WorldWideScience

Sample records for indirect liquefaction process

  1. Zeolites as Catalysts for Fuels Refining after Indirect Liquefaction Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno de Klerk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of zeolite catalysts for the refining of products from methanol synthesis and Fisher–Tropsch synthesis was reviewed. The focus was on fuels refining processes and differences in the application to indirect liquefaction products was compared to petroleum, which is often a case of managing different molecules. Processes covered were skeletal isomerisation of n-butenes, hydroisomerisation of n-butane, aliphatic alkylation, alkene oligomerisation, methanol to hydrocarbons, ethanol and heavier alcohols to hydrocarbons, carbonyls to hydrocarbons, etherification of alkenes with alcohols, light naphtha hydroisomerisation, catalytic naphtha reforming, hydroisomerisation of distillate, hydrocracking and fluid catalytic cracking. The zeolite types that are already industrially used were pointed out, as well as zeolite types that have future promise for specific conversion processes.

  2. Indirect liquefaction of coal. [Coal gasification plus Fischer-Tropsch, methanol or Mobil M-gasoline process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-30

    The most important potential environmental problems uniquely associated with indirect liquefaction appear to be related to the protection of occupational personnel from the toxic and carcinogenic properties of process and waste stream constituents, the potential public health risks from process products, by-products and emissions and the management of potentially hazardous solid wastes. The seriousness of these potential problems is related partially to the severity of potential effects (i.e., human mortality and morbidity), but even more to the uncertainty regarding: (1) the probable chemical characteristics and quantities of process and waste streams; and (2) the effectiveness and efficiencies of control technologies not yet tested on a commercial scale. Based upon current information, it is highly improbable that these potential problems will actually be manifested or pose serious constraints to the development of indirect liquefaction technologies, although their potential severity warrants continued research and evaluation. The siting of indirect liquefaction facilities may be significantly affected by existing federal, state and local regulatory requirements. The possibility of future changes in environmental regulations also represents an area of uncertainty that may develop into constraints for the deployment of indirect liquefaction processes. Out of 20 environmental issues identified as likely candidates for future regulatory action, 13 were reported to have the potential to impact significantly the commercialization of coal synfuel technologies. These issues are listed.

  3. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-07-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop. The workshop, held March 20–21, 2014, in Golden, Colorado, discussed and detailed the research and development needs for biomass indirect liquefaction. Discussions focused on pathways that convert biomass-based syngas (or any carbon monoxide, hydrogen gaseous stream) to liquid intermediates (alcohols or acids) and further synthesize those intermediates to liquid hydrocarbons that are compatible as either a refinery feed or neat fuel.

  4. U.S. DOE indirect coal liquefaction program: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, J.; Schmetz, E.; Winslow, J.; Tischer, R. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Srivastava, R.

    1997-12-31

    Coal is the most abundant domestic energy resource in the United States. The Fossil Energy Organization within the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been supporting a coal liquefaction program to develop improved technologies to convert coal to clean and cost-effective liquid fuels to complement the dwindling supply of domestic petroleum crude. The goal of this program is to produce coal liquids that are competitive with crude at $20 to $25 per barrel. Indirect and direct liquefaction routes are the two technologies being pursued under the DOE coal liquefaction program. This paper will give an overview of the DOE indirect liquefaction program. More detailed discussions will be given to the F-T diesel and DME fuels which have shown great promises as clean burning alternative diesel fuels. The authors also will briefly discuss the economics of indirect liquefaction and the hurdles and opportunities for the early commercial deployment of these technologies. Discussions will be preceded by two brief reviews on the liquid versus gas phase reactors and the natural gas versus coal based indirect liquefaction.

  5. Biological production of alcohols from coal through indirect liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S; Prieto, S; Harrison, S B; Clausen, E C; Gaddy, J L

    1988-08-01

    The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing liquid fuels from the components of synthesis gas through biological indirect liquefaction. The results of pure culture and natural source screening studies aimed at finding organisms capable of carrying out the conversions are presented and discussed. 17 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Indirect Liquefaction of Biomass to Transportation Fuels Via Mixed Oxygenated Intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C.D.

    2016-11-14

    This paper presents a comparative techno-economic analysis of four emerging conversion pathways from biomass to gasoline-, jet-, and diesel-range hydrocarbons via indirect liquefaction with specific focus on pathways utilizing oxygenated intermediates. The processing steps include: biomass-to-syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, conversion of syngas to alcohols/oxygenates followed by conversion of alcohols/oxygenates to hydrocarbon blendstocks via dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation.

  7. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  8. Rationale for continuing R&D in indirect coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G. [MITRE Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this analysis is to use the world energy demand/supply model developed at MITRE to examine future liquid fuels supply scenarios both for the world and for the United States. This analysis has determined the probable extent of future oil resource shortages and the likely time frame in which the shortages will occur. The role that coal liquefaction could play in helping to alleviate this liquid fuels shortfall is also examined. The importance of continuing R&D to improve process performance and reduce the costs of coal-derived transportation fuel is quantified in terms of reducing the time when coal liquids will become competitive with petroleum.

  9. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons via Indirect Liquefaction. Thermochemical Research Pathway to High-Octane Gasoline Blendstock Through Methanol/Dimethyl Ether Intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, E. C. D.; Talmadge, M.; Dutta, A.; Hensley, J.; Schaidle, J.; Biddy, M.; Humbird, D.; Snowden-Swan, L. J.; Ross, J.; Sexton, D.; Yap, R.; Lukas, J.

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructure-compatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research funded by BETO is designed to advance the state of technology of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. As part of their involvement in this research and development effort, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models and techno-economic analysis models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass. The processing steps of this pathway include the conversion of biomass to synthesis gas or syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, catalytic conversion of syngas to methanol intermediate, methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME), and catalytic conversion of DME to high-octane, gasoline-range hydrocarbon blendstock product. The conversion process configuration leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by BETO and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via reforming of tars and other hydrocarbons is one of the key technology advancements realized as part of this prior research and 2012 demonstrations. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area for the downstream utilization of clean biomass-derived syngas for the production of high-octane hydrocarbon products through methanol and DME intermediates. In this process, methanol undergoes dehydration to

  10. Indirect coal liquefaction - the first commercial CTL project in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, K.; Battensby, D.; Marsico, C.; Hooper, M.; Mather, C. [Uhde GmbH (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The polygeneration of fuels, chemical and power offers an innovative and economically advantageous way to utilise disadvantaged fuels, such as lignite, waste coal and petroleum coke, in a coal-to-liquids (CTL) plant by means of integration of three main process blocks: gasification island to convert coal into clean synthesis gas; Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to convert synthesis gas into clean liquid fuels and chemicals; and combustion of synthesis gas to produce electric power and steam. This paper describes the process and technology side of this indirect coal liquefaction project with key plant data that has been elaborated for a commercial scale CTL project, which is expected to be the first CTL plant in the USA. The plant will use the Shell Coal Gasification process. 6 figs.

  11. Comparative techno-economic analysis and process design for indirect liquefaction pathways to distillate-range fuels via biomass-derived oxygenated intermediates upgrading: Liquid Transportation Fuel Production via Biomass-derived Oxygenated Intermediates Upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C. D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Jones, Susanne [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Gray, Michel [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Dagle, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Padmaperuma, Asanga [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Gerber, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Sahir, Asad H. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA; Zhang, Yanan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO USA

    2016-09-27

    This paper presents a comparative techno-economic analysis (TEA) of five conversion pathways from biomass to gasoline-, jet-, and diesel-range hydrocarbons via indirect liquefaction with specific focus on pathways utilizing oxygenated intermediates. The four emerging pathways of interest are compared with one conventional pathway (Fischer-Tropsch) for the production of the hydrocarbon blendstocks. The processing steps of the four emerging pathways include: biomass to syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, conversion of syngas to alcohols/oxygenates followed by conversion of alcohols/oxygenates to hydrocarbon blendstocks via dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation. Conversion of biomass-derived syngas to oxygenated intermediates occurs via three different pathways, producing: 1) mixed alcohols over a MoS2 catalyst, 2) mixed oxygenates (a mixture of C2+ oxygenated compounds, predominantly ethanol, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate) using an Rh-based catalyst, and 3) ethanol from syngas fermentation. This is followed by the conversion of oxygenates/alcohols to fuel-range olefins in two approaches: 1) mixed alcohols/ethanol to 1-butanol rich mixture via Guerbet reaction, followed by alcohol dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation, and 2) mixed oxygenates/ethanol to isobutene rich mixture and followed by oligomerization and hydrogenation. The design features a processing capacity of 2,000 tonnes/day (2,205 short tons) of dry biomass. The minimum fuel selling prices (MFSPs) for the four developing pathways range from $3.40 to $5.04 per gasoline-gallon equivalent (GGE), in 2011 US dollars. Sensitivity studies show that MFSPs can be improved with co-product credits and are comparable to the commercial Fischer-Tropsch benchmark ($3.58/GGE). Overall, this comparative TEA study documents potential economics for the developmental biofuel pathways via mixed oxygenates.

  12. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Indirect coal liquefaction, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    A comprehensive review of Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology, including fixed, fluidized, and bubble column reactors, was undertaken in order to develop an information base before initiating the design of the Fischer-Tropsch indirect liquefaction PDU as a part of the Generic Coal Conversion Facilities to be built at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The pilot plant will include a fixed bed and slurry bubble column reactor for the F-T mode of operation. The review encompasses current status of both these technologies, their key variables, catalyst development, future directions, and potential improvement areas. However, more emphasis has been placed on the slurry bubble column reactor since this route is likely to be the preferred technology for commercialization, offering process advantages and, therefore, better economics than fixed and fluidized bed approaches.

  13. Comparative TEA for Indirect Liquefaction Pathways to Distillate-Range Fuels via Oxygenated Intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Talmadge, Michael; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Gray, Michael; Dagle, Robert; Padmaperuma, Asanga; Gerber, Mark; Sahir, Asad; Tao, Ling; Zhang, Yanan

    2017-03-03

    This paper presents a comparative techno-economic analysis of five conversion pathways from biomass to gasoline-, jet-, and diesel-range hydrocarbons via indirect liquefaction with specific focus on pathways utilizing oxygenated intermediates (derived either via thermochemical or biochemical conversion steps). The four emerging pathways of interest are compared with one conventional pathway (Fischer-Tropsch) for the production of the hydrocarbon blendstocks. The processing steps of the four emerging pathways include: biomass-to-syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, conversion of syngas to alcohols/oxygenates, followed by conversion of alcohols/oxygenates to hydrocarbon blendstocks via dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation. We show that the emerging pathways via oxygenated intermediates have the potential to be cost competitive with the conventional Fischer-Tropsch process. The evaluated pathways and the benchmark process generally exhibit similar fuel yields and carbon conversion efficiencies. The resulting minimum fuel selling prices are comparable to the benchmark at approximately $3.60 per gallon-gasoline equivalent, with potential for two new pathways to be more economically competitive. Additionally, the coproduct values can play an important role in the economics of the processes with oxygenated intermediates derived via syngas fermentation. Major cost drivers for the integrated processes are tied to achievable fuel yields and conversion efficiency of the intermediate steps, i.e., the production of oxygenates/alcohols from syngas and the conversion of oxygenates/alcohols to hydrocarbon fuels.

  14. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Canter, Christina E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartley, Damon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Searcy, Erin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for both the 2015 SOT (Hartley et al., 2015; ANL, 2016; DOE, 2016) and the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for both the 2015 SOT (Tan et al., 2015a) and the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015b). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. In the SCSA, the 2015 SOT case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015b), uses the 2015 SOT feedstock blend of pulpwood, wood residue, and construction and demolition waste (C&D). Moreover, the 2022 design case for the conversion process, as described in Tan et al. (2015a), uses the 2017 design case blend of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and C&D. The performance characteristics of this blend are consistent with those of a single woody feedstock (e.g., pine or poplar). We also examined the influence of using a single feedstock type on SCSA results for the design case. These single feedstock scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results given that the different components of the feedstock blend have varying energy and material demands for production and logistics.

  15. A novel vortex tube-based N2-expander liquefaction process for enhancing the energy efficiency of natural gas liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qyyum Muhammad Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work unfolds a simple, safe, and environment-friendly energy efficient novel vortex tube-based natural gas liquefaction process (LNG. A vortex tube was introduced to the popular N2-expander liquefaction process to enhance the liquefaction efficiency. The process structure and condition were modified and optimized to take a potential advantage of the vortex tube on the natural gas liquefaction cycle. Two commercial simulators ANSYS® and Aspen HYSYS® were used to investigate the application of vortex tube in the refrigeration cycle of LNG process. The Computational fluid dynamics (CFD model was used to simulate the vortex tube with nitrogen (N2 as a working fluid. Subsequently, the results of the CFD model were embedded in the Aspen HYSYS® to validate the proposed LNG liquefaction process. The proposed natural gas liquefaction process was optimized using the knowledge-based optimization (KBO approach. The overall energy consumption was chosen as an objective function for optimization. The performance of the proposed liquefaction process was compared with the conventional N2-expander liquefaction process. The vortex tube-based LNG process showed a significant improvement of energy efficiency by 20% in comparison with the conventional N2-expander liquefaction process. This high energy efficiency was mainly due to the isentropic expansion of the vortex tube. It turned out that the high energy efficiency of vortex tube-based process is totally dependent on the refrigerant cold fraction, operating conditions as well as refrigerant cycle configurations.

  16. A novel vortex tube-based N2-expander liquefaction process for enhancing the energy efficiency of natural gas liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qyyum, Muhammad Abdul; Wei, Feng; Hussain, Arif; Ali, Wahid; Sehee, Oh; Lee, Moonyong

    2017-11-01

    This research work unfolds a simple, safe, and environment-friendly energy efficient novel vortex tube-based natural gas liquefaction process (LNG). A vortex tube was introduced to the popular N2-expander liquefaction process to enhance the liquefaction efficiency. The process structure and condition were modified and optimized to take a potential advantage of the vortex tube on the natural gas liquefaction cycle. Two commercial simulators ANSYS® and Aspen HYSYS® were used to investigate the application of vortex tube in the refrigeration cycle of LNG process. The Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was used to simulate the vortex tube with nitrogen (N2) as a working fluid. Subsequently, the results of the CFD model were embedded in the Aspen HYSYS® to validate the proposed LNG liquefaction process. The proposed natural gas liquefaction process was optimized using the knowledge-based optimization (KBO) approach. The overall energy consumption was chosen as an objective function for optimization. The performance of the proposed liquefaction process was compared with the conventional N2-expander liquefaction process. The vortex tube-based LNG process showed a significant improvement of energy efficiency by 20% in comparison with the conventional N2-expander liquefaction process. This high energy efficiency was mainly due to the isentropic expansion of the vortex tube. It turned out that the high energy efficiency of vortex tube-based process is totally dependent on the refrigerant cold fraction, operating conditions as well as refrigerant cycle configurations.

  17. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Canter, Christina E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartley, Damon S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) aims at developing and deploying technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2015). BETO also performs a supply chain sustainability analysis (SCSA). This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. The 2017 design case for feedstock logistics demonstrated a delivered feedstock cost of $80 per dry U.S. short ton by the year 2017 (INL, 2014). The 2022 design case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015), uses the feedstock 2017 design case blend of biomass feedstocks consisting of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and construction and demolition waste (C&D) with performance properties consistent with a sole woody feedstock type (e.g., pine or poplar). The HOG SCSA case considers the 2017 feedstock design case (the blend) as well as individual feedstock cases separately as alternative scenarios when the feedstock blend ratio varies as a result of a change in feedstock availability. These scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results because of distinctive requirements for energy and chemical inputs for the production and logistics of different components of the blend feedstocks.

  18. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass: Developments from batch to continuous process

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, DC; Biller, P; Ross, AB; Schmidt, AJ; Jones, SB

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the recent results in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass in continuous-flow processing systems. Although much has been published about batch reactor tests of biomass HTL, there is only limited information yet available on continuous-flow tests, which can provide a more reasonable basis for process design and scale-up for commercialization. High-moisture biomass feedstocks are the most likely to be used in HTL. These materials are described and results of their pr...

  19. Solvent recyclability in a multistep direct liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetland, M.D.; Rindt, J.R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Direct liquefaction research at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has, for a number of years, concentrated on developing a direct liquefaction process specifically for low-rank coals (LRCs) through the use of hydrogen-donating solvents and solvents similar to coal-derived liquids, the water/gas shift reaction, and lower-severity reaction conditions. The underlying assumption of all of the research was that advantage could be taken of the reactivity and specific qualities of LRCs to produce a tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble material that might be easier to upgrade than the soluble residuum produced during direct liquefaction of high-rank coals. A multistep approach was taken to produce the THF-soluble material, consisting of (1) preconversion treatment to prepare the coal for solubilization, (2) solubilization of the coal in the solvent, and (3) polishing to complete solubilization of the remaining material. The product of these three steps can then be upgraded during a traditional hydrotreatment step. The results of the EERC`s research indicated that additional studies to develop this process more fully were justified. Two areas were targeted for further research: (1) determination of the recyclability of the solvent used during solubilization and (2) determination of the minimum severity required for hydrotreatment of the liquid product. The current project was funded to investigate these two areas.

  20. Development of an extruder-feeder biomass direct liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Wolf, D. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-10-01

    As an abundant, renewable, domestic energy resource, biomass could help the United States reduce its dependence on imported oil. Biomass is the only renewable energy technology capable of addressing the national need for liquid transportation fuels. Thus, there is an incentive to develop economic conversion processes for converting biomass, including wood, into liquid fuels. Through research sponsored by the US DOE's Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program, the University of Arizona has developed a unique biomass direct liquefaction system. The system features a modified single-screw extruder capable of pumping solid slurries containing as high as 60 wt% wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms at pressures up to 3000 psi. The extruder-feeder has been integrated with a unique reactor by the University to form a system which offers potential for improving high pressure biomass direct liquefaction technology. The extruder-feeder acts simultaneously as both a feed preheater and a pumping device for injecting wood slurries into a high pressure reactor in the biomass liquefaction process. An experimental facility was constructed and following shakedown operations, wood crude oil was produced by mid-1985. By July 1988, a total of 57 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using White Birch wood feedstock. Good operability was achieved at slurry feed rates up to 30 lb/hr, reactor pressures from 800 to 3000 psi and temperatures from 350{degree}C to 430{degree}C under conditions covering a range of carbon monoxide feed rates and sodium carbonate catalyst addition. Crude wood oils containing as little as 6--10 wt% residual oxygen were produced. 38 refs., 82 figs., 26 tabs.

  1. Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Process release---Direct coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The direct liquefaction portion of the PETC generic direct coal liquefaction process development unit (PDU) is being designed to provide maximum operating flexibility. The PDU design will permit catalytic and non-catalytic liquefaction concepts to be investigated at their proof-of-the-concept stages before any larger scale operations are attempted. The principal variations from concept to concept are reactor configurations and types. These include thermal reactor, ebullating bed reactor, slurry phase reactor and fixed bed reactor, as well as different types of catalyst. All of these operating modes are necessary to define and identify the optimum process conditions and configurations for determining improved economical liquefaction technology.

  2. Characterization of solid residues from coal liquefaction processes. Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J.; McDougall, W.M.; Kybett, B.D.; Neufeld, C.

    1981-01-01

    Various coal liquefaction and beneficiation processes are being investigated by independent research groups sponsored by the Canadian Federal Government. These processes include the co-processing of heavy oils and bitumen with coal, oxygen removal and hydrogenation of coal and supercritical gas extraction of coal. The end products, gaseous and liquid fuels and insoluble organic residues, vary with the experimental conditions. The physical properties and origin of the insoluble residue may influence such factors as degree of conversion, efficiency of the process, and ultimately, gaseous and liquid yields. One of the most suitable methods of assessing the nature of the insoluble residues is the use of petrography. This report deals with petrographic assessment of the coals and residues from various coal conversion processes; attempts were made to characterize the solid phases in the residues; to assess them in a quantitative manner and where possible; to correlate the results with experimental data; and to assess their effects on conversion. (30 refs.)

  3. System evaluation of offshore platforms with gas liquefaction processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; de Oliveira Júnior, Silvio

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Floating, production, storage and offloading plants are facilities used for offshore processing of hydrocarbons in remote locations. At present, the produced gas is injected back into the reservoir instead of being exported. The implementation of refrigeration processes offshore for liqu......Abstract Floating, production, storage and offloading plants are facilities used for offshore processing of hydrocarbons in remote locations. At present, the produced gas is injected back into the reservoir instead of being exported. The implementation of refrigeration processes offshore...... improvements are discussed based on an energy and exergy analysis. Compared to a standard platform where gas is directly injected into the reservoir, the total power consumption increases by up to 50%, and the exergy destruction within the processing plant doubles when a liquefaction system is installed....... It is therefore essential to conduct a careful analysis of the trade-off between the capital costs and operating revenues for such options....

  4. Novel use of residue from direct coal liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianli Yang; Zhaixia Wang; Zhenyu Liu; Yuzhen Zhang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion

    2009-09-15

    Direct coal liquefaction residue (DCLR) is, commonly, designed to be used as a feed stock for gasification or combustion. Use of DCLR as a value added product is very important for improving overall economy of direct coal liquefaction processes. This study shows that the DCLR may be used as a pavement asphalt modifier. The modification ability is similar to that of Trinidad Lake Asphalt (TLA), a superior commercial modifier. Asphalts modified by two DCLRs meet the specifications of ASTM D5710 and BSI BS-3690 designated for the TLA-modified asphalts. The required addition amount for the DCLRs tested is less than that for TLA due possibly to the high content of asphaltene in DCLRs. Different compatibility was observed for the asphalts with the same penetration grade but from the different origin. Different components in the DCLR play different roles in the modification. Positive synergetic effects among the fractions were observed, which may due to the formation of the stable colloid structure. Unlike polymer-type modifier, the structure of asphalt-type modifier has a similarity with petroleum asphalts which favors the formation of a stable dispersed polar fluid (DPF) colloid structure and improves the performance of pavement asphalt. 12 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  5. The Analysis of the Experience in Commercialization of Indirect Coal Liquefaction Technologies in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudyka Viktor I.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is substantiated that, taking into account the world trends in the development of fuel and energy complexes, in the near future the most preferable direction in using solid fossil fuels will become not just their burning but advanced thermochemical processing, which will result in obtaining such end products as substitutes for natural gas, electricity, and synthetic analogues of hydrocarbons. There analyzed foreign experience on commercialization of indirect coal gasification technologies, among which the technologies of traditional and plasma gasification are singled out. The advantages and disadvantages of these technologies are systematized, and the hypothesis about better prospects for using the technology of plasma gasification of coal in comparison with the traditional analogues that are based on the Fischer-Tropsch process is put forward.

  6. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1992-03-01

    CONSOL R&D is conducting a three-year program to characterize process and product streams from direct coal liquefaction process development projects. The program objectives are two-fold: (1) to obtain and provide appropriate samples of coal liquids for the evaluation of analytical methodology, and (2) to support ongoing DOE-sponsored coal liquefaction process development efforts. The two broad objectives have considerable overlap and together serve to provide a bridge between process development and analytical chemistry.

  7. A novel process for small-scale pipeline natural gas liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, T.B.; Ju, Y.L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel process was proposed to liquefy natural gas by utilizing the pressure exergy. • The process is zero energy consumption. • The maximum liquefaction rate of the process is 12.61%. • The maximum exergy utilization rate is 0.1961. • The economic analysis showed that the payback period of the process is quit short. - Abstract: A novel process for small-scale pipeline natural gas liquefaction is designed and presented. The novel process can utilize the pressure exergy of the pipeline to liquefy a part of natural gas without any energy consumption. The thermodynamic analysis including mass, energy balance and exergy analysis are adopted in this paper. The liquefaction rate and exergy utilization rate are chosen as the objective functions. Several key parameters are optimized to approach the maximum liquefaction rate and exergy utilization rate. The optimization results showed that the maximum liquefaction rate is 12.61% and the maximum exergy utilization rate is 0.1961. What is more, the economic performances of the process are also discussed and compared by using the maximum liquefaction rate and exergy utilization rate as indexes. In conclusion, the novel process is suitable for pressure exergy utilization due to its simplicity, zero energy consumption and short payback period

  8. SUMMARY REPORT OF THE DOE DIRECT LIQUEFACTION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT CAMPAIGN OF THE LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F.P. Burke; S.D. Brandes; D.C. McCoy; R.A. Winschel; D. Gray; G. Tomlinson

    2001-01-01

    Following the petroleum price and supply disruptions of 1973, the U.S. government began a substantial program to fund the development of alternative fuels. Direct coal liquefaction was one of the potential routes to alternative fuels. The direct coal liquefaction program was funded at substantial levels through 1982, and at much lower levels thereafter. Those processes that were of most interest during this period were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels. By 1999, U.S. government funding for the development of direct coal liquefaction ended. Now that the end of this campaign has arrived, it is appropriate to summarize the process learnings derived from it. This report is a summary of the process learnings derived from the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development campaign of the late twentieth century. The report concentrates on those process development programs that were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels and were largely funded by DOE and its predecessors in response to the petroleum supply and price disruptions of the 1970s. The report is structured as chapters written by different authors on most of the major individual DOE-funded process development programs. The focus of the report is process learnings, as opposed to, say, fundamental coal liquefaction science or equipment design. As detailed in the overview (Chapter 2), DOE's direct coal liquefaction campaign made substantial progress in improving the process yields and the quality of the distillate product. Much of the progress was made after termination by 1983 of the major demonstration programs of the ''first generation'' (SRC-II, H-Coal, EDS) processes

  9. A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    An updated assessment of the physico-chemical analytical methodology applicable to coal-liquefaction product streams and a review of the literature dealing with the modeling of fossil-fuel resid conversion to product oils are presented in this document. In addition, a summary is provided for the University of Delaware program conducted under this contract to develop an empirical test to determine relative resid reactivity and to construct a computer model to describe resid structure and predict reactivity.

  10. Technology for advanced liquefaction processes: Coal/waste coprocessing studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cugini, A.V.; Rothenberger, K.S.; Ciocco, M.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The efforts in this project are directed toward three areas: (1) novel catalyst (supported and unsupported) research and development, (2) study and optimization of major operating parameters (specifically pressure), and (3) coal/waste coprocessing. The novel catalyst research and development activity has involved testing supported catalysts, dispersed catalysts, and use of catalyst testing units to investigate the effects of operating parameters (the second area) with both supported and unsupported catalysts. Several supported catalysts were tested in a simulated first stage coal liquefaction application at 404{degrees}C during this performance period. A Ni-Mo hydrous titanate catalyst on an Amocat support prepared by Sandia National laboratories was tested. Other baseline experiments using AO-60 and Amocat, both Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts, were also made. These experiments were short duration (approximately 12 days) and monitored the initial activity of the catalysts. The results of these tests indicate that the Sandia catalyst performed as well as the commercially prepared catalysts. Future tests are planned with other Sandia preparations. The dispersed catalysts tested include sulfated iron oxide, Bayferrox iron oxide (iron oxide from Miles, Inc.), and Bailey iron oxide (micronized iron oxide from Bailey, Inc.). The effects of space velocity, temperature, and solvent-to-coal ratio on coal liquefaction activity with the dispersed catalysts were investigated. A comparison of the coal liquefaction activity of these catalysts relative to iron catalysts tested earlier, including FeOOH-impregnated coal, was made. These studies are discussed.

  11. Reducing capital and operating costs in gas processing, liquefaction, and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krusen, III, L C [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States). Research Div.

    1997-06-01

    The LNG industry is unanimous that capital costs must be reduced throughout the chain, and especially at the liquefaction facility including associated gas processing and LNG storage. The Ken ai LNG plant provides an example of how both reduced capital and operating costs were attained. This paper will cover cost production strategies that can be applied to liquefaction processes in general, and will than focus on their realization in the Phillips Optimized Cascade LNG process. The paper concludes that reduced LNG plant costs are attainable. (Author).

  12. Reducing capital and operating costs in gas processing, liquefaction, and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krusen, L.C. III

    1997-01-01

    The LNG industry is unanimous that capital costs must be reduced throughout the chain, and especially at the liquefaction facility including associated gas processing and LNG storage. The Ken ai LNG plant provides an example of how both reduced capital and operating costs were attained. This paper will cover cost production strategies that can be applied to liquefaction processes in general, and will than focus on their realization in the Phillips Optimized Cascade LNG process. The paper concludes that reduced LNG plant costs are attainable. (Author)

  13. Process Water Recycle in Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Microalgae To Enhance Bio-oil Yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos-Tercero, E.A.; Bertucco, A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the effect of recycling the process water (PW) of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) to the HTL reactor was investigated, with the objective being to recover carbon from the organic content of the PW and to develop a solvent-free process. When recycling twice the PW at 220, 240, and 265

  14. Application of Algae as Cosubstrate To Enhance the Processability of Willow Wood for Continuous Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sintamarean, Iulia-Maria; Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Zhao, Xueli

    2017-01-01

    This work proposes a novel strategy to improve the continuous processing of wood slurries in hydrothermal liquefaction systems by coprocessing with algae. Of all algae tested, brown seaweeds and microalgae perform best in preventing slurries dewatering, the main reason for pumpability issues...... with wood slurries. Rheological tests (viscosity–shear rate profile) indicate that the addition of these two algae to the wood slurry causes the highest increase in viscosity, which coincides with improved wood slurries stability and pumpability. Hydrothermal liquefaction of wood-algae slurries at 400 °C...

  15. Characteristics of process oils from HTI coal/plastics co-liquefaction runs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A. [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to provide timely analytical support to DOE`s liquefaction development effort. Specific objectives of the work reported here are presented. During a few operating periods of Run POC-2, HTI co-liquefied mixed plastics with coal, and tire rubber with coal. Although steady-state operation was not achieved during these brief tests periods, the results indicated that a liquefaction plant could operate with these waste materials as feedstocks. CONSOL analyzed 65 process stream samples from coal-only and coal/waste portions of the run. Some results obtained from characterization of samples from Run POC-2 coal/plastics operation are presented.

  16. Subtask 3.9 - Direct Coal Liquefaction Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulich, Ted; Sharma, Ramesh

    2012-07-01

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Accelergy Corporation, an advanced fuels developer with technologies exclusively licensed from ExxonMobil, undertook Subtask 3.9 to design, build, and preliminarily operate a bench-scale direct coal liquefaction (DCL) system capable of converting 45 pounds/hour of pulverized, dried coal to a liquid suitable for upgrading to fuels and/or chemicals. Fabrication and installation of the DCL system and an accompanying distillation system for off-line fractionation of raw coal liquids into 1) a naphtha middle distillate stream for upgrading and 2) a recycle stream was completed in May 2012. Shakedown of the system was initiated in July 2012. In addition to completing fabrication of the DCL system, the project also produced a 500-milliliter sample of jet fuel derived in part from direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal, and submitted the sample to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, for evaluation. The sample was confirmed by AFRL to be in compliance with all U.S. Air Force-prescribed alternative aviation fuel initial screening criteria.

  17. Analysis of flammability limits for the liquefaction process of oxygen-bearing coal-bed methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Q.Y.; Wang, L.; Ju, Y.L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A novel liquefaction and distillation process is designed for oxygen bearing coal-bed methane. → Oxygen contained in coal-bed methane is removed in distillation process. → Flammability limits are analyzed for the whole operation process. → We find explosion hazard may exist in distillation tower. → Effective measures are proposed to ensure the operation safety in distillation tower. - Abstract: A novel liquefaction and distillation process has been proposed and designed for the typical oxygen-bearing coal-bed methane (CBM), in which the impurities of the oxygen and nitrogen components are removed in the distillation column. The flammability limit theory combining with HYSYS simulation results are employed to analyze and calculate the flammability limits and the results indicate that no flammability hazard exists in the stages of compression, liquefaction and throttling. However, flammability hazard exists at the top the distillation column because the methane mole fraction decreases to the value below the upper flammability limit (UFL). The safety measures of initially removing oxygen content from the feed gas combining with the control of the bottom flowrate (flowrate of the liquid product at column bottom) are proposed to ensure the operation safety of the liquefaction process. The results reveal that the operation safety of the whole process can be guaranteed, together with high methane recovery rate and high purity of the liquid product. The applicability of the liquefaction process has also been analyzed in this paper. The simulation results can offer references for the separation of oxygen from CBM, the analysis of flammability limits and the safety measures for the whole process.

  18. Indirect processes in electron-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottcher, C.; Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    A summary is given of an informal workshop held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on June 22-23, 1983, in which the current status of theoretical calculations of indirect processes in electron-ion scattering was reviewed. Processes of particular interest in astrophysical and fusion plasmas were emphasized. Topics discussed include atomic structure effects, electron-impact ionization, and dielectronic recombination

  19. Indirect processes in electron-ion scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottcher, C.; Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    A summary is given of an informal workshop held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on June 22-23, 1983, in which the current status of theoretical calculations of indirect processes in electron-ion scattering was reviewed. Processes of particular interest in astrophysical and fusion plasmas were emphasized. Topics discussed include atomic structure effects, electron-impact ionization, and dielectronic recombination.

  20. Comprehension Process of Second Language Indirect Requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satomi; Roitblat, Herbert L.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the comprehension of English conventional indirect requests by native English speakers and Japanese learners of English. Subjects read stories inducing either a conventional or a literal interpretation of a priming sentence. Results suggest that both native and nonnative speakers process both meanings of an ambiguous conventional request.…

  1. A preliminary analysis of floating production storage and offloading facilities with gas liquefaction processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Carranza-Sánchez, Yamid Alberto; Junior, Silvio de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Floating, production, storage and offloading (FPSO) plants are facilities used in upstream petroleum processing. They have gained interest because they are more flexible than conventional plants and can be used for producing oil and gas in deep-water fields. In general, gas export is challenging...... because of the lack of infrastructure in remote locations. The present work investigates the possibility of integrating liquefaction processes on such facilities, considering two mixed-refrigerant and two expansion-based processes suitable for offshore applications. Two FPSO configurations are considered...... in this work, and they were suggested by Brazilian operators for fields processing natural gas with moderate to high content of carbon dioxide. The performance of the combined systems is analysed by conducting energy and exergy analyses. The integration of gas liquefaction results in greater power consumption...

  2. Process for the liquefaction of solid carbonaceous materials wherein nitrogen is separated from hydrogen via ammonia synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetka, Steven S.; Nazario, Francisco N.

    1982-01-01

    In a process for the liquefaction of solid carbonaceous materials wherein bottoms residues are upgraded with a process wherein air is employed, the improvement wherein nitrogen buildup in the system is avoided by ammonia synthesis. In a preferred embodiment hydrogen from other portions of the liquefaction process will be combined with hydrogen produced as a result of the bottoms upgrading to increase the H.sub.2 :N.sub.2 ratio in the ammonia reactor.

  3. Combined hydrothermal liquefaction and catalytic hydrothermal gasification system and process for conversion of biomass feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.

    2017-09-12

    A combined hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) system and process are described that convert various biomass-containing sources into separable bio-oils and aqueous effluents that contain residual organics. Bio-oils may be converted to useful bio-based fuels and other chemical feedstocks. Residual organics in HTL aqueous effluents may be gasified and converted into medium-BTU product gases and directly used for process heating or to provide energy.

  4. Conceptual study of hydrogen donor solvent in the NEDOL coal liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzu, M.; Onozaki, M.; Oi, S. [Mitsui SRC Co Ltd, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    A 150 ton/day coal liquefaction pilot plant (PP) of the NEDOL process, supported by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), was operated successfully for a total of 269 days at Kashima, Japan. With a great number of data obtained through the operation, the design procedure for the NEDOL process was studied. Middle and heavy oils from the coal employed were recycled as a hydrogen-donor solvent after hydrotreatment over Ni Mo/gamma-Al2O{sub 3} in a trickle bed reactor. The hydrogen donating ability of the solvent was high enough to obtain higher oil yield (50-58 wt%) at the aromaticity of ca. 0.45. Life expectancy of solvent hydrotreatment catalyst, requisite to the hydrotreater design, was estimated under PP operating conditions. In addition, physical properties of the solvent required for process design were determined, and hydrodynamics in the liquefaction bubble column reactors were examined. Taking the obtained hydrodynamics and thermal behavior into consideration, a design procedure of the liquefaction bubble column reactors was establsihed using a process simulator (CARD) validated by the product yields of PP. The simulation including distillation and solvent hydrotreatment showed that the content of heavy oil fraction (b.p. 350 - 538{degree} C) in the solvent was a determinant factor in the design of a large scale plant based on the NEDOL process.

  5. Coal liquefaction technologies for producing ultra clean fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, M.S.; Haq, N.U.; Nasir, H.; Islam, N.

    2011-01-01

    The expanding demand for petroleum, accompanied by the diminishing petroleum reserves and the energy security, has intensified the significance in coal liquefaction technologies (CTL) globally and specially in Pakistan. Pakistan is rich in coal resources, but short of petroleum. The Geological Survey of Pakistan based on wide spread drilling over an area of 9000 sq. km, a total of 175 billion tons of coal resource potential has been assessed. This paper overviews a general introduction on the mechanisms and processes of CLT such as direct coal liquefaction (DCL) and indirect coal liquefaction (ICL) technologies. (author)

  6. Liquefaction of lignohemicellulosic waste by processing with carbon monoxide and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Saied, H

    1977-09-01

    The liquefaction of lignohemicellulosic waste by processing with carbon monoxide and water for 10 minutes at 250/sup 0/-440/sup 0/C and 40 to 70 atm initial pressure in a rocking autoclave produced benzene-soluble heavy oil in yields up to 80%. High conversion and yields were favored by high thermal stress, short reaction times, and sufficient hydrogen to prevent radical recombination in the critical liquefaction stages. The addition of sodium or calcium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, iron oxide, etc. in small amounts gave good oil yields under less severe conditions. Lignins from rice straw, bagasse, and other grasses gave higher yields than the woody lignin obtained from cotton stalks. In products obtained by liquefying black liquor lignohemicellulose from an Eyptian rice straw pulping plant, the hydrogen-carbon atomic ratio was 1.0 to 1.3:1.

  7. Characteristics of the products of hydrothermal liquefaction combined with cellulosic bio-ethanol process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Rundong; Xie, Yinghui; Yang, Tianhua; Li, Bingshuo; Zhang, Yang; Kai, Xingping

    2016-01-01

    The integration utilization of fermentation residues from cellulosic bio-ethanol has attracted a great deal of attention to balance the total cost of bio-ethanol production while simultaneously dealing with bio-ethanol wastewater. A process of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of intact materials from cellulosic bio-ethanol in a batch reactor was proposed. The effects of the reaction temperature and time on the liquefaction characteristics were examined. The optimum condition for liquefaction fermentation residues was 370 °C (21.25 MPa) and 30 min with a bio-oil yield of 40.79 wt%. GC-MS results indicated that the major chemical species in the bio-oil were phenols, ketones, long-chain hydrocarbons and fatty acids. Supercritical conditions (375 °C, 23.50 MPa) was favored for the low-molecular-weight species formation compared to subcritical conditions (370 °C, 21.25 MPa), as some long-chain species decreased. This work thus can provide a novel idea for bio-oil production from HTL of cellulosic bio-ethanol fermentation residues. - Highlights: • Bio-oil production via HTL combined with cellulosic bio-ethanol process was proposed. • Optimum condition for HTL of materials from cellulosic bio-ethanol was 370 °C and 30 min. • Bio-oil contained higher content of hydrocarbons and lower contents of organic acids.

  8. Optimisation of expansion liquefaction processes using mixed refrigerant N_2–CH_4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, He; Sun, Heng; He, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A refrigerant composition matching method for N_2–CH_4 expansion processes. • Efficiency improvements for propane pre-cooled N_2–CH_4 expansion processes. • The process shows good adaptability to varying natural gas compositions. - Abstract: An expansion process with a pre-cooling system is simulated and optimised by Aspen HYSYS and MATLAB"™. Taking advantage of higher specific refrigeration effect of methane and easily reduced refrigeration temperature of nitrogen, the designed process adopts N_2–CH_4 as a mixed refrigerant. Based on the different thermodynamic properties and sensitivity difference of N_2 and CH_4 over the same heat transfer temperature range, this work proposes a novel method of matching refrigerant composition which aims at single-stage or multi-stage series expansion liquefaction processes with pre-cooling systems. This novel method is applied successfully in propane pre-cooled N_2–CH_4 expansion process, and the unit power consumption is reduced to 7.09 kWh/kmol, which is only 5.35% higher than the global optimised solutions obtained by genetic algorithm. This novel method can fulfil the accomplishments of low energy consumption and high liquefaction rate, and thus decreases the gap between the mixed refrigerant and expansion processes in energy consumption. Furthermore, the high exergy efficiency of the process indicates good adaptability to varying natural gas compositions.

  9. System and process for efficient separation of biocrudes and water in a hydrothermal liquefaction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Oyler, James R.; Rotness, Jr, Leslie J.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2016-08-02

    A system and process are described for clean separation of biocrudes and water by-products from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) product mixtures of organic and biomass-containing feedstocks at elevated temperatures and pressures. Inorganic compound solids are removed prior to separation of biocrude and water by-product fractions to minimize formation of emulsions that impede separation. Separation may be performed at higher temperatures that reduce heat loss and need to cool product mixtures to ambient. The present invention thus achieves separation efficiencies not achieved in conventional HTL processing.

  10. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Floating Production Storage and Offloading Facilities with Liquefaction Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Sánchez, Yamid Alberto Carranza; Junior, Silvio de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Floating, production, storage and offloading (FPSO) plants are facilities used in upstream petroleum processing.They have gained interest because they are more flexible than conventional plants and can be used for producingoil and gas in deep-water fields. In general, gas export is challenging...... because of the lack of infrastructure in remotelocations. The present work investigates the possibility of integrating liquefaction processes on such facilities, consideringfour possible petroleum compositions, which differ in their contents of carbon dioxide, light and heavy hydrocarbons.The performance...

  11. Design and analysis of liquefaction process for offshore associated gas resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Q.Y.; Ju, Y.L.

    2010-01-01

    Liquefaction is the key section on floating platform. Some experts and designers selected mixed refrigerant process for floating platform, while some recommended expander cycle. However, few of them compared the two types of processes systemically before making a choice. In this paper, the liquefaction processes of propane pre-cooled mixed refrigerant cycle (C 3 /MRC), mixed refrigerant cycle (MRC) and nitrogen expander cycle (N 2 expander) for the special offshore associated gases in South China Sea have been designed and studied. These processes have been analyzed and compared systematically considering the main factors including the performance parameters, economic performance, layout, sensitivity to motion, suitability to different gas resources, safety and operability, accounting for the features of the floating production, storage and offloading unit for liquefied natural gas (LNG-FPSO) in marine environment. The results indicated that N 2 expander has higher energy consumption and poorer economic performance, while it has much more advantages than C 3 /MRC and MRC for offshore application because it is simpler and more compact and thus requiring less deck area, less sensitive to LNG-FPSO motion, has better suitability for other gas resources, has higher safety and is easier to operate. Therefore, N 2 expander is the most suitable offshore liquefaction process. In addition, the exergy analysis is conducted for N 2 expander and the results indicate that the compression equipments and after coolers, expanders and LNG heat exchangers are the main contribution to the total exergy losses. The measures to decrease the losses for these equipments are then discussed.

  12. Mild Biomass Liquefaction Process for Economic Production of Stabilized Refinery-Ready Bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangwal, Santosh [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); Meng, Jiajia [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); McCabe, Kevin [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); Larson, Eric [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Princeton Environmental Inst.; Mastro, Kelly [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-04-25

    Southern Research (SR) in cooperation with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Bioenergy Technology Office (BETO), investigated a biomass liquefaction process for economic production of stabilized refinery-ready bio-oil. The project was awarded by DOE under a Funding Opportunity Announcement (DE-FOA-0000686) for Bio-oil Stabilization and Commoditization that intended to evaluate the feasibility of using bio-oil as a potential feedstock in an existing petroleum refinery. SR investigated Topic Area 1 of the FOA at Technology Readiness Level 2-3 to develop thermochemical liquefaction technologies for producing a bio-oil feedstock from high-impact biomass that can be utilized within a petroleum refinery. Bio-oil obtained from fast pyrolysis of biomass is a green intermediate that can be further upgraded into a biofuel for blending in a petroleum refinery using a hydro-deoxygenation (HDO) route. Co-processing pyrolysis bio-oil in a petroleum refinery is an attractive approach to leverage the refinery’s existing capital. However, the petroleum industry is reluctant to accept pyrolysis bio-oil because of a lack of a standard definition for an acceptable bio-oil feedstock in existing refinery processes. Also per BETO’s multiyear program plan, fast pyrolysis-based bio-fuel is presently not cost competitive with petroleum-based transportation fuels. SR aims to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective low-severity thermal liquefaction and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process to convert woody biomass to stabilized bio-oils that can be directly blended with hydrotreater input streams in a petroleum refinery for production of gasoline and/or diesel range hydrocarbons. The specific project objectives are to demonstrate the processes at laboratory scale, characterize the bio-oil product and develop a plan in partnership with a refinery company to move the technology towards commercialization.

  13. Advanced exergetic analysis of five natural gas liquefaction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatani, Ali; Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Palizdar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Advanced exergetic analysis was investigated for five LNG processes. • Avoidable/unavoidable and endogenous/exogenous irreversibilities were calculated. • Advanced exergetic analysis identifies the potentials for improving the system. - Abstract: Conventional exergy analysis cannot identify portion of inefficiencies which can be avoided. Also this analysis does not have ability to calculate a portion of exergy destruction which has been produced through performance of a component alone. In this study advanced exergetic analysis was performed for five mixed refrigerant LNG processes and four parts of irreversibility (avoidable/unavoidable) and (endogenous/exogenous) were calculated for the components with high inefficiencies. The results showed that portion of endogenous exergy destruction in the components is higher than the exogenous one. In fact interactions among the components do not affect the inefficiencies significantly. Also this analysis showed that structural optimization cannot be useful to decrease the overall process irreversibilities. In compressors high portion of the exergy destruction is related to the avoidable one, thus they have high potential to improve. But in multi stream heat exchangers and air coolers, unavoidable inefficiencies were higher than the other parts. Advanced exergetic analysis can identify the potentials and strategies to improve thermodynamic performance of energy intensive processes

  14. Liquefaction of syngas by fischer-tropsch process (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.; Saeed, M.M.; Riaz, M.; Khan, A.S.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Fischer-Tropsch process is a set of chemical reactions that convert syngas into liquid hydrocarbons and is gaining attention under the background of the resource depletion leading to the price hike of the petroleum oil. The diesel fuel obtained from syngas by Fischer-Tropsch process seems to be of high quality and environmental friendly. The present study deals with the optimization of the experimental conditions for the production/synthesis of mineral diesel from syngas by Fischer-Tropsch process. The catalyst was prepared by coating cobalt nitrate on alumina followed by calcinations and characterization by analytical techniques such as BET, SEM/EDXA and X-Ray diffraction. For the conversion of syngas to liquid fuel, the fixed bed column technique was employed. Different operational parameters such as temperature of the column, flow rate and pressure of the syngas were studied. The product formed was verified by comparing the GC/FID spectrum of the synthesized mineral diesel with commercial sample by employing GC analysis. The qualitative results indicate the success of the Fischer-Tropsch process in the present study. (author)

  15. Energy consumption, destruction of exergy and boil off during the process of liquefaction, transport and regasification of liquefied natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stradioto, Diogo Angelo; Schneider, Paulo Smith [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)], e-mail: pss@mecanica.ufrgs.br

    2010-07-01

    A supply chain of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is composed by several processes like extraction, purification, liquefaction, storage, transport, regasification and distribution. In all these stages, processes need of energy. The main objective of this work is to quantify the energy consumption, mass loss and exergy destruction occurred throughout the chain. Results show that the process of liquefaction is the largest consumer of energy. Storage and transport by ship are responsible for the bigger mass losses and regasification is the process of larger destruction of exergy. A case study is performed considering a stream of pure methane at the input of a liquefaction plant, and evaluates energy along the chain, ending up at the distribution of NG after its regasification. (author)

  16. A CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF COAL LIQUEFACTION PROCESS STREAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.A. Robbins; R.A. Winschel; S.D. Brandes

    1999-01-01

    This is the first Annual Technical Report of activities under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-94PC93054. Activities from the first three quarters of the fiscal 1998 year were reported previously as Quarterly Technical Progress Reports (DOE/PC93054-57, DOE/PC93054-61, and DOE/PC93054-66). Activities for the period July 1 through September 30, 1998, are reported here. This report describes CONSOL's characterization of process-derived samples obtained from HTI Run PB-08. These samples were derived from operations with Black Thunder Mine Wyoming subbituminous coal, simulated mixed waste plastics, and pyrolysis oils derived from waste plastics and waste tires. Comparison of characteristics among the PB-08 samples was made to ascertain the effects of feed composition changes. A comparison also was made to samples from a previous test (Run PB-06) made in the same processing unit, with Black Thunder Mine coal, and in one run condition with co-fed mixed plastics

  17. Dispersed catalysts for co-processing and coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockrath, B.; Parfitt, D.; Miller, R. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The basic goal is to improve dispersed catalysts employed in the production of clean fuels from low value hydrocarbons. The immediate objective is to determine how the properties of the catalysts may be altered to match the demands placed on them by the properties of the feedstock, the qualities of the desired end products, and the economic constraints put upon the process. Several interrelated areas of the application of dispersed catalysts to co-processing and coal conversion are under investigation. The first involves control of the selectivity of MoS{sub 2} catalysts for HDN, HDS, and hydrogenation of aromatics. A second area of research is the development and use of methods to evaluate dispersed catalysts by means of activity and selectivity tests. A micro-flow reactor has been developed for determining intrinsic reactivities using model compounds, and will be used to compare catalysts prepared in different ways. Micro-autoclaves will also be used to develop data in batch experiments at higher partial pressures of hydrogen. The third area under investigation concerns hydrogen spillover reactions between MoS{sub 2} catalysts and carbonaceous supports. Preliminary results obtained by monitoring H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} exchange reactions with a pulse-flow microreactor indicate the presence of spillover between MoS{sub 2} and a graphitic carbon. A more complete study will be made at a later stage of the project. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  18. Anaerobic digestion of post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater for improved energy efficiency of hydrothermal bioenergy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Schideman, Lance; Zheng, Mingxia; Martin-Ryals, Ana; Li, Peng; Tommaso, Giovana; Zhang, Yuanhui

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a promising process for converting wet biomass and organic wastes into bio-crude oil. It also produces an aqueous product referred to as post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (PHWW) containing up to 40% of the original feedstock carbon, which reduces the overall energy efficiency of the HTL process. This study investigated the feasibility of using anaerobic digestion (AD) to treat PHWW, with the aid of activated carbon. Results showed that successful AD occurred at relatively low concentrations of PHWW (≤ 6.7%), producing a biogas yield of 0.5 ml/mg CODremoved, and ∼53% energy recovery efficiency. Higher concentrations of PHWW (≥13.3%) had an inhibitory effect on the AD process, as indicated by delayed, slower, or no biogas production. Activated carbon was shown to effectively mitigate this inhibitory effect by enhancing biogas production and allowing digestion to proceed at higher PHWW concentrations (up to 33.3%), likely due to sequestering toxic organic compounds. The addition of activated carbon also increased the net energy recovery efficiency of AD with a relatively high concentration of PHWW (33.3%), taking into account the energy for producing activated carbon. These results suggest that AD is a feasible approach to treat PHWW, and to improve the energy efficiency of the HTL processes.

  19. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Application of liquid chromatographic separation methods to THF-soluble portions of integrated two-stage coal liquefaction resids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.B.; Pearson, C.D.; Young, L.L.; Green, J.A. [National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1992-05-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using non-aqueous ion exchange liquid chromatography (NIELC) for the examination of the tetrahydrofuran (THF)-soluble distillation resids and THF-soluble whole oils derived from direct coal liquefaction. The technique can be used to separate the material into a number of acid, base, and neutral fractions. Each of the fractions obtained by NIELC was analyzed and then further fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The separation and analysis schemes are given in the accompanying report. With this approach, differences can be distinguished among samples obtained from different process streams in the liquefaction plant and among samples obtained at the same sampling location, but produced from different feed coals. HPLC was directly applied to one THF-soluble whole process oil without the NIELC preparation, with limited success. The direct HPLC technique used was directed toward the elution of the acid species into defined classes. The non-retained neutral and basic components of the oil were not analyzable by the direct HPLC method because of solubility limitations. Sample solubility is a major concern in the application of these techniques.

  20. Techno-economic optimisation of three gas liquefaction processes for small-scale applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    inventory. The present work investigates three configurations (single-mixed refrigerant, single and dual reverse Brayton cycles) for small-scale applications, which are optimised and evaluated individually. The influences of the refrigerant properties and process technologies are analysed, and the most...... promising cycle setups are identified. The findings illustrate the resulting trade-offs between the system performance and investment costs, which differ significantly with the type of refrigeration cycle. Although these configurations are suitable for small-scale applications, mixed-refrigerant processes...... thermodynamic models leads to relative deviations of up to 1% for the power consumption and 20% for the network conductance. Particular caution should thus be exercised when extrapolating the results of process models to the design of actual gas liquefaction systems....

  1. Design optimization of single mixed refrigerant natural gas liquefaction process using the particle swarm paradigm with nonlinear constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Mohd Shariq; Lee, Moonyong

    2013-01-01

    The particle swarm paradigm is employed to optimize single mixed refrigerant natural gas liquefaction process. Liquefaction design involves multivariable problem solving and non-optimal execution of these variables can waste energy and contribute to process irreversibilities. Design optimization requires these variables to be optimized simultaneously; minimizing the compression energy requirement is selected as the optimization objective. Liquefaction is modeled using Honeywell UniSim Design ™ and the resulting rigorous model is connected with the particle swarm paradigm coded in MATLAB. Design constraints are folded into the objective function using the penalty function method. Optimization successfully improved efficiency by reducing the compression energy requirement by ca. 10% compared with the base case. -- Highlights: ► The particle swarm paradigm (PSP) is employed for design optimization of SMR NG liquefaction process. ► Rigorous SMR process model based on UniSim is connected with PSP coded in MATLAB. ► Stochastic features of PSP give more confidence in the optimality of complex nonlinear problems. ► Optimization with PSP notably improves energy efficiency of the SMR process.

  2. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Rudolf, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass with the aim of describing the current status of the technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a medium-temperature, high-pressure thermochemical process, which produces a liquid product, often called bio-oil or bi-crude. During...... the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the macromolecules of the biomass are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive and can recombine into larger ones. During this process, a substantial part of the oxygen in the biomass is removed...... by dehydration or decarboxylation. The chemical properties of bio-oil are highly dependent of the biomass substrate composition. Biomass constitutes of various components such as protein; carbohydrates, lignin and fat, and each of them produce distinct spectra of compounds during hydrothermal liquefaction...

  3. Renewable chemical feedstocks from integrated liquefaction processing of lingocellulosic materials using microwave energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junming Xu; Jianchun Jiang; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to find a simple method for the production of phenolic rich products and sugar derivatives (biopolyols) via separation of liquefied lingocellulosic materials. Liquefaction of lignocellulosic materials was conducted in methanol at 180 °C for 15 min with the conversion of raw materials at about 75%. After liquefaction, the...

  4. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1995-12-01

    The objectives of this project are to support the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program and to improve the useful application of analytical chemistry to direct coal liquefaction process development. Independent analyses by well-established methods will be obtained of samples produced in direct coal liquefaction processes under evaluation by DOE. Additionally, analytical instruments and techniques which are currently underutilized for the purpose of examining coal-derived samples will be evaluated. The data obtained from this study will be used to help guide current process development and to develop an improved data base on coal and coal liquids properties. A sample bank will be established and maintained for use in this project and will be available for use by other researchers. The reactivity of the non-distillable resids toward hydrocracking at liquefaction conditions (i.e., resid reactivity) will be examined. From the literature and data experimentally obtained, a mathematical kinetic model of resid conversion will be constructed. It is anticipated that such a model will provide insights useful for improving process performance and thus the economics of direct coal liquefaction. Some of the contract activities for this quarter are: We completed many of the analyses on the 81 samples received from HTI bench-scale run CMSL-9, in which coal, coal/mixed plastics, and coal/high density polyethylene were fed; Liquid chromatographic separations of the 15 samples in the University of Delaware sample set were completed; and WRI completed CP/MAS {sup 13}C-NMR analyses on the Delaware sample set.

  5. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, G.A.; Brandes, S.D.; Heunisch, G.W.; Winschel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    Described in this report are the following activities: CONSOL characterized process stream samples from HTI Run ALC-2, in which Black Thunder Mine coal was liquefied using four combinations of dispersed catalyst precursors. Oil assays were completed on the HTI Run PB-05 product blend. Fractional distillation of the net product oil of HTI Run POC-1 was completed. CONSOL completed an evaluation of the potential for producing alkylphenyl ethers from coal liquefaction phenols. At the request of DOE, various coal liquid samples and relevant characterization data were supplied to the University of West Virginia and the Federal Energy Technology Center. The University of Delaware is conducting resid reactivity tests and is completing the resid reaction computer model. The University of Delaware was instructed on the form in which the computer model is to be delivered to CONSOL.

  6. EDS Coal Liquefaction Process Development. Phase V. Laboratory evaluation of the characteristics of EDS Illinois bottoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lao, T C; Levasseur, A A

    1984-02-01

    This interim report documents work carried out by Combustion Engineering, Inc. under a contract to Exxon Research and Engineering Company to develop a conceptual Hybrid Boiler design fueled by the vacuum distillation residue (vacuum bottoms) derived from Illinois No. 6 coal in the EDS Coal Liquefaction Process. This report was prepared by Combustion Engineering, Inc., and is the first of two reports on the predevelopment phase of the Hybrid Boiler program. This report covers the results of a laboratory investigation to assess the fuel and ash properties of EDS vacuum bottoms. The results of the laboratory testing reported here were used in conjunction with Combustion Engineering's design experience to predict fuel performance and to develop appropriate boiler design parameters. These boiler design parameters were used to prepare the engineering design study reported in EDS Interim Report FE-2893-113, the second of the two reports on the predevelopment phase of the Hybrid Boiler Program. 46 figures, 29 tables.

  7. Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, W. H.

    1980-09-01

    Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  8. Achievement report for fiscal 1982 on Sunshine Program. Research and development of coal liquefaction technology (Conceptual designs for coal liquefaction pilot plants - Solvent extraction liquefaction process); 1982 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sekitan ekika pilot plant no gainen sekkei (yozai chushutsu ekikaho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    This research aims to prepare conceptual designs for a 250t/d-class and 500t/d-class coal liquefaction pilot plants based on the achievement of research on solvent extraction liquefaction of coal. It also aims to define the solvent extraction process and provide decision-making material relative to the development and promotion of coal liquefaction technologies in the future. Development started in 1978 of the technology of solvent extraction liquefaction of coal, and a 1t/d PDU (process development unit) was completed in 1981. Studies through its operation have continued for more than 3000 hours already, and technical data are being accumulated steadily. Techniques acquired through operating the 1t/d PDU have been put together, and rough process conditions are established. A rough process result is achieved of the same conditions. In these two respects, the newly developed process is equal to other processes. The phenomena in this process are roughly grasped. It is deemed that, with the existing technique combined with the technique acquired here, a technological level has been reached where conceptual designs of large pilot plants may be worked out for solvent extraction liquefaction of coal. Under the circumstances, with a view to developing a commercial plant whose main products will be fuel oils, conceptual designs are prepared for large pilot plants, and are compiled into this report. (NEDO)

  9. Hydrothermal processing of fermentation residues in a continuous multistage rig – Operational challenges for liquefaction, salt separation, and catalytic gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zöhrer, H.; De Boni, E.; Vogel, F.

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation residues are a waste stream of biomethane production containing substantial amounts of organic matter, and thus representing a primary energy source which is mostly unused. For the first time this feedstock was tested for catalytic gasification in supercritical water (T ≥ 374 °C, p ≥ 22 MPa) for methane production. The processing steps include hydrothermal liquefaction, salt separation, as well as catalytic gasification over a ruthenium catalyst in supercritical water. In continuous experiments at a feed rate of 1 kg h −1 a partial liquefaction and carbonization of some of the solids was observed. Significant amounts of heavy tars were formed. Around 50% of the feed carbon remained in the rig. Furthermore, a homogeneous coke was formed, presumably originating from condensed tars. The mineralization of sulfur and its separation in the salt separator was insufficient, because most of the sulfur was still organically bound after liquefaction. Desalination was observed at a salt separator set point temperature of 450 °C and 28 MPa; however, some of the salts could not be withdrawn as a concentrated brine. At 430 °C no salt separation took place. Higher temperatures in the salt separator were found to promote tar and coke formation, resulting in conflicting process requirements for efficient biomass liquefaction and desalination. In the salt separator effluent, solid crystals identified as struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) were found. This is the first report of struvite formation from a supercritical water biomass conversion process and represents an important finding for producing a fertilizer from the separated salt brine. - Highlights: • Continuous processing of fermentation residues in sub- and supercritical water. • Continuous separation of salt brines at supercritical water conditions. • Struvite crystals (magnesium ammonium phosphate) were recovered from the effluent. • Separation of sulfur from the biomass could

  10. Studies on catalytic hydrotreating of recycled solvents from coal liquefaction process. Part 1. Characteristics changes of recycled solvents during hydrotreating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimura, Y.; Nakata, S.; Yokota, Y.; Shirota, Y.; Nakamura, M. [Chiyoda Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Mitarai, Y. [Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Inoue, Y. [Nippon Ketjen Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-01

    A bituminous coal liquefaction process, called the NEDOL process, is under development by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). Important features of this process include the capacity to produce hydrogen-donatable solvents, obtained by hydrogenation of middle distillates of coal derived oils, and to recycle these solvents to a liquefaction stage as hydrogen donor solvents. These recycled solvents, obtained by liquefaction of Wandoan coal, and their catalytic hydrotreated oils, have been extensively characterized, using a variety of analytical methods. The following items have been examined and are discussed in this study: (1) Influence of chemical hydrogen consumption on the reactivities of hydrodesulfurization (HDS), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and hydrogenation of aromatic-rings, during hydrotreating; (2) Changes in composition of hydrocarbon types, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing compounds, as a function of chemical hydrogen consumption; (3) Changes of average molecular weights; (4) Characteristics changes of oxygen- and nitrogen-containing compounds, and reactivities of HDO and HDN; (5) Characteristics changes of donatable hydrogen as a function of a degree of hydrogenation ({delta}fa). 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion contractors review conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This volume contains 55 papers presented at the conference. They are divided into the following topical sections: Direct liquefaction; Indirect liquefaction; Gas conversion (methane conversion); and Advanced research liquefaction. Papers in this last section deal mostly with coprocessing of coal with petroleum, plastics, and waste tires, and catalyst studies. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Estimation of total phenol concentrations in coal liquefaction resids by {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, J.T.; Verkade, J.G. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)

    1992-11-01

    In this study, Iowa State University researchers used {sub 31}P-tagged reagents to derivatize the labile hydrogen functional groups in the THF-soluble portion of 850{degrees}F{sup +} distillation resid materials and the THF-soluble portion of process oils derived from direct coal liquefaction.{sup 31}P-NMR was used to analyze the derivatized samples. NMR peak assignments can be made by comparison to model compounds similarly derivatized. Species can be quantified by integration of the NMR signals. Different {sup 31}P-NMR tagged reagents can be used to produce different degrees of peak resolution in the NMR spectrum. This, in turn, partially dictates the degree of speciation and/or quantification of species, or classes of compounds, that can be accomplished. Iowa State chose a {sup 31}P-tagged reagent (ClPOCMe{sub 2}CMe{sub 2}O) which was shown previously to be particularly useful in the derivatization of phenols. The derivatized samples all exhibited a small group of peaks attributed to amines and a broad group of peaks in the phenol region. The presence of paramagnetic species in the samples caused the NMR signals to broaden. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra confirmed the presence of paramagnetic organic free radicals in selected samples. Various methods were employed to process the NMR data. The complexity and broadness of the phenol peak, however, made speciation of the phenols impractical.

  13. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Estimation of total phenol concentrations in coal liquefaction resids by [sup 31]P NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, J.T.; Verkade, J.G. (Ames Lab., IA (United States))

    1992-11-01

    In this study, Iowa State University researchers used [sub 31]P-tagged reagents to derivatize the labile hydrogen functional groups in the THF-soluble portion of 850[degrees]F[sup +] distillation resid materials and the THF-soluble portion of process oils derived from direct coal liquefaction.[sup 31]P-NMR was used to analyze the derivatized samples. NMR peak assignments can be made by comparison to model compounds similarly derivatized. Species can be quantified by integration of the NMR signals. Different [sup 31]P-NMR tagged reagents can be used to produce different degrees of peak resolution in the NMR spectrum. This, in turn, partially dictates the degree of speciation and/or quantification of species, or classes of compounds, that can be accomplished. Iowa State chose a [sup 31]P-tagged reagent (ClPOCMe[sub 2]CMe[sub 2]O) which was shown previously to be particularly useful in the derivatization of phenols. The derivatized samples all exhibited a small group of peaks attributed to amines and a broad group of peaks in the phenol region. The presence of paramagnetic species in the samples caused the NMR signals to broaden. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra confirmed the presence of paramagnetic organic free radicals in selected samples. Various methods were employed to process the NMR data. The complexity and broadness of the phenol peak, however, made speciation of the phenols impractical.

  14. Plasma electrolytic liquefaction of cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingliang, TANG; Xianhui, ZHANG; Si-ze, YANG

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the rapid liquefaction of a corncob was achieved by plasma electrolysis, providing a new method for cellulosic biomass liquefaction. The liquefaction rate of the corncob was 95% after 5 min with polyethylene glycol and glycerol as the liquefying agent. The experiments not only showed that H+ ions catalyzed the liquefaction of the corncob, but also that using accelerated H+ ions, which were accelerated by an electric field, could effectively improve the liquefaction efficiency. There was an obvious discharge phenomenon, in which the generated radicals efficiently heated the solution and liquefied the biomass, in the process of plasma electrolytic liquefaction. Finally, the optimum parameters of the corncob liquefaction were obtained by experimentation, and the liquefaction products were analyzed.

  15. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P.; Sendlein, L.V.A. (eds.)

    1991-05-28

    Significant progress was made in the May 1990--May 1991 contract period in three primary coal liquefaction research areas: catalysis, structure-reactivity studies, and novel liquefaction processes. A brief summary of the accomplishments in the past year in each of these areas is given.

  16. Development of an extruder-feeder biomass direct liquefaction process. Volume 2, Parts 4--8: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Wolf, D. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1991-10-01

    As an abundant, renewable, domestic energy resource, biomass could help the United States reduce its dependence on imported oil. Biomass is the only renewable energy technology capable of addressing the national need for liquid transportation fuels. Thus, there is an incentive to develop economic conversion processes for converting biomass, including wood, into liquid fuels. Through research sponsored by the US DOE`s Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program, the University of Arizona has developed a unique biomass direct liquefaction system. The system features a modified single-screw extruder capable of pumping solid slurries containing as high as 60 wt% wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms at pressures up to 3000 psi. The extruder-feeder has been integrated with a unique reactor by the University to form a system which offers potential for improving high pressure biomass direct liquefaction technology. The extruder-feeder acts simultaneously as both a feed preheater and a pumping device for injecting wood slurries into a high pressure reactor in the biomass liquefaction process. An experimental facility was constructed and following shakedown operations, wood crude oil was produced by mid-1985. By July 1988, a total of 57 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using White Birch wood feedstock. Good operability was achieved at slurry feed rates up to 30 lb/hr, reactor pressures from 800 to 3000 psi and temperatures from 350{degree}C to 430{degree}C under conditions covering a range of carbon monoxide feed rates and sodium carbonate catalyst addition. Crude wood oils containing as little as 6--10 wt% residual oxygen were produced. 38 refs., 82 figs., 26 tabs.

  17. Coal liquefaction in early stage of NEDOL process 1t/d PSU; 1t/d PSU ni okeru ekika shoki hanno ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Kawabata, M.; Mochizuki, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To investigate the behavior of coal liquefaction reaction in early stage as a part of studies on the coal liquefaction characteristics using NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU), coal slurry sample was taken from the outlet of slurry preheater located in the upflow of liquefaction reactors, and was tested. Tanito Harum coal was used for liquefaction. Preheater was operated under the condition of pressure of 170 kg/cm{sup 2}, gas flow rate of 64 Nm{sup 3}/hr, and at temperature up to 410{degree}C at the outlet, in response to the standard test condition. The slurry sample was discharged into a high temperature separator with temperature of 250{degree}C. Liquefaction was not proceeded at the outlet of preheater. Solid residue yielded around 80%, and liquid yielded around 15%. Gases, CO and CO2, and water yielded also small amount around 3%. The solid sample contained much IOM fraction (tetrahydrofuran-insoluble and ash), and the liquid contained much heavy oil fraction. Hydrogenation was not proceeded, and the hydrogen consumption was very low showing below one-tenth of that at the usual operation. Hydrogen sulfide gas was formed at early stage, which suggested that the change of iron sulfide catalyst occur at early stage of liquefaction. 1 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Effect of process parameters on hydrothermal liquefaction of oil palm biomass for bio-oil production and its life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Yi Herng; Yusup, Suzana; Quitain, Armando T.; Tan, Raymond R.; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Lam, Hon Loong; Uemura, Yoshimitsu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Water is used as a clean solvent to liquefy palm biomass to bio-oil. • The optimum liquefaction condition of oil palm biomass is 390 °C and 25 MPa. • Optimum reaction time for liquefaction of empty fruit bunch and palm mesocarp fiber is 120 min. • Optimum reaction time for liquefaction of palm kernel shell is 240 min. • From the life cycle assessment, a net 2.29 kg CO 2 equivalent is generated per kg of bio-oil produced. - Abstract: This paper presents the studies on the effect of three process parameters; temperature, pressure and reaction time on the subcritical and supercritical hydrothermal liquefaction of oil palm empty fruit bunch, palm mesocarp fiber and palm kernel shell. The effect of temperature (330–390 °C), pressure (25–35 MPa) and reaction time (30–240 min) on bio-oil yields were investigated using a Inconel batch reactor. The optimum liquefaction condition for empty fruit bunch, palm mesocarp fiber and palm kernel shell was at supercritical condition of water; 390 °C and 25 MPa. For the effect of reaction time, bio-oil from empty fruit bunch and palm mesocarp fiber attained maximum yields at 120 min, whereas bio-oil yield from palm kernel shell continued to increase at reaction time of 240 min. Lastly, a life cycle assessment based on a conceptual biomass hydrothermal liquefaction process for bio-oil production was constructed and presented

  19. Simulation and statistical analysis for the optimization of nitrogen liquefaction plant with cryogenic Claude cycle using process modeling tool: ASPEN HYSYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    Cryogenic technology is used for liquefaction of many gases and it has several applications in food process engineering. Temperatures below 123 K are considered to be in the field of cryogenics. Extreme low temperatures are a basic need for many industrial processes and have several applications, such as superconductivity of magnets, space, medicine and gas industries. Several methods can be used to obtain the low temperatures required for liquefaction of gases. The process of cooling or refrigerating a gas to a temperature below its critical temperature so that liquid can be formed at some suitable pressure, which is below the critical pressure, is the basic liquefaction process. Different cryogenic cycle configurations are designed for getting the liquefied form of gases at different temperatures. Each of the cryogenic cycles like Linde cycle, Claude cycle, Kapitza cycle or modified Claude cycle has its own advantages and disadvantages. The placement of heat exchangers, Joule-Thompson valve and turboexpander decides the configuration of a cryogenic cycle. Each configuration has its own efficiency according to the application. Here, a nitrogen liquefaction plant is used for the analysis purpose. The process modeling tool ASPEN HYSYS can provide a software simulation approach before the actual implementation of the plant in the field. This paper presents the simulation and statistical analysis of the Claude cycle with the process modeling tool ASPEN HYSYS. It covers the technique used to optimize the liquefaction of the plant. The simulation results so obtained can be used as a reference for the design and optimization of the nitrogen liquefaction plant. Efficient liquefaction will give the best performance and productivity to the plant.

  20. Simulation and statistical analysis for the optimization of nitrogen liquefaction plant with cryogenic Claude cycle using process modeling tool: ASPEN HYSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, D. M.

    2017-09-01

    Cryogenic technology is used for liquefaction of many gases and it has several applications in food process engineering. Temperatures below 123 K are considered to be in the field of cryogenics. Extreme low temperatures are a basic need for many industrial processes and have several applications, such as superconductivity of magnets, space, medicine and gas industries. Several methods can be used to obtain the low temperatures required for liquefaction of gases. The process of cooling or refrigerating a gas to a temperature below its critical temperature so that liquid can be formed at some suitable pressure, which is below the critical pressure, is the basic liquefaction process. Different cryogenic cycle configurations are designed for getting the liquefied form of gases at different temperatures. Each of the cryogenic cycles like Linde cycle, Claude cycle, Kapitza cycle or modified Claude cycle has its own advantages and disadvantages. The placement of heat exchangers, Joule-Thompson valve and turboexpander decides the configuration of a cryogenic cycle. Each configuration has its own efficiency according to the application. Here, a nitrogen liquefaction plant is used for the analysis purpose. The process modeling tool ASPEN HYSYS can provide a software simulation approach before the actual implementation of the plant in the field. This paper presents the simulation and statistical analysis of the Claude cycle with the process modeling tool ASPEN HYSYS. It covers the technique used to optimize the liquefaction of the plant. The simulation results so obtained can be used as a reference for the design and optimization of the nitrogen liquefaction plant. Efficient liquefaction will give the best performance and productivity to the plant.

  1. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Biomass is one of the most abundant sources of renewable energy, and will be an important part of a more sustainable future energy system. In addition to direct combustion, there is growing attention on conversion of biomass into liquid en-ergy carriers. These conversion methods are divided...... into biochemical/biotechnical methods and thermochemical methods; such as direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction etc. This chapter will focus on hydrothermal liquefaction, where high pressures and intermediate temperatures together with the presence of water are used to convert biomass...... into liquid biofuels, with the aim of describing the current status and development challenges of the technology. During the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the biomass macromolecules are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive...

  2. Demineralization of Sargassum spp. Macroalgae Biomass: Selective Hydrothermal Liquefaction Process for Bio-Oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M., E-mail: limdiaz@uprrp.edu; Rojas-Pérez, Arnulfo; Fuentes-Caraballo, Mariela; Robles, Isis V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico Río Piedras Campus, San Juan, PR (United States); Jena, Umakanta [Bioenergy Laboratory, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States); Das, K. C. [College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-02-11

    Algae biomasses are considered a viable option for the production of biofuel because of their high yields of oil produced per dry weight. Brown macroalgae Sargassum spp. are one of the most abundant species of algae in the shores of Puerto Rico. Its availability in large quantity presents a great opportunity for use as a source of renewable energy. However, high ash content of macroalgae affects the conversion processes and the quality of resulting fuel products. This research studied the effect of different demineralization treatments of Sargassum spp. biomass, subsequent hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), and bio-oil characterization. Demineralization constituted five different treatments: nanopure water, nitric acid, citric acid, sulfuric acid, and acetic acid. Performance of demineralization was evaluated by analyzing both demineralized biomass and HTL products by the following analyses: total carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, ash content, caloric content, metals analysis, Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and GCMS analysis. HTL of Sargassum spp. before and after citric acid treatment was performed in a 1.8 L batch reactor system at 350°C with a holding time of 60 min and high pressures (5–21 MPa). Demineralization treatment with nitric acid was found the most effective in reducing the ash content of the macroalgae biomass from 27.46 to 0.99% followed by citric acid treatment that could reduce the ash content to 7%. Citric acid did not show significant leaching of organic components such as carbohydrates and proteins, and represented a less toxic and hazardous option for demineralization. HTL of untreated and citric acid treated Sargassum spp. resulted in bio-oil yields of 18.4 ± 0.1 and 22.2 ± 0.1% (ash-free dry basis), respectively.

  3. Demineralization of Sargassum spp. Macroalgae Biomass: Selective Hydrothermal Liquefaction Process for Bio-Oil Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M.; Rojas-Pérez, Arnulfo; Fuentes-Caraballo, Mariela; Robles, Isis V.; Jena, Umakanta; Das, K. C.

    2015-01-01

    Algae biomasses are considered a viable option for the production of biofuel because of their high yields of oil produced per dry weight. Brown macroalgae Sargassum spp. are one of the most abundant species of algae in the shores of Puerto Rico. Its availability in large quantity presents a great opportunity for use as a source of renewable energy. However, high ash content of macroalgae affects the conversion processes and the quality of resulting fuel products. This research studied the effect of different demineralization treatments of Sargassum spp. biomass, subsequent hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), and bio-oil characterization. Demineralization constituted five different treatments: nanopure water, nitric acid, citric acid, sulfuric acid, and acetic acid. Performance of demineralization was evaluated by analyzing both demineralized biomass and HTL products by the following analyses: total carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, ash content, caloric content, metals analysis, Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and GCMS analysis. HTL of Sargassum spp. before and after citric acid treatment was performed in a 1.8 L batch reactor system at 350°C with a holding time of 60 min and high pressures (5–21 MPa). Demineralization treatment with nitric acid was found the most effective in reducing the ash content of the macroalgae biomass from 27.46 to 0.99% followed by citric acid treatment that could reduce the ash content to 7%. Citric acid did not show significant leaching of organic components such as carbohydrates and proteins, and represented a less toxic and hazardous option for demineralization. HTL of untreated and citric acid treated Sargassum spp. resulted in bio-oil yields of 18.4 ± 0.1 and 22.2 ± 0.1% (ash-free dry basis), respectively.

  4. Demineralization of Sargassum spp. macroalgae biomass: selective hydrothermal liquefaction process for bio-oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz M Díaz-Vázquez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Algae biomasses are considered a viable option for the production of biofuel because of their high yields of oil produced per dry weight. Brown macroalgae Sargassum spp. are one of the most abundant species of algae in the shores of Puerto Rico. Its availability in large quantity presents a great opportunity for use as a source of renewable energy. However, high ash content of macroalgae affects the conversion processes and the quality of resulting fuel products. This research studied the effect of different demineralization treatments of Sargassum spp. biomass, subsequent hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL and bio-oil characterization. Demineralization constituted five different treatments: nanopure water, nitric acid, citric acid, sulfuric acid, and acetic acid. Performance of demineralization was evaluated by analyzing both demineralized biomass and HTL products by the following analyses: total carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, ash content, caloric content, metals analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared - Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and GCMS analysis. HTL of Sargassum spp. before and after citric acid treatment, was performed in a 1.8 L batch reactor system at 350°C with a holding time of 60 min and high pressures (5-21 MPa. Demineralization treatment with nitric acid was found the most effective in reducing the ash content of the macroalgae biomass from 27.46% to 0.99% followed by citric acid treatment that could reduce the ash content to 7%. Citric acid did not show significant leaching of organic components such as carbohydrates and proteins, and represented a less toxic and hazardous option for demineralization. HTL of untreated and citric acid treated Sargassum spp. resulted in bio-oil yields of 18.4±0.1 % and 22.2±0.1 % (ash free dry basis, respectively.

  5. Subtask 3.3 - Feasibility of Direct Coal Liquefaction in the Modern Economic Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin Oster; Joshua Strege; Marc Kurz; Anthony Snyder; Melanie Jensen

    2009-06-15

    Coal liquefaction provides an alternative to petroleum for the production of liquid hydrocarbon-based fuels. There are two main processes to liquefy coal: direct coal liquefaction (DCL) and indirect coal liquefaction (ICL). Because ICL has been demonstrated to a greater extent than DCL, ICL may be viewed as the lower-risk option when it comes to building a coal liquefaction facility. However, a closer look, based on conversion efficiencies and economics, is necessary to determine the optimal technology. This report summarizes historical DCL efforts in the United States, describes the technical challenges facing DCL, overviews Shenhua's current DCL project in China, provides a DCL conceptual cost estimate based on a literature review, and compares the carbon dioxide emissions from a DCL facility to those from an ICL facility.

  6. Silent, indirect strategic processes in small and medium sized enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Madsen, Charlotte Øland; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    Based on empirical data we in this paper explore day-to-day strategising with an emphasis on phronesis. This way we shed some light on the nearly silent, quiet, indirect strategic change processes as they are practiced and reflected upon by leaders in small companies in their daily practice...

  7. Direct and indirect two-photon processes in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.R.

    1986-07-01

    The expressions describing direct and indirect two-photon absorption in crystals are given. They are valid both near and far from the energy gap. A perturbative approach through two different band models is adopted. The effects of the non-parabolicity and the degeneracy of the energy bands are considered. The numerical results are compared with the other theories and with a recent experimental data in Zn and AgCl. It is shown that the dominant transition mechanisms are of the allowed-allowed type near and far from the gap for both direct and indirect processes. (author)

  8. Effect of process parameters on solvolysis liquefaction of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in ethanol–water system and energy evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Xiaowei; Ma, Xiaoqian; Lin, Yousheng; Wang, Xusheng; Zhang, Xiaoshen; Yang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Microalgae liquefaction in ethanol–water promoted bio-oil yield and property. • There existed synergistic effect between ethanol and water. • Ethanol contributed to deoxygenation and hydrogen-donating for bio-oil. • Net energy ratios of 20% and 40% ethanol were larger than pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: In this work, Chlorella pyrenoidosa was converted into bio-oil via solvolysis liquefaction in sub/supercritical ethanol–water system. The influence of reaction temperature (220–300 °C), retention time (0–120 min), solid/liquid ratio (6.3/75–50.0/75 g/mL) and ethanol content (0–100%) on bio-oil yield and property was investigated. The increase of reaction temperature and retention time both improved the bio-oil yield. The bio-oil yield increased firstly and then decreased when the solid/liquid ratio and ethanol content exceeded 18.8/75 g/mL and 80%, respectively. As the reaction temperature <260 °C and retention time <30 min, a soft and unsticky product was insoluble in dichloromethane (DCM) during the extraction process. The chemical composition of the DCM-insoluble product was analyzed by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry). The change tendency of O/C and H/C atomic ratio of bio-oil indicated that the addition of ethanol contributed to deoxygenation and hydrogen-donating for bio-oil, due to the dehydration and decarboxylation reaction. "1H NMR (hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance) analysis indicated that the main chemical compositions of bio-oil were aliphatic functional groups and heteroatomic functionalities (80.00–83.58%). The addition of ethanol enhanced the transesterification to form more ester. The NER (net energy ratio, the ratio of energy output to energy consumption) of solvolysis liquefaction in ethanol–water system (NER < 1) was less than that of hydrothermal liquefaction in sole water system (NER = 1.29), but the NERs of 20% and 40% ethanol content (NER = 0.91, 0.70 for 20% and 40% ethanol content

  9. Reactor Materials Program process water piping indirect failure frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    Following completion of the probabilistic analyses, the LOCA Definition Project has been subject to various external reviews, and as a result the need for several revisions has arisen. This report updates and summarizes the indirect failure frequency analysis for the process water piping. In this report, a conservatism of the earlier analysis is removed, supporting lower failure frequency estimates. The analysis results are also reinterpreted in light of subsequent review comments

  10. Design and analysis of a small-scale natural gas liquefaction process adopting single nitrogen expansion with carbon dioxide pre-cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Zongming; Cui, Mengmeng; Xie, Ying; Li, Chunlin

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of energy consumption and environmental protection concerns, it is of enormous economic and environmental values for the development of stranded gas. As a means for exploitation and transportation of stranded gas to market, a novel small-scale liquefaction process adopting single nitrogen expansion with carbon dioxide pre-cooling is put up with in this paper. Taking unit energy consumption as the target function, Aspen HYSYS is employed to simulate and optimize the process to achieve the liquefaction rate of 0.77 with unit energy consumption of 9.90 kW/kmol/h. Furthermore, the adaptability of this process under different pressure, temperature and compositions of feed gas is studied. Based on the optimization results, the exergy losses of main equipment in the process are evaluated and analyzed in details. With compact device, safety operation, simple capability, this liquefaction process proves to be suitable for the development of small gas reserves, satellite distribution fields of gas or coalbed methane fields. - Highlights: •A novel small-scale liquefaction process used in stranded gas is designed. •The adaptability of this process under different pressure, temperature and compositions of feed gas is studied. •The exergy analysis of main equipment in the process is analyzed

  11. Design and analysis of a small-scale natural gas liquefaction process adopting single nitrogen expansion with carbon dioxide pre-cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Zongming; Cui, Mengmeng; Xie, Ying; Li, Chunlin

    2014-03-01

    With the growth of energy consumption and environmental protection concerns, it is of enormous economic and environmental values for the development of stranded gas. As a means for exploitation and transportation of stranded gas to market, a novel small-scale liquefaction process adopting single nitrogen expansion with carbon dioxide pre-cooling is put up with in this paper. Taking unit energy consumption as the target function, Aspen HYSYS is employed to simulate and optimize the process to achieve the liquefaction rate of 0.77 with unit energy consumption of 9.90 kW/kmol/h. Furthermore, the adaptability of this process under different pressure, temperature and compositions of feed gas is studied. Based on the optimization results, the exergy losses of main equipment in the process are evaluated and analyzed in details. With compact device, safety operation, simple capability, this liquefaction process proves to be suitable for the development of small gas reserves, satellite distribution fields of gas or coalbed methane fields. - Highlights: •A novel small-scale liquefaction process used in stranded gas is designed. •The adaptability of this process under different pressure, temperature and compositions of feed gas is studied. •The exergy analysis of main equipment in the process is analyzed.

  12. Use of microalgae to recycle nutrients in aqueous phase derived from hydrothermal liquefaction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Lijian; Li, Jun; Wen, Zhiyou; Zhou, Wenguang

    2018-05-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae biomass generates an aqueous phase (AP) byproduct with limited energy value. Recycling the AP solution as a source of nutrients for microalgae cultivation provides an opportunity for a cost-effective production of HTL based biofuel and algal biomass feedstock for HTL, allowing a closed-loop biofuel production in microalgae HTL biofuel system. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of characteristics of AP and its nutrients recycling for algae production. Inhibitory effects resulted from the toxic compounds in AP and alleviation strategies are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reports on 1976 result of Sunshine Project. Investigation on development policy and position of various coal liquefaction processes in Japan; 1976 nendo Nippon ni okeru kakushu sekitan ekika process no kaihatsu hoshin to ichizuke ni kansuru chosa seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This report is the summary of the 'investigation results concerning development policy and position of various coal liquefaction processes in Japan'. The purpose of this investigative research is primarily to clarify the position of coal energy in the future energy supply, technologies of converting coal to clean fuel as the form of coal energy utilization most suitable for Japan, and the position of coal liquefaction in such converting technologies, and also to decide on the policy of R and D on coal liquefaction process in Japan at present. Accordingly, this paper investigates the status quo of various liquefaction processes including the coal liquefaction technologies for which R and D are conducted under the Sunshine Project; making analysis/assessment from such viewpoint as clean process as environmental safeguard and a precondition for coal energy utilization, technical problems concerning coal import and transportation, and suitability for the present energy consumption structure centering on oil; and further, examining the position of coal liquefaction in the general effective utilization of coal as organic carbonaceous resources in the distant future. (NEDO)

  14. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: AR-Coal Liquefaction; Gas to Liquids; and Direct Liquefaction. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. A novel conceptual design of parallel nitrogen expansion liquefaction process for small-scale LNG (liquefied natural gas) plant in skid-mount packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Tianbiao; Ju, Yonglin

    2014-01-01

    The utilization of unconventional natural gas is still a great challenge for China due to its distribution locations and small reserves. Thus, liquefying the unconventional natural gas by using small-scale LNG plant in skid-mount packages is a good choice with great economic benefits. A novel conceptual design of parallel nitrogen expansion liquefaction process for small-scale plant in skid-mount packages has been proposed. It first designs a process configuration. Then, thermodynamic analysis of the process is conducted. Next, an optimization model with genetic algorithm method is developed to optimize the process. Finally, the flexibilities of the process are tested by two different feed gases. In conclusion, the proposed parallel nitrogen expansion liquefaction process can be used in small-scale LNG plant in skid-mount packages with high exergy efficiency and great economic benefits. - Highlights: • A novel design of parallel nitrogen expansion liquefaction process is proposed. • Genetic algorithm is applied to optimize the novel process. • The unit energy consumption of optimized process is 0.5163 kWh/Nm 3 . • The exergy efficiency of the optimized case is 0.3683. • The novel process has a good flexibility for different feed gas conditions

  16. Report on the achievements in research and development of a coal liquefaction technology in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Development of a solvolysis liquefaction plant (development of a 1 t/d experimental plant and research on solvolysis liquefaction process); Sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, solvolysis ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1t/nichi jikken plant no kaihatsu (solvolysis ekika process no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981 in development of a solvolysis liquefaction plant. The solvolysis process is characterized by performing the first stage reaction (liquefaction) in a short time by using hydrogenated heavy solvent produced spontaneously in the process. This short-time liquefaction reaction was carried out continuously by using a 1-t/d experimental plant, and a prospect was obtained on smooth operation and realization of the device. A test using a testing device allowing the temperature to rise within several minutes was performed on the effectiveness of a hydrogenated coal based heavy solvent (fractions of a hydrogenated heavy anthracene as a model) as a study on the first stage reaction. Partially hydrogenated materials of polycyclic condensed aromatics in the heavy solvent is largely involved in the initial reaction. In the solid-liquid separation, solids and heavy fractions are selected and removed from the first stage reaction products, and the light fraction is supplied into the second stage reaction (hydrogenation). The solvent deliming process was tested by using a batch type solid-liquid separator, whose effectiveness was verified. Studies were performed by using Australian sub-bituminous coal on operation of a continuous operation device consisted of systems for the first stage reaction (liquefaction), solid-liquid separation, second stage reaction (hydrogenation), and solvent circulation. (NEDO)

  17. Report on the achievements in research and development of a coal liquefaction technology in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Development of a solvent extraction and liquefaction plant (development of a 1-t/d experimental plant and research on the solvent extraction and liquefaction process); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, yozai chushutsu ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1t/d jikken plant no kaihatsu (yozai chushutsu ekika process no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Among the items of the solvent extraction and liquefaction plant technologies in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981, this paper describes the achievements in developing a 1-t/d experimental plant and the solvent extraction and liquefaction process. Basic facilities were completed by giving expansion constructions on the extraction reaction column, gas-liquid separation column, and hydrogenation reaction column. The operation was performed with the primary object placed on verifying the effect of measures on problems that have been extracted, and checking the solvent balance. The conversion rate at an extraction reaction temperature of 450 degrees C was 83%, agreeing with the result of the fundamental study. The solvent has turned light as a result of 153-hour continuous operation, but circulating use was possible. Progress of the reaction has become easily controllable in the hydrogenation system. Fundamental discussions were given on engineering aspects, which require further accumulation of data. In the research of the solvent extraction and liquefaction process, fiscal 1981 has performed discussions on liquefaction catalysts, and on the effect of the hydrogen donating solvents. The discussions were for the fundamental research to establish adequate conditions for the 1-t/d experimental plant by operating a small continuous operation facility to its full extent, and by using a batch type reaction device. Screening was also carried out on catalysts. (NEDO)

  18. Development of liquefaction process of coal and biomass in supercritical water; Chorinkaisui wo mochiita sekitan biomass doji ekika process no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, H.; Matsumura, Y.; Tsutsumi, A.; Yoshida, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Masuno, Y.; Inaba, A. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Liquefaction of coal and biomass in supercritical water has been investigated, in which strong solubilization force of supercritical water against hydrocarbons is utilized. Free radicals are formed through the cleavage of covalent bonds in coal under the heating condition at around 400{degree}C during coal liquefaction. It is important to stabilize these unstable intermediate products by hydrogen transfer. On the other hand, hydrogen is not required for the liquefaction of biomass having higher H/C atomic ratio and oxygen content than those of coal. Co-liquefaction of coal and biomass was conducted using supercritical water, in which excess hydrogen from the liquefaction of biomass would be transferred to coal, resulting in the effective liquefaction of coal. Mixture of coal and cellulose was liquefied in supercritical water at 390{degree}C under the pressure of 25 MPa using a semi-continuous reactor, and the results were compared with those from the separate liquefaction of them. The co-liquefaction of coal and cellulose did not show any difference in the residue yield from the separate liquefaction of these, but led to the increased production of compounds with lower molecular weight. The liquefaction was completed in 15 minutes. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Experimental study on CO2 frosting and clogging in a brazed plate heat exchanger for natural gas liquefaction process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jitan; He, Tianbiao; Ju, Yonglin

    2018-04-01

    The plate-fin heat exchanger (PFHE), which has been widely used in natural gas liquefaction (LNG) industry at present, has some disadvantages such as being sensitive to the impurities in the feed gas, such as water, CO2 and H2S. Compared with the PFHE, the brazed plate heat exchanger (BPHE), which has been applied in some boil off gas (BOG) recycling LNG plants of small to middle size, has simpler inherent structure and higher impurity tolerance. In this study the BPHE is suggested to replace the PFHE to simplify or even omit the massive CO2 purification equipment for the LNG process. A set of experimental apparatus is designed and constructed to investigate the influence of the CO2 concentration of the natural gas on solid precipitation inside a typical BPHE meanly by considering the flow resistance throughout the LNG process. The results show that the maximum allowable CO2 concentration of the natural gas liquefied in the BPHE is two orders of magnitude higher than that in the PFHE under the same condition. In addition, the solid-liquid separation for the CO2 impurity is studied and the reasonable separating temperature is obtained. The solid CO2 should be separated below 135 K under the pressure of 3 MPa.

  20. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2010-12-10

    Hydrothermal liquefaction technology is describes in its relationship to fast pyrolysis of biomass. The scope of work at PNNL is discussed and some intial results are presented. HydroThermal Liquefaction (HTL), called high-pressure liquefaction in earlier years, is an alternative process for conversion of biomass into liquid products. Some experts consider it to be pyrolysis in solvent phase. It is typically performed at about 350 C and 200 atm pressure such that the water carrier for biomass slurry is maintained in a liquid phase, i.e. below super-critical conditions. In some applications catalysts and/or reducing gases have been added to the system with the expectation of producing higher yields of higher quality products. Slurry agents ('carriers') evaluated have included water, various hydrocarbon oils and recycled bio-oil. High-pressure pumping of biomass slurry has been a major limitation in the process development. Process research in this field faded away in the 1990s except for the HydroThermal Upgrading (HTU) effort in the Netherlands, but has new resurgence with other renewable fuels in light of the increased oil prices and climate change concerns. Research restarted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in 2007 with a project, 'HydroThermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues' with partners Archer-Daniels-Midland Company and ConocoPhillips. Through bench-scale experimentation in a continuous-flow system this project investigated the bio-oil yield and quality that could be achieved from a range of biomass feedstocks and derivatives. The project was completed earlier this year with the issuance of the final report. HydroThermal Liquefaction research continues within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium with the effort focused at PNNL. The bench-scale reactor is being used for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass including pine forest residue and corn stover. A complementary project is an international

  1. Fiscal 1997 achievement report. Coal liquefaction technology development - Bituminous coal liquefaction technology development - Study for supporting pilot plant - Study using 1t/d PSU (Study of operation using PSU); 1997 nendo seika hokokusho. Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu - Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu - Pilot plant no shien kenkyu - 1t/d process support unit (PSU) ni yoru kenkyu (PSU ni yoru unten kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The operation of a 1t/d PSU (process support unit) was studied for the NEDOL coal liquefaction process. In the modification of facilities, equipment and devices were procured for the product oil reforming facilities and their installation was partly accomplished. In the coal injection operation, a 60-day slurry operation was conducted, using coal types of the upper limit and lower limit qualities, for expanding the scope of coal types applicable to the NEDOL process and for exploring optimum conditions, and another operation of 37 days was conducted using Chinese coal and Chinese-prepared liquefaction catalysts, and the two operations were studied for difference in yields and in operationality. Characteristics of the liquefaction reactors were investigated and basic studies were made relative to the physical property of the yielded coal oil. In the operation for maintenance, the 1st liquefaction reactor was singly operated for an 8-day slurry operation, which was to check the progress of liquefaction in a 1-reactor setup. Concerning the reforming of the product oil, the hydrogenation reactors were checked for their response to temperature control. Moreover, hydrogenation solvents were produced for the PSU and for China. (NEDO)

  2. Fiscal 1996 achievement report. Coal liquefaction technology development - Bituminous coal liquefaction technology development - Study for supporting pilot plant - Study using 1t/d PSU (Study of operation using PSU); 1996 nendo seika hokokusho. Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu - Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu - Pilot plant no shien kenkyu - 1t/d process support unit (PSU) ni yoru kenkyu (PSU ni yoru unten kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The operation of a 1t/d PSU (process support unit) was studied for the NEDOL coal liquefaction process. In the modification of facilities, detailed designs were prepared for product oil reforming facilities and some equipment and devices were procured. In addition, the 3rd liquefaction reactor cone section and the neutron attenuation-aided measuring device were refurbished. In the injection of coal, a 62-day and 23-day slurry injection operations were accomplished using Tanito Harum coal, when the impact imposed on the yield of the product, etc., by the change of liquefaction catalysts and by gas phase hydrogen concentration enriching conditions was investigated, and the unit was examined for operationality. During a 42-day operation for maintenance, the unit was operated using only the slurry heater for the investigation of the initial reaction in liquefaction, and studies were conducted about the heater exit temperature, G/L (gas-liquid ratio), and the effect to ensue from the use of a different solvent. In the effort to develop and evaluate new materials, implantation tests were conducted for metallic materials and the 3rd liquefaction reactor was subjected to a non-destructive inspection. Wastewater from the process was examined for quality, and environment-related measurements were performed for the atmosphere. (NEDO)

  3. FY 1980 Report on results of Sunshine Project. Development of coal liquefaction techniques (Development of 1 T/D test plant, and researches on the solvent-extraction type liquefaction process); 1980 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu, yozai chushutsu ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1t/nichi jikken plant no kaihatsu, yozai chushutsu ekika process no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This program is aimed at establishing the techniques for solvent-extraction type coal liquefaction plant by constructing and operating a 1 T/D test plant to obtain the technical data for the efficient plant. The test plant is operated to confirm the effects of temperature and coal slurry concentration on liquefaction conversion by the solvent-extraction for a short time in the furnace for the extraction unit. The extraction type coal liquefaction tests can be conducted for a reaction time of around 1 hour by the test plant. The recycled solvent purification unit is installed, to regenerate the hydrogen donor solvent. For researches on the solvent-extraction type coal liquefaction process, the continuous extraction is conducted, to investigate the effects of extraction reaction rate at relatively low pressure. The optimum hydrogenation conditions are studied for the test plant. It is confirmed that a Mo-based catalyst is suitable for the hydrogenation. The batch type reaction system is operated to investigate the liquid yield of Wandoan coal, and recycled solvent balances and compositions. (NEDO)

  4. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhu, Yunhua [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Daniel B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hallen, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elliott, Douglas C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schmidt, Andrew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Albrecht, Karl O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Todd R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Butcher, Mark G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Drennan, Corinne [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Davis, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kinchin, Christopher [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-20

    This report provides a preliminary analysis of the costs associated with converting whole wet algal biomass into primarily diesel fuel. Hydrothermal liquefaction converts the whole algae into an oil that is then hydrotreated and distilled. The secondary aqueous product containing significant organic material is converted to a medium btu gas via catalytic hydrothermal gasification.

  5. Direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of spirulina to biofuels with hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qin; Liao, Hansheng; Zhou, Shiqin; Li, Qiuping; Wang, Lu; Yu, Zhihao; Jing, Li

    2018-01-01

    We report herein on acquiring biofuels from direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of spirulina. The component of bio-oil from direct catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction was similar to that from two independent processes (including liquefaction and upgrading of biocrude). However, one step process has higher carbon recovery, due to the less loss of carbons. It was demonstrated that the yield and HHV of bio-oil from direct catalytic algae with hydrothermal condition is higher than that from two independent processes.

  6. Two-stage coal liquefaction without gas-phase hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, H.P.

    1986-06-05

    A process is provided for the production of a hydrogen-donor solvent useful in the liquefaction of coal, wherein the water-gas shift reaction is used to produce hydrogen while simultaneously hydrogenating a donor solvent. A process for the liquefaction of coal using said solvent is also provided. The process enables avoiding the use of a separate water-gas shift reactor as well as high pressure equipment for liquefaction. 3 tabs.

  7. A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.

    1997-12-31

    This is the Technical Progress Report for the twelfth quarter of activities. Described in this report are the following activities: (1) Thirty-nine samples from four run conditions of HTI Run PB-07 were received. Appropriate samples were characterized by proton NMR spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, vacuum distillation, and solvent quality tests. (2) The University of Delaware completed their subcontract this quarter. A meeting was held on April 30, 1997 at the University to close out the subcontract. (3) Twelve sets of samples were chosen from the CONSOL sample bank for the study of the insoluble and presumed unreactive material from process stream samples. Each set consists of the whole process stream and the 454 C{sup +} (850 F{sup +}) distillation resid derived from that process stream. Processing data for all samples were compiled. The samples represent four Wilsonville pilot plant runs and two HTI runs.

  8. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to High Octane Gasoline: Thermochemical Research Pathway with Indirect Gasification and Methanol Intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dutta, Abhijit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hensley, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schaidle, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Humbird, David [DWH Process Consulting, Denver, CO (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Jeff [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Sexton, Danielle [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Yap, Raymond [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States); Lukas, John [Harris Group, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes research for enabling cost-competitive liquid fuels production from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research is geared to advance the state of technology (SOT) of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of their involvement in this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction (IDL). The steps involve the conversion of biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas cleanup and catalytic syngas conversion to a methanol intermediate; methanol is then further catalytically converted to high octane hydrocarbons. The conversion process model leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via tar and hydrocarbons reforming was one of the key technology advancements as part of that research. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area with downstream utilization of clean biomass-syngas for the production of high octane hydrocarbon products through a methanol intermediate, i.e., dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) which subsequently undergoes homologation to high octane hydrocarbon products.

  9. Demineralization of Sargassum spp. Macroalgae Biomass: Selective Hydrothermal Liquefaction Process for Bio-Oil Production

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M.; Rojas-Pérez, Arnulfo; Fuentes-Caraballo, Mariela; Robles, Isis V.; Jena, Umakanta; Das, K. C.

    2015-01-01

    Algae biomasses are considered a viable option for the production of biofuel because of their high yields of oil produced per dry weight. Brown macroalgae Sargassum spp. are one of the most abundant species of algae in the shores of Puerto Rico. Its availability in large quantity presents a great opportunity for use as a source of renewable energy. However, high ash content of macroalgae affects the conversion processes and the quality of resulting fuel products. This research studied the eff...

  10. The hydrothermal upgrading process (HTU) for biomass liquefaction; Het hydrothermal upgrading proces (HTU) voor biomassa liquefactie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naber, J.E. (ed.) [Biofuel, Heemskerk (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    The HTU process has been investigated in 1981-1988 at the Shell Laboratory in Amsterdam, as a reaction to the two oil crises of 1973 and 1980. Due to the commercial circumstances in the late eighties, the research on the promising HTU technology was discontinued with only a few hundred hours of continuous bench-scale operation. While most of the critical elements of the technology were demonstrated in principle, many important data were lacking for a reliable design of the first (semi-) commercial applications, as well as a good understanding of the fundamental backgrounds, the product properties and possibilities/aspects of scaling up. Therefore the purpose and envisaged result of this project is a validated process on pilot plant scale, for a reliable design of the first commercial demonstration(s). Next to fundamental investigations of conversion mechanisms, process dynamics, thermodynamics of the multi-phase system and the water treating, the installation and continuous operation of an integrated pilot plant plays a central role in the project. The latter as well as the pressurizing of the biomass feed were identified as Go/No Go elements. With parallel research on e.g. reactor engineering and high pressure pumps, the HTU process can be scaled-up with confidence to throughputs of 10,000+ tons biomass/year. The pilot plant will be able to produce sufficient product to enable thorough research on various product applications and possibly the further upgrading by hydrodeoxygenation to 'green' transport fuels and/or premium ethylene cracker feedstock. The principle of this upgrading was also established in the R and D at the Shell Laboratory. [Dutch] Het HTU proces is in de jaren 1981-1988 onderzocht op het Shell Laboratorium in Amsterdam, als reactie op de twee olie crises van 1973 en 1980. Door de commerciele omstandigheden in het latere deel van de tachtiger jaren is de tot dan toe veelbelovende ontwikkeling van de HTU technologie vroegtijdig

  11. Methods of natural gas liquefaction and natural gas liquefaction plants utilizing multiple and varying gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Bruce M; Turner, Terry D

    2014-12-02

    A method of natural gas liquefaction may include cooling a gaseous NG process stream to form a liquid NG process stream. The method may further include directing the first tail gas stream out of a plant at a first pressure and directing a second tail gas stream out of the plant at a second pressure. An additional method of natural gas liquefaction may include separating CO.sub.2 from a liquid NG process stream and processing the CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 product stream. Another method of natural gas liquefaction may include combining a marginal gaseous NG process stream with a secondary substantially pure NG stream to provide an improved gaseous NG process stream. Additionally, a NG liquefaction plant may include a first tail gas outlet, and at least a second tail gas outlet, the at least a second tail gas outlet separate from the first tail gas outlet.

  12. Liquefaction technology assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    A survey of coal liquefaction technology and analysis of projected relative performance of high potential candidates has been completed and the results are reported here. The key objectives of the study included preparation of a broad survey of the status of liquefaction processes under development, selection of a limited number of high potential process candidates for further study, and an analysis of the relative commercial potential of these candidates. Procedures which contributed to the achievement of the above key goals included definition of the characteristics and development status of known major liquefaction process candidates, development of standardized procedures for assessing technical, environmental, economic and product characteristics for the separate candidates, and development of procedures for selecting and comparing high potential processes. The comparisons were made for three production areas and four marketing areas of the US. In view of the broad scope of the objectives the survey was a limited effort. It used the experience gained during preparation of seven comprehensive conceptual designs/economic evaluations plus comprehensive reviews of the designs, construction and operation of several pilot plants. Results and conclusions must be viewed in the perspective of the information available, how this information was treated, and the full context of the economic comparison results. Comparative economics are presented as ratios; they are not intended to be predictors of absolute values. Because the true cost of constructing and operating large coal conversion facilities will be known only after commercialization, relative values are considered more appropriate. (LTN)

  13. Experimental study on the liquefaction of cellulose in supercritical ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinxing; Liu, Xinyuan; Bao, Zhenbo

    2018-03-01

    Cellulose is the major composition of solid waste for producing biofuel; cellulose liquefaction is helpful for realizing biomass supercritical liquefaction process. This paper is taking supercritical ethanol as the medium, liquefied cellulose with the intermittence installation of high press cauldron. Experiments have studied technical condition and the technology parameter of cellulose liquefaction in supercritical ethanol, and the pyrolysis mechanism was analysed based on the pyrolysis product. Results show that cellulose can be liquefied, can get good effect through appropriate technology condition. Under not catalyst, highest liquefaction rate of cellulose can reach 73.5%. The composition of the pyrolysis product was determined by GC-MS.

  14. Production of ethanol from a mixture of waste paper and kitchen waste via a process of successive liquefaction, presaccharification, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Hiroto; Tan, Li; Kira, Noriko; Tomiyama, Shigeo; Yamada, Kazuo; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

    2017-09-01

    Efficient ethanol production from waste paper requires the addition of expensive nutrients. To reduce the production cost of ethanol from waste paper, a study on how to produce ethanol efficiently by adding kitchen waste (potentially as a carbon source, nutrient source, and acidity regulator) to waste paper was performed and a process of successive liquefaction, presaccharification, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (L+PSSF) was developed. The individual saccharification performances of waste paper and kitchen waste were not influenced by their mixture. Liquefaction of kitchen waste at 90°C prior to presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PSSF) was essential for efficient ethanol fermentation. Ethanol at concentrations of 46.6 or 43.6g/l was obtained at the laboratory scale after fermentation for 96h, even without pH adjustment and/or the addition of extra nutrients. Similarly, ethanol at a concentration of 45.5g/l was obtained at the pilot scale after fermentation for 48h. The ethanol concentration of L+PSSF of the mixture of waste paper and kitchen waste was comparable to that of PSSF of waste paper with added nutrients (yeast extract and peptone) and pH adjustment using H 2 SO 4 , indicating that kitchen waste is not only a carbon source but also an excellent nutrient source and acidity regulator for fermentation of the mixture of waste paper and kitchen waste. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Factors influencing the organic matter extraction from the coal by using the process of liquefaction in static system; Fatores que influenciam a extracao da materia organica do carvao mineral atraves do processo de liequefacao em sistema estatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, Livia Mari; Lancas, Fernando Mauro

    1996-07-01

    This work describes the liquefaction process for extraction of the organic matter from coal, presently researched in Brazil, particularly with supercritical fluids. The extraction can be a future economically viable and environmentally correct alternative for supplying the emerging necessities of fuels, pharmaceuticals and chemicals sources.

  16. FY 1994 report on the Coal Liquefaction Committee; 1994 nendo sekitan ekika iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The paper reported the FY 1994 activities of the Coal Liquefaction Committee. The Coal Liquefaction Committee in this fiscal year was held on November 29, 1994 (1st) and March 22, 1995 (2nd), and report was made on the bituminous coal liquefaction study and state of the R and D of liquefaction base technology. Report was also made on the state of construction of bituminous coal liquefaction PP, outline of the results of the PSU operation, outline of the 11th Japan-U.S. JTM, etc. In the liquefaction base study, report/discussion were made about the improvement/rationalization of liquefaction process, study of innovative technology of coal liquefaction, study of coal liquefaction conditions, study for higher liquefaction element technology, project on the internationalization of coal liquefaction technology, etc. As to the relation of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant, report/discussion were made about survey/study on the processing of coal for coal gasification use (survey of coal kind selection, development of information processing system for coal conversion technology). Besides, as a topic, report was made on the economical evaluation/calculation of a commercial plant for brown coal liquefaction. (NEDO)

  17. Fiscal 1998 achievement report. Coal liquefaction technology development - Bituminous coal liquefaction technology development - Study for supporting pilot plant - Study using 1t/d PSU (Study of operation using PSU); 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu - Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu - Pilot plant no shien kenkyu - 1t/d process support unit (PSU) ni yoru kenkyu (PSU ni yoru unten kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The operation of a 1t/d PSU (process support unit) was studied for the NEDOL coal liquefaction process. For the modification of facilities, product oil reforming facilities were installed. In the coal injection operation, a 59-day slurry operation was carried out using Tanito Harum coal, which was for the evaluation of the reforming effect under the product reforming conditions, operationality, and liquefaction characteristics. A 37-day slurry operation was also performed using Chinese coal, which was intended to pursue improved cost performance and to collect the light oil fraction in the flow of reforming operation. In the operation for maintenance, investigations were conducted into conditions for hydrogenation in a 1-through operation involving the solvent hydrogenation process and the normal pressure distillation facilities and into the effect of pre-hydrogenation solvent properties, which aimed at grasping the effect of product oil reforming measures and their influence on operationality. In the survey of environments, the properties of wastewater from the liquefaction process using Tanito Harum coal were studied and toxicity evaluation tests were conducted for activated sludge. (NEDO)

  18. Method of start-up operation of a liquefaction and distillation apparatus for processing waste gases containing radioactive rare gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Masakazu; Tani, Akira; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; An, Bunzai; Kanazawa, Toshio.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To enable reduction of cooling time, simplification of maintenance, and release of cooling gas outside system. Structure: In starting of the liquefaction and distillation apparatus, liquid nitrogen is introduced into the tower bottom of a rectification tower from a liquid nitrogen tank through a liquid nitrogen supply line to vaporize the liquid nitrogen with help of heat entered from outside and a heater. The vaporized nitrogen gas moves up while cooling the interior of the rectification tower and is guided by a vacuum pump from the top of tower toward the purifying gas line and low temperature heat exchanger and disharging into atmosphere. When the interior of the apparatus is sufficiently cooled in a manner as described above, the liquid nitrogen supply line is closed, the liquid nitrogen is fed to a condenser, and the waste gases containing the radioactive rare gases from the raw exhaust supply line are introduced into the rectification tower for entry of normal operation. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  20. Prospect of coal liquefaction in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartiniati; Dasuki, A.S.; Artanto, Yu.; Sulaksono, D.; Gunanjar

    1997-01-01

    With the current known oil reserves of about 11 billion barrel and annual production of approximately 500 million barrel, the country's oil reserves will be depleted by 2010, and Indonesia would have become net oil importer if no major oil fields be found somewhere in the archipelago. Under such circumstances the development of new sources of liquid fuel becomes a must, and coal liquefaction can be one possible solution for the future energy problem in Indonesia, particularly in the transportation sector due to the availability of coal in huge amount. This paper present the prospect of coal liquefaction in Indonesia and look at the possibility of integrating the process with HTR as a heat supplier. Evaluation of liquidability of several low grade Indonesian coals will also be presented. Coal from South Banko-Tanjung Enim is found to be one of the most suitable coal for liquefaction. Several studies show that an advanced coal liquefaction technology recently developed has the potential to reduce not only the environmental impact but also the production cost. The price of oil produced in the year 2000 is expected to reach US $ 17.5 ∼ 19.2/barrel and this will compete with the current oil price. Not much conclusion can be drawn from the idea of integrating HTR with coal liquefaction plant due to limited information available. (author). 7 figs, 3 tabs

  1. Studies of initial stage in coal liquefaction. Effect of prethermal treatment condition with process solvent to increase oil yields; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. Sekitan no maeshori joken to yozai koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, T.; Komatsu, N.; Kishimoto, M.; Okui, T.; Kaneko, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Process solvent was hydrogenated in the brown coal liquefaction, to investigate the influence of it on the prethermal treatment and liquefaction. Consequently, it was found that the n-hexane soluble (HS) yield was improved. In this study, capacity of hydrogen transfer from solvent during prethermal treatment and effects of catalyst were investigated. Since prethermal treatment in oil was effective for improving the oil yield in the presence of hydrogen/catalyst or high hydrogen-donor solvent, influence of hydrogen-donor performance of solvent or addition of catalyst on the hydrogenation behavior of coal and the characteristics of products during prethermal treatment were investigated in relation to successive liquefaction results. As a result, it was found that the increase of HS yield was due to the acceleration of conversion of THF-insoluble using high hydrogen-donor solvent and/or by adding catalyst. It was also found that the use of high hydrogen-donor solvent and highly active catalyst at the stage of prethermal treatment before the successive liquefaction was effective for improving the HS yield, i.e., liquefied oil yield. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the seabed liquefaction beneath standing waves. Silt (with d50 =0.070mm) was used in the experiments. Two kinds of measurements were carried out: pore water pressure measurements and water surface elevation measurements. These measurements...... were synchronized with video recording of the liquefaction process from the side. The ranges of the various quantities in the experiments were wave height H= 5.9-12.0 cm, wave period T= 1.09s, and water depth h=30 cm. The experiments show that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although...... qualitatively similar, show features different from that caused by progressive waves. The pore water pressure builds up (or accumulated) in the areas around the node and subsequently spreads out toward the antinodes. The experimental results imply that this transport is caused by a diffusion mechanism...

  3. Coal liquefaction becomes viable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    In 2003 the May/June issue of CoalTrans International speculated that coal liquefaction would become viable due to falling coal prices. This has not proved the case but the sustained high oil price is sparking new interest. A survey by Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research during November 2005 revealed a growth in the number of projects under development or at the feasibility stage. The article reports projects in China, the USA, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines and India. China is commissioning the first wave of large liquefaction plants. The key question is whether other countries, particularly the USA, will follow.

  4. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1987. Collection of data from coal liquefaction processes, and development of a disposal system; 1987 nendo sekitan ekika process nado no data no shushu, shori system nado no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-01

    The present study is intended to investigate the current status of the information control system in the coal liquefaction technology development project, and structure a coal liquefaction database system to manage and utilize comprehensively the items of information provided by the system. Section 2 shows the result of epitomizing opinions on the purpose of the coal liquefaction database by means of a questionnaire survey to NEDO, and opinions of people of experience and academic standing. Section 3 depicts the basic conception of a coal database total system. Section 4 summarizes the conceptual idea of the fundamental database by washing out the data input and output, and the contents recorded in the database. Section 5 summarizes the basic sub-system required for management and utilization of the database, and different application systems for data analysis required in each stage of performing the coal liquefaction technology development, and for operation assistance. Section 6 summarizes a general technological information retrieval system, in which general information on coal liquefaction is recorded, processed, and registered and accumulated in the database, and then the information retrieval and the original information providing service are carried out. Section 7 summarizes philosophies on development and operation of the coal liquefaction database, operating institutions, and problems to be solved. (NEDO)

  5. Changes in direct and indirect taxation in the process of the EU tax system reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proceeding from the changes in direct and indirect taxation in the process of the EU tax system reform and the fact that new trends bring about vital social changes, the research in this area could add to the understanding of economic development of these countries. In the EU with its decentralized tax policy, changes in direct and indirect taxation are permanently implemented in the process of tax system reform. Harmonization of direct and indirect taxation in the EU is conducted by means of the adopted community law regulations. In the harmonization of direct taxation there is a tendency towards an increase of the level of fiscal coordination and elimination of barriers to the common market. Thus direct taxation reforms are limited to achieving higher level of coordination and preventing evasion and double taxation. The current policy is the result of the principle according to which fiscal competition has positive effects on reducing consumption and on the EU economic development. In the harmonization process the systems of indirect taxation are aligned particularly with excise duty and value added tax. Fiscal strategies in the reform process are mostly aimed at fiscal coordination, modernization, informative cooperation, evasion reduction and elimination of malpractices in fulfilling a VAT payment liability. Within the excise tax system minimal excise rates are determined and an environmentally-friendly policy is pursued. The main priorities of taxation changes within the harmonization process are in respect of evasion reduction and irrational fiscal competition on the EU market. A study of direct and indirect taxation changes in the process of the tax system reform is highly significant both from the aspect of efficient tax-system functioning, which results in achieving EU macroeconomic goals, and from the aspect of single states' interests in the process of transition and accession.

  6. Survey report for fiscal 1993 on development of coal and brown coal liquefaction technologies. Part 2. Survey of economic efficiency of brown coal liquefaction process; 1993 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu kattan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu chosa hokokusho. 2. Kattan ekika process no keizaisei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Financial assessment is carried out by estimating the liquefaction product cost (selling price) at which the predetermined rate of return on investment is to be earned, which is calculated by the DCF (discount cash flow) method. The cash flow is determined from the net after taxes for each business year, and the balance after the subtraction of long- and short-term borrowings is converted to the present worth as of the operation commencement year at the predetermined discount rate, and a total is calculated for the period. When the difference between the total and the equity does not vanish, the coal liquid selling price is changed, and this process is repeated until the difference vanishes. If a 20% reduction in the plant construction cost is feasible, the coal liquefaction product will be competing with the crude oil in the market in around 2030. Although the financial analysis is a profitability analysis from the fund providers' viewpoint, the benefit as seen from the project siting country needs to be assessed by an economic analysis, and probabilities are that, in the presence of great profits, the project will materialize if the two are found to earn more than average after the profits are impartially divided. Japan's benefits and expenditures are compared and subjected to an economic analysis, and a result of 6-15% is obtained. This means that the project will realize in case EIRR (economic internal rate of return) is higher than the fund procuring cost of 11%. (NEDO)

  7. Survey report for fiscal 1993 on development of coal and brown coal liquefaction technologies. Part 2. Survey of economic efficiency of brown coal liquefaction process; 1993 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu kattan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu chosa hokokusho. 2. Kattan ekika process no keizaisei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Financial assessment is carried out by estimating the liquefaction product cost (selling price) at which the predetermined rate of return on investment is to be earned, which is calculated by the DCF (discount cash flow) method. The cash flow is determined from the net after taxes for each business year, and the balance after the subtraction of long- and short-term borrowings is converted to the present worth as of the operation commencement year at the predetermined discount rate, and a total is calculated for the period. When the difference between the total and the equity does not vanish, the coal liquid selling price is changed, and this process is repeated until the difference vanishes. If a 20% reduction in the plant construction cost is feasible, the coal liquefaction product will be competing with the crude oil in the market in around 2030. Although the financial analysis is a profitability analysis from the fund providers' viewpoint, the benefit as seen from the project siting country needs to be assessed by an economic analysis, and probabilities are that, in the presence of great profits, the project will materialize if the two are found to earn more than average after the profits are impartially divided. Japan's benefits and expenditures are compared and subjected to an economic analysis, and a result of 6-15% is obtained. This means that the project will realize in case EIRR (economic internal rate of return) is higher than the fund procuring cost of 11%. (NEDO)

  8. Proposal and design of a natural gas liquefaction process recovering the energy obtained from the pressure reducing stations of high-pressure pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hongbo; Zhao, Qingxuan; Sun, Nannan; Li, Yanzhong

    2016-12-01

    Taking advantage of the refrigerating effect in the expansion at an appropriate temperature, a fraction of high-pressure natural gas transported by pipelines could be liquefied in a city gate station through a well-organized pressure reducing process without consuming any extra energy. The authors proposed such a new process, which mainly consists of a turbo-expander driven booster, throttle valves, multi-stream heat exchangers and separators, to yield liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquid light hydrocarbons (LLHs) utilizing the high-pressure of the pipelines. Based on the assessment of the effects of several key parameters on the system performance by a steady-state simulation in Aspen HYSYS, an optimal design condition of the proposed process was determined. The results showed that the new process is more appropriate to be applied in a pressure reducing station (PRS) for the pipelines with higher pressure. For the feed gas at the pressure of 10 MPa, the maximum total liquefaction rate (ytot) of 15.4% and the maximum exergy utilizing rate (EUR) of 21.7% could be reached at the optimal condition. The present process could be used as a small-scale natural gas liquefying and peak-shaving plant at a city gate station.

  9. Indirect three-dimensional printing of synthetic polymer scaffold based on thermal molding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Hun; Jung, Jin Woo; Cho, Dong-Woo; Kang, Hyun-Wook

    2014-01-01

    One of the major issues in tissue engineering has been the development of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds, which serve as a structural template for cell growth and extracellular matrix formation. In scaffold-based tissue engineering, 3D printing (3DP) technology has been successfully applied for the fabrication of complex 3D scaffolds by using both direct and indirect techniques. In principle, direct 3DP techniques rely on the straightforward utilization of the final scaffold materials during the actual scaffold fabrication process. In contrast, indirect 3DP techniques use a negative mold based on a scaffold design, to which the desired biomaterial is cast and then sacrificed to obtain the final scaffold. Such indirect 3DP techniques generally impose a solvent-based process for scaffold fabrication, resulting in a considerable increase in the fabrication time and poor mechanical properties. In addition, the internal architecture of the resulting scaffold is affected by the properties of the biomaterial solution. In this study, we propose an advanced indirect 3DP technique using projection-based micro-stereolithography and an injection molding system (IMS) in order to address these challenges. The scaffold was fabricated by a thermal molding process using IMS to overcome the limitation of the solvent-based molding process in indirect 3DP techniques. The results indicate that the thermal molding process using an IMS has achieved a substantial reduction in scaffold fabrication time and has also provided the scaffold with higher mechanical modulus and strength. In addition, cell adhesion and proliferation studies have indicated no significant difference in cell activity between the scaffolds prepared by solvent-based and thermal molding processes. (paper)

  10. Liquefaction of uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    Numerical methods for assessing the liquefaction potential of soils are reviewed with a view to their application to uranium tailings. The method can be divided into two categories: total stress analysis, where changes in pore pressure are not considered in the soil model, and effective stress analysis, where changes in pore pressure are included in the soil model. Effective stress analysis is more realistic, but few computer programs exist for such analysis in two or three dimensions. A simple linearized, two-dimensional, finite element effective stress analysis which incorporates volumetric compaction due to shear motion is described and implemented. The new program is applied to the assessment of liquefaction potential of tailings in the Quirke Mine tailings area near Elliot Lake, Ontario. The results are compared with those of a total stress analysis. Both analyses indicate liquefaction would occur if a magnitude 6.0 earthquake were to occur near the area. However, the extent of liquefaction predicted by the effective stress analysis is much less than that predicted by the total stress analysis. The results of both methods are sensitive to assumed material properties and to the method used to determine the cyclic shear strength of the tailings. Further analysis, incorporating more in situ and/or laboratory data, is recommended before conclusions can be made concerning the dynamic stability of these tailings

  11. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of the Microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigaard Christensen, Per; Peng, Gaël; Vogel, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum was processed by hydrothermal liquefaction in order to assess the influence of reaction temperature and reaction time on the product and elemental distribution. The experiments were carried out at different reaction times (5 and 15 min) and over a wide range...

  12. Liquefaction of torrefied wood using microwave irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengchao Zhou; Thomas Eberhardt; Pingping Xin; Chung-Yun Hse; Hui Pan

    2016-01-01

    Torrefaction is an effective pretreatment method to improve the uniformity and quality of lignocellulosic biomass before further thermal processing (e.g., gasification, combustion). The objective of this study was to determine the impacts of torrefaction as a pretreatment before liquefaction. Wood chips were torrefied for 2 h at three different temperatures (230, 260,...

  13. Assessment of liquefaction-induced hazards using Bayesian networks based on standard penetration test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Wei; Bai, Xu; Hu, Ji-Lei; Qiu, Jiang-Nan

    2018-05-01

    Liquefaction-induced hazards such as sand boils, ground cracks, settlement, and lateral spreading are responsible for considerable damage to engineering structures during major earthquakes. Presently, there is no effective empirical approach that can assess different liquefaction-induced hazards in one model. This is because of the uncertainties and complexity of the factors related to seismic liquefaction and liquefaction-induced hazards. In this study, Bayesian networks (BNs) are used to integrate multiple factors related to seismic liquefaction, sand boils, ground cracks, settlement, and lateral spreading into a model based on standard penetration test data. The constructed BN model can assess four different liquefaction-induced hazards together. In a case study, the BN method outperforms an artificial neural network and Ishihara and Yoshimine's simplified method in terms of accuracy, Brier score, recall, precision, and area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC). This demonstrates that the BN method is a good alternative tool for the risk assessment of liquefaction-induced hazards. Furthermore, the performance of the BN model in estimating liquefaction-induced hazards in Japan's 2011 Tōhoku earthquake confirms its correctness and reliability compared with the liquefaction potential index approach. The proposed BN model can also predict whether the soil becomes liquefied after an earthquake and can deduce the chain reaction process of liquefaction-induced hazards and perform backward reasoning. The assessment results from the proposed model provide informative guidelines for decision-makers to detect the damage state of a field following liquefaction.

  14. Report on the coal liquefaction committee in fiscal 1992; 1992 nendo sekitan ekika iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    This paper reports the activities of the coal liquefaction committee in fiscal 1992. The first committee meeting was held on August 21. After having confirmed the minutes of the previous meeting, an explanation was given on the research and development plans in fiscal 1992. The explanation covered the general explanation, bituminous coal liquefaction, brown coal liquefaction, and the common and fundamental aspects. The presented topics included the achievements in the operations using a bituminous coal liquefaction PSU and a small device, the status of compiling the achievements in the brown coal liquefaction project, preparation of the basic policy on developing the common basic technologies, and structuring of a coal liquefaction technology package. The second meeting was held on March 18, 1993. The meeting verified the minutes of the previous meeting, and gave the sub-committee reports for fiscal 1992. The sub-committees include those for bituminous coal liquefaction, brown coal liquefaction, environmental safety evaluation, and separation and refining technologies. As the summary of the achievements in fiscal 1992, descriptions were given on the bituminous coal liquefaction, brown coal liquefaction, and common and basic aspects. The fiscal 1993 plan presented included the budget aspect. A description was given as a topic on the economic performance evaluation and the working scheme (the execution plan) for the brown coal liquefaction process. (NEDO)

  15. Hybrid indirect/direct contactor for thermal management of counter-current processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbostel, Marc D.; Krishnan, Gopala N.; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2018-03-20

    The invention relates to contactors suitable for use, for example, in manufacturing and chemical refinement processes. In an aspect is a hybrid indirect/direct contactor for thermal management of counter-current processes, the contactor comprising a vertical reactor column, an array of interconnected heat transfer tubes within the reactor column, and a plurality of stream path diverters, wherein the tubes and diverters are configured to block all straight-line paths from the top to bottom ends of the reactor column.

  16. Neuronal interactions between mentalising and action systems during indirect request processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ackeren, Markus J; Smaragdi, Areti; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann

    2016-09-01

    Human communication relies on the ability to process linguistic structure and to map words and utterances onto our environment. Furthermore, as what we communicate is often not directly encoded in our language (e.g. in the case of irony, jokes or indirect requests), we need to extract additional cues to infer the beliefs and desires of our conversational partners. Although the functional interplay between language and the ability to mentalise has been discussed in theoretical accounts in the past, the neurobiological underpinnings of these dynamics are currently not well understood. Here, we address this issue using functional imaging (fMRI). Participants listened to question-reply dialogues. In these dialogues, a reply is interpreted as a direct reply, an indirect reply or a request for action, depending on the question. We show that inferring meaning from indirect replies engages parts of the mentalising network (mPFC) while requests for action also activate the cortical motor system (IPL). Subsequent connectivity analysis using Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM) revealed that this pattern of activation is best explained by an increase in effective connectivity from the mentalising network (mPFC) to the action system (IPL). These results are an important step towards a more integrative understanding of the neurobiological basis of indirect speech processing. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Technical and economic aspects of brown coal gasification and liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speich, P.

    1980-01-01

    A number of gasification and liquefaction processes for Rhenish brown coal are investigated along with the technical and economic aspects of coal beneficiation. The status of coal beneficiation and the major R + D activities are reviewed. (orig.) [de

  18. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    In the Advance Coal Liquefaction Concept Proposal (ACLCP) carbon monoxide (CO) and water have been proposed as the primary reagents in the pretreatment process. The main objective of this project is to develop a methodology for pretreating coal under mild conditions based on a combination of existing processes which have shown great promise in liquefaction, extraction and pyrolysis studies. The aim of this pretreatment process is to partially depolymerise the coal, eliminate oxygen and diminish the propensity for retograde reactions during subsequent liquefaction. The desirable outcome of the CO pretreatment step should be: (1) enhanced liquefaction activity and/or selectivity toward products of higher quality due to chemical modification of the coal structure; (2) cleaner downstream products; (3) overall improvement in operability and process economics.

  19. Indirect processes in electron impact ionization of Kr24+ and Kr25+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.H.; Reed, K.J.

    1992-09-01

    Electron-impact ionization cross sections have been calculated for magnesiumlike Kr 24+ and sodiumlike Kr 25+ . Electron-impact ionization is an important atomic process in hot dense plasmas. It can affect the ionization balance, electron temperature, electron density, and level population in the plasma. In the past decade, theoretical and experimental studies have revealed that indirect processes can make significant contributions to the cross sections for electron impact ionization of positive ions. The most important indirect process is excitation of an inner-shell electron followed by Auger emission. Higher-order processes such as resonant excitation followed by sequential double Auger emission, can also contribute significantly. The contributions of excitation-autoionization and resonant excitation double autoionization (REDA) were included, in addition to the cross sections for direct ionization of a 3s electron. The calculations were carried out using the relativistic distorted wave methods and the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock model. For Kr 25+ , the total cross section is about 5 times the direct ionization cross section. For the Kr 24+ , the indirect contribution is about 2.5 times the direct ionization cross section. The REDA process produces many strong resonances and contributes about 20% to the average ionization cross section

  20. Coal liquefaction committee report for fiscal 1981; 1981 nendo sekitan ekika iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    For the assurance of smooth progress of coal technology development endeavors, the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) has installed coal technology development committees (general committee on coal technologies, coal liquefaction committee, plant materials committee, coal type survey committee, total system committee, and coal gasification committee). The coal liquefaction committee deliberates and evaluates liquefaction technology and propels forward smoothly the efforts to develop the technology. Under the coal liquefaction committee, there are four subcommittees, which are the 1st subcommittee (primary liquefaction subcommittee), 2nd subcommittee (solid/liquid separation subcommittee), 3rd subcommittee (secondary hydrogenation subcommittee), and the 4th subcommittee (brown coal liquefaction subcommittee). The 2nd and 3rd subcommittees deal with common tasks as they were studied in fiscal 1980. The 1st subcommittee incorporates into itself the old subcommittees that respectively worked on the three liquefaction processes (the direct hydrogenation process, the solvent extraction process, and the Solvolysis process), and is designed to provide a site for information exchange. A brown coal liquefaction committee is incorporated into the coal liquefaction committee as the 4th subcommittee. This report is a compilation of the agendas of the respective subcommittees of the coal liquefaction committee. (NEDO)

  1. Influence of clay content on wave-induced liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    of measurements were carried out: (1) pore-water pressure measurements across the soil depth and (2) water-surface elevation measurements. These measurements were synchronized with video recordings of the liquefaction process from the side. The ranges of the various quantities in the experiments were wave height...... of silt and clay was not liquefied. Sand may become prone to liquefaction with the introduction of clay, contrary to the general perception that this type of sediment is normally liquefaction-resistant under waves. For instance, sand with d50 50:4 mmwas liquefied with CC510:8%, whereas sand with d50 50...

  2. Report on coal refining and chemical equipment analogous to coal liquefaction equipment in fiscal 1981. Maintenance of equipment for direct desulfurization, indirect desulfurization, and fluidized catalytic cracking; 1981 nendo sekitan ekika ruiji seiyu seisei oyobi kagaku sochi ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. Chokudatsu, kandatsu, ryudo sesshoku bunkai sochi no hozen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-07-01

    This questionnaire survey was intended to investigate the actual state of maintenance such as materials used, conditions for use, anti-corrosion measures, and cases and handling of damage, concerning primary apparatus in the direct/indirect desulfurization equipment and the fluidized catalytic crackers, which are owned by each oil refinery and which are analogous to coal liquefaction equipment. The questionnaire was intended for the following equipment and apparatus, with the actual state of their maintenance investigated. 1. Questionnaire concerning maintenance of direct desulfurization (reactor, high temperature separation tank, material furnace tube, reactor exit piping, high temperature heat exchanger, low temperature heat exchanger, and pressure reducing valve), 2. Questionnaire concerning maintenance of indirect desulfurization (reactor, high temperature separation tank, material furnace tube, reactor exit piping, high temperature heat exchanger, low temperature heat exchanger, and pressure reducing valve), 3. Questionnaire concerning maintenance of fluidized catalytic cracker (reactor, regeneration tower, riser pipe, and fractionator bottom pump). The questionnaire this time was distributed to 27 domestic oil companies, with the reply received from 23 of them. The replies were summarized by each type of equipment. Shown at the back of the report were the cases of damage and handling in FCC's and reactors. (NEDO)

  3. Fiscal 1994 achievement report 1/2. Coal liquefaction technology development - Bituminous coal liquefaction technology development - Study for supporting pilot plant - Study using 1t/d PSU (Study of operation using PSU); 1994 nendo seika hokokusho 1/2. Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu - Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu - Pilot plant no shien kenkyu - 1t/d process support unit (PSU) ni yoru kenkyu (PSU ni yoru unten kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The operation of a 1t/d PSU (process support unit) was studied in the NEDOL coal liquefaction process. Modification was made, which involved the installation of a high-temperature/high-pressure sampling device for observing reaction and fluidity in the liquefaction reactor, a differential pressure measuring device, and a neutron attenuation-aided measuring device. Relative to coal injection, a 49.5-day and 49.3-day slurry injections were carried out using Tanito Harum coal, when impacts on the product yield and the operability of the unit were examined. A verification test was conducted for an improved hydrogenation catalyst, and liquefaction reactor characteristics were investigated. During a 19-day operation for the study of maintenance, newly installed equipment and devices were verified for function, and operating methods were probed into. In the survey of environments, characteristics were examined of the wastewater discharged from the Tanito Harum coal liquefaction process, and wastewater treatment methods were studied. The air, odor, and tar mist were examined with the PSU in operation, and the measured values were found to be below the management limits showing that its operation did not pose any problems relating to working environments. (NEDO)

  4. Residual Liquefaction under Standing Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study which deals with the residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves. It is shown that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although qualitatively similar, exhibits features different from that caused by progressive waves....... The experimental results show that the buildup of pore-water pressure and the resulting liquefaction first starts at the nodal section and spreads towards the antinodal section. The number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same...

  5. Studies in coal liquefaction with application to the SRC and related processes. Quarterly report, August 1981-October 1981. [Using model compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrer, A. R.; Guin, J. A.; Curtis, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    Model compound reactions were studied to evaluate the effects of mass transfer, solvent type, solvent blending, hydrogen partial pressure, temperature, reactant concentration, additive loading and its preparation, etc. Naphthalene hydrogenation and benzothiophene hydrodesulfurization were investigated under the conditions comparable to commercial coal liquefaction and related processes. Both of these reaction systems were observed to be surface reaction controlled under the reaction conditions used in this work. Certain aromatic compounds were observed to cause a reduction in the reaction rates of naphthalene and benzothiophene. Single stage coal dissolution was investigated using tetralin as a hydrogen donor solvent and a commercial cobalt-molybdate catalyst. A spinning basket system was developed to allow injection of the catalyst at a desired time in the reaction cycle. This catalyst injection technique proved to be reliable for the exploratory work done here. The degree of catalyst deactivation was rated by comparing the activities of the spent catalyst for model compound (naphthalene and cumene) reactivities relative to those of the fresh catalyst. No substantial reduction in deactivation was observed to result with delayed contacting of the catalyst with the coal-tetralin reaction mixture. The effect of reaction temperature on the initial rate of catalyst deactivation was also studied.

  6. Report on the coal group in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1988. Studies on a coal treatment technology in the initial process in liquefaction; 1989 nendo ekika shoki kotei ni okeru sekitan shori gijutsu no kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    This paper reports the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1988 in studies on the studies of the initial process in liquefaction. It is intended to identify the swelling phenomenon in coal particles in the coal slurry preparation and preheating processes, and change in the slurry viscosity associated with the heating. The slurry viscosity starts decreasing from around 300 degrees C at which the liquefying reaction begins, and decreases sharply at around 350 degrees C. Therefore, rise in the viscosity at temperatures below 300 degrees C is caused by factors other than the liquefying reaction. The rise starting at 100 to 120 degrees C is due to absorption of the solvent by coal. The rise starting at 210 to 260 degrees C requires further discussions. The equilibrium swelling ratio was measured on different types of coals by using the hydrogenated anthracene oil solvent. No coals swelled at 100 degrees C. The temperature of 200 degrees C largely divides coals into those swelling and those not swelling. At 300 degrees C, the coals were divided into those shrinking after largely swelling, those not swelling and those swelling monotonously. For consideration of the utilization as an auxiliary solvent, petroleum-based heavy oil was used to perform coal liquefaction to discuss effects of the solvent on the liquefaction rates. (NEDO)

  7. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction infratechnology and generic technology development: Final report, October 1, 1985 to December 31, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1987-06-29

    During the first year of its research program, the Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science has made significant progress in many areas of coal liquefaction and coal structure research. Research topics for which substantial progress has been made include integrated coal structure and liquefaction studies, investigation of differential liquefaction processes, development and application of sophisticated techniques for structural analysis, computer analysis of multivariate data, biodesulfurization of coal, catalysis studies, co-processing of coal and crude oil, coal dissolution and extraction processes, coal depolymerization, determination of the liquefaction characteristics of many US coals for use in a liquefaction database, and completion of a retrospective technology assessment for direct coal liquefaction. These and related topics are discussed in considerably more detail in the remainder of this report. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base.

  8. Interaction effects between sender and receiver processes in indirect transmission of Campylobacter jejuni between broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Bunnik Bram AD

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious diseases in plants, animals and humans are often transmitted indirectly between hosts (or between groups of hosts, i.e. via some route through the environment instead of via direct contacts between these hosts. Here we study indirect transmission experimentally, using transmission of Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni between spatially separated broilers as a model system. We distinguish three stages in the process of indirect transmission; (1 an infectious “sender” excretes the agent, after which (2 the agent is transported via some route to a susceptible “receiver”, and subsequently (3 the receiver becomes colonised by the agent. The role of the sender and receiver side (stage 1 and stage 3 was studied here by using acidification of the drinking water as a modulation mechanism. Results In the experiment one control group and three treatment groups were monitored for the presence of C. jejuni by taking daily cloacal swabs. The three treatments consisted of acidification of the drinking water of the inoculated animals (the senders, acidification of the drinking water of the susceptible animals (the receivers or acidification of the drinking water of both inoculated and susceptible animals. In the control group 12 animals got colonised out of a possible 40, in each treatment groups 3 animals out of a possible 40 were found colonised with C. jejuni. Conclusions The results of the experiments show a significant decrease in transmission rate (β between the control groups and treatment groups (p

  9. Two-stage liquefaction of a Spanish subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, M.T.; Fernandez, I.; Benito, A.M.; Cebolla, V.; Miranda, J.L.; Oelert, H.H. (Instituto de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain))

    1993-05-01

    A Spanish subbituminous coal has been processed in two-stage liquefaction in a non-integrated process. The first-stage coal liquefaction has been carried out in a continuous pilot plant in Germany at Clausthal Technical University at 400[degree]C, 20 MPa hydrogen pressure and anthracene oil as solvent. The second-stage coal liquefaction has been performed in continuous operation in a hydroprocessing unit at the Instituto de Carboquimica at 450[degree]C and 10 MPa hydrogen pressure, with two commercial catalysts: Harshaw HT-400E (Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]) and HT-500E (Ni-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]). The total conversion for the first-stage coal liquefaction was 75.41 wt% (coal d.a.f.), being 3.79 wt% gases, 2.58 wt% primary condensate and 69.04 wt% heavy liquids. The heteroatoms removal for the second-stage liquefaction was 97-99 wt% of S, 85-87 wt% of N and 93-100 wt% of O. The hydroprocessed liquids have about 70% of compounds with boiling point below 350[degree]C, and meet the sulphur and nitrogen specifications for refinery feedstocks. Liquids from two-stage coal liquefaction have been distilled, and the naphtha, kerosene and diesel fractions obtained have been characterized. 39 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Japan's New Sunshine Project. 1994 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This paper summarizes the report for fiscal 1994 on research and development related to coal liquefaction and gasification. In the research and development of coal liquefaction technologies, reports were given on research of liquefaction characteristics of different coals and liquefaction process thereof, and on research of catalysts for the coal liquefaction. In the research and development of coal gasification technologies, reports were given on fundamental studies on gasification characteristics of different coals. In the research and development of liquefaction technologies for bituminous coal, reports were given on design, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant with a capacity of 150 t/d, and the operation supporting studies on the pilot plant. In the fundamental research on the coal liquefaction process, reports were given on refining technologies and utilization of the refined materials, and studies on environment preservation in applying the coal liquefaction technologies. In the research on hydrogen manufacturing technologies by using the fundamental coal technology, reports were given on design, construction and operational studies of a pilot plant. In the research and development of the coal gasification technologies, reports were given on development of a jet-flow gasified coal electric power plant, selection of coals, and development of a data processing system. (NEDO)

  11. Japan's New Sunshine Project. 1994 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This paper summarizes the report for fiscal 1994 on research and development related to coal liquefaction and gasification. In the research and development of coal liquefaction technologies, reports were given on research of liquefaction characteristics of different coals and liquefaction process thereof, and on research of catalysts for the coal liquefaction. In the research and development of coal gasification technologies, reports were given on fundamental studies on gasification characteristics of different coals. In the research and development of liquefaction technologies for bituminous coal, reports were given on design, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant with a capacity of 150 t/d, and the operation supporting studies on the pilot plant. In the fundamental research on the coal liquefaction process, reports were given on refining technologies and utilization of the refined materials, and studies on environment preservation in applying the coal liquefaction technologies. In the research on hydrogen manufacturing technologies by using the fundamental coal technology, reports were given on design, construction and operational studies of a pilot plant. In the research and development of the coal gasification technologies, reports were given on development of a jet-flow gasified coal electric power plant, selection of coals, and development of a data processing system. (NEDO)

  12. Potential of soil liquefaction at Perlis, northern region of Malalysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazaly, Zuhayr Md; Rahim, Mustaqqim Abdul; Nasir, Mohamad Amzar Bin Mhd; Isa, Nur Fitriah; Zaki, Mohd Faiz Mohammad; Hassan, Zulkarnain Bin; Ismail, Zul-Atfi Bin

    2017-09-01

    Soil liquefaction is earthquake's secondary effect which could cause fatal damages and structures instability. Despite Malaysia been located in stable zone of Pacific Ring of Fire, few significant surrounded quakes like Sumatra-Andaman earthquake had prompted Malaysian's public concern, especially in Perlis area, on local seismic resistant. Hence, this research presents the analysis result of liquefaction potential of the soils, as the secondary effect of earthquake, within Perlis, northern region of Malaysia; the next strong and sustainable metropolis by using semi-empirical procedures introduced by Seed and Idriss. The study consists of two stages which were determination of the local geological and geotechnical site conditions within Perlis and analysis of soil liquefaction susceptibility by using various methods and liquefaction potential by using Simplified Procedure developed by Seed and Idriss on stress approach. There were consist of four phases implemented in order to achieve the objectives targeted for the study after problem being identified. Firstly, a comprehensive review of literature on liquefaction at Perlis was carried out. Second phase was data collection process that includes collection of Site Investigation (SI) report. Thirdly, data analysis was carried out by utilizing suitable method. The final phase was to draw conclusion and recommendation for this study. It can be concluded that the overall Perlis due to earthquake moment magnitude below 7.5 has no potential to soil liquefaction. However, with the range of liquefaction potential of 1.60 to 5.64 in Kuala Perlis area, it is liquefiable. The development of liquefaction severity map of Perlis, Malaysia in this research, may be used by others as a reference for seismic design and standard safety measures as well as for further research work.

  13. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Davis, Ryan; Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  14. Interaction effects between sender and receiver processes in indirect transmission of Campylobacter jejuni between broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bunnik, Bram A D; Hagenaars, Thomas J; Bolder, Nico M; Nodelijk, Gonnie; de Jong, Mart C M

    2012-07-25

    Infectious diseases in plants, animals and humans are often transmitted indirectly between hosts (or between groups of hosts), i.e. via some route through the environment instead of via direct contacts between these hosts. Here we study indirect transmission experimentally, using transmission of Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) between spatially separated broilers as a model system. We distinguish three stages in the process of indirect transmission; (1) an infectious "sender" excretes the agent, after which (2) the agent is transported via some route to a susceptible "receiver", and subsequently (3) the receiver becomes colonised by the agent. The role of the sender and receiver side (stage 1 and stage 3) was studied here by using acidification of the drinking water as a modulation mechanism. In the experiment one control group and three treatment groups were monitored for the presence of C. jejuni by taking daily cloacal swabs. The three treatments consisted of acidification of the drinking water of the inoculated animals (the senders), acidification of the drinking water of the susceptible animals (the receivers) or acidification of the drinking water of both inoculated and susceptible animals. In the control group 12 animals got colonised out of a possible 40, in each treatment groups 3 animals out of a possible 40 were found colonised with C. jejuni. The results of the experiments show a significant decrease in transmission rate (β) between the control groups and treatment groups (p water (p = 0.01). This negative interaction effect could be due to selection of bacteria already at the sender side thereby diminishing the effect of acidification at the receiver side.

  15. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH ON NOVEL COAL LIQUEFACTION CONCEPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1998-11-30

    The report presents a summary the work performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-95PC95050. Investigations performed under Task 4--Integrated Flow Sheet Testing are detailed. In this program, a novel direct coal liquefaction technology was investigated by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates. The process concept explored consists of a first-stage coal dissolution step in which the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second stage, the products are catalytically upgraded to refinery feedstocks. Integrated first-stage and solids-separation steps were used to prepare feedstocks for second-stage catalytic upgrading. An engineering and economic evaluation was conducted concurrently with experimental work throughout the program. Approaches to reduce costs for a conceptual commercial plant were recommended at the conclusion of Task 3. These approaches were investigated in Task 4. The economic analysis of the process as it was defined at the conclusion of Task 4, indicates that the production of refined product (gasoline) via this novel direct liquefaction technology is higher than the cost associated with conventional two-stage liquefaction technologies.

  16. Coal gasification by indirect heating in a single moving bed reactor: Process development & simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Akhlas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the development and simulation of a new coal gasification process with indirect heat supply is performed. In this way, the need of pure oxygen production as in a conventional gasification process is avoided. The feasibility and energetic self-sufficiency of the proposed processes are addressed. To avoid the need of Air Separation Unit, the heat required by gasification reactions is supplied by the combustion flue gases, and transferred to the reacting mixture through a bayonet heat exchanger installed inside the gasifier. Two alternatives for the flue gas generation have been investigated and compared. The proposed processes are modeled using chemical kinetics validated on experimental gasification data by means of a standard process simulator (Aspen PlusTM, integrated with a spreadsheet for the modeling of a special type of heat exchanger. Simulation results are presented and discussed for proposed integrated process schemes. It is shown that they do not need external energy supply and ensure overall efficiencies comparable to conventional processes while producing syngas with lower content of carbon dioxide.

  17. Brain activation during direct and indirect processing of positive and negative words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, Thomas; Sauer, Andreas; Miltner, Wolfgang H R

    2011-09-12

    The effects of task conditions on brain activation to emotional stimuli are poorly understood. In this event-related fMRI study, brain activation to negative and positive words (matched for arousal) and neutral words was investigated under two task conditions. Subjects either had to attend to the emotional meaning (direct task) or to non-emotional features of the words (indirect task). Regardless of task, positive vs. negative words led to increased activation in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex, while negative vs. positive words induced increased activation of the insula. Compared to neutral words, all emotional words were associated with increased activation of the amygdala. Finally, the direct condition, as compared to the indirect condition, led to enhanced activation to emotional vs. neutral words in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. These results suggest valence and arousal dependent brain activation patterns that are partially modulated by participants' processing mode of the emotional stimuli. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Characteristics estimation of coal liquefaction residue; Sekitan ekika zansa seijo no suisan ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itonaga, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Okada, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The paper studied a possibility of estimating characteristics of coal liquefaction residue from liquefaction conditions in the case of fixing coal kind in the NEDOL process coal liquefaction PSU. Wyoming coal was used for the study, and the already proposed simplified liquefaction reaction models were used. Among material balances explained by the models, those of asphaltene, preasphaltene, THF insoluble matters are concerned with residue composition. Ash content is separately calculated from ash balance. Reaction velocity constants of simplified liquefaction reaction models which influence the residue composition were obtained by the multiple regression method from experimental results in the past. The estimation expression of residue viscosity was introduced from residue ash/composition. When the residue composition is estimated by the model from liquefaction conditions, and the residue viscosity is obtained using it, the higher the liquefaction temperature is, the higher the residue viscosity is. The result obtained well agreed the measuring result. The simplified liquefaction model of a certain coal kind has been established, and characteristics of residue can be estimated even at liquefaction conditions which have never been experienced before if there is a certain amount of the accumulated data on residue composition/characteristics. 4 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. FY 1992 report on the Coal Liquefaction Committee; 1992 nendo sekitan ekika iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    The paper reported activities of the Coal Liquefaction Committee in FY 1992. In the 1st committee meeting, report/discussion were made of the summary of the FY 1992 R and D plan on the bituminous coal liquefaction, brown coal liquefaction and the common/basic technology. Further, the following were reported as topics: results of the operation by bituminous coal liquefaction PSU and small equipment, state of arrangement of the results of the brown coal liquefaction project, making of the basic policy for development of the common/basic technology, construction of package of coal liquefaction technology. In the 2nd committee meeting, the summary of the results of the FY 1992 R and D was reported/discussed. As to the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology, study using pilot plant and support study were reported. Concerning the development of brown coal liquefaction technology, study using a 50t/d pilot plant and complementary study of operation. Relating to the development of the common/basic technology, trial manufacture/development of plant equipment/materials, survey of selection of coal kind, etc. The paper also reported a scheme on the evaluation of efficiency of the brown coal liquefaction process. (NEDO)

  20. Secondary liquefaction in ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase.......The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase....

  1. Magnetic refrigerator for hydrogen liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numazawa, T [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan); Kamlya, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka (Japan); Utaki, T. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); Matsumoto, K. [Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    This paper reviews the development status of magnetic refrigeration system for hydrogen liquefaction. There is no doubt that hydrogen is one of most important energy sources in the near future. In particular, liquid hydrogen can be utilized for infrastructure construction consisting of storage and transportation. Liquid hydrogen is in cryogenic temperatures and therefore high efficient liquefaction method must be studied. Magnetic refrigeration which uses the magneto-caloric effect has potential to realize not only the higher liquefaction efficiency > 50 %, but also to be environmentally friendly and cost effective. Our hydrogen magnetic refrigeration system consists of Carnot cycle for liquefaction stage and AMR (active magnetic regenerator) cycle for precooling stages. For the Carnot cycle, we develop the high efficient system > 80 % liquefaction efficiency by using the heat pipe. For the AMR cycle, we studied two kinds of displacer systems, which transferred the working fluid. We confirmed the AMR effect with the cooling temperature span of 12 K for 1.8 T of the magnetic field and 6 second of the cycle. By using the simulation, we estimate the total efficiency of the hydrogen liquefaction plant for 10 kg/day. A FOM of 0.47 is obtained in the magnetic refrigeration system operation temperature between 20 K and 77 K including LN2 work input.

  2. Indirect Transportation Cost in the border crossing process: The United States–Mexico trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Obed Figueroa Ortiz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a Social Accounting Matrix as database, a Computable General Equilibrium model is implemented in order to estimate the Indirect Transportations Costs (ITC present in the border crossing for the U.S.–Mexico bilateral trade. Here, an “iceberg–type” transportation function is assumed to determine the amount of loss that must be faced as a result of border crossing process through the ports of entry existing between the two countries. The study period covers annual data from 1995 to 2009 allowing the analysis of the trend of these costs considering the trade liberalisation that is experienced. Results show that the ITC have experienced a decrease of 12% during the period.Test

  3. BP and NCB to collaborate in coal liquefaction study. [Supercritical gas extraction; dissolution in anthracene oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-02-17

    British Petroleum and NCB are collaborating in a two year study of coal liquefaction which could result in a demonstration plant being built. The two liquefaction techniques which the NCB is developing at present are supercritical extraction, and dissolution in anthracene oil. A disadvantage of the latter process is that high grade coking coals must be used.

  4. Dynamic dielectric properties of a wood liquefaction system using polyethylene glycol and glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengchao Zhou; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Bo Cai; Chung-Yun Hse; Hui Pan

    2017-01-01

    Microwave-assisted liquefaction has shown potential for rapid thermal processing of lignocellulosic biomass. The efficiency of microwave heating depends largely on the dielectric properties of the materials being heated. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamic interactions between microwave energy and the reaction system during the liquefaction of a...

  5. The time course of indirect moral judgment in gossip processing modulated by different agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaozhe; Jiao, Can; Cui, Fang; Chen, Qingfei; Li, Peng; Li, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have investigated personal moral violations with different references (i.e., the protagonists in moral scenarios are the participants themselves or unknown other individuals). However, the roles of various agents in moral judgments have remained unclear. In the present study, ERPs were used to investigate moral judgments when the participants viewed gossip that described (im)moral behaviors committed by different agents (self, friend, celebrity). The results demonstrate that the P2 and late positive component (LPC) correspond to two successive processes of indirect moral judgment when individuals process gossip. Specifically, the P2 amplitude in the celebrity condition was more sensitive in distinguishing immoral behaviors from moral behaviors than that in the other two conditions, whereas the moral valence effect on the LPC was predominately driven by the self-reference. These findings expand our current understanding of moral judgments in a gossip evaluation task and demonstrate that the early processing of gossip depends on both the entertainment value of the agent and the salience of moral behaviors. Processing in the later stage reflects reactions to intensified affective stimuli, or reflects cognitive effort that was required to resolve the conflict between negative gossip about self and the self-positivity bias. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae's for bio oil production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Reddy, Harvind; Deng, Shuguang

    process water for algae cultivation. GC-MS, elemental analyzer, calorimeter and nutrient analysis were used to analyze bio-crude, lipid-extracted algae and water samples produced in the hydrothermal liquefaction process. The highest bio-oil yield of 46% was obtained on Nannochloropsis salina at 310 °C...... and 107 bar. For Spirulina platensis algae sample, the highest bio-oil yield is 38% at 350 °C and 195 bar. Preliminary data also indicate that a lipid-extracted algae solid residue sample obtained in the hydrothermal liquefaction process contains a high level of proteins...

  7. Coal liquefaction: A research and development needs assessment: Final report, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, H.D.; Burke, F.P.; Chao, K.C.; Davis, B.H.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Klier, K.; Kruse, C.W.; Larsen, J.W.; Lumpkin, R.E.; McIlwain, M.E.; Wender, I.; Stewart, N.

    1989-03-01

    Volume II of this report on an assessment of research needs for coal liquefaction contains reviews of the five liquefaction technologies---direct, indirect, pyrolysis, coprocessing, and bioconversion. These reviews are not meant to be encyclopedic; several outstanding reviews of liquefaction have appeared in recent years and the reader is referred to these whenever applicable. Instead, these chapters contain reviews of selected topics that serve to support the panel's recommendations or to illustrate recent accomplishments, work in progress, or areas of major research interest. At the beginning of each of these chapters is a brief introduction and a summary of the most important research recommendations brought out during the panel discussions and supported by the material presented in the review. A review of liquefaction developments outside the US is included. 594 refs., 100 figs., 60 tabs.

  8. Interaction effects between sender and receiver processes in indirect transmission of Campylobacter jejuni between broilers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunnik, van B.A.D.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Bolder, N.M.; Nodelijk, G.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Infectious diseases in plants, animals and humans are often transmitted indirectly between hosts (or between groups of hosts), i.e. via some route through the environment instead of via direct contacts between these hosts. Here we study indirect transmission experimentally, using

  9. The direct liquefaction proof of concept program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Lee, L.K.; Pradhan, V.R.; Stalzer, R.H. [New York & Puritan Avenues, Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The goal of the Proof of Concept (POC) Program is to develop Direct Coal Liquefaction and associated transitional technologies towards commercial readiness for economically producing premium liquid fuels from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. The program focuses on developing the two-stage liquefaction (TSL) process by utilizing geographically strategic feedstocks, commercially feasible catalysts, new prototype equipment, and testing co-processing or alternate feedstocks and improved process configurations. Other high priority objectives include dispersed catalyst studies, demonstrating low rank coal liquefaction without solids deposition, improving distillate yields on a unit reactor volume basis, demonstrating ebullated bed operations while obtaining scale-up data, demonstrating optimum catalyst consumption using new concepts (e.g. regeneration, cascading), producing premium products through on-line hydrotreating, demonstrating improved hydrogen utilization for low rank coals using novel heteroatom removal methods, defining and demonstrating two-stage product properties for upgrading; demonstrating efficient and economic solid separation methods, examining the merits of integrated coal cleaning, demonstrating co-processing, studying interactions between the preheater and first and second-stage reactors, improving process operability by testing and incorporating advanced equipment and instrumentation, and demonstrating operation with alternate coal feedstocks. During the past two years major PDU Proof of Concept runs were completed. POC-1 with Illinois No. 6 coal and POC-2 with Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal. Results from these operations are continuing under review and the products are being further refined and upgraded. This paper will update the results from these operations and discuss future plans for the POC program.

  10. A modified indirect mathematical model for evaluation of ethanol production efficiency in industrial-scale continuous fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canseco Grellet, M A; Castagnaro, A; Dantur, K I; De Boeck, G; Ahmed, P M; Cárdenas, G J; Welin, B; Ruiz, R M

    2016-10-01

    To calculate fermentation efficiency in a continuous ethanol production process, we aimed to develop a robust mathematical method based on the analysis of metabolic by-product formation. This method is in contrast to the traditional way of calculating ethanol fermentation efficiency, where the ratio between the ethanol produced and the sugar consumed is expressed as a percentage of the theoretical conversion yield. Comparison between the two methods, at industrial scale and in sensitivity studies, showed that the indirect method was more robust and gave slightly higher fermentation efficiency values, although fermentation efficiency of the industrial process was found to be low (~75%). The traditional calculation method is simpler than the indirect method as it only requires a few chemical determinations in samples collected. However, a minor error in any measured parameter will have an important impact on the calculated efficiency. In contrast, the indirect method of calculation requires a greater number of determinations but is much more robust since an error in any parameter will only have a minor effect on the fermentation efficiency value. The application of the indirect calculation methodology in order to evaluate the real situation of the process and to reach an optimum fermentation yield for an industrial-scale ethanol production is recommended. Once a high fermentation yield has been reached the traditional method should be used to maintain the control of the process. Upon detection of lower yields in an optimized process the indirect method should be employed as it permits a more accurate diagnosis of causes of yield losses in order to correct the problem rapidly. The low fermentation efficiency obtained in this study shows an urgent need for industrial process optimization where the indirect calculation methodology will be an important tool to determine process losses. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw to bio-crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Rosendahl, Lasse; Toor, Saqib

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of barley straw with K2CO3 at different temperatures (280–400 C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions; the aqueous phase as a co-product from this process was recycled to explore the feasibility of implementing wastewater reuse for bio...

  12. Report on results for fiscal 1997 on development of coal liquefaction technology . Development of liquefaction base technology (studies on development and internationalization of environmentally benign coal liquefaction technology); 1997 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu seika hokokusho. Ekika kiban gijutsu no kaihatsu (kankyo chowagata sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu oyobi kokusaika kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The research objective is the development of environmentally benign coal liquefaction technology and the studies on internationalization of coal liquefaction technology. Implemented for the former are (1) research on improvement and rationalization of liquefaction process and (2) research on advancement of liquefaction base technology. In (1), studies were made on in-oil preprocessing technology and scale suppressing measures for the purpose of obtaining reform/high grade of coal, and on improvement of liquefied oil collecting ratio, sophistication of coal slurry and attainment of light oil/high grade from liquefied crude oil for the purpose of optimizing liquefaction reactive conditions and improving a solvent. In (2), in developing high activity/high dispersion type new catalysts, catalytic sufurization behavior and activity manifestation mechanism were explored, as were iron hydroxide based iron ore properties and liquefaction reactive characteristics. The initial reactive characteristics of liquefaction for example were investigated for the purpose of collecting basic data for expanding kinds of coal. In order to attain the latter objective of the research, a feasibility study of liquefaction location was conducted, as were the investigation including sampling of iron ore for catalytic material and the investigation of coal gasification technology. After the completion of the Australian brown coal liquefaction project, the development of the coal liquefaction technology commenced in fiscal 1994 produced a number of useful records and ended in 1997. (NEDO)

  13. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  14. Liquefaction resistance of calcareous sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval Vallejo, Eimar

    2012-01-01

    Calcareous sands are unique in terms of their origin, mineralogy, shape, fragility and intra particle porosity. This article presents results from an experimental program carried out to study the liquefaction resistance of a calcareous sand retrieved from Cabo Rojo at Puerto Rico. The experimental program included mineralogical characterization, index properties, and undrained cyclic triaxial tests on isotropically consolidated reconstituted samples. Due to the large variation in the calcareous sand properties, results are compared with previous researches carried out on other calcareous sands around the world. Results showed a wide range in the liquefaction resistance of the studied calcareous sands. Cabo Rojo sand experienced greater liquefaction resistance than most of the calcareous sands used for comparison. Important differences in the excess pore pressure generation characteristics were also found.

  15. Kinetics of coal liquefaction during heating-up and isothermal stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xian Li; Haoquan Hu; Shengwei Zhu; Shuxun Hu; Bo Wu; Meng Meng [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China). Institute of Coal Chemical Engineering

    2008-04-15

    Direct liquefaction of Shenhua bituminous coal was carried out in a 500 ml autoclave with iron catalyst and coal liquefaction cycle-oil as solvent at initial hydrogen of 8.0 MPa, residence time of 0-90 min. To investigate the liquefaction kinetics, a model for heating-up and isothermal stages was developed to estimate the rate constants of both stages. In the model, the coal was divided into three parts, easy reactive part, hard reactive part and unreactive part, and four kinetic constants were used to describe the reaction mechanism. The results showed that the model is valid for both heating-up and isothermal stages of liquefaction perfectly. The rate-controlled process for coal liquefaction is the reaction of preasphaltene plus asphaltene (PAA) to oil plus gas (O + G). The upper-limiting conversion of isothermal stage was estimated by the kinetic calculation. 21 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Automated Processing and Evaluation of Anti-Nuclear Antibody Indirect Immunofluorescence Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricchiuti, Vincent; Adams, Joseph; Hardy, Donna J; Katayev, Alexander; Fleming, James K

    2018-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) is considered by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and the international consensus on ANA patterns (ICAP) the gold standard for the screening of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA). As conventional IIF is labor intensive, time-consuming, subjective, and poorly standardized, there have been ongoing efforts to improve the standardization of reagents and to develop automated platforms for assay incubation, microscopy, and evaluation. In this study, the workflow and performance characteristics of a fully automated ANA IIF system (Sprinter XL, EUROPattern Suite, IFA 40: HEp-20-10 cells) were compared to a manual approach using visual microscopy with a filter device for single-well titration and to technologist reading. The Sprinter/EUROPattern system enabled the processing of large daily workload cohorts in less than 8 h and the reduction of labor hands-on time by more than 4 h. Regarding the discrimination of positive from negative samples, the overall agreement of the EUROPattern software with technologist reading was higher (95.6%) than when compared to the current method (89.4%). Moreover, the software was consistent with technologist reading in 80.6-97.5% of patterns and 71.0-93.8% of titers. In conclusion, the Sprinter/EUROPattern system provides substantial labor savings and good concordance with technologist ANA IIF microscopy, thus increasing standardization, laboratory efficiency, and removing subjectivity.

  17. Automated Processing and Evaluation of Anti-Nuclear Antibody Indirect Immunofluorescence Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Ricchiuti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF is considered by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR and the international consensus on ANA patterns (ICAP the gold standard for the screening of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA. As conventional IIF is labor intensive, time-consuming, subjective, and poorly standardized, there have been ongoing efforts to improve the standardization of reagents and to develop automated platforms for assay incubation, microscopy, and evaluation. In this study, the workflow and performance characteristics of a fully automated ANA IIF system (Sprinter XL, EUROPattern Suite, IFA 40: HEp-20-10 cells were compared to a manual approach using visual microscopy with a filter device for single-well titration and to technologist reading. The Sprinter/EUROPattern system enabled the processing of large daily workload cohorts in less than 8 h and the reduction of labor hands-on time by more than 4 h. Regarding the discrimination of positive from negative samples, the overall agreement of the EUROPattern software with technologist reading was higher (95.6% than when compared to the current method (89.4%. Moreover, the software was consistent with technologist reading in 80.6–97.5% of patterns and 71.0–93.8% of titers. In conclusion, the Sprinter/EUROPattern system provides substantial labor savings and good concordance with technologist ANA IIF microscopy, thus increasing standardization, laboratory efficiency, and removing subjectivity.

  18. The sequence of sediment behaviour during wave-induced liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Hatipoglu, Figen; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    to be in agreement with recent centrifuge wave-tank experiments. As for the final stage of the sequence of processes (formation of ripples), the ripple steepness (normalized with the angle of repose) for sediment with liquefaction history is found to be the same as that in sediment with no liquefaction history.......This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the complete sequence of sediment behaviour beneath progressive waves. The sediment was silty with d(50) = 0.060 mm. Two kinds of measurements were carried out: pore-water pressure measurements (across the sediment depth...... of liquefaction and compaction fronts in the sediment and (iii) the characteristics of the orbital motion of the liquefied sediment including the motion of the interface between the water body and the sediment. The ranges of the various quantities in the tests were: wave height, H = 9-17 cm, wave period, T = 1...

  19. Case studies on direct liquefaction of low rank Wyoming coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, P.; Kramer, S.J.; Poddar, S.K. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Previous Studies have developed process designs, costs, and economics for the direct liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 and Wyoming Black Thunder coals at mine-mouth plants. This investigation concerns two case studies related to the liquefaction of Wyoming Black Thunder coal. The first study showed that reducing the coal liquefaction reactor design pressure from 3300 to 1000 psig could reduce the crude oil equivalent price by 2.1 $/bbl provided equivalent performing catalysts can be developed. The second one showed that incentives may exist for locating a facility that liquifies Wyoming coal on the Gulf Coast because of lower construction costs and higher labor productivity. These incentives are dependent upon the relative values of the cost of shipping the coal to the Gulf Coast and the increased product revenues that may be obtained by distributing the liquid products among several nearby refineries.

  20. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  1. Transport fuels from two-stage coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, A.; Cebolla, V.; Fernandez, I.; Martinez, M.T.; Miranda, J.L.; Oelert, H.; Prado, J.G. (Instituto de Carboquimica CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain))

    1994-03-01

    Four Spanish lignites and their vitrinite concentrates were evaluated for coal liquefaction. Correlationships between the content of vitrinite and conversion in direct liquefaction were observed for the lignites but not for the vitrinite concentrates. The most reactive of the four coals was processed in two-stage liquefaction at a higher scale. First-stage coal liquefaction was carried out in a continuous unit at Clausthal University at a temperature of 400[degree]C at 20 MPa hydrogen pressure and with anthracene oil as a solvent. The coal conversion obtained was 75.41% being 3.79% gases, 2.58% primary condensate and 69.04% heavy liquids. A hydroprocessing unit was built at the Instituto de Carboquimica for the second-stage coal liquefaction. Whole and deasphalted liquids from the first-stage liquefaction were processed at 450[degree]C and 10 MPa hydrogen pressure, with two commercial catalysts: Harshaw HT-400E (Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]) and HT-500E (Ni-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]). The effects of liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV), temperature, gas/liquid ratio and catalyst on the heteroatom liquids, and levels of 5 ppm of nitrogen and 52 ppm of sulphur were reached at 450[degree]C, 10 MPa hydrogen pressure, 0.08 kg H[sub 2]/kg feedstock and with Harshaw HT-500E catalyst. The liquids obtained were hydroprocessed again at 420[degree]C, 10 MPa hydrogen pressure and 0.06 kg H[sub 2]/kg feedstock to hydrogenate the aromatic structures. In these conditions, the aromaticity was reduced considerably, and 39% of naphthas and 35% of kerosene fractions were obtained. 18 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Direct liquefaction proof-of-concept facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred G. Comolli; Peizheng Zhou; HTI Staff

    2000-01-01

    The main objective of the U.S. DOE, Office of Fossil Energy, is to ensure the US a secure energy supply at an affordable price. An integral part of this program was the demonstration of fully developed coal liquefaction processes that could be implemented if market and supply considerations so required, Demonstration of the technology, even if not commercialized, provides a security factor for the country if it is known that the coal to liquid processes are proven and readily available. Direct liquefaction breaks down and rearranges complex hydrocarbon molecules from coal, adds hydrogen, and cracks the large molecules to those in the fuel range, removes hetero-atoms and gives the liquids characteristics comparable to petroleum derived fuels. The current processes being scaled and demonstrated are based on two reactor stages that increase conversion efficiency and improve quality by providing the flexibility to adjust process conditions to accommodate favorable reactions. The first stage conditions promote hydrogenation and some oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen removal. The second stage hydrocracks and speeds the conversion to liquids while removing the remaining sulfur and nitrogen. A third hydrotreatment stage can be used to upgrade the liquids to clean specification fuels.

  3. Survey on development of brown coal liquefaction techniques; Kattan ekika gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-09-01

    Described herein are results of literature survey on brown coal liquefaction reactions and elementary techniques. Liquefaction of brown coal in the presence of CO and steam, or CO, H{sub 2} and steam has been investigated. It is not clear by the literature survey whether it is superior to the normal process which uses hydrogen. Brown coal contains moisture at high contents, and the drying techniques are necessary to be developed for its liquefaction. The future coal liquefaction plant will be much larger than the past one, and there are a number of problems to be solved, such as those involved in the designs of large-sized high-pressure slurry pumps, heat exchangers and preheaters. It is also necessary to develop the materials of and production techniques for large reactors which are serviceable under severe conditions. The solid-liquid separation for liquefaction products involves a number of the elementary techniques characteristic of coal liquefaction processes, and needs many technological developments. The one-stage brown coal liquefaction process is compared with the two-stage process for the secondary hydrogenation of SCR, but no clear conclusions are reached. (NEDO)

  4. Fundamental studies of coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The authors have examined the pyrolysis of Argonne samples of Wyodak and Illinois No. 6 coal in argon, undecane, Tetralin, and water. The effects of the pyrolysis on individual particles of coal were monitored visually in a cell with diamond windows capable of operation to temperature and pressures in excess of 500{degrees}C and 3000 psi. The changes in the particles from ambient to 460{degrees}C were recorded in real time on video tape, and images were then taken from the tape record and analyzed. The study showed that in argon both coals developed tars at 350{degrees}-370{degrees}C. The tars then quickly evaporated, leaving core particles remarkably similar in size and shape to the initial particles. These observations suggest that coal does not melt nor become fully liquid when heated. Nor does the softened coal undergo crosslinking to generate coke. Rather the simple loss of volatiles leaves behind the core residue as coke. Contrary to the common view, there appears to be no link between the bond-breaking processes yielding tar and the interaction of the coal with H-donors leading to liquefaction. Water as a medium was surprising in its effect. Both coals began to shrink at 300{degrees}-350{degrees}C, with the effect appearing to be more of an erosion rather than a uniform loss of substance as seen in Tetralin. The Wyodak continued to shrink to 460{degrees}C to about half its initial size. With the Illinois No. 6 coal, however, the process reversed at around 420{degrees}C, and the particles appeared to grow with the evolution of a tar, continuing to 460{degrees}C. The authors submit that this final observation is evidence for hydrothermal synthesis of hydrocarbons at these conditions.

  5. Summary of FY 1980 results of Sunshine Project. Development of coal liquefaction techniques; 1980 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sunshine keikaku itaku kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 3 R and D themes for coal liquefaction techniques, pursued by the Sunshine Project; (1) development of solvent extraction type liquefaction plant, and brown coal liquefaction technique R and D demonstration surveys, (2) development of solvolysis type liquefaction plant, and (3) development of direct hydrogenation type liquefaction plant. For the theme (1), the 1 T/D test plant, solid/liquid separator and small-size continuous settlement separator are constructed, and partly completed. The elementary studies include solvent extraction type liquefaction process, materials for coal liquefaction plant and solid/liquid separation. Australia's Victoria brown coal and Chinese coal are studied to clarify the possible problems involved in liquefaction of these coal species for commercialization of the liquefaction techniques in the early stage. The elementary techniques studied include dehydration of brown coal, milling at high temperature in oil, de-ashing, and secondary and primary hydrogenation. For the theme (2), the 1 T/D plant is inspected and maintained to clarify the problems involved in the continuous operation, revamped and repaired as necessary, given preventive maintenance, and tested for operability confirmation. The elementary studies include solvolysis type liquefaction process, scale-up, hydrogenation plant for solvolysis pitch. For the item (3), the 2.4 T/D test plant is constructed, and the elementary studies are conducted, for, e.g., liquefaction reactions in the presence of an iron-based catalyst. (NEDO)

  6. Summary of FY 1980 results of Sunshine Project. Development of coal liquefaction techniques; 1980 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sunshine keikaku itaku kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of the 3 R and D themes for coal liquefaction techniques, pursued by the Sunshine Project; (1) development of solvent extraction type liquefaction plant, and brown coal liquefaction technique R and D demonstration surveys, (2) development of solvolysis type liquefaction plant, and (3) development of direct hydrogenation type liquefaction plant. For the theme (1), the 1 T/D test plant, solid/liquid separator and small-size continuous settlement separator are constructed, and partly completed. The elementary studies include solvent extraction type liquefaction process, materials for coal liquefaction plant and solid/liquid separation. Australia's Victoria brown coal and Chinese coal are studied to clarify the possible problems involved in liquefaction of these coal species for commercialization of the liquefaction techniques in the early stage. The elementary techniques studied include dehydration of brown coal, milling at high temperature in oil, de-ashing, and secondary and primary hydrogenation. For the theme (2), the 1 T/D plant is inspected and maintained to clarify the problems involved in the continuous operation, revamped and repaired as necessary, given preventive maintenance, and tested for operability confirmation. The elementary studies include solvolysis type liquefaction process, scale-up, hydrogenation plant for solvolysis pitch. For the item (3), the 2.4 T/D test plant is constructed, and the elementary studies are conducted, for, e.g., liquefaction reactions in the presence of an iron-based catalyst. (NEDO)

  7. EARTHQUAKE INDUCED LIQUEFACTION ANALYSIS OF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    liquefaction analysis of Tendaho earth-fill dam, which is part ... sugar cane plantation in an area of 60,000 hectares. The project .... The model is prepared using the QUAKE/W program for the ..... Geo-slope International, Ltd., Canada. Dynamic ...

  8. The making of Andersen’s liquefaction chart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Andersen’s chart (Andersen & Berre, 1999) is a graphical method of observing cyclic soil response. It allows observing soil response to various stress amplitudes that can lead to liquefaction, excess plastic deformation stabilizing soil response.The process of obtaining the original chart has been...

  9. Report for fiscal 1995 by basic liquefaction technology subcommittee; 1995 nendo ekika kiban gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Delivered at the 1st meeting are a report on the fiscal 1995 research plan and an interim report, involving the use of coal-derived oils, research on refining technology using a PDU (process developing unit), reforming technology and petroleum blending technology for coal-derived oils, development of new reforming catalysts, technology of heterocompound separation, and the development of applications. Reported in relation with the development of environmentally friendly coal liquefaction technology are the study of coal liquefaction conditions, study of the upgrading of basic liquefaction techniques for the improvement and rationalization of the liquefaction process, and a project of liquefaction technology internationalization. A report is also given on a liquefaction catalyst study meeting. At the 2nd meeting, reports are delivered on the development of environmentally friendly coal liquefaction technology, including a briefing on the situation in general, designing of highly active catalysts, elucidation of the mechanism of emergence of activity, achievement of the marginal yield of coal-derived oils, and the properties of catalyst attached to coal. Delivered in relation with the use of coal-derived oils and technology for their refining are a briefing on the situation in general and reports on the blockup to occur in the naphtha fraction process and measures to counter the problem, control of the metamorphosis of active metals in reaction, heterocompound separation technology, and the development of applications. (NEDO)

  10. The indirect effect of emotion dysregulation in terms of negative affect and smoking-related cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adrienne L; McLeish, Alison C

    2016-02-01

    Although negative affect is associated with a number of smoking-related cognitive processes, the mechanisms underlying these associations have yet to be examined. The current study sought to examine the indirect effect of emotion regulation difficulties in terms of the association between negative affect and smoking-related cognitive processes (internal barriers to cessation, negative affect reduction smoking motives, negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies). Participants were 126 daily cigarette smokers (70.4% male, Mage=36.5years, SD=13.0; 69.8% Caucasian) who smoked an average of 18.5 (SD=8.7) cigarettes per day and reported moderate nicotine dependence. Formal mediation analyses were conducted using PROCESS to examine the indirect effect of negative affect on internal barriers to cessation and negative affect reduction smoking motives and outcome expectancies through emotion regulation difficulties. After accounting for the effects of gender, daily smoking rate, and anxiety sensitivity, negative affect was indirectly related to internal barriers to cessation and negative affect reduction smoking motives through emotion regulation difficulties. There was no significant indirect effect for negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies. These findings suggest that greater negative affect is associated with a desire to smoke to reduce this negative affect and perceptions that quitting smoking will be difficult due to negative emotions because of greater difficulties managing these negative emotions. Thus, emotion regulation difficulties may be an important target for smoking cessation interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Deactivation by carbon of iron catalysts for indirect liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, C.H.

    1990-10-11

    This report describes recent progress in a fundamental, three-year investigation of carbon formation and its effects on the activity and selectivity of promoted iron catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, the objectives of which are: determine rates and mechanisms of carbon deactivation of unsupported Fe and Fe/K catalysts during CO hydrogenation over a range of CO concentrations, CO:H{sub 2} ratios, and temperatures; model the rates of deactivation of the same catalysts in fixed-bed reactors. During the thirteenth quarter design of software for a computer-automated reactor system to be used in the kinetic and deactivation studies was continued. Further progress was made toward the completion of the control language, control routines, and software for operating this system. Progress was also made on the testing of the system hardware and software. H{sub 2} chemisorption capacities and activity selectivity data were also measured for three iron catalysts promoted with 1% alumina. 47 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Economically viable large-scale hydrogen liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardella, U.; Decker, L.; Klein, H.

    2017-02-01

    The liquid hydrogen demand, particularly driven by clean energy applications, will rise in the near future. As industrial large scale liquefiers will play a major role within the hydrogen supply chain, production capacity will have to increase by a multiple of today’s typical sizes. The main goal is to reduce the total cost of ownership for these plants by increasing energy efficiency with innovative and simple process designs, optimized in capital expenditure. New concepts must ensure a manageable plant complexity and flexible operability. In the phase of process development and selection, a dimensioning of key equipment for large scale liquefiers, such as turbines and compressors as well as heat exchangers, must be performed iteratively to ensure technological feasibility and maturity. Further critical aspects related to hydrogen liquefaction, e.g. fluid properties, ortho-para hydrogen conversion, and coldbox configuration, must be analysed in detail. This paper provides an overview on the approach, challenges and preliminary results in the development of efficient as well as economically viable concepts for large-scale hydrogen liquefaction.

  13. Non-catalytic transfer hydrogenation in supercritical CO2 for coal liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhussien, Hussien

    This thesis presents the results of the investigation on developing and evaluating a low temperature (coal dissolution in supercritical CO2. The main idea behind the thesis was that one hydrogen atom from water and one hydrogen atom from the hydrogen transfer agent (HTA) were used to hydrogenate the coal. The products of coal dissolution were non-polar and polar while the supercritical CO2, which enhanced the rates of hydrogenation and dissolution of the non-polar molecules and removal from the reaction site, was non-polar. The polar modifier (PM) for CO2 was added to the freed to aid in the dissolution and removal of the polar components. The addition of a phase transfer agent (PTA) allowed a seamless transport of the ions and by-product between the aqueous and organic phases. DDAB, used as the PTA, is an effective phase transfer catalyst and showed enhancement to the coal dissolution process. COAL + DH- +H 2O → COAL.H2 + DHO-- This process has a great feature due to the fact that the chemicals were obtained without requir-ing to first convert coal to CO and H2 units as in indirect coal liquefaction. The experiments were conducted in a unique reactor set up that can be connected through two lines. one line to feed the reactor with supercritical CO 2 and the other connected to gas chromatograph. The use of the supercritical CO2 enhanced the solvent option due to the chemical extraction, in addition to the low environmental impact and energy cost. In this thesis the experiment were conducted at five different temperatures from atmos-pheric to 140°C, 3000 - 6000 psi with five component of feed mixture, namely water, HTA, PTA, coal, and PM in semi batch vessels reactor system with a volume of 100 mL. The results show that the chemicals were obtained without requiring to first convert coal to CO and H2 units as in indirect coal liquefaction. The results show that the conversion was found to be 91.8% at opti-mum feed mixtures values of 3, 1.0 and 5.4 for water: PM

  14. Reactor Materials Program probability of indirectly--induced failure of L and P reactor process water piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    The design basis accident for the Savannah River Production Reactors is the abrupt double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) of a large process water pipe. This accident is not considered credible in light of the low applied stresses and the inherent ductility of the piping material. The Reactor Materials Program was initiated to provide the technical basis for an alternate credible design basis accident. One aspect of this work is to determine the probability of the DEGB; to show that in addition to being incredible, it is also highly improbable. The probability of a DEGB is broken into two parts: failure by direct means, and indirectly-induced failure. Failure of the piping by direct means can only be postulated to occur if an undetected crack grows to the point of instability, causing a large pipe break. While this accident is not as severe as a DEGB, it provides a conservative upper bound on the probability of a direct DEGB of the piping. The second part of this evaluation calculates the probability of piping failure by indirect causes. Indirect failure of the piping can be triggered by an earthquake which causes other reactor components or the reactor building to fall on the piping or pull it from its supports. Since indirectly-induced failure of the piping will not always produce consequences as severe as a DEGB, this gives a conservative estimate of the probability of an indirectly- induced DEGB. This second part, indirectly-induced pipe failure, is the subject of this report. Failure by seismic loads in the piping itself will be covered in a separate report on failure by direct causes. This report provides a detailed evaluation of L reactor. A walkdown of P reactor and an analysis of the P reactor building provide the basis for extending the L reactor results to P reactor

  15. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    In the Advance Coal Liquefaction Concept Proposal (ACLCP) carbon monoxide (CO) and water have been proposed as the primary reagents in the pretreatment process. The main objective of this project is to develop a methodology for pretreating coal under mild conditions based on a combination of existing processes which have shown great promise in liquefaction, extraction and pyrolysis studies. The aim of this pretreatment process is to partially depolymerise the coal, eliminate oxygen and diminish the propensity for retograde reactions during subsequent liquefaction. The desirable outcome of the CO pretreatment step should be: (1) enhanced liquefaction activity and/or selectivity toward products of higher quality due to chemical modification of the coal structure; (2) cleaner downstream products; (3) overall improvement in operability and process economics.

  16. Mineral catalysis of oil producing reactions in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shridharani, K.G.

    1983-01-01

    This work was concerned primarily with the development of a relatively inexpensive, readily available, high activity catalyst that can be used as a disposable catalyst in coal liquefaction processes. For a fair evaluation of the developmental mineral catalyst (presulfided iron oxide), it was necessary to determine at different stages of this work, whether catalyst inhibition, deactivation or activity was the limiting factor in coal liquefaction catalysis. First, different routes were explored to prepare a high hydrogenation activity, iron-based catalyst. Naphthalene hydrogenation was used as a model reaction to rate the hydrogenation activities of different additives. Presulfiding of iron oxide with H/sub 2/S, under controlled conditions, rendered the highest hydrogenation activity mineral catalyst, which had a hydrogenation activity even greater than that of commercial CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst sulfided with creosote oil and hydrogen. Sulfiding of CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst with H/sub 2/S remarkably improved its initial hydrogenation activity. Second, the catalyst inhibition and deactivation during liquefaction were studied. Liquefaction-process solvents contain a number of compounds that can either deactivate or inhibit the hydrogenation activity of a catalyst. Finally, the hydrocracking activity of the presulfided iron oxide catalyst was compared with that of commercial catalysts, CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and low alumina FCC catalyst.

  17. Liquefaction of ground tire rubber at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiangyun; Song, Pan; Zhao, Xinyu; Peng, Zonglin; Wang, Shifeng

    2018-01-01

    Low-temperature liquefaction has been investigated as a novel method for recycling ground tire rubber (GTR) into liquid using an environmentally benign process. The liquefaction was carried out at different temperatures (140, 160 and 180 °C) over variable time ranges (2-24 h) by blending the GTR with aromatic oil in a range from 0 to 100 parts per hundred rubber (phr). The liquefied GTR was separated into sol (the soluble fraction of rubber which can be extracted with toluene) and gel fractions (the solid fraction obtained after extraction) to evaluate the reclaiming efficiency. It was discovered that the percentage of the sol fraction increased with time, swelling ratio and temperature. Liquefied rubber was obtained with a high sol fraction (68.34 wt%) at 140 °C. Simultaneously, separation of nano-sized carbon black from the rubber networks occurred. The separation of carbon black from the network is the result of significant damage to the cross-linked-network that occurs throughout the liquefaction process. During liquefaction, a competitive reaction between main chain scission and cross-link bond breakage takes place. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Outline of research achievement of fiscal 1983. Development of coal liquefaction technologies; Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu. 1983 nendo kenkyu seika no gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-07-01

    Reported are the results of (1) the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology, (2) development of brown coal liquefaction technology, (3) experimental fabrication and development of plant equipment and materials therefor, and (4) a survey on coal type selection. The goals of the development are mentioned below. Under Item (1), an optimum liquefaction process and a solid/liquid separation process are to be defined, the effect of iron-based catalysts upon liquefaction reaction is to be elucidated, a technology for constructing a direct hydroliquefaction unit is to be established, and a plant using such a unit is to be developed. Under Item (2), an optimum liquefaction technology is to be established, high in economic efficiency and reliability, by subjecting Australia's Victoria brown coal to the direct liquefaction process. In particular, a new brown coal liquefaction technology is to be established, which will be an organic combination of a novel, raw brown coal slurry dehydration technology, a solvent deashing technology, and the secondary hydrogenation technology, all centering on the basic technology of primary hydrogenation. Under Item (3), reactor materials, accessory materials, slurry pumps, etc., are to be experimentally manufactured and developed further. Under Item (4), data are to be collected on coal resources, coal quality, liquefaction characteristics, etc., during the process of technology development for liquefaction, etc. Furthermore, methods are to be established for the effective utilization of liquefaction products and for their optimum refining. (NEDO)

  19. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, May 1, 1993--October 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, G.P. [ed.

    1994-07-01

    This report summarizes progress in four areas of research under the general heading of Coal Liquefaction. Results of studies concerning the coliquefaction of coal with waste organic polymers or chemical products of these polymers were reported. Secondly, studies of catalytic systems for the production of clean transportation fuels from coal were discussed. Thirdly, investigations of the chemical composition of coals and their dehydrogenated counterparts were presented. These studies were directed toward elucidation of coal liquefaction processes on the chemical level. Finally, analytical methodologies developed for in situ monitoring of coal liquefaction were reported. Techniques utilizing model reactions and methods based on XAFS, ESR, and GC/MS are discussed.

  20. The Comparative Analysis of the Efficiency of Coal Liquefaction Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudyka Viktor I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organization of production of synthetic liquid fuels (SLF in Ukraine becomes an especially topical and at the same time complex scientific and applied task, taking into consideration criteria of the techno-ecological and economic rationality. The article presents a methodical approach to the comparative analysis of efficiency of the main methods and technologies for the synthetic liquid fuels production and a carried out testing, the results of which allowed to conclude that the most rational is the technology of indirect coal liquefaction based on coal thermal plasma gasification.

  1. Advances in Seabed Liquefaction and its Implications for Marine Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    A review is presented of recent advances in seabed liquefaction and its implications for marine structures. The review is organized in seven sections: Residual liquefaction, including the sequence of liquefaction, mathematical modelling, centrifuge modelling and comparison with standard wave-flum......-flume results; Momentary liquefaction; Floatation of buried pipelines; Sinking of pipelines and marine objects; Liquefaction at gravity structures; Stability of rock berms in liquefied soils; and Impact of seismic-induced liquefaction....

  2. Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanofibers from bamboo using microwave liquefaction combined with chemical treatment and ultrasonication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiulong Xie; Chung Hse; Cornelis F. De Hoop; Tingxing Hu; Jinqiu Qi; Todd F. Shupe

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose nanofibers were successfully isolated from bamboo using microwave liquefaction combinedwith chemical treatment and ultrasonic nanofibrillation processes. The microwave liquefaction couldeliminate almost all the lignin in bamboo, resulting in high cellulose content residues within 7 min, andthe cellulose enriched residues could be readily purified by...

  3. Two-stage alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of wood to biocrude in a continuous bench-scale system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sintamarean, Iulia-Maria; Grigoras, Ionela; Jensen, Claus Uhrenholt

    2017-01-01

    unit. In total, 100 kg of wood paste with 25% dry matter is processed at 400 °C and 30 MPa, demonstrating the usefulness of this two-stage liquefaction strategy. An additional advantage liquefaction of such pretreated wood shows increased biocrude yields with approximately 10% compared to the case...

  4. Coal liquefaction still a dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overberg, H

    1982-03-19

    Liquefaction of coal is not profitable in West Germany and will not be so far some time to coal. This is true for West German and imported coal. The result may be improved but not changed by combined conversion of coal and top residues of distilleries. These are the main statements of a study carried out by Messrs. Veba Oel AG, Gelsenkirchen, on behalf of the Federal Minister for Research and Technology. The results of the study are presented in 20 volumes.

  5. Exergy analysis of helium liquefaction systems based on modified Claude cycle with two-expanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rijo Jacob; Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2011-06-01

    Large-scale helium liquefaction systems, being energy-intensive, demand judicious selection of process parameters. An effective tool for design and analysis of thermodynamic cycles for these systems is exergy analysis, which is used to study the behavior of a helium liquefaction system based on modified Claude cycle. Parametric evaluation using process simulator Aspen HYSYS® helps to identify the effects of cycle pressure ratio and expander flow fraction on the exergetic efficiency of the liquefaction cycle. The study computes the distribution of losses at different refrigeration stages of the cycle and helps in selecting optimum cycle pressures, operating temperature levels of expanders and mass flow rates through them. Results from the analysis may help evolving guidelines for designing appropriate thermodynamic cycles for practical helium liquefaction systems.

  6. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ji-Lu, E-mail: triace@163.com; Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wu, Hai-tang

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Swine carcasses can be converted to bio-oil by alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction. • It seems that the use of the bio-oil for heat or CHP is technically suitable. • Some valuable chemicals were found in the bio-oils. • The bio-oil and the solid residue constituted an energy efficiency of 93.63% for the feedstock. • The solid residue can be used as a soil amendment, to sequester C and for preparing activated carbon. - Abstract: It is imperative that swine carcasses are disposed of safely, practically and economically. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil was performed. Firstly, the effects of temperature, reaction time and pH value on the yield of each liquefaction product were determined. Secondly, liquefaction products, including bio-oil and solid residue, were characterized. Finally, the energy recovery ratio (ERR), which was defined as the energy of the resultant products compared to the energy input of the material, was investigated. Our experiment shows that reaction time had certain influence on the yield of liquefaction products, but temperature and pH value had bigger influence on the yield of liquefaction products. Yields of 62.2 wt% bio-oil, having a high heating value of 32.35 MJ/kg and a viscosity of 305cp, and 22 wt% solid residue were realized at a liquefaction temperature of 250 °C, a reaction time of 60 min and a pH value of 9.0. The bio-oil contained up to hundreds of different chemical components that may be classified according to functional groups. Typical compound classes in the bio-oil were hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, ketones and heterocyclics. The energy recovery ratio (ERR) reached 93.63%. The bio-oil is expected to contribute to fossil fuel replacement in stationary applications, including boilers and furnaces, and upgrading processes for the bio-oil may be used to obtain liquid transport fuels.

  7. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Ji-Lu; Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wu, Hai-tang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Swine carcasses can be converted to bio-oil by alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction. • It seems that the use of the bio-oil for heat or CHP is technically suitable. • Some valuable chemicals were found in the bio-oils. • The bio-oil and the solid residue constituted an energy efficiency of 93.63% for the feedstock. • The solid residue can be used as a soil amendment, to sequester C and for preparing activated carbon. - Abstract: It is imperative that swine carcasses are disposed of safely, practically and economically. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil was performed. Firstly, the effects of temperature, reaction time and pH value on the yield of each liquefaction product were determined. Secondly, liquefaction products, including bio-oil and solid residue, were characterized. Finally, the energy recovery ratio (ERR), which was defined as the energy of the resultant products compared to the energy input of the material, was investigated. Our experiment shows that reaction time had certain influence on the yield of liquefaction products, but temperature and pH value had bigger influence on the yield of liquefaction products. Yields of 62.2 wt% bio-oil, having a high heating value of 32.35 MJ/kg and a viscosity of 305cp, and 22 wt% solid residue were realized at a liquefaction temperature of 250 °C, a reaction time of 60 min and a pH value of 9.0. The bio-oil contained up to hundreds of different chemical components that may be classified according to functional groups. Typical compound classes in the bio-oil were hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, ketones and heterocyclics. The energy recovery ratio (ERR) reached 93.63%. The bio-oil is expected to contribute to fossil fuel replacement in stationary applications, including boilers and furnaces, and upgrading processes for the bio-oil may be used to obtain liquid transport fuels

  8. Liquefaction macrophenomena in the great Wenchuan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Longwei; Yuan, Xiaoming; Cao, Zhenzhong; Hou, Longqing; Sun, Rui; Dong, Lin; Wang, Weiming; Meng, Fanchao; Chen, Hongjuan

    2009-06-01

    On May 12, 2008 at 14:28, a catastrophic magnitude M s 8.0 earthquake struck the Sichuan Province of China. The epicenter was located at Wenchuan (31.00°N, 103.40°E). Liquefaction macrophenomena and corresponding destruction was observed throughout a vast area of 500 km long and 200 km wide following the earthquake. This paper illustrates the geographic distribution of the liquefaction and the relationship between liquefaction behavior and seismic intensity, and summarizes the liquefaction macrophenomena, including sandboils and waterspouts, ground subsidence, ground fissures etc., and relevant liquefaction features. A brief summary of the structural damage caused by liquefaction is presented and discussed. Based on comparisons with liquefaction phenomena observed in the 1976 Tangshan and 1975 Haicheng earthquakes, preliminary analyses were performed, which revealed some new features of liquefaction behavior and associated issues arising from this event. The site investigation indicated that the spatial non-uniformity of liquefaction distribution was obvious and most of the liquefied sites were located in regions of seismic intensity VIII. However, liquefaction phenomena at ten different sites in regions of seismic intensity VI were also observed for the first time in China mainland. Sandboils and waterspouts ranged from centimeters to tens of meters, with most between 1 m to 3 m. Dramatically high water/sand ejections, e.g., more than 10 m, were observed at four different sites. The sand ejections included silty sand, fine sand, medium sand, course sand and gravel, but the ejected sand amount was less than that in the 1976 Tangshan earthquake. Possible liquefaction of natural gravel soils was observed for the first time in China mainland.

  9. Report for fiscal 1994 by subcommittee on coal liquefaction basic technology; 1994 nendo ekika kiban gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This report covers the proceedings of subcommittee meetings. Using PDUs (process development unit), comparison is made between bituminous coal-derived oils (150t/d plant for the Indonesian coal) and brown coal-derived oils (50t/d plant for the Yallourn coal), product quality is improved by a 2-stage refining process, engines are tested, etc., all these demonstration and research efforts intended to win social recognition for coal liquefaction products. Among basic studies, there are the development of technologies for reforming coal-derived oils and for mixing them will petroleum, development of new catalysts for reforming, development of a technology for separating heterocompounds and the like, and the development of their applications. Furthermore, technologies are developed for environmentally friendly coal liquefaction, feasibility of coal liquefaction technology internationalization is deliberated, and technical researches and joint researches are conducted. At the second meeting of the subcommittee, achievements relative to the refining and applications of liquefaction products are presented, including the hydrorefining of naphtha, heating oil, and light oil; development of new catalysts; heterocompound separation technology; and the development of new applications. In relation with the development of environmentally friendly coal liquefaction technologies, studies are presented on liquefaction conditions and on the upgrading of basic technologies of liquefaction. Also referred to are the reports delivered at a meeting on liquefaction catalysts (January 1995). (NEDO)

  10. Modelling and analysis of a desiccant cooling system using the regenerative indirect evaporative cooling process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Reinholdt, Lars O.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the numerical modeling and analysis of a Desiccant Cooling (DEC) system with regenerative indirect evaporative cooling, termed Desiccant Dewpoint Cooling (DDC) system. The DDC system includes a Desiccant Wheel (DW), Dew Point Coolers (DPCs), a heat recovery unit and a heat...... in different climates: temperate in Copenhagen and Mediterranean in Venice. Cheap and clean heat sources (e.g. solar energy) strongly increase the attractiveness of the DDC system. For the Mediterranean climate the DDC system represents a convenient alternative to chiller-based systems in terms of energy costs...... and CO2 emissions. The electricity consumption for auxiliaries in the DDC system is higher than in the chiller-based systems. The number of commercial-size DPC units required to cover the cooling load during the whole period is high: 8 in Copenhagen and 12 in Venice....

  11. Photochemical Reactions of Particulate Organic Matter: Deciphering the Role of Direct and Indirect Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquillo, A. J.; Gelfond, C. E.; Kocar, B. D.

    2016-12-01

    Photochemical reactions of natural organic matter (NOM) represent potentially important pathways for biologically recalcitrant material to be chemically altered in aquatic systems. Irradiation can alter the physical state of organic matter by facilitating the cycling between the particulate (POM) and dissolved (DOM) pools, however, a molecular level understanding of this chemically dynamic system is currently lacking. Photochemical reactions of a target molecule proceed by the direct absorption of a photon, or through reaction with a second photolytically generated species (i.e. the hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, excited triplet state NOM, hydrogen peroxide, etc.). Here, we isolate the major direct and indirect photochemical reactions of a lignocellulose-rich POM material (Phragmites australis) to determine their relative importance in changing the the chemical structure of the parent POM, and in the production of DOM. We measured POM molecular structure using a combination of NMR and FTIR for bulk analyses and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) for spatially resolved chemistry, while the chemical composition of photo-produced DOM was measured using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. Results are discussed in the context of the differences in chemical composition of both NOM pools resulting from the isolated photochemical pathways. All treatments result in an increase in DOM with reaction time, indicating that the larger POM matrix is likely fragmenting into smaller more soluble species. Spectroscopic measurements, on the other hand, point to functionalization reactions which increase the abundance of alcohol, acid, and carbonyl moieties in both carbon pools. This unique dataset provides new insight into how photochemical reactions alter the chemical composition of NOM while highlighting the relative importance of indirect pathways.

  12. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, M.; Davis, R.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  13. Wave liquefaction in soils with clay content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, Özgür; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental study of the influence of clay content (in silt-clay and sand-clay mixtures) on liquefaction beneath progressive waves. The experiments showed that the influence of clay content is very significant. Susceptibility of silt to liquefaction is increa...

  14. Thermodynamic design of natural gas liquefaction cycles for offshore application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Lim, Hye Su; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2014-09-01

    A thermodynamic study is carried out for natural gas liquefaction cycles applicable to offshore floating plants, as partial efforts of an ongoing governmental project in Korea. For offshore liquefaction, the most suitable cycle may be different from the on-land LNG processes under operation, because compactness and simple operation are important as well as thermodynamic efficiency. As a turbine-based cycle, closed Claude cycle is proposed to use NG (natural gas) itself as refrigerant. The optimal condition for NG Claude cycle is determined with a process simulator (Aspen HYSYS), and the results are compared with fully-developed C3-MR (propane pre-cooled mixed refrigerant) JT cycles and various N2 (nitrogen) Brayton cycles in terms of efficiency and compactness. The newly proposed NG Claude cycle could be a good candidate for offshore LNG processes.

  15. Dynamic behavior of potentially unstable soils and application of model for seismic risk reduction from liquefaction occurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheshov, Vlatko

    2002-11-01

    Throughout the last decades, liquefaction phenomenon has been one of the most frequently discussed subjects in geotechnical earthquake engineering. Liquefaction has been a problem arousing considerable attention among the world scientists. The consequences from liquefaction occurrence have been present after each stronger earthquake. We have been witnesses of several strong earthquakes (Kobe - Japan, Chi Chi-Taiwan, Bhuj-India) that have occurred in the last decade. In these earthquakes, the liquefaction phenomenon caused severe damage to structures, loss of their functioning and indirect loss of human lives. Liquefaction as a phenomenon should not arouse fear but should call for serious elaboration and attention instead. The destructive nature of liquefaction could be mitigated, i.e., overcome in two ways: avoiding construction at locations characterized by high liquefaction potential which is not always possible and taking of measures for improvement of foundation soil. Finding out suitable measures for improvement of soil and thus mitigating the liquefaction potential has been the main incentive for the elaboration of this dissertation. The dissipation method involving the use of vertical drains as one of the measures for improvement of soils has been elaborated in details in this scientific work. The doctoral dissertation has been realized through experimental and analytical investigations. The experimental investigations done in the first phase represent model seismic shaking table tests of the efficiency of vertical drains (prefabricated and gravel drains). The analytical investigations in this phase have involved mathematical simulation of the effect of vertical drains upon pore pressure state during the experiments. The second phase of the experimental investigations has involved model tests of the behavior of pile foundations in soils susceptible to liquefaction with installed prefabricated drains. In this phase, the 'p - y' relationships have been

  16. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun [Hong Ik University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Seoul, 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Kun Hyung [Korea Gas Corporation, Incheon, 406-130 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-29

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity.

  17. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity.

  18. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity

  19. The making of Andersen’s liquefaction chart

    OpenAIRE

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    Andersen’s chart (Andersen & Berre, 1999) is a graphical method of observing cyclic soil response. It allows observing soil response to various stress amplitudes that can lead to liquefaction, excess plastic deformation stabilizing soil response.The process of obtaining the original chart has been improved. Algorithm based approximation is introduced. Pore pressure dependent ultimate bearing capacity normalization factor is introduced to normalize the chart.

  20. Thermodynamic Analysis on of Skid-Mounted Coal-bed Methane Liquefaction Device using Cryogenic Turbo-Expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuangtao; Niu, Lu; Zeng, Qiang; Li, Xiaojiang; Lou, Fang; Chen, Liang; Hou, Yu

    2017-12-01

    Coal-bed methane (CBM) reserves are rich in Sinkiang of China, and liquefaction is a critical step for the CBM exploration and utilization. Different from other CBM gas fields in China, CBM distribution in Sinkiang is widespread but scattered, and the pressure, flow-rate and nitrogen content of CBM feed vary significantly. The skid-mounted liquefaction device is suggested as an efficient and economical way to recover methane. Turbo-expander is one of the most important parts which generates the cooling capacity for the cryogenic liquefaction system. Using turbo-expander, more cooling capacity and higher liquefied fraction can be achieved. In this study, skid-mounted CBM liquefaction processes based on Claude cycle are established. Cryogenic turbo-expander with high expansion ratio is employed to improve the efficiency of CBM liquefaction process. The unit power consumption per liquefaction mole flow-rate for CBM feed gas is used as the object function for process optimization, compressor discharge pressure, flow ratio of feed gas to turbo-expander and nitrogen friction are analyzed, and optimum operation range of the liquefaction processes are obtained.

  1. Thermal properties of biopolyol from oil palm fruit fibre (OPFF) using solvolysis liquefaction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormin, Shaharuddin; Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Azahari, M. Shafiq M.

    2017-09-01

    Liquefaction is known to be an effective method for converting biomass into a biopolyol. The biomass liquefaction of oil palm fruit waste (PFW) in the presence of liquefaction solvent/polyhydric alcohol (PA): polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) using sulfuric acid as catalyst was studied. For all experiments, the liquefaction was conducted at 150°C and atmospheric pressure. The mass ratio of OPFW to liquefaction solvents used in all the experiments was, 1/3. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to analyze their biopolyol and residue behaviors. It was found that thermal stability of oil palm mesocarp fibre (PM), oil palm shell (PS) and oil palm kernel (PK) fibre exhibited the first degradation of hard segment at (232, 104, 230°C) and the second degradation of soft segment at (314, 226, 412°C) as compared to PM, PS and PK residue which (229, 102, 227°C) of hard segment and (310, 219, 299°C) of segment, respectively. This behavior of thermal degradation of the hard segment and soft segment of biopolyol was changes after undergo solvolysis liquefaction process. The result analysis showed that the resulting biopolyol and its residue was suitable monomer for polyurethane (PU) synthesis for the production of PU foams.

  2. Japan`s New Sunshine Project. 20. 1995 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The paper described a summary of the 1995 study on coal liquefaction and gasification under the New Sunshine Project. As for coal liquefaction, a study was made of liquefaction characteristics and catalysts of various coals. Also studied were liquefaction conditions for quality improvement of liquefaction products, an evaluation method of quality of coal liquid, and a utilization method of coal liquid. In order to prevent carbonization and realize effective liquefaction, a study was conducted for elucidation of the reaction mechanism of high pressure hydrogenation. In a 150t/d pilot plant using hydrogen transfer hydrogenation solvents, the NEDOL method was studied using various catalysts and kinds of coals. This is a step prior to data acquisition for engineering, actual construction of equipment and operation. A 1t/d process supporting unit is a unit to support it. The unit conducts studies on slurry letdown valves and synthetic iron sulfide catalysts, screening of Chinese coals, etc. As to coal gasification, the paper added to the basic research the combined cycle power generation using entrained flow coal gasification for improvement of thermal efficiency and environmental acceptability and the HYCOL method for hydrogen production. 68 refs., 40 figs.

  3. Earthquake-induced liquefaction in Ferland, Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, M.; Seeber, L.

    1991-02-01

    Detailed geological investigations are under way at a number of liquefaction sites in the Ferland-Boilleau valley, Quebec, where sand boils, ground cracks and liquefaction-related damages to homes were documented immediately following the Ms=6.0, Mblg=6.5 Saguenay earthquake of November 25, 1988. To date, results obtained from these subsurface investigations of sand boils at two sites in Ferland, located about 26 km from the epicentre, indicate that: the Saguenay earthquake induced liquefaction in late-Pleistocene and Holocene sediments which was recorded as sand dikes, sills and vents in near-surface sediments and soils; earthquake-induced liquefaction and ground failure have occurred in this area at least three times in the past 10,000 years; and, the size and morphology of liquefaction features and the liquefaction susceptibility of source layers of the features may be indicative of the intensity of ground shaking. These preliminary results are very promising and suggest that with continued research liquefaction features will become a useful tool in glaciated terrains, such as northeastern North America, for determining not only the timing and location but also the size of past earthquakes

  4. Micro tooling technologies for polymer micro replication: direct, indirect and hybrid process chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2009-01-01

    The increasing employment of micro products, of products containing micro parts and of products with micro-structured surfaces calls for mass fabrication technologies based on replication processes. In many cases, a suitable solution is given by the use of polymer micro products, whose production...... and performance of the corresponding micro mould. Traditional methods of micro tooling, such as various machining processes (e.g. micro milling, micro electrical discharge machining) have already reached their limitations with decreasing dimensions of mould inserts and cavities. To this respect, tooling process...... chains based on combination of micro manufacturing processes (defined as hybrid tooling) have been established in order to obtain further features miniaturization and increased accuracy. In this paper, examples and performance of different hybrid tooling approaches as well as challenges, opportunities...

  5. Direct liquefaction of low-rank coals under mild conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, N.; Rinaldi, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Due to decreasing of petroleum reserves, direct coal liquefaction is attracting renewed interest as an alternative process to produce liquid fuels. The combination of hydrogen peroxide and coal is not a new one. In the early 1980, Vasilakos and Clinton described a procedure for desulfurization by leaching coal with solutions of sulphuric acid/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. But so far, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} has never been ascribed a major role in coal liquefaction. Herein, we describe a novel approach for liquefying low-rank coals using a solution of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in presence of a soluble non-transition metal catalyst. (orig.)

  6. Atmospheric pressure plasma processing of polymeric materials utilizing close proximity indirect exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulauskas, Felix L.; Bonds, Truman

    2016-09-20

    A plasma treatment method that includes providing treatment chamber including an intermediate heating volume and an interior treatment volume. The interior treatment volume contains an electrode assembly for generating a plasma and the intermediate heating volume heats the interior treatment volume. A work piece is traversed through the treatment chamber. A process gas is introduced to the interior treatment volume of the treatment chamber. A plasma is formed with the electrode assembly from the process gas, wherein a reactive species of the plasma is accelerated towards the fiber tow by flow vortices produced in the interior treatment volume by the electrode assembly.

  7. Survey on peripheral techniques of brown coal liquefaction techniques; Kattan ekika gijutsu ni kansuru shuhen gijutsu no chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-09-01

    Described herein are results of survey on brown coal liquefaction techniques and peripheral techniques, centered by COSTEAM process under development in USA, solubilization by alcohol and liquefaction and cracking with the aid of tetrahydroquinoline as the hydrogen donor under development in Japan, and low-temperature carbonization and new promising techniques. The COSTEAM process shows higher reaction rates, conversions and oil yields for brown coal liquefaction than the one using hydrogen gas. Some of the problems involved in this process high viscosity and oxygenated compound content of the product oil. The product oil is acceptable as fuel for power generating plants and can be produced at a moderate cost, but may be unsuitable as vehicle fuel. Coal liquefaction and solubilization processes are mainly represented by those which use hydrogen. The hydrogen cost, which is high, determines the product price. The processes which use alcohol or tetrahydroquinoline are still in the experimental stage. (NEDO)

  8. Quality Assurance Processes in Finnish Universities: Direct and Indirect Outcomes and Organisational Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapakorpi, Arja

    2011-01-01

    In Finland, quality assurance related to the Bologna process has been adapted to existing systems of higher education at the national level and a form of implementation is also recognised at the level of the higher education institution. In universities, varied outcomes of quality assurance are based on interaction of organisational structures,…

  9. Modeling of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process-implications for aerosol indirect effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storelvmo, T; Lohmann, U; Kristjansson, J E; Iversen, T; Kirkevaag, A; Seland, O

    2008-01-01

    A new parameterization of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process has been developed, and implemented in the general circulation model CAM-Oslo. The new parameterization scheme has important implications for the process of phase transition in mixed-phase clouds. The new treatment of the WBF process replaces a previous formulation, in which the onset of the WBF effect depended on a threshold value of the mixing ratio of cloud ice. As no observational guidance for such a threshold value exists, the previous treatment added uncertainty to estimates of aerosol effects on mixed-phase clouds. The new scheme takes subgrid variability into account when simulating the WBF process, allowing for smoother phase transitions in mixed-phase clouds compared to the previous approach. The new parameterization yields a model state which gives reasonable agreement with observed quantities, allowing for calculations of aerosol effects on mixed-phase clouds involving a reduced number of tunable parameters. Furthermore, we find a significant sensitivity to perturbations in ice nuclei concentrations with the new parameterization, which leads to a reversal of the traditional cloud lifetime effect.

  10. Simulation of nuclear fuel rods by using process computer-controlled power for indirect electrically heated rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.

    1975-11-01

    An investigation was carried out to determine how the simulation of nuclear fuel rods with indirect electrically heated rods could be improved by use of a computer to control the electrical power during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). To aid in the experiment, a new version of the HETRAP code was developed which simulates a LOCA with heater rod power controlled by a computer that adjusts rod power during a blowdown to minimize the difference in heat flux of the fuel and heater rods. Results show that without computer control of heater rod power, only the part of a blowdown up to the time when the heat transfer mode changes from nucleate boiling to transition or film boiling can be simulated well and then only for short times. With computer control, the surface heat flux and temperature of an electrically heated rod can be made nearly identical to that of a reactor fuel rod with the same cooling conditions during much of the LOCA. A small process control computer can be used to achieve close simulation of a nuclear fuel rod with an indirect electrically heated rod

  11. Indirect ultraviolet photodesorption from CO:N2 binary ices — an efficient grain-gas process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertin, Mathieu; Poderoso, Hugo A. M.; Michaut, Xavier; Philippe, Laurent; Jeseck, Pascal; Fillion, Jean-Hugues; Fayolle, Edith C.; Linnartz, Harold; Romanzin, Claire; Öberg, Karin I.

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) ice photodesorption is an important non-thermal desorption pathway in many interstellar environments that has been invoked to explain observations of cold molecules in disks, clouds, and cloud cores. Systematic laboratory studies of the photodesorption rates, between 7 and 14 eV, from CO:N 2 binary ices, have been performed at the DESIRS vacuum UV beamline of the synchrotron facility SOLEIL. The photodesorption spectral analysis demonstrates that the photodesorption process is indirect, i.e., the desorption is induced by a photon absorption in sub-surface molecular layers, while only surface molecules are actually desorbing. The photodesorption spectra of CO and N 2 in binary ices therefore depend on the absorption spectra of the dominant species in the sub-surface ice layer, which implies that the photodesorption efficiency and energy dependence are dramatically different for mixed and layered ices compared with pure ices. In particular, a thin (1-2 ML) N 2 ice layer on top of CO will effectively quench CO photodesorption, while enhancing N 2 photodesorption by a factor of a few (compared with the pure ices) when the ice is exposed to a typical dark cloud UV field, which may help to explain the different distributions of CO and N 2 H + in molecular cloud cores. This indirect photodesorption mechanism may also explain observations of small amounts of complex organics in cold interstellar environments.

  12. Histotripsy Liquefaction of Large Hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Monsky, Wayne L; Haider, Yasser A; Maxwell, Adam D; Wang, Yak-Nam; Matula, Thomas J

    2016-07-01

    Intra- and extra-muscular hematomas result from repetitive injury as well as sharp and blunt limb trauma. The clinical consequences can be serious, including debilitating pain and functional deficit. There are currently no short-term treatment options for large hematomas, only lengthy conservative treatment. The goal of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of a high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-based technique, termed histotripsy, for rapid (within a clinically relevant timeframe of 15-20 min) liquefaction of large volume (up to 20 mL) extra-vascular hematomas for subsequent fine-needle aspiration. Experiments were performed using in vitro extravascular hematoma phantoms-fresh bovine blood poured into 50 mL molds and allowed to clot. The resulting phantoms were treated by boiling histotripsy (BH), cavitation histotripsy (CH) or a combination in a degassed water tank under ultrasound guidance. Two different transducers operating at 1 MHz and 1.5 MHz with f-number = 1 were used. The liquefied lysate was aspirated and analyzed by histology and sized in a Coulter Counter. The peak instantaneous power to achieve BH was lower than (at 1.5 MHz) or equal to (at 1 MHz) that which was required to initiate CH. Under the same exposure duration, BH-induced cavities were one and a half to two times larger than the CH-induced cavities, but the CH-induced cavities were more regularly shaped, facilitating easier aspiration. The lysates contained a small amount of debris larger than 70 μm, and 99% of particulates were smaller than 10 μm. A combination treatment of BH (for initial debulking) and CH (for liquefaction of small residual fragments) yielded 20 mL of lysate within 17.5 minutes of treatment and was found to be most optimal for liquefaction of large extravascular hematomas. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Helium refrigeration system for hydrogen liquefaction applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, J. Kumar, Sr.; Menon, RS; Goyal, M.; Ansari, NA; Chakravarty, A.; Joemon, V.

    2017-02-01

    Liquid hydrogen around 20 K is used as cold moderator for generating “cold neutron beam” in nuclear research reactors. A cryogenic helium refrigeration system is the core upon which such hydrogen liquefaction applications are built. A thermodynamic process based on reversed Brayton cycle with two stage expansion using high speed cryogenic turboexpanders (TEX) along with a pair of compact high effectiveness process heat exchangers (HX), is well suited for such applications. An existing helium refrigeration system, which had earlier demonstrated a refrigeration capacity of 470 W at around 20 K, is modified based on past operational experiences and newer application requirements. Modifications include addition of a new heat exchanger to simulate cryogenic process load and two other heat exchangers for controlling the temperatures of helium streams leading out to the application system. To incorporate these changes, cryogenic piping inside the cold box is suitably modified. This paper presents process simulation, sizing of new heat exchangers as well as fabrication aspects of the modified cryogenic process piping.

  14. Assessment and mitigation of liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czelada, J. A.; Melentijevic, S.

    2014-01-01

    The simplified empirical procedure in its original form presented in Youd et al (2001) and some further developments given in Idriss and Boulanger (2006) for evaluating liquefaction resistance of soils is presented in this paper only for the criteria based on standard penetration test (SPT). Methods for estimating the ground improvement techniques by stone columns and dynamics compaction are presented. For stone columns Priebe method (1995) and homogenized method (equivalent parameters) are present. for dynamic compaction methods proposed by Recomendacion Geotecnica para las Obras Maritimas y/o Porturaria - ROM 0.5-05 (2005) and Nashed et al. (2009) are described. These analysis methods for each ground improvement technique are compared in two different case histories showing similar results in each one. (Author)

  15. Novel Complexity Indicator of Manufacturing Process Chains and Its Relations to Indirect Complexity Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Modrak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing systems can be considered as a network of machines/workstations, where parts are produced in flow shop or job shop environment, respectively. Such network of machines/workstations can be depicted as a graph, with machines as nodes and material flow between the nodes as links. The aim of this paper is to use sequences of operations and machine network to measure static complexity of manufacturing processes. In this order existing approaches to measure the static complexity of manufacturing systems are analyzed and subsequently compared. For this purpose, analyzed competitive complexity indicators were tested on two different manufacturing layout examples. A subsequent analysis showed relevant potential of the proposed method.

  16. Influence of the void ratio and the confining on the static liquefaction in slopes in shangi sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Mariano Ramos Cañón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study on the onset of static liquefaction in slopes under undrained conditions of loading was developed based on a general liquefaction flow instability criterion for elastoplastic soils based on the concept of loss of controllability. The criterion is applied to the case of axisymmetric loading to detect the onset of static liquefaction. The criterion is used in conjunction with an elastoplastic model for sands and is tested by means of numerical simulations of element tests. The numerical results are compared with experimental evidence obtaining good agreement. A quantitative study of the influence of the mean pressure, void ratio and the anisotropy of stress on the onset of static liquefaction is presented for the Changi sand. From the analysis of the numerical results, it can be concluded that: a. the mobilized friction angle at the onset of liquefaction is not an intrinsic property of the material, but is a state variable b. Despite of the multiple variables involved in the process of generation of undrained instability, the state of stresses at the onset of static liquefaction can be conveniently represented by a linear relation between Dq/po and no . This graphical representation can be used in the practice of geotechnical engineering to quantify the margin of security against the static liquefaction of a sandy slope.

  17. FY 2000 report on the results of the regional consortium R and D project - Regional consortium energy R and D field. First year report. Commercialization of depth dechlorination/debromination refining catalyst of waste plastic derived oil and the liquefaction process; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo - chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu bun'ya. Hai plastic bunkaiyu no shindo datsuenso dasshuso seisei shokubai oyobi yuka process no jitsuyoka (dai 1 nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The development was proceeded with of technology to produce iron oxide/porous carbon composite catalyst which promotes dehalogenation of thermal-degraded oil at low cost and in large quantity. This catalyst enables the improvement in operability and safety in the liquefaction process for mixed plastic and in quality of oil product. The development is also made of a regional distributed small batch liquefaction system with processing ability of 1t/day. Studies were made in the following 6 fields: 1) analysis of the dehalogenation performance of catalyst and the evaluation; 2) development of a method to industrially produce halogen compound refining catalyst; 3) R and D of a method to analyze environmental components; 4) evaluation study of halogen resistant materials and halogen resistant technology; 5) development of a small test device for commercialization of the liquefaction/degradation process; 6) comprehensive investigational study. In 1), the performance of prototype catalyst was confirmed, and the structure was analyzed. Also developed was iron chloride/SiO{sub 2} catalyst which converts organic halogen to inorganic halogen. (NEDO)

  18. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  19. Research on mechanism of and catalysts for extraction liquefaction of coal using coal-based solvents; Sekitankei yozai ni yoru sekitan no chushutsu ekika kiko to shokubai no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-07-01

    Papers of Professor Yoshio Kamiya of Tokyo University are compiled into this report. The list of the papers includes (1) Synthesis of heavy fuel oils from coal; (2) Research and development of coal liquefaction; (3) Dissolution reaction of coal by hydrogen-donating aromatic solvents (I); (4) Effect of hydrogen-donor solvent on the liquefaction of coal; (5) Recent studies on the chemical structure of solvent refined coal; (6) Dissolution reaction of coal by hydrogen-donating aromatic solvents (II); (7) Future of coal as energy material; (8), (9), (10) same as (6) in the subject discussed; (11) Recent studies on coal liquefaction catalysts; (12) Environmental problems and drain treatment to accompany processes of converting fossil resources into fuels; (13) Chemistry of coal oxidation; (14) Fractionation and analysis of solvent refined coal by gel permeation chromatography; (15) Current state of research and development of coal liquefaction; (16) Properties and components of coal oils from coal liquefaction processes under development; (17) Solvent effect of coal derived aromatic compounds on the liquefaction of Akabira coal; (18) Chemistry of coal liquefaction; (19) Research and development of coal liquefaction in the U.S.; (20) Thermal treatment of coal-related aromatic ethers in tetralin solution; (21) Recent technology of utilizing heavy carbon resources; (22) Chemical properties and reactivity of coal; (23) Current state and future of development of coal liquefaction processes; and (24) Development of overseas coal liquefaction projects. (NEDO)

  20. Report on the FY 1998 results of the New Sunshine Project (B version). Development of coal liquefaction technology (Development of base technology of liquefaction (Project on internationalization of coal liquefaction technology)); 1998 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (B ban). Ekika kiban gijutsu no kaihatsu (sekitan ekika gijutsu no kokusaika jigyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In 1994, a memorandum on the research cooperation was agreed between NEDO and BPPT (The Agency for the Assessment and Application Technology) in Indonesia, based on the request for the coal liquefaction technology cooperation from BPPT. It includes the following items: conference for professionals to be held, invitation and training of Indonesian engineers, activity for joint field survey and potential survey of location of coal liquefaction commercial plant. Further in 1997, the secondary memorandum was concluded for the potential survey for securing the hydrogen required for coal liquefaction by coal gasification. The survey was summarized as the potential survey for location of coal liquefaction. In the testing study for improving economical efficiency of liquefaction process, it was made clear that the higher the Fe content of Banko coal is, the higher the reaction of liquefaction is, and that Fe compounds in coal show catalysis. In the Soroako area in Sulawesi island, there are the nickel mine run by PT. Inco. Soroako limonite is promising as catalyst material for commercial-scale coal liquefaction. In the gasification method, the plant construction cost increases, but the production amount of coal-derived liquid can be increased. That is more profitable than the production of hydrogen from natural gas. (NEDO)

  1. Basic studies on coal liquefaction reaction, reforming and utilization of liquefaction products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraishi, M. (National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of research and development of coal liquefaction technologies in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992, regarding the coal liquefaction reaction, reforming and utilization of liquefaction products. For the fundamental study on coal liquefaction reaction, were investigated effect of asphaltene in petroleum residue on coprocessing, pretreatment effect in coprocessing of Taiheiyo coal and tarsand bitumen using oil soluble catalyst, solubilization and liquefaction of Taiheiyo coal at mild conditions with the aid of super acid, and flash hydropyrolysis of finely pulverized swollen coal under high hydrogen pressure. On the other hand, for the study on hydrotreatment of coal derived liquid, were investigated catalytic hydroprocessing of Wandoan coal liquids, production of gasoline from coal liquids by fluid catalytic cracking, solvent extraction of phenolic compounds from coal liquids, and separation of hetero compounds in coal liquid by means of high pressure crystallization. Further progress in these studies has been confirmed. 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Biomass Direct Liquefaction Options. TechnoEconomic and Life Cycle Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tews, Iva J.; Zhu, Yunhua; Drennan, Corinne; Elliott, Douglas C.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Onarheim, Kristin; Solantausta, Yrjo; Beckman, David

    2014-07-31

    The purpose of this work was to assess the competitiveness of two biomass to transportation fuel processing routes, which were under development in Finland, the U.S. and elsewhere. Concepts included fast pyrolysis (FP), and hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), both followed by hydrodeoxygenation, and final product refining. This work was carried out as a collaboration between VTT (Finland), and PNNL (USA). The public funding agents for the work were Tekes in Finland and the Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy. The effort was proposed as an update of the earlier comparative technoeconomic assessment performed by the IEA Bioenergy Direct Biomass Liquefaction Task in the 1980s. New developments in HTL and the upgrading of the HTL biocrude product triggered the interest in reinvestigating this comparison of these biomass liquefaction processes. In addition, developments in FP bio-oil upgrading had provided additional definition of this process option, which could provide an interesting comparison.

  3. Subcritical hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw in fresh water and recycled aqueous phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    This project focuses on the investigation of addition of aqueous phase in the production of biofuel from biomass through hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) technology. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a wet thermal conversion process, which can convert all kinds of biomass to fuels. In this study, barley...... straw was first liquefied in fresh distilled water with the presence of K2CO3 catalyst at 300 C as the reference run. Afterwards, the aqueous phase which is obtained from liquefaction process in the previous run was recycled and used as the reaction medium from the second to the fourth run....... With the addition of recycling aqueous phase in HTL process, it is expected that the amount of the waste water and energy consumption can be reduced. The effect of water recirculation on product yield and properties was investigated in this study. The results showed that bio-oil yield was 34.85 wt% when the barley...

  4. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction (CMSL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Ganguli, P.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, T.L.K.; Pradhan, V.R.; Popper, G.; Smith, T.; Stalzer, R.H.

    1996-11-01

    Reported herein are the details and the results of laboratory and bench scale experiments that were conducted at Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-93PC92147 during the period of October 1, 1992, to December 31, 1995. The program results described herein build on the previous technology base and investigating additional methods to improve the economics of producing transportation fuels from coal. This included purely physical parameters, coal treatment and variation in solvent to coal ratio, the use of syngas to replace part of the hydrogen as the reducing gas, the use of dispersed catalyst in addition to and replacing the supported catalyst, and the co-processing of coal with plastic waste material. The overall objective of this program is to produce liquid fuels from direct coal liquefaction at a cost that is competitive with conventional fuels. The report includes the results of an economic assessment of the various process strategies that were evaluated during this program. A summary of the technical/economic evaluations is given in Volume I, Section II of this report. The experimental details of the eleven run of the program are given in Volume I, Section III and Volume II of this report. The details of the technical evaluations are given in the Volume III of the report.

  5. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wagner, Katie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-12

    Hazard analyses were performed to evaluate the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment process was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. The analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public. The following selected hazardous scenarios received increased attention: •Scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy, controls were identified in the What-If analysis table that prevent the occurrence or mitigate the effects of the release. •Scenarios with significant consequences that could impact personnel outside the immediate operations area, quantitative analyses were performed to determine the potential magnitude of the scenario. The set of “critical controls” were identified for these scenarios (see Section 4) which prevent the occurrence or mitigate the effects of the release of events with significant consequences.

  6. Catalytic activity of pyrite for coal liquefaction reaction; Tennen pyrite no shokubai seino ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, K.; Kozu, M.; Okada, T.; Kobayashi, M. [Nippon Coal Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Since natural pyrite is easy to obtain and cheap as coal liquefaction catalyst, it is to be used for the 150 t/d scale NEDOL process bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant. NEDO and NCOL have investigated the improvement of catalytic activity of pulverized natural pyrite for enhancing performance and economy of the NEDOL process. In this study, coal liquefaction tests were conducted using natural pyrite catalyst pulverized by dry-type bowl mill under nitrogen atmosphere. Mechanism of catalytic reaction of the natural pyrite was discussed from relations between properties of the catalyst and liquefaction product. The natural pyrite provided an activity to transfer gaseous hydrogen into the liquefaction product. It was considered that pulverized pyrite promotes the hydrogenation reaction of asphaltene because pulverization increases its contact rate with reactant and the amount of active points on its surface. It was inferred that catalytic activity of pyrite is affected greatly by the chemical state of Fe and S on its surface. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Fiscal 1989 report. Coal liquefaction committee; 1989 nendo sekitan ekika iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    The committee in this fiscal year had its 1st meeting in June 1989 and 2nd meeting in March 1990, when fiscal 1989 research and development programs and fiscal 1989 research and development results, etc., were reported and discussed. The operating status of the 1 ton/day PSU (process supporting unit) for bituminous coal liquefaction was reported and discussed. The report included its 1st operation for the demonstration of a long-term stable run under standard conditions that continued for trouble-free 50 days, the 2nd operation for the investigation of the effect of liquefaction reaction temperature in which the liquefaction yield recorded the maximum at 450 degrees C with the collection of coal oils of 55 wt.% on the average, and the 3rd operation for the investigation of the effects of liquefaction reaction pressure and catalyst injection size whose details were being analyzed. Reported in relation with the brown coal liquefaction pilot plant was a comprehensive operation of a series of 1st hydrogenation, solvent deashing, and 2nd hydrogenation processes completed after a continuous operation of 460 hours establishing a total operating time of 1050 hours. (NEDO)

  8. Report on the achievements in research and development of a coal liquefaction technology in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Development of a solvent extraction and liquefaction plant (research and development of solid-liquid separation process); Sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, yozai chushutsu ekika plant no kaihatsu, koeki bunriho no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Among researches on solvent extraction and liquefaction technologies in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981, this paper describes the achievements in development of a solid-liquid separation technology. In the research of operation of a centrifugal separation device, a solid-liquid separation test was performed on slurry extracted from the Australian Wandoan coal being sub-bituminous coal. The deliming rate has reached 99% equilibrium at an addition rate of 20% by weight of anti-solvent (a kind of normal paraffin, which reduces solubility of part of coal extracts and enhances removal rates of ash and solids by utilizing coagulating action of the extracts). Asphaltene among the liquefaction formed materials may be recovered nearly completely, but the recovery rate for pre-asphaltene was lower. An operation test was also carried out by using slurry extracted in a 1 t/d experimental plant. In the study on operation of a 5-l/h continuous sedimentation and separation device, a maximum effect was derived with addition of anti-solvent at 25% by weight and at a stirring rate of 700 rpm. The solid-liquid separability changes depending on the kind of slurry. The low conversion rate slurry becomes difficult of separation because its viscosity is high and the difference in density between solids and liquid is small. Furthermore, the high conversion rate slurry has become difficult of separation due to small particle size of the solids. (NEDO)

  9. Exergy analysis of biomass-to-synthetic natural gas (SNG) process via indirect gasification of various biomass feedstock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitasari, C.R.; Jurascik, M.; Ptasinski, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an exergy analysis of SNG production via indirect gasification of various biomass feedstock, including virgin (woody) biomass as well as waste biomass (municipal solid waste and sludge). In indirect gasification heat needed for endothermic gasification reactions is produced by

  10. Report for fiscal 1981 of Sunshine Program coal group. Basic research on Solvolysis liquefaction technology; 1981 nendo solvolysis ekika gijutsu no kiso kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    Basic research is conducted on the Solvolysis liquefaction process for the purpose of producing from coal an ashless, low-sulfur, pollution-free liquid fuel. In the research on the Solvolysis liquefaction (1st stage liquefaction) of coal using a hydrogenation solvent, the Solvolysis liquefaction of coal is studied, for which a refined Solvolysis pitch containing coal substances and a hydride of solvent refined coal are used as Solvolysis liquefaction solvents for the 1st stage. In the research on the 1st stage liquefaction reaction conditions using a high-temperature closed process, two methods are employed. One is a method that uses a mini-pump type reactor in which a small hermetic container is submerged in a high-temperature solvent for rapid heating and the other is a method that uses a pipe type reactor in which coal slurry is caused to travel through a pipe heated to a high temperature. For the analysis of the 2nd stage liquefaction (hydrogenation) reaction conditions, the properties of the 2nd coal liquid, and the constitution of the 2nd coal liquid, and the for the research on the 1st stage liquefaction capacity, the hydrogenation of anthracene oil and solvent refined coal as recyclable solvent models is studied. (NEDO)

  11. Development of continuous bench scale unit for direct liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wang Lai [Korea Inst. of Energy and Resources, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Batch coal liquefaction experiments using tubing bombs and continuous experiments by cell liquefaction test facility were carried out. The main purpose was to maximize the coal liquefaction yields by improving the activity of coal dissolution catalysts which are oil soluble transition metal naphthenate and to supplement the incomplete research results. In the meantime, the study on the reaction characteristics of coal liquefaction and coal liquid upgrading catalyst upon sulfiding conditions and phosphorous addition have been conducted (author). 102 refs., 35 figs.

  12. Development of continuous bench scale unit for direct liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wang Lai [Korea Inst. of Energy and Resources, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    Batch coal liquefaction experiments using tubing bombs and continuous experiments by cell liquefaction test facility were carried out. The main purpose was to maximize the coal liquefaction yields by improving the activity of coal dissolution catalysts which are oil soluble transition metal naphthenate and to supplement the incomplete research results. In the meantime, the study on the reaction characteristics of coal liquefaction and coal liquid upgrading catalyst upon sulfiding conditions and phosphorous addition have been conducted (author). 102 refs., 35 figs.

  13. [Legal issues of physician-assisted euthanasia. Part II--Help in the dying process, direct and indirect active euthanasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Johannes; Röbel, Andreas; Parzeller, Markus

    2013-01-01

    In Germany, physician-assisted euthanasia involves numerous risks for the attending physician under criminal and professional law. In the absence of clear legal provisions, four different categories of euthanasia have been developed in legal practice and the relevant literature: help in the dying process, direct active euthanasia, indirect active euthanasia and passive euthanasia. The so-called "help during the dying process" by administering medically indicated analgesic drugs without a life-shortening effect is exempt from punishment if it corresponds to the will of the patient. If the physician omits to give such analgesic drugs although the patient demands them, this is deemed a punishable act of bodily injury. The same applies if the physician administers analgesics against the will of the patient. Medically indicated pain treatment which has a potential or certain life-shortening effect (indirect active euthanasia) is permitted under certain conditions: if there are no alternative and equally suitable treatment options without the risk of shortening the patient's life, if the patient has given his consent to the treatment and if the physician does not act with the intention to kill. The deliberate killing of a dying or terminally ill patient for the purpose of ending his suffering (direct active euthanasia) is prohibited. This includes both deliberately killing a patient against or without his will (by so-called "angels of death") and the killing of a patient who expressly and earnestly demands such an act from his physician (killing on request/on demand). Physician-assisted suicide is generally not liable to punishment in Germany. Nevertheless, the action may be subject to punishment if the physician omits to rescue the life of an unconscious suicide victim. "Palliative sedation" is regarded as a special case. It may become necessary if certain symptoms in the terminal stage of a fatal disease unbearable for the patient cannot be controlled by any other

  14. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Wastewater Treatment Plant Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billing, Justin M.

    2016-10-16

    Feedstock cost is the greatest barrier to the commercial production of biofuels. The merits of any thermochemical or biological conversion process are constrained by their applicability to the lowest cost feedstocks. At PNNL, a recent resource assessment of wet waste feedstocks led to the identification of waste water treatment plant (WWTP) solids as a cost-negative source of biomass. WWTP solids disposal is a growing environmental concern [1, 2] and can account for up to half of WWTP operating costs. The high moisture content is well-suited for hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), avoiding the costs and parasitic energy losses associated with drying the feedstock for incineration. The yield and quality of biocrude and upgraded biocrude from WWTP solids is comparable to that obtained from algae feedstocks but the feedstock cost is $500-1200 less per dry ton. A collaborative project was initiated and directed by the Water Environment & Reuse Foundation (WERF) and included feedstock identification, dewatering, shipping to PNNL, conversion to biocrude by HTL, and catalytic hydrothermal gasification of the aqueous byproduct. Additional testing at PNNL included biocrude upgrading by catalytic hydrotreatment, characterization of the hydrotreated product, and a preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) based on empirical results. This short article will cover HTL conversion and biocrude upgrading. The WERF project report with complete HTL results is now available through the WERF website [3]. The preliminary TEA is available as a PNNL report [4].

  15. A spotlight on liquefaction: evidence from clinical settings and experimental models in tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2011-01-01

    Liquefaction is one of the most intriguing aspects of human tuberculosis. It is a major cause of the transition from the infection to active disease (tuberculosis, TB) as well as the transmission of M. tuberculosis to other persons. This paper reviews the natural history of liquefaction in humans from a pathological and radiological point of view and discusses how the experimental models available can be used to address the topic of liquefaction and cavity formation. Different concepts that have been related to liquefaction, from the influence of immune response to mechanical factors, are reviewed. Synchronic necrosis or apoptosis of infected macrophages in a close area, together with an ineffective fibrosis, appears to be clue in this process, in which macrophages, the immune response, and bacillary load interact usually in a particular scenario: the upper lobes of the lung. The summary would be that even if being a stochastic effect, liquefaction would result if the organization of the intragranulomatous necrosis (by means of fibrosis) would be disturbed.

  16. A Spotlight on Liquefaction: Evidence from Clinical Settings and Experimental Models in Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere-Joan Cardona

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquefaction is one of the most intriguing aspects of human tuberculosis. It is a major cause of the transition from the infection to active disease (tuberculosis, TB as well as the transmission of M. tuberculosis to other persons. This paper reviews the natural history of liquefaction in humans from a pathological and radiological point of view and discusses how the experimental models available can be used to address the topic of liquefaction and cavity formation. Different concepts that have been related to liquefaction, from the influence of immune response to mechanical factors, are reviewed. Synchronic necrosis or apoptosis of infected macrophages in a close area, together with an ineffective fibrosis, appears to be clue in this process, in which macrophages, the immune response, and bacillary load interact usually in a particular scenario: the upper lobes of the lung. The summary would be that even if being a stochastic effect, liquefaction would result if the organization of the intragranulomatous necrosis (by means of fibrosis would be disturbed.

  17. Smoking-Specific Experiential Avoidance is Indirectly Associated with Trait Worry and Smoking Processes among Treatment-Seeking Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J; Norton, Peter J; Hogan, Julianna; Smith, Angela H; Talkovsky, Alexander M; Garey, Lorra; Schmidt, Norman B

    2016-01-01

    Limited work has examined worry, or apprehensive anticipation about future negative events, in terms of smoking. One potential explanatory factor is the tendency to respond inflexibly and with avoidance in the presence of smoking-related distress (smoking-specific experiential avoidance). Participants (n = 465) were treatment-seeking daily smokers. Cross-sectional (pre-treatment) self-report data were utilized to assess trait worry, smoking-specific experiential avoidance, and four smoking criterion variables: nicotine dependence, motivational aspects of quitting, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of problematic symptoms reported in past quit attempts. Trait worry was significantly associated with greater levels of nicotine dependence, motivation to quit smoking, perceived barriers for smoking cessation, and more severe problems while quitting in the past; associations occurred indirectly through higher levels of smoking-specific experiential avoidance. Findings provide initial support for the potential role of smoking-specific experiential avoidance in explaining the association between trait worry and a variety of smoking processes.

  18. Hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina and Nannochloropsis Salina under subcritical and supercritical water conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Reddy, H.; Deng, S.

    2013-01-01

    residue, and recycling process water for algae cultivation. GC-MS, elemental analyzer, FT-IR, calorimeter and nutrient analysis were used to analyze bio-crude, lipid-extracted algae and water samples produced in the hydrothermal liquefaction process. The highest bio-crude yield of 46% was obtained...

  19. Report on results of R and D of coal liquefaction technology in fiscal 1981; 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika setsumeisho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This paper explains the results of development of coal liquefaction technology under the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. In connection with solvent extraction and liquefaction, an 1 t/day experimental plant was completed for bituminous coals and operated continuously for 153 hours. An examination also started for the development of a 250 t/day pilot plant. As the element studies, R and D is in progress on the solvent extraction and liquefaction process, solid-liquid separation, secondary hydrogenation, and plant materials. In brown coals, the construction work of a 50 t/day pilot plant started for the purpose of establishing liquefaction technology for brown coal in Victoria State, Australia, with a part of the equipment manufactured. As the element studies, research was conducted on primary hydrogenation, deliming, secondary hydrogenation, dehydration and catalysts. In solvolysis liquefaction, a short-time concluding liquefaction reaction was continuously performed by a plant of 1 t/day scale. In direct hydro-liquefaction, a 2.4 t/day experimental plant was constructed, with the element studies conducted successively. In other words, researches were carried out by the bench scale plant on liquefaction, solid-liquid separation, iron-based catalysts, catalyst and reutilization, motive force recovery system by hydrohoist, and effect of preheating and deaeration. (NEDO)

  20. Assessment of materials selection and performance for direct-coal- liquefaction plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Judkins, R.R.; Keiser, J.R.

    1996-09-01

    Several direct coal liquefaction processes have been demonstrated at the pilot plant level in the United States. Presently only one plant remains operational, namely, the Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., 4.0- ton-per-day process development unit in Lawrenceville, New Jersey. The period from 1974 to 1982 saw the greatest amount of development of direct coal liquefaction in the United States with four major pilot plants being devoted to variants of this technology. The plants included the SRC-I plant at Wilsonville, Alabama, which operated from 1974 to 1992; the SRC-I/II plant at Fort Lewis, Washington, which operated from 1974 to 1981; the H-Coal plant at Catlettsburg, Kentucky, which operated from 1980 to 1982; and the Exxon Coal Liquefaction Pilot Plant at Baytown, Texas, which operated from 1980 to 1982. Oak Ridge National Laboratory scientists and engineers were actively involved in many phases and technical disciplines at all four of these plants, especially in materials testing, evaluation, and failure analyses. In addition, ORNL materials scientists and engineers conducted reviews of the demonstration and commercial plant designs for materials selections. The ORNL staff members worked closely with materials engineers at the pilot plants in identifying causes of materials degradation and failures, and in identifying solutions to these problems. This report provides a comprehensive summary of those materials activities. Materials performance data from laboratory and coal liquefaction pilot plant tests, failure analyses, and analyses of components after use in pilot plants were reviewed and assessed to determine the extent and causes of materials degradation in direct coal liquefaction process environments. Reviews of demonstration and commercial plant design documents for materials selections were conducted. These reviews and assessments are presented to capture the knowledge base on the most likely materials of construction for direct coal liquefaction plants.

  1. MAGNETO-CHEMICAL CHARACTER STUDIES OF NOVEL Fe CATALYSTS FOR COAL LIQUEFACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murty A. Akundi; Jian H. Zhang; A.N. Murty; S.V. Naidu

    2002-04-01

    The objectives of the present study are: (1) To synthesize iron catalysts: Fe/MoO{sub 3}, and Fe/Co/MoO{sub 3} employing two distinct techniques: Pyrolysis with organic precursors and Co-precipitation of metal nitrates; (2) To investigate the magnetic character of the catalysts before and after exposure to CO and CO+H{sub 2} by (a) Mossbauer study of Iron (b) Zerofield Nuclear Magnetic Resonance study of Cobalt, and (c) Magnetic character of the catalyst composite; (3) To study the IR active surface species of the catalyst while stimulating (CO--Metal, (CO+H{sub 2})--Metal) interactions, by FTIR Spectroscopy; and (4) To analyze the catalytic character (conversion efficiency and product distribution) in both direct and indirect liquefaction Process and (5) To examine the correlations between the magnetic and chemical characteristics. This report presents the results of our investigation on (a) the effect of metal loading (b) the effect of intermetallic ratio and (c) the effect of catalyst preparation procedure on (i) the magnetic character of the catalyst composite (ii) the IR active surface species of the catalyst and (iii) the catalytic yields for three different metal loadings: 5%, 15%, and 25% (nominal) for three distinct intermetallic ratios (Fe/Co = 0.3, 1.5, 3.0).

  2. Thermostable endoglucanases in the liquefaction of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siika-aho Matti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermostable enzymes have several benefits in lignocellulose processing. In particular, they potentially allow the use of increased substrate concentrations (because the substrate viscosity decreases as the temperature increases, resulting in improved product yields and reduced capital and processing costs. A short pre-hydrolysis step at an elevated temperature using thermostable enzymes aimed at rapid liquefaction of the feedstock is seen as an attractive way to overcome the technical problems (such as poor mixing and mass transfer properties connected with high initial solid loadings in the lignocellulose to ethanol process. Results The capability of novel thermostable enzymes to reduce the viscosity of high-solid biomass suspensions using a real-time viscometric measurement method was investigated. Heterologously expressed enzymes from various thermophilic organisms were compared for their ability to liquefy the lignocellulosic substrate, hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Once the best enzymes were identified, the optimal temperatures for these enzymes to decrease substrate viscosity were compared. The combined hydrolytic properties of the thermostable preparations were tested in hydrolysis experiments. The studied mixtures were primarily designed to have good liquefaction potential, and therefore contained an enhanced proportion of the key liquefying enzyme, EGII/Cel5A. Conclusions Endoglucanases were shown to have a superior ability to rapidly reduce the viscosity of the 15% (w/w; dry matter hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. Based on temperature profiling studies, Thermoascus aurantiacus EGII/Cel5A was the most promising enzyme for biomass liquefaction. Even though they were not optimized for saccharification, many of the thermostable enzyme mixtures had superior hydrolytic properties compared with the commercial reference enzymes at 55°C.

  3. Numerical analysis of stone columns in mitigating liquefaction effects in embankment fills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghei, Z.; Soroush, A. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Noorzad, A. [Power and Water University of Technology, Tehran, (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    The traditional approach to liquefaction in embankment fills is to use in-situ densification. The use of stone columns offers the possibility of preventing liquefaction and associated settlements while reducing the cost and time required for treatment. This paper investigated the behaviour of stone columns using a numerical method. The study focused on a case study, a sand layer beneath two wall tanks, butane and propane NGL, located on Siri Island, Persian Gulf, Iran. Numerical analyses were carried out to evaluate the rate of excess pore pressure build-up in the improved ground. The numerical model results were compared to the simulation results from a centrifuge test for a uniform 19m-thick liquefiable sand layer. The numerical methodology was verified. The results showed that the stone columns can significantly increase the rate of pore pressure dissipation and reduce the settlement. It was found that the installation process densifies the surrounding soil, decreasing the liquefaction potential.

  4. Efficient direct coal liquefaction of a premium brown coal catalyzed by cobalt-promoted fumed oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautmann, M.; Loewe, A.; Traa, Y. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2013-11-01

    The search for alternatives in the fuel sector is an important technological challenge. An interim solution could be provided by direct coal liquefaction. Hydrogen economy and the lack of an efficient catalyst are the main obstacles for this process. We used a premium German brown coal with a high H/C molar ratio of 1.25 and nanostructured cobalt catalysts to improve the efficiency of direct coal liquefaction. We were able to recover and recycle the catalyst efficiently and reached good brown coal conversions and oil yields with single-stage coal liquefaction. The oil quality observed almost reached that of a conventional crude oil considering higher heating value (HHV), H/C molar ratio and aliphatic content. (orig.)

  5. Liquefaction chemistry and kinetics: Hydrogen utilization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenberger, K.S.; Warzinski, R.P.; Cugini, A.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to investigate the chemistry and kinetics that occur in the initial stages of coal liquefaction and to determine the effects of hydrogen pressure, catalyst activity, and solvent type on the quantity and quality of the products produced. The project comprises three tasks: (1) preconversion chemistry and kinetics, (2) hydrogen utilization studies, and (3) assessment of kinetic models for liquefaction. The hydrogen utilization studies work will be the main topic of this report. However, the other tasks are briefly described.

  6. Liquefaction of Saturated Soil and the Diffusion Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Andrzej; Sławińska, Justyna

    2015-06-01

    The paper deals with the diffusion equation for pore water pressures with the source term, which is widely promoted in the marine engineering literature. It is shown that such an equation cannot be derived in a consistent way from the mass balance and the Darcy law. The shortcomings of the artificial source term are pointed out, including inconsistencies with experimental data. It is concluded that liquefaction and the preceding process of pore pressure generation and the weakening of the soil skeleton should be described by constitutive equations within the well-known framework of applied mechanics. Relevant references are provided

  7. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1988. Development of a collection and processing system for data of the coal liquefaction process; 1988 nendo sekitan ekika process nado no data no shushu, shori system nado no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-03-01

    Storing and managing comprehensively a huge amount of data acquired in developing the coal liquefaction technologies would greatly contribute to moving forward the development of the coal liquefaction technologies, and realizing a commercial plant being the ultimate goal. It is intended to investigate the current status of information management systems used for development projects being implemented or planned in developing the coal liquefaction technologies. It is also intended to structure a coal liquefaction database system to utilize comprehensively and effective the information discovered by the above investigation. The current fiscal year has performed developments on the following items to structure a coal liquefaction database system by using a computer: (1) conceptual design of the fundamental database, and (2) basic design on a general technological information retrieval system. The development during the current fiscal year established a method to classify levels of data accommodation for the fundamental database based on the investigation and analysis of the experimental data. In addition, with regard to the general technological information retrieval system, summarization was performed on the specifications of the hardware and software, the basic configuration, the input and output specifications, and the retrieval screens. (NEDO)

  8. Improvements on mapping soil liquefaction at a regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing

    Earthquake induced soil liquefaction is an important secondary hazard during earthquakes and can lead to significant damage to infrastructure. Mapping liquefaction hazard is important in both planning for earthquake events and guiding relief efforts by positioning resources once the events have occurred. This dissertation addresses two aspects of liquefaction hazard mapping at a regional scale including 1) predictive liquefaction hazard mapping and 2) post-liquefaction cataloging. First, current predictive hazard liquefaction mapping relies on detailed geologic maps and geotechnical data, which are not always available in at-risk regions. This dissertation improves the predictive liquefaction hazard mapping by the development and validation of geospatial liquefaction models (Chapter 2 and 3) that predict liquefaction extent and are appropriate for global application. The geospatial liquefaction models are developed using logistic regression from a liquefaction database consisting of the data from 27 earthquake events from six countries. The model that performs best over the entire dataset includes peak ground velocity (PGV), VS30, distance to river, distance to coast, and precipitation. The model that performs best over the noncoastal dataset includes PGV, VS30, water table depth, distance to water body, and precipitation. Second, post-earthquake liquefaction cataloging historically relies on field investigation that is often limited by time and expense, and therefore results in limited and incomplete liquefaction inventories. This dissertation improves the post-earthquake cataloging by the development and validation of a remote sensing-based method that can be quickly applied over a broad region after an earthquake and provide a detailed map of liquefaction surface effects (Chapter 4). Our method uses the optical satellite images before and after an earthquake event from the WorldView-2 satellite with 2 m spatial resolution and eight spectral bands. Our method

  9. Status of health and environmental research relative to direct coal liquefaction: 1976 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, R.H.; Cowser, K.E. (eds.)

    1982-06-01

    This document describes the status of health and environmental research efforts, supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), to assist in the development of environmentally acceptable coal liquefaction processes. Four major direct coal liquefaction processes are currently in (or have been investigated at) the pilot plant stage of development. Two solvent refined coal processes (SRC-I and -II), H-coal (a catalytic liquefaction process) and Exxon donor solvent (EDS). The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was assigned responsibility for evaluating SRC process materials and prepared comprehensive health and environmental effects research program plans for SRC-I and -II. A similar program plan was prepared for H-coal process materials by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A program has been developed for EDS process materials by Exxon Research and Engineering Co. The program includes short-term screening of coal-derived materials for potential health and ecological effects. Longer-term assays are used to evaluate materials considered most representative of potential commercial practice and with greatest potential for human exposure or release to the environment. Effects of process modification, control technologies and changing operational conditions on potential health and ecological effects are also being evaluated. These assessments are being conducted to assist in formulating cost-effective environmental research programs and to estimate health and environmental risks associated with a large-scale coal liquefaction industry. Significant results of DOE's health and environmental research efforts relative to coal liquefaction include the following: chemical characterization, health effects, ecological fate and effects, amelioration and risk assessment.

  10. Dispersed-phase catalysis in coal liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utz, B.R.; Cugini, A.V.; Frommell, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the specific reaction (activation) conditions for the conversion of catalyst precursors to unsupported catalyst have a direct effect on the catalytic activity and dispersion. The importance of reaction intermediates in decomposition of ammonium heptamolybdate and ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and the sensitivity of these intermediates to reaction conditions, were studied in coal liquefaction systems. Recent results indicate that optimization of activation conditions facilitates the formation of a highly dispersed and active form of molybdenum disulfide for coal liquefaction. The use of the catalyst precursors ammonium heptamolybdate, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and molybdenum trisulfide for the conversion of coal to soluble products will be discussed. The use of an unsupported dispersed-phase catalyst for direct coal liquefaction is not a novel concept and has been employed in may studies with varying success. Dispersed-phase catalysts soluble and oil-soluble salts, and as finely divided powders. While some methods of catalyst introduction give higher dispersion of the catalyst and greater activity for the liquefaction of coal, all of the techniques allow the formation of a finely dispersed inorganic phase

  11. Evaluating liquefaction potential. A case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blystra, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    Several earthen hydropower embankment dams in the midwestern United States were constructed using hydraulic fill methods and are liable to liquefaction during an earthquake due to the use of very loose, saturated sand in the embankment or foundations. A case history is presented describing the methodology used in evaluating the liquefaction potential of the largest earthfill dam in Michigan. The methodology includes the use of standard penetration and cone penetration test data in the formulation of a simplified procedure. Field investigations, laboratory testing, and analyses used are described. In addition to the drilling program, field work included an extensive ground penetrating radar survey, acoustic emission testing, and an electrical resistivity survey. It was found that the lowest calculated factor of safety against liquefaction is 0.63 for a loose zone ca 140 feet below the top of the embankment, and the factor of safety against slope failure, should the zone liquefy, is 1.49. It was concluded that while liquefaction is possible, post earthquake stability is adequate. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  12. Renewable hydrocarbon fuels from hydrothermal liquefaction: A techno-economic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Hansen, Nick Høy; Pérez, Oscar Miralles

    2018-01-01

    This study demonstrates the economic feasibility of producing renewable transportation drop-in fuels from lignocellulosic biomass through hydrothermal liquefaction and upgrading. An Aspen Plus® process model is developed based on extensive experimental data to document a techno-economic assessmen...

  13. Indirect Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Major Rivers in the World: Integration of a Process-based Model with Observational Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Yao, Y.; Xu, R.; Yang, J.; WANG, Z.; Pan, S.; Tian, H.

    2016-12-01

    The atmospheric concentration of nitrous oxide (N2O), one of major greenhouse gases, has increased over 121% compared with the preindustrial level, and most of the increase arises from anthropogenic activities. Previous studies suggested that indirect emissions from global rivers remains a large source of uncertainty among all the N2O sources and restricted the assessment of N2O budget at both regional and global scales. Here, we have integrated a coupled biogeochemical model (DLEM) with observational data to quantify the magnitude and spatio-temporal variation of riverine N2O emission and attribute the environmental controls of indirect N2O emission from major rivers in the world. Our preliminary results indicate that the magnitude of indirect N2O emission from rivers is closely associated with the stream orders. To include N2O emissions from headwater streams is essential for reducing uncertainty in the estimation of indirect N2O emission. By implementing a set of factorial simulations, we have further quantified the relative contributions of climate, nitrogen deposition, nitrogen fertilizer use, and manure application to riverine N2O emission. Finally, this study has identified major knowledge gaps and uncertainties associated with model structure, parameters and input data that need to be improved in future research.

  14. Simulation and Optimization of an Innovative Dual Mixed Component Refrigerant Cycle (DMRC) for Natural Gas Offshore Liquefaction Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHAHBA, L.A.; Fahmy, M.F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Simulation and optimization of an innovative liquefaction process used for the LNG production , namely the Dual Mixed Refrigerant Process (DMRC) has been conducted using the HYSYS simulator .This new process is especially suitable for off shore natural gas liquefaction plants. A numerical optimization technique has been used to determine the optimum conditions for Egyptian natural gas feed source. The investigation of the effect of different compositions of the Mixed refrigerants used was conducted. Meanwhile, the investigation of the influence of the temperature of cooling water used was conducted. The best optimum conditions for the DMRC process were determined .The optimum results achieved for the DMRC process revealed that the DMRC process can be successfully applied as a promising technique for off shore natural gas liquefaction plants

  15. FY 1974 report on the results of the Sunshine Project. Study on a system to refine/transport/store hydrogen and the safety technology (Investigational study of behavior of trace impurities in the liquefaction process); 1974 nendo suiso no seisei, yuso, chozo system oyobi hoan gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Ekika katei ni okeru biryo fujunbutsu no kyodo ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-05-28

    Hydrogen gas as material is produced mostly by steam reforming of hydrocarbons, and includes a considerable amount of impurities such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and oxygen. The concentration of impurities in the refined gas is approximately 1ppm. In the liquefaction process of hydrogen liquefaction plant, the gases entering the low temperature portion near the free expansion valve (J-T valve) are mostly oxygen and nitrogen. When oxygen is solidified, attached, accumulated near J-T valve, it incurs a possibility of exploding for reason of impact force, etc. by contact with the valve portion. A mixture of hydrogen and oxygen ignites at the minimum value of approximately 0.02 milli-joule, and therefore it has great danger of explosion. As viewed from a point of danger prevention, there is a possibility of explosion when the hydrogen-oxidizing agent mixture is formed. Accordingly, it is necessary to conduct an experiment for confirming the explosion at J-T valve portion. From viewpoints of prevention of explosion accident and running operation, it is necessary to experimentally grasp the definite allowable oxygen concentration. Further, it is necessary to establish a technology to continuously and accurately measure the concentration of trace impurities in hydrogen gas. (NEDO)

  16. Fiscal 1994 report. Liquefaction key technology subcommittee; 1994 nendo ekika kiban gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The subcommittee held the 1st meeting in August 1994 and the 2nd in March 1995, when preceding fiscal year's research results, fiscal 1994 research plans, fiscal 1994 research results, etc., were introduced, and deliberated. In the study of hydrorefining of naphtha, kerosene, and light oil fractions, a nitrogen concentration level of not more than 5 ppm was achieved by refining oils from Indonesian coal. Studies were also made about the two-step hydrorefining system, the relationship between the coal oil refining level and sludge formation, etc. In the research for the development of novel catalysts for upgrading coal oil, the active life of a nickel-supporting catalyst for hydrogenation at the 1st step was somewhat prolonged with an increase in the amount of nickel. In the study of coal liquefaction conditions, an AWIP method was deliberated, wherein liquefaction process waste water was utilized as one of catalytic component adjusting materials. For upgrading liquefaction key technologies, studies were made for catalyst improvement and pretreatment method development, and about the behavior of liquefaction reaction in a high boiling solvent-aided process. (NEDO)

  17. Efficient Air Desulfurization Catalysts Derived from Pig Manure Liquefaction Char

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Wallace

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biochar from the liquefaction of pig manure was used as a precursor of H2S desulfurization adsorbents. In its inorganic matter, it contains marked quantities of calcium, magnesium and iron, which are known as hydrogen sulfide oxidation catalysts. The char was used either as-received or mixed with 10% nanographite. The latter was added to increase both the content of the carbon phase and conductivity. ZnCl2 in two different ratios of char to an activation agent (1:1 and 1:2 was used to create the porosity in the carbon phase. The content of the later was between 18–45%. The activated samples adsorbed 144 mg/g H2S. Sulfur was the predominant product of reactive adsorption. Its deposition in the pore system and blockage of the most active pores ceased the materials’ activity. The presence of the catalytic phase was necessary but not sufficient to guarantee good performance. The developed porosity, which can store oxidation products in the resulting composite, is essential for the good performance of the desulfurization process. The surface of the composite with nanographite showed the highest catalytic activity, similar to that of the commercial Midas® carbon catalyst. The results obtained indicate that a high quality reactive adsorbent/catalyst for H2S removal can be obtained from pig manure liquefaction wastes.

  18. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program-assisted project. Development of coal liquefaction plant (Research on total system); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika plant no kaihatsu (total system no kenkyu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    For a quantitative analysis of a coal liquefaction process and its constituent sub-processes from both engineering and economic viewpoints, research is conducted for the development of a coal liquefaction process simulator. In the development of a liquefaction simulator, surveys and studies are performed relative to a coal liquefaction process, which is the object of this development effort, its system, existing like simulators, computation for the estimation of the physical properties that a liquefaction simulator should be equipped with, liquefaction yield prediction model, unit operation model, etc. Based on the results of these studies, a conceptual system design is drawn, which is the first step toward the programming of a more concrete software program. Also compiled into this book are the contents of advice and guidance provided by the total system committee in the period September 1981-February 1982 on the research for the development of a liquefaction simulator, and reports by researchers who were dispatched to the U.S. etc. for the development of a coal liquefaction simulator. (NEDO)

  19. Fiscal 1989 report on the bituminous coal liquefaction section meeting; 1989 nendo rekiseitan ekika bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    At the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd group meetings held for the fiscal year, reports are given and discussions are made about the progress of research and development. Reported and discussed in relation to the progress of the pilot plant support research are studies with the 1t/d PSU (process supporting unit) (Nippon Steel Corporation, Mitsui Coal Liquefaction Co., Ltd., and Japan Coal Oil Co., Ltd.); improvement on distillate distribution (Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd.); development of an optimum decalcification technique (Sumitomo Coal Mining Co., Ltd., and Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd.); studies of solvent hydrogenation catalysts (Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd., and Chiyoda Corp.); and studies of coal liquefaction conditions (Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd.). In relation to studies using a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant, the progress of the 150t/d PP (pilot plant) effort (Japan Coal Oil, Co., Ltd.) and the outlines of pilot surveys (Japan Coal Oil Co., Ltd.) are reported and discussed, the latter covering liquefaction solvent performance optimization, slurry preheating furnaces, coal slurry properties, and so forth. (NEDO)

  20. Fiscal 1990 report on the bituminous coal liquefaction section meeting; 1990 nendo rekiseitan ekika bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    At the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd group meetings held for the fiscal year, reports are delivered and discussions are made concerning the progress of research and development activities. Reported and discussed in relation to the pilot plant support research, etc., are studies with the 1t/d PSU (process supporting unit) (Nippon Steel Corporation, Mitsui Coal Liquefaction Co., Ltd., and Japan Coal Oil Co., Ltd.); development of an optimum coal refining technique (Sumitomo Coal Mining Co., Ltd.); development of an optimum pretreatment technique and improvement on distillate distribution (Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd.); studies of coal liquefaction conditions (Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd.); and studies of solvent hydrogenation catalysts (Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd., and Chiyoda Corp.). Reported and discussed in relation to researches using a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant are the progress of the 150t/d PP (pilot plant) effort (Japan Coal Oil Co., Ltd.) and the outlines of pilot surveys (Japan Coal Oil Co., Ltd.), the latter covering liquefaction solvent performance optimization, slurry pre-heating furnaces, coal slurry properties, and so forth. (NEDO)

  1. Fiscal 1993 report. Coal liquefaction committee; 1993 nendo sekitan ekika iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The committee in this fiscal year had the 1st meeting in July 1993, the 2nd in December 1993, and the 3rd in March 1994, when fiscal 1993 research and development programs and results were reported and discussed. Reported and discussed at the 2nd meeting were the compilation of brown coal liquefaction technology development project results, evaluation report on the same, hydrorefining of oil from brown coal and the research and development of application technologies for the same, and an environmental safety evaluation test on the same. In selecting a standard coal for the operation of the 150 ton/day pilot plant, PSU (process supporting unit)-aided studies were made on the analytical values presented by coals, yield of the liquid, yield of the liquefaction residue, yield of the generated gas, amount of the hydrogen consumed, coal oil properties, liquefaction residue properties, operationality, etc. On-site investigations were conducted also in Indonesia, and a conclusion was reached that Tanito Harum coal would be the most suitable for the pilot plant. Concerning the liquefaction catalyst for the pilot plant, a report was given on a comparison made between the activity of a synthetic iron sulfide and that of natural pyrite. (NEDO)

  2. Quantitative characterization of the aqueous fraction from hydrothermal liquefaction of algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddi, Balakrishna; Panisko, Ellen; Wietsma, Thomas; Lemmon, Teresa; Swita, Marie; Albrecht, Karl; Howe, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Aqueous streams generated from hydrothermal liquefaction contain approximately 30% of the total carbon present from the algal feed. Hence, this aqueous carbon must be utilized to produce liquid fuels and/or specialty chemicals for economic sustainability of hydrothermal liquefaction on industrial scale. In this study, aqueous fractions produced from the hydrothermal liquefaction of fresh water and saline water algal cultures were analyzed using a wide variety of analytical instruments to determine their compositional characteristics. This study will also inform researchers designing catalysts for down-stream processing such as high-pressure catalytic conversion of organics in aqueous phase, catalytic hydrothermal gasification, and biological conversions. Organic chemical compounds present in all eight aqueous fractions were identified using two-dimensional gas chromatography equipped with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Identified compounds include organic acids, nitrogen compounds and aldehydes/ketones. Conventional gas chromatography and liquid chromatography methods were utilized to quantify the identified compounds. Inorganic species in the aqueous stream of hydrothermal liquefaction of algae were identified using ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. The concentrations of organic chemical compounds and inorganic species are reported. The amount quantified carbon ranged from 45 to 72 % of total carbon in the aqueous fractions.

  3. Co-Liquefaction of Elbistan Lignite with Manure Biomass; Part 3 - Effect of Reaction Time and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyunoglu, Cemil; Karaca, Hüseyin

    2017-12-01

    Most of the liquefaction process were carried out in a batch reactor, in which the residence time of the liquefaction products is long enough to favour the retrogressive reactions. To minimize retrogressive reactions, the liquefaction of coal was carried out in a flowing solvent reactor in which a fixed bed of coal is continuously permeated by hot solvent. Solvent flowing through the coal bed carries the liquefaction products out of the reactor. Unlike experiments carried out under similar conditions in a batch reactor no increase in solid residue is observed during long time high temperature runs in the flowing solvent reactor. There is a greater appreciation of the importance of retrograde, or polymerization, reactions. If the free radicals formed when coal breaks down are not quickly capped with hydrogen, they react with each other to form large molecules that are much harder to break down than the original coal. Reaction time impacts both the co-liquefaction cost and the product yield. So as to study this idea, the experiments of Elbistan Lignite (EL) with manure co-liquefaction carried out by changing the reaction time from 30 to 120 minutes. As a result, the greatest oil products yields obtained at 60 minutes. Therefore, by thinking about the oil products yield values acquired, the optimal reaction time was obtained to be 60 minutes for Elbistan lignite (EL) with manure liquefied with the temperature of 350°C and 400°C. Above 425°C did not examine because solvent (tetraline) loses its function after 425 °C. The obtained optimum temperature found 400°C due to higher total conversion of liquefaction products and also oil+gas yields.

  4. Liquefaction of Semen Generates and Later Degrades a Conserved Semenogelin Peptide That Enhances HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haichuan; Usmani, Shariq M.; Neidleman, Jason; Müller, Janis A.; Avila-Herrera, Aram; Gawanbacht, Ali; Zirafi, Onofrio; Chu, Simon; Dong, Ming; Kumar, Senthil T.; Smith, James F.; Pollard, Katherine S.; Fändrich, Marcus; Kirchhoff, Frank; Münch, Jan; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Greene, Warner C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Semen enhances HIV infection in vitro, but how long it retains this activity has not been carefully examined. Immediately postejaculation, semen exists as a semisolid coagulum, which then converts to a more liquid form in a process termed liquefaction. We demonstrate that early during liquefaction, semen exhibits maximal HIV-enhancing activity that gradually declines upon further incubation. The decline in HIV-enhancing activity parallels the degradation of peptide fragments derived from the semenogelins (SEMs), the major components of the coagulum that are cleaved in a site-specific and progressive manner upon initiation of liquefaction. Because amyloid fibrils generated from SEM fragments were recently demonstrated to enhance HIV infection, we set out to determine whether any of the liquefaction-generated SEM fragments associate with the presence of HIV-enhancing activity. We identify SEM1 from amino acids 86 to 107 [SEM1(86-107)] to be a short, cationic, amyloidogenic SEM peptide that is generated early in the process of liquefaction but that, conversely, is lost during prolonged liquefaction due to the activity of serine proteases. Synthetic SEM1(86-107) amyloids directly bind HIV-1 virions and are sufficient to enhance HIV infection of permissive cells. Furthermore, endogenous seminal levels of SEM1(86-107) correlate with donor-dependent variations in viral enhancement activity, and antibodies generated against SEM1(86-107) recognize endogenous amyloids in human semen. The amyloidogenic potential of SEM1(86-107) and its virus-enhancing properties are conserved among great apes, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved function. These studies identify SEM1(86-107) to be a key, HIV-enhancing amyloid species in human semen and underscore the dynamic nature of semen's HIV-enhancing activity. IMPORTANCE Semen, the most common vehicle for HIV transmission, enhances HIV infection in vitro, but how long it retains this activity has not been investigated. Semen

  5. Report on 1979 result of Sunshine Project (detailed design). Part 1. Forty t/day solvolysis coal liquefaction pilot plant; 1979 nendo 40T/nichi solvolysis sekitan pilot plant shosai sekkei. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    The subject design documents are the compilation of the result of the design operation for the 'detailed design of 40 t/day class solvolysis coal liquefaction pilot plant'. The design of this pilot plant was conducted using, as the fundamental reference, the basic data provided by Kyushu National Industrial Research Institute and Kyushu University and the results of a contract research on '1 t/day class solvolysis coal liquefaction plant'. The subject detailed design was intended for Phase 1 centering on a single stage liquefaction - coal liquefaction (transformation into pitch) by solvolysis liquefaction reaction. The areas covered consists of the pre-treatment process, material mixing process, reaction process, reaction freezing process, coke separation process, SR recovery process, pitch refining process, utility facilities, and waste water treatment facilities. Incidentally, the processes for which the design operation has been completed this year, particularly the reaction process, coke separation process, SR recovery process, etc., are in the field untrodden technologically in the world; therefore, their design method is supposed to be established from the results of the R and D on coal liquefaction, '1 t/day class solvolysis coal liquefaction plant.' (NEDO)

  6. Report on 1979 result of Sunshine Project (detailed design). Part 1. Forty t/day solvolysis coal liquefaction pilot plant; 1979 nendo 40T/nichi solvolysis sekitan pilot plant shosai sekkei. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    The subject design documents are the compilation of the result of the design operation for the 'detailed design of 40 t/day class solvolysis coal liquefaction pilot plant'. The design of this pilot plant was conducted using, as the fundamental reference, the basic data provided by Kyushu National Industrial Research Institute and Kyushu University and the results of a contract research on '1 t/day class solvolysis coal liquefaction plant'. The subject detailed design was intended for Phase 1 centering on a single stage liquefaction - coal liquefaction (transformation into pitch) by solvolysis liquefaction reaction. The areas covered consists of the pre-treatment process, material mixing process, reaction process, reaction freezing process, coke separation process, SR recovery process, pitch refining process, utility facilities, and waste water treatment facilities. Incidentally, the processes for which the design operation has been completed this year, particularly the reaction process, coke separation process, SR recovery process, etc., are in the field untrodden technologically in the world; therefore, their design method is supposed to be established from the results of the R and D on coal liquefaction, '1 t/day class solvolysis coal liquefaction plant.' (NEDO)

  7. Assessment of thermodynamic models for the design, analysis and optimisation of gas liquefaction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Six thermodynamic models used for evaluating gas liquefaction systems are compared. • Three gas liquefaction systems are modelled, assessed and optimised for each equation of state. • The predictions of thermophysical properties and energy flows are significantly different. • The GERG-2008 model is the only consistent one, while cubic, virial and statistical equations are unsatisfying. - Abstract: Natural gas liquefaction systems are based on refrigeration cycles – they consist of the same operations such as heat exchange, compression and expansion, but they have different layouts, components and working fluids. The design of these systems requires a preliminary simulation and evaluation of their performance. However, the thermodynamic models used for this purpose are characterised by different mathematical formulations, ranges of application and levels of accuracy. This may lead to inconsistent results when estimating hydrocarbon properties and assessing the efficiency of a given process. This paper presents a thorough comparison of six equations of state widely used in the academia and industry, including the GERG-2008 model, which has recently been adopted as an ISO standard for natural gases. These models are used to (i) estimate the thermophysical properties of a Danish natural gas, (ii) simulate, and (iii) optimise liquefaction systems. Three case studies are considered: a cascade layout with three pure refrigerants, a single mixed-refrigerant unit, and an expander-based configuration. Significant deviations are found between all property models, and in all case studies. The main discrepancies are related to the prediction of the energy flows (up to 7%) and to the heat exchanger conductances (up to 11%), and they are not systematic errors. The results illustrate the superiority of using the GERG-2008 model for designing gas processes in real applications, with the aim of reducing their energy use. They demonstrate as well that

  8. FY 1980 Report on results of Sunshine Project by Coal Group. Basic researches on coal liquefaction techniques by solvolysis; 1980 nendo sunshine keikaku sekitanhan hokokusho. Sekitan no solvolysis ekika gijutsu no kiso kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-07-01

    The basic experimental researches were carried out for coal liquefaction by solvolysis. The studied items include hydrogenation conditions for treating the primary liquefied products, asphalt, pitch and model solvents (e.g., anthracene oil) in the presence of a commercial catalyst, solvolysis conditions for finely divided, molten coal using a hydrogenation recycled solvent, hydrotreating solvents, analysis of solvolysis-liquefied products, and liquefaction capacity of fractionated solvents for finely divided, molten coal. The studied items for separation of minerals include settlement at high temperature of the solid residue from the first liquefaction stage, and changed coal particle size distribution as a result of the first-stage liquefaction reactions in the presence of a hydrogenation solvent. The experimental study results indicate that conversion of finely divided molten coal into asphaltenes and preasphaltenes is notably accelerated in the phase-II coal liquefaction process by solvolysis, when a hydrotreating solvent is used for the first stage solvolysis process. (NEDO)

  9. Behavior of catalyst and mineral matter in coal liquefaction; Sekitan ekika hannochu no kobusshitsu to shokubai no kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, K.; Wang, J.; Tomita, A. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    Mineral matter in coals is important in various senses for coal liquefaction. It is possible that the catalytic activity is affected by the interaction between catalyst and mineral matter. Iron-based catalyst forms pyrrhotite in the process of liquefaction, but the interaction between it and mineral matter is not known in detail. In this study, the interaction between mineral matter and catalyst and the selective reaction between them were investigated. Tanito Harum coal was used for this study. This coal contains a slight amount of siderite and jarosite besides pyrite as iron compounds. Liquefaction samples were obtained from the 1 t/d NEDOL process PSU. The solid deposits in the reactor mainly contained pyrrhotite and quartz. A slight amount of kaolinite was observed, and pyrite was little remained. It was found that the catalyst (pyrrhotite) often coexisted with quartz, clay and calcite. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Effects of relative density and accumulated shear strain on post-liquefaction residual deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The damage caused by liquefaction, which occurs following an earthquake, is usually because of settlement and lateral spreading. Generally, the evaluation of liquefaction has been centered on settlement, that is, residual volumetric strain. However, in actual soil, residual shear and residual volumetric deformations occur simultaneously after an earthquake. Therefore, the simultaneous evaluation of the two phenomena and the clarification of their relationship are likely to evaluate post-liquefaction soil behaviors more accurately. Hence, a quantitative evaluation of post-liquefaction damage will also be possible. In this study, the effects of relative density and accumulated shear strain on post-liquefaction residual deformations were reviewed through a series of lateral constrained-control hollow cylindrical torsion tests under undrained conditions. In order to identify the relationship between residual shear and residual volumetric strains, this study proposed a new test method that integrates monotonic loading after cyclic loading, and K0-drain after cyclic loading – in other words, the combination of cyclic loading, monotonic loading, and the K0 drain. In addition, a control that maintained the lateral constrained condition across all the processes of consolidation, cyclic loading, monotonic loading, and drainage was used to reproduce the anisotropy of in situ ground. This lateral constrain control was performed by controlling the axial strain, based on the assumption that under undrained conditions, axial and lateral strains occur simultaneously, and unless axial strain occurs, lateral strain does not occur. The test results confirmed that the recovery of effective stresses, which occur during monotonic loading and drainage after cyclic loading, respectively, result from mutually different structural restoration characteristics. In addition, in the ranges of 40–60% relative density and 50–100% accumulated shear strain, relative

  11. Comparison of oxygen liquefaction methods for use on the Martian surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Hauser, D. M.; Plachta, D. W.; Wang, X.-Y. J.; Banker, B. F.; Desai, P. S.; Stephens, J. R.; Swanger, A. M.

    2018-03-01

    In order to use oxygen that is produced on the surface of Mars from In-Situ production processes in a chemical propulsion system, the oxygen must first be converted from vapor phase to liquid phase and then stored within the propellant tanks of the propulsions system. There are multiple ways that this can be accomplished, from simply attaching a liquefaction system onto the propellant tanks to carrying separate tanks for liquefaction and storage of the propellant and loading just prior to launch (the way that traditional rocket launches occur on Earth). A study was done into these various methods by which the oxygen (and methane) could be liquefied and stored on the Martian surface. Five different architectures or cycles were considered: Tube-on-Tank (also known as Broad Area Cooling or Distributed Refrigeration), Tube-in-Tank (also known as Integrated Refrigeration and Storage), a modified Linde open liquefaction/refrigeration cycle, the direct mounting of a pulse tube cryocooler onto the tank, and an in-line liquefier at ambient pressure. Models of each architecture were developed to give insight into the performance and losses of each of the options. The results were then compared across eight categories: Mass, Power (both input and heat rejection), Operability, Cost, Manufacturability, Reliability, Volume-ility, and Scalability. The result was that Tube-on-Tank and Tube-in-Tank architectures were the most attractive solutions, with NASA's engineering management choosing to pursue tube on tank development rather than further differentiate the two. As a result NASA is focusing its Martian surface liquefaction activities and technology development on Tube-on-Tank liquefaction cycles.

  12. Catalytic subcritical water liquefaction of flax straw for high yield of furfural

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harry, Inibehe; Ibrahim, Hussameldin; Thring, Ron; Idem, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial interest in the application of biomass as a renewable fuel or for production of chemicals. Flax straw can be converted into valuable chemicals and biofuels via liquefaction in sub-critical water. In this study, the yield of furfural and the kinetics of flax straw liquefaction under sub-critical water conditions were investigated using a high-pressure autoclave reactor. The liquefaction was conducted in the temperature range of 175–325 °C, pressure of 0.1 MPa–8 MPa, retention time in the range of 0 min–120 min, and flax straw mass fraction (w F ) of 5–20 %. Also, the effect of acid catalysts on furfural yield was studied. The kinetic parameters of flax straw liquefaction were determined using nonlinear regression of the experimental data, assuming second-order kinetics. The apparent activation energy was found to be 27.97 kJ mol −1 while the reaction order was 2.0. The optimum condition for furfural yield was at 250 °C, 6.0 MPa, w F of 5% and 0 retention time after reaching set conditions. An acid catalyst was found to selectively favour furfural yield with 40% flax straw conversion. - Highlights: • Flax straw liquefaction in subcritical water. • Creation of a reaction pathway that can be used to optimized furfural production. • Acid catalyst selectively favoured furfural yield with respect to other liquid products. • At the highest process temperature of 325 °C, a carbon conversion of 40% was achieved. • Activation energy and reaction order was 28 kJ/mol and 2.0 respectively

  13. Fractional Multistage Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass and Catalytic Conversion into Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortright, Randy [Virent, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Rozmiarek, Robert [Virent, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Dally, Brice [Virent, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Holland, Chris [Virent, Inc., Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-08-31

    The objective of this project was to develop an improved multistage process for the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass to serve as a new front-end, deconstruction process ideally suited to feed Virent’s well-proven catalytic technology, which is already being scaled up. This process produced water soluble, partially de-oxygenated intermediates that are ideally suited for catalytic finishing to fungible distillate hydrocarbons. Through this project, Virent, with its partners, demonstrated the conversion of pine wood chips to drop-in hydrocarbon distillate fuels using a multi-stage fractional conversion system that is integrated with Virent’s BioForming® process. The majority of work was in the liquefaction task and included temperature scoping, solvent optimization, and separations.

  14. Thermoeconomic optimization of a cryogenic refrigeration cycle for re-liquefaction of the LNG boil-off gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayyaadi, Hoseyn; Babaelahi, M. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering-Energy Division, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box: 19395-1999, No. 15-19, Pardis Str., Mollasadra Ave., Vanak Sq., Tehran 1999 143344 (Iran)

    2010-09-15

    The development of the liquefaction process for the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) boil-off re-liquefaction plants will be addressed to provide an environmentally friendly and cost effective solution for the gas transportation. In this manner, onboard boil-off gas (BOG) re-liquefaction system as a cryogenic refrigeration cycle is utilized in order to re-liquefy the BOG and returns it to the cargo tanks instead of burning it. In this paper, a thermoeconomic optimization of the LNG-BOG liquefaction system is performed. A thermoeconomic model based on energy and exergy analyses and an economic model according to the total revenue requirement (TRR) are developed. Minimizing of the unit cost of the refrigeration effect as a product of BOG re-liquefaction plant is performed using the genetic algorithm. Results of thermoeconomic optimization are compared with corresponding features of the base case system. Finally, sensitivity of the total cost of the system product with respect to the variation of some operating parameters is studied. (author)

  15. Conceptual design of an integrated hydrothermal liquefaction and biogas plant for sustainable bioenergy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Rudra, Souman; Toor, Saqib

    2013-01-01

    Initial process studies carried out in Aspen Plus on an integrated thermochemical conversion process are presented herein. In the simulations, a hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) plant is combined with a biogas plant (BP), such that the digestate from the BP is converted to a biocrude in the HTL...... grid or for CHP. An estimated 62–84% of the biomass energy can be recovered in the biofuels....

  16. Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knorr, D.; Lukas, J.; Schoen, P.

    2013-11-01

    This report provides detailed reactor designs and capital costs, and operating cost estimates for the hydrothermal liquefaction reactor system, used for biomass-to-biofuels conversion, under development at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Five cases were developed and the costs associated with all cases ranged from $22 MM/year - $47 MM/year.

  17. Liquefaction Microzonation of Babol City Using Artificial Neural Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrokhzad, F.; Choobbasti, A.J.; Barari, Amin

    2012-01-01

    that will be less susceptible to damage during earthquakes. The scope of present study is to prepare the liquefaction microzonation map for the Babol city based on Seed and Idriss (1983) method using artificial neural network. Artificial neural network (ANN) is one of the artificial intelligence (AI) approaches...... microzonation map is produced for research area. Based on the obtained results, it can be stated that the trained neural network is capable in prediction of liquefaction potential with an acceptable level of confidence. At the end, zoning of the city is carried out based on the prediction of liquefaction...... that can be classified as machine learning. Simplified methods have been practiced by researchers to assess nonlinear liquefaction potential of soil. In order to address the collective knowledge built-up in conventional liquefaction engineering, an alternative general regression neural network model...

  18. Pressure swing adsorption cycle for natural gas pretreatment for liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, R.E.

    1984-01-10

    An improved apparatus and method for a regeneration of a solid adsorbent used to pretreat a gas before liquefaction. The spent adsorbent is subjected to a two-step regenerative process, in the first of which the adsorbent is subjected to a low pressure produced by the use of mechanical vacuum pumps. When the pressure of the atmosphere in contact with the adsorbent has been reduced to a level sufficiently low to insure that the gas will flow under laminar rather than viscous conditions, the adsorbent is exposed to the action of a cryoplate condenser maintained at a sufficiently low temperature to cause any molecules of water which impinge thereon to condense and freeze, thereby reducing the partial pressure of water vapor within the chamber. The reduced partial pressure of the water vapor in turn causes adsorbed water on the adsorbent to be desorbed, thereby effectively removing the water from the adsorbent and depositing it as solid ice on the cryoplate condenser.

  19. Quasicontinuum γ decay of Zr,9291: Benchmarking indirect (n ,γ ) cross section measurements for the s process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttormsen, M.; Goriely, S.; Larsen, A. C.; Görgen, A.; Hagen, T. W.; Renstrøm, T.; Siem, S.; Syed, N. U. H.; Tagliente, G.; Toft, H. K.; Utsunomiya, H.; Voinov, A. V.; Wikan, K.

    2017-08-01

    Nuclear level densities (NLDs) and γ -ray strength functions (γ SFs ) have been extracted from particle-γ coincidences of the 92Zr(p ,p'γ )92Zr and 92Zr(p ,d γ )91Zr reactions using the Oslo method. The new Zr,9291γ SF data, combined with photonuclear cross sections, cover the whole energy range from Eγ≈1.5 MeV up to the giant dipole resonance at Eγ≈17 MeV. The wide-range γ SF data display structures at Eγ≈9.5 MeV, compatible with a superposition of the spin-flip M 1 resonance and a pygmy E 1 resonance. Furthermore, the γ SF shows a minimum at Eγ≈2 -3 MeV and an increase at lower γ -ray energies. The experimentally constrained NLDs and γ SFs are shown to reproduce known (n ,γ ) and Maxwellian-averaged cross sections for Zr,9291 using the talys reaction code, thus serving as a benchmark for this indirect method of estimating (n ,γ ) cross sections for Zr isotopes.

  20. Microstructure of Semi-Solid Billets Produced by Electromagnetic Stirring and Behavior of Primary Particles during the Indirect Forming Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Kyu Jin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An A356 alloy semi-solid billet was fabricated using electromagnetic stirring. After inserting the semi-solid billet into an indirect die, a thin plate of 1.2 mm thickness was fabricated by applying compression. The microstructure of the semi-solid billets fabricated in various stirring conditions (solid fraction and stirring force were analyzed. The deformation and behavior of the primary α-Al particles were analyzed for various parameters (solid fraction, die friction, compression rate, and compression pressure. In the stirred billets, a globular structure was dominant, while a dendrite structure was dominant in the unstirred billets. As the solid fraction decreased and the stirring current increased, the equivalent diameter and roundness of the primary α-Al particles decreased. The primary α-Al particle sizes were reduced as the compressing velocity increased, while a greater number of particles could move as the compressing pressure increased. As the path over which the motion occurred became smoother, the fluidity of the particles improved. Under compression, bonded primary α-Al particles became separated into individual particles again, as the bonds were broken. As wearing caused by friction and collisions between the particles during this motion occurred, the particle sizes were reduced, and the particle shapes become increasingly spheroid.

  1. The use of mixed pyrrhotite/pyrite catalysts for co-liquefaction of coal and waste rubber tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadyburjor, D.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Sharma, R.K. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this research program is to determine the optimum processing conditions for tire/coal co-liquefaction. The catalysts used will be a ferric-sulfide-based materials, as well as promising catalysts from other consortium laboratories. The intent here is to achieve the maximum coal+tire conversion at the mildest conditions of temperature and pressure. Specific objectives include an investigation of the effects of time, temperature, pressure, catalyst and co-solvent on the conversion and product slate of the co-liquefaction. Accomplishments and conclusions are discussed.

  2. Report on the FY 1998 results of the New Sunshine Project (B version). Data attached 2. Development of coal liquefaction technology (Development of base technology of liquefaction (Project on internationalization of coal liquefaction technology)); 1998 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (B ban). Ekika kiban gijutsu no kaihatsu (sekitan ekika gijutsu no kokusaika jigyo (fuzoku shiryo 2))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    As a part of the project for internationalization of coal liquefaction technology, this paper reported on the potential survey for location of Indonesian low grade coal liquefaction (study of applicability of the improved BCL process and survey of hydrogen production technology using coal gasification). The survey was conducted of a locational possibility of a coal liquefaction commercial plant to be located at mine site in South Sumatra for Banko coal raw material. The improved BCL process was applied in which the results of the study by NBCL Takasago Research Institute were reflected. Further, the hydrogen production was studied by gasification of Banko coal, and the comparison was made with the conventional natural gas reforming method. As a result of the study using information/knowledge obtained during the conceptual design of Australian brown coal, the construction cost of commercial scale liquefaction plant with the Banko coal processing amount of 30,000 tons/day became 549.8 billion yen in the case of using natural gas as raw material for hydrogen production. This construction cost is the lowest as compared with 601.7 billion yen in the demonstrative BCL process and with 577.1 billion yen in the advanced BCL process. This is a process making use of features of Banko coal. The process for hydrogen production by the steam reforming method using natural gas has an advantage of increasing the production amount of coal-derived liquid the most of the three other methods. (NEDO)

  3. Report on the FY 1998 results of the New Sunshine Project (B version). Data attached 1. Development of coal liquefaction technology (Development of base technology of liquefaction (Project on internationalization of coal liquefaction technology)); 1998 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (B ban). Ekika kiban gijutsu no kaihatsu (sekitan ekika gijutsu no kokusaika jigyo (fuzoku shiryo-1))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    As a part of the project for internationalization of coal liquefaction technology, this paper reported on the potential survey for location of Indonesian low grade coal liquefaction (study of applicability of the improved BCL process and survey of hydrogen production technology using coal gasification). The survey was conducted of a locational possibility of a coal liquefaction commercial plant to be located at mine site in South Sumatra for Banko coal raw material. The improved BCL process was applied in which the results of the study by NBCL Takasago Research Institute were reflected. Further, the hydrogen production was studied by gasification of Banko coal, and the comparison was made with the conventional natural gas reforming method. As a result of the study using information/knowledge obtained during the conceptual design of Australian brown coal, the construction cost of commercial scale liquefaction plant with the Banko coal processing amount of 30,000 tons/day became 549.8 billion yen in the case of using natural gas as raw material for hydrogen production. This construction cost is the lowest as compared with 601.7 billion yen in the demonstrative BCL process and with 577.1 billion yen in the advanced BCL process. This is a process making use of features of Banko coal. The process for hydrogen production by the steam reforming method using natural gas has an advantage of increasing the production amount of coal-derived liquid the most of the three other methods. (NEDO)

  4. Liquefaction of Warukin Formation Coal, Barito Basin, South Kalimantan on Low Pressure and Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Nursanto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Research focusing on the quality of coal in Warukin Formation has been conducted in coal outcrops located on Tabalong area, particularly in 3 coal seams, namely Wara 120 which consists of low rank coal (lignite. Meanwhile, coals in seam Tutupan 210 and Paringin 712 are medium rank coal (sub-bituminous. Coal liquefaction is conducted in an autoclave on low pressure and temperature. Pressure during the process is 14 psi and temperature is 120oC. Catalyst used are alumina, hydrogen donor NaOH and water solvent. Liquefaction is conducted in three times variables of 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 90 minutes. This process shows following yield : Wara seam 120: 25.37% - 51.27%; Tutupan seam 210: 3.02%-15.45% and seam Paringin 712:1.99%-11.95%. The average result of yield shows that coals in seam Wara has higher yield conversion than coals in seam Tutupan and Paringin.

  5. Coupling hydrothermal liquefaction and anaerobic digestion for energy valorization from model biomass feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posmanik, Roy; Labatut, Rodrigo A; Kim, Andrew H; Usack, Joseph G; Tester, Jefferson W; Angenent, Largus T

    2017-06-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction converts food waste into oil and a carbon-rich hydrothermal aqueous phase. The hydrothermal aqueous phase may be converted to biomethane via anaerobic digestion. Here, the feasibility of coupling hydrothermal liquefaction and anaerobic digestion for the conversion of food waste into energy products was examined. A mixture of polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids, representing food waste, underwent hydrothermal processing at temperatures ranging from 200 to 350°C. The anaerobic biodegradability of the hydrothermal aqueous phase was examined through conducting biochemical methane potential assays. The results demonstrate that the anaerobic biodegradability of the hydrothermal aqueous phase was lower when the temperature of hydrothermal processing increased. The chemical composition of the hydrothermal aqueous phase affected the anaerobic biodegradability. However, no inhibition of biodegradation was observed for most samples. Combining hydrothermal and anaerobic digestion may, therefore, yield a higher energetic return by converting the feedstock into oil and biomethane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Method for controlling boiling point distribution of coal liquefaction oil product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Raymond P.; Schmalzer, David K.; Wright, Charles H.

    1982-12-21

    The relative ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate produced in a coal liquefaction process is continuously controlled by automatically and continuously controlling the ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in a liquid solvent used to form the feed slurry to the coal liquefaction zone, and varying the weight ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in the liquid solvent inversely with respect to the desired weight ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in the distillate fuel oil product. The concentration of light distillate and heavy distillate in the liquid solvent is controlled by recycling predetermined amounts of light distillate and heavy distillate for admixture with feed coal to the process in accordance with the foregoing relationships.

  7. Mars Propellant Liquefaction Modeling in Thermal Desktop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Pooja; Hauser, Dan; Sutherlin, Steven

    2017-01-01

    NASAs current Mars architectures are assuming the production and storage of 23 tons of liquid oxygen on the surface of Mars over a duration of 500+ days. In order to do this in a mass efficient manner, an energy efficient refrigeration system will be required. Based on previous analysis NASA has decided to do all liquefaction in the propulsion vehicle storage tanks. In order to allow for transient Martian environmental effects, a propellant liquefaction and storage system for a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) was modeled using Thermal Desktop. The model consisted of a propellant tank containing a broad area cooling loop heat exchanger integrated with a reverse turbo Brayton cryocooler. Cryocooler sizing and performance modeling was conducted using MAV diurnal heat loads and radiator rejection temperatures predicted from a previous thermal model of the MAV. A system was also sized and modeled using an alternative heat rejection system that relies on a forced convection heat exchanger. Cryocooler mass, input power, and heat rejection for both systems were estimated and compared against sizing based on non-transient sizing estimates.

  8. Techno-economic Analysis of Acid Gas Removal and Liquefaction for Pressurized LNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. H.; Seo, Y. K.; Chang, D. J.

    2018-05-01

    This study estimated the life cycle cost (LCC) of an acid gas removal and a liquefaction processes for Pressurized LNG (PLNG) production and compared the results with the cost of normal LNG production. PLNG is pressurized LNG that is liquefied at a higher pressure and temperature than normal LNG. Due to the high temperature, the energy for liquefaction is reduced. The allowable CO2 concentration in PLNG is increased up to 3 mol% when the product pressure 25 bar. An amine process with 35 wt% of diethanolamine (DEA) aqueous solution and a nitrogen expansion cycle were selected for the acid gas removal and the liquefaction processes, respectively. Two types of CO2 concentration in the feed gas were investigated to analyze their impacts on the acid gas removal unit. When the CO2 concentration was 5 mol%, the acid gas removal unit was required for both LNG and PLNG production. However, the acid gas removal unit was not necessary in PLNG when the concentration was 0.5 mol% and the pressure was higher than 15 bar. The results showed that the LCC of PLNG was reduced by almost 35% relative to that of LNG when the PLNG pressure was higher than 15 bar.

  9. Conversion of Low-Rank Wyoming Coals into Gasoline by Direct Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, Oleg

    2013-12-31

    Under the cooperative agreement program of DOE and funding from Wyoming State’s Clean Coal Task Force, Western Research Institute and Thermosolv LLC studied the direct conversion of Wyoming coals and coal-lignin mixed feeds into liquid fuels in conditions highly relevant to practice. During the Phase I, catalytic direct liquefaction of sub-bituminous Wyoming coals was investigated. The process conditions and catalysts were identified that lead to a significant increase of desirable oil fraction in the products. The Phase II work focused on systematic study of solvothermal depolymerization (STD) and direct liquefaction (DCL) of carbonaceous feedstocks. The effect of the reaction conditions (the nature of solvent, solvent/lignin ratio, temperature, pressure, heating rate, and residence time) on STD was investigated. The effect of a number of various additives (including lignin, model lignin compounds, lignin-derivable chemicals, and inorganic radical initiators), solvents, and catalysts on DCL has been studied. Although a significant progress has been achieved in developing solvothermal depolymerization, the side reactions – formation of considerable amounts of char and gaseous products – as well as other drawbacks do not render aqueous media as the most appropriate choice for commercial implementation of STD for processing coals and lignins. The trends and effects discovered in DCL point at the specific features of liquefaction mechanism that are currently underutilized yet could be exploited to intensify the process. A judicious choice of catalysts, solvents, and additives might enable practical and economically efficient direct conversion of Wyoming coals into liquid fuels.

  10. Advanced direct liquefaction concepts for PETC generic units. Final report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The Advanced Concepts for Direct Coal Liquefaction program was initiated by the Department of Energy in 1991 to develop technologies that could significantly reduce the cost of producing liquid fuels by the direct liquefaction of coal. The advanced 2-stage liquefaction technology that was developed at Wilsonville over the past 10 years has contributed significantly toward decreasing the cost of producing liquids from coal to about $33/bbl. It remains, however, the objective of DOE to further reduce this cost to a level more competitive with petroleum based products. This project, among others, was initiated to investigate various alternative approaches to develop technologies that might ultimately lead to a 25 % reduction in cost of product. In this project a number of novel concepts were investigated, either individually or in a coupled configuration that had the potential to contribute toward meeting the DOE goal. The concepts included mature technologies or ones closely related to them, such as coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, fluid coking and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. Other approaches that were either embryonic or less developed were chemical pretreatment of coal to remove oxygen, and dispersed catalyst development for application in the 2-stage liquefaction process. This report presents the results of this project. It is arranged in four sections which were prepared by participating organizations responsible for that phase of the project. A summary of the overall project and the principal results are given in this section. First, however, an overview of the process economics and the process concepts that were developed during the course of this program is presented.

  11. Is polymeric substrate in influent an indirect impetus for the nitrification process in an activated sludge system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin-Bin; Gu, Ya-Wei; Chen, Jian-Meng; Yao, Qian; Li, Hui-Juan; Peng, Dang-Cong; He, Feng

    2017-06-01

    Different from monomeric substrate, polymeric substrate (PS) needs to undergo slow hydrolysis process before becoming available for consumption by bacteria. Hydrolysis products will be available for the heterotrophs in low concentration, which will reduce competitive advantages of heterotrophs to nitrifiers in mixed culture. Therefore, some links between PS and nitrification process can be expected. In this study, three lab-scale sequencing batch reactors with different PS/total substrate (TS) ratio (0, 0.5 or 1) in influent were performed in parallel to investigate the influence of PS on nitrification process in activated sludge system. The results showed that with the increase of PS/TS ratio, apparent sludge yields decreased, while NO 3 - -N concentration in effluent increased. The change of PS/TS ratio in influent also altered the cycle behaviors of activated sludge. With the increase of PS/TS ratio from 0 to 0.5 and 1, the ammonium and nitrite utilization rate increased ∼2 and 3 times, respectively. The q-PCR results showed that the abundance of nitrifiers in activated sludge for PS/TS ratio of 0.5 and 1 were 0.7-0.8 and 1.4-1.5 orders of magnitude higher than that for PS/TS ratio of 0. However, the abundance of total bacteria decreased about 0.5 orders of magnitude from the former two to the latter. The FISH observation confirmed that the nitrifiers' microcolony became bigger and more robust with the increase of PS/TS ratio. This paper paves a path to understand the role of PS/TS in affecting the nitrification process in biological wastewater treatment systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Numerical simulation of liquefaction behaviour of granular materials ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    cles using Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used to study the liquefaction behaviour of ... studies have focussed on the stress-strain relation- ... experimentation still remains quite problematic. ... distorting the periodic cell and changing its vol-.

  13. On the risk of liquefaction of buffer and backfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, R. [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2000-10-01

    The necessary prerequisites for liquefaction of buffers and backfills in a KBS-3 repository exist but the stress conditions and intended densities practically eliminate the risk of liquefaction for single earthquakes with magnitudes up to M=8 and normal duration. For buffers rich in expandable minerals it would be possible to reduce the density at water saturation to 1,700 - 1,800 kg/m{sup 3} or even less without any significant risk of liquefaction, while the density at saturation of backfills with 10 - 15% expandable clay should not be reduced to less than about 1,900 kg/m{sup 3}. Since the proposed densities of both buffers and backfills will significantly exceed these minimum values it is concluded that there is no risk of liquefaction of the engineered soil barriers in a KBS-3 repository even for very significant earthquakes.

  14. On the risk of liquefaction of buffer and backfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    2000-10-01

    The necessary prerequisites for liquefaction of buffers and backfills in a KBS-3 repository exist but the stress conditions and intended densities practically eliminate the risk of liquefaction for single earthquakes with magnitudes up to M=8 and normal duration. For buffers rich in expandable minerals it would be possible to reduce the density at water saturation to 1,700 - 1,800 kg/m 3 or even less without any significant risk of liquefaction, while the density at saturation of backfills with 10 - 15% expandable clay should not be reduced to less than about 1,900 kg/m 3 . Since the proposed densities of both buffers and backfills will significantly exceed these minimum values it is concluded that there is no risk of liquefaction of the engineered soil barriers in a KBS-3 repository even for very significant earthquakes

  15. Initial Earthquake Centrifuge Model Experiments for the Study of Liquefaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steedman, R

    1998-01-01

    .... These are intended to gather data suitable for the development of improved design approaches for the prediction of liquefaction under earthquake loading using the new centrifuge facility at the WES...

  16. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction: 2014 State of Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Anderson, Daniel; Hallen, Richard T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2014-07-30

    This report describes the base case yields and operating conditions for converting whole microalgae via hydrothermal liquefaction and upgrading to liquid fuels. This serves as the basis against which future technical improvements will be measured.

  17. An Advanced Wet Expansion Turbine for Hydrogen Liquefaction, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is responsive to NASA SBIR Topic X10.01, specifically, the need for efficient small- to medium-scale hydrogen liquefaction technologies including...

  18. Assessment of Soil Liquefaction Potential Based on Numerical Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choobasti, A. Janalizadeh; Vahdatirad, Mohammad Javad; Torabi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Paying special attention to geotechnical hazards such as liquefaction in huge civil projects like urban railways especially in susceptible regions to liquefaction is of great importance. A number of approaches to evaluate the potential for initiation of liquefaction, such as Seed and Idriss...... simplified method have been developed over the years. Although simplified methods are available in calculating the liquefaction potential of a soil deposit and shear stresses induced at any point in the ground due to earthquake loading, these methods cannot be applied to all earthquakes with the same...... accuracy, also they lack the potential to predict the pore pressure developed in the soil. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out a ground response analysis to obtain pore pressures and shear stresses in the soil due to earthquake loading. Using soil historical, geological and compositional criteria...

  19. New method for evaluating liquefaction potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arulmoli, K.; Arulanandan, K.; Seed, H.B.

    1985-01-01

    A new method of indexing the grain and aggregate properties of sand using electrical parameters is described. Correlations are established between these parameters and relative density, D /sub r/ , cyclic stress ratio, /tau//sigma'/sub 0/, and K2 /sub max/ . An electrical probe, used to predict these parameters from in-situ electrical measurements, is described. Evaluations are made of D /sub r/ and /tau//sigma/sub 0/, which are compared with values measured independently from controlled laboratory tests. Reasonable agreement is found between predicted and measured values. The potential applicability of the electrical probe in the field is shown by evaluation of liquefaction and nonliquefaction at sites affected by the 1906 San Francisco, Niigata and Tangshan earthquakes.

  20. Liquefaction Potential for Soil Deposits in Muscat, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hussain, I. W.; Deif, A.; Girgis, M.; Al-Rawas, G.; Mohamed, A.; Al-Jabri, K.; Al-Habsi, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Muscat is located in the northeastern part of Oman on a narrow strip between Oman coast and Oman Mountains, which is the place for at least four earthquakes of order of 5.2 magnitude in the last 1300 years. The near surface geology of Muscat varies from hard rocks in the eastern, southern and western parts to dense and lose sediments in the middle and northern parts. Liquefaction occurs in saturated cohesionless soils when its shear strength decreased to zero due to the increase of pore pressure. More than 500 boreholes in Muscat area were examined for their liquefaction susceptibility based on the soil characteristics data. Only soils susceptible to liquefaction are further considered for liquefaction hazard assessment. Liquefaction occurs if the cyclic stress ratio (CSR) caused by the earthquake is higher than the cyclic resistance ratio (CRR) of the soil. CSR values were evaluated using PGA values at the surface obtained from previously conducted seismic hazard and microzonation studies. CRR for Muscat region is conducted using N values of SPT tests from numerous borehole data and the shear wave velocity results from 99 MASW surveys over the entire region. All the required corrections are conducted to get standardized (N1) 60 values, to correct shear-wave velocity, and scale the results for Mw 6.0 instead of the proposed 7.5 (magnitude scaling factor). Liquefaction hazard maps are generated using the minimum factor of safety (FS) at each site as a representative of the FS against liquefaction at that location. Results indicate that under the current level of seismic hazard, liquefaction potential is possible at few sites along the northern coast where alluvial soils and shallow ground water table are present. The expected soft soil settlement is also evaluated at each liquefiable site.

  1. A new boil-off gas re-liquefaction system for LNG carriers based on dual mixed refrigerant cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hongbo; Shan, Siyu; Nie, Yang; Zhao, Qingxuan

    2018-06-01

    A new boil-off gas (BOG) re-liquefaction system for LNG carriers has been proposed to improve the system energy efficiency. Two cascade mixed refrigerant cycles (or dual mixed refrigerant cycle, DMR) are used to provide the cooling capacity for the re-liquefaction of BOG. The performance of the new system is analysed on the basis of the thermodynamic data obtained in the process simulation in Aspen HYSYS software. The results show that the power consumed in the BOG compressor and the high-temperature mixed refrigerant compressor could be saved greatly due to the reduced mass flow rates of the processed fluids. Assuming the re-liquefaction capacity of the investigated system is 4557.6 kg/h, it is found that the total power consumption can be reduced by 25%, from 3444 kW in the existing system to 2585.8 kW in the proposed system. The coefficient of performance (COP) of 0.25, exergy efficiency of 41.3% and the specific energy consumption (SEC) of 0.589 kWh/kg(LNG) could be achieved in the new system. It exhibits 33% of improvement in the COP and exergy efficiency in comparison with the corresponding values of the existing system. It indicates that employing the DMR based BOG re-liquefaction system could improve the system energy efficiency of LNG carriers substantially.

  2. Report on the bituminous coal liquefaction sub-committee in fiscal 1992; 1992 nendo rekiseitan ekika bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    This paper reports the activities of the bituminous coal liquefaction sub-committee in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1992. With an intention of developing a technology on the process (NEDOL) suitable for liquefaction of wide range of coal types placing sub-bituminous coal at the center, researches were carried out by using a pilot plant, and engineering data purposed for practical application of the technology were acquired. The construction of the pilot plant was launched in fiscal 1991. It is necessary to execute the pilot plant plan steadily in the future, and at the same time, reliably acquire different data by means of supportive researches. Economic performance of the process is also important. The first sub-committee meeting presented the following agenda: the status of constructing the 150-t/d pilot plant, tests and investigations thereon, research works by using a 1-t/d PSU, development of the most suitable coal refining technology, development of a coal pretreatment technology, improvement of the distilled oil distribution, studies on coal liquefaction conditions, and studies on solvent hydrogenating catalysts. The second sub-committee meeting presented the following agenda: the status of constructing the pilot plant, tests and investigations on improving the performance of natural pylite catalyst and circulating solvent, technological investigations on structuring a liquefying reaction data analyzing system, studies using a 1-t/d PSU, development of the most suitable coal refining technology, studies on coal liquefaction conditions, and studies on solvent hydrogenating catalysts. (NEDO)

  3. Role of expanders in helium liquefaction cycles: Parametric studies using Collins cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Rijo Jacob; Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2011-01-01

    Large scale helium liquefaction/refrigeration plant is a key subsystem of fusion devices. Performance of these plants is dependent on a number of geometric and operating parameters of its constituting components such as compressors, heat exchangers, expanders, valves, etc. Expander has been chosen as the subject matter of analyses in the present study. As the sensible cold of helium vapor is lost in liquefiers, the expanders in liquefaction cycles have to provide more refrigeration than those in refrigeration cycles. The expander parameters such as rate of mass flow, operating pressure, inlet temperature, etc. are inter-dependent, and hence, it is difficult to predict the system behavior with variation of a particular parameter. This necessitates the use of process simulators. Parametric studies have been performed on Collins helium liquefaction cycle using Aspen HYSYS. Collins cycle has all the basic characteristics of a large-scale helium liquefier and the results of this study may be extrapolated to understand the behavior of large scale helium liquefiers. The study shows that the maximum liquid production is obtained when 80% of the compressor flow is diverted through the expanders and it is equally distributed between the two expanders. The relationships between the liquid production and the isentropic efficiency of expanders are almost linear and both the higher and lower temperature expanders exhibit similar trends.

  4. Role of expanders in helium liquefaction cycles: Parametric studies using Collins cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Rijo Jacob, E-mail: rijojthomas@gmail.com [Cryogenic Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Chowdhury, Kanchan [Cryogenic Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)

    2011-06-15

    Large scale helium liquefaction/refrigeration plant is a key subsystem of fusion devices. Performance of these plants is dependent on a number of geometric and operating parameters of its constituting components such as compressors, heat exchangers, expanders, valves, etc. Expander has been chosen as the subject matter of analyses in the present study. As the sensible cold of helium vapor is lost in liquefiers, the expanders in liquefaction cycles have to provide more refrigeration than those in refrigeration cycles. The expander parameters such as rate of mass flow, operating pressure, inlet temperature, etc. are inter-dependent, and hence, it is difficult to predict the system behavior with variation of a particular parameter. This necessitates the use of process simulators. Parametric studies have been performed on Collins helium liquefaction cycle using Aspen HYSYS. Collins cycle has all the basic characteristics of a large-scale helium liquefier and the results of this study may be extrapolated to understand the behavior of large scale helium liquefiers. The study shows that the maximum liquid production is obtained when 80% of the compressor flow is diverted through the expanders and it is equally distributed between the two expanders. The relationships between the liquid production and the isentropic efficiency of expanders are almost linear and both the higher and lower temperature expanders exhibit similar trends.

  5. Fiscal 1995 report. Liquefaction key technology subcommittee; 1995 nendo ekika kiban gijutsu bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The subcommittee held the 1st meeting in September 1955 and the 2nd in March 1996, when fiscal 1995 research plans and research results were introduced and deliberated. In the study for designing a high-dispersion catalyst and the elucidation of the mechanism of activity expression, catalysts of highly dispersed iron supported on the brown coal surface in various ways were compared with each other in terms of liquefaction activity. Furthermore, geometric changes in the iron catalyst during the sulfurizing process were examined using the XRD (X-ray diffraction) and TEM (transient electromagnetic) methods. An improved catalyst was found to achieve a liquefaction yield near the Yallourn coal liquefaction limit in a high boiling solvent system. Concerning the study of coal oil product applications and refining technologies, reports were delivered on research results relating to the problem of blocking to occur during naphtha fraction refining and measures therefor, inhibition of active metal geometric changes during reaction, methods for separating hetero-compounds from coal oil and application thereof, and so forth. (NEDO)

  6. Rotating disk atomization of Gd and Gd-Y for hydrogen liquefaction via magnetocaloric cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slinger, Tyler [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-12-17

    In order to enable liquid hydrogen fuel cell technologies for vehicles the cost of hydrogen liquefaction should be lowered. The current method of hydrogen liquefaction is the Claude cycle that has a figure of merit (FOM) of 0.3-0.35. New magnetocaloric hydrogen liquefaction devices have been proposed with a FOM>0.5, which is a significant improvement. A significant hurdle to realizing these devices is the synthesis of spherical rare earth based alloy powders of 200μm in diameter. In this study a centrifugal atomization method that used a rotating disk with a rotating oil quench bath was developed to make gadolinium and gadolinium-yttrium spheres. The composition of the spherical powders included pure Gd and Gd0.91Y0.09. The effect of atomization parameters, such as superheat, melt properties, disk shape, disk speed, and melt system materials and design, were investigated on the size distribution and morphology of the resulting spheres. The carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen impurity levels also were analyzed and compared with the magnetic performance of the alloys. The magnetic properties of the charge material as well as the resulting powders were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The saturation magnetization and Curie temperature were the target properties for the resulting spheres. These values were compared with measurements taken on the charge material in order to investigate the effect of atomization processing on the alloys.

  7. The Liquefaction of Hydrogen and Helium Using Small Coolers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    This report discusses the history of the liquefaction of hydrogen and helium using small coolers. This history dates form the 1960's when two stage GM coolers capable of reaching 7 K were used to liquefy helium and hydrogen by suing an added compressor and J-T circuit. Liquefaction using the added circuit failed to become mainstream because the J-T valve and heat exchanger clogged because of impurities in the gas being liquefied. Liquefaction using a GM cooler without an added J-T circuit proved to be difficult because the first stage was not used to pre-cool the gas coming to the second stage of the cooler. Once the gas being liquefied was pre-cooled using the cooler first stage, improvements in the liquefaction rates were noted. The advent of low temperature pulse tube cooler (down to 2.5 K) permitted one to achieve dramatic improvement is the liquefactions rates for helium. Similar but less dramatic improvements are expected for hydrogen as well. Using the PT-415 cooler, one can expect liquefaction rates of 15 to 20 liters per day for helium or hydrogen provided the heat leak into the cooler and the storage vessel is low. A hydrogen liquefier for MICE is presented at the end of this report

  8. Mongolian coal liquefaction test; Mongorutan no ekika tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Kubo, H. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tsedevsuren, T. [National Research Center of Chemistry and Technology of Coal in Mongoria (Mongolia)

    1996-10-28

    This paper describes the results of liquefaction tests of Mongolian coals using an autoclave and a flow micro reactor. Uvdughudag coal, Hootiinhonhor coal, and Shivee-Ovoo coal were used for liquefaction tests with an autoclave. Oil yields of Uvdughudag and Hootiinhonhor coals were 55.56 wt% and 55.29 wt%, respectively, which were similar to that of Wyoming coal. Similar results were obtained, as to produced gas and water yields. These coals were found to be suitable for coal liquefaction. Lower oil yield, 42.55 wt% was obtained for Shivee-Ovoo coal, which was not suitable for liquefaction. Liquefaction tests were conducted for Uvdughudag coal with a flow micro reactor. The oil yield was 55.7 wt%, which was also similar to that of Wyoming coal, 56.1 wt%. Hydrogen consumption of Uvdughudag coal was also similar to that of Wyoming coal. From these, Uvdughudag coal can be a prospective coal for liquefaction. From the distillation distribution of oil, distillate fraction yield below 350{degree}C of Uvdughudag coal was 50.7 wt%, which was much higher than that of Wyoming coal, 35.6 wt%. Uvdughudag coal is a coal with high light oil fraction yield. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Direct and indirect toxicity of the fungicide pyraclostrobin to Hyalella azteca and effects on leaf processing under realistic daily temperature regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willming, Morgan M.; Maul, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Fungicides in aquatic environments can impact non-target bacterial and fungal communities and the invertebrate detritivores responsible for the decomposition of allochthonous organic matter. Additionally, in some aquatic systems daily water temperature fluctuations may influence these processes and alter contaminant toxicity, but such temperature fluctuations are rarely examined in conjunction with contaminants. In this study, the shredding amphipod Hyalella azteca was exposed to the fungicide pyraclostrobin in three experiments. Endpoints included mortality, organism growth, and leaf processing. One experiment was conducted at a constant temperature (23 °C), a fluctuating temperature regime (18–25 °C) based on field-collected data from the S. Llano River, Texas, or an adjusted fluctuating temperature regime (20–26 °C) based on possible climate change predictions. Pyraclostrobin significantly reduced leaf shredding and increased H. azteca mortality at concentrations of 40 μg/L or greater at a constant 23 °C and decreased leaf shredding at concentrations of 15 μg/L or greater in the fluctuating temperatures. There was a significant interaction between temperature treatment and pyraclostrobin concentration on H. azteca mortality, body length, and dry mass under direct aqueous exposure conditions. In an indirect exposure scenario in which only leaf material was exposed to pyraclostrobin, H. azteca did not preferentially feed on or avoid treated leaf disks compared to controls. This study describes the influence of realistic temperature variation on fungicide toxicity to shredding invertebrates, which is important for understanding how future alterations in daily temperature regimes due to climate change may influence the assessment of ecological risk of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. - Highlights: • Pyraclostrobin was directly toxic to Hyalella azteca and reduced leaf processing. • Indirect exposure via leaf material did not change H

  10. Feasibility and comparative studies of thermochemical liquefaction of Camellia oleifera cake in different supercritical organic solvents for producing bio-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hongmei; Zhai, Yunbo; Xu, Bibo; Xiang, Bobin; Zhu, Lu; Li, Ping; Liu, Xiaoting; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermochemical liquefaction of COC was a prominent process for producing bio-oil. • Type of solvent affected the yield and composition of bio-oil considerably. • Liquefaction of COC in SCEL at 300 °C was preferred for producing bio-oil. - Abstract: Thermochemical liquefaction of Camellia oleifera cake (COC) for producing bio-oil was conducted in supercritical methanol (SCML), ethanol (SCEL) and acetone (SCAL), respectively. GC–MS, elemental analysis and ICP-OES were used to characterize properties of bio-oil. Results showed that thermochemical liquefaction of COC was a prominent process for generating bio-oil. Increase of temperature was beneficial to the increase of bio-oil yield, and yield of bio-oil followed the sequence of SCAL > SCEL > SCML. In spite of the highest bio-oil yield, the lowest calorific value and highest contents of Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Cr were found in bio-oil from SCAL. Though SCML has very similar bio-oil composition and calorific value with SCEL, higher bio-oil yield and lower contents of heavy metals could be obtained with SCEL, especially in bio-oil from SCEL at 300 °C. Moreover, the origin of ethanol could make the bio-oil product totally renewable. Therefore, liquefaction of COC in SCEL at 300 °C could have great potential in generating bio-oil

  11. Effects of Long-Duration Ground Motions on Liquefaction Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Michael W.

    Soil liquefaction during past earthquakes has caused extensive damage to buildings, bridges, dam, pipelines and other elements of infrastructure. Geotechnical engineers use empirical observations from earthquake case histories in conjunction with soil mechanics to predict the behavior of liquefiable soils. However, current empirical databases are insufficient to evaluate the behavior of soils subject to long-duration earthquakes, such as a possible Mw = 9.0 Cascadia Subduction Zone earthquake. The objective of this research is to develop insight into the triggering and effects of liquefaction due to long-duration ground motions and to provide recommendations for analysis and design. Recorded ground motions from 21 case histories with surficial evidence of liquefaction showed marked differences in soil behavior before and after liquefaction was triggered. In some cases, strong shaking continued for several minutes after the soil liquefied, and a variety of behaviors were observed including dilation pulses, continued softening due to soil fabric degradation, and soil stiffening due to pore pressure dissipation and drainage. Supplemental field and laboratory investigations were performed at three sites that liquefied during the 2011 Mw = 9.0 Tohoku earthquake. The recorded ground motions and field investigation data were used in conjunction with laboratory observations, analytical models, and numerical models to evaluate the behavior of liquefiable soils subjected to long-duration ground motions. Observations from the case histories inspired a framework to predict ground deformations based on the differences in soil behavior before and after liquefaction has triggered. This framework decouples the intensity of shaking necessary to trigger liquefaction from the intensity of shaking that drives deformation by identifying the time when liquefaction triggers. The timing-based framework promises to dramatically reduce the uncertainty in deformation estimates compared to

  12. Sinking during earthquakes: Critical acceleration criteria control drained soil liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, C.; Toussaint, R.; Stojanova, M.; Aharonov, E.

    2018-02-01

    This article focuses on liquefaction of saturated granular soils, triggered by earthquakes. Liquefaction is defined here as the transition from a rigid state, in which the granular soil layer supports structures placed on its surface, to a fluidlike state, in which structures placed initially on the surface sink to their isostatic depth within the granular layer. We suggest a simple theoretical model for soil liquefaction and show that buoyancy caused by the presence of water inside a granular medium has a dramatic influence on the stability of an intruder resting at the surface of the medium. We confirm this hypothesis by comparison with laboratory experiments and discrete-element numerical simulations. The external excitation representing ground motion during earthquakes is simulated via horizontal sinusoidal oscillations of controlled frequency and amplitude. In the experiments, we use particles only slightly denser than water, which as predicted theoretically increases the effect of liquefaction and allows clear depth-of-sinking measurements. In the simulations, a micromechanical model simulates grains using molecular dynamics with friction between neighbors. The effect of the fluid is captured by taking into account buoyancy effects on the grains when they are immersed. We show that the motion of an intruder inside a granular medium is mainly dependent on the peak acceleration of the ground motion and establish a phase diagram for the conditions under which liquefaction happens, depending on the soil bulk density, friction properties, presence of water, and peak acceleration of the imposed large-scale soil vibrations. We establish that in liquefaction conditions, most cases relax toward an equilibrium position following an exponential in time. We also show that the equilibrium position itself, for most liquefaction regimes, corresponds to the isostatic equilibrium of the intruder inside a medium of effective density. The characteristic time to relaxation is

  13. Social Anxiety-Linked Attention Bias to Threat Is Indirectly Related to Post-Event Processing Via Subjective Emotional Reactivity to Social Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çek, Demet; Sánchez, Alvaro; Timpano, Kiara R

    2016-05-01

    Attention bias to threat (e.g., disgust faces) is a cognitive vulnerability factor for social anxiety occurring in early stages of information processing. Few studies have investigated the relationship between social anxiety and attention biases, in conjunction with emotional and cognitive responses to a social stressor. Elucidating these links would shed light on maintenance factors of social anxiety and could help identify malleable treatment targets. This study examined the associations between social anxiety level, attention bias to disgust (AB-disgust), subjective emotional and physiological reactivity to a social stressor, and subsequent post-event processing (PEP). We tested a mediational model where social anxiety level indirectly predicted subsequent PEP via its association with AB-disgust and immediate subjective emotional reactivity to social stress. Fifty-five undergraduates (45% female) completed a passive viewing task. Eye movements were tracked during the presentation of social stimuli (e.g., disgust faces) and used to calculate AB-disgust. Next, participants gave an impromptu speech in front of a video camera and watched a neutral video, followed by the completion of a PEP measure. Although there was no association between AB-disgust and physiological reactivity to the stressor, AB-disgust was significantly associated with greater subjective emotional reactivity from baseline to the speech. Analyses supported a partial mediation model where AB-disgust and subjective emotional reactivity to a social stressor partially accounted for the link between social anxiety levels and PEP. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Advanced studies of biological indirect liquefaction of coal: Topical report on Task 1: Culture identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-01-01

    Culture identification and characterization studies carried out at the University of Arkansas and under contract to the University of Oklahoma, Department of Botany and Microbiology, have been essentially completed. The studies indicate that the organism is indeed a new clostridial strain, to be named Clostridium ljungdahlii, strain PETC, in honor of Dr. Lars G. Ljungdahl for his work on clostridia and acetogens. C. ljungdahlii is different from other clostridial strains and similar geni in its operating conditions and choice of substrates as sole carbon and energy sources. C. ljungdahlii, strain PETC, produces ethanol as a product only at low pH levels, with acetate the primary product at higher pH levels. 46 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to produce biofuels: state of the art and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaskin, M. S.; Chernova, N. I.; Kiseleva, S. V.; Popel', O. S.; Zhuk, A. Z.

    2017-09-01

    The article presents a review of the state of the art and lines of research on hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae (MA). The main advantages of this technology for production of biofuel are that it does not require predrying of the feedstock and ensures a relatively high product yield—the ratio of the end product weight to the feedstock weight—owing to the fact that all the microalgal components, viz., lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates, are converted into biofuel. MA hydrothermal liquefaction is considered to be a promising technology for conversion of biomass and is a subject of a series of research studies and, judging by the available publications, the scope of research in this field is expanding currently. However, many significant problems remain unsolved. In particular, an active searched is being conducted for suitable strains that will ensure not only a high lipid yield—necessary to convert microalgae into biodiesel—but also higher biomass productivity and a higher biofuel yield; the chemical reactions that occur during the hydrothermal treatment are being studied; and the effect of significant process variables, such as temperature, heating rate, holdup time at the maximum temperature, biomass concentration in the water suspension, biochemical and elemental compositions of the microalgae, use of catalysts, etc., on the liquefaction processes is being studied. One of the urgent tasks is also the reduction of the nitrogen content in the resulting biofuel. Studies aimed at the development of a continuous process and rational heat-processing plants for thermal microalgal conversion are being conducted to increase the energy efficiency of the HTL process, in particular, to provide the heat recovery and separation of the end product.

  16. Small scale demand type neon liquefaction plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dube, W.P.; Slifka, A.J.; Bitsy, R.M.; Sparks, L.L.; Johnson, K.B.

    1990-01-01

    Low-temperature measurement of the thermal conductivity of insulating materials is generally made using a boil-off calorimetry technique involving liquid hydrogen (LH2). Liquid neon (LNe) has nearly the same normal boiling point as LH2, but has a much larger heat of vaporization, allowing extended run times. The main drawback of using LNe has been its excessive cost; $170.00 versus $1.50/l for LH2 (1989 prices). A neon liquefaction plant has been designed and constructed to capture, purify, and refrigerate the neon boil-off from calorimetry experiments. Recycling the neon reduces operating costs to approximately $20/l. The system consists of a purification section, a heat exchanger, LNe and LH2 storage dewars, and a fully automated control system. After purification, neon is liquified in the heat exchanger by LH2 flowing countercurrently through stainless steel cooling coils. Hydrogen flow is automatically adjusted to keep the neon at its normal saturation temperature, 27 K. The liquid neon is then stored in a dewar placed directly below the heat exchanger

  17. Assessment of liquefaction potential during earthquakes by arias intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, R.E.; Mitchell, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    An Arias intensity approach to assess the liquefaction potential of soil deposits during earthquakes is proposed, using an energy-based measure of the severity of earthquake-shaking recorded on seismograms of the two horizontal components of ground motion. Values representing the severity of strong motion at depth in the soil column are associated with the liquefaction resistance of that layer, as measured by in situ penetration testing (SPT, CPT). This association results in a magnitude-independent boundary that envelopes initial liquefaction of soil in Arias intensity-normalized penetration resistance space. The Arias intensity approach is simple to apply and has proven to be highly reliable in assessing liquefaction potential. The advantages of using Arias intensity as a measure of earthquake-shaking severity in liquefaction assessment are: Arias intensity is derived from integration of the entire seismogram wave form, incorporating both the amplitude and duration elements of ground motion; all frequencies of recorded motion are considered; and Arias intensity is an appropriate measure to use when evaluating field penetration test methodologies that are inherently energy-based. Predictor equations describing the attenuation of Arias intensity as a function of earthquake magnitude and source distance are presented for rock, deep-stiff alluvium, and soft soil sites.

  18. Energy-based numerical models for assessment of soil liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Alavi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents promising variants of genetic programming (GP, namely linear genetic programming (LGP and multi expression programming (MEP to evaluate the liquefaction resistance of sandy soils. Generalized LGP and MEP-based relationships were developed between the strain energy density required to trigger liquefaction (capacity energy and the factors affecting the liquefaction characteristics of sands. The correlations were established based on well established and widely dispersed experimental results obtained from the literature. To verify the applicability of the derived models, they were employed to estimate the capacity energy values of parts of the test results that were not included in the analysis. The external validation of the models was verified using statistical criteria recommended by researchers. Sensitivity and parametric analyses were performed for further verification of the correlations. The results indicate that the proposed correlations are effectively capable of capturing the liquefaction resistance of a number of sandy soils. The developed correlations provide a significantly better prediction performance than the models found in the literature. Furthermore, the best LGP and MEP models perform superior than the optimal traditional GP model. The verification phases confirm the efficiency of the derived correlations for their general application to the assessment of the strain energy at the onset of liquefaction.

  19. Seismic behavior of breakwaters on complex ground by numerical tests: Liquefaction and post liquefaction ground settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Linlin; Zhang, Feng; Bao, Xiaohua; Shi, Zhenming; Ye, Guanlin; Ling, Xianzhang

    2018-04-01

    A large number of breakwaters have been constructed along coasts to protect humans and infrastructures from tsunamis. There is a risk that foundation soils of these structures may liquefy, or partially liquefy during the earthquake preceding a tsunami, which would greatly reduce the structures' capacity to resist the tsunami. It is necessary to consider not only the soil's liquefaction behavior due to earthquake motions but also its post-liquefaction behavior because this behavior will affect the breakwater's capacity to resist an incoming tsunami. In this study, numerical tests based on a sophisticated constitutive model and a soil-water coupled finite element method are used to predict the mechanical behavior of breakwaters and the surrounding soils. Two real breakwaters subjected to two different seismic excitations are examined through numerical simulation. The simulation results show that, earthquakes affect not only the immediate behavior of breakwaters and the surrounding soils but also their long-term settlements due to post-earthquake consolidation. A soil profile with thick clayey layers beneath liquefied soil is more vulnerable to tsunami than a soil profile with only sandy layers. Therefore, quantitatively evaluating the seismic behavior of breakwaters and surrounding soils is important for the design of breakwater structures to resist tsunamis.

  20. Optimization for microwave-assisted direct liquefaction of bamboo residue in glycerol/methanol mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiulong Xie; Jinqiu Qi; Chungyun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2015-01-01

    Bamboo residues were liquefied in a mixture of glycerol and methanol in the presence of sulfuric acid using microwave energy. We investigated the effects of liquefaction conditions, including glycerol/methanol ratio, liquefaction temperature, and reaction time on the conversion yield. The optimal liquefaction conditions were under the temperature of 120

  1. Liquefaction behaviors of bamboo residues in a glycerol-based solvent using microwave energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiulong Xie; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe; Jinqiu Qi; Hui Pan

    2014-01-01

    Liquefaction of bamboo was performed in glycerol–methanol as co-solvent using microwave energy and was evaluated by characterizing the liquefied residues. High efficiency conversion of bamboo was achieved under mild reaction conditions. Liquefaction temperature and time interacted to affect the liquefaction reaction. Fourier transform infrared analyzes of the residues...

  2. Indirection and computer security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    The discipline of computer science is built on indirection. David Wheeler famously said, 'All problems in computer science can be solved by another layer of indirection. But that usually will create another problem'. We propose that every computer security vulnerability is yet another problem created by the indirections in system designs and that focusing on the indirections involved is a better way to design, evaluate, and compare security solutions. We are not proposing that indirection be avoided when solving problems, but that understanding the relationships between indirections and vulnerabilities is key to securing computer systems. Using this perspective, we analyze common vulnerabilities that plague our computer systems, consider the effectiveness of currently available security solutions, and propose several new security solutions.

  3. Indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, C.A.; Shubhchintak; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Kruppa, A.; Pang, D. Y.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss recent developments in indirect methods used in nuclear astrophysics to determine the capture cross sections and subsequent rates of various stellar burning processes, when it is difficult to perform the corresponding direct measurements. We discuss in brief, the basic concepts of Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients, the Trojan Horse Method, the Coulomb Dissociation Method, (d,p), and charge-exchange reactions. (paper)

  4. Report on 1979 result of R and D under Sunshine Project. Development of coal liquefaction technology (development of solvent treatment and liquefaction plant); 1979 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Yozai shori ekika plant no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-03-01

    A report was made on the result for fiscal 1979 of the development of a coal solvent treatment and liquefaction plant. With the purpose of establishing a technology of making equipment for a coal liquefaction plant by a solvent treatment method, R and D were conducted on a solid liquid separation method and on the construction and operation of an experimental equipment having a scale of the maximum 1 t/day coal processing, providing technical data for the construction of an efficient coal liquefaction equipment. In studying the operation of a centrifugal separator, it was run using heating solvent, dummy slurry and coal extraction slurry, with no abnormality found in each equipment and with knowledge obtained of the separation state of the solid. The machine is capable of obtaining SRC of 0.2-0.3% low ash contents. Water operation was performed for the extraction processing device (agitation tank, heating furnace, compression pump, circulation pump, etc.) of the 1 t/day experimental plant and, as a result, a relation was confirmed between a water flow rate and pressure loss of the piping part. The detailed design, manufacture and installation were completed for a part (pulverizer, solvent tank, feeding pump, etc.) of the equipment for the coal pre-processing slurry making process and the extraction process, with a trial run implemented for adjustment and confirmation of the operation. The cold/hot continuous trial run by a solvent smoothly proceeded, proving the performance to be the same as the specifications. (NEDO)

  5. Liquefaction under drained condition, from the lab to reality ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Cécile; Aharonov, Einat; Stojanova, Menka; Toussaint, Renaud

    2015-04-01

    Liquefaction constitutes a significant natural hazard in relation to earthquakes and landslides. This effect can cause buildings to tilt or sink into the soil, mud-volcanoes, floatation of buried objects, long-runout landslides, etc. In this work we present a new understanding regarding the mechanism by which buildings sink and tilt during liquefaction caused by earthquakes. Conventional understanding of liquefaction explains most observed cases as occurring in an undrained, under-compacted, layer of sandy soil saturated with water [1]: According to that understanding, the under compacted sandy layer has the tendency to compact when a load is applied. In our case the load comes from ground shaking during an earthquake. When the soil compacts, the fluid pore pressure rises. Because in undrained conditions the fluid cannot flow out, the pore pressure builds up. The weight of buildings is in this case transferred from the grains of the soil to the pore water. The soil loses its rigidity and it flows like a liquid. From this model scientists made theoretical and empirical laws for geotechnical use and buildings construction. Despite the success of this conventional model in many cases, liquefied soils were also observed under drained conditions, and in previously compacted soils, which doesn't agree with the assumption of the model quoted above. One of the famous liquefaction events is the Kobe port destruction during the 1995 earthquake. A simple calculation of the Deborah number following Goren et al ([2][3]) shows that the undrained constraint was not met below the Kobe port during the 1995 earthquake. We propose another model, of liquefaction in drained granular media. According to our model the mere presence of water in granular media is enough to cause liquefaction during an earthquake, provided that the water reaches close to the surface. Our computations are based on the buoyancy force, and we take into account the static fluid pressure only. For small

  6. Ground motions estimates for a cascadia earthquake from liquefaction evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, S.E.; Obermeier, S.F.

    1998-01-01

    Paleoseismic studies conducted in the coastal regions of the Pacific Northwest in the past decade have revealed evidence of crustal downdropping and subsequent tsunami inundation, attributable to a large earthquake along the Cascadia subduction zone which occurred approximately 300 years ago, and most likely in 1700 AD. In order to characterize the severity of ground motions from this earthquake, we report on results of a field search for seismically induced liquefaction features. The search was made chiefly along the coastal portions of several river valleys in Washington, rivers along the central Oregon coast, as well as on islands in the Columbia River of Oregon and Washington. In this paper we focus only on the results of the Columbia River investigation. Numerous liquefaction features were found in some regions, but not in others. The regional distribution of liquefaction features is evaluated as a function of geologic and geotechnical factors at each site in order to estimate the intensity of ground shaking.

  7. Direct and indirect toxicity of the fungicide pyraclostrobin to Hyalella azteca and effects on leaf processing under realistic daily temperature regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willming, Morgan M; Maul, Jonathan D

    2016-04-01

    Fungicides in aquatic environments can impact non-target bacterial and fungal communities and the invertebrate detritivores responsible for the decomposition of allochthonous organic matter. Additionally, in some aquatic systems daily water temperature fluctuations may influence these processes and alter contaminant toxicity, but such temperature fluctuations are rarely examined in conjunction with contaminants. In this study, the shredding amphipod Hyalella azteca was exposed to the fungicide pyraclostrobin in three experiments. Endpoints included mortality, organism growth, and leaf processing. One experiment was conducted at a constant temperature (23 °C), a fluctuating temperature regime (18-25 °C) based on field-collected data from the S. Llano River, Texas, or an adjusted fluctuating temperature regime (20-26 °C) based on possible climate change predictions. Pyraclostrobin significantly reduced leaf shredding and increased H. azteca mortality at concentrations of 40 μg/L or greater at a constant 23 °C and decreased leaf shredding at concentrations of 15 μg/L or greater in the fluctuating temperatures. There was a significant interaction between temperature treatment and pyraclostrobin concentration on H. azteca mortality, body length, and dry mass under direct aqueous exposure conditions. In an indirect exposure scenario in which only leaf material was exposed to pyraclostrobin, H. azteca did not preferentially feed on or avoid treated leaf disks compared to controls. This study describes the influence of realistic temperature variation on fungicide toxicity to shredding invertebrates, which is important for understanding how future alterations in daily temperature regimes due to climate change may influence the assessment of ecological risk of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Liquefaction of solid carbonaceous material with catalyst recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Avinash; Greene, Marvin I.

    1992-01-01

    In the two stage liquefaction of a carbonaceous solid such as coal wherein coal is liquefied in a first stage in the presence of a liquefaction solvent and the first stage effluent is hydrogenated in the presence of a supported hydrogenation catalyst in a second stage, catalyst which has been previously employed in the second stage and comminuted to a particle size distribution equivalent to 100% passing through U.S. 100 Mesh, is passed to the first stage to improve the overall operation.

  9. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1990-- April 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1992-02-15

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science (CFFLS) is currently engaged in a three year contract with the US Department of Energy investigating a range of research topics dealing with direct coal liquefaction. This report summarizes the results of this program in its second year, from May 1, 1990 to April 30, 1991. Accomplishments for this period are presented for the following tasks: Iron-based catalysts for coal liquefaction, exploratory research on coal conversion, novel coal liquefaction concepts, and novel catalysts for coal liquefaction.

  10. Coal liquefaction in an inorganic-organic medium. [DOE patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, T.; Grens, E.A. II; Holten, R.R.

    Improved process for liquefaction of coal by contacting pulverized coal in an inorganic-organic medium solvent system containing a ZnCl/sub 2/ catalyst, a polar solvent with the structure RX where X is one of the elements O, N, S, or P, and R is hydrogen or a lower hydrocarbon radical; the solvent system can contain a hydrogen donor solvent (and must when RX is water) which is immiscible in the ZnCl/sub 2/ and is a hydroaromatic hydrocarbon selected from tetralin, dihydrophenanthrene, dihydroanthracene or a hydrogenated coal derived hydroaromatic hydrocarbon distillate fraction.

  11. Continuous production of bio-oil by catalytic liquefaction from wet distiller’s grain with solubles (WDGS) from bio-ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toor, Saqib Sohail; Rosendahl, Lasse; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Glasius, Marianne; Rudolf, Andreas; Iversen, Steen Brummerstedt

    2012-01-01

    Bio-refinery concepts are currently receiving much attention due to the drive toward flexible, highly efficient systems for utilization of biomass for food, feed, fuel and bio-chemicals. One way of achieving this is through appropriate process integration, in this particular case combining enzymatic bio-ethanol production with catalytic liquefaction of the wet distillers grains with soluble, a byproduct from the bio-ethanol process. The catalytic liquefaction process is carried out at sub-critical conditions (280–370 °C and 25 MPa) in the presence of a homogeneous alkaline and a heterogeneous Zirconia catalyst, a process known as the Catliq ® process. In the current work, catalytic conversion of WDGS was performed in a continuous pilot plant with a maximum capacity of 30 dm 3 h −1 of wet biomass. In the process, WDGS was converted to bio-oil, gases and water-soluble organic compounds. The oil obtained was characterized using several analysis methods, among them elementary analysis and GC–MS. The study shows that WDGS can be converted to bio oil with high yields. The results also indicate that through the combination of bio-ethanol production and catalytic liquefaction, it is possible to significantly increase the liquid product yield and scope, opening up for a wider end use applicability. -- Highlights: ► Hydrothermal liquefaction of wet biomass. ► Product phase analysis: oil, acqeous, gas and mineral phase. ► Energy and mass balance evaluation.

  12. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, May 1, 1993--April 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1994-10-01

    Accomplishments for the past year are presented for the following tasks: coliquefaction of coal with waste materials; catalysts for coal liquefaction to clean transportation fuels; fundamental research in coal liquefaction; and in situ analytical techniques for coal liquefaction and coal liquefaction catalysts some of the highlights are: very promising results have been obtained from the liquefaction of plastics, rubber tires, paper and other wastes, and the coliquefaction of wastes with coal; a number of water soluble coal liquefaction catalysts, iron, cobalt, nickel and molybdenum, have been comparatively tested; mossbauer spectroscopy, XAFS spectroscopy, TEM and XPS have been used to characterize a variety of catalysts and other samples from numerous consortium and DOE liquefaction projects and in situ ESR measurements of the free radical density have been conducted at temperatures from 100 to 600{degrees}C and H{sub 2} pressures up to 600 psi.

  13. Achievement report for fiscal 1984 on Sunshine Program. Research on coal liquefaction reaction and the reforming and utilization of products; 1984 nendo sekitan no ekika hanno to seiseibutsu no kaishitsu riyo no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    Upon the development into a single law of the three liquefaction related laws, studies are started on coal liquefaction reaction and the reforming and utilization of the products. In the research on coal liquefaction reaction, the solvent ratio, change in reaction time, and change in liquefaction product constitution in case of repeated circulation of the solvent are tracked, and their relations with the liquefaction rate and yield are studied, these efforts involving the Taiheiyo coal, Yallourn coal, and the Miike coal. The Taiheiyo coal is subjected to a short-duration liquefaction reaction test. In the research on product reforming, the medium-gravity fraction from coal liquefaction is subjected to hydrogenation, and the effect of the reaction conditions on the properties and constitution of the thus-treated oil are studied. An SRC (solvent refined coal) solution of the Taiheiyo coal is subjected to hydrogenation in the presence of a Ni-Mo catalyst, and the SRC cracking rate and product properties are compared with those obtained from another solution treated with a Co-Mo catalyst. In the research on product utilization, the medium-gravity fraction from coal liquefaction is subjected to hydrogenation under three sets of different reaction conditions in the presence of a Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} based catalyst. In this process, specimens are prepared by mixing the original oil, its hydrogenated product, and a petroleum-based light oil, and a study is made about the usability of the specimens and their mixtures with petroleum-based heater oil as light oil or heater oil. (NEDO)

  14. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal at HTI: Bench-scale studies in coal/waste plastics coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The development of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction (CMSL) at HTI has focused on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals using laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The crude oil equivalent cost of liquid fuels from coal has been curtailed to about $30 per barrel, thus achieving over 30% reduction in the price that was evaluated for the liquefaction technologies demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties. Contrary to the common belief, the new generation of catalytic multistage coal liquefaction process is environmentally very benign and can produce clean, premium distillates with a very low (<10ppm) heteroatoms content. The HTI Staff has been involved over the years in process development and has made significant improvements in the CMSL processing of coals. A 24 month program (extended to September 30, 1995) to study novel concepts, using a continuous bench scale Catalytic Multi-Stage unit (30kg coal/day), has been initiated since December, 1992. This program consists of ten bench-scale operations supported by Laboratory Studies, Modelling, Process Simulation and Economic Assessments. The Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction is a continuation of the second generation yields using a low/high temperature approach. This paper covers work performed between October 1994- August 1995, especially results obtained from the microautoclave support activities and the bench-scale operations for runs CMSL-08 and CMSL-09, during which, coal and the plastic components for municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as high density polyethylene (HDPE)m, polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polythylene terphthlate (PET) were coprocessed.

  15. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, R E; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Spitaleri, C

    2014-10-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches.

  16. Techno-economic Assessment of Integrated Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Combined Heat and Power Production from Lignocellulose Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Magdeldin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Waste biomass as a mean for global carbon dioxide emissions mitigation remains under-utilized. This is mainly due to the low calorific value of virgin feedstock, characterized generally with high moisture content. Aqueous processing, namely hydrothermal liquefaction in subcritical water conditions, has been demonstrated experimentally to thermally densify solid lignocellulose into liquid fuels without the pre-requisite and energy consuming drying step. This study presents a techno-economic evaluation of an integrated hydrothermal liquefaction system with downstream combined heat and power production from forest residues. The utilization of the liquefaction by-products and waste heat from the elevated processing conditions, coupled with the chemical upgrading of the feedstock enables the poly-generation of biocrude, electricity and district heat. The plant thermal efficiency increases by 3.5 to 4.6% compared to the conventional direct combustion case. The economic assessment showed that the minimum selling price of biocrude, based on present co-products market prices, hinders commercialization and ranges between 138 EUR to 178 EUR per MWh. A sensitivity analysis and detailed discussion on the techno-economic assessment results are presented for the different process integration and market case scenarios.

  17. 3D visualization of liquefaction-induced dune collapse in the Navajo Sandstone, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Colby; Nick, Kevin; Bryant, Gerald

    2015-04-01

    The eolian Navajo Sandstone outcrop on the Canyon Overlook Trail in Zion National Park in Southern Utah is dissected by modern erosion in a way which reveals a great deal of the three-dimensional architecture of a major soft-sediment deformation event. The feature is bounded below by a well-developed interdune complex made up of two superimposed carbonate lenses, above by an irregular truncational surface, and incorporates 3 - 10 m of sandstone over an approximately 2 km area. The material above the deformed interval is undeformed cross-bedded sandstone, with crossbeds downlapping onto the surface of truncation. The stratigraphic confinement of deformation and the irregularity of the upper bounding surface suggests a deformation process which created topography, which was in turn covered by the next upwind dune before it could be eroded flat. The deformed material itself is laterally segmented by a stacked succession of shear surfaces, which all strike approximately perpendicular to the paleo-wind direction and dip at decreasing angles in the down paleo-wind direction. These factors point to the collapse of a major dune into the downwind interdune area, likely initiated by liquefaction in the interdune complex. The foundering of the dune's toe into the liquefied area created a powerful lateral stress field which did not extend significantly into the subsurface. The dune collapse process has been used in the past to describe other soft-sediment deformation features in the Navajo Sandstone, but this site provides a wealth of physical details which were not previously associated with dune collapse. Shear surfaces originate in the interdune deposit as slip between laminae, then the cohesive muds provided support as they were thrust upward to angles of up to 50 degrees. The margins of the site also contain important paleoenvironmental indicators. Dinosaur tracks are exposed both at the extreme upwind and downwind margins of the interdune deposit in and slightly above

  18. Finite Element Modelling of Seismic Liquefaction in Soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galavi, V.; Petalas, A.; Brinkgreve, R.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical aspects of seismic liquefaction in soils as implemented in the finite element code, PLAXIS, is described in this paper. After description of finite element equations of dynamic problems, three practical dynamic boundary conditions, namely viscous boundary tractions, tied degrees of freedom

  19. Determination of Liquefaction Potential using Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrokhzad, F; Choobbasti, A.J; Barari, Amin

    2011-01-01

    The authors propose an alternative general regression model based on neural networks, which enables analysis of summary data obtained by liquefaction analysis according to usual methods. For that purpose, the data from some thirty boreholes made during field investigations in Babol, in the Iranian...

  20. Thermochemical liquefaction characteristics of microalgae in sub- and supercritical ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Qiao; Chen, Liang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha (China); Key Laboratory of Environment Biology and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Changsha (China)

    2011-01-15

    Thermochemical liquefaction characteristics of Spirulina, a kind of high-protein microalgae, were investigated with the sub- and supercritical ethanol as solvent in a 1000 mL autoclave. The influences of various liquefaction parameters on the yields of products (bio-oil and residue) from the liquefaction of Spirulina were studied, such as the reaction temperature (T), the S/L ratio (R{sub 1}, solid: Spirulina, liquid: ethanol), the solvent filling ratio (R{sub 2}) and the type and dosage of catalyst. Without catalyst, the bio-oil yields were in the range of 35.4 wt.% and 45.3 wt.% depending on the changes of T, R{sub 1} and R{sub 2}. And the bio-oil yields increased generally with increasing T and R{sub 2}, while the bio-oil yields reduced with increasing R{sub 1}. The FeS catalyst was certified to be an ideal catalyst for the liquefaction of Spirulina microalgae for its advantages on promoting bio-oil production and suppressing the formation of residue. The optimal dosage of catalyst (FeS) was ranging from 5-7 wt.%. The elemental analyses and FT-IR and GC-MS measurements for the bio-oils revealed that the liquid products have much higher heating values than the crude Spirulina sample and fatty acid ethyl ester compounds were dominant in the bio-oils, irrespective of whether catalyst was used. (author)

  1. Direct liquefaction of plastics and coprocessing of coal with plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, G.P.; Feng, Z.; Mahajan, V. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this work were to optimize reaction conditions for the direct liquefaction of waste plastics and the coprocessing of coal with waste plastics. In previous work, the direct liquefaction of medium and high density polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PPE), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and a mixed plastic waste, and the coliquefaction of these plastics with coals of three different ranks was studied. The results established that a solid acid catalyst (HZSM-5 zeolite) was highly active for the liquefaction of the plastics alone, typically giving oil yields of 80-95% and total conversions of 90-100% at temperatures of 430-450 {degrees}C. In the coliquefaction experiments, 50:50 mixtures of plastic and coal were used with a tetralin solvent (tetralin:solid = 3:2). Using approximately 1% of the HZSM-5 catalyst and a nanoscale iron catalyst, oil yields of 50-70% and total conversion of 80-90% were typical. In the current year, further investigations were conducted of the liquefaction of PE, PPE, and a commingled waste plastic obtained from the American Plastics Council (APC), and the coprocessing of PE, PPE and the APC plastic with Black Thunder subbituminous coal. Several different catalysts were used in these studies.

  2. INDIRECT LABOR COSTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR OVERHEAD ALLOCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Bea Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Cost accounting typically allocates indirect labor cost to cost object based on direct labor hours. The allocation process implicitly assumes that indirect labor costs vary proportionally with direct labor hours. The assumption of a linear relationship between indirect and direct labor is particularly suspicious at low production volume levels because there tends to be a fixed component in indirect labor. The linearity assumption is also challenged by recent increasing complexity of indirect ...

  3. Cooperative Research Program in Coal-Waste Liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Huffman

    2000-03-31

    The results of a feasibility study for a demonstration plant for the liquefaction of waste plastic and tires and the coprocessing of these waste polymers with coal are presented. The study was conducted by a committee that included nine representatives from the CFFS, six from the U.S. Department of Energy - Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), and four from Burns and Roe, Inc. The study included: (1) An assessment of current recycling practices, particularly feedstock recycling in Germany; (2) A review of pertinent research, and a survey of feedstock availability for various types of waste polymers; and (3) A conceptual design for a demonstration plant was developed and an economic analysis for various feedstock mixes. The base case for feedstock scenarios was chosen to be 200 tons per day of waste plastic and 100 tons per day of waste tires. For this base case with oil priced at $20 per barrel, the return on investment (ROI) was found to range from 9% to 20%, using tipping fees for waste plastic and tires typical of those existing in the U.S. The most profitable feedstock appeared to waste plastic alone, with a plant processing 300 t/d of plastic yielding ROI's from 13 to 27 %, depending on the tipping fees for waste plastic. Feedstock recycling of tires was highly dependent on the price that could be obtained for recovered carbon. Addition of even relatively small amounts (20 t/d) of coal to waste plastic and/or coal feeds lowered the ROI's substantially. It should also be noted that increasing the size of the plant significantly improved all ROI's. For example, increasing plant size from 300 t/d to1200 t/d approximately doubles the estimated ROI's for a waste plastic feedstock.

  4. Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-09-01

    Reported here are the results of Laboratory and Bench- Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE- AC22- 91PC91040 during the period April 1, 1997 to June 30, 1997. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOL, Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work involves the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which includes dispersed lower- cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. This report includes a data analysis of the ALC- 2 run which was the second continuous run in which Wyodak Black Thunder coal was fed to a two kg/ h bench- scale unit. One of the objectives of that run was to determine the relative activity of several Mo- based coal impregnated catalyst precursors. The precursors included ammonium heptamolybdate (100 mg Mo/ kg dry coal), which was used alone as well as in combination with ferrous sulfate (1% Fe/ dry coal) and nickel sulfate (50 mg Ni/ kg dry coal). The fourth precursor that was tested was phosphomolybdic acid which was used at a level of 100 mg Mo/ kg dry coal. Because of difficulties in effectively separating solids from the product stream, considerable variation in the feed stream occurred. Although the coal feed rate was nearly constant, the amount of recycle solvent varied which resulted in wide variations of resid, unconverted coal and mineral matter in the feed stream. Unfortunately, steady state was not achieved in any of the four conditions that were run. Earlier it was reported that Ni- Mo catalyst appeared to give the best results based upon speculative steady- state yields that were developed.

  5. Beneficial synergistic effect on bio-oil production from co-liquefaction of sewage sludge and lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Lijian; Li, Jun; Yuan, Xingzhong; Li, Jingjing; Han, Pei; Hong, Yuchun; Wei, Feng; Zhou, Wenguang

    2018-03-01

    Co-liquefaction of municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and lignocellulosic biomass such as rice straw or wood sawdust at different mixing ratios and the characterization of the obtained bio-oil and bio-char were investigated. Synergistic effects were found during co-processing of MSS with biomass for production of bio-oil with higher yield and better fuel properties than those from individual feedstock. The co-liquefaction of MSS/rice straw (4/4, wt) increased the bio-oil yield from 22.74% (bio-oil yield from liquefaction of MSS individually) or 23.67% (rice straw) to 32.45%. Comparable increase on bio-oil yield was also observed for MSS/wood sawdust mixtures (2/6, wt). The bio-oils produced from MSS/biomass mixtures were mainly composed of esters and phenols with lower boiling points (degradation temperatures) than those from individual feedstock (identified with higher heavy bio-oil fractions). These synergistic effects were probably resulted from the interactions between the intermittent products of MSS and those of biomass during processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fiscal 1999 research cooperation project report. Research cooperation on coal liquefaction technology; 1999 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1999 research cooperation project result on coal liquefaction technology. Cooperative FS was made on coal liquefaction technology of Indonesian coal as petroleum substituting energy. To obtain the basic data necessary for the FS, study was made on the applicability of Indonesian natural minerals as catalytic materials. Promising low-cost abundant Soroako Limonite ore showed a high catalytic activity for liquefaction reaction of Banko coal, and an excellent grindability. Improved BCL process including hydrogenation process was promising for production of high-quality coal liquid superior in storage stability with less nitrogen and sulfur contents. Survey was made on the general conditions of Tanjung Enim area including South Banko coal field concerned, and the geological features and coal seam of South Banko coal field which is composed of 3 seams including coal deposits of 6.35 hundred million tons. To study the marketability of coal liquid, survey was made on the current situation of oil, oil product standards, and blendability of coal liquid. Hydrogen for the liquefaction process can be obtained by coal gasification. (NEDO)

  7. Semi-automated landform classification for hazard mapping of soil liquefaction by earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takayuki

    2018-05-01

    Soil liquefaction damages were caused by huge earthquake in Japan, and the similar damages are concerned in near future huge earthquake. On the other hand, a preparation of soil liquefaction risk map (soil liquefaction hazard map) is impeded by the difficulty of evaluation of soil liquefaction risk. Generally, relative soil liquefaction risk should be able to be evaluated from landform classification data by using experimental rule based on the relationship between extent of soil liquefaction damage and landform classification items associated with past earthquake. Therefore, I rearranged the relationship between landform classification items and soil liquefaction risk intelligibly in order to enable the evaluation of soil liquefaction risk based on landform classification data appropriately and efficiently. And I developed a new method of generating landform classification data of 50-m grid size from existing landform classification data of 250-m grid size by using digital elevation model (DEM) data and multi-band satellite image data in order to evaluate soil liquefaction risk in detail spatially. It is expected that the products of this study contribute to efficient producing of soil liquefaction hazard map by local government.

  8. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Agricultural and Biorefinery Residues Final Report – CRADA #PNNL/277

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.; Fjare, K. A.; Dunn, B. C.; McDonald, S. L.; Dassor, G.

    2010-07-28

    This project was performed as a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the participants: Archer-Daniels-Midland Company (ADM), ConocoPhillips (COP), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Funding from the federal government was provided by the Office of the Biomass Program within the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy assistant secretariat as part of the Thermochemical Conversion Platform. The three-year project was initiated in August 2007 with formal signing of the CRADA (#PNNL/277) in March 3, 2008 with subsequent amendments approved in November of 2008 and August of 2009. This report describes the results of the work performed by PNNL and the CRADA partners ADM and COP. It is considered Protected CRADA Information and is not available for public disclosure. The work conducted during this project involved developing process technology at PNNL for hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of agricultural and biorefinery residues and catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) of the aqueous byproduct from the liquefaction step. Related work performed by the partners included assessment of aqueous phase byproducts, hydroprocessing of the bio-oil product and process analysis and economic modeling of the technology.

  9. Effect of multi-stream heat exchanger on performance of natural gas liquefaction with mixed refrigerant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Lim, Hye Su; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2012-12-01

    A thermodynamic study is carried out to investigate the effect of multi-stream heat exchanger on the performance of natural gas (NG) liquefaction with mixed refrigerant (MR). A cold stream (low-pressure MR) is in thermal contact with opposite flow of two hot streams (high-pressure MR and NG feed) at the same time. In typical process simulation with commercial software (such as Aspen HYSYS®), the liquefaction performance is estimated with a method of minimum temperature approach, simply assuming that two hot streams have the same temperature. In this study, local energy balance equations are rigorously solved with temperature-dependent properties of MR and NG feed, and are linked to the thermodynamic cycle analysis. The figure of merit (FOM) is quantitatively examined in terms of UA (the product of overall heat transfer coefficient and heat exchange area) between respective streams. In a single-stage MR process, it is concluded that the temperature profile from HYSYS is difficult to realize in practice, and the FOM value from HYSYS is an over-estimate, but can be closely achieved with a proper heat-exchanger design. It is also demonstrated that there exists a unique optimal ratio in three UA's, and no direct heat exchanger between hot streams is recommended.

  10. Techno-economic analysis of solar integrated hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, Matthew; Shemfe, Mobolaji; Sansom, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal liquefaction and concentrated solar power provide integrated biofuel technology. • Heat kinetics and energy efficiency Aspen plus modelling of CSP and HTL. • Microalgae biofuel minimum fuel sales price of $1.23/kg. - Abstract: Integration of Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae biomass with concentrated solar power thermal processing (CSP) for bio-oil production is a potential processing pathway for energy efficient generation of renewable biofuels. Solar HTL infrastructure avoids additional bolt-on components of conventional solar parabolic trough systems used for electricity production including heat transfer fluids, counter current heat exchangers, fluid transfer interconnectivity and electrical power control systems. The absence of such capital intensive additional equipment considerably reduces the production costs of solar HTL biofuels compared to electricity generation from conventional CSP power systems. An economic and market appraisal of variance and system economic resilience is presented. It is hypothesised that the combination of nutrient recycling with HTL/CSP unification has the potential for economically sustainable microalgae bio-oil production. A microalgae biofuel minimum fuel sales price of $1.23/kg has been modelled. Further experimental work would be able to validate this integrated model.

  11. Coal conversion rate in 1t/d PSU liquefaction reactor; 1t/d PSU ekika hannoto ni okeru sekitan tenka sokudo no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, K.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    To investigate the coal liquefaction characteristics, coal slurry samples were taken from the outlets of the reactors and slurry preheater of NEDOL process 1 t/d process supporting unit (PSU), and were analyzed. Tanito Harum coal was used for liquefaction, and the slurry was prepared with recycle solvent. Liquefaction was performed using synthetic iron sulfide catalyst at reaction temperatures, 450 and 465{degree}C. Solubility of various solid samples was examined against n-hexane, toluene, and tetrahydrofuran (THF). When considering the decrease of IMO (THF-insoluble and ash) as a characteristic of coal conversion reaction, around 20% at the outlet of the slurry preheater, around 70% within the first reactor, and several percents within the successive second and third reactors were converted against supplied coal. Increase of reaction temperature led to the increase of evaporation of oil fraction, which resulted in the decrease of actual slurry flow rate and in the increase of residence time. Thus, the conversion of coal was accelerated by the synergetic effect of temperature and time. Reaction rate constant of the coal liquefaction was around 2{times}10{sup -1} [min{sup -1}], which increased slightly with increasing the reaction temperature from 450 to 465{degree}C. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Third European Company Survey – Direct and indirect employee participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Agnes; Sluiter, Roderick; Jansen, Giedo

    2015-01-01

    This report studies practices in EU establishments for direct and indirect employee participation in decision-making. Indirect employee participation is the involvement of employee representatives in decision-making processes, while direct employee participation describes direct interaction between

  13. Bioelectrochemical Systems for Indirect Biohydrogen Production

    KAUST Repository

    Regan, John M.; Yan, Hengjing

    2014-01-01

    by exoelectrogens at the anode. As an indirect approach to biohydrogen production, these systems are not subject to the hydrogen yield constraints of fermentative processes and have been proven to work with virtually any biodegradable organic substrate

  14. Combined Brayton-JT cycles with refrigerants for natural gas liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Lee, Sanggyu; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2012-06-01

    Thermodynamic cycles for natural gas liquefaction with single-component refrigerants are investigated under a governmental project in Korea, aiming at new processes to meet the requirements on high efficiency, large capacity, and simple equipment. Based upon the optimization theory recently published by the present authors, it is proposed to replace the methane-JT cycle in conventional cascade process with a nitrogen-Brayton cycle. A variety of systems to combine nitrogen-Brayton, ethane-JT and propane-JT cycles are simulated with Aspen HYSYS and quantitatively compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, flow rate of refrigerants, and estimated size of heat exchangers. A specific Brayton-JT cycle is suggested with detailed thermodynamic data for further process development. The suggested cycle is expected to be more efficient and simpler than the existing cascade process, while still taking advantage of easy and robust operation with single-component refrigerants.

  15. Co-liquefaction of Elbistan Lignite with Manure Biomass; Part 2 - Effect of Biomass Type, Waste to Lignite Ratio and Solid to Liquid Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Hüseyin; Koyunoglu, Cemil

    2017-12-01

    Most coal hydrogenation processes require a large quantity of hydrogen. In general, a coal derived liquid such as anthracene oil was used as a hydrogen donor solvent. Tetralin, partially hydrogenated pyrene, phenantrene and coal-derived solvents, which contain hydroaromatic compounds, are efficient solvents to donate hydrogen. In an attempt to reduce the high cost of hydrogen, part of the hydrogen was replaced by a low cost hydrogen donor solvent. This must be hydrogenated during or before the process and recycled. To reduce the cost of hydrogen donor vehicles instead of liquids recycled from the liquefaction process or several biomass types, industrial by products, liquid fractions derived from oil sands bitumen were successfully used to solubilize a coal from the past. In an attempt to reduce the high cost of hydrogen, part of the hydrogen was replaced by a low cost hydrogen donor solvent. However, when hydrogen is supplied from the hydroaromatic structures present in the solvent, the activity of coal minerals is too low to rehydrogenate the solvent in-situ. Nevertheless, a decrease of using oxygen, in addition to enhanced usage of the hydrogen supply by using various waste materials might lead to a decrease of the cost of the liquefaction procedure. So instead of using tetralin another feeding material such as biomass is becoming another solution improving hydrogen donor substances. Most of the liquefaction process were carried out in a batch reactor, in which the residence time of the liquefaction products is long enough to favour the retrogressive reactions, early studies which are related to liquefaction of coal with biomass generally focus on the synergetic effects of coal while biomass added. Early studies which are related to liquefaction of coal with biomass generally focus on the synergetic effects of coal while biomass added. Alternatively, to understand the hydrogen transfer from biomass to coal, in this study, Elbistan Lignite (EL) with manure, tea

  16. Report on the bituminous coal liquefaction sub-committee in fiscal 1993; 1993 nendo rekiseitan ekika bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the activities of the bituminous coal liquefaction sub-committee in fiscal 1993. With an intention of developing a technology on the process (NEDOL) suitable for liquefaction of wide range of coal types placing sub-bituminous coal at the center, researches were carried out by using a pilot plant, and engineering data purposed for practical application of the technology were acquired. The construction of the pilot plant, launched in fiscal 1991, will be performed under the operation research plan for efficient operation, based on the result of discussing the total project cost in fiscal 1992. The status of constructing the 150-t/d pilot plant in fiscal 1993 is in the phase of making the foundations subsequently from fiscal 1992, procurement of devices and construction materials, constructions of iron structures, installation, heat insulation, and painting, and building the central control building and piping facilities outside the battery limit. The paper also reports the tests and investigations on improving performance of natural pylite catalyst, the tests and investigations on improving performance of circulating solvent, and the technological investigations on structuring a liquefying reaction data analyzing system. For the supportive researches on the pilot plant, the paper describes studies by using a 1-t/d PSU, studies on coal liquefaction conditions, studies on synthesized iron sulfide catalysts, and studies on solvent hydrogenating catalysts. A comprehensive discussion was also given. (NEDO)

  17. Hydrothermal liquefaction of agricultural and forestry wastes: state-of-the-art review and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Leichang; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Huihui; Tsang, Daniel C W; Luo, Gang; Zhang, Shicheng; Chen, Jianmin

    2017-12-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction has been widely applied to obtain bioenergy and high-value chemicals from biomass in the presence of a solvent at moderate to high temperature (200-550°C) and pressure (5-25MPa). This article summarizes and discusses the conversion of agricultural and forestry wastes by hydrothermal liquefaction. The history and development of hydrothermal liquefaction technology for lignocellulosic biomass are briefly introduced. The research status in hydrothermal liquefaction of agricultural and forestry wastes is critically reviewed, particularly for the effects of liquefaction conditions on bio-oil yield and the decomposition mechanisms of main components in biomass. The limitations of hydrothermal liquefaction of agricultural and forestry wastes are discussed, and future research priorities are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Contribution of wave-induced liquefaction in triggering hyperpycnal flows in Yellow River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Jia, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Hyperpycnal flows, driven mainly by the gravity of near-bed negatively buoyant layers, are one of the most important processes for moving marine sediment across the earth. The issue of hyperpycnal flows existing in marine environment has drawn increasing scholars' attention since that was observed in situ off the Yellow River estuary in the 1980s. Most researches maintain that hyperpycnal flows in the Yellow River estuary are caused by the high-concentration sediments discharged from the Yellow River into sea, however, other mechanisms have been discounted since the sediment input from the river has been significantly changed due to climate and anthropogenic change. Here we demonstrate that wave-seabed interactions can generate hyperpycnal flows, without river input, by sediment flux convergence above an originally consolidated seabed. Using physical model experiments and multi-sensor field measurements, we characterize the composition-dependent liquefaction properties of the sediment due to wave-induced pore water pressure accumulation. This allows quantification of attenuation of sediment threshold velocity and critical shear stress (predominant variables in transport mechanics) during the liquefaction under waves. Parameterising the wave-seabed interactions in a new concept model shows that high waves propagating over the seabed sediment can act as a scarifier plough remoulding the seabed sediment. This contributes to marine hyperpycnal flows as the sediment is quickly resuspended under accumulating attenuation in strength. Therefore, the development of more integrative numerical models could supply realistic predictions of marine record in response to rising magnitude and frequency of storms.

  19. Report of liquefaction catalyst study meeting (March 1996); Ekika shokubai kentokai hokoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Studied in the research are four iron-based catalysts, which are natural pyrite, synthetic iron sulfide, synthetic iron hydroxide, and catalyst-attached carbon. Tanito Harum coal is treated in a 0.01t/d-capable continuous operation furnace (once-through) under conditions of 450 degrees C and 170kgf/cm{sup 2} with catalyst addition of 1.0, 3.0wt% (catalyst-attached carbon 0.6, 1.0wt%), and a liquid yield of 41.5-48.6wt%-daf coal is achieved. A higher yield results when more catalyst is added. The same yield as achieved by the addition of 3wt% natural pyrite is obtained by the addition of 1.9wt% synthetic iron sulfide, 1.5wt% of synthetic iron hydroxide, or 0.7wt% catalyst-attached coal. The catalyst cost for treating a ton of coal is 4-9 hundred yen, which is far more expensive than the cost set forth as the target. Catalysts whose production process embodiment is now under study are natural pyrite and synthetic iron sulfide, and studies for others are just preliminary. Provided that the practical application of the liquefaction technology realizes in about 2000, then the petroleum price is predicted to be 23 dollars per barrel. Coal liquefaction products will have to be produced at a cost which will enable competition with the said petroleum price. (NEDO)

  20. Post-liquefaction soil-structure interaction for buried structures: Sensitivity analysis studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, J.A.; Ang, H.S.; Katayama, I.; Satoh, M.

    1993-01-01

    The post liquefaction behavior of buried conduits is analyzed and sensitivity analysis is conducted to investigate the damage potential of the forces induced in the buried lifelines following seismically induced liquefaction of the surrounding soil. Various lifeline configurations and loading conditions are considered. The loading conditions considered are: buoyancy forces and permanent ground displacements parallel to the lifeline axis. Pertinent parameters for the soil-lifeline interaction following liquefaction are identified. (author)

  1. Use of liquefaction-induced features for paleoseismic analysis - An overview of how seismic liquefaction features can be distinguished from other features and how their regional distribution and properties of source sediment can be used to infer the location and strength of Holocene paleo-earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    Liquefaction features can be used in many field settings to estimate the recurrence interval and magnitude of strong earthquakes through much of the Holocene. These features include dikes, craters, vented sand, sills, and laterally spreading landslides. The relatively high seismic shaking level required for their formation makes them particularly valuable as records of strong paleo-earthquakes. This state-of-the-art summary for using liquefaction-induced features for paleoseismic interpretation and analysis takes into account both geological and geotechnical engineering perspectives. The driving mechanism for formation of the features is primarily the increased pore-water pressure associated with liquefaction of sand-rich sediment. The role of this mechanism is often supplemented greatly by the direct action of seismic shaking at the ground surface, which strains and breaks the clay-rich cap that lies immediately above the sediment that liquefied. Discussed in the text are the processes involved in formation of the features, as well as their morphology and characteristics in field settings. Whether liquefaction occurs is controlled mainly by sediment grain size, sediment packing, depth to the water table, and strength and duration of seismic shaking. Formation of recognizable features in the field generally requires a low-permeability cap above the sediment that liquefied. Field manifestations are controlled largely by the severity of liquefaction and the thickness and properties of the low-permeability cap. Criteria are presented for determining whether observed sediment deformation in the field originated by seismically induced liquefaction. These criteria have been developed mainly by observing historic effects of liquefaction in varied field settings. The most important criterion is that a seismic liquefaction origin requires widespread, regional development of features around a core area where the effects are most severe. In addition, the features must have a

  2. Enzymatic liquefaction of agarose above the sol-gel transition temperature using a thermostable endo-type β-agarase, Aga16B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Hyun; Yun, Eun Ju; Seo, Nari; Yu, Sora; Kim, Dong Hyun; Cho, Kyung Mun; An, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jae-Han; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2017-02-01

    The main carbohydrate of red macroalgae is agarose, a heterogeneous polysaccharide composed of D-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose. When saccharifying agarose by enzymes, the unique physical properties of agarose, namely the sol-gel transition and the near-insolubility of agarose in water, limit the accessibility of agarose to the enzymes. Due to the lower accessibility of agarose to enzymes in the gel state than to the sol state, it is important to prevent the sol-gel transition by performing the enzymatic liquefaction of agarose at a temperature higher than the sol-gel transition temperature of agarose. In this study, a thermostable endo-type β-agarase, Aga16B, originating from Saccharophagus degradans 2-40 T , was characterized and introduced in the liquefaction process. Aga16B was thermostable up to 50 °C and depolymerized agarose mainly into neoagarooligosaccharides with degrees of polymerization 4 and 6. Aga16B was applied to enzymatic liquefaction of agarose at 45 °C, which was above the sol-gel transition temperature of 1 % (w/v) agarose (∼35 °C) when cooling agarose. This is the first systematic demonstration of enzymatic liquefaction of agarose, enabled by determining the sol-gel temperature of agarose under specific conditions and by characterizing the thermostability of an endo-type β-agarase.

  3. The current status of coal liquefaction technologies - Panorama 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In 2008, a first coal liquefaction unit to produce motor fuel (20,000 BPSD) will come on-stream in Shenhua, China (in the Ercos region of Inner Mongolia). Other, more ambitious projects have been announced in China for between now and 2020. Since oil production is expected to peak in the medium term, this technology may develop regionally in the next 20 years to cover ever-increasing demand for motor fuel

  4. New magnetic refrigeration materials for the liquefaction of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gschneidner, K.A.; Takeya, H.; Moorman, J.O.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Malik, S.K.; Zimm, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    Five heavy lanthanide ferromagnetic intermetallic compounds were studied as potential magnetic refrigerants for the liquefaction of hydrogen gas. (Dy 0.5 Er 0.5 )Al 2 and TbNi 2 appear to be better refrigerants than GdPd for a Joule-Brayton cycle refrigerator, while (Gd 0.54 Er 0.46 )AlNi seems to be a suitable refrigerant for an Ericsson cycle refrigerator

  5. Advanced Direct Liquefaction Concepts for PETC Generic Units - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-12-01

    The results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments and supporting technical and economic assessments conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91040 are reported for the period July 1, 1997 to September 30, 1997. This contract is with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, CONSOL, Inc., LDP Associates, and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. This work involves the introduction into the basic two stage liquefaction process several novel concepts which include dispersed lower-cost catalysts, coal cleaning by oil agglomeration, and distillate hydrotreating and dewaxing. Results are reported from experiments in which various methods were tested to activate dispersed Mo precursors. Several oxothiomolybdates precursors having S/Mo ratios from two to six were prepared. Another having a S/Mo ratio of eleven was also prepared that contained an excess of sulfur. In the catalyst screening test, none of these precursors exhibited an activity enhancement that might suggest that adding sulfur into the structure of the Mo precursors would be beneficial to the process. In another series of experiments, AHM impregnated coal slurried in the reaction mixture was pretreated withH S/H under pressure and successively heated for 30 min at 120, 250 2 2 and 360 C. THF conversions in the catalyst screening test were not affected while resid conversions o increased such that pretreated coals impregnated with 100 ppm Mo gave conversions equivalent to untreated coals impregnated with 300 ppm fresh Mo. Cobalt, nickel and potassium phosphomolybdates were prepared and tested as bimetallic precursors. The thermal stability of these compounds was evaluated in TG/MS to determine whether the presence of the added metal would stabilize the Keggin structure at reaction temperature. Coals impregnated with these salts showed the Ni and Co salts gave the same THF conversion as PMA while the Ni salt gave higher

  6. Machine learning modelling for predicting soil liquefaction susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Samui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes two machine learning techniques applied to predict liquefaction susceptibility of soil based on the standard penetration test (SPT data from the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake. The first machine learning technique which uses Artificial Neural Network (ANN based on multi-layer perceptions (MLP that are trained with Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm. The second machine learning technique uses the Support Vector machine (SVM that is firmly based on the theory of statistical learning theory, uses classification technique. ANN and SVM have been developed to predict liquefaction susceptibility using corrected SPT [(N160] and cyclic stress ratio (CSR. Further, an attempt has been made to simplify the models, requiring only the two parameters [(N160 and peck ground acceleration (amax/g], for the prediction of liquefaction susceptibility. The developed ANN and SVM models have also been applied to different case histories available globally. The paper also highlights the capability of the SVM over the ANN models.

  7. Study of aerosol direct and indirect effects and auto-conversion processes over the West African monsoon region using a regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Zeinab; Shalaby, Ahmed; Steiner, Allison L.; Zakey, Ashraf S.; Gautam, Ritesh; Abdel Wahab, Mohamed M.

    2018-02-01

    This study assesses the direct and indirect effects of natural and anthropogenic aerosols (e.g., black carbon and sulfate) over West and Central Africa during the West African monsoon (WAM) period (June-July-August). We investigate the impacts of aerosols on the amount of cloudiness, the influences on the precipitation efficiency of clouds, and the associated radiative forcing (direct and indirect). Our study includes the implementation of three new formulations of auto-conversion parameterization [namely, the Beheng (BH), Tripoli and Cotton (TC) and Liu and Daum (R6) schemes] in RegCM4.4.1, besides the default model's auto-conversion scheme (Kessler). Among the new schemes, BH reduces the precipitation wet bias by more than 50% over West Africa and achieves a bias reduction of around 25% over Central Africa. Results from detailed sensitivity experiments suggest a significant path forward in terms of addressing the long-standing issue of the characteristic wet bias in RegCM. In terms of aerosol-induced radiative forcing, the impact of the various schemes is found to vary considerably (ranging from -5 to -25 W m-2).

  8. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Renewable Hydrocarbon Fuels via Indirect Liquefaction, Fast Pyrolysis, and Hydrothermal Liquefaction: Update of the 2016 State-of-Technology Cases and Design Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Dunn, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Pegallapati, Ambica [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Li, Qianfeng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Canter, Christina [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davis, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markham, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartley, Damon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Meyer, Pimphan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhu, Yunhua [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Susanne [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) aims to develop and deploy technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2016). BETO and its national laboratory teams conduct in-depth technoeconomic assessments (TEA) of biomass feedstock supply and logistics and conversion technologies to produce biofuels, and life-cycle analysis of overall system sustainability.

  9. Post-cyclic behavior of low plasticity silt under full and limited liquefaction using triaxial compression testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    During an earthquake, liquefaction does not happen all the time. It depends on the duration and magnitude of the earthquake and the properties (with relationship to resistance of liquefaction) of the low plasticity silt. Under low duration or magnitu...

  10. Assessment of thermodynamic models for the design, analysis and optimisation of gas liquefaction systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    of their performance. However, the thermodynamic models used for this purpose are characterised by different mathematical formulations, ranges of application and levels of accuracy. This may lead to inconsistent results when estimating hydrocarbon properties and assessing the efficiency of a given process. This paper...... are related to the prediction of the energy flows (up to 7%) and to the heat exchanger conductances (up to 11%), and they are not systematic errors. The results illustrate the superiority of using the GERG-2008 model for designing gas processes in real applications, with the aim of reducing their energy use....... They demonstrate as well that particular caution should be exercised when extrapolating the results of the conventional thermodynamic models to the actual conception of the gas liquefaction chain....

  11. Mechanical integrity of PFHE in LNG liquefaction process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, N.E.; Hageraats-Ponomareva, S.V.; Velthuis, J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanical integrity of heat exchangers is the result of an interplay of many physical phenomena. A full, albeit simple, model, that covers mixture phase thermodynamics, heat transfer, flow dynamics, and the thermal and pressure stresses has been created. Using this simulation model it is now

  12. Comparative study on liquefaction of creosote and chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood and untreated southern pine wood: effects of acid catalyst content, liquefaction time, temperature, and phenol to wood ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2009-01-01

    Creosote- and chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood waste and untreated southern pine wood were liquefied with phenol and sulfuric acid. The effects of sulfuric acid content, liquefaction time, liquefaction temperature, and phenol to wood ratio on liquefaction rate (i.e., wood residue content) were investigated and analyzed by analysis of variance (...

  13. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribble, R E; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Spitaleri, C

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches. (review article)

  14. Pedal indirect lymphangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kil Woo; Hong, Myung Sun; Kim, In Jae

    1994-01-01

    Recently, indirect lymphangiography has been developed as a relatively good and noninvasive imaging modality of the lymphatic system at extremities. But the disadvantage of the indirect lymphangiography is a low contrast ratio between the surrounding tissues and the contrast media in lymphatic vessels, because dimeric nonionic contrast media is water soluble and diluted in the proximal leg lymphatic vessels. We could have relatively better image than previously published images for the leg lymphatic system, when we injected contrast media with adequate high pressure in intradermal space of the interdigital areas at the foot dorsum. So, we would like to report the results. We could study all 9 lymphedemas(primary: 6, secondary: 3) from April 1990 to May 1993 on outpatient base. They were diagnosed as lymphedema clinically and radiologically. Ten ml of dimeric nonionic aget, iotrolan(Isovist 300) was injected into intradermal space with five 30-gauge needles. The injection speed was more than 0.2 ml/min. We have done one side pedal lymphangiogram in 30 minutes. The evaluation of the anterior superficial lymphatics was according to the criteria of the Weissleder. The results were as follows: 1. All lymphatic vessels from foot to inguinal area could be visualized. 2. Two or three inferior inguinal lymph nodes could be visualized about 42%. 3. The most common abnormal finding of the lymphedma was the neovascularization of the lymphatics on indirect pedal lymphangiogram. If we use adequate technique relatively high pressure injection, correct intradermal needle insertion, adequate soft tissue exposure technique indirect lymphangiography is considered to be a safe and noninvasive imaging modality for the evaluation of the lymphedema of lower extremity lymphatics including inferior inguinal lymph nodes

  15. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  16. Achievement report for fiscal 1993 on research under Sunshine Program. Research on direct liquefaction reaction of coal; 1993 nendo sekitan no chokusetsu ekika hanno ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The reaction velocity constant of coal or the distribution of products in a high-pressure hydrocracking process of coal are found not to be affected by the temperature rise rate. The liquefaction of coal using CO and water is analyzed using a high-pressure differential thermal analyzer. The hydrogen gas generated during the water gas reaction reacts with CO for the formation of alcohols, carbonic acid, etc. The reaction rate is found to be higher when the specimen contains more oxygen. When coals greatly different from each other in terms of thermolytic reactivity, caking property, and intersolubility with medium oils are mixed, synergistic effects are exhibited, positive when active hydrogen supply is abundant and negative when it is short. In the case of the Hokkaido coal which contains 73.0-87.4% carbon, the grain diameter does not affect the liquefaction rate when the coal is crushed to the 48-mesh size approximately. Reaction velocity in direct liquefaction does not relate to hydrogen pressure. Asphaltenes in coal liquefaction are produced at the beginning of reaction, to be reduced in molecular weight due to cleavage of methylene crosslinks with the progress of reaction. Studies are conducted in a 0.1t/d-capable bench plant about liquefaction reaction characteristics and coal liquid properties, and chemical structures. (NEDO)

  17. Liquefaction of Lignocellulose in Fractionated Light Bio-Oil: Proof of Concept and Techno-Economic Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, S.; Lange, Jean Paul; van Rossum, G.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.

    2015-01-01

    The direct thermal liquefaction of lignocellulose can provide a biocrude that could be used as a precursor for biofuels. However, earlier attempts to use the whole reactor effluent as a liquefaction medium, by recycling it to the liquefaction reactor, were hampered by the buildup of heavy products.

  18. Design, synthesis, and characterization of novel fine-particle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M.T.

    1991-12-30

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the kinetics-assisted design, synthesis and characterization of fme-pardcle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction. The goal is to develop a fundamental understanding of coal catalysis and catalysts that will, in turn, allow for the specification of a novel optimal catalyst for coal liquefaction.

  19. Influence of solvent type on microwave-assisted liquefaction of bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiulong Xie; Chung Hse; Todd F. Shupe; Tingxing Hu

    2016-01-01

    Microwave-assisted liquefaction of bamboo in glycerol, polyethylene glycerol (PEG), methanol, ethanol, and water were comparatively investigated by evaluating the temperature-dependence for conversion and liquefied residue characteristics. The conversion for the liquefaction in methanol, ethanol, and water increased with an increase in reaction temperature, while that...

  20. Hydroprocessing Microalgae Derived Hydrothermal Liquefaction Bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The review illustrates that the same fuels (of almost the same properties) can be produced from the bio-crude as from petroleum crude; the process conditions depend on the required product distribution (maximum diesel or kerosene/jet range fuels); and the process is characterized by much higher hydrogen consumption ...

  1. Evaluation of soil liquefaction potential for level ground during earthquakes. A summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, H.B.; Arango, I.; Chan, C.K.

    1975-10-01

    The results of a three-year research program conducted to investigate the settlement and liquefaction of sands under multi-directional shaking are evaluated. The investigation indicated that the behavior of a saturated sand under cyclic loading conditions is a function of its geologic and seismic history and grain structure as well as its placement density. It is concluded that the resistance to liquefaction of a sand deposit can best be estimated by laboratory testing on undisturbed samples. It is shown that cyclic triaxial tests used in conjunction with appropriate correction factors to account for multi-directional shaking, simple shear loading conditions, and overconsolidation effects can provide valid data on cyclic loading characteristics. The concepts of ''limited strain potential'' and acceptable value of the factor of safety against initial liquefaction are introduced. Finally, the two basic methods for evaluating liquefaction potential and the effects of liquefaction are reviewed and updated with the information obtained through this research effort

  2. Assessing microalgae biorefinery routes for the production of biofuels via hydrothermal liquefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Barreiro, Diego; Samorì, Chiara; Terranella, Giuseppe; Hornung, Ursel; Kruse, Andrea; Prins, Wolter

    2014-12-01

    The interest in third generation biofuels from microalgae has been rising during the past years. Meanwhile, it seems not economically feasible to grow algae just for biofuels. Co-products with a higher value should be produced by extracting a particular algae fraction to improve the economics of an algae biorefinery. The present study aims at analyzing the influence of two main microalgae components (lipids and proteins) on the composition and quantity of biocrude oil obtained via hydrothermal liquefaction of two strains (Nannochloropsis gaditana and Scenedesmus almeriensis). The algae were liquefied as raw biomass, after extracting lipids and after extracting proteins in microautoclave experiments at different temperatures (300-375°C) for 5 and 15min. The results indicate that extracting the proteins from the microalgae prior to HTL may be interesting to improve the economics of the process while at the same time reducing the nitrogen content of the biocrude oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Co, Fe and Ni catalysts supported on coke for direct coal liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, Jose A; Villalba, Oscar A; Rodriguez, Luis I; Hernandez, Orlando; Agamez, Yasmin Y; Dias Jose de Jesus

    2008-01-01

    Transition metal catalysts supported on coke were prepared by impregnation with a solution of complex of metal-thiourea, that is produced from salt precursors of cobalt chloride, Nickel chloride or iron sulfate and ammonium. sulphide formation on the support surface was generated by decomposition of the metal complex. The catalysts obtained were used in direct coal liquefaction of a medium volatile bituminous coal (Yerbabuena N 1) from Cundinamarca using a 250 Ml, Parr reactor at 723 K and a hydrogen-donor solvent. The catalytic results show, for all samples, both a good coal conversion and an enhancement of the yield of oils, this indicates that the proposed preparation method of catalyst is effective and that eventually the H 2 S sulphidation conventional process could be replaced

  4. Characterization of catalytically hydrotreated coal liquid produced by solvolytic liquefaction in petroleum asphalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochida, I.; Oishi, T.; Korai, Y.; Fujitsu, H.; Takeshita, K.

    1983-03-01

    A hydrotreated coal liquid produced by solvolytic liquefaction of a feed originally consisting of 66% petroleum asphalt and 34% coal liquid was characterized. The hydrotreatment was carried out over a Co-Mo catalyst in order to upgrade moderately and selectively the coal-derived fraction. The present process was found very effective to depolymerize rather selectively the coal-derived fraction, originally benzene insoluble, to be soluble in benzene in the dominant presence of petroleum asphalt, while 20% of the asphalt was converted to be distillable with ..cap alpha..-methylnaphthalene (the hydrotreatment solvent). Structural analyses of the fractions before and after hydrotreatment were compared to reveal what kinds of chemical reactions had taken place during hydro treatment. The major reactions of the coal derived fraction are hydrodeoxygenation and hydrodealkylation, both of which are effective for depolymerization. No significant hydrogenation on aromatic rings was observed. Hydrotreated liquid was further pyrolyzed to obtain oils and cokes of high quality. (14 refs.)

  5. Bimetallic promotion of cooperative hydrogen transfer and heteroatom removal in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisch, J.J.

    1992-04-07

    The ultimate objective of this research has been to uncover novel reagents and experimental conditions for heteroatom removal and hydrogen transfer processes, which would be applicable to the liquefaction of coal under low-severity conditions. To this end, one phase of this research has investigated the cleavage of carbon-heteroatom bonds involving sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen and halogen by subvalent transition-metal complexes. A second phase of the study has assessed the capability of the same transition-metal complexes or of organoaluminum Lewis acids to catalyze the cleavage of carbon-hydrogen bonds in aromatics and hence to promote hydrogen shuttling. Finally, a third phase of our work has uncovered a remarkable synergistic effect of combinations of transition metals with organoaluminum Lewis acids on hydrogen shuttling between aromatics and hydroaromatics. (VC)

  6. Development, modelling and evaluation of a small-scale gas liquefaction plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    A small-scale gas liquefaction plant was developed and analysed based on process simulation tools and pilot tests. It will be installed in harbours, easing the penetration of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a maritime fuel, in a sector facing more stringent environmental regulations. The proposed...... plant uses a multi-component refrigerant together with a propane precooling cycle and plate heat exchangers, to achieve a higher performance. This LNG production concept was modelled based on the Danish natural gas composition. Firstly, the total power consumption and heat transfer conductance were...... minimised by optimising the operating conditions and the refrigerant composition. The effects of varying feed and refrigerant compositions were analysed. Secondly, the system layouts were evaluated by conducting an exergetic assessment. Finally, the most promising layouts were validated by pilot plant...

  7. Additives affecting properties of β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles in a modified indirect wet chemistry process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Cheng-Long, E-mail: johnyucl@aliyun.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi' an 710021 (China); Research Laboratory of Hydrothermal Chemistry, Faculty of Science, The Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Liu, Wei; Yang, Long-Tao; Wang, Dao-Yi; Wu, Kang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi' an 710021 (China); Zhang, Zeng-Ping [Key Laboratory for Special Area Highway Engineering of Ministry of Education, Chang' an University, Xi' an 710064 (China); Wang, Xiu-Feng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi' an 710021 (China); Yanagisawa, Kazumichi [Research Laboratory of Hydrothermal Chemistry, Faculty of Science, The Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Lithium metatitanate (β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) pebbles were fabricated via the modified indirect wet chemistry method. Effect of varied additives, as polyvinyl alcohol, glycerol, and agar on the properties evolution was investigated. The highest density is obtained by adding 2 wt% (weight percent) polyvinyl alcohol, 3 wt% glycerol, and 3 wt% agar, respectively. β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles with relative sintered density of 92.4%T.D. (Theoretical Density), the ratio of the intensity of diffraction peak (002) to that of (−133) of about 2.93, about 1.58 mm in diameter, a better sphericity of 1.02, the particle size of 5–6 μm, and the well-developed surface layered structure are successfully fabricated with 3 wt% glycerol. Glycerol is beneficial to improving the properties by other fabrication method as well. - Highlights: • Polyvinyl alcohol, glycerol, and agar were used to prepare β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles. • Properties of the β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles were governed by the additives. • Glycerol is beneficial to improving the properties of β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles.

  8. CONTRIBUTION OF INDIRECT TAXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The work is based on the fact that at any time and in any society, taxation is regarded as undesirable for all taxpayers. The existence and it's manifestation is justified, because the operation of any company involves costs that must be covered by sufficient resources. Since ancient times, each state has adopted its own tax system, more or less perfected, as the state has experienced a greater or lesser economic and military power At the base of this work stays the fact that tax systems are a key factor influencing the overall efficiency of the economy. They determine the size tendency to save, invest and work, influencing the increase in production and employment, which is essential sights integral economic strategy, making tax reform an important component of economic reform. This paper aims to analyze the indirect taxes and their contribution to the public revenues in Romania, the purpose paper contains an analysis based on statistical series as indirect taxation is where tax harmonization was possible. Through analyzes, the paper aims to provide answers to the problem of the contradiction between the growing need for budgetary revenues, which entails a continuous amplification and diversification of taxation, on the one hand, and the need to stimulate economic development, on the other hand. The harmonization of indirect taxation had been achieved since this touches the free movement of goods and the freedom to supply services, not being able to say the same thing about direct taxation, which is why the European Community Treaty does not specify expressly the alignment of direct taxation, considering that direct taxation is a matter of Internal Policies that, for a country free option.

  9. Coal liquefaction policy in China: Explaining the policy reversal since 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Fang; Victor, David G.

    2011-01-01

    China has emerged as a leader in coal liquefaction. While the country's abundant coal resources and acute concerns about oil security help explain China's interest in liquefaction, the driving forces for this industry are complicated and policy has been inconsistent. Since 2006 Beijing has tried to slow down the development of liquefaction; even as China has become more dependent on imported oil, the central government has been wary about the large impact of liquefaction technologies on scarce resources such as water. However, local government officials in coal rich areas have strong incentives to pour investment into the technology, which helps explain the uneven development and policy. The future of coal liquefaction will depend on how these forces unfold along with major Beijing-led reforms in the Chinese coal industry, which is closing smaller mines and favoring the emergence of larger coal producing firms. Those reforms will have mixed effects on liquefaction. They temporarily contribute to higher prices for coal while over the longer term creating coal companies that have much greater financial and technical skills needed to deploy technologies such as coal liquefaction at a scale needed if this energy pathway is to be competitive with conventional sources of liquid fuel. - Highlights: ► We explain swings in Chinese policy on coal liquefaction, a possible substitute for imported oil. ► Since 2006 Beijing's support has waned due to fears about environmental impacts and cost of liquefaction. ► Local governments in some coal rich regions remain strongly supportive. ► Volatile oil prices and rising coal prices make this industry more risky than previously thought. ► Consolidation of the coal industry will have mixed effects on viability of liquefaction projects.

  10. Probabilistic versus deterministic hazard assessment in liquefaction susceptible zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daminelli, Rosastella; Gerosa, Daniele; Marcellini, Alberto; Tento, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA), usually adopted in the framework of seismic codes redaction, is based on Poissonian description of the temporal occurrence, negative exponential distribution of magnitude and attenuation relationship with log-normal distribution of PGA or response spectrum. The main positive aspect of this approach stems into the fact that is presently a standard for the majority of countries, but there are weak points in particular regarding the physical description of the earthquake phenomenon. Factors like site effects, source characteristics like duration of the strong motion and directivity that could significantly influence the expected motion at the site are not taken into account by PSHA. Deterministic models can better evaluate the ground motion at a site from a physical point of view, but its prediction reliability depends on the degree of knowledge of the source, wave propagation and soil parameters. We compare these two approaches in selected sites affected by the May 2012 Emilia-Romagna and Lombardia earthquake, that caused widespread liquefaction phenomena unusually for magnitude less than 6. We focus on sites liquefiable because of their soil mechanical parameters and water table level. Our analysis shows that the choice between deterministic and probabilistic hazard analysis is strongly dependent on site conditions. The looser the soil and the higher the liquefaction potential, the more suitable is the deterministic approach. Source characteristics, in particular the duration of strong ground motion, have long since recognized as relevant to induce liquefaction; unfortunately a quantitative prediction of these parameters appears very unlikely, dramatically reducing the possibility of their adoption in hazard assessment. Last but not least, the economic factors are relevant in the choice of the approach. The case history of 2012 Emilia-Romagna and Lombardia earthquake, with an officially estimated cost of 6 billions

  11. Latent hazard related to a hydrogen liquefaction installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoendlin, R.

    1961-01-01

    In this note, the author reports an attempt of analysis of hazards which could be related to a hydrogen liquefaction installation in order to identify the most appropriate safety measures. In order to do so, experiments have been performed on electrostatic charges born by solid crystals in liquid hydrogen, and explosion tests have been performed on a mixture of solid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. Moreover, the author tried to analyse accidents which occurred in this field by performing a survey among scientists working in laboratories in different countries

  12. Ground Characterization Studies in Canakkale Pilot Site of LIQUEFACT Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcep, F.; Oztoprak, S.; Aysal, N.; Bozbey, I.; Tezel, O.; Ozer, C.; Sargin, S.; Bekin, E.; Almasraf, M.; Cengiz Cinku, M.; Ozdemir, K.

    2017-12-01

    The our aim is to outline the ground characterisation studies in Canakkale test site. Study is based on the EU H2020 LIQUEFACT project entitled "Liquefact: Assessment and mitigation of liquefaction potential across Europe: a holistic approach to protect structures / infrastructures for improved resilience to earthquake-induced liquefaction disasters". Objectives and extent of ground characterization for Canakkale test site includes pre-existing soil investigation studies and complementary field studies. There were several SPT and geophysical tests carried out in the study area. Within the context of the complementary tests, six (6) study areas in the test site were chosen and complementary tests were carried out in these areas. In these areas, additional boreholes were opened and SPT tests were performed. It was decided that additional CPT (CPTU and SCPT) and Marchetti Dilatometer (DMT) tests should be carried out within the scope of the complementary testing. Seismic refraction, MASW and micro tremor measurements had been carried out in pre-existing studies. Shear wave velocities obtained from MASW measurements were evaluated to the most rigorous level. These tests were downhole seismic, PS-logging, seismic refraction, 2D-ReMi, MASW, micro tremor (H/V Nakamura method), 2D resistivity and resonance acoustic profiling (RAP). RAP is a new technique which will be explained briefly in the relevant section. Dynamic soil properties had not been measured in pre-existing studies, therefore these properties were investigated within the scope of the complementary tests. Selection of specific experimental tests of the complementary campaign was based on cost-benefit considerations Within the context of complementary field studies, dynamic soil properties were measured using resonant column and cyclic direct shear tests. Several sieve analyses and Atterberg Limits tests which were documented in the pre-existing studies were evaluated. In the complementary study carried out

  13. Analysis of engineering cycles power, refrigerating and gas liquefaction plant

    CERN Document Server

    Haywood, R W

    1991-01-01

    Extensively revised, updated and expanded, the fourth edition of this popular text provides a rigorous analytical treatment of modern energy conversion plant. Notable for both its theoretical and practical treatment of conventional and nuclear power plant, and its studies of refrigerating and gas-liquefaction plant. This fourth edition now includes material on topics of increasing concern in the fields of energy 'saving' and reduction of environmental pollution. This increased coverage deals specifically with the following areas: CHP (cogeneration) plant, studies of both gas and coal burning p

  14. Effect of biomass pretreatment on the product distribution and composition resulting from the hydrothermal liquefaction of short rotation coppice willow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grigoras, Ionela; Stroe, Rodica-Elisabeta; Sintamarean, Iulia-Maria

    2017-01-01

    A major challenge for the implementation of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) as a continuous process is the formulation of lignocellulosic feedstock, which is prone to phase separation into water and biomass parts when pressurized. One approach to remedy such phase separation is to reduce the dry...... from the HTL of willow and proposes short rotation coppice as an alternative biomass feedstock for biofuels production. Alkaline–thermal pretreatment, besides making high dry matter pumpable feedstock slurries, also led to an increase in the production of the bio-crude product with an oxygen content...

  15. A MICROWAVE-ASSISTED LIQUEFACTION AS A PRETREATMENT FOR THE BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION BY THE SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION OF CORN MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Nikolić

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A microwave-assisted liquefaction as a pretreatment for the bioethanol production by the simultaneous saccharification and fer entation (SSF of corn meal using Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus yeast in a batch system was studied. An optimal power of microwaves of 80 W and the 5-min duration of the microwave treatment were selected by following the concentration of glucose released from the corn meal suspensions at hidromodul of 1:3 (corn meal to water ratio in the liquefaction step. The results indicated that the microwave pretreatment could increase the maximum ethanol concentration produced in the SSF process for 13.4 %. Consequently, a significant increase of the ethanol productivity on substrate (YP/S, as well as the volumetric ethanol productivity (P in this process, could be achieved

  16. STUDY OF SOLVENT AND CATALYST INTERACTIONS IN DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael T. Klein

    2000-01-01

    There are several aspects of the Direct Coal Liquefaction process which are not fully understood and which if better understood might lead to improved yields and conversions. Among these questions are the roles of the catalyst and the solvent. While the solvent is known to act by transfer of hydrogen atoms to the free radicals formed by thermal breakdown of the coal in an uncatalyzed system, in the presence of a solid catalyst as is now currently practiced, the yields and conversions are higher than in an uncatalyzed system. The role of the catalyst in this case is not completely understood. DOE has funded many projects to produce ultrafine and more active catalysts in the expectation that better contact between catalyst and coal might result. This approach has met with limited success probably because mass transfer between two solids in a fluid medium i.e. the catalyst and the coal, is very poor. It is to develop an understanding of the role of the catalyst and solvent in Direct Liquefaction that this project was initiated. Specifically it was of interest to know whether direct contact between the coal and the catalyst was important. By separating the solid catalyst in a stainless steel basket permeable to the solvent but not the coal in the liquefaction reactor, it was shown that the catalyst still maintains a catalytic effect on the liquefaction process. There is apparently transfer of hydrogen atoms from the catalyst through the basket wall to the coal via the solvent. Strong hydrogen donor solvents appear to be more effective in this respect than weak hydrogen donors. It therefore appears that intimate contact between catalyst and coal is not a requirement, and that the role of the catalyst may be to restore the hydrogen donor strength to the solvent as the reaction proceeds. A range of solvents of varying hydrogen donor strength was investigated. Because of the extensive use of thermogravimetric analysis in this laboratory in was noted that the peak

  17. Probabilistic liquefaction hazard analysis at liquefied sites of 1956 Dunaharaszti earthquake, in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Győri, Erzsébet; Gráczer, Zoltán; Tóth, László; Bán, Zoltán; Horváth, Tibor

    2017-04-01

    Liquefaction potential evaluations are generally made to assess the hazard from specific scenario earthquakes. These evaluations may estimate the potential in a binary fashion (yes/no), define a factor of safety or predict the probability of liquefaction given a scenario event. Usually the level of ground shaking is obtained from the results of PSHA. Although it is determined probabilistically, a single level of ground shaking is selected and used within the liquefaction potential evaluation. In contrary, the fully probabilistic liquefaction potential assessment methods provide a complete picture of liquefaction hazard, namely taking into account the joint probability distribution of PGA and magnitude of earthquake scenarios; both of which are key inputs in the stress-based simplified methods. Kramer and Mayfield (2007) has developed a fully probabilistic liquefaction potential evaluation method using a performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) framework. The results of the procedure are the direct estimate of the return period of liquefaction and the liquefaction hazard curves in function of depth. The method combines the disaggregation matrices computed for different exceedance frequencies during probabilistic seismic hazard analysis with one of the recent models for the conditional probability of liquefaction. We have developed a software for the assessment of performance-based liquefaction triggering on the basis of Kramer and Mayfield method. Originally the SPT based probabilistic method of Cetin et al. (2004) was built-in into the procedure of Kramer and Mayfield to compute the conditional probability however there is no professional consensus about its applicability. Therefore we have included not only Cetin's method but Idriss and Boulanger (2012) SPT based moreover Boulanger and Idriss (2014) CPT based procedures into our computer program. In 1956, a damaging earthquake of magnitude 5.6 occurred in Dunaharaszti, in Hungary. Its epicenter was located

  18. Study on thermochemical liquefaction of biomass feedstocks; Biomass genryo no yuka hanno tokusei ni kansuru kisoteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-10

    Liquefaction is applied to various biomass wastes and unused biomass to study characteristics of the liquefaction in each case. The paper described the system of the conversion and use of biomass into energy, conducted the positioning of the liquefaction, and outlined a history of the liquefaction chemistry and the study. To obtain basic data of characteristics of the liquefaction of various biomass raw materials, the liquefaction was conducted changing operational factors for the purpose of clarifying the product distribution of oil and by-products and oil properties. A comprehensive consideration was made of the liquefaction based on basic data and literature reports on the liquefaction of various biomass. From the above-mentioned studies, it was concluded that the energy can be recovered in a form of oil by applying the liquefaction to various biomass materials. A series of the study clarified effects of various operational factors on characteristics of the liquefaction as well as effects of classification of biomass materials and composition of the materials on characteristics of the liquefaction. 141 refs., 78 figs., 56 tabs.

  19. Production of bio-oil via hydrothermal liquefaction of birch sawdust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malins, Kristaps

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • NaOH has significant impact on hydrothermal liquefaction of birch sawdust. • High yield of bio-oil (54.1%) was obtained under developed optimal conditions. • Compounds in bio-oil have appropriate chemical structure for hydrocarbon synthesis. • The yield of marketable solid residue with potential for industrial application was 7.1%. • Solid residue has high calorific value (29.8 MJ/kg) and C content (74.6 wt.%). - Abstract: The effect of weight ratio of plywood manufacturing by-product birch sawdust (BS) to water (1/2–1/8), reaction temperature (200–340 °C), initial H 2 pressure (0–10 MPa), residence time (5–90 min), catalysts amount (0.25–7.0 wt.%) and type (FeSO 4 , ZnSO 4 , NiSO 4 , Raney-nickel, Ni65%/SiO 2 −Al 2 O 3 , Na 2 CO 3 and NaOH) on hydrothermal liquefaction of BS was investigated. High yield of bio-oil (54.1%) with calorific value (CV) 24.9 MJ/kg under developed optimal experimental conditions in the presence of NaOH (5 wt.%) utilizing weight ratio of BS to water 1/4, residence time 5 min, mixing speed 250 rpm at 300 °C without pressurized particular inert gas or H 2 atmosphere was achieved. Compounds in bio-oil analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have suitable chemical structures for conversion into renewable hydrocarbons. Marketable solid residue (SR) with yield 7.1%, high CV (29.8 MJ/kg) and perspective characteristics for industrial application was obtained. Produced gas in process analyzed by gas chromatography-thermal conductivity detector (GC–TCD) contains 60.1 vol.% of CO 2 .

  20. Role of heat exchangers in helium liquefaction cycles: Simulation studies using Collins cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Rijo Jacob, E-mail: rijojthomas@gmail.com [Cryogenic Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Chowdhury, Kanchan [Cryogenic Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of heat exchangers in basic helium liquefier analyzed to design large-scale ones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heat exchangers that determine inlet temperature to expanders are more significant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Limiting values of nondimensional UA for each heat exchanger have been determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extra area distributed such that effectiveness of all heat exchangers increase uniformly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heat exchanger performance variation have little influence on the optimum expander flow. - Abstract: Energy efficiency of large-scale helium liquefiers generally employed in fusion reactors and accelerators is determined by the performance of their constituting components. Simulation with Aspen HYSYS{sup Registered-Sign} V7.0, a commercial process simulator, helps to understand the effects of heat exchanger parameters on the performance of a helium liquefier. Effective UA (product of overall heat transfer coefficient U, heat transfer surface area A and deterioration factor F) has been taken as an independent parameter, which takes into account all thermal irreversibilities and configuration effects. Nondimensionalization of parameters makes the results applicable to plants of any capacity. Rate of liquefaction is found to increase linearly with the effectiveness of heat exchangers. Performance of those heat exchangers that determine the inlet temperatures to expanders have more influence on the liquid production. Variation of sizes of heat exchangers does not affect the optimum rate of flow through expanders. Increasing UA improves the rate of liquid production; however, the improvement saturates at limiting UA. Maximum benefit in liquefaction is obtained when the available heat transfer surface area is distributed in such a way that the effectiveness remains equal for all heat exchangers. Conclusions from this study may be utilized in analyzing and designing large helium

  1. Role of heat exchangers in helium liquefaction cycles: Simulation studies using Collins cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Rijo Jacob; Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Role of heat exchangers in basic helium liquefier analyzed to design large-scale ones. ► Heat exchangers that determine inlet temperature to expanders are more significant. ► Limiting values of nondimensional UA for each heat exchanger have been determined. ► Extra area distributed such that effectiveness of all heat exchangers increase uniformly. ► Heat exchanger performance variation have little influence on the optimum expander flow. - Abstract: Energy efficiency of large-scale helium liquefiers generally employed in fusion reactors and accelerators is determined by the performance of their constituting components. Simulation with Aspen HYSYS ® V7.0, a commercial process simulator, helps to understand the effects of heat exchanger parameters on the performance of a helium liquefier. Effective UA (product of overall heat transfer coefficient U, heat transfer surface area A and deterioration factor F) has been taken as an independent parameter, which takes into account all thermal irreversibilities and configuration effects. Nondimensionalization of parameters makes the results applicable to plants of any capacity. Rate of liquefaction is found to increase linearly with the effectiveness of heat exchangers. Performance of those heat exchangers that determine the inlet temperatures to expanders have more influence on the liquid production. Variation of sizes of heat exchangers does not affect the optimum rate of flow through expanders. Increasing UA improves the rate of liquid production; however, the improvement saturates at limiting UA. Maximum benefit in liquefaction is obtained when the available heat transfer surface area is distributed in such a way that the effectiveness remains equal for all heat exchangers. Conclusions from this study may be utilized in analyzing and designing large helium plants.

  2. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan, Song; Kirby, S.; Schmidt, E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to explore bimetallic dispersed catalysts for more efficient coal liquefaction. Coal liquefaction involves cleavage of methylene, dimethylene and ether bridges connecting various aromatic units and the reactions of various oxygen functional groups. This paper describes recent results on (1) hydrodeoxygenation of O-containing polycyclic model compounds using novel organometallic catalyst precursors; and (2) activity and selectivity of dispersed Fe catalysts from organometallic and inorganic precursors for hydrocracking of 4-(1-naphthylmethyl) bibenzyl. The results showed that some iron containing catalysts have higher activity in the sulfur-free form, contrary to conventional wisdom. Adding sulfur to Fe precursors with Cp-ligands decreased the activity of the resulting catalyst. This is in distinct contrast to the cases with iron pentacarbonyl and superfine Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, where S addition increased their catalytic activity substantially. A positive correlation between sulfur addition and increased activity can be seen, but a reversed trend between Fe cluster size and hydrocracking conversion could be observed, for carbonyl-type Fe precursors. It is apparent that the activity and selectivity of Fe catalysts for NMBB conversion depends strongly on both the type of ligand environment, the oxidation state and the number of intermetal bonds in the molecular precursor.

  3. Report on results of R and D of coal liquefaction technology under Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Development of direct hydro-liquefaction plant (research on liquefaction by bench scale equipment, and research on solid-liquid separation method); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, chokusetsu suiten ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Bench scale sochi ni yoru ekika kenkyu, koeki bunriho ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This paper explains the results of development of direct hydro-liquefaction plant under the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. As element studies for supplementing and supporting a 2.4 t/day PDU (process development unit), in the research using a 0.1 t/day bench scale continuous type equipment of fiscal 1981, a hydrogenation experiment was conducted for anthracene oil and also, an examination was made on the reaction conditions of Taiheiyo coal and Horonai coal, as well as on the catalyst and reaction ratio and on the product material distribution. A medium oil equalizing test was performed using Taiheiyo coal in order to obtain knowledge about equalized medium oil. Liquefaction characteristics in the preheating process and reaction process were elucidated by means of a semi-batch device. Comparative studies were made between domestic and overseas coals, in coal properties and liquefaction characteristics using a shaking type autoclave. The performance of iron-sulfur based catalysts was also examined. In the research on a solid-liquid separation method, the basic properties of coal liquefied crude oil were measured such as general properties, solid grading distribution and distillation characteristics, with the basic tests carried out for standing separation, filtrating separation and centrifuging separation, providing selected materials of the solid-liquid separation method suitable for the crude oil produced by the direct hydro-liquefaction method. In addition, studies were conducted on the use of residual oil generated by solid-liquid separation, providing knowledge of the viscosity and thermal cracking. (NEDO)

  4. Post Hoc Analysis of Passive Cavitation Imaging for Classification of Histotripsy-Induced Liquefaction in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Kenneth B; Haworth, Kevin J; Maxwell, Adam D; Holland, Christy K

    2018-01-01

    Histotripsy utilizes focused ultrasound to generate bubble clouds for transcutaneous tissue liquefaction. Bubble activity maps are under development to provide image guidance and monitor treatment progress. The aim of this paper was to investigate the feasibility of using plane wave B-mode and passive cavitation images to be used as binary classifiers of histotripsy-induced liquefaction. Prostate tissue phantoms were exposed to histotripsy pulses over a range of pulse durations (5- ) and peak negative pressures (12-23 MPa). Acoustic emissions were recorded during the insonation and beamformed to form passive cavitation images. Plane wave B-mode images were acquired following the insonation to detect the hyperechoic bubble cloud. Phantom samples were sectioned and stained to delineate the liquefaction zone. Correlation between passive cavitation and plane wave B-mode images and the liquefaction zone was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Liquefaction of the phantom was observed for all the insonation conditions. The area under the ROC (0.94 versus 0.82), accuracy (0.90 versus 0.83), and sensitivity (0.81 versus 0.49) was greater for passive cavitation images relative to B-mode images ( ) along the azimuth of the liquefaction zone. The specificity was greater than 0.9 for both imaging modalities. These results demonstrate a stronger correlation between histotripsy-induced liquefaction and passive cavitation imaging compared with the plane wave B-mode imaging, albeit with limited passive cavitation image range resolution.

  5. Fiscal 1991 report. Coal liquefaction committee; 1991 nendo sekitan ekika iinkai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    The committee in this fiscal year had the 1st meeting in July 1991, the 2nd in August 1991, and the 3rd in March 1992, when fiscal 1990 research and development results, fiscal 1991 research and development programs, fiscal 1991 research and development results, etc., were reported and deliberated. At the 2nd meeting, the meaning of coal liquefaction technology development and how to go ahead with the task were described, which topic for discussion was entitled 'How coal liquefaction technology should be for the 21st century.' After discussion, it was agreed upon that a coal liquefaction technology package be completed in fiscal 2000 based on the absorption of each other's findings and on the utilization of basic studies common to both to be realized through the exchange of technologies between the brown coal liquefaction project and the bituminous coal liquefaction project. Under the brown coal liquefaction project, a 50 ton/day pilot plant was built and operated in Victoria, Australia, and the operation was completed in October 1990. The results of research and development under the coal brown liquefaction project will be compiled by fiscal 1993. (NEDO)

  6. Effect of pre-swelling of coal on its liquefaction properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengfu Shui; Zhicai Wang; Meixia Cao [Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan (China). School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The effects of pre-swelling of Shenhua coal on its liquefaction property were studied in this paper. It was found that pre-swelling treatments of Shenhua coal in three solvents, i.e toluene (TOL), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) and tetralin (THN) increased its liquefaction conversion, and the liquefied product distributions were also quite different. Removal of the pre-swelling solvent from the swollen coals further increased the liquefaction conversion compared to that of the swollen coals with the swelling solvent existed in them. It was found that oil and gas yields for the liquefaction of swollen coals in NMP and TOL with swelling solvent existed dramatically decreased. Pre-swelling in THN at 120{sup o}C gave the highest liquefaction conversion, however the liquefaction conversion decreased with the increase of pre-swelling temperature in the case of NMP. TG and FTIR analyses of raw coal, the swollen coals and liquefied products were carried out and the mechanism of the effects of pre-swelling of coal on its extraction and liquefaction behaviors were probed in the paper. 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunshan Song; Schobert, H.H.; Parfitt, D.P. [and others

    1997-11-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on exploring novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction and the effectiveness of temperature-programmed liquefaction using dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research was to explore novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular precursors, that could be used in low concentrations but exhibit relatively high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. We have synthesized and tested various catalyst precursors in liquefaction of subbituminous and bituminous coals and in model compound studies to examine how do the composition and structure of the catalytic precursors affect their effectiveness for coal liquefaction under different reaction conditions, and how do these factors affect their catalytic functions for hydrogenation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, for cleavage of C-C bonds in polycyclic systems such as 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl, for hydrogenolysis of C-O bond such as that in dinaphthylether, for hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic compounds and other oxygen-containing compounds such as xanthene, and for hydrodesulfurization of polycyclic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene. The novel bimetallic and monometallic precursors synthesized and tested in this project include various Mo- and Fe-based compounds.

  8. Liquefaction induced by earthquakes in Japan. Jiban no ekijoka/ekijoka saigai chosa kenkyu no seika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tono, I [Nation Inst. for Enviromental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1992-09-01

    Disaster caused by liquefaction is an important problem for the development of water-front because most of the places suffered from liquefaction disasters recently are located on sandy grounds. The damaged cases in the past due to liquefaction induced by earthquakes are grouped into: subsidence and inclination caused by the loss of supporting force of the ground, coming to the surface of buried structures due to excess pore hydrostatic pressure, destruction of lifeline accompanying the fluidization of ground, breakdown of bulkhead, retaining wall, etc. by increased earth pressure, sinking of soil structures, ground fissure, sliding, and immersion in floods and submergence of farms due to spouting of underground water. As regards prediction of liquefaction, description is made on the prediction of the occurrence of liquefaction and liquefaction prediction for which sedimentation environment is taken into consideration. Open-cut investigation can be said as the most effective means for accurate learning of the depth, thickness and sedimentation structure of liquefied layers. Liquefaction layers found in remains are also introduced. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  9. FY 1991 report on the bituminous coal liquefaction section; 1991 nendo rekiseitan ekikabukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    The paper reported activities of the bituminous coal liquefaction section in FY 1991. In the 1st bituminous coal liquefaction section meeting, report/discussion were made on the outline of the plan on the FY 1991 research using pilot plant and the support study of pilot plant. In the 2nd section meeting, report was made on 'How the development of coal liquefaction technology should be in the 21st century,' a report made by the joint section of bituminous coal/brown coal liquefaction. In the 3rd section meeting, report/discussion were made on the state of progress of the FY 1991 R and D and results. In the study using the bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant, report was made on the outline of construction of a 150t/d pilot plant, study on the acquisition of material balance, analytical study of the data on liquefaction tower, testing survey on properties of coal slurry, and testing survey on slurry preheating furnace. In the support study of pilot plant, report was made on the study using 1t/d PUS, study on the development of the optimum coal refining technology and improvement in the distillate distribution, study of conditions for coal liquefaction and study of solvent hydrogenation catalyst. (NEDO)

  10. Japan`s Sunshine Project. 1991 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification; 1991 nendo sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Sekitan no ekika gas ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    Out of the research and development on the 1991 Sunshine Project, the results of coal liquefaction/gasification are reported. The basic research of coal liquefaction/gasification is conducted. The research plan for a 150 ton/day scale pilot plant (PP) is worked out for the development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology by NEDOL process. Data of PSU (Process Support Units) operation, especially, are studied. Concerning the data obtained through dismantling of the 50 ton/day PP in Australia which uses Australian Victoria coal due to completion of its operation and also obtained from its support research, they are reflected in the design of a demonstration plant, and the results are arranged for study. Research and development on refining technology of coal-derived liquid such as Illinois coal liquid and on application technology of its products are made. For the development of coal-use hydrogen production technology, conducted is the research of a high temperature gasification PP by entrained flow bed process which is the core of the coal gasification technology. Elementary study with a 2 ton/day furnace is made for the development of the entrained flow bed coal gasification combined cycle power generation system. Also conducted are PP construction, adjusting operation and the overall research operation.

  11. Exploratory research on novel coal liquefaction concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    All first-stage experimental tests were completed for Task 4 (and the Contract). The first-stage one-liter autoclave tests that were made were duplicates of Run 41-LA. The conditions used were chosen last quarter to reduce the cost of the first-stage of the process from those used at the conclusion of Task 3. Filtration and second-stage tests were made using the products of the first-stage tests. Post-second-stage filtration, tested as an alternative to interstage (pre-second- stage) filtration, resulted in low filtration rates. Different catalyst loadings and type and residence time for second-stage hydrotreating were explored. Longer residence times did not result in significantly more resid conversion. Higher catalyst loadings were more effective in converting the resid at the same residence time. The material and elemental balances for the first-stage were completed. The material and elemental balances for the second-stage were initiated

  12. Review and experimental study on pyrolysis and hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae for biofuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaramonti, David; Prussi, Matteo; Buffi, Marco; Rizzo, Andrea Maria; Pari, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A review of microalgae thermochemical conversion to bioliquids was carried out. • We focused on pyrolysis and hydrothermal liquefaction for biocrude/biofuels. • Original experimental research on microalgae pyrolysis was also carried out. • Starvation does not impact significant on the energy content of the biocrude. • This result is relevant for designing full scale microalgae production plants. - Abstract: Advanced Biofuels steadily developed during recent year, with several highly innovative processes and technologies explored at various scales: among these, lignocellulosic ethanol and CTO (Crude Tall Oil)-biofuel technologies already achieved early-commercial status, while hydrotreating of vegetable oils is today fully commercial, with almost 3.5 Mt/y installed capacity worldwide. In this context, microalgae grown in salt-water and arid areas represent a promising sustainable chain for advanced biofuel production but, at the same time, they also represent a considerable challenge. Processing microalgae in an economic way into a viable and sustainable liquid biofuel (a low-cost mass-product) is not trivial. So far, the most studied microalgae-based biofuel chain is composed by microorganism cultivation, lipid accumulation, oil extraction, co-product valorization, and algae oil conversion through conventional esterification into Fatty Acids Methyl Esters (FAME), i.e. Biodiesel, or Hydrotreated Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA), the latter representing a very high quality drop-in biofuel (suitable either for road transport or for aviation). However, extracting the algae oil at low cost and industrial scale is not yet a mature process, and there is not yet industrial production of algae-biofuel from these two lipid-based chains. Another option can however be considered: processing the algae through dedicated thermochemical reactors into advanced biofuels, thus approaching the downstream processing of algae in a completely different way than

  13. Multi-objective optimization of a joule cycle for re-liquefaction of the Liquefied Natural Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayyaadi, Hoseyn; Babaelahi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A typical LNG boil off gas re-liquefaction plant system is optimized. → Objective functions based on thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analysis are obtained. → The cost of the system product and the exergetic efficiency are optimized, simultaneously. → A decision-making process for selection of the final optimal design is introduced. → Results obtained using various optimization scenarios are compared and discussed. - Abstract: A LNG re-liquefaction plant is optimized with a multi-objective approach which simultaneously considers exergetic and exergoeconomic objectives. In this regard, optimization is performed in order to maximize the exergetic efficiency of plant and minimize the unit cost of the system product (refrigeration effect), simultaneously. Thermodynamic modeling is performed based on energy and exergy analyses, while an exergoeconomic model based on the total revenue requirement (TRR) are developed. Optimization programming in MATLAB is performed using one of the most powerful and robust multi-objective optimization algorithms namely NSGA-II. This approach which is based on the Genetic Algorithm is applied to find a set of Pareto optimal solutions. Pareto optimal frontier is obtained and a final optimal solution is selected in a decision-making process. An example of decision-making process for selection of the final solution from the available optimal points of the Pareto frontier is presented here. The feature of selected final optimal system is compared with corresponding features of the base case and exergoeconomic single-objective optimized systems and discussed.

  14. Hydrogen Transfer during Liquefaction of Elbistan Lignite to Biomass; Total Reaction Transformation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyunoglu, Cemil; Karaca, Hüseyin

    2017-12-01

    Given the high cost of the tetraline solvent commonly used in liquefaction, the use of manure with EL is an important factor when considering the high cost of using tetraline as a hydrogen transfer source. In addition, due to the another cost factor which is the catalyst prices, red mud (commonly used, produced as a byproduct in the production of aluminium) is reduced cost in the work of liquefaction of coal, biomass, even coal combined biomass, corresponding that making the EL liquefaction an agenda for our country is another important factor. Conditions for liquefaction experiments conducted for hydrogen transfer from manure to coal; Catalyst concentration of 9%, liquid/solid ratio of 3/1, reaction time of 60 min, fertilizer/lignite ratio of 1/3, and the reaction temperature of 400 °C, the stirred speed of 400 rpm and the initial nitrogen pressure of 20 bar was fixed. In order to demonstrate the hydrogen, transfer from manure to coal, coal is used solely, by using tetraline (also known as a hydrogen carrier) and distilled water which is not hydrogen donor as a solvent in the co-liquefaction of experiments, and also the liquefaction conditions are carried out under an inert (N2) gas atmosphere. According to the results of the obtained liquefaction test; using tetraline solvent the total liquid product conversion percentage of the oil + gas conversion was 38.3 %, however, the results of oil+gas conversion obtained using distilled water and EL combined with manure the total liquid product conversion percentage was 7.4 %. According to the results of calorific value and elemental analysis, only the ratio of (H/C)atomic of coal obtained by using tetraline increased with the liquefaction of manure and distilled water. The reason of the increase in the amount of hydrogen due to hydrogen transfer from the manure on the solid surface of the coal, and also on the surface of the inner pore of the coal during the liquefaction, brings about the evaluation of the coal as a

  15. Experimental validation of a mathematical model for seabed liquefaction in waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Kirca, Özgür; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study directed towards the validation of a mathematical model for the buildup of pore water pressure and resulting liquefaction of marine soils under progressive waves. Experiments were conducted under controlled conditions with silt ( d50 = 0.......070 mm) in a wave flume with a soil pit. Waves with wave heights in the range 7.7-18 cm with the water depth 55 cm and the wave period 1.6 s enabled us to study both the liquefaction and no-liquefaction regime pore water pressure buildup. The experimental data was used to validate the model. A numerical...

  16. Hydrothermal liquefaction pathways for low-nitrogen biocrude from wet algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzella, Francis [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lim, Jin-Ping [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-12-13

    Our SRI International (SRI) team has developed a new two-step hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process to convert wet algal biomass into biocrude oil. The first step in the process (low-temperature HTL or HTL1) yields crude oil but, most importantly, it selectively dissolves nitrogen-containing compounds in the aqueous phase. Once the oil and the aqueous phase are separated, the low-nitrogen soft solids left behind can be taken to the second step (high-temperature HTL or HTL2) for full conversion to biocrude. HTL2 will hence yield low-nitrogen biocrude, which can be hydro-processed to yield transportation fuels. The expected high carbon yield and low nitrogen content can lead to a transportation fuel from algae that avoids two problems common to existing algae-to-fuel processes: (1) poisoning of the hydro-processing catalyst; and (2) inefficient conversion of algae-to-liquid fuels. The process we studied would yield a new route to strategic energy production from domestic sources.

  17. Computational fluid dynamics simulation of the combustion process, emission formation and the flow field in an in-direct injection diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barzegar Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the combustion process and emission formation in the Lister 8.1 I.D.I Diesel engine have been investigated using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD code. The utilized model includes detailed spray atomization, mixture formation and distribution model which enable modeling the combustion process in spray/wall and spray/swirl interactions along with flow configurations. The analysis considers both part load and full load states. The global properties are presented separately resolved for the swirl chamber (pre-chamber and the main chamber. The results of model verify the fact that the equal amount of the fuel is burned in the main and pre-chamber at full load state while at part load the majority of the fuel is burned in the main chamber. Also, it is shown that the adherence of fuel spray on the pre-chamber walls is due to formation of a stagnation zone which prevents quick spray evaporation and plays an important role in the increase of soot mass fractions at this zone at full load conditions. The simulation results, such as the mean in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate and exhaust emissions are compared with the experimental data and show good agreement. This work also demonstrates the usefulness of multidimensional modeling for complex chamber geometries, such as in I.D.I Diesel engines, to gain more insight into the flow field, combustion process and emission formation.

  18. Biodiesel production from lipids in wet microalgae with microwave irradiation and bio-crude production from algal residue through hydrothermal liquefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Huang, Rui; Yu, Tao; Li, Tao; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2014-01-01

    A cogeneration process of biodiesel and bio-crude was proposed to make full use of wet microalgae biomass. High-grade biodiesel was first produced from lipids in wet microalgae through extraction and transesterification with microwave irradiation. Then, low-grade bio-crude was produced from proteins and carbohydrates in the algal residue through hydrothermal liquefaction. The total yield (40.19%) and the total energy recovery (67.73%) of the cogenerated biodiesel and bio-crude were almost equal to those of the bio-oil obtained from raw microalgae through direct hydrothermal liquefaction. Upon microwave irradiation, proteins were partially hydrolyzed and the hydrolysates were apt for deaminization under the hydrothermal condition of the algal residue. Hence, the total remaining nitrogen (16.02%) in the cogenerated biodiesel and bio-crude was lower than that (27.06%) in the bio-oil. The cogeneration process prevented lipids and proteins from reacting to produce low-grade amides and other long-chain nitrogen compounds during the direct hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Techno-economic feasibility and life cycle assessment of dairy effluent to renewable diesel via hydrothermal liquefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Hailey M; Ledbetter, Rhesa N; McCurdy, Alex T; Morgan, Michael R; Seefeldt, Lance C; Jena, Umakanta; Hoekman, S Kent; Quinn, Jason C

    2015-11-01

    The economic feasibility and environmental impact is investigated for the conversion of agricultural waste, delactosed whey permeate, through yeast fermentation to a renewable diesel via hydrothermal liquefaction. Process feasibility was demonstrated at laboratory-scale with data leveraged to validate systems models used to perform industrial-scale economic and environmental impact analyses. Results show a minimum fuel selling price of $4.78 per gallon of renewable diesel, a net energy ratio of 0.81, and greenhouse gas emissions of 30.0g-CO2-eqMJ(-1). High production costs and greenhouse gas emissions can be attributed to operational temperatures and durations of both fermentation and hydrothermal liquefaction. However, high lipid yields of the yeast counter these operational demands, resulting in a favorable net energy ratio. Results are presented on the optimization of the process based on economy of scale and a sensitivity analysis highlights improvements in conversion efficiency, yeast biomass productivity and hydrotreating efficiency can dramatically improve commercial feasibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantitative Characterization of Aqueous Byproducts from Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Municipal Wastes, Food Industry Wastes, and Biomass Grown on Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddi, Balakrishna; Panisko, Ellen; Wietsma, Thomas; Lemmon, Teresa; Swita, Marie; Albrecht, Karl; Howe, Daniel

    2017-01-27

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a viable thermochemical process for converting wet solid wastes into biocrude which can be hydroprocessed to liquid transportation fuel blendstocks and specialty chemicals. The aqueous byproduct from HTL contains significant amounts (20 to 50%) of the feed carbon, which must be used to enhance economic sustainability of the process on an industrial scale. In this study, aqueous fractions produced from HTL of industrial and municipal waste were characterized using a wide variety of analytical approaches. Organic chemical compounds present in these aqueous fractions were identified using two-dimensional gas chromatography equipped with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Identified compounds include organic acids, nitrogen compounds, alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. Conventional gas chromatography and liquid chromatography methods were employed to quantify the identified compounds. Inorganic species, in the aqueous stream of hydrothermal liquefaction of these aqueous byproducts, also were quantified using ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The concentrations of organic chemical compounds and inorganic species are reported, and the significance of these results is discussed in detail.

  1. Direct liquefaction of wood through solvolysis and catalytic hydrodeoxygenation: an engineering assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffat, J.M.; Overend, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Liquefaction of wood to produce fuel and chemical intermediates has been intensively studied over the last decade. The results of Canadian research into process feasibility are presented on the basis of two studies, the first in 1980 utilizing data of the mid-70s and the other on the basis of research conducted up to 1982. The earlier study was for a single reactor concept in which catalyst, wood and hydrogen were reacted to produce a proto-oil, while the later study embodies a two-stage concept involving dissolution of the polymer matrix followed by fractionation and catalytic upgrading using hydrodeoxygenation. Increased knowledge of the characteristics of the first stage products show that there are many component mixtures containing between 10 and 20% oxygen. Most of the oxygen is in aromatic phenol-type structures with some ether linkages, and low severity processes to deoxygenate the product while increasing the hydrogen to carbon ratio are called for. The economic prospects for a two-stage process are described on the basis of a hydrocarbon process proposed by HRI International for Kraft process lignin. These show that a mix of BTX products and fuel oil could generate a profitable rate of return. 62 references.

  2. Experimental Study of Subcritical Water Liquefaction of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    In this work, hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of wood industry residues (wood, bark, sawdust) and macroalgae for producing biofuels has been investigated under subcritical water conditions (at temperature of 300 C), with and without the presence of catalyst. The effects of catalyst and biomass type...... bio-crudes were analyzed. The results showed that the higher heating values (HHVs) were in the range of 24.15 to 31.79 MJ/kg, and they were enhanced in the presence of catalyst, except for that of the macroalgae. The solid residues were characterized by heating value, SEM and FTIR. It was found...... that the addition of K2CO3 lowered the solids quality in terms of the heating values, while it did not have apparent effect on the functional groups of solid residues. SEM analysis of the raw biomass and solid residues revealed that the char formation for wood, sawdust and macroalgae had initially finished when...

  3. An optimum cold end configuration for helium liquefaction cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minta, M.; Smith, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines the effect of the non-ideal behavior of helium at low temperature on the performance of helium liquefaction cycles. The effect is isolated by means of a continuum model for the precooling stage. The cold end losses are due primarily to the composite effect of the non-ideality of helium at low temperatures and the heat exchanger losses, in addition to the component losses fixed by the expander/compressor efficiencies. Topics considered include continuously distributed full-pressure ratio expanders, continuously distributed full-flow expanders, the heat exchange effect (ideal gas working fluid, real gas working fluid), and cold end configuration. The cold end configuration minimizes the cycle cold end losses

  4. Low-Cost Methane Liquefaction Plant and Vehicle Refueling Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilding, B.; Bramwell, D.

    1999-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is currently negotiating a collaborative effort with Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) that will advance the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a vehicle fuel. We plan to develop and demonstrate a small-scale methane liquefaction plant (production of 5,000 to 10,000 gallons per day) and a low-cost ($150,000) LNG refueling station to supply fuel to LNG-powered transit buses and other heavy-duty vehicles. INEEL will perform the research and development work. PG and E will deploy the new facilities commercially in two demonstration projects, one in northern California, and one in southern California

  5. GIS-based soil liquefaction susceptibility map of Mumbai city for earthquake events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaske, Sumedh Yamaji; Choudhury, Deepankar

    2010-03-01

    The problem of liquefaction of soil during seismic event is one of the important topics in the field of Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering. Liquefaction of soil is generally occurs in loose cohesionless saturated soil when pore water pressure increases suddenly due to induced ground motion and shear strength of soil decreases to zero and leading the structure situated above to undergo a large settlement, or failure. The failures took place due to liquefaction induced soil movement spread over few square km area continuously. Hence this is a problem where spatial variation involves and to represent this spatial variation Geographic Information System (GIS) is very useful in decision making about the area subjected to liquefaction. In this paper, GIS software GRAM++ is used to prepare soil liquefaction susceptibility map for entire Mumbai city in India by marking three zones viz. critically liquefiable soil, moderately liquefiable soil and non liquefiable soil. Extensive field borehole test data for groundwater depth, standard penetration test (SPT) blow counts, dry density, wet density and specific gravity, etc. have been collected from different parts of Mumbai. Simplified procedure of Youd et al. (2001) is used for calculation of factor of safety against soil liquefaction potential. Mumbai city and suburban area are formed by reclaiming lands around seven islands since 1865 till current date and still it is progressing in the area such as Navi Mumbai and beyond Borivali to Mira road suburban area. The factors of safety against soil liquefaction were determined for earthquake moment magnitude ranging from Mw = 5.0 to 7.5. It is found that the areas like Borivali, Malad, Dahisar, Bhandup may prone to liquefaction for earthquake moment magnitude ranging from Mw = 5.0 to 7.5. The liquefaction susceptibility maps were created by using GRAM++ by showing the areas where the factor of safety against the soil liquefaction is less than one. Proposed liquefaction

  6. Combined Reverse-Brayton Joule Thompson Hydrogen Liquefaction Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimko, Martin A. [Gas Equipment Engineering Corporation, Milford, CT (United States); Dunn, Paul M. [Gas Equipment Engineering Corporation, Milford, CT (United States)

    2011-12-31

    The following is a compilation of Annual Progress Reports submitted to the DOE’s Fuel Cell Technologies Office by Gas Equipment Engineering Corp. for contract DE-FG36-05GO15021. The reports cover the project activities from August 2005 through June 2010. The purpose of this project is to produce a pilot-scale liquefaction plant that demonstrates GEECO’s ability to meet or exceed the efficiency targets set by the DOE. This plant will be used as a model to commercialize this technology for use in the distribution infrastructure of hydrogen fuel. It could also be applied to markets distributing hydrogen for industrial gas applications. Extensive modeling of plant performance will be used in the early part of the project to identify the liquefaction cycle architecture that optimizes the twin goals of increased efficiency and reduced cost. The major challenge of the project is to optimize/balance the performance (efficiency) of the plant against the cost of the plant so that the fully amortized cost of liquefying hydrogen meets the aggressive goals set by DOE. This project will design and build a small-scale pilot plant (several hundred kg/day) that will be both a hardware demonstration and a model for scaling to larger plant sizes (>50,000 kg/day). Though an effort will be made to use commercial or near-commercial components, key components that will need development for either a pilot- or full-scale plant will be identified. Prior to starting pilot plant fabrication, these components will be demonstrated at the appropriate scale to demonstrate sufficient performance for use in the pilot plant and the potential to achieve the performance used in modeling the full-scale plant.

  7. Microbial liquefaction of peat for the production of synthetic fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunasekaran, M.

    1988-01-01

    Objectives of this study were: to evaluate the potential of using various microorganisms to hydrolyse and liquify peat; to determine the optimal conditions for peat hydrolysis and liquefaction; to study the co-metabolizable substances; to separate the compounds present in liquified peat by alumina and silica acid chromatography and capillary gas chromatography; and to identify the compounds in liquified peat by capillary GC-Mass spectrometry. Organisms used in the study include: Coprinus comatus, Coriolus hirsutus, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, Lenzites trabea, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sapidus, Polyporus adjustus, Neurospora sitophila, Rhizophus arrhizus, Bacillus subtilis, Acinetobacter sp. and Alcaligenes sp. The fungi were maintained and cultivated in potato dextrose agar at 30 C. The bacteria were maintained in nutrient agar at 30 C. We have also initiated work on coal solubilization in addition to the studies on peat liquefaction. A relatively new substratum or semi-solid base for culture media called Pluronic F-127, or Polyol (BASF, New Jersey). Objectives of this study were: (1) to study the growth patterns of Candida ML 13 on pluronic as substratum; (2) to determine the rate of microbial coal solubilization on pluronic F-127 amended in different growth media; (3) to separate the mycelial mat of Candida ML 13 from unsolubilized coal particles and solubilized coal products from pluronic F-127; (4) to determine the effects of pH on microbial coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media; (5) the effect of concentration of pluronic F-127 in media on coal solubilization; and, (6) to study the role of extracellular factors secreted by Candida ML 13 on coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media. Results are discussed. 4 refs.

  8. Investigation of the deposit formation in pipelines connecting liquefaction reactors; 1t/d PSU ni okeru ekika hanno tokan fuchakubutsu no seisei yoin ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Y.; Nogami, Y.; Inokuchi, K. [Mitsui SRC Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Mochizuki, M.; Imada, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The liquefaction reaction system of an NEDOL process coal liquefaction 1t/d PSU was opened and checked to investigate the cause of the rise of differential pressure between liquefaction reactors of the PSU. The liquefaction test at a coal concentration of 50 wt% using Tanito Harum coal was conducted, and it was found that the differential pressure between reactors was on the increase. By the two-phase flow pressure loss method, deposition thickness of deposit in pipelines was estimated at 4.4mm at the time of end operation, which agreed with a measuring value obtained from a {gamma} ray. The rise of differential pressure was caused by deposit formation in pipelines connecting reactors. The main component of the deposit is calcite (CaCO3 60-70%) and is the same as the usual one. It is also the same type as the deposit on the reactor wall. Ca in coal ash is concerned with this. To withdraw solid matters deposited in the reactor, there are installed pipelines for the withdrawal at the reactor bottom. The solid matters are regularly purged by reverse gas for prevention of clogging. As the frequency of purge increases, the deposit at the reactor bottom decreases, but the deposit attaches strongly to pipelines connecting reactors. It is presumed that this deposit is what Ca to be discharged out of the system as a form of deposition solid matter naturally in the Ca balance precipitated as calcite in the pipeline connecting the reactor. 3 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. A preliminary study on the optimal configuration and operating range of a “microgrid scale” air liquefaction plant for Liquid Air Energy Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borri, E.; Tafone, A.; Romagnoli, A.; Comodi, G.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A liquefaction cycle for a microgrid scale Liquid Air Energy Storage is proposed. • Different liquefaction cycles are compared by means of parametric analysis. • The optimal configuration proposed is a Kapitza cycle with two stage compression. • The specific consumption of the optimal configuration is around 700 kW h/t. • Specific consumption reduces to 532 kW h/t if a pressurized phase separator is used. - Abstract: Liquid Air Energy Storage systems represent a sustainable solution to store energy. Although a lot of interest is dedicated to large scale systems (up to 300 tons per day), a small-scale Liquid Air Energy Storage can be used as energy storage as part of a microgrid and/or an energy distribution network. However, when scaling down the size of the system, the round trip efficiency decreases due to the low performance of the liquefaction process. In this paper a preliminary study on the optimal configuration for a microgrid scale liquefaction cycle (10 tons per 12 h) for a Liquid Air Energy Storage application is proposed in order to minimize the specific consumption. The Linde, Claude and Kapitza cycles are modelled and compared by means of a parametric analysis carried out with the software Aspen HYSYS. The results show that the two stages compression Kapitza cycle operating at 40 bar represents an optimal solution in terms of performance and cycle configuration resulting in a specific consumption of about 700 kW h/t. The analysis also shows that the implementation of a pressurized phase separator leads to a reduction of the specific consumption as high as 21% (≈550 kW h/t).

  10. Failure analysis at a 2 kW helium liquefaction facility; Fehleranalyse bei einer 2kW- Heliumverfluessigungsanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klenk, Rafael; Bobien, Steffen; Neumann, Holger [KIT Campus Nord, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Bereich Kryotechnik

    2016-07-01

    At the Institute for Technical Physics of the KIT Campus Nord helium is cooled respectively liquefied by means of the Claude process. This process is beside the Brayton and Joule-Thomson process meanwhile a standard process for the liquefaction of helium. As example here a 2 kW low-temperature helium facility shall be evaluated by means of different, superordinated failure sources. This consists of condensers, heat exchangers, expansion turbines and a Joule-Thomson valve. The facility respectively component failures are divided in failures of the condenser, turbine units and failures by external factors. For this entries of the last twelve years are token. This listing shall give information about repeating events, so that here directed facility improvements can be token up.

  11. Effect of properties of iron compounds on the catalytic activity in direct coal liquefaction; Tetsu kagobutsu no keitai to sekitan ekika kassei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, T.; Tazawa, K. [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shimasaki, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd. (Japan)

    1998-08-20

    When considering merchandising scale of the coal liquefaction process, it is a preliminary condition that metal used for its catalyst is rich in resource volume, cheap in production cost, without pollution, and so forth, and application of cheap iron ore and ferrous compounds to disposable catalyst is desired. As liquefaction activity of the iron ore was hitherto improved by its micro crushing, its mechanical crush had a limit of about 2 {mu}m in mean particle diameter. However, together with recent crushing technique, crushers with high performance were developed, and then micro crushing by sub-micron became possible industri8ally even for iron ore. In this study, three kinds of Australian iron ores such as limonite of ferric hydroxide type iron ore, pyrite of ferrous sulfide type, and hematite of ferric oxide type were micro crushed to examine coal liquefaction activity and hydrogenation reaction activity of 1-methyl naphthalene (1-MN) and also relationship between properties and activity of catalyst for the latter before and after reaction. 11 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Summary of the research achievements in fiscal 1988. Development of coal liquefaction technologies; Sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu. 1988 nendo kenkyu seika no gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-03-01

    This paper reports the summary of the research and development works in fiscal 1988. The following researches were carried out: as development of a bituminous coal liquefaction technology, studies by using a pilot plant, studies on support of the pilot plant (studies by using an experimental plant (studies by using a 1-t/d PSU, development of an optimal pretreatment technology for coals to be used for liquefaction, studies on improvement in fraction oil distribution in the NEDOL process, and studies by using a 1-t/d plant)), and (studies by using a small device (studies on coal liquefying conditions, and studies on solvent hydrogenation catalysts)). Studies were carried out on operation of the pilot plant, and on support of the pilot plant operation. Materials for auxiliary machinery were developed (including in-plant test of new materials), and so were the devices (including development of a let-down valve) as trial fabrication and development of the plant devices and materials. As coal type selection and survey, coal types were surveyed, and liquefaction performance of Chinese coals was tested. In order to develop applications of coal liquefied products and a refining technology, developments were carried out on up-grading of the coal liquefied oil, a petroleum mixing technology, and a technology to separate hetero compounds in coal liquefied oil, and applications of the compounds. (NEDO)

  13. Prediction of strain energy-based liquefaction resistance of sand-silt mixtures: An evolutionary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baziar, Mohammad H.; Jafarian, Yaser; Shahnazari, Habib; Movahed, Vahid; Amin Tutunchian, Mohammad

    2011-11-01

    Liquefaction is a catastrophic type of ground failure, which usually occurs in loose saturated soil deposits under earthquake excitations. A new predictive model is presented in this study to estimate the amount of strain energy density, which is required for the liquefaction triggering of sand-silt mixtures. A wide-ranging database containing the results of cyclic tests on sand-silt mixtures was first gathered from previously published studies. Input variables of the model were chosen from the available understandings evolved from the previous studies on the strain energy-based liquefaction potential assessment. In order to avoid overtraining, two sets of validation data were employed and a particular monitoring was made on the behavior of the evolved models. Results of a comprehensive parametric study on the proposed model are in accord with the previously published experimental observations. Accordingly, the amount of strain energy required for liquefaction onset increases with increase in initial effective overburden pressure, relative density, and mean grain size. The effect of nonplastic fines on strain energy-based liquefaction resistance shows a more complicated behavior. Accordingly, liquefaction resistance increases with increase in fines up to about 10-15% and then starts to decline for a higher increase in fines content. Further verifications of the model were carried out using the valuable results of some downhole array data as well as centrifuge model tests. These verifications confirm that the proposed model, which was derived from laboratory data, can be successfully utilized under field conditions.

  14. Effect of pre-swelling of coal on its solvent extraction and liquefaction properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengfu Shui; Zhicai Wang; Meixia Cao [Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2008-10-15

    Effects of pre-swelling of coal on solvent extraction and liquefaction properties were studied with Shenhua coal. It was found that pre-swelling treatments of the coal in three solvents, i.e., toluene (TOL), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) and tetralin (THN) increased its extraction yield and liquefaction conversion, and differed the liquefied product distributions. The pre-swollen coals after removing the swelling solvents showed increased conversion in liquefaction compared with that of the swollen coals in the presence of swelling solvents. It was also found that the yields of (oil + gas) in liquefaction of the pre-swollen coals with NMP and TOL dramatically decreased in the presence of swelling solvent. TG and FTIR analyses of the raw coal, the swollen coals and the liquefied products were carried out in order to investigate the mechanism governing the effects of pre-swelling treatment on coal extraction and liquefaction. The results showed that the swelling pre-treatment could disrupt some non-covalent interactions of the coal molecules, relax its network structure and loosened the coal structure. It would thus benefit diffusion of a hydrogen donor solvent into the coal structure during liquefaction, and also enhance the hydrogen donating ability of the hydrogen-rich species derived from the coal. 21 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Preliminary study of soil liquefaction hazard at Terengganu shoreline, Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, H.; Suhatril, M.; Hashim, R.

    2017-06-01

    Terengganu is a shoreline state located in Peninsular Malaysia which is a growing hub for port industries and tourism centre. The northern part offers pristine settings of a relax beach areas whereas the southern part are observed to be a growing centre for development. The serious erosion on soil deposit along the beach line presents vulnerable soil condition to soil liquefaction consists of sandy with low plasticity and shallow ground water. Moreover, local earthquake from nearby fault have present significant tremors over the past few years which need to be considered in the land usage or future development in catering the seismic loading. Liquefaction analysis based on field standard penetration of soil is applied on 546 boreholes scattered along the shoreline areas ranging 244 km of shoreline stretch. Based on simplified approach, it is found that more than 70% of the studied areas pose high liquefaction potential since there are saturated loose sand and silt deposits layer ranges at depth 3 m and up to 20 m. The presence of clay deposits and hard stratum at the remaining 30% of the studied areas shows good resistance to soil liquefaction hence making the area less significant to liquefaction hazard. Result indicates that liquefaction improving technique is advisable in future development of shoreline areas of Terengganu state.

  16. Effect of Recycle Solvent Hydrotreatment on Oil Yield of Direct Coal Liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shansong Gao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the recycle solvent hydrotreatment on oil yield of direct coal liquefaction were carried out in the 0.18 t/day direct coal liquefaction bench support unit of National Engineering Laboratory for Direct Coal Liquefaction (China. Results showed that the hydrogen-donating ability of the hydrogenated recycle solvent improved and the hydrogen consumption of solvent hydrotreatment was increased by decreasing liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV from 1.5 to 1.0 h−1 and increasing reaction pressure from 13.7 to 19.0 MPa. The hydrogen-donating ability of the hydrogenated recycle solvent was enhanced, thus promoting the oil yield and coal conversion of the liquefaction reaction. The coal conversion and distillates yield of coal liquefaction were increased from 88.74% to 88.82% and from 47.41% to 49.10%, respectively, with the increase in the solvent hydrotreatment pressure from 13.7 to 19.0 MPa. The coal conversion and distillates of coal liquefaction were increased from 88.82% to 89.27% and from 49.10% to 54.49%, respectively, when the LHSV decreased from 1.5 to 1.0 h−1 under the solvent hydrotreatment pressure of 19.0 MPa.

  17. Motor fuels made by direct liquefaction of coal, peat and biomass. Drivmedel genom direktfoervaetskning av kol, torv och biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granath, L; Karlsson, G; Karlsson, G; Nilsson, T

    1981-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Technology at the Royal Institute of Technology has completed a system study concerning direct liquefaction of peat and biomass to produce transportation fuel. A comprehensive survey of coal liquefaction is included. Gasoline produced in Sweden from direct liquefaction of imported coal may compete with regular gasoline at the earliest around 1985. Biomass can become a competitive alternative to black coal at the beginning of the 21st century. Methanol can be produced from wood with a higher efficiency than the transportation fuels which are produced by direct liquefaction. The peat is not good source for liquefaction as wood chips. A continuously working liquefaction plant designed also for peat among other substances is under construction at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.

  18. A Novel Boil-Off Gas Re-Liquefaction Using a Spray Recondenser for Liquefied Natural-Gas Bunkering Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiheon Ryu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the design of a novel boil-off gas (BOG re-liquefaction technology using a BOG recondenser system. The BOG recondenser system targets the liquefied natural gas (LNG bunkering operation, in which the BOG phase transition occurs in a pressure vessel instead of a heat exchanger. The BOG that is generated during LNG bunkering operation is characterized as an intermittent flow with various peak loads. The system was designed to temporarily store the transient BOG inflow, condense it with subcooled LNG and store the condensed liquid. The superiority of the system was verified by comparing it with the most extensively employed conventional re-liquefaction system in terms of consumption energy and via an exergy analysis. Static simulations were conducted for three compositions; the results indicated that the proposed system provided 0 to 6.9% higher efficiencies. The exergy analysis indicates that the useful work of the conventional system is 24.9%, and the useful work of the proposed system is 26.0%. Process dynamic simulations of six cases were also performed to verify the behaviour of the BOG recondenser system. The results show that the pressure of the holdup in the recondenser vessel increased during the BOG inflow mode and decreased during the initialization mode. The maximum pressure of one of the bunkering cases was 3.45 bar. The system encountered a challenge during repetitive operations due to overpressurizing of the BOG recondenser vessel.

  19. Coal Liquefaction characteristics and chemical structure of product oil; Sekitan ekika hanno tokusei to seiseibutsu no kagaku kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, H.; Sato, M.; Chiba, T.; Hattori, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology; Sasaki, M. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Through the hydrogenolysis of Wandoan coal and Tanito Harum coal which are used for the NEDOL process, differences of liquefaction characteristics between them were found. The purpose of this study is to grasp these differences as differences of chemical structures of oil fractions. The compound type analysis was conducted for oil fractions obtained at varied reaction temperature for varied reaction time. Coal liquefaction characteristics of these coals were discussed by relating oil yields and chemical structures. For Tanito Harum coal, yields of gas and oil were considered to be lower than those for Wandoan coal, which reflected that the contents of partially hydrogenated hydroaromatics in oil fraction from the former were lower than those from the latter, and that the remarkable change of composition did not occur with the progress of the reaction. For both the coals, the remarkable changes in the average molecular weight of oil fraction were not observed with the progress of the reaction. While, the content of methane gradually increased with the progress of the reaction, which suggested that oil was gradually dealkylated. 5 figs.

  20. Catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL of biomass for bio-crude production using Ni/HZSM-5 catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouyun Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL is an effective method that can convert biomass into bio-crude, but direct use of bio-crude derived from biomass HTL remains a challenge due to the lower quality. In this study, bifunctional Ni/HZSM-5 catalysts and zinc hydrolysis were combined to produce upgraded bio-crude in an in-situ HTL process. The K2CO3 and HZSM-5 catalysts with different Ni loading ratios were tested. The effects of different catalysts on the yield and quality of bio-crude and gas were investigated. The results indicated that the catalysts improved bio-crude and gas yields, compared to pine sawdust liquefaction without catalyst. The catalysts reduced the contents of undesirable oxygenated compounds such as acids, ketones, phenols, alcohols and esters in bio-crude products while increased desirable hydrocarbons content. K2CO3 produced highest bio-crude yield and lowest solid residue yield among all catalysts. Compared to parent HZSM-5 catalyst, bifunctional Ni/HZSM-5 catalysts exhibited higher catalyst activity to improve quality of upgraded bio-crude due to its integration of cracking and hydrodeoxygenation reactions. 6%Ni/HZSM-5 catalyst produced the bio-crude with the highest hydrocarbons content at 11.02%. This catalyst can be a candidate for bio-crude production from biomass HTL.

  1. Improve the biodegradability of post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater with ozone: conversion of phenols and N-heterocyclic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Libin; Si, Buchun; Martins, Marcio Arêdes; Watson, Jamison; Chu, Huaqiang; Zhang, Yuanhui; Tan, Xiaobo; Zhou, Xuefei; Zhang, Yalei

    2017-04-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction is a promising technology to convert wet biomass into bio-oil. However, post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (PHWW) is also produced during the process. This wastewater contains a high concentration of organic compounds, including phenols and N-heterocyclic compounds which are two main inhibitors for biological treatment. Thus, proper treatment is required. In this work, ozone was used to convert phenols and N-heterocyclic compounds with a dosage range of 0-4.64 mg O 3 /mL PHWW. After ozone treatment, the phenols were fully converted, and acids were produced. However, N-heterocyclic compounds were found to have a low conversion rate (21.7%). The kinetic analysis for the degradation of phenols and N-heterocyclic compounds showed that the substitute played an important role in determining the priority of ozone reactions. The OH moiety in the ring compounds (phenols and pyridinol) may form hydroxyl radical, which lead to an efficient reaction. A substantial improved biodegradability of PHWW was observed after ozone treatment. The ratio of BOD 5 /COD was increased by about 32.36%, and reached a maximum of 0.41. The improved biodegradability of PHWW was justified by the conversion of phenols and N-heterocyclic compounds.

  2. Indirect Inference for Stochastic Differential Equations Based on Moment Expansions

    KAUST Repository

    Ballesio, Marco; Tempone, Raul; Vilanova, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    We provide an indirect inference method to estimate the parameters of timehomogeneous scalar diffusion and jump diffusion processes. We obtain a system of ODEs that approximate the time evolution of the first two moments of the process

  3. Indirect effects in dual radiation action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaider, M.; Rossi, H.H.

    1988-01-01

    The basic aim in this paper is to establish the link between indirect effects of radiation action and the spatial distribution of radicals at the time of energy deposition as well as throughout subsequent diffusion and interaction. The fact that radicals diffuse for a finite distance before damaging a biomolecule has dramatic effects on their subsequent probability to result in lesions. Thus at very low DMSO concentrations, where p = 0.5, one expects - all other things being equal - some 75% of the lesions to result from indirect or semidirect lesions. The number calculated here is lower (15%), a direct result of the fact that such lesions involve proximity functions modulated by diffusion. At higher DMSO concentrations this percentage becomes progressively smaller, as expected. It appears thus that for low-LET radiation, the relative amount of indirect damage in single tracks (also termed intratrack or single events) action is very small. By contrast, intertrack (or two-event) contributions will have the ratio between direct and (indirect + semidirect) contributions given by p 2 /(1-p 2 ). The reason for this is that sublesions from different tracks are uniformly distributed throughout the cell nucleus; their probability of interaction should not depend on any previous diffusional processes. For the example given above (p = 0.5) they do expect 65% of intertrack (two-hit) lesions to have resulted from indirect or semidirect mechanisms. This contrast between the almost exclusively direct character of intratrack lesions and the dominant role of indirect action in intertrack lesions produced by low-LET radiation is an important conclusion of this study

  4. Co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. 2; Bisai sorui to sekitan no kyoekika hanno. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, C.; Matsui, T.; Otsuki, M.; Ikenaga, N.; Suzuki, T. [Kansai University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    For the removal and recycle of CO2, a global warming gas, utilization of photosynthesis by micro algae is investigated. Formed micro algae are decomposed into CO2, H2O and CH4 again, which does not result in the permanent fixation. For the effective utilization of these micro algae, creation of petroleum alternate energy was tried through the co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal. Were investigated influences of the reaction temperature during the co-liquefaction and influences of catalysts, such as Fe(CO)5-S, Ru(CO)12, and Mo(CO)6-S, which are effective for the coal liquefaction. Micro algae, such as chlorella, spirulina, and littorale, and Yallourn brown coal were tested. It was found that co-liquefaction of micro algae with coal can be successfully proceeded under the same conditions as the liquefaction of coal. The oil yield obtained from the co-liquefaction in the presence of Fe(CO)5-S, an effective catalyst for coal liquefaction, agreed appropriately with the arithmetical mean value from separate liquefaction of coal and micro algae. It was suggested that pyrrhotite, an active species for coal liquefaction, was sufficiently formed by increasing the addition of sulfur. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Life cycle assessment of bio-jet fuel from hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortier, Marie-Odile P.; Roberts, Griffin W.; Stagg-Williams, Susan M.; Sturm, Belinda S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A life cycle assessment of bio-jet fuel from wastewater algae was performed. • We used experimental data from algae cultivation through hydrothermal liquefaction. • We performed Monte Carlo and sensitivity analyses with ranges of parameter values. • Transport of moderately dewatered algae increased life cycle climate change impacts. • Collocation and heat integration reduce life cycle greenhouse gas emissions by 76%. - Abstract: Bio-jet fuel is increasingly being produced from feedstocks such as algae and tested in flight. As the industry adopts bio-jet fuels from various feedstocks and conversion processes, life cycle assessment (LCA) is necessary to determine whether these renewable fuels result in lower life cycle greenhouse gas (LC-GHG) emissions than conventional jet fuel. An LCA was performed for a functional unit of 1 GJ of bio-jet fuel produced through thermochemical conversion (hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL)) of microalgae cultivated in wastewater effluent. Two pathways were analyzed to compare the impacts of siting HTL at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to those of siting HTL at a refinery. Base cases for each pathway were developed in part using primary data from algae production in wastewater effluent and HTL experiments of this algae at the University of Kansas. The LC-GHG emissions of these cases were compared to those of conventional jet fuel, and a sensitivity analysis and Monte Carlo analyses were performed. When algal conversion using HTL was modeled at a refinery versus at the WWTP site, the transportation steps of biomass and waste nutrients were major contributors to the LC-GHG emissions of algal bio-jet fuel. The LC-GHG emissions were lower for the algal bio-jet fuel pathway that performs HTL at a WWTP (35.2 kg CO 2eq /GJ for the base case) than for the pathway for HTL at a refinery (86.5 kg CO 2eq /GJ for the base case). The LCA results were particularly sensitive to the extent of heat integration, the source of

  6. Indirect Comprehensive Review Board (ICRB). Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) used a systems engineering approach to take the first step toward defining a requirements baseline for all indirect work at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The intent of this effort was to define the requirements for indirect work, identify the activities necessary to meet the requirements, and to produce defensible cost estimates for the work. The result of this effort is a scrubbed-down, defensible budget for all indirect work in FY 1997. Buying power for each dollar of direct work was increased by $.02. Recommendations are identified for improvements to this process in FY 1998. The purpose of this report is twofold. First is to report the final results of the 1996 ICRB process, and second is to document the process used such that incremental improvements may be made in future years. Objectives, processes, and approaches are described to provide a trail for future boards. Appendices contain copies of board composition, documentation of the process, as well as the actual training materials

  7. Experimental assessment of the liquefaction resistance of calcareous biogenous sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandoval Eimar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT

    Liquefaction is a phenomenon in which soils, typically sands, suddenly loose a substantial amount of their shear strength and stiffness, this often triggered by large-magnitude earthquakes. Most liquefaction research has focused on silicate-based sands and not on other sand types, such as calcareous biogenous sands Calcareous sands are usually composed of skeletal or non-skeletal remains of marine organisms, with unique characteristics in terms of their mineralogy surface roughness, particle shape, crushability, and intraparticle porosity. The unique characteristics of calcareous sands suggest that their geotechnical engineering behaviour can be substantially different compared to that of terrigenous sands, including their behaviour under seismic loading, which have not been very well studied

    This paper presents the results of an experimental programme aimed at studying the cyclic liquefaction resistance of uncemented calcareous biogenous sands retrieved from south-western Puerto Rico Evaluation of liquefaction potential involved a comprehensive set of isotropically consolidated undrained cyclic triaxial tests on reconstituted samples of this calcareous sand. The programme also included tests on Ottawa terrigenous silica sand samples prepared and tested in similar conditions for comparison purposes.

    In general, the experimental results showed that Cabo Rojo calcareous sands had higher liquefaction resistance compared to Ottawa silica sands tested under similar conditions. Important differences between calcareous and silica sands regarding pore pressure generation characteristics and axial strain accumulation were also observed


  8. Supersymmetric dark matter: Indirect detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, L.

    2000-01-01

    Dark matter detection experiments are improving to the point where they can detect or restrict the primary particle physics candidates for non baryonic dark matter. The methods for detection are usually categorized as direct, i.e., searching for signals caused by passage of dark matter particles in terrestrial detectors, or indirect. Indirect detection methods include searching for antimatter and gamma rays, in particular gamma ray lines, in cosmic rays and high-energy neutrinos from the centre of the Earth or Sun caused by accretion and annihilation of dark matter particles. A review is given of recent progress in indirect detection, both on the theoretical and experimental side

  9. The Complexity of Indirect Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenjie, L. I.

    2017-01-01

    its complex nature, and thus determined that many facets of ITr remain to be studied. The present article will try to encompass the complexity of ITr by looking into the reasons for translating indirectly, the challenge of finding out mediating texts (MTs), indirectness in both translation...... of which have been translated and interpreted indirectly through major languages like English, will be employed as examples. Hopefully, this study will offer more insights into the nature of translation as a social activity and raise further interests in studying translation as a complex phenomenon....

  10. A simplified indirect bonding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Katiyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of lingual orthodontics, indirect bonding technique has become an integral part of practice. It involves placement of brackets initially on the models and then their transfer to teeth with the help of transfer trays. Problems encountered with current indirect bonding techniques used are (1 the possibility of adhesive flash remaining around the base of the brackets which requires removal (2 longer time required for the adhesive to gain enough bond strength for secure tray removal. The new simplified indirect bonding technique presented here overcomes both these problems.

  11. Report on results for fiscal 1997 (B edition) on development of coal liquefaction technology. Development of bituminous coal liquefaction technology (research by pilot plant) 1/2; 1997 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (B gan). Rekiseitan ekika gijutsu no kaihatsu (pilot plant ni yoru kenkyu) 1/2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    Through the design, construction and operation of a pilot plant, the NEDOL method was verified, with its operation technology established, and also with a target set in collecting and accumulating data and knowledge required for a commercial plant in the future. With the Run-2, 3, 4 implemented using operating basis coal as the material, the operating stability of equipment/machines was confirmed, and a method of obtaining material balance as well as the operation technology was established, thereby demonstrating the NEDOL process, proving a long-term continuous operability and verifying the highest liquefaction yield. In addition, various process data, engineering data, operation control data, etc., were acquired, classified and analyzed. In the Run-3/4-1, a long-term coal charging continuous operation for 80 days was achieved, as was a high liquefaction yield of 58%. Moreover, data of material balance and thermal balance were obtained, with the performance confirmed of various kinds of equipment. Using the operating basis coat as the material, the coal charging operation of the Run-4-2 was commenced, with the performance verification test carried out for a neutron attenuation tracer method (NAT method), for the purpose of obtaining data of the flow characteristics of the liquefaction reaction tower. (NEDO)

  12. Preparation and Properties of Asphalt Binders Modified by THFS Extracted From Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ji

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the preparation and viscoelastic properties of asphalt binder modified by tetrahydrofuran soluble fraction (THFS extracted from direct coal liquefaction residue. The modified asphalt binders, which blended with SK-90 (control asphalt binder and 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% THFS (by weight of SK-90, were fabricated. The preparation process for asphalt binder was optimized in terms of the orthogonal array test strategy and gray correlation analysis results. The properties of asphalt binder were measured by applying Penetration performance grade and Superpave performance grade specifications. In addition, the temperature step and frequency sweep test in Dynamic Shear Rheometer were conducted to predict the rheological behavior, temperature and frequency susceptibility of asphalt binder. The test results suggested the optimal preparation process, such as 150 °C shearing temperature, 45 min shearing time and 4000 rpm shearing rate. Subsequently, the addition of THFS was beneficial in increasing the high-temperature properties but decreased the low-temperature properties and resistance to fatigue. The content analysis of THFS showed the percentage of 4~6% achieved a balance in the high-and-low temperature properties of asphalt binder. The asphalt binder with higher THFS content exhibited higher resistance to rutting and less sensitivity to frequency and temperature.

  13. Liquefaction susceptibility of fine-grained soils: preliminary study report. Final report, September 1985-March 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, N.Y.

    1987-09-01

    Soil liquefaction, a hazardous ground failure induced by strong motion earthquakes, can cause catastrophic damage to structures such as dams, bridges, power plants, and water-front structures and may involve great losses of life. Examples of liquefaction and resulting damage were observed during the Alaska (1964), Niigata, Japan (1964), and Tangshan, China (1976), earthquakes. Ground failure due to earthquake-induced soil liquefaction may manifest itself as excessive settlement, loss of bearing capacity, sand boiling, and flow slides. The liquefaction potential of clean sands has been studied extensively for the last two decades. However, case histories revealed that liquefied sands were seldom clean. They may contain various percentages of silt or clay or both. In fact, the Chinese observation in the Tansghan earthquake indicated that some cohesive soils may have liquefied. If this indeed had happened, then structures underlain by fine-grained soils, with a marginal safety factor based on the liquefaction criteria normally applied to sands, may actually be unsafe. Thus there is an urgent need for establishing new criteria for the liquefaction susceptibility of soils to include those identified as fine-grained. The author, Professor N.Y. Chang of the University of Colorado at Denver, visited several Chinese agencies and and universities in and near Beijing, China, in the summer of 1985 in an attempt to investigate and verify reported data on the liquefaction of cohesive soils during the Tangshan earthquake of 1976 and to negotiate cooperative research into the problem. This report presents the result of supportive literature review and the findings of the China trip.

  14. Epidemic spreading through direct and indirect interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Niloy; Krueger, Tyll; Mukherjee, Animesh; Saha, Sudipta

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we study the susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic dynamics, considering a specialized setting where popular places (termed passive entities) are visited by agents (termed active entities). We consider two types of spreading dynamics: direct spreading, where the active entities infect each other while visiting the passive entities, and indirect spreading, where the passive entities act as carriers and the infection is spread via them. We investigate in particular the effect of selection strategy, i.e., the way passive entities are chosen, in the spread of epidemics. We introduce a mathematical framework to study the effect of an arbitrary selection strategy and derive formulas for prevalence, extinction probabilities, and epidemic thresholds for both indirect and direct spreading. We also obtain a very simple relationship between the extinction probability and the prevalence. We pay special attention to preferential selection and derive exact formulas. The analysis reveals that an increase in the diversity in the selection process lowers the epidemic thresholds. Comparing the direct and indirect spreading, we identify regions in the parameter space where the prevalence of the indirect spreading is higher than the direct one.

  15. Design of a Natural Gas Liquefaction System with Minimum Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergese, Franco

    2004-01-01

    In this work an economic method for liquefying natural gas by diminishing its temperature by means of the Joule-Thomson effect is presented.The pressures from and to which the gas must be expanded arose from a thermodynamic calculation optimizing the cost per unit mass of Liquefied Natural Gas LNG).It was determined that the gas should be expanded from 200 atm to 4 atm.This expansion ratio can be used in different scales.Large Scale: liquefaction of gas at well.It takes advantage of the fact that the gas inside the well is stored at high pressure.The gas is expanded in a valve / nozzle and then compressed to the pressure of the local pipeline system.The objective of this project is to export natural gas as LNG, which is transported by ships to the markets of consumption.Using this method of liquefaction, the LNG production levels are limited to a fraction of the production of the well, due to the injection of the un condensed gas into the local pipelines system.Medium Scale: A high pressure pipeline is the source of the gas.The expansion is performed and then the gas is again compressed to the pressure of a lower pressure pipeline into which the gas is injected.The pressure reductions of natural gas are performed nearby big cities.The aim of this project scale is the storage of fuel for gas thermal power plants during periods of low energy consumption for later burning when the resource is limited. Another possibility that offers this size of plant is the transportation of gas to regions where the resource is unavailable.This transportation would be carried out by means of cistern trucks, in the same way that conventional liquid fuels are transported.Small scale: the place of production would be a CNG refueling station. The source of gas is in this case a gas pipeline of urban distribution and the gas should be compressed with the compressor of the refueling station.Compressors have generally low loading factor and the periods of time when they are not producing

  16. Hydrothermal liquefaction of cellulose to bio-oil under acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Sudong; Tan, Zhongchao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) at acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. ► Bio-oil compositions varied with acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. ► Reaction mechanisms varied with acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. ► HTL should be classified to acidic, neutral and alkaline processes. -- Abstract: Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass to bio-oil under alkaline or neutral conditions has been widely reported in literature. However, there has been limited data available in literature on comparing HTL of biomass to bio-oil under acidic, neutral, and alkaline in terms of chemical compositions and yields by using the same reaction conditions and reactor. Using cellulose as a feedstock we conducted the comparative studies for pH = 3, 7 and 14 at temperatures of 275–320 °C with reaction residence times of 0–30 min. Results showed that the chemical compositions of the bio-oils were different for acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. Under acidic and neutral conditions, the main composition of HTL bio-oil was 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF). Under alkaline conditions, the main compounds became C 2–5 carboxylic acids. For bio-oil yields, it was observed that high temperatures and long residence times had negative effects, regardless of the pH levels. However, the corresponding reaction mechanisms are different. Under acidic conditions, the decrease in the bio-oil yields was mainly caused by polymerization of 5-HMF to solids. Under neutral conditions, the bio-oil yields decreased because 5-HMF was converted to both solid and gaseous products. Under alkaline conditions, the bio-oil decomposed to gases through the formation of short chain acids and aldehydes. Therefore, although they were all referred to as HTL bio-oil in literature, they were formed by different reaction pathways and had different properties due to their different chemical compositions. Given these differences, different strategies are recommended in this study to

  17. The logic of indirect speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A.; Lee, James J.

    2008-01-01

    When people speak, they often insinuate their intent indirectly rather than stating it as a bald proposition. Examples include sexual come-ons, veiled threats, polite requests, and concealed bribes. We propose a three-part theory of indirect speech, based on the idea that human communication involves a mixture of cooperation and conflict. First, indirect requests allow for plausible deniability, in which a cooperative listener can accept the request, but an uncooperative one cannot react adversarially to it. This intuition is supported by a game-theoretic model that predicts the costs and benefits to a speaker of direct and indirect requests. Second, language has two functions: to convey information and to negotiate the type of relationship holding between speaker and hearer (in particular, dominance, communality, or reciprocity). The emotional costs of a mismatch in the assumed relationship type can create a need for plausible deniability and, thereby, select for indirectness even when there are no tangible costs. Third, people perceive language as a digital medium, which allows a sentence to generate common knowledge, to propagate a message with high fidelity, and to serve as a reference point in coordination games. This feature makes an indirect request qualitatively different from a direct one even when the speaker and listener can infer each other's intentions with high confidence. PMID:18199841

  18. Software Prefetching for Indirect Memory Accesses

    OpenAIRE

    Ainsworth, Sam; Jones, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Many modern data processing and HPC workloads are heavily memory-latency bound. A tempting proposition to solve this is software prefetching, where special non-blocking loads are used to bring data into the cache hierarchy just before being required. However, these are difficult to insert to effectively improve performance, and techniques for automatic insertion are currently limited. This paper develops a novel compiler pass to automatically generate software prefetches for indirect mem...

  19. Characterisation of Liquefaction Effects for Beyond-Design Basis Safety Assessment of Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bán, Zoltán; Győri, Erzsébet; János Katona, Tamás; Tóth, László

    2015-04-01

    Preparedness of nuclear power plants to beyond design base external effects became high importance after 11th of March 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquakes. In case of some nuclear power plants constructed at the soft soil sites, liquefaction should be considered as a beyond design basis hazard. The consequences of liquefaction have to be analysed with the aim of definition of post-event plant condition, identification of plant vulnerabilities and planning the necessary measures for accident management. In the paper, the methodology of the analysis of liquefaction effects for nuclear power plants is outlined. The case of Nuclear Power Plant at Paks, Hungary is used as an example for demonstration of practical importance of the presented results and considerations. Contrary to the design, conservatism of the methodology for the evaluation of beyond design basis liquefaction effects for an operating plant has to be limited to a reasonable level. Consequently, applicability of all existing methods has to be considered for the best estimation. The adequacy and conclusiveness of the results is mainly limited by the epistemic uncertainty of the methods used for liquefaction hazard definition and definition of engineering parameters characterizing the consequences of liquefaction. The methods have to comply with controversial requirements. They have to be consistent and widely accepted and used in the practice. They have to be based on the comprehensive database. They have to provide basis for the evaluation of dominating engineering parameters that control the post-liquefaction response of the plant structures. Experience of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa plant hit by Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki earthquake of 16 July 2007 and analysis of site conditions and plant layout at Paks plant have shown that the differential settlement is found to be the dominating effect in case considered. They have to be based on the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and allow the integration into logic

  20. Properties of Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue Modified Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper are to use Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue (DLCR to modify the asphalt binders and mixtures and to evaluate the performance of modified asphalt mixtures. The dynamic modulus and phase angle of DCLR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixture were analyzed, and the viscoelastic properties of these modified asphalt mixtures were compared to the base asphalt binder SK-90 and Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene (SBS modified asphalt mixtures. The master curves of the asphalt mixtures were shown, and dynamic and viscoelastic behaviors of asphalt mixtures were described using the Christensen-Anderson-Marasteanu (CAM model. The test results show that the dynamic moduli of DCLR and DCLR-composite asphalt mixtures are higher than those of the SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures. Based on the viscoelastic parameters of CAM models of the asphalt mixtures, the high- and low-temperature performance of DLCR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixtures are obviously better than the SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures. In addition, the DCLR and DCLR-composite modified asphalt mixtures are more insensitive to the frequency compared to SK-90 and SBS modified asphalt mixtures.

  1. Air liquefaction and enrichment system propulsion in reusable launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, W. H.; Yi, A. C.

    1994-07-01

    A concept is shown for a fully reusable, Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle with horizontal takeoff and landing, employing an air-turborocket for low speed and a rocket for high-speed acceleration, both using liquid hydrogen for fuel. The turborocket employs a modified liquid air cycle to supply the oxidizer. The rocket uses 90% pure liquid oxygen as its oxidizer that is collected from the atmosphere, separated, and stored during operation of the turborocket from about Mach 2 to 5 or 6. The takeoff weight and the thrust required at takeoff are markedly reduced by collecting the rocket oxidizer in-flight. This article shows an approach and the corresponding technology needs for using air liquefaction and enrichment system propulsion in a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. Reducing the trajectory altitude at the end of collection reduces the wing area and increases payload. The use of state-of-the-art materials, such as graphite polyimide, in a direct substitution for aluminum or aluminum-lithium alloy, is critical to meet the structure weight objective for SSTO. Configurations that utilize 'waverider' aerodynamics show great promise to reduce the vehicle weight.

  2. An entropy flow optimization technique for helium liquefaction cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minta, M.; Smith, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter proposes a new method of analyzing thermodynamic cycles based on a continuous distribution of precooling over the temperature range of the cycle. The method gives the optimum distribution of precooling over the temperature range of the cycle by specifying the mass flow to be expanded at each temperature. The result is used to select a cycle configuration with discrete expansions and to initialize the independent variables for final optimization. Topics considered include the continuous precooling model, the results for ideal gas, the results for real gas, and the application to the design of a saturated vapor compression (SVC) cycle. The optimization technique for helium liquefaction cycles starts with the minimization of the generated entropy in a cycle model with continuous precooling. The pressure ratio, the pressure level and the distribution of the heat exchange are selected based on the results of the continuous precooling analysis. It is concluded that the technique incorporates the non-ideal behavior of helium in the procedure and allows the trade-off between heat exchange area and losses to be determined

  3. Hydrotreating of heavy distillate derived from Wandoan coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Y. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Osaka (Japan). Hydrocarbon Research Lab.

    1997-12-03

    The paper reports how the hydrotreatment of coal-derived heavy distillate, obtained from the liquefaction of Wandoan coal using a 1 t/day bench unit, was performed to clarify the effects of catalyst species, reaction temperature and hydrogen pressure on the chemical composition of the product. Experimental runs were carried out over alumina-supported Go-Mo and Ni-Mo catalysts in a fixed bed reactor of 20 ml in volume at 350-390{degree}C under hydrogen pressure of 50-150 kg/cm{sup 2}G with liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) of 0.5-2 h{sup -1}. The product, as analyzed by gas chromatography, indicated that larger amounts of alkylbenzenes such as toluene or xylenes were produced at the elevated temperature of 390{degree}C, but the concentrations of condensed aromatics such as naphthalene, biphenyl, fluorene and phenanthrene decreased with the severity of reaction conditions. Pyrene and methylpyrene decreased in amount with a shorter LHSV and higher hydrogen pressure, but increased at higher temperature of 390{degree}C. Shorter LHSV and higher hydrogen pressure are much more effective in hydrogenation, hydrodnitrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation than the higher reaction temperature up to 390{degree}C.

  4. [Longjintonglin Capsules for type IIIA prostatitis accompanied by abnormal semen liquefaction: A clinical observation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong-cai; Wan, Chang-chun; Geng, Qiang; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Guo-wei; Shang, Xue-jun; Huang, Yu-feng

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect of Longjintonglin Capsules on type IIIA prostatitis accompanied by abnormal semen liquefaction. We selected 140 patients with type IIIA prostatitis accompanied by abnormal semen liquefaction according to the diagnostic standards of the American Institutes of Health (NIH) and treated them with Longjintonglin Capsules orally 3 capsules once tid for 12 weeks. We obtained the NIH Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Indexes (NIH-CPSI), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome scores, leukocyte count in the expressed prostatic secretion (EPS), semen liquefaction time, and the results of semen analysis and compared these indicators before and after the treatment. Of the 140 cases, 132 were included in this study, excluding 8 due to their incomplete case histories. Before and after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of medication, the total NIH-CPSI scores were 24.52 ± 5.43, 21.28 ± 4.85, 18.01 ± 4.28, and 14.49 ± 3.65 (P prostatitis were cured and another 72 well responded, with an overall response rate of 78.0%. Of those with abnormal semen liquefaction, 61 were cured, 39 well responded, and 32 failed to respond, with an overall effectiveness rate of 75.8%. Semen analysis showed significantly increased percentage of progressively motile sperm after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of medication as compared with the baseline (P prostatitis accompanied by abnormal semen liquefaction.

  5. Retesting of liquefaction and nonliquefaction case histories from the 1976 Tangshan earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, R.E.S.; Kayen, R.E.; Tong, L.-Y.; Liu, S.-Y.; Cai, G.-J.; Wu, J.

    2011-01-01

    A field investigation was performed to retest liquefaction and nonliquefaction sites from the 1976 Tangshan earthquake in China. These sites were carefully investigated in 1978 and 1979 by using standard penetration test (SPT) and cone penetration test (CPT) equipment; however, the CPT measurements are obsolete because of the now nonstandard cone that was used at the time. In 2007, a modern cone was mobilized to retest 18 selected sites that are particularly important because of the intense ground shaking they sustained despite their high fines content and/or because the site did not liquefy. Of the sites reinvestigated and carefully reprocessed, 13 were considered accurate representative case histories. Two of the sites that were originally investigated for liquefaction have been reinvestigated for cyclic failure of fine-grained soil and removed from consideration for liquefaction triggering. The most important outcome of these field investigations was the collection of more accurate data for three nonliquefaction sites that experienced intense ground shaking. Data for these three case histories is now included in an area of the liquefaction triggering database that was poorly populated and will help constrain the upper bound of future liquefaction triggering curves. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  6. A study on the hydrotreating of coal hydro liquefaction residue and its kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.; Lu, X.; Zhang, D.; Gao, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering for Energy Resources, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2010-09-15

    Hydro-conversion of coal hydro liquefaction residue obtained from a 6 t/day pilot plant of Shenhua Group in Shanghai was carried out under the hydrotreating condition. The coal hydro liquefaction residue and its product were extracted in sequence with n-hexane, toluene and tetrahydrofuran in a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane soluble fractions increased with the increase of reaction temperature and time. Its amount increased from 14.14% to a maximum of 40.86% under the conditions of 470 {sup o}C and 30 min, which meant that moderate extension of coal residence time in the coal hydro liquefaction reactor is beneficial to the increase of oil yield. A 4-lumped kinetic model of coal hydro liquefaction residue hydro-conversion was performed using solubility-based lumped fractions. In the model, the tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions were classified into two parts: easily reactive part and unreactive part. The kinetic parameters were estimated by a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and a nonlinear least squares method, and the apparent activation energies were calculated according to the Arrhenius Equation. A large quantity of total catalyst consisting of remained liquefaction catalyst, part of the mineral from raw coal and additive Fe-based catalyst could considerably reduce the apparent activation energy of hydro-conversion for the toluene insoluble/tetrahydrofuran insoluble fractions to 36.79 kJ-mol{sup -1}. The calculated values of the model coincided well with the experimental values. (authors)

  7. Fiscal 1991 report on the brown coal liquefaction section meeting; 1991 nendo kattan ekika bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    At the 1st through 5th brown coal liquefaction group meetings held for the fiscal year, reports are delivered and discussions are made about the progress of research and development. At the 1st meeting, a fiscal 1991 brown coal liquefaction research plan is introduced, and discussed. At the 2nd meeting, an interim report on the brown coal liquefaction technology development project is discussed. At the 3rd meeting (a joint meeting of the brown coal and bituminous coal liquefaction groups), an agendum entitled 'what the development of brown/bituminous coal liquefaction technologies for the 21st century should be' is reported, and discussed. At the 4th meeting, reports are made on the results of deliberation at the Industrial Technology Council, progress of the follow-up study, progress of the collection of achievements, and so forth. At the 5th meeting, the outline of the follow-up study, the collection of achievements in the pilot plant study (a project report preparation schedule and materials evaluation), the progress of pilot plant dismantling work, etc., are reported and discussed. (NEDO)

  8. Assessment of Soil Liquefaction Potential in Defence Housing Authority, Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaira Asif Khan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of liquefaction phenomenon may be induced in the event of a large magnitude earthquake but sometimes loose, saturated and poorly graded sand may be subjected to liquefaction due to the vibration produced by other sources. Liquefaction could cause damage to building and infrastructure due to sudden increase of pore pressure in the loose layers of saturated sand causing the loss of bearing capacity and shear strength. Defence Housing Authority (DHA is the well planned residential scheme established by Pakistan Army along the coastal belt of Karachi. The soil occurring in DHA is fine grained, poorly graded and mainly comprises of sandy silt and silty sand of Recent age, where water table is encountered at very shallow depth. Hence, it is important to assess the geotechnical behavior of the soil in DHA area, where most of the high rise buildings and mega civil structures are being constructed. In present study, seismic soil liquefaction was evaluated at 15 sites (30 bore holes in DHA by using simplified empirical method in terms of Factor of Safety (FS. The Relative Density (RD was determined with the help of Standard Penetration Test (SPT data. Grain size analysis was also carried out on each borehole samples. The results revealed that the DHA area is vulnerable to liquefaction during severe seismic event of magnitude between 6.5 and 7.5 in Karachi.

  9. Fiscal 1991 report on the brown coal liquefaction section meeting; 1991 nendo kattan ekika bukai hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-03-01

    At the 1st through 5th brown coal liquefaction group meetings held for the fiscal year, reports are delivered and discussions are made about the progress of research and development. At the 1st meeting, a fiscal 1991 brown coal liquefaction research plan is introduced, and discussed. At the 2nd meeting, an interim report on the brown coal liquefaction technology development project is discussed. At the 3rd meeting (a joint meeting of the brown coal and bituminous coal liquefaction groups), an agendum entitled 'what the development of brown/bituminous coal liquefaction technologies for the 21st century should be' is reported, and discussed. At the 4th meeting, reports are made on the results of deliberation at the Industrial Technology Council, progress of the follow-up study, progress of the collection of achievements, and so forth. At the 5th meeting, the outline of the follow-up study, the collection of achievements in the pilot plant study (a project report preparation schedule and materials evaluation), the progress of pilot plant dismantling work, etc., are reported and discussed. (NEDO)

  10. Anaerobic digestion of wastewater generated from the hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina: Toxicity assessment and minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Mingxia; Schideman, Lance C.; Tommaso, Giovana; Chen, Wan-Ting; Zhou, Yan; Nair, Ken; Qian, Wanyi; Zhang, Yuanhui; Wang, Kaijun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Nutrient reuse and energy recovery of HTL-WW are realized. • Anaerobic digestion of HTL-WW is vital to the sustainability of algal biocrude. • An anaerobic toxicity assay was conducted to evaluate HTL-WW toxicity. • The presence of adsorbents and biofilms effectively minimized inhibition. • A portion of the toxic compounds could be removed after anaerobic digestion. - Abstract: Previous studies demonstrate anaerobic digestion of hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (HTL-WW) is significant to the sustainability of algal biofuel development for nutrient reuse and residual energy recovery. HTL-WW contains substantial amounts of residual energy but is toxic to anaerobes. With 6% HTL-WW converted from cyanobacteria (e.g. Spirulina), anaerobes were 50% inhibited. In this study, zeolite, granular activated carbon (GAC), and polyurethane matrices (PM) were used during a two-round anaerobic batch test with HTL-WW, and in the presence of each material, the total methane yields were 136 mL/g COD, 169 mL/g COD, and 168 mL/g COD, respectively, being 11%, 37% and 36% higher than the control. GAC was considered promising due to its highest methane yield of 124 mL/g COD at the second feeding, indicating a good recovery of adsorption capacity. The observed low methane production rates indicated the necessity for anaerobic process optimization. The physicochemical analysis of the digestates demonstrated that most of the compounds identified in the HTL-WW were degraded.

  11. Exploratory research on solvent refined coal liquefaction. Annual technical progress report, January 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Exploratory Research on Solvent Refined Coal Liquefaction project by The Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co.'s Merriam Laboratory during 1979. In a series of experiments with varying feed gas composition, low levels (5 to 10 mole %) of carbon monoxide had little effect on the SRC II processing of Pittsburgh Seam coal (Powhatan No. 5 Mine) while higher levels (20 to 40 mole %) resulted in a general degradation of operability and reduced oil yields. Addition of finely divided (approx. 1 ..mu..m) pyrite to the reactive Powhatan coal had little effect on oil yields although the molecular weight of the distillation residue was apparently decreased. When finely divided pyrite and magnetite were added to the less reactive coals from the Loveridge and Blacksville No. 1 Mines (also Pittsburgh Seam), however, substantial increases in oil yields and product quality were obtained. In a comparison of upflow and downflow dissolver configurations with Powhatan coal in the SRC II mode, there was no difference in yields or product quality. A study characterizing specific reactors revealed a significantly higher conversion in the SRC I mode with a reactor approximating plug flow conditions compared to a completely backmixed reactor. In the SRC II mode there was only a slightly higher oil yield with the plug flow reactor.

  12. Hydrotreatment of heavy oil from coal liquefaction on Sulfide Ni - W Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi-ping Lei; Li-juan Gao; Heng-fu Shui; Shi-biao, Ren; Zhi-cai Wang; Kang-shi Gang, E-mail: shhf@ahut.edu.c [Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. Anhui Key Lab. of Coal Clean Conversion and Utilization

    2011-07-01

    Heavy oil (distillation temperature: 320-340 deg C) derived from the direct coal liquefaction process using Shengli coal were hydrotreated using sulfided Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ni-W/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Ni-W/SiO{sub 2} catalysts respectively. The sulfided catalysts were characterized by BET, XRD, H{sub 2}-TPR and NH{sub 3}-TPD respectively. The evaluations of the hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) and hydrodearomatization (HDA) properties of heavy oil on the three catalysts were carried out at 400 deg C and 5.0 MPa initial H2 pressure. The W-based catalysts displayed better performances than Mo-based catalysts for the HDN and HDA reactions. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts were found to have higher catalytic activities than on SiO{sub 2} supported ones. The activities of sulfided catalysts were associated mainly with the nature of active sites, acidity, metal sulfide crystallite size and the amount of the reducible sulfur species of metal sulfide. (author)

  13. Hydrotreatment of heavy oil from coal liquefaction on Sulfide Ni - W Catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi-ping Lei; Li-juan Gao; Heng-fu Shui; Shi-biao, Ren; Zhi-cai Wang; Kang-shi Gang

    2011-01-01

    Heavy oil (distillation temperature: 320-340 deg C) derived from the direct coal liquefaction process using Shengli coal were hydrotreated using sulfided Ni-Mo/Al 2 O 3 , Ni-W/Al 2 O 3 , and Ni-W/SiO 2 catalysts respectively. The sulfided catalysts were characterized by BET, XRD, H 2 -TPR and NH 3 -TPD respectively. The evaluations of the hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) and hydrodearomatization (HDA) properties of heavy oil on the three catalysts were carried out at 400 deg C and 5.0 MPa initial H2 pressure. The W-based catalysts displayed better performances than Mo-based catalysts for the HDN and HDA reactions. Al 2 O 3 supported catalysts were found to have higher catalytic activities than on SiO 2 supported ones. The activities of sulfided catalysts were associated mainly with the nature of active sites, acidity, metal sulfide crystallite size and the amount of the reducible sulfur species of metal sulfide. (author)

  14. Production and Optimization of Direct Coal Liquefaction derived Low Carbon-Footprint Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Markovich

    2010-06-30

    This report summarizes works conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-05NT42448. The work scope was divided into two categories - (a) experimental program to pretreat and refine a coal derived syncrude sample to meet transportation fuels requirements; (b) system analysis of a commercial scale direct coal liquefaction facility. The coal syncrude was derived from a bituminous coal by Headwaters CTL, while the refining study was carried out under a subcontract to Axens North America. The system analysis included H{sub 2} production cost via six different options, conceptual process design, utilities requirements, CO{sub 2} emission and overall plant economy. As part of the system analysis, impact of various H{sub 2} production options was evaluated. For consistence the comparison was carried out using the DOE H2A model. However, assumptions in the model were updated using Headwaters database. Results of Tier 2 jet fuel specifications evaluation by the Fuels & Energy Branch, US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RZPF) located at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio) are also discussed in this report.

  15. Microwave-assisted liquefaction of wood with polyhydric alcohols and its application in preparation of polyurethane (PU) foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Zhifeng Zheng; Chung Y. Hse

    2011-01-01

    Microwave radiation was used as the heating source in southern pine wood liquefaction with PEG/glycerin binary solvent. It was found that microwave heating was more efficient than conventional oil bath heating for wood liquefaction. The wood residue content of the H2SO4 catalyzed liquefied wood dropped to zero within 5 min with microwave heating. The resulting...

  16. Investigation of bio-composites using Novolac type liquefied wood resin: effects of liquefaction and fabrication conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Pan; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2009-01-01

    Wood liquefaction using an organic solvent and an acid catalyst has long been studied as a novel technique to utilize biomass as an alternative to petroleum-based products. Oxalic acid is a weaker organic acid than a mineral acid and wood liquefaction with oxalic acid as a catalyst will result in a higher amount of wood residue than that with a mineral acid....

  17. Indirect Reciprocity; A Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Apeldoorn, Jacobien; Schram, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity involves cooperative acts towards strangers, either in response to their kindness to third parties (downstream) or after receiving kindness from others oneself (upstream). It is considered to be important for the evolution of cooperative behavior amongst humans. Though it has been widely studied theoretically, the empirical evidence of indirect reciprocity has thus far been limited and based solely on behavior in laboratory experiments. We provide evidence from an online environment where members can repeatedly ask and offer services to each other, free of charge. For the purpose of this study we created several new member profiles, which differ only in terms of their serving history. We then sent out a large number of service requests to different members from all over the world. We observe that a service request is more likely to be rewarded for those with a profile history of offering the service (to third parties) in the past. This provides clear evidence of (downstream) indirect reciprocity. We find no support for upstream indirect reciprocity (in this case, rewarding the service request after having previously received the service from third parties), however. Our evidence of downstream indirect reciprocity cannot be attributed to reputational e