understanding the relationships between indirections and vulnerabilities is key to securing computer systems. Using this perspective, we analyze common vulnerabilities that plague our computer systems, consider the effectiveness of currently available security solutions, and propose several new security solutions.

  11. Do aggressive driving and negative emotional driving mediate the link between impulsiveness and risky driving among young Italian drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorti, Martina; Guarnieri, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the contribution of impulsiveness and aggressive and negative emotional driving to the prediction of traffic violations and accidents taking into account potential mediation effects. Three hundred and four young drivers completed self-report measures assessing impulsiveness, aggressive and negative emotional driving, driving violations, and accidents. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the direct and indirect effects of impulsiveness on violations and accidents among young drivers through aggressive and negative emotional driving. Impulsiveness only indirectly influenced drivers' violations on the road via both the behavioral and emotional states of the driver. On the contrary, impulsiveness was neither directly nor indirectly associated with traffic accidents. Therefore, impulsiveness modulates young drivers' behavioral and emotional states while driving, which in turn influences risky driving.

  12. Assessing the aerosol direct and first indirect effects using ACM/GCM simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.; Gu, Y.; Xue, Y.; Lu, C. H.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have been found to play an important role in global climate change but there are still large uncertainty in evaluating its role in the climate system. The aerosols generally affect global and regional climate through the scattering and the absorption of solar radiation (direct effect) and through their influences on cloud particle, number and sizes (first indirect effect). The indirect effect will further affects cloud water content, cloud top albedo and surface precipitations. In this study, we investigate the global climatic effect of aerosols using a coupled NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS) and a land surface model (SSiB2) The OPAC (Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds) database is used for aerosol effect. The OPAC data provides the optical properties (i.e., the extinction, scattering and absorption coefficient, single-scattering albedo, asymmetry factor and phase function) of ten types of aerosols under various relative humidity conditions for investigating the global direct and first indirect effects of dust aerosols. For indirect forcings due to liquid water, we follow the approach presented by Jiang et al (2011), in which a parameterization of cloud effective radius was calculated to describe its variance with convective strength and aerosol concentration. Since the oceans also play an important role on aerosol climatic effect, we also design a set of simulations using a coupled atmosphere/ocean model (CFS) to evaluate the sensitivity of aerosol effect with two-way atmosphere-ocean interactions.

  13. Odour-based context reinstatement effects with indirect measures of memory: the curious case of rosemary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Linden J; Shoker, Jaswinder; Miles, Jeremy N V

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies examining environmental context-dependent memory (ECDM) effects using indirect measures of memory have produced inconsistent findings. We report three experiments that examined ECDM in an indirect memory paradigm (word-fragment completion) using ambient odours as environmental contexts. Expt 1 manipulated the odour present at learning and testing (rosemary or lemon) to produce reinstated-context or switched-context conditions. Reinstating rosemary led to a striking ECDM effect, indicating that indirect memory testing can be sensitive to ECDM manipulations. Odour ratings also indicated that rosemary induced a more unpleasant mood in participants than lemon. Expt 2 assessed the influence on indirect retrieval of odour-based mood induction as well as odour distinctiveness, and indicated that rosemary's capacity to promote ECDM effects appears to arise from an additive combination of its unpleasantness-inducing properties and its distinctiveness. Expt 3 partially supported these proposals. Overall, our findings indicate that some odours are capable of producing ECDM effects using indirect testing procedures. Moreover, it appears that it is the inherent proprieties of odours on dimensions such as unpleasantness and distinctiveness that mediate the emergence of ECDM effects, thereby explaining the particular potency of rosemary's mnemonic influence when it is reinstated.

  14. Effectiveness comparison of inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia using direct and indirect technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehatta Yongki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Local anesthesia is important to do prior to tooth extraction procedure to control the patient's pain. Local anesthetic technique in dentistry consists of topical, infiltration, and anesthetic blocks. For molar tooth extraction, mandibular block technique is used either direct or indirect. This study aimed to see if there are differences in effectiveness of inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia techniques between direct and indirect. This clinical experimental design study used 20 patients as samples during February-April. 10 patients were taken as a group that carried out direct technique while 10 others group conducted indirect techniques. The sample selection using purposive sampling method. Pain level were measured using objective assessments (pain experienced by the patient after a given stimulus and subjective evaluation (thick taste perceived by the patient. The average time of onset in direct and indirect techniques in each sample was 16.88 ± 5.30 and 102.00 ± 19.56 seconds (subjectively and 22.50 ± 8.02 and 159.00 ± 25.10 (objectively. These results indicated direct techniques onset faster than indirect techniques. The average duration of direct and indirect techniques respectively was 121.63 ± 8.80 and 87.80 ± 9.96 minutes (subjectively and 91.88 ± 8.37 and 60.20 ± 10.40 minutes (objectively. These results indicated the duration of direct technique is longer than indirect technique. There was no significant difference when viewed from anesthesia depth and aspiration level. This study indicated that direct technique had better effect than indirect technique in terms of onset and duration, while in terms of anesthesia depth and aspiration level was relatively equal. Insignificant differences were obtained when assessing anesthetic technique successful rate based on gender, age and extracted tooth.

  15. Evaluating aerosol indirect effect through marine stratocumulus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogan, Z.N.; Kogan, Y.L.; Lilly, D.K. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1996-04-01

    During the last decade much attention has been focused on anthropogenic aerosols and their radiative influence on the global climate. Charlson et al. and Penner et al. have demonstrated that tropospheric aerosols and particularly anthropogenic sulfate aerosols may significantly contribute to the radiative forcing exerting a cooling influence on climate (-1 to -2 W/m{sup 2}) which is comparable in magnitude to greenhouse forcing, but opposite in sign. Aerosol particles affect the earth`s radiative budget either directly by scattering and absorption of solar radiation by themselves or indirectly by altering the cloud radiative properties through changes in cloud microstructure. Marine stratocumulus cloud layers and their possible cooling influence on the atmosphere as a result of pollution are of special interest because of their high reflectivity, durability, and large global cover. We present an estimate of thet aerosol indirect effect, or, forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate aerosols.

  16. Abstract: Inference and Interval Estimation for Indirect Effects With Latent Variable Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Carl F; Biesanz, Jeremy C

    2011-11-30

    Models specifying indirect effects (or mediation) and structural equation modeling are both popular in the social sciences. Yet relatively little research has compared methods that test for indirect effects among latent variables and provided precise estimates of the effectiveness of different methods. This simulation study provides an extensive comparison of methods for constructing confidence intervals and for making inferences about indirect effects with latent variables. We compared the percentile (PC) bootstrap, bias-corrected (BC) bootstrap, bias-corrected accelerated (BC a ) bootstrap, likelihood-based confidence intervals (Neale & Miller, 1997), partial posterior predictive (Biesanz, Falk, and Savalei, 2010), and joint significance tests based on Wald tests or likelihood ratio tests. All models included three reflective latent variables representing the independent, dependent, and mediating variables. The design included the following fully crossed conditions: (a) sample size: 100, 200, and 500; (b) number of indicators per latent variable: 3 versus 5; (c) reliability per set of indicators: .7 versus .9; (d) and 16 different path combinations for the indirect effect (α = 0, .14, .39, or .59; and β = 0, .14, .39, or .59). Simulations were performed using a WestGrid cluster of 1680 3.06GHz Intel Xeon processors running R and OpenMx. Results based on 1,000 replications per cell and 2,000 resamples per bootstrap method indicated that the BC and BC a bootstrap methods have inflated Type I error rates. Likelihood-based confidence intervals and the PC bootstrap emerged as methods that adequately control Type I error and have good coverage rates.

  17. Effects of Direct and Indirect Instructional Strategies on Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a quasi experimental research designed to determine the effects of Direct and Indirect instructional strategies on Mathematics achievement among junior secondary school students. The population consisted of students in a Public Secondary School in Owerri, Imo State. A sample of 102 students from two (2) intact ...

  18. How does social support relieve depression among flood victims? The contribution of feelings of safety, self-disclosure, and negative cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Rui; Quan, Lijuan; Zhou, Xiao

    2018-03-15

    Depression is one of the most common post-trauma symptoms that can be alleivated by social support. The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediating effects of social support on depression via feelings of safety, disclosure, and negative cognition. One hundred and eighty-seven flood victims in Wuhu City, an area affected most severely by a flood during July 2016, were selected to complete a self-report questionnaire package. Social support has four indirect negative effects on depression, including a one-step indirect path to self-disclosure, 2 two-step paths from feelings of safety to self-disclosure, and from self-disclosure to negative cognition about self, and a three-step indirect path from feelings of life safety via self-disclosure to negative self-cognition. All variables were measured using self-report scales. Social support may relieve depression in flood victims by inducing feelings of safety and self-disclosure, and by relieving negative cognition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of Present Hedonistic Time Perspective and Past Negative Time Perspective on substance use consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarria, Jesus; Allan, Nicholas P; Moltisanti, Allison; Taylor, Jeanette

    2015-07-01

    The overuse of substances can lead to economic, physical, and social consequences. Previous research has demonstrated associations between time perspective and frequency of substance use, but no studies have investigated time perspective's effect on substance use consequences. This study aimed to fill this gap in the literature. Using an MTurk sample (N=531), latent factor models tested the hypothesis that both Present Hedonistic Time Perspective (PrHTP) and Past Negative Time Perspective PaNTP positively predict alcohol and illicit drug use consequences. Bootstrap analyses were then used to test the hypothesis that PrHTP indirectly affected the relationship between PaNTP and alcohol and illicit drug use consequences. PrHTP significantly predicted alcohol and illicit drug use consequences. PaNTP also significantly predicted alcohol and illicit drug use consequences. PrHTP was found to indirectly affect the relationship between PaNTP and substance use consequences for both alcohol and illicit drugs. The findings are consistent with previous research and introduce time perspective as an individual differences risk factor for substance use consequences. The partial and full indirect effects are consistent with the idea that individuals with a PaNTP may develop a PrHTP, placing them at risk for substance use consequences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Direct versus indirect effects of tropospheric humidity changes on the hydrologic cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, S C

    2010-01-01

    Abundant evidence indicates that tropospheric specific humidity increases in a warmer atmosphere, at rates roughly comparable to those at constant relative humidity. While the implications for the planetary energy budget and global warming are well recognized, it is the net atmospheric cooling (or surface heating) that controls the hydrologic cycle. Relative humidity influences this directly through gas-phase radiative transfer, and indirectly by affecting cloud cover (and its radiative effects) and convective heating. Simple calculations show that the two indirect impacts are larger than the direct impact by roughly one and two orders of magnitude respectively. Global or regional relative humidity changes could therefore have significant indirect impacts on energy and water cycles, especially by altering deep convection, even if they are too small to significantly affect global temperature. Studies of climate change should place greater emphasis on these indirect links, which may not be adequately represented in models.

  1. Can we infer external effects from a study of the Irish indirect tax system?

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, David (David Patrick)

    1992-01-01

    This paper estimates implied external effects for the Irish indirect tax system for the year 1987. The study uses the inverse optimum technique of Christiansen and Jansen (1978) which estimates implied external effects, given the assumption that the economy is at an optimum with regard to the indirect tax system. External effects are estimated for three goods: tobacco, alcohol and petrol and in all cases the estimated external effects are of the expected sign. The paper also estimates the imp...

  2. Do managed bees have negative effects on wild bees?: A systematic review of the literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E Mallinger

    Full Text Available Managed bees are critical for crop pollination worldwide. As the demand for pollinator-dependent crops increases, so does the use of managed bees. Concern has arisen that managed bees may have unintended negative impacts on native wild bees, which are important pollinators in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. The goal of this study was to synthesize the literature documenting the effects of managed honey bees and bumble bees on wild bees in three areas: (1 competition for floral and nesting resources, (2 indirect effects via changes in plant communities, including the spread of exotic plants and decline of native plants, and (3 transmission of pathogens. The majority of reviewed studies reported negative effects of managed bees, but trends differed across topical areas. Of studies examining competition, results were highly variable with 53% reporting negative effects on wild bees, while 28% reported no effects and 19% reported mixed effects (varying with the bee species or variables examined. Equal numbers of studies examining plant communities reported positive (36% and negative (36% effects, with the remainder reporting no or mixed effects. Finally, the majority of studies on pathogen transmission (70% reported potential negative effects of managed bees on wild bees. However, most studies across all topical areas documented the potential for impact (e.g. reporting the occurrence of competition or pathogens, but did not measure direct effects on wild bee fitness, abundance, or diversity. Furthermore, we found that results varied depending on whether managed bees were in their native or non-native range; managed bees within their native range had lesser competitive effects, but potentially greater effects on wild bees via pathogen transmission. We conclude that while this field has expanded considerably in recent decades, additional research measuring direct, long-term, and population-level effects of managed bees is needed to understand

  3. Do managed bees have negative effects on wild bees?: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinger, Rachel E; Gaines-Day, Hannah R; Gratton, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Managed bees are critical for crop pollination worldwide. As the demand for pollinator-dependent crops increases, so does the use of managed bees. Concern has arisen that managed bees may have unintended negative impacts on native wild bees, which are important pollinators in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. The goal of this study was to synthesize the literature documenting the effects of managed honey bees and bumble bees on wild bees in three areas: (1) competition for floral and nesting resources, (2) indirect effects via changes in plant communities, including the spread of exotic plants and decline of native plants, and (3) transmission of pathogens. The majority of reviewed studies reported negative effects of managed bees, but trends differed across topical areas. Of studies examining competition, results were highly variable with 53% reporting negative effects on wild bees, while 28% reported no effects and 19% reported mixed effects (varying with the bee species or variables examined). Equal numbers of studies examining plant communities reported positive (36%) and negative (36%) effects, with the remainder reporting no or mixed effects. Finally, the majority of studies on pathogen transmission (70%) reported potential negative effects of managed bees on wild bees. However, most studies across all topical areas documented the potential for impact (e.g. reporting the occurrence of competition or pathogens), but did not measure direct effects on wild bee fitness, abundance, or diversity. Furthermore, we found that results varied depending on whether managed bees were in their native or non-native range; managed bees within their native range had lesser competitive effects, but potentially greater effects on wild bees via pathogen transmission. We conclude that while this field has expanded considerably in recent decades, additional research measuring direct, long-term, and population-level effects of managed bees is needed to understand their

  4. History of Childhood Maltreatment and College Academic Outcomes: Indirect Effects of Hot Execution Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn C. Welsh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available College students who report a history of childhood maltreatment may be at risk for poor outcomes. In the current study, we conducted an exploratory analysis to examine potential models that statistically mediate associations between aspects of maltreatment and aspects of academic outcome, with a particular focus on executive functions (EF. Consistent with contemporary EF research, we distinguished between relatively “cool” EF tasks (i.e., performed in a context relatively free of emotional or motivational valence and “hot” EF tasks that emphasize performance under more emotionally arousing conditions. Sixty-one male and female college undergraduates self-reported childhood maltreatment history (emotional abuse and neglect, physical abuse and neglect, and sexual abuse on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, and were given two EF measures: (1 Go-No-Go (GNG test that included a Color Condition (cool; Neutral Face Condition (warm; and Emotion Face condition (hot, and (2 Iowa Gambling Task (IGT, a measure of risky decision making that reflects hot EF. Academic outcomes were: (1 grade point average (GPA: first-semester, cumulative, and semester concurrent with testing, and (2 Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ. Correlational patterns suggested two EF scores as potential mediators: GNG reaction time (RT in the Neutral Face condition, and IGT Block 2 adaptive responding. Indirect effects analyses indicated that IGT Block 2 adaptive responding has an indirect effect on the relationship between CTQ Total score and 1st semester GPA, and between CTQ Emotional Abuse and concurrent GPA. Regarding college adaptation, we identified a consistent indirect effect of GNG Neutral Face RT on the relationship between CTQ Emotional Neglect and SACQ total, academic, social, and personal–emotional adaption scores. Our results demonstrate that higher scores on a child maltreatment history self-report negatively predict college academic

  5. Estimating direct and indirect rebound effects by supply-driven input-output model: A case study of Taiwan's industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Kuei-Yen; Wu, Jung-Hua; Huang, Yun-Hsun; Fu, Szu-Chi; Chen, Chia-Yon

    2016-01-01

    Most existing literature focuses on the direct rebound effect on the demand side for consumers. This study analyses direct and indirect rebound effects in Taiwan's industry from the perspective of producers. However, most studies on the producers' viewpoint may overlook inter-industry linkages. This study applies a supply-driven input-output model to quantify the magnitude of rebound effects by explicitly considering inter-industry linkages. Empirical results showed that total rebound effects for most Taiwan's sectors were less than 10% in 2011. A comparison among the sectors yields that sectors with lower energy efficiency had higher direct rebound effects, while sectors with higher forward linkages generated higher indirect rebound effects. Taking the Mining sector (S3) as an example, which is an upstream supplier and has high forward linkages; it showed high indirect rebound effects that are derived from the accumulation of additional energy consumption by its downstream producers. The findings also showed that in almost all sectors, indirect rebound effects were higher than direct rebound effects. In other words, if indirect rebound effects are neglected, the total rebound effects will be underestimated. Hence, the energy-saving potential may be overestimated. - Highlights: • This study quantifies rebound effects by a supply-driven input-output model. • For most Taiwan's sectors, total rebound magnitudes were less than 10% in 2011. • Direct rebound effects and energy efficiency were inverse correlation. • Indirect rebound effects and industrial forward linkages were positive correlation. • Indirect rebound effects were generally higher than direct rebound effects.

  6. Theoretical research on color indirect effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T. C.; Liao, Changjun; Liu, Songhao

    1995-05-01

    Color indirect effects (CIE) means the physiological and psychological effects of color resulting from color vision. In this paper, we study CIE from the viewpoints of the integrated western and Chinese traditional medicine and the time quantum theory established by C. Y. Liu et al., respectively, and then put forward the color-automatic-nervous-subsystem model that could color excites parasympathetic subsystem and hot color excites sympathetic subsystem. Our theory is in agreement with modern color vision theory, and moreover, it leads to the resolution of the conflict between the color code theory and the time code theory oncolor vision. For the latitude phenomena on athlete stars number and the average lifespan, we also discuss the possibility of UV vision. The applications of our theory lead to our succeeding in explaining a number of physiological and psychological effects of color, in explaining the effects of age on color vision, and in explaining the Chinese chromophototherapy. We also discuss its application to neuroimmunology. This research provides the foundation of the clinical applications of chromophototherapy.

  7. Conflict, negative emotion, and reports of partners' relationship maintenance in same-sex couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogolsky, Brian G; Gray, Christine R

    2016-03-01

    The literature on relationship maintenance has focused primarily on the beneficial outcomes of maintenance, and, as a result, little is known about relational processes that may interfere with reports of partners' maintenance. The authors examine how daily conflict influences individuals' reports of their partners' maintenance, and how a constructive communication style buffers this influence by reducing negative emotion on conflict days. In a daily diary study of 98 same-sex couples in romantic relationships, they found that the negative association between conflict and reports of a partner's relationship maintenance was mediated by negative emotion. That is, there was an indirect effect by which daily conflict was associated with higher levels of daily negative emotion, which was associated with reports of lower levels of partners' relationship maintenance. This indirect effect was moderated by couples' overall level of constructive communication such that higher levels diminished the degree to which couples experienced negative emotion on days with episodes of relational conflict. The authors discuss results in the context of interpersonal theory and provide implications for clinicians and practitioners. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Effect of Intensive Phototherapy and Exchange Transfusion on Copper, Zinc and Magnesium Serum Levels in Neonates with Indirect Hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Azeem El-Mazary

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMany studies reported that copper, zinc and magnesium play important roles in the pathogenesis and development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Exchange transfusion and intensive phototherapy are known two modalities of therapy for severe neonatal hyper bilirubinemia, but the effect of them on those trace elements is unknown.Materials and MethodsCopper, Zinc and Magnesium serum levels were measured before and after treatment with intensive phototherapy and exchange transfusion in full term neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of Minia and Sohag University hospitals, Egypt, during 2014-2016 and comparison with normal healthy neonates was done.ResultsThere were significant higher copper and magnesium and lower zinc serum levels in neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia than controls before and after intensive phototherapy. These levels were significantly changed after exchange transfusion to be comparable with controls. Significant positive correlations between the total bilirubin levels and hemoglobin, copper, and magnesium serum levels and significant negative correlations with serum zinc levels were present. There were no significant correlations between maternal and neonatal copper, zinc or magnesium serum levels.ConclusionNeonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia had significant higher copper and magnesium and lower zinc serum levels than healthy neonates which were not related to their maternal serum levels. Intensive phototherapy had no effect on their levels while exchange transfusion changed these levels to be comparable with that of normal healthy neonates.

  9. The influence of indirect collective trauma on first responders' alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homish, Gregory G; Frazer, Bonita S; Carey, Mary G

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested increased risk for negative outcomes such as increased alcohol use among first responders who are involved with the response to a community disaster; however it is not clear how indirect exposure to a critical incident impacts first responders. This work examined the impact of secondary or indirect trauma on changes in alcohol use among urban firefighters who were not directly involved in the response to a large scale community-level disaster. Firefighters enrolled in larger trial of health outcomes whose interview period coincided with the crash of a commercial airplane were the basis for the current report. Aggregate level data on changes in alcohol consumption for these firefighters were examined pre- and post-incident. There was a significant increase in alcohol use following the critical incident. This increase did not occur immediately; it was observed within several days and peaked about 8 days post-incident. Post-hoc analyses revealed that the increased alcohol consumption persisted for several months, finally returning to pre-incident levels by 8 months post-incident. Indirect trauma effects, likely operationalized in part through the "brotherhood" of the firefighters, clearly placed firefighters at risk for negative outcomes following a disaster. Intervention/prevention efforts aimed at distress reduction among first responders should not solely focus on responders with direct involvement in a disaster.

  10. Satellite remote sensing of dust aerosol indirect effects on ice cloud formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Steve Szu-Cheng; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Wang, Xingjuan; Hansell, Richard; Lefevre, Randy; Cocks, Stephen

    2009-01-20

    We undertook a new approach to investigate the aerosol indirect effect of the first kind on ice cloud formation by using available data products from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and obtained physical understanding about the interaction between aerosols and ice clouds. Our analysis focused on the examination of the variability in the correlation between ice cloud parameters (optical depth, effective particle size, cloud water path, and cloud particle number concentration) and aerosol optical depth and number concentration that were inferred from available satellite cloud and aerosol data products. Correlation results for a number of selected scenes containing dust and ice clouds are presented, and dust aerosol indirect effects on ice clouds are directly demonstrated from satellite observations.

  11. Turning lights into flights: Estimating direct and indirect rebound effects for UK households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitnis, Mona; Sorrell, Steve; Druckman, Angela; Firth, Steven K.; Jackson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency improvements by households lead to rebound effects that offset the potential energy and emissions savings. Direct rebound effects result from increased demand for cheaper energy services, while indirect rebound effects result from increased demand for other goods and services that also require energy to provide. Research to date has focused upon the former, but both are important for climate change. This study estimates the combined direct and indirect rebound effects from seven measures that improve the energy efficiency of UK dwellings. The methodology is based upon estimates of the income elasticity and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of 16 categories of household goods and services, and allows for the embodied emissions of the energy efficiency measures themselves, as well as the capital cost of the measures. Rebound effects are measured in GHG terms and relate to the adoption of these measures by an average UK household. The study finds that the rebound effects from these measures are typically in the range 5–15% and arise mostly from indirect effects. This is largely because expenditure on gas and electricity is more GHG-intensive than expenditure on other goods and services. However, the anticipated shift towards a low carbon electricity system in the UK may lead to much larger rebound effects. - Highlights: ► We estimate the direct and indirect rebound effects from energy efficiency improvements by UK households. ► We allow for the capital cost of the improvement, together with the emissions embodied in the relevant equipment. ► We find rebound effects to be relatively modest, in the range 5–15%. ► The anticipated shift towards a low carbon electricity system will lead to larger rebound effects

  12. Aerosol indirect effects on the nighttime Arctic Ocean surface from thin, predominantly liquid clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Zamora

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol indirect effects have potentially large impacts on the Arctic Ocean surface energy budget, but model estimates of regional-scale aerosol indirect effects are highly uncertain and poorly validated by observations. Here we demonstrate a new way to quantitatively estimate aerosol indirect effects on a regional scale from remote sensing observations. In this study, we focus on nighttime, optically thin, predominantly liquid clouds. The method is based on differences in cloud physical and microphysical characteristics in carefully selected clean, average, and aerosol-impacted conditions. The cloud subset of focus covers just ∼ 5 % of cloudy Arctic Ocean regions, warming the Arctic Ocean surface by ∼ 1–1.4 W m−2 regionally during polar night. However, within this cloud subset, aerosol and cloud conditions can be determined with high confidence using CALIPSO and CloudSat data and model output. This cloud subset is generally susceptible to aerosols, with a polar nighttime estimated maximum regionally integrated indirect cooling effect of ∼ −0.11 W m−2 at the Arctic sea ice surface (∼ 8 % of the clean background cloud effect, excluding cloud fraction changes. Aerosol presence is related to reduced precipitation, cloud thickness, and radar reflectivity, and in some cases, an increased likelihood of cloud presence in the liquid phase. These observations are inconsistent with a glaciation indirect effect and are consistent with either a deactivation effect or less-efficient secondary ice formation related to smaller liquid cloud droplets. However, this cloud subset shows large differences in surface and meteorological forcing in shallow and higher-altitude clouds and between sea ice and open-ocean regions. For example, optically thin, predominantly liquid clouds are much more likely to overlay another cloud over the open ocean, which may reduce aerosol indirect effects on the surface. Also, shallow clouds over

  13. Biological effects of direct and indirect manipulation of the fascial system. Narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parravicini, Giovanni; Bergna, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment (OMT) is effective in improving function, movement and restoring pain conditions. Despite clinical results, the mechanisms of how OMT achieves its' effects remain unclear. The fascial system is described as a tensional network that envelops the human body. Direct or indirect manipulations of the fascial system are a distinctive part of OMT. This review describes the biological effects of direct and indirect manipulation of the fascial system. Literature search was performed in February 2016 in the electronic databases: Cochrane, Medline, Scopus, Ostmed, Pedro and authors' publications relative to Fascia Research Congress Website. Manipulation of the fascial system seems to interfere with some cellular processes providing various pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cells and molecules. Despite growing research in the osteopathic field, biological effects of direct or indirect manipulation of the fascial system are not conclusive. To elevate manual medicine as a primary intervention in clinical settings, it's necessary to clarify how OMT modalities work in order to underpin their clinical efficacies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. FY 2011 4th Quarter Metric: Estimate of Future Aerosol Direct and Indirect Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, D

    2011-09-21

    The global and annual mean aerosol direct and indirect effects, relative to 1850 conditions, estimated from CESM simulations are 0.02 W m-2 and -0.39 W m-2, respectively, for emissions in year 2100 under the IPCC RCP8.5 scenario. The indirect effect is much smaller than that for 2000 emissions because of much smaller SO2 emissions in 2100; the direct effects are small due to compensation between warming by black carbon and cooling by sulfate.

  15. Mediation analysis to estimate direct and indirect milk losses due to clinical mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detilleux, J; Kastelic, J P; Barkema, H W

    2015-03-01

    Milk losses associated with mastitis can be attributed to either effects of pathogens per se (i.e., direct losses) or effects of the immune response triggered by intramammary infection (indirect losses). The distinction is important in terms of mastitis prevention and treatment. Regardless, the number of pathogens is often unknown (particularly in field studies), making it difficult to estimate direct losses, whereas indirect losses can be approximated by measuring the association between increased somatic cell count (SCC) and milk production. An alternative is to perform a mediation analysis in which changes in milk yield are allocated into their direct and indirect components. We applied this method on data for clinical mastitis, milk and SCC test-day recordings, results of bacteriological cultures (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and streptococci other than Strep. dysgalactiae and Strep. uberis), and cow characteristics. Following a diagnosis of clinical mastitis, the cow was treated and changes (increase or decrease) in milk production before and after a diagnosis were interpreted counterfactually. On a daily basis, indirect changes, mediated by SCC increase, were significantly different from zero for all bacterial species, with a milk yield decrease (ranging among species from 4 to 33g and mediated by an increase of 1000 SCC/mL/day) before and a daily milk increase (ranging among species from 2 to 12g and mediated by a decrease of 1000 SCC/mL/day) after detection. Direct changes, not mediated by SCC, were only different from zero for coagulase-negative staphylococci before diagnosis (72g per day). We concluded that mixed structural equation models were useful to estimate direct and indirect effects of the presence of clinical mastitis on milk yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Direct and indirect effects of copper-contaminated sediments on the functions of model freshwater ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardham, Stephanie; Chariton, Anthony A; Hose, Grant C

    2015-01-01

    Copper is acutely toxic to, and directly affects, primary producers and decomposers, which are key players in essential processes such as the nutrient cycle in freshwater ecosystems. Even though the indirect effects of metals (for example effects due to changes in species interactions) may be more common than direct effects, little is known about the indirect effects of copper on primary producers and decomposers. The effects of copper on phytoplankton, macrophytes, periphyton and organic matter decomposition in an outdoor lentic mesocosm facility were assessed, and links between the responses examined. Copper directly decreased macrophyte growth, subsurface organic matter decomposition, and the potential for high phytoplankton Chlorophyll a concentrations. However, periphyton cover and organic matter decomposition on the surface of the sediment were stimulated by the presence of copper. These latter responses were attributed to indirect effects, due to a reduction in grazing pressure from snails, particularly Physa acuta, in the higher copper-contaminated mesocosms. This permitted the growth of periphyton and other heterotrophs, ultimately increasing decomposition at the sediment surface. The present study demonstrates the pronounced influence indirect effects may have on ecological function, findings that may not be observed in traditional laboratory studies (which utilize single species or simplistic communities).

  17. Are ship tracks useful analogs for studying the aerosol indirect effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, M.; Toll, V.; Stephens, G. L.

    2017-12-01

    Vessels transiting the ocean sometimes leave their mark on the clouds - leaving behind reflective cloud lines, known as ship tracks. Ship tracks have been looked upon by some as a possible Rosetta Stone connecting the effects of changing aerosol over the ocean and cloud albedo effects on climate (Porch et al. 1990, Atmos. Enviorn., 1051-1059). In this research, we establish whether ship tracks, and volcano tracks - a natural analog, can be used to relate these cloud-scale perturbations to the aerosol effects occurring at larger regional-scales. Two databases containing over 1,500 ship and 900 volcano tracks, all carefully hand-selected from satellite imagery, are utilized; showing that ship tracks exhibit very similar cloud albedo effect responses to that of volcano tracks. For comparison, our global dataset utilises over 7 million CloudSat profiles consisting of single-layer marine warm cloud in which the retrievals are co-located with the MODerate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) product so that statistical relationships between aerosol and cloud can be computed over 4x4 degree regions. All datasets show the same key physical processes that govern the cloud-aerosol indirect effect, namely, the strong negative responses in cloud droplet size and the bidirectional responses in liquid water path and cloud albedo depending on the meteorological conditions. Finally, this analysis is extended to a comparison against several general circulation models where it is suggested that key processes such as cloud-top entrainment and evaporation that regulates against strong liquid water path responses are likely underrepresented in most models.

  18. The indirect effects of cheatgrass invasion: Grasshopper herbivory on native grasses determined by neighboring cheatgrass abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie Beckstead; Susan E. Meyer; Carol K. Augsperger

    2008-01-01

    Invasion biology has focused on the direct effects of plant invasion and has generally overlooked indirect interactions. Here we link theories of invasion biology and herbivory to explore an indirect effect of one invading species on associational herbivory (the effect of neighboring plants on herbivory) of native species. We studied a Great Basin shadscale (...

  19. Atmospheric ions and probable indirect biological effect of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The problem is discussed of the health consequences of low radiation doses (of less than 0.01 Gy). Owing to natural radioactivity and cosmic radiation, ions are formed in the atmosphere which may thus indirectly mediate the effects of ionizing radiation on the organism. The rate of ion formation is approximately 6.1 ion pairs/cm 3 .s and their number will not exceed 10 3 ions/cm 3 . In an environment where artificial radioactive sources are used, the ion concentration may reach up to 10 5 ions/cm 3 . The effect of ions on man may be divided into several types: 1. effect on mental state (behaviour, fatigue, headaches); 2. effect on the cardiovascular system; 3. effect on the bronchial system;and 4. effect on physiological processes, e.g., secretion by endocrine glands. It is not yet known whether the biological effect of small (fast) ions is a function of their electric charge only or of their kinetic energy as well. The view is discussed that low radiation doses through indirect effects have favourable and beneficial influence on the human organism. (M.D.)

  20. Assessing Mediational Models: Testing and Interval Estimation for Indirect Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesanz, Jeremy C; Falk, Carl F; Savalei, Victoria

    2010-08-06

    Theoretical models specifying indirect or mediated effects are common in the social sciences. An indirect effect exists when an independent variable's influence on the dependent variable is mediated through an intervening variable. Classic approaches to assessing such mediational hypotheses ( Baron & Kenny, 1986 ; Sobel, 1982 ) have in recent years been supplemented by computationally intensive methods such as bootstrapping, the distribution of the product methods, and hierarchical Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. These different approaches for assessing mediation are illustrated using data from Dunn, Biesanz, Human, and Finn (2007). However, little is known about how these methods perform relative to each other, particularly in more challenging situations, such as with data that are incomplete and/or nonnormal. This article presents an extensive Monte Carlo simulation evaluating a host of approaches for assessing mediation. We examine Type I error rates, power, and coverage. We study normal and nonnormal data as well as complete and incomplete data. In addition, we adapt a method, recently proposed in statistical literature, that does not rely on confidence intervals (CIs) to test the null hypothesis of no indirect effect. The results suggest that the new inferential method-the partial posterior p value-slightly outperforms existing ones in terms of maintaining Type I error rates while maximizing power, especially with incomplete data. Among confidence interval approaches, the bias-corrected accelerated (BC a ) bootstrapping approach often has inflated Type I error rates and inconsistent coverage and is not recommended; In contrast, the bootstrapped percentile confidence interval and the hierarchical Bayesian MCMC method perform best overall, maintaining Type I error rates, exhibiting reasonable power, and producing stable and accurate coverage rates.

  1. The Effect of Direct and Indirect Corrective Feedback on Iranian EFL Learners' Spelling Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandi, Maryam; Maghsoudi, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of indirect corrective feedback on promoting Iranian high school students' spelling accuracy in English (as a foreign language). It compared the effect of direct feedback with indirect feedback on students' written work dictated by their teacher from Chicken Soup for the Mother and…

  2. Direct versus indirect revascularization procedures for moyamoya disease: a comparative effectiveness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macyszyn, Luke; Attiah, Mark; Ma, Tracy S; Ali, Zarina; Faught, Ryan; Hossain, Alisha; Man, Karen; Patel, Hiren; Sobota, Rosanna; Zager, Eric L; Stein, Sherman C

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a chronic cerebrovascular disease that can lead to devastating neurological outcomes. Surgical intervention is the definitive treatment, with direct, indirect, and combined revascularization procedures currently employed by surgeons. The optimal surgical approach, however, remains unclear. In this decision analysis, the authors compared the effectiveness of revascularization procedures in both adult and pediatric patients with MMD. METHODS A comprehensive literature search was performed for studies of MMD. Using complication and success rates from the literature, the authors constructed a decision analysis model for treatment using a direct and indirect revascularization technique. Utility values for the various outcomes and complications were extracted from the literature examining preferences in similar clinical conditions. Sensitivity analysis was performed. RESULTS A structured literature search yielded 33 studies involving 4197 cases. Cases were divided into adult and pediatric populations. These were further subdivided into 3 different treatment groups: indirect, direct, and combined revascularization procedures. In the pediatric population at 5- and 10-year follow-up, there was no significant difference between indirect and combination procedures, but both were superior to direct revascularization. In adults at 4-year follow-up, indirect was superior to direct revascularization. CONCLUSIONS In the absence of factors that dictate a specific approach, the present decision analysis suggests that direct revascularization procedures are inferior in terms of quality-adjusted life years in both adults at 4 years and children at 5 and 10 years postoperatively, respectively. These findings were statistically significant (p indirect and combination procedures may offer optimal results at long-term follow-up.

  3. X-ray geometrical smoothing effect in indirect x-ray-drive implosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Takayasu; Sakabe, Shuji; Yamanaka, Chiyoe

    1983-01-01

    X-ray geometrical smoothing effect in indirect X-ray drive pellet implosion for inertial confinement fusion has been numerically analyzed. Attainable X-ray driven ablation pressure has been found to be coupled with X-ray irradiation uniformity. (author)

  4. Direct and indirect effects of climate change on a prairie plant community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter B Adler

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change directly affects species by altering their physical environment and indirectly affects species by altering interspecific interactions such as predation and competition. Recent studies have shown that the indirect effects of climate change may amplify or counteract the direct effects. However, little is known about the the relative strength of direct and indirect effects or their potential to impact population persistence.We studied the effects of altered precipitation and interspecific interactions on the low-density tiller growth rates and biomass production of three perennial grass species in a Kansas, USA mixed prairie. We transplanted plugs of each species into local neighborhoods of heterospecific competitors and then exposed the plugs to a factorial manipulation of growing season precipitation and neighbor removal. Precipitation treatments had significant direct effects on two of the three species. Interspecific competition also had strong effects, reducing low-density tiller growth rates and aboveground biomass production for all three species. In fact, in the presence of competitors, (log tiller growth rates were close to or below zero for all three species. However, we found no convincing evidence that per capita competitive effects changed with precipitation, as shown by a lack of significant precipitation x competition interactions.We found little evidence that altered precipitation will influence per capita competitive effects. However, based on species' very low growth rates in the presence of competitors in some precipitation treatments, interspecific interactions appear strong enough to affect the balance between population persistence and local extinction. Therefore, ecological forecasting models should include the effect of interspecific interactions on population growth, even if such interaction coefficients are treated as constants.

  5. Behaviourally mediated indirect effects : interference competition increases predation mortality in foraging redshanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minderman, J; Lind, J; Cresswell, W

    The effect of competition for a limiting resource on the population dynamics of competitors is usually assumed to operate directly through starvation, yet may also affect survival indirectly through behaviourally mediated effects that affect risk of predation. Thus, competition can affect more than

  6. Model for radiation damage in cells by direct effect and by indirect effect: a radiation chemistry approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, H.B.; Hunt, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    A model is presented to describe the contributions of direct and indirect effects to the radiation damage of cells. The model is derived using principles of radiation chemistry and of pulse radiolysis in particular. From data available in the literature, parameters for cellular composition and values of rate constants for indirect action have been used in preliminary applications of the model. The results obtained in calculations of the protective effect of .OH and .H scavengers are consistent with experimental data. Possible modifications and improvements to the model are suggested, along with proposed future applications of the model in radiobiological studies

  7. The Growth Trade-off between Direct and Indirect Taxes in South Africa: Evidence from a STR Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Phiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The tax system forms the backbone to the functioning of the South African fiscal authorities and it is has been recently questioned whether alterations in the existing tax mix could promote economic growth. Using quarterly data from 1990:Q1 and 2015:Q2, this study investigated the effects of direct and indirect taxes on economic growth for South Africa using the recently developed smooth transition regression (STR model. Our findings suggest an optimal tax of 10.27 percent on the indirect tax-growth ratio, of which below this rate indirect taxes are positively related with economic growth whereas direct taxes are negatively related with growth. Above the optimal tax rate, taxation bears no significant relationship with economic growth. We therefore suggest that policymakers place a greater burden on indirect taxes and yet ensure that the contribution of indirect taxes to economic growth does not exceed the threshold of 10.27 percent.

  8. Direct and Indirect Effects of Print Exposure on Silent Reading Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Quintino R.; Guerin, Julia M.

    2018-01-01

    Print exposure is an important causal factor in reading development. Little is known, however, of the mechanisms through which print exposure exerts an effect onto reading. To address this gap, we examined the direct and indirect effects of print exposure on silent reading fluency among college students (n = 52). More specifically, we focused on…

  9. Is perfectionism associated with academic burnout through repetitive negative thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt-Reed, David; Howell, Joel; Hayes, Lana; Boyes, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Academic burnout is prevalent among university students, although understanding of what predicts burnout is limited. This study aimed to test the direct and indirect relationship between two dimensions of perfectionism (Perfectionistic Concerns and Perfectionistic Strivings) and the three elements of Academic Burnout (Exhaustion, Inadequacy, and Cynicism) through Repetitive Negative Thinking. In a cross-sectional survey, undergraduate students ( n  = 126, M age = 23.64, 79% female) completed well-validated measures of Perfectionism, Repetitive Negative Thinking, and Academic Burnout. Perfectionistic Concerns was directly associated with all elements of burnout, as well as indirectly associated with Exhaustion and Cynicism via Repetitive Negative Thinking. Perfectionistic Strivings was directly associated with less Inadequacy and Cynicism; however, there were no indirect associations between Perfectionistic Strivings and Academic Burnout operating through Repetitive Negative Thinking. Repetitive Negative Thinking was also directly related to more burnout Exhaustion and Inadequacy, but not Cynicism. It is concluded that future research should investigate whether interventions targeting Perfectionistic Concerns and Repetitive Negative Thinking can reduce Academic Burnout in university students.

  10. A reanalysis of a behavioral intervention to prevent incident HIV infections: Including indirect effects in modeling outcomes of Project EXPLORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Lisa A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Kenny, David A.; Harel, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    Background Project EXPLORE -- a large-scale, behavioral intervention tested among men who have sex with men (MSM) at-risk for HIV infection --was generally deemed as ineffective in reducing HIV incidence. Using novel and more precise data analytic techniques we reanalyzed Project EXPLORE by including both direct and indirect paths of intervention effects. Methods Data from 4,296 HIV negative MSM who participated in Project EXPLORE, which included ten sessions of behavioral risk reduction counseling completed from 1999-2005, were included in the analysis. We reanalyzed the data to include parameters that estimate the overtime effects of the intervention on unprotected anal sex and the over-time effects of the intervention on HIV status mediated by unprotected anal sex simultaneously in a single model. Results We found the indirect effect of intervention on HIV infection through unprotected anal sex to be statistically significant up through 12 months post-intervention, OR=.83, 95% CI=.72-.95. Furthermore, the intervention significantly reduced unprotected anal sex up through 18 months post-intervention, OR=.79, 95% CI=.63-.99. Discussion Our results reveal effects not tested in the original model that offer new insight into the effectiveness of a behavioral intervention for reducing HIV incidence. Project EXPLORE demonstrated that when tested against an evidence-based, effective control condition can result in reductions in rates of HIV acquisition at one year follow-up. Findings highlight the critical role of addressing behavioral risk reduction counseling in HIV prevention. PMID:23245226

  11. Sensitivity analysis for unobserved confounding of direct and indirect effects using uncertainty intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindmark, Anita; de Luna, Xavier; Eriksson, Marie

    2018-05-10

    To estimate direct and indirect effects of an exposure on an outcome from observed data, strong assumptions about unconfoundedness are required. Since these assumptions cannot be tested using the observed data, a mediation analysis should always be accompanied by a sensitivity analysis of the resulting estimates. In this article, we propose a sensitivity analysis method for parametric estimation of direct and indirect effects when the exposure, mediator, and outcome are all binary. The sensitivity parameters consist of the correlations between the error terms of the exposure, mediator, and outcome models. These correlations are incorporated into the estimation of the model parameters and identification sets are then obtained for the direct and indirect effects for a range of plausible correlation values. We take the sampling variability into account through the construction of uncertainty intervals. The proposed method is able to assess sensitivity to both mediator-outcome confounding and confounding involving the exposure. To illustrate the method, we apply it to a mediation study based on the data from the Swedish Stroke Register (Riksstroke). An R package that implements the proposed method is available. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Ocean acidification alters fish populations indirectly through habitat modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Russell, Bayden D.; Gillanders, Bronwyn M.; Connell, Sean D.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean ecosystems are predicted to lose biodiversity and productivity from increasing ocean acidification. Although laboratory experiments reveal negative effects of acidification on the behaviour and performance of species, more comprehensive predictions have been hampered by a lack of in situ studies that incorporate the complexity of interactions between species and their environment. We studied CO2 vents from both Northern and Southern hemispheres, using such natural laboratories to investigate the effect of ocean acidification on plant-animal associations embedded within all their natural complexity. Although we substantiate simple direct effects of reduced predator-avoidance behaviour by fishes, as observed in laboratory experiments, we here show that this negative effect is naturally dampened when fish reside in shelter-rich habitats. Importantly, elevated CO2 drove strong increases in the abundance of some fish species through major habitat shifts, associated increases in resources such as habitat and prey availability, and reduced predator abundances. The indirect effects of acidification via resource and predator alterations may have far-reaching consequences for population abundances, and its study provides a framework for a more comprehensive understanding of increasing CO2 emissions as a driver of ecological change.

  13. A new way to estimate the direct and indirect rebound effect and other rebound indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire-González, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    Some progress has been done during the last years on the methods and provision of empirical evidence on the direct and indirect rebound effect. However, these methods are complex, and sometimes require some specific economic knowledge. The development of risk and vulnerability rebound indicators for economies can be a useful tool to help the research community, policy-makers and other practitioners to understand and tackle the rebound effect. This research shows a new analytical way to obtain the direct and indirect rebound effect from the direct rebound effect and the use of energy input-output coefficients, and proposes three risk and vulnerability rebound indicators to show the effects of energy efficiency improvements in households on overall energy consumption. An estimation of these indicators has been conducted for the EU-27 countries. - Highlights: • A new method to estimate direct and indirect rebound effect is shown. • Three indicators are developed to assess risk and vulnerability to rebound. • An estimation of rebound indicators has been carried out for the EU-27 economies.

  14. A Green's Function Approach to Simulate DNA Damage by the Indirect Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Cicinotta, Francis A.

    2013-01-01

    The DNA damage is of fundamental importance in the understanding of the effects of ionizing radiation. DNA is damaged by the direct effect of radiation (e.g. direct ionization) and by indirect effect (e.g. damage by.OH radicals created by the radiolysis of water). Despite years of research, many questions on the DNA damage by ionizing radiation remains. In the recent years, the Green's functions of the diffusion equation (GFDE) have been used extensively in biochemistry [1], notably to simulate biochemical networks in time and space [2]. In our future work on DNA damage, we wish to use an approach based on the GFDE to refine existing models on the indirect effect of ionizing radiation on DNA. To do so, we will use the code RITRACKS [3] developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center to simulate the radiation track structure and calculate the position of radiolytic species after irradiation. We have also recently developed an efficient Monte-Carlo sampling algorithm for the GFDE of reversible reactions with an intermediate state [4], which can be modified and adapted to simulate DNA damage by free radicals. To do so, we will use the known reaction rate constants between radicals (OH, eaq, H,...) and the DNA bases, sugars and phosphates and use the sampling algorithms to simulate the diffusion of free radicals and chemical reactions with DNA. These techniques should help the understanding of the contribution of the indirect effect in the formation of DNA damage and double-strand breaks.

  15. The structural model of pain, cognitive strategies, and negative emotions in functional gastrointestinal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Mazaheri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs may use specific coping strategies. We intend to provide a mediating role of the relationship between pain (intensity and acceptance, cognitive emotion regulation strategies, and negative emotions in patients with FGIDs. Materials and Methods: Participants were 176 inpatients, all experiencing significant FGIDs symptomatology as confirmed by gastroenterologists. Patients completed data on cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire, short form of depression, anxiety, stress scale, chronic pain acceptance questionnaire-revised, and pain intensity scale. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling method. Results: The pain intensity had significantly direct effect on cognitive emotion regulation strategies and indirect effect on negative emotions. Besides, the mediating role of negative emotions in the relationship between the strategies and pain acceptance were supported, whereas indirect relationships between pain intensity and acceptance through cognitive strategies were not confirmed. Conclusion: The results of the study emphasize the role of pain intensity in the development of negative emotions through cognitive strategies and the role of the strategies in pain acceptance through negative emotions. In fact, cognitive strategies to be related to pain and emotions.

  16. Comparing Direct versus Indirect Measures of the Pedagogical Effectiveness of Team Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    Direct measures (tests) of the pedagogical effectiveness of team testing and indirect measures (student surveys) of pedagogical effectiveness of team testing were collected in several sections of an undergraduate marketing course with varying levels of the use of team testing. The results indicate that although students perceived team testing to…

  17. The genetics of indirect ecological effects - plant parasites and aphid herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K Rowntree

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available When parasitic plants and aphid herbivores share a host, both direct and indirect ecological effects (IEEs can influence evolutionary processes. We used a hemiparasitic plant (Rhinanthus minor, a grass host (Hordeum vulgare and a cereal aphid (Sitobion avenae to investigate the genetics of IEEs between the aphid and the parasitic plant, and looked to see how these might affect or be influenced by the genetic diversity of the host plants. Survival of R. minor depended on the parasite’s population of origin, the genotypes of the aphids sharing the host and the genetic diversity in the host plant community. Hence the indirect effects of the aphids on the parasitic plants depended on the genetic environment of the system. Here, we show that genetic variation can be important in determining the outcome of IEEs. Therefore, IEEs have the potential to influence evolutionary processes and the continuity of species interactions over time.

  18. Aerosol indirect effects on summer precipitation in a regional climate model for the Euro-Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Nicolas; Mailler, Sylvain; Drobinski, Philippe

    2018-03-01

    Aerosols affect atmospheric dynamics through their direct and semi-direct effects as well as through their effects on cloud microphysics (indirect effects). The present study investigates the indirect effects of aerosols on summer precipitation in the Euro-Mediterranean region, which is located at the crossroads of air masses carrying both natural and anthropogenic aerosols. While it is difficult to disentangle the indirect effects of aerosols from the direct and semi-direct effects in reality, a numerical sensitivity experiment is carried out using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, which allows us to isolate indirect effects, all other effects being equal. The Mediterranean hydrological cycle has often been studied using regional climate model (RCM) simulations with parameterized convection, which is the approach we adopt in the present study. For this purpose, the Thompson aerosol-aware microphysics scheme is used in a pair of simulations run at 50 km resolution with extremely high and low aerosol concentrations. An additional pair of simulations has been performed at a convection-permitting resolution (3.3 km) to examine these effects without the use of parameterized convection. While the reduced radiative flux due to the direct effects of the aerosols is already known to reduce precipitation amounts, there is still no general agreement on the sign and magnitude of the aerosol indirect forcing effect on precipitation, with various processes competing with each other. Although some processes tend to enhance precipitation amounts, some others tend to reduce them. In these simulations, increased aerosol loads lead to weaker precipitation in the parameterized (low-resolution) configuration. The fact that a similar result is obtained for a selected area in the convection-permitting (high-resolution) configuration allows for physical interpretations. By examining the key variables in the model outputs, we propose a causal chain that links the aerosol

  19. Direct and indirect genetic effects of sex-specific mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immonen, Elina; Collet, Marie; Goenaga, Julieta

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are involved in ageing and their function requires coordinated action of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Epistasis between the two genomes can influence lifespan but whether this also holds for reproductive senescence is unclear. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria predicts sex...... to slower senescence relative to novel mitonuclear combinations. We found no evidence for mitonuclear coadaptation in males. Mitonuclear epistasis not only affected age-specific ejaculate weight, but also influenced male age-dependent indirect effects on traits expressed by their female partners (fecundity...... beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using introgression lines harbouring distinct mitonuclear genotypes. Our results reveal both direct and indirect sex-specific effects of mitonuclear epistasis on reproductive ageing. Females harbouring coadapted mitonuclear genotypes showed higher lifetime fecundity due...

  20. The direct and indirect CO_2 rebound effect for private cars in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yue-Jun; Liu, Zhao; Qin, Chang-Xiong; Tan, Tai-De

    2017-01-01

    The quantity of China's private cars has increased dramatically in the past decade, which has become one of the key sources of carbon emission and air pollution in the cities of China. In theory, to improve energy efficiency can reduce carbon emission significantly, but the result may be affected by the rebound effect. This paper utilizes a two-stage Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) model to estimate the total CO_2 rebound effect for China's private cars during 2001–2012 at the provincial level, then uses a panel data model to analyze its impact factors. The results suggest that, first of all, the CO_2 emissions of private cars have the super conservation effect, partial rebound effect and backfire effect among provinces in China. And the direct CO_2 rebound effect plays a dominant role in the total CO_2 rebound effect in most provinces. Second, the total CO_2 rebound effect of private cars among China's provinces presents an overall convergence trend over time. Finally, the household expenditure and the population density have a negative and positive influence on the total CO_2 rebound effect for China's private cars, respectively. - Highlights: • Private cars have become the key source of carbon emission in China. • This paper employs a two-stage Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) model • The direct and indirect CO_2 rebound effects for China's private cars are estimated. • The direct CO_2 rebound effect plays a dominant role in the total CO_2 rebound effect in most provinces. • The total CO_2 rebound effect among China's provinces has a convergence over time.

  1. Mediation misgivings: ambiguous clinical and public health interpretations of natural direct and indirect effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Ashley I; Kaufman, Jay S; MacLehose, Richard F

    2014-10-01

    Recent methodological innovation is giving rise to an increasing number of applied papers in medical and epidemiological journals in which natural direct and indirect effects are estimated. However, there is a longstanding debate on whether such effects are relevant targets of inference in population health. In light of the repeated calls for a more pragmatic and consequential epidemiology, we review three issues often raised in this debate: (i) the use of composite cross-world counterfactuals and the need for cross-world independence assumptions; (ii) interventional vs non-interventional identifiability; and (iii) the interpretational ambiguity of natural direct and indirect effect estimates. We use potential outcomes notation and directed acyclic graphs to explain 'cross-world' assumptions, illustrate implications of this assumption via regression models and discuss ensuing issues of interpretation. We argue that the debate on the relevance of natural direct and indirect effects rests on whether one takes as a target of inference the mathematical object per se, or the change in the world that the mathematical object represents. We further note that public health questions may be better served by estimating controlled direct effects. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  2. A Simple Model of Global Aerosol Indirect Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghan, Steven J.; Smith, Steven J.; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Kai; Pringle, Kirsty; Carslaw, Kenneth; Pierce, Jeffrey; Bauer, Susanne; Adams, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Most estimates of the global mean indirect effect of anthropogenic aerosol on the Earth's energy balance are from simulations by global models of the aerosol lifecycle coupled with global models of clouds and the hydrologic cycle. Extremely simple models have been developed for integrated assessment models, but lack the flexibility to distinguish between primary and secondary sources of aerosol. Here a simple but more physically based model expresses the aerosol indirect effect (AIE) using analytic representations of cloud and aerosol distributions and processes. Although the simple model is able to produce estimates of AIEs that are comparable to those from some global aerosol models using the same global mean aerosol properties, the estimates by the simple model are sensitive to preindustrial cloud condensation nuclei concentration, preindustrial accumulation mode radius, width of the accumulation mode, size of primary particles, cloud thickness, primary and secondary anthropogenic emissions, the fraction of the secondary anthropogenic emissions that accumulates on the coarse mode, the fraction of the secondary mass that forms new particles, and the sensitivity of liquid water path to droplet number concentration. Estimates of present-day AIEs as low as 5 W/sq m and as high as 0.3 W/sq m are obtained for plausible sets of parameter values. Estimates are surprisingly linear in emissions. The estimates depend on parameter values in ways that are consistent with results from detailed global aerosol-climate simulation models, which adds to understanding of the dependence on AIE uncertainty on uncertainty in parameter values.

  3. Negative affect mediates effects of psychological stress on disordered eating in young Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in young Chinese women. METHODOLOGY: A total of 245 young Chinese policewomen employed to carry out health and safety checks at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo were recruited in this study. The Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10, Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26 were administered to all participants. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The total scores of PSS-10, BDI-II and BAI were all highly correlated with that of EAT-26. The PSS-10 score significantly correlated with both BDI-II and BAI scores. There was no statistically significant direct effect from perceived stress to disordered eating (-0.012, 95%CI: -.038~0.006, p=0.357, however, the indirect effects from PSS-10 via affect factors were statistically significant, e.g. the estimated mediation effects from PSS to EAT-26 via depression and anxiety were 0.036 (95%CI: 0.022~0.044, p<0.001 and 0.015 (95%CI: 0.005~0.023, p<0.01, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived stress and negative affects of depression and anxiety were demonstrated to be strongly associated with disordered eating. Negative affect mediated the relationship between perceived stress and disordered eating. The findings suggest that effective interventions and preventative programmes for disordered eating should pay more attention to depression and anxiety among the young Chinese female population.

  4. Resource-Mediated Indirect Effects of Grassland Management on Arthropod Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Nadja K.; Gossner, Martin M.; Lewinsohn, Thomas M.; Boch, Steffen; Lange, Markus; Müller, Jörg; Pašalić, Esther; Socher, Stephanie A.; Türke, Manfred; Fischer, Markus; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2014-01-01

    Intensive land use is a driving force for biodiversity decline in many ecosystems. In semi-natural grasslands, land-use activities such as mowing, grazing and fertilization affect the diversity of plants and arthropods, but the combined effects of different drivers and the chain of effects are largely unknown. In this study we used structural equation modelling to analyse how the arthropod communities in managed grasslands respond to land use and whether these responses are mediated through changes in resource diversity or resource quantity (biomass). Plants were considered resources for herbivores which themselves were considered resources for predators. Plant and arthropod (herbivores and predators) communities were sampled on 141 meadows, pastures and mown pastures within three regions in Germany in 2008 and 2009. Increasing land-use intensity generally increased plant biomass and decreased plant diversity, mainly through increasing fertilization. Herbivore diversity decreased together with plant diversity but showed no response to changes in plant biomass. Hence, land-use effects on herbivore diversity were mediated through resource diversity rather than quantity. Land-use effects on predator diversity were mediated by both herbivore diversity (resource diversity) and herbivore quantity (herbivore biomass), but indirect effects through resource quantity were stronger. Our findings highlight the importance of assessing both direct and indirect effects of land-use intensity and mode on different trophic levels. In addition to the overall effects, there were subtle differences between the different regions, pointing to the importance of regional land-use specificities. Our study underlines the commonly observed strong effect of grassland land use on biodiversity. It also highlights that mechanistic approaches help us to understand how different land-use modes affect biodiversity. PMID:25188423

  5. Direct and indirect effects of radiation on polar solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, V.G.; Gaponova, I.S.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation-chemical decomposition of a solute is due to the direct effect of ionizing radiation on it and also to its reaction with radical-ion products of radiolysis of the solution. At low temperature, the movement of the reagents is limited, and thus it is possible to isolate and evaluate the contribution of direct and indirect effects of radiation on the solute. The present paper is devoted to an investigation of the mechanism of formation of radicals from a solute (LiNO 2 ) in a polar solid solution (CH 3 OH) under the effect of γ-radiation

  6. Indirect carotid cavernous fistula mimicking ocular myasthenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishangthem, Lakshmi; Satti, Sudhakar Reddy

    2017-10-19

    71-year-old woman with progressive left-sided, monocular diplopia and ptosis. Her symptoms mimicked ocular myasthenia, but she had an indirect carotid cavernous fistula (CCF). She was diagnosed with monocular myasthenia gravis (negative acetylcholinesterase antibody) after a positive ice test and started on Mestinon and underwent a thymectomy complicated by a brachial plexus injury. Months later, she developed left-sided proptosis and ocular bruit. She was urgently referred to neuro-interventional surgery and was diagnosed with an indirect high-flow left CCF, which was treated with Onyx liquid and platinum coil embolisation. Mestinon was discontinued. Her ophthalmic symptoms resolved. However, she was left with a residual left arm and hand hemiparesis and dysmetria secondary to a brachial plexus injury. Indirect CCF usually can present with subtle and progressive symptoms leading to delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. It is important for ophthalmologists to consider this differential in a patient with progressive ocular symptoms. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Estimation of the Treatment Effects of Ownership on the Indirect Financing of Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are the important driving forces for the growth of China’s economy. However, financing difficulty has always been the important problem besetting the development of SMEs for a long time. In particular, in recent years, US subprime crisis in 2008 caused a heavy blow to the development of some externally oriented SMEs. Thus, how to effectively overcome financing predicament for the SMEs is crucial for Chinese government. In this paper, based on microdata from China Industrial Enterprise Database, propensity score matching (PSM method is adopted to conduct empirical analysis about the treatment effects of indirect financing level of SMEs under different systems. Empirical results reveal that state-owned enterprises enjoy indirect financing advantages compared with other enterprises and there is certain ownership discrimination against foreign-funded enterprises and private enterprises. In particular, the indirect financing rate of state-owned enterprises is 1.4% higher than that of other enterprises, and the indirect financing rate of foreign-funded enterprises is 6% lower than that of other enterprises; private enterprises are advantageous in indirect financing compared with other enterprises; however, indirect financing rate of private enterprises is 1.8% lower than that of state-owned enterprises, which also reveals ownership discrimination to certain extent.

  8. Submerged macrophytes mitigate direct and indirect insecticide effects in freshwater communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how ecological interactions mitigate the impacts of perturbations such as pesticides in biological communities is an important basic and applied question for ecologists. In aquatic ecosystems, new evidence from microcosm experiments suggests that submerged macrophytes can buffer cladocerans from pulse exposures to the widely used insecticide malathion, and that mitigation increases with macrophyte density. However, whether these results scale up to more complex aquatic communities where ecological interactions such as competition can alter toxicity is unknown. Further, macrophyte abilities to mitigate different insecticide exposure scenarios (i.e. single versus repeated pulses) have never been tested. To address these gaps, we performed a factorial mesocosm experiment examining the influence of four macrophyte treatments (0, 10, 50, or 100 Elodea Canadensis shoots planted per mesocosm) crossed with three malathion exposure scenarios (no insecticide, single pulse, repeated pulses) on aquatic communities containing zooplankton, phytoplankton, periphyton, two snail species, and larval amphibians. In the absence of macrophytes, single malathion pulses caused short-term declines in cladoceran abundance followed by their rapid recovery, which precluded any indirect effects (i.e. trophic cascades). However, repeated malathion pulses caused cladoceran extinctions, resulting in persistent phytoplankton blooms and reduced abundance of one snail species. In contrast, with macrophytes present, even at low density, malathion had no effect on any taxa. We also discovered novel effects of macrophytes on the benthic food web. In the two highest macrophyte treatments, we observed trends of reduced periphyton biomass, decreased abundance of one snail species, and decreased amphibian time to and mass at metamorphosis. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of negative submerged macrophyte effects on amphibians, a taxa of global conservation concern. Our findings

  9. Submerged Macrophytes Mitigate Direct and Indirect Insecticide Effects in Freshwater Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, William R.; Relyea, Rick A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how ecological interactions mitigate the impacts of perturbations such as pesticides in biological communities is an important basic and applied question for ecologists. In aquatic ecosystems, new evidence from microcosm experiments suggests that submerged macrophytes can buffer cladocerans from pulse exposures to the widely used insecticide malathion, and that mitigation increases with macrophyte density. However, whether these results scale up to more complex aquatic communities where ecological interactions such as competition can alter toxicity is unknown. Further, macrophyte abilities to mitigate different insecticide exposure scenarios (i.e. single versus repeated pulses) have never been tested. To address these gaps, we performed a factorial mesocosm experiment examining the influence of four macrophyte treatments (0, 10, 50, or 100 Elodea Canadensis shoots planted per mesocosm) crossed with three malathion exposure scenarios (no insecticide, single pulse, repeated pulses) on aquatic communities containing zooplankton, phytoplankton, periphyton, two snail species, and larval amphibians. In the absence of macrophytes, single malathion pulses caused short-term declines in cladoceran abundance followed by their rapid recovery, which precluded any indirect effects (i.e. trophic cascades). However, repeated malathion pulses caused cladoceran extinctions, resulting in persistent phytoplankton blooms and reduced abundance of one snail species. In contrast, with macrophytes present, even at low density, malathion had no effect on any taxa. We also discovered novel effects of macrophytes on the benthic food web. In the two highest macrophyte treatments, we observed trends of reduced periphyton biomass, decreased abundance of one snail species, and decreased amphibian time to and mass at metamorphosis. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of negative submerged macrophyte effects on amphibians, a taxa of global conservation concern. Our findings

  10. Submerged macrophytes mitigate direct and indirect insecticide effects in freshwater communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R Brogan

    Full Text Available Understanding how ecological interactions mitigate the impacts of perturbations such as pesticides in biological communities is an important basic and applied question for ecologists. In aquatic ecosystems, new evidence from microcosm experiments suggests that submerged macrophytes can buffer cladocerans from pulse exposures to the widely used insecticide malathion, and that mitigation increases with macrophyte density. However, whether these results scale up to more complex aquatic communities where ecological interactions such as competition can alter toxicity is unknown. Further, macrophyte abilities to mitigate different insecticide exposure scenarios (i.e. single versus repeated pulses have never been tested. To address these gaps, we performed a factorial mesocosm experiment examining the influence of four macrophyte treatments (0, 10, 50, or 100 Elodea Canadensis shoots planted per mesocosm crossed with three malathion exposure scenarios (no insecticide, single pulse, repeated pulses on aquatic communities containing zooplankton, phytoplankton, periphyton, two snail species, and larval amphibians. In the absence of macrophytes, single malathion pulses caused short-term declines in cladoceran abundance followed by their rapid recovery, which precluded any indirect effects (i.e. trophic cascades. However, repeated malathion pulses caused cladoceran extinctions, resulting in persistent phytoplankton blooms and reduced abundance of one snail species. In contrast, with macrophytes present, even at low density, malathion had no effect on any taxa. We also discovered novel effects of macrophytes on the benthic food web. In the two highest macrophyte treatments, we observed trends of reduced periphyton biomass, decreased abundance of one snail species, and decreased amphibian time to and mass at metamorphosis. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of negative submerged macrophyte effects on amphibians, a taxa of global conservation concern

  11. The association between reality-based beliefs and indirectly experienced traumatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Shimon; Wexler, Isaiah D; Schwartz, Isabella; Kadari, Michal; Kreitler, Shulamith

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the association between belief types and the magnitude of indirect traumatization. Specific types of beliefs were defined in terms of the cognitive orientation theory, which is a cognitive-motivational approach to the understanding, predicting, and changing of behaviors. Belief types that were analyzed included beliefs about self, general beliefs, beliefs about norms, and goal beliefs as they relate to personal growth. Study participants included 38 rescuers (body handlers), 37 nurses, and 31 rehabilitation workers who treated injured civilians that had been exposed to politically motivated violence. The Cognitive Orientation for Posttraumatic Growth Scale was used to assess beliefs about personal growth. The Revised Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Inventory was administered to evaluate indirect traumatization. The results indicate that three of the four belief types related to personal growth were associated with the level of indirect traumatization. Optimistic and positive beliefs about self and general beliefs were associated with a lower level of indirect traumatization symptomatology, suggesting that these types of beliefs may counteract indirect traumatization. On the other hand, stronger goal beliefs were associated with greater indirect traumatization. The negative association between positive goal beliefs and indirect trauma may be related to the gap the individual perceives between the hoped-for ideals and the trauma-stricken reality. These results indicate the importance of cognitive beliefs and their possible role in determining the response to indirect traumatization.

  12. Direct and indirect effects of light pollution on the performance of an herbivorous insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenis, Kylee; Murphy, Shannon M

    2018-02-09

    Light pollution is a global disturbance with resounding impacts on a wide variety of organisms, but our understanding of these impacts is restricted to relatively few higher vertebrate species. We tested the direct effects of light pollution on herbivore performance as well as indirect effects mediated by host plant quality. We found that artificial light from streetlights alters plant toughness. Additionally, we found evidence of both direct and indirect effects of light pollution on the performance of an herbivorous insect, which indicates that streetlights can have cascading impacts on multiple trophic levels. Our novel findings suggest that light pollution can alter plant-insect interactions and thus may have important community-wide consequences. © 2018 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Indirect effects of recreation on wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole; Peter B. Landres

    1995-01-01

    Most of this book focuses on direct impacts to wildlife that result from contact with people. The purpose of our chapter is to provide a broad overview of the indirect influences that recreation has on wildlife. Recreational activities can change the habitat of an animal. This, in turn, affects the behavior, survival, reproduction, and distribution of individuals....

  14. The Peculiar Negative Greenhouse Effect Over Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejas, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Cai, M.

    2017-12-01

    Greenhouse gases warm the climate system by reducing the energy loss to space through the greenhouse effect. Thus, a common way to measure the strength of the greenhouse effect is by taking the difference between the surface longwave (LW) emission and the outgoing LW radiation. Based on this definition, a paradoxical negative greenhouse effect is found over the Antarctic Plateau, which suprisingly indicates that greenhouse gases enhance energy loss to space. Using 13 years of NASA satellite observations, we verify the existence of the negative greenhouse effect and find that the magnitude and sign of the greenhouse effect varies seasonally and spectrally. A previous explanation attributes the negative greenhouse effect solely to stratospheric CO2 and warmer than surface stratospheric temperatures. However, we surprisingly find that the negative greenhouse effect is predominantly caused by tropospheric water vapor. A novel principle-based explanation provides the first complete account of the Antarctic Plateau's negative greenhouse effect indicating that it is controlled by the vertical variation of temperature and greenhouse gas absorption strength. Our findings indicate that the strong surface-based temperature inversion and scarcity of free tropospheric water vapor over the Antarctic Plateau cause the negative greenhouse effect. These are climatological features uniquely found in the Antarctic Plateau region, explaining why the greenhouse effect is positive everywhere else.

  15. Living in a noisy world: indirect effects of noise on animal communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naguib, M.

    2013-01-01

    Noise is a ubiquitous feature in natural as well as in urban habitats. The presence of noise can have multiple direct and indirect effects on communication. Noise can directly mask signals leading to reduced detection and recognition. Noise also affects internal physiological processes which can

  16. Mycorrhizal associations of trees have different indirect effects on organic matter decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanie K. Taylor; Richard A. Lankau; Nina Wurzburger; Franciska de Vries

    2016-01-01

    1. Organic matter decomposition is the main process by which carbon (C) is lost from terrestrialecosystems, and mycorrhizal associations of plants (i.e. arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) and ectomycorrhizas(ECM)) may have different indirect effects on this loss pathway. AM and ECM plants differin the soil...

  17. Development of indirect sandwich ELISA for determination of excretory-secretory antigens of Fasciola hepatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libertad Alzamora-Gonzales

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a cosmopolitan parasitosis medical-veterinary importance caused by Fasciola hepatica, which affects sheep, goats and cattle; and it affects man accidentally causing an epidemic-endemic infection difficult to diagnose. The aim was to develop an indirect sandwich ELISA with 3 antibodies for detecting excretory-secretory antigens of Fasciola hepatica (ESFh. For the development of indirect sandwich ELISA were used, as capture antibody, mouse polyclonal antibodies anti ESFh and polyclonal antibodies rabbit anti-ESFh as detection antibody, at the concentrations of 10 and 5 µg/mL respectively. The conjugate used was mouse monoclonal anti- total immunoglobulins rabbit linked to peroxidase (1/1000. Were analized 31 sheep fecal samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by direct coproparasitological examination (DC and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP. The detection limit obtained for indirect sandwich ELISA was 100 ng/mL. The test had a 100% sensitivity, 96.6% specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 50% and 96.6% respectively, in relation to DC test. Comparing with CIEP the specificity obtained for indirect sandwich ELISA was 93.5% and a negative predictive value of 100%. We concluded that indirect sandwich ELISA designed is able to detect metabolic antigens in ovine feces samples and can be used for Fasciola hepatica diagnosis.

  18. Direct and indirect effects of climate change on the risk of infection by water-transmitted pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterk, Ankie; Schijven, Jack; de Nijs, Ton; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2013-11-19

    Climate change is likely to affect the infectious disease burden from exposure to pathogens in water used for drinking and recreation. Effective intervention measures require quantification of impacts of climate change on the distribution of pathogens in the environment and their potential effects on human health. Objectives of this systematic review were to summarize current knowledge available to estimate how climate change may directly and indirectly affect infection risks due to Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, norovirus, and Vibrio. Secondary objectives were to prioritize natural processes and interactions that are susceptible to climate change and to identify knowledge gaps. Search strategies were determined based on a conceptual model and scenarios with the main emphasis on The Netherlands. The literature search resulted in a large quantity of publications on climate variables affecting pathogen input and behavior in aquatic environments. However, not all processes and pathogens are evenly covered by the literature, and in many cases, the direction of change is still unclear. To make useful predictions of climate change, it is necessary to combine both negative and positive effects. This review provides an overview of the most important effects of climate change on human health and shows the importance of QMRA to quantify the net effects.

  19. Indirect wrist MR arthrography: the effects of passive motion versus active exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, M.E.; Natale, P.; Winalski, C.S.; Culp, R. [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Purpose. In the wrist, to determine whether passive motion or active exercise yields a better indirect MR arthrographic effect following intravenous gadolinium administration.Design and patients. Twenty-six consecutive patients were studied by indirect wrist MR arthrography. In half active exercise and in half passive motion was performed. Four regions of interest were studied including the distal radioulnar joint, the radiocarpal joint, the midcarpal joint, and the triangular fibrocartilage. Ranges and means of signal intensity were calculated. Surgical follow-up was performed in 22 patients.Results. The joint fluid intensity was greatest in the distal radioulnar joint. Fluid signal intensity was greater and more consistent in the passive motion group although the results did not achieve statistical significance. Imaging accuracy appeared similar in the two groups and was excellent for the triangular fibrocartilage (100%) and scapholunate ligaments (96%).Conclusion. Active exercise and passive motion yield similar degrees of wrist arthrographic effect, but the effect of passive motion is somewhat more consistent. Preliminary data show good accuracy for internal derangements. (orig.)

  20. Study of Mechanisms of Aerosol Indirect Effects on Glaciated Clouds: Progress during the Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Vaughan T. J.

    2013-10-18

    This 3-year project has studied how aerosol pollution influences glaciated clouds. The tool applied has been an 'aerosol-cloud model'. It is a type of Cloud-System Resolving Model (CSRM) modified to include 2-moment bulk microphysics and 7 aerosol species, as described by Phillips et al. (2009, 2013). The study has been done by, first, improving the model and then performing sensitivity studies with validated simulations of a couple of observed cases from ARM. These are namely the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) over the tropical west Pacific and the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) over Oklahoma. During the project, sensitivity tests with the model showed that in continental clouds, extra liquid aerosols (soluble aerosol material) from pollution inhibited warm rain processes for precipitation production. This promoted homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets and aerosols. Mass and number concentrations of cloud-ice particles were boosted. The mean sizes of cloud-ice particles were reduced by the pollution. Hence, the lifetime of glaciated clouds, especially ice-only clouds, was augmented due to inhibition of sedimentation and ice-ice aggregation. Latent heat released from extra homogeneous freezing invigorated convective updrafts, and raised their maximum cloud-tops, when aerosol pollution was included. In the particular cases simulated in the project, the aerosol indirect effect of glaciated clouds was twice than of (warm) water clouds. This was because glaciated clouds are higher in the troposphere than water clouds and have the first interaction with incoming solar radiation. Ice-only clouds caused solar cooling by becoming more extensive as a result of aerosol pollution. This 'lifetime indirect effect' of ice-only clouds was due to higher numbers of homogeneously nucleated ice crystals causing a reduction in their mean size, slowing the ice-crystal process of snow production and slowing

  1. Nuclear famine: The indirect effects of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwell, M.A.; Harwell, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    The indirect effects of a nuclear war, especially as mediated by disruption in food availability, could be much more extensive than the direct effects. Furthermore, this risk is especially severe for noncombatant countries - for the 4 billion or so humans expected to survive the immediate period after a nuclear war relatively physically unharmed. Thus, a fundamentally different picture of the post-nuclear-war world results, where a large-scale nuclear war between the United States and the Soviet Union would probably result in more eventual fatalities in India than in the United States and the Soviet Union combined, and more people would die on the African continent than in all of Europe. Rather than reflecting images of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a modern nuclear war would, for most of the people of the world, much more resemble current images of Ethiopia and the Sudan

  2. Direct and Indirect Effects of Climate Change on Amphibian Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Blaustein, Andrew R.; Walls, Susan C.; Bancroft, Betsy A.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Searle, Catherine L.; Gervasi, Stephanie S.

    2010-01-01

    As part of an overall decline in biodiversity, populations of many organisms are declining and species are being lost at unprecedented rates around the world. This includes many populations and species of amphibians. Although numerous factors are affecting amphibian populations, we show potential direct and indirect effects of climate change on amphibians at the individual, population and community level. Shifts in amphibian ranges are predicted. Changes in climate may affect survival, growth...

  3. Analyzing indirect effects in cluster randomized trials. The effect of estimation method, number of groups and group sizes on accuracy and power.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joop eHox

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cluster randomized trials assess the effect of an intervention that is carried out at the group or cluster level. Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour is often used to model the effect of the intervention as an indirect effect mediated in turn by attitude, norms and behavioural intention. Structural equation modelling (SEM is the technique of choice to estimate indirect effects and their significance. However, this is a large sample technique, and its application in a cluster randomized trial assumes a relatively large number of clusters. In practice, the number of clusters in these studies tends to be relatively small, e.g. much less than fifty. This study uses simulation methods to find the lowest number of clusters needed when multilevel SEM is used to estimate the indirect effect. Maximum likelihood estimation is compared to Bayesian analysis, with the central quality criteria being accuracy of the point estimate and the confidence interval. We also investigate the power of the test for the indirect effect. We conclude that Bayes estimation works well with much smaller cluster level sample sizes such as 20 cases than maximum likelihood estimation; although the bias is larger the coverage is much better. When only 5 to 10 clusters are available per treatment condition even with Bayesian estimation problems occur.

  4. Calculation and decomposition of indirect carbon emissions from residential consumption in China based on the input–output model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Qin; Peng Xizhe; Wu Kaiya

    2012-01-01

    Based on the input–output model and the comparable price input–output tables, the current paper investigates the indirect carbon emissions from residential consumption in China in 1992–2005, and examines the impacts on the emissions using the structural decomposition method. The results demonstrate that the rise of the residential consumption level played a dominant role in the growth of residential indirect emissions. The persistent decline of the carbon emission intensity of industrial sectors presented a significant negative effect on the emissions. The change in the intermediate demand of industrial sectors resulted in an overall positive effect, except in the initial years. The increase in population prompted the indirect emissions to a certain extent; however, population size is no longer the main reason for the growth of the emissions. The change in the consumption structure showed a weak positive effect, demonstrating the importance for China to control and slow down the increase in the emissions while in the process of optimizing the residential consumption structure. The results imply that the means for restructuring the economy and improving efficiency, rather than for lowering the consumption scale, should be adopted by China to achieve the targets of energy conservation and emission reduction. - Highlights: ► We build the input–output model of indirect carbon emissions from residential consumption. ► We calculate the indirect emissions using the comparable price input–output tables. ► We examine the impacts on the indirect emissions using the structural decomposition method. ► The change in the consumption structure showed a weak positive effect on the emissions. ► China's population size is no longer the main reason for the growth of the emissions.

  5. The direct and indirect effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide and nutrients on Chironomidae (Diptera) emerging from small wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Leanne F; Mudge, Joseph F; Houlahan, Jeff E; Thompson, Dean G; Kidd, Karen A

    2014-09-01

    Laboratory and mesocosm experiments have demonstrated that some glyphosate-based herbicides can have negative effects on benthic invertebrate species. Although these herbicides are among the most widely used in agriculture, there have been few multiple-stressor, natural system-based investigations of the impacts of glyphosate-based herbicides in combination with fertilizers on the emergence patterns of chironomids from wetlands. Using a replicated, split-wetland experiment, the authors examined the effects of 2 nominal concentrations (2.88 mg acid equivalents/L and 0.21 mg acid equivalents/L) of the glyphosate herbicide Roundup WeatherMax, alone or in combination with nutrient additions, on the emergence of Chironomidae (Diptera) before and after herbicide-induced damage to macrophytes. There were no direct effects of treatment on the structure of the Chironomidae community or on the overall emergence rates. However, after macrophyte cover declined as a result of herbicide application, there were statistically significant increases in emergence in all but the highest herbicide treatment, which had also received no nutrients. There was a negative relationship between chironomid abundance and macrophyte cover on the treated sides of wetlands. Fertilizer application did not appear to compound the effects of the herbicide treatments. Although direct toxicity of Roundup WeatherMax was not apparent, the authors observed longer-term impacts, suggesting that the indirect effects of this herbicide deserve more consideration when assessing the ecological risk of using herbicides in proximity to wetlands. © 2014 SETAC.

  6. Mechanisms of poliovirus inactivation by the direct and indirect effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This study was designed to measure the effects of ionizing radiation on poliovirus particles when given under conditions where either direct (in broth) or indirect (in water) effects were predominant. Under direct conditions, inactivation of poliovirus was found to be due primarily to RNA damage, although capsid damage could account for about one-third of the viral inactivation. RNA damage did not appear to be due to strand breakage and therefore was probably caused primarily by base damage or crosslink formation. Capsid damage under direct irradiation conditions did not result in significant alterations of either the sedimentation coefficients or the isoelectric points of the poliovirus particles or detectable modification of the sizes of the viral proteins. It did, however, cause loss of availability to bind to host cells. Under indirect conditions no more than 25% of viral inactivation appeared to be due to RNA damage. However, the sedimentation coefficients and isoelectric points of the viral particles were greatly altered, and their abilities to bind to cells were lost at about three-fourths the rate of loss of infectivity. Capsid damage in this case did result in changes in the sizes of capsid proteins. Therefore, the majority of the radiation inactivation under indirect conditions appeared to be due to protein damage

  7. Positive smoking outcome expectancies mediate the association between negative affect and smoking urge among women during a quit attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Lam, Cho Y; Chen, Minxing; Adams, Claire E; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Stewart, Diana W; McClure, Jennifer B; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2014-08-01

    Ecological momentary assessment was used to examine associations between negative affect, positive smoking outcome expectancies, and smoking urge during the first 7 days of a smoking quit attempt. Participants were 302 female smokers who enrolled in an individually tailored smoking cessation treatment study. Multilevel mediation analysis was used to examine the temporal relationship among the following: (a) the effects of negative affect and positive smoking outcome expectancies at 1 assessment point (e.g., time j) on smoking urge at the subsequent time point (e.g., time j + 1) in Model 1; and, (b) the effects of negative affect and smoking urge at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 in Model 2. The results from Model 1 showed a statistically significant effect of negative affect at time j on smoking urge at time j + 1, and this effect was mediated by positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j, both within- and between-participants. In Model 2, the within-participant indirect effect of negative affect at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 through smoking urge at time j was nonsignificant. However, a statistically significant indirect between-participants effect was found in Model 2. The findings support the hypothesis that urge and positive smoking outcome expectancies increase as a function of negative affect, and suggest a stronger effect of expectancies on urge as opposed to the effect of urge on expectancies.

  8. Evidence of direct and indirect rebound effect in households in EU-27 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire-González, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    This research estimates the direct and indirect rebound effect of energy efficiency in households for the EU-27 countries (the first twenty-seven Member States of the European Union). A hybrid methodology that combines econometric estimates, environmental extended input-output analysis and re-spending models has been developed. Although most of the economies present values below 100%, there are seven countries situated above this critical threshold. By weighting individual estimates by GDP, an average value for the overall EU-27 economy has been found between 73.62% and 81.16%. These results suggest that the energy policy at the European level should be rethought if efficiency measures pursue reducing energy consumption and tackling climate change. - Highlights: • Empirical evidence of direct and indirect rebound effect is provided for EU-27. • Most economies have a rebound effect below the threshold of 100% (20 of them). • Additional energy efficiency measures are needed even with low direct rebounds.

  9. Indirect Effects of Extracurricular Participation on Academic Adjustment via Perceived Friends’ Prosocial Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jan N.; Cao, Qian; Kwok, Oi-man

    2016-01-01

    Students who participate in extracurricular activities in middle school exhibit higher levels of academic motivation and achievement, including graduation from high school. However, the mechanisms responsible for these beneficial effects are poorly understood. Guided by the bioecological models of development, this study tested the indirect effects of participation in grade 8 in school sports or performance arts and clubs on grade 9 academic achievement, academic competence beliefs, and school belonging, via adolescents’ perceptions of their friends’ prosocial norms. Participants were 495 (45% female) ethnically diverse students (mean age at grade 8 = 13.9 years; SD =.58) who were recruited into a longitudinal study on the basis of below average literacy in grade 1. Using weighted propensity score analyses to control for potential confounders, results of longitudinal SEM found indirect effect of participation in sports, but not of participation in performance arts and clubs, on grade 9 outcomes noted above. Implications of findings for improving educational attainment of at-risk youth are discussed. PMID:27299761

  10. and Indigenous Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna S. Agasthya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most important reemerging zoonoses in many countries. Brucellosis is caused by Gram-negative coccobacillus belonging to genus Brucella. Human brucellosis often makes the diagnosis difficult. The symptoms and clinical signs most commonly reported are fever, fatigue, malaise, chills, sweats headaches, myalgia, arthralgia, and weight loss. Some cases have been presented with only joint pain, lower backache, and involuntary limb movement, burning feet, or ischemic heart attacks. The focus of this work was to develop a highly sensitive and specific indirect ELISA by using smooth lipopolysaccharide antigen of Brucella abortus 99 to detect anti-Brucella antibodies at Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance. Serum samples collected from 652 individuals in whom fever was not the major symptom but the complaint was of joint pain, headache, lower backache, and so forth, were screened by Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBPT and standard tube agglutination test (STAT. Subsequent testing of sera by indigenous indirect ELISA detected 20 samples positive (3.6% seroprevalence, and indirect ELISA was found to be more sensitive than RBPT and STAT. The seroprevalence in South Karnataka was 2.14%, and in North Karnataka it was 0.92%.

  11. Linking masculinity to negative drinking consequences: the mediating roles of heavy episodic drinking and alcohol expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Samantha; Flynn, Andrea; Tremblay, Paul F; Dumas, Tara; Miller, Peter; Graham, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    This study extends previous research on masculinity and negative drinking consequences among young men by considering mediating effects of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol expectancies. We hypothesized that masculinity would have a direct relationship with negative consequences from drinking as well as indirect relationships mediated by HED and alcohol expectancies of courage, risk, and aggression. A random sample of 1,436 college and university men ages 19-25 years completed an online survey, including conformity to masculine norms, alcohol-related expectancies, HED, and negative drinking consequences. Regression analyses and structural equation modeling were used. Six of seven dimensions of masculinity and the alcohol expectancy scales were significantly associated with both HED and negative consequences. In multivariate regression models predicting HED and negative consequences, the playboy and violence dimensions of masculinity and the risk/aggression alcohol expectancy remained significant. HED and the risk-taking dimension of masculinity were also significant in the model predicting negative consequences. The structural equation model indicated that masculinity was directly associated with HED and negative consequences but also influenced negative consequences indirectly through HED and alcohol expectancies. The findings suggest that, among young adult male college and university students, masculinity is an important factor related to both HED and drinking consequences, with the latter effect partly mediated by HED and alcohol expectancies. Addressing male norms about masculinity may help to reduce HED and negative consequences from drinking.

  12. Direct and indirect land use changes issues in European sustainability initiatives: State-of-the-art, open issues and future developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Stappen, Florence; Brose, Isabelle; Schenkel, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Facing climate change and growing energy prices, the use of bioenergy is continuously increasing in order to diminish greenhouse gas emissions, secure energy supply and create employment in rural areas. Because the production of biomass or biofuels, wherever it takes place, comes along with externalities, positive or negative, the need for biomass and bioenergy sustainability criteria is more than ever felt. Research on sustainability criteria and certification systems has started through several national and international initiatives. Considering the benefits of an increased use of bioenergy but also the urge for limiting potential negative environmental and socio-economic impacts, the aim of these initiatives was to make the first move regarding bioenergy sustainability, while waiting for the European legislation to regulate this crucial issue. Land use changes, whether direct or indirect, are one of the most important consequences of bioenergy production. While direct land use changes are more easily assessed locally, indirect land use changes exceed the company level and need to be considered at a global scale. Methodologies for dealing with direct and indirect land use changes are proposed among others in the European, Dutch, British and German sustainability initiatives. This paper aims at presenting and comparing those four European initiatives, with a focus on their propositions for direct and indirect land use changes assessment. Key issues are discussed and recommendations are made for steps to overcome identified difficulties in accurately assessing the effects of indirect land use change due to bioenergy production.

  13. Posttraumatic stress symptoms and tobacco abstinence effects in a non-clinical sample: evaluating the mediating role of negative affect reduction smoking expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Kirsten J; Leventhal, Adam M

    2014-11-01

    The relation between posttraumatic stress symptoms and smoking is well documented but poorly understood. The present investigation sought to evaluate the impact of posttraumatic stress symptoms on subjective and behavioral tobacco abstinence effects both directly and indirectly through negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies. Participants included 275 (68.7% male; Mage =43.9, 10+ cig/day) adult non-treatment seeking smokers, who attended two counterbalanced laboratory sessions (16 h of smoking deprivation vs ad libitum smoking), during which they completed self-report measures of withdrawal symptoms and mood followed by a smoking lapse task in which they could earn money for delaying smoking and purchase cigarettes to smoke. Results supported a mediational pathway whereby higher baseline symptoms of posttraumatic stress predicted greater endorsement of expectancies that smoking will effectively reduce negative affect, which in turn predicted greater abstinence-provoked exacerbations in nicotine withdrawal symptoms and negative affect. Posttraumatic stress symptoms also predicted number of cigarettes purchased independent of negative affect reduction expectancies, but did not predict delaying smoking for money. Findings highlight tobacco abstinence effects as a putative mechanism underlying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-smoking comorbidity, indicate an important mediating role of beliefs for smoking-induced negative affect reduction, and shed light on integrated treatment approaches for these two conditions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. INDIRECT UPSTREAM EFFECTS OF DAMS: CONSEQUENCES OF MIGRATORY CONSUMER EXTIRPATION IN PUERTO RICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    EFFIE A. GREATHOUSE; CATHERINE M. PRINGLE; WILLIAM H. MCDOWELL; JEFF G. HOLMQUIST

    2006-01-01

    Large dams degrade the integrity of a wide variety of ecosystems, yet direct downstream effects of dams have received the most attention from ecosystem managers and researchers. We investigated indirect upstream effects of dams resulting from decimation of migratory freshwater shrimp and fish populations in Puerto Rico, USA, in both high- and low-gradient streams. In...

  15. Living up to expectations: Estimating direct and indirect rebound effects for UK households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitnis, Mona; Sorrell, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This study estimates the combined direct and indirect rebound effects from various types of energy efficiency improvement by UK households. In contrast to most studies of this topic, we base our estimates on cross-price elasticities and therefore capture both the income and substitution effects of energy efficiency improvements. Our approach involves estimating a household demand model to obtain price and expenditure elasticities of different goods and services, utilising a multiregional input–output model to estimate the GHG emission intensities of those goods and services, combining the two to estimate direct and indirect rebound effects, and decomposing those effects to reveal the relative contribution of different mechanisms and commodities. We estimate that the total rebound effects are 41% for measures that improve the efficiency of domestic gas use, 48% for electricity use and 78% for vehicle fuel use. The primary source of this rebound is increased consumption of the cheaper energy service (i.e. direct rebound) and this is primarily driven by substitution effects. Our results suggest that the neglect of substitution effects may have led prior research to underestimate the total rebound effect. However, we provide a number of caveats to this conclusion, as well as indicating priorities for future research.

  16. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Smith, David; Reed-Tsochas, Felix

    2010-10-27

    Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating) does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  17. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Saavedra

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  18. Direct and indirect effects of metal contamination on soil biota in a Zn-Pb post-mining and smelting area (S Poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapusta, Pawel; Szarek-Lukaszewska, Grazyna; Stefanowicz, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of metal contamination on soil biota activity were investigated at 43 sites in 5 different habitats (defined by substratum and vegetation type) in a post-mining area. Sites were characterised in terms of soil pH and texture, nutrient status, total and exchangeable metal concentrations, as well as plant species richness and cover, abundances of enchytraeids, nematodes and tardigrades, and microbial respiration and biomass. The concentrations of total trace metals were highest in soils developed on mining waste (metal-rich dolomite), but these habitats were more attractive than sandy sites for plants and soil biota because of their higher content of organic matter, clay and nutrients. Soil mesofauna and microbes were strongly dependent on natural habitat properties. Pollution (exchangeable Zn and Cd) negatively affected only enchytraeid density; due to a positive relationship between enchytraeids and microbes it indirectly reduced microbial activity. - Highlights: → Bioavailable zinc and cadmium reduce enchytraeid density. → Enchytraeids positively influence microbial respiration and biomass. → Total contents of heavy metals in soil are poor predictors of the distribution of plants and soil biota. - Elevated concentrations of exchangeable Zn and Cd reduce enchytraeid density and indirectly affect microbial activity adversely.

  19. Direct and indirect effects of metal contamination on soil biota in a Zn-Pb post-mining and smelting area (S Poland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapusta, Pawel, E-mail: p.kapusta@botany.pl [Department of Ecology, W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lubicz 46, 31-512 Krakow (Poland); Szarek-Lukaszewska, Grazyna; Stefanowicz, Anna M. [Department of Ecology, W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lubicz 46, 31-512 Krakow (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    Effects of metal contamination on soil biota activity were investigated at 43 sites in 5 different habitats (defined by substratum and vegetation type) in a post-mining area. Sites were characterised in terms of soil pH and texture, nutrient status, total and exchangeable metal concentrations, as well as plant species richness and cover, abundances of enchytraeids, nematodes and tardigrades, and microbial respiration and biomass. The concentrations of total trace metals were highest in soils developed on mining waste (metal-rich dolomite), but these habitats were more attractive than sandy sites for plants and soil biota because of their higher content of organic matter, clay and nutrients. Soil mesofauna and microbes were strongly dependent on natural habitat properties. Pollution (exchangeable Zn and Cd) negatively affected only enchytraeid density; due to a positive relationship between enchytraeids and microbes it indirectly reduced microbial activity. - Highlights: > Bioavailable zinc and cadmium reduce enchytraeid density. > Enchytraeids positively influence microbial respiration and biomass. > Total contents of heavy metals in soil are poor predictors of the distribution of plants and soil biota. - Elevated concentrations of exchangeable Zn and Cd reduce enchytraeid density and indirectly affect microbial activity adversely.

  20. Indirect Reciprocity; A Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Apeldoorn, Jacobien; Schram, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity involves cooperative acts towards strangers, either in response to their kindness to third parties (downstream) or after receiving kindness from others oneself (upstream). It is considered to be important for the evolution of cooperative behavior amongst humans. Though it has been widely studied theoretically, the empirical evidence of indirect reciprocity has thus far been limited and based solely on behavior in laboratory experiments. We provide evidence from an online environment where members can repeatedly ask and offer services to each other, free of charge. For the purpose of this study we created several new member profiles, which differ only in terms of their serving history. We then sent out a large number of service requests to different members from all over the world. We observe that a service request is more likely to be rewarded for those with a profile history of offering the service (to third parties) in the past. This provides clear evidence of (downstream) indirect reciprocity. We find no support for upstream indirect reciprocity (in this case, rewarding the service request after having previously received the service from third parties), however. Our evidence of downstream indirect reciprocity cannot be attributed to reputational effects concerning one's trustworthiness as a service user.

  1. Direct and Indirect Effects of Tofacitinib on Treatment Satisfaction in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panés, Julian; Su, Chinyu; Bushmakin, Andrew G; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Healey, Paul

    2016-11-01

    This mediation modelling analysis evaluated direct and indirect effects of tofacitinib, an oral, small molecule Janus kinase inhibitor under investigation for ulcerative colitis, on patient treatment satisfaction. Data from an 8-week randomized Phase 2 trial [NCT00787202] in adults with moderate-to-severe, active ulcerative colitis receiving twice-daily tofacitinib 0.5-15mg [n=146] or placebo [n=48] were analysed in patient-reported [n=149] and clinician-reported [n=170] outcomes-based mediation models. Binary predictor variable: Treatment [pooled active treatment vs placebo]. Eventual dependent variable: Week 8 patient treatment satisfaction [measured on a five-point Likert scale]. Mediators of treatment effect on satisfaction: Week 8 Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire domains [Bowel Symptoms, Emotional Health, Social Function and Systemic Symptoms] and Mayo scale domains [Stool Frequency, Rectal Bleeding, Physician's Global Assessment and Endoscopic Disease Activity] for patient-reported and clinician-reported models, respectively. Overall tofacitinib indirect effect on satisfaction via Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire domains was 40.5% [ptofacitinib effect on satisfaction, 32.4% [p=0.05] was indirectly mediated via Bowel Symptoms; and 30.0% [p=0.04] via Stool Frequency. In total, 59.5% [ptofacitinib's effect on satisfaction was unrelated to Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire and Mayo scale domains in the patient-reported and clinician-reported models, respectively. Bowel function is an important factor for patient treatment satisfaction with tofacitinib. Treatment effect on patient satisfaction was almost completely mediated via improvement in Mayo scale domains. Copyright © 2016 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Assessing Natural Direct and Indirect Effects Through Multiple Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, T; Rasmussen, M; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2014-01-01

    . The approach is an extension of the natural effect models proposed by Lange et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176(3):190-195). By allowing the analysis of distinct multiple pathways, the suggested approach adds to the capabilities of modern mediation techniques. Furthermore, the approach can be implemented using......Within the fields of epidemiology, interventions research and social sciences researchers are often faced with the challenge of decomposing the effect of an exposure into different causal pathways working through defined mediator variables. The goal of such analyses is often to understand...... the mechanisms of the system or to suggest possible interventions. The case of a single mediator, thus implying only 2 causal pathways (direct and indirect) from exposure to outcome, has been extensively studied. By using the framework of counterfactual variables, researchers have established theoretical...

  3. The Refugees: Threatening or Beneficial? Exploring the Effects of Positive and Negative Attitudes and Communication on Hostile Media Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Arlt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the actual debate on refugees in Germany the media’s role was heavily disputed. To understand this controversy, this study examines hostile media perceptions from the audience perspective. Building up on previous research on the hostile media phenomenon and considering literature on pro- and anti-immigrant attitudes, this study explores the effect of positive and negative attitudes towards refugees as well as of mainstream media, social media and interpersonal communication on hostile media perceptions. Using survey data (N=1005 and applying structural equation modelling, several hypotheses on the effects of attitudes and communication variables were tested. The results demonstrate that perceptions of media bias are strongly influenced by people’s negative and positive attitudes towards refugees and the basic hostile media hypothesis was confirmed. Moreover, our findings reveal that the perceived intensity of media coverage on contested aspects of the refugee issue also has an effect on perceptions of hostility. However, the various communication variables did not prove to have direct effects, whereas mainstream media use, social media use, and interpersonal communication with refugees had indirect effects on the hostile media perception.

  4. New Modeling Approaches to Study DNA Damage by the Direct and Indirect Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    DNA is damaged both by the direct and indirect effects of radiation. In the direct effect, the DNA itself is ionized, whereas the indirect effect involves the radiolysis of the water molecules surrounding the DNA and the subsequent reaction of the DNA with radical products. While this problem has been studied for many years, many unknowns still exist. To study this problem, we have developed the computer code RITRACKS [1], which simulates the radiation track structure for heavy ions and electrons, calculating all energy deposition events and the coordinates of all species produced by the water radiolysis. In this work, we plan to simulate DNA damage by using the crystal structure of a nucleosome and calculations performed by RITRACKS. The energy deposition events are used to calculate the dose deposited in nanovolumes [2] and therefore can be used to simulate the direct effect of the radiation. Using the positions of the radiolytic species with a radiation chemistry code [3] it will be possible to simulate DNA damage by indirect effect. The simulation results can be compared with results from previous calculations such as the frequencies of simple and complex strand breaks [4] and with newer experimental data using surrogate markers of DNA double ]strand breaks such as . ]H2AX foci [5].

  5. Climate change has indirect effects on resource use and overlap among coexisting bird species with negative consequences for their reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Sonya K; Martin, Thomas E

    2013-02-01

    Climate change can modify ecological interactions, but whether it can have cascading effects throughout ecological networks of multiple interacting species remains poorly studied. Climate-driven alterations in the intensity of plant-herbivore interactions may have particularly profound effects on the larger community because plants provide habitat for a wide diversity of organisms. Here we show that changes in vegetation over the last 21 years, due to climate effects on plant-herbivore interactions, have consequences for songbird nest site overlap and breeding success. Browsing-induced reductions in the availability of preferred nesting sites for two of three ground nesting songbirds led to increasing overlap in nest site characteristics among all three bird species with increasingly negative consequences for reproductive success over the long term. These results demonstrate that changes in the vegetation community from effects of climate change on plant-herbivore interactions can cause subtle shifts in ecological interactions that have critical demographic ramifications for other species in the larger community. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Climate change has indirect effects on resource use and overlap among coexisting bird species with negative consequences for their reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Auer, Sonya K.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change can modify ecological interactions, but whether it can have cascading effects throughout ecological networks of multiple interacting species remains poorly studied. Climate-driven alterations in the intensity of plant–herbivore interactions may have particularly profound effects on the larger community because plants provide habitat for a wide diversity of organisms. Here we show that changes in vegetation over the last 21 years, due to climate effects on plant–herbivore interactions, have consequences for songbird nest site overlap and breeding success. Browsing-induced reductions in the availability of preferred nesting sites for two of three ground nesting songbirds led to increasing overlap in nest site characteristics among all three bird species with increasingly negative consequences for reproductive success over the long term. These results demonstrate that changes in the vegetation community from effects of climate change on plant–herbivore interactions can cause subtle shifts in ecological interactions that have critical demographic ramifications for other species in the larger community.

  7. Direct and Indirect Effects of Parenting and Children's Goals on Child Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidgerken, Amanda D.; Hughes, Jan N.; Cavell, Timothy A.; Willson, Victor L.

    2004-01-01

    This study tested a dual-mediation model of the relations among harsh parenting, hostile social information processing, and level of child aggression in a sample of 239 (150 male, 89 female) 2nd- to 4th-grade children. The theoretical model posited that harsh parenting has both direct and indirect effects on child level of aggression, with the…

  8. Indirect pulp capping in primary molar using glass ionomer cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtia Metalita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indirect pulp capping in primary teeth, however, is more rarely conducted than permanent teeth, since it thought to have low impact and most suggestion is for taking caries lesion aggressively on primary teeth. Purpose: The study was aimed to evaluate the subjective complaint, clinical symptom, and radiographic appearance of indirect pulp capping treatment using glass ionomers cements in primary molar. Methods: Sixteen children in range of age 6 to 8 years old, who visited Clinic of Pediatric Dentistry Universitas Airlangga Dental Hospital, Surabaya Indonesia, were the subject of study. They had one occlusal dental caries on one side of maxillary or mandibular primary molar with the diagnose of pulpitis reversible. The experimental group, had indirect pulp capping treatment with glass ionomer cements (GC Fuji VII®, while the control group, had indirect pulp capping treatment with calcium hydroxide (Metapaste. Each group was filled with GC Fuji IX® as permanent restoration. After one week, one month, and three months later, the observations were made on subjective complaint, clinical symptom, and radiographic appearance. Results: The results showed no subjective complaint such as pain or problem on mastication; no negative clinical symptoms such as pain on palpation, gingivitis or periodontitis, and abnormal tooth mobility; no negative radiographic appearance such as pathological apical radioluscency, internal or external resorbtion, and change of ligament periodontal widthafter the treatment. Conclusion: The study suggested that indirect pulp capping treatment using glass ionomer cement materials on primary teeth might be considered to be the treatment choice.Latar belakang: Indirect pulp capping pada gigi sulung lebih jarang dilakukan dibandingkan gigi permanen, karena dianggap memiliki dampak yang rendah dan sebagian besar menyarankan untuk mengambil lesi karies secara agresif pada gigi sulung. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan

  9. Fiscal policy and TFP in the OECD: Measuring direct and indirect effects

    OpenAIRE

    Everaert, Gerdie; Heylen, Freddy; Schoonackers, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the direct and indirect effects of fiscal policy on total factor productivity (TFP) in a panel of OECD countries over the period 1970-2012. Our contribution is twofold. First, when estimating the impact of fiscal policy on TFP from a production function approach, we identify the worldwide available level of technology by exploiting the observed strong cross-sectional dependence between countries instead of using ad hoc proxies for technology. Second, next to direct effects...

  10. Comparative Effects of Biomass Pre-Treatments for Direct and Indirect Transesterification to Enhance Microalgal Lipid Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi Naghdi, Forough; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Durairatnam, Reuben; Pratt, Steven; Schenk, Peer M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgal lipid recovery for biodiesel production is currently considered suboptimal, but pre-treatment of algal biomass, the use of solvent mixtures and the positioning of transesterification can lead to increased yields. Here, the effect of various reportedly successful pre-treatments and solvent mixtures were directly compared to each other and combined with direct and indirect transesterification methods using the oleaginous microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. Microwave and thermal pre-treatments were applied and the total lipid and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) recoveries were investigated. The application of pre-treatments increased FAME recovery through indirect transesterification when a Soxhlet system was used but they had no significant effect for direct transesterification. Gravimetric analyses of total lipids revealed that lipid recovery was highest when utilizing the chloroform-based Bligh and Dyer extraction method; however, FAME yield was the highest when applying a Soxhlet system utilizing a solvent mixture of hexane–ethanol (3:1). Total lipid recovery did not necessarily correlate with the recovery of FAMEs. The highest FAME recovery was achieved from thermal or microwave pre-treated biomass followed by indirect transesterification through Soxhlet extraction. FAME recovery could be more than doubled (increase of up to 171%) under these conditions. We conclude that a simple thermal pre-treatment (80°C for 10 min) in combination with solvent mixture extraction through indirect transesterification may present a cost-effective and scalable option for large-scale lipid extraction from microalgae.

  11. Siblings' Perceptions of Differential Treatment, Fairness, and Jealousy and Adolescent Adjustment: A Moderated Indirect Effects Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeser, Meghan K; Whiteman, Shawn D; McHale, Susan M

    2016-08-01

    Youth's perception of parents' differential treatment (PDT) are associated with maladjustment during adolescence. Although the direct relations between PDT and youth's maladjustment have been well established, the mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. We addressed this gap by examining whether sibling jealousy accounted for the links between PDT and youth's depressive symptoms, self-worth, and risky behaviors. Additionally, we examined whether youth's perceptions of fairness regarding their treatment as well as the gender constellation of the dyad moderated these indirect relations (i.e., moderated-indirect effects). Participants were first- and second-born adolescent siblings ( M = 15.96, SD = .72 years for older siblings, M = 13.48, SD = 1.02 years for younger siblings) and their parents from 197 working and middle class European American families. Data were collected via home interviews. A series of Conditional Process Analyses revealed significant indirect effects of PDT through sibling jealousy to all three adjustment outcomes. Furthermore, perceptions of fairness moderated the relations between PDT and jealousy, such that the indirect effects were only significant at low (-1 SD ) and average levels of fairness. At high levels of fairness (+1 SD ) there was no association between PDT, jealousy, and youth adjustment. Taken together, results indicate that youth and parents would benefit from engaging in clear communication regarding the reasoning for the occurrence of differential treatment, likely maximizing youth and parent perceptions of that treatment as being fair, and in turn mitigating sibling jealousy and maladjustment.

  12. Siblings’ Perceptions of Differential Treatment, Fairness, and Jealousy and Adolescent Adjustment: A Moderated Indirect Effects Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeser, Meghan K.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Youth's perception of parents’ differential treatment (PDT) are associated with maladjustment during adolescence. Although the direct relations between PDT and youth's maladjustment have been well established, the mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. We addressed this gap by examining whether sibling jealousy accounted for the links between PDT and youth's depressive symptoms, self-worth, and risky behaviors. Additionally, we examined whether youth's perceptions of fairness regarding their treatment as well as the gender constellation of the dyad moderated these indirect relations (i.e., moderated-indirect effects). Participants were first- and second-born adolescent siblings (M = 15.96, SD = .72 years for older siblings, M = 13.48, SD = 1.02 years for younger siblings) and their parents from 197 working and middle class European American families. Data were collected via home interviews. A series of Conditional Process Analyses revealed significant indirect effects of PDT through sibling jealousy to all three adjustment outcomes. Furthermore, perceptions of fairness moderated the relations between PDT and jealousy, such that the indirect effects were only significant at low (−1 SD) and average levels of fairness. At high levels of fairness (+1 SD) there was no association between PDT, jealousy, and youth adjustment. Taken together, results indicate that youth and parents would benefit from engaging in clear communication regarding the reasoning for the occurrence of differential treatment, likely maximizing youth and parent perceptions of that treatment as being fair, and in turn mitigating sibling jealousy and maladjustment. PMID:27867295

  13. Comparative effects of biomass pre-treatments for direct and indirect transesterification to enhance microalgal lipid recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough eGhasemi Naghdi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal lipid recovery for biodiesel production is currently considered suboptimal, but pre-treatment of algal biomass, the use of solvent mixtures and the positioning of transesterification can lead to increased yields. Here, the effect of various reportedly successful pre-treatments and solvent mixtures were directly compared to each other and combined with direct and indirect transesterification methods using the oleaginous microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. Microwave and thermal pre-treatments were applied and the total lipid and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME recoveries were investigated. The application of pre-treatments increased FAME recovery through indirect transesterification when a Soxhlet system was used but they had no significant effect for direct transesterification. Gravimetric analyses of total lipids revealed that lipid recovery was highest when utilizing the chloroform-based Bligh and Dyer extraction method; however FAME yield was the highest when applying a Soxhlet system utilizing a solvent mixture of hexane-ethanol (3:1. Total lipid recovery did not necessarily correlate with the recovery of FAMEs. The highest FAME recovery was achieved from thermal or microwave pre-treated biomass followed by indirect transesterification through Soxhlet extraction. FAME recovery could be more than doubled (increase of up to 171% under these conditions. We conclude that a simple thermal pre-treatment (80°C for 10 min in combination with solvent mixture extraction through indirect transesterification may present a cost-effective and scalable option for large-scale lipid extraction from microalgae.

  14. Comparative Effects of Biomass Pre-Treatments for Direct and Indirect Transesterification to Enhance Microalgal Lipid Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemi Naghdi, Forough; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Durairatnam, Reuben [Algae Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Pratt, Steven [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Schenk, Peer M., E-mail: p.schenk@uq.edu.au [Algae Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)

    2014-12-04

    Microalgal lipid recovery for biodiesel production is currently considered suboptimal, but pre-treatment of algal biomass, the use of solvent mixtures and the positioning of transesterification can lead to increased yields. Here, the effect of various reportedly successful pre-treatments and solvent mixtures were directly compared to each other and combined with direct and indirect transesterification methods using the oleaginous microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. Microwave and thermal pre-treatments were applied and the total lipid and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) recoveries were investigated. The application of pre-treatments increased FAME recovery through indirect transesterification when a Soxhlet system was used but they had no significant effect for direct transesterification. Gravimetric analyses of total lipids revealed that lipid recovery was highest when utilizing the chloroform-based Bligh and Dyer extraction method; however, FAME yield was the highest when applying a Soxhlet system utilizing a solvent mixture of hexane–ethanol (3:1). Total lipid recovery did not necessarily correlate with the recovery of FAMEs. The highest FAME recovery was achieved from thermal or microwave pre-treated biomass followed by indirect transesterification through Soxhlet extraction. FAME recovery could be more than doubled (increase of up to 171%) under these conditions. We conclude that a simple thermal pre-treatment (80°C for 10 min) in combination with solvent mixture extraction through indirect transesterification may present a cost-effective and scalable option for large-scale lipid extraction from microalgae.

  15. Two facets of stress and indirect effects on child diet through emotion-driven eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Eleanor B; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pickering, Trevor A; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2015-08-01

    Stress has been associated with high-calorie, low-nutrient food intake (HCLN) and emotion-driven eating (EDE). However, effects on healthy food intake remain unknown. This study examined two facets of stress (self-efficacy, perceived helplessness) and food consumption, mediated by EDE. Cross-sectional data from fourth-graders (n=978; 52% female, 28% Hispanic) in an obesity intervention used self-report to assess self-efficacy, helplessness, EDE, fruit/vegetable (FV) intake, and high-calorie/low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Higher stress self-efficacy was associated with higher FV intake, β=.354, pstress perceived helplessness had an indirect effect on HCLN intake through emotion-driven eating, indirect effect=.094, pStress self-efficacy may be more important for healthy food intake and perceived helplessness may indicate emotion-driven eating and unhealthy snack food intake. Obesity prevention programs may consider teaching stress management techniques to avoid emotion-driven eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anxiety Sensitivity and Pre-Cessation Smoking Processes: Testing the Independent and Combined Mediating Effects of Negative Affect–Reduction Expectancies and Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Schmidt, Norman B.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Anxiety sensitivity appears to be relevant in understanding the nature of emotional symptoms and disorders associated with smoking. Negative-reinforcement smoking expectancies and motives are implicated as core regulatory processes that may explain, in part, the anxiety sensitivity–smoking interrelations; however, these pathways have received little empirical attention. Method: Participants (N = 471) were adult treatment-seeking daily smokers assessed for a smoking-cessation trial who provided baseline data; 157 participants provided within-treatment (pre-cessation) data. Anxiety sensitivity was examined as a cross-sectional predictor of several baseline smoking processes (nicotine dependence, perceived barriers to cessation, severity of prior withdrawal-related quit problems) and pre-cessation processes including nicotine withdrawal and smoking urges (assessed during 3 weeks before the quit day). Baseline negative-reinforcement smoking expectancies and motives were tested as simultaneous mediators via parallel multiple mediator models. Results: Higher levels of anxiety sensitivity were related to higher levels of nicotine dependence, greater perceived barriers to smoking cessation, more severe withdrawal-related problems during prior quit attempts, and greater average withdrawal before the quit day; effects were indirectly explained by the combination of both mediators. Higher levels of anxiety sensitivity were not directly related to pre-cessation smoking urges but were indirectly related through the independent and combined effects of the mediators. Conclusions: These empirical findings bolster theoretical models of anxiety sensitivity and smoking and identify targets for nicotine dependence etiology research and cessation interventions. PMID:25785807

  17. Changes in the North Sea fish community: evidence of indirect effects of fishing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, N.; Gislason, H.; Pope, J.G.; Rice, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate changes in the North Sea fish community with particular reference to possible indirect effects of fishing, mediated through the ecosystem. In the past, long-term changes in the slope of size spectra of research vessel catches have been related to changes in fishing effort, but such

  18. Differential profiles of direct and indirect modification of vector feeding behaviour by a plant virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen-Bo; Li, Jie; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2015-01-08

    Plant viruses interact with their insect vectors directly and indirectly via host plants, and this tripartite interaction may produce fitness benefits to both the vectors and the viruses. Our previous studies show that the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex improved its performance on tobacco plants infected by the Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV), which it transmits, although virus infection of the whitefly per se reduced its performance. Here, we use electrical penetration graph recording to investigate the direct and indirect effects of TYLCCNV on the feeding behaviour of MEAM1. When feeding on either cotton, a non-host of TYLCCNV, or uninfected tobacco, a host of TYLCCNV, virus-infection of the whiteflies impeded their feeding. Interestingly, when viruliferous whiteflies fed on virus-infected tobacco, their feeding activities were no longer negatively affected; instead, the virus promoted whitefly behaviour related to rapid and effective sap ingestion. Our findings show differential profiles of direct and indirect modification of vector feeding behaviour by a plant virus, and help to unravel the behavioural mechanisms underlying a mutualistic relationship between an insect vector and a plant virus that also has features reminiscent of an insect pathogen.

  19. Indirect effects of conservation policies on the coupled human-natural ecosystem of the upper Gulf of California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hem Nalini Morzaria-Luna

    Full Text Available High bycatch of non-target species and species of conservation concern often drives the implementation of fisheries policies. However, species- or fishery-specific policies may lead to indirect consequences, positive or negative, for other species or fisheries. We use an Atlantis ecosystem model of the Northern Gulf of California to evaluate the effects of fisheries policies directed at reducing bycatch of vaquita (Phocoena sinus on other species of conservation concern, priority target species, and metrics of ecosystem function and structure. Vaquita, a Critically Endangered porpoise endemic to the Upper Gulf of California, are frequently entangled by finfish gillnets and shrimp driftnets. We tested five fishery management scenarios, projected over 30 years (2008 to 2038, directed at vaquita conservation. The scenarios consider progressively larger spatial restrictions for finfish gillnets and shrimp driftnets. The most restrictive scenario resulted in the highest biomass of species of conservation concern; the scenario without any conservation measures in place resulted in the lowest. Vaquita experienced the largest population increase of any functional group; their biomass increased 2.7 times relative to initial (2008 levels under the most restrictive spatial closure scenario. Bycatch of sea lions, sea turtles, and totoaba decreased > 80% in shrimp driftnets and at least 20% in finfish gillnet fleets under spatial management. We found indirect effects on species and ecosystem function and structure as a result of vaquita management actions. Biomass and catch of forage fish declined, which could affect lower-trophic level fisheries, while other species such as skates, rays, and sharks increased in both biomass and catch. When comparing across performance metrics, we found that scenarios that increased ecosystem function and structure resulted in lower economic performance indicators, underscoring the need for management actions that consider

  20. Precise computation of the direct and indirect topographic effects of Helmert's 2nd method of condensation using SRTM30 digital elevation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The direct topographic effect (DTE) and indirect topographic effect (ITE) of Helmert's 2nd method of condensation are computed using the digital elevation model (DEM) SRTM30 in 30 arc-seconds globally. The computations assume a constant density of the topographic masses. Closed formulas are used in the inner zone of half degree, and Nagy's formulas are used in the innermost column to treat the singularity of integrals. To speed up the computations, 1-dimensional fast Fourier transform (1D FFT) is applied in outer zone computations. The computation accuracy is limited to 0.1 mGal and 0.1cm for the direct and indirect effect, respectively. The mean value and standard deviation of the DTE are -0.8 and ±7.6 mGal over land areas. The extreme value -274.3 mGal is located at latitude -13.579° and longitude 289.496°, at the height of 1426 meter in the Andes Mountains. The ITE is negative everywhere and has its minimum of -235.9 cm at the peak of Himalayas (8685 meter). The standard deviation and mean value over land areas are ±15.6 cm and -6.4 cm, respectively. Because the Stokes kernel does not contain the zero and first degree spherical harmonics, the mean value of the ITE can't be compensated through the remove-restore procedure under the Stokes-Helmert scheme, and careful treatment of the mean value in the ITE is required.

  1. The role of negative affect and message credibility in perceived effectiveness of smokeless tobacco health warning labels in Navi Mumbai, India and Dhaka, Bangladesh: A moderated-mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti-Packer, Seema; Reid, Jessica L; Thrasher, James F; Romer, Daniel; Fong, Geoffrey T; Gupta, Prakash C; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Nargis, Nigar; Hammond, David

    2017-10-01

    There is strong evidence showing that pictorial health warnings are more effective than text-only warnings. However, much of this evidence comes from high-income countries and is limited to cigarette packaging. Moreover, few studies have identified mechanisms that might explain the impact of warnings. The current study examined the potential mediating role of negative affect and the moderating influence of message credibility in perceived effectiveness of smokeless tobacco warnings in two low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Field interviews were conducted in India and Bangladesh, with adult (19+ years) smokeless tobacco users (n=1053), and youth (16-18years) users (n=304) and non-users (n=687). Respondents were randomly assigned to view warnings in one of four conditions: (1) Text-only, (2) pictorial with symbolic imagery, (3) pictorial with graphic images of health effects, or (4) pictorial with personalized graphic images plus a personal testimonial. The findings provide support for the mediating influence of negative affect in perceived effectiveness, for adult and youth smokeless tobacco users who viewed pictorial warnings (vs. text-only), and graphic health warnings (vs. personal testimonials). Among adults, message credibility moderated the indirect effect; the association was stronger when credibility was high and weaker when it was low. Among youth users and non-users, message credibility did not moderate the indirect effect. Consistent with research from high-income countries, these findings highlight the importance of selecting imagery that will elicit negative emotional reactions and be perceived as credible. Differential effects among adults and youth highlight the importance of pre-testing images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of temperament in the changes of coping in Type 2 diabetes: direct and indirect relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroemeke Aleksandra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates whether the changes in cognitive appraisal and coping strategies related to initiation of insulin treatment onset mediate the effect of temperament on changes in positivity ratio among diabetic patients. Temperament, cognitive appraisal, coping strategies and positivity ratio (ratio of positive to negative affect were assessed among 278 patients: just before conversion to insulin therapy and then one month later. Mediation analysis indicated that endurance and briskness were directly connected to changes in positivity ratio, whilst the effect of perseveration on positivity ratio was indirect via changes in negative appraisal, emotion- and problem-focused coping. The results confirm the stressful nature of the initiation of insulin treatment, and the assumptions of Lazarus’ model of stress and regulative role of temperament.

  3. How do psychological factors influence adolescent smoking progression? The evidence for indirect effects through tobacco advertising receptivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Rodriguez, Daniel; Patel, Vaishali; Faith, Myles S; Rodgers, Kelli; Cuevas, Jocelyn

    2006-04-01

    To determine whether novelty seeking and depressive symptoms had mediated or indirect effects on adolescent smoking progression through tobacco advertising receptivity. More than 1000 adolescents were monitored from 9th grade to 12th grade and completed annual surveys that measured demographic characteristics, smoking behavior, tobacco advertising receptivity, novelty-seeking personality, depressive symptoms, family and peer smoking, alcohol use, and marijuana use. Latent growth modeling indicated that novelty seeking had a significant indirect effect on smoking progression through baseline tobacco advertising receptivity. For each 1-SD increase in novelty seeking, the odds of being more receptive to tobacco advertising increased by 12% (ie, being in a specific category or higher), which in turn resulted in an 11% increase in the odds of smoking progression from 9th grade to 12th grade. The indirect effect from depressive symptoms to smoking progression did not reach significance. These findings may inform future research on other factors that influence tobacco advertising receptivity, as well as programs aimed at preventing adolescent smoking initiation and progression.

  4. Examining the direct and indirect effects of visual-verbal paired associate learning on Chinese word reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George; Liu, Cuina; Xu, Shiyang

    2017-08-01

    Associative learning, traditionally measured with paired associate learning (PAL) tasks, has been found to predict reading ability in several languages. However, it remains unclear whether it also predicts word reading in Chinese, which is known for its ambiguous print-sound correspondences, and whether its effects are direct or indirect through the effects of other reading-related skills such as phonological awareness and rapid naming. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of visual-verbal PAL on word reading in an unselected sample of Chinese children followed from the second to the third kindergarten year. A sample of 141 second-year kindergarten children (71 girls and 70 boys; mean age=58.99months, SD=3.17) were followed for a year and were assessed at both times on measures of visual-verbal PAL, rapid naming, and phonological awareness. In the third kindergarten year, they were also assessed on word reading. The results of path analysis showed that visual-verbal PAL exerted a significant direct effect on word reading that was independent of the effects of phonological awareness and rapid naming. However, it also exerted significant indirect effects through phonological awareness. Taken together, these findings suggest that variations in cross-modal associative learning (as measured by visual-verbal PAL) place constraints on the development of word recognition skills irrespective of the characteristics of the orthography children are learning to read. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Indirect global warming effects of ozone and stratospheric water vapor induced by surface methane emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Grossman, A.S.; Tamaresis, J.S.; Patten, K.O. Jr.; Jain, A.; Grant, K.A.

    1994-07-01

    Methane has indirect effects on climate due to chemical interactions as well as direct radiative forcing effects as a greenhouse gas. We have calculated the indirect, time-varying tropospheric radiative forcing and GWP of O 3 and stratospheric H 2 O due to an impulse of CH 4 . This impulse, applied to the lowest layer of the atmosphere, is the increase of the atmospheric mass of CH 4 resulting from a 25 percent steady state increase in the current emissions as a function of latitude. The direct CH 4 radiative forcing and GWP are also calculated. The LLNL 2-D radiative-chemistry-transport model is used to evaluate the resulting changes in the O 3 , H 2 O and CH 4 atmospheric profiles as a function of time. A correlated k-distribution radiative transfer model is used to calculate the radiative forcing at the tropopause of the globally-averaged atmosphere profiles. The O 3 indirect GWPs vary from ∼27 after a 20 yr integration to ∼4 after 500 years, agreeing with the previous estimates to within about 10 percent. The H 2 O indirect GWPs vary from ∼2 after a 20 yr integration to ∼0.3 after 500 years, and are in close agreement with other estimates. The CH 4 GWPs vary from ∼53 at 20 yrs to ∼7 at 500 yrs. The 20 year CH 4 GWP is ∼20% larger than previous estimates of the direct CH 4 GWP due to a CH 4 response time (∼17 yrs) that is much longer than the overall lifetime (10 yrs). The increased CH 4 response time results from changes in the OH abundances caused by the CH 4 impulse. The CH 4 radiative forcing results are consistent with IPCC values. Estimates are made of latitude effects in the radiative forcing calculations, and UV effects on the O 3 radiative forcing calculations (10%)

  6. Sensitivity analysis for direct and indirect effects in the presence of exposure-induced mediator-outcome confounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Yasutaka

    2014-01-01

    Questions of mediation are often of interest in reasoning about mechanisms, and methods have been developed to address these questions. However, these methods make strong assumptions about the absence of confounding. Even if exposure is randomized, there may be mediator-outcome confounding variables. Inference about direct and indirect effects is particularly challenging if these mediator-outcome confounders are affected by the exposure because in this case these effects are not identified irrespective of whether data is available on these exposure-induced mediator-outcome confounders. In this paper, we provide a sensitivity analysis technique for natural direct and indirect effects that is applicable even if there are mediator-outcome confounders affected by the exposure. We give techniques for both the difference and risk ratio scales and compare the technique to other possible approaches. PMID:25580387

  7. Role of indirect radiation effects on cell membranes in the immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternglass, E.J.

    1976-01-01

    Recent work by Petkau indicates that, in sharp contrast to the case of damage to the genes, the doubling dose for indirect radiation damage to cell membranes decreases as the dose rate declines, apparently as the result of a free-radical-mediated oxidative reaction involving O 2 - . These findings explain the earlier results of Stokke, who observed significant declines in bone-marrow cellularity of the hematopoietic stem cells involved in the immune processes at dose rates below 10 -4 rad/min for total doses of only 0.1 to 2000 mrads, the doubling dose declining with total dose administered over periods of 6 to 18 weeks in a manner similar to that observed by Petkau. These observations, furthermore, explain the fact that erythrocyte permeability to monovalent cations can be significantly increased in occupationally exposed individuals at total doses of only 10 to 30 mR in 1 month, whereas thousands of rads are required at therapeutic dose rates. Evidence is presented suggesting the dominance of indirect, free-radical-mediated radiation effects over direct somatic mutation effects at background radiation rates on the development of cancer, leukemia, and infectious diseases from small radiation exposures encountered in the environment. The implications or the relative biological effect on the immune system of radiation at high and low dose rates are discussed

  8. Environmental impact assessment including indirect effects--a case study using input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenzen, Manfred; Murray, Shauna A.; Korte, Britta; Dey, Christopher J.

    2003-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a process covered by several international standards, dictating that as many environmental aspects as possible should be identified in a project appraisal. While the ISO 14011 standard stipulates a broad-ranging study, off-site, indirect impacts are not specifically required for an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The reasons for this may relate to the perceived difficulty of measuring off-site impacts, or the assumption that these are a relatively insignificant component of the total impact. In this work, we describe a method that uses input-output analysis to calculate the indirect effects of a development proposal in terms of several indicator variables. The results of our case study of a Second Sydney Airport show that the total impacts are considerably higher than the on-site impacts for the indicators land disturbance, greenhouse gas emissions, water use, emissions of NO x and SO 2 , and employment. We conclude that employing input-output analysis enhances conventional EIA, as it allows for national and international effects to be taken into account in the decision-making process

  9. Negative affect mediates effects of psychological stress on disordered eating in young Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jue; Wang, Zhen; Guo, Boliang; Arcelus, Jon; Zhang, Haiyin; Jia, Xiuzhen; Xu, Yong; Qiu, Jianyin; Xiao, Zeping; Yang, Min

    2012-01-01

    The bi-relationships between psychological stress, negative affect and disordered eating has been well studied in western culture, while tri-relationship among them, i.e. how some of those factors influence these bi-relationships, has rarely been studied. However, there has been little related study in the different Chinese culture. This study was conducted to investigate the bi-relationships and tri-relationship between psychological stress, negative affect, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in young Chinese women. A total of 245 young Chinese policewomen employed to carry out health and safety checks at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo were recruited in this study. The Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) were administered to all participants. The total scores of PSS-10, BDI-II and BAI were all highly correlated with that of EAT-26. The PSS-10 score significantly correlated with both BDI-II and BAI scores. There was no statistically significant direct effect from perceived stress to disordered eating (-0.012, 95%CI: -.038~0.006, p=0.357), however, the indirect effects from PSS-10 via affect factors were statistically significant, e.g. the estimated mediation effects from PSS to EAT-26 via depression and anxiety were 0.036 (95%CI: 0.022~0.044, peffective interventions and preventative programmes for disordered eating should pay more attention to depression and anxiety among the young Chinese female population.

  10. Supplementary feeding of wild birds indirectly affects ground beetle populations in suburban gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orros, Melanie E; Thomas, Rebecca L; Holloway, Graham J; Fellowes, Mark D E

    Supplementary feeding of wild birds by domestic garden-holders is a globally widespread and popular form of human-wildlife interaction, particularly in urban areas. Vast amounts of energy are thus being added to garden ecosystems. However, the potential indirect effects of this activity on non-avian species have been little studied to date, with the only two previous studies taking place under experimentally manipulated conditions. Here we present the first evidence of a localised depletive effect of wild bird feeding on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in suburban gardens under the usual feeding patterns of the garden-holders. We trapped significantly fewer ground beetles directly under bird-feeding stations than in matched areas of habitat away from feeders. Video analysis also revealed significantly higher activity by ground-foraging birds under the feeding stations than in the control areas. Small mammal trapping revealed no evidence that these species differ in abundance between gardens with and without bird feeders. We therefore suggest that local increases in ground-foraging activity by bird species whose diets encompass arthropods as well as seed material are responsible for the reduction in ground beetle numbers. Our work therefore illustrates that providing food for wild birds can have indirect negative effects on palatable prey species under typical conditions.

  11. Sensitivity studies of different aerosol indirect effects in mixed-phase clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, U.; Hoose, C.

    2009-11-01

    Aerosols affect the climate system by changing cloud characteristics. Using the global climate model ECHAM5-HAM, we investigate different aerosol effects on mixed-phase clouds: The glaciation effect, which refers to a more frequent glaciation due to anthropogenic aerosols, versus the de-activation effect, which suggests that ice nuclei become less effective because of an anthropogenic sulfate coating. The glaciation effect can partly offset the indirect aerosol effect on warm clouds and thus causes the total anthropogenic aerosol effect to be smaller. It is investigated by varying the parameterization for the Bergeron-Findeisen process and the threshold coating thickness of sulfate (SO4-crit), which is required to convert an externally mixed aerosol particle into an internally mixed particle. Differences in the net radiation at the top-of-the-atmosphere due to anthropogenic aerosols between the different sensitivity studies amount up to 0.5 W m-2. This suggests that the investigated mixed-phase processes have a major effect on the total anthropogenic aerosol effect.

  12. Epidemic spreading through direct and indirect interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Niloy; Krueger, Tyll; Mukherjee, Animesh; Saha, Sudipta

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we study the susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic dynamics, considering a specialized setting where popular places (termed passive entities) are visited by agents (termed active entities). We consider two types of spreading dynamics: direct spreading, where the active entities infect each other while visiting the passive entities, and indirect spreading, where the passive entities act as carriers and the infection is spread via them. We investigate in particular the effect of selection strategy, i.e., the way passive entities are chosen, in the spread of epidemics. We introduce a mathematical framework to study the effect of an arbitrary selection strategy and derive formulas for prevalence, extinction probabilities, and epidemic thresholds for both indirect and direct spreading. We also obtain a very simple relationship between the extinction probability and the prevalence. We pay special attention to preferential selection and derive exact formulas. The analysis reveals that an increase in the diversity in the selection process lowers the epidemic thresholds. Comparing the direct and indirect spreading, we identify regions in the parameter space where the prevalence of the indirect spreading is higher than the direct one.

  13. Hepatitis B Core Antigen in Hepatocytes of Chronic Hepatitis B: Comparison between Indirect Immunofluorescence and Immunoperoxidase Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Shahina; Al-Mahtab, Mamun; Nessa, Afzalun; Jahan, Munira; Shamim Kabir, Chowdhury Mohammad; Kamal, Mohammad; Cesar Aguilar, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has many faces. Precore and core promoter mutants resemble inactive carrier status. The identification of hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) in hepatocytes may have variable clinical significance. The present study was undertaken to detect HBcAg in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and to assess the efficacy of detection system by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and indirect immunoperoxidase (IIP). Materials and methods The study was done in 70 chronic HBV-infected patients. Out of 70 patients, eight (11.4%) were hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive and 62 (88.57%) were HBeAg negative. Hepatitis B core antigen was detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and indirect immunoperoxidase (IIP) methods in liver tissue. Results All HBeAg positive patients expressed HBcAg by both IIF and IIP methods. Out of 62 patients with HBeAg-negative CHB, HBcAg was detected by IIF in 55 (88.7%) patients and by IIP in 51 (82.26%) patients. A positive relation among viral load and HBcAg detection was also found. This was more evident in the case of HBeAg negative patients and showed a positive relation with HBV DNA levels. Conclusion Hepatitis B core antigen can be detected using the IIF from formalin fixed paraffin block preparation and also by IIP method. This seems to reflect the magnitudes of HBV replication in CHB. How to cite this article Raihan R, Tabassum S, Al-Mahtab M, Nessa A, Jahan M, Kabir CMS, Kamal M, Aguilar JC. Hepatitis B Core Antigen in Hepatocytes of Chronic Hepatitis B: Comparison between Indirect Immunofluorescence and Immunoperoxidase Method. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(1):7-10. PMID:29201677

  14. Corruption's effect on growth and its transmission channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellegrini, L.; Gerlagh, R.

    2004-01-01

    A common finding of recent theoretical and empirical literature is that corruption has a negative effect on economic growth. In the paper, through growth regression analysis, we estimate the direct and indirect effects of corruption on economic growth. The indirect transmission channels,

  15. Evaluating indirect and direct effects of eco-restoration policy on soil conservation service in Yangtze River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingqiao; Zheng, Hua; Rao, Enming; Xiao, Yi; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Li, Cong

    2018-08-01

    The conservation impacts of policies that promote large-scale ecological restoration of ecosystem services and socio-economic development are well documented around the world. However, the effect of socio-economic development resulting from such policies on ecosystem services is rarely analysed, although it is important to do so if these policies are to be sustainable. We analysed the socio-economic impacts of soil conservation services from 2000 to 2015 in the Yangtze River Basin under the Grain to Green Programme (GTGP). Also we assessed the driving forces behind the programme: conservation policies, urbanization, agricultural development, and population growth. Our results show that during 2000-2015, cultivated area decreased by 7.5%, urban area increased by 67.5%, forest area increased by 2.1%, and soil erosion was reduced by 19.5%. The programme not only contributed significantly to an improvement in soil conservation services but also enhanced them significantly through faster urbanization. Furthermore, vegetation cover and crop yields increased synergistically, mainly due to high-efficiency agriculture that reduced the negative effect of the GTGP on agricultural production. Overall determining the indirect and direct effects of the GTGP on soil conservation and agricultural production are important for furthering our understanding of the long-term effects of ecological restoration policies, and the present study offers practical insights for ecological restoration of other watersheds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of mechanisms for DNA strand break formation by the direct and indirect effect of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, D.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiation of cells may lead to mutations, reproductive cell death and the disappearance of some or all cell activities. These effects, especially reproductive cell death, are believed to be the result of damage to DNA. Two kinds of formation of DNA damage are often distinguished, the so-called ''direct'' and the ''indirect'' effect of irradiation. The direct effect is due to ionization or electronic excitation of the DNA, and the indirect effect is caused by reactive species, in most cases free radicals, which are produced in the vicinity of the DNA. These radicals may be primary radicals produced by energy absorption in water, i.e., the solvated electron, the H-atom and the OH radical, or organic radicals produced from organic material other than DNA either by interaction with radiation or by reaction with the primary radicals generated from water. 36 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  17. A Sorrow Halved? A Daily Diary Study on Talking About Experienced Workplace Incivility and Next-Morning Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremmel, Stephanie; Sonnentag, Sabine

    2017-08-31

    Incivility by coworkers and customers can have detrimental consequences for employees' affective well-being at work. However, little is known about whether incivility also impairs employees' affect at home and how long these negative effects may last. In this diary study, we examine whether incivility by coworkers and customers is related to next-morning negative affect via negative affect at the end of the workday and at bedtime, and investigate different modes of social sharing (i.e., conversations about experienced mistreatment) as day-level moderators of this relationship. Daily diary data collected over 10 workdays (N = 113 employees) revealed that coworker incivility was indirectly related to bedtime negative affect via negative affect at the end of the workday, and customer incivility was indirectly related to next-morning negative affect via negative affect at the end of the workday and at bedtime. Although we found no moderating effect for conversations in an affective sharing mode (i.e., conversation partners provide comfort and consolation), the relationship between workplace incivility and employees' negative affect was buffered by conversations in a cognitive sharing mode (i.e., conversation partners suggest alternative explanations or reappraisal of uncivil behavior). In line with social sharing theory, our results suggest that talking about experienced mistreatment can, under specific circumstances, offset the negative relationship of uncivil coworker and customer behavior and employees' negative affect. This study advances current research on workplace incivility by studying negative affect 3 times a day and thus sheds light on the mechanism connecting workplace incivility and employees' affective well-being at home. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Indirect effects of mutualism: ant-treehopper associations deter pollinators and reduce reproduction in a tropical shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Isassi, Javier; Oliveira, Paulo S

    2018-03-01

    Animal-pollinated plants can be susceptible to changes in pollinator availability. Honeydew-producing treehoppers frequently occur on inflorescences, potentially enhancing ant-mediated negative effects on pollination services. However, the effect of ant-attended, honeydew-producing insects on plant reproduction remains uncertain. We recorded the abundance of treehoppers and ants on Byrsonima intermedia (Malpighiaceae), and monitored floral visitors in a Brazilian cerrado savanna. We manipulated the presence of ants and ant-treehopper associations on inflorescences to assess their effect on pollination and fruit formation. We used dried ants pinned to inflorescences to evaluate the effect of ant presence and ant identity on potential pollinators. Results show that the presence of treehoppers increases ant abundance on flowers and disrupts pollination by oil-collecting bees, decreasing the frequency and duration of floral visits and reducing fruit and seed set. Treehopper herbivory has no direct effect on fruit or seed production, which are independent of treehopper density. Pinned ants promote avoidance by floral visitors, reducing the number of visits. Ant identity mediates visitation decisions, with Ectatomma brunneum causing greater avoidance by floral visitors than Camponotus rufipes. Field videos show that pollinating bees are harassed by ants near flowers, prompting avoidance behavior by the bees. This is the first demonstration of indirect effects by honeydew-gathering ants, via disrupted pollination, on plant reproduction in tropical cerrado savanna. Our results highlight the importance of studying other interactions near flowers, in addition to just observing pollinators, for a proper understanding of plant reproduction.

  19. Cloud Condensation Nuclei Prediction Error from Application of Kohler Theory: Importance for the Aerosol Indirect Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulou, Rafaella-Eleni P.; Nenes, Athanasios; Adams, Peter J.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2007-01-01

    In situ observations of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and the GISS GCM Model II' with an online aerosol simulation and explicit aerosol-cloud interactions are used to quantify the uncertainty in radiative forcing and autoconversion rate from application of Kohler theory. Simulations suggest that application of Koehler theory introduces a 10-20% uncertainty in global average indirect forcing and 2-11% uncertainty in autoconversion. Regionally, the uncertainty in indirect forcing ranges between 10-20%, and 5-50% for autoconversion. These results are insensitive to the range of updraft velocity and water vapor uptake coefficient considered. This study suggests that Koehler theory (as implemented in climate models) is not a significant source of uncertainty for aerosol indirect forcing but can be substantial for assessments of aerosol effects on the hydrological cycle in climatically sensitive regions of the globe. This implies that improvements in the representation of GCM subgrid processes and aerosol size distribution will mostly benefit indirect forcing assessments. Predictions of autoconversion, by nature, will be subject to considerable uncertainty; its reduction may require explicit representation of size-resolved aerosol composition and mixing state.

  20. The extrinsic affective Simon task as an instrument for indirect assessment of prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degner, J.; Wentura, D.

    2008-01-01

    We report one study that explored the applicability of the Extrinsic Affective Simon Task (EAST) as an indirect measure of prejudice. The EAST detected known differences in reactions revealing that a Turkish outgroup was spontaneously evaluated more negatively than the German ingroup. More

  1. The effects of psychotherapy treatment on outcome in bulimia nervosa: Examining indirect effects through emotion regulation, self-directed behavior, and self-discrepancy within the mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carol B; Berg, Kelly C; Crosby, Ross D; Lavender, Jason M; Accurso, Erin C; Ciao, Anna C; Smith, Tracey L; Klein, Marjorie; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the indirect effects of Integrative Cognitive-Affective Therapy (ICAT-BN) and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy-Enhanced (CBT-E) on bulimia nervosa (BN) treatment outcome through three hypothesized maintenance variables: emotion regulation, self-directed behavior, and self-discrepancy. Eighty adults with BN were randomized to 21 sessions of ICAT-BN or CBT-E. A regression-based bootstrapping approach was used to test the indirect effects of treatment on outcome at end of treatment through emotion regulation and self-directed behavior measured at mid-treatment, as well as the indirect effects of treatment at follow-up through emotion regulation, self-directed behavior, and self-discrepancy measured at end of treatment. No significant differences in outcome between treatment conditions were observed, and no significant direct or indirect effects were found. Examination of the individual paths within the indirect effects models revealed comparable treatment effects. Across treatments, improvements in emotion regulation and self-directed behavior between baseline and mid-treatment predicted improvements in global eating disorder scores but not binge eating and purging frequency at end of treatment. Baseline to end of treatment improvements in emotion regulation and self-directed behavior also predicted improvements in global eating disorder scores at follow-up. Baseline to end of treatment improvements in emotion regulation predicted improvements in binge eating and baseline to end of treatment increases in positive self-directed behavior predicted improvements in purging at follow-up. These findings suggest that emotion regulation and self-directed behavior are important treatment targets and that ICAT-BN and CBT-E are comparable in modifying these psychological processes among individuals with BN. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Influence of Direct and Indirect Speech on Source Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Eerland

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available People perceive the same situation described in direct speech (e.g., John said, “I like the food at this restaurant” as more vivid and perceptually engaging than described in indirect speech (e.g., John said that he likes the food at the restaurant. So, if direct speech enhances the perception of vividness relative to indirect speech, what are the effects of using indirect speech? In four experiments, we examined whether the use of direct and indirect speech influences the comprehender’s memory for the identity of the speaker. Participants read a direct or an indirect speech version of a story and then addressed statements to one of the four protagonists of the story in a memory task. We found better source memory at the level of protagonist gender after indirect than direct speech (Exp. 1–3. When the story was rewritten to make the protagonists more distinctive, we also found an effect of speech type on source memory at the level of the individual, with better memory after indirect than direct speech (Exp. 3–4. Memory for the content of the story, however, was not influenced by speech type (Exp. 4. While previous research showed that direct speech may enhance memory for how something was said, we conclude that indirect speech enhances memory for who said what.

  3. Indirect effect of ionizing radiation on adehylate cyclase activity of liver cells in rat embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slozhenikina, L.V.; Ushakova, T.E.; Mikhajlets, L.P.; Kuzin, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    A comparative study was made of the effect of ionizing radiation on basal and catecholamine-stimulating activity of adenylate cyclase in the liver of 20-day embroys under in vivo and in vitro conditions (a membrane fraction and plasma membranes). The authors discuss the share of the indirect effect of radiation in modifying the adenylate cyclase activity

  4. Direct and indirect effects of ionizing radiation on grazer–phytoplankton interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Francisco J.A.; Bradshaw, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Risk assessment of exposure to radionuclides and radiation does not usually take into account the role of species interactions. We investigated how the transfer of carbon between a primary producer, Raphidocelis subcapitata, and a consumer, Daphnia magna, was affected by acute exposure to gamma radiation. In addition to unexposed controls, different treatments were used where: a) only D. magna (Z treatment); b) only R. subcapitata (P treatment) and c) both D. magna and R. subcapitata (ZP treatment) were exposed to one of three acute doses of gamma radiation (5, 50 and 100 Gy). We then compared differences among treatments for three endpoints: incorporation of carbon by D. magna, D. magna growth and R. subcapitata densities. Carbon incorporation was affected by which combination of species was irradiated and by the radiation dose. Densities of R. subcapitata at the end of the experiment were also affected by which species had been exposed to radiation. Carbon incorporation by D. magna was significantly lower in the Z treatment, indicating reduced grazing, an effect stronger with higher radiation doses, possibly due to direct effects of gamma radiation. Top-down indirect effects of this reduced grazing were also seen as R. subcapitata densities increased in the Z treatment due to decreased herbivory. The opposite pattern was observed in the P treatment where only R. subcapitata was exposed to gamma radiation, while the ZP treatment showed intermediate results for both endpoints. In the P treatments, carbon incorporation by D. magna was significantly higher than in the other treatments, suggesting a higher grazing pressure. This, together with direct effects of gamma radiation on R. subcapitata, probably significantly decreased phytoplankton densities in the P treatment. Our results highlight the importance of taking into account the role of species interactions when assessing the effects of exposure to gamma radiation in aquatic ecosystems. - Highlights: • Direct

  5. Negative emotions and emotional eating: the mediating role of experiential avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Rachel; Goldbacher, Edie M; Cardaciotto, LeeAnn; Gambrel, Laura Eubanks

    2017-03-01

    Emotional eating is a risk factor for eating pathology across the life- and weight-span. Research demonstrates that negative emotions are a precipitant of emotional eating, particularly among female college students. However, the underlying factors that explain this relationship are unclear. Experiential avoidance, a propensity toward being unwilling to remain in contact with aversive private experiences, may explain the association between negative emotions and emotional eating. The purpose of this study was to examine whether experiential avoidance would mediate the association between negative emotions and emotional eating. A sample of 132 women (17.4 % African American, 59.8 % White) completed measures of mood, experiential avoidance and emotional eating. Bias-corrected bootstrapping mediational analyses were conducted. Experiential avoidance mediated the relationship between negative emotions and emotional eating b = -0.21, 95 % BC CI [-0.43, -0.07]. The indirect effect through experiential avoidance accounted for 9 % of the variance, which represents a medium effect (k 2  = 0.09, 95 % BC CI [0.03, 0.18]). Results suggest that experiential avoidance is important for understanding the relationship between negative emotions and emotional eating and may inform potential strategies for prevention and treatment.

  6. Indirect effects of predators control herbivore richness and abundance in a benthic eelgrass (Zostera marina) mesograzer community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundrud, Sarah L; Srivastava, Diane S; O'Connor, Mary I

    2015-07-01

    Herbivore communities can be sensitive to changes in predator pressure (top-down effects) and resource availability (bottom-up effects) in a wide range of systems. However, it remains unclear whether such top-down and bottom-up effects reflect direct impacts of predators and/or resources on herbivores, or are indirect, reflecting altered interactions among herbivore species. We quantified direct and indirect effects of bottom-up and top-down processes on an eelgrass (Zostera marina) herbivore assemblage. In a field experiment, we factorially manipulated water column nutrients (with Osmocote(™) slow-release fertilizer) and predation pressure (with predator exclusion cages) and measured the effects on herbivore abundance, richness and beta diversity. We examined likely mechanisms of community responses by statistically exploring the response of individual herbivore species to trophic manipulations. Predators increased herbivore richness and total abundance, in both cases through indirect shifts in community composition. Increases in richness occurred through predator suppression of common gammarid amphipod species (Monocorophium acherusicum and Photis brevipes), permitting the inclusion of rarer gammarid species (Aoroides columbiae and Pontogeneia rostrata). Increased total herbivore abundance reflected increased abundance of a caprellid amphipod species (Caprella sp.), concurrent with declines in the abundance of other common species. Furthermore, predators decreased beta diversity by decreasing variability in Caprella sp. abundance among habitat patches. Osmocote(™) fertilization increased nutrient concentrations locally, but nutrients dissipated to background levels within 3 m of the fertilizer. Nutrient addition weakly affected the herbivore assemblage, not affecting richness and increasing total abundance by increasing one herbivore species (Caprella sp.). Nutrient addition did not affect beta diversity. We demonstrated that assemblage-level effects of

  7. Risky family processes prospectively forecast shorter telomere length mediated through negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Yu, Tianyi; Shalev, Idan

    2017-05-01

    This study was designed to examine prospective associations of risky family environments with subsequent levels of negative emotions and peripheral blood mononuclear cell telomere length (TL), a marker of cellular aging. A second purpose was to determine whether negative emotions mediate the hypothesized link between risky family processes and diminished telomere length. Participants were 293 adolescents (age 17 years at the first assessment) and their primary caregivers. Caregivers provided data on risky family processes when the youths were age 17 years, youths reported their negative emotions at age 18 years, and youths' TL was assayed from a blood sample at age 22 years. The results revealed that (a) risky family processes forecast heightened negative emotions (β = .316, p emotions forecast shorter TL (β = -.187, p = .012), and (c) negative emotions served as a mediator connecting risky family processes with diminished TL (indirect effect = -0.012, 95% CI [-0.036, -0.002]). These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that risky family processes presage premature cellular aging through effects on negative emotions, with potential implications for lifelong health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Effect of Body Position on Energy Expenditure of Preterm Infants as Determined by Simultaneous Direct and Indirect Calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edward F; Johnson, Karen J; Dove, Edwin L

    2017-04-01

    Background  Indirect calorimetry is the standard method for estimating energy expenditure in clinical research. Few studies have evaluated indirect calorimetry in infants by comparing it with simultaneous direct calorimetry. Our purpose was (1) to compare the energy expenditure of preterm infants determined by these two methods, direct calorimetry and indirect calorimetry; and (2) to examine the effect of body position, supine or prone, on energy expenditure. Study Design  We measured energy expenditure by simultaneous direct (heat loss by gradient-layer calorimeter corrected for heat storage) and indirect calorimetry (whole-body oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production) in 15 growing preterm infants during two consecutive interfeeding intervals, once in the supine position and once in the prone position. Results  The mean energy expenditure for all measurements in both positions did not differ significantly by the method used: 2.82 (standard deviation [SD] 0.42) kcal/kg/h by direct calorimetry and 2.78 (SD 0.48) kcal/kg/h by indirect calorimetry. The energy expenditure was significantly lower, by 10%, in the prone than in the supine position, whether examined by direct calorimetry (2.67 vs. 2.97 kcal/kg/h, p  Direct calorimetry and indirect calorimetry gave similar estimates of energy expenditure. Energy expenditure was 10% lower in the prone position than in the supine position. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Different alterations in brain functional networks according to direct and indirect topological connections in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang-Hyun; Lee, Seungyup; Kim, Taewon; Won, Wang Yeon; Lee, Kyoung-Uk

    2017-10-01

    Schizophrenia displays connectivity deficits in the brain, but the literature has shown inconsistent findings about alterations in global efficiency of brain functional networks. We supposed that such inconsistency at the whole brain level may be due to a mixture of different portions of global efficiency at sub-brain levels. Accordingly, we considered measuring portions of global efficiency in two aspects: spatial portions by considering sub-brain networks and topological portions by considering contributions to global efficiency according to direct and indirect topological connections. We proposed adjacency and indirect adjacency as new network parameters attributable to direct and indirect topological connections, respectively, and applied them to graph-theoretical analysis of brain functional networks constructed from resting state fMRI data of 22 patients with schizophrenia and 22 healthy controls. Group differences in the network parameters were observed not for whole brain and hemispheric networks, but for regional networks. Alterations in adjacency and indirect adjacency were in opposite directions, such that adjacency increased, but indirect adjacency decreased in patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, over connections in frontal and parietal regions, increased adjacency was associated with more severe negative symptoms, while decreased adjacency was associated with more severe positive symptoms of schizophrenia. This finding indicates that connectivity deficits associated with positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia may involve topologically different paths in the brain. In patients with schizophrenia, although changes in global efficiency may not be clearly shown, different alterations in brain functional networks according to direct and indirect topological connections could be revealed at the regional level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Positive perfectionism, negative perfectionism, and emotional eating: The mediating role of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanwei; Li, Jie

    2017-08-01

    The current study examines the different impacts of positive perfectionism and negative perfectionism on individuals' emotional eating, as well as stress as the proposed underlying mediator that explains the abovementioned relationships. Overall, 386 adults in China reported their levels of positive perfectionism, negative perfectionism, perceived stress, and emotional eating behaviors. Results demonstrate that positive perfectionism is negatively associated with emotional eating, while negative perfectionism is positively associated with emotional eating. In addition, stress mediates the relationship between perfectionism and emotional eating. Specifically, positive perfectionism is indirectly related to emotional eating through the mediation of stress, whereas negative perfectionism is related to emotional eating directly and indirectly through the mediation of stress. Findings of the current study indicate that practitioners working with individuals who suffer from emotional eating problems should focus on ways to reduce negative perfectionism while finding approaches that enhance positive perfectionism. With this approach, individuals would experience less stress and, therefore, would be less likely to be involved in emotional eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Skyrmion formation and optical spin-Hall effect in an expanding coherent cloud of indirect excitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevsky, D V; Flayac, H; Nalitov, A V; Solnyshkov, D D; Gippius, N A; Malpuech, G

    2013-06-14

    We provide a theoretical description of the polarization pattern and phase singularities experimentally evidenced recently in a condensate of indirect excitons [H. High et al., Nature 483, 584 (2012)]. We show that the averaging of the electron and hole orbital motion leads to a comparable spin-orbit interaction for both types of carriers. We demonstrate that the interplay between a radial coherent flux of bright indirect excitons and the Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction results in the formation of spin domains and of topological defects similar to Skyrmions. We reproduce qualitatively all the features of the experimental data and obtain a polarization pattern as in the optical spin-Hall effect despite the different symmetry of the spin-orbit interactions.

  12. Indirect Effects of Attributional Style for Positive Events on Depressive Symptoms Through Self-Esteem During Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; George, Rachel

    2017-04-01

    Research on adolescent depression has overwhelmingly focused on risk factors, such as stressful negative events and cognitive vulnerabilities, but much important information can be gained by focusing on protective factors. Thus, the current study aimed to broaden understanding on adolescent depression by considering the role of two positive elements as protective factors, attributional style for positive events and self-esteem, in a model of depression. The sample included 491 middle school students (52 % female; n = 249) with an age range from 12 to 15 years (M = 13.2, SD = .70). The sample was ethnically/racially diverse, with 55 % White, 22 % Hispanic, 10 % Asian American, 3 % African American, and 10 % Biracial/Other. Correlational analyses indicated significant cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between an enhancing attributional style (internal, stable, global attributions for positive events), self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Further, prospective analyses using bootstrapping methodology demonstrated significant indirect effects of an enhancing attributional style on decreases in depressive symptoms through its effects on self-esteem. These findings highlight the importance of considering attributional style for positive events as a protective factor in the developmental course of depressive symptoms during early adolescence.

  13. Sensitivity studies of different aerosol indirect effects in mixed-phase clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hoose

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols affect the climate system by changing cloud characteristics. Using the global climate model ECHAM5-HAM, we investigate different aerosol effects on mixed-phase clouds: The glaciation effect, which refers to a more frequent glaciation due to anthropogenic aerosols, versus the de-activation effect, which suggests that ice nuclei become less effective because of an anthropogenic sulfate coating. The glaciation effect can partly offset the indirect aerosol effect on warm clouds and thus causes the total anthropogenic aerosol effect to be smaller. It is investigated by varying the parameterization for the Bergeron-Findeisen process and the threshold coating thickness of sulfate (SO4-crit, which is required to convert an externally mixed aerosol particle into an internally mixed particle. Differences in the net radiation at the top-of-the-atmosphere due to anthropogenic aerosols between the different sensitivity studies amount up to 0.5 W m−2. This suggests that the investigated mixed-phase processes have a major effect on the total anthropogenic aerosol effect.

  14. Direct and indirect causes of sex differences in mercury concentrations and parasitic infections in a marine bird

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provencher, J.F.; Gilchrist, H.G.; Mallory, M.L.; Mitchell, G.W.; Forbes, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    In many animal species, males and females differ in their levels of contaminants and/or parasitic infections. Most contaminants and gastro-intestinal parasites are obtained through prey ingestion, and thus the causes of sex differences in the distribution of these factors might follow similar pathways. We studied the northern common eider duck (Somateria molissima borealis) as an avian model, and used directed separation path analysis to explore the causes of sex differences in mercury (Hg) and gastro-intestinal helminths. Two trophically transmitted helminths were examined: a cestode (Lateriporus sp.) and an acanthocephalan (Polymorphus sp). We found that the number of Lateriporus sp. varied positively with stable isotope signature (as indicated by δ"1"5N in eider breast muscle tissue), and negatively with crustaceans being present in the short term diet. We also found that Polymorphus sp. varied positively with eider tissue stable isotope signature. However, Polymorphus sp. varied negatively with sex indirectly through condition and liver mass. Similarly, Hg concentrations also varied negatively with sex indirectly through condition and liver mass, with both Polymorphus sp. intensity and Hg concentrations significantly higher in males. We found that model fit increased when a negative relationship between the two helminth species was included, suggesting a yet unknown causal mechanism linking these parasites. Our findings suggest that although Hg and gastro-intestinal parasites are both trophically transmitted through the eider's prey items, the factors that contribute towards bioaccumulation of these two burdens differ in source, likely caused by several different factors and may potentially influence each other. - Highlights: • Contaminants and parasitic infections often co-occur in wildlife and have similar effects • Understanding the distribution of multiple burdens allows for better interpretation of effects • Path analysis was used to examine the

  15. Direct and indirect causes of sex differences in mercury concentrations and parasitic infections in a marine bird

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provencher, J.F., E-mail: jennifpro@gmail.com [Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Raven Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Gilchrist, H.G. [Wildlife Research Division, National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment and Climate Change Canada, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Raven Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Mallory, M.L. [Department of Biology, Acadia University, 33 Westwood Ave, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada); Mitchell, G.W. [Wildlife Research Division, National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment and Climate Change Canada, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Raven Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Forbes, M.R. [Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Raven Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada)

    2016-05-01

    In many animal species, males and females differ in their levels of contaminants and/or parasitic infections. Most contaminants and gastro-intestinal parasites are obtained through prey ingestion, and thus the causes of sex differences in the distribution of these factors might follow similar pathways. We studied the northern common eider duck (Somateria molissima borealis) as an avian model, and used directed separation path analysis to explore the causes of sex differences in mercury (Hg) and gastro-intestinal helminths. Two trophically transmitted helminths were examined: a cestode (Lateriporus sp.) and an acanthocephalan (Polymorphus sp). We found that the number of Lateriporus sp. varied positively with stable isotope signature (as indicated by δ{sup 15}N in eider breast muscle tissue), and negatively with crustaceans being present in the short term diet. We also found that Polymorphus sp. varied positively with eider tissue stable isotope signature. However, Polymorphus sp. varied negatively with sex indirectly through condition and liver mass. Similarly, Hg concentrations also varied negatively with sex indirectly through condition and liver mass, with both Polymorphus sp. intensity and Hg concentrations significantly higher in males. We found that model fit increased when a negative relationship between the two helminth species was included, suggesting a yet unknown causal mechanism linking these parasites. Our findings suggest that although Hg and gastro-intestinal parasites are both trophically transmitted through the eider's prey items, the factors that contribute towards bioaccumulation of these two burdens differ in source, likely caused by several different factors and may potentially influence each other. - Highlights: • Contaminants and parasitic infections often co-occur in wildlife and have similar effects • Understanding the distribution of multiple burdens allows for better interpretation of effects • Path analysis was used to

  16. Negation through reduplication and tone: implications for the LFG/PFM interface

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, O

    2015-01-01

    Morphological marking of negation through verbal reduplication and tone is a typologically rare phenomenon attested in Eleme (Niger-Congo; Nigeria). Using Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG) and Paradigm Function Morphology (PFM) to model first-hand data, I argue that reduplication is not a direct exponent of negation in Eleme, but an asemantic morphomic process, indirectly associated with the presence of a negative polarity feature in LFG’s m(orphological)- structure. While negative verb forms ...

  17. Drinking motives and alcohol outcome expectancies as mediators of the association between negative urgency and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthenien, Amber M; Lembo, Jordanna; Neighbors, Clayton

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether the effects of negative urgency, a unique facet of impulsivity marked by engaging in potentially unhealthy and rash behaviors in order to cope with anxiety or negative moods, on drinking behavior can be explained by positive and negative alcohol outcome expectancies and specific drinking motives (i.e., coping and enhancement). College students (N=194) completed web-based surveys in exchange for course credit. Students completed measures of negative urgency, comprehensive effects of alcohol, drinking motives, and alcohol use behaviors. Results of path analysis indicated significant indirect effects of negative urgency and alcohol use through both alcohol outcome expectancies and enhancement motives. The effects of enhancement motives on drinking were mediated by positive alcohol outcome expectancies. The effects of coping motives on drinking were not attributable to negative expectancies. Individuals high on negative urgency may consume alcohol in order to ameliorate their emotional distress due to strong desires to increase positive and decrease negative experiences associated with drinking. Emotion-focused impulsivity's influence on drinking outcomes can be ascribed to enhancement motives for drinking as well as positive and negative alcohol outcome expectancies. Prevention efforts should target drinking motives and alcohol outcome expectancies among those higher in negative urgency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Stop Negative Thinking Effects for Drug Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Windiarti, Sri Endang; Indriati, Indriati; Surachmi, Fajar

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of therapy stop thinking negatively against drug addiction in Rehabilitation Orphanage Rumah Damai Gunung Pati Semarang. This research is quasy experiment with pretest - posttes without the control group design. Thirty respondents were taken to the reseach sujects. Stop thinking negative therapy before and after thebehavior of drug addiction there are differences (t = 0.00), so it can be stated that the therapy stop thinking negatively inf...

  19. Indirect measurement of the magnetocaloric effect using a novel differential scanning calorimeter with magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Stinus; Linderoth, Søren; Pryds, Nini

    2008-01-01

    A simple and high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) unit operating under magnetic field has been built for indirect determination of the magnetocaloric effect. The principle of the measuring unit in the calorimeter is based on Peltier elements as heat flow sensors. The high...

  20. Trait emotional intelligence and mental distress: the mediating role of positive and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Zhao, Jingjing; You, Xuqun

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, emotional intelligence (EI) has received much attention in the literature. Previous studies indicated that higher trait or ability EI was associated with greater mental distress. The present study focused on mediating effects of positive and negative affect on the association between trait EI and mental distress in a sample of Chinese adults. The participants were 726 Chinese adults (384 females) with an age range of 18-60 years. Data were collected by using the Wong Law Emotional Intelligence Scale, the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale, and the General Health Questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that EI was a significant predictor of positive affect, negative affect and mental distress. Further mediation analysis showed that positive and negative affect acted as partial mediators of the relationship between EI and mental distress. Furthermore, effect contrasts showed that there was no significant difference between the specific indirect effects through positive affect and through negative affect. This result indicated that positive affect and negative affect played an equally important function in the association between EI and distress. The significance and limitations of the results are discussed.

  1. Difficulties in emotion regulation mediate negative and positive affects and craving in alcoholic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravani, Vahid; Sharifi Bastan, Farangis; Ghorbani, Fatemeh; Kamali, Zoleikha

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mediating effects of difficulties in emotion regulation (DER) on the relations of negative and positive affects to craving in alcoholic patients. 205 treatment-seeking alcoholic outpatients were included. DER, positive and negative affects as well as craving were evaluated by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Positive/Negative Affect Scales, and the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) respectively. Clinical factors including depression and severity of alcohol dependence were investigated by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) respectively. Results revealed that both increased negative affect and decreased positive affect indirectly influenced craving through limited access to emotion regulation strategies. It was concluded that limited access to emotion regulation strategies may be important in predicting craving for alcoholics who experience both increased negative affect and decreased positive affect. This suggests that treatment and prevention efforts focused on increasing positive affect, decreasing negative affect and teaching effective regulation strategies may be critical in reducing craving in alcoholic patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Direct and Indirect Effects of Behavioral Parent Training on Infant Language Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagner, Daniel M; Garcia, Dainelys; Hill, Ryan

    2016-03-01

    Given the strong association between early behavior problems and language impairment, we examined the effect of a brief home-based adaptation of Parent-child Interaction Therapy on infant language production. Sixty infants (55% male; mean age 13.47±1.31 months) were recruited at a large urban primary care clinic and were included if their scores exceeded the 75th percentile on a brief screener of early behavior problems. Families were randomly assigned to receive the home-based parenting intervention or standard pediatric primary care. The observed number of infant total (i.e., token) and different (i.e., type) utterances spoken during an observation of an infant-led play and a parent-report measure of infant externalizing behavior problems were examined at pre- and post-intervention and at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Infants receiving the intervention demonstrated a significantly higher number of observed different and total utterances at the 6-month follow-up compared to infants in standard care. Furthermore, there was an indirect effect of the intervention on infant language production, such that the intervention led to decreases in infant externalizing behavior problems from pre- to post-intervention, which, in turn, led to increases in infant different utterances at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups and total utterances at the 6-month follow-up. Results provide initial evidence for the effect of this brief and home-based intervention on infant language production, including the indirect effect of the intervention on infant language through improvements in infant behavior, highlighting the importance of targeting behavior problems in early intervention. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Direct and indirect effects of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis on the prevention of pelvic inflammatory disease: a mathematical modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Sereina A; Heijne, Janneke C M; Scott, Pippa; Althaus, Christian L; Low, Nicola

    2013-11-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) results from the ascending spread of microorganisms, including Chlamydia trachomatis, to the upper genital tract. Screening could improve outcomes by identifying and treating chlamydial infections before they progress to PID (direct effect) or by reducing chlamydia transmission (indirect effect). We developed a compartmental model that represents a hypothetical heterosexual population and explicitly incorporates progression from chlamydia to clinical PID. Chlamydia screening was introduced, with coverage increasing each year for 10 years. We estimated the separate contributions of the direct and indirect effects of screening on PID cases prevented per 100,000 women. We explored the influence of varying the time point at which clinical PID could occur and of increasing the risk of PID after repeated chlamydial infections. The probability of PID at baseline was 3.1% by age 25 years. After 5 years, the intervention scenario had prevented 187 PID cases per 100,000 women and after 10 years 956 PID cases per 100,000 women. At the start of screening, most PID cases were prevented by the direct effect. The indirect effect produced a small net increase in PID cases, which was outweighed by the effect of reduced chlamydia transmission after 2.2 years. The later that progression to PID occurs, the greater the contribution of the direct effect. Increasing the risk of PID with repeated chlamydial infection increases the number of PID cases prevented by screening. This study shows the separate roles of direct and indirect PID prevention and potential harms, which cannot be demonstrated in observational studies.

  4. Direct and Indirect Effects of Teenage Body Weight on Adult Wages. NBER Working Paper No. 15027

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Euna; Norton, Edward C.; Powell, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous estimates on the association between body weight and wages in the literature have been contingent on education and occupation. This paper examines the direct effect of BMI on wages and the indirect effects operating through education and occupation choice, particularly for late-teen BMI and adult wages. Using the National Longitudinal…

  5. Negative price-image effects of appealing store architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielke, Stephan; Toporowski, Waldemar

    2012-01-01

    Retailers often worry about the negative effects of appealing exterior architecture on their store's price image, especially the price-level perception and the ease of price evaluation. Findings from prior laboratory experiments support these concerns, while field studies find no such effects. Th....... The availability of price information neutralizes the negative effects of appealing architecture on the price-level perception, but not on the ease of price evaluation....

  6. ICT for Children of Immigrants: Indirect and Total Effects via Self-Efficacy on Math Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunha

    2018-01-01

    This study compared the direct, indirect, and total effects of information, communication, and technology (ICT) variables on math achievement for second-generation immigrant, first-generation immigrant, and nonimmigrant students. A path model was used to analyze U.S. nationally representative data from the Program for International Student…

  7. Statistical Power for Causally Defined Indirect Effects in Group-Randomized Trials with Individual-Level Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelcey, Benjamin; Dong, Nianbo; Spybrook, Jessaca; Cox, Kyle

    2017-01-01

    Designs that facilitate inferences concerning both the total and indirect effects of a treatment potentially offer a more holistic description of interventions because they can complement "what works" questions with the comprehensive study of the causal connections implied by substantive theories. Mapping the sensitivity of designs to…

  8. Effects of different surface treatments on bond strength of an indirect composite to bovine dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiza Tatiana Poskus

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Sandblasting was a safe surface treatment for the indirect composite, increasing the BS values. Hydrofluoric acid applied after sandblasting damaged the BS values and should not be recommended while ethanol and H2O2, when applied after sandblasting, were effective in increasing BS values.

  9. Plant genotype shapes ant-aphid interactions: implications for community structure and indirect plant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Kailen A; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2008-06-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms by which plant genotype shapes arthropod community structure. In a field experiment, we measured the effects of milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) genotype and ants on milkweed arthropods. Populations of the ant-tended aphid Aphis asclepiadis and the untended aphid Myzocallis asclepiadis varied eight- to 18-fold among milkweed genotypes, depending on aphid species and whether ants were present. There was no milkweed effect on predatory arthropods. Ants increased Aphis abundance 59%, decreased Myzocallis abundance 52%, and decreased predator abundance 56%. Milkweed genotype indirectly influenced ants via direct effects on Aphis and Myzocallis abundance. Milkweed genotype also modified ant-aphid interactions, influencing the number of ants attracted per Aphis and Myzocallis. While ant effects on Myzocallis were consistently negative, effects on Aphis ranged from antagonistic to mutualistic among milkweed genotypes. As a consequence of milkweed effects on ant-aphid interactions, ant abundance varied 13-fold among milkweed genotypes, and monarch caterpillar survival was negatively correlated with genetic variation in ant abundance. We speculate that heritable variation in milkweed phloem sap drives these effects on aphids, ants, and caterpillars. In summary, milkweed exerts genetic control over the interactions between aphids and an ant that provides defense against foliage-feeding caterpillars.

  10. Effect of direct and indirect contact with mental illness on dangerousness and social distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhwa; Seo, Mikyung

    2018-03-01

    This study is based on the contact hypothesis that contact with mental illness is the most effective anti-stigma strategy. This study aims to analyze which form of contact can most effectively decrease the dangerousness and social distance associated with schizophrenia, depression and alcoholism. In total, 573 Korean adults ( M age  = 43.71 years, standard deviation ( SD) = 13.41; 54.1% male, 45.9% female) were surveyed about randomly assigned vignettes of schizophrenia, depression and alcoholism. The participants were questioned on the dangerousness and social distance associated with the assigned vignette, as well as direct and indirect contact experience with the mental illness. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the main effect and interaction effect that the type of mental illness and contact experience have on the two dependent variables (dangerousness and social distance). The findings show that the type of mental illness has a significant main effect on dangerousness and social distance, but contact type only has a significant main effect on social distance. Moreover, the two independent variables (mental illness subtype and contact experience) have an interaction effect on two dependent variables (dangerousness and social distance). Therefore, the anti-stigma effect of contact varies according to the type of mental illness. Our findings suggest that appropriate anti-stigma strategies are required for each type of mental illness. Considering that opportunities for direct contact with persons with mental illness are highly limited, it is necessary to actively utilize indirect contact.

  11. [Effect of bleaching agents on the color of indirect and direct composite resins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wenzhong; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Xiaodong; Wang, Yining

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of bleaching agents on the color of indirect and direct composite resins. Five resin composite materials were tested in this in vitro study. The five composites were as follow: two indirect composite resins (Adoro SR, Ceramage) and three direct composite resins (Filtek Z350, Clearfil Majesty Esthetic, and Gradia Direct Anterior). For each material, twenty disk-shaped specimens were prepared and randomly divided into five groups according to the color parameters of specimens before bleaching treatment. The composite resin specimens were treated by one of five sample solutions which were at-home bleaching agents (10% and 15% carbarmide peroxide), in- office bleaching agents (38% H(2)O(2) and 35%H(2)O(2)) and deionized water (control group). The color parameters of specimens were measured by spectrophotometer at baseline and after bleaching treatments. The color differences (ΔE values) between baseline and post-treatments were calculated. The data of color differences were evaluated statistically using two-way analysis with a significance level of 0.05. The color changes of the resin composites were less than 2.0 after bleaching agent treatment, therefore were not perceptible. Slight increase of L(*) values and decrease of C(*)ab values in color parameters of specimens were observed. There were statistically significant differences in ΔE values for different bleaching treatments and resin materials (P = 0.001). The bleaching agents did not affect the color of indirect and direct composite resins tested.

  12. Direct and indirect effects of wastewater use and herd environment on the occurrence of animal diseases and animal health in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Ehsan; Zhang, Liqin; Abid, Muhammad; Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Xinru, Han

    2017-03-01

    The use of wastewater for rearing domestic animals is a common phenomenon in most of the developing countries like Pakistan that face a serious shortage of freshwater resources. However, most of the literature has only focused on the indirect effects of wastewater use on animal health or productivity, and literature on the direct effects of wastewater use is rare. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the direct and indirect effects of wastewater usage on the prevalence of animal diseases and animal health in Pakistan. The study is based on a household-level survey of 360 domestic water buffalo herds collected from 12 districts of Punjab Province, Pakistan. We tested the prevalence of the animal's diseases, animal's health, and wastewater-use preference with various econometric tools, such as the Poisson, negative binomial, and logistic regressions. The findings of the study show that the majority of the farmers use wastewater for buffalo bathing due to the shortage of freshwater resources. Results explore the prevalence of diseases such as clinical mastitis, tick infestation, and foot and mouth disease at the farm level significantly associated with buffalo bathing in the wastewater. Moreover, bathing in wastewater pre- and post-milking also plays a role in the occurrence of diseases. Particularly, if the buffalo's access to wastewater for bathing is within 60 min after milking, the probability of the animals being exposed to mastitis is higher. Furthermore, on investigation, a number of factors are found, such as the distance to the water source, power shortage, groundwater availability, and the education of farmers that influence farmers' behavior of letting their animals take a bath in wastewater. Moreover, the use of different preventive measures improves the animal's health.

  13. Manifestations and intensity of indirect self-destructiveness in patients with psoriasis vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Bienias

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psoriasis is a chronic systemic disease which often significantly reduces the quality of life in extreme situations can provide to severe depression and even suicide. Indirect self-destructiveness is a generalized trend of behavior consisting of taking steps to increase the likelihood of negative and reduce the likelihood of positive consequences for the entity within a general manifestations such as transgression of norms and risk, addictions, poor health maintenance, personal and social neglect, lack of planfulness, helplessness and passiveness. Polish and world literature has no publications on indirect self-destructiveness in psoriasis nor in any skin diseases. The main aim of this study was to investigate the intensity and symptoms of indirect self-destructiveness in population of patients with psoriasis vulgaris Material and methods: The material consisted of 82 patients with psoriasis vulgaris hospitalized in the Department of Dermatology, Pediatric Dermatology and Oncology in 2013-2014. For the achievement of the objectives of the research socio-demographic questionnaire (own authorship and Indirect Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale by Kelley in Polish adaptation of Suchańska (version for men and women – each containing 52 issues was used. Results: The results showed that in a population of people with psoriasis overall severity of indirect self-destructiveness was in the lower range of the average results. The dominant class of indirect self-destructiveness was helplessness and passivity that preceded the poor health maintenance and lack of planning. Conclusions: The results will enrich the existing knowledge about the harmful conduct of psoriasis and a better approach to the patient.

  14. [Protective effect of indirect activator of calcium pump on noise-induced hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Yu, Ning; Han, Dongyi; Yang, Weiyan; Li, Xingqi

    2002-12-01

    To investigate the possible protective effect of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), an activator of protein kinase C (PKC) and indirect activator of Ca2+ pump, on noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Twenty guinea pigs were divided randomly into two groups, and then perfused with artificial perilymph solutions in one group and with artificial perilymph solutions containing 3 mumol/L PMA in the other one, respectively. All animals were exposed with 100 dB SPL white noise for 2 hours. Cochlear microphonics (CM) and compound action potential (CAP) were recorded from the round window (RW) before noise exposure and 2 hours after noise exposure. There was no significant difference in CAP threshold and CM amplitude between two groups before noise exposure. A significant difference was observed in CAP threshold and CM amplitude between two groups after noise exposure. The amplitude of CM decreased and the threshold of CAP increased in both group after noise exposure, but in the PMA group the decrease of the amplitude of CM was higher while the increase of threshold of CAP lower than that in control (P < 0.05). PMA might have partly protective effect on NIHL. These findings indirectly proved that intracellular Ca2+ overload might involve in the mechanism of NIHL.

  15. "Indirect Network Effects and the Product Cycle: Video Games in the U.S., 1994-2002"

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew T. Clements; Hiroshi Ohashi

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of indirect network effects in the U.S. video game market between 1994 and 2002. The diffusion of game systems is analyzed by the interaction between console adoption decisions and software supply decisions. Estimation results suggest that introductory pricing is an effective practice at the beginning of the product cycle, and expanding software variety becomes more effective later. The paper also finds a degree of inertia in the software market that does no...

  16. Stress and alcohol use in rural Chinese residents: A moderated mediation model examining the roles of resilience and negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Xinguang

    2015-10-01

    Little research has been done on alcohol use and dependence among rural residents in China, a sub-population that might be under increased stress due to the rapid modernization and urbanization processes. We aimed to assess rural residents' levels of stress, negative emotions, resilience, alcohol use/dependence and the complex relationships among them. Survey data from a large random sample (n=1145, mean age=35.9, SD=7.7, 50.7% male) of rural residents in Wuhan, China were collected using Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview. The sample had high prevalence of frequently perceived stress (47%) and high prevalence of ever (54.4%), past 30-day (40.4%), and binge drinking (13.8%). Approximately 11% met the criterion for intermediate to severe alcohol dependence. Mediation analysis indicated that the association between perceived stress (predictor) and alcohol dependence (outcome) was fully mediated by anxiety (indirect effect=.203, pstress and two negative emotions (mediators) was significantly modified by resilience (moderator); an integrative moderated mediation analysis indicated that the indirect effect from stress to alcohol dependence through negative emotions was also moderated by resilience. Negative emotions play a key role in bridging stress and alcohol dependence, while resilience significantly buffers the impact of stress on depression, reducing the risk of alcohol dependence. Resilience training may be an effective component for alcohol intervention in rural China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Accelerated Aging on Color Change of Direct and Indirect Fiber-Reinforced Composite Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masomeh Hasani Tabatabaei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of artificial accelerated aging (AAA on color change of direct and indirect fiber-reinforced composite (FRC restorations.Materials and Methods: Direct (Z250 and indirect (Gradia composite resins were reinforced with glass (GF and polyethylene fibers (PF based on the manufacturers’ instructions. Forty samples were fabricated and divided into eight groups (n=5. Four groups served as experimental groups and the remaining four served as controls. Color change (∆E and color parameters (∆L*, ∆a*, ∆b* were read at baseline and after AAA based on the CIELAB system. Three-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test were used for statistical analysis.Results: Significant differences were found in ΔE, ΔL*, Δa* and Δb* among the groups after AAA (P<0.05. Most of the studied samples demonstrated an increase in lightness and a red-yellow shift after AAA.Conclusions: The obtained ∆E values were unacceptable after AAA (∆E≥ 3.3. All indirect samples showed a green-blue shift with a reduction in lightness except for Gradia/PF+ NuliteF.Keywords: Aging; Composite Resins; Color

  18. Effects of Direct and Indirect Instructional Strategies on Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2012-10-27

    Oct 27, 2012 ... Counseling, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Phone: +234(0) ... Mathematics using Direct Instructional strategy, while Group B students were taught using ... strategy; significant difference existed between direct and indirect instruction ..... is to ensure individual student's mastery of the subject matter.

  19. The diagnostic value of indirect lower limb CT venography in the lower extremity deep venous thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Li; Guo Youmin; Wang Jianguo; Guo Xiaojuan; Liu Min; Guo Yulin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate indirect CT venography (CTV) in the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Methods: A total of 516 acute pulmonary embolism patients proved by objective test were analyzed retrospectively. Using the results of lower limb compression sonography as reference standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of indirect CTV were calculated. The agreement between lower extremity venous sonography and indirect CTV were assessed by Kappa analysis. Results: Among 516 patients with acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE), 110 patients underwent both CTV and CTPA and lower extremity sonography. DVT were detected by CTV and sonography simultaneously in 48 patients, while no DVT was detected in 39 patients by both examinations. Thirteen patients were diagnosed to have DVT by CTV without sonography detection, and DVT was detected in other 10 patients only by sonography. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of indirect CTV was 82.8% (48/58), 75.0% (39/52), 78.7% (48/61) and 79.6% (39/49). The agreement between lower extremity venous sonography and indirect CTV was good for femoropopliteal vein (Kappa value range from 0.874 to 0.914, P=0.000). Thrombi detected by CTV were 62 and 52 respectively, and for sonography were 67 and 51 respectively. For calf veins, the agreement decreased (Kappa value range from 0.464 to 0.584, P=0.000). Thrombi detected by CTV were 6, 25 and 13 respectively, and for sonography were 13, 38 and 19 respectively. The agreement for external iliac vein was poor (Kappa value range from 0.230 to 0.262, P=0.067 and 0.004, respectively). Thrombi detected by CTV were 33, and for sonography were 17. Conclusions: The indirect CTV has high accuracy in the diagnosis of DVT. Combined CTPA and CTV can image pulmonary arteries and lower extremity veins in one examination. Indirect CTV can reveal thrombus in large pelvic veins, which has an advantage

  20. China’s Energy Intensity, Determinants and Spatial Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the shadow of the energy crisis and environmental degradation, energy intensity is a hot topic in academic circles in China. The energy intensity distribution map of China indicates the fairly large geographic disparities globally and clustering locally in some areas, ascending from the southeast regions to the northwest provinces. Although energy intensity and its determinants vary from place to place, few studies have been made from the spatial perspective. Determinates of energy intensity and spatial spillover effects should be taken into consideration. Controlling for seven exogenous variables (per capita GDP; the share of the secondary sector; foreign direct investment; international trade, energy price, the share of coal, and transport sector and their spatial lags, we apply a spatial Durbin model to test for spatial spillover effects among energy intensity and exogenous variables from a panel of 29 Chinese provinces over 1998 to 2014. We find that per capita GDP has an insignificant and negative direct and indirect effect, but has a significant and negative total effect on energy intensity. The share of the secondary sector and the share of coal are found to have significant and positive direct and indirect effects on energy intensity. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI and Trade have significant and negative direct and indirect effects on energy intensity. The direct effect of energy price is found to be significantly positive while the indirect effect is negative. Only the direct effect of the Transport variable is significant and positive. The results of this study offer some theoretical evidence for differential localized policy making related to reduction in energy intensity.

  1. Explicit calculation of indirect global warming potentials for halons using atmospheric models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Wuebbles

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Global Warming Potentials (GWPs has been extensively used in policy consideration as a relative index for comparing the climate impact of an emitted greenhouse gas (GHG, relative to carbon dioxide with equal mass emissions. Ozone depletion due to emission of chlorinated or brominated halocarbons leads to cooling of the climate system in the opposite direction to the direct warming contribution by halocarbons as GHGs. This cooling is a key indirect effect of the halocarbons on climatic radiative forcing, which is accounted for by indirect GWPs. With respect to climate, it is critical to understand net influences considering direct warming and indirect cooling effects especially for Halons due to the greater ozone-depleting efficiency of bromine over chlorine. Until now, the indirect GWPs have been calculated using a parameterized approach based on the concept of Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine (EESC and the observed ozone depletion over the last few decades. As a step towards obtaining indirect GWPs through a more robust approach, we use atmospheric models to explicitly calculate the indirect GWPs of Halon-1211 and Halon-1301 for a 100-year time horizon. State-of-the-art global chemistry-transport models (CTMs were used as the computational tools to derive more realistic ozone depletion changes caused by an added pulse emission of the two major Halons at the surface. The radiative forcings on climate from the ozone changes have been calculated for indirect GWPs using an atmospheric radiative transfer model (RTM. The simulated temporal variations of global average total column Halons after a pulse perturbation follow an exponential decay with an e-folding time which is consistent with the expected chemical lifetimes of the Halons. Our calculated indirect GWPs for the two Halons are much smaller than those from past studies but are within a single standard deviation of WMO (2007 values and the direct GWP values derived

  2. An effective model for fermion dark matter. Indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter in astronomy with the CELESTE Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavalle, Julien

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to discuss both phenomenological and experimental aspects of Dark Matter, related to its indirect detection with gamma-ray astronomy. In the MSSM framework, neutralinos arise as natural candidates to non-baryonic and Cold Dark Matter, whose gravitational effects manifest in the Universe at different scales. As they are Majorana particles, they may in principle annihilate in high density regions, as the centres of galaxies, and produce gamma rays. Nevertheless, the expected fluxes are basically low compared to experimental sensitivities. After estimating gamma fluxes from M31 and Draco galaxies in the MSSM scheme, we first generalize the MSSM couplings by studying an effective Lagrangian. We show that the only constraint of imposing a relic abundance compatible with recent measurements obviously deplete significantly the gamma ray production, but also that predictions in this effective approach are more optimistic for indirect detection than the MSSM. In a second part, we present the indirect searches for Dark Matter performed with the CELESTE Cherenkov telescope towards the galaxy M31. We propose a statistical method to reconstruct spectra, mandatory to discriminate classical and exotic spectra. The M31 data analysis enables the extraction of an upper limit on the gamma ray flux, which is the first worldwide for a galaxy in the energy range 50-500 GeV, and whose astrophysical interest goes beyond indirect searches for Dark Matter. (author)

  3. Examining the Direct and Indirect Effects of Fear and Anger on Criminal Decision Making Among Known Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Jeff A

    2015-12-01

    Deterrence represents the central theoretical core of the American criminal justice system, yet relatively little attention has been paid to how emotions like fear and anger may relate to deterrence. Psychological research has debated whether negative emotions each have similar impacts on decision making (valence approaches) or if distinct emotions have unique impacts (appraisal tendency approaches). This study explores the direct and indirect influences of fear and anger on hypothetical drunk driving likelihood, including their impact on cost perceptions. Surveys were administered to 1,013 male and female incarcerated felony offenders in the Southwestern United States. Using a multivariate path model and controlling for a number of other individual factors, current fear related to increased cost perceptions and anger to decreased costs. Anger also maintained a direct influence on drunk driving, whereas fear did not. Despite their shared negative valence, fear and anger appear to have dissimilar influences on cost perceptions and criminal decision making. A better understanding of these processes may lead to improved crime prevention approaches. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Migratory herds of wildebeests and zebras indirectly affect calf survival of giraffes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Derek E; Kissui, Bernard M; Kiwango, Yustina A; Bond, Monica L

    2016-12-01

    In long-distance migratory systems, local fluctuations in the predator-prey ratio can exhibit extreme variability within a single year depending upon the seasonal location of migratory species. Such systems offer an opportunity to empirically investigate cyclic population density effects on short-term food web interactions by taking advantage of the large seasonal shifts in migratory prey biomass.We utilized a large-mammal predator-prey savanna food web to evaluate support for hypotheses relating to the indirect effects of "apparent competition" and "apparent mutualism" from migratory ungulate herds on survival of resident megaherbivore calves, mediated by their shared predator. African lions ( Panthera leo ) are generalist predators whose primary, preferred prey are wildebeests ( Connochaetes taurinus ) and zebras ( Equus quagga ), while lion predation on secondary prey such as giraffes ( Giraffa camelopardalis ) may change according to the relative abundance of the primary prey species.We used demographic data from five subpopulations of giraffes in the Tarangire Ecosystem of Tanzania, East Africa, to test hypotheses relating to direct predation and indirect effects of large migratory herds on calf survival of a resident megaherbivore. We examined neonatal survival via apparent reproduction of 860 adult females, and calf survival of 449 giraffe calves, during three precipitation seasons over 3 years, seeking evidence of some effect on neonate and calf survival as a consequence of the movements of large herds of migratory ungulates.We found that local lion predation pressure (lion density divided by primary prey density) was significantly negatively correlated with giraffe neonatal and calf survival probabilities. This supports the apparent mutualism hypothesis that the presence of migratory ungulates reduces lion predation on giraffe calves.Natural predation had a significant effect on giraffe calf and neonate survival, and could significantly affect giraffe

  5. Direct and indirect effects of ammonia, ammonium and nitrate on phosphatase activity and carbon fluxes from decomposing litter in peatland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, David; Moore, Lucy; Green, Samuel; Leith, Ian D.; Sheppard, Lucy J.

    2010-01-01

    Here we investigate the response of soils and litter to 5 years of experimental additions of ammonium (NH 4 ), nitrate (NO 3 ), and ammonia (NH 3 ) to an ombrotrophic peatland. We test the importance of direct (via soil) and indirect (via litter) effects on phosphatase activity and efflux of CO 2 . We also determined how species representing different functional types responded to the nitrogen treatments. Our results demonstrate that additions of NO 3 , NH 4 and NH 3 all stimulated phosphatase activity but the effects were dependent on species of litter and mechanism (direct or indirect). Deposition of NH 3 had no effect on efflux of CO 2 from Calluna vulgaris litter, despite it showing signs of stress in the field, whereas both NO 3 and NH 4 reduced CO 2 fluxes. Our results show that the collective impacts on peatlands of the three principal forms of nitrogen in atmospheric deposition are a result of differential effects and mechanisms on individual components. - We found that nitrogen deposition affects microbial activity associated with litter through both indirect and direct mechanisms, but these effects were dependent on the chemical form of inorganic nitrogen compounds.

  6. Direct and indirect measurement of the magnetocaloric effect in a La0.6Ca0.4MnO3 ceramic perovskite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, A.R.; Linderoth, Søren; Mørup, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The adiabatic temperature change DeltaT(ad) due to a change of the external magnetic field (the magnetocaloric effect) for a perovskite-type La0.6Ca0.4MnO3 sample has been measured directly and indirectly (from the entropy change) and the results are compared. From the indirect method, involving...

  7. Inconsistency between direct and indirect comparisons of competing interventions: meta-epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fujian; Xiong, Tengbin; Parekh-Bhurke, Sheetal; Loke, Yoon K; Sutton, Alex J; Eastwood, Alison J; Holland, Richard; Chen, Yen-Fu; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Deeks, Jonathan J; Altman, Doug G

    2011-08-16

    To investigate the agreement between direct and indirect comparisons of competing healthcare interventions. Meta-epidemiological study based on sample of meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and PubMed. Inclusion criteria Systematic reviews that provided sufficient data for both direct comparison and independent indirect comparisons of two interventions on the basis of a common comparator and in which the odds ratio could be used as the outcome statistic. Inconsistency measured by the difference in the log odds ratio between the direct and indirect methods. The study included 112 independent trial networks (including 1552 trials with 478,775 patients in total) that allowed both direct and indirect comparison of two interventions. Indirect comparison had already been explicitly done in only 13 of the 85 Cochrane reviews included. The inconsistency between the direct and indirect comparison was statistically significant in 16 cases (14%, 95% confidence interval 9% to 22%). The statistically significant inconsistency was associated with fewer trials, subjectively assessed outcomes, and statistically significant effects of treatment in either direct or indirect comparisons. Owing to considerable inconsistency, many (14/39) of the statistically significant effects by direct comparison became non-significant when the direct and indirect estimates were combined. Significant inconsistency between direct and indirect comparisons may be more prevalent than previously observed. Direct and indirect estimates should be combined in mixed treatment comparisons only after adequate assessment of the consistency of the evidence.

  8. Numerical investigation of wet-bulb effectiveness and water consumption in one-and two-stage indirect evaporative coolers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshari, Shahab; Heidarinejad, Ghassem; Fathipour, Aida

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Wet bulb effectiveness of indirect/indirect evaporative cooling systems are 76–81%. • Dimensionless water evaporation rate decreases as the primary air flow rate increases. • Water evaporation rate increases with increase of inlet dry bulb temperature. - Abstract: In this study, three configuration for two-stage indirect/indirect evaporative cooling systems (IEC/IEC) were proposed (Type A, Type B and Type C) to determine what configuration produces a better wet-bulb effectiveness (or better energy-saving). For this purpose, six cities with a variety of hot weather conditions with the dry-bulb in range of 31.9–46.66 °C were selected. Results show that under these three configuration, the wet-bulb effectiveness of Type A, Type B and Type C varies over ranges of 62–68%, 76–81% and 85–91% respectively, whereas the effectiveness of a one stage IEC varies over a range of 54–60%. There is a common misconceive belief in the concept of water evaporation rate of an evaporative cooling system, which were fueled by many articles; this belief is, if a cooler consumes less water it is an environmentally friendly cooler for dry areas. A more accurate and practical definition is proposed in this article named Dimensionless Water Evaporation Rate (DWER). The numerical results showed that Type B is the optimum configuration, because of a range of 4–24% DWER saving could be obtained by Type B in comparison with Type C whereas Type B increases the product air up to 32%. As well as IEC, in a counter-flow regenerative evaporative cooler the DWER decreases as the primary airflow rate increases whereas water consumption increases. Moreover, using Type B the index of thermal comfort was investigated which showed that Type B could meet thermal comfort condition in two climatic zones of temperate-dry and hot-dry.

  9. Factoring out natural and indirect human effects on terrestrial carbon sources and sinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canadell, J.G. [Global Carbon Project, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, GPO Box 3023, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Kirschbaum, M.U.F. [Environmental Biology Group, RSBS, Australian National University, GPO Box 475, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Kurz, W.A. [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, 506 West Burnside Road, Victoria, BC V8Z 1M5 (Canada); Sanz, M.J. [Fundacion CEAM, Parque Tecnologico, Charles H. Darwin 14, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Schlamadinger, B. [Joanneum Research, Elisabethstrasse 11, Graz A-8010 (Austria); Yamagata, Y. [Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute of Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    The capacity to partition natural, indirect, and direct human-induced effects on terrestrial carbon (C) sources and sinks is necessary to be able to predict future terrestrial C dynamics and thus their influence on atmospheric CO2 growth. However, it will take a number of years before we can better attribute quantitative estimates of the contribution of various C processes to the net C balance. In a policy context, factoring out natural and indirect human-induced effects on C sources and sinks from the direct human-induced influences, is seen as a requirement of a C accounting approach that establishes a clear and unambiguous connection between human activities and the assignment of C credits and debits. We present options for factoring out various groups of influences including climate variability, CO2 and N fertilization, and legacies from forest management. These are: (1) selecting longer accounting or measurement periods to reduce the effects of inter-annual variability; (2) correction of national inventories for inter-annual variability; (3) use of activity-based accounting and C response curves; (4) use of baseline scenarios or benchmarks at the national level; (5) stratification of the landscape into units with distinct average C stocks. Other, more sophisticated modeling approaches (e.g., demographic models in combination with forest inventories; process-based models) are possible options for future C accounting systems but their complexity and data requirements make their present adoption more difficult in an inclusive international C accounting system.

  10. Factoring out natural and indirect human effects on terrestrial carbon sources and sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadell, J.G.; Kirschbaum, M.U.F.; Kurz, W.A.; Sanz, M.J.; Schlamadinger, B.; Yamagata, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The capacity to partition natural, indirect, and direct human-induced effects on terrestrial carbon (C) sources and sinks is necessary to be able to predict future terrestrial C dynamics and thus their influence on atmospheric CO2 growth. However, it will take a number of years before we can better attribute quantitative estimates of the contribution of various C processes to the net C balance. In a policy context, factoring out natural and indirect human-induced effects on C sources and sinks from the direct human-induced influences, is seen as a requirement of a C accounting approach that establishes a clear and unambiguous connection between human activities and the assignment of C credits and debits. We present options for factoring out various groups of influences including climate variability, CO2 and N fertilization, and legacies from forest management. These are: (1) selecting longer accounting or measurement periods to reduce the effects of inter-annual variability; (2) correction of national inventories for inter-annual variability; (3) use of activity-based accounting and C response curves; (4) use of baseline scenarios or benchmarks at the national level; (5) stratification of the landscape into units with distinct average C stocks. Other, more sophisticated modeling approaches (e.g., demographic models in combination with forest inventories; process-based models) are possible options for future C accounting systems but their complexity and data requirements make their present adoption more difficult in an inclusive international C accounting system

  11. Changes in the North Sea fish community: evidence of indirect effects of fishing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daan, N.; Gislason, Henrik; Pope, J.

    2005-01-01

    , but such changes may simply reflect the cumulative, direct effects of fishing through selective removal of large individuals. If there is resilience in a fish community towards fishing, we may expect increases in specific components, for instance as a consequence of an associated reduction in predation and....... Taking average fishing mortality of assessed commercial species as an index of exploitation rate of the fish community, it appears that fishing effort reached its maximum in the mid-1980s and has declined slightly since. If the observed changes in the community are caused by indirect effects of fishing...

  12. An indecent proposal: the dual functions of indirect speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroff, Aleksandr; Thomas, Kyle A; Haque, Omar S; Young, Liane

    2015-01-01

    People often use indirect speech, for example, when trying to bribe a police officer by asking whether there might be "a way to take care of things without all the paperwork." Recent game theoretic accounts suggest that a speaker uses indirect speech to reduce public accountability for socially risky behaviors. The present studies examine a secondary function of indirect speech use: increasing the perceived moral permissibility of an action. Participants report that indirect speech is associated with reduced accountability for unethical behavior, as well as increased moral permissibility and increased likelihood of unethical behavior. Importantly, moral permissibility was a stronger mediator of the effect of indirect speech on likelihood of action, for judgments of one's own versus others' unethical action. In sum, the motorist who bribes the police officer with winks and nudges may not only avoid public punishment but also maintain the sense that his actions are morally permissible. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. Powering up with indirect reciprocity in a large-scale field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoeli, Erez; Hoffman, Moshe; Rand, David G; Nowak, Martin A

    2013-06-18

    A defining aspect of human cooperation is the use of sophisticated indirect reciprocity. We observe others, talk about others, and act accordingly. We help those who help others, and we cooperate expecting that others will cooperate in return. Indirect reciprocity is based on reputation, which spreads by communication. A crucial aspect of indirect reciprocity is observability: reputation effects can support cooperation as long as peoples' actions can be observed by others. In evolutionary models of indirect reciprocity, natural selection favors cooperation when observability is sufficiently high. Complimenting this theoretical work are experiments where observability promotes cooperation among small groups playing games in the laboratory. Until now, however, there has been little evidence of observability's power to promote large-scale cooperation in real world settings. Here we provide such evidence using a field study involving 2413 subjects. We collaborated with a utility company to study participation in a program designed to prevent blackouts. We show that observability triples participation in this public goods game. The effect is over four times larger than offering a $25 monetary incentive, the company's previous policy. Furthermore, as predicted by indirect reciprocity, we provide evidence that reputational concerns are driving our observability effect. In sum, we show how indirect reciprocity can be harnessed to increase cooperation in a relevant, real-world public goods game.

  14. OH radicals from the indirect actions of X-rays induce cell lethality and mediate the majority of the oxygen enhancement effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Ryoichi; Ito, Atsushi; Noguchi, Miho; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Uzawa, Akiko; Kobashi, Gen; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Furusawa, Yoshiya

    2013-11-01

    We examined OH radical-mediated indirect actions from X irradiation on cell killing in wild-type Chinese hamster ovary cell lines (CHO and AA8) under oxic and hypoxic conditions, and compared the contribution of direct and indirect actions under both conditions. The contribution of indirect action on cell killing can be estimated from the maximum degree of protection by dimethylsulfoxide, which suppresses indirect action by quenching OH radicals without affecting the direct action of X rays on cell killing. The contributions of indirect action on cell killing of CHO cells were 76% and 50% under oxic and hypoxic conditions, respectively, and those for AA8 cells were 85% and 47%, respectively. Therefore, the indirect action on cell killing was enhanced by oxygen during X irradiation in both cell lines tested. Oxygen enhancement ratios (OERs) at the 10% survival level (D10 or LD90) for CHO and AA8 cells were 2.68 ± 0.15 and 2.76 ± 0.08, respectively. OERs were evaluated separately for indirect and direct actions, which gave the values of 3.75 and 2.01 for CHO, and 4.11 and 1.32 for AA8 cells, respectively. Thus the generally accepted OER value of ∼3 is best understood as the average of the OER values for both indirect and direct actions. These results imply that both indirect and direct actions on cell killing require oxygen for the majority of lethal DNA damage, however, oxygen plays a larger role in indirect than for direct effects. Conversely, the lethal damage induced by the direct action of X rays are less affected by oxygen concentration.

  15. Indirect taxation in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Ene, Sebastian; Micuda, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Indirect taxes are levied on the production and consumption of goods and services. They influence the retail price, and hence affect patterns of trade and consumption. Indirect taxes are ultimately paid by the final consumer. Sales and turnover taxes, excise duties and tariffs are the basic indirect taxes. In contrast with direct taxes, indirect taxes are seldom progressive. The principles for the levying of these taxes will be considered before the analysis of indirect taxes.

  16. Growth performance and carcass traits in pigs selected for indirect genetic effects on growth rate in two environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camerlink, I.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Duijvesteijn, N.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bijma, P.

    2014-01-01

    Production traits such as growth rate may depend on the social interactions between group members. These social interactions might be partly heritable and are referred to as indirect genetic effects (IGE), social-, associative-, or competitive genetic effects. IGE may contribute to heritable

  17. Negative emotions and behaviour: The role of regulatory emotional self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesurado, Belén; Vidal, Elisabeth Malonda; Mestre, Anna Llorca

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study is to test a longitudinal model that analyses the direct effect of negative emotions (anger, depression and anxiety, wave 1) on prosocial and aggressive behaviour (wave 2) in adolescents. And the indirect effect of negative emotions (wave 1) on prosocial and aggressive behaviour (wave 2) through regulatory emotional self-efficacy. Data was obtained from 417 adolescents in a two-wave longitudinal study (225 girls, M age = 14.70 years) from schools located in Valencia, Spain. SEM was employed to explore longitudinal models. The results showed that anger had a direct relationship with prosocial behaviour and aggression, measured two years later. However, the depression and anxiety states did not predict prosociality and aggressiveness. The mediation role of regulatory emotional self-efficacy between negative emotion and behaviours was only partially confirmed. Finally, only the perception of self-efficacy in expressing positive affect is related to prosociality and aggressiveness. Copyright © 2018 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Shattered illusions: the effect of explicit memory mediation on an indirect memory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, P A; Mayes, A R; Meudell, P R

    1999-05-01

    Four experiments were conducted to explore the possible involvement of explicit memory in an indirect memory test in which white noise accompanying old sentences was judged to be quieter than white noise accompanying new sentences (Jacoby, Allan, Collins & Larwill, 1988). Experiment 1 established that this effect lasted up to 1 week. Experiment 2 found that a group of amnesic patients showed a noise effect that was marginally above chance and not significantly less that that of their matched controls after a delay of one day. Effect of time pressure at test (Experiment 3) and divided attention at study (Experiment 4) suggested that the memory processes mediating the noise effect were not automatic, although the possibility that the processes involve enhanced fluency is also discussed.

  19. Evidence of indirect gap in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Wei-Ting

    2017-10-09

    Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, such as MoS2 and WSe2, have been known as direct gap semiconductors and emerged as new optically active materials for novel device applications. Here we reexamine their direct gap properties by investigating the strain effects on the photoluminescence of monolayer MoS2 and WSe2. Instead of applying stress, we investigate the strain effects by imaging the direct exciton populations in monolayer WSe2–MoS2 and MoSe2–WSe2 lateral heterojunctions with inherent strain inhomogeneity. We find that unstrained monolayer WSe2 is actually an indirect gap material, as manifested in the observed photoluminescence intensity–energy correlation, from which the difference between the direct and indirect optical gaps can be extracted by analyzing the exciton thermal populations. Our findings combined with the estimated exciton binding energy further indicate that monolayer WSe2 exhibits an indirect quasiparticle gap, which has to be reconsidered in further studies for its fundamental properties and device applications.

  20. Consensus statement on defining and measuring negative effects of Internet interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rozental

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Internet interventions have great potential for alleviating emotional distress, promoting mental health, and enhancing well-being. Numerous clinical trials have demonstrated their efficacy for a number of psychiatric conditions, and interventions delivered via the Internet will likely become a common alternative to face-to-face treatment. Meanwhile, research has paid little attention to the negative effects associated with treatment, warranting further investigation of the possibility that some patients might deteriorate or encounter adverse events despite receiving best available care. Evidence from research of face-to-face treatment suggests that negative effects afflict 5–10% of all patients undergoing treatment in terms of deterioration. However, there is currently a lack of consensus on how to define and measure negative effects in psychotherapy research in general, leaving researchers without practical guidelines for monitoring and reporting negative effects in clinical trials. The current paper therefore seeks to provide recommendations that could promote the study of negative effects in Internet interventions with the aim of increasing the knowledge of its occurrence and characteristics. Ten leading experts in the field of Internet interventions were invited to participate and share their perspective on how to explore negative effects, using the Delphi technique to facilitate a dialog and reach an agreement. The authors discuss the importance of conducting research on negative effects in order to further the understanding of its incidence and different features. Suggestions on how to classify and measure negative effects in Internet interventions are proposed, involving methods from both quantitative and qualitative research. Potential mechanisms underlying negative effects are also discussed, differentiating common factors shared with face-to-face treatments from those unique to treatments delivered via the Internet. The authors

  1. Negative and Positive Peer Influence: Relations to Positive and Negative Behaviors for African American, European American, and Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Bean, Roy A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of negative and positive peer influence (i.e., indirect peer association and direct peer pressure) as they related to adolescent behavior. Regression analyses were conducted using a sample of African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents (N=1659, M age=16.06,…

  2. Specific and non-specific match effects in negative priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labossière, Danielle I; Leboe-McGowan, Jason P

    2018-01-01

    The negative priming effect occurs when withholding a response to a stimulus impairs generation of subsequent responding to a same or a related stimulus. Our goal was to use the negative priming procedure to obtain insights about the memory representations generated by ignoring vs. attending/responding to a prime stimulus. Across three experiments we observed that ignoring a prime stimulus tends to generate higher identity-independent, non-specific repetition effects, owing to an overlap in the coarse perceptual form of a prime distractor and a probe target. By contrast, attended repetition effects generate predominantly identity-specific sources of facilitation. We use these findings to advocate for using laboratory phenomena to illustrate general principles that can be of practical use to non-specialists. In the case of the negative priming procedure, we propose that the procedure provides a useful means for investigating attention/memory interactions, even if the specific cause (or causes) of negative priming effects remain unresolved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Direct and indirect welfare chauvinism as party strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Careja, Romana; Elmelund-Præstekær, Christian; Klitgaard, Michael Baggesen

    2016-01-01

    negatively affect immigrants the most. Combining quantitative and qualitative analysis of labour market reforms in Denmark, where one of the most successful populist right-wing parties in Europe – the Danish People's Party – held a pivotal position in the period 2001–11, the article traces the intentions...... and deliberate policy-making strategies of the party. It shows that the distinction between direct and indirect chauvinism is a useful theoretical tool for understanding how the Danish People's Party can fulfill the expectations of both its electorate and its coalition partners, even if they point in different...

  4. The Direct/Indirect Association of ADHD/ODD Symptoms with Self-esteem, Self-perception, and Depression in Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Yosuke; Inoue, Yuki

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to reveal the influences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms on self-esteem and self-perception during early adolescence and to clarify the spillover effect of self-esteem on depressive symptoms. ADHD symptoms in 564 early adolescents were evaluated via teacher-rating scales. Self-esteem and depressive symptoms were assessed via self-reported scales. We analyzed the relationships among these symptoms using structural equation modeling. Severe inattentive symptoms decreased self-esteem and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms affected self-perception for non-academic domains. Although these ADHD symptoms did not directly affect depressive symptoms, low self-esteem led to severe depression. ODD symptoms had a direct impact on depression without the mediating effects of self-esteem. These results indicated that inattentive symptoms had a negative impact on self-esteem and an indirect negative effect on depressive symptoms in adolescents, even if ADHD symptoms were subthreshold. Severe ODD symptoms can be directly associated with depressive symptoms during early adolescence.

  5. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Polczyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence for the existence of the two factors has been scarce. In the present study, more sophisticated and reliable tools for measuring suggestibility were applied than in the previous research, in the hope that better measurement would reveal the factor structure of suggestibility. Two tests of direct suggestibility were used: the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A, measuring hypnotic susceptibility, and the Barber Suggestibility Scale, measuring non-hypnotic direct imaginative suggestibility. Three tests served to measure indirect suggestibility: the Sensory Suggestibility Scale, measuring indirect suggestibility relating to perception; the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, measuring the tendency to yield to suggestive questions and changing answers after negative feedback; and the Emotional Dialogs Tests, measuring the tendency to perceive nonexistent aggression. Participants and procedure In sum, 115 participants were tested, 69 women, 49 men, mean age 22.20 years, SD = 2.20. Participants were tested in two sessions, lasting for a total of four hours. Results Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the existence of two uncorrelated factors of suggestibility: direct and indirect. Conclusions Suggestibility may indeed involve two factors, direct and indirect, and failure to discover them in previous research may be due to methodological problems.

  6. Natural selection for earlier male arrival to breeding grounds through direct and indirect effects in a migratory songbird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velmala, William; Helle, Samuli; Ahola, Markus P.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Lehikoinen, Esa; Rainio, Kalle; Sirkia, Paivi M.; Laaksonen, Toni

    2015-01-01

    For migratory birds, the earlier arrival of males to breeding grounds is often expected to have fitness benefits. However, the selection differential on male arrival time has rarely been decomposed into the direct effect of male arrival and potential indirect effects through female traits. We

  7. Indirect fluorometric detection techniques on thin layer chromatography and effect of ultrasound on gel electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yinfa, Ma.

    1990-12-10

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a broadly applicable separation technique. It offers many advantages over high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), such as easily adapted for two-dimensional separation, for whole-column'' detection and for handling multiple samples, etc. However, due to its draggy development of detection techniques comparing with HPLC, TLC has not received the attention it deserves. Therefore, exploring new detection techniques is very important to the development of TLC. It is the principal of this dissertation to present a new detection method for TLC -- indirect fluorometric detection method. This detection technique is universal sensitive, nondestructive, and simple. This will be described in detail from Sections 1 through Section 5. Section 1 and 3 describe the indirect fluorometric detection of anions and nonelectrolytes in TLC. In Section 2, a detection method for cations based on fluorescence quenching of ethidium bromide is presented. In Section 4, a simple and interesting TLC experiment is designed, three different fluorescence detection principles are used for the determination of caffeine, saccharin and sodium benzoate in beverages. A laser-based indirect fluorometric detection technique in TLC is developed in Section 5. Section 6 is totally different from Sections 1 through 5. An ultrasonic effect on the separation of DNA fragments in agarose gel electrophoresis is investigated. 262 refs.

  8. Differentiation of direct and indirect socioeconomic effects on suicide attempts in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Myung; Seong Sohn, Eui; An, Byungduck; Lim, Jiseun

    2017-12-01

    Despite the wide recognition of the inverse association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and suicidal behaviors, its underlying process and potential mediators are little known. This study investigated the pathway from SEP to suicide attempts with attention to potential mediators.From the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2013, which is a nationwide cross-sectional survey of the health and nutritional status, a total of 34,565 participants (≥30 years) were included in the analysis. To unfold the pathways linking SEP to suicide attempts, the direct and indirect effects of 3 SEP measures (educational attainment, household income, and occupational group) and 3 mediators (physical illness, mental health problems, and problematic drinking) were differentiated using structured equation model (SEM).Most of direct and indirect effects of educational attainment, household income, and occupational group on suicide attempts were significant; Nonemployment status had the largest total (β = 0.291, P suicide attempts, compared to mental health problem and problem drinking.Overall, experience of socioeconomic disadvantage increased suicide attempts independently of mental and physical problems. An extension of suicide prevention program is required for comprehensively targeting people with general problems such as physical illness and low SEP, complemented to narrowly targeting high risk group with, such as mental health problem. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Indirect self-destructiveness in individuals with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Tsirigotis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the indirect self-destructiveness syndrome in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Two hundred individuals with paranoid schizophrenia (117 men and 83 women, mean age 37.15 years, all in remission, were examined using the Polish version of the Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale. Two hundred well-matched healthy individuals served as a control group. Results: The intensity of indirect self-destructiveness was greater in the schizophrenia group than in controls. The intensity of each manifestation was as follows (in decreasing order: helplessness and passiveness in the face of difficulties (A5, personal and social neglects (A3, lack of planfulness (A4, poor health maintenance (A2, transgression and risk (A1. Conclusion: Patients with schizophrenia displayed more behaviors that were indirectly self-destructive than healthy controls; they scored better than healthy controls only on caring for their own health. The patients showed the lowest intensity of behaviors connected with the active form of indirect self-destructiveness, and the highest intensity of behaviors connected with the passive form. These findings may enable delivery of more effective forms of pharmacological and psychosocial help to patients with schizophrenia.

  10. Lateralized direct and indirect semantic priming effects in subjects with paranormal experiences and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzagalli, D; Lehmann, D; Brugger, P

    2001-01-01

    The present investigation tested the hypothesis that, as an aspect of schizotypal thinking, the formation of paranormal beliefs was related to spreading activation characteristics within semantic networks. From a larger student population (n = 117) prescreened for paranormal belief, 12 strong believers and 12 strong disbelievers (all women) were invited for a lateralized semantic priming task with directly and indirectly related prime-target pairs. Believers showed stronger indirect (but not direct) semantic priming effects than disbelievers after left (but not right) visual field stimulation, indicating faster appreciation of distant semantic relations specifically by the right hemisphere, reportedly specialized in coarse rather than focused semantic processing. These results are discussed in the light of recent findings in schizophrenic patients with thought disorders. They suggest that a disinhibition with semantic networks may underlie the formation of paranormal belief. The potential usefulness of work with healthy subjects for neuropsychiatric research is stressed. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Plant genetic variation mediates an indirect ecological effect between belowground earthworms and aboveground aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akanksha; Braun, Julia; Decker, Emilia; Hans, Sarah; Wagner, Agnes; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Zytynska, Sharon E

    2014-10-21

    Interactions between aboveground and belowground terrestrial communities are often mediated by plants, with soil organisms interacting via the roots and aboveground organisms via the shoots and leaves. Many studies now show that plant genetics can drive changes in the structure of both above and belowground communities; however, the role of plant genetic variation in mediating aboveground-belowground interactions is still unclear. We used an earthworm-plant-aphid model system with two aphid species (Aphis fabae and Acyrthosiphon pisum) to test the effect of host-plant (Vicia faba) genetic variation on the indirect interaction between the belowground earthworms (Eisenia veneta) on the aboveground aphid populations. Our data shows that host-plant variety mediated an indirect ecological effect of earthworms on generalist black bean aphids (A. fabae), with earthworms increasing aphid growth rate in three plant varieties but decreasing it in another variety. We found no effect of earthworms on the second aphid species, the pea aphid (A. pisum), and no effect of competition between the aphid species. Plant biomass was increased when earthworms were present, and decreased when A. pisum was feeding on the plant (mediated by plant variety). Although A. fabae aphids were influenced by the plants and worms, they did not, in turn, alter plant biomass. Previous work has shown inconsistent effects of earthworms on aphids, but we suggest these differences could be explained by plant genetic variation and variation among aphid species. This study demonstrates that the outcome of belowground-aboveground interactions can be mediated by genetic variation in the host-plant, but depends on the identity of the species involved.

  12. Negative life events vary by neighborhood and mediate the relation between neighborhood context and psychological well-being.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine King

    Full Text Available Researchers have speculated that negative life events are more common in troubled neighborhoods, amplifying adverse effects on health. Using a clustered representative sample of Chicago residents (2001-03; n = 3,105 from the Chicago Community Adult Health Survey, we provide the first documentation that negative life events are highly geographically clustered compared to health outcomes. Associations between neighborhood context and negative life events were also found to vary by event type. We then demonstrate the power of a contextualized approach by testing path models in which life events mediate the relation between neighborhood characteristics and health outcomes, including self-rated health, anxiety, and depression. The indirect paths between neighborhood conditions and health through negative life event exposure are highly significant and large compared to the direct paths from neighborhood conditions to health. Our results indicate that neighborhood conditions can have acute as well as chronic effects on health, and that negative life events are a powerful mechanism by which context may influence health.

  13. Negative life events vary by neighborhood and mediate the relation between neighborhood context and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Katherine; Ogle, Christin

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have speculated that negative life events are more common in troubled neighborhoods, amplifying adverse effects on health. Using a clustered representative sample of Chicago residents (2001-03; n = 3,105) from the Chicago Community Adult Health Survey, we provide the first documentation that negative life events are highly geographically clustered compared to health outcomes. Associations between neighborhood context and negative life events were also found to vary by event type. We then demonstrate the power of a contextualized approach by testing path models in which life events mediate the relation between neighborhood characteristics and health outcomes, including self-rated health, anxiety, and depression. The indirect paths between neighborhood conditions and health through negative life event exposure are highly significant and large compared to the direct paths from neighborhood conditions to health. Our results indicate that neighborhood conditions can have acute as well as chronic effects on health, and that negative life events are a powerful mechanism by which context may influence health.

  14. Negative Emotionality and Disconstraint Influence PTSD Symptom Course via Exposure to New Major Adverse Life Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Naomi; Miller, Mark W.; Wolf, Erika J.; Harkness, Kate L.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the factors that influence stability and change in chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is important for improving clinical outcomes. Using a cross-lagged design, we analyzed the reciprocal effects of personality and PTSD symptoms over time and their effects on stress exposure in a sample of 222 trauma-exposed veterans (ages 23 – 68; 90.5% male). Personality functioning and PTSD were measured approximately 4 years apart, and self-reported exposure to major adverse life events during the interim was also assessed. Negative emotionality positively predicted future PTSD symptoms, and this effect was partially mediated by exposure to new events. Constraint (negatively) indirectly affected PTSD via its association with exposure to new events. There were no significant effects of positive emotionality nor did PTSD symptom severity exert influences on personality over time. Results indicate that high negative affect and disconstraint influence the course of PTSD symptoms by increasing exposure to stressful life events. PMID:25659969

  15. An Empirical Analysis of Indirect Network Effects in the Home Video Game Market

    OpenAIRE

    James E. Prieger; Wei-Min Hu

    2006-01-01

    We explore the indirect network effect in the market for home video games. We examine the video game console makers’ strategic choice between increasing demand by lowering console price and by encouraging the growth of software variety. We also explore the existence of an applications barrier to entry in the console market, and find that there is little evidence for such a barrier. Finally, we assess the applicability of the model to out-of-sample situations, to look at whether our model and ...

  16. Lack of indirect sensitization in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetzel, F.W.; Avery, K.; Mensinger, M.; Frinak, S.; Tidwell, C.

    1985-01-01

    The possible utility of respiratory inhibiting drugs as indirect radiation sensitizers has been investigated in both in vitro and in vivo systems. In vitro studies were conducted in V79 monolayer and spheroid cultures examining both respiratory inhibition and radiation survival as end points. These drugs (BCNU, Mustargen and Chlorambucil) were found to be potent respiratory inhibitors and, in the spheroid system, to be effective indirect radiation sensitizers with enhancement ratios of approximately 2.0. In vivo studies with these drugs have also been conducted in a C/sub 3/H mouse MCa tumor system to determine if the same reoxygenation effect observed in spheroids could be demonstrated in the solid tumor system. Detailed microelectrode studies, employing each drug at its LD/sub 10/ level, have been unable to demonstrate any drug induced reoxygenation for any of the drugs tested. Complete details are presented

  17. Invited commentary: boundless science--putting natural direct and indirect effects in a clearer empirical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Ashley I

    2015-07-15

    Epidemiologists are increasingly using natural effects for applied mediation analyses, yet 1 key identifying assumption is unintuitive and subject to some controversy. In this issue of the Journal, Jiang and VanderWeele (Am J Epidemiol. 2015;182(2):105-108) formalize the conditions under which the difference method can be used to estimate natural indirect effects. In this commentary, I discuss implications of the controversial "cross-worlds" independence assumption needed to identify natural effects. I argue that with a binary mediator, a simple modification of the authors' approach will provide bounds for natural direct and indirect effect estimates that better reflect the capacity of the available data to support empirical statements on the presence of mediated effects. I discuss complications encountered when odds ratios are used to decompose effects, as well as the implications of incorrectly assuming the absence of exposure-induced mediator-outcome confounders. I note that the former problem can be entirely resolved using collapsible measures of effect, such as risk ratios. In the Appendix, I use previous derivations for natural direct effect bounds on the risk difference scale to provide bounds on the odds ratio scale that accommodate 1) uncertainty due to the cross-world independence assumption and 2) uncertainty due to the cross-world independence assumption and the presence of exposure-induced mediator-outcome confounders. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Modelling the co-evolution of indirect genetic effects and inherited variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Jovana; Mulder, Han A; Rönnegård, Lars; Bijma, Piter

    2018-03-28

    When individuals interact, their phenotypes may be affected not only by their own genes but also by genes in their social partners. This phenomenon is known as Indirect Genetic Effects (IGEs). In aquaculture species and some plants, however, competition not only affects trait levels of individuals, but also inflates variability of trait values among individuals. In the field of quantitative genetics, the variability of trait values has been studied as a quantitative trait in itself, and is often referred to as inherited variability. Such studies, however, consider only the genetic effect of the focal individual on trait variability and do not make a connection to competition. Although the observed phenotypic relationship between competition and variability suggests an underlying genetic relationship, the current quantitative genetic models of IGE and inherited variability do not allow for such a relationship. The lack of quantitative genetic models that connect IGEs to inherited variability limits our understanding of the potential of variability to respond to selection, both in nature and agriculture. Models of trait levels, for example, show that IGEs may considerably change heritable variation in trait values. Currently, we lack the tools to investigate whether this result extends to variability of trait values. Here we present a model that integrates IGEs and inherited variability. In this model, the target phenotype, say growth rate, is a function of the genetic and environmental effects of the focal individual and of the difference in trait value between the social partner and the focal individual, multiplied by a regression coefficient. The regression coefficient is a genetic trait, which is a measure of cooperation; a negative value indicates competition, a positive value cooperation, and an increasing value due to selection indicates the evolution of cooperation. In contrast to the existing quantitative genetic models, our model allows for co-evolution of

  19. Thrill Seeking and Religiosity in Relation to Adolescent Substance Use: Tests of Joint, Interactive, and Indirect Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W. Alex; Spoth, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Thrill seeking is a robust positive predictor of adolescent substance use. Religiosity is negatively associated with substance use among teens, although findings are mixed. Few studies have examined the interplay between these two prominent risk and protective factors. The current study addresses this gap by examining the joint, interactive, and indirect influences of thrill seeking and each of two dimensions of religiosity, religious salience and religious attendance, in relation to adolescent substance use. Participants were 667 rural youths (345 girls and 322 boys) and their families participating in a longitudinal family-focused prevention trial. Data were collected via self-report surveys at six time points across seven years, spanning ages 11 through 18. Results from latent growth curve analyses showed that both religious salience and religious attendance growth factors were associated negatively with late adolescent substance use, while adjusting for thrill seeking and selected covariates. Although the link between thrill seeking and substance use was not moderated by religiosity, there was a statistically significant indirect effect of thrill seeking on the outcome through a faster rate of downturn in religious attendance. Family intervention also predicted a slower rate of downturn in religious attendance and was associated negatively with substance use in late adolescence. Early adolescent substance use predicted a faster rate of decrease in religious salience throughout the teen years. The pattern of associations was similar for boys and girls. Findings suggest that teens who are elevated on thrill seeking could be targeted for specially-designed substance use prevention programs and provide additional evidence for the efficacy of family interventions. PMID:21574673

  20. Spatially indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Chih-Wei Eddy [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-03-01

    Microscopic quantum phenomena such as interference or phase coherence between different quantum states are rarely manifest in macroscopic systems due to a lack of significant correlation between different states. An exciton system is one candidate for observation of possible quantum collective effects. In the dilute limit, excitons in semiconductors behave as bosons and are expected to undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) at a temperature several orders of magnitude higher than for atomic BEC because of their light mass. Furthermore, well-developed modern semiconductor technologies offer flexible manipulations of an exciton system. Realization of BEC in solid-state systems can thus provide new opportunities for macroscopic quantum coherence research. In semiconductor coupled quantum wells (CQW) under across-well static electric field, excitons exist as separately confined electron-hole pairs. These spatially indirect excitons exhibit a radiative recombination time much longer than their thermal relaxation time a unique feature in direct band gap semiconductor based structures. Their mutual repulsive dipole interaction further stabilizes the exciton system at low temperature and screens in-plane disorder more effectively. All these features make indirect excitons in CQW a promising system to search for quantum collective effects. Properties of indirect excitons in CQW have been analyzed and investigated extensively. The experimental results based on time-integrated or time-resolved spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and imaging are reported in two categories. (i) Generic indirect exciton systems: general properties of indirect excitons such as the dependence of exciton energy and lifetime on electric fields and densities were examined. (ii) Quasi-two-dimensional confined exciton systems: highly statistically degenerate exciton systems containing more than tens of thousands of excitons within areas as small as (10 micrometer)2 were

  1. Indirect reciprocity in three types of social dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2014-08-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a key mechanism for the evolution of human cooperation. Previous studies explored indirect reciprocity in the so-called donation game, a special class of Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) with unilateral decision making. A more general class of social dilemmas includes Snowdrift (SG), Stag Hunt (SH), and PD games, where two players perform actions simultaneously. In these simultaneous-move games, moral assessments need to be more complex; for example, how should we evaluate defection against an ill-reputed, but now cooperative, player? We examined indirect reciprocity in the three social dilemmas and identified twelve successful social norms for moral assessments. These successful norms have different principles in different dilemmas for suppressing cheaters. To suppress defectors, any defection against good players is prohibited in SG and PD, whereas defection against good players may be allowed in SH. To suppress unconditional cooperators, who help anyone and thereby indirectly contribute to jeopardizing indirect reciprocity, we found two mechanisms: indiscrimination between actions toward bad players (feasible in SG and PD) or punishment for cooperation with bad players (effective in any social dilemma). Moreover, we discovered that social norms that unfairly favor reciprocators enhance robustness of cooperation in SH, whereby reciprocators never lose their good reputation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Indirect effects of domestic and wild herbivores on butterflies in an African savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Marit L; Roche, Leslie M; Young, Truman P

    2013-10-01

    Indirect interactions driven by livestock and wild herbivores are increasingly recognized as important aspects of community dynamics in savannas and rangelands. Large ungulate herbivores can both directly and indirectly impact the reproductive structures of plants, which in turn can affect the pollinators of those plants. We examined how wild herbivores and cattle each indirectly affect the abundance of a common pollinator butterfly taxon, Colotis spp., at a set of long-term, large herbivore exclosure plots in a semiarid savanna in central Kenya. We also examined effects of herbivore exclusion on the main food plant of Colotis spp., which was also the most common flowering species in our plots: the shrub Cadaba farinosa. The study was conducted in four types of experimental plots: cattle-only, wildlife-only, cattle and wildlife (all large herbivores), and no large herbivores. Across all plots, Colotis spp. abundances were positively correlated with both Cadaba flower numbers (adult food resources) and total Cadaba canopy area (larval food resources). Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that floral resources drove the abundance of Colotis butterflies. Excluding browsing wildlife increased the abundances of both Cadaba flowers and Colotis butterflies. However, flower numbers and Colotis spp. abundances were greater in plots with cattle herbivory than in plots that excluded all large herbivores. Our results suggest that wild browsing herbivores can suppress pollinator species whereas well-managed cattle use may benefit important pollinators and the plants that depend on them. This study documents a novel set of ecological interactions that demonstrate how both conservation and livelihood goals can be met in a working landscape with abundant wildlife and livestock.

  3. The chain effects of property-led redevelopment in Shenzhen : Price-shadowing and indirect displacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Ying; Tang, Shuangshuang; Geertman, Stan; Lin, Yanliu; van Oort, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Many Chinese cities are undergoing large-scale property-led redevelopment, which can result in both direct and indirect residential displacement. Although a number of studies on direct displacement have been carried out, insights into the mechanisms underlying indirect displacement are lacking. The

  4. Negative emotionality and externalizing problems in toddlerhood: overreactive parenting as a moderator of genetic influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Shannon T; Leve, Leslie D; Shaw, Daniel S; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Scaramella, Laura V; Ge, Xiaojia; Conger, Rand D; Reid, John B; Reiss, David

    2012-02-01

    The current study examines the interplay between parental overreactivity and children's genetic backgrounds as inferred from birth parent characteristics on the development of negative emotionality during infancy, and in turn, to individual differences in externalizing problems in toddlerhood. The sample included 361 families linked through adoption (birth parents and adoptive families). Data were collected when the children were 9, 18, and 27 months old. Results indicated links between individual levels and changes in negative emotionality during infancy and toddlerhood to externalizing problems early in the third year of life. Findings also revealed an interaction between birth mother negative affect and adoptive mother overreactive parenting on children's negative emotionality. This Genotype × Environment interaction predicted externalizing problems indirectly through its association with negative emotionality and revealed stronger effects of genetic risk for children with less overreactive parenting from their mothers. Limitations of this study and directions for future research are discussed.

  5. Leveling the playing field of transportation fuels: Accounting for indirect emissions of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, Steven; Eyer, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Natural gas transportation fuels are credited in prior studies with greenhouse gas emissions savings relative to petroleum-based fuels and relative to the total emissions of biofuels. These analyses, however, overlook a source of potentially large indirect emissions from natural gas transportation fuels, namely the emissions from incremental coal-fired generation caused by price-induced substitutions away from natural-gas-fired electricity generation. Because coal-fired generation emits substantially more greenhouse gases and criteria air pollutants than natural-gas-fired generation, this indirect coal-use change effect diminishes potential emissions savings from natural gas transportation fuels. Estimates from a parameterized multi-market model suggest the indirect coal-use change effect rivals in magnitude the indirect land-use change effect of biofuels and renders natural gas fuels as carbon intensive as petroleum fuels. - Highlights: •Natural gas used in transport causes indirect emissions in the electricity sector. •These emissions result from increased coal use in electricity generation. •They rival in magnitude indirect land use change (ILUC) emissions of biofuels. •Natural gas fuels are estimated to be as carbon intensive as the petroleum fuels. •Policy ignores indirect emissions from natural gas.

  6. Supporting Risk Assessment: Accounting for Indirect Risk to Ecosystem Components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Clarke Murray

    Full Text Available The multi-scalar complexity of social-ecological systems makes it challenging to quantify impacts from human activities on ecosystems, inspiring risk-based approaches to assessments of potential effects of human activities on valued ecosystem components. Risk assessments do not commonly include the risk from indirect effects as mediated via habitat and prey. In this case study from British Columbia, Canada, we illustrate how such "indirect risks" can be incorporated into risk assessments for seventeen ecosystem components. We ask whether (i the addition of indirect risk changes the at-risk ranking of the seventeen ecosystem components and if (ii risk scores correlate with trophic prey and habitat linkages in the food web. Even with conservative assumptions about the transfer of impacts or risks from prey species and habitats, the addition of indirect risks in the cumulative risk score changes the ranking of priorities for management. In particular, resident orca, Steller sea lion, and Pacific herring all increase in relative risk, more closely aligning these species with their "at-risk status" designations. Risk assessments are not a replacement for impact assessments, but-by considering the potential for indirect risks as we demonstrate here-they offer a crucial complementary perspective for the management of ecosystems and the organisms within.

  7. Supporting Risk Assessment: Accounting for Indirect Risk to Ecosystem Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Megan E.; Martone, Rebecca G.; Singh, Gerald G.; O, Miriam; Chan, Kai M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The multi-scalar complexity of social-ecological systems makes it challenging to quantify impacts from human activities on ecosystems, inspiring risk-based approaches to assessments of potential effects of human activities on valued ecosystem components. Risk assessments do not commonly include the risk from indirect effects as mediated via habitat and prey. In this case study from British Columbia, Canada, we illustrate how such “indirect risks” can be incorporated into risk assessments for seventeen ecosystem components. We ask whether (i) the addition of indirect risk changes the at-risk ranking of the seventeen ecosystem components and if (ii) risk scores correlate with trophic prey and habitat linkages in the food web. Even with conservative assumptions about the transfer of impacts or risks from prey species and habitats, the addition of indirect risks in the cumulative risk score changes the ranking of priorities for management. In particular, resident orca, Steller sea lion, and Pacific herring all increase in relative risk, more closely aligning these species with their “at-risk status” designations. Risk assessments are not a replacement for impact assessments, but—by considering the potential for indirect risks as we demonstrate here—they offer a crucial complementary perspective for the management of ecosystems and the organisms within. PMID:27632287

  8. Protection of electrical and electronic equipment against lightning indirect effects on the Airbus A340 wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Olaf

    1991-01-01

    The provisions applied to the Airbus A340 wing wiring against lightning indirect effects are presented. The construction and installation of the wiring's shielding systems are described, and the analysis and tests performed to determine the effectiveness of the measures taken are discussed. A first evaluation of the results of the theoretical analysis together with the provisional results of tests indicate a sufficient safety margin between required and achieved protection levels.

  9. The potential indirect effects among plants via shared hummingbird pollinators are structured by phenotypic similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamo, Pedro Joaquim; Wolowski, Marina; Maruyama, Pietro Kiyoshi; Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Sazima, Marlies

    2017-07-01

    Plant species within communities may overlap in pollinators' use and influence visitation patterns of shared pollinators, potentially engaging in indirect interactions (e.g., facilitation or competition). While several studies have explored the mechanisms regulating insect-pollination networks, there is a lack of studies on bird-pollination systems, particularly in species-rich tropical areas. Here, we evaluated if phenotypic similarity, resource availability (floral abundance), evolutionary relatedness and flowering phenology affect the potential for indirect effects via shared pollinators in hummingbird-pollinated plant species within four communities in the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Among the evaluated factors, phenotypic similarity (corolla length and anther height) was the most important variable, while resource availability (floral abundance) had a secondary importance. On the other hand, evolutionary relatedness and flowering phenology were less important, which altogether highlights the relevance of convergent evolution and that the contribution of a plant to the diet of the pollinators of another plant is independent of the level of temporal overlap in flowering in this tropical system. Interestingly, our findings contrast with results from multiple insect-pollinated plant communities, mostly from temperate regions, in which floral abundance was the most important driver, followed by evolutionary relatedness and phenotypic similarity. We propose that these contrasting results are due to high level of specialization inherent to tropical hummingbird-pollination systems. Moreover, our results demonstrated that factors defining linkage rules of plant-hummingbird networks also determinate plant-plant potential indirect effects. Future studies are needed to test if these findings can be generalized to other highly specialized systems. Overall, our results have important implications for the understanding of ecological processes due resource sharing in

  10. The developmental effects of media-ideal internalization and self-objectification processes on adolescents' negative body-feelings, dietary restraint, and binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Fida, Roberta; Clerici, Massimo; Zanetti, Maria Assunta; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-08-01

    Despite accumulated experimental evidence of the negative effects of exposure to media-idealized images, the degree to which body image, and eating related disturbances are caused by media portrayals of gendered beauty ideals remains controversial. On the basis of the most up-to-date meta-analysis of experimental studies indicating that media-idealized images have the most harmful and substantial impact on vulnerable individuals regardless of gender (i.e., "internalizers" and "self-objectifiers"), the current longitudinal study examined the direct and mediated links posited in objectification theory among media-ideal internalization, self-objectification, shame and anxiety surrounding the body and appearance, dietary restraint, and binge eating. Data collected from 685 adolescents aged between 14 and 15 at baseline (47 % males), who were interviewed and completed standardized measures annually over a 3-year period, were analyzed using a structural equation modeling approach. Results indicated that media-ideal internalization predicted later thinking and scrutinizing of one's body from an external observer's standpoint (or self-objectification), which then predicted later negative emotional experiences related to one's body and appearance. In turn, these negative emotional experiences predicted subsequent dietary restraint and binge eating, and each of these core features of eating disorders influenced each other. Differences in the strength of these associations across gender were not observed, and all indirect effects were significant. The study provides valuable information about how the cultural values embodied by gendered beauty ideals negatively influence adolescents' feelings, thoughts and behaviors regarding their own body, and on the complex processes involved in disordered eating. Practical implications are discussed.

  11. Modelling of the indirect radiation effect due to background aerosols in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, D.

    2009-01-01

    Aerosols and greenhouse gases are the two most important contributors to the anthropogenic climate change. The indirect aerosol effect is simulated in this study. The effects of black carbon are investigated. Usually, models use measured aerosol data as input, and their predictions are compared to cloud parameters measured independently from the aerosol measurements. The model developed in this study uses simultaneously measured values for the aerosol and the subsequent cloud. This way, more realistic predictions for the indirect aerosol effect can be expected. The model uses data from an earlier intensive measurement campaign at an Austrian background site. The aerosol and cloud data are taken from the FWF project P 131 43 - CHE and had been collected in 2000 at a measurement site on a mountain in the proximity of Vienna (Rax, 1680 m a.s.l.). The simulation model consists of two parts, a cloud droplet growth model and a radiative model. The growth model for cloud droplets computes the cloud droplet distribution originating from a measured aerosol distribution. The calculated cloud droplet size distributions that are used for further calculations are selected according to the measured liquid water content of the real-world cloud. The radiative model then computes the radiative forcing using the calculated cloud droplet size distribution. The cloud model is a cloud parcel model which describes an ascending air parcel containing the droplets. Turbulent diffusion (important for stratiform clouds) is realized through a simple approach. The model includes nucleation, condensation, coagulation and radiative effects. Because of radiative heating/cooling of the cloud droplets the temperature and the critical super-saturation of the droplets can change. For radiative transfer calculations, the radiative transfer code of the public domain program 'Streamer' was adapted for this study. 'Streamer' accounts for scattering and absorption of radiation in the whole spectral region

  12. Direct and Indirect Effects of Marketing Effort on Brand Awareness and Brand Image.

    OpenAIRE

    Villarejo Ramos, Ángel Francisco; Rondán Cataluña, Francisco Javier; Sánchez Franco, Manuel Jesús

    2008-01-01

    The marketing effort orientated to towards strengthening the brand means to increase the degree of knowledge of the brand name. In this paper we want to show the relationship between brand awareness and brand image. Starting out from a theoretical review, we set out a model of direct and indirect effects of the marketing effort-as the brand's antecedents-on brand awareness and brand image. Via the empirical support used, a questionnaire of a sample of consumers, we try to find out how the mar...

  13. Quantifying the direct and indirect rebound effects for consumers as a response to energy-saving technologies in the EU-27

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, J.; Poliakov, E.V.

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the rebound effect for residential space heating at the EU-27 level, which occurs when an improvement in energy efficiency results in additional energy consumption. Three types of rebound effects are distinguished, namely the direct effect, indirect effect and the embodied energy. We

  14. Excess mortality due to indirect health effects of the 2011 triple disaster in Fukushima, Japan: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomohiro; Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Leppold, Claire; Gilmour, Stuart; Ochi, Sae; Ozaki, Akihiko; Shimada, Yuki; Yamamoto, Kana; Inoue, Manami; Kato, Shigeaki; Shibuya, Kenji; Kami, Masahiro

    2017-10-01

    Evidence on the indirect health impacts of disasters is limited. We assessed the excess mortality risk associated with the indirect health impacts of the 2011 triple disaster (earthquake, tsunami and nuclear disaster) in Fukushima, Japan. The mortality rates in Soma and Minamisoma cities in Fukushima from 2006 to 2015 were calculated using vital statistics and resident registrations. We investigated the excess mortality risk, defined as the increased mortality risk between postdisaster and predisaster after excluding direct deaths attributed to the physical force of the disaster. Multivariate Poisson regression models were used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of mortality after adjusting for city, age and year. There were 6163 and 6125 predisaster and postdisaster deaths, respectively. The postdisaster mortality risk was significantly higher in the first month following the disaster (March 2011) than in the same month during the predisaster period (March 2006-2010). RRs among men and women were 2.64 (95% CI 2.16 to 3.24) and 2.46 (95% CI 1.99 to 3.03), respectively, demonstrating excess mortality risk due to the indirect health effects of the disaster. Age-specific subgroup analyses revealed a significantly higher mortality risk in women aged ≥85 years in the third month of the disaster compared with predisaster baseline, with an RR (95% CI) of 1.73 (1.23 to 2.44). Indirect health impacts are most severe in the first month of the disaster. Early public health support, especially for the elderly, can be an important factor for reducing the indirect health effects of a disaster. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. An effective model for fermion dark matter. Indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter in astronomy with the CELESTE Telescope; Modele effectif de matiere noire fermionique. Detection indirecte de matiere noir supersymetrique en astronomie avec le Telescope CELESTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavalle, Julien [Ecole Doctorale des Sciences Fondamentales, Universite Blaise Pascal, Aubiere (France)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to discuss both phenomenological and experimental aspects of Dark Matter, related to its indirect detection with gamma-ray astronomy. In the MSSM framework, neutralinos arise as natural candidates to non-baryonic and Cold Dark Matter, whose gravitational effects manifest in the Universe at different scales. As they are Majorana particles, they may in principle annihilate in high density regions, as the centres of galaxies, and produce gamma rays. Nevertheless, the expected fluxes are basically low compared to experimental sensitivities. After estimating gamma fluxes from M31 and Draco galaxies in the MSSM scheme, we first generalize the MSSM couplings by studying an effective Lagrangian. We show that the only constraint of imposing a relic abundance compatible with recent measurements obviously deplete significantly the gamma ray production, but also that predictions in this effective approach are more optimistic for indirect detection than the MSSM. In a second part, we present the indirect searches for Dark Matter performed with the CELESTE Cherenkov telescope towards the galaxy M31. We propose a statistical method to reconstruct spectra, mandatory to discriminate classical and exotic spectra. The M31 data analysis enables the extraction of an upper limit on the gamma ray flux, which is the first worldwide for a galaxy in the energy range 50-500 GeV, and whose astrophysical interest goes beyond indirect searches for Dark Matter. (author)

  16. Relationships Between Stress, Negative Emotions, Resilience, and Smoking: Testing a Moderated Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Xinguang; Gong, Jie; Yan, Yaqiong

    2016-01-01

    More effective tobacco prevention and cessation programs require in-depth understanding of the mechanism by which multiple factors interact with each other to affect smoking behaviors. Stress has long been recognized as a risk factor for smoking. However, the underlying mediation and moderation mechanisms are far from clear. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of negative emotions in mediating the link between stress and smoking and whether this indirect link was modified by resilience. Survey data were collected using audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) from a large random sample of urban residents (n = 1249, mean age = 35.1, 45.3% male) in Wuhan, China. Perceived stress, negative emotions (anxiety, depression), resilience were measured with reliable instruments also validated in China. Self-reported smoking was validated with exhaled carbon monoxide. Mediation analysis indicated that two negative emotions fully mediated the link between stress and intensity of smoking (assessed by number of cigarettes smoked per day, effect =.082 for anxiety and.083 for depression) and nicotine dependence (assessed by DSM-IV standard, effect =.134 for anxiety and.207 for depression). Moderated mediation analysis demonstrated that the mediation effects of negative emotions were negatively associated with resilience. Results suggest resilience interacts with stress and negative emotions to affect the risk of tobacco use and nicotine dependence among Chinese adults. Further research with longitudinal data is needed to verify the findings of this study and to estimate the effect size of resilience in tobacco intervention and cessation programs.

  17. Mexican American adolescent couples' vulnerability for observed negativity and physical violence: Pregnancy and acculturation mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lela Rankin; Rueda, Heidi Adams

    2016-10-01

    Stress and vulnerability for dating violence may be heightened among acculturating Mexican American (MA) adolescents, and MA adolescent parents, because of differing cultural values and norms within romantic relationships. We hypothesized, in a sample of MA heterosexual couples (N = 30, 15-17 years), that: 1) within-couple level acculturation discrepancies, and pregnancy/parenting, would predict physical violence perpetration, and 2) that this association would have an indirect effect through couple-level negativity during an observed dyadic video-taped discussion of conflict. Using a path model we found that pregnant/parenting adolescents (B = .37, SE = .16, p = .002), and couples with greater acculturation mismatch resulted in greater couple negativity (B = .16, SE = .06, p = .01), which was associated with self-reported physical violence perpetration (B = .41, SE = .22, p = .02; indirect effect, B = .15, SE = .07, p = .03). Within-couple acculturation discrepancies and pregnancy/parenting may be a pathway to dating violence through poor communication skills around conflict for MA youth. Support services that strengthen communication skills, particularly for pregnant/parenting couples, are recommended. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rate and predictors of negative effects of psychotherapy in psychiatric and psychosomatic inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheker, Julia; Beisel, Sylvia; Kräling, Svenja; Rief, Winfried

    2017-08-01

    Studies examining the rates of negative effects of psychotherapy are rare and the reported rates differ widely. To be able to calculate adequate benefit-cost ratios in conjunction with different samples and settings, we need a deeper understanding of these effects. We therefore investigated whether different treatment settings would reveal varying rates and kinds of negative effects by recruiting patients from a psychiatric (n=93) and a psychosomatic rehabilitation (n=63) hospital. Negative effects of psychotherapy were assessed with the Inventory for the Assessment of Negative Effects of Psychotherapy post-treatment. To investigate whether patients' pre-treatment expectations have an influence on reported negative effects, patients filled in the Patient Questionnaire on Therapy Expectation and Evaluation prior to treatment begin. Patients from the psychiatric hospital reported an average 1.41 negative effects, with 58.7% reporting at least one negative effect. Those from the psychosomatic hospital reported 0.76 negative effects on average, with 45.2% of patients reporting at least one negative effect. The differences between these samples are significant. The two samples' top three reported types of negative effects are that patients had experienced more downs during or just before the end of the therapy, that patients had difficulty making important decisions without the therapist, and that patients were concerned that colleagues or friends might find out about the therapy. A regression analysis revealed that the clinical setting (psychosomatic rehabilitation hospital vs. psychiatric hospital) and expectations in the form of hope of improvement were significant predictors for negative effects of psychotherapy. Our study highlights the need to examine the negative effects of psychotherapy in different settings and samples to better evaluate the benefit-cost ratios of treatments for different patient groups. It also shows that we need guidelines for assessing and

  19. Direct and indirect measurement of the magnetocaloric effect in bulk and nanostructured Ni-Mn-In Heusler alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremani, Mohammadreza; Aslani, Amir; Hosseinnia, Marjan; Bennett, Lawrence H.; Della Torre, Edward

    2018-05-01

    A systematic study of the magnetocaloric effect of a Ni51Mn33.4In15.6 Heusler alloy converted to nanoparticles via high energy ball-milling technique in the temperature range of 270 to 310 K has been performed. The properties of the particles were characterized by x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and magnetometer techniques. Isothermal magnetic field variation of magnetization exhibits field hysteresis in bulk Ni51Mn33.4In15.6 alloy across the martensitic transition which significantly lessened in the nanoparticles. The magnetocaloric effects of the bulk and nanoparticle samples were measured both with direct method, through our state of the art direct test bed apparatus with controllability over the applied fields and temperatures, as well as an indirect method through Maxwell and thermodynamic equations. In direct measurements, nanoparticle sample's critical temperature decreased by 6 K, but its magnetocaloric effect enhanced by 17% over the bulk counterpart. Additionally, when comparing the direct and indirect magnetocaloric curves, the direct method showed 14% less adiabatic temperature change in the bulk and 5% less adiabatic temperature change in the nanostructured sample.

  20. The impact of early parenting bonding on young adults' internet addiction, through the mediation effects of negative relating to others and sadness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaitzaki, Argyroula E; Birtchnell, John

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study is the investigation of the potential role of negative relating to others, perceived loneliness, sadness, and anxiety, as mediators of the association between early parental bonding and adult Internet Addiction (IA). The factorial structure of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the prevalence rates of it in a Greek sample will also be investigated. A total of 774 participants were recruited from a Technological Education Institute (mean age=20.2, SD=2.8) and from high school technical schools (mean age=19.9, SD=7.4). The IAT was used to measure the degree of problematic Internet use behaviors; the Parental Bonding Instrument was used to assess one's recalled parenting experiences during the first 16years of life; the shortened Person's Relating to Others Questionnaire was used to assess one's negative (i.e. maladaptive) relating to others (NRO). Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the three-factor structure of the IAT. Only 1.0% of the sample was severely addicted to the Internet. The mediated effects of only the NRO and sadness were confirmed. Negative relating to others was found to fully mediate the effect of both the father's optimal parenting and affectionless control on IA, whereas sadness was found to fully mediate the effect of the mother's optimal parenting on IA. Overall, the results suggest that parenting style has an indirect impact on IA, through the mediating role of negative relating to others or sadness in later life. Both family-based and individual-based prevention and intervention efforts may reduce the incidence of IA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Does personality influence eating styles and food choices? Direct and indirect effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In a random sample (N = 951) from the general population, direct and indirect effects of the Big Five personality traits on eating styles and food choices were examined. Path models revealed that high openness to experience were associated with higher fruit, vegetable and salad and lower meat and soft drink consumption. High agreeableness was associated with low meat consumption. Neuroticism, conscientiousness and extraversion significantly and directly influenced eating styles and significantly indirectly influenced food choices. Conscientiousness mainly promoted fruit consumption by promoting restrained eating and prevented meat consumption by reducing external eating. Conscientiousness prevented consumption of sweet and savory foods, and of sugar-sweetened soft drinks by promoting restrained eating and reducing external eating, and consumption of sweet and savory foods also by reducing emotional eating. Neuroticism promoted consumption of sweet and savory foods by promoting emotional and external eating. Extraversion promoted sweet and savory, meat and soft drink consumption via promoting external eating. Results suggest that neurotic and emotionally unstable individuals seem to adopt counter-regulatory external or emotional eating and eat high-energy dense sweet and savory foods. Highly conscientious individuals adopt regulatory dietary restraint and practice counter-regulatory emotional or external eating less, resulting in more consumption of recommended and less consumption of not recommended food. The higher sociability of extraverted people, which is basically a health beneficial psychological resource, seems to have health-averse effects. Personality traits are stable; however, the resulting more proximal, counter-regulatory eating styles such as emotional or external eating might be more successfully addressed in interventions to prevent overeating and overweight. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lifecycle GHG emissions of palm biodiesel: Unintended market effects negate direct benefits of the Malaysian Economic Transformation Plan (ETP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Manan, Amir F.N.

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel expansion can lead to unintended effects that offset the direct GHG benefits of biofuels. Two documented unintended effects are the indirect land use change (ILUC) and indirect energy use change (IEUC). ILUC has been included in many lifecycle GHG studies of biofuels, but IEUC has remained relatively elusive. This paper presents an updated assessment of the lifecycle GHG emissions of palm biodiesel from Malaysia and, for the first time, incorporating the two estimated indirect effects simultaneously. Future GHG emissions of palm biodiesel are projected by taking into account of Malaysia's Economic Transformation Programme (ETP) that aims to reform the oil palm industry in order to achieve a high-income nation. Uncertainties associated with lifecycle GHG models were dealt with using Monte Carlo simulation in order to identify the breadth and likelihood of GHG reductions relative to petroleum-based fuels in the context of the European directives. This study has shown that the ETP, if successfully implemented, can significantly improve the direct GHG emissions of palm biodiesel, but the benefits are offset by the rise in global emissions due to ILUC and IEUC. Biofuel policies should also include IEUC, in addition to ILUC, to avoid GHG emissions leakages. - Highlights: • Estimate current and future lifecycle GHG emissions of Malaysian palm biodiesel. • Evaluate the GHG effects of Malaysia's Economic Transformation Plan (ETP). • Direct GHG benefits of biodiesel offset by indirect market effects. • Palm biodiesel unlikely to enable global GHG emissions reductions. • Global biofuel policy must account for indirect effects.

  3. Educational Tracking and Juvenile Deviance in Taiwan: Direct Effect, Indirect Effect, or Both.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Hsu; Yi, Chin-Chun

    2016-02-01

    Educational tracking in Chinese society is quite different from that in Western society, in that the allocation to either the vocational or academic track is based on a national entrance examination, which happens at ninth grade (age 14-15). Hence, students in many Asian countries (e.g., China and Taiwan) have to face academic tracking in early adolescence. Because of cultural emphasis on education in Taiwan, the impact of tracking on deviance is profound and can be seen as a crucial life-event. With this concept in mind, we examine how educational tracking influences adolescent deviance during high school. In addition, we also examine how educational tracking may indirectly influence deviance through other life domains, including depression, delinquent peer association, and school attachment. By using longitudinal data (the Taiwan Youth Project), we find that educational tracking increases deviance not only directly but also indirectly through delinquent peers and low school attachment. Some implications and limitations are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Trait- and density-mediated indirect interactions initiated by an exotic invasive plant autogenic ecosystem engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean E. Pearson

    2010-01-01

    Indirect interactions are important for structuring ecological systems. However, research on indirect effects has been heavily biased toward top-down trophic interactions, and less is known about other indirect-interaction pathways. As autogenic ecosystem engineers, plants can serve as initiators of nontrophic indirect interactions that, like top-down pathways, can...

  5. Comment traduire en japonais les styles indirect et indirect libre de Madame Bovary ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisaki Sawasaki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Parmi les difficultés rencontrées lors de la traduction des textes littéraires occidentaux, en japonais, nous examinons le problème des styles indirect et indirect libre. Pour cela, en effectuant une petite mise au point grammaticale, nous comparons sept traductions de Madame Bovary de Gustave Flaubert, dont les dates de parution s’étendent sur une cinquantaine d’années. Cette période s’apparente, de notre point de vue, à un long itinéraire pour assimiler la notion occidentale des styles direct et indirect, tout en la conciliant avec les particularités du japonais. D’un autre côté, ce travail acharné des traducteurs a influencé quelque peu la langue japonaise. On trouve dans l’annexe tous les textes en japonais examinés.We will examine the difficulties met when translating Western literary texts in Japanese, in particular the problem of indirect and free indirect styles. We will define the grammatical issue and compare seven translations of Madame Bovary, published over a fifty year period. This time can be likened to a long path taken to digest the Western notion of direct and indirect styles, while reconciling it with Japanese language characteristics. On the other hand the translators’ relentless work has somewhat influenced the Japanese language. The annex will present all the Japanese texts examined.

  6. Language shifts in free indirect discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maier, Emar

    Free indirect discourse is a way of reporting what a protagonist thinks or says that is distinct from both direct and indirect discourse. In particular, while pronouns and tenses are presented from the narrator's perspective, as in indirect discourse, other indexical and expressive elements reflect

  7. Directe en indirecte werknemersparticipatie in Europa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houten, Gijs; Akkerman, Agnes; Sluiter, Roderick; Jansen, Giedo; Vermeylen, Greet

    2016-01-01

    This study looks at different forms of direct and indirect employee participation in the EU. The research questions are: (1) which forms of direct and indirect employee participation can we distinguish?; (2) to what extent do forms of direct and indirect employee participation coincide within

  8. Nerium oleander indirect leaf photosynthesis and light harvesting reductions after clipping injury or Spodoptera eridania herbivory: high sensitivity to injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Kevin J

    2012-04-01

    Variable indirect photosynthetic rate (P(n)) responses occur on injured leaves after insect herbivory. It is important to understand factors that influence indirect P(n) reductions after injury. The current study examines the relationship between gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters with injury intensity (% single leaf tissue removal) from clipping or Spodoptera eridania Stoll (Noctuidae) herbivory on Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae). Two experiments showed intercellular [CO(2)] increases but P(n) and stomatal conductance reductions with increasing injury intensity, suggesting non-stomatal P(n) limitation. Also, P(n) recovery was incomplete at 3d post-injury. This is the first report of a negative exponential P(n) impairment function with leaf injury intensity to suggest high N. oleander leaf sensitivity to indirect P(n) impairment. Negative linear functions occurred between most other gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters with injury intensity. The degree of light harvesting impairment increased with injury intensity via lower (1) photochemical efficiency indicated lower energy transfer efficiency from reaction centers to PSII, (2) photochemical quenching indicated reaction center closure, and (3) electron transport rates indicated less energy traveling through PSII. Future studies can examine additional mechanisms (mesophyll conductance, carbon fixation, and cardenolide induction) to cause N. oleander indirect leaf P(n) reductions after injury. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Positive Effects of Negative Publicity: When Negative Reviews Increase Sales

    OpenAIRE

    Jonah Berger; Alan T. Sorensen; Scott J. Rasmussen

    2010-01-01

    Can negative information about a product increase sales, and if so, when? Although popular wisdom suggests that "any publicity is good publicity," prior research has demonstrated only downsides to negative press. Negative reviews or word of mouth, for example, have been found to hurt product evaluation and sales. Using a combination of econometric analysis and experimental methods, we unify these perspectives to delineate contexts under which negative publicity about a product will have posit...

  10. A simple method to prevent hard X-ray-induced preheating effects inside the cone tip in indirect-drive fast ignition implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Dongxiao; Shan, Lianqiang; Zhou, Weimin; Wu, Yuchi; Zhu, Bin; Zhang, Feng; Bi, Bi; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Zhimeng; Shui, Min; He, Yingling; Gu, Yuqiu; Zhang, Baohan; Peng, Xiaoshi; Xu, Tao; Wang, Feng; Yang, Zhiwen; Chen, Tao; Chen, Li; Chen, Ming

    2016-01-01

    During fast-ignition implosions, preheating of inside the cone tip caused by hard X-rays can strongly affect the generation and transport of hot electrons in the cone. Although indirect-drive implosions have a higher implosion symmetry, they cause stronger preheating effects than direct-drive implosions. To control the preheating of the cone tip, we propose the use of indirect-drive fast-ignition targets with thicker tips. Experiments carried out at the ShenGuang-III prototype laser facility confirmed that thicker tips are effective for controlling preheating. Moreover, these results were consistent with those of 1D radiation hydrodynamic simulations.

  11. A simple method to prevent hard X-ray-induced preheating effects inside the cone tip in indirect-drive fast ignition implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dongxiao; Shan, Lianqiang; Zhou, Weimin; Wu, Yuchi; Zhu, Bin; Zhang, Feng; Bi, Bi; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Zhimeng; Shui, Min; He, Yingling; Gu, Yuqiu, E-mail: yqgu@caep.cn; Zhang, Baohan [Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Peng, Xiaoshi; Xu, Tao; Wang, Feng; Yang, Zhiwen; Chen, Tao; Chen, Li; Chen, Ming [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); and others

    2016-06-15

    During fast-ignition implosions, preheating of inside the cone tip caused by hard X-rays can strongly affect the generation and transport of hot electrons in the cone. Although indirect-drive implosions have a higher implosion symmetry, they cause stronger preheating effects than direct-drive implosions. To control the preheating of the cone tip, we propose the use of indirect-drive fast-ignition targets with thicker tips. Experiments carried out at the ShenGuang-III prototype laser facility confirmed that thicker tips are effective for controlling preheating. Moreover, these results were consistent with those of 1D radiation hydrodynamic simulations.

  12. Cardiac vagal regulation in infancy predicts executive function and social competence in preschool: Indirect effects through language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whedon, Margaret; Perry, Nicole B; Calkins, Susan D; Bell, Martha A

    2018-05-21

    Parasympathetic nervous system functioning in infancy may serve a foundational role in the development of cognitive and socioemotional skills (Calkins, 2007). In this study (N = 297), we investigated the potential indirect effects of cardiac vagal regulation in infancy on children's executive functioning and social competence in preschool via expressive and receptive language in toddlerhood. Vagal regulation was assessed at 10 months during two attention conditions (social, nonsocial) via task-related changes in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). A path analysis revealed that decreased RSA from baseline in the nonsocial condition and increased RSA in the social condition were related to larger vocabularies in toddlerhood. Additionally, children's vocabulary sizes were positively related to their executive function and social competence in preschool. Indirect effects from vagal regulation in both contexts to both 4-year outcomes were significant, suggesting that early advances in language may represent a mechanism through which biological functioning in infancy impacts social and cognitive functioning in childhood. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Novel stimuli are negative stimuli: evidence that negative affect is reduced in the mere exposure effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Brent M; Elias, Lorin J

    2005-04-01

    Repeated exposure of a nonreinforced stimulus results in an increased preference for that stimulus, the mere exposure effect. The present study repeatedly presented positive, negative, and neutrally affective faces to 48 participants while they made judgments about the emotional expression. Participants then rated the likeability of novel neutrally expressive faces and some of these previously presented faces, this time in their neutral expression. Faces originally presented as happy were rated as the most likeable, followed by faces originally presented as neutral. Negative and novel faces were not rated significantly differently from each other. These findings support the notion that the increase in preference towards repeatedly presented stimuli is the result of the reduction in negative affect, consistent with the modified two-factor uncertainty-reduction model and classical conditioning model of the mere exposure effect.

  14. The logic of indirect speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A.; Lee, James J.

    2008-01-01

    When people speak, they often insinuate their intent indirectly rather than stating it as a bald proposition. Examples include sexual come-ons, veiled threats, polite requests, and concealed bribes. We propose a three-part theory of indirect speech, based on the idea that human communication involves a mixture of cooperation and conflict. First, indirect requests allow for plausible deniability, in which a cooperative listener can accept the request, but an uncooperative one cannot react adversarially to it. This intuition is supported by a game-theoretic model that predicts the costs and benefits to a speaker of direct and indirect requests. Second, language has two functions: to convey information and to negotiate the type of relationship holding between speaker and hearer (in particular, dominance, communality, or reciprocity). The emotional costs of a mismatch in the assumed relationship type can create a need for plausible deniability and, thereby, select for indirectness even when there are no tangible costs. Third, people perceive language as a digital medium, which allows a sentence to generate common knowledge, to propagate a message with high fidelity, and to serve as a reference point in coordination games. This feature makes an indirect request qualitatively different from a direct one even when the speaker and listener can infer each other's intentions with high confidence. PMID:18199841

  15. Indirect Cost Reimbursement: An Industrial View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Robert

    1987-01-01

    The meaning of indirect costs in an industrial environment is discussed. Other factors considered are corporate policies; nature of work being supported; the uniqueness of the work; who is doing the negotiating for industry; and indirect rates. Suggestions are offered for approaches to indirect cost reimbursement. (Author/MLW)

  16. Negative rebound and disinvestment effects in response to an improvement in energy efficiency in the UK economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses a computable general equilibrium (CGE) framework to investigate the conditions under which rebound effects may occur in response to increases in energy efficiency in the UK national economy. Previous work for the UK has suggested that rebound effects will occur even where key elasticities of substitution in production are set close to zero. The research reported in this paper involves carrying out a systematic sensitivity analysis, where relative price sensitivity is gradually introduced into the system, focusing specifically on elasticities of substitution in production and trade parameters, in order to determine conditions under which rebound effects become a likely outcome. The main result is that, while there is positive pressure for rebound effects even where (direct and indirect) demands for energy are very price inelastic, this may be partially or wholly offset by negative income, competitiveness and disinvestment effects, which also occur in response to falling energy prices. The occurrence of disinvestment effects is of particular interest. These occur where falling energy prices reduce profitability in domestic energy supply sectors, leading to a contraction in capital stock in these sectors, which may in turn lead to rebound effects that are smaller in the long run than in the short run, a result that runs contrary to the predictions of previous theoretical work in this area.

  17. Negative rebound and disinvestment effects in response to an improvement in energy efficiency in the UK economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Karen [Department of Economics, University of Strathclyde, Sir William Duncan Building, 130 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0GE (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    This paper uses a computable general equilibrium (CGE) framework to investigate the conditions under which rebound effects may occur in response to increases in energy efficiency in the UK national economy. Previous work for the UK has suggested that rebound effects will occur even where key elasticities of substitution in production are set close to zero. The research reported in this paper involves carrying out a systematic sensitivity analysis, where relative price sensitivity is gradually introduced into the system, focusing specifically on elasticities of substitution in production and trade parameters, in order to determine conditions under which rebound effects become a likely outcome. The main result is that, while there is positive pressure for rebound effects even where (direct and indirect) demands for energy are very price inelastic, this may be partially or wholly offset by negative income, competitiveness and disinvestment effects, which also occur in response to falling energy prices. The occurrence of disinvestment effects is of particular interest. These occur where falling energy prices reduce profitability in domestic energy supply sectors, leading to a contraction in capital stock in these sectors, which may in turn lead to rebound effects that are smaller in the long run than in the short run, a result that runs contrary to the predictions of previous theoretical work in this area. (author)

  18. The Direct/Indirect Association of ADHD/ODD Symptoms with Self-esteem, Self-perception, and Depression in Early Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Kita

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to reveal the influences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD symptoms on self-esteem and self-perception during early adolescence and to clarify the spillover effect of self-esteem on depressive symptoms. ADHD symptoms in 564 early adolescents were evaluated via teacher-rating scales. Self-esteem and depressive symptoms were assessed via self-reported scales. We analyzed the relationships among these symptoms using structural equation modeling. Severe inattentive symptoms decreased self-esteem and hyperactive–impulsive symptoms affected self-perception for non-academic domains. Although these ADHD symptoms did not directly affect depressive symptoms, low self-esteem led to severe depression. ODD symptoms had a direct impact on depression without the mediating effects of self-esteem. These results indicated that inattentive symptoms had a negative impact on self-esteem and an indirect negative effect on depressive symptoms in adolescents, even if ADHD symptoms were subthreshold. Severe ODD symptoms can be directly associated with depressive symptoms during early adolescence.

  19. The Direct/Indirect Association of ADHD/ODD Symptoms with Self-esteem, Self-perception, and Depression in Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Yosuke; Inoue, Yuki

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to reveal the influences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms on self-esteem and self-perception during early adolescence and to clarify the spillover effect of self-esteem on depressive symptoms. ADHD symptoms in 564 early adolescents were evaluated via teacher-rating scales. Self-esteem and depressive symptoms were assessed via self-reported scales. We analyzed the relationships among these symptoms using structural equation modeling. Severe inattentive symptoms decreased self-esteem and hyperactive–impulsive symptoms affected self-perception for non-academic domains. Although these ADHD symptoms did not directly affect depressive symptoms, low self-esteem led to severe depression. ODD symptoms had a direct impact on depression without the mediating effects of self-esteem. These results indicated that inattentive symptoms had a negative impact on self-esteem and an indirect negative effect on depressive symptoms in adolescents, even if ADHD symptoms were subthreshold. Severe ODD symptoms can be directly associated with depressive symptoms during early adolescence. PMID:28824468

  20. How encompassing is the effect of negativity bias on political conservatism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malka, Ariel; Soto, Christopher J

    2014-06-01

    We argue that the political effects of negativity bias are narrower than Hibbing et al. suggest. Negativity bias reliably predicts social, but not economic, conservatism, and its political effects often vary across levels of political engagement. Thus the role of negativity bias in broad ideological conflict depends on the strategic packaging of economic and social attitudes by political elites.

  1. Framing obesity a disease: Indirect effects of affect and controllability beliefs on weight bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, Sarah; Alberga, Angela S; MacInnis, Cara; Ellard, John H; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly

    2018-05-24

    Obesity has been declared a disease by the American and Canadian Medical Associations. Although these declarations sparked much debate as to the impact of framing obesity as a disease on weight bias, strong empirical research is needed to examine this impact. The current study examined the impact of framing obesity a disease on weight bias, focusing on moderating and mediating processes. A sample of 309 participants living in the United States or Canada was recruited from Crowdflower. Participants completed measures of demographics, ideology, general attitudes, and previous contact quality and quantity with people living with obesity. Participants then read one of three articles as part of an experimental manipulation framing obesity as a disease, obesity not as a disease, and a control article unrelated to obesity. Post-manipulation included measures of affect, disgust, empathy, blame, and weight bias. Orthogonal contrasts were used to compare the obesity-disease condition to the obesity-not-disease condition and control condition. The manipulation had a direct effect on affect (emotions), such that affect toward individuals with obesity was more positive in the obesity-disease condition than the obesity-not-disease and control condition combined. Exploration of moderating effects revealed that both the belief in a just world and weight satisfaction moderated the relationship between the obesity-disease manipulation and blame for obesity. Two models of indirect effects on weight bias were also examined, which demonstrated that the obesity-disease manipulation predicted less weight bias through more positive affect (model 1) as well as less weight bias through decreased blame among individuals high in belief in a just world (model 2). This study further highlights the complex effects of declaring obesity a disease, uncovering a new direction for future research into the role of affect as well as indirect effects of characterising obesity a disease on weight bias.

  2. Stage effects of negative emotion on spatial and verbal working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Raymond CK

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of negative emotion on different processing periods in spatial and verbal working memory (WM and the possible brain mechanism of the interaction between negative emotion and WM were explored using a high-time resolution event-related potential (ERP technique and time-locked delayed matching-to-sample task (DMST. Results Early P3b and late P3b were reduced in the negative emotion condition for both the spatial and verbal tasks at encoding. At retention, the sustained negative slow wave (NSW showed a significant interaction between emotional state and task type. Spatial trials in the negative emotion condition elicited a more negative deflection than they did in the neutral emotion condition. However, no such effect was observed for the verbal tasks. At retrieval, early P3b and late P3b were markedly more attenuated in the negative emotion condition than in the neutral emotion condition for both the spatial and verbal tasks. Conclusions The results indicate that the differential effects of negative emotion on spatial and verbal WM mainly take place during information maintenance processing, which implies that there is a systematic association between specific affects (e.g., negative emotion and certain cognitive processes (e.g., spatial retention.

  3. Indirect effects of childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on invasive pneumococcal disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinevimbo Shiri, DrPhD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: The full extent to which childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV can indirectly reduce illness in unvaccinated populations is not known. We aimed to estimate the magnitude and timing of indirect effects of PCVs on invasive pneumococcal disease. Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched bibliographic databases for non-randomised quasi-experimental or observational studies reporting invasive pneumococcal disease changes following PCV introduction in unvaccinated populations (studies published Sept 1, 2010, to Jan 6, 2016, updating the previous systematic review of the same topic (studies published Jan 1, 1994, to Sept 30, 2010. Two reviewers extracted summary data by consensus. We used a Bayesian mixed-effects model to account for between-study heterogeneity to estimate temporal indirect effects by pooling of invasive pneumococcal disease changes by serotype and serogroup. Findings: Data were extracted from 70 studies included in the previous review and 172 additional studies, covering 27 high-income and seven middle-income countries. The predicted mean times to attaining a 90% reduction in invasive pneumococcal disease were 8·9 years (95% credible interval [CrI] 7·8–10·3 for grouped serotypes contained in the seven-valent PCV (PCV7, and 9·5 years (6·1–16·6 for the grouped six additional serotypes contained in the 13-valent PCV (PCV13 but not in PCV7. Disease due to grouped serotypes contained in the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23 decreased at similar rates per year in adults aged 19–64 years (relative risk [RR] 0·85, 95% CrI 0·75–0·95 and 65 years and older (0·87, 0·84–0·90. However, we noted no changes in either group in invasive pneumococcal disease caused by the additional 11 serotypes covered by PPV23 but not PCV13. Interpretation: Population childhood PCV programmes will lead, on average, to substantial protection across the whole population

  4. Indirect Calorimetry in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Matilde Jo; Kondrup, Jens; Perner, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: The 2 currently available indirect calorimeters, CCM Express Indirect Calorimeter (MedGraphics, St Paul, MN) and Quark RMR ICU Indirect Calorimeter (COSMED, Rome, Italy), have not been validated against a gold standard in mechanically ventilated patients. Our aim was to do so...... using a gold-standard, modified Tissot bell-spirometer method in mechanically ventilated patients who were hemodynamically, respiratory, and metabolically stable. Methods: We studied 30 patients undergoing general anesthesia and major gynecological surgery. We measured oxygen consumption ((Formula...... of 77 (167) with limits of agreement −249 to 404 kcal/d. Conclusions: The QUARK RMR ICU Indirect Calorimeter compared better with the gold standard for values of (Formula presented.) O2 and REE than did the CCM Express Indirect Calorimeter in mechanically ventilated patients who were circulatory...

  5. Effectiveness of direct and indirect radionuclide cystography in detecting vesicoureteral reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.J.; Kruglik, G.D.

    1976-01-01

    A modified of the direct radionuclide cystography technique to include filling, voiding, and postvoiding phases of the examination permitted a simulated comparison between direct and indirect radionuclide cystography. One hundred thirty-seven examples of reflux were documented with this technique. Of these, 96 instances of reflux (70 percent) were recorded during two or more phases and thus would have been detected by either technique. Twenty-nine examples (21 percent) were only detected during filling and thus would have been missed by the indirect radionuclide technique and by some roentgenographic techniques. Only 12 examples (9 percent) were detected during the voiding phase only. The modified direct method of radionuclide cystography, which continuously monitors the urinary tracts during filling, voiding, and postvoiding, is offered as the best current technique for assessing visicoureteral reflus

  6. Life-Cycle Costing of Food Waste Management in Denmark: Importance of Indirect Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica; Tonini, Davide; Møller, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    assessment combined with life-cycle assessment, to evaluate food waste management. Both life-cycle costing assessments included direct and indirect effects. The latter are related to income effects, accounting for the marginal consumption induced when alternative scenarios lead to different household......Prevention has been suggested as the preferred food waste management solution compared to alternatives such as conversion to animal fodder or to energy. In this study we used societal life-cycle costing, as a welfare economic assessment, and environmental life-cycle costing, as a financial...... be included whenever alternative scenarios incur different financial costs. Furthermore, it highlights that food prevention measures should not only demote the purchase of unconsumed food but also promote a low-impact use of the savings generated....

  7. Indirect methods for reference interval determination - review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Graham R D; Haeckel, Rainer; Loh, Tze Ping; Sikaris, Ken; Streichert, Thomas; Katayev, Alex; Barth, Julian H; Ozarda, Yesim

    2018-04-19

    Reference intervals are a vital part of the information supplied by clinical laboratories to support interpretation of numerical pathology results such as are produced in clinical chemistry and hematology laboratories. The traditional method for establishing reference intervals, known as the direct approach, is based on collecting samples from members of a preselected reference population, making the measurements and then determining the intervals. An alternative approach is to perform analysis of results generated as part of routine pathology testing and using appropriate statistical techniques to determine reference intervals. This is known as the indirect approach. This paper from a working group of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) Committee on Reference Intervals and Decision Limits (C-RIDL) aims to summarize current thinking on indirect approaches to reference intervals. The indirect approach has some major potential advantages compared with direct methods. The processes are faster, cheaper and do not involve patient inconvenience, discomfort or the risks associated with generating new patient health information. Indirect methods also use the same preanalytical and analytical techniques used for patient management and can provide very large numbers for assessment. Limitations to the indirect methods include possible effects of diseased subpopulations on the derived interval. The IFCC C-RIDL aims to encourage the use of indirect methods to establish and verify reference intervals, to promote publication of such intervals with clear explanation of the process used and also to support the development of improved statistical techniques for these studies.

  8. Interaction effects between sender and receiver processes in indirect transmission of Campylobacter jejuni between broilers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunnik, van B.A.D.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Bolder, N.M.; Nodelijk, G.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Infectious diseases in plants, animals and humans are often transmitted indirectly between hosts (or between groups of hosts), i.e. via some route through the environment instead of via direct contacts between these hosts. Here we study indirect transmission experimentally, using

  9. Indirect effect of management support on users' compliance behaviour towards information security policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humaidi, Norshima; Balakrishnan, Vimala

    2018-01-01

    Health information systems are innovative products designed to improve the delivery of effective healthcare, but they are also vulnerable to breaches of information security, including unauthorised access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification or destruction, and duplication of passwords. Greater openness and multi-connectedness between heterogeneous stakeholders within health networks increase the security risk. The focus of this research was on the indirect effects of management support (MS) on user compliance behaviour (UCB) towards information security policies (ISPs) among health professionals in selected Malaysian public hospitals. The aim was to identify significant factors and provide a clearer understanding of the nature of compliance behaviour in the health sector environment. Using a survey design and stratified random sampling method, self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 454 healthcare professionals in three hospitals. Drawing on theories of planned behaviour, perceived behavioural control (self-efficacy (SE) and MS components) and the trust factor, an information system security policies compliance model was developed to test three related constructs (MS, SE and perceived trust (PT)) and their relationship to UCB towards ISPs. Results showed a 52.8% variation in UCB through significant factors. Partial least squares structural equation modelling demonstrated that all factors were significant and that MS had an indirect effect on UCB through both PT and SE among respondents to this study. The research model based on the theory of planned behaviour in combination with other human and organisational factors has made a useful contribution towards explaining compliance behaviour in relation to organisational ISPs, with trust being the most significant factor. In adopting a multidimensional approach to management-user interactions via multidisciplinary concepts and theories to evaluate the association between the integrated management

  10. Interactive indirect illumination using adaptive multiresolution splatting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Greg; Wyman, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Global illumination provides a visual richness not achievable with the direct illumination models used by most interactive applications. To generate global effects, numerous approximations attempt to reduce global illumination costs to levels feasible in interactive contexts. One such approximation, reflective shadow maps, samples a shadow map to identify secondary light sources whose contributions are splatted into eye space. This splatting introduces significant overdraw that is usually reduced by artificially shrinking each splat's radius of influence. This paper introduces a new multiresolution approach for interactively splatting indirect illumination. Instead of reducing GPU fill rate by reducing splat size, we reduce fill rate by rendering splats into a multiresolution buffer. This takes advantage of the low-frequency nature of diffuse and glossy indirect lighting, allowing rendering of indirect contributions at low resolution where lighting changes slowly and at high-resolution near discontinuities. Because this multiresolution rendering occurs on a per-splat basis, we can significantly reduce fill rate without arbitrarily clipping splat contributions below a given threshold-those regions simply are rendered at a coarse resolution.

  11. Indirect effects of overfishing on Caribbean reefs: sponges overgrow reef-building corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Tse-Lynn; McMurray, Steven E; Henkel, Timothy P; Vicente, Jan; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2015-01-01

    Consumer-mediated indirect effects at the community level are difficult to demonstrate empirically. Here, we show an explicit indirect effect of overfishing on competition between sponges and reef-building corals from surveys of 69 sites across the Caribbean. Leveraging the large-scale, long-term removal of sponge predators, we selected overfished sites where intensive methods, primarily fish-trapping, have been employed for decades or more, and compared them to sites in remote or marine protected areas (MPAs) with variable levels of enforcement. Sponge-eating fishes (angelfishes and parrotfishes) were counted at each site, and the benthos surveyed, with coral colonies scored for interaction with sponges. Overfished sites had >3 fold more overgrowth of corals by sponges, and mean coral contact with sponges was 25.6%, compared with 12.0% at less-fished sites. Greater contact with corals by sponges at overfished sites was mostly by sponge species palatable to sponge predators. Palatable species have faster rates of growth or reproduction than defended sponge species, which instead make metabolically expensive chemical defenses. These results validate the top-down conceptual model of sponge community ecology for Caribbean reefs, as well as provide an unambiguous justification for MPAs to protect threatened reef-building corals. An unanticipated outcome of the benthic survey component of this study was that overfished sites had lower mean macroalgal cover (23.1% vs. 38.1% for less-fished sites), a result that is contrary to prevailing assumptions about seaweed control by herbivorous fishes. Because we did not quantify herbivores for this study, we interpret this result with caution, but suggest that additional large-scale studies comparing intensively overfished and MPA sites are warranted to examine the relative impacts of herbivorous fishes and urchins on Caribbean reefs.

  12. The Complexity of Indirect Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenjie, L. I.

    2017-01-01

    its complex nature, and thus determined that many facets of ITr remain to be studied. The present article will try to encompass the complexity of ITr by looking into the reasons for translating indirectly, the challenge of finding out mediating texts (MTs), indirectness in both translation...... of which have been translated and interpreted indirectly through major languages like English, will be employed as examples. Hopefully, this study will offer more insights into the nature of translation as a social activity and raise further interests in studying translation as a complex phenomenon....

  13. A simplified indirect bonding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Katiyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of lingual orthodontics, indirect bonding technique has become an integral part of practice. It involves placement of brackets initially on the models and then their transfer to teeth with the help of transfer trays. Problems encountered with current indirect bonding techniques used are (1 the possibility of adhesive flash remaining around the base of the brackets which requires removal (2 longer time required for the adhesive to gain enough bond strength for secure tray removal. The new simplified indirect bonding technique presented here overcomes both these problems.

  14. Circumventing resistance: using values to indirectly change attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Kevin L; Wegener, Duane T; Murray, Renee A

    2012-10-01

    Most research on persuasion examines messages that directly address the attitude of interest. However, especially when message recipients are inclined to resist change, indirect methods might be more effective. Because values are rarely attacked and defended, value change could serve as a useful indirect route for attitude change. Attitudes toward affirmative action changed more when the value of equality was attacked (indirect change) than when affirmative action was directly attacked using the same message (Experiments 1-2). Changes in confidence in the value were responsible for the indirect change when the value was attacked (controlling for changes in favorability toward the value), whereas direct counterarguments to the message were responsible for the relative lack of change when the attitude was attacked directly (Experiment 2). Attacking the value of equality influenced attitudes toward policies related to the value but left policy attitudes unrelated to the value unchanged (Experiment 3). Finally, a manipulation of value confidence that left attitudes toward the value intact demonstrated similar confidence-based influences on policies related to the value of freedom (Experiment 4). Undermined value confidence also resulted in less confidence in the resulting policy attitudes controlling for the changes in the policy attitudes themselves (Experiments 3 and 4). Therefore, indirect change through value attacks presented a double threat--to both the policy attitudes and the confidence with which those policy attitudes were held (potentially leaving them open to additional influence).

  15. Prosocial Behavior Mitigates the Negative Effects of Stress in Everyday Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, Elizabeth B; Laws, Holly B; Ansell, Emily B

    2016-07-01

    Recent theories of stress reactivity posit that, when stressed, individuals tend to seek out opportunities to affiliate with and nurture others in order to prevent or mitigate the negative effects of stress. However, few studies have tested empirically the role of prosocial behavior in reducing negative emotional responses to stress. The current analyses used daily diary data to investigate whether engaging in prosocial behavior buffered the negative effects of naturally-occurring stressors on emotional well-being. Results showed that on a given day, prosocial behavior moderated the effects of stress on positive affect, negative affect, and overall mental health. Findings suggest that affiliative behavior may be an important component of coping with stress, and indicate that engaging in prosocial behavior might be an effective strategy for reducing the impact of stress on emotional functioning.

  16. Negative index effects from a homogeneous positive index prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Sherman W.; Epstein, Ariel

    2017-12-01

    Cellular structured negative index metamaterials in the form of a right triangular prism have often been tested by observing the refraction of a beam across the prism hypotenuse which is serrated in order to conform to the cell walls. We show that not only can this negative index effect be obtained from a homogeneous dielectric prism having a positive index of refraction, but in addition, for sampling at the walls of the cellular structure, the phase in the material has the illusory appearance of moving in a negative direction. Although many previous reports relied on refraction direction and phase velocity of prism structures to verify negative index design, our investigation indicates that to unambiguously demonstrate material negativity additional empirical evidence is required.

  17. Effects of CEOs’ Negative Traits on Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Kyu Myung

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The dark triad, composed of Machiavellianism, psychopathy and narcissism, refers to negative personality traits, which may influence business processes. While negative traits could be an important factor explaining the relationship between a CEO’s immoral and unethical behavior and corporate social responsibility (CSR, there has been minimal research focusing on this relationship. This paper thus attempts to investigate how a CEO exhibiting these negative traits affects CSR, and if an employee’s perception of ethics and social responsibility would mediate the relationship. In addition, this paper considers the moderating effects of an individual performance-based compensation system (IPBCS between employee’s CSR perception and CSR activities. The data are collected through a survey conducted on 165 employees (companies in twelve industries. The regression result indicates an inverse relationship between the negative traits of a CEO and an employee’s perception of ethics and social responsibility and CSR activities, and the mediating effect of the perception in the relationship between the negative traits and CSR activities. It also indicates that an IPBCS moderates the relationship between CSR perception and activities. Implications for the study, future research directions, and management approach are discussed.

  18. Direct and Indirect Effects of Climate Change on Amphibian Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie S. Gervasi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available As part of an overall decline in biodiversity, populations of many organisms are declining and species are being lost at unprecedented rates around the world. This includes many populations and species of amphibians. Although numerous factors are affecting amphibian populations, we show potential direct and indirect effects of climate change on amphibians at the individual, population and community level. Shifts in amphibian ranges are predicted. Changes in climate may affect survival, growth, reproduction and dispersal capabilities. Moreover, climate change can alter amphibian habitats including vegetation, soil, and hydrology. Climate change can influence food availability, predator-prey relationships and competitive interactions which can alter community structure. Climate change can also alter pathogen-host dynamics and greatly influence how diseases are manifested. Changes in climate can interact with other stressors such as UV-B radiation and contaminants. The interactions among all these factors are complex and are probably driving some amphibian population declines and extinctions.

  19. The Indirect Effect of Alcohol Use on GPA in First-Semester College Students: The Mediating Role of Academic Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, James M.; DiPlacido, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on first-semester college students, investigating (a) indirect effects of aggregate alcohol use on grade point average (GPA) through academic effort (skipping class and time on schoolwork) and (b) daily effects of alcohol use on reduced effort. Eighty students reported daily alcohol use and academic effort (skipping class and…

  20. Direct and indirect effects of enablers on HIV testing, initiation and retention in antiretroviral treatment and AIDS related mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarnejad, Ali; Izazola-Licea, Jose-Antonio

    2017-01-01

    An enabling environment is believed to have significant and critical effects on HIV and AIDS program implementation and desired outcomes. This paper estimates the paths, directionality, and direct and indirect associations between critical enablers with antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage and to AIDS-related mortality. Frameworks that consider the role of enablers in HIV and AIDS programs were systematically reviewed to develop a conceptual model of interaction. Measurements for constructs of the model were pooled from the latest publicly available data. A hypothetical model, including latent/unobserved factors and interaction of enablers, program activities and outcomes, was analyzed cross-sectionally with structural equation modeling. Coefficients of the model were used to estimate the indirect associations of enablers to treatment coverage and the subsequent associated impact on AIDS related mortality. The model's fit was adequate (RMSEA = 0·084, 90% CI [0·062, 0·104]) and the indirect effects of enablers on outcomes were measured. Enablers having significant associations with increased ART coverage were social/financial protection, governance, anti-discrimination, gender equality, domestic AIDS spending, testing service delivery, and logistics. Critical enablers are significantly correlated to outcomes like ART coverage and AIDS related mortality. Even while this model does not allow inference on causality, it provides directionality and magnitude of the significant associations.

  1. U.S. DOE indirect coal liquefaction program: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, J.; Schmetz, E.; Winslow, J.; Tischer, R. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Srivastava, R.

    1997-12-31

    Coal is the most abundant domestic energy resource in the United States. The Fossil Energy Organization within the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been supporting a coal liquefaction program to develop improved technologies to convert coal to clean and cost-effective liquid fuels to complement the dwindling supply of domestic petroleum crude. The goal of this program is to produce coal liquids that are competitive with crude at $20 to $25 per barrel. Indirect and direct liquefaction routes are the two technologies being pursued under the DOE coal liquefaction program. This paper will give an overview of the DOE indirect liquefaction program. More detailed discussions will be given to the F-T diesel and DME fuels which have shown great promises as clean burning alternative diesel fuels. The authors also will briefly discuss the economics of indirect liquefaction and the hurdles and opportunities for the early commercial deployment of these technologies. Discussions will be preceded by two brief reviews on the liquid versus gas phase reactors and the natural gas versus coal based indirect liquefaction.

  2. Direct and indirect two-photon processes in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.R.

    1986-07-01

    The expressions describing direct and indirect two-photon absorption in crystals are given. They are valid both near and far from the energy gap. A perturbative approach through two different band models is adopted. The effects of the non-parabolicity and the degeneracy of the energy bands are considered. The numerical results are compared with the other theories and with a recent experimental data in Zn and AgCl. It is shown that the dominant transition mechanisms are of the allowed-allowed type near and far from the gap for both direct and indirect processes. (author)

  3. Indirect processes in electron-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottcher, C.; Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    A summary is given of an informal workshop held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on June 22-23, 1983, in which the current status of theoretical calculations of indirect processes in electron-ion scattering was reviewed. Processes of particular interest in astrophysical and fusion plasmas were emphasized. Topics discussed include atomic structure effects, electron-impact ionization, and dielectronic recombination

  4. Indirect processes in electron-ion scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottcher, C.; Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    A summary is given of an informal workshop held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on June 22-23, 1983, in which the current status of theoretical calculations of indirect processes in electron-ion scattering was reviewed. Processes of particular interest in astrophysical and fusion plasmas were emphasized. Topics discussed include atomic structure effects, electron-impact ionization, and dielectronic recombination.

  5. Effect of nicotine on negative affect among more impulsive smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Neal; McChargue, Dennis; Spring, Bonnie; VanderVeen, Joe; Cook, Jessica Werth; Richmond, Malia

    2006-08-01

    In the present study, the authors tested the hypothesis that nicotine would provide greater relief from negative affect for more impulsive smokers than for less impulsive smokers. Euthymic adult smokers (N=70) participated in 2 laboratory sessions, during which they underwent a negative mood induction (music + autobiographical memory), then smoked either a nicotinized or de-nicotinized cigarette. Mixed-effects regression yielded a significant Impulsivity x Condition (nicotinized vs. de-nicotinized) x Time interaction. Simple effects analyses showed that heightened impulsivity predicted greater negative affect relief after smoking a nicotinized cigarette but not after smoking a de-nicotinized cigarette. These data suggest that nicotine may be a disproportionately powerful negative reinforcer for highly impulsive smokers, promoting higher levels of nicotine dependence and inhibiting smoking cessation.

  6. Light indirectly mediates bivalve habitat modification and impacts on seagrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castorani, Max C. N.; Glud, Ronnie; Hasler-Sheetal, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Environmental context may influence the sign, strength, andmechanisms of species interactions but few studies have experimentally tested the potential for abiotic conditions to mediate interactions through multiple cooccurring stress pathways. Abiotic conditionsmay mediate species interactions...... by directly or indirectly influencing the effects of habitat-modifying organisms that are capable of simultaneously ameliorating and exacerbating multiple stressors. Itwas hypothesized that light availability changes seagrassmetabolismand thereby indirectly regulates bivalve habitat modification...

  7. Ion irradiation and biomolecular radiation damage II. Indirect effect

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wei; Yu, Zengliang; Su, Wenhui

    2010-01-01

    It has been reported that damage of genome in a living cell by ionizing radiation is about one-third direct and two-thirds indirect. The former which has been introduced in our last paper, concerns direct energy deposition and ionizing reactions in the biomolecules; the latter results from radiation induced reactive species (mainly radicals) in the medium (mainly water) surrounding the biomolecules. In this review, a short description of ion implantation induced radical formation in water is ...

  8. EFFECTS OF MEDICAL DISPUTES ON INTERNET COMMUNICATIONS OF NEGATIVE EMOTIONS AND NEGATIVE ONLINE WORD-OF-MOUTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Chih; Wu, Wei-Li

    2015-08-01

    Emotions play an important role in human behavior. Negative emotions resulting from medical disputes are problems for medical personnel to solve but also have a significant impact on a hospital's reputation and people's trust in the hospital. One medical dispute case was chosen from an Internet news source to assess the correlation between people's negative emotions and negative online word-of-mouth. Convenience sampling was used in school faculties and university students who had shared their medical treatment experiences online were the research participants. A total of 221 Taiwanese participants volunteered (158 women, 63 men; ages: 26.7% under 19, 22.6% 20-29, 30.8% 30-39,19.9% over 40). Four negative emotions were measured using rating scales: uncertainty, anger, disappointment, and sadness. Four negative online word-of-mouth measures were: venting, advice search, helping receiver, and revenge. A modeled relationship was assessed by partial least square method (PLS). Then, people's positive emotions were further analyzed to assess changes after spreading negative word-of-mouth. The results showed that uncertainty had a positive effect on venting and advice search. People who felt anger or regret spread word-of-mouth in order to help the receiver. Disappointment may trigger the revenge behavior of negative word-of-mouth. Negative emotions could be relieved after engaging in the behavior of helping the receiver.

  9. Unpacking Direct and Indirect Relationships of Short-Term Memory to Word Reading: Evidence From Korean-Speaking Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Park, Soon-Gil

    2017-08-01

    We examined the relations of short-term memory (STM), metalinguistic awareness (phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness), and rapid automatized naming (RAN) to word reading in Korean, a language with a relatively transparent orthography. STM, metalinguistic awareness, and RAN have been shown to be important to word reading, but the nature of the relations of STM, metalinguistic awareness, and RAN to word reading has rarely been investigated. Two alternative models were fitted. In the indirect relation model, STM was hypothesized to be indirectly related to word reading via metalinguistic awareness and RAN. In the direct and indirect relations model, STM was hypothesized to be directly and indirectly related to word reading. Results from 207 beginning readers in South Korea showed that STM was directly related to word reading as well as indirectly via metalinguistic awareness and RAN. Although the direct effect of STM was relatively small (.16), the total effect incorporating the indirect effect was substantial (.42). These results suggest that STM is an important, foundational cognitive capacity that underpins metalinguistic awareness and RAN as well as word reading, and further indicate the importance of considering both direct and indirect effects of language and cognitive skills on word reading.

  10. Pedal indirect lymphangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kil Woo; Hong, Myung Sun; Kim, In Jae

    1994-01-01

    Recently, indirect lymphangiography has been developed as a relatively good and noninvasive imaging modality of the lymphatic system at extremities. But the disadvantage of the indirect lymphangiography is a low contrast ratio between the surrounding tissues and the contrast media in lymphatic vessels, because dimeric nonionic contrast media is water soluble and diluted in the proximal leg lymphatic vessels. We could have relatively better image than previously published images for the leg lymphatic system, when we injected contrast media with adequate high pressure in intradermal space of the interdigital areas at the foot dorsum. So, we would like to report the results. We could study all 9 lymphedemas(primary: 6, secondary: 3) from April 1990 to May 1993 on outpatient base. They were diagnosed as lymphedema clinically and radiologically. Ten ml of dimeric nonionic aget, iotrolan(Isovist 300) was injected into intradermal space with five 30-gauge needles. The injection speed was more than 0.2 ml/min. We have done one side pedal lymphangiogram in 30 minutes. The evaluation of the anterior superficial lymphatics was according to the criteria of the Weissleder. The results were as follows: 1. All lymphatic vessels from foot to inguinal area could be visualized. 2. Two or three inferior inguinal lymph nodes could be visualized about 42%. 3. The most common abnormal finding of the lymphedma was the neovascularization of the lymphatics on indirect pedal lymphangiogram. If we use adequate technique relatively high pressure injection, correct intradermal needle insertion, adequate soft tissue exposure technique indirect lymphangiography is considered to be a safe and noninvasive imaging modality for the evaluation of the lymphedema of lower extremity lymphatics including inferior inguinal lymph nodes

  11. The effects of attachment components on formal-operational thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukčević Branimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work our aim is to examine how the components of attachment influence the thinking development of adolescents in familial context. We investigated the components of attachment: unresolved family traumatisation, the use of external security base, fear of loss of external security base, negative self concept, negative other concept, capacity for mentalisation, low control of anger. We used a revised Questionnaire for Assessment of Adult and Adolescent Attachment (in original: UPIPAV-R. Formal operations were tested by Bond's Logical Operations Test. We examined the cultural-pedagogical status of the family, the parental mediation characteristic for the development of formal operations, and family property as the aspects of familial context. The sample consisted of 200 pupils aged 14 to 19. According to the attachment theory, secure attachment provides the feel of security in environment exploration, which is the ground of personality development. We assumed that components of attachment contribute formal-operational thinking development and change the influence of familial cultural-supportive tools. The findings show us that the culturalpedagogical status of the family improves formal operations development and unresolved family traumatisation has negative influence. Capacity for mentalisation has a positive indirect effect on thinking development through the influence of the cultural-pedagogical status of the family. The low control of anger has a negative indirect effect on thinking development; it increases the influence of unresolved family traumatisation. Negative self concept has indirect effects on thinking development through increasing this negative influence of unresolved family traumatisation and decreasing the role of familial cultural-supportive tools.

  12. [An attempt to construct a Japanese version of the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Shunsuke; Okubo, Nobutoshi; Kobayashi, Mai; Sato, Shigetaka; Kitamura, Hideya

    2014-08-01

    The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT) is an instrument for the indirect assessment of positive and negative affect. A Japanese version of the IPANAT was developed and its reliability and validity were examined. In Study 1, factor analysis identified two independent factors that could be interpreted as implicit positive and negative affect, which corresponded to the original version. The Japanese IPANAT also had sufficient internal consistency and acceptable test-retest reliability. In Study 2, we demonstrated that the Japanese IPANAT was associated with explicit state affect (e.g., PANAS), extraversion, and neuroticism, which indicated its adequate construct validity. In Study 3, we examined the extent to which the Japanese IPANAT was sensitive to changes in affect by assessing a set of IPANAT items after the presentation of positive, negative, or neutral photographs. The results indicated that the Japanese IPANAT was sufficiently sensitive to changes in affect resulting from affective stimuli. Taken together, these studies suggest that the Japanese version of the IPANAT is a useful instrument for the indirect assessment of positive and negative affect.

  13. Working Alliance, Interpersonal Problems, and Depressive Symptoms in Tele-Interpersonal Psychotherapy for HIV-infected Rural Persons: Evidence for Indirect Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Timothy; McClintock, Andrew S; McCarrick, Shannon S; Heckman, Timothy G; Heckman, Bernadette D; Markowitz, John C; Sutton, Mark

    2018-03-01

    Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) has demonstrated efficacy for the treatment of depression, yet little is known about its therapeutic mechanisms. As a specific treatment, IPT has been shown to directly reduce depressive symptoms, although it is unclear whether these reductions occur via interpersonal changes. Within IPT, the potential role of the working alliance, a common factor, as a predictor of depression and interpersonal changes is also unclear. Participants were 147 depressed persons living with HIV in rural communities of 28 U.S. states enrolled in a randomized clinical trial. Seventy-five patients received up to 9 sessions of telephone-administered IPT (tele-IPT) plus standard care and 72 patients received standard care only. Two models were tested; one included treatment condition (tele-IPT vs. control) and another included the working alliance as independent variables. The first model found an indirect effect whereby tele-IPT reduced depression via decreased social avoidance. There was a direct effect between tele-IPT and reduced depression. In the second model, the working alliance influenced depressive symptom relief via reductions in social avoidance. Both goal and task working alliance subscales were indirectly associated with reductions in depressive symptoms, also through reductions in social avoidance. There were no direct effects involving the working alliance. Tele-IPT's influence on depressive symptom reduction was primarily through a direct effect, whereas the influence of working alliance depression was almost entirely via an indirect effect through interpersonal problems. Study findings have implications for IPT when intervening with depressed rural people living with HIV/AIDS over the telephone. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. T100. NICOTINE USE IMPACTS NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS SEVERITY IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Hianna; Coutinho, Luccas; Higuchi, Cinthia; Noto, Cristiano; Bressan, Rodrigo; Gadelha, Ary

    2018-01-01

    to low antipsychotic blood levels has been previously documented in patients with schizophrenia. Thus, the observed results can either indicate effect on primary negative symptoms or indirect effects through reduced D2 blockade caused by lower antipsychotic levels. Future quantitative analyzes and Longitudinal studies may better inform on direction of the association between nicotine dependence and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

  15. Rearfoot eversion has indirect effects on plantar fascia tension by changing the amount of arch collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sae Yong; Hertel, Jay; Lee, Sung Cheol

    2010-01-01

    Rearfoot eversion motion and arch height are believed to contribute to increased tension on the plantar fascia and arch collapse during gait but the specifics of these relationships are not clear. To examine the relationships among static arch height, rearfoot eversion, dynamic arch height, and plantar fascia tension. 28 healthy males participated. After static arch height was measured, the subjects were asked to run at 4.5m/s while frontal plane rearfoot motion, dynamic arch height, and ground reaction forces were collected. The relationships among variables were examined with bivariate correlations and path analysis. The results indicated a high correlation between dynamic arch height and static arch height (r=0.642), plantar fascia tension (r=-0.797), and maximum rearfoot eversion motion during gait (r=-0.518). The path analysis model without the direct rearfoot eversion effect explained 81.2% of the variance in plantar fascia tension, while the model with the direct rearfoot eversion effect explained 82.1% of the variance in plantar fascia tension. Including the indirect effect of maximum rearfoot eversion motion on plantar fascia tension through control of dynamic arch height is the model that best explains the interrelationships of these foot characteristics. The amount of maximum rearfoot eversion motion itself is not a good predictor of plantar fascia tension, however, together with the arch height, maximum rearfoot eversion motion is a good predictor because it has a pronounced indirect effect on plantar fascia tension. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Validation of an indirect ELISA for the detection of Trypanosoma congolense antibodies in Ethiopian cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadesse, Y.; Kefyalew, H.; Kembata, G.; Nega, A.

    2000-01-01

    Control and eradication of African Animal Trypanosomosis can be achieved if the reliability of the methods to diagnose the disease could be improved. The techniques currently used in the diagnosis of trypanosomosis in Ethiopia are not sufficiently sensitive to detect all infected animals. In order to improve disease diagnosis the indirect antibody detection ELISA, developed by FAO/IAEA, was evaluated under field conditions. Accordingly, reference serum samples were collected from trypanosomosis free and endemic areas. Serum samples negative for trypanosomes were collected from the Central highlands of Ethiopia where there is no previous record of trypanosomosis. The samples were used to establish the threshold and the specificity of the test. Trypanosoma congolense positive sera (based on thin and thick smears and BCT) were collected from endemic areas in the Southwestern part of the country to estimate the sensitivity of the test. Out of 701 negative serum samples, 690 were identified as negative with the indirect antibody ELISA, whereas the remaining 11 were detected as positive. Moreover, of the 282 infected samples the ELISA detected 155 sera as positive, but the remaining 127 cases fell in the negative range. The positive/negative threshold established from negative reference sera was found to be 81.38%. Based on this threshold the specificity of the test was 98.43%, whilst the sensitivity was calculated as 54.96%. Thus, the complementary use of both the ELISA and parasitological methods is encouraged. Since the internal quality controls (IQC) did not fall in the ranges prescribed in the protocol provided by FAO/IAEA precision was achieved by comparing the plate to plate variation of the IQC based on the means plot. Accordingly the assay process indicated that there was no significant difference between individual mean of each plate regarding the strong positive (C++) and moderate positive (C+) controls. Nevertheless, considerable discrepancies were

  17. Indirect three-dimensional printing of synthetic polymer scaffold based on thermal molding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Hun; Jung, Jin Woo; Cho, Dong-Woo; Kang, Hyun-Wook

    2014-01-01

    One of the major issues in tissue engineering has been the development of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds, which serve as a structural template for cell growth and extracellular matrix formation. In scaffold-based tissue engineering, 3D printing (3DP) technology has been successfully applied for the fabrication of complex 3D scaffolds by using both direct and indirect techniques. In principle, direct 3DP techniques rely on the straightforward utilization of the final scaffold materials during the actual scaffold fabrication process. In contrast, indirect 3DP techniques use a negative mold based on a scaffold design, to which the desired biomaterial is cast and then sacrificed to obtain the final scaffold. Such indirect 3DP techniques generally impose a solvent-based process for scaffold fabrication, resulting in a considerable increase in the fabrication time and poor mechanical properties. In addition, the internal architecture of the resulting scaffold is affected by the properties of the biomaterial solution. In this study, we propose an advanced indirect 3DP technique using projection-based micro-stereolithography and an injection molding system (IMS) in order to address these challenges. The scaffold was fabricated by a thermal molding process using IMS to overcome the limitation of the solvent-based molding process in indirect 3DP techniques. The results indicate that the thermal molding process using an IMS has achieved a substantial reduction in scaffold fabrication time and has also provided the scaffold with higher mechanical modulus and strength. In addition, cell adhesion and proliferation studies have indicated no significant difference in cell activity between the scaffolds prepared by solvent-based and thermal molding processes. (paper)

  18. Trade linkages and macroeconomic effects of the price of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korhonen, Iikka; Ledyaeva, Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we assess the impact of oil price shocks on oil-producer and oil-consuming economies. VAR models for different countries are linked together via a trade matrix, as in Abeysinghe (2001). As expected, we find that oil producers (here, Russia and Canada) benefit from oil price shocks. For example, a large oil shock leading to a price increase of 50% boosts Russian GDP by about 6%. However, oil producers are hurt by indirect effects of positive oil price shocks, as economic activity in their exporter countries suffers. For oil consumers, the effects are more diverse. In some countries, output falls in response to an oil price shock, while other countries seem to be relatively immune to oil price changes. Finally, indirect effects are also detected for oil-consumer countries. Those countries, which trade more with oil producers, gain indirect benefits via higher demand from oil-producing countries. In general, the largest negative total effects from positive oil price shocks are found for Japan, China, the USA, Finland and Switzerland, while other countries in our sample seem to have fared quite well during recent positive oil price shocks. The indirect effects are negative for Russia, Finland, Germany and Netherlands. (author)

  19. Accuracy of digital models obtained by direct and indirect data capturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güth, Jan-Frederik; Keul, Christine; Stimmelmayr, Michael; Beuer, Florian; Edelhoff, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    With direct and indirect digitalisation, two access points to CAD/CAM-generated restorations are available. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of the single steps of both approaches by comparing construction datasets using a new methodology. Twelve test datasets were generated in vitro (1) with the Lava Chairside Oral Scanner (COS) (2) by digitizing polyether impressions (IMP) and (3) by scanning the referring gypsum cast by the Lava Scan ST laboratory scanner (ST) at a time. Using an inspection software, these datasets were superimposed by a best fit algorithm with the reference dataset (REF), gained from industrial computed tomography, and divergences were analysed. On the basis of average positive and negative deviations between test- and REF datasets, it could be shown that direct digitalisation accomplished the most accurate results (COS, 17 μm/-13 μm; SD ± 19 μm), followed by digitized polyether impression (IMP, 23 μm/-22 μm; SD ± 31 μm) and indirect digitalisation (ST, 36 μm/-35 μm; SD ± 52 μm). The mean absolute values of Euclidean distances showed the least values for COS (15 μm; SD ± 6 μm), followed by IMP (23 μm; SD ± 9 μm) and ST (36 μm; SD ± 7 μm). The mean negative and mean absolute values of all groups were significantly different. Comparing the mean positive values of the groups, IMP and COS (p = 0.082) showed no significant difference, whereas ST and COS, and ST and IMP exhibited statistically significant differences. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the direct digitalisation with Lava C.O.S. showed statistically significantly higher accuracy compared to the conventional procedure of impression taking and indirect digitalisation. Within the limitations of this study, the method of direct digitalisation seems to have the potential to improve the accuracy of impressions for four-unit FDPs.

  20. Planning what not to eat: ironic effects of implementation intentions negating unhealthy habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaanse, Marieke A; van Oosten, Johanna M F; de Ridder, Denise T D; de Wit, John B F; Evers, Catharine

    2011-01-01

    The present studies tested the effectiveness of implementation intentions with an "if [situation], then not [habitual response]" structure. Based on ironic process theory and the literature on the processing of negations, it was expected that these "negation implementation intentions" would, ironically, strengthen the habit (situation-response association) one aims to break. In line with the hypotheses, forming negation implementation intentions resulted in cognitive ironic rebound effects as well as behavioral ironic rebound effects compared to an intention only condition or a replacement implementation intention. Additionally, it was found that negation implementation intentions are most likely to result in ironic rebound effects when the habit to be negated is strong. Although implementation intentions are generally highly effective in facilitating behavior change even when this involves breaking unwanted habits, the present research suggests that they are ineffective when they have a negating structure.

  1. Behavioral Self-Regulation and Weight-Related Behaviors in Inner-City Adolescents: A Model of Direct and Indirect Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isasi, Carmen R; Wills, Thomas A

    2011-08-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examined the association of two distinct self-regulation constructs, effortful control and dysregulation, with weight-related behaviors in adolescents and tested whether these effects were mediated by self-efficacy variables. METHODS: A school-based survey was conducted with 1771 adolescents from 11 public schools in the Bronx, New York. Self-regulation was assessed by multiple indicators and defined as two latent constructs. Dependent variables included fruit/vegetable intake, intake of snack/junk food, frequency of physical activity, and time spent in sedentary behaviors. Structural equation modeling examined the relation of effortful control and dysregulation to lifestyle behaviors, with self-efficacy variables as possible mediators. RESULTS: Study results showed that effortful control had a positive indirect effect on fruit and vegetable intake, mediated by self-efficacy, as well as a direct effect. Effortful control also had a positive indirect effect on physical activity, mediated by self-efficacy. Dysregulation had direct effects on intake of junk food/snacks and time spent in sedentary behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that self-regulation characteristics are related to diet and physical activity and that some of these effects are mediated by self-efficacy. Different effects were noted for the two domains of self-regulation. Prevention researchers should consider including self-regulation processes in programs to improve health behaviors in adolescents.

  2. Is psychotherapy for functional somatic syndromes harmful? A mixed methods study on negative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsting, A F; Pedersen, H F; Rask, M T; Frostholm, L; Schröder, A

    2017-07-01

    Concern for negative effects of psychotherapy for functional somatic syndromes (FSS) has been expressed by clinicians and some patient associations, which may prevent patients from seeking treatment. Therefore, we sought to explore the occurrence and characteristics of negative effects from group-based psychotherapy as experienced by patients with severe or multiple FSS. An adapted version of the explanatory sequential mixed methods design was applied. We used data from an on-going pilot study on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction. Negative effects were measured by Inventory for the assessment of Negative Effects of Psychotherapy (INEP). In addition, telephone interviews were conducted with randomly chosen patients and patients who reported negative effects. The latter were asked to elaborate on their INEP response. Quantitative data were analysed descriptively while interview transcripts were explored by thematic analysis. Eighty patients responded to the questionnaire (89%). Negative effects to different extent (from 'slightly agree' to 'fully agree') were reported by 25 (31%). The most frequent negative effects were dependence on the therapist (12%), feeling down after therapy (6%) and insurance problems (7%). By exploring 27 participants' experiences of negative effects 3 main themes were identified: relations in therapy, outcome and transition from therapy to everyday life. Patients with FSS reported a few specific negative effects, all with low frequency. Generally, therapy was well-received. Some patients did however express negative effects both within and outside the therapeutic context. It is important to inform patients about potential negative effects prior to psychotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Interpersonal communication as an indirect pathway for the effect of antismoking media content on smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Putte, Bas; Yzer, Marco; Southwell, Brian G; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Willemsen, Marc C

    2011-05-01

    In the context of health campaigns, interpersonal communication can serve at least 2 functions: (a) to stimulate change through social interaction and (b) in a secondary diffusion process, to further disseminate message content. In a 3-wave prospective study of 1,079 smokers, the authors demonstrate that mass media messages (antismoking campaigns and news coverage relevant to smoking cessation) have an indirect effect on smoking cessation intention and behavior via interpersonal communication. Exposure to campaigns and news coverage prompts discussion about the campaigns, and, in turn, about smoking cessation. Interpersonal communication regarding smoking cessation then influences intention to quit smoking and attempts to quit smoking. The study finds evidence not only for the social interaction function of interpersonal communication, but also for the secondary diffusion function. A substantial number of smokers who are not directly exposed to the antismoking campaigns are nevertheless indirectly exposed via communication with people who have seen these campaigns. These results imply that encouragement of interpersonal communication can be an important campaign objective.

  4. Supersymmetric dark matter: Indirect detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, L.

    2000-01-01

    Dark matter detection experiments are improving to the point where they can detect or restrict the primary particle physics candidates for non baryonic dark matter. The methods for detection are usually categorized as direct, i.e., searching for signals caused by passage of dark matter particles in terrestrial detectors, or indirect. Indirect detection methods include searching for antimatter and gamma rays, in particular gamma ray lines, in cosmic rays and high-energy neutrinos from the centre of the Earth or Sun caused by accretion and annihilation of dark matter particles. A review is given of recent progress in indirect detection, both on the theoretical and experimental side

  5. INDIRECT LABOR COSTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR OVERHEAD ALLOCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Bea Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Cost accounting typically allocates indirect labor cost to cost object based on direct labor hours. The allocation process implicitly assumes that indirect labor costs vary proportionally with direct labor hours. The assumption of a linear relationship between indirect and direct labor is particularly suspicious at low production volume levels because there tends to be a fixed component in indirect labor. The linearity assumption is also challenged by recent increasing complexity of indirect ...

  6. Evaluating the direct and indirect rebound effects in household energy consumption behavior: A case study of Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Biying; Zhang, Junyi; Fujiwara, Akimasa

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines whether increases in energy efficiency of major household items cause additional short-run utilization of these end uses and other end uses for households in Beijing. An integrated model is first developed by combining a Logit model and a resource allocation model, where the former represents the choice of end-use ownership and the latter describes the end-use usage. The rebound effects are finally obtained from calculating the own- and cross-elasticities based on the prediction. The empirical results show that for refrigerators, electric fans, gas showers, TVs, and PCs, no evident rebound occurs; while for air conditioners, clothes washers, microwave ovens, and cars, either a direct rebound effect or an indirect rebound effect exists significantly. The respective average upper bound of direct rebound effects for them are 60.76%, 106.81%, 100.79%, and 33.61%, suggesting a possibility of backfire for the clothes washers and microwave ovens, while the respective upper bound of total rebound effects are 88.95%, 100.36%, 626.58%, and 31.61%. Furthermore, increasing the efficiency of air conditioners and cars can definitely reduce the total household energy consumption during the use phase. - Highlights: ► Evaluate the direct and indirect rebound effects for household energy consumption. ► Provide an evidence for rebound effect for the developing countries. ► Build an integrated model jointly representing end-use ownership and usage behavior. ► Significant rebound effects are found only for ACs, microwave ovens, washers and cars. ► Applicable policies for reducing residents' energy consumption in Beijing are given

  7. Quality of life, primary traumatisation, and positive and negative affects in primary school students in the Gaza Strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Guido; Pepe, Alessandro; Almurnak, Feda; Jaradah, Alaa; Hamdouna, Husam

    2018-02-21

    Many researchers have reported that exposure to war and ongoing political violence increases mental health problems in children. Results of studies have also shown a high prevalence (58-80%) of post-traumatic stress disorder in war-affected children living in the occupied Palestinian territory. The aim of this study was to estimate the direct and indirect effects of perceived life satisfaction on the consequences of children's exposure to trauma and the balance of positive and negative affect. Palestinian children were recruited from primary schools in four refugee camps in the Gaza Strip (Bureij, Gaza Beach Camp, Jabalia, Rafah). All children had been involved in or witnessed one or more episodes of violence involving other people in the 2 months prior to the study (the 2012 Gaza War). We used the Multidimensional Students Life Satisfaction Scale (peers, self, living environment, school, family), the Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children, and the revised Children Impact of Events scale (intrusion and avoidance symptoms) to test (through structural equation modelling) the moderation effect of life satisfaction on war trauma via positive emotions. 1276 Palestinian children were enrolled in this study. The model tested with structural equation modelling was robust. Children's life satisfaction influenced both the intrusion (β=-0·48; p=0.003) and avoidance (β=-11; p=0·021) effects of primary traumatisation. The consequences of primary traumatisation by intrusion (β=0·34; p=0·008) and avoidance (β=0·27; p=0.011) contributed to increasing negative affect. Finally, perceived life satisfaction had direct effects on affective experience, specifically increasing positive affect and diminishing negative affect. Perceived quality of life in children has a role in controlling war-related traumas. Life satisfaction contributes both directly and indirectly to change affectivity. When children perceive themselves to be highly satisfied with their home and

  8. Negativity Bias in Media Multitasking: The Effects of Negative Social Media Messages on Attention to Television News Broadcasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kätsyri, Jari; Kinnunen, Teemu; Kusumoto, Kenta; Oittinen, Pirkko; Ravaja, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Television viewers' attention is increasingly more often divided between television and "second screens", for example when viewing television broadcasts and following their related social media discussion on a tablet computer. The attentional costs of such multitasking may vary depending on the ebb and flow of the social media channel, such as its emotional contents. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that negative social media messages would draw more attention than similar positive messages. Specifically, news broadcasts were presented in isolation and with simultaneous positive or negative Twitter messages on a tablet to 38 participants in a controlled experiment. Recognition memory, gaze tracking, cardiac responses, and self-reports were used as attentional indices. The presence of any tweets on the tablet decreased attention to the news broadcasts. As expected, negative tweets drew longer viewing times and elicited more attention to themselves than positive tweets. Negative tweets did not, however, decrease attention to the news broadcasts. Taken together, the present results demonstrate a negativity bias exists for social media messages in media multitasking; however, this effect does not amplify the overall detrimental effects of media multitasking.

  9. Negativity Bias in Media Multitasking: The Effects of Negative Social Media Messages on Attention to Television News Broadcasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Kätsyri

    Full Text Available Television viewers' attention is increasingly more often divided between television and "second screens", for example when viewing television broadcasts and following their related social media discussion on a tablet computer. The attentional costs of such multitasking may vary depending on the ebb and flow of the social media channel, such as its emotional contents. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that negative social media messages would draw more attention than similar positive messages. Specifically, news broadcasts were presented in isolation and with simultaneous positive or negative Twitter messages on a tablet to 38 participants in a controlled experiment. Recognition memory, gaze tracking, cardiac responses, and self-reports were used as attentional indices. The presence of any tweets on the tablet decreased attention to the news broadcasts. As expected, negative tweets drew longer viewing times and elicited more attention to themselves than positive tweets. Negative tweets did not, however, decrease attention to the news broadcasts. Taken together, the present results demonstrate a negativity bias exists for social media messages in media multitasking; however, this effect does not amplify the overall detrimental effects of media multitasking.

  10. Sibling Relation, Ethnic Prejudice, Direct and Indirect Contact: There is a Connection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Alfieri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The literature on the socialisation of prejudice has concentrated on “vertical” processes (from parents to children, ignoring siblings’ contribution. This work aims to investigate the effect of contact (direct or indirect with the outgroup that young people experience a directly or b indirectly through older or younger siblings’ friendships. Our hypotheses are a that young people with friends in the outgroup will report lower prejudice levels (direct contact, as will young people who have older or younger siblings with friends in the outgroup (indirect contact; b that other forms of contact such as having classmates/coworkers, neighbours, or employees are not effective in reducing either direct or indirect prejudice. 88 sibling dyads were administered the blatant and subtle prejudice questionnaire (Pettigrew & Meertens, 1995 and some ad hoc items aimed at investigating the typology of the contact experienced. The analysis of mixed ANOVA reveals that the first hypothesis was partially confirmed in that prejudice (subtle for the younger sibling and blatant for the older one decreases in a statistically significant way only when there is the co-presence of direct and indirect contact. The second hypothesis is fully confirmed as no statistically significant differences emerged between the groups.

  11. Sibling Relation, Ethnic Prejudice, Direct and Indirect Contact: There is a Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Sara; Marta, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The literature on the socialisation of prejudice has concentrated on “vertical” processes (from parents to children), ignoring siblings’ contribution. This work aims to investigate the effect of contact (direct or indirect) with the outgroup that young people experience a) directly or b) indirectly through older or younger siblings’ friendships. Our hypotheses are a) that young people with friends in the outgroup will report lower prejudice levels (direct contact), as will young people who have older or younger siblings with friends in the outgroup (indirect contact); b) that other forms of contact such as having classmates/coworkers, neighbours, or employees are not effective in reducing either direct or indirect prejudice. 88 sibling dyads were administered the blatant and subtle prejudice questionnaire (Pettigrew & Meertens, 1995) and some ad hoc items aimed at investigating the typology of the contact experienced. The analysis of mixed ANOVA reveals that the first hypothesis was partially confirmed in that prejudice (subtle for the younger sibling and blatant for the older one) decreases in a statistically significant way only when there is the co-presence of direct and indirect contact. The second hypothesis is fully confirmed as no statistically significant differences emerged between the groups. PMID:27247684

  12. Direct and indirect effects of enablers on HIV testing, initiation and retention in antiretroviral treatment and AIDS related mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Safarnejad

    Full Text Available An enabling environment is believed to have significant and critical effects on HIV and AIDS program implementation and desired outcomes. This paper estimates the paths, directionality, and direct and indirect associations between critical enablers with antiretroviral treatment (ART coverage and to AIDS-related mortality.Frameworks that consider the role of enablers in HIV and AIDS programs were systematically reviewed to develop a conceptual model of interaction. Measurements for constructs of the model were pooled from the latest publicly available data. A hypothetical model, including latent/unobserved factors and interaction of enablers, program activities and outcomes, was analyzed cross-sectionally with structural equation modeling. Coefficients of the model were used to estimate the indirect associations of enablers to treatment coverage and the subsequent associated impact on AIDS related mortality.The model's fit was adequate (RMSEA = 0·084, 90% CI [0·062, 0·104] and the indirect effects of enablers on outcomes were measured. Enablers having significant associations with increased ART coverage were social/financial protection, governance, anti-discrimination, gender equality, domestic AIDS spending, testing service delivery, and logistics.Critical enablers are significantly correlated to outcomes like ART coverage and AIDS related mortality. Even while this model does not allow inference on causality, it provides directionality and magnitude of the significant associations.

  13. Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Negative Effects Questionnaire for Monitoring and Reporting Adverse and Unwanted Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental, Alexander; Kottorp, Anders; Boettcher, Johanna; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2016-01-01

    Research conducted during the last decades has provided increasing evidence for the use of psychological treatments for a number of psychiatric disorders and somatic complaints. However, by focusing only on the positive outcomes, less attention has been given to the potential of negative effects. Despite indications of deterioration and other adverse and unwanted events during treatment, little is known about their occurrence and characteristics. Hence, in order to facilitate research of negative effects, a new instrument for monitoring and reporting their incidence and impact was developed using a consensus among researchers, self-reports by patients, and a literature review: the Negative Effects Questionnaire. Participants were recruited via a smartphone-delivered self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder and through the media (N = 653). An exploratory factor analysis was performed, resulting in a six-factor solution with 32 items, accounting for 57.64% of the variance. The derived factors were: symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. Items related to unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety were experienced by more than one-third of the participants. Further, increased or novel symptoms, as well as lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship rendered the highest self-reported negative impact. In addition, the findings were discussed in relation to prior research and other similar instruments of adverse and unwanted events, giving credence to the items that are included. The instrument is presently available in eleven different languages and can be freely downloaded and used from www.neqscale.com.

  14. Assault-related shame mediates the association between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCou, Christopher R; Cole, Trevor T; Lynch, Shannon M; Wong, Maria M; Matthews, Kathleen C

    2017-03-01

    Several studies have identified associations between social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress; however, no studies have evaluated shame as a mediator of this association. This study evaluated assault-related shame as a mediator of the associations between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and global distress and hypothesized that there would be an indirect effect of social reactions to disclosure upon symptoms of psychopathology via assault-related shame. Participants were 207 female psychology undergraduates who reported past history of completed or attempted sexual assault and had disclosed the assault to at least 1 other person. Participants completed self-report measures of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure, assault-related shame, and symptoms of psychopathology. Participants reported significant histories of attempted or completed sexual assault and indicated clinically significant symptoms of depression and subthreshold symptoms of PTSD and global distress, on average. Evaluation of structural models confirmed the hypothesized indirect effect of negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosure upon symptoms of PTSD (z = 5.85, p distress (z = 4.82, p disclosure among survivors of attempted or completed sexual assault. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Analysis of indirect taxation in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodyakova Olga V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is analysis of the structure and dynamics of indirect taxes for the previous five years and also the influence of indirect taxation upon formation of income of the State Budget of Ukraine. The article analyses the modern state of indirect taxation in Ukraine. Specific weight of the value added tax, excise tax and customs duty are considered in the structure of tax receipts of the consolidated budget of Ukraine as indirect taxes. The article shows that receipts of the State Budget of Ukraine are mostly provided by indirect taxes. The Ukrainian taxation system is mostly a factor of reduction of the level of economic growth and investment activity in the country and the existing system of administering is not completely capable of excluding the possibility of tax evasion. The prospect of further studies in this direction is improvement of organisation of tax control in Ukraine and differentiation of the value added tax rates depending on the level of consumption of goods and level of income of consumers.

  16. Ship track observations of a reduced shortwave aerosol indirect effect in mixed-phase clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, M. W.; Suzuki, K.; Zambri, B.; Stephens, G. L.

    2014-10-01

    Aerosol influences on clouds are a major source of uncertainty to our understanding of forced climate change. Increased aerosol can enhance solar reflection from clouds countering greenhouse gas warming. Recently, this indirect effect has been extended from water droplet clouds to other types including mixed-phase clouds. Aerosol effects on mixed-phase clouds are important because of their fundamental role on sea ice loss and polar climate change, but very little is known about aerosol effects on these clouds. Here we provide the first analysis of the effects of aerosol emitted from ship stacks into mixed-phase clouds. Satellite observations of solar reflection in numerous ship tracks reveal that cloud albedo increases 5 times more in liquid clouds when polluted and persist 2 h longer than in mixed-phase clouds. These results suggest that seeding mixed-phase clouds via shipping aerosol is unlikely to provide any significant counterbalancing solar radiative cooling effects in warming polar regions.

  17. Analyses of direct and indirect impacts of a positive list system on pharmaceutical R&D investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Euna; Kim, Tae Hyun; Jeung, Myung Jin; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2013-07-01

    The South Korean government recently enacted a Positive List System (PLS) as a major change of the national formulary listing system and reimbursed prices for pharmaceutical products. Regardless of the primary goal of the PLS, its implementation might have spillover effects by influencing the pharmaceutical industry's research and development (R&D), potentially leading to a variety of responses by firms in relation to their R&D activities. We investigated the spillover effect of the PLS on R&D investments of the pharmaceutical industry in Korea through both direct and indirect channels, examining the influence of the PLS on sales profit and cash flow. Data from 9 years (5 before and 4 after PLS implementation) were drawn from the financial statements of firms whose stocks were exchanged in 2 official stock markets in Korea (526 firms) and additional pharmaceutical firms whose financial performance was officially audited by external reviewers (263 firms). Longitudinal analyses were conducted, using the panel nature of the data to control for permanent unobserved firm heterogeneity. Our results showed that the PLS was directly associated with R&D investments. In contrast, its indirect impacts stemming from the influence on sales profit and cash flow were minimal and statistically nonsignificant. The gross impact of the PLS on R&D investments increased moving further from the enactment year; R&D investments were reduced by 18.3% to 25.8% in 2009-2010 (compared with before PLS implementation) in the firm fixed-effects model. We also found that such negative direct and gross impacts of the PLS on R&D investments were significant only in firms without newly developed chemical entities. Considering the gross negative impact of the PLS on R&D investments of pharmaceutical firms and the heterogeneous response of these firms by the R&D activities, governmental efforts of cost-containment may need to consider the spillover impact of the PLS on pharmaceutical innovation

  18. Spatially explicit integrated modeling and economic valuation of climate driven land use change and its indirect effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Bateman, Ian; Agarwala, M.; Binner, A.; Coombes, E.; Day, B.; Ferrini, Silvia; Fezzi, C.; Hutchins, M.; Lovett, A.; Posen, P.

    2016-01-01

    We present an integrated model of the direct consequences of climate change on land use, and the indirect effects of induced land use change upon the natural environment. The model predicts climate-driven shifts in the profitability of alternative uses of agricultural land. Both the direct impact of climate change and the induced shift in land use patterns will cause secondary effects on the water environment, for which agriculture is the major source of diffuse pollution. We model the impact...

  19. Community-based clinic volunteering: an evaluation of the direct and indirect effects on the experience of health science college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Yelena; Islam, Adiba; Moraros, John

    2016-01-18

    The present study was conducted in a multi service-learning, student managed and operated, community-based clinic. Its aim was to measure the direct and indirect effects of how proximal factors (i.e., 'management', 'support received', 'duration of involvement', and 'average time spent per month') and mediators (i.e., 'training received', 'motivation', and 'commitment') influence distal outcomes (i.e., 'performance', 'satisfaction', and 'overall experience') within a volunteer organization. Participants were recruited through the use of an email list server. An online survey was used containing multi-item measures from validated scales. Data were collected from 170 volunteers from July to August 2013. Data analysis used a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework for the estimation of direct and indirect effects on constructs and variables of interest. Only statistically significant relationships were reported at p direct effects worthy of note. First, the proximal factor of 'management' plays an important role in influencing the mediators of 'motivation' (standardized beta = 0.55) and 'training received' (0.65) by the student volunteers but has a relatively small impact on their 'commitment' (0.39) to the organization. Second, the mediator of 'motivation' proved to have the strongest impact on the distal outcome of volunteer 'performance' and 'satisfaction' levels (0.41 and 0.58 respectively), whereas 'commitment' (0.44) was the key in determining their 'overall experience' with the organization. These results in turn, help contextualize the indirect effects observed in our study. Namely, the proximal factor of 'management' played a distinctive role in influencing the distal outcomes of volunteer 'performance' (0.32) and 'overall experience' (0.66), whereas the organizational 'support received' by the volunteers was key to their 'satisfaction' (0.21). The findings of the present study shed light into the direct and indirect effects of how proximal factors

  20. Indirect effects of ocean acidification drive feeding and growth of juvenile crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamya, Pamela Z; Byrne, Maria; Mos, Benjamin; Hall, Lauren; Dworjanyn, Symon A

    2017-06-14

    The indirect effects of changing climate in modulating trophic interactions can be as important as the direct effects of climate stressors on consumers. The success of the herbivorous juvenile stage of the crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS), Acanthaster planci, may be affected by the impacts of ocean conditions on its crustose coralline algal (CCA) food. To partition the direct effects of near future ocean acidification on juvenile COTS and indirect effects through changes in their CCA food, COTS were grown in three pH T levels (7.9, 7.8, 7.6) and fed CCA grown at similar pH levels. Consumption of CCA by COTS was bolstered when the COTS were grown in low pH and when they were fed CCA grown in low pH regardless of the pH in which the COTS were reared. COTS fed CCA grown at pH 7.6 grew fastest, but the pH/ p CO 2 that the COTS were reared in had no direct effect on growth. Ocean acidification conditions decreased the C : N ratio and carbonate levels in the CCA. Bolstered growth in COTS may be driven by enhanced palatability, increased nutritive state and reduced defences of their CCA food. These results indicate that near future acidification will increase the success of early juvenile COTS and boost recruitment into the coral-eating life stage. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Indirect Effects of Social Skills on Health Through Stress and Loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segrin, Chris

    2017-10-20

    The social skills deficit vulnerability model predicts that people with inadequate social skills are at risk for a range of psychosocial problems, especially when confronted with stress. People with poor social skills often experience stress and loneliness and these two constructs were tested as potential pathways by which the poor social skills confer a risk for compromised mental and physical health. An online survey was completed by 775 adults, aged 18-91. The sample matched national demographics for race/ethnicity and age, among those over 18. Structural equation modeling revealed indirect effects of social skills on both mental and physical health through both stress and loneliness. The models showed that poor social skills were associated with poor mental and physical health through elevated stress and increased loneliness. The findings reveal that social skills deficits are associated with physical as well as mental health problems.

  2. Proactive and Retroactive Effects of Negative Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alan S.; Brown, Christine M.; Mosbacher, Joy L.; Dryden, W. Erich

    2006-01-01

    The negative effects of false information presented either prior to (proactive interference; PI) or following (retroactive interference; RI) true information was examined with word definitions (Experiment 1) and trivia facts (Experiment 2). Participants were explicitly aware of which information was true and false when shown, and true-false…

  3. The indirect costs and benefits of greenhouse gas limitations: Hungary Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilahy, G.; Zsoka, A.N.; Szeszler, A.; Urge-Vorsatz, D.; Markandya, A.; Hunt, A.

    2000-05-01

    A methodology has been developed which provides a framework for the assessment of the wider impacts arising from GHG limitation projects, and advice on how to incorporate them into the decision-making framework. The purpose of this report is to apply the methodology to a set of selected GHG limitation projects currently being considered for implementation in Hungary. In total, four GHG limitation projects were selected for application of the methodology. This second phase of the research in Hungary, concentrated on four mitigation options in the household sector: Specifically, the selected GHG limitation projects involve: 1. The installation of new, better insulated windows. 2. The installation of water saving devices on water taps. 3. The installation of active solar cells to prepare domestic hot water. 4. The replacement of traditional light bulbs by compact fluorescent bulbs. This study has shown the potential, as well as the current pratical limitations, of the methodology. The value of the employment created has been estimated by adding gains in income effects with health effects. The environmental effects that have been quantified suggest that the reduction of pollution and associated health effects would be significant. The options that have been investigated are too small-scale to generate distributional impacts or macro-economic effects but the estimated effects on sustainability are positive and significant. The principal policy conclusion that can be drawn from the analysis thus far is that it is imperative to consider indirect effects. It is possible that inclusion of indirect effects will make the net economic cost of an option negative thereby making it much more easy to 'sell' as a policy measure - though the assumptions will have to be made explicit and therefore defensible. It is important for policy makers to note that whilst there is a general pattern of lower economic costs derived from this analysis, the reductions are not uniform and

  4. The indirect costs and benefits of greenhouse gas limitations: Hungary Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilahy, G; Zsoka, A N; Szeszler, A; Urge-Vorsatz, D; Markandya, A; Hunt, A

    2000-05-01

    A methodology has been developed which provides a framework for the assessment of the wider impacts arising from GHG limitation projects, and advice on how to incorporate them into the decision-making framework. The purpose of this report is to apply the methodology to a set of selected GHG limitation projects currently being considered for implementation in Hungary. In total, four GHG limitation projects were selected for application of the methodology. This second phase of the research in Hungary, concentrated on four mitigation options in the household sector: Specifically, the selected GHG limitation projects involve: 1. The installation of new, better insulated windows. 2. The installation of water saving devices on water taps. 3. The installation of active solar cells to prepare domestic hot water. 4. The replacement of traditional light bulbs by compact fluorescent bulbs. This study has shown the potential, as well as the current pratical limitations, of the methodology. The value of the employment created has been estimated by adding gains in income effects with health effects. The environmental effects that have been quantified suggest that the reduction of pollution and associated health effects would be significant. The options that have been investigated are too small-scale to generate distributional impacts or macro-economic effects but the estimated effects on sustainability are positive and significant. The principal policy conclusion that can be drawn from the analysis thus far is that it is imperative to consider indirect effects. It is possible that inclusion of indirect effects will make the net economic cost of an option negative thereby making it much more easy to 'sell' as a policy measure - though the assumptions will have to be made explicit and therefore defensible. It is important for policy makers to note that whilst there is a general pattern of lower economic costs derived from this analysis, the reductions are not uniform and

  5. Pecularities of mutagenesis of T4Br bacteriophage under the direct and indirect radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurov, S.S.

    1975-01-01

    Different lethal and mutagenic effects were shown when bacteriophage T4Br + (470 r/min) was irradiated in broth (direct effect) and a buffer solution (direct and indirect action). The survival rate of the bacteriophage in the buffer solution was 0.1 percent for a dose rate of 60 kr; in the broth it was 10 percent. The frequency of mutation of the bacteriophage also showed the greater effect of the irradiation in the buffer solution than in the broth (25 and 5 r-mutants respectively at a dose rate of 10 kr). An analysis of the ratio of the r-groups when the bacteriophage was treated in various ways revealed differences between mutagenesis produced in the broth and the buffer, and spontaneous mutagenesis. (V.A.P.)

  6. Perfectionistic Concerns, Social Negativity, and Subjective Well-Being: A Test of the Social Disconnection Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Sean P; Kehayes, Ivy-Lee L; Leonard, Kenneth E; Fraser, Ronald; Stewart, Sherry H

    2017-06-01

    Partner-specific perfectionistic concerns (PC) include concern over mistakes, self-criticism, and socially prescribed perfectionism as it pertains to one's partner. The social disconnection model proposes that PC influences well-being indirectly through interpersonal problems. Thus, we hypothesized that social negativity (expressed anger, hostility, and rejection) would mediate the relationship between dyadic PC and subjective well-being. Data from 203 romantic dyads (92.1% heterosexual) were collected using self-report surveys and a four-wave, 4-week longitudinal design. Participants were predominantly female (53.1%), young (M = 22.69 years), and Caucasian (82.3%). Data were analyzed using an actor-partner interdependence model with multilevel structural equation modeling. There were significant actor effects at the between-subjects and within-subjects levels, and significant partner effects for the relationship between PC and social negativity at the within-subject level. Social negativity mediated the relationships between PC and both negative affect and life satisfaction. However, positive affect was more weakly related to PC and social negativity. The social disconnection model was supported. PC was positively associated with one's own social negativity and evoked hostile behaviors from one's partner. Hostile, rejecting behaviors reduced the well-being of the actor, but not the partner. Results suggest perfectionism may be best understood within an interpersonal context. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Indirect Reciprocity under Incomplete Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity, in which individuals help others with a good reputation but not those with a bad reputation, is a mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly interact with the same partners. In a relatively large society where indirect reciprocity is relevant, individuals may not know each other's reputation even indirectly. Previous studies investigated the situations where individuals playing the game have to determine the action possibly without knowing others' reputations. Nevertheless, the possibility that observers of the game, who generate the reputation of the interacting players, assign reputations without complete information about them has been neglected. Because an individual acts as an interacting player and as an observer on different occasions if indirect reciprocity is endogenously sustained in a society, the incompleteness of information may affect either role. We examine the game of indirect reciprocity when the reputations of players are not necessarily known to observers and to interacting players. We find that the trustful discriminator, which cooperates with good and unknown players and defects against bad players, realizes cooperative societies under seven social norms. Among the seven social norms, three of the four suspicious norms under which cooperation (defection) to unknown players leads to a good (bad) reputation enable cooperation down to a relatively small observation probability. In contrast, the three trustful norms under which both cooperation and defection to unknown players lead to a good reputation are relatively efficient. PMID:21829335

  8. The effect on emotions and brain activity by the direct/indirect lighting in the residential environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yu-Bin; Woo, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Jinseong; Kim, Jae-Jin; Park, Jin Young

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to explore how direct/indirect lighting affects emotions and brain oscillations compared to the direct lighting when brightness and color temperature are controlled. Twenty-eight subjects (12 females; mean age 22.5) participated. The experimental conditions consisted of two lighting environments: direct/indirect lighting (400 lx downlight, 300 lx uplight) and direct lighting (700 lx downlight). On each trial, a luminance environment was presented for 4 min, followed by participants rated their emotional feelings of the lighting environment. EEG data were recorded during the experiment. Spectral analysis was performed for the range of delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma ranges. The participants felt cooler and more pleasant and theta oscillations on the F4, F8, T4, and TP7 electrodes were more enhanced in the direct/indirect lighting environment compared to the direct lighting environment. There was significant correlation between the "cool" rating and the theta power of the F8 electrode. The participants felt more pleasant in the direct/indirect lighting environment, indicating that space with direct/indirect lighting modulated subjective perception. Additionally, our results suggest that theta oscillatory activity can be used as a biological marker that reflects emotional status in different lighting environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental Observation of Negative Effective Gravity in Water Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinhua; Yang, Jiong; Zi, Jian; Chan, C. T.; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The gravity of Earth is responsible for the formation of water waves and usually difficult to change. Although negative effective gravity was recently predicted theoretically in water waves, it has not yet been observed in experiments and remains a mathematical curiosity which is difficult to understand. Here we experimentally demonstrate that close to the resonant frequency of purposely-designed resonating units, negative effective gravity can occur for water waves passing through an array of resonators composing of bottom-mounted split tubes, resulting in the prohibition of water wave propagation. It is found that when negative gravity occurs, the averaged displacement of water surface in a unit cell of the array has a phase difference of π to that along the boundary of the unit cell, consistent with theoretical predictions. Our results provide a mechanism to block water waves and may find applications in wave energy conversion and coastal protection. PMID:23715132

  10. Indirect measurements of X-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainardi, R.T.

    2006-01-01

    To the effects of measuring the spectral distribution of the radiation emitted by the x-ray tubes and electron accelerators, numerous procedures that are grouped in two big categories exist at the present time: direct and indirect methods. The first ones use high resolution detectors that should be positioned, together with the appropriate collimator, in the direction of the x ray beam. The user should be an expert in the use and correction of the obtained data by the different effects that affect the detector operation such as efficiency and resolution in terms of the energy of the detected radiation. The indirect procedures, although its are more simple to use, its also require a considerable space along the beam to position the ionization chamber and the necessary absorbents to construct by this way the denominated attenuation curve. We will analyze the operation principle of the indirect methods and a new proposal in which such important novelties are introduced as the beam dispersion to avoid to measure along the main beam and that of determination of the attenuation curve in simultaneous form. By this way, with a single shot of the tube, the attenuation curve is measured, being necessary at most a shot of additional calibration to know the relative response of the detectors used in the experimental array. The physical processes involved in the obtaining of an attenuation curve are very well well-known and this it finishes it can be theoretically calculated if the analytic form of the spectrum is supposed well-known. Finally, we will see a spectra reconstruction example with the Kramers parametric form and comparisons with numeric simulations carried out with broadly validated programs as well as the possibility of the use of solid state dosemeters in the obtention of the attenuation curve. (Author)

  11. Maternal Self-Regulation, Relationship Adjustment, and Home Chaos: Contributions to Infant Negative Emotionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgett, David J.; Burt, Nicole M.; Laake, Lauren M.; Oddi, Kate B.

    2013-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the direct and indirect effects of parental self-regulation on children’s outcomes. In the present investigation, the effects of maternal self-regulation, home chaos, and inter-parental relationship adjustment on broad and specific indicators of infant negative emotionality (NE) were examined. A sample of maternal caregivers and their 4-month-old infants (N = 85) from a rural community participated. Results demonstrated that better maternal self-regulation was associated with lower infant NE broadly, as well as with lower infant sadness and distress to limitations/frustration and better falling reactivity (i.e. emotion regulation), specifically. Maternal self-regulation also predicted less chaotic home environments and better maternal inter-parental relationship adjustment. Findings also supported the indirect effects of maternal self-regulation on broad and specific indicators of infant NE through home chaos and maternal relationship adjustment. Some differential effects were also identified. Elevated home chaos appeared to specifically affect infant frustration/distress to limitations whereas maternal relationship adjustment affected broad infant NE, as well as several specific indicators of infant NE: frustration/distress to limitations, sadness, and falling reactivity. In conjunction with other recent investigations that have reported the effects of maternal self-regulation on parenting, the findings in the present investigation suggest that parental self-regulation may influence children’s outcomes through several proximal environmental pathways. PMID:23748168

  12. Insulin Resistance Negatively Influences the Muscle-Dependent IGF-1-Bone Mass Relationship in Premenarcheal Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, J M; Pollock, N K; Laing, E M; Jenkins, N T; Oshri, A; Isales, C; Hamrick, M; Lewis, R D

    2016-01-01

    IGF-1 promotes bone growth directly and indirectly through its effects on skeletal muscle. Insulin and IGF-1 share a common cellular signaling process; thus, insulin resistance may influence the IGF-1-muscle-bone relationship. We sought to determine the effect of insulin resistance on the muscle-dependent relationship between IGF-1 and bone mass in premenarcheal girls. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a university research center involving 147 girls ages 9 to 11 years. Glucose, insulin, and IGF-1 were measured from fasting blood samples. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated from glucose and insulin. Fat-free soft tissue (FFST) mass and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Our primary outcome was BMC/height. In our path model, IGF-1 predicted FFST mass (b = 0.018; P = .001), which in turn predicted BMC/height (b = 0.960; P IGF-1 predicted BMC/height (b = 0.001; P = .002), but not after accounting for the mediator of this relationship, FFST mass. The HOMA-IR by IGF-1 interaction negatively predicted FFST mass (b = -0.044; P = .034). HOMA-IR had a significant and negative effect on the muscle-dependent relationship between IGF-1 and BMC/height (b = -0.151; P = .047). Lean body mass is an important intermediary factor in the IGF-1-bone relationship. For this reason, bone development may be compromised indirectly via suboptimal IGF-1-dependent muscle development in insulin-resistant children.

  13. Describing the direct and indirect radiative effects of atmospheric aerosols over Europe by using coupled meteorology-chemistry simulations: a contribution from the AQMEII-Phase II exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Guerrero, Pedro; Balzarini, Alessandra; Baró, Rocío; Curci, Gabriele; Forkel, Renate; Hirtl, Marcus; Honzak, Luka; Langer, Matthias; Pérez, Juan L.; Pirovano, Guido; San José, Roberto; Tuccella, Paolo; Werhahn, Johannes; Zabkar, Rahela

    2014-05-01

    The study of the response of the aerosol levels in the atmosphere to a changing climate and how this affects the radiative budget of the Earth (direct, semi-direct and indirect effects) is an essential topic to build confidence on climate science, since these feedbacks involve the largest uncertainties nowadays. Air quality-climate interactions (AQCI) are, therefore, a key, but uncertain contributor to the anthropogenic forcing that remains poorly understood. To build confidence in the AQCI studies, regional-scale integrated meteorology-atmospheric chemistry models (i.e., models with on-line chemistry) that include detailed treatment of aerosol life cycle and aerosol impacts on radiation (direct effects) and clouds (indirect effects) are in demand. In this context, the main objective of this contribution is the study and definition of the uncertainties in the climate-chemistry-aerosol-cloud-radiation system associated to the direct radiative forcing and the indirect effect caused by aerosols over Europe, using an ensemble of fully-coupled meteorology-chemistry model simulations with the WRF-Chem model run under the umbrella of AQMEII-Phase 2 international initiative. Simulations were performed for Europe for the entire year 2010. According to the common simulation strategy, the year was simulated as a sequence of 2-day time slices. For better comparability, the seven groups applied the same grid spacing of 23 km and shared common processing of initial and boundary conditions as well as anthropogenic and fire emissions. With exception of a simulation with different cloud microphysics, identical physics options were chosen while the chemistry options were varied. Two model set-ups will be considered here: one sub-ensemble of simulations not taking into account any aerosol feedbacks (the baseline case) and another sub-ensemble of simulations which differs from the former by the inclusion of aerosol-radiation feedback. The existing differences for meteorological

  14. The Immoral Assumption Effect: Moralization Drives Negative Trait Attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, Peter; Johnson, Kate M; Graham, Jesse

    2016-04-01

    Jumping to negative conclusions about other people's traits is judged as morally bad by many people. Despite this, across six experiments (total N = 2,151), we find that multiple types of moral evaluations--even evaluations related to open-mindedness, tolerance, and compassion--play a causal role in these potentially pernicious trait assumptions. Our results also indicate that moralization affects negative-but not positive-trait assumptions, and that the effect of morality on negative assumptions cannot be explained merely by people's general (nonmoral) preferences or other factors that distinguish moral and nonmoral traits, such as controllability or desirability. Together, these results suggest that one of the more destructive human tendencies--making negative assumptions about others--can be caused by the better angels of our nature. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  15. The direct and indirect effect of loneliness on the development of adolescent alcohol use in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. McKay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use among adolescents in the United Kingdom (UK remains relatively high compared to those in other European countries. The present study sought to examine both the direct and indirect effect of loneliness on drinking behavior. Participants were school children (mean age 13.5years at Time 1 participating in a Randomized Controlled Trial in the UK, who completed a battery of questionnaires examining alcohol-use indicators, loneliness, self-efficacy and sensation seeking at Time 1 and at +12months. Loneliness at Time 1 had a substantive, though largely indirect (i.e., via self-efficacy and sensation seeking covariates, impact on alcohol-related harm at +12months. Furthermore, Loneliness interacted with gender in the prediction of context of alcohol use, where being female and experiencing loneliness put an individual at a greater risk of unsupervised drinking. Females experiencing loneliness were also 2.9 times as likely to have had a drink in the past 30days, and around 2.5 times as likely to have ever consumed a full drink, when compared to their male peers. The current results indicate that loneliness is an important but complex factor in adolescent drinking. There are important implications for the development of interventions to prevent underage drinking, not least that it is not appropriate to consider all underage drinkers as socially marginalised. However, for those that are, the self-medication hypothesis is potentially relevant through emotional self-efficacy. Keywords: Loneliness, Self-efficacy, Sensation seeking, Adolescent alcohol use, Indirect effects

  16. Method effects: the problem with negatively versus positively keyed items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindwall, Magnus; Barkoukis, Vassilis; Grano, Caterina; Lucidi, Fabio; Raudsepp, Lennart; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie

    2012-01-01

    Using confirmatory factor analyses, we examined method effects on Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965) in a sample of older European adults. Nine hundred forty nine community-dwelling adults 60 years of age or older from 5 European countries completed the RSES as well as measures of depression and life satisfaction. The 2 models that had an acceptable fit with the data included method effects. The method effects were associated with both positively and negatively worded items. Method effects models were invariant across gender and age, but not across countries. Both depression and life satisfaction predicted method effects. Individuals with higher depression scores and lower life satisfaction scores were more likely to endorse negatively phrased items.

  17. Longitudinal pathways from marital hostility to child anger during toddlerhood: genetic susceptibility and indirect effects via harsh parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Kimberly A; Leve, Leslie D; Harold, Gordon T; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Reiss, David

    2011-04-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways from marital hostility to toddler anger/frustration via harsh parenting and parental depressive symptoms, with an additional focus on the moderating role of genetic influences as inferred from birth parent anger/frustration. Participants were 361 linked triads of birth mothers, adoptive parents, and adopted children who were 9 (T1) and 18 (T2) months old across the study period. Results indicated an indirect effect from T1 marital hostility to T2 toddler anger/frustration via T2 parental harsh discipline. Results also indicated that the association between marital hostility and toddler anger was moderated by birth mother anger/frustration. For children whose birth mothers reported high levels of anger/frustration, adoptive parents' marital hostility at T1 predicted toddler anger/frustration at T2. This relation did not hold for children whose birth mothers reported low levels of anger/frustration. The results suggest that children whose birth mothers report elevated frustration might inherit an emotional lability that makes them more sensitive to the effects of marital hostility.

  18. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  19. Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Negative Effects Questionnaire for Monitoring and Reporting Adverse and Unwanted Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottorp, Anders; Boettcher, Johanna; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2016-01-01

    Research conducted during the last decades has provided increasing evidence for the use of psychological treatments for a number of psychiatric disorders and somatic complaints. However, by focusing only on the positive outcomes, less attention has been given to the potential of negative effects. Despite indications of deterioration and other adverse and unwanted events during treatment, little is known about their occurrence and characteristics. Hence, in order to facilitate research of negative effects, a new instrument for monitoring and reporting their incidence and impact was developed using a consensus among researchers, self-reports by patients, and a literature review: the Negative Effects Questionnaire. Participants were recruited via a smartphone-delivered self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder and through the media (N = 653). An exploratory factor analysis was performed, resulting in a six-factor solution with 32 items, accounting for 57.64% of the variance. The derived factors were: symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. Items related to unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety were experienced by more than one-third of the participants. Further, increased or novel symptoms, as well as lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship rendered the highest self-reported negative impact. In addition, the findings were discussed in relation to prior research and other similar instruments of adverse and unwanted events, giving credence to the items that are included. The instrument is presently available in eleven different languages and can be freely downloaded and used from www.neqscale.com. PMID:27331907

  20. Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Negative Effects Questionnaire for Monitoring and Reporting Adverse and Unwanted Events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rozental

    Full Text Available Research conducted during the last decades has provided increasing evidence for the use of psychological treatments for a number of psychiatric disorders and somatic complaints. However, by focusing only on the positive outcomes, less attention has been given to the potential of negative effects. Despite indications of deterioration and other adverse and unwanted events during treatment, little is known about their occurrence and characteristics. Hence, in order to facilitate research of negative effects, a new instrument for monitoring and reporting their incidence and impact was developed using a consensus among researchers, self-reports by patients, and a literature review: the Negative Effects Questionnaire. Participants were recruited via a smartphone-delivered self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder and through the media (N = 653. An exploratory factor analysis was performed, resulting in a six-factor solution with 32 items, accounting for 57.64% of the variance. The derived factors were: symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. Items related to unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety were experienced by more than one-third of the participants. Further, increased or novel symptoms, as well as lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship rendered the highest self-reported negative impact. In addition, the findings were discussed in relation to prior research and other similar instruments of adverse and unwanted events, giving credence to the items that are included. The instrument is presently available in eleven different languages and can be freely downloaded and used from www.neqscale.com.

  1. Evaluation of an indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of Babesia bovis in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardozo, H.; Solari, M.A.; Etchebarne, J.

    1992-01-01

    In initially establishing the FAO/IAEA indirect ELISA for the detection of antibodies to Babesia bovis, the optical density (OD) values of sera from known positive or negative local cattle were compared to the OD values obtained from the negative and positive reference sera provided with the ELISA kit. The percentage of false positive and negative sera were 2.53% and 2.97% respectively. The cut-off values for the negative reference serum in the kit were compared with those of a local negative population. These values were found to be similar. The specificity of the test was evaluated by testing 30 sera from animals experimentally infected with Anaplasma marginale and 30 sera from animals infected with Babesia bigemina. These were no cross-reaction either between A. marginale and B. bovis or between B. bigemina and B. bovis. A serological survey using this ELISA kit was carried out on animals from an enzootic area and an area free from the vecot Boophilus microplus. 53 out of 282 animals (18.8%) in the enzootic area were positive whilst all the animals (113) from the free area were negative. This study would indicate that the FAO/IAEA ELISA kit has a sensitivity of around 98% and specificity of 97%. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Aerosol indirect effects on lightning in the generation of induced NOx and tropospheric ozone over an Indian urban metropolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Upal; Maitra, Animesh; Talukdar, Shamitaksha; Jana, Soumyajyoti

    Lightning flashes, associated with vigorous convective activity, is one of the most prominent weather phenomena in the tropical atmosphere. High aerosol loading is indirectly associated with the increase in lightning flash rates via the formation of tropospheric ozone during the pre-monsoon and monsoon over the tropics. Tropospheric ozone, an important greenhouse pollutant gas have impact on Earth’s radiation budget and play a key role in changing the atmospheric circulation patterns. Lightning-induced NOx is a primary pollutant found in photochemical smog and an important precursor for the formation of tropospheric ozone. A critical analysis is done to study the indirect effects of high aerosol loading on the formation of tropospheric ozone via lightning flashes and induced NOx formation over an urban metropolitan location Kolkata (22°32'N, 88°20'E), India during the period 2001-2012. The seasonal variation of lightning flash rates (LFR), taken from TRMM-LIS 2.5o x 2.5o gridded dataset, show that the LFR was observed to be intensified in the pre-monsoon (March-May) and high in monsoon (June-September) months over the region. Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at 555nm, taken from MISR 0.5o x 0.5o gridded level-3 dataset, plays an indirect effect on the increase in LFR during the pre-monsoon and monsoon months and has positive correlations between them during these periods. This is also justified from the seasonal variation of the increase in LFR due to the increase in AOD over the region during 2001-2012. The calibrated GOME and OMI/AURA satellite data analysis shows that the tropospheric ozone, formed as a result of lightning-induced NOx and due to the increased AOD at 555 nm, also increases during the pre-monsoon and monsoon months. The seasonal variation of lightning-induced tropospheric NOx, taken from SCIAMACHY observations also justified the fact that the pre-monsoon and monsoon LFR solely responsible for the generation of induced NOx over the region. The

  3. Indirect MR arthrography of the wrist in the diagnosis of TFCC-lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, T.; Lenhart, M.; Held, P.; Feuerbach, S.; Link, J.; Babel, M.; Ruf, S.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this prospective study was to assess the value of the indirect MR arthrography (MR-AR) of the wrist in the detection of lesions of the TFCC. Material and methods: Indirect MR-AR was performed in 45 patients (23 f/22 m) with unclear ulnar wrist pain. After i.v. injection of 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA and after a motion-phase of the wrist (15 minutes) MRI was performed in a coronal plane. We used a STIR-, a fatsaturated (fs) T1-SE and a 3D-DESS sequence. The images were evaluated by two radiologists using a consensus score. The lesions were assigned to the system of Palmer and correlated with arthroscopy. Results: Indirect MR-AR showed in 35 of 45 patients a lesion of the TFCC, but arthroscopy only revealed a defect in 32 cases. This means three false positive but no false negative assessments by MRI. Using this MRI protocol sensitivity and specificity in the detection of TFCC lesions were calculated as 100% and 77%. The accuracy was 93%. Small degenerative changes of the fibres were most common (Palmer type IIA). In trauma patients the ligaments usually showed tears near the insertion at the ulna (Palmer type IB). The sensitivity and specificity was 88% and 95% for evaluation of the scapho-lunate (SL) ligament, the accuracy was 93%. Arthroscopy and MRI did not diagnose any rupture of the lunate-triquetral (LT) ligament. Conclusion: Indirect MR-AR is a non-invasive method with a high sensitivity in the evaluation of the TFCC and associated injuries. Therefore, it is an excellent screening procedure to assess the indication for therapeutic arthroscopy. (orig.) [de

  4. Performance comparison of direct and indirect lighting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, F.; Morse, O.; Clark, T.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of a retrofitted indirect lighting system was compared to the performance of a typical de-lamped direct lighting system in a partitioned office space. Power, illuminance and luminance measurements were made for the de-lamped direct lighting system and after installation of the indirect lighting system with various lamp and ballast combinations. Using the same lamps and ballasts, average workplace illuminance was slightly higher with indirect lighting than with direct lighting. With indirect lighting, workplace lumen efficacy was 4.5% lower due to the higher power draw of the lamps in the more open and cooler indirect fixtures. Indirect lighting with 36 watt T-8 lamps and electronic ballasts achieved an initial average workplace illuminance of 45 foot-candles in the partitioned office space at only 1.1 w/ft 2

  5. Effect of the phosphor screen optics on the Swank noise performance in indirect-conversion x-ray imaging detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C H; Moon, M-K; Kam, S; Han, J C; Yun, S; Youn, H; Kim, H K; Jeon, H

    2014-01-01

    The optics between the scintillators and photodiode arrays of indirect-conversion x-ray imaging systems requires careful design because it can be a cause of secondary quantum sink, which reduces the detective quantum efficiency at high spatial frequencies. The aim of this study was the investigation of the effect of the optical properties of granular phosphor screens — including optical coupling materials and passivation layers in photodiode arrays — on the imaging performance of indirect-conversion x-ray imaging detectors using the Monte Carlo technique. In the Monte Carlo simulations, various design parameters were considered, such as the refractive index of the optical coupler and the passivation layer, the reflection coefficient at the screen backing, and the thickness of the optical coupler. We developed a model that describes the optical pulse-height distributions based on the depth-dependent collection efficiency obtained from the simulations. We used the model to calculate the optical Swank noise. A loss in the number of collected optical photons was inevitable owing to the introduction of intermediate optics and mismatches in the optical design parameters. However, the collection efficiency marginally affected the optical Swank factor performance. The results and methodology of this study will facilitate better designs and optimization of indirect-conversion x-ray detectors

  6. Ionization versus indirect effects of ionizing radiation on cellular DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadet, Jean; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Douki, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Emphasis has been placed in the last decade on the elucidation of the main degradation pathways of isolated DNA mediated by hydroxyl radical (OH) and one-electron oxidation reactions as the result of indirect and direct effects of ionizing radiation respectively. This has led to the isolation and characterization of about 100 oxidized purine and pyrimidine nucleosides if hydroperoxide precursors and diastereomers are included. However, far less information is available on the mechanisms of radiation-induced degradation of bases in cellular DNA mostly due partly to analytical difficulties. It may be reminded that the measurement of oxidized nucleosides and bases in nuclear DNA is still a challenging issue which until recently has been hampered by the use of inappropriate methods such as the GC-MS that have led to overestimated values of the lesions by factors varying between two and three orders of magnitude. At the present, using the accurate and sensitive HPLC/MS/MS assay, 11 single modified nucleosides and bases were found to be generated in cellular DNA upon exposure to gamma rays and heavy ions. This validates several of the OH-mediated oxidation pathways of thymine, guanine and adenine that were previously inferred from model studies. The concomitant decrease in the yields of oxidized bases with the increase in the LET of heavy ions is accounted for by the preponderance of indirect effects in the damaging action of ionizing radiation on DNA. Further evidence for the major role played by .OH was provided by the results of exposure of cells to high intensity 266 nm laser pulses. Under these conditions 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine is mostly produced by biphotonic ionization of DNA nucleobases and subsequent hole migration to guanine bases. It is likely that some of the oxidized bases that have been isolated as single lesions are in fact involved in clustered damage. Interestingly it was recently shown that a single oxidation hit is capable of generating complex

  7. Direct and Indirect Effects of Cytomegalovirus-induced gamma-delta T Cells after Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel eCouzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite effective anti-viral therapies, cytomegalovirus (CMV is still associated with direct (CMV disease and indirect effects (rejection and poor graft survival in kidney transplant recipients. Recently, an unconventional T cell population (collectively designated as Vδ2neg γδ T cells has been characterized during the anti-CMV immune response in all solid-organ and bone-marrow transplant recipients, neonates, and healthy people. These CMV-induced γδ T cells undergo a dramatic and stable expansion after CMV infection, in a conventional ‘adaptive’ manner. Similarly as CMV-specific CD8+ αβ T cells, they exhibit an effector/memory TEMRA phenotype and cytotoxic effector functions. Activation of Vd2neg gd T cells by CMV-infected cells involves the TCR and still ill-defined co-stimulatory molecules such LFA-1. A multiple of Vd2neg gd TCR ligands are apparently recognized on CMV-infected cells, the first one identified being the MHC-related molecule endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR. A singularity of CMV-induced Vd2neg gd T cells is to acquire CD16 expression and to exert an antibody-dependent cell-mediated inhibition on CMV replication, which is controlled by a specific cytokine microenvironment. Beyond the well-demonstrated direct anti-CMV effect of Vδ2neg γδ T cells, unexpected indirect effects of these cells have been also observed in the context of kidney transplantation. CMV-induced Vδ2neg γδ T cells have been involved in surveillance of malignancy subsequent to long term immunosuppression. Moreover, CMV-induced CD16+ γδ T cells are cell effectors of antibody-mediated rejection of kidney transplants, and represent a new physiopathological contribution to the well-known association between CMV infection and poor graft survival. All these basic and clinical studies paved the road to the development of a future γδ T cell-based immunotherapy. In the meantime, γδ T cell monitoring should prove a valuable immunological

  8. Sex differences in effective fronto-limbic connectivity during negative emotion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Ovidiu; Potvin, Stéphane; Tikàsz, Andràs; Mendrek, Adrianna

    2015-12-01

    In view of the greater prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders in women than in men, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have examined sex-differences in brain activations during emotion processing. Comparatively, sex-differences in brain connectivity received little attention, despite evidence for important fronto-limbic connections during emotion processing across sexes. Here, we investigated sex-differences in fronto-limbic connectivity during negative emotion processing. Forty-six healthy individuals (25 women, 21 men) viewed negative, positive and neutral images during an fMRI session. Effective connectivity between significantly activated regions was examined using Granger causality and psychophysical interaction analyses. Sex steroid hormones and feminine-masculine traits were also measured. Subjective ratings of negative emotional images were higher in women than in men. Across sexes, significant activations were observed in the dorso-medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and the right amygdala. Granger connectivity from right amygdala was significantly greater than that from dmPFC during the 'high negative' condition, an effect driven by men. Magnitude of this effect correlated negatively with highly negative image ratings and feminine traits and positively with testosterone levels. These results highlight critical sex differences in brain connectivity during negative emotion processing and point to the fact that both biological (sex steroid hormones) and psychosocial (gender role and identity) variables contribute to them. As the dmPFC is involved in social cognition and action planning, and the amygdala-in threat detection, the connectivity results suggest that compared to women, men have a more evaluative, rather than purely affective, brain response during negative emotion processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of the psi B gene on the indirect recombinogenesis of the lambda bacteriophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara D, D.

    1993-10-01

    Presently work, we prove if the protein psi B suppresses the indirect recombinogenesis of lambda when inhibiting the induction of the system bacterial SOS. This experimental model's advantage is that it allows to exclude the activity of co protease of RecA selectively without affecting the activity of recombinases of the same one, making possible the analysis of the paper that play both functions in the phenomenon. The results show that the inhibition of the activity of co protease of RecA doesn't suppress the indirect recombinogenesis of lambda. (Author)

  10. Direct and indirect effects of climatic variations on the interannual variability in net ecosystem exchange across terrestrial ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjiong Shao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Climatic variables not only directly affect the interannual variability (IAV in net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE but also indirectly drive it by changing the physiological parameters. Identifying these direct and indirect paths can reveal the underlying mechanisms of carbon (C dynamics. In this study, we applied a path analysis using flux data from 65 sites to quantify the direct and indirect climatic effects on IAV in NEE and to evaluate the potential relationships among the climatic variables and physiological parameters that represent physiology and phenology of ecosystems. We found that the maximum photosynthetic rate was the most important factor for the IAV in gross primary productivity (GPP, which was mainly induced by the variation in vapour pressure deficit. For ecosystem respiration (RE, the most important drivers were GPP and the reference respiratory rate. The biome type regulated the direct and indirect paths, with distinctive differences between forests and non-forests, evergreen needleleaf forests and deciduous broadleaf forests, and between grasslands and croplands. Different paths were also found among wet, moist and dry ecosystems. However, the climatic variables can only partly explain the IAV in physiological parameters, suggesting that the latter may also result from other biotic and disturbance factors. In addition, the climatic variables related to NEE were not necessarily the same as those related to GPP and RE, indicating the emerging difficulty encountered when studying the IAV in NEE. Overall, our results highlight the contribution of certain physiological parameters to the IAV in C fluxes and the importance of biome type and multi-year water conditions, which should receive more attention in future experimental and modelling research.

  11. Indirect costs of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Raciborski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that in Poland about 400,000 persons in general suffer from inflammatory joint diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Epidemiological surveys documenting the frequency and disturbance of musculoskeletal disorders in the Polish population are few in number. Most of the estimations are based on epidemiological data from other countries (prevalence of 0.5–1%. According to the data of the National Health Fund in Poland 135,000–157,000 persons in total are treated because of rheumatoid arthritis per year [ICD10 (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems: M05, M06]. In the case of this group of diseases indirect costs significantly outweigh the direct costs. Indirect costs increase together with activity level of the disease. The cost analysis of productivity loss of RA patients indicates that sickness absenteeism and informal care are the most burdensome. At the national level it amounts in total from 1.2 billion to 2.8 billion PLN per year, depending on the method of analysis. These costs could be significantly reduced through early diagnosis and introduction of effective treatment.

  12. CT-guided cervical nerve root injections: comparing the immediate post-injection anesthetic-related effects of the transforaminal injection with a new indirect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Peterson, Cynthia K.; Zanetti, Marco; Hodler, Juerg

    2011-01-01

    To describe an ''indirect'' cervical nerve root injection technique with a dorsal approach that should carry less inherent risk than the ''direct'' cervical transforaminal injection approach, and to compare the immediate post-injection results of the two procedures. The indirect and direct cervical nerve root injection procedures are described in detail. Fifty-three consecutive patients receiving the indirect nerve root injections during 2009-2010 were age- and gender-matched to 53 patients who underwent direct transforaminal nerve root injections performed in 2006. Pain level data were collected immediately before and 20-30 min after each procedure. The percentages of pain change in the two groups were compared using the unpaired Student's t test. Fifty-two men (mean age 49) and 54 women (mean age 55) were included. The mean percentage of pain reduction for patients receiving indirect nerve root injections was 38.4% and for those undergoing the direct nerve root injections approach it was 43.2%. This was not significantly different (P = 0.455). No immediate or late adverse effects were reported after either injection procedure. The indirect cervical nerve root injection procedure is a potentially safer alternative to direct cervical transforaminal nerve root injections. The short-term pain reduction is similar using the two injection methods. (orig.)

  13. ILUC mitigation case studies Tanzania. Applying the Low Indirect Impact Biofuel (LIIB) Methodology to Tanzanian projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Staaij, J.; Spoettle, M.; Weddige, U.; Toop, G. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-10-15

    NL Agency is supporting WWF and the Secretariat of the Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels (RSB) with the development of a certification module for biofuels with a low risk of indirect land use change (ILUC), the Low Indirect Impact Biofuel (LIIB) methodology (www.LIIBmethodology.org). The LIIB methodology was developed to certify that biomass feedstock for biofuels has been produced with a low risk of indirect impacts. It is designed as an independent module that can be added to biofuel policies and existing certification systems for sustainable biofuel and/or feedstock production, such as the RSB Standard, RSPO or NTA8080. It presents detailed ILUC mitigation approaches for four different solution types field-tested and audited in international pilots. Within the Global Sustainable Biomass programme and the Sustainable Biomass Import programme, coordinated by NL Agency, three projects are working on sustainable jatropha in Tanzania. Ecofys has been commissioned by NL Agency to contribute to the further development of the LIIB methodology by applying it to these three jatropha projects in Tanzania. All three projects located in the North of Tanzania, address sustainability in one way or another, but focus on the direct effects of jatropha cultivation and use. Interestingly, they nevertheless seem to apply different methods that could also minimise negative indirect impacts, including ILUC. Bioenergy feedstock production can have unintended consequences well outside the boundary of production operations. These are indirect impacts, which cannot be directly attributed to a particular operation. The most cited indirect impacts are ILUC and food/feed commodity price increases (an indirect impact on food security). ILUC can occur when existing cropland is used to cover the feedstock demand of additional biofuel production. When this displaces the previous use of the land (e.g. food production) this can lead to expansion of land use to new areas (e.g. deforestation) when

  14. Drawbacks of the use of indirect estimates of renal function to evaluate the effect of risk factors on renal function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, JC; Gansevoort, RT; Hillege, HL; De Zeeuw, D; Curhan, GC; De Jong, PE

    Many epidemiologic studies presently aim to evaluate the effect of risk factors on renal function. As direct measurement of renal function is cumbersome to perform, epidentiologic studies generally use an indirect estimate of renal function. The consequences of using different methods of renal

  15. Ballistic fractures: indirect fracture to bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Paul J; Sherman, Don; Dau, Nathan; Bir, Cynthia

    2011-11-01

    Two mechanisms of injury, the temporary cavity and the sonic wave, have been proposed to produce indirect fractures as a projectile passes nearby in tissue. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the temporal relationship of pressure waves using strain gauge technology and high-speed video to elucidate whether the sonic wave, the temporary cavity, or both are responsible for the formation of indirect fractures. Twenty-eight fresh frozen cadaveric diaphyseal tibia (2) and femurs (26) were implanted into ordnance gelatin blocks. Shots were fired using 9- and 5.56-mm bullets traversing through the gelatin only, passing close to the edge of the bone, but not touching, to produce an indirect fracture. High-speed video of the impact event was collected at 20,000 frames/s. Acquisition of the strain data were synchronized with the video at 20,000 Hz. The exact time of fracture was determined by analyzing and comparing the strain gauge output and video. Twenty-eight shots were fired, 2 with 9-mm bullets and 26 with 5.56-mm bullets. Eight indirect fractures that occurred were of a simple (oblique or wedge) pattern. Comparison of the average distance of the projectile from the bone was 9.68 mm (range, 3-20 mm) for fractured specimens and 15.15 mm (range, 7-28 mm) for nonfractured specimens (Student's t test, p = 0.036). In this study, indirect fractures were produced after passage of the projectile. Thus, the temporary cavity, not the sonic wave, was responsible for the indirect fractures.

  16. Spirituality, Illness Unpredictability, and Math Anxiety Effects on Negative Affect and Affect-Management Coping for Individuals Diagnosed with Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Amber K; Parrott, Roxanne L; Smith, Rachel A

    2018-04-01

    A growing number of genetic tests are included in diagnostic protocols associated with many common conditions. A positive diagnosis associated with the presence of some gene versions in many instances predicts a range of possible outcomes, and the uncertainty linked to such results contributes to the need to understand varied responses and plan strategic communication. Uncertainty in illness theory (UIT; Mishel, 1988, 1990) guided the investigation of efforts to feel in control and hopeful regarding genetic testing and diagnosis for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD). Participants included 137 individuals with AATD recruited from the Alpha-1 Research Registry who were surveyed about their subjective numeracy, anxiety about math, spirituality, perceptions of illness unpredictability, negative affect regarding genetic testing, and coping strategies about a diagnosis. Results revealed that experiencing more fear and worry contributed both directly and indirectly to affect-management coping strategies, operating through individual perceptions of illness unpredictability. The inability to predict the symptoms and course of events related to a genetic illness and anxiety regarding math heightened fear and worry. Spirituality lessened both illness unpredictability and negative affective responses to a diagnosis. Results affirm the importance of clinician and counselor efforts to incorporate attention to patient spirituality. They also illustrate the complexity associated with strategic efforts to plan communication about the different versions of a gene's effects on well-being, when some versions align with mild health effects and others with severe effects.

  17. Educational Differences in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer - Quantifying Indirect Effects through Health Behaviors, Body Mass Index and Reproductive Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Lange, Theis; Andersen, Ingelise

    2013-01-01

    Studying mechanisms underlying social inequality in postmenopausal breast cancer is important in order to develop prevention strategies. Standard methods for investigating indirect effects, by comparing crude models to adjusted, are often biased. We applied a new method enabling the decomposition......-years at risk. Of these, 26% (95% CI 14%-69%) could be attributed to alcohol consumption. Similar effects were observed for age at first birth (32%; 95% CI 10%-257%), parity (19%; 95%CI 10%-45%), and hormone therapy use (10%; 95% CI 6%-18%). Educational level modified the effect of physical activity on breast...

  18. The moderating effects of gender on the associations between multidimensional hostility and psychosomatic symptoms: a Chinese case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chia-Ying; Lin, I-Mei; Jiang, Ding-Yu

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of gender on the relationship between multidimensional hostility and psychosomatic symptoms in Chinese culture. The participants in this study were 398 Chinese college students (40% female) recruited from Taiwan. Four dimensions of multidimensional hostility-hostility cognition, hostility affect, expressive hostility behavior, and suppressive hostility behavior-were measured by the Chinese Hostility Inventory. After controlling for the effects of depression and anxiety, the results of path analysis revealed that the multidimensional hostility predicted psychosomatic symptoms directly, and predicted psychosomatic symptoms indirectly through negative health behavior. Furthermore, gender moderated the relationships between multidimensional hostility and health outcomes. Expressive hostility exacerbated psychosomatic symptom in females but buffered it in males, while affective hostility exacerbated psychosomatic symptoms in males. Additionally, suppressive hostility behavior was correlated to psychosomatic symptoms indirectly through negative health behavior in females. Moreover, expressive hostility was correlated to psychosomatic symptoms indirectly through negative health behavior more in males than in females.

  19. Expression of future prospective in indirect speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodnaruk Elena Vladimirovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the characteristics and use of grammatical semantics and lexical and grammatical means used to create future prospects in double indirect discourse. The material for the study were epic works by contemporary German writers. In the analysis of the empirical material it has been pointed out that indirect discourse has preterial basis and is the kind of most frequent inner speech of characters. The most widely used form with future semantics in preterial indirect speech is conditional I, formally having a conjunctive basis, but is mostly used with the indicative semantics. Competitive to conditional I in indirect speech is preterial indicative. A characteristic feature of the indirect speech is the use of modal verbs, which, thanks to its semantics is usually referred as an action at a later term, creating the prospect of future statements. The most frequent were modal verbs wollen and sollen in the form of the preterite, more rare verbs were m ssen and k nnen. German indirect speech distinguishes the ability to use forms on the basis of conjunctive: preterite and plusquamperfect of conjunctive. Both forms express values similar to those of the indicative. However, conjunctive forms the basis of the data shown in a slightly more pronounced seme of uncertainty that accompanies future uses of these forms in indirect speech. In addition, plusquamperfect conjunctive differs from others by the presence of the seme of completeness.

  20. The indirect effect of radiation reduces the repair fidelity of NHEJ as verified in repair deficient CHO cell lines exposed to different radiation qualities and potassium bromate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajinskis, Ainars; Olsson, Gunilla; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of DNA lesions induced by ionizing radiation is mainly dependent on radiation quality, where the indirect action of radiation may contribute to different extent depending on the type of radiation under study. The effect of indirect action of radiation can be investigated by using agents that induce oxidative DNA damage or by applying free radical scavengers. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the indirect effect of radiation for the repair fidelity of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination repair (HRR) and base excision repair (BER) when DNA damage of different complexity was induced by gamma radiation, alpha particles or from base damages (8-oxo-dG) induced by potassium bromate (KBrO 3 ). CHO cells lines deficient in XRCC3 (HRR) irs1SF, XRCC7 (NHEJ) V3-3 and XRCC1 (BER) EM9 were irradiated in the absence or presence of the free radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The endpoints investigated included rate of cell proliferation by the DRAG assay, clonogenic cell survival and the level of primary DNA damage by the comet assay. The results revealed that the indirect effect of low-LET radiation significantly reduced the repair fidelity of both NHEJ and HRR pathways. For high-LET radiation the indirect effect of radiation also significantly reduced the repair fidelity for the repair deficient cell lines. The results suggest further that the repair fidelity of the error prone NHEJ repair pathway is more impaired by the indirect effect of high-LET radiation relative to the other repair pathways studied. The response to bromate observed for the two DSB repair deficient cell lines strongly support earlier studies that bromate induces complex DNA damages. The significantly reduced repair fidelity of irs1SF and V3-3 suggests that NHEJ as well as HRR are needed for the repair, and that complex DSBs are formed after bromate exposure.

  1. The indirect effect of radiation reduces the repair fidelity of NHEJ as verified in repair deficient CHO cell lines exposed to different radiation qualities and potassium bromate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajinskis, Ainars; Olsson, Gunilla; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats

    2012-03-01

    The complexity of DNA lesions induced by ionizing radiation is mainly dependent on radiation quality, where the indirect action of radiation may contribute to different extent depending on the type of radiation under study. The effect of indirect action of radiation can be investigated by using agents that induce oxidative DNA damage or by applying free radical scavengers. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the indirect effect of radiation for the repair fidelity of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination repair (HRR) and base excision repair (BER) when DNA damage of different complexity was induced by gamma radiation, alpha particles or from base damages (8-oxo-dG) induced by potassium bromate (KBrO(3)). CHO cells lines deficient in XRCC3 (HRR) irs1SF, XRCC7 (NHEJ) V3-3 and XRCC1 (BER) EM9 were irradiated in the absence or presence of the free radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The endpoints investigated included rate of cell proliferation by the DRAG assay, clonogenic cell survival and the level of primary DNA damage by the comet assay. The results revealed that the indirect effect of low-LET radiation significantly reduced the repair fidelity of both NHEJ and HRR pathways. For high-LET radiation the indirect effect of radiation also significantly reduced the repair fidelity for the repair deficient cell lines. The results suggest further that the repair fidelity of the error prone NHEJ repair pathway is more impaired by the indirect effect of high-LET radiation relative to the other repair pathways studied. The response to bromate observed for the two DSB repair deficient cell lines strongly support earlier studies that bromate induces complex DNA damages. The significantly reduced repair fidelity of irs1SF and V3-3 suggests that NHEJ as well as HRR are needed for the repair, and that complex DSBs are formed after bromate exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The indirect effect of radiation reduces the repair fidelity of NHEJ as verified in repair deficient CHO cell lines exposed to different radiation qualities and potassium bromate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajinskis, Ainars, E-mail: ainars.bajinskis@gmt.su.se [Centre for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, S-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Olsson, Gunilla; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats [Centre for Radiation Protection Research, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, S-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-03-01

    The complexity of DNA lesions induced by ionizing radiation is mainly dependent on radiation quality, where the indirect action of radiation may contribute to different extent depending on the type of radiation under study. The effect of indirect action of radiation can be investigated by using agents that induce oxidative DNA damage or by applying free radical scavengers. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the indirect effect of radiation for the repair fidelity of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), homologous recombination repair (HRR) and base excision repair (BER) when DNA damage of different complexity was induced by gamma radiation, alpha particles or from base damages (8-oxo-dG) induced by potassium bromate (KBrO{sub 3}). CHO cells lines deficient in XRCC3 (HRR) irs1SF, XRCC7 (NHEJ) V3-3 and XRCC1 (BER) EM9 were irradiated in the absence or presence of the free radical scavenger dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The endpoints investigated included rate of cell proliferation by the DRAG assay, clonogenic cell survival and the level of primary DNA damage by the comet assay. The results revealed that the indirect effect of low-LET radiation significantly reduced the repair fidelity of both NHEJ and HRR pathways. For high-LET radiation the indirect effect of radiation also significantly reduced the repair fidelity for the repair deficient cell lines. The results suggest further that the repair fidelity of the error prone NHEJ repair pathway is more impaired by the indirect effect of high-LET radiation relative to the other repair pathways studied. The response to bromate observed for the two DSB repair deficient cell lines strongly support earlier studies that bromate induces complex DNA damages. The significantly reduced repair fidelity of irs1SF and V3-3 suggests that NHEJ as well as HRR are needed for the repair, and that complex DSBs are formed after bromate exposure.

  3. Psychosocial health among young victims and offenders of direct and indirect bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Marcel F; de Wit, Cees A M; Hirasing, Remy A

    2003-06-01

    To assess the association between bullying (both directly and indirectly) and indicators of psychosocial health for boys and girls separately. A school-based questionnaire survey of bullying, depression, suicidal ideation, and delinquent behavior. Primary schools in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. A total of 4811 children aged 9 to 13. Depression and suicidal ideation are common outcomes of being bullied in both boys and girls. These associations are stronger for indirect than direct bullying. After correction, direct bullying had a significant effect on depression and suicidal ideation in girls, but not in boys. Boy and girl offenders of bullying far more often reported delinquent behavior. Bullying others directly is a much greater risk factor for delinquent behavior than bullying others indirectly. This was true for both boys and girls. Boy and girl offenders of bullying also more often reported depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. However, after correction for both sexes only a significant association still existed between bullying others directly and suicidal ideation. The association between bullying and psychosocial health differs notably between girls and boys as well as between direct and indirect forms of bullying. Interventions to stop bullying must pay attention to these differences to enhance effectiveness.

  4. Synchronization of indirectly coupled Lorenz oscillators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synchronization of indirectly coupled Lorenz oscillators: An experimental study. Amit Sharma Manish Dev Shrimali. Synchronization, Coupled Systems and Networks Volume 77 Issue 5 November 2011 pp 881-889 ... The in-phase and anti-phase synchronization of indirectly coupled chaotic oscillators reported in Phys. Rev ...

  5. Indirect estimators in US federal programs

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, a subcommittee of the Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology met to document the use of indirect estimators - that is, estimators which use data drawn from a domain or time different from the domain or time for which an estimate is required. This volume comprises the eight reports which describe the use of indirect estimators and they are based on case studies from a variety of federal programs. As a result, many researchers will find this book provides a valuable survey of how indirect estimators are used in practice and which addresses some of the pitfalls of these methods.

  6. Investigations on Cs-free alternative materials for negative hydrogen ion formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurutz, Uwe

    2017-01-19

    inherently present volume processes for negative hydrogen ions which allows for assessing a material's direct and indirect impact on the negative ion density. Furthermore, two reference cases are investigated: an in-situ caesiated stainless steel sample and a pure stainless steel sample, where the former represents the current most efficient direct pathway and the latter provides insight into the negative ion background determined by the volume processes. Different materials known from literature to produce negative ions either directly or indirectly, like pure tantalum and tungsten, different boron-doped and non-doped diamond samples as well as two materials characterized by an intrinsic low work function (a molybdenum sample doped with lanthanum and a lanthanum hexaboride sample) have been investigated. The investigations showed that compared to the pure stainless steel reference sample neither tantalum, tungsten nor any of the diamond samples result in an increment of the negative ion density. Furthermore, all diamond materials show clear indications for plasma induced erosion (modified surface structure and reduced sample weight) and they significantly influence the plasma volume by an adverse effect on the negative ion production. In contrast, both samples with intrinsically low work function result in an increased negative ion density of up to 60 % compared to the stainless steel reference. This enhancement is still significantly lower than the enhancing effect measured for Cs evaporation, which leads to an increment of up to a factor of 2.5, attributable to the still higher work functions of about 3 eV compared to 2.1 eV for Cs. In conclusion, following investigations on Cs-free alternative materials should be focused on low work function materials.

  7. Investigations on Cs-free alternative materials for negative hydrogen ion formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurutz, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    present volume processes for negative hydrogen ions which allows for assessing a material's direct and indirect impact on the negative ion density. Furthermore, two reference cases are investigated: an in-situ caesiated stainless steel sample and a pure stainless steel sample, where the former represents the current most efficient direct pathway and the latter provides insight into the negative ion background determined by the volume processes. Different materials known from literature to produce negative ions either directly or indirectly, like pure tantalum and tungsten, different boron-doped and non-doped diamond samples as well as two materials characterized by an intrinsic low work function (a molybdenum sample doped with lanthanum and a lanthanum hexaboride sample) have been investigated. The investigations showed that compared to the pure stainless steel reference sample neither tantalum, tungsten nor any of the diamond samples result in an increment of the negative ion density. Furthermore, all diamond materials show clear indications for plasma induced erosion (modified surface structure and reduced sample weight) and they significantly influence the plasma volume by an adverse effect on the negative ion production. In contrast, both samples with intrinsically low work function result in an increased negative ion density of up to 60 % compared to the stainless steel reference. This enhancement is still significantly lower than the enhancing effect measured for Cs evaporation, which leads to an increment of up to a factor of 2.5, attributable to the still higher work functions of about 3 eV compared to 2.1 eV for Cs. In conclusion, following investigations on Cs-free alternative materials should be focused on low work function materials.

  8. Software Prefetching for Indirect Memory Accesses

    OpenAIRE

    Ainsworth, Sam; Jones, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Many modern data processing and HPC workloads are heavily memory-latency bound. A tempting proposition to solve this is software prefetching, where special non-blocking loads are used to bring data into the cache hierarchy just before being required. However, these are difficult to insert to effectively improve performance, and techniques for automatic insertion are currently limited. This paper develops a novel compiler pass to automatically generate software prefetches for indirect mem...

  9. THE INDIRECT OBJECT (IO) – ALBANIAN AND ENGLISH

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku; Xhevahire Topanica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is too corporate the function of the indirect object between Albanian and English language. The function and the Albanian typical case for indirect object are dative and ablative. This grammatical phenomena is the full contrast between two languages because in English language doesn’t exist dative and ablative us in Albanian. In Albanian and English language, the indirect object is more heterogenic than the direct object. The indirect (direct) object in both of languages...

  10. Effect of adalimumab on work productivity and indirect costs in moderate to severe Crohn’s disease: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binion, David G; Louis, Edouard; Oldenburg, Bas; Mulani, Parvez; Bensimon, Arielle G; Yang, Mei; Chao, Jingdong

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of adalimumab on work productivity and indirect costs in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) using a meta-analysis of clinical trials. METHODS: Study-level results were pooled from all clinical trials of adalimumab for moderate to severe CD in which work productivity outcomes were evaluated. Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire outcomes (absenteeism, presenteeism and total work productivity impairment [TWPI]) were extracted from adalimumab trials. Meta-analyses were used to estimate pooled averages and 95% CIs of one-year accumulated reductions in work productivity impairment with adalimumab. Pooled averages were multiplied by the 2008 United States national average annual salary ($44,101) to estimate per-patient indirect cost savings during the year following adalimumab initiation. RESULTS: The four included trials (ACCESS, CARE, CHOICE and EXTEND) represented a total of 1202 employed adalimumab-treated patients at baseline. Each study followed patients for a minimum of 20 weeks. Pooled estimates (95% CIs) of one-year accumulated work productivity improvements were as follows: −9% (−10% to −7%) for absenteeism; −22% (−26% to −18%) for presenteeism; and −25% (−30% to −20%) for TWPI. Reductions in absenteeism and TWPI translated into per-patient indirect cost savings (95% CI) of $3,856 ($3,183 to $4,529) and $10,964 ($8,833 to $13,096), respectively. CONCLUSION: Adalimumab provided clinically meaningful improvements in work productivity among patients with moderate to severe CD, which may translate into substantial indirect cost savings from an employer’s perspective. PMID:21912760

  11. Indirect reciprocity with optional interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghang, Whan; Nowak, Martin A

    2015-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a mechanism for the evolution of cooperation that is relevant for prosocial behavior among humans. Indirect reciprocity means that my behavior towards you also depends on what you have done to others. Indirect reciprocity is associated with the evolution of social intelligence and human language. Most approaches to indirect reciprocity assume obligatory interactions, but here we explore optional interactions. In any one round a game between two players is offered. A cooperator accepts a game unless the reputation of the other player indicates a defector. For a game to take place, both players must accept. In a game between a cooperator and a defector, the reputation of the defector is revealed to all players with probability Q. After a sufficiently large number of rounds the identity of all defectors is known and cooperators are no longer exploited. The crucial condition for evolution of cooperation can be written as hQB>1, where h is the average number of rounds per person and B=(b/c)-1 specifies the benefit-to-cost ratio. We analyze both stochastic and deterministic evolutionary game dynamics. We study two extensions that deal with uncertainty: hesitation and malicious gossip. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential Effects of Positive versus Negative Self-Involving Counselor Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, Pam; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the effects of positive and negative counselor disclosure using typescripts of hypothetical counseling interviews. Results indicated impact of condition was mixed, with each having some desirable effects. (PAS)

  13. Kinetic effects in the propagation of ion-acoustic negative solitons in plasmas with negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, M.

    1986-12-01

    The existence of ion-acoustic negative (rarefactive) solitons in plasmas was experimentally verified and explained by means of the Korteweg-de Vries equation, obtained from a fluid model. The experimental results obtained in a double-plasma machine of the Institute for Space Research, however, have provided values of Mach number larger than predicted by this simple model. In order to improve the analysis of the phenomenon, Kinetic effects resultant from the occurrence of reflected electrons and trapped ions in the soliton potential were considered, using the theory of Sagdeev potential. For the description of the negative ion dynamics the fluid model treatment was preserved. It was verified that the effects of the finite temperature and trapping of the positive ions modify the results predicted by the simple KdV model in such a way that the Mach number is reduced as the ion temperature increases. It was shown that reflection of electrons is consistent with the large experimental values of Mach number. (Author) [pt

  14. Positive and negative feedback loops in nutrient phytoplankton interactions related to climate dynamics factors in a shallow temperate estuary (Vistula Lagoon, southern Baltic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Marek; Kobos, Justyna; Nawrocka, Lidia; Parszuto, Katarzyna

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to demonstrate that factors associated with climate dynamics, such as temperature and wind, affect the ecosystem of the shallow Vistula Lagoon in the southern Baltic and cause nutrient forms phytoplankton interactions: the growth of biomass and constraints of it. This occurs through a network of direct and indirect relationships between environmental and phytoplankton factors, including interactions of positive and negative feedback loops. Path analysis supported by structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test hypotheses regarding the impact of climate factors on algal assemblages. Increased phytoplankton biomass was affected directly by water temperature and salinity, while the wind speed effect was indirect as it resulted in increased concentrations of suspended solids (SS) in the water column. Simultaneously, the concentration of SS in the water was positively correlated with particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate nitrogen (PN), and particulate phosphorus (PP), and was negatively correlated with the total nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) ratio. Particulate forms of C, N, and phosphorus (P), concentrations of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and nitrate and nitrite nitrogen (NO3-N + NO2-N), and ratios of the total N:P and DIN:SRP, all indirectly effected Cyanobacteria C concentrations. These processes influence other phytoplankton groups (Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyceae and the picophytoplankton fraction). Increased levels of SRP associated with organic matter (POC), which stemmed from reduced DIN:SRP ratios, contributed to increased Cyanoprokaryota and picophytoplankton C concentrations, which created a positive feedback loop. However, a simultaneous reduction in the total N:P ratio could have inhibited increases in the biomass of these assemblages by limiting N, which likely formed a negative feedback loop. The study indicates that the nutrients-phytoplankton feedback loop phenomenon can intensify eutrophication in a temperate lagoon

  15. Technostress : negative effect on performance and possible mitigations

    OpenAIRE

    Tarafdar, Monideepa; Pullins, Ellen; Ragu-Nathan, T. S

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effect of conditions that create technostress, on technology-enabled innovation, technology-enabled performance and overall performance. We further look at the role of technology self-efficacy, organizational mechanisms that inhibit technostress and technology competence as possible mitigations to the effects of technostress creators. Our findings show a negative association between technostress creators and performance. We find that, while traditional effort-based mechanis...

  16. Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adj...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adjustments to Medicare Inpatient Payment Rates The indirect medical education (IME) and disproportionate share...

  17. Indirect Comorbidity in Childhood and Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eCopeland

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Comorbidity between psychiatric disorders is common, but pairwise associations between two disorders may be explained by the presence of other diagnoses that are associated with both disorders or indirect comorbidity. Method: Comorbidities of common childhood psychiatric disorders were tested in three community samples of children ages 6 to 17 (8931 observations of 2965 subjects. Psychiatric disorder status in all three samples was assessed with the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment. Indirect comorbidity was defined as A-B associations that decreased from significance to nonsignificance after adjusting for other disorders. Results: All tested childhood psychiatric disorders were positively associated in bivariate analyses. After adjusting for comorbidities, many ssociations involving a behavioral disorder and an emotional disorder were attenuated suggesting indirect comorbidity. Generalized anxiety and depressive disorders displayed a very high level of overlap (adjusted OR=37.9. All analyses were rerun with depressive disorders grouped with generalized anxiety disorder in a single distress disorders category. In these revised models, all associations between and emotional disorder and a behavior disorder met our criteria for indirect comorbidity except for the association of oppositional defiant disorder with distress disorders (OR=11.3. Follow-up analyses suggested that the indirect associations were primarily accounted for by oppositional defiant disorder and the distress disorder category. There was little evidence of either sex differences or differences by developmental period Conclusions: After accounting for the overlap between depressive disorders with generalized anxiety disorder, direct comorbidity between emotional and behavioral disorders was uncommon. When there was evidence of indirect comorbidity, ODD and distress disorders were the key intermediary diagnoses accounting for the apparent associations.

  18. A Double-Negative Effect on the Earnings of Immigrant Women? Evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Husted, L.; Rosholm, Michael

    In this paper we investigate whether there exists a double-negative effect on the earnings of immigrant women in Denmark stemming from a combined negative effect of gender and foreign country of origin. We estimate separate wage equations for Danes and a number of immigrant groups allowing...... for individual specific effects. Considering females, correcting for possible sample selection bias due to the participation decision is essential. Based on a Danish panel of register data, we identify some groups of immigrant females that experience a strong and persistent double-negative effect on wages even...

  19. Indirect two-sided relative ranking: a robust similarity measure for gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licamele Louis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a large amount of gene expression data that exists in the public domain. This data has been generated under a variety of experimental conditions. Unfortunately, these experimental variations have generally prevented researchers from accurately comparing and combining this wealth of data, which still hides many novel insights. Results In this paper we present a new method, which we refer to as indirect two-sided relative ranking, for comparing gene expression profiles that is robust to variations in experimental conditions. This method extends the current best approach, which is based on comparing the correlations of the up and down regulated genes, by introducing a comparison based on the correlations in rankings across the entire database. Because our method is robust to experimental variations, it allows a greater variety of gene expression data to be combined, which, as we show, leads to richer scientific discoveries. Conclusions We demonstrate the benefit of our proposed indirect method on several datasets. We first evaluate the ability of the indirect method to retrieve compounds with similar therapeutic effects across known experimental barriers, namely vehicle and batch effects, on two independent datasets (one private and one public. We show that our indirect method is able to significantly improve upon the previous state-of-the-art method with a substantial improvement in recall at rank 10 of 97.03% and 49.44%, on each dataset, respectively. Next, we demonstrate that our indirect method results in improved accuracy for classification in several additional datasets. These datasets demonstrate the use of our indirect method for classifying cancer subtypes, predicting drug sensitivity/resistance, and classifying (related cell types. Even in the absence of a known (i.e., labeled experimental barrier, the improvement of the indirect method in each of these datasets is statistically significant.

  20. The direct and indirect effects of infrastructure on firm productivity: Evidence from manufacturing in the People's Republic of China

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Guanghua; Zhang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    This paper attempts to distinguish and estimate the direct and indirect effects of infrastructure on firm productivity. The latter arises from the infrastructure-agglomeration link and has been largely overlooked in the literature on infrastructure. An analytical framework is then developed to estimate both effects. Finally, empirical results are obtained using large-scale firm-level survey data from the People's Republic of China (PRC). Major findings include: (1) all the three kinds of infr...

  1. Social intervention and risk reduction - indirect countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, N.A.; Morrey, M.

    1996-01-01

    An indirect countermeasure (IC) is an action which is intended to mitigate detrimental effects experienced by individuals or the community after an accident. Indirect countermeasures (ICs) achieve this, both by averting radiation risks arising from the accident, but by removing or reducing other risks and sources of stress or harm to which the community may be subject. ICs naturally fall into two categories: social action ICs, which range from introducing compensation payments to providing information centres; and risk reducing ICs which mitigate risks to which the population might be exposed, such as radon. By including a consideration of ICs in an assessment of the optimal response, it is likely that a decision maker will become aware of a greater range of harms and benefits that might result from the application of a countermeasure. The decision maker will then be in a better position to judge the appropriateness of any action. (author)

  2. Differential effects of arousal in positive and negative autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S

    2012-01-01

    Autobiographical memories are characterised by a range of emoti