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Sample records for indirect fluorometric detection

  1. Indirect fluorometric detection techniques on thin layer chromatography and effect of ultrasound on gel electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yinfa, Ma.

    1990-12-10

    Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a broadly applicable separation technique. It offers many advantages over high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), such as easily adapted for two-dimensional separation, for whole-column'' detection and for handling multiple samples, etc. However, due to its draggy development of detection techniques comparing with HPLC, TLC has not received the attention it deserves. Therefore, exploring new detection techniques is very important to the development of TLC. It is the principal of this dissertation to present a new detection method for TLC -- indirect fluorometric detection method. This detection technique is universal sensitive, nondestructive, and simple. This will be described in detail from Sections 1 through Section 5. Section 1 and 3 describe the indirect fluorometric detection of anions and nonelectrolytes in TLC. In Section 2, a detection method for cations based on fluorescence quenching of ethidium bromide is presented. In Section 4, a simple and interesting TLC experiment is designed, three different fluorescence detection principles are used for the determination of caffeine, saccharin and sodium benzoate in beverages. A laser-based indirect fluorometric detection technique in TLC is developed in Section 5. Section 6 is totally different from Sections 1 through 5. An ultrasonic effect on the separation of DNA fragments in agarose gel electrophoresis is investigated. 262 refs.

  2. Dynamic modification of microorganisms by pyrenebutanoate for fluorometric detection in capillary zone electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Růžička, F.; Holá, V.; Šlais, Karel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2005), s. 548-555 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS4031201; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/1447; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4031302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : CZE * microorganisms * fluorometric detection Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.850, year: 2005

  3. Supersymmetric dark matter: Indirect detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, L.

    2000-01-01

    Dark matter detection experiments are improving to the point where they can detect or restrict the primary particle physics candidates for non baryonic dark matter. The methods for detection are usually categorized as direct, i.e., searching for signals caused by passage of dark matter particles in terrestrial detectors, or indirect. Indirect detection methods include searching for antimatter and gamma rays, in particular gamma ray lines, in cosmic rays and high-energy neutrinos from the centre of the Earth or Sun caused by accretion and annihilation of dark matter particles. A review is given of recent progress in indirect detection, both on the theoretical and experimental side

  4. Fluorometric method for inorganic pyrophosphatase activity detection and inhibitor screening based on click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kefeng; Chen, Zhonghui; Zhou, Ling; Zheng, Ou; Wu, Xiaoping; Guo, Longhua; Qiu, Bin; Lin, Zhenyu; Chen, Guonan

    2015-01-06

    A fluorometric method for pyrophosphatase (PPase) activity detection was developed based on click chemistry. Cu(II) can coordinate with pyrophosphate (PPi), the addition of pyrophosphatase (PPase) into the above system can destroy the coordinate compound because PPase catalyzes the hydrolysis of PPi into inorganic phosphate and produces free Cu(II), and free Cu(II) can be reduced by sodium ascorbate (SA) to form Cu(I), which in turn initiates the ligating reaction between nonfluorescent 3-azidocoumarins and terminal alkynes to produce a highly fluorescent triazole complex, based on which, a simple and sensitive turn on fluorometric method for PPase can be developed. The fluorescence intensity of the system has a linear relationship with the logarithm of the PPase concentration in the range of 0.5 and 10 mU with a detection limit down to 0.2 mU (S/N = 3). This method is cost-effective and convenient without any labels or complicated operations. The proposed system was applied to screen the potential PPase inhibitor with high efficiency. The proposed method can be applied to diagnosis of PPase-related diseases.

  5. Vitamin E composition of some seed oils as determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with fluorometric detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speek, A.J.; Schrijver, J.; Schreurs, W.H.P.

    1985-01-01

    A high‐performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method is described for the simultaneous analysis of E vitamers α‐, and β‐, γ‐ and δ‐tocopherol and α‐tocotrienol in seed oils. After diluting the oils with n‐hexane, E vitamers are separated by HPLC and detected fluorometrically. Standardization is

  6. Fluorometric detection and estimation of fungal biomass on cultural heritage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkol, Nick; McNamara, Christopher J; Mitchell, Ralph

    2010-02-01

    A wide variety of cultural heritage materials are susceptible to fungal deterioration. The paper, canvas, and stone constituents of our cultural heritage are subjected to harmful physical and chemical processes as they are slowly consumed by fungi. Remediation of fungal contamination can be costly and risk further damage to cultural artifacts. Early detection of fungal growth would permit the use of relatively noninvasive treatments to remediate fungal contamination before visible or lasting damage to the object has occurred. Current methods used for the detection and measurement of microbial biomass, such as colony counts, microscopic biovolume estimation, and ergosterol analysis are expensive and time consuming, or are inappropriate for use with fungi. Beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase (3.2.1.52) activity provides a reliable estimation of fungal biomass in soil and on building materials. Adapted for use on cultural heritage materials' fluorogenic 4-methylumbelliferyl (MUF) labeled substrate N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminide (NAG) was used to detect beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase activity in the fungus Aspergillus niger. Fluorescence increased linearly with fungal biomass and the sensitivity of the assay was comparable to other biochemical techniques. The fluorometric assay was used to monitor fungal biomass on a variety of cultural heritage materials non-destructively, and without the introduction of chemicals or solvents to the surfaces. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Remote Leak Detection: Indirect Thermal Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    Remote sensing technologies are being considered for efficient, low cost gas leak detection. Eleven specific techniques have been identified for further study and evaluation of several of these is underway. The Indirect Thermal Technique is one of the techniques that is being explored. For this technique, an infrared camera is used to detect the temperature change of a pipe or fitting at the site of a gas leak. This temperature change is caused by the change in temperature of the gas expanding from the leak site. During the 10-week NFFP program, the theory behind the technique was further developed, experiments were performed to determine the conditions for which the technique might be viable, and a proof-of-concept system was developed and tested in the laboratory.

  8. Oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes decorated with silver nanoparticles for fluorometric detection of dimethoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chun-Wei; Lin, Zhong-Yi; Chan, Tzu-Yi; Chiu, Tai-Chia; Hu, Cho-Chun

    2017-06-01

    A novel method for the detection of dimethoate based on the peroxidase-like activity of silver-nanoparticles-modified oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (AgNPs/oxMWCNTs) has been developed. The synthesized AgNPs/oxMWCNTs showed excellent peroxidease-like catalytic activity in hydrogen peroxide-Amplex red (AR) system (AR is oxidized to resorufinat, with the resorufin fluorescence at 584nm being used to monitor the catalytic activity). After dimethoate was added to AgNPs/oxMWCNTs, the interaction between dimethoate and the AgNPs inhibited the catalytic activity of AgNPs/oxMWCNTs. The decrease in fluorescence was used for the detection of dimethoate in the range of 0.01-0.35μgmL -1 (R 2 =0.998) with a detection limit of 0.003μgmL -1 (signal/noise=3). This method exhibited good selectivity for the detection of dimethoate even in the presence of high concentration of other pesticides. Consequently, the method was applied to measure the concentration of dimethoate residue in lake water and fruit, thus obtaining satisfactory results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of levodropropizine in human plasma with fluorometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaro, F; Moffa, M; De Battisti, Z; Smith, F P; Gentile, M

    1996-10-11

    The present paper describes a new high-performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection for the analysis of levodropropizine [S-(-)-3-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)-propane-1,2-diol] (Levotuss), an anti-tussive drug, in human serum and plasma. A reversed-phase separation of levodropropizine was coupled with detection of the native fluorescence of the molecule, using excitation and emission wavelengths of 240 nm and 350 nm respectively. The analytical column was packed with spherical 5 microns poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) particles and the mobile phase was 0.1 M NaH2PO4 pH 3-methanol (70:30, v/v), containing 0.5% (v/v) tetrahydrofuran. For quantitation, p-methoxylevodropropizine was used as the internal standard. Samples of 200 microliters of either serum or plasma were mixed with 200 microliters of 0.1 M Na2HPO4 pH 8.9 and extracted with 5 ml of chloroform-2-propanol (9:1, v/v). The dried residue from the organic extract was redissolved with distilled water and directly injected into the chromatograph. The limit of detection for levodropropizine, in biological matrix, was about 1-2 ng/ml, at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The linearity was satisfactory over a range of concentrations from 3 to 1000 ng/ml (r2 = 0.99910); within-day precision tested in the range 5-100 ng/ml as well as day-to-day reproducibility proved acceptable, with relative standard deviations better than 1% in most cases. Interferences from as many as 91 therapeutic or illicit drugs were excluded.

  10. A G-quadruplex-based Label-free Fluorometric Aptasensor for Adenosine Triphosphate Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li Juan; Tian, Xue; Kong, Xiang Juan; Chu, Xia

    2015-01-01

    A G-quadruplex-based, label-free fluorescence assay was demonstrated for the detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). A double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), hybridized by ATP-aptamer and its complementary sequence, was employed as a substrate for ATP binding. SYBR Green I (SG I) was a fluorescent probe and exonuclease III (Exo III) was a nuclease to digest the dsDNA. Consequently, in the absence of ATP, the dsDNA was inset with SG I and was digested by Exo III, resulting in a low background signal. In the presence of ATP, the aptamer in dsDNA folded into a G-quadruplex structure that resisted the digestion of Exo III. SG I was inserted into the structure, showing high fluorescence. Owing to a decrease of the background noise, a high signal-to-noise ratio could be obtained. This sensor can detect ATP with a concentration ranging from 50 μM to 5 mM, and possesses a capacity for the sensitive determination of other targets.

  11. Direct and indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter; Detection directe et indirecte de matiere sombre supersymetrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayet, F

    2001-09-01

    A substantial body of astrophysical evidence supports the existence of non-baryonic dark matter in the universe. One of the leading dark matter candidates is the neutralino predicted by the supersymmetric extensions of the standard model of particle physics. Different detectors have been designed for the detection, either indirect or direct, of the neutralino. Related to indirect detection, the present work has been performed in the context of the AMS experiment. A precursor version of the spectrometer was flown on the space shuttle Discovery in June 1998. The detector included an Aerogel Threshold Cherenkov counter (ATC) to identify antiprotons, whose spectrum may be used to infer a neutralino signal. The analysis of the ATC data is presented including an evaluation of the flight performance and a description of the optimization of the antiproton selection. An antiproton analysis is also reported. A phenomenological study allows us to investigate the discovery potential of this indirect method. This thesis also includes the development of a new detector (MACHe3) designed for direct neutralino search using a superfluid {sup 3}He bolometer operated at ultra low temperatures. The data analysis of the prototype cell is presented. A Monte Carlo simulation has been developed, in order to optimize the detector design for direct neutralino search. These results are compared with theoretical predictions of supersymmetric models, thus highlighting the discovery potential of this detector and its complementarity with existing devices. (author)

  12. Direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document gathers the slides that were presented during the workshop 'direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter'(about 30 contributions). This workshop intended to bring together people from the particle theory community, astrophysicists and cosmologists, as well as experimentalists involved in the detection of dark matter. The aim is to generate a discussion about current and future strategies for detection of SUSY dark matter (with focus, but not exclusively, on neutralinos). Complementarities between accelerator, direct and indirect searches as well as a comparison between the uncertainties in direct and indirect searches of dark matter, are supposed to be discussed. Among the issues which will be addressed are: -) the crucial questions related to the structure of galaxies (local dark matter density, clumping, anomalous velocity distributions, etc.) ; -) the possibilities offered by the present and future experimental facilities for direct and indirect (photon, neutrino) searches; -) the potential for the discovery of SUSY at LHC and beyond; and -) the parameterization of the SUSY breaking models beyond the minimal versions

  13. Direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document gathers the slides that were presented during the workshop 'direct versus indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter'(about 30 contributions). This workshop intended to bring together people from the particle theory community, astrophysicists and cosmologists, as well as experimentalists involved in the detection of dark matter. The aim is to generate a discussion about current and future strategies for detection of SUSY dark matter (with focus, but not exclusively, on neutralinos). Complementarities between accelerator, direct and indirect searches as well as a comparison between the uncertainties in direct and indirect searches of dark matter, are supposed to be discussed. Among the issues which will be addressed are: -) the crucial questions related to the structure of galaxies (local dark matter density, clumping, anomalous velocity distributions, etc.) ; -) the possibilities offered by the present and future experimental facilities for direct and indirect (photon, neutrino) searches; -) the potential for the discovery of SUSY at LHC and beyond; and -) the parameterization of the SUSY breaking models beyond the minimal versions.

  14. A method for the determination of volatile ammonia in air, using a nitrogen-cooled trap and fluorometric detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, H.G.; Tigchelaar, R.G.; Berden, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    A quick, cheap, and accurate method for the determination of ammonia in air is described. Ammonia and water vapor are trapped simultaneously in a gas sampling tube cooled in liquid nitrogen. Subsequently ammonia is derivatized with o-phthaldialdehyde and determined using fluorescence detection. The

  15. Photometric and fluorometric detection of radiolytic changes to selected animal foods as a result of treatment with ionizing rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chory, C.

    1993-01-01

    The methods specified in the heading were tested for their suitability to detect any previous irradiation treatment of shrimps, chickens or mock salmon. Shrimps and chickens are among those foods that are already routinely irradiated for commercial reasons and have therefore been included in the most recent version of the provisional guidelines of the EC commission on the irradiation of foodstuffs. Parameters like radiation-induced formation of carbonyl compounds, changes to radiation-responsive sulfhydryl groups of proteins and DNA strand breaks caused by ionizing radiation offered useful approaches to the detection of any such irradiation. One decisive factor for the choice of the chemical methods of analysis to be used was their straightforwardness. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Indirect Detection Analysis: Wino Dark Matter Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hryczuk, Andrzej [Munich, Tech. U.; Cholis, Ilias [Fermilab; Iengo, Roberto [SISSA, Trieste; Tavakoli, Maryam [IPM, Tehran; Ullio, Piero [INFN, Trieste

    2014-07-15

    We perform a multichannel analysis of the indirect signals for the Wino Dark Matter, including one-loop electroweak and Sommerfeld enhancement corrections. We derive limits from cosmic ray antiprotons and positrons, from continuum galactic and extragalactic diffuse γ-ray spectra, from the absence of γ-ray line features at the galactic center above 500 GeV in energy, from γ-rays toward nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies and galaxy clusters, and from CMB power-spectra. Additionally, we show the future prospects for neutrino observations toward the inner Galaxy and from antideuteron searches. For each of these indirect detection probes we include and discuss the relevance of the most important astrophysical uncertainties that can impact the strength of the derived limits. We find that the Wino as a dark matter candidate is excluded in the mass range bellow simeq 800 GeV from antiprotons and between 1.8 and 3.5 TeV from the absence of a γ-ray line feature toward the galactic center. Limits from other indirect detection probes confirm the main bulk of the excluded mass ranges.

  17. Indirect detection of radiation sources through direct detection of radiolysis products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Fischer, Larry E [Los Gatos, CA; Felter, Thomas E [Livermore, CA

    2010-04-20

    A system for indirectly detecting a radiation source by directly detecting radiolytic products. The radiation source emits radiation and the radiation produces the radiolytic products. A fluid is positioned to receive the radiation from the radiation source. When the fluid is irradiated, radiolytic products are produced. By directly detecting the radiolytic products, the radiation source is detected.

  18. Direct and Indirect Dark Matter Detection in Gauge Theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Farinaldo [Federal Univ. of Paraba (Brazil)

    2013-01-01

    The Dark matter (DM) problem constitutes a key question at the interface among Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology. The observational data which have been accumulated in the last years point to an existence of non baryonic amount of DM. Since the Standard Model (SM) does not provide any candidate for such non-baryonic DM, the evidence of DM is a major indication for new physics beyond the SM. We will study in this work one of the most popular DM candidates, the so called WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) from a direct and indirect detection perspective. In order to approach the direct and indirect dection of DM in the context of Particle Physics in a more pedagogic way, we will begin our discussion talking about a minimal extension of the SM. Later we will work on the subject in a 3-3-1 model. Next, we will study the role of WIMPs in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Lastly, we will look for indirect DM signals in the center of our galaxy using the NASA Satellite, called Fermi-LAT. Through a comprehensive analysis of the data events observed by Fermi-LAT and some background models, we will constrain the dark matter annihilation cross section for several annihilation channels and dark matter halo profiles.

  19. Indirect detection of dark matter with γ rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Stefan

    2015-10-06

    The details of what constitutes the majority of the mass that makes up dark matter in the Universe remains one of the prime puzzles of cosmology and particle physics today-80 y after the first observational indications. Today, it is widely accepted that dark matter exists and that it is very likely composed of elementary particles, which are weakly interacting and massive [weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs)]. As important as dark matter is in our understanding of cosmology, the detection of these particles has thus far been elusive. Their primary properties such as mass and interaction cross sections are still unknown. Indirect detection searches for the products of WIMP annihilation or decay. This is generally done through observations of γ-ray photons or cosmic rays. Instruments such as the Fermi large-area telescope, high-energy stereoscopic system, major atmospheric gamma-ray imaging Cherenkov, and very energetic radiation imaging telescope array, combined with the future Cherenkov telescope array, will provide important complementarity to other search techniques. Given the expected sensitivities of all search techniques, we are at a stage where the WIMP scenario is facing stringent tests, and it can be expected that WIMPs will be either be detected or the scenario will be so severely constrained that it will have to be rethought. In this sense, we are on the threshold of discovery. In this article, I will give a general overview of the current status and future expectations for indirect searches of dark matter (WIMP) particles.

  20. Unstable gravitino dark matter prospects for indirect and direct detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grefe, Michael

    2011-11-15

    We confront the signals expected from unstable gravitino dark matter with observations of indirect dark matter detection experiments in all possible cosmic-ray channels. For this purpose we calculate in detail the gravitino decay widths in theories with bilinear violation of R parity, particularly focusing on decay channels with three particles in the final state. Based on these calculations we predict the fluxes of gamma rays, charged cosmic rays and neutrinos expected from decays of gravitino dark matter. Although the predicted spectra could in principal explain the anomalies observed in the cosmic ray positron and electron fluxes as measured by PAMELA and Fermi LAT, we find that this possibility is ruled out by strong constraints from gamma-ray and antiproton observations. Therefore, we employ current data of indirect detection experiments to place strong constraints on the gravitino lifetime and the strength of R-parity violation. In addition, we discuss the prospects of forthcoming searches for a gravitino signal in the spectrum of cosmic-ray antideuterons, finding that they are in particular sensitive to rather low gravitino masses. Finally, we discuss in detail the prospects for detecting a neutrino signal from gravitino dark matter decays, finding that the sensitivity of neutrino telescopes like IceCube is competitive to observations in other cosmic ray channels, especially for rather heavy gravitinos. Moreover, we discuss the prospects for a direct detection of gravitino dark matter via R-parity violating inelastic scatterings off nucleons. We find that, although the scattering cross section is considerably enhanced compared to the case of elastic gravitino scattering, the expected signal is many orders of magnitude too small in order to hope for a detection in underground detectors. (orig.)

  1. Pharmacological modification of multi-drug resistance (MDR) in vitro detected by a novel fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay. Reversal of resistance and selective cytotoxic actions of cyclosporin A and verapamil on MDR leukemia T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, R; Nygren, P

    1990-07-15

    A novel fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA), based on measurements of fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis and DNA staining by Hoechst 33342, was used for drug sensitivity testing and detection of resistance reversal in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell lines. The 72-hr assay was found to be sensitive, reproducible and linearly related to the number of viable cells within a broad range of cell concentrations. At clinically achievable drug concentrations, the calcium channel blocker Verapamil (ver) and the immunosuppressant Cyclosporin A (csA) were found to partly reverse acquired Vincristine (vcr) resistance in multi-drug resistant (MDR) T-ALL L100 cells with little or no effect on the drug-sensitive parental L0 cell line. By combining the fluorometric indices, we found that low concentrations of csA were growth-inhibitory, whereas higher concentrations (greater than 10 micrograms/ml) were progressively cytotoxic for drug-sensitive L0 cells. In MDR L100 cells, on the other hand, csA produced significant cell kill even at low drug concentrations. Ver had no effects on sensitive L0 cells but showed considerable cytotoxic action towards MDR L100 cells. There was no apparent relationship between drug reversal of vcr resistance and the cytotoxic actions of the drug per se since the calcium channel blocker diltiazem (dil) significantly potentiated the actions of vcr on MDR L100 cells without being more toxic to these cells (compared to vcr-sensitive L0 cells).

  2. Propagation of Galactic Cosmic Rays and Dark Matter indirect Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delahaye, Timur

    2010-07-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the study of propagation of cosmic electrons and positrons in the Milky Way and to the indirect detection of dark matter. The existence of dark matter is a hypothesis considered as reasonable from the point of view of cosmology, astrophysics and even particle physics. Nevertheless its detection still eludes us and it is not possible to verify this hypothesis by other means than gravitational one. A possible way to detect dark matter is to look for its annihilation or decay products among Galactic cosmic rays. During the last three years, data concerning cosmic ray electrons and positrons have been accumulated and have reached a remarkable precision. Such a precision requires from us to refine the theoretical models and to quantify the errors. This thesis addresses the study of all the sources of uncertainties affecting predictions of cosmic electrons and positron fluxes, primary and secondary, classical or from exotic origin. The greatest care has been dedicated to the sources and the propagation in the Galactic halo. Moreover a study of gamma and radio emissions associated to these cosmic rays is presented, again with the will of sizing uncertainties. Finally a status of the research for detection of annihilation or decay of Galactic dark matter is presented. (author)

  3. Collider, direct and indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, Howard; Park, Eun-Kyung; Tata, Xerxes

    2009-01-01

    We present an overview of supersymmetry (SUSY) searches, both at collider experiments and via searches for dark matter (DM). We focus on three DM possibilities in the SUSY context: the thermally produced neutralino, a mixture of axion and axino, and the gravitino, and compare and contrast signals that may be expected at colliders, in direct detection (DD) experiments searching of DM relics left over from the Big Bang, and indirect detection (ID) experiments designed to detect the products of DM annihilations within the solar interior or galactic halo. Detection of DM particles using multiple strategies provides complementary information that may shed light on the new physics associated with the DM sector. In contrast to the minimal supergravity (mSUGRA) model where the measured cold DM relic density restricts us to special regions mostly on the edge of the m 0 -m 1/2 plane, the entire parameter plane becomes allowed if the universality assumption is relaxed in models with just one additional parameter. Then, thermally produced neutralinos with a well-tempered mix of wino, bino and higgsino components, or with a mass adjusted so that their annihilation in the early Universe is Higgs-resonance-enhanced, can be the DM. Well-tempered neutralinos typically yield heightened rates for DD and ID experiments compared with generic predictions from mSUGRA. If instead DM consists of axinos (possibly together with axions) or gravitinos, then there exists the possibility of detection of quasi-stable next-to-lightest SUSY particles at colliding beam experiments, with especially striking consequences if the next-lightest-supersymmetric-particle (NLSP) is charged, but no DD or ID detection. The exception for mixed axion/axino DM is that DD of axions may be possible.

  4. Fluorometric enzymatic assay of L-arginine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasyuk, Nataliya; Gayda, Galina; Yepremyan, Hasmik; Stepien, Agnieszka; Gonchar, Mykhailo

    2017-01-01

    The enzymes of L-arginine (further - Arg) metabolism are promising tools for elaboration of selective methods for quantitative Arg analysis. In our study we propose an enzymatic method for Arg assay based on fluorometric monitoring of ammonia, a final product of Arg splitting by human liver arginase I (further - arginase), isolated from the recombinant yeast strain, and commercial urease. The selective analysis of ammonia (at 415 nm under excitation at 360 nm) is based on reaction with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) in the presence of sulfite in alkali medium: these conditions permit to avoid the reaction of OPA with any amino acid. A linearity range of the fluorometric arginase-urease-OPA method is from 100 nM to 6 μМ with a limit of detection of 34 nM Arg. The method was used for the quantitative determination of Arg in the pooled sample of blood serum. The obtained results proved to be in a good correlation with the reference enzymatic method and literature data. The proposed arginase-urease-OPA method being sensitive, economical, selective and suitable for both routine and micro-volume formats, can be used in clinical diagnostics for the simultaneous determination of Arg as well as urea and ammonia in serum samples.

  5. Dark matter indirect detection with charged cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesen, Gaelle

    2015-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence for the existence of Dark Matter (DM), in the form of an unknown particle filling the galactic halos, originates from many observations in astrophysics and cosmology: its gravitational effects are apparent on galactic rotations, in galaxy clusters and in shaping the large scale structure of the Universe. On the other hand, a non-gravitational manifestation of its presence is yet to be unveiled. One of the most promising techniques is the one of indirect detection, aimed at identifying excesses in cosmic ray fluxes which could possibly be produced by DM annihilations or decays in the Milky Way halo. The current experimental efforts mainly focus in the GeV to TeV energy range, which is also where signals from WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) are expected. Focussing on charged cosmic rays, in particular antiprotons, electrons and positrons, as well as their secondary emissions, an analysis of current and foreseen cosmic ray measurements and improvements on astrophysical models are presented. Antiproton data from PAMELA imposes constraints on annihilating and decaying DM which are similar to (or even slightly stronger than) the most stringent bounds from gamma ray experiments, even when kinetic energies below 10 GeV are discarded. However, choosing different sets of astrophysical parameters, in the form of propagation models and halo profiles, allows the constraints to span over one or two orders of magnitude. In order to exploit fully the power of antiprotons to constrain or discover DM, effects which were previously perceived as sub-leading turn out to be relevant especially for the analysis of the newly released AMS-02 data. In fact, including energy losses, diffusive re-acceleration and solar modulation can somewhat modify the current bounds, even at large DM masses. A wrong interpretation of the data may arise if they are not taken into account. Finally, using the updated proton and helium fluxes just released by the AMS-02

  6. Detection of tumor-specific cytotoxic drug activity in vitro using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay and primary cultures of tumor cells from patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, P; Fridborg, H; Csoka, K; Sundström, C; de la Torre, M; Kristensen, J; Bergh, J; Hagberg, H; Glimelius, B; Rastad, J

    1994-03-01

    The semi-automated fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA), based on the measurement of fluorescence generated from cellular hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate (FDA) by viable cells, was employed for cytotoxic drug sensitivity testing of tumor cells from patients with hematological or solid tumors. In total, 390 samples from 20 diagnoses were tested with up to 12 standard cytotoxic drugs. The technical success rate for different tumor types ranged from 67 to 95%. Fluorescence was linearly related to cell number but variably steep depending on tumor type. Samples from most solid tumors thus showed higher signal-to-noise ratios than hematological samples. A wide spectrum of in vitro drug activity was obtained, with acute leukemias and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas being sensitive to almost all tested drugs, whereas renal and adrenocortical carcinomas were essentially totally resistant. Between these extremes were samples of breast and ovarian carcinomas and sarcomas. When in vitro response was compared with known clinical response patterns, a good correspondence was observed. The results indicate that the FMCA is a rapid and efficient method for in vitro measurement of tumor-specific drug activity both in hematological and in solid tumors. The assay may be suitable for new drug development and direction of phase-2 trials to suitable patients.

  7. The Muon-Induced Neutron Indirect-Detection EXperiment. MINIDEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palermo, Matteo

    2016-06-06

    A new experiment to measure muon-induced neutrons is introduced. The design of the Muon-Induced Neutron Indirect Detection EXperiment, MINIDEX, is presented and its installation and commissioning in the Tuebingen Shallow Underground Laboratory are described. Results from its first data taking period, run I, are presented. Muon-induced neutrons are not only an interesting physics topic by itself, but they are also an important source of background in searches for possible new rare phenomena like neutrinoless double beta decay or directly observable interactions of dark matter. These subjects are of great importance to understand the development of the early universe. Therefore, a new generation of ton-scale experiments which require extremely low background levels is under consideration. Reliable Monte Carlo simulations are needed to design such future experiments and estimate their background levels and sensitivities. The background due to muon-induced neutrons is hard to estimate, because of inconsistencies between different experimental results and discrepancies between measurements and Monte Carlo predictions. Especially for neutron production in high-Z materials, more experimental data and related simulation studies are clearly needed. MINIDEX addresses exactly this subject. Already the first five months of data taking provided valuable data on neutron production, propagation and interaction in lead. A first round of comparisons between MINIDEX data and Monte Carlo predictions are presented. In particular, the predictions of two Monte Carlo packages, based on GEANT4, are compared to the data. The data show an overall 70-100% higher rate of muon-induced events than predicted by the Monte Carlo packages. These packages also predict a faster time evolution of the muon-induced signal than observed in the data. Nevertheless, the time until the signal from the muon-induced events is completely collected was correctly predicted by the Monte Carlos. MINIDEX is foreseen

  8. The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhagen, Elin; Nygren, Peter; Larsson, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) is a nonclonogenic microplate-based cell viability assay used for measurement of the cytotoxic and/or cytostatic effect of different compounds in vitro. The assay is based on hydrolysis of the probe, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) by esterases in cells with intact plasma membranes. The assay is available as both a semiautomated 96-well plate setup and a 384-well plate version fully adaptable to robotics. Experimental plates are prepared with a small amount of drug solution and can be stored frozen. Cells are seeded on the plates and cell viability is evaluated after 72 h. The protocol described here is applicable both for cell lines and freshly prepared tumor cells from patients and is suitable both for screening in drug development and as a basis for a predictive test for individualization of anticancer drug therapy.

  9. Prospects for indirect detection of frozen-in dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikinheimo, Matti; Tenkanen, Tommi; Tuominen, Kimmo

    2018-03-01

    We study observational consequences arising from dark matter (DM) of nonthermal origin, produced by dark freeze-out from a hidden sector heat bath. We assume this heat bath was populated by feebly coupled mediator particles, produced via a Higgs portal interaction with the Standard Model (SM). The dark sector then attained internal equilibrium with a characteristic temperature different from the SM photon temperature. We find that even if the coupling between the DM and the SM sectors is very weak, the scenario allows for indirect observational signals. We show how the expected strength of these signals depends on the temperature of the hidden sector at DM freeze-out.

  10. Predicting and detecting reciprocity between indirect ecological interactions and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, James A; Brashares, Justin S; Power, Mary E

    2013-05-01

    Living nature can be thought of as a tapestry, defined not only by its constituent parts but also by how these parts are woven together. The weaving of this tapestry is a metaphor for species interactions, which can be divided into three broad classes: competitive, mutualistic, and consumptive. Direct interactions link together as more complex networks, for example, the joining of consumptive interactions into food webs. Food web dynamics are driven, in turn, by changes in the abundances of web members, whose numbers or biomass respond to bottom-up (resource limitation) and top-down (consumer limitation) forcing. The relative strengths of top-down and bottom-up forcing on the abundance of a given web member depend on its ecological context, including its topological position within the food web. Top-down effects by diverse consumers are nearly ubiquitous, in many cases influencing the structure and operation of ecosystems. While the ecological effects of such interactions are well known, far less is known of their evolutionary consequences. In this essay, we describe sundry consequences of these interaction chains on species and ecosystem processes, explain several known or suspected evolutionary effects of consumer-induced interaction chains, and identify areas where reciprocity between ecology and evolution involving the indirect effects of consumer-prey interaction chains might be further explored.

  11. Indirect Charged Particle Detection: Concepts and a Classroom Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Nicholas B.; Horányi, Mihály; Collette, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We describe the principles of macroscopic charged particle detection in the laboratory and their connections to concepts taught in the physics classroom. Electrostatic dust accelerator systems, capable of launching charged dust grains at hypervelocities (1-100 km/s), are a critical tool for space exploration. Dust grains in space typically have…

  12. Indirect detection of dark matter with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambard, G.

    2008-01-01

    The ANTANARES telescope is composed of an array of 900 photomultipliers (12 lines) that will be immersed in the Mediterranean sea at a depth of 2500 m. The photomultipliers are sensitive to the Cherenkov light emitted by high energy muons produced in the interactions of neutrinos with matter. My work consisted in the calibration of the detector, in time and charge in order to extract the crucial data for the reconstruction of the particle tracks and the ability of the detector to distinguish the atmospheric neutrinos from astrophysical neutrinos. The first part of this work is dedicated to the today understanding of the universe and of its models and of the importance of the neutrinos as the messengers of what occurs in the remote parts of the universe. The detection of neutrinos through the Cerenkov effect is detailed and the ANTANARES detector is presented. The second part deals with the study of the background radiation due to atmospheric muons and neutrinos. A simulation is the only tool to assess the background radiation level and to be able to extract the signal due to solar neutrinos. The third part shows how the solar neutrino flux might be influenced by the interaction of dark matter with baryonic matter. A Monte-Carlo simulation has allowed us to quantify this interaction and measure its impact on the number of events detected by ANTANARES. (A.C.)

  13. Indirect solid-phase immunosorbent assay for detection of arenavirus antigens and antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A.P.; Rezapkin, G.V.; Dzagurova, T.K.; Tkachenko, E.A. (Institute of Poliomyelitis anU Viral Encephalities of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow)

    1984-05-01

    Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and solid phase radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) using either enti-human or anti-mouse IgG labelled with horseradish peroxidase and /sup 125/I, respectively, were developed for the detection of Junin, Machupo, Tacaribe, Amapari, Tamiami, Lassa and LCM arenaviruses. Both methods allow high sensitivity detection of arenavirus antigens and antibodies.

  14. Liquid chromatographic separation and indirect detection of non-absorbing aliphatic compounds using m-nitrophenol as a detection agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Seok; Kang, Sam Woo; Moon, Young Ja

    1991-01-01

    m-Nitrophenol(m-NP) was a detection agent for the use of the detection and separation of non-absorbing compounds such as aliphatic acids, alcohols, amines and tetraalkylammonium salts by indirect photometric detection in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Response of samples was investigated to the several factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of MeOH as well as concentration of detection reagent in mobile phase. The separation of several mixtures were attempted under optimum condition. (Author)

  15. The focal account: Indirect lie detection need not access unconscious, implicit knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Chris N H; Richardson, Daniel C

    2015-12-01

    People are poor lie detectors, but accuracy can be improved by making the judgment indirectly. In a typical demonstration, participants are not told that the experiment is about deception at all. Instead, they judge whether the speaker appears, say, tense or not. Surprisingly, these indirect judgments better reflect the speaker's veracity. A common explanation is that participants have an implicit awareness of deceptive behavior, even when they cannot explicitly identify it. We propose an alternative explanation. Attending to a range of behaviors, as explicit raters do, can lead to conflict: A speaker may be thinking hard (indicating deception) but not tense (indicating honesty). In 2 experiments, we show that the judgment (and in turn the correct classification rate) is the result of attending to a single behavior, as indirect raters are instructed to do. Indirect lie detection does not access implicit knowledge, but simply focuses the perceiver on more useful cues. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Fluorometric immunoassay for detecting the plant virus Citrus tristeza using carbon nanoparticles acting as quenchers and antibodies labeled with CdTe quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shojaei, Taha R.; Salleh, Mohamad A. Mohd; Sijam, Kamaruzaman; Rahim, Raha A.; Mohsenifar, Afshin; Safarnejad, Reza; Tabatabaei, Meisam

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium-telluride quantum dots (QDs) were conjugated to an antibody (Ab) against Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), while the coat protein (CP) of the CTV was immobilized on the surface of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs). Following immuno binding of the QD-Ab and the CP-loaded CNPs, the fluorescence of the CdTe QDs was quenched by the CNPs. This effect was exploited to design a detection assay for the CTV which was found more sensitive and specific than the existing enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The limit of detection was measured at about 220 ng⋅ mL -1 of CTV. The Stern-Volmer plot of the CNPs-QD quencher pair showed a positive deviation from linearity which was ascribed to the presence of both static and dynamic quenching. (author)

  17. The impact of the phase-space density on the indirect detection of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, Francesc; Hunter, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    We study the indirect detection of dark matter when the local dark matter velocity distribution depends upon position, as expected for the Milky Way and its dwarf spheroidal satellites, and the annihilation cross-section is not purely s-wave. Using a phase-space distribution consistent with the dark matter density profile, we present estimates of cosmic and gamma-ray fluxes from dark matter annihilations. The expectations for the indirect detection of dark matter can differ significantly from the usual calculation that assumes that the velocity of the dark matter particles follows a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution

  18. On-site monitoring of Hebei Spirit oil spill by fluorometric detection of oil residues in coastal waters off Taean, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M.; Yim, U.H.; Hong, S.H.; Jung, J.H.; Won, J.; An, J.; Choi, H.W.; Shim, W.J. [Korea Ocean Research and Development Inst., Geoje (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed activities conducted to monitor a crude oil spill that contaminated over 70 km of the western Korean coastline. Contamination levels and temporal variations of dissolved and dispersed oils in sea and pore water at 40 beaches were monitored using a portable fluorimeter for 10 months after the spill. More than 980 samples from the heavily-impacted Mallipo Beach area were analyzed. The analysis showed that oil concentrations in the sea water were as high as 16,600 {mu}g/L directly after the spill, and decreased to below the Korean marine water quality standard of 10 {mu}g/L at most sites 10 months after the spill. However, the oil content in pore water remained high, with levels of up to 2,320 {mu}g/L for the first few months following the spill. Higher oil contamination levels were observed at some sites for up to 10 months after the spill. Results of the study suggested that oil in pore water persisted in confined areas along the coastline. Results from the fluorescence detection technique were then compared with traditional gas chromatography (GC) techniques of total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. It was concluded that fluorescence detection was capable of generating accurate results more quickly and cost-effectively than traditional GC techniques. 22 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Poly(acrylic acid)-templated silver nanoclusters as a platform for dual fluorometric turn-on and colorimetric detection of mercury (II) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yu; Lin, Youhui; Huang, Zhenzhen; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2012-01-15

    An easy prepared fluorescence turn-on and colorimetric dual channel probe was developed for rapid assay of Hg(2+) ions with high sensitivity and selectivity by using poly(acrylic acid)-templated silver nanoclusters (PAA-AgNCs). The PAA-AgNCs exhibited weak fluorescence, while upon the addition of Hg(2+) ions, AgNCs gives a dramatic increase in fluorescence as a result of the changes of the AgNCs states. The detection limit was estimated to be 2 nM, which is much lower than the Hg(2+) detection requirement for drinking water of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the turn-on sensing mode offers additional advantage to efficiently reduce background noise. Also, a colorimetric assay of Hg(2+) ions can be realized due to the observed absorbance changes of the AgNCs. More importantly, the method was successfully applied to the determination of Hg(2+) ions in real water samples, which suggests our proposed method has a great potential of application in environmental monitoring. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Coupling Activity-Based Detection, Target Amplification, Colorimetric and Fluorometric Signal Amplification, for Quantitative Chemosensing of Fluoride Generated from Nerve Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolong; Reuther, James F; Phillips, Scott T; Anslyn, Eric V

    2017-03-17

    The G-class nerve agents, which include sarin, soman, and cyclosarin, react readily with nucleophilic reagents to produce fluoride. Thus, a chemosensing protocol has been designed for these agents that pairs the nucleophilic reactivity of oximates for generating fluoride with an autoinductive target amplification reaction to amplify the quantity of fluoride for facile colorimetric and fluorescent optical quantification. The chemosensing protocol was demonstrated by using the nerve agent surrogate diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) and benzaldoxime as the nucleophile. Autoinductive fluoride amplification responds to fluoride released from DFP by amplifying the fluoride concentration and a yellow reporter molecule. The reporter is a conjugated oligomer with a nominal repeating unit that originates from 4-aminobenzaldehyde. Exposure of the amplified fluoride to a fluoride-specific ratiometric fluorescent reporter provides a fluorescent readout, in which three fluorophores are generated per fluoride. Both colorimetric and fluorescent readouts enable quantitative assays with low micromolar limits of detection for fluoride resulting from DFP. More importantly, this work demonstrates the successful merging of multiple complex reactions for achieving selective, sensitive, and quantitative chemosensing. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Fluorometric determination of beryllium with 2-(o-hydroxylphenyl)benzoxazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladilovich, D.B.; Stolyarov, K.P.

    1985-09-01

    According to the authors, of great interest for the fluorometric determination of small quantities of beryllium is 2-(o-hydroxyphenyl)benzthiazole (HPBT). In this work, 2-(o-hydroxyphenyl)benzoaxzole (HPBO), which is an analog of HPBT and differs from it in that the sulfur atom in the heterocyclic portion of the molecule is replaced by an oxygen atom, is proposed as a reagent for the fluorometric determination of beryllium. The fluorescent reaction of HPBO with beryllium is studied in this paper, in addition to the selection of the optimum conditions for the determination and the development of a procedure for the analysis of complex objects on this basis. The reaction proceeds in aqueous ethanol medium at pH 7.2-7.5. The limit of detection is 0.6 ng/ml. Methods have been developed for the determination of 10/sup -2/% beryllium in alloys based on copper and 10/sup -3/-10/sup -4/% in standard samples of silicate rocks.

  2. [Detection of antibodies to Helicobacter pylori with the immunoenzyme test and indirect immunofluorescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abb, J; Striegel, K; Frühmorgen, P

    1990-09-01

    Sera from 56 adult patients were screened for the presence of IgG antibodies against Helicobacter pylori by enzyme immunoassay and indirect immunofluorescence. In addition, the detection of Helicobacter pylori in antral biopsy specimens was attempted by culture and histological methods. Colonisation of the antrum mucosa with Helicobacter pylori was observed in 39 of the 56 patients. IgG antibodies against Helicobacter pylori were detected by enzyme immunoassay in 34 of 39 infected patients. Thus, the enzyme immunoassay showed a sensitivity of 87.2 percent and a specificity of 82.4 percent. IgG antibodies against Helicobacter pylori were further detected by indirect immunofluorescence in 28 of 39 infected patients. Thus, indirect immunofluorescence showed a sensitivity of 66.7 percent and a specificity of 88.2 percent. Our results demonstrate that the enzyme immunoassay for IgG antibodies and other invasive or noninvasive methods for the detection of infection with Helicobacter pylori appear to be of equal sensitivity and specificity.

  3. Heteronuclear Correlation SSNMR Spectroscopy with Indirect Detection under Fast Magic-Angle Spinning [Book Chapter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayshi, Takeshi [Ames Laboratory (AMES), Ames, IA (United States); Nishiyama, Yusuke [Ames Laboratory (AMES), Ames, IA (United States); Pruski, Marek [Ames Laboratory (AMES), Ames, IA (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The main focus of this chapter is to address experimental strategies on the subject by providing a hands-on guide to fast MAS experiments, with a particular focus on indirect detection. Although our experience is limited to our respective laboratories in Ames and Yokohama, we hope that our descriptions of experimental setups and optimization procedures are sufficiently general to be applicable to all modern instruments. The chapter is organized as follows. Section 2 below introduces briefly the fast MAS technology and its main advantages. In Section 3, we describe the hardware associated with this remarkable technology and provide practical advices on its use, including procedures for loading and unloading the samples, maintaining the probe, reducing t1 noise, etc. In Section 4, we describe the principles and hands-on aspects of experiments involving the indirect detection of spin-1/2 and 14N nuclei

  4. Muon detection with scintillation detectors using indirect SiPM readout

    CERN Document Server

    Struth, Janina

    2010-01-01

    In the scope of this thesis prototypes of silicon photomultipliers with wavelength shifting fibres were measured for muon detection. This indirect readout happens with silizium photomultipliers (SiPM), which are coupled with the fibre. The scintillator was wrapped with different reflective materials to optimise the light amplification. Furthermore two different thicknesses of the scintillator were used to have a comparison between the different light yield. Consequently different scintillator thicknesses were combinded and measured with different wrapping materials to compare their efficiency.

  5. Design of indirect solid-phase immunosorbent methods for detecting arenavirus antigens and antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A.P.; Rezapkin, G.V.; Dzagurova, T.K.; Tkachenko, E.A.

    1984-05-01

    Specifications have been elaborated for formulating indirect solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay (SPRIA) methods that employ anti-human and anti-mice G class immunoglobulin (IgG), conjugated with horseradish peroxidase and /sup 125/I for detecting the arenaviruses Junin, Machupo, Tacaribe, Amalpari, Tamiami, Lassa, and LCM (lymphocytic choriomeningitis). These methods make it possible to identify with a high degree of sensitivity arenavirus antigens and antibodies in various kinds of material.

  6. Detection of antibody against limax amoebae by means of the indirect haemagglutination test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, L

    1977-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the procuedure of the indirect haemagglutination test employed in the detection of specific antibodies against pathogenic amoebae of the genera Naegleria and Acanthamoeba. The preservation of all ingredients obtained by lyophilisation provide for a standard pattern of the test. The results of the test with experimentally prepared immune rabbit sera demonstrate an antigenic uniformity of the various isolates of Naegleria fowleri, and their marked difference from Acanthamoeba.

  7. Fluorometric determination of nitrite with 4-hydroxycoumarin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, T.; Arai, Y.; Takitani, S.

    1986-12-01

    A simple, sensitive, and reproducible fluorometric method for determination of nitrite has been developed. This method is based on the nitrosation of 4-hydroxycoumarin in acidic medium and subsequent reduction to 3-amino-4-hydroxy-coumarin, which is fluorescent in alkaline medium. The fluorescence intensity is proportional to the nitrite concentration in the range of 3 ng/mL to 1 ..mu..g/mL in the sample solution, with a relative standard deviation of 0.5% (50 ng/mL). The method has been applied to the determination of nitrite in saliva.

  8. Detection of thrombocytic antibodies with the direct and indirect haemolysis inhibition test and the radioimmuno-Coombs test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettenboerger, D.; Vith, E.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of application of the direct and indirect haemolysis inhibition test were studied in order to optimise the test parameters: The ultimate aim was to standardize the test method and compare its sensitivity in detecting various platelet antibodies with platelet indirect radioactive Coombs-test and the platelet immunofluorescence test. (orig.) [de

  9. Human cryptosporidiosis: detection of specific antibodies in the serum by an indirect immunofluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braz Lúcia M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium sp., a coccidian parasite usually found in the faeces of cattle, has been recently implicated as an agent of human intestinal disease, mainly in immunocompromised patients. In the study realized, by an indirect immunofluorescence technique, specific immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM have been demonstrated in human serum against Cryptosporidium oocysts. Purified oocysts were used as antigens in the indirect immunofluorecence assay. After analyzing this test in sera from selected groups of patients, the frequency of both specific IgG and IgM of immunocompetent children who were excreting oocysts in their faeces was 62% and in children with negative excretion of oocysts was 20% and 40%, respectively. In adults infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and who were excreting Cryptosporidium in their stools, the frequency was 57% for IgG but only 2% for IgM. Twenty three percent of immunocompromised adults with not determined excretion of oocysts in their stools had anti-Cryptosporidium IgG in their sera. Children infected with human immunodeficiency virus had no IgM and only 14% had IgG detectable in their sera. The indirect immunoflorescence assay, when used with other parasitological techniques appears to be useful for retrospective population studies and for diagnosis of acute infection. The humoral immune response of HIV positive patients to this protozoan agent needs clarification.

  10. Determination of lithium in rocks: Fluorometric method

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C.E.; Fletcher, M.H.; Parks, J.

    1951-01-01

    The gravimetric method in general use for the determination of lithium is tedious, and the final weighed product often contains other alkali metals. A fluorometric method was developed to shorten the time required for the analysis and to assure that the final determination is for lithium alone. This procedure is based on the complex formed between lithium and 8-hydroxyquinoline. The fluorescence is developed in a slightly alkaline solution of 95% alcohol and measurement is made on a photoelectric fluorometer. Separation from the ore is carried out by the wet method or by the distillation procedure. Sodium and potassium are removed by alcohol and ether, but complete separation is not necessary. Comparison of analyzed samples shows excellent agreement with spectrographic and gravimetric methods. The fluorometric method is more rapid than the gravimetric and produces more conclusive results. Another useful application is in the preparation of standard lithium solutions from reagent quality salts when a known standard is available. In this case no separations are necessary.

  11. Towards understanding thermal history of the Universe through direct and indirect detection of dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roszkowski, Leszek; Trojanowski, Sebastian [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Hoża 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Turzyński, Krzysztof, E-mail: leszek.roszkowski@ncbj.gov.pl, E-mail: sebastian.trojanowski@uci.edu, E-mail: Krzysztof-Jan.Turzynski@fuw.edu.pl [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-10-01

    We examine the question to what extent prospective detection of dark matter by direct and indirect- detection experiments could shed light on what fraction of dark matter was generated thermally via the freeze-out process in the early Universe. By simulating putative signals that could be seen in the near future and using them to reconstruct WIMP dark matter properties, we show that, in a model- independent approach this could only be achieved in a thin sliver of the parameter space. However, with additional theoretical input the hypothesis about the thermal freeze-out as the dominant mechanism for generating dark matter can potentially be verified. We illustrate this with two examples: an effective field theory of dark matter with a vector messenger and a higgsino or wino dark matter within the MSSM.

  12. Indirectly detected chemical shift correlation NMR spectroscopy in solids under fast magic angle spinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Kanmi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The development of fast magic angle spinning (MAS) opened up an opportunity for the indirect detection of insensitive low-γ nuclei (e.g., 13C and 15N) via the sensitive high-{gamma} nuclei (e.g., 1H and 19F) in solid-state NMR, with advanced sensitivity and resolution. In this thesis, new methodology utilizing fast MAS is presented, including through-bond indirectly detected heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) spectroscopy, which is assisted by multiple RF pulse sequences for 1H-1H homonuclear decoupling. Also presented is a simple new strategy for optimization of 1H-1H homonuclear decoupling. As applications, various classes of materials, such as catalytic nanoscale materials, biomolecules, and organic complexes, are studied by combining indirect detection and other one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR techniques. Indirectly detected through-bond HETCOR spectroscopy utilizing refocused INEPT (INEPTR) mixing was developed under fast MAS (Chapter 2). The time performance of this approach in 1H detected 2D 1H{l_brace}13C{r_brace} spectra was significantly improved, by a factor of almost 10, compared to the traditional 13C detected experiments, as demonstrated by measuring naturally abundant organic-inorganic mesoporous hybrid materials. The through-bond scheme was demonstrated as a new analytical tool, which provides complementary structural information in solid-state systems in addition to through-space correlation. To further benefit the sensitivity of the INEPT transfer in rigid solids, the combined rotation and multiple-pulse spectroscopy (CRAMPS) was implemented for homonuclear 1H decoupling under fast MAS (Chapter 3). Several decoupling schemes (PMLG5m$\\bar{x}$, PMLG5mm$\\bar{x}$x and SAM3) were analyzed to maximize the performance of through-bond transfer based

  13. Indirect immunofluorescence test using polyclonal antibodies for the detection of Taylorella equigenitalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuil, M F; Duquesne, F; Sévin, C; Laugier, C; Petry, S

    2010-06-01

    Contagious equine metritis is a horse disease that causes endometrial inflammation due to Taylorella equigenitalis. Since Taylorella asinigenitalis was characterized, genital swab culture has proved to be an insufficient method for distinguishing between the two Taylorella species. Here, we developed an indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) test using polyclonal antibodies. Specificity, sensitivity, and detection limit were assessed using isolated bacteria (55 T. equigenitalis strains, 46 T. asinigenitalis strains and 18 other bacterial species), experimental and genital swabs in comparison to bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. Our results indicated that IIF using polyclonal antibodies allows T. equigenitalis to be discriminated from T. asinigenitalis. This test constitutes a rapid, sensitive and specific tool for confirming presumptive colonies of T. equigenitalis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of an indirect ELISA for detection and typing of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    An indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit was used for diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) types O1, A23, C3 which occurred in Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil during 1984-1994. The samples were randomly selected and tested by ELISA, Complement Fixation Test (CFT) and in tissue culture. Out of 106 samples 78 (73,5%) were positive by ELISA and 39 (36,8%) were found positive in CFT, when original suspensions were used. Once these samples were inoculated onto tissue culture both tests gave similar results, although ELISA picked up more positive samples during the 1st passage in tissue culture. The negative samples (16) included in this study were negative in all tests. The ELISA was more sensitive than and as specific as CFT. ELISA and tissue culture together were shown to be a better system for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen than CFT. (author)

  15. Facilitating the indirect detection of genomic DNA in an electrochemical DNA biosensor using magnetic nanoparticles and DNA ligase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh Hushiarian

    2015-12-01

    This technique was found to be reliably repeatable. The indirect detection of genomic DNA using this method is significantly improved and showed high efficiency in small amounts of samples with the detection limit of 5.37 × 10−14 M.

  16. Establishment of an indirect ELISA for detection of the novel antifibrotic peptide M10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjina Akter

    Full Text Available M10 is a ten amino acid peptide generated from the intracellular cytoplasmic tail of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF receptor c-Met following cleavage by caspase-3. Recently we reported that M10 interacts with Smad2 and demonstrates antifibrotic properties in vitro and in vivo and can be advanced into a novel antifibrotic remedy. The current study was undertaken to develop an immunoassay to measure M10 concentration in biological specimens.An Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA for detection of M10 in biological fluids was developed using pharmaceutical grade synthetic M10 as a calibrator and commercially available anti-c-Met C12 antibody.M10 ELISA specifically detected in plasma M10, but not a scrambled peptide, following a single intraperitoneal administration of M10 (1mg/kg to mice. The detection limit was 9.6 ng/ml, and the measuring limit was between 15 ng/ml and 200 ng/ml. The recovery limits of M10 were between 80% and 120%; intra-assay coefficient of variation was between 5.3% and 6.3%; inter-assay coefficient of variation was between 5.0% and 8.0% over the buffer concentration tested in the range from 15 ng /ml to 250 ng /ml. The peak of M10 concentration following a single intraperitoneal injection (1mg/kg was achieved within 6 hours and declined to minimal levels by 48 hours. The experimentally obtained half-life for M10 was comparable to the theoretically predicted half-life for M10.We have established a highly sensitive ELISA to detect the antifibrotic peptide M10 in plasma samples, which should prove to be a novel tool to study the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of M10 in the treatment of fibroproliferative disorders.

  17. Indirect immunofluorescence detection of E. coli O157:H7 with fluorescent silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ze-Zhong; Cai, Li; Chen, Min-Yan; Lin, Yi; Pang, Dai-Wen; Tang, Hong-Wu

    2015-04-15

    A method of fluorescent nanoparticle-based indirect immunofluorescence assay using either fluorescence microscopy or flow cytometry for the rapid detection of pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 was developed. The dye-doped silica nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using W/O microemulsion methods with the combination of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and polymerization reaction with carboxyethylsilanetriol sodium salt (CEOS). Protein A was immobilized at the surface of the NPs by covalent binding to the carboxyl linkers and the surface coverage of Protein A on NPs was determined by the Bradford method. Rabbit anti-E. Coli O157:H7 antibody was used as primary antibody to recognize E. coli O157:H7 and then antibody binding protein (Protein A) labeled with FITC-doped silica NPs (FSiNPs) was used to generate fluorescent signal. With this method, E. Coli O157:H7 in buffer and bacterial mixture was detected. In addition, E. coli O157:H7 in several spiked background beef samples were measured with satisfactory results. Therefore, the FSiNPs are applicable in signal-amplified bioassay of pathogens due to their excellent capabilities such as brighter fluorescence and higher photostability than the direct use of conventional fluorescent dyes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ineffectiveness of a fluorometric method for identifying irradiated food base on thymine glycol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, D.D.; Stepanik, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    At dosages used for food irradiation, some of the thymine present in the DNA of irradiated food may be converted to thymine glycol. A fluorometric assay for thymine glycol was investigated as a possible method of detecting irradiated foods based on this effect. Experiments were performed on homogenates of irradiated chicken breast meat and on DNA isolated from irradiated chicken breast meat. In both cases the assay was subject to interference from one of the reagents, o-aminobenzaldehyde, and lacked the necessary sensitivity to detect the thymine glycol produced by radiolysis of the DNA at relevant dosages

  19. A direct fluorometric assay for tissue transglutaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Steve M F G; Pelletier, Joelle N; Keillor, Jeffrey W

    2005-12-15

    Herein we report the design of a direct and continuous fluorometric assay for determining tissue transglutaminase (TGase) activity. The progress of the TGase-catalyzed reaction of 4-(N-carbobenzoxy-l-phenylalanylamino)-butyric acid coumarin-7-yl ester was monitored as an increase of fluorescence (lambda(exc) 330 nm, lambda(em) 460 nm) due to the release of 7-hydroxycoumarin. Using this assay, we determined the K(m) of two acceptor substrates, N-acetyl-L-lysine methyl ester and aminoacetonitrile. We also determined the K(m) of 4-(N-carbobenzoxy-L-phenylalanylamino)-butyric acid coumarin-7-yl ester for its TGase-mediated hydrolysis and for its enzymatic reaction with the acyl acceptor substrates N-acetyl-L-lysine methyl ester and aminoacetonitrile. We ascertained that the fluorescent substrate was selective toward tissue TGase by testing it with different enzymes, namely microbial transglutaminase (mTGase), Factor XIIIa, papain, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. 4-(N-carbobenzoxyglycinylamino)-butyric acid coumarin-7-yl ester, lacking the benzyl side chain, was also found to be an efficient fluorogenic substrate of tissue TGase. Finally, we have shown that this method is applicable to 96-well microtiter plate format.

  20. Fluorometric determination of zirconium in minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, W.C.; Shapiro, L.; White, C.E.

    1951-01-01

    The increasing use of zirconium in alloys and in the ceramics industry has created renewed interest in methods for its determination. It is a common constituent of many minerals, but is usually present in very small amounts. Published methods tend to be tedious, time-consuming, and uncertain as to accuracy. A new fluorometric procedure, which overcomes these objections to a large extent, is based on the blue fluorescence given by zirconium and flavonol in sulfuric acid solution. Hafnium is the only element that interferes. The sample is fused with borax glass and sodium carbonate and extracted with water. The residue is dissolved in sulfuric acid, made alkaline with sodium hydroxide to separate aluminum, and filtered. The precipitate is dissolved in sulfuric acid and electrolysed in a Melaven cell to remove iron. Flavonol is then added and the fluorescence intensity is measured with a photo-fluorometer. Analysis of seven standard mineral samples shows excellent results. The method is especially useful for minerals containing less than 0.25% zirconium oxide.

  1. An indirect fluorescent antibody technique for detection of anti-Dermatophilus congolensis antibodies in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermoso De Mendoza, J; Nieto, C G; Arenas, A; Alonso, J M; Rey, J; Gil, M C; Anton, J; Cardenal, A; Hermoso De Mendoza, M

    1994-05-01

    An indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) technique has been developed for detection of anti-Dermatophilus antibodies in sheep. Sera from 25 bacteriologically confirmed clinically affected sheep and from 10 negative non affected lambs were used. Whole cell antigen from brain heart infusion cultures of D. congolensis was used and all sera were tested in the same way for cross-reactivity against antigens obtained from cultures of Actinomyces viscosus, Micrococcus luteus, Nocardia asteroides, and Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Sera from Dermatophilus-infected sheep gave positive results with D. congolensis antigen and negative results with the antigens from other bacteria. The whole cell antigens employed were simple to prepare and easy to recognise by microscopy. Cross-reactivity was further tested using the D. congolensis culture whole cell antigen and 3 sera from sheep with bacteriologically confirmed natural infections due to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Actinomyces pyogenes and Nocardia asteroides. None of these sera showed positive reactions. The authors recommend this technique for serological surveys and research on dermatophilosis.

  2. Doppler effect on indirect detection of dark matter using dark matter only simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Devon; Laha, Ranjan; Ng, Kenny C. Y.; Abel, Tom

    2017-03-01

    Indirect detection of dark matter is a major avenue for discovery. However, baryonic backgrounds are diverse enough to mimic many possible signatures of dark matter. In this work, we study the newly proposed technique of dark matter velocity spectroscopy [E. G. Speckhard, K. C. Y. Ng, J. F. Beacom, and R. Laha, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 031301 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.031301]. The nonrotating dark matter halo and the Solar motion produce a distinct longitudinal dependence of the signal which is opposite in direction to that produced by baryons. Using collisionless dark matter only simulations of Milky Way like halos, we show that this new signature is robust and holds great promise. We develop mock observations by a high energy resolution x-ray spectrometer on a sounding rocket, the Micro-X experiment, to our test case, the 3.5 keV line. We show that by using six different pointings, Micro-X can exclude a constant line energy over various longitudes at ≥3 σ . The halo triaxiality is an important effect, and it will typically reduce the significance of this signal. We emphasize that this new smoking gun in motion signature of dark matter is general and is applicable to any dark matter candidate which produces a sharp photon feature in annihilation or decay.

  3. Detection of hidden hazelnut protein in food by IgY-based indirect competitive enzyme-immunoassay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, S.; Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Kemmers - Voncken, A.E.M.; Smits, N.G.E.; Haasnoot, W.; Banks, J.; Reece, P.; Danks, C.; Tomkies, V.; Immer, U.; Schmitt, K.; Krska, R.

    2004-01-01

    The development of an indirect competitive enzyme-immunoassay for the detection of hidden hazelnut protein in complex food matrices is described. A sensitive and selective polyclonal antibody was raised by immunisation of laying hens with protein extracts from roasted hazelnuts. In contrast to

  4. Comparison of direct and indirect immunofluorescence staining of clinical specimens for detection of respiratory syncytial virus antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Minnich, L L; Ray, C G

    1982-01-01

    Immunofluorescence staining methods for respiratory syncytial virus antigen detection were compared. Of 50 specimens originally positive for respiratory syncytial virus by direct immunofluorescence and culture, 49 were positive by repeat direct immunofluorescence and 32 were positive by indirect immunofluorescence. Additional results obtained on specimens originally negative for respiratory syncytial virus by direct immunofluorescence, culture, or both indicate that direct immunofluorescence ...

  5. SERS detection of indirect viral DNA capture using colloidal gold and methylene blue as a Raman label

    Science.gov (United States)

    An indirect capture model assay using colloidal Au nanoparticles is demonstrated for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy detection of DNA. The sequence targeted for capture is derived from the West Nile Virus (WNV) RNA genome and was selected on the basis of exhibiting minimal seco...

  6. Indirect photometric detection of boron cluster anions electrophoretically separated in methanol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vítová, Lada; Fojt, Lukáš; Vespalec, Radim

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1338, APR 2014 (2014), s. 174-183 ISSN 0021-9673 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Boron cluster * Capillary electrophoresis * Indirect photometry Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.169, year: 2014

  7. Basic model of fermion dark matter. Indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter in {gamma} astronomy with the CELESTE telescope; Modele effectif de matiere noire fermionique. Detection indirecte de matiere noire supersymetrique en astronomie {gamma} avec le telescope CELESTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavalle, J

    2004-10-15

    The purpose of this thesis is to discuss both phenomenological and experimental aspects of Dark Matter, related to its indirect detection with gamma-ray astronomy. In the MSSM (Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model) framework, neutralinos arise as natural candidates to non-baryonic and Cold Dark Matter, whose gravitational effects manifest in the Universe at different scales. As they are Majorana particles, they may in principle annihilate in high density regions, as the centres of galaxies, and produce gamma rays. Nevertheless, the expected fluxes are basically low compared to experimental sensitivities. After estimating gamma fluxes from M31 and Draco galaxies in the MSSM scheme, we first generalize the MSSM couplings by studying an effective Lagrangian. We show that the only constraint of imposing a relic abundance compatible with recent measurements obviously deplete significantly the gamma ray production, but also that predictions in this effective approach are more optimistic for indirect detection than the MSSM. In a second part, we present the indirect searches for Dark Matter performed with the CELESTE Cherenkov telescope towards the galaxy M31. We propose a statistical method to reconstruct spectra, mandatory to discriminate classical and exotic spectra. The M31 data analysis enables the extraction of an upper limit on the gamma ray flux, which is the first worldwide for a galaxy in the energy range 50-500 GeV, and whose astrophysical interest goes beyond indirect searches for Dark Matter. (author)

  8. An effective model for fermion dark matter. Indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter in astronomy with the CELESTE Telescope; Modele effectif de matiere noire fermionique. Detection indirecte de matiere noir supersymetrique en astronomie avec le Telescope CELESTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavalle, Julien [Ecole Doctorale des Sciences Fondamentales, Universite Blaise Pascal, Aubiere (France)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to discuss both phenomenological and experimental aspects of Dark Matter, related to its indirect detection with gamma-ray astronomy. In the MSSM framework, neutralinos arise as natural candidates to non-baryonic and Cold Dark Matter, whose gravitational effects manifest in the Universe at different scales. As they are Majorana particles, they may in principle annihilate in high density regions, as the centres of galaxies, and produce gamma rays. Nevertheless, the expected fluxes are basically low compared to experimental sensitivities. After estimating gamma fluxes from M31 and Draco galaxies in the MSSM scheme, we first generalize the MSSM couplings by studying an effective Lagrangian. We show that the only constraint of imposing a relic abundance compatible with recent measurements obviously deplete significantly the gamma ray production, but also that predictions in this effective approach are more optimistic for indirect detection than the MSSM. In a second part, we present the indirect searches for Dark Matter performed with the CELESTE Cherenkov telescope towards the galaxy M31. We propose a statistical method to reconstruct spectra, mandatory to discriminate classical and exotic spectra. The M31 data analysis enables the extraction of an upper limit on the gamma ray flux, which is the first worldwide for a galaxy in the energy range 50-500 GeV, and whose astrophysical interest goes beyond indirect searches for Dark Matter. (author)

  9. An effective model for fermion dark matter. Indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter in astronomy with the CELESTE Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavalle, Julien

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to discuss both phenomenological and experimental aspects of Dark Matter, related to its indirect detection with gamma-ray astronomy. In the MSSM framework, neutralinos arise as natural candidates to non-baryonic and Cold Dark Matter, whose gravitational effects manifest in the Universe at different scales. As they are Majorana particles, they may in principle annihilate in high density regions, as the centres of galaxies, and produce gamma rays. Nevertheless, the expected fluxes are basically low compared to experimental sensitivities. After estimating gamma fluxes from M31 and Draco galaxies in the MSSM scheme, we first generalize the MSSM couplings by studying an effective Lagrangian. We show that the only constraint of imposing a relic abundance compatible with recent measurements obviously deplete significantly the gamma ray production, but also that predictions in this effective approach are more optimistic for indirect detection than the MSSM. In a second part, we present the indirect searches for Dark Matter performed with the CELESTE Cherenkov telescope towards the galaxy M31. We propose a statistical method to reconstruct spectra, mandatory to discriminate classical and exotic spectra. The M31 data analysis enables the extraction of an upper limit on the gamma ray flux, which is the first worldwide for a galaxy in the energy range 50-500 GeV, and whose astrophysical interest goes beyond indirect searches for Dark Matter. (author)

  10. Basic model of fermion dark matter. Indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter in γ astronomy with the CELESTE telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavalle, J.

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to discuss both phenomenological and experimental aspects of Dark Matter, related to its indirect detection with gamma-ray astronomy. In the MSSM (Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model) framework, neutralinos arise as natural candidates to non-baryonic and Cold Dark Matter, whose gravitational effects manifest in the Universe at different scales. As they are Majorana particles, they may in principle annihilate in high density regions, as the centres of galaxies, and produce gamma rays. Nevertheless, the expected fluxes are basically low compared to experimental sensitivities. After estimating gamma fluxes from M31 and Draco galaxies in the MSSM scheme, we first generalize the MSSM couplings by studying an effective Lagrangian. We show that the only constraint of imposing a relic abundance compatible with recent measurements obviously deplete significantly the gamma ray production, but also that predictions in this effective approach are more optimistic for indirect detection than the MSSM. In a second part, we present the indirect searches for Dark Matter performed with the CELESTE Cherenkov telescope towards the galaxy M31. We propose a statistical method to reconstruct spectra, mandatory to discriminate classical and exotic spectra. The M31 data analysis enables the extraction of an upper limit on the gamma ray flux, which is the first worldwide for a galaxy in the energy range 50-500 GeV, and whose astrophysical interest goes beyond indirect searches for Dark Matter. (author)

  11. Application of photostable quantum dots for indirect immunofluorescent detection of specific bacterial serotypes on small marine animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decho, Alan W; Beckman, Erin M; Chandler, G Thomas; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro

    2008-01-01

    An indirect immunofluorescence approach was developed using semiconductor quantum dot nanocrystals to label and detect a specific bacterial serotype of the bacterial human pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus, attached to small marine animals (i.e. benthic harpacticoid copepods), which are suspected pathogen carriers. This photostable labeling method using nanotechnology will potentially allow specific serotypes of other bacterial pathogens to be detected with high sensitivity in a range of systems, and can be easily applied for sensitive detection to other Vibrio species such as Vibrio cholerae

  12. Synthesis of nitrogen- and iron-containing carbon dots, and their application to colorimetric and fluorometric determination of dopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bin; Chen, Yanfen; Wu, Yuanya; Weng, Bo; Liu, Yingshuai; Li, Chang Ming

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen- and iron-containing carbon dots (N,Fe-CDs) are synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of branched polyethylenimine (BPEI) and hemin at 180 °C. The N,Fe-CDs are mainly doped with nitrogen and trace amounts of iron(III). The N,Fe-CDs also display intrinsic fluorescence with excitation/emission maxima at 365/452 nm and a quantum yield of 27 %. The nanodots are shown to act as peroxidase mimics by catalyzing the oxidation of tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) by hydrogen peroxide to form a blue product whose quantity can be determined by photometry at 652 nm. This was exploited to design colorimetric and fluorometric assays for dopamine (DA). The colorimetric assay is based on the oxidation of DA by H2O2 in presence of the N,Fe-CDs and TMB. It has an instrumental detection limit of 40 nM (at an S/N ratio of 3), and a visual detection limit of 0.4 μM. The fluorometric assay is based on an inner filter effect that is caused by the formation of oxidized TMB which overlaps (and absorbs) the emission of the N,Fe-CDs located at 452 nm. The fluorometric detection limit is as low as 20 nM (at an S/N ratio of 3). (author)

  13. Fluorometric Assessment Of Lysosomal Enzymes In Garlic Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Garlic oil on Lysosomal enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were investigated fluorometrically. The serum lysosomal enzymes assayed include β-glucuronidase, N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) β-D-galactosidase and α-D-galactosidase. The results of the study in nMole-4Mu/hr/ml show that ...

  14. Unconscious Deception Detection Measured by Finger Skin Temperature and Indirect Veracity Judgments – Results of a Registered Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Elisabeth van 't Veer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A pre-registered experiment was conducted to examine psychophysiological responses to beinglied to. Bridging research on social cognition and deception detection, we hypothesized that observing a liar compared to a truth-teller would decrease finger skin temperature of observers. Participants first watched two targets while not forewarned that they would later be asked to judge (direct and indirect veracity, and then watched another two targets while forewarned about this. During both these phases finger skin temperature was measured. Findings pertaining to temperature partly confirmed our main hypothesis. When participants were observing a liar, irrespective of being forewarned, on average finger skin temperature declined over time. In the forewarned phase, temperature trajectories of truth-tellers were higher than those of liars, however, in the not forewarned phase, this pattern was reversed. Results confirmed our further hypotheses that participants judge liars as less likeable and less trustworthy than truth-tellers—an indication of indirect deception detection. Our hypothesis that the effect size for trustworthiness would be bigger than that of liking was not supported by the data. Additionally, and also confirming our hypothesis, participants performed around chance level when directly judging whether the target person was lying. Exploratory analyses are reported with regard to truth bias and dependency between direct and indirect veracity judgments. Limitations and directions for future work related to the existence of psychophysiological indicators of deception detection are discussed.

  15. Dark matter in dwarf spheroidal galaxies and indirect detection: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strigari, Louis E.

    2018-05-01

    Indirect dark matter searches targeting dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) have matured rapidly during the past decade. This has been because of the substantial increase in kinematic data sets from the dSphs, the new dSphs that have been discovered, and the operation of the Fermi-LAT and many ground-based gamma-ray experiments. Here we review the analysis methods that have been used to determine the dSph dark matter distributions, in particular the ‘J-factors’, comparing and contrasting them, and detailing the underlying systematics that still affect the analysis. We discuss prospects for improving measurements of dark matter distributions, and how these interplay with future indirect dark matter searches.

  16. Dark matter in dwarf spheroidal galaxies and indirect detection: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strigari, Louis E

    2018-02-09

    Indirect dark matter searches targeting dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) have matured rapidly during the past decade. This has been because of the substantial increase in kinematic data sets from the dSphs, the new dSphs that have been discovered, and the operation of the Fermi-LAT and many ground-based gamma-ray experiments. Here we review the analysis methods that have been used to determine the dSph dark matter distributions, in particular the 'J-factors', comparing and contrasting them, and detailing the underlying systematics that still affect the analysis. We discuss prospects for improving measurements of dark matter distributions, and how these interplay with future indirect dark matter searches.

  17. A comparative study of the neutralisation test and the indirect fluorescent antibody technique for the detection of antibodies to the virus of Aujeszky in pig sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirahadiredja, R M; Rondhuis, P R

    1976-10-15

    A microneutralisation test and an indirect fluorescent antibody technique for the detection of antibodies to Aujeszky-virus in pig sera are described. All the sera were tested with both techniques and the results were compared. Serum dilutions of less than 1:32 which produced a positive reaction in the indirect FAT were considered nonspecific. Bij contrast, all neutralising antibody titers of less than 1:8 gave nonspecific reactions in the indirect FAT.

  18. BODIPY-based fluorometric sensor array for the highly sensitive identification of heavy-metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Li-Ya; Li, Hui; Feng, Liang; Guan, Ying-Shi; Chen, Yu-Zhe; Duan, Chun-Feng; Wu, Li-Zhu; Guan, Ya-Feng; Tung, Chen-Ho; Yang, Qing-Zheng

    2013-05-02

    A BODIPY(4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene)-based fluorometric sensor array has been developed for the highly sensitive detection of eight heavy-metal ions at micromolar concentration. The di-2-picolyamine (DPA) derivatives combine high affinities for a variety of heavy-metal ions with the capacity to perturb the fluorescence properties of BODIPY, making them perfectly suitable for the design of fluorometric sensor arrays for heavy-metal ions. 12 cross-reactive BODIPY fluorescent indicators provide facile identification of the heavy-metal ions using a standard chemometric approach (hierarchical clustering analysis); no misclassifications were found over 45 trials. Clear differentiation among heavy-metal ions as a function of concentration was also achieved, even down to 10(-7)M. A semi-quantitative interpolation of the heavy-metal concentration is obtained by comparing the total Euclidean distance of the measurement with a set of known concentrations in the library. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Model-independent indirect detection constraints on hidden sector dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elor, Gilly; Rodd, Nicholas L.; Slatyer, Tracy R.; Xue, Wei

    2016-06-01

    If dark matter inhabits an expanded ``hidden sector'', annihilations may proceed through sequential decays or multi-body final states. We map out the potential signals and current constraints on such a framework in indirect searches, using a model-independent setup based on multi-step hierarchical cascade decays. While remaining agnostic to the details of the hidden sector model, our framework captures the generic broadening of the spectrum of secondary particles (photons, neutrinos, e+e- and bar p p) relative to the case of direct annihilation to Standard Model particles. We explore how indirect constraints on dark matter annihilation limit the parameter space for such cascade/multi-particle decays. We investigate limits from the cosmic microwave background by Planck, the Fermi measurement of photons from the dwarf galaxies, and positron data from AMS-02. The presence of a hidden sector can change the constraints on the dark matter by up to an order of magnitude in either direction (although the effect can be much smaller). We find that generally the bound from the Fermi dwarfs is most constraining for annihilations to photon-rich final states, while AMS-02 is most constraining for electron and muon final states; however in certain instances the CMB bounds overtake both, due to their approximate independence on the details of the hidden sector cascade. We provide the full set of cascade spectra considered here as publicly available code with examples at http://web.mit.edu/lns/research/CascadeSpectra.html.

  20. Fluorometric determination of uric acid in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Moyes, Kasey

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to validate a new fast method for determination of uric acid in milk. The method is based on an enzymatic-fluorometric technique that requires minimal pre-treatment of milk samples. The present determination of uric acid is based on the enzymatic oxidation...... of uric acid to 5-hydroxyisourate via uricase where the liberated hydrogen peroxide reacts with 10-acetyl-3,7-dihydroxyphenoxazine via peroxidase and the fluorescent product, resorufin, is measured fluorometrically. Fresh composite milk samples (n=1,072) were collected from both Jersey (n=38) and Danish...... and expected uric acid concentrations. A positive correlation (r=0·96; Puric acid concentrations using the present method and a reference assay. Storage at 4°C for 24 h resulted in lower (Puric acid concentrations in milk when compared with no storage or samples stored...

  1. Enzymatic-fluorometric quantification of cholesterol in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes an enzymatic–fluorometric method for the determination of cholesterol in milk and other opaque matrices. The initial step of the method is to liberate chemically and physically bound cholesterol from the milk fat globule membrane by enzymatic action. The method is able...... to discriminate between esterified and free cholesterol in milk. The analysis is cost effective and is developed to work directly on whole, fresh milk thereby eliminating time consuming and tedious pre-treatment procedures of the sample. More than 1000 milk samples were analysed on the day of sampling. The total...... concentration of milk cholesterol ranged from 80 to 756 μM (n = 1068; mean 351 μM). Milk cholesterol was significantly correlated to milk fat concentration as analysed by mid-infra red spectrometry (r = 0.630; n = 853) and by an enzymatic–fluorometric method (triacylglycerol) (r = 0.611; n = 842)....

  2. Comparison of two indirect ELISA coating antigens for the detection of dairy cow antibodies against Pasteurella multocida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankaew, Pallop; Srisawat, Wanwisa; Singhla, Tawatchai; Tragoolpua, Khajornsak; Kataoka, Yasushi; Sawada, Takuo; Sthitmatee, Nattawooti

    2018-02-01

    The ELISA is recognized as an efficient diagnostic tool for antibody detection, but there is no standard ELISA assay for detection of antibodies against hemorrhagic septicemia (HS) in cattle. The present study reports on an indirect ELISA assay for antibody detection of HS in dairy cows, and evaluates the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the method using a Bayesian approach. An indirect ELISA was developed with two types of heat extract antigens, Pasteurella multocida strains P-1256 and M-1404, as coating antigens. A checkerboard titration was employed using dairy cow sera immunized with P. multocida bacterin and colostrum-deprived calf sera. The concentrations of heat extract antigen (160μg/mL), sample serum (1:100) and goat anti-bovine immunoglobulin G labeled with horseradish peroxidase (1:2000) were optimal for the assay. The cut-off values were 0.147 and 0.128 for P-1256 and M-1404 coating antigens, and there were no differences in the results of tests with positive and negative sera (p<0.05). The characteristics of three diagnostic tests were evaluated using a one-population Bayesian model, assuming conditional dependence between two types of coating antigen-based ELISAs and indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). A total of 415 sera samples from dairy cows without HS vaccination and no history of disease were tested. The Se and Sp of the P-1256 and M-1404 ELISAs were higher than those of the IHA. The Se and Sp of the P-1256 ELISA were 90.3% and 90.1%, while the Se and Sp of the M-1404 ELISA were 92.1% and 71.9%. The median values of Se and Sp from the IHA were 36.0% and 58.2%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Optical detection of magnetoplasma resonances in indirect-gap AlAs/AlGaAs quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khisameeva, A. R.; Gubarev, S. I.; Murav'ev, V. M.; Kukushkin, I. V.

    2017-07-01

    Magnetoplasma excitations in AlAs/AlGaAs quantum wells, characterized by strong anisotropy in the effective mass of two-dimensional electrons, are investigated using the optical detection of resonance microwave absorption. This technique is used for the first time for an indirect-gap semiconductor. It is found that the magnetic dispersion of the cyclotron magnetoplasma mode deviates significantly from the theoretically expected behavior. This may be related to the considerably more pronounced manifestation of retardation effects in two-dimensional systems with an anisotropic energy spectrum.

  4. Indirect ELISA for the detection of IgG specific to Newcastle disease virus in quail serum

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, D.D.; Folgueras-Flatschart, A.V.; Flatschart, R.B.; Resende, J.S.; Abreu, J.T.; Martins, N.R.S.

    2007-01-01

    An indirect ELISA for the detection of japanese quail IgG specific to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was developed. The secondary anti-quail IgG was produced in Balb/c mice, by inoculating Freund's complete adjuvant emulsified japanese quail-IgG extract. The purification of IgG was achieved using the caprilic acid method. The ELISA was compared to the haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test for antibodies to NDV. ELISA cut-off point was established through TG-ROC analysis. Total correlation was...

  5. Model-independent indirect detection constraints on hidden sector dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elor, Gilly; Rodd, Nicholas L.; Slatyer, Tracy R.; Xue, Wei [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-06-10

    If dark matter inhabits an expanded “hidden sector”, annihilations may proceed through sequential decays or multi-body final states. We map out the potential signals and current constraints on such a framework in indirect searches, using a model-independent setup based on multi-step hierarchical cascade decays. While remaining agnostic to the details of the hidden sector model, our framework captures the generic broadening of the spectrum of secondary particles (photons, neutrinos, e{sup +}e{sup −} and p-barp) relative to the case of direct annihilation to Standard Model particles. We explore how indirect constraints on dark matter annihilation limit the parameter space for such cascade/multi-particle decays. We investigate limits from the cosmic microwave background by Planck, the Fermi measurement of photons from the dwarf galaxies, and positron data from AMS-02. The presence of a hidden sector can change the constraints on the dark matter by up to an order of magnitude in either direction (although the effect can be much smaller). We find that generally the bound from the Fermi dwarfs is most constraining for annihilations to photon-rich final states, while AMS-02 is most constraining for electron and muon final states; however in certain instances the CMB bounds overtake both, due to their approximate independence on the details of the hidden sector cascade. We provide the full set of cascade spectra considered here as publicly available code with examples at http://web.mit.edu/lns/research/CascadeSpectra.html.

  6. Evaluation of an In-house indirect ELISA for detection of antibody against haemorrhagic septicemia in Asian elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankaew, Pallop; Singh-La, Thawatchai; Titaram, Chatchote; Punyapornwittaya, Veerasak; Vongchan, Preeyanat; Sawada, Takuo; Sthitmatee, Nattawooti

    2017-03-01

    Pasteurella multocida causes haemorrhagic septicemia in livestock and wild animals, including elephants. The disease has been reported in Asian elephants in India and Sri Lanka, but to date there have been no reported cases in Thailand. ELISA or indirect hemagglutination assays (IHA) have been demonstrated to be able to detect the antibody against the disease in cattle, but no data are available for elephants. The present study reports a novel in-house indirect ELISA for antibody detection of haemorrhagic septicemia in Asian elephants, and evaluates the sensitivity and specificity of the method using a Bayesian approach. The characteristics of ELISA and IHA were analyzed using a one population Bayesian model assuming conditional dependence between these two diagnostic tests. The IHA was performed as recommended by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) manual for haemorrhagic septicemia. An in-house indirect ELISA was developed with a heat extract antigen of P. multocida strain M-1404 (serovar B:2) as a coating antigen and rabbit anti-immunoglobulin G conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (eIgG-HRP). The checkerboard titration method was done using elephant sera immunized with P. multocida bacterin and negative sera from colostrum-deprived elephant calves. The concentrations of heat extract antigen (160μg/ml), sample serum (1:100), and eIgG-HRP (1:1000) were optimal for the assay. The calculated cut-off value was 0.103. Of the elephant sera, 50.59% (43/85) were considered seropositive by ELISA. The sensitivity of the ELISA test was higher than that of the IHA test [median=86.5%, 95% posterior probability interval (PPI)=52.5-98.9%] while the specificity was lower (median=54.1%, PPI=43.6-64.7%). The median sensitivity and specificity of IHA were 80.5% (PPI=43.8-98.0%) and 78.4% (PPI=69.0-87.0%), respectively. These findings suggest that our in-house indirect ELISA can be used as a tool to detect the antibody against haemorrhagic septicemia in Asian

  7. Detection of Ganoderic Acid A in Ganoderma lingzhi by an Indirect Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Seiichi; Kohno, Toshitaka; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    Ganoderma is a genus of medicinal mushroom traditionally used for treating various diseases. Ganoderic acid A is one of the major bioactive Ganoderma triterpenoids isolated from Ganoderma species. Herein, we produced a highly specific monoclonal antibody against ganoderic acid A (MAb 12 A) and developed an indirect competitive ELISA for the highly sensitive detection of ganoderic acid A in Ganoderma lingzhi, with a limit of detection of 6.10 ng/mL. Several validation analyses support the accuracy and reliability of the developed indirect competitive ELISA for use in the quality control of Ganoderma based on ganoderic acid A content. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of ganoderic acid A in G. lingzhi revealed that the pileus exhibits the highest ganoderic acid A content compared with the stipe and spore of the fruiting body; the best extraction efficiency was found when 50 % ethanol was used, which suggests the use of a strong liquor to completely harness the potential of Ganoderma triterpenoids in daily life. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Reaction-based Indicator displacement Assay (RIA) for the selective colorimetric and fluorometric detection of peroxynitrite† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sc03983a Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolong; Lacina, Karel; Ramsamy, Elena C.; Flower, Stephen E.; Fossey, John S.; Qian, Xuhong

    2015-01-01

    Using the self-assembly of aromatic boronic acids with Alizarin Red S (ARS), we developed a new chemosensor for the selective detection of peroxynitrite. Phenylboronic acid (PBA), benzoboroxole (BBA) and 2-(N,N-dimethylaminomethyl)phenylboronic acid (NBA) were employed to bind with ARS to form the complex probes. In particular, the ARS–NBA system with a high binding affinity can preferably react with peroxynitrite over hydrogen peroxide and other ROS/RNS due to the protection of the boron via the solvent-insertion B–N interaction. Our simple system produces a visible colorimetric change and on–off fluorescence response towards peroxynitrite. By coupling a chemical reaction that leads to an indicator displacement, we have developed a new sensing strategy, referred to herein as RIA (Reaction-based Indicator displacement Assay). PMID:28706677

  9. Use of Indirect Calorimetry to Detect Overfeeding in Critically Ill Children: Finding the Appropriate Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerklaan, Dorian; Hulst, Jessie M; Verhoeven, Jennifer J; Verbruggen, Sascha C A T; Joosten, Koen F M

    2016-10-01

    Overfeeding during critical illness is associated with adverse effects such as metabolic disturbances and increased risk of infection. Because of the lack of sound studies with clinical endpoints, overfeeding is arbitrarily defined as the ratio caloric intake/measured resting energy expenditure (mREE) or alternatively as a comparison of measured respiratory quotient (RQ) to the predicted RQ based on the macronutrient intake (RQmacr). We aimed to compare definitions of overfeeding in critically ill mechanically ventilated children based on mREE, RQ, and caloric intake to find an appropriate definition. Indirect calorimetry measurements were performed in 78 mechanically ventilated children, median age 6.3 months. Enteral and/or parenteral nutrition was provided according to the local guidelines. Definitions used to indicate overfeeding were the ratio caloric intake/mREE of >110% and >120% and by the measured RQ > RQmacr + 0.05. The proportion of patients identified as overfed varied widely depending on the definition used, ranging from 22% (RQ > RQmacr + 0.05), to 40% and 50% (caloric intake/mREE of >120% and >110%, respectively). Linear regression analysis showed that all patients would be identified as overfed with the definition RQ > RQmacr + 0.05 when the ratio caloric intake/mREE exceeded 165%. Caloric intake was higher in children with a standard deviation-score weight for age definition applied. These currently used definitions fail to take into account several relevant factors affecting metabolism during critical illness and are therefore not generally applicable to the pediatric intensive care unit population.

  10. Subdivision of Pantanal Quaternary Wetlands: Modis Ndvi Timeseries in the Indirect Detection of Sediments Granulometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penatti, N. C.; de Almeida, T. I. R.

    2012-07-01

    The Pantanal is the world's largest wetland presenting a variety of ecological sub-regions. The region is characterized by seasonal floods followed by long droughts. At this period, some areas rapidly dry, while others remain soaked. The study hypothesis was based on the statement that this phenomenon cannot be totally explained by small relief variations but by the sediment granulometry: the pelitic sediments allow the soil to retain moisture longer, implying that the vegetation has greater possibilities of continuing photosynthetically active even during the drought. It was developed based on the spectral behaviour of MODIS products, validated by previous fieldwork. Using MODIS, we studied a large scale patterns in spatial and seasonal dynamics of the vegetation in different regions of Pantanal. So, two indirect parameters of the local physical environment - sediment granulometry and water availability - potentially can be estimated. We calculated the NDVI from MOD09GQ for rainy and dry seasons, generating triplets (NDVI/NIR and Red bands) that allowed to identify vegetation changes in those periods. The 16-days composites of NDVI (MOD13Q1) were used to generate a 5-year time-series for pixels associated with 161 locals sampled for granulometric analyses. The samples were taken in 10 different areas from the 20 geological and environmentally homologous areas delimited in this research. The clear tendency in the time-series confirms the working hypothesis, indicating that there is a high relationship between drought-related changes in vegetation extracted from NDVI and sediment texture, parameter that plays an important role in soil moisture, influencing the vegetation response to droughts.

  11. Detection of understory bamboo in giant panda habitats using an indirect remote sensing approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bian, B.M.; Wang, T.; Liu, Y.F.; Fei, T.; Skidmore, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    The bamboo is the exclusive food of the wild giant pandas. Detection of the bamboo forest in giant panda habitat will help scientists further understand the spatial distribution pattern of giant pandas and their habitats. Moreover, it provides crucial scientific evidence for estimating habitat

  12. Application of cholesterol determination method to indirectly detect meat and bone meals in ruminant feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília M. Bandeira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the presence of meat and bone meal (MBM in ruminant feed, by identifying the cholesterol using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The proposed method demonstrated precision, trueness, and capability to detect MBM in the ruminant feed.

  13. Indirect Detection Of Bacillus Anthracis (Anthrax) Using Amplified Gamma Phage-Based Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    the four detection methods studied in this dissertation. Phage m 130 REFERENCES CITED 1. Madigan, M.T. and J.M. Martinko, Brock Biology of...INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Bacteria are small free-living organisms called microorganisms or microbes that have been around for billions of...lack a membrane enclosed nucleus, which can usually be grown on solid and/or in liquid culture media. These prokaryotic microorganisms have

  14. Fluorometric determination of free glucose and glucose 6-phosphate in cows' milk and other opaque matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of free glucose and glucose 6-phosphate in milk have until now been dependent upon several time consuming and troublesome procedures. This has limited investigations in the area. The present article presents a new, reliable, analytical procedure, based on enzymatic degradation and fluoro......Analyses of free glucose and glucose 6-phosphate in milk have until now been dependent upon several time consuming and troublesome procedures. This has limited investigations in the area. The present article presents a new, reliable, analytical procedure, based on enzymatic degradation...... and fluorometric detection. Standards and control materials were based on milk that was stripped of intrinsic glucose and glucose 6-phosphate in order to obtain standards and samples based on the same matrix. The analysis works without pre-treatment of the samples, e.g. without centrifugation and precipitation...

  15. Indirect glyphosate detection based on ninhydrin reaction and surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng-Lei; Gao, Yu; Li, Yali; Li, Xueliang; Zhang, Huanjie; Han, Xiao Xia; Zhao, Bing; Su, Liang

    2018-05-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most commonly-used and non-selective herbicides in agriculture, which may directly pollute the environment and threaten human health. A simple and effective approach to assessment of its damage to the natural environment is thus quite necessary. However, traditional chromatography-based detection methods usually suffer from complex pretreatment procedures. Herein, we propose a simple and sensitive method for the determination of glyphosate by combining ninhydrin reaction and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. The product (purple color dye, PD) of the ninhydrin reaction is found to SERS-active and directly correlate with the glyphosate concentration. The limit of detection of the proposed method for glyphosate is as low as 1.43 × 10- 8 mol·L- 1 with a relatively wider linear concentration range (1.0 × 10- 7-1.0 × 10- 4 mol·L- 1), which demonstrates its great potential in rapid, highly sensitive concentration determination of glyphosate in practical applications for safety assessment of food and environment.

  16. [Indirect hemagglutination test for detection of antibodies to cytomegalovirus in blood collected on blotting paper (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabau, N; Duros, C; Ravisé, N; Coulon, M; Boué, A

    1976-10-01

    Indirect hemagglutination test for detection of antibodies to cytomegalovirus is highly sensitive and reproducible, if employed in well-defined conditions. Standardization of the various factors involved is necessary as well as their reciprocal equilibrium : sheep erythrocytes, antigen, dilution of tanin, buffers quality. The hemagglutination test can be performed on small volumes such as blood collection on blotting paper (PKU). Antibody titers were compared in the serum and the blood so collected in 104 subjects : the results were very similar and no "false negative" were found in any case. This way of collecting blood and hemagglutination are technical improvements in epidemiologic studies of cytomegalovirus infection. It can be hoped they will be adapted to other group herpes infections.

  17. Cosmic Ray Experiments and the Implications for Indirect Detection of Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John W.; Ormes, Jonathan F.; Streitmatter, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Detection of cosmic-ray antiprotons was first reported by Golden et al. in 1979 and their existence was firmly established by the BESS and IMAX collaborations in the early 1990s. Increasingly precise measurements of the antiproton spectrum, most recently from BESS-Polar and PAMELA, have made it an important tool for investigating cosmic-ray transport in the galaxy and heliosphere and for constraining dark-matter models. The history of antiproton measurements will be briefly reviewed. The current status will be discussed, focusing on the results of BESS-Polar II and their implications for the possibility of antiprotons from primordial black hole evaporation. The current results of the BESS-Polar II antihelium search are also presented.

  18. Capillary electrophoresis of free amino acids in physiological fluids without derivatization employing direct or indirect absorbance detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunić, Gordana D; Spasić, Slavica; Jelić-Ivanović, Zorana

    2012-01-01

    Whole blood and/or plasma amino acids are useful for monitoring whole body protein and amino acid metabolism in an organism under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Various methodological procedures are in use for their measurement in biological fluids. From the time when capillary electrophoresis was introduced as a technology offering rapid separation of various ionic and/or ionizable compounds with low sample and solvent consumption, there were many attempts to use it for the measurement of amino acids present in physiological fluids. As a rule, these methods require derivatization procedures for detection purposes.Here, we present two protocols for the analysis of free amino acids employing free zone capillary electrophoresis. Main advantage of both methods is an absence of any derivatization procedures that permits the analysis of free amino acid in physiological fluids. The method using direct detection and carrier electrolyte consisting of disodium monophosphate (10 mM at pH 2.90) permits determination of compounds that absorb in UV region (aromatic and sulfur containing amino acids, as well as some peptides, such as carnosine, reduced and oxidized glutathione). The other method uses indirect absorbance detection, employing 8 mM p-amino salicylic acid buffered with sodium carbonate at pH 10.2 as running electrolyte. It permits quantification of 30 underivatized physiological amino acids and peptides. In our experience, factorial design represents a useful tool for final optimization of the electrophoretic conditions if it is necessary.

  19. [Determination of hexane in the acid cluster of caprolactam by high performance liquid chromatography with indirect photometric detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linan; Duan, Zhengkang; Zeng, Hongyan; He, Yuping; Chen, Qiuyun

    2011-01-01

    An indirect photometric detection method for the determination of hexane in the acid cluster of caprolactam by high performance liquid chromatography was developed. Ultraviolet (UV) absorption background reagents were added in the mobile phase, and the hexane, nonabsorption in ultraviolet region, was directly determined by a UV detector. The effects of the mobile phase composition, species and concentration of the background reagents etc. on the analyzed results were studied. The optimization of the separation was performed on an Agilent HC-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm). A solution of methanol-water (85:15, v/v) containing 1.17 mmol/L 1,5-naphthalene disulfonic acid was used as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and the column temperature was set at 35 degrees C. The gradient of wavelength was adopted to adjust the relative size of systematic peaks and the target peaks. The linear relationship in the range of 0.5-20 mg/kg with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 93 in this method was obtained. The recoveries and relative standard deviation for the hexane in the acid cluster of caprolactam were 98.45%-102.3% and 2.53%, respectively. The detection limit was 0.03 mg/kg. The method is simple, and has good selectivity, high sensitivity and strong anti-interference ability for the accurate determination of hexane in practical samples quickly.

  20. Development of indirect competitive ELISA using egg yolk-derived immunoglobulin (IgY) for the detection of Gentamicin residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinxin; Hu, Jianjun; Thirumalai, Diraviyam; Schade, Ruediger; Du, Enqi; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Gentamicin (Gent) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic being used in livestock sector. Gent residues could cause some genetic disorders by nonsense mutations. This study aimed to develop IgY-based ELISA for the detection of Gent in animal products. Gent was conjugated with Bovine serum albumin (BSA) by carbodiimide method for further immunization in the laying chickens. PEG-6000 extraction method was employed to extract IgY from the egg yolk. The titer of anti-Gent-IgY attained the peak of 1:256,000 after the 5(th) booster immunization. Checkerboard titration confirmed that, anti-Gent IgY in 1:2,000 dilution could give an Optical Density (OD) 1.0 at 2 µg mL(-1) of Gent-OVA coating concentration. IgY-based indirect competitive ELISA (Ic-ELISA) showed that, the IC50 value of anti-Gent IgY was 2.69 ng mL(-1) and regression curve equation was y = -16.27x + 56.97 (R(2) = 0.95, n = 3), confirming that, the detection limit (LOD, IC10 value) was 0.01 ng mL(-1). Recoveries from fresh milk, pork and chicken samples were ranged from 69.82% to 94.32%, with relative standard deviation lower than 10.88%. Our results suggested that generated anti-Gent IgY antibodies can be used in routine screening analysis of Gent residues in food samples.

  1. A fluorometric microarray with ZnO substrate-enhanced fluorescence and suppressed ``coffee-ring'' effects for fluorescence immunoassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuying; Dong, Minmin; Li, Rui; Zhang, Liyan; Qiao, Yuchun; Jiang, Yao; Qi, Wei; Wang, Hua

    2015-11-01

    A glass slide was first patterned with hydrophobic hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HDS) and then microspotted with hydrophilic ZnO nanoparticles in an aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) matrix. The resulting HDS-ZnO-APS microarray could present the capability of suppressing the undesirable ``coffee-ring'' effects through its hydrophobic pattern so as to allow the fabrication of ZnO-APS testing microspots with a highly dense and uniform distribution. The lotus-like ``self-cleaning'' function could also be expected to effectively curb the cross contamination of multiple sample droplets. More importantly, the introduction of ZnO nanoparticles could endow the testing microspots with substrate-enhanced fluorescence leading to signal-amplification microarray fluorometry. The practical application of the developed HDS-ZnO-APS microarray was investigated by the sandwiched fluorometric immunoassays of human IgG, showing a linear detection range from 0.010 to 10.0 ng mL-1. Such a throughput-improved fluorometric microarray could be tailored for probing multiple biomarkers in complicated media like serum or blood.A glass slide was first patterned with hydrophobic hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HDS) and then microspotted with hydrophilic ZnO nanoparticles in an aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) matrix. The resulting HDS-ZnO-APS microarray could present the capability of suppressing the undesirable ``coffee-ring'' effects through its hydrophobic pattern so as to allow the fabrication of ZnO-APS testing microspots with a highly dense and uniform distribution. The lotus-like ``self-cleaning'' function could also be expected to effectively curb the cross contamination of multiple sample droplets. More importantly, the introduction of ZnO nanoparticles could endow the testing microspots with substrate-enhanced fluorescence leading to signal-amplification microarray fluorometry. The practical application of the developed HDS-ZnO-APS microarray was investigated by the sandwiched fluorometric

  2. Multiplex RT-PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assays for detection and subtyping of human influenza virus in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben M'hadheb, Manel; Harrabi, Myriam; Souii, Amira; Jrad-Battikh, Nadia; Gharbi, Jawhar

    2015-03-01

    Influenza viruses are negative stranded segmented RNA viruses belonging to Orthomyxoviridae family. They are classified into three types A, B, and C. Type A influenza viruses are classified into subtypes according to the antigenic characters of the surface glycoproteins: hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N). The aim of the present study is to develop a fast and reliable multiplex RT-PCR technique for detecting simultaneously the subtypes A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 of influenza virus. Our study included 398 patients (mean age 30.33 ± 19.92 years) with flu or flu-like syndromes, consulting physicians affiliated with collaborating teams. A multiplex RT-PCR detecting A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 influenza viruses and an examination by indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) were performed. In the optimized conditions, we diagnosed by IFI a viral infection in 90 patients (22.6 %): 85 cases of influenza type A, four cases of influenza type B, and only one case of coinfection with types A and B. An evaluation of the technique was performed on 19 clinical specimens positive in IFI, and we detected eight cases of A/H3N2, five cases of A/H1N1, one case of influenza virus type A which is not an H1N1 nor H3N2, and five negative cases. Multiplex RT-PCR is a sensitive technique allowing an effective and fast diagnosis of respiratory infections caused by influenza viruses in which the optimization often collides with problems of sensibility.

  3. Indirect ultraviolet detection of alkaline earth metal ions using an imidazolium ionic liquid as an ultraviolet absorption reagent in ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Yu, Hong

    2017-04-01

    A convenient and versatile method was developed for the separation and detection of alkaline earth metal ions by ion chromatography with indirect UV detection. The chromatographic separation of Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , and Sr 2+ was performed on a carboxylic acid base cation exchange column using imidazolium ionic liquid/acid as the mobile phase, in which the imidazolium ionic liquid acted as an UV-absorption reagent. The effects of imidazolium ionic liquids, detection wavelength, acids in the mobile phase, and column temperature on the retention of Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , and Sr 2+ were investigated. The main factors influencing the separation and detection were the background UV absorption reagent and the concentration of hydrogen ion in ion chromatography with indirect UV detection. The successful separation and detection of Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , and Sr 2+ within 14 min were achieved using the selected chromatographic conditions, and the detection limits (S/N = 3) were 0.06, 0.12, and 0.23 mg/L, respectively. A new separation and detection method of alkaline earth metal ions by ion chromatography with indirect UV detection was developed, and the application range of ionic liquids was expanded. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Ion chromatography with the indirect ultraviolet detection of alkali metal ions and ammonium using imidazolium ionic liquid as ultraviolet absorption reagent and eluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Yu, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Indirect ultraviolet detection was conducted in ultraviolet-absorption-agent-added mobile phase to complete the detection of the absence of ultraviolet absorption functional group in analytes. Compared with precolumn derivatization or postcolumn derivatization, this method can be widely used, has the advantages of simple operation and good linear relationship. Chromatographic separation of Li(+) , Na(+) , K(+) , and NH4 (+) was performed on a carboxylic acid base cation exchange column using imidazolium ionic liquid/acid/organic solvent as the mobile phase, in which imidazolium ionic liquids acted as ultraviolet absorption reagent and eluting agent. The retention behaviors of four kinds of cations are discussed, and the mechanism of separation and detection are described. The main factors influencing the separation and detection were the background ultraviolet absorption reagent and the concentration of hydrogen ion in the ion chromatography-indirect ultraviolet detection. The successful separation and detection of Li(+) , Na(+) , K(+) , and NH4 (+) within 13 min was achieved using the selected chromatographic conditions, and the detection limits (S/N = 3) were 0.02, 0.11, 0.30, and 0.06 mg/L, respectively. A new separation and analysis method of alkali metal ions and ammonium by ion chromatography with indirect ultraviolet detection method was developed, and the application range of ionic liquid was expanded. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Development and validation of an indirect enzyme immunoassay for detection of antibody to Brucella abortus in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, K; Smith, P; Gall, D; Perez, B; Cosma, C; Mueller, P; Trottier, J; Cote, G; Boag, L; Bosse, J

    1996-09-01

    An indirect enzyme immunoassay for detection of antibody to Brucella abortus in bovine milk was developed and validated using 6238 milk samples from Canadian herds (brucellosis free) and 202 samples from herds infected with B. abortus (from Argentina and Chile). The assay utilized lipopolysaccharide as the antigen, immobilized on the polystyrene matrix, whole milk to test and a mouse monoclonal antibody, specific for an epitope of bovine IgG1, conjugated with horseradish peroxidase. The sensitivity of the assay was 95.2% +/- 3.7% at a confidence limit of 95% for samples from B. abortus infected herds obtained from chile and 98.7% +/- 0.3% at a confidence limit of 95% for samples from similar herds in Argentina. Of the negative milk samples tested, 77 gave a result above the threshold value of 0.200 optical density units. When the 77 false positive samples were retested using 7.5 mM (final concentration) of EDTA and ethyleneglycol-bis-aminoether-N,N,N', N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), the number of false positive reactions was reduced to 3, giving a diagnostic specificity of 99.95%. The divalent cation chelating agents did not affect positive reactions and the sensitivity remained the same. Based on control samples included with each assay, the performance of the assay was consistent.

  6. Development of an Indirect ELISA Based on a Recombinant Chimeric Protein for the Detection of Antibodies against Bovine Babesiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo Ortiz, José Manuel; Montenegro, Valeria Noely; de la Fournière, Sofía Ana María; Sarmiento, Néstor Fabián; Farber, Marisa Diana; Wilkowsky, Silvina Elizabeth

    2018-01-23

    The current method for Babesia spp. serodiagnosis based on a crude merozoite antigen is a complex and time-consuming procedure. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) based on a recombinant multi-antigen of Babesia bovis (rMABbO) was developed for detection of antibodies in bovines suspected of infection with this parasite. The multi-antigen comprises gene fragments of three previously characterized B. bovis antigens: MSA-2c, RAP-1 and the Heat Shock protein 20 that are well-conserved among geographically distant strains. The cutoff value for the new rMABbo-iELISA was determined using 75 known-positive and 300 known-negative bovine sera previously tested for antibodies to B. bovis by the gold-standard ELISA which uses a merozoite lysate. A cutoff value of ≥35% was determined in these samples by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, showing a sensitivity of 95.9% and a specificity of 94.3%. The rMABbo-iELISA was further tested in a blind trial using an additional set of 263 field bovine sera from enzootic and tick-free regions of Argentina. Results showed a good agreement with the gold standard test with a Cohen's kappa value of 0.76. Finally, the prevalence of bovine babesiosis in different tick enzootic regions of Argentina was analyzed where seropositivity values among 68-80% were obtained. A certain level of cross reaction was observed when samples from B. bigemina infected cattle were analyzed with the new test, which can be attributed to shared epitopes between 2 of the 3 antigens. This new rMABbo-iELISA could be considered a simpler alternative to detect anti Babesia spp. antibodies and appears to be well suited to perform epidemiological surveys at the herd level in regions where ticks are present.

  7. Luminescence and fluorometric sensors for environmental field screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastwood, D. [Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Company, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Several state-of-the-art luminescence (UV-vis fluorescence or phosphorescence) techniques have been studied for environmental field screening applications leading to qualitative (fingerprinting) or quantitative analytical methods for soil or water. A variety of pollutants were analyzed including petroleum oils, fuels and creosotes, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS), PCBs and pesticides, heavy metals and uranium. A field portable spectrofluorometer developed by ORNL (T. Vo-Dinh and J.P. Alarie), ideal for PAH monitoring, was evaluated using both synchronous and emission techniques. The latest innovative approaches for synchronous and other fluorescence spectroscopic techniques continue to be studied. Feasibility studies were performed for possible substrates and coatings for solid states sensors. Several fluorometric sensors for metals, uranium and other pollutants are currently being developed in collaboration with colleagues at universities and national laboratories and the general approaches will be discussed.

  8. Fluorometric determination of uric acid in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Torben; Moyes, Kasey M

    2010-11-01

    The primary objective of this study is to validate a new fast method for determination of uric acid in milk. The method is based on an enzymatic-fluorometric technique that requires minimal pre-treatment of milk samples. The present determination of uric acid is based on the enzymatic oxidation of uric acid to 5-hydroxyisourate via uricase where the liberated hydrogen peroxide reacts with 10-acetyl-3,7-dihydroxyphenoxazine via peroxidase and the fluorescent product, resorufin, is measured fluorometrically. Fresh composite milk samples (n=1,072) were collected from both Jersey (n=38) and Danish Holstein (n=106) cows from one local herd. The average inter- and intra-assay variations were 7·1% and 3·0%, respectively. Percent recovery averaged 103·4, 107·0 and 107·5% for samples spiked with 20, 40 or 60 μm of standard, respectively, with a correlation (r=0·98; Pmilk when compared with no storage or samples stored at -18°C for 24 h. Addition of either allopurinol (a xanthine oxidase inhibitor) or dimethylsulfoxide (a solvent for allopurinol) did not affect milk uric acid concentrations (P=0·96) and may indicate that heat treatment before storage and analysis was sufficient to degrade xanthine oxidase activity in milk. No relationship was observed between milk uric acid and milk yield and milk components. Authors recommend a single heat treatment (82°C for 10 min) followed by either an immediate analysis of fresh milk samples or storage at -18°C until further analysis.

  9. A sol-gel based molecular imprint incorporating carbon dots for fluorometric determination of nicotinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Pengli; Gao, Junfa; Liu, Jianha; Zhao, Mingming; Zhao, Jiahong; Peng, Jun; Zuo, Pengjian; He, Hua

    2016-01-01

    We are introducing functionalized carbon dots (C-dots) coated with a shell of molecularly imprinted sol-gel as a new tool in molecular imprint-based detection. Specifically, an imprint recognizing nicotinic acid (NA) was prepared in two steps. The first involves pyrolytic decomposition of citric acid in the presence of aminopropyltriethoxysilane to yield triethoxysilyl-modified C-dots with a typical size of 2.8 ± 1.1 nm. These are then polycondensed in the presence of tetraethoxysilane and NA at room temperature to give spherical silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) with a typical size of ∼300 nm and containing C-dots and NA in the silica matrix. NA was then removed by extraction. The resulting SiNPs are well permeable to NA, photostable, display strong blue luminescence and can bind NA fairly selectively. The fluorometric detection scheme is based on the finding that increasing concentrations of NA quench the fluorescence of the C-dots in the SiNPs. NA can be determined by this method in the 0.5 to 10.5 μM concentration range, with a 12.6 nM detection limit. The composite was successfully utilized as a fluorescent probe for the determination of NA in spiked human urine samples. The method is believed to have a wider scope in being applicable to other analytes that are capable of quenching the fluorescence of C-dots. (author)

  10. An indirect ELISA to detect the serologic response of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) inoculated with Brucella abortus strain RB51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Lesley A; Schurig, Gerhardt G; Elzer, Philip H

    2002-10-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to identify elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51)-specific antibodies using a mouse monoclonal antibody specific for bovine IgG1. This test was relatively easy to perform, accurate, and easily reproducible; therefore it could be standardized for use between laboratories. In addition, we attempted to compensate for inherent variabilities encountered when comparing ELISA readings from multiple samples taken from many animals over time. Optical density (OD) readings for each sample were converted into a percent positivity value for analysis. A negative cutoff value was determined above which a sample was considered to have a significantly elevated anti-RB51 antibody level. Pre- and postvaccination sera from 64 6-8 mo old elk, divided into four groups (females subcutaneously inoculated with saline (control animals), females ballistically inoculated with RB51, females subcutaneously inoculated with RB51, and males subcutaneously inoculated with RB51) were used. All serum samples were collected between 27 April and 15 November 1995. Values for all saline controls were appropriately below the negative cutoff value. All subcutaneously and ballistically inoculated elk were serologically positive to RB51 for at least two sampling periods during the study. The difference in percent positivity values for the ballistically compared to the subcutaneously inoculated groups was not statistically significant at 8, 10, 14, or 18 wk postvaccination. This suggests that processing RB51 into lactose based pellets and ballistically inoculating elk with these pellets does not alter the detectable elk antibody response. Also, inoculated and control animals can be accurately identified with ELISA at 4-8 weeks postvaccination.

  11. Indirect immunofluorescence assay for the simultaneous detection of antibodies against clinically important old and new world hantaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Lederer

    Full Text Available In order to detect serum antibodies against clinically important Old and New World hantaviruses simultaneously, multiparametric indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs based on biochip mosaics were developed. Each of the mosaic substrates consisted of cells infected with one of the virus types Hantaan (HTNV, Puumala (PUUV, Seoul (SEOV, Saaremaa (SAAV, Dobrava (DOBV, Sin Nombre (SNV or Andes (ANDV. For assay evaluation, serum IgG and IgM antibodies were analyzed using 184 laboratory-confirmed hantavirus-positive sera collected at six diagnostic centers from patients actively or previously infected with the following hantavirus serotypes: PUUV (Finland, n=97; SEOV (China, n=5; DOBV (Romania, n=7; SNV (Canada, n=23; ANDV (Argentina and Chile, n=52. The control panel comprised 89 sera from healthy blood donors. According to the reference tests, all 184 patient samples were seropositive for hantavirus-specific IgG (n=177; 96% and/or IgM (n=131; 72%, while all control samples were tested negative. In the multiparametric IFA applied in this study, 183 (99% of the patient sera were IgG and 131 (71% IgM positive (accordance with the reference tests: IgG, 96%; IgM, 93%. Overall IFA sensitivity for combined IgG and IgM analysis amounted to 100% for all serotypes, except for SNV (96%. Of the 89 control sera, 2 (2% showed IgG reactivity against the HTNV substrate, but not against any other hantavirus. Due to the high cross-reactivity of hantaviral nucleocapsid proteins, endpoint titrations were conducted, allowing serotype determination in >90% of PUUV- and ANDV-infected patients. Thus, multiparametric IFA enables highly sensitive and specific serological diagnosis of hantavirus infections and can be used to differentiate PUUV and ANDV infection from infections with Murinae-borne hantaviruses (e.g. DOBV and SEOV.

  12. Enrichment and detection of microorganisms involved in direct and indirect methanogenesis from methanol in an anaerobic thermophilic bioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, de K.; Altinbas, M.; Paulo, P.L.; Heilig, H.G.H.J.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Smidt, H.; Vos, de W.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    To gain insight into the microorganisms involved in direct and indirect methane formation from methanol in a laboratory-scale thermophilic (55°C) methanogenic bioreactor, reactor sludge was disrupted and serial dilutions were incubated in specific growth media containing methanol and possible

  13. Development & standardization of an in-house IgM indirect ELISA for the detection of parvovirus B19 infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaran Vadivel

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The in-house IgM indirect ELISA was found to be simple with high sensitivity and specificity when compared with nPCR and could be used as an alternative to expensive commercial kits in resource-poor settings.

  14. Fluorometric determination of free and total isocitrate in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Torben

    2014-12-01

    Isocitrate is an intermediate metabolite in the citric acid cycle found both inside the mitochondria as well as outside in the cytosolic shunt. Oxidation of isocitrate is believed to deliver large fractions of energy [i.e., reducing equivalents (NADPH) in the bovine udder] used for fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. This study describes a new analytical method for determination of free and total isocitrate in bovine milk where time-consuming pretreatment of the sample is not necessary. Methods for estimation of both total isocitrate and free isocitrate are described, the difference being the esterified or even lactonized isocitrate. On average, 20% (6-27%) of cow milk isocitrate was esterified and free isocitrate correlated significantly with total isocitrate (r=0.98). The present fluorometric determination correlated well with the traditional spectrophotometric determination of isocitrate. Milk samples from Danish Holstein cows (984) contained significantly less isocitrate than milk from Danish Jersey cows (760; i.e., 0.134 vs. 0.211 mmol/L). Isocitrate in milk is correlated to milk protein, fat, and citrate, and it is speculated, based on biochemistry, former studies, and the present, that isocitrate may reflect the energy situation in the mammary gland. The use of isocitrate as a biomarker of the energy status in the dairy cow is warranted. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fluorometric determination of chemically available lysine: adaptation, validation and application to different milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, E; Alegría, A; Farré, Rosaura; Abellán, P; Romero, F

    2003-12-01

    A spectrophotometric method based on the reaction between available lysine and ortho-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) was adapted and validated for fluorometric determination of the chemically available lysine contents in milk matrices (UHT and conventional in-bottle sterilized cow milk, milk-based infant formulas and infant formula ingredients). The values of the analytical parameters show its usefulness as a routine method (linearity, r = 0.9992; detection limit, 0.0066 mg/mL assay; accuracy, 99-108%; precision, intra-day 2.1-5.9% and inter-day 3.5 10.2%). No statistically significant differences (p available lysine contents in UHT and sterilized milk marketed in Spain, to study the evolution of chemically available lysine during the shelf-life of UHT milks, and finally the quality of name- and store-brand UHT milks was also compared. No statistically significant differences (p available lysine contents of the same type of UHT or sterilized milk or between store- and name-brand UHT milks. Statistically significant differences (p available lysine contents in UHT and sterilized milk. Losses of chemically available lysine ranging from 2.7 to 29% were obtained during the shelf-life of UHT milk.

  16. A New Coumarin-Based Colorimetric and Fluorometric Sensor for Cu{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Kyounglyong; Jun, Kun [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Koon Ha [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    We have developed a new colorimetric and fluorescent 'turn-off' sensor for Cu{sup 2+} based on coumarin Shiff base of hydroxycinnamaldehyde. It displays a 50 nm red-shift of maximum absorption band with color change from colorless to greenish-yellow upon addition of Cu{sup 2+} in 10 mM tris-HCl buffer solution (acetonitrile/water = 9:1, pH = 7.01). And also remarkable fluorescence quenching was observed upon the addition of Cu{sup 2+}. The 1:2 stoichiometry of sensor complex (sensor A + Cu{sup 2+}) was confirmed by Job's plot based on absorption titration. Chemosensors, small chemical compounds that sense the presence of analytes or energy, typically consist of two components: a receptor moiety that interacts with the target analytes and a read-out system that signals binding. And one of the most utilized research tool for the study of chemosensors employs a colorimetric and fluorometric spectroscopic techniques. So far successful reports on metal ion sensors have been documented including our recent result. Many different kinds of optical or fluorescent sensors have several advantages (such as high sensitivity and selectivity, non-destructive analysis, low cost and real-time monitoring), which allow naked-eye detection of color and fluorescent emission change upon metal ion binding without the use of any expensive spectroscopic equipment.

  17. Comparison of direct 13C and indirect 1H-[13C] MR detection methods for the study of dynamic metabolic turnover in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; De Feyter, Henk M.; Brown, Peter B.; Rothman, Douglas L.; Cai, Shuhui; de Graaf, Robin A.

    2017-10-01

    A wide range of direct 13C and indirect 1H-[13C] MR detection methods exist to probe dynamic metabolic pathways in the human brain. Choosing an optimal detection method is difficult as sequence-specific features regarding spatial localization, broadband decoupling, spectral resolution, power requirements and sensitivity complicate a straightforward comparison. Here we combine density matrix simulations with experimentally determined values for intrinsic 1H and 13C sensitivity, T1 and T2 relaxation and transmit efficiency to allow selection of an optimal 13C MR detection method for a given application and magnetic field. The indirect proton-observed, carbon-edited (POCE) detection method provides the highest accuracy at reasonable RF power deposition both at 4 T and 7 T. The various polarization transfer methods all have comparable performances, but may become infeasible at 7 T due to the high RF power deposition. 2D MR methods have limited value for the metabolites considered (primarily glutamate, glutamine and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)), but may prove valuable when additional information can be extracted, such as isotopomers or lipid composition. While providing the lowest accuracy, the detection of non-protonated carbons is the simplest to implement with the lowest RF power deposition. The magnetic field homogeneity is one of the most important parameters affecting the detection accuracy for all metabolites and all acquisition methods.

  18. Indirect calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, W.J.J.; Labussière, E.

    2015-01-01

    The use of indirect calorimetry to measure the heat production of men and animals has increased rapidly since the pioneering work of Lavoisier. Measurement of the consumption of oxygen and production of carbon dioxide are the basis for the measurement of heat production. Today, applications of

  19. HA1-specific indirect ELISA for serological detection of canine influenza virus H3N2 infection in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Doo Hee; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Hong, Minki; Na, Woonsung; Park, Yong-A; Park, Seong Jun; Song, Daesub; Lee, Jae Myun; Kim, Hye Kwon

    2015-04-01

    An indirect ELISA using recombinant HA1 protein of canine influenza virus (CIV) as a coating antigen was developed and characterized for its application to serosurveillance in dogs. The CIV H3N2-specific indirect ELISA was developed using recombinant HA1 protein (baculovirus-expression system) as a coating antigen. A total of 65 CIV H3N2-positive or negative canine sera were tested by the indirect ELISA for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and results compared to those generated by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Canine sera collected 10 days following intranasal inoculation with canine H3N2, seasonal H3N2 (A/Brisbane/10/2007) or pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (A/California/04/2009) were used for the cross-reaction test. An adjusted optical density (OD) of 0.17 was determined to be the optimal cut-off value for seropositivity. The indirect ELISA showed 95.7% sensitivity and 94.7% specificity when compared to the HI test. A cross-reaction test was also performed using canine sera reactive with CIV H3N2, seasonal H3N2 (human) and pandemic H1N1 (human) influenza viruses. Based on the data generated in this study, the canine H3N2-associated ELISA using baculovirus expressed HA1 antigen will be useful for herd-based serological survey of the canine H3N2 virus infection in dogs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A quinoline-based fluorometric and colorimetric dual-modal pH probe and its application in bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qin; Li, Zhao; Mu, Lan; Zeng, Xi; Redshaw, Carl; Wei, Gang

    2018-01-01

    The compound (E)-8-hydroxyl-2-[(E)-2-(2, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)vinyl]-quinoline (1) has been developed as a fluorometric and colorimetric dual-modal probe for pH detection in solution and in vivo. Remarkable changes in the fluorescence intensity with large Stokes shifts and colorimetric responses were observed as a function of pH. The sensing mechanisms involving protonation and deprotonation processes over the acidic and alkaline pH ranges were confirmed by 1H NMR and IR spectroscopic analysis. Furthermore, the application of probe 1 for the imaging of live PC3 cells was successfully achieved. Test strips based on probe 1 were fabricated, and were found to act as a convenient and efficient pH test kits.

  1. Quantitation of underivatized branched-chain amino acids in sport nutritional supplements by capillary electrophoresis with direct or indirect UV absorbance detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Qiu

    Full Text Available The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs including leucine (Leu, isoleucine (Ile and valine (Val play a pivotal role in the human body. Herein, we developed capillary electrophoresis (CE coupled with conventional UV detector to quantify underivatized BCAAs in two kinds of sport nutritional supplements. For direct UV detection at 195 nm, the BCAAs (Leu, two enantiomers of Ile and Val were separated in a background electrolyte (BGE consisting of 40.0 mmol/L sodium tetraborate, and 40.0 mmol/L β-cyclodextrin (β-CD at pH 10.2. In addition, the indirect UV detection at 264 nm was achieved in a BGE of 2.0 mmol/L Na2HPO4, 10.0 mmol/L p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS as UV absorbing probe, and 40.0 mmol/L β-CD at pH 12.2. The β-CD significantly benefited the isomeric separation of Leu, L- and D-Ile. The optimal conditions allowed the LODs (limit of detections of direct and indirect UV absorption detection to be tens μmol/L level, which was comparable to the reported CE inline derivatization method. The RSDs (relative standard deviations of migration time and peak area were less than 0.91% and 3.66% (n = 6. Finally, CE with indirect UV detection method was applied for the quantitation of BCAAs in two commercial sport nutritional supplements, and good recovery and precision were obtained. Such simple CE method without tedious derivatization process is feasible of quality control and efficacy evaluation of the supplemental proteins.

  2. Quantitation of underivatized branched-chain amino acids in sport nutritional supplements by capillary electrophoresis with direct or indirect UV absorbance detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jun; Wang, Jinhao; Xu, Zhongqi; Liu, Huiqing; Ren, Jie

    2017-01-01

    The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) play a pivotal role in the human body. Herein, we developed capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with conventional UV detector to quantify underivatized BCAAs in two kinds of sport nutritional supplements. For direct UV detection at 195 nm, the BCAAs (Leu, two enantiomers of Ile and Val) were separated in a background electrolyte (BGE) consisting of 40.0 mmol/L sodium tetraborate, and 40.0 mmol/L β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) at pH 10.2. In addition, the indirect UV detection at 264 nm was achieved in a BGE of 2.0 mmol/L Na2HPO4, 10.0 mmol/L p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) as UV absorbing probe, and 40.0 mmol/L β-CD at pH 12.2. The β-CD significantly benefited the isomeric separation of Leu, L- and D-Ile. The optimal conditions allowed the LODs (limit of detections) of direct and indirect UV absorption detection to be tens μmol/L level, which was comparable to the reported CE inline derivatization method. The RSDs (relative standard deviations) of migration time and peak area were less than 0.91% and 3.66% (n = 6). Finally, CE with indirect UV detection method was applied for the quantitation of BCAAs in two commercial sport nutritional supplements, and good recovery and precision were obtained. Such simple CE method without tedious derivatization process is feasible of quality control and efficacy evaluation of the supplemental proteins.

  3. Detection of NP, N3 and N7 antibodies to avian influenza virus by indirect ELISA using yeast-expressed antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammayappan Arun

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza viruses, belonging to the family Orthomyxoviridae, possess distinct combinations of hemagglutinin (H and the neuraminidase (N surface glycoproteins. Typing of both H and N antigens is essential for the epidemiological and surveillance studies. Therefore, it is important to find a rapid, sensitive, and specific method for their assay, and ELISA can be useful for this purpose, by using recombinant proteins. Results The nucleoprotein (NP and truncated neuraminidase subtype 3 and 7 of avian influenza virus (AIV were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and used to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for antibody detection. The developed assays were evaluated with a panel of 64 chicken serum samples. The performance of NP-ELISA was compared with the commercially available ProFlok® AIV ELISA kit. The results showed comparable agreement and sensitivity between the two tests, indicating that NP-ELISA assay can be used for screening the influenza type A antibody in AIV infected birds. The N3 and N7- ELISAs also reacted specifically to their type specific sera and did not exhibit any cross-reaction with heterologous neuraminidase subtype specific sera. Conclusion The study demonstrates the expression of the NP, N3, and N7 proteins of AIV in yeast (S. cerevisiae and their application in developing an indirect ELISA for detecting NP, N3 and N7 antibodies from AIV-infected chicken sera. The described indirect ELISAs are rapid, sensitive, specific and can be used as promising tests during serological surveillance.

  4. Indirect recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Christian; Rachman, Noer Fauzi

    2018-01-01

    Government institutions and local people in Indonesia have entrenched, resurrected, and reinvented space through their different territorial and property claims. From colonial times, onward, government institutions have dissolved local political orders and territorialized and reordered spatial...... categories are struggled over, and groups of actors seek to legitimate their presence, their activities, and their resource use by occupation, mapping, and construction of "public" infrastructure. In the case of conservation in the Mount Halimun-Salak National Park, we find that rather than one overarching...... important legal and political work. After the authoritarian New Order regime, in particular, claims to citizenship worked as indirect property claims, and indirect recognition of such claims are important because they serve as pragmatic proxies for formal property rights. Two case studies examine how people...

  5. Comparison between intraoral indirect and conventional film-based imaging for the detection of dental root fractures: an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintaku, Werner H; Venturin, Jaqueline S; Noujeim, Marcel; Dove, Stephen B

    2013-12-01

    Digital intraoral radiographic systems have been rapidly replacing conventional dental X-ray films for diagnosis of dental diseases. Current scientific literature supports the use of these digital systems for the detection of dental caries, periodontal bone loss, and periapical pathologies. However, relatively few studies have been published addressing the detection of dental root fractures. The purpose of this study was to compare the intraoral F-speed film (Insight) with two photostimulable phosphor (PSP) indirect digital systems (ScanX and Digora Optime) for the detection of simulated dental root fractures. Ten raters evaluated images acquired from 10 dry human cadaver mandibles under optimal viewing conditions. These data were analyzed by a 5-point receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for statistical differences. Sensitivity and specificity of these systems were also assessed. Since statistically significant difference between the systems was not observed, the results of this study agreeably support indirect digital PSP plates as an alternative to the evaluated conventional film for the detection of dental root fractures. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. The Indirect Efficacy Comparison of DNA Methylation in Sputum for Early Screening and Auxiliary Detection of Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Peng, Hongli; Sun, Qi; Zhao, Zhongyao; Yu, Xinwei; Ge, Siqi; Wang, Hao; Fang, Honghong; Gao, Qing; Liu, Jiaonan; Wu, Lijuan; Song, Manshu; Wang, Youxin

    2017-06-23

    DNA methylation in sputum has been an attractive candidate biomarker for the non-invasive screening and detection of lung cancer. Databases including PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane library, Web of Science databases, Chinese Biological Medicine (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, Vip Databases and Google Scholar were searched to collect the diagnostic trials on aberrant DNA methylation in the screening and detection of lung cancer published until 1 December 2016. Indirect comparison meta-analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic value of the included candidate genes. The systematic literature search yielded a total of 33 studies including a total of 4801 subjects (2238 patients with lung cancer and 2563 controls) and covering 32 genes. We identified that methylated genes in sputum samples for the early screening and auxiliary detection of lung cancer yielded an overall sensitivity of 0.46 (0.41-0.50) and specificity of 0.83 (0.80-0.86). Combined indirect comparisons identified the superior gene of SOX17 (sensitivity: 0.84, specificity: 0.88), CDO1 (sensitivity: 0.78, specificity: 0.67), ZFP42 (sensitivity: 0.87, specificity: 0.63) and TAC1 (sensitivity: 0.86, specificity: 0.75). The present meta-analysis demonstrates that methylated SOX17 , CDO1 , ZFP42 , TAC1 , FAM19A4 , FHIT , MGMT , p16 , and RASSF1A are potential superior biomarkers for the screening and auxiliary detection of lung cancer.

  7. Rapid fluorometric determination of perfluorooctanoic acid by its quenching effect on the fluorescence of quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qi; Huang, Aizhen; Wang, Nan, E-mail: nwang@hust.edu.cn; Zheng, Guan; Zhu, Lihua

    2015-05-15

    Analysis of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) usually requires a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, which is expensive and time-consuming. In the present work, water-soluble CdS quantum dots (QDs) were employed to develop a simple and rapid fluorometric method for the determination of PFOA. Strongly fluorescent CdS QDs were prepared by using 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as a stabilizer. It was observed that PFOA strongly quenched the fluorescence emission of the MPA-CdS QDs because PFOA promotes the aggregation of MPA-CdS QDs through a fluorine–fluorine affinity interaction. Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence intensity of MPA-CdS QDs was observed to decrease linearly with an increase in the concentration of PFOA from 0.5 to 40 μmol L{sup −1}, with a limit of detection of 0.3 μmol L{sup −1}. This new method was successfully implemented for the analysis of PFOA-spiked textile samples, with recoveries ranging from 95% to 113%. - Highlights: • PFOA significantly quenched the fluorescence emission of quantum dots (QDs). • A rapid and simple fluorescence sensor was proposed for determining PFOA by QDs. • PFOA determination could be completed within approximately 10 min. • The developed method had a working range of 0.5 to 40 μmol L{sup −1} and a detection limit of 0.3 μmol L{sup −1}.

  8. DNA aptamer selection and aptamer-based fluorometric displacement assay for the hepatotoxin microcystin-RR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Shijia; Li, Qi; Duan, Nuo; Wang, Zhouping; Ma, Haile

    2016-01-01

    Microcystin-RR (MC-RR) is a highly acute hepatotoxin produced by cyanobacteria. It is harmful to both humans and the environment. A novel aptamer was identified by the systemic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) method as a recognition element for determination of MC-RR in aquatic products. The graphene oxide (GO) SELEX strategy was adopted to generate aptamers with high affinity and specificity. Of the 50 aptamer candidates tested, sequence RR-33 was found to display high affinity and selectivity, with a dissociation constant of 45.7 ± 6.8 nM. Aptamer RR-33 therefore was used as the recognition element in a fluorometric assay that proceeds as follows: (1) Biotinylated aptamer RR-33 is immobilized on the streptavidinylated wells of a microtiterplate, and carboxyfluorescein (FAM) labelled complementary DNA is then allowed to hybridize. (2) After removal of excess (unbound) cDNA, sample containing MC-RR is added and incubated at 37 °C for 2 h. (3) Displaced free cDNA is washed away and fluorescence intensity measured at excitation/emission wavelengths of 490/515 nm. The calibration plot is linear in the 0.20 to 2.5 ng·mL −1 concentration range, and the limit of detection is 80 pg·mL −1 . The results indicate that the GO-SELEX technology is appropriate for the screening of aptamers against small-molecule toxins. The detection scheme was applied to the determination of MC-RR in (spiked) water, mussel and fish and gave recoveries between 91 and 98 %. The method compares favorably to a known ELISA. Conceivably, this kind of assay is applicable to other toxins for which appropriate aptamers are available. (author)

  9. Comparison of indirect hemagglutination and 51Chromium release tests for detection of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 antibodies in patients with recurrent herpes infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesavalu, L.; Seth, P.

    1980-01-01

    Indirect hemagglutination and 51 Cr release tests (IHAT and 51-CRT respectively) were compared in patients with recurrent herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections from whom HSV-1 or HSV-2 was isolated. Both tests were equally sensitive and specific in detecting HSV antibodies. However, IHAT was more specific in detecting homologous HSV antibody response in patients with recurrent HSV-2 infections. Past infections with HSV-1 in the patients with dual infections were detected by determining HSV-type specific antibodies by inhibition of IHAT. Cross absorption studies showed that the antibody reactivity measured by the two tests was qualitatively and quantitatively different. Nevertheless, IHAT has been found to be more appropriate test for seroepidemiologic studies of HSV-2 infections because of its specificity, rapidity and less cost, whereas, 51-CRT appears to measure antibodies against recent and more predominant type of infecting HSV. (Author)

  10. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis in Cattle by using Indirect Absorbed ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system and culture in Alborz Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedyeh Teymouri

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Because there is no treatment or cure for Johne's disease, detection of infected cattle and subsequent culling is very important for preventing infection in other cattle. Fecal culture is a standard method for the identification of the disease. However, in Johne's disease, due to prolonged incubation and shedding of the disease, the probability of isolating the responsible agent is very low. To identify the infection, the indirect absorbed ELISA method is used for eradication. This technique is considered as one of the most reliable for identification of the disease worldwide due to its ease of use and low cost. However, for confirmation of ELISA-positive results, culture method has been recommended.

  11. Development of an ion-pair reversed-phase HPLC method with indirect UV detection for determination of phosphates and phosphites as impurities in sodium risedronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuzovska, Katerina; Dimitrovska, Aneta; Kitanovski, Zoran; Petrusevska, Jelena; Ribarska, Jasmina Tonic; Jolevska, Suzana Trajkovic

    2010-01-01

    A method based on RP-HPLC with indirect UV detection was developed for the determination of phosphates and phosphites as impurities in sodium risedronate. RP separation of the phosphates and phosphites was achieved by adding tetrabutylammonium hydroxide as an ion-pairing agent in the mobile phase. Potassium hydrogen phthalate was added to the mobile phase as an ionic chromophore in order to obtain high background absorption of the mobile phase. Separation was performed on a C18 column using a mixture of pH 8.2 buffer (containing 0.5 mM tetrabutylammonium hydroxide and 1 mM phthalate) and acetonitrile (95 + 5, v/v) as the mobile phase, with indirect UV detection at 248 nm. The validation of the method included determination of specificity/selectivity, linearity, LOD, LOQ, accuracy, precision, and robustness. The LOD was 0.86 microg/mL for phosphates and 0.76 microg/mL for phosphites. The LOQ was 2.60 microg/mL for phosphates and 2.29 microg/mL for phosphites. The developed method is suitable for quantitative determination of phosphates and phosphites as impurities in QC of sodium risedronate.

  12. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus infection subtype in patients with multiple sclerosis by indirect immunofluorescence assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Chao Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to investigate the infectious conditions of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Methods: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 20 patients with MS and 20 with other neurological diseases (OND were tested with indirect immunofluorescence for anti-EBV capsid antigen (EBV-CA immunoglobulin G (IgG, IgG affinity for anti-EBV-CA, anti-EBV-CA immunoglobulin M (IgM, anti-EBV early antigen (EBV-EA IgG and anti-EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA IgG. According to the pattern of antibodies in CSF, infection rates of acute, chronic, primary, recurrent, and past infections were analyzed in the two groups of patients. Results: There were no significant differences in anti-EBV-CA, anti-EBC-EA, and anti-EBNA antigen IgG in CSF between MS and OND patients (P > 0.05. The positive rate of low affinity for anti-EBV-CA IgG in MS patients was significantly higher than that for OND patients (75% vs. 40%, P < 0.05. Furthermore, significant differences in the positive rate of anti-EBV-CA IgM were found between MS and OND patients (70% vs. 25%, P < 0.05. Of the MS patients, 75% were in an EBV acute infection state compared with 40% of OND patients (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Acute infection of EBV closely correlates with the occurrence of MS.

  13. User's guide to the indirect solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the detection of cytomegalovirus-specific IgM antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, P.D. (Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine, London (UK). Virus Laboratory); Kangro, H.O. (St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (UK). Virology Dept.)

    1984-07-01

    In this review full laboratory details are given of a solid-phase indirect radioimmunoassay for the detection of specific IgM antibodies against cytomegalovirus. Practical advice is given on readily available commercial sources of reagents, a simple iodination procedure, the rapid dilution of sera under test and calculation of the results with a computer program available from the authors. Problems encountered with the assay are also detailed such as interference by rheumatoid factor, deterioration of the radiolabel and high background binding found with some sera. If these problems are avoided by the methods given in the text then the radioimmunoassay has been shown to give results of 100% specificity with 89% sensitivity for detecting congenital infection and 92% sensitivity for identifying primary cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant women.

  14. Accuracy of the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis Test vs Fibrotest, Elastography and Indirect Markers in Detection of Advanced Fibrosis in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Maja; Madsen, Bjørn Stæhr; Hansen, Janne Fuglsang

    2018-01-01

    -dimensional shear-wave elastography), and 6 indirect marker tests in detection of advanced liver fibrosis (Kleiner stage ≥F3). METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 10 liver fibrosis markers (patented and not), all performed on the same day. Patients were recruited from primary centers (municipal...... alcohol rehabilitation, n=128; 6% with advanced fibrosis) and secondary healthcare centers (hospital outpatient clinics, n=161; 36% with advanced fibrosis) in the Region of Southern Denmark from 2013 through 2016. Biopsy-verified fibrosis stage was used as the reference standard. The primary aim...... was to validate ELF in detection of advanced fibrosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease recruited from primary and secondary healthcare centers, using the literature-based cut-off value of 10.5. Secondary aims were to assess the diagnostic accuracy of ELF for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis...

  15. A user's guide to the indirect solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the detection of cytomegalovirus-specific IgM antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, P.D.; Kangro, H.O.

    1984-01-01

    In this review full laboratory details are given of a solid-phase indirect radioimmunoassay for the detection of specific IgM antibodies against cytomegalovirus. Practical advice is given on readily available commercial sources of reagents, a simple iodination procedure, the rapid dilution of sera under test and calculation of the results with a computer program available from the authors. Problems encountered with the assay are also detailed such as interference by rheumatoid factor, deterioration of the radiolabel and high background binding found with some sera. If these problems are avoided by the methods given in the text then the radioimmunoassay has been shown to give results of 100% specificity with 89% sensitivity for detecting congenital infection and 92% sensitivity for identifying primary cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant women. (Auth.)

  16. Enrichment Double-Antibody Sandwich Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay That Uses a Specific Monoclonal Antibody for Sensitive Detection of Ralstonia solanacearum in Asymptomatic Potato Tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Paola; Gorris, María Teresa; Cambra, Mariano; Palomo, José Luis; Collar, Jesús; López, María M.

    2002-01-01

    Sensitive and specific routine detection of Ralstonia solanacearum in symptomless potato tubers was achieved by efficient enrichment followed by a reliable double-antibody sandwich indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the specific monoclonal antibody 8B-IVIA. This monoclonal antibody reacted with 168 typical R. solanacearum strains and did not recognize 174 other pathogenic or unidentified bacteria isolated from potato. The optimized protocol included an initial enrichment step consisting of shaking the samples in modified Wilbrink broth for 72 h at 29°C. This step enabled specific detection by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of 1 to 10 CFU of R. solanacearum per ml of initial potato extract. Analysis of 233 commercial potato lots by this method provided results that coincided with the results of conventional methods. PMID:12089053

  17. An Improved Label-Free Indirect Competitive SPR Immunosensor and Its Comparison with Conventional ELISA for Ractopamine Detection in Swine Urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sai; Zhao, Shuai; Wei, Xiao; Zhang, Shan; Liu, Jiahui; Dong, Yiyang

    2017-01-01

    Ractopamine (RCT) is banned for use in animals in many countries, and it is urgent to develop efficient methods for specific and sensitive RCT detection. A label-free indirect competitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor was first developed with a primary antibody herein and then improved by a secondary antibody for the detection of RCT residue in swine urine. Meanwhile, a pre-incubation process of RCT and the primary antibody was performed to further improve the sensitivity. With all the key parameters optimized, the improved immunosenor can attain a linear range of 0.3–32 ng/mL and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.09 ng/mL for RCT detection with high specificity. Furthermore, the improved label-free SPR immunosenor was compared thoroughly with a conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The SPR immunosensor showed advantages over the ELISA in terms of LOD, reagent consumption, analysis time, experiment automation, and so on. The SPR immunosensor can be used as potential method for real-time monitoring and screening of RCT residue in swine urine or other samples. In addition, the design using antibody pairs for biosensor development can be further referred to for other small molecule detection. PMID:28300766

  18. An Improved Label-Free Indirect Competitive SPR Immunosensor and Its Comparison with Conventional ELISA for Ractopamine Detection in Swine Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ractopamine (RCT is banned for use in animals in many countries, and it is urgent to develop efficient methods for specific and sensitive RCT detection. A label-free indirect competitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR immunosensor was first developed with a primary antibody herein and then improved by a secondary antibody for the detection of RCT residue in swine urine. Meanwhile, a pre-incubation process of RCT and the primary antibody was performed to further improve the sensitivity. With all the key parameters optimized, the improved immunosenor can attain a linear range of 0.3–32 ng/mL and a limit of detection (LOD of 0.09 ng/mL for RCT detection with high specificity. Furthermore, the improved label-free SPR immunosenor was compared thoroughly with a conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The SPR immunosensor showed advantages over the ELISA in terms of LOD, reagent consumption, analysis time, experiment automation, and so on. The SPR immunosensor can be used as potential method for real-time monitoring and screening of RCT residue in swine urine or other samples. In addition, the design using antibody pairs for biosensor development can be further referred to for other small molecule detection.

  19. Thin film organic photodetectors for indirect X-ray detection demonstrating low dose rate sensitivity at low voltage operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkenburg, Daken J.; Johns, Paul M.; Baciak, James E.; Nino, Juan C.; Xue, Jiangeng

    2017-12-01

    Developments in the field of organic semiconductors have generated organic photodetectors with high quantum efficiency, wide spectral sensitivity, low power consumption, and unique form factors that are flexible and conformable to their substrate shape. In this work, organic photodetectors coupled with inorganic CsI(Tl) scintillators are used to showcase the low dose rate sensitivity that is enabled when high performance organic photodetectors and scintillator crystals are integrated. The detection capability of these organic-inorganic coupled systems to high energy radiation highlights their potential as an alternative to traditional photomultiplier tubes for nuclear spectroscopy applications. When exposed to Bremsstrahlung radiation produced from an X-ray generator, SubPc:C60, AlPcCl:C70, and P3HT:PC61BM thin film photodetectors with active layer thicknesses less than 100 nm show detection of incident radiation at low and no applied bias. Remarkably low dose rates, down to at least 0.18 μGy/s, were detectable with a characteristic linear relationship between exposure rate and photodetector current output. These devices also demonstrate sensitivities as high as 5.37 mC Gy-1 cm-2 when coupled to CsI(Tl). Additionally, as the tube voltage across the X-ray generator was varied, these organic-inorganic systems showed their ability to detect a range of continuous radiation spectra spanning several hundred keV.

  20. Thin film organic photodetectors for indirect X-ray detection demonstrating low dose rate sensitivity at low voltage operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkenburg, Daken J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA; Johns, Paul M. [Nuclear Engineering Program, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA; Detection Systems Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, USA; Baciak, James E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA; Nuclear Engineering Program, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA; Nino, Juan C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA; Xue, Jiangeng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA

    2017-12-14

    Developments in the field of organic semiconductors have generated organic photodetectors with high quantum efficiency, wide spectral sensitivity, low power consumption, and unique form factors that are flexible and conformable to their substrate shape. In this work, organic photodetectors coupled with inorganic CsI(Tl) scintillators are used to showcase the low dose rate sensitivity that is enabled when high performance organic photodetectors and scintillator crystals are integrated. The detection capability of these organic-inorganic coupled systems to high energy radiation highlights their potential as an alternative to traditional photomultiplier tubes for nuclear spectroscopy applications. When exposed to Bremsstrahlung radiation produced from an X-ray generator, SubPc:C60, AlPcCl:C70, and P3HT:PC61BM thin film photodetectors with active layer thicknesses less than 100 nm show detection of incident radiation at low and no applied bias. Remarkably low dose rates, down to at least 0.28 µGy/s, were detectable with a characteristic linear relationship between exposure rate and photodetector current output. These devices also demonstrate sensitivities as high as 5.37 mC Gy-1 cm-2 when coupled to CsI(Tl). Additionally, as the tube voltage across the X-ray generator was varied, these organic-inorganic systems showed their ability to detect a range of continuous radiation spectra spanning several hundred keV.

  1. Capability of the HAWC Gamma-Ray Observatory for the Indirect Detection of Ultrahigh-Energy Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes León Vargas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of ultrahigh-energy neutrinos, with energies in the PeV range or above, is a topic of great interest in modern astroparticle physics. The importance comes from the fact that these neutrinos point back to the most energetic particle accelerators in the Universe and provide information about their underlying acceleration mechanisms. Atmospheric neutrinos are a background for these challenging measurements, but their rate is expected to be negligible above ≈1 PeV. In this work we describe the feasibility to study ultrahigh-energy neutrinos based on the Earth-skimming technique, by detecting the charged leptons produced in neutrino-nucleon interactions in a high mass target. We propose to detect the charged leptons, or their decay products, with the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC observatory and use as a large-mass target for the neutrino interactions the Pico de Orizaba volcano, the highest mountain in Mexico. In this work we develop an estimate of the detection rate using a geometrical model to calculate the effective area of the observatory. Our results show that it may be feasible to perform measurements of the ultrahigh-energy neutrino flux from cosmic origin during the expected lifetime of the HAWC observatory.

  2. Rapid Detection and Identification of Streptococcus Iniae Using a Monoclonal Antibody-Based Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus iniae is among the major pathogens of a large number of fish species cultured in fresh and marine recirculating and net pen production systems . The traditional plate culture technique to detect and identify S. iniae is time consuming and may be problematic due to phenotypic variations...

  3. Astrophysical limitations to the identification of dark matter: indirect neutrino signals vis-a-vis direct detection recoil rates

    CERN Document Server

    Serpico, Pasquale D

    2010-01-01

    A convincing identification of dark matter (DM) particles can probably be achieved only through a combined analysis of different detections strategies, which provides an effective way of removing degeneracies in the parameter space of DM models. In practice, however, this program is made complicated by the fact that different strategies depend on different physical quantities, or on the same quantities but in a different way, making the treatment of systematic errors rather tricky. We discuss here the uncertainties on the recoil rate in direct detection experiments and on the muon rate induced by neutrinos from dark matter annihilations in the Sun, and we show that, contrarily to the local DM density or overall cross section scale, irreducible astrophysical uncertainties affect the two rates in a different fashion, therefore limiting our ability to reconstruct the parameters of the dark matter particle. By varying within their respective errors astrophysical parameters such as the escape velocity and the velo...

  4. Direct and indirect singlet scalar dark matter detection in the lepton-specific two-Higgs-doublet model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucenna, M. S.; Profumo, S.

    2011-01-01

    A recent study of gamma-ray data from the Galactic center motivates the investigation of light (∼7-10 GeV) particle dark matter models featuring tau-lepton pairs as dominant annihilation final state. The lepton-specific two-Higgs-doublet model provides a natural framework where light, singlet scalar dark matter can pair-annihilate dominantly into tau leptons. We calculate the nucleon-dark matter cross section for singlet scalar dark matter within the lepton-specific two-Higgs-doublet model framework, and compare with recent results from direct detection experiments. We study how direct dark matter searches can be used to constrain the dark matter interpretation of gamma-ray observations, for different dominant annihilation final states. We show that models exist with the correct thermal relic abundance that could fit the claimed gamma-ray excess from the Galactic center region and have direct detection cross sections of the order of what is needed to interpret recent anomalous events reported by direct detection experiments.

  5. Development of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of leptospiral antibodies in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribotta, M J; Higgins, R; Gottschalk, M; Lallier, R

    2000-01-01

    Serology plays an important role in the diagnosis of leptospirosis. Few laboratories have the resources, expertise, or facilities to perform the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Thus, there is a need for a rapid and simple serological test that could be used in any diagnostic laboratory. In this study, a genus-specific, heat-stable antigenic preparation from Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona was used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of leptospiral antibodies in dog sera. This antigenic preparation reacted with rabbit antisera against L. interrogans serovars bratislava, autumnalis, icterohaemorrhagiae and pomona and with rabbit antiserum against L. kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa. The ELISA showed a relative specificity of 95.6% with 158 dog sera which were negative at a dilution of 1:100 in the MAT for serovars pomona, bratislava, icterohaemorrhagiae, autumnalis, hardjo, and grippotyphosa. The relative sensitivity of this assay with 21 dog sera that revealed serovars MAT titres of > or =100 to different serovars was 100%. This assay is easily standardized, technically more advantageous than MAT, and uses an antigenic preparation that can be routinely prepared in large amounts. It was concluded that this ELISA is sufficiently sensitive test to be used as an initial screening test for the detection of leptospiral antibodies in canine sera, with subsequent confirmation of positive test results with the MAT.

  6. A fluorometric biosensor based on functional Au/Ag nanoclusters for real-time monitoring of tyrosinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Hang; Qian, Zhaosheng; Zhu, Yuyu; Zhao, Meizhi; Tang, Cong; Huang, Yuanyuan; Feng, Hui; Wang, Aijun

    2016-12-15

    Due to the vital role of tyrosinase in melanin biosynthesis and its function as an important biomarker for melanoma cancer, highly sensitive detection of its activity using biocompatible materials is in urgent demand. Herein we report a convenient and highly sensitive fluorometric biosensor for tyrosinase activity detection based on biocompatible dopamine-functionalized Au/Ag nanoclusters (Dopa-Au/Ag NCs). Dopamine with redox property was covalently linked to Au/Ag NCs surface and formed a Dopa-Au/Ag NCs bioconjugate with strong blue fluorescence. Dopamine is readily oxidized by molecular oxygen under the catalysis of tyrosinase. After dopamine is transformed to o-dopaquinone, an intraparticle photoinduced election transfer (PET) process occurs between Au/Ag NCs and o-dopaquinone moiety, leading to the fluorescence quenching of the Dopa-Au/Ag NCs bioconjugate. Thus, this biosensor was utilized for sensitive and selective detection of tyrosinase in terms of the relationship between fluorescence quenching efficiency and tyrosinase activity. This study discovers that Au/Ag NCs and dopaquinone can serve as a good electron acceptor and donor pair which results in an efficient intraparticle photoinduced electron transfer process, and also provides another alternative way for tyrosinase activity monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Establishment of an indirect solid phase radioimmunoassay for the detection of HSV-type I-specific antibodies in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchow, H.

    1982-01-01

    An indirect solid phase radioimmunoassay (IFRIA) was developed for the detection in human serum of antibodies against Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type I. The IFRIA was carried out according to the 'sandwich' principle. In comparison to other serological routine methods, especially the complement binding reaction (CBR) commonly used for HSV diagnostic, the IFRIA excelled by being a test which is quick to carry out and by lacking the subjectivity by the researcher in the evaluation of the test results, as well as by the use of patients serum which had not been previously treated. Comparative studies between IFRIA and CBR resulted in no agreement between the respectively attained maximum titer. As a reason for this the different qualities of the antibodies which can be determined by each test were discussed. For the addition of this test to the routine diagnostic further studies in the preservation of the specificity of the antigen in the case of longer storage are requisite. (orig.) [de

  8. Application of the indirect enzyme-labeled antibody microtest to the detection and surveillance of animal diseases. [Brucellosis, cholera, and trichinosis in cattle and swine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, G.C. Clinard, E.H.; Bartlett, M.L.; Sanders, W.M.

    1976-01-01

    The rapid, indirect enzyme-labeled antibody (ELA) microplate test has been developed as a diagnostic and surveillance tool to aid in the control of animal disease. Data are presented, which illustrate the application of the test to viral (hog cholera), parasitic (trichinosis), and bacterial (brucellosis) diseases of animals. A greater than 95 percent correlation was observed between the hog cholera ELA test and the hog cholera serum neutralization test performed on over 2000 mixed hog cholera positive and negative field samples obtained during the 1976 New Jersey epizootic. Of 56 swine naturally infected with Trichinella spiralis at a level considered dangerous to man, all were ELA positive, while only one of 360 T. spiralis negative packing house sera was ELA positive. Preliminary experiments with bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) indicate that the ELA test is more sensitive than other test methods currently in use. ELA procedures should soon become tests of choice for the detection of antibodies to animal disease agents.

  9. Monoclonal antibody based Dot-ELISA and indirect fluorescence antibody technique for detecting Edwardsiella ictaluri infection in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijun Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Edwardsiella ictaluri is known as the etiological agent of Red-head disease of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, and is the cause of heavy economic losses in the aquaculture industry. In this study, a Dot-Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Dot-ELISA and an Indirect Fluorescence Antibody technique (IFAT for detecting Edwardsiella ictaluri were developed by using a monoclonal antibody, 5D11. For Dot-ELISA, the working dilutions of 5D11 and the secondary antisera (enzyme-labeled goat anti-mouse Ig were 1:320 dilution and 1:3000 dilution, respectively. For IFAT, the working dilutions of 5D11 and goat-anti-mouse Ig conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate were as respectively 1:80 and 1:256. Both of the methods established were highly sensitivity (Minimum detectable concentration, 5 × 107 CFU/mL and had a high degree of accuracy (positive rate was 100% for both artificial infected fish and spontaneous diseased Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. The two reliable methods developed have high potential for quick and efficient detection of Edwardsiella ictaluri in aquaculture production units.

  10. Simultaneous determination of ammonia, dimethylamine, trimethylamine and trimethylamine-N-oxide in fish extracts by capillary electrophoresis with indirect UV-detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Jørgensen, Bo

    2002-01-01

    A capillary electrophoretic method with indirect UV detection is described for simultaneous determination of ammonia, dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA) and trimethylamine-N- oxide (TMAO) in aqueous extracts of fish, A buffer consisting of 4 mM formic acid, 5 mM copper(II)sulfate and 3 m......M crown ether 18-crown-6 enabled separation of the analytes in 5-10 min. The use of an extended light path capillary technique resulted in a good sensitivity and repeatability. The linear dynamic range, based on a hydrostatic injection at 50 mbar for 2 s, was from the detection limit to at least 2.5 m......M. The detection limit for ammonia, DMA, TMA, and TMAO was less than 0.04 mM, corresponding to 2 mg nitrogen per 100 g fish. As an extra benefit, the method also provided a quantitative determination of potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium ions. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  11. A new BODIPY-derived ratiometric senor with internal charge transfer (ICT) effect: colorimetric/fluorometric sensing of Ag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changli; Han, Zhong; Wang, Mengjia; Yang, Zhenghao; Ran, Xueqin; He, Weijiang

    2018-02-13

    With a 4-aminostyryl group introduced at its 3-position, a BODIPY BDP-ODTAC was derived as a new ratiometric sensor for Ag + by modifying 4-amino group as a Ag + chelator, 1-oxa-4,10-dithia-7-azacyclododecane (ODTAC). In addition to the specific Ag + -induced hypsochromic absorption shift from 606 to 562 nm, this sensor demonstrated an excitation shift from 600 to 560 nm due to the internal charge transfer (ICT) effect endowed by the introduced α-4-aminostyryl group. The Ag + -induced recovery and enhancement of the intrinsic local emission band was also observed. The different sensing behavior of ODTAC-BDP with chelator ODTAC substituting on the meso-phenyl group infers that the ratiometric sensing behavior of BDP-ODTAC is correlated to the amino group in ODTAC acting as the electron donor for the ICT effect. With high Ag + selectivity over interfering cations such as Hg 2+ and Pb 2+ , BDP-ODTAC displays a fluorometric limit of detection (LOD) of ∼17 nM (∼0.002 ppm), which is distinctly lower than EPA and WHO standards for drinking water (500 nM, ∼0.055 ppm). Moreover, the BDP-ODTAC-doped PVC film shows the Ag + sensitivity of 1 ppm with a color switch from blue to purple, providing this sensor the ability to determine Ag + in totally aqueous solution sensitively via naked-eye detection.

  12. [Detection of irregular anti-erythrocyte antibodies using the indirect antiglobulin test in a low-ionic-strength medium. Immunohematology Group of the French Blood Transfusion Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannessier, L; Roubinet, F

    1999-06-01

    The detection of irregular antibodies is usually performed with serum by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) with a polyspecific antiglobulin reagent. In a first study in 1996, we compared the results obtained with 3,264 blood samples of patients drawn with or without anticoagulant: no significant difference was observed among the 240 allo-antibodies detected and identified. In this paper we report the comparison of the results obtained by IAT on column of filtration with two kinds of reagents: polyspecific and anti-IgG antibodies. Respectively 2,927 (76 contained an antibody), and 643 (161 contained an antibody) sera of patients were tested with methods ID-Diamed and Ortho-Biovue. Titrations of 153 other antibodies were also performed with the two reagents. Results showed no significant difference using either polyspecific reagent or the anti-IgG antibodies. This study proves that it is possible to perform screening of irregular antibodies on uncoagulated blood samples. This possibility allows automation as blood typing and screening of irregular antibodies can be carried out with the same sample.

  13. Development and evaluation of a truncated recombinant NS3 antigen-based indirect ELISA for detection of pestivirus antibodies in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaiyarasu, Semmannan; Mishra, Niranjan; Rajukumar, Katherukamem; Nema, Ram Kumar; Behera, Sthita Pragnya

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an indirect ELISA using the helicase domain of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) NS3 protein instead of full-length NS3 protein for detection of BVDV and BDV antibodies in sheep and goats and its validation by comparing its sensitivity and specificity with virus neutralization test (VNT) as the reference test. The purified 50 kDa recombinant NS3 protein was used as the coating antigen in the ELISA. The optimal concentration of antigen was 320 ng/well at a serum dilution of 1:20 and the optimal positive cut-off optical density value was 0.40 based on test results of 418 VNT negative sheep and goat sera samples. When 569 serum samples from sheep (463) and goats (106) were tested, the ELISA showed a sensitivity of 91.71% and specificity of 94.59% with BVDV VNT. A good correlation (93.67%) was observed between the two tests. It showed a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 86.6% with VNT in detecting BDV antibody positive or negative samples. This study demonstrates the efficacy of truncated recombinant NS3 antigen based ELISA for seroepidemiological study of pestivirus infection in sheep and goats.

  14. Comparison of Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination, Standard tube agglutination and Indirect ELISA tests for detection of Brucella antibodies in Cows and Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Ghodasara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 180 serum samples (107 cows, 73 buffaloes from cases of abortion and various reproductive disorders were collected for detection of Brucella antibody by Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test (RBPT, Serum Tube Agglutination Test (STAT and indirect- ELISA (i-ELISA. The overall prevalence of brucellosis by RBPT, STAT and i-ELISA were 11.21%, 16.00% and 24.30% in cows 9.59%, 12.33% and 26.03% in buffaloes respectively. Overall seroprevalence of Brucellosis in cases of abortion, R.O.P. by RBPT, STAT and i-ELISA were 11.32%, 16.04% and 32.08% respectively. When three serological tests were compared, seropositivity was found highest by i-ELISA (25%, followed by STAT (14.45% and RBPT (10.56%. The results shows higher prevalence of brucellosis in cases of abortion and R.O.P., while at lower level from various reproductive disorders as detected serologically indicating endemicity of the infection in villages around Anand city, Gujarat. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000: 61-64

  15. A protein A/G indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of anti-Brucella antibodies in Arctic wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nymo, Ingebjørg H; Godfroid, Jacques; Åsbakk, Kjetil; Larsen, Anett K; das Neves, Carlos G; Rødven, Rolf; Tryland, Morten

    2013-05-01

    A species-independent indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) based on chimeric protein A/G was established for the detection of anti-Brucella antibodies in Arctic wildlife species and compared to previously established brucellosis serological tests for hooded seals (Cystophora cristata), minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis), fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus), and polar bears (Ursus maritimus), as well as bacteriology results for reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus sp.). The protein A/G iELISA results were consistent with the other serological tests with Cohen kappa values between 0.47 and 0.92, and the protein A/G iELISA can thus offer a technically simple method for these species yielding results consistent with established brucellosis serological tests. Receiver operator characteristics analysis proved that the reindeer and caribou protein A/G iELISA results were consistent with the bacteriological gold standard with an area under the curve of 0.99, and the protein A/G iELISA was thus validated as a sensitive and specific serological method for the detection of anti-Brucella antibodies in reindeer and caribou. The binding of the antibodies from the respective species to protein A and G were also evaluated in the iELISA. The antibodies from hooded seals and polar bears reacted stronger to protein A than to G. The sei whale, fin whale, reindeer, and caribou antibodies reacted stronger to protein G than to A. The minke whale antibodies reacted to both protein A and G. There was a strong correlation (r s = 0.88-0.98) between the optical density results obtained with the iELISA with protein A/G and protein A or G, showing that protein A/G is as well suited as protein A or G for the detection of anti-Brucella antibodies in these species with the iELISA.

  16. Multi-commutated fluorometric optosensor for the determination of citrinin in rice and red yeast rice supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-López, J; Llorent-Martínez, E J; Ortega-Barrales, P; Ruiz-Medina, A

    2014-01-01

    Citrinin is a toxic secondary metabolite first isolated from Penicillium citrinum, although is also produced by other species of Penicillium and Aspergillus. It has highly toxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic properties and is often found in crops, vegetables and fruit. To our knowledge there is no specific legislation on maximum levels permitted for citrinin, so no official analytical method is currently available for its determination. Our laboratory developed a fluorometric flow-through optosensor using Sephadex SPC-25 as solid support. Multi-commutated flow injection analysis was used for the construction of the manifold and for handling solutions. In this way, we minimised waste generation and human intervention, which are critical aspects when dealing with highly toxic compounds such as citrinin. The optimum excitation/emission wavelengths were set at 330/494 nm; the calibration curve was linear in the concentration range 35-900 ng ml⁻¹. A detection limit of 10.5 ng ml⁻¹ and relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 3% were obtained. The developed optosensor was applied to the determination of citrinin in rice and dietary supplements containing red yeast rice.

  17. In vitro testing of chemotherapeutic drug combinations in acute myelocytic leukaemia using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, R; Fridborg, H; Kristensen, J; Sundström, C; Nygren, P

    1993-05-01

    The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) was employed for analysing the effect of different chemotherapeutic drug combinations and their single constituents in 44 cases of acute myelocytic leukaemia (AML). A large heterogeneity with respect to cell kill was observed for all combinations tested, the interactions ranging from antagonistic to synergistic in terms of the multiplicative concept for drug interactions. However, an 'additive' model provided a significantly better fit of the data compared to the effect of the most active single agent of the combination (Dmax) for several common antileukaemic drug combinations. When the two interaction models were related to treatment outcome 38% of the non-responders showed preference for the additive model whereas the corresponding figure for responders was 80%. Overall, in 248 of 290 (85%) tests performed with drug combinations, there was an agreement between the effect of the combination and that of the most active single component. Direct comparison of Dmax and the combination for correlation with clinical outcome demonstrated only minor differences in the ability to predict drug resistance. The results show that FMCA appear to report drug interactions in samples from patients with AML in accordance with clinical experience. Furthermore, testing single agents as a substitute for drug combinations may be adequate for detection of clinical drug resistance to combination therapy in AML.

  18. Laboratory determination of chemotherapeutic drug resistance in tumor cells from patients with leukemia, using a fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, R; Kristensen, J; Sandberg, C; Nygren, P

    1992-01-21

    An automated fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) based on the measurement of fluorescence generated from cellular hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate (FDA) to fluorescein was employed for chemotherapeutic-drug-sensitivity testing of tumor-cell suspensions from patients with leukemia. Fluorescence was linearly related to cell number, and reproducible measurements of drug sensitivity could be performed using fresh or cryopreserved leukemia cells. A marked heterogeneity with respect to chemotherapeutic drug sensitivity was observed for a panel of cytotoxic drugs tested in 43 samples from 35 patients with treated or untreated acute and chronic leukemia. For samples obtained from patients with chronic lymphocytic and acute myelocytic leukemia, sensitivity profiles for standard drugs corresponded to known clinical activity and the assay detected primary and acquired drug resistance. Individual in vitro/in vivo correlations indicated high specificity with respect to the identification of drug resistance. The results suggest that the FMCA may be a simple and rapid method for in vivo-representative determinations of chemotherapeutic drug resistance in tumor cells obtained from patients with leukemia.

  19. A novel fluorometric determination of melamine using cucurbit[7]uril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Yunyou, E-mail: zy161299@mail.ahnu.edu.c [Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids and Anhui Key Laboratory of Chemo-Biosensing, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Yang Juan; Liu Min; Wang Sufan; Lu Qin [Anhui Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Solids and Anhui Key Laboratory of Chemo-Biosensing, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Melamine is a toxic compound to both animals and human beings, and is connected to various diseases, such as kidney stones and bladder cancer. For the efficient detection of melamine, we have developed a novel sensitive cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) sensor with a detection limit at 0.20 mug mL{sup -1}, and applied it to detect melamine in tainted milk. Fluorescence studies indicate that CB7 forms complex with melamine in a 1:1 mole ratio. The binding constant at various temperatures has been calculated and the interaction mechanism has been discussed based on molecular modeling result.

  20. Development of Indirect Competitive Immuno-Assay Method Using SPR Detection for Rapid and Highly Sensitive Measurement of Salivary Cortisol Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahara, Yusuke; Huang, Zhe; Kiritoshi, Tetsuro [Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Onodera, Takeshi [Research and Development Center for Taste and Odor Sensing, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Toko, Kiyoshi, E-mail: toko@ed.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Research and Development Center for Taste and Odor Sensing, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2014-05-30

    The monitoring of salivary cortisol as a key biomarker of an individual’s stress response has been increasingly focused on. This paper describes the development of a novel cortisol immuno-assay method based on an indirect competitive method using a commercially available surface plasmon resonance instrument. The surface of an Au chip was modified with PEG6-COOH aromatic dialkanethiol self-assembled monolayers and hydrocortisone 3-(O-carboxymethyl) oxime (hydrocortisone 3-CMO) as a cortisol analog. A detection limit of 38 ppt range with a measurement range of 10 ppt–100 ppb was accomplished without the incubation of a mixing solution consisting of standard cortisol and an anti-cortisol antibody, and the time for quantification of cortisol concentration was 8 min from the sample injection. We experimentally compared our immuno-assay with a commercialized salivary cortisol enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit using human saliva samples. It was found that the results obtained by the cortisol immuno-assay had a good correlation with those obtained by ELISA assay (R = 0.96). Our findings indicate the potential utility of the cortisol immuno-assay for measurements of human salivary cortisol levels.

  1. A homogeneous fluorometric assay platform based on novel synthetic proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardar-Schara, Goenuel; Krab, Ivo M.; Yi, Guohua; Su, Wei Wen

    2007-01-01

    Novel synthetic recombinant sensor proteins have been created to detect analytes in solution, in a rapid single-step 'mix and read' noncompetitive homogeneous assay process, based on modulating the Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) property of the sensor proteins upon binding to their targets. The sensor proteins comprise a protein scaffold that incorporates a specific target-capturing element, sandwiched by genetic fusion between two molecules that form a FRET pair. The utility of the sensor proteins was demonstrated via three examples, for detecting an anti-biotin Fab antibody, a His-tagged recombinant protein, and an anti-FLAG peptide antibody, respectively, all done directly in solution. The diversity of sensor-target interactions that we have demonstrated in this study points to a potentially universal applicability of the biosensing concept. The possibilities for integrating a variety of target-capturing elements with a common sensor scaffold predict a broad range of practical applications

  2. Fluorometric method for the determination of gas-phase hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Gregory L.; Lazrus, Allan L.

    1986-01-01

    The fluorometric gas-phase hydrogen peroxide procedure is based on the technique used by Lazrus et. al. for the determination of H2O2 in the liquid phase. The analytical method utilizes the reaction of H2O2 with horseradish peroxidase and p-hydroxphenylacetic acid (POPHA) to form the fluorescent dimer of POPHA. The analytical reaction responds stoichiometrically to both H2O2 and some organic hydroperoxides. To discriminate H2O2 from organic hydroperoxides, catalase is used to preferentially destroy H2O2. Using a dual-channel flow system the H2O2 concentration is determined by difference.

  3. Fluorometric biosniffer (biochemical gas sensor) for breath acetone as a volatile indicator of lipid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsubayashi, Kohji; Chien, Po-Jen; Ye, Ming; Suzuki, Takuma; Toma, Koji; Arakawa, Takahiro

    2016-11-01

    A fluorometric acetone biosniffer (biochemical gas sensor) for assessment of lipid metabolism utilizing reverse reaction of secondary alcohol dehydrogenase was constructed and evaluated. The biosniffer showed highly sensitivity and selectivity for continuous monitoring of gaseous acetone. The measurement of breath acetone concentration during fasting and aerobic exercise were also investigated. The acetone biosniffer provides a novel analytical tool for noninvasive evaluation of human lipid metabolism and it is also expected to use for the clinical and physiological applications such as monitoring the progression of diabetes.

  4. An investigation of signal performance enhancements achieved through innovative pixel design across several generations of indirect detection, active matrix, flat-panel arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonuk, Larry E.; Zhao Qihua; El-Mohri, Youcef; Du Hong; Wang Yi; Street, Robert A.; Ho, Jackson; Weisfield, Richard; Yao, William

    2009-01-01

    Active matrix flat-panel imager (AMFPI) technology is being employed for an increasing variety of imaging applications. An important element in the adoption of this technology has been significant ongoing improvements in optical signal collection achieved through innovations in indirect detection array pixel design. Such improvements have a particularly beneficial effect on performance in applications involving low exposures and/or high spatial frequencies, where detective quantum efficiency is strongly reduced due to the relatively high level of additive electronic noise compared to signal levels of AMFPI devices. In this article, an examination of various signal properties, as determined through measurements and calculations related to novel array designs, is reported in the context of the evolution of AMFPI pixel design. For these studies, dark, optical, and radiation signal measurements were performed on prototype imagers incorporating a variety of increasingly sophisticated array designs, with pixel pitches ranging from 75 to 127 μm. For each design, detailed measurements of fundamental pixel-level properties conducted under radiographic and fluoroscopic operating conditions are reported and the results are compared. A series of 127 μm pitch arrays employing discrete photodiodes culminated in a novel design providing an optical fill factor of ∼80% (thereby assuring improved x-ray sensitivity), and demonstrating low dark current, very low charge trapping and charge release, and a large range of linear signal response. In two of the designs having 75 and 90 μm pitches, a novel continuous photodiode structure was found to provide fill factors that approach the theoretical maximum of 100%. Both sets of novel designs achieved large fill factors by employing architectures in which some, or all of the photodiode structure was elevated above the plane of the pixel addressing transistor. Generally, enhancement of the fill factor in either discrete or continuous

  5. Hemoglobin-catalyzed fluorometric method for the determination of glutathione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruiqiang; Tang, Lin; Li, Hua; Wang, Yi; Gou, Rong; Guo, Yuanyuan; Fang, Yudong; Chen, Fengmei

    2016-01-01

    A new spectrofluorometric method for the determination of glutathione based on the reaction catalyzed by hemoglobin was reported. The reaction product gave a highly fluorescent intensity with the excitation and emission wavelengths of 320.0 nm and 413.0 nm, respectively. The optimum experimental conditions were investigated. Results showed that low concentration glutathione enhanced the fluorescence intensity significantly. The line ranges were 1.0 × 10-6-1.0 × 10-5 mol L-1 of glutathione and 6.0 × 10-10 mol L-1-1.0 × 10-8 mol L-1, respectively. The detection limit was calculated to be 1.1 × 10-11 mol L-1. The recovery test by the standard addition method gave values in the range of 90.78%-102.20%. This method was used for the determination of glutathione in synthetic and real samples with satisfactory results.

  6. A PYRENE FORMULATION FOR FLUOROMETRIC VISUALIZATION OF LATENT FINGERMARKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kirti Kumari; Kannikanti, Gavash Harsha; Baggi, Tulsida R; Vaidya, Jayathirtha Rao

    2018-04-13

    Present work is conducted to demonstrate the use of pyrene for the development of latent fingermarks. Pyrene formulation with binders can be efficiently used for developing latent fingermarks on porous, non-porous and semi-porous surfaces. The effectiveness of pyrene formulation for the detection of latent fingermarks present on a large variety of objects was systematically and comparatively carried out. To optimize the working formulation, studies were carried out using different pyrene concentrations followed by various substrate study, time dependent study, temperature study, depleted fingermark development and the stability of the proposed formulation. When illuminated at 366 nm, the developed fingermarks showed clear, high contrast primary, secondary and tertiary level ridge details. This work reveals that the fluorescent molecules having high quantum yield are a versatile fluorescent label and can find their applications in forensic latent fingermark development. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. Fluorometric sensing of Triton X-100 based organized media in water by a MOF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Biswajit, E-mail: bdeychem@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Mondal, Ranjan Kumar; Dhibar, Subhendu [Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Chattopadhyay, Asoke Prasun [Department of Chemistry, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235 (India); Bhattacharya, Subhash Chandra [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2016-04-15

    The fluorescent property of the aqueous solution of a metal organic framework (MOF) of Mn(II), having a sedimentary rocks like microstructure in solid-state, has been investigated. The luminescent feature of the the aqueous solution of MOF has been employed for studying the interactions of MOF with different surfactants including neutral, cationic, and anionic types in water medium. Interestingly, the MOF can very selective sense Triton X-100 based micelle in water medium. During the sensing process the fluorescent monomer of the MOF gets accommodated at the palisade layer of Triton X-100 in water medium and this has also been justified by simple fluorescence spectral and FE-SEM microstructural analysis. Thus, a MOF of Mn(II) can act as a selective fluorescent sensor for Triton X-100 based organized medium in water. - Highlights: • Microstructural and crystallographic studies of a water-soluble MOF are performed. • The luminescent property of MOF in water medium is explored. • The interaction between Triton X-100 and the MOF in water medium is studied by fluorometric and microstructural analysis. • The MOF acts as a selective fluorometric sensor for the Triton X-100 based organized media in water. • The monomer of MOF presents in the Triton X-100 micelle in water.

  8. Fluorometric sensing of Triton X-100 based organized media in water by a MOF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Biswajit; Mondal, Ranjan Kumar; Dhibar, Subhendu; Chattopadhyay, Asoke Prasun; Bhattacharya, Subhash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    The fluorescent property of the aqueous solution of a metal organic framework (MOF) of Mn(II), having a sedimentary rocks like microstructure in solid-state, has been investigated. The luminescent feature of the the aqueous solution of MOF has been employed for studying the interactions of MOF with different surfactants including neutral, cationic, and anionic types in water medium. Interestingly, the MOF can very selective sense Triton X-100 based micelle in water medium. During the sensing process the fluorescent monomer of the MOF gets accommodated at the palisade layer of Triton X-100 in water medium and this has also been justified by simple fluorescence spectral and FE-SEM microstructural analysis. Thus, a MOF of Mn(II) can act as a selective fluorescent sensor for Triton X-100 based organized medium in water. - Highlights: • Microstructural and crystallographic studies of a water-soluble MOF are performed. • The luminescent property of MOF in water medium is explored. • The interaction between Triton X-100 and the MOF in water medium is studied by fluorometric and microstructural analysis. • The MOF acts as a selective fluorometric sensor for the Triton X-100 based organized media in water. • The monomer of MOF presents in the Triton X-100 micelle in water.

  9. A high throughput biochemical fluorometric method for measuring lipid peroxidation in HDL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros Kelesidis

    Full Text Available Current cell-based assays for determining the functional properties of high-density lipoproteins (HDL have limitations. We report here the development of a new, robust fluorometric cell-free biochemical assay that measures HDL lipid peroxidation (HDLox based on the oxidation of the fluorochrome Amplex Red. HDLox correlated with previously validated cell-based (r = 0.47, p<0.001 and cell-free assays (r = 0.46, p<0.001. HDLox distinguished dysfunctional HDL in established animal models of atherosclerosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV patients. Using an immunoaffinity method for capturing HDL, we demonstrate the utility of this novel assay for measuring HDLox in a high throughput format. Furthermore, HDLox correlated significantly with measures of cardiovascular diseases including carotid intima media thickness (r = 0.35, p<0.01 and subendocardial viability ratio (r = -0.21, p = 0.05 and physiological parameters such as metabolic and anthropometric parameters (p<0.05. In conclusion, we report the development of a new fluorometric method that offers a reproducible and rapid means for determining HDL function/quality that is suitable for high throughput implementation.

  10. Fast fluorometric flow injection analysis of formaldehyde in atmospheric water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, S.; Dasgupta, P.K.

    1987-06-01

    Formaldehyde can be determined in aqueous solution at a rate of 45 samples/h with a small sample requirement (100 ..mu..L). The fluorescence of 3,5-diacetyl-1,4-dihydrolutidine formed upon reaction of formaldehyde with ammonium acetate and 2,4-pentanedione (25 s, 95 /sup 0/C) is monitored with a filter fluorometer. The detection limit is 0.1 ..mu..M (3 ..mu..g/L) or 10 pmol of HCHO. The response is linear up to 3.3 ..mu..M (100 ..mu..g/L), the departure from linearity at 0.33 mM is 21%, but high levels are satisfactorily determined with a second-order calibration equation. Interference from S(IV) has been investigated in detail and completely eliminated by addition of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ before rendering the sample alkaline. There are no effects from commonly occurring metal ions and anions; the method is very selective to formaldehyde compared to other carbonyl compounds. A S(IV)-containing preservative has been formulated for the stabilization of low concentrations of HCHO. Results are presented for fogwater samples. 8 figures, 41 references.

  11. Towards a new tool for the indirect detection of Dark Matter: building of a SuSy spectrum generator based on micrOMEGAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, Pierre [Laboratoire d' Annecy-le-vieux de Physique des Particules, CNRS/IN2P3/Univ. de Savoie, 9 Chemin de Bellevue - BP 110 F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux CEDEX (France)

    2006-03-15

    In the quest for indirect signals from dark matter annihilation, powerful computation codes are required. I report here a new code based on micrOMEGAs devoted to the analysis of such signals in term of Supersymmetry. It computes gamma rays and positrons fluxes in a general SuSy model, as well as the other charged cosmic rays and neutrinos source terms. This work aims to propose an alternative to the DarkSUSY code by providing inclusive signals from SuSy for dark matter indirect searches. Therefore it can be used for sensitivity studies and data analysis. (author)

  12. Sensitivity and specificity of indirect ELISA for the detection of antibody titers against BVDV from beef cattle raised in Pará State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldo Batista Viana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of anti-bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV antibodies (Ab in beef cattle raised in Pará state, to compare the prevalence of seropositive animals to BVDV using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (iELISA and the virus neutralization (VN test, and finally, to determine the sensitivity (Se and specificity (Sp of the iELISA for the detection of anti-BVDV Ab using VN as a gold standard. A total of 400 serum blood samples from Nelore cows aged at least 24 months from five farms in the Pará state from two mesoregions (Metropolitan Region of Belem and Northeast of Pará were analyzed. All animals were vaccinated against brucellosis and foot-and-mouth disease. The examination of anti-BVDV Ab with VN was performed in the Laboratory of Bovine Viruses of the Biological Institute of Sao Paulo as described in the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. For VN, bovine kidney epithelial cells from the Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK strain were used. The determinations of anti-BVDV Ab were performed with the iELISA test at the Laboratory of Immunology and Microbiology of the Federal Rural University of Amazonia according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The results were classified as follows: (a correct positive diagnosis, (b incorrect positive diagnosis, (c correct negative diagnosis, and (d incorrect negative diagnosis, according to the results obtained from VN. From the values obtained from VN and iELISA, Se [(a ÷ a + d × 100], Sp [(c ÷ c + b × 100], positive predictive value [(a ÷ a + B × 100], and negative predictive value [(c ÷ c + d × 100] were calculated for iELISA. The frequencies (% of seropositive animals were determined and compared both between the different tests (iELISA and VN and between the different farms (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. The statistical analysis was performed with a significance level of 5%. The prevalence of seropositive

  13. Enzymatic and fluorometric determination of triacylglycerols in cow milk and other opaque matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Larsen, Mette Krogh; Friggens, Nic

    2011-01-01

    The fat content of milk is an important indication of quality, both economically and physiologically. Existing analytical methods of milk fat are based on physical determination, i.e. gravimetric determination or near infrared spectroscopy (IR). Triacylglycerols (TAG) constitute up to 98% of total...... fat in milk. The present study describes a new method for determination of triacylglycerols in milk. The present method is a chemical, i.e. enzymatic-fluorometric assessment of glycerol, the content of TAG is consequently given in mol per litre. The method demonstrates a good accuracy and precision...... and the correlation with standard IR methods shows a fine association between the different assessment methods (n = 228; r = 0.905). Fatty acid profiles of sixty individual milk samples indicate that parameters co-linearly connected to specific fatty acids may explain a considerable amount of the variation between...

  14. Indirection and computer security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    The discipline of computer science is built on indirection. David Wheeler famously said, 'All problems in computer science can be solved by another layer of indirection. But that usually will create another problem'. We propose that every computer security vulnerability is yet another problem created by the indirections in system designs and that focusing on the indirections involved is a better way to design, evaluate, and compare security solutions. We are not proposing that indirection be avoided when solving problems, but that understanding the relationships between indirections and vulnerabilities is key to securing computer systems. Using this perspective, we analyze common vulnerabilities that plague our computer systems, consider the effectiveness of currently available security solutions, and propose several new security solutions.

  15. Indirect comparisons of therapeutic interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulkhemair, Dalila

    2009-07-01

    include, independent of any comparator, all randomised controlled trials (RCT that provide a study arm with the intervention of interest. 2. Adjusted indirect comparisons 3. and metaregression analyses include only those studies that provide one study arm with the intervention of interest and another study arm with a common comparator. While the aforementioned methods use conventional metaanalytical techniques, 4. Mixed treatment comparisons (MTC use Bayesian statistics. They are able to analyse a complex network of RCT with multiple comparators simultaneously. During the period from 1999 to 2008 adjusted indirect comparisons are the most commonly used method for indirect comparisons. Since 2006 an increase in the application of the more methodologically challenging MTC is being observed. For the validity check 248 data sets, which include results of a direct and an indirect comparison, are available. The share of statistically significant discrepant results is greatest in the unadjusted indirect comparisons (25,5% [95% CI: 13,1%; 38%], followed by metaregression analyses (16,7% [95% CI: -13,2%; 46,5%], adjusted indirect comparisons (12,1% [95% CI: 6,1%; 18%] and MTC (1,8% [95% CI: -1,7%; 5,2%]. Discrepant results are mainly detected if the basic assumption for an indirect comparison – between-study homogeneity – does not hold. However a systematic over- or underestimation of the results of direct comparisons by any of the indirectly comparing methods was not observed in this sample. Discussion: The selection of an appropriate method for an indirect comparison has to account for its validity, the number of interventions to be compared and the quality as well as the quantity of available studies. Unadjusted indirect comparisons provide, contrasted with the results of direct comparisons, a low validity. Adjusted indirect comparisons and MTC may, under certain circumstances, give results which are consistent with the results of direct comparisons. The limited number of

  16. Separation of attogram terpenes by the capillary zone electrophoresis with fluorometric detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubesová, Anna; Horká, Marie; Růžička, F.; Šlais, Karel; Glatz, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1217, č. 46 (2010), s. 7288-7292 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00310701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : terpenes * farnesol * Candida albicans Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.194, year: 2010

  17. A facile molecularly imprinted polymer-based fluorometric assay for detection of histamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Xiaotong; Ashley, Jon; Zhou, Tongchang

    2018-01-01

    in the wells of a microplate to bind the histamine in aqueous samples. After binding, o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) was used to label the bound histamine, which converted the binding events into fluorescent signals. The obtained calibration curve of histamine showed a linear correlation ranging from 1.80 to 44.98 m...

  18. Pyrenebutanoate as a dynamic protein modifier for fluorometric detection in capillary zone electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Šlais, Karel

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 23, 7-8 (2002), s. 1090-1095 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : pyrenebutanoate * dynamic protein modifier * CZE Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.325, year: 2002

  19. Fluorometric quantification of protoporphyrin IX in biological skin samples from in vitro penetration/permeation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábia Cristina Rossetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A fluorometric analytical method was developed for quantification of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX in skin samples and receptor phase solution after in vitro cutaneous penetration/permeation studies. Analytical conditions used were: excitation and emission wavelengths: 400 nm and 632 nm; bandwidth: 0.5 nm; excitation and emission slits: 10/10. PpIX was recovered from two different layers of skin, the stratum corneum (SC and the epidermis plus dermis ([E+D], by vortex homogenization, probe and bath sonication, using DMSO as an extraction solvent. The detection and quantification limits were 0.002 and 0.005 μg/mL, respectively. The assay was linear from 0.005 - 0.5 μg/mL. The within-day and between-day assay precision and accuracy in DMSO and receptor phase solution were each studied at the two concentration levels 0.04 and 0.2 μg/mL, and 0.01 and 0.08 μg/mL, respectively. The coefficients of variation and deviation from the theoretical values were lower than 5%. The skin recovery of PpIX from SC and [E+D] layers using two different concentrations (0.5 and 1.0 μg/mL were all above 90.0%. The method described has potential application to in vitro penetration/permeation studies of PpIX using porcine skin as a biological membrane model.Um método analítico por espectrofluorimetria foi desenvolvido para quantificar a protoporfirina IX (Pp IX em amostras de pele e fase receptora após a realização de testes in vitro de penetração/permeação cutâneas. As condições analíticas utilizadas foram: comprimentos de onda de excitação e emissão: 400 nm e 632 nm; largura de banda: 0,5 nm; fendas de excitação e emissão: 10/10. A PpIX foi extraída de amostras de estrato córneo (EC e da epiderme sem estrato córneo + derme ([E+D] através da agitação em vórtex e sonicação por haste e banho, utilizando-se o DMSO como solvente extrator. O limite de detecção e quantificação foram, respectivamente, de 0,002 e 0,005 μg/mL. O método mostrou

  20. Indirect lymphography with iotrolan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmeinwieser, K.J.; Allgayer, B.; Golder, W.; Wenzel-Hora, B.; Theiss, H.; Dorrler, W.

    1988-01-01

    Indirect lymphography with the new nonionic dimeric isoosmolal contrast medium iotrolan is a simple method for visualizing the initial lymphatics and the lymph collectors up to the first lymph node station. Without risks, primary and secondary lymphedema and lipedema can be differentiated by typical patterns of lymph vessels. Four types of primary lymphedema can be discerned. This was demonstrated in 29 patients. The clinical diagnosis had to be altered in six cases because of the results of indirect lymphography. There were no side effects. Compared with clinical examination, dye test, fluorescence microlymphangiography, and lymph scintigraphy, indirect lymphography seems to be superior in the differential diagnosis of lymphedema

  1. Detection of Streptococcus suis by in situ hybridization, indirect immunofluorescence, and peroxidase-antiperoxidase assays in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Mette; Feenstra, Anne Avlund; Tegtmeier, Conny

    2000-01-01

    and the immunohistochemical methods were used for detection of S. suis in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of brain, endocardium, and lung from pigs infected with S. suis. The methods developed were able to detect single cells of S. suis in situ in the respective samples, whereas no signal was observed from...

  2. Development of an indirect ELISA to detect Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis specific antibodies in sheep employing T1 strain culture supernatant as antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam F. Rebouças

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA, a chronic disease that affects goats and sheep, characterized by granuloma formation in subcutaneous and internal lymph nodes. CLA causes significant economic losses to commercial goat herds. In this study, we aimed to test secreted antigens secreted from T1 strain bacteria grown in brain heart infusion (BHI broth in an indirect ELISA system to determine the presence of specific immunoglobulins against C. pseudotuberculosis. We analyzed the BHI antigen electrophoretic profile and the recognition pattern by infected sheep sera samples. The ELISA results were compared with multiplex PCR assay and IFN-gamma production. The ELISA was able to discriminate between negative and positive animals, with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 99%, using microbiological isolation as gold standard. When this assay was compared with multiplex PCR and specific IFN-gamma quantification, six discrepant results were found among thirty-two samples. We concluded that the ELISA using antigens secreted from C. pseudotuberculosis T1 strain growth in BHI broth culture can be used for the serodiagnosis of CLA in sheep.

  3. Development and Standardization of Dot - ELISA for Detection of Neospora caninum Antibodies in Cattle and Comparison with Standard Indirect ELISA and Direct Agglutination Test (DAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidinejat, Hossein; Haji Hajikolaei, Mohamad Rahim; Ghorbanpoor, Masoud; Namavari, Mehdi; Gol, Sara Mohamad Ali

    2013-10-01

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite from phylum apicomplexa and an important agent causing abortion in cattle which produce notable economic loss all around the world. Dot-Elisa was set up performing checker board procedure and then 178 sera of cattle examined with commercial indirect ELISA and direct agglutination test (DAT) were also evaluated by dot-ELISA afterwards. Kappa statistical analysis revealed that Dot-ELISA has good agreements with ELISA as well as the DAT and also, Mc Nemar's analyzing showed that this procedure has acceptable ability to discriminate positive results. Relative sensitivity and specificity of Dot-ELISA were respectively 92.63% and 89.16% and 93.4% and 90.8% in comparison with ELISA and DAT. Since the dot-ELISA is easy, inexpensive and not needed high experience to interpret the results, it is superior to ELISA and DAT when we aim to screen the cattle on the farm and slaughterhouses or when the laboratory equipment is not available.

  4. A Fluorometric Activity Assay for Light-Regulated Cyclic-Nucleotide-Monophosphate Actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Charlotte Helene; Körschen, Heinz G; Nicol, Christopher; Gasser, Carlos; Seifert, Reinhard; Schwärzel, Martin; Möglich, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As a transformative approach in neuroscience and cell biology, optogenetics grants control over manifold cellular events with unprecedented spatiotemporal definition, reversibility, and noninvasiveness. Sensory photoreceptors serve as genetically encoded, light-regulated actuators and hence embody the cornerstone of optogenetics. To expand the scope of optogenetics, ever more naturally occurring photoreceptors are being characterized, and synthetic photoreceptors with customized, light-regulated function are being engineered. Perturbational control over intracellular cyclic-nucleotide-monophosphate (cNMP) levels is achieved via sensory photoreceptors that catalyze the making and breaking of these second messengers in response to light. To facilitate discovery, engineering and quantitative characterization of such light-regulated cNMP actuators, we have developed an efficient fluorometric assay. Both the formation and the hydrolysis of cNMPs are accompanied by proton release which can be quantified with the fluorescent pH indicator 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). This assay equally applies to nucleotide cyclases, e.g., blue-light-activated bPAC, and to cNMP phosphodiesterases, e.g., red-light-activated LAPD. Key benefits include potential for parallelization and automation, as well as suitability for both purified enzymes and crude cell lysates. The BCECF assay hence stands to accelerate discovery and characterization of light-regulated actuators of cNMP metabolism.

  5. Magnetite-doped eggshell membrane as a magnetic sorbent for extraction of aluminum(III) ions prior to their fluorometric determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdolmohammad-Zadeh, Hossein; Talleb, Zeynab

    2014-01-01

    We have explored the feasibility of using a magnetite-doped eggshell membrane as a magnetic solid phase extraction sorbent for the separation of aluminum ion from aqueous solutions. The sorbent was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. A fast, simple and non-expensive method was then developed for the determination of trace quantities of Al(III) in water and food samples by combining magnetic solid phase extraction with fluorometric quantitation via its highly fluorescent complex with 8-hydroxyquinoline. The effects of pH value, amount of sorbent, sample volume, elution conditions and interfering ions on extraction were optimized. Under optimum conditions, the calibration graph extends from 0.5 to 65.0 μg L −1 , the limit of detection is 0.2 μg L −1 , and the enrichment factor is 84. The method was validated by the successful analysis of a standard reference material (NIST SRM 1549; nonfat milk powder) and applied to the determination of Al(III) in several waters, black tea, tomato paste and cocoa powder samples. (author)

  6. The effect of glucose stimulation on 45calcium uptake of rat pancreatic islets and their total calcium content as measured by a fluorometric micro-method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, G.H.J.; Wiegman, J.B.; Konijnendijk, W.

    1982-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated 45 calcium uptake and total calcium content of rat pancreatic islets has been studied, using a new fluorometric micro-method to estimate total calcium. Extracellular calcium was separated from incubated tissue by a rapid micro-filtration procedure. Islets incubated up to 60 min with calcium chloride 2.5 mmol/l and glucose 2.5 mmol/l maintained the same calcium content (670 +- 7.5 pmol/μg DNA). When the glucose concentration was raised to 15 mmol/l no change in the total calcium content could be detected. On incubation with glucose 2.5 mmol/l in the absence of calcium, the calcium content decreased to 488 +- 27 pmol/μg DNA. On incubation with 45 calcium chloride 2.5 mmol/l for 5 or 30 min at 2.5 mmol/l glucose, islets exchanged 21 +- 2 and 28 +- 1% of their total calcium content and, at 15 mmol/l glucose, 30 +- 3 and 45 +- 2%, respectively. Thus, islet calcium has a high turn-over rate. Glucose stimulation results in an increase of the calcium uptake without enhancing the total calcium content and hence must increase the calcium-exchangeable pool. (orig.)

  7. Increased detection of clinically significant antibodies and decreased incidence of delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction with the indirect antiglobulin test potentiated by polyethylene glycol compared to albumin: a Japanese study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okutsu, Miho; Ohto, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Hiroyasu; Kawabata, Kinuyo; Ono, Satoshi; Saito, Shunnichi; Sugawara, Akiko; Kikuchi, Masami; Miura, Saori; Ishii, Youko; Watanabe, Kazuya; Tohyama, Yuriko; Nollet, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    Background The indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) can be potentiated by agents such as polyethylene glycol (PEG-IAT) and albumin (Alb-IAT). PEG-IAT is generally regarded as superior to Alb-IAT for the detection of clinically significant red blood cell (RBC) antibodies. However, supporting data come from Caucasian-dominant populations. Non-Caucasian populations should be investigated as well. Material and methods In this single-centre, retrospective, sequential study, Alb-IAT was used from 1989 to 1996 (8 years) and PEG-IAT from 1997 to 2008 (12 years). Pre-transfusion RBC alloantibody detection rates and specificity, post-transfusion alloantibody production, and the incidence of delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction were assessed and compared for the two periods. Results Although overall RBC alloantibody detection rates were comparable, PEG-IAT more frequently detected clinically significant antibodies such as anti-E, anti-Fyb, and anti-Jka, and less frequently detected insignificant antibodies such as anti-Leb and anti-P1. New alloantibodies emerged comparably during the two periods. Delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction was less frequent during the PEG-IAT period (0.30% versus 0.12%, ptransfusion reaction better than Alb-IAT among Japanese transfusion recipients in this retrospective survey of limited power. PMID:21251459

  8. Development and use of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of iridovirus exposure in gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) and eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, April J; Wendland, Lori; Norton, Terry M; Belzer, Bill; Jacobson, Elliott R

    2010-05-19

    Iridoviruses, pathogens typically associated with fish and amphibians, have recently been shown to cause acute respiratory disease in chelonians including box turtles, red-eared sliders, gopher tortoises, and Burmese star tortoises. Case reports of natural infections in several chelonian species in the United States have been reported, however the prevalence remains unknown in susceptible populations of free-ranging chelonians. To determine the prevalence of iridovirus exposure in free-ranging gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) in the southeast United States, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and used to evaluate plasma samples from wild gopher tortoises (G. polyphemus) from: Alabama (n=9); Florida (n=658); Georgia (n=225); Louisiana (n=12); Mississippi (n=28); and unknown locations (68) collected between 2001 and 2006. Eight (1.2%) seropositive tortoises were identified from Florida and seven (3.1%) from Georgia for an overall prevalence of 1.5%. Additionally, a population of eastern box turtles was sampled from a private nature sanctuary in Pennsylvania that experienced an outbreak of iridovirus the previous year, which killed 16 turtles. Only 1 turtle out of 55 survivors tested positive (1.8%). Results suggest a low exposure rate in chelonians to this pathogen; however, it is suspected that this is an underestimate of the true prevalence. Since experimental transmission studies and past outbreaks have shown a high rate of mortality in infected turtles, turtles may die before they develop an antibody response. Further, the duration of the antibody response is unknown and may also cause an underestimate of the true prevalence. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Simultaneous determination of ammonia, dimethylamine, trimethylamine and trimethylamine-N-oxide in fish extracts by capillary electrophoresis with indirect UV-detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Jørgensen, Bo

    2002-01-01

    M crown ether 18-crown-6 enabled separation of the analytes in 5-10 min. The use of an extended light path capillary technique resulted in a good sensitivity and repeatability. The linear dynamic range, based on a hydrostatic injection at 50 mbar for 2 s, was from the detection limit to at least 2.5 m...

  10. Processes limiting the emergence of detectable aerosol indirect effects on tropical warm clouds in global aerosol-climate model and satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Peters

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We use data from simulations performed with the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM to test the proposition that shipping emissions do not have a statistically significant effect on water clouds over tropical oceans on climate scales put forward in earlier satellite based work. We analyse a total of four sensitivity experiments, three of which employ global shipping emissions and one simulation which only employs shipping emissions in the mid-Atlantic Ocean. To ensure comparability to earlier results from observations, we sample the model data using a method previously applied to satellite data aimed at separating ‘clean’ from ‘polluted’ oceanic regions based on i the location of main shipping routes and ii wind direction at 10 m above sea level. The model simulations run with realistic present-day shipping emissions show changes in the lower tropospheric aerosol population attributable to shipping emissions across major shipping corridors over tropical oceans. However, we find the resulting effect on cloud properties to be non-distinguishable from natural gradients and variability, that is, gradients of cloud properties sampled across major shipping corridors over tropical oceans are very similar among those simulations. Our results therefore compare well to the earlier findings from satellite observations. Substantial changes of the aerosol population and cloud properties only occur when shipping emissions are increased 10-fold. We find that aerosol advection and rapid aerosol removal from the atmosphere play an important role in determining the non-significant response in i column integrated aerosol properties and ii cloud microphysical properties in the realistic simulations. Additionally, high variability and infrequent occurrence of simulated low-level clouds over tropical oceans in ECHAM5-HAM limit the development of aerosol indirect effects because i in-cloud production of sulphate from ship-emitted sulphuric species via

  11. Development of an Indirect ELISA Using Different Fragments of Recombinant Ncgra7 for Detection of Neospora caninum Infection in Cattle and Water Buffalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAMIDINEJAT, Hossein; SEIFI ABAD SHAPOURI, Massoud Reza; NAMAVARI, Mohammad Mehdi; SHAYAN, Parviz; KEFAYAT, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dense granules are immunodominant proteins for the standardization of immunodiagnostic procedures to detect neosporosis. In the presented study different fragment of a dense-granule protein was evaluated for serodiagnosis of Neospora caninum in cattle and water buffalo. Methods: NcGRA7, from N. caninum tachyzoites was amplified. PCR product and pMAL-c2X plasmid were digested with EcoR1 restriction enzyme and expressed in Escherichia coli to evaluate its competence for detection of anti- N. caninum antibodies with ELISA in comparison with commercial IDEXX ELISA. Furthermore, 230 sera of presumably healthy cattle and water buffaloes (108 cattle and 122 water buffaloes) were analyzed by both tests to determine the agreement of these two procedures. Results: Sensitivities and specificities of NcGRA7-based ELISA were 94.64% and 90.38% respectively using sera of cattle, but were 98.57% and 86.54% in the case of buffaloes respectively. A good correlation between the results of IDEXX ELISA and ELISA based on recombinant NcGRA7 for detecting N. caninum antibodies was appeared. Analyzing by Mc Nemar′s showed that NcGRA7-based ELISA has acceptable capability to differentiate the positive results in comparison with IDEXX ELISA. Conclusion: NcGRA7-based ELISA considering utilized new fragment of genomic DNA is a good tool for serodiagnosis of anti- N. caninum antibodies for screening and epidemiological purposes on cattle herd and water buffaloes as well. PMID:25904948

  12. Predicting Outcome and Therapy Response in mCRC Patients Using an Indirect Method for CTCs Detection by a Multigene Expression Panel: A Multicentric Prospective Validation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Vidal Insua

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the major causes of cancer-related deaths. Early detection of tumor relapse is crucial for determining the most appropriate therapeutic management. In clinical practice, computed tomography (CT is routinely used, but small tumor changes are difficult to visualize, and reliable blood-based prognostic and monitoring biomarkers are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to prospectively validate a gene expression panel (composed of GAPDH, VIL1, CLU, TIMP1, TLN1, LOXL3 and ZEB2 for detecting circulating tumor cells (CTCs as prognostic and predictive tool in blood samples from 94 metastatic CRC (mCRC patients. Patients with higher gene panel expression before treatment had a reduced progression-free survival (PFS and overall-survival (OS rates compared with patients with low expression (p = 0.003 and p ≤ 0.001, respectively. Patients with increased expression of CTCs markers during treatment presented PFS and OS times of 8.95 and 11.74 months, respectively, compared with 14.41 and 24.7 for patients presenting decreased expression (PFS; p = 0.020; OS; p ≤ 0.001. Patients classified as non-responders by CTCs with treatment, but classified as responders by CT scan, showed significantly shorter survival times (PFS: 8.53 vs. 11.70; OS: 10.37 vs. 24.13; months. In conclusion, our CTCs detection panel demonstrated efficacy for early treatment response assessment in mCRC patients, and with increased reliability compared to CT scan.

  13. Detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in experimentally and naturally infected non-human primates by Indirect Fluorescence Assay (IFA and indirect ELISA Detecção de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii por meio das técnicas de Imunofluorescência Indireta e ELISA Indireto em primatas experimentalmente e naturalmente infectados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Bouer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Indirect Fluorescence Assay (IFA and the indirect ELISA were comparatively used to detect IgG and IgM antibodies for Toxoplasma gondii in experimentally and naturally infected primates. In the experimentally infected group, antibodies of diagnostic value were detected at day 9 post-infection (PI with the IFA (IgG and IgM and with IgG-ELISA. IgM-ELISA detected antibodies for T. gondii starting at day 3 PI until the end of the experiment (102 days PI. Of the 209 naturally infected sera tested, from many zoos of State of Sao Paulo, 64.59 and 67.94% were positive in the IgG-IFA test and IgG-ELISA respectively. IgM-ELISA test detected seropositivity in 52.63% of the sera although IgM-IFA test detected it in only in 0.96% of the samples. The differential toxoplasmosis diagnosis was accomplished with Neospora caninum by IFA, observing 61 (29.2% seropositive animals for this parasite and 149 (70.8% negative. Sixty animals were positive for both T. gondii and N. caninum. Pneumonia, splenomegaly, and intestinal ulcers were macroscopically observed. Unremarkable interstitial pneumonia, enteritis, colitis, splenitis, and glomerulitis were microscopically observed. The immunohistochemical stain could not detect the presence of T. gondii in the tissues of the animals infected experimentally.Detectou-se anticorpos das classes IgG e IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii em primatas experimentalmente e naturalmente infectados, utilizando-se como técnicas comparativas a RIFI e o ELISA-teste. No grupo dos primatas experimentalmente infectados, anticorpos de valor diagnóstico foram detectados a partir do 9º dia de infecção tanto na RIFI (IgG e IgM como no ELISA-IgG. O ELISA IgM detectou anticorpos a partir do 3º dia de infecção até o final do experimento (102 dias pós-infecção. Dos 209 soros dos primatas naturalmente infectados, de diversos zoológicos do Estado de São Paulo, 64,59 e 67,94% mostraram-se positivos na RIFI-IgG e no ELISA-IgG, respectivamente. O

  14. Indirect field technology for detecting areas object of illegal spills harmful to human health: application of drones, photogrammetry and hydrological models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capolupo, Alessandra; Pindozzi, Stefania; Okello, Collins; Boccia, Lorenzo

    2014-12-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural soils is a serious environmental problem. The Campania region in southern Italy has higher levels of cancer risk, presumably due to the accumulation of geogenic and anthropogenic soil pollutants, some of which have been incorporated into organic matter. The aim of this study was to introduce and test an innovative, field-applicable methodology to detect heavy metal accumulation using drone-based photogrammetry and microrill network modelling, specifically to generate wetlands wetlands prediction indices normally applied at large catchment scales, such as a large geographic basin. The processing of aerial photos taken using a hexacopter equipped with fifth-generation software for photogrammetry allowed the generation of a digital elevation model (DEM) with a resolution as high as 30 mm. Not only this provided a high potential for the study of micro-rill processes, but it was also useful for testing and comparing the capability of the topographic index (TI) and the clima-topographic index (CTI) to predict heavy metal sedimentation points at scales from 0.1 to 10 ha. Our results indicate that the TI and CTI indices can be used to predict points of heavy metal accumulation for small field catchments.

  15. CONTRIBUTION OF INDIRECT TAXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The work is based on the fact that at any time and in any society, taxation is regarded as undesirable for all taxpayers. The existence and it's manifestation is justified, because the operation of any company involves costs that must be covered by sufficient resources. Since ancient times, each state has adopted its own tax system, more or less perfected, as the state has experienced a greater or lesser economic and military power At the base of this work stays the fact that tax systems are a key factor influencing the overall efficiency of the economy. They determine the size tendency to save, invest and work, influencing the increase in production and employment, which is essential sights integral economic strategy, making tax reform an important component of economic reform. This paper aims to analyze the indirect taxes and their contribution to the public revenues in Romania, the purpose paper contains an analysis based on statistical series as indirect taxation is where tax harmonization was possible. Through analyzes, the paper aims to provide answers to the problem of the contradiction between the growing need for budgetary revenues, which entails a continuous amplification and diversification of taxation, on the one hand, and the need to stimulate economic development, on the other hand. The harmonization of indirect taxation had been achieved since this touches the free movement of goods and the freedom to supply services, not being able to say the same thing about direct taxation, which is why the European Community Treaty does not specify expressly the alignment of direct taxation, considering that direct taxation is a matter of Internal Policies that, for a country free option.

  16. Indirect detection of heavy supersymmetric dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamionkowski, M.

    1991-02-01

    If neutralinos reside in the galactic halo they will be captured in the Sun and annihilate therein producing high-energy neutrinos. Present limits on the flux of such neutrinos from underground detectors such as IMB and Kamiokande 2 may be used to rule out certain supersymmetric dark-matter candidates, while in many other supersymmetric models the rates are large enough that if neutralinos do reside in the galactic halo, observation of a neutrino signal may be possible in the near future. 10 refs., 2 figs

  17. Indirect bipolar electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loget, Gabriel; Roche, Jérome; Gianessi, Eugenio; Bouffier, Laurent; Kuhn, Alexander

    2012-12-12

    Based on the principles of bipolar electrochemistry, localized pH gradients are generated at the surface of conducting particles in solution. This allows the toposelective deposition of inorganic and organic polymer layers via a pH-triggered precipitation mechanism. Due to the intrinsic symmetry breaking of the process, the concept can be used to generate in a straightforward way Janus particles, with one section consisting of deposits obtained from non-electroactive precursors. These indirect electrodeposits, such as SiO(2), TiO(2), or electrophoretic paints, can be further used as an immobilization matrix for other species like dyes or nanoparticles, thus opening promising perspectives for the synthesis of a variety of bifunctional objects with a controlled shape.

  18. Resistance in bacteria and indirect beta-lactamase detection in E. coli isolated from Culex pipiens detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hleba, Lukáš; Kmeť, Vladimír; Tóth, Tomáš; Kačániová, Miroslava

    2017-01-02

    The aim of this study was detections of antibiotic resistance and resistance mechanism in bacteria isolated from mosquitos (Culex pipiens) living near humans. Therefore, antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from Culex pipiens was investigated by disk diffusion test and MIC E-test in this study. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was used for detection of resistant mechanism. In this study, hydrolytic breakdown products after a few hours of incubation of the bacteria isolated from Culex pipiens were detected. Results show that enzymatic destruction of ampicillin by beta-lactamases is able to be detected by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry from wild strains of potential pathogens. The MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry is useful method for routine detection of beta-lactamases resistant mechanism, but overnight incubation of pure culture is necessary. The results are important for proper and fast intervention to limit the spread of beta-lactamase-producing wild bacteria and provide information for appropriate initial therapy of the infections caused by these microbes.

  19. [Value of functional lymphoscintigraphy and indirect lymphangiography in lipedema syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissleder, H; Brauer, J W; Schuchhardt, C; Herpertz, U

    1995-12-01

    Early terms of lymphostasis in lipedema can be detected with lymphoscintigraphy. A normal examination almost certainly excludes a lymphatic component. Indirect lymphography is only used to rule out morphological abnormalities of lymph vessels. If a lymphoscintigraphic study is normal indirect lymphography is not indicated.

  20. WE-G-204-05: Relative Object Detectability Evaluation of a New High Resolution A-Se Direct Detection System Compared to Indirect Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscopic (MAF) Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, M; Nagesh, S Setlur; Ionita, C; Bednarek, D; Rudin, S [Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo (SUNY), Buffalo, NY (United States); Scott, C; Karim, K [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the task specific imaging performance of a new 25µm pixel pitch, 1000µm thick amorphous selenium direct detection system with CMOS readout for typical angiographic exposure parameters using the relative object detectability (ROD) metric. Methods: The ROD metric uses a simulated object function weighted at each spatial frequency by the detectors’ detective quantum efficiency (DQE), which is an intrinsic performance metric. For this study, the simulated objects were aluminum spheres of varying diameter (0.05–0.6mm). The weighted object function is then integrated over the full range of detectable frequencies inherent to each detector, and a ratio is taken of the resulting value for two detectors. The DQE for the 25µm detector was obtained from a simulation of a proposed a-Se detector using an exposure of 200µR for a 50keV x-ray beam. This a-Se detector was compared to two microangiographic fluoroscope (MAF) detectors [the MAF-CCD with pixel size of 35µm and Nyquist frequency of 14.2 cycles/mm and the MAF-CMOS with pixel size of 75µm and Nyquist frequency of 6.6 cycles/mm] and a standard flat-panel detector (FPD with pixel size of 194µm and Nyquist frequency of 2.5cycles/mm). Results: ROD calculations indicated vastly superior performance by the a-Se detector in imaging small aluminum spheres. For the 50µm diameter sphere, the ROD values for the a-Se detector compared to the MAF-CCD, the MAF-CMOS, and the FPD were 7.3, 9.3 and 58, respectively. Detector performance in the low frequency regime was dictated by each detector’s DQE(0) value. Conclusion: The a-Se with CMOS readout is unique and appears to have distinctive advantages of incomparable high resolution, low noise, no readout lag, and expandable design. The a-Se direct detection system will be a powerful imaging tool in angiography, with potential break-through applications in diagnosis and treatment of neuro-vascular disease. Supported by NIH Grant: 2R01EB002873 and an

  1. Estudo comparativo entre as provas de ELISA e imunofluorescência indireta (IFI para detectar anticorpos contra Babesia bovis A comparative study between ELISA and indirect imunofluorescent (IFI tests to detect antibodies against Babesia bovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Martins

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se o desempenho de um kit de ELISA para detectar anticorpos contra Babesia bovis, em hemoparasita bovino, com o teste de Imunofluorescência Indireta (IFI usualmente empregado em rotina sorológica. Sobre 97 amostras de soros oriundas de uma região livre de carrapatos e hematozoários, o teste de ELISA demonstrou uma especificidade de 98.9% contra 97.9% do teste de IFI. Ambos os testes apresentaram uma sensibilidade de 100% quando utilizados sobre 22 amostras de soro de bovinos experimentalmente infectados com B. bovis. Os resultados obtidos sobre 1560 amostras colhidas à campo, mostraram uma concordância de 90,1% (1406/1560 entre amostras positivas e negativas, enquanto que 4,2% (66 foram positivas para IFI e negativas para ELISA e 5,6% (88 foram negativas para IFI e positivas para ELISA.Performance of an ELISA kit for detecting antibodies to Babesia bovis, a bovine haemoparasite, was compared with the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT used in serological routine. Over 97 sera samples from a free tick area, ELISA showed an specificity of 98.9% against 97.9% obtained by IFA T. Both tests showed a sensitivity of 100% when compared over 22 sera samples from experimentally infected bovine with B. bovis. Results obtained with 1560 field samples showed an agreement of 90.1% (1406/1560 between positive and negativo samples while 4.2% (66 were positives to IFAT and negatives to ELISA, and 5.6% (88 owere negatives to IFAT and positives to ELISA.

  2. Determination of aminopolycarboxylic acids at ultra-trace levels by means of online coupling ion exchange chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with indirect detection via their Pd2+-complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nette, David; Seubert, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 8 important APCA’s analyzed in one run instead of 3 in the previous method. • Pd 2+ extents the methods applicability to 3 and more dentate amino carboxylic acids. • Separation system optimized for the isocratic determination of important APCA’s. • Thermodynamic stability of APCA–Pd 2+ complexes is higher than for Fe 3+ and In 3+ . • Pd 2+ is kinetically much slower than Fe 3+ and In 3+ and makes the method more rugged. - Abstract: A new indirect IC-ICP-MS method for the determination of aminopolycarboxylic acids in water samples is described. It is based on the addition of an excess of Pd(II) to water samples. The analytes are forced into very strong and negatively charged palladium complexes, separated by ion exchange chromatography and detected by their palladium content, utilizing an on-line coupled ICP-MS. This method is suitable to determine the concentration of 8 aminopolycarboxylic acids (nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), (2-carboxyethyl) iminodiacetic acid (β-ADA), methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA), 2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediamine triacetic acid (HEDTA), diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylendiamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), 1,3-diaminopropane tetraacetic acid (1,3-PDTA) and 1,2-diaminopropane tetraacetic acid (1,2-PDTA) at the ng kg −1 level. The method is faster and easier than the established gas chromatography (GC)-method ISO 16588:2002 [1] and up to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the ion pair chromatography based method of DIN 38413-8. Analytic performance is superior to ISO 16588:2002 and the comparability is good

  3. Inclusion of fluorophores in cyclodextrins: a closer look at the fluorometric determination of association constants by linear and nonlinear fitting procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutterer, Rudi

    2018-01-01

    The author discusses methods for the fluorometric determination of affinity constants by linear and nonlinear fitting methods. This is outlined in particular for the interaction between cyclodextrins and several anesthetic drugs including benzocaine. Special emphasis is given to the limitations of certain fits, and the impact of such studies on enzyme-substrate interactions are demonstrated. Both the experimental part and methods of analysis are well suited for students in an advanced lab.

  4. In vitro evaluation of new anticancer drugs, exemplified by vinorelbine, using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay on human tumor cell lines and patient biopsy cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridborg, H; Nygren, P; Dhar, S; Csoka, K; Kristensen, J; Larsson, R

    1996-09-01

    The feasibility of combined studies on a cell-line panel and primary cultures of patient tumor cells in the preclinical evaluation of new anticancer drugs was evaluated in a study of the activity and cross-resistance pattern in vitro of the new semi-synthetic vinca alkaloid vinorelbine (Vrb). The activity of Vrb was investigated in ten cell lines representing different resistance mechanisms and in a total of 256 fresh human tumor samples, using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA). Resistance to Vrb in the cell lines was associated with expression of the multidrug resistance-mediating P-glycoprotein and the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) and by a recently described tubulin-associated mechanism, while the cell lines with topoisomerase II- and glutathion-associated resistance did not show decreased sensitivity to the drug. Cross-resistance to vincristine (Vcr) and other tubulin-active agents was high in cell lines as well as in patient cells. As with most commonly used anti-cancer drugs, Vrb was more active in hematological than in solid tumor samples. Among the solid tumors investigated, the highest in vitro response rates were observed in ovarian cancer (27%), sarcoma (25%), non-small cell lung cancer (21%) and bladder cancer (20%), while no response was observed in renal or colorectal cancer. Compared to Vcr, Vrb appeared to be slightly more active in solid tumors and slightly less active in hematological tumors. The results show that although Vrb displays a high degree of cross-resistance to Vcr and other tubulin-active drugs, some difference in the activity spectrum could be detected and that the drug is sensitive to multiple mechanisms of resistance. The results also suggest that leukemias, ovarian cancer, sarcoma and bladder cancer are possible further targets for Vrb. The combination of studies on a cell-line panel and patient tumor cells from a broad spectrum of diagnoses to evaluate a new drug seems feasible and may give

  5. A simplified indirect bonding technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Katiyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of lingual orthodontics, indirect bonding technique has become an integral part of practice. It involves placement of brackets initially on the models and then their transfer to teeth with the help of transfer trays. Problems encountered with current indirect bonding techniques used are (1 the possibility of adhesive flash remaining around the base of the brackets which requires removal (2 longer time required for the adhesive to gain enough bond strength for secure tray removal. The new simplified indirect bonding technique presented here overcomes both these problems.

  6. The Complexity of Indirect Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenjie, L. I.

    2017-01-01

    its complex nature, and thus determined that many facets of ITr remain to be studied. The present article will try to encompass the complexity of ITr by looking into the reasons for translating indirectly, the challenge of finding out mediating texts (MTs), indirectness in both translation...... of which have been translated and interpreted indirectly through major languages like English, will be employed as examples. Hopefully, this study will offer more insights into the nature of translation as a social activity and raise further interests in studying translation as a complex phenomenon....

  7. Sol-gel column technology for capillary isoelectric focusing of microorganisms and biopolymers with UV or fluorometric detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Planeta, Josef; Růžička, F.; Šlais, Karel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 9 (2003), s. 1383-1390 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031901; GA AV ČR IAA4031302; GA ČR GA203/02/1447 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : sol-gel CIEF * microorganisms Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.040, year: 2003

  8. The logic of indirect speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A.; Lee, James J.

    2008-01-01

    When people speak, they often insinuate their intent indirectly rather than stating it as a bald proposition. Examples include sexual come-ons, veiled threats, polite requests, and concealed bribes. We propose a three-part theory of indirect speech, based on the idea that human communication involves a mixture of cooperation and conflict. First, indirect requests allow for plausible deniability, in which a cooperative listener can accept the request, but an uncooperative one cannot react adversarially to it. This intuition is supported by a game-theoretic model that predicts the costs and benefits to a speaker of direct and indirect requests. Second, language has two functions: to convey information and to negotiate the type of relationship holding between speaker and hearer (in particular, dominance, communality, or reciprocity). The emotional costs of a mismatch in the assumed relationship type can create a need for plausible deniability and, thereby, select for indirectness even when there are no tangible costs. Third, people perceive language as a digital medium, which allows a sentence to generate common knowledge, to propagate a message with high fidelity, and to serve as a reference point in coordination games. This feature makes an indirect request qualitatively different from a direct one even when the speaker and listener can infer each other's intentions with high confidence. PMID:18199841

  9. ELISA indireto para detecção de IgG antivírus da doença de Newcastle em soro de codorna Indirect ELISA for the detection of IgG specific to Newcastle disease virus in quail serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.D. Oliveira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available An indirect ELISA for the detection of japanese quail IgG specific to Newcastle disease virus (NDV was developed. The secondary anti-quail IgG was produced in Balb/c mice, by inoculating Freund's complete adjuvant emulsified japanese quail-IgG extract. The purification of IgG was achieved using the caprilic acid method. The ELISA was compared to the haemagglutination-inhibition (HI test for antibodies to NDV. ELISA cut-off point was established through TG-ROC analysis. Total correlation was observed between the ELISA and the HI, being the ELISA efficient in the identification of positive and negative sera, with high sensitivity and specificity (100%. These results validate the use of the indirect ELISA as an alternative for the detection of NDV-specific IgG in japanese quail sera, with the advantage of high sensitivity and automation.

  10. Cytotoxic drug sensitivity testing of tumor cells from patients with ovarian carcinoma using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csoka, K; Larsson, R; Tholander, B; Gerdin, E; de la Torre, M; Nygren, P

    1994-08-01

    The automated fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) is based on the measurement of fluorescence generated from cellular hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate (FDA) to fluorescein by viable cells after a 72-hr culture period in microtiter plates. The FMCA was adopted for chemosensitivity testing of tumor cells from patients with ovarian carcinoma. Thirty-seven samples of solid tumors and malignant effusions were obtained from 35 patients at diagnosis or relapse. Tumor cells from solid samples and effusions were prepared by enzymatic digestion and centrifugation, respectively, followed by Percoll or Ficoll purification. The fluorescence was proportional to the number of cells/well and considerably higher in tumor cells than in contaminating normal cells. The effect of up to 19 cytotoxic drugs was successfully assessed in 70% of the samples and there was a good correlation between drug sensitivity data reported by the FMCA and the DiSC assay performed in parallel. The overall drug sensitivity pattern in vitro corresponded well to the clinical experience. The effect of cisplatin varied considerably between patients and resistance was found also in cases not previously exposed to cytotoxic drugs. The FMCA is a rapid and simple method that seems to report clinically relevant cytotoxic drug sensitivity data in ovarian carcinomas. In the future, this method may contribute to optimizing chemotherapy by assisting in individualized drug selection and new drug development.

  11. In vitro determination of cytotoxic drug response in ovarian carcinoma using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csóka, K; Tholander, B; Gerdin, E; de la Torre, M; Larsson, R; Nygren, P

    1997-09-17

    The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA), a short-term in vitro assay based on the concept of total tumor cell kill, was used for testing the cytotoxic drug sensitivity of tumor cells from patients with ovarian carcinoma. A total of 125 fresh specimens was obtained, 98 (78%) of which were analyzed successfully. Data from 45 patients were available for clinical correlations. The FMCA appeared to yield clinically relevant cytotoxic drug sensitivity data for ovarian carcinoma as indicated by a comparison with tumor samples obtained from patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or kidney carcinoma. Considering the most active single agent in vitro actually given in vivo, and using the median drug activity among all ovarian carcinoma samples as a cut-off, the sensitivity of the assay and its specificity were 75 and 52%, respectively. Cross-resistance in vitro was frequently observed between standard drugs but not between standard drugs and Taxol. Ten percent of the specimens showed an extreme resistance for at least 4 of 6 of the drugs investigated.

  12. A rapid fluorometric method for semiautomated determination of cytotoxicity and cellular proliferation of human tumor cell lines in microculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, R; Nygren, P

    1989-01-01

    A fluorometric method for the determination of cellular growth and cytotoxicity of human tumor cell lines in 96-well microculture plates is described. The assay is based on the combined use of the DNA-binding dye Hoechst 33342 and the fluorogenic substrate fluorescein diacetate (FDA). Hoechst 33342 undergoes a dramatic enhancement of fluorescence when specifically intercalated with cellular DNA, whereas the FDA fluorescence is dependent on cellular hydrolysis of the non-fluorescent substrate into its fluorescent product. Fluorescence from both dyes was linearly related to the density of freshly seeded cells (6 x 10(3)-1 x 10(5)/well) and correlated well with physical cell count of cells under normal culture conditions as well as in response to the vinca alkaloid vincristine. However, the amount of FDA fluorescence produces and retained by the cultures was clearly dependent on the fraction of intact and viable cells, whereas the fluorescence reported by Hoechst 33342 was not. The assay was found to be simple, reliable and many samples could be analysed in a short period of time with minimal waste of cells and biological reagents. Apart from giving an estimate of cell density, the protocol described also provides a separate index of viability which in certain situations may be of importance for distinguishing between cytocidal and cytostatic drug actions. The method may be well suited for several applications, including the large scale screening for antitumor activity of compounds with potential cytocidal or cytostatic actions.

  13. Indirect haemagglutination reaction with Sarcocystis dispersa antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, L; Cerná, Z

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of the preparation of antigen from Sarcocystis dispersa cystozoites and the procedure of the indirect haemagglutination test (IHA). The antibodies against this antigen were detected in experimentally infected mice from day 20 p.i. (1: 640). In the following weeks the antibody titres reached the value of 1: 40,960. The sera of pigs, sheep and horses spontaneously infected with other Sarcocystis species reacted with this antigen in low titres only. The bovine sera gave negative reactions even in cases when Sarcocystis cysts were present in the muscles of the examined animals. A possible application of IHA for the research and diagnostic purposes is discussed.

  14. Diphenylmaleimide derivatives and their efficiency in off-on Hg2+ fluorometric sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantanit Wanichacheva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Two novel fluoroionophores (Sensors 1 and 2 possessing one and two units of diphenylmaleimide fluorophore covalently bound to 2-[3-(2-aminoethylsulfanylpropylsulfanyl] ethanamine were prepared for the selective detection of Hg2+ ions. The binding ability with Hg2+ was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. Sensor 1 exhibited highly sensitive and selective off-on fluorescence enhancement at 500 nm upon binding to Hg2+ and was shown to discriminate various competing metal ions, particularly Cu2+ and Pb2+, as well as Li+, Na+, Mg2+, Cd2+, K+, Al3+, Fe3+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Co2+, Mn2+ and Zn2+ with a detection limit of 6.72 x 10-7 M. On the other hand, Sensor 2 was found to be inferior fluoroionophore to Sensor 1 in terms of selectivity in the presence of competitive ions such as Mn2+ and Al3+.

  15. Environmental effects of indirect subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beers, C.P.; De Moor, A.P.G.; Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Oosterhuis, F.H.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study on the title subject is to develop a transparent integrated method to determine and analyze the environmental impacts of indirect subsidies, applied in the sectors agriculture, energy, mobility, and tourism. From the results it appears that the hazardous effects of subsidies are big. Examples are milk, the regulating energy levy, and kerosene [nl

  16. Indirect searches for dark matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The current status of indirect searches for dark matter has been reviewed in a schematic way here. The main relevant experimental results of the recent years have been listed and the excitements and disappointments that their phenomenological interpretations in terms of almost-standard annihilating dark matter have ...

  17. Indirect searches for dark matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The current status of indirect searches for dark matter has been reviewed in a schematic way here. The main relevant experimental results of the recent years have been listed and the excite- ments and disappointments that their phenomenological interpretations in terms of almost-standard annihilating dark matter ...

  18. Indirect speech acts in English

    OpenAIRE

    Василина, В. Н.

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with indirect speech acts in Englishspeaking discourse. Different approaches to their analysis and the reasons for their use are discussed. It is argued that the choice of the form of speech actsdepends on the parameters of communicative partners.

  19. Indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, C.A.; Shubhchintak; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Kruppa, A.; Pang, D. Y.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss recent developments in indirect methods used in nuclear astrophysics to determine the capture cross sections and subsequent rates of various stellar burning processes, when it is difficult to perform the corresponding direct measurements. We discuss in brief, the basic concepts of Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients, the Trojan Horse Method, the Coulomb Dissociation Method, (d,p), and charge-exchange reactions. (paper)

  20. Superflux chlorophyll-a analysis: An assessment of variability in results introduced prior to fluorometric analysis. [chesapeake bay and shelf regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibik, S. J.; Rutledge, C. K.; Robertson, C. N.

    1981-01-01

    Several experiments were undertaken to identify variability in results that came from procedural differences in the processing of chlorophyll samples prior to fluorometric analysis. T-tests on group means indicated that significant differences (alpha = 0.05) in phaeopigment a concentrations did result in samples not initially screened, but not in the chlorophyll a concentrations. Highly significant differences (alpha = 0.001) in group means were found in samples which were held in acetone after filtering as compared to unfiltered seawater samples held for the same period. No difference in results was found between the 24-hour extraction and samples which were processed immediately.

  1. Manifestation of Aerosol Indirect Effects in Arctic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, D.; Vogelmann, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    The first aerosol indirect effect has traditionally been conceived as an enhancement of shortwave cloud reflectance in response to decreased effective droplet size at fixed liquid water path, as cloud nucleating aerosol becomes entrained in the cloud. The high Arctic, with its pervasive low-level stratiform cloud cover and frequent episodes of anthropogenic aerosol (Artic "haze"), has in recent years served as a natural laboratory for research on actual manifestations of aerosol indirect effects. This paper will review the surprising set of developments: (1) the detection of the indirect effect as a source of surface warming, rather than cooling, throughout early spring, (2) a transition to a cooling effect in late spring, corresponding to the beginning of the sea ice melt season, and (3) detection of an indirect effect during summer, outside of the "Arctic haze" season. This paper will also discuss measurements of spectral shortwave irradiance (350-2200 nm) made at Barrow, Alaska, during the U.S. Department of Energy's Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), which reveal complications in our conception of the indirect effect related to the ice phase in Arctic stratiform clouds.

  2. Unsaturated 15 and 16 Membered Appended Naphthalene Macrocyclic Molecules for The Development of Fluorometric Chemosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S.; Salleh, S.; Hamdan, S.; Yamin, B.

    2017-02-01

    Unsaturated macrocyclic molecules have got an interest due to their potential in catalysis, ion exchange and electron transfer. Salicaldehyde derivatives macrocyclic molecules have a broad range in synthesis. In this study, two unsaturated macrocyclic molecules (L1 and L2) have been synthesized. The preparation of unsaturated macrocyclic ligands involve two steps; the reaction of salicylaldehyde with 1,2-dibromoethane or 1,4-dibromobutane to produce precursor, then cyclisation were completed using schiff base technique by adding diamines (naphthalene diamine). The ligands were characterized spectroscopically. In FT-IR spectrums, the form of the ligands mainly can be observed on the disappearance of the carbonyl group of aldehyde at approximately 1650cm-1 that was readily assigned to C=O group of salicylaldehyde with the replacement of C=N peak at 1684.13cm-1. The success in producing macrocyclic ligands have been further characterized using fluorescence emission spectroscopy (FES) and revealed the typical emission of naphthalene at ∼430nm. Fluorescence changes of L1 and L2 showed high selectivity for Fe3+ and Cu2+ respectively in the presence of other common metal ions, such as Zn2+, Ni2+ and Co2+. Besides, the ligand was sensitive enough to detect the concentration of ferric ion with the detection limit down to 1.08 x 10-6 M and fluorescence change that was unaffected by the presence of other common coexisting metal ions. Complexation with Co(II) was also attempted.

  3. Approaching work and learning indirectly

    OpenAIRE

    Macintyre, Ronald; Thomson, Joan

    2013-01-01

    This paper approaches work and learning indirectly. It is part of a mixed method longitudinal study that looks at the articulation from Higher National (HN) to part time Higher Education (HE). Since 2003 the Open University in Scotland (OU) has been collecting quantitative and qualitative data on students who have HN qualifications. This paper looks at the experiences of those students and the central place of work in those journeys. \\ud \\ud The paper beings with a statistical overview. HN St...

  4. A porous silicon immunoassay platform for fluorometric determination of α-synuclein in human cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sangwook; Silajdžić, Edina; Björkqvist, Maria; Yang, Hon; Kim, Soyon; Jeong, Ok Chan; Hansson, Oskar; Laurell, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Levels of total and/or oligomeric α-synuclein may be used as a biomarker tool to aid in the diagnosis and development of new disease-modifying therapies. We report here on a porous silicon antibody microarray for the fluorimetric determination of cerebrospinal fluid levels of total α-synuclein, a protein involved the pathology of Parkinson’s disease. The surface of porous silicon has a 3-dimensional macro- and nanoporous structure, and this offers a large binding capacity for capturing probe molecules. Porous silicon also warrants efficient immobilization of antibodies by surface adsorption, and does not require chemical immobilization. The platform requires 10 μL of cerebrospinal fluid, and each test requires 4 h for assay only (including immobilization of capturing antibody). The limit of detection is 35 pg mL −1 of α-synuclein in cerebrospinal fluid, and the dynamic analytical range extends from 0.01 to 100 ng·mL −1 . (author)

  5. Paper Strip-based Fluorometric Determination of Cyanide with an Internal Reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong-Nam; Hong, Jong-In [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyejin; Shin, Ik-Soo [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    The rapid, selective, and sensitive determination of cyanide anion (CN{sup -}) using a simple paper strip is highly attractive because cyanide is acutely lethal to living organisms via all routes of administration, including alcohol consumption and inhaling cigarette smoke. Here, a synthetic probe (1) was designed for the selective determination of cyanide. The probe displays rapid and large blue spectral change (Δλ{sub abs}=148 nm, Δλ{sub em}= 165 nm) with respect to target recognition. Probe 1 exhibits a strong push-pull electronic effect and comprises a dimethylaminoaryl group as a donor and malononitrile as an acceptor; the π-conjugation system can be destroyed by the Michael-type addition of cyanide at the electrophilic β-positions of the nitrile groups, resulting in the marked emergence of a peak at λ{sub em}= 515 nm. The developed probe was successfully applied to a paper test strip because of its noticeable optical changes upon reaction with cyanide. The fabricated dumbbell-shaped paper strip with an internal reference allowed the cyanide detection, which is indispensable for quantitative analysis in point-of-care testing. The paper strip test showed selective response to cyanide, with a linear correlation in the range of 0-25 mM in a simple and cost-effective manner.

  6. Fluorometric determination of proteins using the yttrium(III)-sodium lauryl sulfate-rutin-protein system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Shufang [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Yang Jinghe [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: yjh@sdu.edu.cn; Wu Xia [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang Fei [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang Feng [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Jia Zhen [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2006-04-15

    It is found that rutin can react with yttrium(III) (Y{sup 3+}), and emits fluorescence of rutin. The intensity is greatly enhanced by proteins in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Based on this, a new fluorimetric method of determination of proteins is developed. Under optimum conditions, the enhanced intensity of fluorescence is in proportion to the concentration of proteins in the range of 5.0x10{sup -9}-1.0x10{sup -5}g/mL for bovine serum albumin (BSA), 3.0x10{sup -8}-1.0x10{sup -5}g/mL for human serum albumin (HSA) and 1.0x10{sup -7}-2.0x10{sup -5}g/mL for egg albumin (EA). Their detection limits (S/N=3) are 1.6x10{sup -9}, 9.8x10{sup -9} and 2.1x10{sup -8}g/mL, respectively. The interaction mechanism is also studied.

  7. Fluorometric determination of alkaline phosphatase activity in food using magnetoliposomes as on-flow microcontainer devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Pizarro, Vanessa; Fernández-Romero, Juan Manuel; Gómez-Hens, Agustina

    2014-02-26

    Liposomes containing magnetic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and an enzymatic substrate (4-methylumbelliferyl-phosphate) have been used as on-flow microcontainers for reagent preconcentration in a flow injection method for the determination of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. The dynamic range of the calibration graph was 6.4 × 10(-3)-0.25 U L(-1) ALP, and the detection limit was 1.9 × 10(-3) U L(-1). The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD%), was in the range of 0.7-2.4%. The overall method showed a sampling frequency of 10 h(-1). The method was applied to the determination of ALP in milk samples with recovery values ranging between 87.5 and 104.6%. The residual ALP activity in milk samples subjected to temperature treatments was also determined. The results obtained in the analysis of all milk samples were compared with those obtained by applying a previously described flow injection method.

  8. Indirect measurements of X-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainardi, R.T.

    2006-01-01

    To the effects of measuring the spectral distribution of the radiation emitted by the x-ray tubes and electron accelerators, numerous procedures that are grouped in two big categories exist at the present time: direct and indirect methods. The first ones use high resolution detectors that should be positioned, together with the appropriate collimator, in the direction of the x ray beam. The user should be an expert in the use and correction of the obtained data by the different effects that affect the detector operation such as efficiency and resolution in terms of the energy of the detected radiation. The indirect procedures, although its are more simple to use, its also require a considerable space along the beam to position the ionization chamber and the necessary absorbents to construct by this way the denominated attenuation curve. We will analyze the operation principle of the indirect methods and a new proposal in which such important novelties are introduced as the beam dispersion to avoid to measure along the main beam and that of determination of the attenuation curve in simultaneous form. By this way, with a single shot of the tube, the attenuation curve is measured, being necessary at most a shot of additional calibration to know the relative response of the detectors used in the experimental array. The physical processes involved in the obtaining of an attenuation curve are very well well-known and this it finishes it can be theoretically calculated if the analytic form of the spectrum is supposed well-known. Finally, we will see a spectra reconstruction example with the Kramers parametric form and comparisons with numeric simulations carried out with broadly validated programs as well as the possibility of the use of solid state dosemeters in the obtention of the attenuation curve. (Author)

  9. Diagnostic efficacy of indirect hemagglutination test inrelation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Sensitive and specific diagnostic tools are very central to decide on individual case management and at all stages of control programs in schistosomiasis. This study was undertaken to assess the diagnostic efficacy of a commercial indirect hemagglutination test in detection of schistosomiasis mansoni in ...

  10. Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adj...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adjustments to Medicare Inpatient Payment Rates The indirect medical education (IME) and disproportionate share...

  11. 46 CFR 154.1720 - Indirect refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indirect refrigeration. 154.1720 Section 154.1720... § 154.1720 Indirect refrigeration. A refrigeration system that is used to cool acetaldehyde, ethylene oxide, or methyl bromide, must be an indirect refrigeration system that does not use vapor compression. ...

  12. An Automatic Indirect Immunofluorescence Cell Segmentation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Kuan Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF with HEp-2 cells has been used for the detection of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA in systemic autoimmune diseases. The ANA testing allows us to scan a broad range of autoantibody entities and to describe them by distinct fluorescence patterns. Automatic inspection for fluorescence patterns in an IIF image can assist physicians, without relevant experience, in making correct diagnosis. How to segment the cells from an IIF image is essential in developing an automatic inspection system for ANA testing. This paper focuses on the cell detection and segmentation; an efficient method is proposed for automatically detecting the cells with fluorescence pattern in an IIF image. Cell culture is a process in which cells grow under control. Cell counting technology plays an important role in measuring the cell density in a culture tank. Moreover, assessing medium suitability, determining population doubling times, and monitoring cell growth in cultures all require a means of quantifying cell population. The proposed method also can be used to count the cells from an image taken under a fluorescence microscope.

  13. Indirect estimation of radioactivity in containerized cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarman, K.D.; Scherrer, C.; Smith, L.E.; Chilton, L.K.; Anderson, K.K.; Ressler, J.J.; Trease, L.L.

    2011-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material in containerized cargo challenges the state of the art in national and international efforts to detect illicit nuclear and radiological material in transported containers. Current systems are being evaluated and new systems envisioned to provide the high probability of detection necessary to thwart potential threats, combined with extremely low nuisance and false alarm rates necessary to maintain the flow of commerce impacted by the enormous volume of commodities imported in shipping containers. Maintaining flow of commerce also means that inspection must be rapid, requiring relatively non-intrusive, indirect measurements of cargo from outside containers to the extent possible. With increasing information content in such measurements, it is natural to ask how the information might be combined to improve detection. Toward this end, we present an approach to estimating isotopic activity of naturally occurring radioactive material in cargo grouped by commodity type, combining container manifest data with radiography and gamma-ray spectroscopy aligned to location along the container. The heart of this approach is our statistical model of gamma-ray counts within peak regions of interest, which captures the effects of background suppression, counting noise, convolution of neighboring cargo contributions, and down-scattered photons to provide estimates of counts due to decay of specific radioisotopes in cargo alone. Coupled to that model, we use a mechanistic model of self-attenuated radiation flux to estimate the isotopic activity within cargo, segmented by location within each container, that produces those counts. We test our approach by applying it to a set of measurements taken at the Port of Seattle in 2006. This approach to synthesizing disparate available data streams and extraction of cargo characteristics, while relying on several simplifying assumptions and approximations, holds the potential to support improvement of

  14. Rough lipopolysaccharide of Brucella abortus RB51 as a common antigen for serological detection of B. ovis, B. canis, and B. abortus RB51 exposure using indirect enzyme immunoassay and fluorescence polarization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, K; Smith, P; Conde, S; Draghi de Benitez, G; Gall, D; Halbert, G; Kenny, K; Massengill, C; Muenks, Q; Rojas, X; Perez, B; Samartino, L; Silva, P; Tollersrud, T; Jolley, M

    2004-01-01

    Rough lipopolysaccharide (RLPS) antigens were prepared from cultures of Brucella abortus RB51, B. ovis, and B. canis. The preparations were standardized by weight and tested with sera from cattle immunized with B. abortus RB51, sheep infected with B. ovis, and dogs infected with B. canis. Populations of unexposed animals of each species were also tested. The tests used were the indirect enzyme immunoassay (IELISA) using RLPS and the fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) using RLPS core fractions, labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate. The IELISA using B. abortus RB51 RLPS antigen resulted in sensitivity and specificity values of 94.8% and 97.3%, respectively, when testing bovine sera, 98.5% and 97.8% when testing ovine sera, and 95.8% and 100% when testing dog sera. The IELISA using B. ovis RLPS antigen gave sensitivity and specificity values of 80.5% and 91.7%, respectively with bovine sera, 98.9% and 93.8% with sheep sera, and 70.8% and 79.8% with dog sera. The IELISA using B. canis RLPS antigen resulted in sensitivity and specificity values of 97.0% and 97.4%, respectively, with bovine sera, 96.2% and 96.3% with sheep sera, and 95.8% and 98.8% with dog sera. Labeling RLPS core from B. ovis and B. canis with fluorescein was not successful. B. abortus RB51 core labeled with fluorescein resulted in sensitivity and specificity values of 93.5% and 99.8%, respectively, with bovine sera and 78.1% and 99.0% with sheep sera. It was not possible to test the dog sera in the FPA.

  15. Fluorometric Analysis of Riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ji-Yue; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Described is the use of fluorometry in an experiment where the fluorescence of riboflavin is specifically quenched when titrated with riboflavin-binding protein. The amount of riboflavin, required by all organisms, in an unknown solution and the dissociation constant of the vitamin-protein complex can be determined using this method. (KR)

  16. A convenient fluorometric method to study sulfur mustard-induced apoptosis in human epidermal keratinocytes monolayer microplate culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Radharaman; Hauck, Stephanie; Kramer, Rachel; Benton, Betty

    2005-01-01

    Sulfur mustard [SM; bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide], which causes skin blistering or vesication [(1991). Histo- and cytopathology of acute epithelial lesions. In: Papirmeister, B., Feister, A. J., Robinson, S. I., Ford, R. D., eds. Medical Defense Against Mustard Gas: Toxic Mechanisms and Pharmacological Implications. Boca Raton: CRC Press, pp. 43-78.], is a chemical warfare agent as well as a potential terrorism agent. SM-induced skin blistering is believed to be due to epidermal-dermal detachment as a result of epidermal basal cell death via apoptosis and/or necrosis. Regarding the role of apoptosis in SM pathology in animal skin, the results obtained in several laboratories, including ours, suggest the following: 1) cell death due to SM begins via apoptosis that proceeds to necrosis via an apoptotic-necrotic continuum and 2) inhibiting apoptosis decreases SM-induced microvesication in vivo. To study the mechanisms of SM-induced apoptosis and its prevention in vitro, we have established a convenient fluorometric apoptosis assay using monolayer human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) adaptable for multiwell plates (24-, 96-, or 384-well) and high-throughput applications. This assay allows replication and multiple types of experimental manipulation in sister cultures so that the apoptotic mechanisms and the effects of test compounds can be compared statistically. SM affects diverse cellular mechanisms, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ homeostasis, mitochondrial functions, energy metabolism, and death receptors, each of which can independently trigger apoptosis. However, the biochemical pathway in any of these apoptotic mechanisms is characterized by a pathway-specific sequence of caspases, among which caspase-3 is a key member. Therefore, we exposed 80-90% confluent HEK cultures to SM and monitored apoptosis by measuring the fluorescence generated due to hydrolysis of a fluorogenic caspase-3 substrate (acetyl- or benzyl oxycarbonyl

  17. Fluorometric titration approach for calibration of quantity of binding site of purified monoclonal antibody recognizing epitope/hapten nonfluorescent at 340 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolan; Hu, Xiaolei; Xu, Bangtian; Wang, Xin; Qin, Jialin; He, Chenxiong; Xie, Yanling; Li, Yuanli; Liu, Lin; Liao, Fei

    2014-06-17

    A fluorometric titration approach was proposed for the calibration of the quantity of monoclonal antibody (mcAb) via the quench of fluorescence of tryptophan residues. It applied to purified mcAbs recognizing tryptophan-deficient epitopes, haptens nonfluorescent at 340 nm under the excitation at 280 nm, or fluorescent haptens bearing excitation valleys nearby 280 nm and excitation peaks nearby 340 nm to serve as Förster-resonance-energy-transfer (FRET) acceptors of tryptophan. Titration probes were epitopes/haptens themselves or conjugates of nonfluorescent haptens or tryptophan-deficient epitopes with FRET acceptors of tryptophan. Under the excitation at 280 nm, titration curves were recorded as fluorescence specific for the FRET acceptors or for mcAbs at 340 nm. To quantify the binding site of a mcAb, a universal model considering both static and dynamic quench by either type of probes was proposed for fitting to the titration curve. This was easy for fitting to fluorescence specific for the FRET acceptors but encountered nonconvergence for fitting to fluorescence of mcAbs at 340 nm. As a solution, (a) the maximum of the absolute values of first-order derivatives of a titration curve as fluorescence at 340 nm was estimated from the best-fit model for a probe level of zero, and (b) molar quantity of the binding site of the mcAb was estimated via consecutive fitting to the same titration curve by utilizing such a maximum as an approximate of the slope for linear response of fluorescence at 340 nm to quantities of the mcAb. This fluorometric titration approach was proved effective with one mcAb for six-histidine and another for penicillin G.

  18. A novel automated indirect immunofluorescence autoantibody evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivity, Shaye; Gilburd, Boris; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Carrasco, Marina Garcia; Tzafrir, Yaron; Sofer, Yael; Mandel, Matilda; Buttner, Thomas; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Danko, Katalin; Hoyos, Marcos López; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2012-03-01

    Autoantibodies (AAb), especially antinuclear (ANAs) and anticytoplasmatic antibodies (ACyA), are essential diagnosing markers for several autoimmune diseases. The current gold standard method for ANA detection is manual indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on human epithelial-2 (HEp-2) cells. However, this technique is cost and time consuming, and characterized by considerable intra- and interlaboratory variability. Thus, an automated IIF-HEp-2 reader has been developed recently. In the current study, we compared the performance of the automated AAb IIF-HEp-2 interpretation to conventional detection methods. Autoantibody detection by IIF on HEp-2 cells was performed in a total of 260 sera of patients, including 34 with systemic lupus erythematosus, 111 with dermatomyositis or polymyositis, 74 with systemic sclerosis, 41 with rare AAb patterns, and 137 healthy individuals. Visual interpretation and routine immunoassays were compared with a novel automated IIF-HEp-2 system using Aklides pattern recognition algorithms. Positive AAbs were detected in 95-100% of rheumatic patients by automated interpretation, in 74-100% with manual reading, and in 64-100% by immunodot assay. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of fluorescent intensity revealed a high sensitivity and specificity for automated reading of AAb with an agreement ranging from 90% to 95% between manual and automated interpretation (kappa 0.554-0.69) for systemic sclerosis and myositis, respectively. This study demonstrates a good correlation between manual and automated interpretation of AAb including ANA and ACyA in patients with autoimmune diseases. Full automation of HEp-2 cell assay reading may minimize errors in ANA pattern interpretation and thus help in the standardization of ANA assessment.

  19. Indirect Lightning Safety Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, M M; Perkins, M P; Brown, C G; Crull, E W; Streit, R D

    2009-04-24

    Lightning is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the However, the current flowing from the strike point through the rebar of the building The methodology for estimating the risk from indirect lighting effects will be presented. It has two parts: a method to determine the likelihood of a detonation given a lightning strike, and an approach for estimating the likelihood of a strike. The results of these two parts produce an overall probability of a detonation. The probability calculations are complex for five reasons: (1) lightning strikes are stochastic and relatively rare, (2) the quality of the Faraday cage varies from one facility to the next, (3) RF coupling is inherently a complex subject, (4) performance data for abnormally stressed detonators is scarce, and (5) the arc plasma physics is not well understood. Therefore, a rigorous mathematical analysis would be too complex. Instead, our methodology takes a more practical approach combining rigorous mathematical calculations where possible with empirical data when necessary. Where there is uncertainty, we compensate with conservative approximations. The goal is to determine a conservative estimate of the odds of a detonation. In Section 2, the methodology will be explained. This report will discuss topics at a high-level. The reasons for selecting an approach will be justified. For those interested in technical details, references will be provided. In Section 3, a simple hypothetical example will be given to reinforce the concepts. While the methodology will touch on all the items shown in Figure 1, the focus of this report is the indirect effect, i.e., determining the odds of a detonation from given EM fields. Professor Martin Uman from the University of Florida has been characterizing and defining extreme lightning strikes. Using Professor Uman's research, Dr. Kimball Merewether at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque calculated the EM fields inside a Faraday-cage type

  20. Indirect Calorimetry in Mechanically Ventilated Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Matilde Jo; Kondrup, Jens; Perner, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: The 2 currently available indirect calorimeters, CCM Express Indirect Calorimeter (MedGraphics, St Paul, MN) and Quark RMR ICU Indirect Calorimeter (COSMED, Rome, Italy), have not been validated against a gold standard in mechanically ventilated patients. Our aim was to do so...... presented.) O2) and resting energy expenditure (REE) in a randomized, sequential, crossover design with double determination of each device. Results: Compared with the modified Tissot bell-spirometer, the CCM Express Indirect Calorimeter demonstrated a mean Δ-REE of +361 kcal/d, corresponding to a 31...... of 77 (167) with limits of agreement −249 to 404 kcal/d. Conclusions: The QUARK RMR ICU Indirect Calorimeter compared better with the gold standard for values of (Formula presented.) O2 and REE than did the CCM Express Indirect Calorimeter in mechanically ventilated patients who were circulatory...

  1. Indirect Self-Destructiveness and Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos

    2016-06-01

    While emotional intelligence may have a favourable influence on the life and psychological and social functioning of the individual, indirect self-destructiveness exerts a rather negative influence. The aim of this study has been to explore possible relations between indirect self-destructiveness and emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 females and 130 males) aged 20-30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the chronic self-destructiveness scale and INTE, i.e., the Polish version of the assessing emotions scale. Indirect self-destructiveness has significant correlations with all variables of INTE (overall score, factor I, factor II), and these correlations are negative. The intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates significantly the height of the emotional intelligence and vice versa: the height of the emotional intelligence differentiates significantly the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness. Indirect self-destructiveness has negative correlations with emotional intelligence as well as its components: the ability to recognize emotions and the ability to utilize emotions. The height of emotional intelligence differentiates the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness, and vice versa: the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates the height of emotional intelligence. It seems advisable to use emotional intelligence in the prophylactic and therapeutic work with persons with various types of disorders, especially with the syndrome of indirect self-destructiveness.

  2. Synchronization of indirectly coupled Lorenz oscillators: An ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: m.shrimali@gmail.com. Abstract. The dynamics of indirectly coupled Lorenz circuits is investigated experimentally. The in-phase and anti-phase synchronization of indirectly coupled chaotic oscillators reported in Phys. Rev. E 81, 046216 (2010) is verified by physical experiments with electronic circuits. Two chaotic.

  3. Indirect Network Effects in New Product Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stremersch (Stefan); G.J. Tellis (Gerard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); J.L.G. Binken (Jeroen)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIndirect network effects are of prime interest to marketers because they affect the growth and takeoff of software availability for, and hardware sales of, a new product. While prior work on indirect network effects in the economics and marketing literature is valuable, these literatures

  4. Indirectness in Discourse: Ethnicity as Conversational Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah

    1981-01-01

    Examines social differences in expectations of indirectness in conversations between married couples, both Greek and Greek-American. Concludes that Greeks are more likely to expect indirectness in the context presented and that Greek-Americans have retained the Greek communicative patterns. (FL)

  5. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, R E; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Spitaleri, C

    2014-10-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches.

  6. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Adriana Ivănuş

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  7. Indirect Tire Monitoring System - Machine Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, O.; Thelin, S.; Byttner, S.; Fan, Y.

    2017-10-01

    The heavy vehicle industry has today no requirement to provide a tire pressure monitoring system by law. This has created issues surrounding unknown tire pressure and thread depth during active service. There is also no standardization for these kind of systems which means that different manufacturers and third party solutions work after their own principles and it can be hard to know what works for a given vehicle type. The objective is to create an indirect tire monitoring system that can generalize a method that detect both incorrect tire pressure and thread depth for different type of vehicles within a fleet without the need for additional physical sensors or vehicle specific parameters. The existing sensors that are connected communicate through CAN and are interpreted by the Drivec Bridge hardware that exist in the fleet. By using supervised machine learning a classifier was created for each axle where the main focus was the front axle which had the most issues. The classifier will classify the vehicles tires condition and will be implemented in Drivecs cloud service where it will receive its data. The resulting classifier is a random forest implemented in Python. The result from the front axle with a data set consisting of 9767 samples of buses with correct tire condition and 1909 samples of buses with incorrect tire condition it has an accuracy of 90.54% (0.96%). The data sets are created from 34 unique measurements from buses between January and May 2017. This classifier has been exported and is used inside a Node.js module created for Drivecs cloud service which is the result of the whole implementation. The developed solution is called Indirect Tire Monitoring System (ITMS) and is seen as a process. This process will predict bad classes in the cloud which will lead to warnings. The warnings are defined as incidents. They contain only the information needed and the bandwidth of the incidents are also controlled so incidents are created within an

  8. Comparison of indirect ELISA based on recombinant protein NcSRS2 and IFAT for detection of Neospora caninum antibodies in sheep Comparação entre ELISA baseado no antígeno recombinante NcSRS2 e RIFI para detecção de anticorpos de Neospora caninum em ovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Andreotti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum, an Apicomplexan parasite that can causes abortion, is responsible for considerable economic and reproductive losses in livestock. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether recombinant NcSRS2 is a suitable indirect ELISA antigen for determining specific immune response to N. caninum in sheep. A total of 441 serum samples were subjected to IFAT and rNcSRS2 based-ELISA, with both tests performing similarly. The sensitivity and specificity of indirect ELISA were 98.6 and 98.3%, respectively. The kappa index shows 0.98 concordance between the two tests, which is considered excellent. Seroprevalences of 30.8 and 32.0% were detected by IFAT and indirect ELISA, respectively, showing these tests did not differ significantly on this measure (p > 0.05. Serological analysis showed that HisG tag was detected by Western Blotting recognizing rNcSRS2 protein. The potential value of rNcSRS2-based ELISA as a highly specific and sensitive tool for serological diagnosis is also supported by the strong agreement found between IFAT and ELISA. The results support the potential use of recombinant protein NcSRS2 as an antigen in indirect ELISA in sheep.Neospora caninum é um parasito Apicomplexa que pode causar abortos e é reconhecido como agente importante responsável por perdas econômicas e reprodutivas. Este estudo avaliou a proteína recombinante NcSRS2 como antígeno para ELISA indireto na determinação de resposta imune para N. caninum em ovinos. 441 amostras de soro foram analisadas por IFAT e ELISA indireto com rNcSRS2 e ambos os testes revelaram comportamento similar. A sensibilidade e especificidade de ELISA indireto foram 98,6 e 98,3%, respectivamente. O índice kappa mostrou uma concordância entre os dois testes com valor de 0,98, que é considerado excelente. Prevalências de 30,8 e 32,0% detectadas por IFAT e ELISA indireto, respectivamente, mostraram que os testes não diferiram significativamente nesse aspecto (P

  9. Expression of future prospective in indirect speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodnaruk Elena Vladimirovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the characteristics and use of grammatical semantics and lexical and grammatical means used to create future prospects in double indirect discourse. The material for the study were epic works by contemporary German writers. In the analysis of the empirical material it has been pointed out that indirect discourse has preterial basis and is the kind of most frequent inner speech of characters. The most widely used form with future semantics in preterial indirect speech is conditional I, formally having a conjunctive basis, but is mostly used with the indicative semantics. Competitive to conditional I in indirect speech is preterial indicative. A characteristic feature of the indirect speech is the use of modal verbs, which, thanks to its semantics is usually referred as an action at a later term, creating the prospect of future statements. The most frequent were modal verbs wollen and sollen in the form of the preterite, more rare verbs were m ssen and k nnen. German indirect speech distinguishes the ability to use forms on the basis of conjunctive: preterite and plusquamperfect of conjunctive. Both forms express values similar to those of the indicative. However, conjunctive forms the basis of the data shown in a slightly more pronounced seme of uncertainty that accompanies future uses of these forms in indirect speech. In addition, plusquamperfect conjunctive differs from others by the presence of the seme of completeness.

  10. Indirect estimators in US federal programs

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, a subcommittee of the Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology met to document the use of indirect estimators - that is, estimators which use data drawn from a domain or time different from the domain or time for which an estimate is required. This volume comprises the eight reports which describe the use of indirect estimators and they are based on case studies from a variety of federal programs. As a result, many researchers will find this book provides a valuable survey of how indirect estimators are used in practice and which addresses some of the pitfalls of these methods.

  11. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the mycotoxin zearalenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M T; Ram, B P; Hart, L P; Pestka, J J

    1985-01-01

    A competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of zearalenone, an estrogenic mycotoxin. Zearalenone was converted to zearalenone-6'-carboxymethyloxime and conjugated to bovine serum albumin and poly-L-lysine for use as immunogen and solid-phase marker, respectively. Immunization of rabbits with the bovine serum albumin conjugate resulted in zearalenone antibody titers of 20,480 in 11 weeks. A competitive indirect ELISA was conducted by simultaneously incubating zearalenone with zearalenone antiserum over zearalenone-6'-carboxymethyloxime poly-L-lysine solid phase and then determining the bound rabbit immunoglobulin with goat anti-rabbit peroxidase conjugate. Response range for zearalenone in the resulting competition curve was between 1 and 50 ng/ml. Reactivities of this antiserum for alpha-zearalenol, beta-zearalenol, alpha-zearalanol, and beta-zearalanol were, respectively, 50, 12, 6, and 3% of that found for zearalenone. By using the competitive indirect ELISA, zearalenone was detectable in methanol-water extracts of corn, wheat, and pig feed samples. PMID:2932054

  12. and Indigenous Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna S. Agasthya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most important reemerging zoonoses in many countries. Brucellosis is caused by Gram-negative coccobacillus belonging to genus Brucella. Human brucellosis often makes the diagnosis difficult. The symptoms and clinical signs most commonly reported are fever, fatigue, malaise, chills, sweats headaches, myalgia, arthralgia, and weight loss. Some cases have been presented with only joint pain, lower backache, and involuntary limb movement, burning feet, or ischemic heart attacks. The focus of this work was to develop a highly sensitive and specific indirect ELISA by using smooth lipopolysaccharide antigen of Brucella abortus 99 to detect anti-Brucella antibodies at Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance. Serum samples collected from 652 individuals in whom fever was not the major symptom but the complaint was of joint pain, headache, lower backache, and so forth, were screened by Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBPT and standard tube agglutination test (STAT. Subsequent testing of sera by indigenous indirect ELISA detected 20 samples positive (3.6% seroprevalence, and indirect ELISA was found to be more sensitive than RBPT and STAT. The seroprevalence in South Karnataka was 2.14%, and in North Karnataka it was 0.92%.

  13. A Novel Flux Linkage Indirect Measurement for Switched Reluctance Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pang; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Yue

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a indirect detection system of flux linkage characteristic of switched reluctance motor based on dsPACE, fixed rotor position by mechanical indexing for Static flux linkage detection, the phase windings is excited by the step voltage signal, the voltage and phase current are collected real -time, and calculate flux linkage. The advantages of the method is that the parameters are optimized by ControlDesk, the flux linkage detection model is built by Simulink, no writing program, simple, easy implementation. An 1.5kw three-phase 12/8 SRM experimental prototype was constructed, the detection results of the Static flux linkage and dynamic flux linkage verified its validity and feasibility.

  14. Demonstration of tyrosinase in the vitiligo skin of human beings by a sensitive fluorometric method as well as by 14C(U)-L-tyrosine incorporation into melanin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husain, I.; Vijayan, E.; Ramaiah, A.; Pasricha, J.S.; Madan, N.C.

    1982-03-01

    Tyrosinase activity (Monophenol, dihydroxyphenylalanine: oxygen oxidoreductase EC 1.14.18.1) in vitiligo and normal epidermal homogenates of skin from human beings was measured by estimating beta 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) by a highly sensitive fluorometric method described in this paper. The tyrosine activity in the vitiligo skin was about 4 to 37% of corresponding normal skin. The activity of tyrosinase in normal human skin from different individuals and from different regions of the body was in the range of 4 to 140 picomoles of beta 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine formed per min/mg protein of epidermal homogenate. The enzyme from vitiligo and normal skin was severely inhibited by substance(s) of low molecular weight. The enzyme exhibits a lag of about 4 hr in the absence of added beta 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and 1 hr in presence of 5 microM dopa. Tyrosinase from the normal and vitiligo skin was inhibited by excess concentration of tyrosine. The homogenates from vitiligo skin could synthesize melanin from C14(U)-L-Tyrosine. The rate of tyrosine incorporation into melanin by the epidermal homogenates is increased by 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) disproportionate to its effect on tyrosinase activity. Based on the data presented in this paper it is concluded that melanocytes are present in the vitiligo skin. A tentative hypothesis is put forward to explain the lack of melanin synthesis by the vitiligo skin under in vivo conditions, although melanocytes are present.

  15. Prediction of individual patient response to chemotherapy by the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) using drug specific cut-off limits and a Bayesian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, R; Nygren, P

    1993-01-01

    The semiautomated fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) based on the measurement of fluorescence generated from cellular hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate (FDA) to fluorescein in microtiter plates, has been used for determination of cytotoxic drug resistance of tumor cells from patients with hematological and solid tumors. In the present study we describe a calibration procedure based on statistically derived cut-off limits and assay-predicted response probabilities using Bayes' theorem. Test results at a specified drug concentration were divided into three categories: low, intermediate or extreme drug resistance (LDR, IDR and EDR, respectively) using the median and median +1 standard deviation as the cut-off limits. When correlated with clinical outcome, LDR samples showed a higher response rate than expected, IDR a lower and EDR samples no response at all. The sensitivity and specificity of the test, using the median as cut-off limit, were 0.92 and 0.69 respectively. By fitting these test characteristics to a statistical model based on Bayes' theorem it is possible to calculate response probabilities for each individual patient taking into consideration not only the test characteristics and the particular assay result, but also the clinical and patient specific characteristics influencing the pre-test probability of response. EDR predicts clinical drug resistance with high specificity and is also observed in tumor types with high response rate.

  16. Feasibility of the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) for cytotoxic drug sensitivity testing of tumor cells from patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, P; Kristensen, J; Jonsson, B; Sundström, C; Lönnerholm, G; Kreuger, A; Larsson, R

    1992-11-01

    The automated fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) was used for chemotherapeutic drug sensitivity testing of fresh and cryopreserved tumor cells from patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) at diagnosis and relapse. The technique success rate was 87% for fresh and 81% for cryopreserved samples. Up to 16 different cytotoxic drugs were routinely tested, but neither asparaginase nor methotrexate produced dose-response related cell kill. FMCA data showed good correlation to the well established Disc assay and the drug sensitivity reported by the FMCA was in good agreement with known clinical activity. Samples from children and initial ALL tended to be more drug sensitive than those from adults and ALL at relapse, respectively. For 36 samples clinical outcome was correlated to the quartile position in comparison to all other samples for the most in vitro active drug actually given to the patient. For patients with samples in the first, second, third, and fourth quartiles, the probabilities of complete remission were 89, 57, 38, and 0%, respectively. Using the median value as cut-off line, the sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 87 and 62%, respectively. It is concluded that the FMCA with a minimum of effort and with high success rate report clinically relevant drug sensitivity profiles for ALL.

  17. In vitro drug sensitivity testing of tumor cells from patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, P; Hagberg, H; Glimelius, B; Sundström, C; Kristensen, J; Christiansen, I; Larsson, R

    1994-01-01

    Tumor cell drug sensitivity is an important determinant of chemotherapy response. Its measurement in vitro would aid in therapy individualization and new drug development. The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA), based on production by viable cells of fluorescent fluorescein after 3 days of culture, was used for cytotoxic drug sensitivity testing of 73 samples of tumor cells from patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The technical success rate was 92%, and FMCA data showed good correlation to the Disc assay. NHL samples were considerably more drug sensitive than were samples from in vivo resistant tumors. There was no obvious difference in drug sensitivity for high- vs. low-grade or untreated vs. previously treated low-grade NHL. For 26 patients, clinical outcome was correlated to in vitro response giving a sensitivity and specificity of 93 and 48%, respectively. Cross-resistance between standard drugs was frequent in vitro. Resistance modulators potentiated the effect of vincristine and doxorubicin in 10-29% of the samples, most frequently from previously treated patients. The FMCA seems to report clinically relevant drug sensitivity data for NHL, and thus it could serve as a tool for optimization of chemotherapy in the future.

  18. Indirect punishment and generosity toward strangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ule, Aljaz; Schram, Arthur; Riedl, Arno; Cason, Timothy N

    2009-12-18

    Many people incur costs to reward strangers who have been kind to others. Theoretical and experimental evidence suggests that such "indirect rewarding" sustains cooperation between unrelated humans. Its emergence is surprising, because rewarders incur costs but receive no immediate benefits. It can prevail in the long run only if rewarders earn higher payoffs than "defectors" who ignore strangers' kindness. We provide experimental evidence regarding the payoffs received by individuals who employ these and other strategies, such as "indirect punishment," by imposing costs on unkind strangers. We find that if unkind strangers cannot be punished, defection earns most. If they can be punished, however, then indirect rewarding earns most. Indirect punishment plays this important role, even if it gives a low payoff and is rarely implemented.

  19. Comparison of "Direct" and "Indirect" Nuclear Cystography in the Diagnosis of Vesicoureteric Reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khriesat Imad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to compare "direct" and "indirect" nuclear cystography for the detection of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. Forty-five children (15 males and 30 females, ranging in age from 5 months to 10 years, were studied at the King Hussein Medical Center, Amman, Jordan between January 1998 and December 1999, using both direct (catheter and indirect techniques of nuclear cystography (NC. Of the 82 ureters that could be compared, 32 ureters were positive for VUR on the direct technique while only 20 ureters showed VUR on the indirect technique (sensitivity 62%. Nine ureters, which did not show VUR on the direct cystogram, were read as positive on the indirect cystogram (specificity 82%. The false positive results of indirect nuclear cystogram make it invalid for VUR screening program, while the ease of assessment and low radiation dose from the direct NC has made this the recommended test for screening and follow-up of VUR.

  20. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribble, R E; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Bertulani, C A; Cognata, M La; Spitaleri, C

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the present status of three indirect techniques that are used to determine reaction rates for stellar burning processes, asymptotic normalization coefficients, the Trojan Horse method and Coulomb dissociation. A comprehensive review of the theory behind each of these techniques is presented. This is followed by an overview of the experiments that have been carried out using these indirect approaches. (review article)

  1. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  2. Radiative capture reactions via indirect methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Rogachev, G. V.

    2017-10-01

    Many radiative capture reactions of astrophysical interest occur at such low energies that their direct measurement is hardly possible. Until now the only indirect method, which was used to determine the astrophysical factor of the astrophysical radiative capture process, was the Coulomb dissociation. In this paper we address another indirect method, which can provide information about resonant radiative capture reactions at astrophysically relevant energies. This method can be considered an extension of the Trojan horse method for resonant radiative capture reactions. The idea of the suggested indirect method is to use the indirect reaction A (a ,s γ )F to obtain information about the radiative capture reaction A (x ,γ )F , where a =(s x ) and F =(x A ) . The main advantage of using the indirect reactions is the absence of the penetrability factor in the channel x +A , which suppresses the low-energy cross sections of the A (x ,γ )F reactions and does not allow one to measure these reactions at astrophysical energies. A general formalism to treat indirect resonant radiative capture reactions is developed when only a few intermediate states contribute and a statistical approach cannot be applied. The indirect method requires coincidence measurements of the triple differential cross section, which is a function of the photon scattering angle, energy, and the scattering angle of the outgoing spectator particle s . Angular dependence of the triple differential cross section at fixed scattering angle of the spectator s is the angular γ -s correlation function. Using indirect resonant radiative capture reactions, one can obtain information about important astrophysical resonant radiative capture reactions such as (p ,γ ) , (α ,γ ) , and (n ,γ ) on stable and unstable isotopes. The indirect technique makes accessible low-lying resonances, which are close to the threshold, and even subthreshold bound states located at negative energies. In this paper, after

  3. Indirect self-destructiveness in homosexual individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos-; Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Tsirigotis-Maniecka, Marta Afrodyta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to comprehensively examine the syndrome of indirect self-destructiveness in homosexual individuals. 156 homosexual individuals (111 males, 45 females) aged 25-35 (mean age of 29.6) and 561 heterosexual individuals (400 males, 161 females) aged 24-36 (mean age of 28.2) were studied with regard to indirect self-destructiveness. The research instrument was the Polish version of the Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale (CS-DS) including: Transgression and Risk (A1), Poor Health Maintenance (A2), Personal and Social Neglects (A3), Lack of Planfulness (A4) and Helplessness and Passiveness in the face of problems (A5). Homosexual individuals obtained significantly higher scores than heterosexual ones in numerous scales: Indirect Self-Destructiveness - global (general) index (pdifferences in the Poor Health Maintenance scale (A2). They also achieved significantly higher scores in the subscales assessing using of psychoactive substances. Factor analysis revealed the presence of only one factor both in the group of homosexual and heterosexual individuals. The research results indicate that, as compared with the group of heterosexual individuals, in the group of homosexuals there occurs a worsening in psychological functioning, which may be also manifested by an increased indirect self-destructiveness index. The increased intensity of indirect self-destructiveness in homosexual individuals may be considered a manifestation of worsened psychological functioning. The homosexual individuals look after their health similarly to heterosexuals.

  4. Comparison of viral RNA electrophoresis and indirect ELISA methods in the diagnosis of human rotavirus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avendano, L.F.; Dubinovsky, S.

    1984-01-01

    A total of 177 stool samples from Chilean diarrhea patients under two years of age were tested for rotavirus by two methods - the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (indirect ELISA) and viral RNA electrophoresis in agarose gels (v RNA EPH). Fifty of the specimens came from patients with acute diarrhea and 127 came from patients with protracted diarrhea. The indirect ELISA testing was performed at the National Institutes of Health in the United States: the electrophoretic testing was carried out in Santiago, Chile by the authors. The electrophoretic method detected rotavirus in 36% of the acute samples and 25% of the samples from protracted cases, while the indirect ELISA method detected rotavirus in higher percentages of samples - 46% and 38%, respectively. These results support the conclusion that v RNA EPH is a less sensitive method for detecting rotavirus than the indirect ELISA. Nevertheless, the former method's high specificity, ease of application, and low cost make it a worthwhile alternative to indirect ELISA. Thus, considering the important role played by rotavirus in infant diarrhea and the need for a diagnostic technique that can be incorporated into the routines of medical center laboratories in developing countries, there is good reason to conclude that v RNA EPH is a useful tool for studying rotavirus diarrhea. (author)

  5. Indirect thyroid lymphography in the thyroid diseases diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kradinov, A.I.; Fesenko, V.P.; Kabalich, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    Indirect thyroid lymphography with water-soluble radiographic agents has been applied. This method allows contrast lymph microvessels of the thyroid gland, providing the detection of volume formations of 0.3 to 0.4 cm and more in diameter. 232 patients with different thyroid diseases were examined. Different rate of the water-soluble contrast agent resolution in diffuse toxic and nodular goiter, thyroid cancer, chronic thyroiditis is of great importance in differential diagnosis of these diseases. This method provides necessary information on the organs inner structure, its topography and size [ru

  6. 48 CFR 742.770 - Negotiated indirect cost rate agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Indirect Cost Rates 742.770 Negotiated indirect cost rate agreement. Except for educational institutions having a cognizant agency (as defined in OMB...

  7. A review of Indirect Matrix Converter Topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Rahmani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—Matrix Converter (MC is a modern direct AC/AC electrical power converter without dc-link capacitor. MC is operated in four quadrant, assuring a control of the output voltage, amplitude and frequency. The matrix converter has recently attracted significant attention among researchers and it has become increasing attractive for applications of wind energy conversion, military power supplies, induction motor drives, etc. Recently, different MC topologies have been proposed and developed which have their own advantages and disadvantages. Matrix converter can be classified as direct and indirect structures. The direct one has been elaborated in previous work. In this paper the indirect MCs are reviewed. Different characteristics of the indirect MC topologies are mentioned to show the strengths and weaknesses of such converter topologies.

  8. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  9. Indirect Comorbidity in Childhood and Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William eCopeland

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Comorbidity between psychiatric disorders is common, but pairwise associations between two disorders may be explained by the presence of other diagnoses that are associated with both disorders or indirect comorbidity. Method: Comorbidities of common childhood psychiatric disorders were tested in three community samples of children ages 6 to 17 (8931 observations of 2965 subjects. Psychiatric disorder status in all three samples was assessed with the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment. Indirect comorbidity was defined as A-B associations that decreased from significance to nonsignificance after adjusting for other disorders. Results: All tested childhood psychiatric disorders were positively associated in bivariate analyses. After adjusting for comorbidities, many ssociations involving a behavioral disorder and an emotional disorder were attenuated suggesting indirect comorbidity. Generalized anxiety and depressive disorders displayed a very high level of overlap (adjusted OR=37.9. All analyses were rerun with depressive disorders grouped with generalized anxiety disorder in a single distress disorders category. In these revised models, all associations between and emotional disorder and a behavior disorder met our criteria for indirect comorbidity except for the association of oppositional defiant disorder with distress disorders (OR=11.3. Follow-up analyses suggested that the indirect associations were primarily accounted for by oppositional defiant disorder and the distress disorder category. There was little evidence of either sex differences or differences by developmental period Conclusions: After accounting for the overlap between depressive disorders with generalized anxiety disorder, direct comorbidity between emotional and behavioral disorders was uncommon. When there was evidence of indirect comorbidity, ODD and distress disorders were the key intermediary diagnoses accounting for the apparent associations.

  10. Accurate detection and quantification of the fish viral hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv with a two-color fluorometric real-time PCR assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey R Pierce

    Full Text Available Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv is one of the world's most serious fish pathogens, infecting >80 marine, freshwater, and estuarine fish species from Eurasia and North America. A novel and especially virulent strain - IVb - appeared in the Great Lakes in 2003, has killed many game fish species in a series of outbreaks in subsequent years, and shut down interstate transport of baitfish. Cell culture is the diagnostic method approved by the USDA-APHIS, which takes a month or longer, lacks sensitivity, and does not quantify the amount of virus. We thus present a novel, easy, rapid, and highly sensitive real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR assay that incorporates synthetic competitive template internal standards for quality control to circumvent false negative results. Results demonstrate high signal-to-analyte response (slope = 1.00±0.02 and a linear dynamic range that spans seven orders of magnitude (R(2 = 0.99, ranging from 6 to 6,000,000 molecules. Infected fishes are found to harbor levels of virus that range to 1,200,000 VHSv molecules/10(6 actb1 molecules with 1,000 being a rough cut-off for clinical signs of disease. This new assay is rapid, inexpensive, and has significantly greater accuracy than other published qRT-PCR tests and traditional cell culture diagnostics.

  11. Rapid separation and identification of the subtypes of swine and equine influenza A viruses by electromigration techniques with UV and fluorometric detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Kubíček, O.; Kubesová, Anna; Rosenbergová, K.; Kubíčková, Z.; Šlais, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 14 (2011), s. 3010-3015 ISSN 0003-2654 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00310701; GA MV VG20112015021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : influenza viruses * capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) * capillary isoelectric focusing (CIEF) Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.230, year: 2011

  12. Colorimetric and fluorometric discrimination of geometrical isomers (maleic acid vs fumaric acid) with real-time detection of maleic acid in solution and food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Soham; Kar, Chirantan; Das, Gopal

    2015-09-01

    Heterobis imine Schiff base probe L is able to discriminate geometrical isomers (maleic acid vs fumaric acid) through sharp colorimetric as well as fluorogenic responses even conspicuous with the naked eye. Colorimetric as well as fluorogenic sensing of maleic acid among various carboxylic acids was also demonstrated in ethanol-buffer medium. Sensing behavior of L was corroborated by (1)H NMR spectra, mass spectrometry, and theoretical calculations. Subsequently sensing behavior of L was used to probe maleic acid in starch rich food samples.

  13. Determination of albendazole and its major metabolites in the muscle tissues of Atlantic salmon, tilapia, and rainbow trout by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Badar; Rummel, Nathan; Reimschuessel, Renate

    2003-05-21

    A liquid chromatographic procedure for the determination of albendazole ([5-(propylthio)-1H-benzimidazol-2yl]carbamic acid methyl ester) and its major metabolites, albendazole sulfoxide, albendazole sulfone, and albendazole-2- aminosulfone in rainbow trout, tilapia, and salmon muscle with adhering skin tissue is described. The muscle tissue samples are made alkaline with potassium carbonate and extracted with ethyl acetate. The extracts are further subjected to cleanup by utilizing a number of liquid-liquid extraction steps. After solvent evaporation, the residue is reconstituted in mobile phase and chromatographed. The chromatography is carried out on a reversed phase Luna C(18) column, using acetonitrile/methanol/buffer as a mobile phase and a fluorescence detector. The average recoveries from the fortified muscle tissue of the three fish species for albendazole (25-100 ppb), albendazole sulfoxide (15.5-62 ppb), albendazole sulfone (1-10 ppb), and albendazole-2- aminosulfone (10-100 ppb) were 94, 77, 82, and 67%, respectively. The average CV for each compound was < or =10%. The procedure was validated and then applied to the determination of albendazole and its three major metabolites in the muscle tissue of the three fish species obtained after orally dosing with albendazole.

  14. Accurate detection and quantification of the fish viral hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv) with a two-color fluorometric real-time PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Lindsey R; Willey, James C; Palsule, Vrushalee V; Yeo, Jiyoun; Shepherd, Brian S; Crawford, Erin L; Stepien, Carol A

    2013-01-01

    Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv) is one of the world's most serious fish pathogens, infecting >80 marine, freshwater, and estuarine fish species from Eurasia and North America. A novel and especially virulent strain - IVb - appeared in the Great Lakes in 2003, has killed many game fish species in a series of outbreaks in subsequent years, and shut down interstate transport of baitfish. Cell culture is the diagnostic method approved by the USDA-APHIS, which takes a month or longer, lacks sensitivity, and does not quantify the amount of virus. We thus present a novel, easy, rapid, and highly sensitive real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assay that incorporates synthetic competitive template internal standards for quality control to circumvent false negative results. Results demonstrate high signal-to-analyte response (slope = 1.00±0.02) and a linear dynamic range that spans seven orders of magnitude (R(2) = 0.99), ranging from 6 to 6,000,000 molecules. Infected fishes are found to harbor levels of virus that range to 1,200,000 VHSv molecules/10(6) actb1 molecules with 1,000 being a rough cut-off for clinical signs of disease. This new assay is rapid, inexpensive, and has significantly greater accuracy than other published qRT-PCR tests and traditional cell culture diagnostics.

  15. The indirect radioiodination of vasoactive intestinal peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lihua; Li Junling; Yin Duanzhi; Zhang Lei; Zhang Xiuli; Wang Yongxian

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To seek for an effective way to acquire radiolabeled vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) with excellent in vivo stability. N-succinimidyl-3-iodo-125-benzoate (S 125 IB) came from radioiodination of N-succinimidyl-3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate (ATE) precursor and then conjugated with VIP to form 125 IBA-VIP. The labelling procedure was optimized; the in vitro stability and biological activity were evaluated. Methods: 1) Radiolabeling of ATE precursor was achieved with iodogen oxidant and the influential factors were considered in this procedure. The labeling efficiency was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and the purification was carried out by Sep-pak silica gel cartridge. The stability was detected by TLC after 2 h storage in dark at 4 degree C. 2) Conjugation of S 125 IB and VIP. The labelling efficiency was determined with RP TLC and the purification was carried out with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, RP C18 column). Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation method was applied to evaluate the in vitro stability while the biological activity was determined by cell binding experiments with SGC7901 cell lines. Results: 1) S 125 IB experiments. The radioiodination of ATE was performed well for 5 min at 25 degree C with 10 micrograms of iodogen at suitable mole ratio (3-8:1) of ATE/Na 125 I, the labelling efficiency was about 96%. The stability was kept well at 4 degree C in dark, no significant decrease of S 125 IB was observed. 2) The conjugation efficiency of S 125 IB and VIP was above 75% with TLC. HPLC showed the different retention time (t R ) as follows, 125 IBA-VIP: 13.3 min, S 125 IB: 19.6 min, VIP: 8.32 min. The stability of 125 IBA-VIP was better than 125 I-VIP from direct radioiodination of VIP with iodogen oxidant, only 2.85% decrease was found after 7 d at 4 degree C. The biological activity of 125 IBA-VIP was kept as well as 125 I-VIP under the condition of 37 degree C 60 min. Conclusions: The indirect

  16. Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-07-01

    This report is based on the proceedings of the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Biomass Indirect Liquefaction Strategy Workshop. The workshop, held March 20–21, 2014, in Golden, Colorado, discussed and detailed the research and development needs for biomass indirect liquefaction. Discussions focused on pathways that convert biomass-based syngas (or any carbon monoxide, hydrogen gaseous stream) to liquid intermediates (alcohols or acids) and further synthesize those intermediates to liquid hydrocarbons that are compatible as either a refinery feed or neat fuel.

  17. Global indirect aerosol effects: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Lohmann

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosols affect the climate system by changing cloud characteristics in many ways. They act as cloud condensation and ice nuclei, they may inhibit freezing and they could have an influence on the hydrological cycle. While the cloud albedo enhancement (Twomey effect of warm clouds received most attention so far and traditionally is the only indirect aerosol forcing considered in transient climate simulations, here we discuss the multitude of effects. Different approaches how the climatic implications of these aerosol effects can be estimated globally as well as improvements that are needed in global climate models in order to better represent indirect aerosol effects are discussed in this paper.

  18. Indirect immunofluorescence staining of cultured neural cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbierato, Massimo; Argentini, Carla; Skaper, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    Immunofluorescence is a technique allowing the visualization of a specific protein or antigen in cells or tissue sections by binding a specific antibody chemically conjugated with a fluorescent dye such as fluorescein isothiocyanate. There are two major types of immunofluorescence staining methods: (1) direct immunofluorescence staining in which the primary antibody is labeled with fluorescence dye and (2) indirect immunofluorescence staining in which a secondary antibody labeled with fluorochrome is used to recognize a primary antibody. This chapter describes procedures for the application of indirect immunofluorescence staining to neural cells in culture.

  19. Indirect methods for wake potential integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorodnov, I.

    2006-05-01

    The development of the modern accelerator and free-electron laser projects requires to consider wake fields of very short bunches in arbitrary three dimensional structures. To obtain the wake numerically by direct integration is difficult, since it takes a long time for the scattered fields to catch up to the bunch. On the other hand no general algorithm for indirect wake field integration is available in the literature so far. In this paper we review the know indirect methods to compute wake potentials in rotationally symmetric and cavity-like three dimensional structures. For arbitrary three dimensional geometries we introduce several new techniques and test them numerically. (Orig.)

  20. NON-RADIOMETRIC IMMUNOASSAYS [FLUOROIMMUNOASSAY (FIA AND FLUOROMETRIC ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY (FEIA] WITH RADIOIMMUNOASSAY (RIA FOR EVALUATION OF ADRENAL FUNCTION IN NORMAL AND HYPERCORTISOLEMIC DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jericó Márcia Marques

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-radiometric immunoassays offer many advantages over radiometric assays, such as higher stability of kit compounds and absence of potential hazardous effects for users and environment. The comparison of cortisol measurements by fluoroimmunoassay (FIA and fluorometric enzyme immunoassay (FEIA with radioimmunoassay (RIA in adrenal function evaluation of normal (n=50 and hypercortisolemic dogs (n=12 was proposed. Serum concentrations of cortisol were measured in basal conditions and 8 hours after dexamethasone (DEX suppression (0.01mg/kg/IV. All our reference values were based on the 5th and 95th percentile. The values for basal cortisol of healthy dogs were 0.20 to 2.35mug/d for FIA, 0.30 to 5.39mug/d for FEIA, and 0.65 to 4.64mug/d for RIA. After DEX suppression the values were , and for FIA, FEIA and RIA, respectively. In hypercortisolemic dogs, the values of cortisol (mean ± SD in basal and post-DEX conditions were 2.71 + 0.41mug/d and 1.73 + 1.15mug/d for FIA, 7.05 + 2.85mug/d and 4.93 + 2.26mug/d for FEIA, and 4.80 + 1.43mug/d and 3.52 + 1.08mug/d for RIA. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05 between the normal and the hypercortisolemic groups (Kruskal-Wallis test were observed in the three methods, and between basal and post-DEX values (Wilcoxon test using RIA and FEIA methods but not with FIA. Cortisol determinations by FEIA and RIA methods at DEX suppression test showed 100% of sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism in dogs. The results demonstrate that serum cortisol concentrations measurements by FEIA is a suitable alternative to the traditional RIA method for adrenal function evaluation in dogs.

  1. Investigating hydrogen peroxide in rainwater of a typical midsized city in tropical Brazil using a novel application of a fluorometric method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramboni, C.; Crispim, C. P.; Toledo, J. C.; Campos, M. L. A. M.

    2018-03-01

    This work investigates the effect of public policies related to vehicle emissions on the lower tropospheric concentrations of H2O2 in a typical midsized city in tropical Brazil. The concentrations of H2O2, SO42-, and NO3- in rainwater samples were determined from 2014 to 2017 in the municipality of Ribeirão Preto in São Paulo State. A fluorometric method, based on the formation of a highly fluorescent product (2‧,7‧-dichlorofluorescein, DCF), was adapted and optimized for the measurement of H2O2 in natural water samples including seawater. The method was highly specific, accurate and sensitive (LOD = 2 nmol L-1). Its main advantage compared to others, was that the fluorophore remained stable for at least 48 h, offering a longer time interval in which to perform the analysis and therefore facilitating fieldwork. Concentrations of H2O2 in rainwater ranged from 5.8 to 96 μmol L-1, with VWM of 28.6 ± 1.4 μmol L-1 (n = 77). Solar radiation appeared to have a greater impact on production than on consumption of H2O2. The annual VWM concentrations of H2O2 in rainwater were negatively correlated with sulfate (at pH < 5) and nitrate, suggesting that national policies designed to reduce vehicle emissions of SO2 and NOx resulted in increased atmospheric H2O2 concentrations, impacting the oxidative capacity of the lower troposphere. Biomass burning emissions and photochemical reactions were also found to be important factors affecting the concentration of H2O2 in the atmosphere. This work expands the current records available for the Southern Hemisphere, where there is a considerable paucity of information regarding temporal production and loss of atmospheric H2O2.

  2. Comparison of the serologic tests of Indirect Immunofluorescence, Rapid Conglutination, Indirect ELISA and Competition ELISA for detection of antibodies against Anaplasma marginale in cattle sera from different enzootic areas/ Comparação dos testes sorológicos de Imunofluorescência Indireta, Conglutinação Rápida, ELISA indireto e ELISA por competição para a detecção de anticorpos contra o Anaplasma marginale em soros de bovinos de diferentes áreas enzoóticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luís Garcia

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The serological techniques Rapid Conglutination Test (RCT, Indirect ELISA (iELISA and Indirect Immunofluorescent Assay (IFA, using the competition ELISA (cELISA as gold test, were comparatively evaluated to detect antibodies against Anaplasma marginale. A total of 453 sera from vaccinated and non vaccinated cattle and, collected from enzootic stability and instability areas were tested. iELISA, IFA and TCR presented kappa index = 0.77 (substantial; 0.57 and 0.49 (moderate, sensibility of 90.6%; 90.2% and 73.7% and specificity of 86.6%; 62.8%, and 79.3%, respectively. Therefore, iELISA presented better specificity than IFA and RCT, and can be indicated for more detailed serological investigations, detection of persistently infected animals in cattle herds and for monitorating of vaccination programs. IFA and TCR can be used in prevalence studies and to monitor cattle movement between different geographical regions.Os testes sorológicos de Conglutinação Rápida (TCR Imunofluorescência Indireta (IFI e Imunoenzimáticos Indireto (iELISA utilizando ELISA por competição (cELISA, como padrão ouro, foram avaliados comparativamente para a detecção de anticorpos contra o Anaplasma marginale. Foram utilizadas 453 amostras de soros sangüíneos de bovinos vacinados e não-vacinados e de áreas de estabilidade e instabilidade enzoótica. O iELISA, IFI e TCR apresentaram respectivamente, índice kappa=0,77 (substancial, 0,57 e 0,49 (moderado, sensibilidade de 90,6%, 90,2% e 73,7% e especificidade de 86,6%, 62,8%, e 79,3%. O iELISA apresentou o melhor desempenho e maior especificidade, podendo ser indicado na avaliação do perfil sorológico de rebanhos, na detecção de animais persistentemente infectados e de animais submetidos a programas de vacinação. As técnicas de IFI e TCR, mesmo apresentando desempenho inferior, podem ser recomendadas para a realização de inquéritos epidemiológicos e para o monitoramento de animais em trânsito entre

  3. Assessment of the colorimetric and fluorometric assays for alkaline phosphatase activity in cow's, goat's, and sheep's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, V; Hill, Art; Warriner, K; Griffiths, M; Odumeru, J

    2008-09-01

    Raw milk is a well-established vehicle for the carriage of human pathogens, and many regulatory bodies have consequently mandated compulsory pasteurization as a food safety intervention. The residual activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has historically been used to verify the adequacy of pasteurization of cow's milk. However, there is uncertainty on how the current ALP standards and methods of analysis can be applied to sheep's and goat's milk, which naturally contain different levels of the enzyme than that found in cow's milk. The official ALP methods applied in Canada (colorimetric assay; MFO-3) and in the United States (Fluorophos) were assessed for their ability to detect enzyme activity in raw and pasteurized milk derived from cows, sheep, and goats. The detection limit and the limit of quantitation were 0.8 and 2.02 microg/ml phenol, respectively, for the MFO-3 method and 43 and 85 mU/liter, respectively, for the Fluorophos method. The average ALP levels in raw goat's, cow's, and sheep's milk were 165, 1,562, and 3,512 microg/ml phenol, respectively. Raw milk detection limits, which correspond to raw milk phosphatase levels, were 0.051, 0.485, and 0.023% in cow's, goat's, and sheep's milk, respectively, for the MFO-3 method and 0.007, 0.070, and 0.004%, respectively, for the Fluorophos method. Although both methods can be used for ALP determination in cow's, goat's, and sheep's milk, the Fluorophos assay was superior to the colorimetric MFO-3 method based on sensitivity and time required to complete the analysis.

  4. Development of indirect sandwich ELISA for determination of excretory-secretory antigens of Fasciola hepatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libertad Alzamora-Gonzales

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a cosmopolitan parasitosis medical-veterinary importance caused by Fasciola hepatica, which affects sheep, goats and cattle; and it affects man accidentally causing an epidemic-endemic infection difficult to diagnose. The aim was to develop an indirect sandwich ELISA with 3 antibodies for detecting excretory-secretory antigens of Fasciola hepatica (ESFh. For the development of indirect sandwich ELISA were used, as capture antibody, mouse polyclonal antibodies anti ESFh and polyclonal antibodies rabbit anti-ESFh as detection antibody, at the concentrations of 10 and 5 µg/mL respectively. The conjugate used was mouse monoclonal anti- total immunoglobulins rabbit linked to peroxidase (1/1000. Were analized 31 sheep fecal samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by direct coproparasitological examination (DC and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP. The detection limit obtained for indirect sandwich ELISA was 100 ng/mL. The test had a 100% sensitivity, 96.6% specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 50% and 96.6% respectively, in relation to DC test. Comparing with CIEP the specificity obtained for indirect sandwich ELISA was 93.5% and a negative predictive value of 100%. We concluded that indirect sandwich ELISA designed is able to detect metabolic antigens in ovine feces samples and can be used for Fasciola hepatica diagnosis.

  5. 27 CFR 6.32 - Indirect interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail Property § 6.32 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in retail property includes any interest acquired by corporate officials, partners, employees or other representatives of the industry member. Any interest in retail property...

  6. 27 CFR 6.26 - Indirect interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Interest in Retail License § 6.26 Indirect interest. Industry member interest in retail licenses includes any interest acquired by corporate officials, partners, employees or other representatives of the industry member. Any interest in a retail license...

  7. Indirect effects drive coevolution in mutualistic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Paulo R; Pires, Mathias M; Jordano, Pedro; Bascompte, Jordi; Thompson, John N

    2017-10-26

    Ecological interactions have been acknowledged to play a key role in shaping biodiversity. Yet a major challenge for evolutionary biology is to understand the role of ecological interactions in shaping trait evolution when progressing from pairs of interacting species to multispecies interaction networks. Here we introduce an approach that integrates coevolutionary dynamics and network structure. Our results show that non-interacting species can be as important as directly interacting species in shaping coevolution within mutualistic assemblages. The contribution of indirect effects differs among types of mutualism. Indirect effects are more likely to predominate in nested, species-rich networks formed by multiple-partner mutualisms, such as pollination or seed dispersal by animals, than in small and modular networks formed by intimate mutualisms, such as those between host plants and their protective ants. Coevolutionary pathways of indirect effects favour ongoing trait evolution by promoting slow but continuous reorganization of the adaptive landscape of mutualistic partners under changing environments. Our results show that coevolution can be a major process shaping species traits throughout ecological networks. These findings expand our understanding of how evolution driven by interactions occurs through the interplay of selection pressures moving along multiple direct and indirect pathways.

  8. Indirect punishment and generosity towards strangers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ule, A.; Schram, A.; Riedl, A.; Cason, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    Many people incur costs to reward strangers who have been kind to others. Theoretical and experimental evidence suggests that such "indirect rewarding" sustains cooperation between unrelated humans. Its emergence is surprising, because rewarders incur costs but receive no immediate benefits. It can

  9. Teaching Indirect Speech: Deixis Points the Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Ian P.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests an alternative approach to the teaching of indirect or reported speech. Deixis is proposed as a means of clarifying the anomalies of reported speech. The problem is assessed from a grammatical and semantic point of view in the reporting of statements (as opposed to the reporting of questions or commands). (GLR)

  10. Direct or indirect - that is the question!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    rather destroyed teeth need to be restored. Although much can be solved by direct fillings and thereby make treatments less invasive for the tooth and less expensive for the patient, there still will be teeth, where the prognosis is improved, if an indirect restoration in terms of an inlay, onlay...

  11. Development and evaluation of Indirect Hemagglutination Antibody ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to develop and evaluate an Indirect Hemagglutination Antibody Test (IHAT) for the serological diagnosis of Cysticercus bovis in live animals. IHAT was set-up in-house and used to test serum samples of cattle against sheep red blood cell (SRBC) coated with crude extracts of C. bovis cyst. Serum ...

  12. Indirect processes in electron-ion scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottcher, C.; Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    A summary is given of an informal workshop held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on June 22-23, 1983, in which the current status of theoretical calculations of indirect processes in electron-ion scattering was reviewed. Processes of particular interest in astrophysical and fusion plasmas were emphasized. Topics discussed include atomic structure effects, electron-impact ionization, and dielectronic recombination.

  13. Indirect genetic effects and kin recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku; Berg, Peer; Janss, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions among individuals are widespread, both in natural and domestic populations. As a result, trait values of individuals may be affected by genes in other individuals, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects (IGEs). IGEs can be estimated using linear mixed models. The tradi...

  14. 48 CFR 31.203 - Indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fiscal year used for financial reporting purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting... contract or other work, indirect costs are those remaining to be allocated to intermediate or two or more... basis of the benefits accruing to intermediate and final cost objectives. When substantially the same...

  15. Indirect effects of recreation on wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole; Peter B. Landres

    1995-01-01

    Most of this book focuses on direct impacts to wildlife that result from contact with people. The purpose of our chapter is to provide a broad overview of the indirect influences that recreation has on wildlife. Recreational activities can change the habitat of an animal. This, in turn, affects the behavior, survival, reproduction, and distribution of individuals....

  16. Plant regeneration through indirect organogenesis of chestnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To establish an effective protocol for plant regeneration through indirect organogenesis, effects of explants type, culture media and plant growth regulators on callus induction and shoot regeneration of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) were investigated. Three different explants (root, nodal and internodal segment), two ...

  17. Synchronization of indirectly coupled Lorenz oscillators: An ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Partial synchronization occurs in a population of chemical oscillators coupled through the concentration of chemical in the surrounding solutions [19]. Two nonlinear chaotic systems coupled indirectly through a common dynamic environment synchronize to in-phase or anti-phase state [20]. The early stages of Alzheimer's ...

  18. Scene independent real-time indirect illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Falster, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A novel method for real-time simulation of indirect illumination is presented in this paper. The method, which we call Direct Radiance Mapping (DRM), is based on basal radiance calculations and does not impose any restrictions on scene geometry or dynamics. This makes the method tractable for rea...

  19. Indirect bankruptcy costs and bankruptcy law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sautner, Z.; Vladimirov, V.

    2013-01-01

    We use a simple model to predict how creditor rights in bankruptcy a¤ect the accumulation and magnitude of indirect bankruptcy costs. We empirically identify these e¤ects by using two matched samples of bankrupt firms that provide us with variation in creditor rights. Consistent with our model, we

  20. Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-03-18

    Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based indirect reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards.

  1. Automation in indirect immunofluorescence testing: a new step in the evolution of the autoimmunology laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Tozzoli, Renato; Antico, Antonio; Porcelli, Brunetta; Bassetti, Danila

    2012-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) plays an important role in immunological and immunometric assays for detecting and measuring autoantibodies. This technology was the first multiplex method used to detect cardinal autoantibodies for the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases. Over the last 20?years, research has enabled the progressive identification of cell and tissue autoantigens which are the target of autoantibodies originally detected by IIF. Accordingly, newer immunometric methods, capable of...

  2. Reação de imunofluorescência indireta para detecção de anticorpos anti-Neospora caninum em amostras coletivas de leite Indirect fluorescent antibody test to detection of Neospora caninum antibodies in samples of bulk milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Camillo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a presença de anticorpos anti-Neospora caninum em amostras coletivas de leite, através da reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI. Para isso, foram coletadas amostras do leite dos tanques refrigerados de 36 rebanhos, das quais foram selecionadas 14 para coletas de amostras individuais de soro sanguíneo e de leite das vacas. Encontrou-se correlação em 12 dos 14 rebanhos selecionados para a amostragem individual dos animais, em comparação à detecção de anticorpos nas amostras coletivas de leite. Foi observada uma concordância de 76% comparando-se o resultado das amostras coletivas com os resultados individuais de leite. Observaram-se baixos títulos de anticorpos (50 no soro sanguíneo dos animais soropositivos, cujos resultados da RIFI no leite coletivo e no sangue foram discordantes. Assim, a partir dos resultados deste estudo, pode-se concluir que a utilização de testes sorológicos para detecção de anticorpos anti-N. caninum em amostras coletivas de leite através da RIFI pode ser uma opção ao diagnóstico para a triagem de rebanhos positivos bem como para estudos epidemiológicos.The aim of this study was to determine the presence of anti-N. caninum in the bulk milk samples by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFAT. For this, it was collected samples of milk from refrigerated tanks from 36 herds, of which 14 were selected for sampling of individual blood serum and milk of cows. It was found concordance for 12 of the 14 herds selected for samples of individual animals, compared to the detection of antibodies in the bulk milk samples. Concordance was of 76% when comparing the results of the pooled sample with the results of individual milk. It was observed low antibody titers (50 in the serum of animals positive whose results in IFA of bulk milk and blood were discordant. Thus, with the results of this study, it can be concluded that the use of serological tests for detection of

  3. INDIRECT LABOR COSTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR OVERHEAD ALLOCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Bea Chiang

    2013-01-01

    Cost accounting typically allocates indirect labor cost to cost object based on direct labor hours. The allocation process implicitly assumes that indirect labor costs vary proportionally with direct labor hours. The assumption of a linear relationship between indirect and direct labor is particularly suspicious at low production volume levels because there tends to be a fixed component in indirect labor. The linearity assumption is also challenged by recent increasing complexity of indirect ...

  4. Carbon Nanodots as Dual-Mode Nanosensors for Selective Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Cheng-Long; Su, Li-Xia; Zang, Jin-Hao; Li, Xin-Jian; Lou, Qing; Shan, Chong-Xin

    2017-07-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important product of oxidase-based enzymatic reactions, such as glucose/glucose oxidase (GOD) reaction. Therefore, the probing of generated H2O2 for achieving the detection of various carbohydrates and their oxidases is very significative. Herein, we report one kind of dual-emission carbon nanodots (CDs) that can serve as novel dual-mode nanosensors with both fluorometric and colorimetric output for the selective detection of H2O2. The dual-model nanosensors are established only by the undecorated dual-emission CDs, where significant fluorometric and colorimetric changes are observed with the addition of different concentrations of H2O2 in the CD solution, which benefit to the achievement of the naked-eye detection for H2O2. The mechanism of the nanosensors can be attributed to the fact that the external chemical stimuli like hydroxyl radicals from H2O2 bring about the change of surface properties and the aggregation of CDs, which dominate the emission and absorption of CDs. The constructed dual-mode nanosensors exhibit good biocompatibility and high selectivity toward H2O2 with a linear detection range spanning from 0.05 to 0.5 M and allow the detection of H2O2 as low as 14 mM.

  5. Fluorometric determination of proteins using the terbium (III)-2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate-protein system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia Zhen [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Department of Chemistry, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023 (China); Yang Jinghe [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)]. E-mail: yjh@sdu.edu.cn; Wu Xia [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Wang Fei [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Guo Changying [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Liu Shufang [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2006-12-15

    It is found that in hexamethylene tetramine (HMTA)-HCl buffer of pH=8.00, proteins can enhance the fluorescence of terbium (III) (Tb{sup 3+})-2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA)-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) system. Based on this, a sensitive method for the determination of proteins is proposed. The experiments indicate that under the optimum conditions, the enhanced fluorescence intensity is in proportion to the concentration of proteins in the range of 4.0x10{sup -9}-7.5x10{sup -6}g/mL for bovine serum albumin (BSA), 5.0x10{sup -9}-1.5x10{sup -5}g/mL for human serum albumin (HSA), 1.0x10{sup -8}-7.5x10{sup -6}g/mL for egg albumin (EA). Their detection limits (S/N=3) are 0.5, 0.8 and 2.0ng/mL, respectively. The interaction mechanism is also studied.

  6. How good is technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine indirect cystography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeleer, C. de; Boe, V. de; Keuppens, F.; Desprechins, B.; Verboven, M.; Piepsz, A.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the sensitivity of indirect radionuclide cystography (IRC) performed with technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3), in comparison with the micturition cystourethrography (MCUG) and direct radionuclide cystography (DRC), for the diagnosis of vesicoureteric reflux. Two groups of patients were selected: group I comprised 40 children who underwent IRC during the acute phase of urinary tract infection and an MCUG 6 weeks later; group II comprised 42 (other) children with known reflux, who underwent IRC and DRC during follow-up. Taking as the reference the total number of refluxing kidneys detected by means of any cystographic technique, 99m Tc-MAG3 ICR missed two-thirds of the refluxing kidneys. Most of the small refluxes were missed, but so too were 50% of the major refluxes. Taking as the reference 99m Tc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy, MCUG detected 91% of the patients with DMSA abnormalities on at least one kidney, DRC detected 95%, and IRC detected 46% and 43% respectively, in groups I and II. The use of 99m Tc-MAG3 IRC as the sole technique for the detection of vesicoureteric reflux gives rise to an unacceptable number of false-negative results. (orig.)

  7. Lack of indirect sensitization in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetzel, F.W.; Avery, K.; Mensinger, M.; Frinak, S.; Tidwell, C.

    1985-01-01

    The possible utility of respiratory inhibiting drugs as indirect radiation sensitizers has been investigated in both in vitro and in vivo systems. In vitro studies were conducted in V79 monolayer and spheroid cultures examining both respiratory inhibition and radiation survival as end points. These drugs (BCNU, Mustargen and Chlorambucil) were found to be potent respiratory inhibitors and, in the spheroid system, to be effective indirect radiation sensitizers with enhancement ratios of approximately 2.0. In vivo studies with these drugs have also been conducted in a C/sub 3/H mouse MCa tumor system to determine if the same reoxygenation effect observed in spheroids could be demonstrated in the solid tumor system. Detailed microelectrode studies, employing each drug at its LD/sub 10/ level, have been unable to demonstrate any drug induced reoxygenation for any of the drugs tested. Complete details are presented

  8. Indirect MR arthrographic findings of adhesive capsulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyoung Doo; Kwon, Jong Won; Yoon, Young Cheol; Choi, Sang-Hee

    2011-12-01

    The objective of our study was to compare the indirect MR arthrographic findings of patients with adhesive capsulitis and patients without adhesive capsulitis. Indirect MR arthrograms of 35 patients (21 women, 14 men; mean age, 50.1 years) diagnosed with adhesive capsulitis clinically were compared with indirect MR arthrograms of 45 patients (23 women, 22 men; mean age, 48.9 years) without adhesive capsulitis. Joint capsule thickness in the axillary recess and the thicknesses of the enhancing portion of the axillary recess and the rotator interval were, respectively, evaluated on coronal T2-weighted images and coronal and sagittal fat-suppressed enhanced T1-weighted images by two radiologists independently. Reliability was studied using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were compared. Patients with adhesive capsulitis had significantly thickened joint capsules in the axillary recess and a thickened enhancing portion in the axillary recess and in the rotator interval. The difference in the thicknesses of the enhancing portion in the axillary recess and in the rotator interval were significantly greater than the difference in joint capsule thicknesses in the axillary recess between the adhesive capsulitis group and the control group (p capsule in the axillary recess and the thicknesses of the enhancing portion of the axillary recess and the rotator interval were 0.797, 0.861, and 0.847, respectively. An abundance of enhancing tissue in the rotator interval and thickening and enhancement of the axillary recess are signs suggestive of adhesive capsulitis on indirect MR arthrography.

  9. Indirect posterior composite inlays and onlays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, P

    1994-01-01

    Indirect posterior composite inlays and onlays are a valuable part of the cosmetic dentist's repertoire of services. They fulfill most of the requirements for an esthetic alternative to the previously considered amalgam, gold, porcelain, and directly placed composite restorations. As in all other cosmetic dental procedures, attention to detail is essential for success. Improving technology will continue to have an impact on the place these restorations occupy in future cosmetic practice.

  10. "Other" indirect methods for nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trache, Livius

    2018-01-01

    In the house of Trojan Horse Method (THM), I will say a few words about "other" indirect methods we use in Nuclear Physics for Astrophysics. In particular those using Rare Ion Beams that can be used to evaluate radiative proton capture reactions. I add words about work done with the Professore we celebrate today. With a proposal, and some results with TECSA, for a simple method to produce and use isomeric beam of 26mAl.

  11. Indirect mesentericoportography with prostaglandin E1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammer, J.; Beaufort, F.; Steiner, H.

    1985-08-01

    Indirect mesenteriocoportography was performed in 36 patients after administration of prostaglandin E1 and immediately before contrast medium injection. The results were compared with the findings in a control group of 20 patients receiving tolazolin as vasodilator. On comparing prostaglandin E1 with tolazolin no significant improvement in contrast enhancement of the superior mesentric vein was obtained. On the other hand, prostaglandin E1 seemed to produce less side effects than tolazolin. (Author).

  12. Indirect lymphography: Indications, technique, clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmeinwieser, J.; Lehner, K.; Golder, W.

    1988-01-01

    Indirect lymphography with iotrolan makes it possible to demonstrate the lymphatic pathways with minimal invasiveness. This opens up new possibilities in the differential diagnosis of chronic swelling of the extremities. The typical radiological appearances make it possible to diagnose various types of lymphoedema and lymphangiomatous malformations. The method also promises to be useful in elucidating the pathogenesis of various types of swelling of the extremities. (orig.) [de

  13. Indirect Comprehensive Review Board (ICRB). Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) used a systems engineering approach to take the first step toward defining a requirements baseline for all indirect work at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The intent of this effort was to define the requirements for indirect work, identify the activities necessary to meet the requirements, and to produce defensible cost estimates for the work. The result of this effort is a scrubbed-down, defensible budget for all indirect work in FY 1997. Buying power for each dollar of direct work was increased by $.02. Recommendations are identified for improvements to this process in FY 1998. The purpose of this report is twofold. First is to report the final results of the 1996 ICRB process, and second is to document the process used such that incremental improvements may be made in future years. Objectives, processes, and approaches are described to provide a trail for future boards. Appendices contain copies of board composition, documentation of the process, as well as the actual training materials.

  14. Interactive indirect illumination using adaptive multiresolution splatting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Greg; Wyman, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Global illumination provides a visual richness not achievable with the direct illumination models used by most interactive applications. To generate global effects, numerous approximations attempt to reduce global illumination costs to levels feasible in interactive contexts. One such approximation, reflective shadow maps, samples a shadow map to identify secondary light sources whose contributions are splatted into eye space. This splatting introduces significant overdraw that is usually reduced by artificially shrinking each splat's radius of influence. This paper introduces a new multiresolution approach for interactively splatting indirect illumination. Instead of reducing GPU fill rate by reducing splat size, we reduce fill rate by rendering splats into a multiresolution buffer. This takes advantage of the low-frequency nature of diffuse and glossy indirect lighting, allowing rendering of indirect contributions at low resolution where lighting changes slowly and at high-resolution near discontinuities. Because this multiresolution rendering occurs on a per-splat basis, we can significantly reduce fill rate without arbitrarily clipping splat contributions below a given threshold-those regions simply are rendered at a coarse resolution.

  15. Direct and indirect effects of influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Martin; Schwehm, Markus; Eichner, Linda; Gerlier, Laetitia

    2017-04-26

    After vaccination, vaccinees acquire some protection against infection and/or disease. Vaccination, therefore, reduces the number of infections in the population. Due to this herd protection, not everybody needs to be vaccinated to prevent infections from spreading. We quantify direct and indirect effects of influenza vaccination examining the standard Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) and Susceptible-Infected-Recovered-Susceptible (SIRS) model as well as simulation results of a sophisticated simulation tool which allows for seasonal transmission of four influenza strains in a population with realistic demography and age-dependent contact patterns. As shown analytically for the simple SIR and SIRS transmission models, indirect vaccination effects are bigger than direct ones if the effective reproduction number of disease transmission is close to the critical value of 1. Simulation results for 20-60% vaccination with live influenza vaccine of 2-17 year old children in Germany, averaged over 10 years (2017-26), confirm this result: four to seven times as many influenza cases are prevented among non-vaccinated individuals as among vaccinees. For complications like death due to influenza which occur much more frequently in the unvaccinated elderly than in the vaccination target group of children, indirect benefits can surpass direct ones by a factor of 20 or even more than 30. The true effect of vaccination can be much bigger than what would be expected by only looking at vaccination coverage and vaccine efficacy.

  16. Indirect Comprehensive Review Board (ICRB). Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) used a systems engineering approach to take the first step toward defining a requirements baseline for all indirect work at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The intent of this effort was to define the requirements for indirect work, identify the activities necessary to meet the requirements, and to produce defensible cost estimates for the work. The result of this effort is a scrubbed-down, defensible budget for all indirect work in FY 1997. Buying power for each dollar of direct work was increased by $.02. Recommendations are identified for improvements to this process in FY 1998. The purpose of this report is twofold. First is to report the final results of the 1996 ICRB process, and second is to document the process used such that incremental improvements may be made in future years. Objectives, processes, and approaches are described to provide a trail for future boards. Appendices contain copies of board composition, documentation of the process, as well as the actual training materials

  17. Bose-Einstein condensation and indirect excitons: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combescot, Monique; Combescot, Roland; Dubin, François

    2017-06-01

    We review recent progress on Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of semiconductor excitons. The first part deals with theory, the second part with experiments. This Review is written at a time where the problem of exciton Bose-Einstein condensation has just been revived by the understanding that the exciton condensate must be dark because the exciton ground state is not coupled to light. Here, we theoretically discuss this missed understanding before providing its experimental support through experiments that scrutinize indirect excitons made of spatially separated electrons and holes. The theoretical part first discusses condensation of elementary bosons. In particular, the necessary inhibition of condensate fragmentation by exchange interaction is stressed, before extending the discussion to interacting bosons with spin degrees of freedom. The theoretical part then considers composite bosons made of two fermions like semiconductor excitons. The spin structure of the excitons is detailed, with emphasis on the crucial fact that ground-state excitons are dark: indeed, this imposes the exciton Bose-Einstein condensate to be not coupled to light in the dilute regime. Condensate fragmentations are then reconsidered. In particular, it is shown that while at low density, the exciton condensate is fully dark, it acquires a bright component, coherent with the dark one, beyond a density threshold: in this regime, the exciton condensate is 'gray'. The experimental part first discusses optical creation of indirect excitons in quantum wells, and the detection of their photoluminescence. Exciton thermalisation is also addressed, as well as available approaches to estimate the exciton density. We then switch to specific experiments where indirect excitons form a macroscopic fragmented ring. We show that such ring provides efficient electrostatic trapping in the region of the fragments where an essentially-dark exciton Bose-Einstein condensate is formed at sub-Kelvin bath

  18. Spatially indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Chih-Wei Eddy [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-03-01

    Microscopic quantum phenomena such as interference or phase coherence between different quantum states are rarely manifest in macroscopic systems due to a lack of significant correlation between different states. An exciton system is one candidate for observation of possible quantum collective effects. In the dilute limit, excitons in semiconductors behave as bosons and are expected to undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) at a temperature several orders of magnitude higher than for atomic BEC because of their light mass. Furthermore, well-developed modern semiconductor technologies offer flexible manipulations of an exciton system. Realization of BEC in solid-state systems can thus provide new opportunities for macroscopic quantum coherence research. In semiconductor coupled quantum wells (CQW) under across-well static electric field, excitons exist as separately confined electron-hole pairs. These spatially indirect excitons exhibit a radiative recombination time much longer than their thermal relaxation time a unique feature in direct band gap semiconductor based structures. Their mutual repulsive dipole interaction further stabilizes the exciton system at low temperature and screens in-plane disorder more effectively. All these features make indirect excitons in CQW a promising system to search for quantum collective effects. Properties of indirect excitons in CQW have been analyzed and investigated extensively. The experimental results based on time-integrated or time-resolved spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and imaging are reported in two categories. (i) Generic indirect exciton systems: general properties of indirect excitons such as the dependence of exciton energy and lifetime on electric fields and densities were examined. (ii) Quasi-two-dimensional confined exciton systems: highly statistically degenerate exciton systems containing more than tens of thousands of excitons within areas as small as (10 micrometer)2 were

  19. INVESTIGATION OF TOXOPLASMA INFECTIONS IN NATIVE POULTRY OF TABRIZ CITY USING ELISA AND INDIRECT IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fathollahzadeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is widely distributed in humans and other animals and birds throughout the world. Toxoplasmosis is a common zoonotic infection in the world and in immune-deficient patients, it may cause acute and lethal infection. The aim of current study was to investigate the prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii IgG by ELISA and indirect immune fluorescence in backyard fowls in Tabriz city. Blood samples were evaluated to detect anti - Toxoplasma gondii IgG in backyard fowls. The prevalence of Antibody against Toxoplasma IgG in native poultry of Tabriz was detected 18%in ELISA and 30% in indirect immune-fluorescence (IFA method. Results of indirect IFA method indicated, 14% of roosters and 16% of hens were infected. Because of high rate of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in rural poultry, monitoring program along with anti-parasite treatment should be implemented.

  20. Smile detection

    OpenAIRE

    Rus, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Facial expressions are one of the most powerful and indirect means of transferring feelings, cognitive status, ulterior motive and opinion among people. Considering their significance it is reasonable to expect that the development of tools recognizing facial expressions would have a big effect on everyday life. In the past years, the developers have made big progress on the development of classifiers that are needed for this kind of expression detection; however there is still a great gap be...

  1. Transport of indirect excitons in high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Y. Y.; Dorow, C. J.; Calman, E. V.; Butov, L. V.; Wilkes, J.; Muljarov, E. A.; Campman, K. L.; Gossard, A. C.

    2017-03-01

    We present spatially and spectrally resolved photoluminescence measurements of indirect excitons in high magnetic fields. Long indirect exciton lifetimes give the opportunity to measure magnetoexciton transport by optical imaging. Indirect excitons formed from electrons and holes at zeroth Landau levels (0e-0h indirect magnetoexcitons) travel over large distances and form a ring emission pattern around the excitation spot. In contrast, the spatial profiles of 1e-1h and 2e-2h indirect magnetoexciton emission closely follow the laser excitation profile. The 0e-0h indirect magnetoexciton transport distance reduces with increasing magnetic field. These effects are explained in terms of magnetoexciton energy relaxation and effective mass enhancement.

  2. Living in a noisy world: indirect effects of noise on animal communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naguib, M.

    2013-01-01

    Noise is a ubiquitous feature in natural as well as in urban habitats. The presence of noise can have multiple direct and indirect effects on communication. Noise can directly mask signals leading to reduced detection and recognition. Noise also affects internal physiological processes which can

  3. The extrinsic affective Simon task as an instrument for indirect assessment of prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degner, J.; Wentura, D.

    2008-01-01

    We report one study that explored the applicability of the Extrinsic Affective Simon Task (EAST) as an indirect measure of prejudice. The EAST detected known differences in reactions revealing that a Turkish outgroup was spontaneously evaluated more negatively than the German ingroup. More

  4. Indirect Interactions in the High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslin, Tomas; Wirta, Helena; Hopkins, Tapani; Hardwick, Bess; Várkonyi, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Indirect interactions as mediated by higher and lower trophic levels have been advanced as key forces structuring herbivorous arthropod communities around the globe. Here, we present a first quantification of the interaction structure of a herbivore-centered food web from the High Arctic. Targeting the Lepidoptera of Northeast Greenland, we introduce generalized overlap indices as a novel tool for comparing different types of indirect interactions. First, we quantify the scope for top-down-up interactions as the probability that a herbivore attacking plant species i itself fed as a larva on species j. Second, we gauge this herbivore overlap against the potential for bottom-up-down interactions, quantified as the probability that a parasitoid attacking herbivore species i itself developed as a larva on species j. Third, we assess the impact of interactions with other food web modules, by extending the core web around the key herbivore Sympistis nigrita to other predator guilds (birds and spiders). We find the host specificity of both herbivores and parasitoids to be variable, with broad generalists occurring in both trophic layers. Indirect links through shared resources and through shared natural enemies both emerge as forces with a potential for shaping the herbivore community. The structure of the host-parasitoid submodule of the food web suggests scope for classic apparent competition. Yet, based on predation experiments, we estimate that birds kill as many (8%) larvae of S. nigrita as do parasitoids (8%), and that spiders kill many more (38%). Interactions between these predator guilds may result in further complexities. Our results caution against broad generalizations from studies of limited food web modules, and show the potential for interactions within and between guilds of extended webs. They also add a data point from the northernmost insect communities on Earth, and describe the baseline structure of a food web facing imminent climate change. PMID

  5. Indirect interactions in the High Arctic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Roslin

    Full Text Available Indirect interactions as mediated by higher and lower trophic levels have been advanced as key forces structuring herbivorous arthropod communities around the globe. Here, we present a first quantification of the interaction structure of a herbivore-centered food web from the High Arctic. Targeting the Lepidoptera of Northeast Greenland, we introduce generalized overlap indices as a novel tool for comparing different types of indirect interactions. First, we quantify the scope for top-down-up interactions as the probability that a herbivore attacking plant species i itself fed as a larva on species j. Second, we gauge this herbivore overlap against the potential for bottom-up-down interactions, quantified as the probability that a parasitoid attacking herbivore species i itself developed as a larva on species j. Third, we assess the impact of interactions with other food web modules, by extending the core web around the key herbivore Sympistis nigrita to other predator guilds (birds and spiders. We find the host specificity of both herbivores and parasitoids to be variable, with broad generalists occurring in both trophic layers. Indirect links through shared resources and through shared natural enemies both emerge as forces with a potential for shaping the herbivore community. The structure of the host-parasitoid submodule of the food web suggests scope for classic apparent competition. Yet, based on predation experiments, we estimate that birds kill as many (8% larvae of S. nigrita as do parasitoids (8%, and that spiders kill many more (38%. Interactions between these predator guilds may result in further complexities. Our results caution against broad generalizations from studies of limited food web modules, and show the potential for interactions within and between guilds of extended webs. They also add a data point from the northernmost insect communities on Earth, and describe the baseline structure of a food web facing imminent climate

  6. Indirect quantum tomography of quadratic Hamiltonians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgarth, Daniel [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); Maruyama, Koji; Nori, Franco, E-mail: daniel@burgarth.de, E-mail: kmaruyama@riken.jp [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    A number of many-body problems can be formulated using Hamiltonians that are quadratic in the creation and annihilation operators. Here, we show how such quadratic Hamiltonians can be efficiently estimated indirectly, employing very few resources. We found that almost all the properties of the Hamiltonian are determined by its surface and that these properties can be measured even if the system can only be initialized to a mixed state. Therefore, our method can be applied to various physical models, with important examples including coupled nano-mechanical oscillators, hopping fermions in optical lattices and transverse Ising chains.

  7. Third European Company Survey – Direct and indirect employee participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Agnes; Sluiter, Roderick; Jansen, Giedo

    2015-01-01

    This report studies practices in EU establishments for direct and indirect employee participation in decision-making. Indirect employee participation is the involvement of employee representatives in decision-making processes, while direct employee participation describes direct interaction between

  8. THE INDIRECT OBJECT (IO) – ALBANIAN AND ENGLISH

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku; Xhevahire Topanica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is too corporate the function of the indirect object between Albanian and English language. The function and the Albanian typical case for indirect object are dative and ablative. This grammatical phenomena is the full contrast between two languages because in English language doesn’t exist dative and ablative us in Albanian. In Albanian and English language, the indirect object is more heterogenic than the direct object. The indirect (direct) object in both of languages...

  9. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Saavedra

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  10. The indirect strategies of internationalization of companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Momčilo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this work are, as mentioned in the title, the indirect strategies of internationalization of companies. The first part talks about the new business environment, the factors that lead to changes and their implications. It is at the same time the business context, which must be taken into consideration that determines the success of companies in the new business environment. In this paper, the emphasis is on company business in international markets, and the selection of appropriate strategies of internationalization, which will be responsible for this new business environment. There are many reasons that are discussed in this paper, and would rather indicate that partners from different countries to accept different strategies, rather than opting for a strategy of export, or a strategy of direct investments abroad. The dynamic technical and technological development, and its universal impact, among other relevant factors, put in the first place the importance of different strategies which is achieved through technology transfer, knowledge and experience whereby the exports, as a classic strategy of involvement in international trade, becomes significantly more difficult. Also, the internationalization of enterprises through direct investment abroad, involves many difficulties related to fitting in a foreign enterprise environment, and a high risk strategy. In addition, there is still a large number of countries do not allow wholly owned foreign enterprises. The paper discusses the value of various indirect internationalization strategy, which may be useful for those domestic companies that are in front of problem the choice of acceptable strategies of internationalization.

  11. System markets: Indirect network effects in action, or inaction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L.G. Binken (Jeroen)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, I empirically examine system markets up close. More specifically I examine indirect network effects, both demand-side and supply-side indirect network effects. Indirect network effects are the source of positive feedback in system markets, or so network effect

  12. 21 CFR 870.3640 - Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer... Indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer. (a) Identification. An indirect pacemaker generator function analyzer is an electrically powered device that is used to determine pacemaker function or...

  13. Comparison of haemoglobin estimates using direct & indirect cyanmethaemoglobin methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Gupta Bansal

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The present findings revealed that indirect cyanmethaemoglobin method overestimated the prevalence of anaemia as compared to the direct method. However, if a correction factor is applied, indirect method could be successfully used for estimating true haemoglobin level. More studies should be undertaken to establish agreement and correction factor between direct and indirect cyanmethaemoglobin methods.

  14. NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION. Preliminary Observations on Indirect Costs for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-24

    NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Preliminary Observations on Indirect Costs for Research Statement of John Neumann, Director...Representatives May 24, 2017 NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Preliminary Observations on Indirect Costs for Research What GAO Found GAO’s preliminary...analysis of National Science Foundation (NSF) data indicates that for fiscal years 2000 through 2016, indirect costs on NSF awards ranged from 16

  15. Non-radiometric immunoassays fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) and fluorometric enzyme immunoassay (FEIA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) for evaluation of thyroid function in normal and hypothyroid dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerico, M.M.; Larsson, C.E. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Clinica Medica]. E-mail: marciajerico@hotmail.com; Mendonca, B.B. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina . Lab. de Hormonios e Genetica Molecular; Otsuka, M. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Hospital Veterinario; Maganin Junior, A. [Canil da Policia Militar do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    We proposed the comparison of thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (FT4) measurements by fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) and fluorometric enzyme immunoassay (FEIA) with radioimmunoassay (RIA) in thyroid function evaluation of normal (n=50) and hypothyroid dogs (n=9). T4 and FT4 serum concentrations were measured in basal conditions and 6 h after TRH stimulation (200 mug/IV). All our reference values are based on the 5th and 95th percentile. The reference values for basal T4 in healthy dogs were 0.50 to 2.35 mug/dL (FIA), 0.50 to 2.51 mug/dL (FEIA) and 0.35 to 0.74 mug/dL (RIA). After TRH, the values were >= 1.37 mug/dL (FIA), >= 0,26 mug/dL (FEIA) and >= 0.40 mug/dL (RIA). Basal FT4 values in healthy dogs were 0.65 to 2.20 ng/dL (FIA), 0.38 to 1.43 ng/dL (FEIA) and 0.10 to 1.24 ng/dL (RIA). After TRH, the values were >= 1.30 ng/dL (FIA), >= 0.77 ng/dL (FEIA) and >=0.50 ng/dL (RIA). In hypothyroid dogs, the mean +- SD for T4 in basal conditions and after TRH were 0.24 +- 0.20 mug/dL and 0.26 +- 0.20 mug/dL (FIA), 0.27 +- 0.12 mug/dL and 0.32 +- 0.51 mug/dL (FEIA) and 0.19 +- 0.30 mug/dL and 0,24 +- 0.09 mug/dL (RIA), respectively. In the same group the mean +- SD basal FT4 values and after TRH were 0.28 +- 0.33 ng/dL and 0.28 +- 0.39 ng/dL (FIA), 0,12 +- 0.26 ng/dL and 0.23 +- 0.56 ng/dL (FEIA) and 0,15 +- 0,15 ng/dL and 0,17 +- 0,28 ng/dL (RIA), respectively. Significant differences (p<0.05) between the normal and hypothyroid groups (Kruskall-Wallis test) were observed in the three methods and between basal and stimulated values in normal dogs (Wilcoxon test), by the three methods. The best sensitivity for diagnosing hypothyroidism was obtained through T4 values (100%), and the best specificity through FT4 values (100%), both determined by FIA after TRH stimulation. We conclude that T4 and FT4 measured by fluoroimmunoassay after TRH stimulation can be an excellent alternative. (author)

  16. Non-radiometric immunoassays (fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) and fluorometric enzyme immunoassay (FEIA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) for evaluation of thyroid function in normal and hypothyroid dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerico, M.M.; Larsson, C.E.

    2001-01-01

    We proposed the comparison of thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (FT4) measurements by fluoroimmunoassay (FIA) and fluorometric enzyme immunoassay (FEIA) with radioimmunoassay (RIA) in thyroid function evaluation of normal (n=50) and hypothyroid dogs (n=9). T4 and FT4 serum concentrations were measured in basal conditions and 6 h after TRH stimulation (200 mug/IV). All our reference values are based on the 5th and 95th percentile. The reference values for basal T4 in healthy dogs were 0.50 to 2.35 mug/dL (FIA), 0.50 to 2.51 mug/dL (FEIA) and 0.35 to 0.74 mug/dL (RIA). After TRH, the values were >= 1.37 mug/dL (FIA), >= 0,26 mug/dL (FEIA) and >= 0.40 mug/dL (RIA). Basal FT4 values in healthy dogs were 0.65 to 2.20 ng/dL (FIA), 0.38 to 1.43 ng/dL (FEIA) and 0.10 to 1.24 ng/dL (RIA). After TRH, the values were >= 1.30 ng/dL (FIA), >= 0.77 ng/dL (FEIA) and >=0.50 ng/dL (RIA). In hypothyroid dogs, the mean +- SD for T4 in basal conditions and after TRH were 0.24 +- 0.20 mug/dL and 0.26 +- 0.20 mug/dL (FIA), 0.27 +- 0.12 mug/dL and 0.32 +- 0.51 mug/dL (FEIA) and 0.19 +- 0.30 mug/dL and 0,24 +- 0.09 mug/dL (RIA), respectively. In the same group the mean +- SD basal FT4 values and after TRH were 0.28 +- 0.33 ng/dL and 0.28 +- 0.39 ng/dL (FIA), 0,12 +- 0.26 ng/dL and 0.23 +- 0.56 ng/dL (FEIA) and 0,15 +- 0,15 ng/dL and 0,17 +- 0,28 ng/dL (RIA), respectively. Significant differences (p<0.05) between the normal and hypothyroid groups (Kruskall-Wallis test) were observed in the three methods and between basal and stimulated values in normal dogs (Wilcoxon test), by the three methods. The best sensitivity for diagnosing hypothyroidism was obtained through T4 values (100%), and the best specificity through FT4 values (100%), both determined by FIA after TRH stimulation. We conclude that T4 and FT4 measured by fluoroimmunoassay after TRH stimulation can be an excellent alternative. (author)

  17. Social cognition of indirect speech: Evidence from Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Patrick; Holtgraves, Thomas; Durso, Raymon; Harris, Erica

    2010-03-01

    We examined potential neurocognitive mechanisms of indirect speech in support of face management in 28 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 32 elderly controls with chronic disease. In experiment 1, we demonstrated automatic activation of indirect meanings of particularized implicatures in controls but not in PD patients. Failure to automatically engage comprehension of indirect meanings of indirect speech acts in PD patients was correlated with a measure of prefrontal dysfunction. In experiment 2, we showed that while PD patients and controls offered similar interpretations of indirect speech acts, PD participants were overly confident in their interpretations and unaware of errors of interpretation. Efficient reputational adjustment mechanisms apparently require intact striatal-prefrontal networks.

  18. Comparison of the indirect fluorescent antibody test and modified agglutination test for detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in rats / Comparação da reação de imunofluorescência indireta e do teste de aglutinação modificado na detecção de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lemos Freire

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii and affects a lot of species of carnivores and omnivores, including the human. The rodents are important in the transmition cycle because they act as an infection font to felines, the definitive host of this protozoan. The objective of this work was to evaluate the Modified Agglutination Test (MAT for the serologic diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in rats, comparing with the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT, which has been considered the golden standard in animal toxoplasmosis diagnosis. Kappa test was used for comparing the serologic tests (IFAT and MAT and for determination of cutoff appropriate to MAT in this animal species. 182 rats were caught on local recycling of solid waste and solid residue storage in Londrina city, Paraná. Out of the 182 rats, nine (4.94% were positive to IFAT at a dilution of 1:16, and 17 (9.34% and five (2.75% were reactive to MAT in dilutions 1:25 and 1:50, respectively. The comparison of results between the techniques presented kappa coefficients of 0.26 and 0.55, respectively at 1:25 and 1:50 dilutions of MAT. It can be concluded that the dilution 1:50 is the most suitable to be used as cutoff for detecting T. gondii antibodies in rats using MAT, because agreed with IFAT.A toxoplasmose é uma zoonose causada pelo Toxoplasma gondii que acomete várias espécies carnívoras e onívoras, incluindo o ser humano. Os roedores são importantes na cadeia epidemiológica da doença por servirem de fonte de infecção aos felídeos, os hospedeiros definitivos deste protozoário. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o Teste de Aglutinação Modificada (MAT na detecção de anticorpos contra T. gondii em ratos, comparando-o à Reação de Imunofluorescência Indireta (RIFI, considerada padrão ouro para o diagnóstico da toxoplasmose animal. Empregou-se o teste kappa para a comparação dos testes sorológicos (RIFI e MAT e para a determinação do ponto de corte

  19. Detección de anticuerpos anti-Brucella spp. en cerdos mediante técnicas de aglutinación y ELISA indirecto en las provincias de Buenos Aires y La Pampa: Argentina Detection of anti-Brucella spp. antibodies in swine by agglutination techniques and indirect ELISA in the Buenos Aires and La Pampa provinces: Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Castro

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available En nuestro país no existe un programa de control sobre brucelosis porcina y su verdadera situación epidemiológica es desconocida. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue detectar la presencia de anticuerpos anti-Brucella spp. en porcinos provenientes de criaderos del sudoeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires y del este de la provincia de La Pampa. La toma de muestras de sangre se realizó en el momento del faenado de los animales. La detección de anticuerpos se efectuó mediante las técnicas de aglutinación con antígeno tamponado en placa (BPA, seroaglutinación en tubo (SAT, aglutinación con 2-ME (2-ME y ELISA indirecto, con dos antígenos diferentes: el antígeno CYT (fracción citoplasmática de B. abortus S19 y el antígeno CP (extracto citoplasmático libre de lipopolisacárido. Del total de las muestras analizadas (n=325, el 17,8% fue positivo para BPA, el 13,8% fue positivo para SAT y sólo el 8,0% fue positivo para 2-ME. Mediante ELISA-CYT, este porcentaje se elevó a 21,0%, mientras que a través del ELISA-CP sólo se halló un 10,0% de muestras reactivas. Estos resultados son compatibles con los informados en los escasos reportes previos para todo el país y sugieren la necesidad de extender los estudios a otras zonas, donde sea habitual la cría de cerdos.Porcine brucellosis is one of the most important zoonoses in this country. Currently, there is no control program for porcine brucellosis in Argentina and the epidemiological situation is still unknown. The purpose of our study was to detect anti-Brucella spp. antibodies in swine in the southwest of the Buenos Aires province and the east of the La Pampa province. Blood samples were obtained when animals were slaughtered. The presence of anti-brucella antibodies was studied by the buffered plate agglutination test (BPA, the tube agglutination test (SAT, the 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME agglutination test and indirect ELISA tests, using the cytosolic fraction from Brucella abortus S19

  20. Indirect evaporative coolers with enhanced heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozubal, Eric; Woods, Jason; Judkoff, Ron

    2015-09-22

    A separator plate assembly for use in an indirect evaporative cooler (IEC) with an air-to-air heat exchanger. The assembly includes a separator plate with a first surface defining a dry channel and a second surface defining a wet channel. The assembly includes heat transfer enhancements provided on the first surface for increasing heat transfer rates. The heat transfer enhancements may include slit fins with bodies extending outward from the first surface of separator plate or may take other forms including vortex generators, offset strip fins, and wavy fins. In slit fin implementations, the separator plate has holes proximate to each of the slit fins, and the separator plate assembly may include a sealing layer applied to the second surface of the separator plate to block air flow through the holes. The sealing layer can be a thickness of adhesive, and a layer of wicking material is applied to the adhesive.

  1. Lion - tiger - stripes: Neural correlates of indirect semantic priming across processing modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, Katharina; Krach, Sören; Sachs, Olga; Kircher, Tilo

    2009-03-01

    "Lions" do not have "stripes". However, via the word "tiger" both words are closely connected within the semantic network. With the present study we pursued two goals: to detect neural correlates of (1) directly and indirectly related word pairs by means of priming, and (2) to assess the effect of presentation modality. Stimuli were presented with a short SOA of 350 ms as subjects performed a lexical decision task during fMRI measurement. Four experimental conditions were compared: directly related (picture-frame), indirectly related (anvil-nail), unrelated (steamboat-needle) and nonword trials (chalk-edan), presented in a uni- (word-word) and cross-modal (auditory-word) version. Behavioral data revealed a modality-independent priming effect only for direct semantic priming. On a neural level, directly linked words led to left-lateralized activations in fronto-temporo-parietal areas. Indirect priming led to right-hemispheric fronto-parietal signal changes. Common areas of activation for uni- and cross-modal priming were found within the left middle temporal gyrus and right precuneus for direct priming and within the right insula for indirect priming. The comparison of the semantic distances (direct>indirect) showed one region activated modality-independent: the precuneus. Direct priming is associated with activation clusters corresponding to a large left-lateralized network. Indirect priming recruits right-hemispheric regions, reflecting widespread semantic fields and attentional components. The modality-independent comparison of direct and indirect priming revealed common areas of activation supporting an amodal rather than multiple semantic systems. The activation related to semantic distances underpins the special role of the precuneus. This region is involved in semantic priming and association processing whereas episodic memory contents might be addressed.

  2. Record of porcine brucellosis in India by indigenously developed indirect ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeswari Shome

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Porcine brucellosis is a contagious and emerging zoonosis but neglected in most of the endemic countries including India. The disease in pigs is rarely reported due to non-availability of diagnostics or major focus is on bovine brucellosis. Hence, the necessity was felt to develop indirect ELISA for the detection of anti-Brucella antibodies and to record spatial seroprevalence of porcine brucellosis in the country. The relative diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the developed indirect ELISA were 94.0% and 92.0%, respectively and kappa agreement with rose bengal plate test, serum agglutination test and commercial indirect ELISA kit was found to be 0.86 (95% confidence interval 0.78–0.93. A total of 2 576 random serum samples sourced from 10 states were screened by indirect ELISA and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% confidence interval 5.6–8.7 was recorded. The study concluded the prevalence of brucellosis in swine population in many states of the country and indirect ELISA as an alternate test to rose bengal plate test and serum agglutination tests.

  3. Multiplexed Detection of Tumor Markers with Multicolor Polymer Dot-Based Immunochromatography Test Strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chia-Chia; Chou, Chia-Cheng; Yang, Yong-Quan; Wei-Kai, Tsai; Wang, Yeng-Tseng; Chan, Yang-Hsiang

    2018-02-06

    There have been ongoing efforts to develop more sensitive and fast quantitative screening of cancer markers by use of fluorometric immunochromatographic test strips (ICTS) since the remarkable advances in fluorescent nanomaterials. Semiconducting polymer dots (Pdots) have recently emerged as a new type of biocompatible fluorescent probe with extraordinary brightness which is suitable for biological and clinical use. Here, we developed Pdot-based ICTS for quantitative rapid screening of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), α-fetoprotein (AFP), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in 10 min. Through use of the ultrahigh fluorescence brightness of Pdots, this immunosensor enabled much better detection sensitivity (2.05, 3.30, and 4.92 pg/mL for PSA, AFP, and CEA, respectively), in which the detection limit is at least 2 orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional fluorometric ICTS. Furthermore, we performed proof-of-concept experiments for simultaneous determination of multiple tumor markers in a single test strip. These results demonstrated that this Pdot-based ICTS platform is a promising candidate for developing new generations of point-of-care diagnostics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of Pdot-based ICTS with multiplexing capability.

  4. Bioelectrochemical Systems for Indirect Biohydrogen Production

    KAUST Repository

    Regan, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems involve the use of exoelectrogenic (i.e., anode-reducing) microbes to produce current in conjunction with the oxidation of reduced compounds. This current can be used directly for power in a microbial fuel cell, but there are alternate uses of this current. One such alternative is the production of hydrogen in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), which accomplishes cathodic proton reduction with a slight applied potential by exploiting the low redox potential produced by exoelectrogens at the anode. As an indirect approach to biohydrogen production, these systems are not subject to the hydrogen yield constraints of fermentative processes and have been proven to work with virtually any biodegradable organic substrate. With continued advancements in reactor design to reduce the system internal resistance, increase the specific surface area for anode biofilm development, and decrease the material costs, MECs may emerge as a viable alternative technology for biohydrogen production. Moreover, these systems can also incorporate other value-added functionalities for applications in waste treatment, desalination, and bioremediation.

  5. Indirect land use change and biofuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocoloski, Matthew; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2009-01-01

    Biofuel debates often focus heavily on carbon emissions, with parties arguing for (or against) biofuels solely on the basis of whether the greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels are less than (or greater than) those of gasoline. Recent studies argue that land use change leads to significant greenhouse gas emissions, making some biofuels more carbon intensive than gasoline. We argue that evaluating the suitability and utility of biofuels or any alternative energy source within the limited framework of plus and minus carbon emissions is too narrow an approach. Biofuels have numerous impacts, and policy makers should seek compromises rather than relying solely on carbon emissions to determine policy. Here, we estimate that cellulosic ethanol, despite having potentially higher life cycle CO 2 emissions (including from land use) than gasoline, would still be cost-effective at a CO 2 price of $80 per ton or less, well above estimated CO 2 mitigation costs for many alternatives. As an example of the broader approach to biofuel policy, we suggest the possibility of using the potential cost reductions of cellulosic ethanol relative to gasoline to balance out additional carbon emissions resulting from indirect land use change as an example of ways in which policies could be used to arrive at workable solutions.

  6. INDIRECT WRITTEN CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK, REVISION, AND LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Poorebrahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrective feedback, the necessity of providing it, and how it should be provided has been one of the hot topics in the area of ELT. Amid continuing controversies over whether providing feedback helps L2 learners improve their writing accuracy, many research studies have been undertaken to compare the relative effectiveness of different types of feedback. However, the difference between two types of indirect corrective feedback, namely indication and indication plus location, have not been properly examined yet. Motivated to narrow this gap, this study is designed to compare two groups of Iranian learners, each revising their papers based on one of the aforementioned options. For data analysis, a series of independent samples t tests were employed. The results revealed that the difference between the two groups in their reduction of errors from the original draft to the revision of each task followed a growing trend and became significant. Nonetheless, the difference in accuracy of new pieces of writing fell short of significance. Finally, it was found that error reduction in revision stage cannot be considered as learning. The results of the study, discussed in relation to that of others, implicate that the purpose for which feedback is provided is essential in determining the type of feedback; more explicit feedback is better for revising purposes while more implicit feedback is good for learning purposes.

  7. Non invasive wearable sensor for indirect glucometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberstein, Gleb; Zilberstein, Roman; Maor, Uriel; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2018-04-02

    A non-invasive mini-sensor for blood glucose concentration assessment has been developed. The monitoring is performed by gently pressing a wrist or fingertip onto the chemochromic mixture coating a thin glass or polymer film positioned on the back panel of a smart watch with PPG/HRM (photoplethysmographic/heart rate monitoring sensor). The various chemochromic components measure the absolute values of the following metabolites present in the sweat: acetone, acetone beta-hydroxybutirate, aceto acetate, water, carbon dioxide, lactate anion, pyruvic acid, Na and K salts. Taken together, all these parameters give information about blood glucose concentration, calculated via multivariate analysis based on neural network algorithms built into the sensor. The Clarke Error Grid shows an excellent correlation between data measured by the standard invasive glucose analyser and the present non-invasive sensor, with all points aligned along a 45 degree diagonal and contained almost exclusively in sector A. Graphs measuring glucose levels five times a day (prior, during and after breakfast and prior, during and after lunch), for different individuals (male and female) show a good correlation between the two curves of conventional, invasive meters vs. the non-invasive sensor, with an error of ±15%. This novel, non-invasive sensor for indirect glucometry is fully miniaturized, easy to use and operate and could represent a valid alternative in clinical settings and for individual, personal users, to current, invasive tools. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Direct and indirect punishment among strangers in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Nikiforakis, Nikos; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2014-11-11

    Many interactions in modern human societies are among strangers. Explaining cooperation in such interactions is challenging. The two most prominent explanations critically depend on individuals' willingness to punish defectors: In models of direct punishment, individuals punish antisocial behavior at a personal cost, whereas in models of indirect reciprocity, they punish indirectly by withholding rewards. We investigate these competing explanations in a field experiment with real-life interactions among strangers. We find clear evidence of both direct and indirect punishment. Direct punishment is not rewarded by strangers and, in line with models of indirect reciprocity, is crowded out by indirect punishment opportunities. The existence of direct and indirect punishment in daily life indicates the importance of both means for understanding the evolution of cooperation.

  9. Third European Company Survey – Direct and indirect employee participation

    OpenAIRE

    Akkerman, Agnes; Sluiter, Roderick; Jansen, Giedo

    2015-01-01

    This report studies practices in EU establishments for direct and indirect employee participation in decision-making. Indirect employee participation is the involvement of employee representatives in decision-making processes, while direct employee participation describes direct interaction between employers and employees. The study builds on the survey data from the Eurofound Third European Company Survey 0verview report and focuses on how direct and indirect employee participation are relat...

  10. Indirect Catastrophic Injuries in Olympic Styles of Wrestling in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Kordi, Ramin; Ziaee, Vahid; Rostami, Mohsen; Wallace, W. Angus

    2011-01-01

    Background: Data on indirect catastrophic injuries in wrestling are scarce. Objectives: To develop a profile of indirect catastrophic injuries in international styles of wrestling and to describe possible risk factors. Study Design: Retrospective case series; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Indirect catastrophic injuries that occurred in wrestling clubs in Iran from July 1998 to June 2005 were identified by contacting several sources. The cases were retrospectively reviewed. Results: The injur...

  11. The Influence of Direct and Indirect Speech on Source Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Eerland; Rolf A. Zwaan

    2018-01-01

    People perceive the same situation described in direct speech (e.g., John said, “I like the food at this restaurant”) as more vivid and perceptually engaging than described in indirect speech (e.g., John said that he likes the food at the restaurant). So, if direct speech enhances the perception of vividness relative to indirect speech, what are the effects of using indirect speech? In four experiments, we examined whether the use of direct and indirect speech influences the comprehender’s me...

  12. Indirect Genetic Effects for group-housed animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku

    This thesis investigated social interactions in group-housed animals. The main findings of this thesis: 1) Statistical methods to estimate indirect genetic effects when interactions differ between kin vs. non-kin were developed. 2) Indirect genetic effects contribute a substantial amount of herit......This thesis investigated social interactions in group-housed animals. The main findings of this thesis: 1) Statistical methods to estimate indirect genetic effects when interactions differ between kin vs. non-kin were developed. 2) Indirect genetic effects contribute a substantial amount...

  13. A new fluorescent pyrene–pyridine dithiocarbamate probe: A chemodosimeter to detect Hg2+ in pure aqueous medium and in live cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vikram; Srivastava, Priyanka; PrakashVerma, Shiv; Misra, Arvind; Das, Parimal; Singh, Nanhai

    2014-01-01

    A new pyrene–pyridine dithiocarbamate based fluorescent chemodosimeter, potassium (pyren-1-ylmethyl)(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)dithiocarbamate (L1) has been designed and synthesized. The chemodosimeter shows high selectivity and sensitivity (5.2 ppb) for Hg 2+ in pure aqueous medium in which emission intensity was quenched by ≈80% due to the formation of new cyclized species, 1. The probe behaves as a chemodosimeter for Hg 2+ ions and forms Hg 2+ triggered cyclised imidazoline species with approximate detection time of 50 s and exhibits both colorimetric and fluorometric changes on detection of Hg 2+ ion. Color of the probe (L1) changed from green to colorless visible to the naked eye and from green to dark blue upon the addition of Hg 2+ ions under UV light. The Hg 2+ triggered cyclization reaction was confirmed by spectral data analysis and a single crystal structure determination of the cyclised entity 2 obtained from the model compound potassium benzyl(pyridin-2-ylmethyl) dithiocarbamate (L2). L1 finds its application for detection of Hg 2+ ions on paper strips, and in BSA (bovine serum albumin) medium. L1 is also applicable for the monitoring of Hg 2+ ion in NIH3T3 live cells. - Highlights: • Efficient chemodosimeter to detect Hg 2+ ions in pure aqueous medium. • Hg 2+ triggered cyclisation and formation of imidazoline species. • Probe exhibit both colorimetric and fluorometric changes • Probe is applicable to detect Hg 2+ in live cells and on cellulose paper strips

  14. Comparison of the marginal adaptation of direct and indirect composite inlay restorations with optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türk, Ayşe Gözde; Sabuncu, Metin; Ünal, Sena; Önal, Banu; Ulusoy, Mübin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to use the photonic imaging modality of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to compare the marginal adaptation of composite inlays fabricated by direct and indirect techniques. Class II cavities were prepared on 34 extracted human molar teeth. The cavities were randomly divided into two groups according to the inlay fabrication technique. The first group was directly restored on cavities with a composite (Esthet X HD, Dentsply, Germany) after isolating. The second group was indirectly restored with the same composite material. Marginal adaptations were scanned before cementation with an invisible infrared light beam of OCT (Thorlabs), allowing measurement in 200 µm intervals. Restorations were cemented with a self-adhesive cement resin (SmartCem2, Dentsply), and then marginal adaptations were again measured with OCT. Mean values were statistically compared by using independent-samples t-test and paired samples t-test (pinlays presented statistically smaller marginal discrepancy values than indirect inlays, before (p=0.00001442) and after (p=0.00001466) cementation. Marginal discrepancy values were increased for all restorations after cementation (p=0.00008839, p=0.000000952 for direct and indirect inlays, respectively). The mean marginal discrepancy value of the direct group increased from 56.88±20.04 µm to 91.88±31.7 µm, whereas the indirect group increased from 107.54±35.63 µm to 170.29±54.83 µm. Different techniques are available to detect marginal adaptation of restorations, but the OCT system can give quantitative information about resin cement thickness and its interaction between tooth and restoration in a nondestructive manner. Direct inlays presented smaller marginal discrepancy than indirect inlays. The marginal discrepancy values were increased for all restorations that refer to cement thickness after cementation.

  15. Comparison of the marginal adaptation of direct and indirect composite inlay restorations with optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Gözde TÜRK

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective The purpose of the study was to use the photonic imaging modality of optical coherence tomography (OCT to compare the marginal adaptation of composite inlays fabricated by direct and indirect techniques. Material and Methods Class II cavities were prepared on 34 extracted human molar teeth. The cavities were randomly divided into two groups according to the inlay fabrication technique. The first group was directly restored on cavities with a composite (Esthet X HD, Dentsply, Germany after isolating. The second group was indirectly restored with the same composite material. Marginal adaptations were scanned before cementation with an invisible infrared light beam of OCT (Thorlabs, allowing measurement in 200 µm intervals. Restorations were cemented with a self-adhesive cement resin (SmartCem2, Dentsply, and then marginal adaptations were again measured with OCT. Mean values were statistically compared by using independent-samples t-test and paired samples t-test (p<0.05, before and after cementation. Results Direct inlays presented statistically smaller marginal discrepancy values than indirect inlays, before (p=0.00001442 and after (p=0.00001466 cementation. Marginal discrepancy values were increased for all restorations after cementation (p=0.00008839, p=0.000000952 for direct and indirect inlays, respectively. The mean marginal discrepancy value of the direct group increased from 56.88±20.04 µm to 91.88±31.7 µm, whereas the indirect group increased from 107.54±35.63 µm to 170.29±54.83 µm. Different techniques are available to detect marginal adaptation of restorations, but the OCT system can give quantitative information about resin cement thickness and its interaction between tooth and restoration in a nondestructive manner. Conclusions Direct inlays presented smaller marginal discrepancy than indirect inlays. The marginal discrepancy values were increased for all restorations that refer to cement thickness after

  16. development and evaluation of indirect hemagglutination antibody ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    Faecal examination. To detect gastrointestinal parasites, the flotation and sedimentation techniques were conducted on all faecal samples. The prevalence of parasitosis in the Yeka-Abado Farmers Association (32.1%) was significantly different from Repi PLC Dairy Farm. (4.95%), p < 0.05. No significant difference was.

  17. An Information-Theoretic Approach for Indirect Train Traffic Monitoring Using Building Vibration

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Susu; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Pei; Noh, Hae Young

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces an indirect train traffic monitoring method to detect and infer real-time train events based on the vibration response of a nearby building. Monitoring and characterizing traffic events are important for cities to improve the efficiency of transportation systems (e.g., train passing, heavy trucks, and traffic). Most prior work falls into two categories: (1) methods that require intensive labor to manually record events or (2) systems that require deployment of dedicated ...

  18. Indirect immunofluorescence staining of Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions in microculture plates with monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, M; Chernesky, M; Mahony, J

    1984-06-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence (IF) staining, using a monoclonal antibody, detected two- to fourfold more inclusions than did iodine staining. Of 274 clinical specimens, 53 (19.3%) were positive by IF on passage 1 as compared with 33 (12%) by iodine staining (P less than 0.005). IF-stained inclusions in McCoy cells in the bottom of microculture wells were readily viewed with a long-focal-length objective at a magnification of 250 X.

  19. Indirect immunofluorescence staining of Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions in microculture plates with monoclonal antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata, M; Chernesky, M; Mahony, J

    1984-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence (IF) staining, using a monoclonal antibody, detected two- to fourfold more inclusions than did iodine staining. Of 274 clinical specimens, 53 (19.3%) were positive by IF on passage 1 as compared with 33 (12%) by iodine staining (P less than 0.005). IF-stained inclusions in McCoy cells in the bottom of microculture wells were readily viewed with a long-focal-length objective at a magnification of 250 X.

  20. Automated Indirect Immunofluorescence Evaluation of Antinuclear Autoantibodies on HEp-2 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Voigt, Jörn; Krause, Christopher; Rohwäder, Edda; Saschenbrecker, Sandra; Hahn, Melanie; Danckwardt, Maick; Feirer, Christian; Ens, Konstantin; Fechner, Kai; Barth, Erhardt; Martinetz, Thomas; Stöcker, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) on human epithelial (HEp-2) cells is considered as the gold standard screening method for the detection of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA). However, in terms of automation and standardization, it has not been able to keep pace with most other analytical techniques used in diagnostic laboratories. Although there are already some automation solutions for IIF incubation in the market, the automation of result evaluation is still in its infancy. Therefore, the E...

  1. Automobile Industry Retail Price Equivalent and Indirect Cost Multipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report develops a modified multiplier, referred to as an indirect cost (IC) multiplier, which specifically evaluates the components of indirect costs that are likely to be affected by vehicle modifications associated with environmental regulation. A range of IC multipliers a...

  2. The Influence of Direct and Indirect Speech on Source Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Eerland

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available People perceive the same situation described in direct speech (e.g., John said, “I like the food at this restaurant” as more vivid and perceptually engaging than described in indirect speech (e.g., John said that he likes the food at the restaurant. So, if direct speech enhances the perception of vividness relative to indirect speech, what are the effects of using indirect speech? In four experiments, we examined whether the use of direct and indirect speech influences the comprehender’s memory for the identity of the speaker. Participants read a direct or an indirect speech version of a story and then addressed statements to one of the four protagonists of the story in a memory task. We found better source memory at the level of protagonist gender after indirect than direct speech (Exp. 1–3. When the story was rewritten to make the protagonists more distinctive, we also found an effect of speech type on source memory at the level of the individual, with better memory after indirect than direct speech (Exp. 3–4. Memory for the content of the story, however, was not influenced by speech type (Exp. 4. While previous research showed that direct speech may enhance memory for how something was said, we conclude that indirect speech enhances memory for who said what.

  3. Indirect plant-mediated interactions among parasitoid larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, E.H.; Gols, R.; Snoeren, T.A.L.; Muru, D.; Smid, H.M.; Dicke, M.

    2011-01-01

    Communities are riddled with indirect species interactions and these interactions can be modified by organisms that are parasitic or symbiotic with one of the indirectly interacting species. By inducing plant responses, herbivores are well known to alter the plant quality for subsequent feeders. The

  4. A Computational Approach to the Interpretation of Indirect Speech Acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beun, R.J.; Eijk, R.M. van; Meyer, J-J.Ch.; Vergunst, N.L.

    2006-01-01

    An Indirect Speech Act (ISA) is an utterance that conveys a message that is different from its literal meaning, often for reasons of politeness or subtlety. The DenK-system provides us with a non-compositional way to look at Indirect Speech Acts that contain modal verbs. We can extract the

  5. Indirect Positive Evidence in the Acquisition of a Subset Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Misha; Goad, Heather

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes that second language learners can use indirect positive evidence (IPE) to acquire a phonological grammar that is a subset of their L1 grammar. IPE is evidence from errors in the learner's L1 made by native speakers of the learner's L2. It has been assumed that subset grammars may be acquired using direct or indirect negative…

  6. Evaluating the incidence of indirect tax reforms in Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between 1983 and 1996, income inequality moved from 0.49 to 0.44 and subsequently to 0.41 in 2001. The indirect tax structure has a role to play in inequality reduction policies. Using the 1983/84, 1996 and the 2001 Cameroon household surveys, this study reveals that the indirect tax reforms of 1994 and 1999 have been ...

  7. Direct and Indirect Cues to Knowledge States during Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Megan M.; Carroll, C. Brooke

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated three-year-olds' sensitivity to direct and indirect cues to others' knowledge states for word learning purposes. Children were given either direct, physical cues to knowledge or indirect, verbal cues to knowledge. Preschoolers revealed a better ability to learn words from a speaker following direct, physical cues to…

  8. Male and Female University Students' Experiences of Indirect Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaars, Lindsey; Rinaldi, Christina M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the role of sex, gender role orientation, social representations of indirect aggression, and indicators of psychosocial adjustment in indirect aggression and victimization in an emerging adult sample. A total of 42 participants (19 men, 23 women) recruited are required to complete the questionnaires, along with 18 participants…

  9. An indecent proposal: the dual functions of indirect speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroff, Aleksandr; Thomas, Kyle A; Haque, Omar S; Young, Liane

    2015-01-01

    People often use indirect speech, for example, when trying to bribe a police officer by asking whether there might be "a way to take care of things without all the paperwork." Recent game theoretic accounts suggest that a speaker uses indirect speech to reduce public accountability for socially risky behaviors. The present studies examine a secondary function of indirect speech use: increasing the perceived moral permissibility of an action. Participants report that indirect speech is associated with reduced accountability for unethical behavior, as well as increased moral permissibility and increased likelihood of unethical behavior. Importantly, moral permissibility was a stronger mediator of the effect of indirect speech on likelihood of action, for judgments of one's own versus others' unethical action. In sum, the motorist who bribes the police officer with winks and nudges may not only avoid public punishment but also maintain the sense that his actions are morally permissible. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. A novel indirect ELISA for diagnosis of dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Rohan; Raja, Senthil; Kumar, Senthil; Sambasivam, Mohana; Jagadeesan, Raja; Arunagiri, Kavita; Krishnasamy, Kaveri; Palani, Gunasekaran

    2016-07-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Since there are no effective antiviral drugs for treatment, clinicians often rely on the accurate diagnosis of dengue fever to begin supportive therapy at early stages of the illness. The objective of this study was to develop an in-house dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) non-structural protein- 5 (NS5) based indirect ELISA. DENV-2 was raised in Vero cells and the viral proteins were separated and subsequently the NS5 protein was eluted. Serum samples from primary and secondary dengue fever patients; and acute and convalescent samples from Japanese encephalitis (JE) and West Nile virus (WNV) cases were used to validate the ELISA. The assay was found to be 100 per cent specific in detecting DENV-2 specific antibodies from patient's serum. However, in terms of sensitivity, the assay could detect IgM antibodies only from 90 per cent of the primary dengue samples. The IgM/IgG ratio of the primary and secondary samples was 7.24 and 0.64, respectively. The results indicate that the DENV-2 NS5 ELISA is dengue group specific and can be used to differentiate dengue infection from other circulating Flavivirus infections. This NS5 ELISA can also be used to distinguish between primary and secondary dengue fever on the basis of IgM/IgG ratios. Further studies with larger sample sizes and different DENV serotypes are required to validate the ELISA.

  11. Development of indirect indicators for CO2 intrusion into freshwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humez, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with the impact of CO 2 leakages out of geological storage into overlying freshwater aquifers. Compared to other existing studies, the major added value of this study lies, on the one hand, in the research of new monitoring tools and isotopic approach in the context of CCS aiming at early and sensitive detection of CO 2 leakage and, on the other hand, in the application of these tools at the (limited) laboratory scale as well as at field scale. In order to test these tools, solid and liquid materials were sampled out of the major strategic drinking water Albian aquifer in the Paris Basin (France). We have then precisely characterized and used them within a batch experiment. This experiment yields interesting results which help understanding and constraining precisely the water-rock-CO 2 interactions as well as the isotopic responses. A real scale application of the method was then performed in Norway. It was an opportunity to develop this isotopic program and to track the isotopic evolution composition, while differentiating the natural processes and the system response to the CO 2 injection. When applied to the detection of CO 2 leakage context, the two case studies open the way for choosing the 'best' isotopic tools as indirect indicators of CO 2 presence in these specific systems. The efficiency of these isotopic tools comes from the recording of the CO 2 footprint all along the water-rock-CO 2 interactions. Using such tools imposes a rigorous methodology, which is tackled in this manuscript. Furthermore, future application will require adapting to the specifics of a proposed site. (author)

  12. A novel indirect ELISA for diagnosis of dengue fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Narayan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Dengue fever (DF is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Since there are no effective antiviral drugs for treatment, clinicians often rely on the accurate diagnosis of dengue fever to begin supportive therapy at early stages of the illness. The objective of this study was to develop an in-house dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2 non-structural protein- 5 (NS5 based indirect ELISA. Methods: DENV-2 was raised in Vero cells and the viral proteins were separated and subsequently the NS5 protein was eluted. Serum samples from primary and secondary dengue fever patients; and acute and convalescent samples from Japanese encephalitis (JE and West Nile virus (WNV cases were used to validate the ELISA. Results: The assay was found to be 100 per cent specific in detecting DENV-2 specific antibodies from patient′s serum. However, in terms of sensitivity, the assay could detect IgM antibodies only from 90 per cent of the primary dengue samples. The IgM/IgG ratio of the primary and secondary samples was 7.24 and 0.64, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: The results indicate that the DENV-2 NS5 ELISA is dengue group specific and can be used to differentiate dengue infection from other circulating Flavivirus infections. This NS5 ELISA can also be used to distinguish between primary and secondary dengue fever on the basis of IgM/IgG ratios. Further studies with larger sample sizes and different DENV serotypes are required to validate the ELISA.

  13. Indirect Genetic Effects for group-housed animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku

    This thesis investigated social interactions in group-housed animals. The main findings of this thesis: 1) Statistical methods to estimate indirect genetic effects when interactions differ between kin vs. non-kin were developed. 2) Indirect genetic effects contribute a substantial amount...... of heritable variation for bite mark traits in group-housed min. 3) Indirect genetic effects estimation needs to take into account systematic interactions due to sex or kin for bite mark trait in group-housed min. 4) Genomic selection can be used to increase the response to selection for survival time in Brown...

  14. Indirect Control for Demand Side Management – A Conceptual Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; You, Shi; Biegel, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    correct definition, either as a control or a market concept. This paper aims to provide a conceptual introduction to "indirect control" for management of small and distributed demand side resources. A review of control concepts and an analysis of "indirectness" features are provided to create a framework......The concept of “indirect control” has become a relevant discussion term in relation to activation distributed and small-scale demand and generation units to provide resources for power system balancing. The term and its association with price signals has, however caused some confusion as to its...

  15. Indirect monitoring of internal exposure for actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro G, C.J.; Barreto F, J.; Todo A, A.

    2006-01-01

    The procedure used to the assessment of internal exposure of workers involved with dismantling lightning rods and radioactive smoke detectors is described. Due to the presence of the sources of 241 Am in these devices, a monitoring program to the workers have been implemented. This paper presents an analytical method for the separation and analysis of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) in urine samples using solid-phase extraction chromatography and alpha spectrometry. The mean recovery obtained with this technique is about 80% and the detection limit for 24 h urine sample range between 0.6 mBqL -1 and 1.0 mBqL -1 . The assessment of intakes and internal doses are performed following ICRP Publication 78 recommendations and appropriated biokinetic models (ICRP, 1997). Assumptions have been made for routine monitoring of these workers and it is also discussed the establishment of the internal monitoring program using the results of alpha measurements. (Author)

  16. Indirect monitoring of internal exposure for actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro G, C.J.; Barreto F, J.; Todo A, A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes No. 2242, Zip code 05508-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The procedure used to the assessment of internal exposure of workers involved with dismantling lightning rods and radioactive smoke detectors is described. Due to the presence of the sources of {sup 241} Am in these devices, a monitoring program to the workers have been implemented. This paper presents an analytical method for the separation and analysis of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) in urine samples using solid-phase extraction chromatography and alpha spectrometry. The mean recovery obtained with this technique is about 80% and the detection limit for 24 h urine sample range between 0.6 mBqL{sup -1} and 1.0 mBqL{sup -1}. The assessment of intakes and internal doses are performed following ICRP Publication 78 recommendations and appropriated biokinetic models (ICRP, 1997). Assumptions have been made for routine monitoring of these workers and it is also discussed the establishment of the internal monitoring program using the results of alpha measurements. (Author)

  17. Indirect signatures for axion(-like) particles

    CERN Document Server

    Zioutas, K; Grande, M; Hoffmann, Dieter H H; Huovelin, J; Lakic, B; Orlando, S; Ortiz, A; Papaevangelou, T; Semertzidis, Y K; Tzamarias, S; Vilhu, O; Papaevangelou, Th.; Tzamarias, Sp.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic field dependent transient solar observations are suggestive for axion-photon oscillations with light axion(-like) particle involvement. Novel dark-moon measurements with the SMART X-ray detectors can be conclusive for radiatively decaying massive exotica like the generic solar Kaluza-Klein axions. Furthermore, the predicted intrinsic strong solar magnetic fields could be the reason of enhanced low energy axion production. Such an axion component could be the as yet unknown origin of the strong quiet Sun X-ray luminosity at energies below 1 keV. Solar axion telescopes should lower their threshold, aiming to copy processes that might occur near the solar surface, be it due to spontaneous or magnetically induced radiative decay of axion(-like) particles. This is motivated also by the recent claim of an axion-like particle detection by the laser experiment PVLAS.

  18. Seroprevalence study of human brucellosis by conventional tests and indigenous indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasthya, Annapurna S; Isloor, Srikrishna; Krishnamsetty, Prabhudas

    2012-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most important reemerging zoonoses in many countries. Brucellosis is caused by Gram-negative coccobacillus belonging to genus Brucella. Human brucellosis often makes the diagnosis difficult. The symptoms and clinical signs most commonly reported are fever, fatigue, malaise, chills, sweats headaches, myalgia, arthralgia, and weight loss. Some cases have been presented with only joint pain, lower backache, and involuntary limb movement, burning feet, or ischemic heart attacks. The focus of this work was to develop a highly sensitive and specific indirect ELISA by using smooth lipopolysaccharide antigen of Brucella abortus 99 to detect anti-Brucella antibodies at Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance. Serum samples collected from 652 individuals in whom fever was not the major symptom but the complaint was of joint pain, headache, lower backache, and so forth, were screened by Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBPT) and standard tube agglutination test (STAT). Subsequent testing of sera by indigenous indirect ELISA detected 20 samples positive (3.6% seroprevalence), and indirect ELISA was found to be more sensitive than RBPT and STAT. The seroprevalence in South Karnataka was 2.14%, and in North Karnataka it was 0.92%.

  19. Direct and indirect alcohol biomarkers data collected in hair samples - multivariate data analysis and likelihood ratio interpretation perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Alladio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentration values of direct and indirect biomarkers of ethanol consumption were detected in blood (indirect or hair (direct samples from a pool of 125 individuals classified as either chronic (i.e. positive and non-chronic (i.e. negative alcohol drinkers. These experimental values formed the dataset under examination (Table 1. Indirect biomarkers included: aspartate transferase (AST, alanine transferase (ALT, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, mean corpuscular volume of the erythrocytes (MCV, carbohydrate-deficient-transferrin (CDT. The following direct biomarkers were also detected in hair: ethyl myristate (E14:0, ethyl palmitate (E16:0, ethyl stearate (E18:1, ethyl oleate (E18:0, the sum of their four concentrations (FAEEs, i.e. Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters and ethyl glucuronide (EtG; pg/mg. Body mass index (BMI was also collected as a potential influencing factor. Likelihood ratio (LR approaches have been used to provide predictive models for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse, based on different combinations of direct and indirect alcohol biomarkers, as described in “Evaluation of direct and indirect ethanol biomarkers using a likelihood ratio approach to identify chronic alcohol abusers for forensic purposes” (E. Alladio, A. Martyna, A. Salomone, V. Pirro, M. Vincenti, G. Zadora, 2017 [1].

  20. Modification of a whole room indirect calorimeter for measurement of rapid changes in energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M; Reed, G W; Hill, J O

    1994-06-01

    Whole room indirect calorimeters are among the most accurate devices for measurement of human energy expenditure and have provided useful data about determinants of total daily energy expenditure. However, a limitation of whole room indirect calorimeters has been the inability to detect acute (usually calorimeter (respiratory chamber) to allow accurate measurement of energy expenditure over time periods as short as 1 min. The modifications involve changes in the system design and use of signal processing techniques. With these modifications, we can measure energy expenditure in 1-min intervals throughout the day. This allows accurate study of the acute effects of food, exercise, or drugs on energy expenditure in subjects moving freely inside the respiratory chamber. The ability to use respiratory chambers for these types of studies should improve our understanding of how body weight is regulated.

  1. Estimating the indirect costs associated with the expected number of cancer cases in Mexico by 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Delgado, Cristina; Armas-Texta, Daniel; Reynoso-Noverón, Nancy; Meneses-García, Abelardo; Mohar-Betancourt, Alejandro

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the indirect costs generated by adults with cancer in Mexico from 2002-2020. Using information from national sources and the national cancer incidence from GLOBOCAN, we estimated income lost due to premature death (ILPD), short-term benefits (STBs), disability pensions (DPs), and opportunity costs for the carer (OCCs) generated by patients with cancer. Amounts were reported in Mexican pesos. We estimated 23 359 deaths and 216 679 new cases of cancer by 2020, which would be associated with a total indirect cost of 20.15 billion Mexican pesos. Men are expected to generate 54.9% of these costs. ILPD is expected to comprise the highest percentage of the cost (60%), followed by OCCs (22%), STBs (17%) and DPs (1%). From an economic perspective, the results emphasize the need to strengthen preventive interventions and early detection of cancer among adults to reduce its effect on the productivity of Mexico.

  2. Utilizing optical coherence tomography for CAD/CAM of indirect dental restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chityala, Ravishankar; Vidal, Carola; Jones, Robert

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has seen broad application in dentistry including early carious lesion detection and imaging defects in resin composite restorations. This study investigates expanding the clinical usefulness by investigating methods to use OCT for obtaining three-dimensional (3D) digital impressions, which can be integrated to CAD/CAM manufacturing of indirect restorations. 3D surface topography `before' and `after' a cavity preparation was acquired by an intraoral cross polarization swept source OCT (CP-OCT) system with a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) scanning mirror. Image registration and segmentation methods were used to digitally construct a replacement restoration that modeled the original surface morphology of a hydroxyapatite sample. After high resolution additive manufacturing (e.g. polymer 3D printing) of the replacement restoration, micro-CT imaging was performed to examine the marginal adaptation. This study establishes the protocol for further investigation of integrating OCT with CAD/CAM of indirect dental restorations.

  3. Inducible indirect defence of plants : from mechanisms to ecological functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicke, M.; Poecke, van R.M.P.; Boer, de J.G.

    2003-01-01

    Inducible defences allow plants to be phenotypically plastic. Inducible indirect defence of plants by attracting carnivorous enemies of herbivorous arthropods can vary with plant species and genotype, with herbivore species or instar and potentially with other environmental conditions. So far,

  4. [Indirect bonded prosthesis. Use of an impacted central incisor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaia, A M; Manfio, A P; Moraes, C J; Dutra, D A; Isaia, V G; Moncada, A C

    1990-01-01

    The authors presents a case about right central superior incisor impacted. After surgical remotion of the retain tooth, this was utilized like pontic in the confeccion of the indirect adhesive prosthesis for the patient.

  5. Indirect determination of particle shape of fine aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Three methods developed by various agencies for measuring indirectly the particle shapes of fine aggregates were used along with a visual classification procedure to study aggregates from eight commercial sources along with a reference sand. The meth...

  6. Indirect inference with time series observed with error

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    estimation. We propose to solve this inconsistency by jointly estimating the nuisance and the structural parameters. Under standard assumptions, this estimator is consistent and asymptotically normal. A condition for the identification of ARMA plus noise is obtained. The proposed methodology is used......We analyze the properties of the indirect inference estimator when the observed series are contaminated by measurement error. We show that the indirect inference estimates are asymptotically biased when the nuisance parameters of the measurement error distribution are neglected in the indirect...... to estimate the parameters of continuous-time stochastic volatility models with auxiliary specifications based on realized volatility measures. Monte Carlo simulations shows the bias reduction of the indirect estimates obtained when the microstructure noise is explicitly modeled. Finally, an empirical...

  7. Separating astrophysical sources from indirect dark matter signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Indirect searches for products of dark matter annihilation and decay face the challenge of identifying an uncertain and subdominant signal in the presence of uncertain backgrounds. Two valuable approaches to this problem are (i) using analysis methods which take advantage of different features in the energy spectrum and angular distribution of the signal and backgrounds and (ii) more accurately characterizing backgrounds, which allows for more robust identification of possible signals. These two approaches are complementary and can be significantly strengthened when used together. I review the status of indirect searches with gamma rays using two promising targets, the Inner Galaxy and the isotropic gamma-ray background. For both targets, uncertainties in the properties of backgrounds are a major limitation to the sensitivity of indirect searches. I then highlight approaches which can enhance the sensitivity of indirect searches using these targets. PMID:25304638

  8. Indirect effects by meningococcal vaccines: herd protection versus herd immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröker, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The term "herd immunity" for the indirect effect of meningococcal conjugate vaccines is inaccurate. A more appropriate term is "herd protection," because this term correctly describes the public effects imparted by vaccination campaigns against the meningococcus.

  9. An indirect reduction technique for percutaneous fixation of calcaneus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, Matthew; Vlasak, Richard; Sadasivan, Kalia

    2014-07-01

    We describe a positioning and indirect reduction method that allows for earlier fixation of some displaced calcaneus fractures. Minimally invasive surgery with this technique can provide good results in high-risk patients while minimizing soft-tissue complications.

  10. RESEMBLANCE OF INDIRECTNESS IN POLITENESS OF EFL LEARNERS’ REQUEST REALIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indawan Syahri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Politeness principles are universally utilized by the speakers of any language when realizing various speech acts. However, the speakers of particular languages relatively apply politeness due to the cultural norms embedded. The present study attempts to delineate how the Indonesian learners of English (ILE apply the politeness principles in request realizations. Specifically it devotes to the types of politeness strategies applied and resemblance of the indirectness in politeness strategies in requesting acts. The FTAs and indirectness are the theoretical bases used to trace the typologies of both politeness and request strategies. The data werere collected by means of certain elicitation techniques, i.e. DCTs and Role-plays. The analyses werere done through three stages; determining request strategies, politeness strategies, and resemblance of indirectness in politeness. The results show that the indirectness generally is parallel to politeness. Besides, some pragmatic transfers are found in terms of applying native-culture norms in realizing target speech acts.

  11. Ancestry of indirect techniques for X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertz, L.

    1989-01-01

    Historical citations concerning the origins of coded-aperture imaging are corrected. Another scheme is presented for synthetic indirect imaging to overcome certain shortcomings of simple coded apertures. Pairs of Fresnel zone patterns are used to create moire patterns that can be Fourier transformed for image reconstruction. It is also conjectured that image reconstructions that are constrained to be nonnegative should overcome certain complaints concerning indirect imaging. 20 refs

  12. Light indirectly mediates bivalve habitat modification and impacts on seagrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castorani, Max Christopher Nicholas; Glud, Ronnie N.; Hasler-Sheetal, Harald

    2015-01-01

    by directly or indirectly influencing the effects of habitat-modifying organisms that are capable of simultaneously ameliorating and exacerbating multiple stressors. Itwas hypothesized that light availability changes seagrassmetabolismand thereby indirectly regulates bivalve habitat modification...... and respiration),mussels and lowlight availability exacerbated sulfide intrusion of eelgrass tissues. Surprisingly, sulfide stress did not affect plant growth, survival, or energy stores. Thus, habitat modification by musselsmay represent a risk to eelgrass, especially during low productivity conditions...

  13. Indirect heating system for turbine anti-icing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagar, S.N.

    1980-03-01

    Gas-transmission service in northern Minnesota has verified the effectiveness of American Air Filter Co.'s indirect-heating method of preventing gas-turbine icing at compressor stations. By routing hot exhaust gases through a heat exchanger rather than directly into the inlet-air system, the indirect-heating method avoids turbine fouling, raises the air temperature at a constant specific humidity, and provides a uniform cross section of heated intake air for good turbine efficiency.

  14. Indirect Control for Demand Side Management – A Conceptual Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Heussen, Kai; You, Shi; Biegel, Benjamin; Hansen, L. H.; Andersen, K. B.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of “indirect control” has become a relevant discussion term in relation to activation distributed and small-scale demand and generation units to provide resources for power system balancing. The term and its association with price signals has, however caused some confusion as to its correct definition, either as a control or a market concept. This paper aims to provide a conceptual introduction to "indirect control" for management of small and distributed demand side resources. A ...

  15. Capturing the Future: Direct and Indirect Probes of Neutron Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-31

    This report documents aspects of direct and indirect neutron capture. The importance of neutron capture rates and methods to determine them are presented. The following conclusions are drawn: direct neutron capture measurements remain a backbone of experimental study; work is being done to take increased advantage of indirect methods for neutron capture; both instrumentation and facilities are making new measurements possible; more work is needed on the nuclear theory side to understand what is needed furthest from stability.

  16. The 'Puzzles' methodology: en route to Indirect Inference?

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Vo Phuong Mai; Minford, Patrick; Wickens, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We review the methods used in many papers to evaluate DSGE models by comparing their simulated moments with data moments. We compare these with the method of Indirect Inference to which they are closely related. We illustrate the comparison with contrasting assessments of a two-country model in two recent papers. We conclude that Indirect Inference is the proper end point of the puzzles methodology.

  17. The indirect costs and benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, A.

    1998-01-01

    The indirect costs of GHG projects are very important in the evaluation of such projects. In many cases they are more important than the direct costs. This paper has shown what such costs consist of and how they may be estimated. As countries prepare their mitigation strategies, it is very important that they develop tools for the assessment of these indirect costs and use these tools in the appropriate manner. Hopefully, this paper will point them in the right direction. (au) 11 refs

  18. The Indirect Costs of Financial Distress in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Wijantini Wijantini

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents quantitative estimates of the indirect cost of financial distress and its determinants. In order to measure the cost, this study estimates the annualized changes in industry-adjusted operation profit and sales from a year before the onset of distress to the resolution year. Using those approaches, the median of indirect financial distress cost is estimated between three and 11 percent annually. To the extent that the direct cost of financial distress reduces reported opera...

  19. Heard it through the grapevine: indirect networks and employee creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Giles; Van Knippenberg, Daan; Zhou, Jing; Quintane, Eric; Zhu, Cherrie

    2015-03-01

    Social networks can be important sources of information and insights that may spark employee creativity. The cross-fertilization of ideas depends not just on access to information and insights through one's direct network-the people one actually interacts with--but at least as much on access to the indirect network one's direct ties connect one to (i.e., people one does not interact with directly, but with whom one's direct ties interact). We propose that the reach efficiency of this indirect network--its nonredundancy in terms of interconnections--is positively related to individual creativity. To help specify the boundaries of this positive influence of the indirect network, we also explore how many steps removed the indirect network still adds to creativity. In addition, we propose that the efficiency (nonredundancy) of one's direct network is important here, because more efficient direct networks give one access to indirect networks with greater reach efficiency. Our hypotheses were supported in a multilevel analysis of multisource survey data from 223 sales representatives nested within 11 divisions of a Chinese pharmaceutical company. This analysis also showed that the creative benefits of reach efficiency were evident for 3 and 4 degrees of separation but were greatest for indirect ties that depend only on one's direct ties. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Transport of Indirect Excitons in High Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorow, C. J.; Kuznetsova, Y. Y.; Calman, E. V.; Butov, L. V.; Wilkes, J.; Campman, K. L.; Gossard, A. C.

    Spatially- and spectrally-resolved photoluminescence measurements of indirect excitons in high magnetic fields are presented. The high magnetic field regime for excitons is realized when the cyclotron splitting compares to the exciton binding energy. Due to small mass and binding energy, the high magnetic field regime for excitons is achievable in lab, requiring a few Tesla. Long indirect exciton lifetimes allow large exciton transport distances before recombination, giving an opportunity to study transport and relaxation kinetics of indirect magnetoexcitons via optical imaging. Indirect excitons in several Landau level states are realized. 0e -0h indirect magnetoexcitons (formed from electrons and holes at zeroth Landau levels) travel over large distances and form an emission ring around the excitation spot. In contrast, the 1e -1h and 2e -2h states do not exhibit long transport distances, and the spatial profiles of the emission closely follow the laser excitation. The 0e -0h indirect magnetoexciton transport distance reduces with increasing magnetic field. Accompanying theoretical work explains these effects in terms of magnetoexciton energy relaxation and effective mass enhancement. Supported by NSF Grant No. 1407277. J.W. was supported by the EPSRC (Grant EP/L022990/1). C.J.D. was supported by the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. DGE-1144086.

  1. Reproducibility of bracket positioning in the indirect bonding technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Dale A; Gardner, Gary; Carballeyra, Alain D

    2013-11-01

    Current studies have compared indirect bonding with direct placement of orthodontic brackets; many of these have shown that indirect bonding is generally a more accurate technique. However, the reproducibility of an indirect bonding setup by an orthodontist has yet to be described in the literature. Using cone-beam computed tomography and computer-assisted modeling software, we evaluated the consistency of orthodontists in placing orthodontic brackets at different times. Five orthodontists with experience in indirect bonding were selected to place brackets on 10 different casts at 3 time periods (n = 30 per orthodontist). Each participant completed an initial indirect bonding setup on each cast; subsequent bracket placements were completed twice at monthly intervals for comparison with the initial setup. The casts were scanned using an iCAT cone-beam computed tomography scanner (Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, Pa) and imported into Geomagic Studio software (Geomagic, Research Triangle Park, NC) for superimposition and analysis. The scans for each time period were superimposed on the initial setup in the imaging software, and differences between bracket positions were calculated. For each superimposition, the measurements recorded were the greatest discrepancies between individual brackets as well as the mean discrepancies and standard deviations between all brackets on each cast. Single-factor and repeated-measure analysis of variance showed no statistically significant differences between time points of each orthodontist, or among the orthodontists for the parameters measured. The mean discrepancy was 0.1 mm for each 10-bracket indirect bonding setup. Orthodontists are consistent in selecting bracket positions for an indirect bonding setup at various time periods. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Tears of the Supraspinatus Tendon: Assessment with Indirect Magnetic Resonance Arthrography in 67 Patients with Arthroscopic Correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyck, P. van; Gielen, J.L.; Parizel, P.M. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. Hospital Antwerp and Univ. of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium)) (and others)

    2009-11-15

    Background: Magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography is generally regarded as the gold standard for shoulder imaging. As an alternative to direct MR arthrography, the less invasive indirect MR arthrography technique was proposed, offering logistic advantages because fluoroscopic or ultrasonographic guidance for joint injection is not required. Purpose: To assess the diagnostic performance of indirect MR arthrography in the diagnosis of full- and partial-thickness supraspinatus tears in a symptomatic population. Material and Methods: Two radiologists with different levels of experience independently and retrospectively interpreted indirect MR (1.5T) arthrograms of the shoulder obtained in 67 symptomatic patients who underwent subsequent arthroscopy. On MR, the supraspinatus tendon was evaluated for full- or partial-thickness tear. With arthroscopy as the standard of reference, sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of indirect MR arthrography in the detection of full- and partial-thickness tears of the supraspinatus tendon was calculated. Kappa (kappa) statistics were used for the assessment of the agreement between arthroscopic and imaging findings and for the assessment of interobserver agreement. Results: For full-thickness tears of the supraspinatus tendon, sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies exceeded 90% for both observers, with excellent interobserver agreement (kappa = 0.910). For partial-thickness tears, sensitivities (38-50%) and accuracies (76-78%) were poor for both reviewers, and interobserver agreement was moderate (kappa = 0.491). Discrepancies between MR diagnosis and arthroscopy were predominantly observed with small partial-thickness tears. Conclusion: Indirect MR arthrography is highly accurate in the diagnosis of full-thickness rotator cuff tears. However, the diagnosis of partial-thickness tears with indirect MR arthrography remains faulty, because exact demarcation of degenerative change and partial rupture is difficult. On the

  3. Supporting Risk Assessment: Accounting for Indirect Risk to Ecosystem Components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Clarke Murray

    Full Text Available The multi-scalar complexity of social-ecological systems makes it challenging to quantify impacts from human activities on ecosystems, inspiring risk-based approaches to assessments of potential effects of human activities on valued ecosystem components. Risk assessments do not commonly include the risk from indirect effects as mediated via habitat and prey. In this case study from British Columbia, Canada, we illustrate how such "indirect risks" can be incorporated into risk assessments for seventeen ecosystem components. We ask whether (i the addition of indirect risk changes the at-risk ranking of the seventeen ecosystem components and if (ii risk scores correlate with trophic prey and habitat linkages in the food web. Even with conservative assumptions about the transfer of impacts or risks from prey species and habitats, the addition of indirect risks in the cumulative risk score changes the ranking of priorities for management. In particular, resident orca, Steller sea lion, and Pacific herring all increase in relative risk, more closely aligning these species with their "at-risk status" designations. Risk assessments are not a replacement for impact assessments, but-by considering the potential for indirect risks as we demonstrate here-they offer a crucial complementary perspective for the management of ecosystems and the organisms within.

  4. Supporting Risk Assessment: Accounting for Indirect Risk to Ecosystem Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Megan E.; Martone, Rebecca G.; Singh, Gerald G.; O, Miriam; Chan, Kai M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The multi-scalar complexity of social-ecological systems makes it challenging to quantify impacts from human activities on ecosystems, inspiring risk-based approaches to assessments of potential effects of human activities on valued ecosystem components. Risk assessments do not commonly include the risk from indirect effects as mediated via habitat and prey. In this case study from British Columbia, Canada, we illustrate how such “indirect risks” can be incorporated into risk assessments for seventeen ecosystem components. We ask whether (i) the addition of indirect risk changes the at-risk ranking of the seventeen ecosystem components and if (ii) risk scores correlate with trophic prey and habitat linkages in the food web. Even with conservative assumptions about the transfer of impacts or risks from prey species and habitats, the addition of indirect risks in the cumulative risk score changes the ranking of priorities for management. In particular, resident orca, Steller sea lion, and Pacific herring all increase in relative risk, more closely aligning these species with their “at-risk status” designations. Risk assessments are not a replacement for impact assessments, but—by considering the potential for indirect risks as we demonstrate here—they offer a crucial complementary perspective for the management of ecosystems and the organisms within. PMID:27632287

  5. Diagnostic Methods of Helicobacter pylori Infection for Epidemiological Studies: Critical Importance of Indirect Test Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Among the methods developed to detect H. pylori infection, determining the gold standard remains debatable, especially for epidemiological studies. Due to the decreasing sensitivity of direct diagnostic tests (histopathology and/or immunohistochemistry [IHC], rapid urease test [RUT], and culture), several indirect tests, including antibody-based tests (serology and urine test), urea breath test (UBT), and stool antigen test (SAT) have been developed to diagnose H. pylori infection. Among the indirect tests, UBT and SAT became the best methods to determine active infection. While antibody-based tests, especially serology, are widely available and relatively sensitive, their specificity is low. Guidelines indicated that no single test can be considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection and that one should consider the method's advantages and disadvantages. Based on four epidemiological studies, culture and RUT present a sensitivity of 74.2-90.8% and 83.3-86.9% and a specificity of 97.7-98.8% and 95.1-97.2%, respectively, when using IHC as a gold standard. The sensitivity of serology is quite high, but that of the urine test was lower compared with that of the other methods. Thus, indirect test validation is important although some commercial kits propose universal cut-off values.

  6. Abnormal shape of the cavum septi pellucidi: an indirect sign of partial agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, O; Gelot, A B; Moutard, M L; Jouannic, J M; Sela, H Y; Garel, C

    2015-11-01

    To describe and assess the presence of a new indirect sign of partial agenesis of the corpus callosum (pACC): an abnormally shaped cavum septi pellucidi (CSP). We analyzed retrospectively images from all 71 cases of pACC seen at two referral centers between September 2006 and April 2014. Abnormally shaped CSP was diagnosed when its lateral dimension was greater than its anteroposterior dimension in the axial transthalamic plane, and the incidence of this sign was assessed. We also examined the following variables: gestational age at referral, indication for referral, which (if any) of the four corpus callosal segments were abnormal, presence of other, previously established, indirect signs of callosal agenesis (ACC) and presence of additional cerebral or extracerebral anomalies. In 56 of the 71 (79%) cases, the CSP was measurable; it was abnormally shaped in 19 (34%) of these cases, 15 (79%) of which had no other indirect signs of pACC. Of 23 cases with isolated pACC and no other indirect signs, 12 (52%) had an abnormally shaped CSP. In a significant proportion of cases of pACC detected prenatally, the shape of the CSP is abnormal. This should be considered an additional indirect sign of pACC, and is frequently the only clue to the diagnosis. When observing this sign in a screening context, pACC should be considered, and an attempt to visualize the corpus callosum directly in the midsagittal plane is suggested. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. On the relevance of sharp gamma-ray features for indirect dark matter searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringmann, Torsten; Calore, Francesca [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Vertongen, Gilles [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Weniger, Christoph [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Gamma rays from the annihilation of dark matter particles in the Galactic halo provide a particularly promising means of indirectly detecting dark matter. Here, we demonstrate that pronounced spectral features near the kinematic cutoff at the dark matter particles' mass, which is a generic prediction for most models, can significantly improve the sensitivity of gamma-ray telescopes to dark matter signals. We derive projected limits on such features (including the traditionally looked-for line signals) and show that these can be very efficient in constraining the nature of dark matter. (orig.)

  8. Generation of indirect combustion noise by compositional inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Luca; O'Brien, Jeff; Ihme, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    The generation of indirect combustion noise in nozzles and turbine stages is commonly attributed to temperature inhomogeneities and vorticity fluctuations. Here, compositional inhomogeneities in a multi-component gas mixture are shown to produce indirect noise both theoretically and numerically. The chemical potential function is introduced as an additional acoustic source mechanism. The contribution of the compositional noise is compared to the entropy noise and direct noise by considering subsonic, supersonic and shocked nozzles downstream of the combustor exit. It is shown that the compositional noise is dependent on the local mixture composition and can exceed entropy noise for fuel-lean conditions and supersonic/shocked nozzle flows. This suggests that compositional indirect combustion noise may require consideration with the implementation of advanced combustion concepts in gas turbines, including low-emissions combustors, high-power-density engine cores, or compact burners.

  9. Control methods and systems for indirect evaporative coolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Jason; Kozubal, Erik

    2015-09-22

    A control method for operating an indirect evaporative cooler to control temperature and humidity. The method includes operating an airflow control device to provide supply air at a flow rate to a liquid desiccant dehumidifier. The supply air flows through the dehumidifier and an indirect evaporative cooler prior to exiting an outlet into a space. The method includes operating a pump to provide liquid desiccant to the liquid desiccant dehumidifier and sensing a temperature of an airstream at the outlet of the indirect evaporative cooler. The method includes comparing the temperature of the airstream at the outlet to a setpoint temperature at the outlet and controlling the pump to set the flow rate of the liquid desiccant. The method includes sensing space temperature, comparing the space temperature with a setpoint temperature, and controlling the airflow control device to set the flow rate of the supply air based on the comparison.

  10. Indirect energy input of agricultural machinery in bioenergy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkola, Hannu J.; Ahokas, Jukka [Department of Agrotechnology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 28 (Koetilantie) 3, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-01-15

    Sustainability of bioenergy products should be evaluated by means of an energy analysis that takes into account all relevant direct and indirect energy inputs. Direct energy input is viewed as the major energy consuming factor, and is quite easy to measure. Indirect energy input, however, has received relatively scant attention, so it is likely to be insufficiently analysed and possibly underestimated. This paper reviews the data available and suggests the type of research that would be needed to get a better understanding of the indirect energy input. The analysis addresses questions about the use of energy to produce and maintain agricultural machinery, the allocation of energy to different bioenergy products, and the real use and lifetime of machinery. (author)

  11. Direct and Indirect Effects of PM on the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelin, Timothy D.; Joseph, Allan M.; Gorr, Matthew W.; Wold, Loren E.

    2011-01-01

    Human exposure to particulate matter (PM) elicits a variety of responses on the cardiovascular system through both direct and indirect pathways. Indirect effects of PM on the cardiovascular system are mediated through the autonomic nervous system, which controls heart rate variability, and inflammatory responses, which augment acute cardiovascular events and atherosclerosis. Recent research demonstrates that PM also affects the cardiovascular system directly by entry into the systemic circulation. This process causes myocardial dysfunction through mechanisms of reactive oxygen species production, calcium ion interference, and vascular dysfunction. In this review, we will present key evidence in both the direct and indirect pathways, suggest clinical applications of the current literature, and recommend directions for future research. PMID:22119171

  12. Number needed to treat in indirect treatment comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, Patricia; Cheng, Wei; Tremblay, Gabriel; Copher, Ronda; Burnett, Heather; Li, Xuan; Makin, Charles

    2018-03-01

    For dichotomous outcomes, odds ratio (OR) is one of the usual summary measures of indirect treatment comparison. A corresponding number needed to treat (NNT) estimate may facilitate understanding of the treatment effect. We show how to estimate NNT based on OR results of a matching adjusted indirect comparison. We also have derived the explicit formula of its 95% CIs by applying the delta method, and as an alternative, a simulation-based method. The method was applied in a case study example in radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (RR-DTC) patients, comparing lenvatinib to sorafenib. For every two RR-DTC patients treated with lenvatinib instead of sorafenib, one fewer would have progressed and for every eight RR-DTC patients treated with lenvatinib instead of sorafenib, one fewer would have died. Using NNT to summarize the results of a matching adjusted indirect comparison can help the clinicians to better understand the results in addition to OR.

  13. Stability Concerns for Indirect Consumer Control in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten; Andersen, Palle; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    by an external third party, and indirect consumer control through incentives and price signals. In this work we present a simple formulation of indirect control, where the behavior of each consumer, is governed by local optimization of energy consumption. The local optimization accounts for both cost of energy...... and distribution losses, as well as any discomfort incurred by consumers from any shift in energy consumption. Our work will illustrate that in the simplest formulation of indirect control, the stability is greatly affected of both the behavior of consumers, and the number of consumers to include. We will show how......Demand side management will be an important tool for maintaining a balanced electrical grid in the future, when the penetration of volatile resources, such as wind and solar energy increases. Recent research focuses on two different management approaches, namely direct consumer control...

  14. The Indirect Costs of Financial Distress in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijantini Wijantini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents quantitative estimates of the indirect cost of financial distress and its determinants. In order to measure the cost, this study estimates the annualized changes in industry-adjusted operation profit and sales from a year before the onset of distress to the resolution year. Using those approaches, the median of indirect financial distress cost is estimated between three and 11 percent annually. To the extent that the direct cost of financial distress reduces reported operating income, the estimated costs are overstated. The simple regressions analysis suggest that the indirect cost of financial distress significantly increases with size, leverage, number of creditors, and poor industry performance, but is not related to degree of bank loan reliance. The findings provide a weak support for the financial distress theory which suggests that conflicts of interest render the costs of financial distress.

  15. An improved recommendation algorithm via weakening indirect linkage effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang; Qiu, Tian; Shen, Xiao-Quan

    2015-07-01

    We propose an indirect-link-weakened mass diffusion method (IMD), by considering the indirect linkage and the source object heterogeneity effect in the mass diffusion (MD) recommendation method. Experimental results on the MovieLens, Netflix, and RYM datasets show that, the IMD method greatly improves both the recommendation accuracy and diversity, compared with a heterogeneity-weakened MD method (HMD), which only considers the source object heterogeneity. Moreover, the recommendation accuracy of the cold objects is also better elevated in the IMD than the HMD method. It suggests that eliminating the redundancy induced by the indirect linkages could have a prominent effect on the recommendation efficiency in the MD method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11175079) and the Young Scientist Training Project of Jiangxi Province, China (Grant No. 20133BCB23017).

  16. Indirect costs associated with glioblastoma: Experience at one hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undabeitia, J; Torres-Bayona, S; Samprón, N; Arrázola, M; Bollar, A; Armendariz, M; Torres, P; Ruiz, I; Caballero, M C; Egaña, L; Querejeta, A; Villanua, J; Pardo, E; Etxegoien, I; Liceaga, G; Urtasun, M; Michan, M; Emparanza, J I; Aldaz, P; Matheu, A; Úrculo, E

    2018-03-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumour. Despite advances in treatment, its prognosis remains dismal, with a mean survival time of about 14 months. Many articles have addressed direct costs, those associated with the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Indirect costs, those associated with loss of productivity due to the disease, have seldom been described. We conducted a retrospective study in patients diagnosed with glioblastoma at Hospital Universitario Donostia between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2013. We collected demographics, data regarding the treatment received, and survival times. We calculated the indirect costs with the human capital approach, adjusting the mean salaries of comparable individuals by sex and age and obtaining mortality data for the general population from the Spanish National Statistics Institute. Past salaries were updated to 2015 euros according to the annual inflation rate and we applied a discount of 3.5% compounded yearly to future salaries. We reviewed the records of 99 patients: 46 women (mean age 63.53) and 53 men (mean age 59.94); 29 patients underwent a biopsy and the remaining 70 underwent excisional surgery. Mean survival was 18.092 months for the whole series. The total indirect cost for the series was €11 080 762 (2015). Mean indirect cost per patient was €111 926 (2015). Although glioblastoma is a relatively uncommon type of tumour, accounting for only 4% of all cancers, its poor prognosis and potential sequelae generate disproportionately large morbidity and mortality rates which translate to high indirect costs. Clinicians should be aware of the societal impact of glioblastoma and indirect costs should be taken into account when cost effectiveness studies are performed to better illustrate the overall consequences of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  18. A comparison of microhardness of indirect composite restorative materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, Carolina Baptista; Pagani, Clóvis; Bottino, Marco Cícero

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the microhardness of four indirect composite resins. Forty cylindrical samples were prepared according to the manufacturer’s recommendations using a Teflon mold. Ten specimens were produced from each tested material, constituting four groups (n=10...... indicate that distinct mechanical properties may be observed at specific materials. The composition of each material as well as variations on polymerization methods are possibly responsibles for the difference found in microhardness. Therefore, indirect composite resin materials that guarantee both good...

  19. A comparison of microhardness of indirect composite restorative materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda, Carolina Baptista; Pagani, Clóvis; Bottino, Marco Cícero

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the microhardness of four indirect composite resins. Forty cylindrical samples were prepared according to the manufacturer’s recommendations using a Teflon mold. Ten specimens were produced from each tested material, constituting four groups (n=10) as foll......The purpose of this study was to compare the microhardness of four indirect composite resins. Forty cylindrical samples were prepared according to the manufacturer’s recommendations using a Teflon mold. Ten specimens were produced from each tested material, constituting four groups (n=10...

  20. Does indirect consultation lead to overprescribing in general practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaijer-Ruskamp, F M; Stewart, R; Wesseling, H

    1987-01-01

    Indirect consultations (by telephone or receptionist) are of increasing importance in general practice and may result in more prescribing than during direct (face to face)-consultations. We analysed prescribing data for 14,660 disorders, presented in one week in 52 general practices. In general, a significant, but hardly relevant increase in prescribing during indirect consultations was observed. The effect varies strongly for different disorders and was especially relevant for repeat-prescriptions for the following conditions: musculoskeletal- and connective tissue diseases, endocrine, nutritional and metabolic disorders and disorders of the female genital tract.

  1. Detecção do Grupo Mycoplasma mycoides por imunoperoxidase indireta (IPI e PCR-REA em conduto auditivo de bovinos Detection of Mycoplasma mycoides cluster by indirect immunoperoxidase (IPI and PCR-REA in the ear canal of bovines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Batista dos Santos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O Grupo Mycoplasma mycoides (GMM foi diagnosticado por PCR-REA e imunoperoxidase indireta (IPI em amostras de lavados de conduto auditivo de bovinos no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. 60 bovinos foram selecionados aleatoriamente. As lavagens foram feitas com uso de seringas estéreis contendo um volume de 60 mL de solução salina tamponada (PBS pH 7.2. As amostras obtidas foram estocadas em glicerol (1:2 e congeladas a 20ºC até uso. Estas amostras foram diluídas até 10-5 e repicadas em meio Hayflick modificado, sólido e líquido, sendo incubados a 37ºC por 48-72 horas. As placas foram mantidas em microaerofilia e observadas diariamente, para visualização das colônias típicas em “ovo-frito”. Das 60 amostras cultivadas, 48 (80,00% foram positivas para Mycoplasma spp. A prevalência obtida para o GMM na IPI foi de 20,0% (12/60 enquanto na PCR-REA foi de 41,7% (25/60. Das cepas tipificadas pela IPI 58,3% (7/12 foram M. mycoides subsp. mycoides LC e 41,7% (5/12 foram M. capricolum. Na PCR-REA o grupo M. mycoides foi confirmado pela visualização de um amplicon de 785bp, compatível com este grupo. O valor encontrado no teste Kappa para associação entre estes testes foi de 0,14 (P>0,05. Na clivagem do produto da PCR com a enzima de restrição AluI, de cepas de referências e dos isolados de ouvido os fragmentos obtidos foram de 81, 98, 186 e 236pb, mas não de 370pb, que é específica para o agente da Pleuropneumonia Contagiosa Bovina. A presença de espécies de micoplasmas no conduto auditivo de bovinos assintomáticos representa um risco para propagação de Mycoplasma spp. entre rebanhos bovinos no Brasil.Mycoplasma mycoides cluster (MMC was diagnosed by polimerase chain reaction-restriction endonuclease analysis (PCR-REA and indirect immunoperoxidase (IPI, both, carried out in flushing from external ear canal, collected from bovine at slaughter time in the State of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern, Brazil. A total of 60 bovines

  2. New Detection Modality for Label-Free Quantification of DNA in Biological Samples via Superparamagnetic Bead Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Daniel C.; Li, Jingyi; Strachan, Briony C.; Begley, Matthew R.; Finkler, David; Bazydlo, Lindsay L.; Barker, N. Scott; Haverstick, Doris; Utz, Marcel; Landers, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Combining DNA and superparamagnetic beads in a rotating magnetic field produces multiparticle aggregates that are visually striking, and enables label-free optical detection and quantification of DNA at levels in the picogram per microliter range. DNA in biological samples can be quantified directly by simple analysis of optical images of microfluidic wells placed on a magnetic stirrer without DNA purification. Aggregation results from DNA/bead interactions driven either by the presence of a chaotrope (a nonspecific trigger for aggregation) or by hybridization with oligonucleotides on functionalized beads (sequence-specific). This paper demonstrates quantification of DNA with sensitivity comparable to that of the best currently available fluorometric assays. The robustness and sensitivity of the method enable a wide range of applications, illustrated here by counting eukaryotic cells. Using widely available and inexpensive benchtop hardware, the approach provides a highly accessible low-tech microscale alternative to more expensive DNA detection and cell counting techniques. PMID:22423674

  3. Infrared thermography for indirect assessment of activation of brown adipose tissue in lean and obese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hadi, Hamza; Frascati, Andrea; Granzotto, Marnie; Silvestrin, Valentina; Ferlini, Elisabetta; Vettor, Roberto; Rossato, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a key role in adaptive thermogenesis in mammals, and it has recently been considered as an attractive therapeutic target for tackling human obesity by increasing energy expenditure. Thermal imaging using infrared thermography (IRT) has emerged as a potential safe, rapid and inexpensive technique for detecting BAT in humans. However, little attention has been given to the reliability of this method in obese subjects. To this end, we evaluated the capacity of IRT to detect activated supraclavicular (SCV) BAT in 14 lean and 16 mildly obese young adults after acute cold exposure. Using IRT we measured the temperature of the skin overlying the SCV and sternal areas at baseline and after acute cold stimulation. Additionally, energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry and body composition was estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Energy expenditure and SCV skin temperature significantly increased in lean subjects upon cold exposure, while no significant changes were detected in the obese group. Furthermore, cold-induced variations in SCV skin temperature of obese subjects showed a negative correlation with body mass index. This study suggests that in lean individuals BAT is a rapidly activated thermogenic tissue possibly involved in the regulation of energy balance, and can be indirectly assessed using IRT. In obese subjects, BAT seems less prone to be activated by cold exposure, with the degree of adiposity representing a limiting factor for the indirect detection of BAT activation by measuring the skin temperature overlying BAT.

  4. Vocabulary Acquisition through Direct and Indirect Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Maki; Foo, Thomas Chow Voon

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary learning has long been considered as one of the essential components for developing language learning. However, language learners are required to not just concern about memorizing definitions but also integrating vocabulary meaning into their present knowledge. Many strategies such as direct or indirect ones may be integrated to enhance…

  5. Building Rapport through Indirect Complaints: Implications for Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxer, Diana

    A study investigated the usefulness of indirect complaints (ICs)--i.e., expressions of dissatisfaction about someone or something not present--as a strategy for negotiating interaction for second language acquisition. In contrast to a direct complaint, an IC can be used to attempt to establish solidarity with an interlocutor. The language corpus…

  6. Effects of Direct and Indirect Instructional Strategies on Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2012-10-27

    Oct 27, 2012 ... Group A had direct instructional strategy applied to it while Group B had indirect instructional strategy applied with the control group taught with the conventional teaching method. After the treatment, Mathematics. Achievement Test (MAT) of 50 items was administered on the students and scores 50 marks to ...

  7. Social Dilemmas and Indirect Reciprocity: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Acosta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity is an evolutionary theory of altruism and cooperation in social dilemmas. Its explanation of cooperation incorporates information on the reputation people hold of other people regarding whether they are cooperative or not. This study systematically reviewed the current empirical literature on indirect reciprocity in social dilemma situations. The following databases were consulted: ScienceDirect, EBSCO, and OVID, using has key words "indirect reciprocity" AND "dilemma" OR "cooperation" OR "charity". Twenty-three articles were selected which met the inclusion criteria (papers written in English and studies whose methodology was based on experimental games and the theories, objectives, the main types of samples used, and main results were analyzed. The results show that the games used were the indirect reciprocity and public goods games, which may vary according to the objectives. It was found that reputation is a key variable that helps to promote cooperation. In turn, information on previous cooperation helps to build reputation, which is subsequently involved in the decision to cooperate with others. Finally, we highlight the need for more experimental studies that incorporate other explanatory variables and evaluate them in new contexts.

  8. Hidden Markov Models for indirect classification of occupant behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liisberg, Jon Anders Reichert; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Bloem, H.

    2016-01-01

    , computer, etc.) consumption. It is very seldom to find direct observations of occupant presence and behaviour in residential buildings. However, given the increasing use of smart metering, the opportunity and potential for indirect observation and classification of occupants’ behaviour is possible...

  9. Callus induction, direct and indirect organogenesis of ginger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-09-21

    Sep 21, 2016 ... The present study aimed to induce callus, direct and indirect organogenesis of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc) by using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium fortified with different concentrations and combinations of growth regulators. Shoot tip, in vitro leaf and root segments were used as explants to.

  10. STEM Faculty and Indirect Costs: What Administrators Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossman, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this single site, qualitative case study was on public research university STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) faculty and their perspectives on, and behavior towards, indirect cost recovery. The explanatory scheme was derived from anthropological theory and incorporated organizational culture, resource dependency…

  11. Direct and indirect energy requirements of households in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, S.; Spreng, D.

    2002-01-01

    This study is based on the 115 sector classification input-output tables for India for the years 1983-84, 1989-90 and 1993-94. Calculated total primary energy intensities along with private final consumption expenditures are used as a basis for determining the indirect energy requirements of Indian households. Results reveal that household energy consumption is about evenly divided between direct and indirect energy and together comprises 75% of the total energy consumption of India. Most of household energy consumed directly is still non-commercial and the consumption of food is responsible for about half the indirect energy consumption. Household energy requirements have increased significantly, both in total and per capita terms over this time period. The commercial component of direct household energy consumption and the indirect energy requirements have increased continuously. The main drivers of this increase have been (1) the growing expenditure per capita, (2) population and (3) increasing energy intensity in the food and agricultural sectors. (author)

  12. Influence of plant growth regulators on indirect shoot organogenesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, differences in cytokinin concentrations significantly affected secondary metabolite production in some cases. The current findings highlighted the differential effects of auxin-cytokinin interactions on indirect shoot regeneration and the production of secondary metabolites in A. violaceum. Key words: Cytokinins ...

  13. Substance abuse and homelessness: direct or indirect effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangeest, Jonathan B; Johnson, Timothy P

    2002-10-01

    To investigate whether substance abuse is a direct factor in the explanation of homelessness or one that operates indirectly through disaffiliation and human capital processes to place individuals at greater risk of the condition. Analyses were conducted using data on substance abuse and homeless experiences from a random probability sample of 481 homeless persons and those at risk of homelessness in Cook County, Illinois. Covariance structure models were used to assess substance abuse, human capital, and disaffiliation as potential precursors of homelessness, with particular attention paid to the direct and indirect role of substance abuse in the loss of domicile. Analysis of several nested models of homelessness links substance abuse only indirectly to loss of domicile, primarily through its impact on social and institutional affiliations. Contrary to expectations, substance abuse did not impact homelessness indirectly by diminishing the accumulation of human capital. The role of disaffiliation as a proximate cause of homelessness was confirmed. This locates the phenomenon within the context of society itself, as a direct result of a breakdown in the social bonds necessary for human community. Substance abuse plays a critical role in this breakdown, negatively influencing social as well as institutional relationships.

  14. Development of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By removing the N-terminal hydrophobic sequence, truncated VP2 (tVP2) genes were cloned into the pET-32a (+) plasmid and subsequently expressed as His fusion proteins. The purified recombinant tVP2 proteins were specific to canine parvovirus (CPV), and one of them was used in an indirect enzyme-linked ...

  15. 48 CFR 49.303-4 - Adjustment of indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... costs. 49.303-4 Section 49.303-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS Additional Principles for Cost-Reimbursement Contracts... compute indirect costs for other contracts performed during the applicable accounting period. ...

  16. 23 CFR 140.907 - Overhead and indirect construction costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... accounting principles; (2) The costs included in the distribution are limited to costs actually incurred by...), part 31, Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, relating to contracts with commercial organizations... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Overhead and indirect construction costs. 140.907...

  17. Effects of Direct and Indirect Instructional Strategies on Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a quasi experimental research designed to determine the effects of Direct and Indirect instructional strategies on Mathematics achievement among junior secondary school students. The population consisted of students in a Public Secondary School in Owerri, Imo State. A sample of 102 students from two (2) intact ...

  18. Indirect Aggression, Bullying and Female Teen Victimization: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, Mary F.

    2011-01-01

    This article assesses the literature in relation to youth bullying in the United Kingdom, Scandinavia and North America, focusing in particular on female aggression as it is expressed in adolescent peer relationships. It addresses the escalating problems of indirect aggression, especially those involving social networking interchanges such as…

  19. Silent, indirect strategic processes in small and medium sized enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Madsen, Charlotte Øland; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    Based on empirical data we in this paper explore day-to-day strategising with an emphasis on phronesis. This way we shed some light on the nearly silent, quiet, indirect strategic change processes as they are practiced and reflected upon by leaders in small companies in their daily practice...

  20. Indirect calorimetry: assessing animal response to heat and cold stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaughan, J.B.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Hendriks, P.

    2015-01-01

    Calorimetric thermal stress studies where indirect calorimetry is used as a tool to estimate energy expenditure have been undertaken since this technique was developed. Some examples of these studies are presented in this chapter. The measurement of gas exchange by means of an open-circuit

  1. Indirect plant defense against insect herbivores: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljbory, Zainab; Chen, Ming-Shun

    2018-02-01

    Plants respond to herbivore attack by launching 2 types of defenses: direct defense and indirect defense. Direct defense includes all plant traits that increase the resistance of host plants to insect herbivores by affecting the physiology and/or behavior of the attackers. Indirect defense includes all traits that by themselves do not have significant direct impact on the attacking herbivores, but can attract natural enemies of the herbivores and thus reduce plant loss. When plants recognize herbivore-associated elicitors, they produce and release a blend of volatiles that can attract predators, parasites, and other natural enemies. Known herbivore-associated elicitors include fatty acid-amino acid conjugates, sulfur-containing fatty acids, fragments of cell walls, peptides, esters, and enzymes. Identified plant volatiles include terpenes, nitrogenous compounds, and indoles. In addition, constitive traits including extrafloral nectars, food bodies, and domatia can be further induced to higher levels and attract natural enemies as well as provide food and shelter to carnivores. A better understanding of indirect plant defense at global and componential levels via advanced high throughput technologies may lead to utilization of indirect defense in suppression of herbivore damage to plants. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Direct and Indirect Property Investment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    construction/real estate sub-sector of the stock market, it was discovered that there is a strong ... and estate agents. It could also be a framework or medium where transactions in tangible asset like land, buildings are made. However, it is important to note that the market is not ... that indirect and direct real estate investments.

  3. Contribution of indirect obstetric deaths to maternal mortality at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Maternal death is unacceptably high in this center like in most centers in the developing world. Objective: To determine the maternal mortality ratio and the contribution of the direct and indirect obstetric complications to maternal deaths. Method: A retrospective review of all maternal deaths at Nnamdi Azikiwe ...

  4. Current indirect fitness and future direct fitness are not incompatible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahma, Anindita; Mandal, Souvik; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2018-02-01

    In primitively eusocial insects, many individuals function as workers despite being capable of independent reproduction. Such altruistic behaviour is usually explained by the argument that workers gain indirect fitness by helping close genetic relatives. The focus on indirect fitness has left open the question of whether workers are also capable of getting direct fitness in the future in spite of working towards indirect fitness in the present. To investigate this question, we recorded behavioural profiles of all wasps on six naturally occurring nests of Ropalidia marginata , and then isolated all wasps in individual plastic boxes, giving them an opportunity to initiate nests and lay eggs. We found that 41% of the wasps successfully did so. Compared to those that failed to initiate nests, those that did were significantly younger, had significantly higher frequency of self-feeding behaviour on their parent nests but were not different in the levels of work performed in the parent nests. Thus ageing and poor feeding, rather than working for their colonies, constrain individuals for future independent reproduction. Hence, future direct fitness and present work towards gaining indirect fitness are not incompatible, making it easier for worker behaviour to be selected by kin selection or multilevel selection. © 2018 The Author(s).

  5. Direct and indirect plant regeneration from various explants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Populus species are important resource for certain branches of industry and have special roles for scientific study on biological and agricultural systems. Plant regeneration via direct and indirect organogenesis of four Populus deltoides Bartram ex Marsh. ssp. deltoides × Populus deltoides Bartram ex Marsh. ssp. deltoides ...

  6. Relaxation of femtosecond photoexcited electrons in a polar indirect ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A model calculation is given for the energy relaxation of a non-equilibrium distribution of hot electrons (holes) prepared in the conduction (valence) band of a polar indirect band-gap semiconductor, which has been subjected to homogeneous photoexcitation by a femtosecond laser pulse. The model assumes that the ...

  7. Pulsewidth Modulation of Neutral-Point-Clamped Indirect Matrix Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Poh Chiang, Loh; Gao, Feng

    2008-01-01

    discussed in the existing literature. Addressing the previously described issues, this paper focuses on the operational mode analysis of a three-level indirect matrix converter implemented using a neutral-point-clamped inversion stage and the design of a number of PWM and modulation ratio compensation...

  8. 26 CFR 25.2701-6 - Indirect holding of interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Special Valuation Rules § 25.2701-6..., an individual is treated as holding an equity interest to the extent the interest is held indirectly through a corporation, partnership, estate, trust, or other entity. If an equity interest is treated as...

  9. Special considerations regarding indirect expropriation in international economic law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Cristiana Spătaru-Negură

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The right to property is a human right that has to be respected so that if the property of a natural or legal person is taken over, the respective person has to be compensated. The right of a state to control the economic business is one of the rights sustained and exercised by the states on a constant basis. This reflects the inherent sovereignty of a state to control its people, incidents and objects found on its territory. Between these rights, the situation of indirect expropriation appears which has been described in the doctrine as being very abstract and rigid, big lacunae existing. The sense of the indirect expropriation and of the international investors’ protection against the indirect expropriation is very ambiguous. Using different methods specific to scientific analyse of the legal phenomenon (e.g. the logical method, the comparative method, the historical method and the quantitative methods, we consider that through this paper we can reach certain results that could be interesting for any legal practitioner or theoretician, this paper intending to present the most relevant cases that could amount to indirect expropriation.

  10. Choosing Not Choosing: The Indirections of Ethnography and Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankham, Jo; Smears, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues for the importance of ethnography in the conduct of educational research and the ways in which it can threaten, in a good sense, the certainties and dominance of performativity. The paper uses the poetry of Emily Dickinson to signal the importance of indirection in the conduct of ethnographic work and, more specifically, the ways…

  11. A comparison of direct and indirect analytical methods of computing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first step in the analysis of gravity anomalies for mineral exploration is the extraction of residual gravity anomalies from the observed gravity anomalies. This can be achieved by graphical or analytical methods. Generally, direct and indirect analytical methods are considered better than graphical methods. Telford et al ...

  12. Indirect carotid- cavernous fistula — embolisation using the superior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    embolisation may play a role as an adjunct to venous embolisation, by decreasing the magnitude of the shunt. Transvenous embolisation is prob- ably the preferred option in the majority of patients with dural arte- rio-venous malformations (AVMs) including indirect CCF.1,3 This allows preservation of the ICA. The specific.

  13. Fistule carotido-caverneuse indirecte post traumatique: diagnostic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The indirect carotido-cavernous fistula is an abnormal communication between multiple arterioles coming from dural or meningeal branches of the external carotid artery and/or of the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. ... The patient had a history of left orbital trauma caused by road accident three years before.

  14. Exploring untrained interpreters' use of direct versus indirect speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    2005-01-01

    scripted role play. The subjects were untrained Arabic interpreters working for a Danish agency. Two of the four interpreters favoured the direct style of interpreting. The other two favoured the indirect style. The findings show that all four interpreters tended to identify with the patient...... override the quasi-directness of communication between primary participants, which is connected with interpreting in the first person....

  15. Fluorometric Sniff-Cam (Gas-Imaging System) Utilizing Alcohol Dehydrogenase for Imaging Concentration Distribution of Acetaldehyde in Breath and Transdermal Vapor after Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iitani, Kenta; Sato, Toshiyuki; Naisierding, Munire; Hayakawa, Yuuki; Toma, Koji; Arakawa, Takahiro; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2018-02-20

    Understanding concentration distributions, release sites, and release dynamics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the human is expected to lead to methods for noninvasive disease screening and assessment of metabolisms. In this study, we developed a visualization system (sniff-cam) that enabled one to identify a spatiotemporal change of gaseous acetaldehyde (AcH) in real-time. AcH sniff-cam was composed of a camera, a UV-LED array sheet, and an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-immobilized mesh. A reverse reaction of ADH was employed for detection of gaseous AcH where a relationship between fluorescence intensity from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and the concentration of AcH was inversely proportional; thus, the concentration distribution of AcH was measured by detecting the fluorescence decrease. Moreover, the image differentiation method that calculated a fluorescence change rate was employed to visualize a real-time change in the concentration distribution of AcH. The dynamic range of the sniff-cam was 0.1-10 ppm which encompassed breath AcH concentrations after drinking. Finally, the sniff-cam achieved the visualization of the concentration distribution of AcH in breath and skin gas. A clear difference of breath AcH concentration was observed between aldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 active and inactive subjects, which was attributed to metabolic capacities of AcH. AcH in skin gas showed a similar time course of AcH concentration to the breath and a variety of release concentration distribution. Using different NADH-dependent dehydrogenases in the sniff-cam could lead to a versatile method for noninvasive disease screening by acquiring spatiotemporal information on various VOCs in breath or skin gas.

  16. Indirect pulp capping in primary molar using glass ionomer cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtia Metalita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indirect pulp capping in primary teeth, however, is more rarely conducted than permanent teeth, since it thought to have low impact and most suggestion is for taking caries lesion aggressively on primary teeth. Purpose: The study was aimed to evaluate the subjective complaint, clinical symptom, and radiographic appearance of indirect pulp capping treatment using glass ionomers cements in primary molar. Methods: Sixteen children in range of age 6 to 8 years old, who visited Clinic of Pediatric Dentistry Universitas Airlangga Dental Hospital, Surabaya Indonesia, were the subject of study. They had one occlusal dental caries on one side of maxillary or mandibular primary molar with the diagnose of pulpitis reversible. The experimental group, had indirect pulp capping treatment with glass ionomer cements (GC Fuji VII®, while the control group, had indirect pulp capping treatment with calcium hydroxide (Metapaste. Each group was filled with GC Fuji IX® as permanent restoration. After one week, one month, and three months later, the observations were made on subjective complaint, clinical symptom, and radiographic appearance. Results: The results showed no subjective complaint such as pain or problem on mastication; no negative clinical symptoms such as pain on palpation, gingivitis or periodontitis, and abnormal tooth mobility; no negative radiographic appearance such as pathological apical radioluscency, internal or external resorbtion, and change of ligament periodontal widthafter the treatment. Conclusion: The study suggested that indirect pulp capping treatment using glass ionomer cement materials on primary teeth might be considered to be the treatment choice.Latar belakang: Indirect pulp capping pada gigi sulung lebih jarang dilakukan dibandingkan gigi permanen, karena dianggap memiliki dampak yang rendah dan sebagian besar menyarankan untuk mengambil lesi karies secara agresif pada gigi sulung. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan

  17. Trait- and density-mediated indirect interactions initiated by an exotic invasive plant autogenic ecosystem engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean E. Pearson

    2010-01-01

    Indirect interactions are important for structuring ecological systems. However, research on indirect effects has been heavily biased toward top-down trophic interactions, and less is known about other indirect-interaction pathways. As autogenic ecosystem engineers, plants can serve as initiators of nontrophic indirect interactions that, like top-down pathways, can...

  18. Novel Fluorometric Method for the Determination of Production Rate and Steady-State Concentration of Photochemically Generated Superoxide Radical in Seawater Using 3',6'-(Diphenylphosphinyl)fluorescein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anifowose, Adebanjo Jacob; Takeda, Kazuhiko; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2015-12-15

    Superoxide radical (O2(•-)) is an important reactive oxygen species in seawater. Measurements of its production rates and steady-state concentrations generated by photochemical processes have been a Herculean task over the years. In this study, a probe - 3'6'-(diphenylphosphinyl)fluorescein (PF-1) - was used to trap photochemically generated O2(•-) in seawater, thereby yielding fluorescein. The fluorescein produced was measured by an isocratic fluorescence HPLC at excitation/emission wavelengths of 490/513 nm, respectively. The reaction rate constant of PF-1 with O2(•-) (kPF-1) was pH-dependent: (3.2-23.5) × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1) at pHTOT 7.65-8.50. By applying appropriate equations, both the production rate and the steady-state concentration of O2(•-) generated by photochemical reactions in the seawater were quantified. Under the optimized experimental conditions, fluorescein standards (3-50 nM) exhibited linearity in the seawater by HPLC. The photoformation of fluorescein, due to the reaction of PF-1 with the O2(•-) photochemically produced in the seawater, was linear within the 20 min irradiation. The detection limit of the fluorescein photoformation rate was 0.03 pM s(-1), defined as 3σ of the lowest standard fluorescein concentration per 20 min irradiation. Using this value, the yield of fluorescein, and the fraction of O2(•-) that reacted with PF-1 in the seawater, the detection limit of the O2(•-) photoformation rate was 1.78 pM s(-1). Superoxide measurements using the proposed method were relatively unaffected by the potential interfering species in seawater. Application of the proposed method to ten (10) seawater samples from the Seto Inland Sea, Japan, resulted in measured O2(•-) photoformation rates of 3.1-8.5 nM s(-1), with steady-state concentrations ranging (0.06-0.3) × 10(-10) M. The method is simple, requires no technical sample preparation, and can be used to analyze a large number of samples.

  19. A modified indirect mathematical model for evaluation of ethanol production efficiency in industrial-scale continuous fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canseco Grellet, M A; Castagnaro, A; Dantur, K I; De Boeck, G; Ahmed, P M; Cárdenas, G J; Welin, B; Ruiz, R M

    2016-10-01

    To calculate fermentation efficiency in a continuous ethanol production process, we aimed to develop a robust mathematical method based on the analysis of metabolic by-product formation. This method is in contrast to the traditional way of calculating ethanol fermentation efficiency, where the ratio between the ethanol produced and the sugar consumed is expressed as a percentage of the theoretical conversion yield. Comparison between the two methods, at industrial scale and in sensitivity studies, showed that the indirect method was more robust and gave slightly higher fermentation efficiency values, although fermentation efficiency of the industrial process was found to be low (~75%). The traditional calculation method is simpler than the indirect method as it only requires a few chemical determinations in samples collected. However, a minor error in any measured parameter will have an important impact on the calculated efficiency. In contrast, the indirect method of calculation requires a greater number of determinations but is much more robust since an error in any parameter will only have a minor effect on the fermentation efficiency value. The application of the indirect calculation methodology in order to evaluate the real situation of the process and to reach an optimum fermentation yield for an industrial-scale ethanol production is recommended. Once a high fermentation yield has been reached the traditional method should be used to maintain the control of the process. Upon detection of lower yields in an optimized process the indirect method should be employed as it permits a more accurate diagnosis of causes of yield losses in order to correct the problem rapidly. The low fermentation efficiency obtained in this study shows an urgent need for industrial process optimization where the indirect calculation methodology will be an important tool to determine process losses. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Diagnostic Technique of Neutron Doppler Broadening for Indirectly-Driven Implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yong; Ding, Yongkun; Zheng, Zhijian; Chen, Ming

    2004-06-01

    The neutron Doppler broadening in inertial confinement fusion has been acquired from the time of flight for the neutron, from which the fuel ion temperature can be derived. An ultrafast-quenched plastic scintillation detector was used to measure the time of flight for the neutron at a low-imploded DT neutron yield (5×107-1×108) in the experiment performed on the Shenguang II laser facility. The typical temperatures of ablating targets for indirect drive were around 2.8 keV and the uncertainties were ±30%-±40%. The detection efficiency of the detector for DT neutrons was calibrated at a K-400 accelerator. The time response function of the detection system was calibrated by imploded neutrons from a DT-filled capsule, which can be regarded as a δ function pulsed neutron source due to its much narrower pulse width than that of the measured neutron time-of-flight spectrum.

  1. Diagnostic technique of neutron doppler broadening for indirectly-driven implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Yong; Ding Yongkun; Zheng Zhijian; Chen Ming

    2004-01-01

    The neutron Doppler broadening in inertial confinement fusion has been acquired from the time of flight for the neutron, from which the fuel ion temperature can be derived. An ultrafast-quenched plastic scintillation detector was used to measure the time of flight for the neutron at a low-imploded DT neutron yield (5 x 10 7 - 1 x 10 8 ) in the experiment performed on the Shenguang II laser facility. The typical temperatures of ablating targets for indirect drive were around 2.8 keV and the uncertainties were ±30%-±40%. The detection efficiency of the detector for DT neutrons was calibrated at a K-400 accelerator. The time response function of the detection system was calibrated by imploded neutrons from a DT-filled capsule, which can be regarded as a δ function pulsed neutron source due to its much narrower pulse width than that of the measured neutron time-of-flight spectrum. (authors)

  2. Synthesis of nitrogen-doped and amino acid-functionalized graphene quantum dots from glycine, and their application to the fluorometric determination of ferric ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Linbo; Li, Lin; Wang, Chao; Liu, Kangyu; Zhu, Ruohua; Qiang, Hong; Lin, Yuqing

    2015-01-01

    We report on a single-step thermolysis strategy to prepare highly luminescent nitrogen-doped and amino acid-functionalized graphene quantum dots (NA-GQDs) by using glycine as both carbon and nitrogen source. The NA-GQDs display an excitation wavelength-dependent fluorescence with maximum excitation and emission wavelengths of 380 and 450 nm, respectively, and a quantum yield of ∼16 %. Fluorescence is quenched by Fe(III) and Hg(II), and the effect was used to develop a method for the determination of Fe(III). Quenching by Fe(III) is attributed to its higher thermodynamic affinity (compared to other transition-metal ions) for the ligands on the GQDs in which nitrogen atoms mainly act as the chelating atoms. A linear relationship was observed between fluorescence intensity and the concentration of Fe(III) over the 0.5 μM to 0.5 mM range. The detection limit is 0.1 μM. (author)

  3. Cyclodextrin-modified nanodiamond for the sensitive fluorometric determination of doxorubicin in urine based on its differential affinity towards β/γ-cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura Soriano, M; Carrillo-Carrion, Carolina; Ruiz-Palomero, Celia; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2018-01-15

    The manuscript reports on the preparation of β-cyclodextrin-modified nanodiamonds (βCD-ND) for the extraction and preconcentration of the fluorescent anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) from biological samples. The inclusion of DOX into the cavities of β- and γ-cyclodextrin (CD) confirms their utility for selective extraction and elution of the drug based on its good fit to the cyclodextrin cavity. Although both larger cyclodextrins (βCD and γCD) accommodate DOX, DOX clearly prefers the bigger γCD cavities. Dispersive micro solid-phase extraction using βCD-ND as sorbent enables the inclusion complexation of DOX. The elution of DOX from βCD-ND cavities occurs with a basic solution of γCD containing 10% acetonitrile owing to the preferential affinity (i.e. optimal fit) of DOX into the larger γCD cavity. DOX is quantified by monitoring its intrinsic fluorescence (exc/em = 475/595 nm). The method can determine DOX in urine with a limit of detection of 18 ng·mL -1 . Recoveries (93.2% and 94.0%) and precision (RSDs of 5.9% and 4.7%) at 100 and 400 ng·mL -1 DOX levels in urine are satisfactory. The matrix effect is negligible even when working with undiluted urine samples. Graphical abstract Nanodiamonds functionalized with β-cyclodextrin (βCD-ND) were used as sorbent for the determination of nanomolar levels of doxorubicin (DOX). It is based on host:guest interactions ruled by different stabilities of DOX within cyclodextrin (CD) cavity-size: βCD/γCD.

  4. Indirect evidence for decreased hypothalamic somatostatinergic tone in anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoving, R.K.; Andersen, M.; Flyvbjerg, A.

    2002-01-01

    in the central feeding mechanism in anorexia nervosa (AN). Peripheral administration of pyridostigmine (PD) minimizes the release of hypothalamic SRIH. DESIGN: To study the influence of hypothalamic somatostatinergic inhibition on the exaggerated somatotroph responsiveness to GHRH in patients with severe AN, two...... indirectly to greater SRIH withdrawal and greater GHRH release in anorexia nervosa. Moreover, hypothalamic SRIH activity seems to be inversely related to cortisol levels, indirectly supporting the hypothesis that SRIH and CRH neuronal activity are inversely related in anorexia nervosa. Leptin, which...... is believed to act on hypothalamic feeding mechanisms, seems to be positively related to SRIH activity. Finally, the present data demonstrate that the potentiating effect of pyridostigmine in anorexia nervosa is related to body mass index and increases upon weight gain, suggesting that the low...

  5. Evaluating aerosol indirect effect through marine stratocumulus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogan, Z.N.; Kogan, Y.L.; Lilly, D.K. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1996-04-01

    During the last decade much attention has been focused on anthropogenic aerosols and their radiative influence on the global climate. Charlson et al. and Penner et al. have demonstrated that tropospheric aerosols and particularly anthropogenic sulfate aerosols may significantly contribute to the radiative forcing exerting a cooling influence on climate (-1 to -2 W/m{sup 2}) which is comparable in magnitude to greenhouse forcing, but opposite in sign. Aerosol particles affect the earth`s radiative budget either directly by scattering and absorption of solar radiation by themselves or indirectly by altering the cloud radiative properties through changes in cloud microstructure. Marine stratocumulus cloud layers and their possible cooling influence on the atmosphere as a result of pollution are of special interest because of their high reflectivity, durability, and large global cover. We present an estimate of thet aerosol indirect effect, or, forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate aerosols.

  6. Direct and indirect welfare chauvinism as party strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Careja, Romana; Elmelund-Præstekær, Christian; Klitgaard, Michael Baggesen

    2016-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical distinction between direct and indirect welfare chauvinism in order to analyze how electorally successful populist right-wing parties transmit social policy preferences with significant redistributive implications for the shape of the welfare state. Direct...... negatively affect immigrants the most. Combining quantitative and qualitative analysis of labour market reforms in Denmark, where one of the most successful populist right-wing parties in Europe – the Danish People's Party – held a pivotal position in the period 2001–11, the article traces the intentions...... and deliberate policy-making strategies of the party. It shows that the distinction between direct and indirect chauvinism is a useful theoretical tool for understanding how the Danish People's Party can fulfill the expectations of both its electorate and its coalition partners, even if they point in different...

  7. Dehydration of sodium carbonate monohydrate with indirect microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyrankaya, Abdullah; Ozalp, Baris

    2006-01-01

    In this study, dehydration of sodium carbonate monohydrate (Na 2 CO 3 .H 2 O) (SCM) in microwave (MW) field with silicon carbide (SiC) as an indirect heating medium was investigated. SCM samples containing up to 3% free moisture were placed in the microwave oven. The heating experiments showed that SCM is a poor microwave energy absorber for up to 6 min of irradiation at an 800 W of microwave power. The heat for SCM calcination is provided by SiC which absorbs microwave. The monohydrate is then converted to anhydrous sodium carbonate on the SiC plate by calcining, i.e. by removing the crystal water through heating of the monohydrate temperatures of over 120 deg. C. The calcination results in a solid phase recrystallization of the monohydrate into anhydrate. In the microwave irradiation process, dehydration of SCM in terms of indirect heating can be accelerated by increasing the microwave field power

  8. Indirect Reciprocity with Optional Interactions and Private Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Olejarz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider indirect reciprocity with optional interactions and private information. A game is offered between two players and accepted unless it is known that the other person is a defector. Whenever a defector manages to exploit a cooperator, his or her reputation is revealed to others in the population with some probability. Therefore, people have different private information about the reputation of others, which is a setting that is difficult to analyze in the theory of indirect reciprocity. Since a defector loses a fraction of his social ties each time he exploits a cooperator, he is less efficient at exploiting cooperators in subsequent rounds. We analytically calculate the critical benefit-to-cost ratio above which cooperation is successful in various settings. We demonstrate quantitative agreement with simulation results of a corresponding Wright–Fisher process with optional interactions and private information. We also deduce a simple necessary condition for the critical benefit-to-cost ratio.

  9. Compositional inhomogeneities as a source of indirect combustion noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Luca; O'Brien, Jeff; Ihme, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    The generation of indirect combustion noise by compositional inhomogeneities is examined theoretically. For this, the compact nozzle theory of~\\cite{MARBLE_CANDEL_JSV1977} is extended to a multi-component gas mixture, and the chemical potential function is introduced as an additional acoustic source mechanism. Transfer functions for subcritical and supercritical nozzle flows are derived and the contribution of compositional noise is compared to entropy noise and direct noise by considering an idealized nozzle downstream of the combustor exit. It is shown that compositional noise is dependent on the local mixture composition and can exceed entropy noise for fuel-lean conditions and supercritical nozzle flows. This suggests that the compositional indirect noise requires potential consideration with the implementation of low-emission combustors.

  10. Direct and indirect speech fusion in Charisius’ Ars grammatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Pérez Alonso

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available When transmitting the teaching of his predecessors, the grammarian Charisius usually makes use of either subordinating clauses or direct speech, but he hardly ever employs the so-called indirect speech, typically found in strictly literary works rather than in technical ones. However, we have encountered some passages in which portions in direct speech precede indirect speech clauses, a remarkable phenomenon which could be thought of as textual corruptions needing emendation. Nevertheless, from the fact that this phenomenon is mainly found in parts of Charisius’ work taken from Julius Romanus’ De analogía (where the latter quotes Pliny the Elder’s Dubius sermo, we conclude that the text is correct and that we are dealing with a type of citation characteristic of Julius Romanus, the description of which is not found in the literature on Latin Syntax.

  11. Indirect somatic embryogenesis in cassava for genetic modification purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raemakers, Krit; Pereira, Isolde; van Putten, Herma Koehorst; Visser, Richard

    2006-01-01

    In cassava both direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis is described. Direct somatic embryogenesis starts with the culture of leaf explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with auxins. Somatic embryos undergo secondary somatic embryogenesis when cultured on the same medium. Indirect somatic embryogenesis is initiated by subculture of directly induced embryogenic tissue on auxin-supplemented medium with Gresshoff and Doy salts and vitamins. A very fine friable embryogenic callus (FEC) is formed after a few rounds of subculture and stringent selection. This FEC is maintained by subculture on auxin supplemented medium. Lowering of the auxin concentration allows the FEC to form mature somatic embryos that develop into plants when transferred to a cytokinin-supplemented medium.

  12. Non-ligation of indirect hernial sac in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, K.; Kamran, H.; Khattak, I.U.D.; Latif, H.

    2015-01-01

    It is still a matter of debate whether to ligate the indirect hernial sac during herniotomy or leave it open. We designed this study to find out the complications associated with leaving the sac open. Methods: This observational study was carried out at Surgical Unit C, Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad from January 2007 to December 2012. The hernial sacs of some children, aged 5 months to 12 years, undergoing herniotomies were left open, and these children were closely followed for development of complications especially early recurrence, due to this non-ligation of hernial sac. Results: A total of 23 male children who underwent herniotomies for indirect inguinal hernia and undescended testes were included in the study. No early or late hernia recurrence was observed in these children although minor complications like wound infection and seroma were noted in 2 children. Conclusion: Excision of the hernia sac and leaving the stump open is safe and effective with no early recurrence. (author)

  13. Light indirectly mediates bivalve habitat modification and impacts on seagrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castorani, Max Christopher Nicholas; Glud, Ronnie N.; Hasler-Sheetal, Harald

    2015-01-01

    and respiration),mussels and lowlight availability exacerbated sulfide intrusion of eelgrass tissues. Surprisingly, sulfide stress did not affect plant growth, survival, or energy stores. Thus, habitat modification by musselsmay represent a risk to eelgrass, especially during low productivity conditions...... by directly or indirectly influencing the effects of habitat-modifying organisms that are capable of simultaneously ameliorating and exacerbating multiple stressors. Itwas hypothesized that light availability changes seagrassmetabolismand thereby indirectly regulates bivalve habitat modification...... and subsequent impacts on seagrasses by shifting net effects between alleviation of nutrient stress and intensification of sulfide stress. To test this hypothesis, manipulations of light availability and blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) abundance were made in eelgrass (Zostera marina) mesocosms and biogeochemical...

  14. Mid-Air Tactile Stimulation Using Indirect Laser Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hojin; Kim, Ji-Sun; Kim, Jae-Young; Choi, Seungmoon; Jun, Jae-Hoon; Park, Jong-Rak; Kim, A-Hee; Oh, Han-Byeol; Baek, Jun-Hyeok; Yang, Seung-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Chung, Soon-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that a laser irradiated on a thin light-absorbing elastic medium attached on the skin can elicit a tactile sensation of mechanical tap. First, we present simulation results that show laser irradiation to the elastic medium creates inner elastic waves on the basis of thermoelastic effects and these elastic waves trigger the bending deformation of the medium, which then stimulates the skin. Second, we analyze the physical properties of the associated stimulus by measuring its force profile. Third, we identify the perceptual characteristics of the stimulus in comparison to those of mechanical and electrical stimuli by means of a perceptual experiment employing dissimilarity rating. All the evidence indicates that indirect laser radiation provides a sensation of short mechanical tap. Furthermore, little individual difference was observed in the results of the perceptual experiment. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first in reporting the feasibility of indirect laser radiation for mid-air tactile rendering.

  15. Testing indirect effect of consumer attitudes toward a product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hrubá, Renata; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    and on the indirect and direct effects of the perception of information through information behavior and the use of the model ordered. It is proposed that consumer levels of product familiarity of attributes affects behavior. Consumer attitudes towards agri-food products and behaviour were analyzed through......The number of farmers´ markets has been increasing all around the world. This growth in the popularity of farmers´ markets has been attributed to factors of changing consumer interest in local traditional or innovative food products. This paper focuses on familiarity bias in the Czech dairy market...... a questionnaire in 2010-2011. The model is estimated using probit analysis to predict relationship between producer and consumer in decision-making when buying a new type of cheese and to examine consumer attitudes toward food origins and nutrient food security. It can be concluded that the indirect effect (e...

  16. Cooperative Exploration for USAR Robots with Indirect Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Ziparo, V. A.; Kleiner, Alexander; Farinelli, A.; Marchetti, L.; Nardi, D.

    2007-01-01

    To coordinate a team of robots for exploration is a challenging problem, particularly in unstructured areas, as for example post-disaster scenarios where direct communication is severely constrained. Furthermore, conventional methods of SLAM, e.g. those performing data association based on visual features, are doomed to fail due to bad visibility caused by smoke and fire. We use indirect communication (based on RFIDs), to share knowledge and use a gradient-like local search to direct robots t...

  17. The non-optimality of the Mexican indirect tax system

    OpenAIRE

    Castañón-Herrera, Alberto; Urzúa, Carlos M.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter starts with a review of the marginal tax reform methodology that was first advanced by Ahmad and Stern (1984), as well as its second-order variant introduced by Urzúa (2005). After that, it reviews some aspects of the estimation of demand systems, a topic that, although well known to applied econometricians, might be unfamiliar to practitioners. Finally, using an estimated demand system, the paper identifies marginal and second-order improvements in the current Mexican indirect t...

  18. Direct and indirect effects of organizational justice on work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanier, K; Radoschewski, F M; Gutenbrunner, C; Bethge, M

    2014-12-01

    Organizational justice (OJ), involving transparent workplace procedures and treating staff members with respect, has been of growing concern in recent epidemiological research as a determinant of health-related outcomes. To examine the factorial validity of the German version of Moorman's Organizational Justice Questionnaire (OJQ), to investigate the direct cross-sectional effect of OJ on self-rated work ability and to analyse if there is an additional indirect effect of OJ on work ability mediated by effort-reward imbalance. An analysis of cross-sectional data from the Second German Sociomedical Panel of Employees, involving white-collar workers employed at least half time. We performed confirmatory factor analyses to test the factorial validity of the OJQ and analysed the direct and indirect associations of OJ and self-rated work ability by path model analysis. Of the 1217 participants (47% female; mean age: 51) 36% had poor work ability. Factor analyses confirmed the two-factor structure of the German OJQ. Work ability was explained directly by OJ (β = 0.30) and effort-reward imbalance (β = -0.27). Additionally, we identified an indirect effect of OJ that was mediated by effort-reward imbalance (β = 0.14). The total effect of OJ on work ability was remarkably strong (β = 0.44). Associations remained unchanged after adjustment for socio-demographic parameters. This study showed the importance of considering additional indirect pathways when examining the impact of OJ on the work ability of employees. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. A modification of the indirect fluorescence test (IFT for Paracoccidioidomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter B. Petana

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available A modification of the indirect fluorescence test (IFT for serological diagnosis of Paracoccidioidomycosis is described in which formolized budding forms (yeast cells of the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis are used as antigen. A further modification introduced is a less eiaborate technical procedure of the test without lowering the sensitivity of the reaction. The test may be considered as adequateiy accurate and easy to perform in any laboratory with immunofluorescence facilities.

  20. Hybrid Instruments and the Indirect Credit Method - Does it work?

    OpenAIRE

    Wiedermann-Ondrej, Nadine

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the possibility of double non-taxation of hybrid instruments in cross border transactions where the country of the investor has implemented the indirect credit method for mitigation or elimination of double taxation. From an isolated perspective a double non-taxation cannot be obtained because typically no taxes are paid in the foreign country due to the classification as debt and therefore even in the case of a classification as a dividend in the country of the investor n...

  1. Analysis of indirect evidence in hit-and-run cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhefeng Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For personnel handling cases in public security bodies, evaluation of evidence is key to discover the fact and then to settle disputes. The process of evaluation shall be confirmed to rules of logic. Rules of logic are a set of judgment rules for people to reflect, induce, and deduce the development of law worldwide. Thus, evaluation of evidence shall be built on objective and rational logic deduction. Rules of logic applied in the investigation and judgment of evidence can help in finding a direct or indirect link between the evidence and the facts of an accident, thereby providing support and assistance for accident identification. It is particularly necessary to apply rules of logic to evaluate the indirect evidence chain in the investigation of hit-and-run traffic accident cases. This article demonstrates the specific application of such rules in the investigation of a serious hit-and-run traffic accident case. In the investigation process through the comprehensive analysis of and logical thinking around all indirect evidence, such as site inspection data, video monitoring data, witness testimony, and expert conclusions, and the combining of this with the direct evidence of the parties' statements, a complete chain of evidence for identifying a suspect's vehicle and the accident facts can be formed. The effective application of rules of logic in the evaluation of the indirect evidence chain in hit-and-run traffic accident cases provides more clues and narrows the scope of an investigation, improving its efficiency and accuracy, thereby helping to identify the facts of an accident.

  2. “Other” indirect methods for nuclear astrophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trache Livius

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the house of Trojan Horse Method (THM, I will say a few words about “other” indirect methods we use in Nuclear Physics for Astrophysics. In particular those using Rare Ion Beams that can be used to evaluate radiative proton capture reactions. I add words about work done with the Professore we celebrate today. With a proposal, and some results with TECSA, for a simple method to produce and use isomeric beam of 26mAl.

  3. Evaluation des indicateurs indirects de morbidite de la bilharziose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But: Dans le but de mettre en place des méthodes d'évaluation rapide de la morbidité dans les communautés à traiter, une étude transversale a été effectuée pour évaluer les performances diagnostiques de trois indicateurs indirects utilisables par le programme national de lutte contre les bilharzioses au Togo. Matériels et ...

  4. Direct and indirect costs of smoking in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang Anh, Pham Thi; Thu, Le Thi; Ross, Hana; Quynh Anh, Nguyen; Linh, Bui Ngoc; Minh, Nguyen Thac

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the direct and indirect costs of active smoking in Vietnam. A prevalence-based disease-specific cost of illness approach was utilised to calculate the costs related to five smoking-related diseases: lung cancer, cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischaemic heart disease and stroke. Data on healthcare came from an original survey, hospital records and official government statistics. Morbidity and mortality due to smoking combined with the average per capita income were used to calculate the indirect costs of smoking by applying the human capital approach. The smoking-attributable fraction was calculated using the adjusted relative risk values from phase II of the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study (CPS-II). Costs were classified as personal, governmental and health insurance costs. The total economic cost of smoking in 2011 was estimated at 24 679.9 billion Vietnamese dong (VND), equivalent to US$1173.2 million or approximately 0.97% of the 2011 gross domestic product. The direct costs of inpatient and outpatient care reached 9896.2 billion VND (US$470.4 million) and 2567.2 billion VND (US$122.0 million), respectively. The government's contribution to these costs was 4534.3 billion VND (US$215.5 million), which was equivalent to 5.76% of its 2011 healthcare budget. The indirect costs (productivity loss) due to morbidity and mortality were 2652.9 billion VND (US$126.1 million) and 9563.5 billion VND (US$454.6 million), respectively. These indirect costs represent about 49.5% of the total costs of smoking. Tobacco consumption has large negative consequences on the Vietnamese economy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Indirect Self-Destructiveness in Women who Experience Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna

    2018-01-02

    Lives of people experiencing domestic or/and intimate partner violence abound in many unpleasant events and physical and psychological suffering, which affects their psychosocial functioning. The aim of this study was to explore indirect self-destructiveness as a generalised behavioural tendency and its manifestations in women experiencing domestic violence. The "Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale" (CS-DS) was used to study two groups of women: 52 women aged 30-65 years (mean age: 40.15) using assistance of the Crisis Intervention Centre due to experienced domestic violence (V group) and 150 well-matched women not experiencing domestic violence (NV group). Women suffering domestic violence (V) obtained significantly higher scores than women not experiencing domestic violence (NV) for both the general index and a majority of CS-DS subscales; it was only for the A1 (Transgression and Risk) subscale that they achieved somewhat lower scores. Correlation coefficients between particular CS-DS subscales in the V group were higher than in the NV group; there were also certain differences in coefficients between the groups. Subscale factor analysis results were different too: only one factor was isolated in the V group while two were distinguished in the NV group. It can be inferred from the results that the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness as a generalised behavioural tendency as well as of most its categories was higher in women experiencing domestic violence. Tendencies and categories of indirectly self-destructive behaviours in women suffering domestic violence were more closely connected with one another, and the internal coherence of indirect self-destructiveness in those women might also be higher.

  6. Proton-induced direct and indirect damage of plasmid DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vyšín, Luděk; Pachnerová Brabcová, Kateřina; Štěpán, V.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Bugler, B.; Legube, G.; Cafarelli, P.; Casta, R.; Champeaux, J. P.; Sence, M.; Vlk, M.; Wagner, Richard; Štursa, Jan; Zach, Václav; Incerti, S.; Juha, Libor; Davídková, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2015), s. 343-352 ISSN 0301-634X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-28721S; GA MŠk LD12008; GA MŠk LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : proton radiation * DNA plasmid * direct and indirect effects * clustered damage * repair enzymes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.923, year: 2015

  7. Bonded indirect restorations for posterior teeth: the luting appointment

    OpenAIRE

    Rocca, Giovanni Tommaso; Krejci, Ivo

    2007-01-01

    Classic bonded indirect restorations are laboratory fabricated and require 2 appointments: one for provisionalization and one for luting. This article describes the adhesive luting procedure, from try-in of the workpiece to finishing and polishing after the adhesive cementation, and it represents the second part of an updated technique for bonded inlays and onlays. The clinical sequence is described step by step with 2 cases. Particular attention is given to the adhesive treatment of the rest...

  8. Indirect haemagglutination test in intestinal and extra-intestinal amoebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Ajita

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Indirect haemagglutination test has been evaluated in cases of amoebiasis. It gave positive percentages of 90, 91.8 and 68.1 in amoebic liver abscess, chronic amoebic dysentery and amoebic hepatitis respectively. The test was negative in acute amoebic dysentery group. Positivity of 4.3% was obtained in ap-perently healthy subjects. Details regarding above findings, are presented.

  9. Reactor Materials Program process water piping indirect failure frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    Following completion of the probabilistic analyses, the LOCA Definition Project has been subject to various external reviews, and as a result the need for several revisions has arisen. This report updates and summarizes the indirect failure frequency analysis for the process water piping. In this report, a conservatism of the earlier analysis is removed, supporting lower failure frequency estimates. The analysis results are also reinterpreted in light of subsequent review comments

  10. Thomas S. Schelling: game theory and indirect communication

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    In their recent work Thomas S. Schelling (2007, 2010), reiterating original arguments about game theory and its applications to social sciences. In particular, game theory helps to explore situations in which agents make decisions interdependent (strategic communication). Schelling's originality is to extend economic theory to social sciences. When a player can anticipate the options and influence the decisions of others. The strategy, indirect communication plays a crucial role. To illustrat...

  11. Known unknowns: indirect energy effects of information and communication technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Nathaniel C.; Shehabi, Arman; Azevedo, Inês L.

    2016-10-01

    Background. There has been sustained and growing interest in characterizing the net energy impact of information and communication technology (ICT), which results from indirect effects offsetting (or amplifying) the energy directly consumed by ICT equipment. These indirect effects may be either positive or negative, and there is considerable disagreement as to the direction of this sign as well as the effect magnitude. Literature in this area ranges from studies focused on a single service (such as e-commerce versus traditional retail) to macroeconomic studies attempting to characterize the overall impact of ICT. Methods. We review the literature on the indirect energy effect of ICT found via Google Scholar, our own research, and input from other researchers in the field. The various studies are linked to an effect taxonomy, which is synthesized from several different hierarchies present in the literature. References are further grouped according to ICT service (e.g., e-commerce, telework) and summarized by scope, method, and quantitative and qualitative findings. Review results. Uncertainty persists in understanding the net energy effects of ICT. Results of indirect energy effect studies are highly sensitive to scoping decisions and assumptions made by the analyst. Uncertainty increases as the impact scope broadens, due to complex and interconnected effects. However, there is general agreement that ICT has large energy savings potential, but that the realization of this potential is highly dependent on deployment details and user behavior. Discussion. While the overall net effect of ICT is likely to remain unknown, this review suggests several guidelines for improving research quality in this area, including increased data collection, enhancing traditional modeling studies with sensitivity analysis, greater care in scoping, less confidence in characterizing aggregate impacts, more effort on understanding user behavior, and more contextual integration across the

  12. Estradiol: a rhythmic, inhibitory, indirect control of meal size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Lisa A

    2004-08-01

    The classic analyses of the inhibitory effects of cholecystokinin (CCK) on meal size, conducted by Professor Gerard P. Smith and his colleagues at the Bourne Laboratory, inspired my initial interest in this field. My current research, which investigates the role of estradiol in the control of meal size, continues to be guided by Gerry's thoughtful, scientific approach to the study of ingestive behavior. In 1996, the year I arrived as a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Bourne Laboratory, Gerry published a new theory of the controls of meal size. In this important paper, Gerry proposed that the controls of meal size can be either direct or indirect. He argued that direct controls of meal size interact with peripheral, preabsorptive receptors that are sensitive to the chemical, mechanical, and colligative properties of ingested food and that indirect controls of meal size function to modulate the activity of direct controls. The purpose of this review is to illustrate how Gerry's theory has guided much of what is known about the mechanism by which estradiol inhibits food intake in female rats. I will provide evidence, primarily from behavioral studies of gonadally intact and ovariectomized rats, that estradiol exerts phasic and tonic inhibitory effects on food intake by acting as a rhythmic, inhibitory, indirect control of meal size.

  13. Clothing increases the risk of indirect ballistic fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Current literature has shown the mechanism of how indirect fractures occur but has not determined what factors increase the risks of such fractures. The objective of this study is thus to determine the effect of clothing and soft tissue thickness on the risk of indirect fracture formation. Methods Twenty-five fresh red deer femora embedded in ballistic gelatine were shot with varying distances off their medial cortex with a 5.56 × 45 mm North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) bullet while being filmed with a slow-motion video. We compared the effect of two different gelatine depths and the effect of denim cloth laid onto the impact surface of the moulds. Results Bullet passage in thinner moulds failed to cause fracture because the bullet exited the mould before a large expanding temporary cavity was produced. Clothing dramatically altered the size and depth of the expanding cavity, as well as increased lateral pressures, resulting in more severe fractures with greater bullet distances from the bone that can cause fracture. Conclusions Clothing increases the risk of indirect fracture and results in larger, more superficial temporary cavities, with greater lateral pressures than are seen in unclothed specimens, resulting in more comminuted fractures. Greater tissue depth affords the 5.56 × 45 mm NATO a chance to yaw and thus develop an enlarging temporary cavity that is sufficient to cause fracture. PMID:24267379

  14. Identification of Methodology of Indirect Assessment of Economy Shadowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avhustyn Ruslan R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the essence of the shadow economy as an objective phenomenon of socio-economic relations and its influence upon national economy security through instruments of pricing, fiscal restrictions, tax control, and banking and insurance regulation. It proves the necessity of use of the indirect method of assessment of the level of economy shadowing along with methods of direct control over the growth of shadowed economic relations, since such an approach would allow rational approach to identification of volumes and level of shadow activity. In the result of the study the article marks out varieties of indirect assessment of economy shadowing (methods of document, accounting and economic analysis, their specific features, advantages and shortcomings and results of practical use. The article reveals approaches and indicators of economic analysis that allow identification of reasons of deviations from the normal economic activity of economic subjects. It provides examples of the indirect method of assessment of the volume of shadowed economy that deal with analysis of demand on money and comparison of rates of the growth of the money supply with the volume of sight drafts with GDP.

  15. The influence of direct and indirect speech on mental representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eerland, Anita; Engelen, Jan A A; Zwaan, Rolf A

    2013-01-01

    Language can be viewed as a set of cues that modulate the comprehender's thought processes. It is a very subtle instrument. For example, the literature suggests that people perceive direct speech (e.g., Joanne said: 'I went out for dinner last night') as more vivid and perceptually engaging than indirect speech (e.g., Joanne said that she went out for dinner last night). But how is this alleged vividness evident in comprehenders' mental representations? We sought to address this question in a series of experiments. Our results do not support the idea that, compared to indirect speech, direct speech enhances the accessibility of information from the communicative or the referential situation during comprehension. Neither do our results support the idea that the hypothesized more vivid experience of direct speech is caused by a switch from the visual to the auditory modality. However, our results do show that direct speech leads to a stronger mental representation of the exact wording of a sentence than does indirect speech. These results show that language has a more subtle influence on memory representations than was previously suggested.

  16. The influence of direct and indirect speech on mental representations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Eerland

    Full Text Available Language can be viewed as a set of cues that modulate the comprehender's thought processes. It is a very subtle instrument. For example, the literature suggests that people perceive direct speech (e.g., Joanne said: 'I went out for dinner last night' as more vivid and perceptually engaging than indirect speech (e.g., Joanne said that she went out for dinner last night. But how is this alleged vividness evident in comprehenders' mental representations? We sought to address this question in a series of experiments. Our results do not support the idea that, compared to indirect speech, direct speech enhances the accessibility of information from the communicative or the referential situation during comprehension. Neither do our results support the idea that the hypothesized more vivid experience of direct speech is caused by a switch from the visual to the auditory modality. However, our results do show that direct speech leads to a stronger mental representation of the exact wording of a sentence than does indirect speech. These results show that language has a more subtle influence on memory representations than was previously suggested.

  17. N2-fixing red alder indirectly accelerates ecosystem nitrogen cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perakis, Steven S.; Matkins, Joselin J.; Hibbs, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Symbiotic N2-fixing tree species can accelerate ecosystem N dynamics through decomposition via direct pathways by producing readily decomposed leaf litter and increasing N supply to decomposers, as well as via indirect pathways by increasing tissue and detrital N in non-fixing vegetation. To evaluate the relative importance of these pathways, we compared three-year decomposition and N dynamics of N2-fixing red alder leaf litter (2.34 %N) to both low-N (0.68 %N) and high-N (1.21 %N) litter of non-fixing Douglas-fir, and decomposed each litter source in four forests dominated by either red alder or Douglas-fir. We also used experimental N fertilization of decomposition plots to assess elevated N availability as a potential mechanism of N2-fixer effects on litter mass loss and N dynamics. Direct effects of N2-fixing red alder on decomposition occurred primarily as faster N release from red alder than Douglas-fir litter, but direct increases in N supply to decomposers via fertilization did not stimulate decomposition of any litter. Fixed N indirectly influenced detrital dynamics by increasing Douglas-fir tissue and litter N concentrations, which accelerated litter N release without accelerating mass loss. By increasing soil N, tissue N, and the rate of N release from litter of non-fixers, we conclude that N2-fixing vegetation can indirectly foster plant-soil feedbacks that contribute to the persistence of elevated N availability in terrestrial ecosystems.

  18. Forgotten carbon: indirect CO2 in greenhouse gas emission inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillenwater, Michael

    2008-01-01

    National governments that are Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are required to submit greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories accounting for the emissions and removals occurring within their geographic territories. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides inventory methodology guidance to the Parties of the UNFCCC. This methodology guidance, and national inventories based on it, omits carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the atmospheric oxidation of methane, carbon monoxide, and non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions that result from several source categories. The inclusion of this category of 'indirect' CO 2 in GHG inventories increases global anthropogenic emissions (excluding land use and forestry) between 0.5 and 0.7%. However, the effect of inclusion on aggregate UNFCCC Annex I Party GHG emissions would be to reduce the growth of total emissions, from 1990 to 2004, by 0.2% points. The effect on the GHG emissions and emission trends of individual countries varies. The paper includes a methodology for calculating these emissions and discusses uncertainties. Indirect CO 2 is equally relevant for GHG inventories at other scales, such as global, regional, organizational, and facility. Similarly, project-based methodologies, such as those used under the Clean Development Mechanism, may need revising to account for indirect CO 2

  19. [Methodologies for estimating the indirect costs of traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozzi, Soledad; Elorza, María Eugenia; Moscoso, Nebel Silvana; Ripari, Nadia Vanina

    2017-01-01

    Traffic accidents generate multiple costs to society, including those associated with the loss of productivity. However, there is no consensus about the most appropriate methodology for estimating those costs. The aim of this study was to review methods for estimating indirect costs applied in crash cost studies. A thematic review of the literature was carried out between 1995 and 2012 in PubMed with the terms cost of illness, indirect cost, road traffic injuries, productivity loss. For the assessment of costs we used the the human capital method, on the basis of the wage-income lost during the time of treatment and recovery of patients and caregivers. In the case of premature death or total disability, the discount rate was applied to obtain the present value of lost future earnings. The computed years arose by subtracting to life expectancy at birth the average age of those affected who are not incorporated into the economically active life. The interest in minimizing the problem is reflected in the evolution of the implemented methodologies. We expect that this review is useful to estimate efficiently the real indirect costs of traffic accidents.

  20. Evidence of indirect gap in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Wei-Ting

    2017-10-09

    Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, such as MoS2 and WSe2, have been known as direct gap semiconductors and emerged as new optically active materials for novel device applications. Here we reexamine their direct gap properties by investigating the strain effects on the photoluminescence of monolayer MoS2 and WSe2. Instead of applying stress, we investigate the strain effects by imaging the direct exciton populations in monolayer WSe2–MoS2 and MoSe2–WSe2 lateral heterojunctions with inherent strain inhomogeneity. We find that unstrained monolayer WSe2 is actually an indirect gap material, as manifested in the observed photoluminescence intensity–energy correlation, from which the difference between the direct and indirect optical gaps can be extracted by analyzing the exciton thermal populations. Our findings combined with the estimated exciton binding energy further indicate that monolayer WSe2 exhibits an indirect quasiparticle gap, which has to be reconsidered in further studies for its fundamental properties and device applications.