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Sample records for indigenous chickens breed

  1. Population structure of four Thai indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekchay, Supamit; Supakankul, Pantaporn; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Wilantho, Alisa; Chareanchim, Wanwisa; Tongsima, Sissades

    2014-03-27

    In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Using AFLP-PCR, 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Thai indigenous chickens were obtained by DNA sequencing. From these SNPs, we genotyped 465 chickens from 7 chicken breeds, comprising four Thai indigenous chicken breeds--Pradhuhangdum (PD), Luenghangkhao (LK), Dang (DA) and Chee (CH), one wild chicken--the red jungle fowls (RJF), and two commercial chicken breeds--the brown egg layer (BL) and commercial broiler (CB). The chicken genotypes reveal unique genetic structures of the four Thai indigenous chicken breeds. The average expected heterozygosities of PD=0.341, LK=0.357, DA=0.349 and CH=0.373, while the references RJF= 0.327, CB=0.324 and BL= 0.285. The F(ST) values among Thai indigenous chicken breeds vary from 0.051 to 0.096. The F(ST) values between the pairs of Thai indigenous chickens and RJF vary from 0.083 to 0.105 and the FST values between the Thai indigenous chickens and the two commercial chicken breeds vary from 0.116 to 0.221. A neighbour-joining tree of all individual chickens showed that the Thai indigenous chickens were clustered into four groups which were closely related to the wild RJF but far from the commercial breeds. Such commercial breeds were split into two closely groups. Using genetic admixture analysis, we observed that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds are likely to share common ancestors with the RJF, while both commercial chicken breeds share the same admixture pattern. These results indicated that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds may descend from the

  2. Genetic variation of indigenous chicken breeds in China and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    Keywords: Indigenous chicken breeds, AFLP markers, genetic variation, genetic relationships ... Some of these breeds have unique meat and/or egg qualities, a low susceptibility to stress and other ... early maturing and resistant to heat.

  3. Verification of specific selection SNPs between broiler and layer chicken in Chinese indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, D; Hu, Y D; Zhu, Q; Li, D Y; Liu, Y P

    2015-07-28

    The direction of production for indigenous chicken breeds is currently unknown and this knowledge, combined with the development of chicken genome-wide association studies, led us to investigate differences in specific loci between broiler and layer chicken using bioinformatic methods. In addition, we analyzed the distribution of these seven identified loci in four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds, Caoke chicken, Jiuyuan chicken, Sichuan mountain chicken, and Tibetan chicken, using DNA direct sequencing methods, and analyzed the data using bioinformatic methods. Based on the results, we suggest that Caoke chicken could be developed for meat production, while Jiuyuan chicken could be developed for egg production. As Sichuan mountain chicken and Tibetan chicken exhibited large polymorphisms, these breeds could be improved by changing their living environment.

  4. Genetic diversity and population structure of indigenous chicken breeds in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunhe HUANG,Jinfeng ZHANG,Danlin HE,Xiquan ZHANG,Fusheng ZHONG,Weina LI,Qingmei ZHENG,Jiebo CHEN,Bingwang DU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 587 individuals from 12 indigenous chicken breeds from South China and two commercial breeds were genotyped for 26 microsatellites to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure. All microsatellites were found to be polymorphic. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 5 to 36, with an average of 12.10 ± 7.00 (SE. All breeds, except White Recessive Rock, had high allelic polymorphism (>0.5. Higher genetic diversity was revealed in the indigenous chicken breeds rather than in the commercial breeds. Potential introgression from the commercial breeds into the indigenous chickens was also detected. The population structure of these indigenous chicken breeds could be explained by their geographical distribution, which suggested the presence of independent history of breed formation. Data generated in this study will provide valuable information to the conservation for indigenous chicken breeds in future.

  5. Evaluation of genetic diversity in Chinese indigenous chicken breeds using microsatellite markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Lujiang; YANG Ning; LI Xianyao; XU Guifang; CHEN Kuanwei; YANG Hongjie; ZHANG Longchao; WU Guiqin; HOU Zhuocheng; XU Guiyun

    2006-01-01

    China is rich in chicken genetic resources, and many indigenous breeds can be found throughout the country. Due to poor productive ability, some of them are threatened by the commercial varieties from domestic and foreign breeding companies. In a large-scale investigation into the current status of Chinese poultry genetic resources, 78 indigenous chicken breeds were surveyed and their blood samples collected. The genomes of these chickens were screened using microsatellite analysis. A total of 2740 individuals were genotyped for 27 microsatellite markers on 13 chromosomes. The number of alleles of the 27 markers ranged from 6 to 51 per locus with a mean of 18.74. Heterozygosity (H) values of the 78 chicken breeds were all more than 0.5. The average H value (0.622) and polymorphism information content (PIC, 0.573) of these breeds suggested that the Chinese indigenous chickens possessed more genetic diversity than that reported in many other countries. The fixation coefficients of subpopulations within the total population (FST) for the 27 loci varied from 0.065 (LEI0166) to 0.209 (MCW0078), with a mean of 0.106. For all detected microsatellite loci, only one (LEI0194) deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) across all the populations. As genetic drift or non-random mating can occur in small populations, breeds kept on conservation farms such as Langshan chicken generally had lower H values, while those kept on large populations within conservation regions possessed higher polymorphisms. The high genetic diversity in Chinese indigenous breeds is in agreement with great phenotypic variation of these breeds. Using Nei's genetic distance and the Neighbor-Joining method, the indigenous Chinese chickens were classified into six categories that were generally consistent with their geographic distributions. The molecular information of genetic diversity will play an important role in conservation, supervision, and utilization of the chicken resources.

  6. Biological mechanisms discriminating growth rate and adult body weight phenotypes in two Chinese indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Tengfei; Zhao, Sumei; Rong, Hua; Gu, Dahai; Li, Qihua; Huang, Ying; Xu, Zhiqiang; Chu, Xiaohui; Tao, Linli; Liu, Lixian; Ge, Changrong; Te Pas, Marinus F W; Jia, Junjing

    2017-06-20

    Intensive selection has resulted in increased growth rates and muscularity in broiler chickens, in addition to adverse effects, including delayed organ development, sudden death syndrome, and altered metabolic rates. The biological mechanisms underlying selection responses remain largely unknown. Non-artificially-selected indigenous Chinese chicken breeds display a wide variety of phenotypes, including differential growth rate, body weight, and muscularity. The Wuding chicken breed is a fast growing large chicken breed, and the Daweishan mini chicken breed is a slow growing small chicken breed. Together they form an ideal model system to study the biological mechanisms underlying broiler chicken selection responses in a natural system. The objective of this study was to study the biological mechanisms underlying differential phenotypes between the two breeds in muscle and liver tissues, and relate these to the growth rate and body development phenotypes of the two breeds. The muscle tissue in the Wuding breed showed higher expression of muscle development genes than muscle tissue in the Daweishan chicken breed. This expression was accompanied by higher expression of acute inflammatory response genes in Wuding chicken than in Daweishan chicken. The muscle tissue of the Daweishan mini chicken breed showed higher expression of genes involved in several metabolic mechanisms including endoplasmic reticulum, protein and lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, as well as specific immune traits than in the Wuding chicken. The liver tissue showed fewer differences between the two breeds. Genes displaying higher expression in the Wuding breed than in the Daweishan breed were not associated with a specific gene network or biological mechanism. Genes highly expressed in the Daweishan mini chicken breed compared to the Wuding breed were enriched for protein metabolism, ABC receptors, signal transduction, and IL6-related mechanisms. We conclude that faster growth rates and larger

  7. Meat quality traits of four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one commercial broiler stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng

    2013-10-01

    Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (Pbreeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned.

  8. Breeding programs for indigenous chicken in Ethiopia : analysis of diversity in production systems and chicken populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dana, N.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to generate information required to establish a sustainable breeding program for improving the productivity of locally adapted chickens to enhance the livelihood of rural farmers in Ethiopia. The first step was to characterize village poultry production environments and

  9. Evaluation of breeding objectives for purebred and crossbred selection schemes for adoption in indigenous chicken breeding programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeno, T O; Kahi, A K; Peters, K J

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic and economic breeding objectives for an indigenous chicken (IC) breeding programme in Kenya. 2. A closed three-tier nucleus breeding programme with three breeding objectives and two selection schemes was simulated. The breeding objectives included IC dual-purpose (ICD) for both eggs and meat, IC layer (ICL) for eggs and IC broiler (ICB) for meat production. 3. Pure line selection scheme (PLS) for development of IC pure breeds and crossbreeding scheme (CBS) for the production of hybrids were considered. Two-and three-way crossbreeding strategies were evaluated under CBS and the impact of nucleus size on genetic gains and profitability of the breeding programme were investigated. 4. Males were the main contributors to genetic gains. The highest genetic gains for egg number (2·71 eggs) and growth traits (1·74 g average daily gain and 57·96 g live weight at 16 weeks) were realised under PLS in ICL and ICB, respectively. 5. The genetic response for age at first egg was desirable in all the breeding objectives, while that for fertility and hatchability were only favourable under ICL and PLS in ICD. Faecal egg count and immune antibody response had low, but positive gains except under PLS where the later was unfavourable. ICB was the most profitable breeding objective, followed by ICD and ICL under all the selection schemes. 6. Although PLS was superior in genetic gains and profitability and recommended in breeding programmes targeting ICL and ICB, a three line CBS should be considered in development of a dual-purpose breed. 7. Increasing the nucleus size beyond 5% of the IC population was not attractive as it resulted in declining profitability of the breeding programme.

  10. Importance of Indigenous Breeds of Chicken for Rural Economy and Their Improvements for Higher Production Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Kumar Padhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous/native breeds of chickens are playing an important role in rural economies in most of the developing and underdeveloped countries. They play a major role for the rural poor and marginalised section of the people with respect to their subsidiary income and also provide them with nutritious chicken egg and meat for their own consumption. Performance of native fowl can be improved by change in husbandry, feeding, and better health cover. However, genetic improvement may be made either through selection and crossbreeding or by utilisation of both selection and crossbreeding. Improvement through selection may be time consuming but the improvement will be permanent. Through crossbreeding improvement may be faster but research has to aim for the production of native-type birds with higher production potential. In the present review efforts have been made to present the importance of native fowl to rural economy and their improvement for higher production performance.

  11. Farmers' breeding practices and traits of economic importance for indigenous chicken in RWANDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoro, J; Muasya, T K; Mbuza, F; Mbuthia, J; Kahi, A K

    2017-09-26

    Data on breeding practices and traits of economic importance for the indigenous chicken (IC) were collected through personal interviews using structured questionnaires and direct observations of chicken management practices. The study was conducted from November 2015 to January 2016 in Rwamagana, Rulindo, Ruhango, Kicukiro and Muhanga districts of Rwanda. Data were collected and analysed through computation of indices, which represented a weighted average of all rankings of a specific trait. Spearman's non-parametric rank correlation was calculated for ranking of traits of economic importance to indicate the directional effects. The results on chicken ecotypes and their attributes showed that prolificacy, mature weight, disease tolerance, egg number and heat tolerance were highly preferred. The dwarf ecotype was most abundantly reared (38.84%) and considered to be significantly smaller and to have poorer growth rate, but to have better prolificacy than other indigenous chicken ecotypes. Selection of breeding cock and hen was based on disease tolerance, body weight at sexual maturity, body size and growth rate. In addition, for hen, mothering ability and egg fertility (Fer) were considered. Indices for the traits perceived by farmers as of primary economic importance were egg yield (0.093), disease tolerance (0.091), high growth rate (0.089), prolificacy (0.088), high body weight (0.087) and egg fertility (0.083). The most important traits considered by the marketers were body weight (BW), disease tolerance (Dtol), plumage colour (Pcol), egg yolk colour (EYC), meat quality (MQ), growth rate (GR) and egg yield (EY) whereas for consumers, meat quality, egg yolk colour, egg yield, body weight and growth rate were considered. Among traits perceived as important by farmers, a positive and significant correlation was found between BW and GR and Fer. Correlation was moderate for BW and prolificacy, drought tolerance (Drtol), Dtol and EYC. BW was negatively correlated with

  12. In-vitro Quantitative Assay of Interferon Gamma in Serum of Nigerian Indigenous and Exotic Breeds of Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esan Oluwaseun and Oladele Omolade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian Indigenous breeds of Chicken (NIC have thrived in harsh tropical environment with little veterinary care and poor nutrition compared with the introduced exotic breeds which performs sub-optimally in the tropics. However, they receive little attention for commercial production in spite of low input required. A comparative assessment of cellular immune response of the indigenous and exotic breeds was carried out to provide scientific explanation for their hardy nature and justify production for economic purposes. Fifteen chickens from each of three indigenous breeds i.e. Frizzled- feathered, Naked-neck and Smooth-feathered, and 8 Isa Brown pullets were 10 weeks old and reared in separate cages. The chickens were stabilized and administered Newcastle Disease Vaccine (NDV, LaSota strain. At 14 and 16 weeks old, all breeds were administered NDV Komarov strain in Freund’s adjuvant and in PBS intramuscularly as sensitizing and challenge inoculants, respectively. They were bled for serum 5 days later and concentrations of Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma were determined using competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results showed that the Frizzled-feathered chickens had the highest concentration of IFN-gamma (58±2.8 pg/ml which was significantly higher than 49±3.2 pg/ml and 44±2.5 pg/ml recorded for Smooth-feathered and Isa brown breeds respectively. Also, concentration in Naked-neck breed was 54±2.9 pg/ml, which was significantly higher than Isa Brown. Isa Brown had the significantly lowest concentration. It was concluded that the three NIC studied, have inherent capacity to mount higher levels of cellular immune response compared with the exotic Isa brown, when challenged.

  13. Use of factor scores for predicting body weight from linear body measurements in three South African indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malomane, Dorcus Kholofelo; Norris, David; Banga, Cuthbert B; Ngambi, Jones W

    2014-02-01

    Body weight and weight of body parts are of economic importance. It is difficult to directly predict body weight from highly correlated morphological traits through multiple regression. Factor analysis was carried out to examine the relationship between body weight and five linear body measurements (body length, body girth, wing length, shank thickness, and shank length) in South African Venda (VN), Naked neck (NN), and Potchefstroom koekoek (PK) indigenous chicken breeds, with a view to identify those factors that define body conformation. Multiple regression was subsequently performed to predict body weight, using orthogonal traits derived from the factor analysis. Measurements were obtained from 210 chickens, 22 weeks of age, 70 chickens per breed. High correlations were obtained between body weight and all body measurements except for wing length in PK. Two factors extracted after varimax rotation explained 91, 95, and 83% of total variation in VN, NN, and PK, respectively. Factor 1 explained 73, 90, and 64% in VN, NN, and PK, respectively, and was loaded on all body measurements except for wing length in VN and PK. In a multiple regression, these two factors accounted for 72% variation in body weight in VN, while only factor 1 accounted for 83 and 74% variation in body weight in NN and PK, respectively. The two factors could be used to define body size and conformation of these breeds. Factor 1 could predict body weight in all three breeds. Body measurements can be better selected jointly to improve body weight in these breeds.

  14. [Identification of a new subgroup of avian leukosis virus isolated from Chinese indigenous chicken breeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhao, Peng; Cui, Zhi-Zhong

    2012-11-01

    In order to clarify Avian leukosis virus (ALV) characteristics from Chinese native chicken breeds, three ALV JS11C1, JS11C2 and JS11C3 were isolated from Chinese native breed "luhua" by inoculation of DF1 cell culture and detection of p27 antigen. Using PCR amplification of env gene, the amplified gp85 genes were analyzed and compared to all six chicken ALV subgroups reported. The gp85 genes of these three viruses were 1 005bp in length and encoded 335 amino acids, and the gp37 genes were 609bp and encoded 203 amino acids. The homology of gp85 among these three isolated strains was 91.9%-97.0%. Comparing to 18 stains of subgroup A, B, C, D, E published in GenBank, the homology was only in the range of 77.7%-84.6%, significantly lower than the gp85 homology observed within the common chicken subgroups A (88.2%-98.5%), B (91.6%-98.8%), and E (97.9%-99.4%). The gp85 homology compared with subgroup J was only 34.2%-36.5%. These results suggested that three isolated strains from Chinese native breed "luhua" belong to a new subgroup different from all six known subgroups from Chickens, and thus designated as subgroup K.

  15. Breeding objectives for indigenous chicken: model development and application to different production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeno, Tobias O; Magothe, Thomas M; Kahi, Alexander K; Peters, Kurt J

    2013-01-01

    A bio-economic model was developed to evaluate the utilisation of indigenous chickens (IC) under different production systems accounting for the risk attitude of the farmers. The model classified the production systems into three categories based on the level of management: free-range system (FRS), where chickens were left to scavenge for feed resources with no supplementation and healthcare; intensive system (IS), where the chickens were permanently confined and supplied with rationed feed and healthcare; and semi-intensive system (SIS), a hybrid of FRS and IS, where the chickens were partially confined, supplemented with rationed feeds, provided with healthcare and allowed to scavenge within the homestead or in runs. The model allows prediction of the live weights and feed intake at different stages in the life cycle of the IC and can compute the profitability of each production system using both traditional and risk-rated profit models. The input parameters used in the model represent a typical IC production system in developing countries but are flexible and therefore can be modified to suit specific situations and simulate profitability and costs of other poultry species production systems. The model has the capability to derive the economic values as changes in the genetic merit of the biological parameter results in marginal changes in profitability and costs of the production systems. The results suggested that utilisation of IC in their current genetic merit and production environment is more profitable under FRS and SIS but not economically viable under IS.

  16. Production objectives and trait preferences of village poultry producers of Ethiopia: implications for designing breeding schemes utilizing indigenous chicken genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Nigussie; van der Waaij, Liesbeth H; Dessie, Tadelle; van Arendonk, Johan A M

    2010-10-01

    To generate information essential for the implementation of breeding schemes suitable for village poultry producers in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted aimed at defining the socioeconomic characteristics of the production environments in different geographic regions, understanding the important functions of chickens, identifying farmers' choice of chicken breeds and the underlying factors that determine the choice of genetic stock used. The survey included both questionnaire survey and a participatory group discussion. A total of 225 households (45 households from each of five Woredas) were interviewed. The questionnaire was designed to collect data covering general information on village poultry production such as socio-management characteristics, production objectives, population structure, breed choice and trait preferences, market preferences of specific traits, and farmers' selection practices. The participatory farmers' discussions were designed to involve stakeholders in defining the breeding objective "traits" and deriving their relative importance in the production environment based on the different functions of chickens and "traits" identified in the interviews. The results showed that production of eggs for consumption is the principal function of chickens in most regions followed by the use as source of income and meat for home consumption. The production system in all geographic regions studied revealed similar features generally characterized by extensive scavenging management, absence of immunization programs, increased risk of exposure of birds to disease and predators, and reproduction entirely based on uncontrolled natural mating and hatching of eggs using broody hens. Farmers' ratings of indigenous chickens with respect to modern breeds showed the highest significance of the adaptive traits in general, and the superior merits of indigenous chickens to high yielding exotic breeds in particular. Adaptation to the production environment was the most

  17. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Dae-Won; Chun, Se-Yoon; Sung, Samsun; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Sung-Jong

    2014-10-01

    Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/) provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed's characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  18. MHC haplotype and susceptibility to experimental infections (Salmonella Enteritidis, Pasteurella multocida orAscaridia galli) in a commercial and an indigenous chicken breed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, T W; Labouriau, R; Permin, A

    2010-01-01

    In three independent experimental infection studies, the susceptibility and course of infection of three pathogens considered of importance in most poultry production systems, Ascaridia galli, Salmonella Enteritidis and Pasteurella multocida was compared in two chicken breeds, the indigenous...... might be associated with resistance. These results demonstrate the presence of local genetic resources in Vietnamese chickens, which could be utilized in breeding programmes aiming at improving disease resistance...... Vietnamese Ri and the commercial Luong Phuong. Furthermore, the association of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) with disease-related parameters was evaluated, using alleles of the LEI0258 microsatellite as markers for MHC haplotypes. The Ri chickens were found to be more resistant to A. galli and S...

  19. Biological mechanisms discriminating growth rate and adult body weight phenotypes in two Chinese indigenous chicken breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dou, Tengfei; Zhao, Sumei; Rong, Hua; Gu, Dahai; Li, Qihua; Huang, Ying; Xu, Zhiqiang; Chu, Xiaohui; Tao, Linli; Liu, Lixian; Ge, Changrong; Pas, te Marinus F.W.; Jia, Junjing

    2017-01-01

    Background: Intensive selection has resulted in increased growth rates and muscularity in broiler chickens, in addition to adverse effects, including delayed organ development, sudden death syndrome, and altered metabolic rates. The biological mechanisms underlying selection responses remain

  20. Indigenous knowledge of animal breeding and breeds

    OpenAIRE

    I. Kohler-Rollefson

    2004-01-01

    Indigenous knowledge of animal breeding (IK-AB) includes concepts and practices used to influence the genetic composition of herds. Indigenous selection is often based on preferences based on physical characteristics, vigor, social and economic insurance. This issue paper summarizes the value of indigenous knowledge and local breeds to achieve agricultural sustainability. Links to IK-AB information are also provided. Available in SANREM office, ES

  1. MHC haplotype and susceptibility to experimental infections (Salmonella Enteritidis, Pasteurella multocida or Ascaridia galli) in a commercial and an indigenous chicken breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, T W; Labouriau, R; Permin, A; Christensen, J P; Sørensen, P; Cu, H P; Nguyen, V K; Juul-Madsen, H R

    2010-05-15

    In three independent experimental infection studies, the susceptibility and course of infection of three pathogens considered of importance in most poultry production systems, Ascaridia galli, Salmonella Enteritidis and Pasteurella multocida were compared in two chicken breeds, the indigenous Vietnamese Ri and the commercial Luong Phuong. Furthermore, the association of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) with disease-related parameters was evaluated, using alleles of the LEI0258 microsatellite as markers for MHC haplotypes. The Ri chickens were found to be more resistant to A. galli and S. Enteritidis than commercial Luong Phuong chickens. In contrast, the Ri chickens were more susceptible to P. multocida, although production parameters were more affected in the Luong Phuong chickens. Furthermore, it was shown that the individual variations observed in response to the infections were influenced by the MHC. Using marker alleles of the microsatellite LEI0258, which is located within the MHC region, several MHC haplotypes were identified as being associated with infection intensity of A. galli. An association of the MHC with the specific antibody response to S. Enteritidis was also found where four MHC haplotypes were shown to be associated with high specific antibody response. Finally, one MHC haplotype was identified as being associated with pathological lesions and mortality in the P. multocida experiment. Although not statistically significant, our analysis suggested that this haplotype might be associated with resistance. These results demonstrate the presence of local genetic resources in Vietnamese chickens, which could be utilized in breeding programmes aiming at improving disease resistance. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of risk-rated profit model functions in estimation of economic values for indigenous chicken breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeno, Tobias O; Magothe, Thomas M; Kahi, Alexander K; Peters, Kurt J

    2012-08-01

    The economic values for productive (egg number, average daily gain, live weight, and mature weight) and functional (fertility, hatchability, broodiness, survival rate, feed intake, and egg weight) traits were derived for three production systems utilizing indigenous chicken in Kenya. The production systems considered were free-range, semi-intensive, and intensive system and were evaluated based on fixed flock size and fixed feed resource production circumstances. A bio-economic model that combined potential performances, feeding strategies, optimum culling strategies, farmer's preferences and accounted for imperfect knowledge concerning risk attitude of farmers and economic dynamics was employed to derive risk-rated economic values. The economic values for all the traits were highest in free-range system under the two production circumstances and decreased with level of intensification. The economic values for egg number, average daily gain, live weight, fertility, hatchability, and survival rate were positive while those for mature weight, broodiness, egg weight, and feed intake were negative. Generally, the economic values estimated under fixed feed resource production circumstances were higher than those derived under fixed flock size. The difference between economic values estimated using simple (traditional) and risk-rated profit model functions ranged from -47.26% to +67.11% indicating that inclusion of risks in estimation of economic values is important. The results of this study suggest that improvement targeting egg number, average daily gain, live weight, fertility, hatchability, and survival rate would have a positive impact on profitability of indigenous chicken production in Kenya.

  3. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Soo Jeong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous (native breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/ provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed’s characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  4. Genetic improvement in indigenous chicken of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldegiorgiss, W.E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Wondmeneh Esatu Woldegiorgiss (2015). Genetic improvement in indigenous chicken of Ethiopia. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands This thesis considered various approaches to study the potential for improvement of village poultry production system using

  5. The past, present and future genetic improvement of indigenous chicken of Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khobondo, J O; Okeno, Tobias O; Lihare, G O

    2014-01-01

    Genetic improvement of farm animals encompasses both mating and selection for desired traits and indigenous chicken genetic resources are no exception. In Kenya, previous attempts to genetically improve indigenous chicken involved cross-breeding scheme by utilizing cockerels and pullets of exotic...... breeds with the local indigenous chicken. This scheme was complimented with farmer training on good management practices and vaccination for disease control. The scheme was partially successful with improved performance in the crossbreds that declined with subsequent generations. Failure of the programme...... has genetically and phenotypically characterized the chicken; established reference/base population collected from different ecotypes/counties, established the breeding goals and designed breeding programmes that best suit the Kenyan takeholders. The on-station research has reported variation...

  6. Analysis of genetic structure and relationship among nine indigenous Chinese chicken populations by the Structure program

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H. F. Li; W. Han; Y. F. Zhu; J. T. Shu; X. Y. Zhang; K. W. Chen

    2009-08-01

    The multi-locus model-based clustering method Structure program was used to infer the genetic structure of nine indigenous Chinese chicken (Gallus gallus) populations based on 16 microsatellite markers. Twenty runs were carried out at each chosen value of predefined cluster numbers $(K)$ under admixture model. The Structure program properly inferred the presence of genetic structure with 0.999 probabilities. The genetic structure not only indicated that the nine kinds of chicken populations were defined actually by their locations, phenotypes or culture, but also reflected the underlying genetic variations. At $K = 2$, nine chicken populations were divided into two main clusters, one light-body type, including Chahua chicken (CHA), Tibet chicken (TIB), Xianju chicken (XIA), Gushi chicken (GUS) and Baier chicken (BAI); and the other heavy-body type, including Beijing You chicken (YOU), Xiaoshan chicken (XIA), Luyuan chicken (LUY) and Dagu chicken (DAG). GUS and DAG were divided into independent clusters respectively when equaled 4, 5, or 6. XIA and BIA chicken, XIA and LUY chicken, TIB and CHA chicken still clustered together when equaled 6, 7, and 8, respectively. These clustering results were consistent with the breeding directions of the nine chicken populations. The Structure program also identified migrants or admixed individuals. The admixed individuals were distributed in all the nine chicken populations, while migrants were only distributed in TIB, XIA and LUY populations. These results indicated that the clustering analysis using the Structure program might provide an accurate representation of the genetic relationship among the breeds.

  7. Polymorphism and molecular phylogenetic analysis of MHC B -G locus in 9 indigenous chicken breeds%9个地方鸡种MHCB-G座位多态性及其分子系统进化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠云洁; 苏一军; 王克华; 张学余; 李国辉; 殷建玫

    2012-01-01

    以我国9个地方鸡为研究对象,对其MHC B-G座位全基因序列进行测序,以揭示这9个地方鸡种MHC B -G基因的遗传多样性,并构建其系统进化树.结果表明,9个地方鸡种MHC B-G基因序列具有较高的遗传多样性,在9个地方鸡种中共存在666个突变位点,其中单一位点突变554个,简约信息112个,共缺失782 bp.核苷酸多样度(Pi)为0.03079±0.004 39,平均核昔酸差异(K)为182.639.9个地方鸡品种为9个单倍型,单倍型多样度为1.00±0.052.9个鸡种MHC B-G基因Kiumura双参数遗传距离范围为0.010~0.070,鹿苑鸡与新狼山鸡的遗传距离最小,为0.010;茶花鸡与东乡绿壳蛋鸡遗传距离最大,为0.070.根据9个鸡品种MHC B-G基因全序列构建的NJ树和ME树,茶花鸡单独聚为1类,其他8个品种被聚为2大类.Tajima's D值为-1.5546,且差异不显著(0.10>P>0.05),说明MHC B -G基因为负向选择,不遵循中性进化理论,MHC B -G基因多态性不是遗传漂变的结果,而是自然选择和人工选择的结果.%The MHC B - G locus in nine indigenous chicken breeds was sequenced to explore genetic diversity in these nine chicken breeds and to construct their phylogenetic tree. The study revealed that the genetic diversity of the MHC B - G locus in these breeds was relatively high, where there were 666 polymophic sites, among of which singleton variable sites were 554, parsimony informative sites were 112. Sites with alignment gaps or missing data were 782 bp. Nucleotide diversity ( P,) was 0. 030 79 ± 0. 004 39. Average number of nucleotide differences (K) was 182. 639. There was nine haplotypes in nine chicken breeds. The haplotype diversity was 1. 00 ±0. 052. Kimura 2 - parameter distance between nine chicken breeds was 0.010 -0.070, where the minimum was 0.010 between Luyuan and Newlangshan, while the maximum was 0.070 between Chahua and Dongxiang blue. Neighbor - Joining (NJ) tree and Minimum -Evolution (ME) tree based on MHC B - G DNA

  8. Influence of socioeconomic factors on production constraints faced by indigenous chicken producers in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtileni, Bohani Joseph; Muchadeyi, Farai C; Maiwashe, Azwihangwisi; Chimonyo, Michael; Mapiye, Cletos; Dzama, Kennedy

    2013-01-01

    Individual interviews were conducted in 137 households using semi-structured questionnaires to determine the influence of socioeconomic factors on production constraints faced by indigenous chicken producers in the rural areas of South Africa. The major constraints to village chicken production were mortality (95 % of the households) followed by feed shortage (85 %) and low chicken sales (72 %). The logistic regression model showed that households that owned imported/crossbred chickens practiced extensive production system without housing structures and did not have vaccines were more likely to experience high levels of chicken mortality. Poor and youth-headed households with no supplements and vaccines had high probability of Newcastle disease. The probability of a household to experience chicken feed shortage was lower in households that owned indigenous chickens than those that owned imported/crossbred chickens (odds ratio, 11.68; 95 % confidence interval, 1.19-27.44). Youth-headed households that had small flocks and no access to veterinary services were not likely to sell chickens. It was concluded that gender, age, wealth status, production system, chicken flock size, type of chicken breed owned, accessibility of veterinary services, availability of supplements, vaccines and shelter influence village chicken farmer's production constraints such as feed availability, chicken mortality, prevalence of diseases and chicken sales.

  9. Assessing genetic variability in two ancient chicken breeds of Padova area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity in two ancient indigenous chicken breeds of the Veneto region was assessed using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP markers. A total of 63 individuals were analysed using three selected AFLP primer combinations that produced 66 clear polymorphisms. The breeds analyzed were the Padovana and the Polverara (two ancient breeds and a reference broiler line. The expected heterozygosity (Het did not differ significantly among breeds. The variability at AFLP loci was largely maintained across breeds, as indicated by the coefficient of genetic differentiation (Gst value. The lowest genetic distance is found between the Padovana and Polverara breeds suggesting that they could be genetically close.

  10. Genetic and nutrition development of indigenous chicken in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khobondo, J O; Muasya, T K; Miyumo, S

    2015-01-01

    This review gives insights into genetic and feeding regime development for indigenous chicken genetic resources. We highlight and combine confirming evidence of genetic diversity and variability using morphological and molecular techniques. We further discuss previous past and current genetic...... requirement for indigenous chicken and report nutritive contents of various local feedstuffs under various production systems. Various conservation strategies for sustainable utilization are hereby reviewed...

  11. Genetic and nutrition development of indigenous chicken in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khobondo, J O; Muasya, T K; Miyumo, S

    2015-01-01

    This review gives insights into genetic and feeding regime development for indigenous chicken genetic resources. We highlight and combine confirming evidence of genetic diversity and variability using morphological and molecular techniques. We further discuss previous past and current genetic...... requirement for indigenous chicken and report nutritive contents of various local feedstuffs under various production systems. Various conservation strategies for sustainable utilization are hereby reviewed...

  12. Production objectives and trait preferences of village poultry producers of Ethiopia: implications for designing breeding schemes utilizing indigenous chicken genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullu, N.D.; Waaij, van der L.H.; Dessie, T.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    To generate information essential for the implementation of breeding schemes suitable for village poultry producers in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted aimed at defining the socioeconomic characteristics of the production environments in different geographic regions, understanding the important

  13. [Relationships among immune traits and MHC B-LBII genetic variation in three chicken breeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuwei; Li, Shuqing; Lu, Yan; Lei, Qiuxia; Han, Haixia; Zhou, Yan; Wu, Bin; Cao, Dingguo

    2013-07-01

    We have assessed the relationships between immune trait (antibody titers of Sheep red blood cell, SRBC; Avian influenza, AI; Newcastle disease, ND) and varieties of MHC B-LBHII Gene in local chicken breeds (Wenshang Barred chicken, LH; Laiwu Black chicken, LWH; and Jining Bairi chicken, BR). We selected 300 chickens randomly from the three indigenous chicken populations. The variations of MHC B-L BII gene were detected by directly DNA sequencing and polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP). The results indicated that there were about 19-22 nucleotide mutations in the three local breeds, which could affect 16-18 amino acid variations. Another results indicated that there was significantly relationship between seven to eight SNPs of the MHC B-LBII region and some immune traits (P chicken, with SRBC antibody titers (P chicken, and with H9 antibody titers (P chicken. Furthermore, locus T138A was significantly associated with H9 antibody titers in BR and LH chickens (P breeds.

  14. Genetic diversity of local Yunnan chicken breeds and their relationships with Red Junglefowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, J L; Wu, G S; Chen, T; Huo, H L; Yuan, F; Liu, L X; Ge, C R; Miao, Y W

    2014-04-29

    Yunnan is situated in the Southwest China and encompasses regions having high biodiversity, including habitats for several ancestral species of domestic animals such as chicken. Domestic chickens in Yunnan were kept by peoples of varied ethnic and economic backgrounds living in highly varied geographic environments. To identify the genetic background of Yunnan domestic chickens and their relationships with Red Junglefowl, we applied 28 widely used microsatellite DNA markers to genotype 340 birds from 7 chicken breeds and Red Junglefowl indigenous to Yunnan. Among a total of 342 alleles identified, 121 (35.4%) were breed specific, with Red Junglefowl harboring most microsatellite alleles (23). High levels of heterozygosity were observed within populations indicated by a mean unbiased HE value of 0.663, which was higher than the reported for most populations elsewhere. The FIS value of domestic populations ranged from -0.098-0.005, indicating a lack of inbreeding among these populations. A high proportion of significant departures (89) from the 224 HWE tests for each locus in each population reflected an excess of heterozygosity and population substructure. Individual assignment tests, high FST values (0.1757-0.3015), and Nei's DA genetic distances (0.4232-0.6950) indicated clear differentiation among these populations. These observations, along with the close genetic distance between indigenous domestic populations and Red Junglefowl, were consistent with the primitive and ancestral state of Yunnan indigenous chickens. Protecting the unique variants of these indigenous poultry varieties from contamination with commercial breeds might provide values for improving modern agricultural livestock and breeding programs. Thus, the current study may benefit breeding management and conservation efforts.

  15. Molecular Characterization of Indonesian Indigenous Chickens based on Mitochondrial DNA Displacement (D-loop Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI SULANDARI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA displacement (D-loop sequences were used to study the genetic diversity and relationship of Indonesian indigenous chickens. A total of 483 individuals belonging to 15 population breeds and 43 individuals belonging to 6 populations of jungle fowl (2 populations of Gallus gallus and 4 populations of Gallus varius were sampled. The hypervariable I (HVI segment of the D-loop was PCR amplified and subsequently sequenced. The sequences of the first 397 nucleotides were used for analysis. Sixty nine haplotypes were identified from 54 polymorphic sites with polymorphism between nucleotides 167 and 397 contributing to 94.5% of the sequence variation. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Indonesian indigenous chickens can be grouped into five distinct clades (clade I, II, IIIc, IIId, and IV of the previously identified seven clades (clade I, II, IIIa, IIIb, IIIc, IIId, and IV in Asian indigenous chickens. Fifty haplotypes belong to clade II, seven haplotypes are in clade IV, six are in clade IIId, three are in clade I and one haploype is in clade IIIc. There was no breed-specific clade. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA based on partial D-loop sequences of Indonesian chicken indicates that 67.85% of the total sequence variation between haplotypes was present within the population and 32.15% between populations. One of the haplotypes (represented by PLC4 was shared by all populations, suggesting that these populations may share the same maternal ancestor. These results show a high mitochondrial D-loop diversity and indicate multiple maternal origins for Indonesian indigenous chickens.

  16. Sequencing and alignment of mitochondrial genomes of Tibetan chicken and two lowland chicken breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tibetan chicken lives in high-altitude area and has adapted well to hypoxia genetically. Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken are both lowland chicken breeds. In the present study, the complete mito-chondrial genome sequences of the three chicken breeds were all sequenced. The results showed that the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken consist of 16784 bp and 16785 bp respectively, and Tibetan chicken mitochondrial genome varies from 16784 bp to 16786 bp. After sequence analysis, 120 mutations, including 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tRNA genes, 9 SNPs and 1 insertion in rRNA genes, 38 SNPs and 1 deletion in D-LOOP, 66 SNPs in pro-tein-coding genes, were found. This work will provide clues for the future study on the association between mitochondrial genes and the adaptation to hypoxia.Tibetan chicken, lowland chicken, mitochondrial genome, hypoxia.

  17. Maternal genealogical patterns of chicken breeds sampled in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Hocking, P M; Simianer, H; Weigend, S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genealogical pattern of chicken breeds sampled in Europe. Sequence polymorphisms of 1256 chickens of the hypervariable region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were used. Median-joining networks were constructed to establish evolutionary relationships among mtDNA haplotypes of chickens, which included a wide range of breeds with different origin and history. Chicken breeds which have had their roots in Europe for more than 3000 years were categorized by their founding regions, encompassing Mediterranean type, East European type and Northwest European type. Breeds which were introduced to Europe from Asia since the mid-19th century were classified as Asian type, and breeds based on crossbreeding between Asian breeds and European breeds were classified as Intermediate type. The last group, Game birds, included fighting birds from Asia. The classification of mtDNA haplotypes was based on Liu et al.'s (2006) nomenclature. Haplogroup E was the predominant clade among the European chicken breeds. The results showed, on average, the highest number of haplotypes, highest haplotype diversity, and highest nucleotide diversity for Asian type breeds, followed by Intermediate type chickens. East European and Northwest European breeds had lower haplotype and nucleotide diversity compared to Mediterranean, Intermediate, Game and Asian type breeds. Results of our study support earlier findings that chicken breeds sampled in Europe have their roots in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia. This is consistent with historical and archaeological evidence of chicken migration routes to Europe. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  18. Comparative Response of the Nigerian Indigenous and Broiler Chickens to a Field Caecal Isolate of Eimeria Oocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Atehmengo Ngongeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of Nigerian indigenous (local and broiler chickens to experimental Eimeria infections was investigated by measures of clinical signs, packed cell volume (PCV, body weights (BW, feed consumption, faecal oocyst counts (oocyst per gram, and microscopic intestinal lesions. Three-week-old chickens of each breed received single pulse infections with 2500, 5000, and 100.000 sporulated Eimeria oocysts. Infected birds were dull and passed bloody diarrhoea. OPG showed a dose related response but no significant difference between groups (P>0.05. OPG was significantly higher in local chickens (P<0.05 and varied significantly with time (P<0.05. PCV declined significantly in infected birds within breeds and groups (P<0.05; however, the decline in PCV was significantly greater in broilers (P<0.05. Both breeds had significant BW gains (P<0.05. BW gain varied between groups being significantly higher in the uninfected control broilers than in the infected broilers (P<0.05. Comparatively, broilers gained significantly more BW than their local counterparts (P<0.05. Feed intake increased significantly with time (P<0.05 in both breeds. The Eimeria isolate was pathogenic to both breeds of chicken although clinical signs and lesions were more severe in indigenous chickens suggesting the breed’s more susceptibility.

  19. Genetic diversity in some local chicken breeds using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cassandro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic relationships among Veneto native breeds of chickens were studied on the basis of microsatellites polymorphisms. A total of 100 DNA samples from 2 local chicken breeds (45 Robusta Lionata and 43 Robusta Maculata and a commercial broiler line (12 Golden Comet were analyzed using 19 microsatellite markers. The average number of alleles per locus was 4.05 and the expected heterozigosity resulted lower for the local breeds than the broiler line. The Robusta Lionata breed and the broiler line showed a significant deficit and excess of heterozygotes, respectively, deviating from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Nei’s standard genetic distances corrected for bias due to sampling of individuals (Da, based on allele frequencies, were calculated among breeds. The local breeds resulted very similar confirming the same genetic origin. The results suggested that microsatellite markers are a useful tool for studying the genetic diversity among local chicken breeds.

  20. Using 2-DE for the differentiation of local chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Enrico; Molette, Caroline; Chambon, Christophe; Pinguet, Jeremy; Rémignon, Hervé; Cassandro, Martino

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to apply a proteomic approach for the characterisation of local chicken breeds. The experiment involved a total of 29 males of three local Italian chicken breeds: Pépoi, Padovana and Ermellinata di Rovigo. Sarcoplasmic protein fractions of breast muscle were analysed by 2-DE. Image analysis followed by statistical analysis enabled to differentiate groups of individuals based on the similarities of protein expression. Individuals were distinguished into clusters and groups, corresponding to the breed of origin. Distances among individuals, calculated using data on spot volumes, were used to draw a neighbour-joining tree, showing clear individual and breed grouping. The most relevant spots regarding breed differentiation were detected; 11 were identified by MS revealing preliminary evidences on the mechanisms of the breed differentiation process. The results evidenced the ability of proteomic analyses for the characterisation of chicken breeds. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Polymorphisms of chicken TLR3 and 7 in different breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenke Ruan

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs mediate immune responses via the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs, thus playing important roles in host defense. Among the chicken (Ch TLR family, ChTLR3 and 7 have been shown to recognize viral RNA. In our earlier studies, we have reported polymorphisms of TLR1, 2, 4, 5, 15 and 21. In the present study, we amplified TLR3 and 7 genes from different chicken breeds and analyzed their sequences. We identified 7 amino acid polymorphism sites in ChTLR3 with 6 outer part sites and 1 inner part site, and 4 amino acid polymorphism sites in ChTLR7 with 3 outer part sites and 1 inner part site. These results demonstrate that ChTLR genes are polymorphic among different chicken breeds, suggesting a varied resistance across numerous chicken breeds. This information might help improve chicken health by breeding and vaccination.

  2. Detection of breed specific copy number variations in domestic chicken genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Saeed S; Mohammadabadi, Mohammadreza; Wu, Dong-Dong; Esmailizadeh, Ali

    2017-09-29

    Copy number variations (CNVs) are important large scale variants that are widespread in the genome and may contribute to phenotypic variation. Detection and characterization of CNVs can provide new insights into the genetic basis of important traits. Here, we performed whole genome short read sequence analysis to identify CNVs in two indigenous and commercial chicken breeds and evaluate the impact of the identified CNVs on breed specific traits. After filtration, a total of 12955 CNVs spanning (on average) about 9.42% of the chicken genome were found that made up 5467 CNV regions (CNVRs). Chicken quantitative trait loci (QTL) datasets and Ensembl gene annotations were used as resources for the estimation of potential phenotypic effects of our CNVRs on breed specific traits. In total, 34% of our detected CNVRs were also detected in earlier CNV studies. These CNVRs partly overlap with several previously reported QTL and gene ontology terms associated with some important traits, including shank length QTL in Creeper specific CNVRs and body weight and egg production characteristics as well as growth of muscles and body organs gene terms in the Arian commercial breed. Our findings provide new insights into the genomic structure of the chicken genome for an improved understanding of the potential roles of CNVRs in differentiating between breeds or lines.

  3. Serological Screening for MHC (B)-Polymorphism in Indigenous Chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baelmans, R.; Parmentier, H.K.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Dorny, P.; Demey, F.

    2005-01-01

    As part of a series of studies to characterize innate and specific immune responses of indigenous chicken lines, birds from Bolivia and India were screened serologically for MHC class IV (BG) polymorphism by direct haemagglutination using haplotype-specific antisera (B2, B4, B12, B13, B14, B15, B19,

  4. Microsatellite based genetic diversity study in indigenous chicken ecotypes of Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Rudresh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The current study was the first of its kind taken upon indigenous ecotypes of the Karnataka in order to unravel the diversity details at 20 chicken microsatellite regions. Materials and Methods: 210 indigenous chicken belonging to six districts of Bangalore and Mysore division formed the target sample for the present study. The genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was isolated by phenol chloroform isoamyl alcohol method. A panel of 20 microsatellite regions, including 14 recommended by FAO and six identified from published scientific literature became the targeted chicken genomic region. 27-33 samples were successfully genotyped in each of the six ecotypes through simplex or multiplex polymerase chain reactions, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining for the selected microsatellite panel. Results: The chickens of Ramanagara and Chamrajnagara were most distant with a Nei’s genetic distance value of 0.22. The chickens of Bangalore rural and Mysore were least distant with a value of 0.056. The Ramanagara and Chamrajnagara pair had Nei’s genetic identity value of 0.802, which is least among all pairs of ecotypes. There were five main nodes from which the six ecotypes evolved on the basis 20 microsatellite markers used in this study. This study indicates that the four ecotypes Ramnagara, Bangalore Rural, Chickaballapura and Mysore are genetically identical due to their common ancestral evolution while, Mandya and Chamrajnagara ecotypes formed a relatively different cluster due to a separate common ancestral chicken population and less number of generations since drifting from bifurcation node. Conclusion: Twenty microsatellite markers based genetic diversity study on six indigenous ecotypes indicated lower genetic distances as well as lower FST values compared to the distinguished breeds reported. There were two main clusters, which differentiated into six ecotypes. They may differentiate into more distinct varieties if bred in

  5. Modelling Growth Curves in a Nondescript Italian Chicken Breed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Selvaggi; Vito Laudadio; Cataldo Dario; Vincenzo Tufarelli

    2015-01-01

    ... it. This study was carried out to estimate the parameters of logistic, Gompertz and Richards growth curve models in a nondescript chicken breed population from southern Italy to determine the goodness of fit...

  6. Evolutionary relationships of Red Jungle Fowl and chicken breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevastyanova Antonina A

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Published results were reassessed and original data are provided regarding the origin and relatedness of four postulated chicken breed lineages, egg-type, game, meat-type and Bantam, to each other and to the basic ancestral species of jungle fowls, Gallus gallus. A system approach was employed concerning the planning of the experiments. One element of the system approach is the choice of the breeds to be compared with G. gallus. These breeds were supposed to represent major evolutionary branches of chickens. Four experiments on genetic relationships were conducted using different estimation criteria including morphological discrete characters, body measurements, biochemical markers, and the activity of serum esterase-1. The greatest similarity was found between G. gallus and the egg-type breeds of Mediterranean roots and/or true Bantams. This fact might testify that the indicated chicken groups occupied earlier stages in the evolution from the wild progenitor to the present biodiversity of chickens in the world.

  7. Production system and participatory identification of breeding objective traits for indigenous goat breeds of Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzima, R.B.; Gizaw, S.; Kugonza, D.R.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Kanis, E.

    2017-01-01

    The success of breeding programs in improving indigenous livestock breeds in Uganda has hitherto been limited due to lack of involvement of the key stakeholders. Thus, participatory approaches are being promoted for designing community based improvement programs. The aim of this study was to

  8. Sequencing and alignment of mitochondrial genomes of Tibetan chicken and two lowland chicken breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tibetan chicken lives in high-altitude area and has adapted well to hypoxia genetically. Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken are both lowland chicken breeds. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the three chicken breeds were all sequenced. The results showed that the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Shouguang chicken and Silky chicken consist of 16784 bp and 16785 bp respectively, and Tibetan chicken mitochondrial genome varies from 16784 bp to 16786 bp. After sequence analysis, 120 mutations, including 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in tRNA genes, 9 SNPs and 1 insertion in rRNA genes, 38 SNPs and 1 deletion in D-LOOP, 66 SNPs in protein-coding genes, were found. This work will provide clues for the future study on the association between mitochondrial genes and the adaptation to hypoxia.

  9. Genetic diversity and conservation of South African indigenous chicken populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtileni, B J; Muchadeyi, F C; Maiwashe, A; Groeneveld, E; Groeneveld, L F; Dzama, K; Weigend, S

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we compare the level and distribution of genetic variation between South African conserved and village chicken populations using microsatellite markers. In addition, diversity in South African chickens was compared to that of a reference data set consisting of other African and purebred commercial lines. Three chicken populations Venda, Ovambo and Eastern Cape and four conserved flocks of the Venda, Ovambo, Naked Neck and Potchefstroom Koekoek from the Poultry Breeding Resource Unit of the Agricultural Research Council were genotyped at 29 autosomal microsatellite loci. All markers were polymorphic. Village chicken populations were more diverse than conservation flocks. structure software was used to cluster individuals to a predefined number of 2 ≤ K ≤ 6 clusters. The most probable clustering was found at K = 5 (95% identical runs). At this level of differentiation, the four conservation flocks separated as four independent clusters, while the three village chicken populations together formed another cluster. Thus, cluster analysis indicated a clear subdivision of each of the conservation flocks that were different from the three village chicken populations. The contribution of each South African chicken populations to the total diversity of the chickens studied was determined by calculating the optimal core set contributions based on Marker estimated kinship. Safe set analysis was carried out using bootstrapped kinship values calculated to relate the added genetic diversity of seven South African chicken populations to a set of reference populations consisting of other African and purebred commercial broiler and layer chickens. In both core set and the safe set analyses, village chicken populations scored slightly higher to the reference set compared to conservation flocks. Overall, the present study demonstrated that the conservation flocks of South African chickens displayed considerable genetic variability that is different from that of the

  10. Gastrointestinal helminths in indigenous and exotic chickens in Vietnam: association of the intensity of infection with the Major Histocompatibility Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, T W; Permin, A; Juul-Madsen, H R; Sørensen, P; Labouriau, R; Nguyên, T L H; Fink, M; Pham, S L

    2007-04-01

    This study compared the prevalence and intensity of infections of helminths in 2 chicken breeds in Vietnam, the indigenous Ri and the exotic Luong Phuong. Also, possible correlations with the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) were tested. The most prevalent helminths were Ascaridia galli, Heterakis beramporia, Tetrameres mothedai, Capillaria obsignata, Raillietina echinobothrida and Raillietina tetragona. Differences in prevalence and intensity of infection were found between the 2 breeds. Comparing the 2 groups of adult birds, Ri chickens were observed to have higher prevalence and infection intensities of several species of helminths, as well as a higher mean number of helminth species. In contrast, A. galli and C. obsignata were shown to be more prevalent in Luong Phuong chickens. Furthermore, an age-dependent difference was indicated in the group of Ri chickens in which the prevalence and the intensity of infection was higher for the adult than the young chickens for most helminths. The most notable exception was the significantly lower prevalence and intensities of A. galli in the group of adult chickens. In contrast, the prevalence and intensity were very similar in both age groups of Luong Phuong chickens. Using a genetic marker located in the MHC, a statistically significant correlation between several MHC haplotypes and the infection intensity of different helminth species was inferred. This is the first report of an association of MHC haplotype with the intensity of parasite infections in chickens.

  11. Domestic chickens defy Rensch's rule: sexual size dimorphism in chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remeš, V; Székely, T

    2010-12-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD), i.e. the difference in sizes of males and females, is a key evolutionary feature that is related to ecology, behaviour and life histories of organisms. Although the basic patterns of SSD are well documented for several major taxa, the processes generating SSD are poorly understood. Domesticated animals offer excellent opportunities for testing predictions of functional explanations of SSD theory because domestic stocks were often selected by humans for particular desirable traits. Here, we analyse SSD in 139 breeds of domestic chickens Gallus gallus domesticus and compare them to their wild relatives (pheasants, partridges and grouse; Phasianidae, 53 species). SSD was male-biased in all chicken breeds, because males were 21.5 ± 0.55% (mean ± SE) heavier than females. The extent of SSD did not differ among breed categories (cock fighting, ornamental and breeds selected for egg and meat production). SSD of chicken breeds was not different from wild pheasants and allies (23.5 ± 3.43%), although the wild ancestor of chickens, the red jungle fowl G. gallus, had more extreme SSD (male 68.8% heavier) than any domesticated breed. Male mass and female mass exhibited positive allometry among pheasants and allies, consistently with the Rensch's rule reported from various taxa. However, body mass scaled isometrically across chicken breeds. The latter results suggest that sex-specific selection on males vs. females is necessary to generate positive allometry, i.e. the Rensch's rule, in wild populations.

  12. Characterization of indigenous chicken production systems in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeno, Tobias O; Kahi, Alexander K; Peters, Kurt J

    2012-03-01

    Indigenous chicken (IC) and their production systems were characterized to understand how the whole system operates for purposes of identifying threats and opportunities for holistic improvement. A survey involving 594 households was conducted in six counties with the highest population of IC in Kenya using structured questionnaires. Data on IC farmers' management practices were collected and analysed and inbreeding levels calculated based on the effective population size. Indigenous chicken were ranked highest as a source of livestock income by households in medium- to high-potential agricultural areas, but trailed goats in arid and semi-arid areas. The production system practised was mainly low-input and small-scale free range, with mean flock size of 22.40 chickens per household. The mean effective population size was 16.02, translating to high levels of inbreeding (3.12%). Provision for food and cash income were the main reasons for raising IC, whilst high mortality due to diseases, poor nutrition, housing and marketing channels were the major constraints faced by farmers. Management strategies targeting improved healthcare, nutrition and housing require urgent mitigation measures, whilst rural access road network needs to be developed for ease of market accessibility. Sustainable genetic improvement programmes that account for farmers' multiple objectives, market requirements and the production circumstances should be developed for a full realization of IC productivity.

  13. The influence of genetic background versus commercial breeding programs on chicken immunocompetence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emam, Mehdi; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Barjesteh, Neda; Nikbakht, Gholamreza; Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Charkhkar, Saeid; Mallard, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    Immunocompetence of livestock plays an important role in farm profitability because it directly affects health maintenance. Genetics significantly influences the immune system, and the genotypic structure of modern fast-growing chickens has been changed, particularly after decades of breeding for higher production. Therefore, this study was designed to help determine if intensive breeding programs have adversely affected immunocompetence or whether the immune response profiles are controlled to greater extent by genetic background. Thus, 3 indigenous chicken populations from different genetic backgrounds and 2 globally available modern broiler strains, Ross 308 and Cobb 500, were evaluated for various aspects of immune response. These included antibody responses against sheep red blood cells and Brucella abortus antigen, as well as some aspects of cell-mediated immunocompetence by toe web swelling test and in vitro blood mononuclear cell proliferation. Significant differences (P chickens is most likely due to differences in the genetic background between each strain of chicken rather than by commercial selection programs for high production.

  14. Breeding of tomorrow's chickens to improve well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H-W

    2010-04-01

    Chickens, as well as other animals, have the ability to change their behavior (behavioral plasticity) and physiology (physiological plasticity) based on the costs and benefits to fit their environment (adaptation). Through natural selection, the population preserves and accumulates traits that are beneficial and rejects those that are detrimental in their prevailing environments. The surviving populations are able to contribute more genes associated with beneficial traits for increased fitness to subsequent generations. Natural selection is slow but constant; working over multiple generations, the changes to the population often appear silent or undetectable at a given point in history. Chickens were domesticated from the wild red jungle fowl. The principle of domestication of chickens, as well as other farm animals, by humans is similar to that of natural selection: selecting the best animals with the highest survivability and reproducibility (artificial selection). Compared with natural selection, the process of artificial selection is motivated by human needs and acts more rapidly with more visible results over a short time period. This process has been further accelerated following the development of current breeding programs and the emergence of specialized breeding companies. A laying hen, for example, produces more than 300 hundred eggs a year, whereas a jungle fowl lays 4 to 6 eggs in a year. During the domestication process, chickens retained their capability to adapt to their housing environments, which is usually achieved by genetic changes occurring with each subsequent generation. Genes control the behavioral, physiological, immunological, and psychological responses of animals to stressors, including environmental stimulations. With advances in understanding of genetic mediation of animal physiology and behavior and the discovery of the genome sequences of many species, animal production breeding programs can be improved in both speed and efficiency

  15. Proteome Changes in Thai Indigenous Chicken Muscle during Growth Period

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    Tawatchai Teltathum, Supamit Mekchay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteomic profiling of the pectoralis muscle of Thai indigenous chickens during growth period was analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS. A total of 259, 161, 120 and 107 protein spots were found to be expressed in the chicken pectoralis muscles at 0, 3, 6 and 18 weeks of age, respectively. From these expressed proteins, five distinct protein spots were significantly associated with chicken age. These protein spots were characterized and showed homology with phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1, apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1, triosephosphate isomerase 1 (TPI1, heat shock protein 25 kDa (HSP25 and fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3. These five protein spots were categorized as follows: (i the expression levels of PGAM1 and TPI1 proteins were positively correlated with chicken aging (p<0.05, (ii the expression levels of APOA1 and FABP3 proteins were negatively correlated with chicken aging (p<0.05 and (iii the expression levels of the HSP25 protein were up- and down-regulated during growth period. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of the FABP3 and HSP25 genes were significantly decreased in muscle during the growth period (p<0.05, whereas no significant changes of the PGAM1, TPI1 and APOA1 gene expression from the chicken muscle was observed. The identified proteins were classified as metabolic and stress proteins. This demonstrates a difference in energy metabolism and stress proteins between age groups and shows that proteomics is a useful tool to uncover the molecular basis of physiological differences in muscle during the growth period.

  16. Breeding performance in the Italian chicken breed Mericanel della Brianza

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    Silvia Cerolini

    Full Text Available In Italy, 90 local avian breeds were described; the majority (61% were classified as extinct and only 8.9% as still widely spread. Therefore, efforts for conservation of Italian avian breeds are urgently required. The aim of this study was to record the breeding performance of the Italian breed Mericanel della Brianza to multiply a small population, in order to develop a conservation programme. Fourteen females and eight males were available at the beginning of the reproductive season in 2009 and organised into eight families (1 male/1-2 females kept in floor pens. Birds received a photoperiod of 14L:10D and were fed ad libitum. Breeding performance was recorded from March to June. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily; eggs were set every two weeks and fertility, embryo mortality and hatchability were recorded. Mean egg production was 37% and mean egg weight was 34±3.49 g. High fertility values from 94% to 87% were recorded in the first three settings and the overall mean fertility value was 81.6%. Overall hatchability was only 49.6% owing to a high proportion of dead embryos. Embryo mortality occurred mainly between days 2 and 7 of incubation and during hatching. The highest hatchability values were recorded in settings 1 and 2, 69% and 60% respectively, and a large decrease was found in the subsequent settings. Marked variations in egg production, fertility, hatchability and embryo mortality were found among families. The present results represent the basic know ledge of reproductive parameters necessary to improve the reproductive efficiency of the breed within a conservation plan.

  17. Breeding performance in the Italian chicken breed Mericanel della Brianza

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    Stefano P. Marelli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, 90 local avian breeds were described, the majority (61% were classified extinct and only 8.9 % still diffused. Therefore, efforts for conservation of Italian avian breeds are urgently required. The aim of this study was to record the breeding performance of the Italian breed Mericanel della Brianza and multiply a small population, in order to develop a conservation program. Fourteen females and 8 males were available at the beginning of the reproductive season in 2009 and organized in 8 families (1 male/1-2 females kept in floor pens. Birds received a photoperiod of 14L:10D and fed ad libitum. Breeding performance was recorded from March to June. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily; eggs were set every 2 weeks and fertility, embryo mortality and hatchability were recorded. Mean egg production was 37% and mean egg weight was 34±3.49 g. High fertility values were recorded in the first three settings, from 94 to 87%, and the overall mean fertility value was 81.6%. Overall hatchability was only 49.6% due to a high proportion of dead embryos. Embryo mortality occurred mainly between day 2 and 7 of incubation and during hatch. Highest hatchability values were recorded in setting 1 and 2, 69 and 60% respectively, and a great decrease was found in the following settings. Great variations in egg production, fertility, hatchability and embryo mortality were found among families. The present results are the basic knowledge on reproductive parameters necessary to improve the reproductive efficiency of the breed within a conservation plan.

  18. Genetic Diversity of Old Chicken Breeds Kept in Poland

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    Fabio Maretto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the genetic variation of five local chicken breeds reared in Poland. Twenty-seven microsatellite markers were investigated in 138 birds belonging to five breeds: Miniature Cochin (MCO, Gold Italian (GI, Green Legged Partridge (GLP, Silver Italian (SI and White Leghorn (WL. One hundred eighty five alleles were detected in the overall population, with a mean number of 6.85 ± 3.32 alleles per locus. For the local breeds, the observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from a minimum of 0.287 to a maximum of 0.458 and from 0.397 to 0.499 for the GI and SI breeds, respectively. The overall population heterozygote deficiency was 0.430, the average Wright’s inbreeding coefficient (FIS was 0.061 and the heterozygote deficiency due to breed subdivision was 0.393. Wright’s fixation index was slightly positive for all breeds excluding MCO (FIS = -0.476 and the estimated molecular inbreeding (fij within breed ranged from 0.296 (GLP and SI to 0.361 (WL evidencing limited coancestry. Mean allelic richness, obtained with rarefaction method based on sixteen observations, was 2.12 being the WL the less variable (1.79. Tomiuk and Loeschcke’s DTL genetic distance values were used to draw a neighbornet network which separated the cluster made of MCO and GLP from the cluster of GI, WL and SI. The results arising from our microsatellites analysis represent a starting point for the valorization of these local Polish chicken breeds for monitoring and preserving their genetic variability.

  19. Husbandry and trade of indigenous chickens in Myanmar--results of a participatory rural appraisal in the Yangon and the Mandalay divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, J; Khin, A; Hla, T; Meers, J

    2006-01-01

    There is a variety of professions working with village chickens in developing countries, including farmers, veterinarians and chicken traders. People from all these occupations were involved in a participatory rural appraisal to investigate husbandry practices and trade of village chickens in Myanmar. Data were collected in two climatically different regions of the country, in the Yangon and in the Mandalay divisions. The breeding and training of fighting cocks was practised only in the Mandalay division, with well-trained birds sold for very high prices. Apart from this, chickens were raised in both regions mainly for small disposable income and were generally sold when money was needed, in particular during religious festivals. Chicken traders on bicycles, often called 'middle men', usually purchase birds from farmers in about 10 villages per day. Several 'middle men' supply birds to wealthier chicken merchants, who sell these birds at larger chicken markets. There is in general limited knowledge among farmers about the prevention of Newcastle disease via vaccination. Commercial indigenous chicken production is practised in Myanmar, but family poultry farming dominates indigenous chicken production in the country.

  20. Molecular genetic diversity and maternal origin of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W Q; Li, H F; Wang, J Y; Shu, J T; Zhu, C H; Song, W T; Song, C; Ji, G G; Liu, H X

    2014-04-29

    Chinese black-bone chickens are valued for the medicinal properties of their meat in traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the genetic diversity and systematic evolution of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds. We sequenced the DNA of 520 bp of the mitochondrial cyt b gene of nine Chinese black-bone chicken breeds, including Silky chicken, Jinhu black-bone chicken, Jiangshan black-bone chicken, Yugan black-bone chicken, Wumeng black-bone chicken, Muchuan black-bone chicken, Xingwen black-bone chicken, Dehua black-bone chicken, and Yanjin black-bone chicken. We found 13 haplotypes. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the nine black-bone chicken breeds ranged from 0 to 0.78571 and 0.00081 to 0.00399, respectively. Genetic diversity was the richest in Jinhu black-bone chickens and the lowest in Yanjin black-bone chickens. Analysis of phylogenetic trees for all birds constructed based on hyplotypes indicated that the maternal origin of black-bone chickens is predominantly from three subspecies of red jungle fowl. These results provide basic data useful for protection of black-bone chickens and help determine the origin of domestic chickens.

  1. Genomic Comparison of Indigenous African and Northern European Chickens Reveals Putative Mechanisms of Stress Tolerance Related to Environmental Selection Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Damarius S; Weigend, Steffen; Simianer, Henner; Weigend, Annett; Rothschild, Max; Schmidt, Carl; Ashwell, Chris; Persia, Mike; Reecy, James; Lamont, Susan J

    2017-05-05

    Global climate change is increasing the magnitude of environmental stressors, such as temperature, pathogens, and drought, that limit the survivability and sustainability of livestock production. Poultry production and its expansion is dependent upon robust animals that are able to cope with stressors in multiple environments. Understanding the genetic strategies that indigenous, noncommercial breeds have evolved to survive in their environment could help to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying biological traits of environmental adaptation. We examined poultry from diverse breeds and climates of Africa and Northern Europe for selection signatures that have allowed them to adapt to their indigenous environments. Selection signatures were studied using a combination of population genomic methods that employed FST , integrated haplotype score (iHS), and runs of homozygosity (ROH) procedures. All the analyses indicated differences in environment as a driver of selective pressure in both groups of populations. The analyses revealed unique differences in the genomic regions under selection pressure from the environment for each population. The African chickens showed stronger selection toward stress signaling and angiogenesis, while the Northern European chickens showed more selection pressure toward processes related to energy homeostasis. The results suggest that chromosomes 2 and 27 are the most diverged between populations and the most selected upon within the African (chromosome 27) and Northern European (chromosome 2) birds. Examination of the divergent populations has provided new insight into genes under possible selection related to tolerance of a population's indigenous environment that may be baselines for examining the genomic contribution to tolerance adaptions. Copyright © 2017 Fleming et al.

  2. A method for discriminating a Japanese chicken, the Nagoya breed, using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A; Kino, K; Minezawa, M; Noda, K; Takahashi, H

    2006-12-01

    The Nagoya breed native to Japan is popular as a dual-purpose breed for eggs and meat. The current study describes a method to discriminate between the Nagoya breed and other breeds and commercial stocks of chicken. Four strains of the Nagoya breed established at the Aichi-ken Agricultural Research Center were analyzed using 25 microsatellite markers. In these strains, 5 of the markers (ABR0015, ABR0257, ABR0417, ABR0495, and ADL0262) had a single allele. Other chicken samples (448) of various breeds and hybrids were analyzed using the same 5 markers. None of these chicken samples had the same allele combination as the Nagoya breed strains. These 5 microsatellite markers provide a practical method to accurately discriminate the Nagoya breed from other chicken breeds.

  3. Pathogenicity of Genetically Similar, H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Strains in Chicken and the Differences in Sensitivity among Different Chicken Breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuu, Aya; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Patchimasiri, Tuangthong; Shiina, Takashi; Suzuki, Shingo; Chaichoune, Kridsada; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Hiromoto, Yasuaki; Abe, Haruka; Parchariyanon, Sujira; Saito, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Differences in the pathogenicity of genetically closely related H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) were evaluated in White Leghorn chickens. These viruses varied in the clinical symptoms they induced, including lethality, virus shedding, and replication in host tissues. A comparison of the host responses in the lung, brain, and spleen suggested that the differences in viral replication efficiency were related to the host cytokine response at the early phase of infection, especially variations in the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. Based on these findings, we inoculated the virus that showed the mildest pathogenicity among the five tested, A/pigeon/Thailand/VSMU-7-NPT/2004, into four breeds of Thai indigenous chicken, Phadu-Hung-Dang (PHD), Chee, Dang, and Luang-Hung-Khao (LHK), to explore effects of genetic background on host response. Among these breeds, Chee, Dang, and LHK showed significantly longer survival times than White Leghorns. Virus shedding from dead Thai indigenous chickens was significantly lower than that from White Leghorns. Although polymorphisms were observed in the Mx and MHC class I genes, there was no significant association between the polymorphisms in these loci and resistance to HPAIV.

  4. The Ri chicken breed and livelihoods in North Vietnam: characterization and prospects

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    Pascal Leroy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For the last twenty years, the consumption of poultry meat has boomed in Vietnam as in the rest of the developing world. Capital-intensive production has grown rapidly to satisfy this demand. Based on a few numbers of genetically uniform strains, these systems threaten biodiversity. In Vietnam, both rural and urban households still keep indigenous chickens as part of a diversified livelihood portfolio. In line with the national in situ conservation strategy, this study approached the context of local poultry keeping in two rural and one suburban districts of Northern Vietnam. It aimed at understanding households’ willingness, constraints and opportunities for practice improvement, including breeds’ management. As the Ri chicken constitutes the large majority of backyard flocks, two particular objectives of this study are the morpho-biometric characterisation of phenotypic diversity among individuals classified as Ri by farmers and an assessment of their productive potential. Chicken was found to hold a different place in livelihoods of the three districts with consequences on the management of genetic resources. The most favourable conditions for improvement of the Ri breed was found in the rural district of Luong-Son, due to market integration. In the more remote district of Ky-Son, living standards were lower and much would be gained from Ri conservation. Ri breed was the most threatened in the suburban Gia-Lam district, where poultry was a minor side-activity, lacking incentive for genetic management. From motives and constraints, tracks about breeding goals are suggested. Further considerations about conservation, improvement, market integration and livelihoods are proposed.

  5. Identification of chicken eNOS gene and differential expression in highland versus lowland chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, J F; Ling, Y; Gou, W Y; Zhang, H; Wu, C X

    2012-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), an endothelium-derived relaxing factor, is synthesized from l-arginine by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the endothelium. The objective of the present study was to preliminarily illuminate the expression of the eNOS gene in hypoxic adaptation of chicken embryonic development. The eNOS expression profiles between the Tibet and Shouguang chickens incubated under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions were detected by TaqMan real-time PCR. In this study, the chicken eNOS gene was found by both in silico cloning and RACE approaches. From the eNOS gene, we obtained a 3,310-bp mRNA sequence and a 10,666-bp DNA sequence and discovered that it was located on chicken chromosome 2 and had 7 unique transcripts. eNOS mRNA was detected in abundant amounts in some chick embryo organs (i.e., heart, liver, chorio-allantoic membrane, and lung), and expressed stably with the lowest levels in the brain. We observed that when exposed to hypoxia (13% O(2)) different embryo organ tissues had various sensitivities to hypoxia as determined by their eNOS expression profiles. Compared with the Shouguang chicken, the eNOS expression in the Tibet chicken was higher in the lung and liver, lower in the heart, and similar in the brain. In chorio-allantoic membranes, eNOS expression was higher in the Shouguang chicken than the Tibet chicken under hypoxic conditions, but not markedly different under normoxic conditions. The differences of eNOS expression between the 2 breeds may be relative to the hypoxic adaptation ability in Tibet chickens during embryonic development. This work will provide reference for future studies on the role of eNOS in hypoxic adaptation and response.

  6. Carcass Physical Features of Malagasy Chicken: Indigenous Race and Starbro Strain

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    Hantanirina I

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare anatomies of Madagascar chickens (indigenous race and Starbro strain. With 8,262 individuals of either indigenous races or Starbro strain chickens raised in a suburban environment, the weights of different pieces of cut as well as the live weights before slaughter were determined. Results showed that breast development presents a positive linear relationship with thigh development for Starbro strain chickens (fast growing broiler while the relationship between the two traits is negative for the indigenous races (slow growing chicken. Giblet proportions are similar between these two types of chicken. We found that slaughtering at 1,750g live weight (age 120 to 185 days is profitable for indigenous race chickens (meat yield = 40.16%, breast yield = 18.10%, thigh yield = 20.15% and abdominal fat yield = 1.90%. For the Starbro strain, ideal weight at slaughter is 1,300-1,450 g, corresponding to 49 to 61 days of age (meat yield = 39.63%, breast yield = 17.85%, thigh yield = 20.27% and abdominal fat yield = 1.51%. The physical features of the cuts are similar between indigenous races and Starbro strain chickens.

  7. Deeper insight into maternal genetic assessments and demographic history for Egyptian indigenous chicken populations using mtDNA analysis

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    Marwa A. Eltanany

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study principally sought to reveal the demographic expansion of Egyptian indigenous chickens (EIC using representative breeds: Sinai (North, Fayoumi (Middle and Dandarawi (South of Egypt as well as to deeply clarify their genetic diversity, possible matrilineal origin and dispersal routes. A total of 33 partial mitochondrial DNA sequences were generated from EIC and compared with a worldwide reference dataset of 1290 wild and domestic chicken sequences. Study populations had 12 polymorphic variable sites and 7 haplotypes. A lack of maternal substructure between EIC was detected (FST = 0.003. The unimodal mismatch distribution and negative values of Tajima’s D (−0.659 and Fu’s Fs (−0.157 indicated demographic expansion among EIC and pointed to Fayoumi as the oldest EIC population. Egyptian haplotypes were clustered phylogenetically into two divergent clades. Their phylogeography revealed an ancient single maternal lineage of Egyptian chickens likely derived from Indian-Subcontinent. Moreover, a recent maternal commercial heritage possibly originated in Yunnan-Province and/or surrounding areas was admixed restrictedly into Sinai. It is implied that Egypt was an entry point for Indian chicken into Africa and its further dispersal route to Europe. This study provides a clue supporting the previous assumption that urged utilizing consistent founder populations having closely related progenitors for synthetizing a stabilized homogenous crossbreed as a sustainable discipline in breeding program.

  8. Flesh color association with polymorphism of the tyrosinase gene in different Chinese chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J Q; Chen, H; Sun, Z J; Liu, X L; Qiang-Ba, Y Z; Gu, Y L

    2010-01-01

    In order to study genetic variation of tyrosinase gene in four different flesh color chicken breeds selected from special districts including Guyuan, Wenchang, Tibetan and Hisex chicken, five loci of the TYR gene exon-1 and one locus of 5' flanking region were analyzed in PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing. The results indicated that there were polymorphisms only at TYR1 and TYR3 locus. At TYR1 locus located in exon-1, there were three genotypes (TT, CC, TC), respectively, in three Chinese chicken breeds, and Genotype CC had not been detected in Hisex chicken. At TYR3 locus located in 5' flanking region, there were three genotypes (GG, AA and GA) in Chinese local chicken breeds and genotype AA had not been detected in Hisex chicken breed. It was concluded that there were many variations of TYR gene in Chinese local chicken breeds. DNA sequencing of PCR products for different genotypes showed that there were two mutation sites, respectively, C to T at TYR1 locus and G to A at TYR3 locus. Mutation at TYR1 locus did not cause any amino acid variation. The chi-square analysis revealed that there were significant statistical differences generally between flesh color and the two loci among four chicken populations (P chicken breeds. This study provided original information for elucidating the possible roles of exon-1 of TYR gene and 5' flanking region in chickens with different flesh color chicken.

  9. Comparison of different poultry breeds under station and on-farm conditions in Ethiopia

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    Wondmeneh, E.; Waaij, Van der E.H.; Udo, H.M.J.; Tadelle, D.; Arendonk, Van J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    A selective breeding program was implemented to improve the performance of indigenous chickens. Improved chicken from the 7th generation was compared with commercial layer, crossbred and unselected indigenous chickens both on-station and on-farm. A total of 870 chickens were used. More than 600

  10. Signatures of selection in the genomes of commercial and non-commercial chicken breeds.

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    Martin G Elferink

    Full Text Available Identifying genomics regions that are affected by selection is important to understand the domestication and selection history of the domesticated chicken, as well as understanding molecular pathways underlying phenotypic traits and breeding goals. While whole-genome approaches, either high-density SNP chips or massively parallel sequencing, have been successfully applied to identify evidence for selective sweeps in chicken, it has been difficult to distinguish patterns of selection and stochastic and breed specific effects. Here we present a study to identify selective sweeps in a large number of chicken breeds (67 in total using a high-density (58 K SNP chip. We analyzed commercial chickens representing all major breeding goals. In addition, we analyzed non-commercial chicken diversity for almost all recognized traditional Dutch breeds and a selection of representative breeds from China. Based on their shared history or breeding goal we in silico grouped the breeds into 14 breed groups. We identified 396 chromosomal regions that show suggestive evidence of selection in at least one breed group with 26 of these regions showing strong evidence of selection. Of these 26 regions, 13 were previously described and 13 yield new candidate genes for performance traits in chicken. Our approach demonstrates the strength of including many different populations with similar, and breed groups with different selection histories to reduce stochastic effects based on single populations.

  11. Signatures of selection in the genomes of commercial and non-commercial chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elferink, Martin G; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Vereijken, Addie; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Groenen, Martien A M

    2012-01-01

    Identifying genomics regions that are affected by selection is important to understand the domestication and selection history of the domesticated chicken, as well as understanding molecular pathways underlying phenotypic traits and breeding goals. While whole-genome approaches, either high-density SNP chips or massively parallel sequencing, have been successfully applied to identify evidence for selective sweeps in chicken, it has been difficult to distinguish patterns of selection and stochastic and breed specific effects. Here we present a study to identify selective sweeps in a large number of chicken breeds (67 in total) using a high-density (58 K) SNP chip. We analyzed commercial chickens representing all major breeding goals. In addition, we analyzed non-commercial chicken diversity for almost all recognized traditional Dutch breeds and a selection of representative breeds from China. Based on their shared history or breeding goal we in silico grouped the breeds into 14 breed groups. We identified 396 chromosomal regions that show suggestive evidence of selection in at least one breed group with 26 of these regions showing strong evidence of selection. Of these 26 regions, 13 were previously described and 13 yield new candidate genes for performance traits in chicken. Our approach demonstrates the strength of including many different populations with similar, and breed groups with different selection histories to reduce stochastic effects based on single populations.

  12. High natural antibody titers of indigenous chickens are related with increased hazard in confinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wondmeneh, E.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Waaij, van der E.H.; Ducro, B.J.; Parmentier, H.K.

    2015-01-01

    Natural antibody (NAb) levels and survival rates were evaluated in 4 breeds of laying hens in Ethiopia: indigenous, improved indigenous, exotic layer, and crossbred. Titers of NAb isotypes IgG and IgM binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) in serum were measured at 20, 26, 35, and 45 wk age. Repeat

  13. Slaughter performance and meat quality of three Italian chicken breeds

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    Gian Maria Chiericato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A trial was carried out to study the slaughter performance and the meat quality of three Italian dual-purpose chicken breeds: Ermellinata di Rovigo (ER, Robusta lionata (RL and Robusta maculata (RM. Females were studied from June to October from 47 days of life until slaughtered age, at 138 (I age and 168 (II age days of age. Each genotype had access to outdoor and indoor spaces. RL and RM birds showed a higher final body weight, and provided heavier carcass and commercial cuts than ER (P<0.01, at both ages. The dressing-out percentage of RL and RM females was more favourable than ER ones, in particular at II age (P<0.01. Differences in carcass conformation were observed at II age: the ER carcass showed a higher (P<0.01 proportion of leg and wing. The RM carcass had a higher (P<0.01 proportion of breast. The thigh meat/ bone ratio was higher in RL at I age (P<0.01 and II (P<0.05 age. Significant differences in breast colour were observed among the breeds; ER thigh showed the highest (P<0.05 a* value. At II age, lipids were lower (P<0.01 in ER breast; thigh lipids were similar among the groups. Slaughtering at I age seem to be more advantageous for the ER breed since it is more precocious.

  14. Management practices and challenges in smallholder indigenous chicken production in Western Kenya

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    Ochieng Justus

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The potential benefit of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus production is still under-exploited in Kenya despite the efforts by different stakeholders to mainstream this production system as a pathway to rural development. The production system is often characterized by low input-low output productivity and low commercialization of the enterprise. This study which dwells on the current management practices and challenges faced by smallholder indigenous chicken farmers was conducted to gain insights into the underlying causes of production constraints. In Western Kenya women (76% dominate the indigenous chicken production system. The flock composition consists mainly of chicks, hens and pullets (80% which reflects their retention for production purposes. Less than half of the farmers access institutional support services such as extension, training, credit and veterinary services. In addition, indigenous chicken is largely reared in a low input-low output free-range system with only few farmers (24.2% adopting management interventions as disseminated by extension service. To improve production and attain increased productivity, policy should focus on repackaging extension messages that considers farmers economic situations and strengthens collective action initiatives. Accessing joint input purchase and collective marketing of chicken products may further assist the farmers to increase profit margins.

  15. Phylogeny, genetic relationships and population structure of five Italian local chicken breeds

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    Simone Ceccobelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Number and population size of local chicken breeds in Italy is considered to be critical. Molecular data can be used to provide reliable insight into the diversity of chicken breeds. The first aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genetic origin of five Italian local chicken breeds (Ancona, Livorno, Modenese, Romagnola and Valdarnese bianca based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA information. Secondly, the extent of the genetic diversity, population structure and the genetic relationships among these chicken populations, by using 27 microsatellite markers, were assessed. To achieve these targets, a 506 bp fragment of the D-loop region was sequenced in 50 chickens of the five breeds. Eighteen variable sites were observed which defined 12 haplotypes. They were assigned to three clades and two maternal lineages. Results indicated that 90% of the haplotypes are related to clade E, which has been described to originate from the Indian subcontinent. For the microsatellite analysis, 137 individual blood samples from the five Italian breeds were included. A total of 147 alleles were detected at 27 microsatellite loci. The five Italian breeds showed a slightly higher degree of inbreeding (FIS=0.08 than the commercial populations that served as reference. Structure analysis showed a separation of the Italian breeds from the reference populations. A further sub-clustering allowed discriminating among the five different Italian breeds. This research provides insight into population structure, relatedness and variability of the five studied breeds.

  16. Occurrence of Co-Infection of Helicobacter pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in Broiler and Village (Indigenous Chickens

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    Soe Soe Wai, A. A. Saleha*, Z. Zunita, L. Hassan and A. Jalila

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The reports on prevalence of Helicobacter pullorum in broiler chickens are rather limited and lacking in village chickens. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of H. pullorum in broiler and village chickens in Selangor, Malaysia and to report the detection of co-infection of H. pullorum and Campylobacter spp. in these chickens. Village (indigenous chickens were sampled in five markets and broiler chickens from six farms in different localities. Cecal contents were aseptically obtained from the chickens and subjected to three cultural methods. The isolates were identified by biochemical tests and confirmed using a species-specific PCR assay. Helicobacter pullorum were isolated from 25% village chickens and 24.6% broiler chickens, with an overall occurrence of 24.7%. Eleven (50% of these positive chickens (nine in broiler and two in village chickens showed co-infection with Campylobacter spp.

  17. Serum enzymes levels and influencing factors in three indigenous Ethiopian goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbo, M; Jibril, Y; Woldemeskel, M; Dawo, F; Aragaw, K; Rege, J E O

    2008-12-01

    Serum enzymes were studied in 163 apparently healthy goats from three indigenous goat breeds of Ethiopia. The effect of breed, age, sex and season on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) / glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) / glutamic oxalacetic transaminases (GOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (AcP) levels was assessed. The mean serum enzymes levels of the indigenous Arsi-Bale, Central Highland and Long-eared Somali goat breeds ranged from 14.0-20.2 iu L(-1) for ALT/GPT, from 43.2-49.3 iu L(-1) for AST/GOT, from 83.7-98.8 iu L(-1) for ALP, and from 2.99-4.23 iu L(-1) for AcP, were within the normal range for goats elsewhere. Breed had significant influence on AST/GOT values. Sex had significant effect on ALT/GPT for Arsi-Bale goats with higher values in males than females. Age was significant on all serum enzymes studied in the Arsi-Bale goats and on ALP in the Central Highland goats. Season had significant influence on all serum enzymes except for ALT/GPT in the Arsi-Bale goats. The serum enzyme levels of these indigenous goat breeds can be used as normal reference values for Ethiopian goat breeds adapted to similar agro-ecology and production system.

  18. Dataset of milk whey proteins of two indigenous greek goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Katsafadou, Angeliki I; Pierros, Vasileios; Kontopodis, Evangelos; Fthenakis, George C; Arsenos, George; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis; Tsangaris, George Th

    2016-09-01

    Due to its rarity and unique biological traits, as well as its growing financial value, milk of dairy Greek small ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. For the construction of the present dataset, cutting-edge proteomics methodologies were employed, in order to investigate and characterize, for the first time, the milk whey proteome from the two indigenous Greek goat breeds, Capra prisca and Skopelos. In total 822 protein groups were identified in milk whey of the two breeds, The present data are further discussed in the research article "Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics" [1].

  19. Dataset of milk whey proteins of two indigenous greek goat breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios K. Anagnostopoulos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to its rarity and unique biological traits, as well as its growing financial value, milk of dairy Greek small ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. For the construction of the present dataset, cutting-edge proteomics methodologies were employed, in order to investigate and characterize, for the first time, the milk whey proteome from the two indigenous Greek goat breeds, Capra prisca and Skopelos. In total 822 protein groups were identified in milk whey of the two breeds, The present data are further discussed in the research article “Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics” [1].

  20. Investigating eggs hatchability in indigenous chicken system with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-08-31

    Aug 31, 2014 ... chicken system with smallholder farms in Kenya in a participatory .... Kimani, 1998b). Proper harnessing of local ... strengthening capacity of local farming communities to .... square analysis to determine whether there was any real variation. ..... carrying out both on-station experimentation and farmer ...

  1. Gross Morphological and Morphometric Studies on Digestive Tracts of Three Nigerian Indigenous Genotypes of Chicken with Special Reference to Sexual Dimorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdullahi Mahmud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gross and morphometric studies were carried out on the Gastrointestinal Tracts (GIT of three Nigerian indigenous genotypes of chicken with special reference to sexual dimorphism. Eighteen adult chickens of the three genotypes (three male and three female per genotype, all above one year of age were bought from Mokwa local markets. They were quarantined for two weeks, stabilized for another weeks, live weights taken and then slaughtered using Halal method. After careful evisceration, GIT segments were examined grossly and then weights, lengths, thickness and width of the segments were obtained. The GIT of Normal feathered (No, Naked neck (Na and Frizzle feathered (F genotypes like in other breeds of chicken was found to consist of the crop, an expansion of the esophagus, located in the lower neck region, the glandular stomach (proventriculus, the muscular stomach (ventriculus, small intestines (duodenum, jejunum and ileum and large intestine (ceca and colorectum. The mean weights, lengths, thickness and widths of esophagus, proventriculus, ventriculus, small intestine and large intestine of the three genotypes studied were not significantly different from one another, except the weight of oesophagus and width of ventriculus. Also, no significant difference was found between male and female when the means of these parameters were compared irrespective of genotype involved. In conclusion, all the three genotypes have similar gross and morphometric patterns and in addition their ileum was the longest portion of the intestine in contrast to what was reported in other breeds of chicken in the literature.

  2. Genetic diversity of five local Swedish chicken breeds detected by microsatellite markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiye Shenkut Abebe

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the genetic diversity, relationship and population structure of 110 local Swedish chickens derived from five breeds (Gotlandshöna, Hedemorahöna, Öländsk dvärghöna, Skånsk blommehöna, and Bohuslän- Dals svarthöna, in the rest of the paper the shorter name Svarthöna is used using 24 microsatellite markers. In total, one hundred thirteen alleles were detected in all populations, with a mean of 4.7 alleles per locus. For the five chicken breeds, the observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.225 to 0.408 and from 0.231 to 0.515, with the lowest scores for the Svarthöna and the highest scores for the Skånsk blommehöna breeds, respectively. Similarly, the average within breed molecular kinship varied from 0.496 to 0.745, showing high coancestry, with Skånsk blommehöna having the lowest and Svarthöna the highest coancestry. Furthermore, all breeds showed significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Across the five breeds, the global heterozygosity deficit (FIT was 0.545, population differentiation index (FST was 0.440, and the global inbreeding of individuals within breed (FIS was 0.187. The phylogenetic relationships of chickens were examined using neighbor-joining trees constructed at the level of breeds and individual samples. The neighbor-joining tree constructed at breed level revealed two main clusters, with Hedemorahöna and Öländsk dvärghöna breeds in one cluster, and Gotlandshöna and Svarthöna breeds in the second cluster leaving the Skånsk blommehöna in the middle. Based on the results of the STRUCTURE analysis, the most likely number of clustering of the five breeds was at K = 4, with Hedemorahöna, Gotlandshöna and Svarthöna breeds forming their own distinct clusters, while Öländsk dvärghöna and Skånsk blommehöna breeds clustered together. Losses in the overall genetic diversity of local Swedish chickens due to breeds extinction varied from -1.46% to -6

  3. Genetic diversity of five local Swedish chicken breeds detected by microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Abiye Shenkut; Mikko, Sofia; Johansson, Anna M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the genetic diversity, relationship and population structure of 110 local Swedish chickens derived from five breeds (Gotlandshöna, Hedemorahöna, Öländsk dvärghöna, Skånsk blommehöna, and Bohuslän- Dals svarthöna, in the rest of the paper the shorter name Svarthöna is used) using 24 microsatellite markers. In total, one hundred thirteen alleles were detected in all populations, with a mean of 4.7 alleles per locus. For the five chicken breeds, the observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.225 to 0.408 and from 0.231 to 0.515, with the lowest scores for the Svarthöna and the highest scores for the Skånsk blommehöna breeds, respectively. Similarly, the average within breed molecular kinship varied from 0.496 to 0.745, showing high coancestry, with Skånsk blommehöna having the lowest and Svarthöna the highest coancestry. Furthermore, all breeds showed significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Across the five breeds, the global heterozygosity deficit (FIT) was 0.545, population differentiation index (FST) was 0.440, and the global inbreeding of individuals within breed (FIS) was 0.187. The phylogenetic relationships of chickens were examined using neighbor-joining trees constructed at the level of breeds and individual samples. The neighbor-joining tree constructed at breed level revealed two main clusters, with Hedemorahöna and Öländsk dvärghöna breeds in one cluster, and Gotlandshöna and Svarthöna breeds in the second cluster leaving the Skånsk blommehöna in the middle. Based on the results of the STRUCTURE analysis, the most likely number of clustering of the five breeds was at K = 4, with Hedemorahöna, Gotlandshöna and Svarthöna breeds forming their own distinct clusters, while Öländsk dvärghöna and Skånsk blommehöna breeds clustered together. Losses in the overall genetic diversity of local Swedish chickens due to breeds extinction varied from -1.46% to -6.723%. The results

  4. Cushioning women against gender inequality through promoting indigenous chicken production in sub Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Never Assan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Poultry sub sector is a privileged entry point for promoting gender equality. Gender inequalities in poultry and livestock activities are now more and more acknowledged by governments, scientists, and farmers in sub Saharan Africa. This is on the background that gender inequality has translated into loss of opportunities or potential gains on agricultural production and food security. This has been exacerbated by the fact that the progress in empowering women in agriculture and reducing gender inequality has been slow despite this realization. The paper presents an overview of the development of the indigenous chickens sector in sub Saharan Africa and its implication on addressing gender equality. The assumption is that despite the multitude of socio-economic constraints faced by women in agriculture they are capable of raising indigenous chickens for the welfare of their households, hence promoting indigenous chickens  can give women a chance to control more income, reducing gender inequality. Achieving gender equality and women’s empowerment is critical to the success of these development goals.

  5. Various causes related to dead-in-shell embryos of crossbred (PB-2 x Indigenous chicken egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kalita,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the etiopathology of dead-in-shell embryos of PB-2 male x Indigenous female crossbred chicken egg.Materials and Methods: A total of 1377 eggs were incubated which was collected from a flock of crossbreed bird (PB-2xIndigenous chicken. Out of which 568 (41.25 % egg failed to pip out, were utilized for further study. All the dead in shell embryos were examined for different anomalies and pathological condition thorough necropsy examination. For bacteriological isolation a piece of liver, lung and yolk sac contents were collected from 25 nos. of dead in shell embryos and send to the Department of Microbiology for further examination.Results: A total of 241 (42.42 % egg were recorded as dead-in-shell embryos out of 568 eggs which were fail to pip out. The percentage of dead-in-shell was higher on 21st day (61.34% than 18th day (38.66 % of incubation. Out of 241 nos. of dead in shell embryos, 47 (19.50% cases showed malpositions,19 (7.88% malformation, 6 (2.49% adhesion,4 (1.66% dehydra-tion, 67 (27.80% pathological condition and 98 (40.66% cases showed no definite abnormalities and 327 (57.57% numbers of egg were found as infertile.Conclusion: The dead in shell embryo may be due to genetic factor, breed, some pathological condition, frequent power failure, lack of proper hygiene etc.

  6. Single nucleotide variant discovery of highly inbred Leghorn and Fayoumi chicken breeds using pooled whole genome resequencing data reveals insights into phenotype differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, D S; Koltes, J E; Fritz-Waters, E R; Rothschild, M F; Schmidt, C J; Ashwell, C M; Persia, M E; Reecy, J M; Lamont, S J

    2016-10-19

    Analyses of sequence variants of two distinct and highly inbred chicken lines allowed characterization of genomic variation that may be associated with phenotypic differences between breeds. These lines were the Leghorn, the major contributing breed to commercial white-egg production lines, and the Fayoumi, representative of an outbred indigenous and robust breed. Unique within- and between-line genetic diversity was used to define the genetic differences of the two breeds through the use of variant discovery and functional annotation. Downstream fixation test (F ST ) analysis and subsequent gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis elucidated major differences between the two lines. The genes with high F ST values for both breeds were used to identify enriched gene ontology terms. Over-enriched GO annotations were uncovered for functions indicative of breed-related traits of pathogen resistance and reproductive ability for Fayoumi and Leghorn, respectively. Variant analysis elucidated GO functions indicative of breed-predominant phenotypes related to genomic variation in the lines, showing a possible link between the genetic variants and breed traits.

  7. Short communication: Consumer’s willingness to pay for indigenous meat products: The case of a Spanish sheep breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azucena Gracia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available European farmers of indigenous local breeds have benefited from European Union economic support in the past and it is forecast to continue being supported in the future. However, it is in the public debate that economic support cannot last forever. Then, for the long-run maintenance of indigenous local breeds to be possible, the derived meat products from these breeds should be demanded by consumers or at least by a group of local consumers. This is the aim of this paper, to study consumers’ demand for indigenous local meat products. In particular, to assess how much consumers are willing to pay for a Spanish lamb meat from an indigenous sheep breed (“Ojinegra de Teruel”. To do that, a non-hypothetical experimental auction with local consumers (those living in a medium-size town around 150 km from the producing area of this meat was used. Results indicated that consumers were willing to pay, on average, €0.45 (15% of the market price more for the lamb meat with the “Ojinegra de Teruel” breed claim than for the one without breed indication (as it is now sold in the market. Then, local consumers clearly accept the differentiated meat through the indigenous breed indication. Then, producers in the area could have more opportunities to sell in the local market if they differentiate their meat using the indigenous “Ojinegra de Teruel” claim than using the undifferentiated strategy they are undertaken now.

  8. Short communication: Consumer’s willingness to pay for indigenous meat products: The case of a Spanish sheep breed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracia, A.; Magistris, T. de

    2016-11-01

    European farmers of indigenous local breeds have benefited from European Union economic support in the past and it is forecast to continue being supported in the future. However, it is in the public debate that economic support cannot last forever. Then, for the long-run maintenance of indigenous local breeds to be possible, the derived meat products from these breeds should be demanded by consumers or at least by a group of local consumers. This is the aim of this paper, to study consumers’ demand for indigenous local meat products. In particular, to assess how much consumers are willing to pay for a Spanish lamb meat from an indigenous sheep breed (“Ojinegra de Teruel”). To do that, a non-hypothetical experimental auction with local consumers (those living in a medium-size town around 150 km the producing area of this meat) was used. Results indicated that consumers were willing to pay, on average, €0.45 (15% of the market price) more for the lamb meat with the “Ojinegra de Teruel” breed claim than for the one without breed indication (as it is now sold in the market). Then, local consumers clearly accept the differentiated meat through the indigenous breed indication. Then, producers in the area could have more opportunities to sell in the local market if they differentiate their meat using the indigenous “Ojinegra de Teruel” claim than using the undifferentiated strategy they are undertaken now. (Author)

  9. Dataset of milk whey proteins of three indigenous Greek sheep breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Katsafadou, Angeliki I; Pierros, Vasileios; Kontopodis, Evangelos; Fthenakis, George C; Arsenos, George; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis; Tsangaris, George Th

    2016-09-01

    The importance and unique biological traits, as well as the growing financial value, of milk from small Greek ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. In this regard the construction of a reference dataset of the milk of the Greek sheep breeds is of great interest. In order to obtain such a dataset we employed cutting-edge proteomics methodologies to investigate and characterize, the proteome of milk from the three indigenous Greek sheep breeds Mpoutsko, Karagouniko and Chios. In total, more than 1300 protein groups were identified in milk whey from these breeds, reporting for the first time the most detailed proteome dataset of this precious biological material. The present results are further discussed in the research paper "Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics" (Anagnostopoulos et al. 2016) [1].

  10. Dataset of milk whey proteins of three indigenous Greek sheep breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios K. Anagnostopoulos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance and unique biological traits, as well as the growing financial value, of milk from small Greek ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. In this regard the construction of a reference dataset of the milk of the Greek sheep breeds is of great interest. In order to obtain such a dataset we employed cutting-edge proteomics methodologies to investigate and characterize, the proteome of milk from the three indigenous Greek sheep breeds Mpoutsko, Karagouniko and Chios. In total, more than 1300 protein groups were identified in milk whey from these breeds, reporting for the first time the most detailed proteome dataset of this precious biological material. The present results are further discussed in the research paper “Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics” (Anagnostopoulos et al. 2016 [1].

  11. Genetic variations of the porcine PRKAG3 gene in Chinese indigenous pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Li-Hua

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Four missense substitutions (T30N, G52S, V199I and R200Q in the porcine PRKAG3 gene were considered as the likely candidate loci affecting meat quality. In this study, the R200Q substitution was investigated in a sample of 62 individuals from Hampshire, Chinese Min and Erhualian pigs, and the genetic variations of T30N, G52S and V199I substitutions were detected in 1505 individuals from 21 Chinese indigenous breeds, 5 Western commercial pig breeds, and the wild pig. Allele 200R was fixed in Chinese Min and Erhualian pigs. Haplotypes II-QQ and IV-QQ were not observed in the Hampshire population, supporting the hypothesis that allele 200Q is tightly linked with allele 199V. Significant differences in allele frequencies of the three substitutions (T30N, G52S and V199I between Chinese indigenous pigs and Western commercial pigs were observed. Obvious high frequencies of the "favorable" alleles 30T and 52G in terms of meat quality were detected in Chinese indigenous pigs, which are well known for high meat quality. However, the frequency of the "favorable" allele 199I, which was reported to have a greater effect on meat quality in comparison with 30T and 52G, was very low in all of the Chinese indigenous pigs except for the Min pig. The reasons accounting for this discrepancy remain to be addressed. The presence of the three substitutions in purebred Chinese Tibetan pigs indicates that the three substitutions were ancestral mutations. A novel A/G substitution at position 51 in exon 1 was identified. The results suggest that further studies are required to investigate the associations of these substitutions in the PRKAG3 gene with meat quality of Chinese indigenous pigs, and to uncover other polymorphisms in the PRKAG3 gene with potential effects on meat quality in Chinese indigenous pigs.

  12. Commercial chicken breeds exhibit highly divergent patterns of linkage disequilibrium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R J Pengelly; A A Gheyas; R Kuo; E Mossotto; E G Seaby; D W Burt; S Ennis; A Collins

    2016-01-01

    ... mechanisms such as those driving recombination and the impact of selection. We apply the Malécot-Morton model of LD to create additive LD maps that describe the high-resolution LD landscape of commercial chickens...

  13. 我国地方品种鸡分离到的一个禽白血病病毒新亚群的鉴定%Identification of a New Subgroup of Avian Leukosis Virus Isolated from Chinese Indigenous Chicken Breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鑫; 赵鹏; 崔治中

    2012-01-01

    为探明我国地方品种鸡群禽白血病病毒(Avian leukosis virus,ALV)的特点,通过接种DF-1细胞及细胞培养上清液p27抗原的检测,从芦花鸡中分离得到三株外源性ALV禽白血病病毒,分别是JS11C1、JS11C2和JS11C3,并对其进行亚群鉴定分析.用PCR方法扩增env基因测序,并与已知鸡源各亚群ALV的囊膜蛋白(gp85)作氨基酸同源性比较.这三株ALV的env基因的gp85大小为1 005bp,编码335个氨基酸;env基因的gp37大小为609bp,编码203个氨基酸.三个毒株之间gp85的同源性为91.9%~97.0%.与A、B、C、D和E五个经典亚群在GenBank中已发表的18个毒株的gp85的同源性仅在77.7%~84.6%间,显著低于鸡群中常见的A、B、E各亚群内的同源性范围(分别为88.2%~98.5%,91.6%~98.8%和97.9%~99.4%),而与J亚群参考株的同源性更是只有34.2%~36.5%.上述结果表明,芦花鸡分离到的三株病毒可能是不同于鸡源ALV已知6个亚群的一个新亚群,按国际上对ALV亚群分类的习惯,初步将其定名为K亚群.%In order to clarify Avian leukosis virus(ALV) characteristics from Chinese native chicken breeds, three ALV JS11C1, JS11C2 and JS11C3 were isolated from Chinese native breed "luhua" by inoculation of DF1 cell culture and detection of p27 antigen. Using PCR amplification of env gene, the amplified gp85 genes were analyzed and compared to all six chicken ALV subgroups reported. The gp85 genes of these three viruses were 1 005bp in length and encoded 335 amino acids, and the gp37 genes were 609bp and encoded 203 amino acids. The homology of gp85 among these three isolated strains was 91. 9%-97. 0%. Comparing to 18 stains of subgroup A, B, C, D, E published in GenBank, the homology was only in the range of 77. 7%-84. 6%, significantly lower than the gp85 homology observed within the common chicken subgroups A(88.2%-98. 5%), B (91. 6%-98. 8%), and E(97. 9%-99. 4%). The gp85 homology compared with subgroup J was

  14. Breeding objectives, selection criteria and breeding system of indigenous goat types in bale zone, oromia, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belete Asefa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken in bale zone to assess farmer’s selective breeding objectives, trait preferences, selection criteria and breeding system October 2012 to November 2013. A purposive and multistage sampling technique was applied for selection of 3 district and 9 kebeles. Then 360 households were selected by using simple random sampling techniques after the list of pastoralist having goats was identified. Statistical analysis system version 9.1 was used for analysis of data. Indices, effective population size and rate of inbreeding were calculated on average each respondent holds about 14 goats. Milk production is the main reason of goat keeping in the study area. Appearance is the first rank as selection criteria for male and female in all studies area. About 47.8% of the respondents have their own buck. The main use of breeding buck in the study area was for mating purpose (76.2%. Mean estimate of effective population size and mean rate of inbreeding was 2.43 and 0.21, respectively when a household flock is herded alone and under random mating. Therefore, any breed improvement strategies that are intended to be implemented in the study area and else- where should consider the traditional breeding practices and breeding objectives of the community.

  15. Molecular Characterization of Sudanese and Southern Sudanese Chicken Breeds Using mtDNA D-Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Wani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the genetic relationships and diversity and to estimate the amount of gene flow among the five chicken populations from Sudan and South Sudan and commercial strain of egg line White Leghorn chickens. The chicken populations were genotyped using mtDNA D-loop as a molecular marker. PCR product of the mtDNA D-loop segment was 600 bp and 14 haplotypes were identified. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree indicated that the indigenous Sudanese chickens can be grouped into two clades, IV and IIIa only. Median joining networks analysis showed that haplotype LBB49 has the highest frequency. The hierarchal analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA showed that genetic variation within the population was 88.6% and the differentiation among the population was 11.4%. When the populations was redefined into two geographical zones, rich and poor Savanna, the results were fractioned into three genetic variations: between individuals within population 95.5%, between populations within the group 0.75%, and genetic variation between groups 3.75%. The pair wise Fst showed high genetic difference between Betwil populations and the rest with Fst ranging from 0.1492 to 0.2447. We found that there is large number of gene exchanges within the Sudanese indigenous chicken (Nm=4.622.

  16. Signatures of selection in the genomes of commercial and non-commercial chicken breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elferink, M.G.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Vereijken, A.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Identifying genomics regions that are affected by selection is important to understand the domestication and selection history of the domesticated chicken, as well as understanding molecular pathways underlying phenotypic traits and breeding goals. While whole-genome approaches, either high-density

  17. Empirical Evaluation of genetic clustering methods using multilocus genotypes from 20 chicken breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberg, N.A.; Burke, T.; Elo, K.; Feldman, M.W.; Friedlin, P.J.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Hillel, J.; Maki-Tanila, A.; Tixier-Boichard, M.; Vignal, A.; Wimmers, K.

    2001-01-01

    We tested the utility of genetic cluster analysis in ascertaining population structure of a large data set for which population structure was previously known. Each of 600 individuals representing 20 distinct chicken breeds was genotyped for 27 microsatellite loci, and individual multilocus

  18. Parallel Evolution of Polydactyly Traits in Chinese and European Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zebin; Nie, Changsheng; Jia, Yaxiong; Jiang, Runshen; Xia, Haijian; Lv, Xueze; Chen, Yu; Li, Junying; Li, Xianyao; Ning, Zhonghua; Xu, Guiyun; Chen, Jilan; Yang, Ning; Qu, Lujiang

    2016-01-01

    Polydactyly is one of the most common hereditary congenital limb malformations in chickens and other vertebrates. The zone of polarizing activity regulatory sequence (ZRS) is critical for the development of polydactyly. The causative mutation of polydactyly in the Silkie chicken has been mapped to the ZRS; however, the causative mutations of other chicken breeds are yet to be established. To understand whether the same mutation decides the polydactyly phenotype in other chicken breeds, we detected the single-nucleotide polymorphism in 26 different chicken breeds, specifically, 24 Chinese indigenous breeds and 2 European breeds. The mutation was found to have fully penetrated chickens with polydactyly in China, indicating that it is causative for polydactyly in Chinese indigenous chickens. In comparison, the mutation showed no association with polydactyly in Houdan chickens, which originate from France, Europe. Based on the different morphology of polydactyly in Chinese and European breeds, we assumed that the trait might be attributable to different genetic foundations. Therefore, we subsequently performed genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) to locate the region associated with polydactyly. As a result, a ~0.39 Mb genomic region on GGA2p was identified. The region contains six candidate genes, with the causative mutation found in Chinese indigenous breeds also being located in this region. Our results demonstrate that polydactyly in chickens from China and Europe is caused by two independent mutation events that are closely located in the chicken genome.

  19. Genetic diversity of Guangxi chicken breeds assessed with microsatellites and the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuying; Mo, Guodong; Sun, Junli; Wei, Fengying; Liao, Dezhong Joshua

    2016-05-01

    The domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is an excellent model for genetic studies of phenotypic diversity. The Guangxi Region of China possesses several native chicken breeds displaying a broad range of phenotypes well adapted to the extreme hot-and-wet environments in the region. We thus evaluated the genetic diversity and relationships among six native chicken populations of the Guangxi region and also evaluated two commercial breeds (Arbor Acres and Roman chickens). We analyzed the sequences of the D-loop region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and 18 microsatellite loci of 280 blood samples from six Guangxi native chicken breeds and from Arbor Acres and Roman chickens, and used the neighbor-joining method to construct the phylogenetic tree of these eight breeds. Our results showed that the genetic diversity of Guangxi native breeds was relatively rich. The phylogenetic tree using the unweighed pair-group method with arithmetic means (UPGAM) on microsatellite marks revealed two main clusters. Arbor Acres chicken and Roman chicken were in one cluster, while the Guangxi breeds were in the other cluster. Moreover, the UPGAM tree of Guangxi native breeds based on microsatellite loci was more consistent with the genesis, breeding history, differentiation and location than the mtDNA D-loop region. STRUCTURE analysis further confirmed the genetic structure of Guangxi native breeds in the Neighbor-Net dendrogram. The nomenclature of mtDNA sequence polymorphisms suggests that the Guangxi native chickens are distributed across four clades, but most of them are clustered in two main clades (B and E), with the other haplotypes within the clades A and C. The Guangxi native breeds revealed abundant genetic diversity not only on microsatellite loci but also on mtDNA D-loop region, and contained multiple maternal lineages, including one from China and another from Europe or the Middle East.

  20. Salmonella Enteritidis infection in young broiler chickens from breeding farm: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Poernomo

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available old from a breeding farm not far from Bogor. Samples were examined pathologic anatomically (PA and bacteriologically to isolate the causative agents . The sensitivity of the main causative agents isolated from the samples was tested with some drugs, while its pathogenicity was tested in 3 days old chickens intramuscularly, subcutaneously, intraperitoneally and orally, three chickens per inoculations . Exudative and caseous omphalitis, pericarditis, hepatitis, sirsacculitis, and coxofemoral and knee joints were observed in PA examinations, while on bacteriological examination the main cusative agent, ie. Salmonella Enteritidis was isolated successfully . Drug sensitivity test showed that the pathogen was sensitive to chloramphenicol, baytril, gentamisin, and sulphametoxazole-trimethoprim, and resistant to erythromycin, colistin, streptomycin and kanamycin . On the other hand, pathogenicity test of the isolate showed that all but two chickens which were inoculated orally, were died 24 hours post-inoculation . It was concluded that young broiler chickens of the farm were infected by Salmonella Enteritidis.

  1. Influence of gender and age on haematological indicators of Polbar’s breed chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gryzińska Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the values of selected haematological indices of the Polbar breed of chickens by gender and age. There was a significant WBC difference in cocks and hens with age. In each of the periods, cocks were characterized by a lower than hens number of LY. LY and NE declined with increasing age. Most values showed significant (P ≤ 0.05 differences for birds at different ages. These results of the haematological indices from consolidated Polbar breed can be used for comparisons with other breeds of poultry. The study deepens and organizes the knowledge within the possibilities of using and interpreting levels of haematological indicators for monitoring health of hens. In this paper, we managed to obtain information on the level of indicators rarely determined in chickens.

  2. Assessment of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Korean native chicken breeds using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Hee Seo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to investigate the basic information on genetic structure and characteristics of Korean Native chickens (NC and foreign breeds through the analysis of the pure chicken populations and commercial chicken lines of the Hanhyup Company which are popular in the NC market, using the 20 microsatellite markers. Methods In this study, the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of 445 NC from five different breeds (NC, Leghorn [LH], Cornish [CS], Rhode Island Red [RIR], and Hanhyup [HH] commercial line were investigated by performing genotyping using 20 microsatellite markers. Results The highest genetic distance was observed between RIR and LH (18.9%, whereas the lowest genetic distance was observed between HH and NC (2.7%. In the principal coordinates analysis (PCoA illustrated by the first component, LH was clearly separated from the other groups. The correspondence analysis showed close relationship among individuals belonging to the NC, CS, and HH lines. From the STRUCTURE program, the presence of 5 clusters was detected and it was found that the proportion of membership in the different clusters was almost comparable among the breeds with the exception of one breed (HH, although it was highest in LH (0.987 and lowest in CS (0.578. For the cluster 1 it was high in HH (0.582 and in CS (0.368, while for the cluster 4 it was relatively higher in HH (0.392 than other breeds. Conclusion Our study showed useful genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship data that can be utilized for NC breeding and development by the commercial chicken industry to meet consumer demands.

  3. A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, S; Hove, T

    2009-09-01

    A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice), 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas), 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites) and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7%) followed by Echidinophaga gallinacea (71.9%). Chickens in the Mazowe district had the highest number of ectoparasites species (10 of 11) followed by Goromonzi district (9 of 11) both these districts are situated in the highveld of Zimbabwe. The most prevalent cestode species was Raillietina tetragona (84.4%), followed by Raillietina echinobothrida (32.2%). Chickens in the Goromonzi district had the highest number of cestode species (7 of 9), followed by Mazowe district (one subgenus and 5 of 9). In all the districts sampled the main purpose of keeping free-range chickens was for meat for the household, with few households using the birds as a source of income. The majority of households kept their birds extensively with barely any appropriate housing, and supplementary feeding was only occasionally practised.

  4. A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and management of free-range indigenous chickens in rural Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey of ectoparasites, cestodes and husbandry aspects of indigenous free-range chickens was carried out in selected districts from the highveld and lowveld of rural Zimbabwe. The survey recorded infection with 4 species from the order Phthiraptera (lice, 1 species from the order Siphonaptera (fleas, 6 species from the order Acarina (ticks and mites and 9 species of cestodes. Among the ectoparasites, the most prevalent was Menacanthus stramineus (87.7 % followed by Echidinophaga gallinacea (71.9 %. Chickens in the Mazowe district had the highest number of ectoparasites species (10 of 11 followed by Goromonzi district (9 of 11 both these districts are situated in the highveld of Zimbabwe. The most prevalent cestode species was Raillietina tetragona (84.4 %, followed by Raillletina echinobothrida (32.2 %. Chickens in the Goromonzi district had the highest number of cestode species (7 of 9, followed by Mazowe district (one subgenus and 5 of 9. In all the districts sampled the main purpose of keeping free-range chickens was for meat for the household, with few households using the birds as a source of income. The majority of households kept their birds extensively with barely any appropriate housing, and supplementary feeding was only occasionally practised.

  5. Rural Poultry Farming with Improved Breed of Backyard Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Livestock and poultry rearing is an imperative factor for improving the nutritional security of rural poor in India. Rural farmers rear Desi type chicken with low egg and meat production in backyard system. For developing the rural poultry farming, improved backyard poultry like Vanaraja/Gramapriya birds rearing is of utmost important. These improved birds can rear in both intensive and free ranging system. Birds can be reared for egg production in small numbers (10- 20) in fre...

  6. Breed-dependent transcriptional regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, cytosolic form, expression in the liver of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Zhang, Yanhong; Su, Lanli; Ahmed, Abdelkareem A; Ni, Yingdong; Zhao, Ruqian

    2013-10-01

    Hepatic gluconeogenesis is the main source of glucose during chicken embryonic development, and it plays a major role in glucose homeostasis for developing embryos. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCK) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of gluconeogenesis, yet how hepatic PEPCK expression is differentially regulated between chicken breeds remains elusive. In this study, fertile eggs from a slow-growing Chinese Yellow Feathered Chicken and a fast-growing White Recessive Rock Chicken were incubated under the same standard conditions, and serum and liver samples were collected on embryonic d 18 (18E). The fast-growing breed had a significantly higher fetal weight (P breed. The fast-growing breed also had significantly higher hepatic mRNA expression levels of the cystolic form of PEPCK (PEPCK-c; P breed (P = 0.08). Breed-specific epigenetic modifications of the PEPCK-c promoter were also observed; the fast-growing breed demonstrated lower CpG methylation (P breed. Our results suggest that hepatic PEPCK-c expression is transcriptionally regulated in a breed-specific manner and that fast- and slow-growing broiler chicken fetuses exhibit different epigenetic modifications on their PEPCK-c promoter regions.

  7. GENETIC CHARACTERISATION OF ITALIAN CHICKEN BREEDS USING A PANEL OF TWENTY MICROSATELLITE MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zanetti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic relationships among four Veneto native breeds of chickens were studied on the basis of microsatellites polymorphisms. A total of 190 DNA samples (45 Robusta Lionata, 43 Robusta Maculata, 45 Ermellinata di Rovigo, 45 Pèpoi and a commercial broiler line (12 Golden Comet were genotyped at 20 microsatellite loci. The average number of alleles per locus was 5 and the expected heterozygosity resulted lower for the local breeds than for the commercial broiler line used as reference. The inbreeding coefficient showed a deficit of heterozygotes, highest for the Robusta Lionata breed. Nei’s standard genetic distances corrected for bias due to sampling of individuals (Da, based on allele frequencies, and Reynolds distances (DReynolds were calculated among breeds. The Robusta Lionata and Robusta Maculata resulted very similar approving the same genetic origin. A Neighbor-Joining tree drawn from DReynolds distances clustered three groups, one including the Robusta Lionata and Robusta Maculata breeds, the second one formed by the Ermellinata di Rovigo and the Golden Comet commercial line and the third by the Pèpoi. The results showed the genetic differences occurring between the local chicken breeds.

  8. Modelling Growth Curves in a Nondescript Italian Chicken Breed: an Opportunity to Improve Genetic and Feeding Strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selvaggi, Maria; Laudadio, Vito; Dario, Cataldo; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    ... it. This study was carried out to estimate the parameters of logistic, Gompertz and Richards growth curve models in a nondescript chicken breed population from southern Italy to determine the goodness of fit...

  9. Estimates of effective population size and inbreeding in South African indigenous chicken populations: implications for the conservation of unique genetic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtileni, Bohani; Dzama, Kennedy; Nephawe, Khathutshelo; Rhode, Clint

    2016-06-01

    Conservation of locally adapted indigenous livestock breeds has become an important objective in sustainable animal breeding, as these breeds represent a unique genetic resource. Therefore, the Agricultural Research Council of South Africa initiated a conservation programme for four South African indigenous chicken breeds. The evaluation and monitoring of the genetic constitution of these conservation flocks is important for proper management of the conservation programme. Using molecular genetic analyses, the effective population sizes and relatedness of these conservation flocks were compared to village (field) chicken populations from which they were derived. Genetic diversity within and between these populations are further discussed within the context of population size. The conservation flocks for the respective breeds had relatively small effective population sizes (point estimate range 38.6-78.6) in comparison to the field populations (point estimate range 118.9-580.0). Furthermore, evidence supports a transient heterozygous excess, generally associated with the occurrence of a recent population bottleneck. Genetic diversity, as measured by the number of alleles, heterozygosity and information index, was also significantly reduced in the conservation flocks. The average relatedness amongst the conservation flocks was high, whilst it remained low for the field populations. There was also significant evidence for population differentiation between field and conservation populations. F st estimates for conservation flocks were moderate to high with a maximum reached between VD_C and VD_F (0.285). However, F st estimates for field population were excessively low between the NN_C and EC_F (0.007) and between EC_F and OV_F (0.009). The significant population differentiation of the conservation flocks from their geographically correlated field populations of origin is further supported by the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), with 10.51 % of genetic

  10. A serological survey for pathogens in old fancy chicken breeds in central and eastern part of The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de J.J.; Eck, J.H.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Pijpers, A.

    2004-01-01

    To get an impression of the presence of pathogens in multi-aged flocks of old fancy chicken breeds in the Netherlands, plasma samples originating from 24 flocks were examined for antibodies against 17 chicken pathogens. These flocks were housed mainly in the centre and east of the Netherlands,

  11. A serological survey for pathogens in old fancy chicken breeds in central and eastern part of The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de J.J.; Eck, J.H.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Pijpers, A.

    2004-01-01

    To get an impression of the presence of pathogens in multi-aged flocks of old fancy chicken breeds in the Netherlands, plasma samples originating from 24 flocks were examined for antibodies against 17 chicken pathogens. These flocks were housed mainly in the centre and east of the Netherlands, regio

  12. Chicken FTO gene: tissue-specific expression, brain distribution, breed difference and effect of fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yufeng; Rao, Kaiqing; Yuan, Lixia; Everaert, Nadia; Buyse, Johan; Grossmann, Roland; Zhao, Ruqian

    2012-11-01

    Fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene is widely expressed in central and peripheral tissues of mammals, and exhibits a range of functions, especially in energy balance. However, basic knowledge of FTO in the chicken is lacking. Therefore, we studied the tissue distribution, age and breed dependent changes, brain localization, as well as the impact of fasting on FTO mRNA expression in the chicken. FTO mRNA was expressed in all the tissues studied, and generally, with high expression in hypothalamus, liver, visceral fat and cerebellum. However it exhibited breed-specific patterns: in broilers, the highest expression was seen in the liver, while in layers, hypothalamus and cerebellum showed relatively higher FTO mRNA expression. One-week-old broilers expressed markedly higher FTO mRNA in liver compared with the layers of the same age (Pbreed difference was reversed in visceral fat and cerebellum (PBreed-specific expression of FTO mRNA was shown in PVN, but not in VMN, with higher abundance in broilers compared to layers. The decrease in FTO mRNA levels after 24h of fasting was seen only in VMN of layer chickens. These results may provide some intriguing hints for further investigation of FTO function in the chicken. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rural Poultry Farming with Improved Breed of Backyard Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Pathak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Livestock and poultry rearing is an imperative factor for improving the nutritional security of rural poor in India. Rural farmers rear Desi type chicken with low egg and meat production in backyard system. For developing the rural poultry farming, improved backyard poultry like Vanaraja/Gramapriya birds rearing is of utmost important. These improved birds can rear in both intensive and free ranging system. Birds can be reared for egg production in small numbers (10- 20 in free range conditions if plenty of natural feed resources are available. Chicks need brooding during initial 6 weeks of age to maintain the required body temperature and to protect from predators. In nursery rearing, feeding of broiler starter up to 28 days is better option but it can also be formulated with locally available materials. At 42 days of age, the birds can be let out under backyard free-range conditions. Birds should be vaccinated specifically against the Newcastle disease and fowl pox. The backyard poultry farming with improved birds provide a solution to food security to the needy villagers paving a way for sustainable agriculture in rural areas of India.

  14. Ceruminous otitis in native chicken breeders belonging to Robusta Lionata breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Schiavon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of 2005, an outbreak of ceruminous otitis has been observed in a breeders flock belonging to the Robusta Lionata breed, a native chicken breed reared in a Centre for the valorisation and conservation of native poultry breeds. The disease caused a high morbidity rate (90% of birds, whereas the mortality affected only 10% of the birds. The death of the birds was preceded by clinical signs, such as worsening of the ceruminous otitis with abundant secretion of bad-smelling cerumen, lack of appetite and depression. The otitis externa, mainly bilateral, was the only evident finding at necropsy. Laboratory examinations showed only the presence of Mycoplasma synoviae, either by isolation on culture media or by PCR, on ear and choana samples. Aspergillus fumigatus was detected only in one bird. In this paper, the Authors report for the first time on an outbreak of ceruminous otitis in native chicken breeds and point out that the only pathogenic agent isolated from the birds has been Mycoplasma synoviae.

  15. Ceruminous otitis in native chicken breeders belonging to Robusta Lionata breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Mutinelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of 2005, an outbreak of ceruminous otitis has been observed in a breeders flock belonging to the Robusta Lionata breed, a native chicken breed reared in a Centre for the valorisation and conservation of native poultry breeds. The disease caused a high morbidity rate (90% of birds, whereas the mortality affected only 10% of the birds. The death of the birds was preceded by clinical signs, such as worsening of the ceruminous otitis with abundant secretion of bad-smelling cerumen, lack of appetite and depression. The otitis externa, mainly bilateral, was the only evident finding at necropsy. Laboratory examinations showed only the presence of Mycoplasma synoviae, either by isolation on culture media or by PCR, on ear and choana samples. Aspergillus fumigatus was detected only in one bird. In this paper, the Authors report for the first time on an outbreak of ceruminous otitis in native chicken breeds and point out that the only pathogenic agent isolated from the birds has been Mycoplasma synoviae.

  16. Choice of breeding stock, preference of production traits and culling criteria of village chickens among Zimbabwe agro-ecological zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchadeyi, F C; Wollny, C B A; Eding, H; Weigend, S; Simianer, H

    2009-03-01

    Free ranging chickens reared by smallholder farmers represent genetic diversity suited for particular environments and shaped by the socio-economic and cultural values of the farming systems. This study sought to investigate the existence of chicken strains and evaluate the breeding goals and strategies used by village chicken farmers in Zimbabwe. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 97, 56, 70, 104 and 37 households randomly selected from five agro-ecological-zones I-V, respectively. Fifteen chicken strains mostly defined by morphological traits were reported in the five eco-zones. Production criteria such as body size, and fertility were highly ranked (ranging from 1.3-2.6) by farmers across all the eco-zones, while cultural traits were the least preferred production traits. As a common breeding practice, farmers chose the type of hens and cocks to retain for breeding purposes and these randomly mixed and mated with others from community flocks. Chicken body size was ranked the major determinant in choosing breeding animals followed by mothering ability, and fertility. More households culled chickens associated with poor reproductive performance, poor growth rates and those intolerant to disease pathogens. The focus on many negatively correlated production traits and the absence of farmer records compromises breeding strategies in these production systems.

  17. Analysis of genetic relationship among Indonesian native chicken breeds based on 335 D-loop sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sulandari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available he Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA D-loop segment was PCR amplified and subsequently sequenced for a total of 335 individuals from Indonesian native chicken. The individuals were drawn from sixteen populations of native chicken and three individuals of green jungle fowls (Gallus varius. Indonesian native chicken populations were: Pelung Sembawa, PL (n = 18, Pelung Cianjur, PLC (n = 29 and Arab Silver, ARS (n=30, Cemani, CM (n = 32, Gaok, GA (n = 7, Kedu Hitam, KDH (n = 11, Wareng, T & TW (n = 10, Cemani, CMP (n = 2, Kedu, KD (n=26, Kedu Putih, KDP (n = 15, Sentul Jatiwangi, STJ (n = 27, Ayam Kate, KT (n = 29, Ayam Sentul, STC (n = 15, Arab Golden, ARG (n = 26, Ayam Merawang, MR (n = 28, Kedu Putih Jatiwangi, KDPJ (n=6 and Kapas, KPS (n = 21. Green jungle fowls were: two individuals from Flores island (FL5 and FL57 and one individual (BD42 from Sumbawa island. The sequences of the first 530 nucleotides were used for analysis. Eighty two haplotypes were identified from 78 polymorphic sites for the 335 individuals. Seventy nine haplotypes were identified in native chicken from 57 polymorphic sites while three were of jungle fowls. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Indonesian native chicken can be grouped into five clades (Clade I, II, IIIc, IIId and IV of the previously identified seven clades (Clade I, II, IIIa, IIIb, IIIc, IIId and IV in Asian domestic chicken. Haplotypes CM10 and CM32 fall to a different category while STC12 is also on its own. Interestingly STC12 clusters together with Gallus gallus gallus (GenBank accession No. SULANDARI et al. Analysis of genetic relationship among Indonesian native chicken breeds based on 335 D-loop sequences 296 AB007720. When CM10 (same as CM14, CM32 and STC12 were removed, 77 haplotypes of domestic chicken were identified from 53 polymorphic sites. All the green jungle fowls are clustered to one clade of their own. The clades of domestic chicken are: Clade I which has three haplotypes, Clade II has 52

  18. Conservation of local chicken breeds of Turkey and Italy: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demir Ozdemir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased global use of highly productive breeds of farm animals has been associated with loss of genetic diversity in most species, but especially in local poultry species. In Italy, especially in the Veneto region since 2000, various governmental, non-governmental and private organizations have tried to preserve the genetic diversity of poultry resources. This successful conservation effort has included various activities: improving knowledge of biological functions, conservation of typical morphological characteristics, development of selection strategies, control of inbreeding and, finally, valorization strategies to diffuse the breed in local productive systems. These activities provide a good example for developing countries, such as Turkey. With the aim of contributing to conservation activities relating to the poultry resources of Turkey, this study described the current status of local chicken breeds in Turkey and Italy, and also makes some recommendations for developing countries such as Turkey.

  19. Immunological Competence of Different Domestic Chicken Breeds Against Avian Influenza Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blohm, Ulrike; Weigend, Steffen; Preisinger, Rudolf; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Donata

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of selection for high laying performance on the capacity to respond to an infection with avian influenza virus (AIV), four different chicken lines were tested: A white layer and a brown layer breed originating from a commercial breeding program, and a white layer and a brown layer line maintained as a conservation flock for decades without any selection. The different chicken breeds were infected with AIV of different pathotypes (low pathogenic to high pathogenic) to evaluate and compare their immunological competence. Morbidity and mortality rates, as well as viral shedding, were investigated as parameters of virus infection. Immune cells in blood samples collected after different time points following inoculation were identified. In general, the chickens of the two phylogenetically related brown layer lines (irrespective of the performance type) were more resistant to infection with the selected AIVs, reflected by a lower mortality rate (low virulent AIV) or a prolonged length of survival before succumbing to the disease (highly virulent AIV). Corresponding to these results, CD8-positive cell counts were reduced in both white layer lines. This observation was also confirmed in an in vivo allogenic transfer experiment, in which brown layers eliminated the transferred cells in a shorter time period. In conclusion, our results do not support the theory of reduced immunological competence of high-performance layer breeds, at least against AIV infection. Instead, brown layer strains had a faster CD8-positive immune cell response after viral or allogenic stimulus than the phylogenetically distant white layers, resulting in better resistance against AIV infection.

  20. Characterization of genetic diversity and gene mapping in two Swedish local chicken breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Johansson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study genetic diversity in the two Swedish local chicken breeds Bohuslän-Dals svarthöna and Hedemorahöna. The now living birds of both of these breeds (about 500 for Bohuslän-Dals svarthöna and 2600 for Hedemorahöna originate from small relicts of earlier larger populations. An additional aim was to make an attempt to map loci associated with a trait that are segregating in both these breeds. The 60k SNP chip was used to genotype 12 Bohuslän-Dals svarthöna and 22 Hedemorahöna. The mean inbreeding coefficient was considerably larger in the samples from Hedemorahöna than in the samples from Bohuslän-Dals svarthöna. Also the proportion of homozygous SNPs in individuals was larger in Hedemorahöna. In contrast, on the breed level, the number of segregating SNPs were much larger in Hedemorahöna than in Bohuslän-Dals svarthöna. A multidimensional scaling plot shows that the two breeds form clusters well separated from each other. Both these breeds segregate for the dermal hyperpigmentation phenotype. In Bohuslän-Dals svarthöna most animals have dark skin, but some individuals with lighter skin exists (most easily detected by their red comb. An earlier study of the Fm locus showed that this breed has the same complex rearrangement involving the EDN3 gene as Silkie chicken and two other studied Asian breeds. In the breed Hedemorahöna, most individuals have normal skin pigmentation (and red comb, but there are some birds with darker skin and dark comb. In this study the involvement of the EDN3 gene is confirmed also in Hedemorahöna. In addition we identify a region on chromosome 21 that is significantly associated with the trait.

  1. Tissue- and breed-specific expression of the chicken fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, C; Song, W T; Shu, J T; Tao, Z Y; Zhu, W Q; Di, C; Li, H F

    2015-09-08

    The fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is involved in energy metabolism, but little is known about the chicken FTO gene. The objective of the current study was to detect chicken FTO expression patterns in the hypothalamus, liver, and skeletal muscle during development, and analyze the effects of age and breed on FTO expression. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction results revealed that chicken FTO mRNA was expressed in all of the tissues tested. Chicken FTO exhibited tissue- and breed-specific patterns in the recessive White Plymouth Rock chicken and the Qingyuan partridge chicken. The highest FTO expression level was in the hypothalami of 1-week-old chicks. FTO mRNA was expressed more in the breast muscles and livers of recessive White Plymouth Rock chickens than those of Qingyuan partridge chickens at 1 and 8 weeks of age. These results indicate that FTO probably plays a significant role in energy metabolism at 1 week old, when chicks have undergone metabolic adaptations from yolk dependence to the utilization of exogenous feed.

  2. The Effect of Eggshell Quality on Hatchability of Pure Chicken Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hrnčár

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hatchability is affected by a variety of factors. Eggshell quality plays very important role among these factors. In thiswork we analysed eggshell quality, hatchability and embryonic mortality of pure chicken breeds New Hampshire,Oravka, Plymouth Rock, Rhode Island Red and Sussex Light. Hatchability was significantly lower (P>0.05 inSussex Light in comparison with New Hampshire. The eggshell quality for Sussex Light was significantly decreased(P>0.05 in eggshell thickness (398.73 vs. 356.07 μm and eggshell percentage compared with New Hampshire(10.36 vs. 8.79 %.

  3. Genetic diversity and population structure of 10 Chinese indigenous egg-type duck breeds assessed by microsatellite polymorphism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Li Hui-Fang; Song Wei-Tao; Shu Jing-Ting; Chen Kuan-Wei; Zhu Wen-Qi; Han Wei; Xu Wen-Juan

    2010-04-01

    The genetic structure and diversity of 10 Chinese indigenous egg-type duck breeds were investigated using 29 microsatellite markers. The total number of animals examined were 569, on average 57 animals per breed were selected. The microsatellite marker set analysed provided 177 alleles (mean 6.1 alleles per locus, ranging from 3 to 10). All populations showed high levels of heterozygosity with the lowest estimate of 0.539 for the Jinding ducks, and the highest 0.609 observed for Jingjiang partridge ducks. The global heterozygote deficit across all populations ($F_{\\text{IT}}$) amounted to $-0.363$. About 10% of the total genetic variability originated from differences among breeds, with all loci contributing significantly. An unrooted consensus tree was constructed using the NeighborNet tree based on the Reynold’s genetic distance. The structure software was used to assess genetic clustering of these egg-type duck breeds. Clustering analysis provided an accurate representation of the current genetic relations among the breeds. An integrated analysis was undertaken to obtain information on the population dynamics in Chinese indigenous egg-type duck breeds, and to better determine the conservation priorities.

  4. The gait dynamics of the modern broiler chicken: a cautionary tale of selective breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Heather; Daley, Monica A; Corr, Sandra A; Hutchinson, John R

    2013-09-01

    One of the most extraordinary results of selective breeding is the modern broiler chicken, whose phenotypic attributes reflect its genetic success. Unfortunately, leg health issues and poor walking ability are prevalent in the broiler population, with the exact aetiopathogenesis unknown. Here we present a biomechanical analysis of the gait dynamics of the modern broiler and its two pureline commercial broiler breeder lines (A and B) in order to clarify how changes in basic morphology are associated with the way these chickens walk. We collected force plate and kinematic data from 25 chickens (market age), over a range of walking speeds, to quantify the three-dimensional dynamics of the centre of mass (CoM) and determine how these birds modulate the force and mechanical work of locomotion. Common features of their gait include extremely slow walking speeds, a wide base of support and large lateral motions of the CoM, which primarily reflect changes to cope with their apparent instability and large body mass. These features allowed the chickens to keep their peak vertical forces low, but resulted in high mediolateral forces, which exceeded fore-aft forces. Gait differences directly related to morphological characteristics also exist. This was particularly evident in Pureline B birds, which have a more crouched limb posture. Mechanical costs of transport were still similar across all lines and were not exceptional when compared with more wild-type ground-running birds. Broiler chickens seem to have an awkward gait, but some aspects of their dynamics show rather surprising similarities to other avian bipeds.

  5. Differentiation of expression proifles of two calcineurin subunit genes in chicken skeletal muscles during early postnatal growth depending on anatomical location of muscles and breed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Yan-ju; XU Wen-juan; SHU Jing-ting; ZHANG Ming; SONG Wei-tao; TAO Zhi-yun; ZHU Chun-hong; LI Hui-fang

    2016-01-01

    Calcineurin (Cn or CaN) is implicated in the control of skeletal muscle ifber phenotype and hypertrophy. However, little information is available concerning the expression of Cn in chickens. In the present study, the expression of two Cn subunit genes (CnAα andCnB1) was quantiifed by qPCR in the lateral gastrocnemius (LG, mainly composing of red fast-twitch myoifbers), the soleus (mainly composing of red slow-twitch myoifbers) and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL, mainly composing of white fast-twitch myoifbers) from Qingyuan partridge chickens (QY, slow-growing chicken breed) and Recessive White chickens (RW, fast-growing chicken breed) on different days (1, 8, 22, 36, 50 and 64 days post-hatching). Although CnAα andCnB1 gene expressions were variable with different trends in different skeletal muscles in the two chicken breeds during postnatal growth, it is highly muscle phenotype and breed speciifc. In general, the levels ofCnAαandCnB1gene expressions of the soleus were lower than those of EDL and LG in both chicken breeds at the same stages. Compared be-tween the two chicken breeds, the levels ofCnAα gene expression of the three skeletal muscles in QY chickens were higher than those in RW chickens on days 1 and 22. However, on day 64, the levels of bothCnAα andCnB1 gene expressions of the three skeletal muscles were lower in QY chickens than those in RW chickens. Correlation analysis of the levels of CnAα andCnB1 gene expressions of the same skeletal muscle showed that there were positive correlations for al three skeletal muscle tissues in two chicken breeds. These results provide some valuable clues to understand the role of Cn in the development of chicken skeletal muscles, with a function that may be related to meat quality.

  6. The genetic diversity of chicken breeds from Jiangxi, assessed with BCDO2 and the complete mitochondrial DNA D-loop region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Shi; Jia, Xiao-Xu; Tang, Xiu-Jun; Fan, Yan-Feng; Lu, Jun-Xian; Huang, Sheng-Hai; Tang, Meng-Jun

    2017-01-01

    The Jiangxi Province of China has numerous native domestic chicken breeds, including some black skin breeds. The genetic diversity of Jiangxi native chickens is largely unknown, and specifically, the genetic contribution of the grey junglefowl to black skin chickens is not well understood. To address these questions, the complete D-loop region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and beta-carotene dioxygenase 2(BCDO2)gene was sequenced in a total of 209 chickens representing seven Jiangxi native breeds. Thirty-one polymorphic sites were identified across the complete mtDNA D-loop region sequence. Twenty-three haplotypes were observed in the seven breeds, which belonged to four distinct mitochondrial clades (A, B, C and E). Clade A and B were dominant in the chickens with a frequency of approximately 67.9%. There were five SNPs that defined two haplotypes, W and Y in BCDO2. Four breeds had one haplotype and three breeds had two. We conclude that Jiangxi native chicken breeds have relatively low genetic diversity and likely share four common maternal lineages from two different maternal ancestors of junglefowl. Furthermore, some Jiangxi chicken populations may have been mixed with chickens with exotic lineage. Further research should be established to protect these domestic chicken resources.

  7. Differences in host breed and diet influence colonization by Campylobacter jejuni and induction of local immune responses in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zifeng; Willer, Thomas; Pielsticker, Colin; Gerzova, Lenka; Rychlik, Ivan; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Chickens are regarded as the main reservoir for human campylobacteriosis. Little is known about the interaction between Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and chickens. This interaction may be influenced by the stage of maturation of the immune system, developing gut microbiota composition and other factors including breed and diet. Our aim was to investigate the impact of breed, and diet on C. jejuni colonization and host immune responses in chickens. Birds were inoculated with 10(4) colony forming units (CFU) of C. jejuni or diluent at one (Exp. 1) or 22 (Exp. 2) days post hatch. We compared local immune cell subpopulations, cytokine expression levels, and gut microbiota composition between broiler-type (BT) and layer-type (LT) birds fed with either commercial broiler feed (bf) or layer feed (lf). Lower colonization rates were observed in the older age group independent of breed and diet. Independent of breed, birds fed with bf showed higher CFU of C. jejuni compared to lf-fed groups. Campylobacter jejuni-inoculation had a significant effect on lymphocyte numbers and cytokine expression levels in BT birds independent of feeding strategy (p breeds. Diet and breed influenced C. jejuni colonization, immune responses and microbiota composition to a different extent comparing between LT and BT birds. The mechanisms behind these differences have to be elucidated further. Our results suggest that selection for more resistant breeds in combination with adapted feeding strategies may help to reduce Campylobacter colonization levels in commercial poultry in the future.

  8. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in two chickens breeds and the correlation with experimental Pasteurella multocida infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, T W; Permin, A; Christensen, J P

    2010-01-01

    The present study is the first demonstration of an association of the genetic serum Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) concentration with bacterial infections in chickens. The genetic serum MBL concentration was determined in two chicken breeds, and the association with the specific Pasteurella multocid...... of defence against P. multocida by diminishing the infection before the adaptive immune response takes over. Udgivelsesdato: May...... humoral immune response during an experimental infection was examined. Furthermore, we examined the association of the genetic serum MBL concentration with systemic infection. The chickens with systemic infection had a statistically significant lower mean serum MBL concentration than the rest...

  9. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Relationships of Seven Chinese Indigenous Pig Breeds and Three Exotic Pig Breeds Using the DNA Differential Display Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong-gang; XIONG Yuan-zhu; DENG Chang-yan

    2006-01-01

    The genetic diversity and relationships of seven Chinese indigenous pig breeds (Meishan, Erhualian, Hezuo, Bamei, Qingping, Tongcheng, and Huainan) and three exotic pig breeds (Large White, Landrace, and Duroc) were analyzed using the DNA differential display technique by means of eight primer combinations. A total of 123 reproducible bands were used to calculate mean Nei's gene diversity, and mean Shannon's information index for each pig population. Based on these the Nei's standard genetic identity and distance were estimated, which was used to construct a dendrogram tree for the 10 pig breeds. The experimental results obtained and the method used in this study for evaluating the genetic diversity and relationships of pigs were also discussed.

  10. Breed-specific companions--inter-individual distances reflect isolating mechanisms within domesticated chickens (Gallus gallus f.d.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemann, Inga; Rehkämper, Gerd

    2008-06-15

    White Crested Polish (WCP) chickens are an interesting breed because of skull anatomy (crest), brain size and composition. This makes them attractive to investigate processes of selection that could parallel a step towards speciation in terms of ethological isolation. Lohmann Brown Classic (BL) and Red Leghorn (RL) were selected as comparative breeds to detect whether WCPs flock together as shown by shorter inter-individual distances within WCP than across breeds. WCP and BL were observed in the first year whereas RL served as comparative breed to WCP in the second year. Eggs of both breeds of each year were incubated at the same time, and chicks hatched and were raised together. Three young hens of each breed were randomly chosen and observed weekly in an open field situation for 20 min between the first and 31st week of life. Intra-breed distances differed significantly from those distances measured across breeds. Results demonstrate breed-specific flocking within observed breeds. This flocking behaviour may reflect breed-specific social and sexual preferences. Our observations indicate that domestic breeds may represent an ethological entity. Selective processes controlled by human intervention as given in domestication may therefore to be set in parallel to evolutionary processes.

  11. Persistence of accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values over generations in layer chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolc, Anna; Arango, Jesus; Settar, Petek; Fulton, Janet E; O'Sullivan, Neil P; Preisinger, Rudolf; Habier, David; Fernando, Rohan; Garrick, Dorian J; Dekkers, Jack C M

    2011-06-21

    The predictive ability of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) originates both from associations between high-density markers and QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) and from pedigree information. Thus, GEBV are expected to provide more persistent accuracy over successive generations than breeding values estimated using pedigree-based methods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of GEBV in a closed population of layer chickens and to quantify their persistence over five successive generations using marker or pedigree information. The training data consisted of 16 traits and 777 genotyped animals from two generations of a brown-egg layer breeding line, 295 of which had individual phenotype records, while others had phenotypes on 2,738 non-genotyped relatives, or similar data accumulated over up to five generations. Validation data included phenotyped and genotyped birds from five subsequent generations (on average 306 birds/generation). Birds were genotyped for 23,356 segregating SNP. Animal models using genomic or pedigree relationship matrices and Bayesian model averaging methods were used for training analyses. Accuracy was evaluated as the correlation between EBV and phenotype in validation divided by the square root of trait heritability. Pedigree relationships in outbred populations are reduced by 50% at each meiosis, therefore accuracy is expected to decrease by the square root of 0.5 every generation, as observed for pedigree-based EBV (Estimated Breeding Values). In contrast the GEBV accuracy was more persistent, although the drop in accuracy was substantial in the first generation. Traits that were considered to be influenced by fewer QTL and to have a higher heritability maintained a higher GEBV accuracy over generations. In conclusion, GEBV capture information beyond pedigree relationships, but retraining every generation is recommended for genomic selection in closed breeding populations.

  12. Persistence of accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values over generations in layer chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rohan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The predictive ability of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV originates both from associations between high-density markers and QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci and from pedigree information. Thus, GEBV are expected to provide more persistent accuracy over successive generations than breeding values estimated using pedigree-based methods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of GEBV in a closed population of layer chickens and to quantify their persistence over five successive generations using marker or pedigree information. Methods The training data consisted of 16 traits and 777 genotyped animals from two generations of a brown-egg layer breeding line, 295 of which had individual phenotype records, while others had phenotypes on 2,738 non-genotyped relatives, or similar data accumulated over up to five generations. Validation data included phenotyped and genotyped birds from five subsequent generations (on average 306 birds/generation. Birds were genotyped for 23,356 segregating SNP. Animal models using genomic or pedigree relationship matrices and Bayesian model averaging methods were used for training analyses. Accuracy was evaluated as the correlation between EBV and phenotype in validation divided by the square root of trait heritability. Results Pedigree relationships in outbred populations are reduced by 50% at each meiosis, therefore accuracy is expected to decrease by the square root of 0.5 every generation, as observed for pedigree-based EBV (Estimated Breeding Values. In contrast the GEBV accuracy was more persistent, although the drop in accuracy was substantial in the first generation. Traits that were considered to be influenced by fewer QTL and to have a higher heritability maintained a higher GEBV accuracy over generations. In conclusion, GEBV capture information beyond pedigree relationships, but retraining every generation is recommended for genomic selection in closed breeding

  13. Polymorphism analysis of the hsp70 stress gene in Broiler chickens (Gallus gallus of different breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Maria Mazzi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The promoter region and the beginning of the coding region of the hsp70 stress gene were analysed in broiler chickens of a commercial breed (Hubbard-Pettersen, a breed selected for weight gain (PP1 and a non-selected breed (naked-neck Label Rouge. The naked neck gene (Naked neck, Na, which reduces feathering in birds and is thus related to heat resistance, was present in both PP1 and Label Rouge breeds. Genomic DNA was restricted with PstI and Southern blotting analysis of the samples revealed the absence of polymorphic sites for that enzyme in the promoter region and beginning of the coding region of the hsp70 gene of studied birds. PCR-SSCP analysis of these regions, however, indicated the presence of polymorphisms in the beginning of the coding region and the sequencing of the PCR products confirmed and identified two polymorphic sites in this region: a transition A ® G in position +258 and a transversion C ® G in position +276. Both mutations were considered to be silent, since they did not modify the aminoacid sequence of the protein Hsp70. The promoter region of the hsp70 gene was identical in all studied birds, indicating that the regulation pattern of this gene must be the same in all birds at the promoter region. Three different alleles (hsp70-1, hsp70-2 and hsp70-3 were identified for the hsp70 gene from the observed mutations. The allele hsp70-3 was detected in only two breeds, Hubbard-Pettersen and PP1, but at a low frequency (0,016 and 0,006, respectively.

  14. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP detection in six genes in Portuguese indigenous sheep breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guedes-Pinto H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the genetic diversity for six genes in forty animals of the Portuguese indigenous sheep breed (Ovis aries ""Churra da Terra Quente"" was done. A non-radioactive method to allow single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP detection was optimised, starting from genomic DNA and PCR amplification of seven fragments: exon 1 of the alpha-lactalbumin gene; exons 10 and 11 of the alpha s1-casein gene; exon 7 of the beta-casein gene; exon 4 of the kappa-casein gene; exons 4 and 5 of the growth hormone gene and exon 6 of the growth hormone receptor gene. Polymorphisms were detected in five of the seven PCR products. Only kappa-casein and growth hormone receptor were monomorphic. Alpha-lactalbumin and alpha s1-casein exons showed three conformational patterns, beta-casein and growth hormone exon 4 showed two electrophoretic patterns and growth hormone exon 5 showed five conformational patterns. These data provide evidence that ""Churra da Terra Quente"" has a high genetic variability, which opens interesting prospects for future selection programs and also for preservation strategies. Also, our data show that PCR-SSCP is an appropriate tool for evaluating genetic variability.

  15. Carcass traits of improved and indigenous lamb breeds of North-Western Turkey under an intensive production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omur Kocak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the carcass quality of Turkish Merino, Ramlic, Kivircik, Chios and Imroz breeds in north-western Turkey under an intensive production system. After weaning at approximately 85 days of age, 46 lambs from Turkish Merino, Ramlic, Kivircik, Chios and Imroz breeds were fattened for 56 days. Slaughter weights were 47.39, 45.68, 47.27, 31.08 and 29.82 kg and chilled carcass weights were 23.35, 22.33, 23.51, 14.33 and 13.75 kg, respectively (P<0.001. Improved Turkish Merino and Ramlic and indigenous Kivircik lambs had higher carcass measurements than indigenous Chios and Imroz lambs. Chios lamb carcasses had the highest tail root fat yellowness and tail percentage while having the lowest fatness score, omental and mesenteric fat percentage and kidney knob and channel fat percentage. Turkish Merino lambs had higher shoulder percentage, lean percentage and lean/total fat ratio in the hind leg and produced less total fat in the hind leg than Ramlic and Kivircik lambs. These results indicate that improved Turkish Merino might be used to produce high quality lamb carcasses in north-western Turkey. Among indigenous breeds Kivircik showed an outstanding carcass production performance.

  16. The effects of polymorphisms in IL-2, IFN-γ, TGF-β2, IgL, TLR-4, MD-2, and iNOS genes on resistance to Salmonella enteritidis in indigenous chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohidi, Reza; Idris, Ismail Bin; Panandam, Jothi Malar; Bejo, Mohd Hair

    2012-12-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a major cause of food poisoning worldwide, and poultry products are the main source of S. Enteritidis contamination for humans. Among the numerous strategies for disease control, improving genetic resistance to S. Enteritidis has been the most effective approach. We investigated the association between S. Enteritidis burden in the caecum, spleen, and liver of young indigenous chickens and seven candidate genes, selected on the basis of their critical roles in immunological functions. The genes included those encoding interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2), immunoglobulin light chain (IgL), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Two Malaysian indigenous chicken breeds were used as sustainable genetic sources of alleles that are resistant to salmonellosis. The polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment-length polymorphism technique was used to genotype the candidate genes. Three different genotypes were observed in all of the candidate genes, except for MD-2. All of the candidate genes showed the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the two populations. The IL-2-MnlI polymorphism was associated with S. Enteritidis burden in the caecum and spleen. The TGF-β2-RsaI, TLR-4-Sau 96I, and iNOS-AluI polymorphisms were associated with the caecum S. Enteritidis load. The other candidate genes were not associated with S. Enteritidis load in any organ. The results indicate that the IL-2, TGF-β2, TLR-4, and iNOS genes are potential candidates for use in selection programmes for increasing genetic resistance against S. Enteritidis in Malaysian indigenous chickens.

  17. Liver dominant expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene in two chicken breeds during intramuscular-fat development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, H X; Zheng, M Q; Liu, R R; Zhao, G P; Chen, J L; Wen, J

    2012-04-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a key enzyme of lipogenesis. In this study, the FAS mRNA expression patterns were examined in three fat related tissues (liver, breast and thigh) at different developmental stages in two chicken breeds (Beijing-You, BJY and Arbor Acres broiler, AA). Results of the Real time-qPCR showed that the expression of FAS mRNA level in liver was significantly higher (P chicken breeds. Significant differences of FAS mRNA expression in liver were found between BJY and AA chickens during different developmental stages. After the contents of intramuscular-fat (IMF) and the liver fat were measured, the correlation analysis was performed. In liver, the FAS mRNA level was highly correlated with hepatic fat content (r = 0.891, P breed. The results here can contribute to the knowledge on the developmental expression pattern of FAS mRNA and facilitate the further research on the molecular mechanism underlying IMF deposition in chicken.

  18. Prevalence of coccidiosis among village and exotic breed of chickens in Maiduguri, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Jallailudeen Rabana; Jajere, Saleh Mohammed; Ibrahim, Umar Isa; Geidam, Yaqub Ahmed; Gulani, Isa Adamu; Musa, Gambo; Ibekwe, Benjamin U.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Coccidiosis is an important enteric parasitic disease of poultry associated with significant economic losses to poultry farmers worldwide. This survey was conducted from June 2014 through July 2015 with the main goal of investigating the prevalence and associated risk factors of coccidiosis among village and exotic breeds of chickens in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 600 fecal samples from live and slaughtered birds comprising 284 young, 141, growers and 175 adult birds; 379 male and 221 female birds; 450 exotic and 150 local breeds of birds were randomly collected either as bird’s fresh droppings or cutting open an eviscerated intestine of slaughtered birds, while noting their age, sex, and breeds. Samples were analyzed using standard parasitological methods and techniques. Results: An overall prevalence rate of 31.8% (95% confidence interval: 28.07-35.52) was obtained. Higher prevalence rates were recorded in growing birds 58.9% (50.78-67.02), female birds 35.3% (29.00-41.60), exotic birds 42.4% (37.83-46.97), and broiler birds 68.7% (61.28-76.12). Similarly, higher infection rates were also observed among birds sampled from Mairi ward 66.7% (56.03-77.37), intensive management system 46.5% (41.61-51.39), and constructed local cages 54.0% (46.02-61.98). The difference in prevalence of coccidiosis among age groups, breeds, among exotic breeds, sampling sites, husbandry management systems, and litter management systems was statistically significant (0.05) of infection rates was observed in sex. Conclusion: Coccidiosis is endemic in both commercial and backyard poultry farms in Maiduguri due to poor management practices encouraging Eimeria oocysts build-up. It is therefore, recommended that poultry farmers should practice strict biosecurity measures on their farms, creating awareness on the prevalence of coccidiosis, routine vaccination against coccidiosis and educating poultry farmers on the need for maintaining good

  19. Prevalence of coccidiosis among village and exotic breed of chickens in Maiduguri, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jallailudeen Rabana Lawal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Coccidiosis is an important enteric parasitic disease of poultry associated with significant economic losses to poultry farmers worldwide. This survey was conducted from June 2014 through July 2015 with the main goal of investigating the prevalence and associated risk factors of coccidiosis among village and exotic breeds of chickens in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 600 fecal samples from live and slaughtered birds comprising 284 young, 141, growers and 175 adult birds; 379 male and 221 female birds; 450 exotic and 150 local breeds of birds were randomly collected either as bird’s fresh droppings or cutting open an eviscerated intestine of slaughtered birds, while noting their age, sex, and breeds. Samples were analyzed using standard parasitological methods and techniques. Results: An overall prevalence rate of 31.8% (95% confidence interval: 28.07-35.52 was obtained. Higher prevalence rates were recorded in growing birds 58.9% (50.78-67.02, female birds 35.3% (29.00-41.60, exotic birds 42.4% (37.83- 46.97, and broiler birds 68.7% (61.28-76.12. Similarly, higher infection rates were also observed among birds sampled from Mairi ward 66.7% (56.03-77.37, intensive management system 46.5% (41.61-51.39, and constructed local cages 54.0% (46.02-61.98. The difference in prevalence of coccidiosis among age groups, breeds, among exotic breeds, sampling locations, husbandry management systems, and litter management systems was statistically significant (0.05 of infection rates was observed in sex. Conclusion: Coccidiosis is endemic in both commercial and backyard poultry farms in Maiduguri due to poor management practices encouraging Eimeria oocysts build-up. It is therefore, recommended that poultry farmers should practice strict biosecurity measures on their farms, creating awareness on the prevalence of coccidiosis, routine vaccination against coccidiosis and educating poultry farmers on the need for

  20. [Isolation and identification of a subgroup B avian leukosis virus from chickens of Chinese native breed Luhua].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dong-Min; Zhang, Qing-Chan; Cui, Zhi-Zhong

    2010-01-01

    By inoculation of blood samples in DF-1 (C/E) cell culture, an exogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV) strain SDAU09C2 was isolated from a breeder farm of Chinese native breed "Luhua" in Shandong province. Comparisons of the amino acid sequence of env gene gp85 from the isolate with those from other ALV reference strains of different subgroups indicated that SDAU09C2 had the highest gp85 identity to two reference strains of subgroup B of 92.5%. Its gp85 identity to other chicken ALV subgroups A, C, D, E was in the range of 73.2%-87.9%. The identity to subgroup J was only 30.3%-32.4%. This is the first report on isolation and identification of ALV-B and its gp85 from Chinese native breed chickens.

  1. Causes of mortality and temporal patterns in breeding season survival of lesser prairie-chickens in shinnery oak prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, Blake A.; Boal, Clint W.

    2015-01-01

    Baseline survival and mortality data for lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) are lacking for shinnery oak (Quercus havardii) prairies. An understanding of the causes and timing of mortalities and breeding season survival in this ecoregion is important because shinnery oak prairies have hotter and drier environmental conditions, as well as different predator communities compared with the northern distribution of the species. The need for this information has become more pressing given the recent listing of the species as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. We investigated causes of mortality and survival of lesser prairie-chickens during the 6-month breeding season (1 Mar–31 Aug) of 2008–2011 on the Texas Southern High Plains, USA. We recorded 42 deaths of radiotagged individuals, and our results indicated female mortalities were proportionate among avian and mammalian predation and other causes of mortality but survival was constant throughout the 6-month breeding season. Male mortalities were constant across avian and mammalian predation and other causes, but more mortalities occurred in June compared with other months. Male survival also varied by month, and survival probabilities were lower in June–August. We found predation on leks was rare, mortalities from fence collisions were rare, female survival did not decrease during incubation or brood-rearing, and survival was influenced by drought. Our study corroborated recent studies that suggested lesser prairie-chickens are living at the edge of their physiological tolerances to environmental conditions in shinnery oak prairies. As such, lesser prairie-chickens in our study experienced different patterns of mortality and survival that we attributed to hot, dry conditions during the breeding season. Specifically, and converse to other studies on lesser prairie-chicken survival and mortality, drought positively influenced female survival because females did not incubate eggs

  2. Analysis of genetic and cultural conservation value of three indigenous Croatian cattle breeds in a local and global context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramljak, J; Ivanković, A; Veit-Kensch, C E; Förster, M; Medugorac, I

    2011-02-01

    It is widely accepted that autochthonous cattle breeds can be important genetic resources for unforeseeable environmental conditions in the future. Apart from that, they often represent local culture and tradition and thus assist in the awareness of ethnic identity of a country. In Croatia, there are only three indigenous cattle breeds, Croatian Buša, Slavonian Syrmian Podolian and Istrian Cattle. All of them are threatened but specialized in a particular habitat and production system. We analysed 93 microsatellites in 51 animals of each breed to get thorough information about genetic diversity and population structure. We further set them within an existing frame of additional 16 breeds that have been genotyped for the same marker set and cover a geographical area from the domestication centre near Anatolia, through the Balkan and alpine regions, to the north-west of Europe. The cultural value was evaluated regarding the role in landscape, gastronomy, folklore and handicraft. The overall results recognize Croatian Buša being partly admixed but harbouring an enormous genetic diversity comparable with other traditional unselected Buša breeds in the Anatolian and Balkan areas. The Podolian cattle showed the lowest genetic diversity at the highest genetic distance to all remaining breeds but are playing an important role as part of the cultural landscape and thus contribute to the tourist industry. The genetic diversity of the Istrian cattle was found in the middle range of this study. It is already included in the tourist industry as a local food speciality. Current and future conservation strategies are discussed.

  3. Hawks and Baby Chickens: Cultivating the Sources of Indigenous Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    In this response to Hewson and Ogunniyi's paper on indigenous knowledge (IK) and science teaching in South Africa, I seek to broaden the debate by setting the enterprise of integrating IK into science education in its cultural and socio-political context. I begin by exploring the multiple meanings of indigenous knowledge in Africa, next consider…

  4. Indigenous sheep breeds in Brazil: potential role for contributing to the sustainability of production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azambuja Ribeiro, Edson Luis; González-García, Eliel

    2016-10-01

    Brazil has vocation for food production, both vegetable and animal, with the sheep industry having an expanding activity. However, productivity rates are often bellowing the possibilities of the country. Here, the roles the native breeds may develop in this expanding activity are described. Breeds considered are the hair breeds Santa Inês, Morada Nova, Somális Brasileira, Cariri, and Rabo Largo, and the wool breeds Bergamácia Brasileira, Crioula Lanada, and Pantaneira. These breeds have arisen in environments that may be considered difficult for other (exotic) breeds, less adapted to the local conditions. The hair breeds emerged in a semi-arid environment, a hot and with low rainfall region, of the Northeast of Brazil. The Crioula Lanada is the only breed that originated in the South, in a subtropical region with cold winters. The genetic group Pantaneira had its origin in an environment with higher humidity, especially soil moisture. The Bergamácia Brasileira derived from the Italian Bergamasca breed, which was first introduced in northeastern Brazil. Animals from these breeds have been regarded as robust, with lower requirements for maintenance, resistant to worms, and easy to handle. On the other side, as they are generally smaller than the exotic breeds used for meat production, they are often considered as less productive. In this literature review, a possibility of valorizing them, both as purebred or in crossbreeding programs, especially for meat production is addressed. These breeds are part of the genetic, historical, and cultural heritage of Brazil, and if used properly, according to the different environments and production systems, they can also be very important in the development of the sheep industry.

  5. Accuracy of estimated breeding values with genomic information on males, females, or both: an example on broiler chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco, Daniela A L; Fragomeni, Breno O; Tsuruta, Shogo; Aguilar, Ignacio; Zumbach, Birgit; Hawken, Rachel J; Legarra, Andres; Misztal, Ignacy

    2015-07-02

    As more and more genotypes become available, accuracy of genomic evaluations can potentially increase. However, the impact of genotype data on accuracy depends on the structure of the genotyped cohort. For populations such as dairy cattle, the greatest benefit has come from genotyping sires with high accuracy, whereas the benefit due to adding genotypes from cows was smaller. In broiler chicken breeding programs, males have less progeny than dairy bulls, females have more progeny than dairy cows, and most production traits are recorded for both sexes. Consequently, genotyping both sexes in broiler chickens may be more advantageous than in dairy cattle. We studied the contribution of genotypes from males and females using a real dataset with genotypes on 15 723 broiler chickens. Genomic evaluations used three training sets that included only males (4648), only females (8100), and both sexes (12 748). Realized accuracies of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) were used to evaluate the benefit of including genotypes for different training populations on genomic predictions of young genotyped chickens. Using genotypes on males, the average increase in accuracy of GEBV over pedigree-based EBV for males and females was 12 and 1 percentage points, respectively. Using female genotypes, this increase was 1 and 18 percentage points, respectively. Using genotypes of both sexes increased accuracies by 19 points for males and 20 points for females. For two traits with similar heritabilities and amounts of information, realized accuracies from cross-validation were lower for the trait that was under strong selection. Overall, genotyping males and females improves predictions of all young genotyped chickens, regardless of sex. Therefore, when males and females both contribute to genetic progress of the population, genotyping both sexes may be the best option.

  6. TLR-4 signalling pathway: MyD88 independent pathway up-regulation in chicken breeds upon LPS treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnati, Hanuma Kumar; Pasupuleti, Satya Ratan; Kandi, Ravinder; Undi, Ram Babu; Sahu, Itishri; Kannaki, T R; Subbiah, Madhuri; Gutti, Ravi Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that sense the microbial pathogens are important components of host immune system. TLRs play key roles in the innate defence mechanism against pathogens, in the development of adaptive immunity, and are possibly the major determinants of the susceptibility to infections. To study the resistance pattern in different breeds of chicken, a comprehensive understanding of TLR4 signalling pathways is required. We investigated the TLR-4 pathway regulated gene expressions in PBMCs of chicken breeds of Broiler (Cobb), Aseel, Dahlem Red and Ghagus upon LPS treatment using Quantitative RT-PCR approach. Several genes were found to be up regulated in both TLR-induced MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent pathways. These genes include TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4), MyD88 (Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88), TRAF6 (TNF receptor associated factor 6), TRIF (TIR domain containing adapter inducing interferon beta), the transcription factors NFkB (Nuclear factor kappa B), IRF7 (Interferon regulatory factor 7) and IFN β (Interferon beta). We have also studied inflammatory cytokines such as IL2, IL6, IL8, IL1 β and TNF α to further understand the downstream signalling of TLR4 pathway. These results showed that higher expression of TLR signalling activation via both MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent pathways are more beneficial to chicken mononuclear cells mediated innate immunity. We observed TRIF dependent pathway in Aseel and Ghagus breeds. Our results are in concurrent with general observation that Aseel breed is comparatively more resistant, Ghagus and broilers are moderately resistant and Dahlem Red is comparatively more susceptible to bacterial infections.

  7. Effects of breeds and dietary protein levels on the growth performance, energy expenditure and expression of avUCP mRNA in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qihua; Xu, Zhiqiang; Liu, L; Yu, Hongxin; Rong, Hua; Tao, Linli; Zhang, Xi; Chen, Xiaobo; Gu, Dahai; Fan, Yueyuan; Li, Xiaoqin; Ge, Changrong; Tian, Yunbo; Jia, Junjing

    2013-04-01

    The physiological mechanisms of thermogenesis, energy balance and energy expenditure are poorly understood in poultry. The aim of this study was designed to investigate the physiological roles of avian uncoupling protein (avUCP) regulating in energy balance and thermogenesis by using three chicken breeds of existence striking genetic difference and feeding with different dietary protein levels. Three chicken breeds including broilers, hybrid chickens, and non-selection Wuding chickens were used in this study. Total 150 chicks of 1 day of age, with 50 from each breed were reared under standard conditions on starter diets to 30 days. At 30 days of age, forty chicks from each breed chicks were divided into two groups. One group was fed low protein diet (LP, 17.0 %), and the other group was fed high protein diet (HP, 19.5 %) for 60 days. Wuding chickens showed the lowest feed conversion efficiency (FCE) and the highest expressions of avUCP mRNA association with high plasma T3 and insulin concentrations. Hybrid chickens showed the lowest expressions of avUCP mRNA association with high FCE and energy efficiency. Expressions of avUCP mRNA association with diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) were only observed in broiler and hybrid chickens. The expressions of avUCP mRNA were positive association with plasma insulin, T3 and NEFA concentrations. Age influence on the expression of avUCP mRNA were observed only for hybrid and broiler chickens. It seems that both roles of avUCP regulation thermogenesis and lipid utilisation as fuel were observed in the present study response to variation in dietary protein and breeds.

  8. Identification of Y chromosome genetic variations in Chinese indigenous horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yinghui; Ma, Yuehui; Guan, Weijun; Cheng, Yuejiao; Wang, Yanping; Han, Jianlin; Jin, Dapeng; Mang, Lai; Mahmut, Halik

    2010-01-01

    Y chromosome acts as a single nonrecombining unit that is male specific and in effect haploid, thus ensuring the preservation of mutational events as a single haplotype via male lines. In this study, 6 Y chromosome-specific microsatellites (SSR) were tested for the patrilineal genetic variations of 573 male samples from Chinese domestic horse (30 breeds), Przewalski's horse, and donkey. All the 6 loci appeared as a haplotype block in Przewalski's horse and the domestic donkey. There were notable differences, however, at Y chromosome markers between horse and donkey. There were 2 haplotypes of Eca.YA16 in the domestic horse breeds, Haplotype A (Allele A: 156 bp) and Haplotype B (Allele B: 152 bp). Allele A was the common allele among 30 horse breeds, and Allele B was found in 11 horse breeds. This is the first description of a Y chromosome variant for horses. The 2 haplotypes of Y chromosome discovered in the domestic horse breeds in China could be helpful in unveiling their intricate genetic genealogy.

  9. Expression pattern of genes of RLR-mediated antiviral pathway in different-breed chicken response to Marek's disease virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ze-Qing; Lian, Ting; Huang, Yong; Zhu, Qing; Liu, Yi-Ping

    2013-01-01

    It has been known that the chicken's resistance to disease was affected by chicken's genetic background. And RLR-mediated antiviral pathway plays an important role in detection of viral RNA. However, little is known about the interaction of genetic background with RLR-mediated antiviral pathway in chicken against MDV infection. In this study, we adopted economic line-AA broilers and native Erlang mountainous chickens for being infected with MDV. Upon infection with MDV, the expression of MDA-5 was upregulated in two-breed chickens at 4, 7, and 21 d.p.i. It is indicated that MDA-5 might be involved in detecting MDV in chicken. Interestingly, the expression of IRF-3 and IFN- β genes was decreased in spleen and thymus of broilers at 21 d.p.i, but it was upregulated in immune tissues of Erlang mountainous chickens. And the genome load of MDV in spleen of broiler is significantly higher than that in Erlang mountainous chickens. Meanwhile, we observed that the death of broiler mainly also occurred in this phase. Collectively, these present results demonstrated that the expression patters of IRF-3 and IFN- β genes in chicken against MDV infection might be affected by the genetic background which sequently influence the resistance of chicken response to MDV.

  10. Alteration of HSF3 and HSP70 mRNA expression in the tissues of two chicken breeds during acute heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W W; Kong, L N; Zhang, X Q; Luo, Q B

    2014-11-27

    This study aimed to estimate changes in HSF3 and HSP70 mRNA expression in stress-sensitive tissues of 2 chicken breeds during acute heat stress. Lingshan chickens (LSC) and White Recessive Rock (WRR) (24 chickens of each breed) were randomly divided into 4 groups (0, 2, 3, and 6 h of heat treatment). With increasing heat treatment time, both HSF3 and HSP70 expression first declined and then showed a significant increase in both breeds. However, HSP70 expression decreased in the heart following 6 h of heat treatment, whereas HSF3 expression continued to increase. After 2 h of heat treatment, HSF3 expression was significantly higher in the brain and leg muscle of LSC compared to WRR (P heat treatment, HSF3 expression was significantly higher in the brain and leg muscle of LSC compared to WRR (P heat treatment.

  11. Genetic diversity, population structure and relationships in indigenous cattle populations of Ethiopia and Korean Hanwoo breeds using SNP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edea, Zewdu; Dadi, Hailu; Kim, Sang-Wook; Dessie, Tadelle; Lee, Taeheon; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Jong-Joo; Kim, Kwan-Suk

    2013-01-01

    In total, 166 individuals from five indigenous Ethiopian cattle populations - Ambo (n = 27), Borana (n = 35), Arsi (n = 30), Horro (n = 36), and Danakil (n = 38) - were genotyped for 8773 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and relationships. As a representative of taurine breeds, Hanwoo cattle (n = 40) were also included in the study for reference. Among Ethiopian cattle populations, the proportion of SNPs with minor allele frequencies (MAFs) ≥0.05 ranged from 81.63% in Borana to 85.30% in Ambo, with a mean of 83.96% across all populations. The Hanwoo breed showed the highest proportion of polymorphism, with MAFs ≥0.05, accounting for 95.21% of total SNPs. The mean expected heterozygosity varied from 0.370 in Danakil to 0.410 in Hanwoo. The mean genetic differentiation (F ST; 1%) in Ethiopian cattle revealed that within individual variation accounted for approximately 99% of the total genetic variation. As expected, F ST and Reynold genetic distance were greatest between Hanwoo and Ethiopian cattle populations, with average values of 17.62 and 18.50, respectively. The first and second principal components explained approximately 78.33% of the total variation and supported the clustering of the populations according to their historical origins. At K = 2 and 3, a considerable source of variation among cattle is the clustering of the populations into Hanwoo (taurine) and Ethiopian cattle populations. The low estimate of genetic differentiation (F ST) among Ethiopian cattle populations indicated that differentiation among these populations is low, possibly owing to a common historical origin and high gene flow. Genetic distance, phylogenic tree, principal component analysis, and population structure analyses clearly differentiated the cattle population according to their historical origins, and confirmed that Ethiopian cattle populations are genetically distinct from the Hanwoo breed.

  12. Genetic diversity, population structure and relationships in indigenous cattle populations of Ethiopia and Hanwoo breeds using SNP markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewdu eEdea

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In total, 166 individuals from 5 indigenous Ethiopian cattle populations—Ambo (n = 27, Borana (n = 35, Arsi (n = 30, Horro (n = 36, and Danakil (n = 38—were genotyped for 8773 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and relationships. As a representative of taurine breeds, Hanwoo cattle (n = 40 were also included in the study for reference. Among Ethiopian cattle populations, the proportion of SNPs with minor allele frequencies (MAFs ≥ 0.05 ranged from 81.63% in Borana to 85.30% in Ambo, with a mean of 83.96% across all populations. The Hanwoo breed showed the highest proportion of polymorphism, with MAFs ≥ 0.05, accounting for 95.21% of total SNPs. The mean expected heterozygosity varied from 0.370 in Danakil to 0.410 in Hanwoo. The mean genetic differentiation (FST (1% in Ethiopian cattle revealed that within-individual variation accounted for approximately 99% of the total genetic variation. As expected, FST and Reynold genetic distance were greatest between Hanwoo and Ethiopian cattle populations, with average values of 17.62 and 18.50, respectively. The first and second principal components explained approximately 78.33% of the total variation and supported the clustering of the populations according to their historical origins. At K = 2 and 3, a considerable source of variation among cattle is the clustering of the populations into Hanwoo (taurine and Ethiopian cattle populations. The low estimate of genetic differentiation (FST among Ethiopian cattle populations indicated that differentiation among these populations is low, possibly owing to a common historical origin and high gene flow. Genetic distance, phylogenic tree, PCA, and population structure analyses clearly differentiated the cattle population according to their historical origins, and confirmed that Ethiopian cattle populations are genetically distinct from the Hanwoo breed

  13. The origin and evolution of fibromelanosis in domesticated chickens: Genomic comparison of Indonesian Cemani and Chinese Silkie breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmayanthi, Anik Budhi; Terai, Yohei; Sulandari, Sri; Zein, M Syamsul Arifin; Akiyama, Toyoko; Satta, Yoko

    2017-01-01

    Like Chinese Silkie, Indonesian Ayam Cemani exhibits fibromelanosis or dermal hyperpigmentation and possesses complex segmental duplications on chromosome 20 that involve the endothelin 3 gene, EDN3. A genomic region, DR1 of 127 kb, together with another region, DR2 of 171 kb, was duplicated by unequal crossing over, accompanied by inversion of one DR2. Quantitative PCR and copy number variation analyses on the Cemani genome sequence confirmed the duplication of EDN3. These genetic arrangements are identical in Cemani and Silkie, indicating a single origin of the genetic cause of Fm. The two DR1s harbor two distinct EDN3 haplotypes in a form of permanent heterozygosity, although they remain allelic in the ancestral Red Jungle Fowl population and some domesticated chicken breeds, with their allelic divergence time being as recent as 0.3 million years ago. In Cemani and Silkie breeds, artificial selection favoring the Fm phenotype has left an unambiguous record for selective sweep that extends in both directions from tandemly duplicated EDN3 loci. This highly homozygous tract is different in length between Cemani and Silkie, reflecting their distinct breeding histories. It is estimated that the Fm phenotype came into existence at least 6600-9100 years ago, prior to domestication of Cemani and Silkie, and that throughout domestication there has been intense artificial selection with strength s > 50% in each breed.

  14. Heterozygosity analysis of Bionda Piemontese and Bianca di Saluzzo chicken breeds by microsatellites markers: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Longeri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of genetic variability is one of the main goals in animal production science and the analysis of breeds genetic asset can supply objective basis for effective conservation programs and selection strategies. Bionda Piemontese (PIB and Bianca di Saluzzo (SAB chicken breeds originated in Piemonte region. Breeds conservation programmes started in 1999 in Verzuolo (CN aiming to preserve the breeds and to improve their diffusion being particularly adapted to free range rearing systems thanks to their resistance. PIB and SAB are both suggested for traditional recipes and production (e.g. Morozzo capon and are Slow Food presidia. A total of 76 birds were analysed: PIB (n=36, SAB (n=40. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples. All birds were genotyped at eight microsatellite loci. Each marker was subjected to PCR and the products were separated by electrophoresis in 4.2% denaturing polyacrylamide gels on ABI Prism 377 DNA Sequencer equipped with Genescan and Genotyper software. The results of this preliminary study highlight the genetic differences occurring between PIB and SAB populations

  15. ADAPTATION OF INDIGENOUS INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VIRUS (IBDV) IN EMBRYONATED CHICKEN EGGS

    OpenAIRE

    A. N. Ahmad, I. Hussain, M. Siddique and M. S. Mahmood

    2005-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus was isolated from bursae of broilers suffering from Gumboro disease and was designated as field virus (FV). The virus was confirmed through agar gel precipitation test (AGPT) and counter current immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE). The virus was titrated by using reverse passive haemagglutination (RPHA) test and egg infective dose fifty (EID50). The FV was inoculated into 9-to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs through chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM). At each passage...

  16. Benzimidazole-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in indigenous Chiapas and Pelibuey sheep breeds from Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liébano-Hernández, E; González-Olvera, M; Vázquez-Peláez, C; Mendoza-de-Gives, P; Ramírez-Vargas, G; Peralta-Lailson, M; Reyes-García, M E; Osorio, J; Sánchez-Pineda, H; López-Arellano, M E

    2015-01-01

    Because of the natural adaptation of Mexican sheep, the aim of the present study was to identify the presence or absence of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes (GIN) resistant to benzimidazole (BZ) in both Chiapas and Pelibuey sheep breeds on local farms. Both male and female GIN-infected grazing sheep of the two breeds were selected. Sheep faecal samples were collected to obtain infective larvae (L3). This evolving stage of the parasite was used for taxonomic identification of the genus, based on its morphological characteristics. BZ anthelmintic resistance was evaluated using a nematode-compound in vitro interaction bioassay and the allele-specific polymerase chain reaction technique to detect mutations of residues 198 and 200 on isotype 1 of the β-tubulin gene. Three BZ-based compounds (febendazole (FBZ), tiabendazole (TBZ) and albendazole (ABZ)) at concentrations of 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.062 and 0.03 mg/ml were used to estimate the anthelmintic efficacy and lethal dose (LD50, LD90 and LD99) of the drugs. Two parasitic nematodes, Haemonchus and Teladorsagia, were identified in both isolates. Also, the proportions of anthelmintic resistance identified in GIN of the two sheep breeds were 68% in isolates from the Chiapas breed and 71.8% in the Pelibuey breed. The specific lethal activity obtained with FBZ was higher than 90%. However, TBZ and ABZ showed a lethal activity lower than 50%. High variability in the discriminating dose values was found among the BZ drugs. For example, FBZ LD ranged from 0.01 to 1.20 mg/ml; on the other hand, TBZ and ABZ required a dose ranging from 0.178 to 759 mg/ml. In addition, amino acid changes of Phe (TTC) to Tyr (TAC) at codon 200 of the β-tubulin gene, showing resistance to BZ, and no changes at codon 198 Glu (GAA) to Ala (GCA) were observed for both isolates. These results confirmed the presence of a genetic mutation associated with BZ in both Chiapas and Pelibuey nematode isolates.

  17. Characterization of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from the cloaca of 'fancy breeds' and confined chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, S L; Poulsen, L L; Thorndahl, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: The aim was to investigate the intestinal community of Enterococcus faecalis from healthy confined non-industrialized chicken. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 206 E. faecalis isolates were collected from cloacal swabs. The prevalence of E. faecalis from two confined flocks was 83 and 96...... confined flocks, with one shared ST, while seven STs were identified in the two fancy breeder flocks. Only six of the identified STs had previously been registered in chicken. CONCLUSION: The majority of clonal lineages of E. faecalis associated with chicken reared in confinement and under backyard...... conditions were unrelated. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study has provided new information on opportunistic E. faecalis in confined non-industrial chicken. Knowledge of population diversity and prevalence compared to conventional production is important to accesses, if certain clonal lineages...

  18. Genetic evidence from mitochondrial DNA corroborates the origin of Tibetan chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing; Zhao, Xiaoling; Wang, Yan; Yin, Huadong; Hu, Yaodong; Liu, Aiping; Li, Diyan

    2017-01-01

    Chicken is the most common poultry species and is important to human societies. Tibetan chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a breed endemic to China that is distributed mainly on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. However, its origin has not been well characterized. In the present study, we sequenced partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of 239 and 283 samples from Tibetan and Sichuan indigenous chickens, respectively. Incorporating 1091 published sequences, we constructed the matrilineal genealogy of Tibetan chickens to further document their domestication history. We found that the genetic structure of the mtDNA haplotypes of Tibetan chickens are dominated by seven major haplogroups (A-G). In addition, phylogenetic and network analyses showed that Tibetan chickens are not distinguishable from the indigenous chickens in surrounding areas. Furthermore, some clades of Tibetan chickens may have originated from game fowls. In summary, our results collectively indicated that Tibetan chickens may have diverged from indigenous chickens in the adjacent regions and hybridized with various chickens. PMID:28241078

  19. Carcass characteristics and meat quality traits of the Padovana chicken breed, a commercial line, and their cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the Padovana Camosciata local chicken breed (PC; n=59, the slow-growing line Berlanda- Gaina (BG; n=62, and their cross (BGxPC; n=57 for carcass and meat quality features. Animals were reared under the same experimental conditions and slaughtered at 3 different ages. An analysis of variance was performed on carcass and meat traits using a linear model that included fixed effects of genotype, sex, age at slaughter, and interactions between them. The PC local breed was approximately 1 kg lighter (P<0.001 at slaughter and exhibited greater dressing percentage (+1.50%; P<0.05 than BG. Breast skin of PC was bluer (-2.74; P<0.001, and breast muscle was darker (-2.65; P<0.001 and redder (+0.48; P<0.001 than that of BG. The pH (+0.16; P<0.001, thawing (+0.90%; P<0.01 and cooking (+2.28%; P<0.001 losses determined on breast muscle were higher for PC than BG. Crossbred animals performed better than the average of BG and PC chickens for breast weight (+22.81 g; P<0.01 and dressing percentage (+1.38%; P<0.05. Breast skin of BGxPC was darker (-1.74; P<0.05, less red (-0.23; P<0.05, and bluer (-1.54; P<0.01 than the average of BG and PC, and breast muscle was more yellow (+0.64; P<0.05 for BGxPC. Cooking losses were lower (-0.99%; P<0.05 for crossbred than the average of BG and PC chickens. Results confirmed the specificity of meat characteristics of PC local breed and demonstrated the potential benefit of crossbreeding to improve production traits of PC breed without compromising the peculiar quality of its meat.

  20. AFLP and RAPD Analysis of the Boer and Indigenous Breeds of the Goat in Jiangsu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Shao-xian; YANG Li-guo; JIANG Xun-ping; LIU Hong-lin; LU Wei-zhong; XIANG Yang-hai

    2003-01-01

    Blood and tissue samples were collected from 105 goats including 60 Boer goats (30 for eachsex), 30 Xuhuai goats (15 for each sex) and 15 Haimen goats (7 stud and 8 does). DNA was extracted andDNA pools were constructed on the basis of goat breeds. In 36 selective primer combinations, 29 combinationsamplified totally 3 253 markers including 92 polymorphic markers by amplified fragment length polymor-phism (AFLP). On average, 3.17 polymorphic markers were amplified per combination, with a polymorphicfrequency of 2.8%. The primer combinations amplifying more polymorphic markers (showed in brackets)were involved in E00+ACG/M00+CAA (13), E00+ACG/M00+CAG (10), E00+AAC/M00+CAC (8)and E00+AAC/M00+ACT (7). A total of 183 markers including 60 polymorphic markers were amplified byRAPD from the pooled DNA of three breeds using 22 primers with strong polymorphism and high reproduc-ibility selected from 93 RAPD primers. On average, 2.73 polymorphic markers were amplified per primer,with a polymorphic frequency of 32.8%. The results of AFLP and RAPD coincidently suggested that the ge-netic distance is the closest between Xuhuai and Haimen goat, next between Xuhuai and Boer goat, and the far-thest between Haimen and Boer goat. According to the UPGMA method, Haimen and Xuhuai goats can begathered together as a cluster, then Boer goat. Both methods can be used to implicate the genetic difference ofthese three breeds, in particular AFLP has more polymorphic markers.

  1. Feeding conditions and breed affect the level of DNA methylation of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 gene in chicken breast muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, G L; Wang, H W; Zhao, X Z; Li, Qin; Li, J; Li, Q R; Wang, Q G

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the effects of feed condition and breed on the level of DNA methylation for the uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) gene, which is an important candidate gene for regulating intramuscular fat (IMF) content in chicken breast muscle, breast muscle of Daninghe (DNH) and Qingjiaoma (QJM) chickens under scatter-feed and captivity-feed conditions was analyzed. Using RNA sequencing, 47 and 113 candidate genes were determined to be related to feed conditions and breed, respectively, and 7 differentially expressed genes were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR, including UCP3. The mRNA levels of UCP3 were significantly different between the 2 feed conditions. The DNA region from bp +1700 to +2459 of the UCP3 gene was studied using the bisulfite sequencing method and contained 46 methylation sites and 3 CpG islands. The results showed that the methylation level of this UCP3 region was lower in DNH chickens (0.77% to 0.88%, P = 0.012) and QJM chickens (0.88% to 0.91%, P = 0.20) under scatter-feed conditions than under captivity-feed conditions. The mean methylation level of UCP3 in DNH chickens was lower than that in QJM chickens under scatter-feed conditions (DNH to QJM, 0.77% to 0.88%, P = 0.007), which suggests that breed affects the mean methylation level of UCP3 under scatter-feed conditions. In summary, our findings suggest that feed condition and breed affect the methylation of UCP3 in chicken breast muscle.

  2. Comparative efficacy of standard AGID, CCIE and competitive ELISA for detecting bluetongue virus antibodies in indigenous breeds of sheep and goats in Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shringi, Smriti; Shringi, B N

    2005-03-01

    The sero-prevalence of antibodies against blue tongue virus (BTV) in 408 local breeds of sheep in Rajasthan state in India was investigated using standard agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. Maximum seropositivities of 11.3% (13/115), 10.7% (13/121), 7.1% (11/155) and 5.9% (1/17) were recorded in the Chokla, Magra, Nali and Pugal breeds, respectively. Out of 107 goat serum samples, 6 (5.6%) were AGID positive. The performance of the standard AGID, counter current immuno-electrophoresis (CCIE) and the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for the detection of serum antibody against BTV in indigenous breeds of sheep were compared. Out of 178 sheep serum samples tested, 17 (9.5%), 22 (12.3%) and 54 (30.3%) were positive for group-specific bluetongue antibodies by AGID, CCIE and cELISA, respectively. There was appreciable difference in the seroprevalence detected by AGID, CCIE and cELISA in clinically healthy and diseased sheep with regard to relative sensitivities and specificities of the tests with cELISA being highly sensitive and specific followed by CCIE and AGID test. It was concluded that these indigenous breeds of sheep may be a potential reservoir of BTV infection and cELISA should be routinely used for the detection of antibodies against BTV in these local breeds of sheep.

  3. Expression Pattern of Genes of RLR-Mediated Antiviral Pathway in Different-Breed Chicken Response to Marek’s Disease Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Qing Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been known that the chicken’s resistance to disease was affected by chicken’s genetic background. And RLR-mediated antiviral pathway plays an important role in detection of viral RNA. However, little is known about the interaction of genetic background with RLR-mediated antiviral pathway in chicken against MDV infection. In this study, we adopted economic line-AA broilers and native Erlang mountainous chickens for being infected with MDV. Upon infection with MDV, the expression of MDA-5 was upregulated in two-breed chickens at 4, 7, and 21 d.p.i. It is indicated that MDA-5 might be involved in detecting MDV in chicken. Interestingly, the expression of IRF-3 and IFN-β genes was decreased in spleen and thymus of broilers at 21 d.p.i, but it was upregulated in immune tissues of Erlang mountainous chickens. And the genome load of MDV in spleen of broiler is significantly higher than that in Erlang mountainous chickens. Meanwhile, we observed that the death of broiler mainly also occurred in this phase. Collectively, these present results demonstrated that the expression patters of IRF-3 and IFN-β genes in chicken against MDV infection might be affected by the genetic background which sequently influence the resistance of chicken response to MDV.

  4. The association of SNPs in Hsp90β gene 5' flanking region with thermo tolerance traits and tissue mRNA expression in two chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo-Yu; Gan, Jian-Kang; Xiao, Xiong; Jiang, Li-Yan; Zhang, Xi-Quan; Luo, Qing-Bin

    2013-09-01

    Thermo stress induces heat shock proteins (HSPs) expression and HSP90 family is one of them that has been reported to involve in cellular protection against heat stress. But whether there is any association of genetic variation in the Hsp90β gene in chicken with thermo tolerance is still unknown. Direct sequencing was used to detect possible SNPs in Hsp90β gene 5' flanking region in 3 chicken breeds (n = 663). Six mutations, among which 2 SNPs were chosen and genotypes were analyzed with PCR-RFLP method, were found in Hsp90β gene in these 3 chicken breeds. Association analysis indicated that SNP of C.-141G>A in the 5' flanking region of the Hsp90β gene in chicken had some effect on thermo tolerance traits, which may be a potential molecular marker of thermo tolerance, and the genotype GG was the thermo tolerance genotype. Hsp90β gene mRNA expression in different tissues detected by quantitative real-time PCR assay were demonstrated to be tissue dependent, implying that different tissues have distinct sensibilities to thermo stress. Besides, it was shown time specific and varieties differences. The expression of Hsp90β mRNA in Lingshan chickens in some tissues including heart, liver, brain and spleen were significantly higher or lower than that of White Recessive Rock (WRR). In this study, we presume that these mutations could be used in marker assisted selection for anti-heat stress chickens in our breeding program, and WRR were vulnerable to tropical thermo stress whereas Lingshan chickens were well adapted.

  5. Quality of eggs from different laying hen production systems, from indigenous breeds and specialty eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordelo, M; Fernandes, E; Bessa, R J B; Alves, S P

    2016-11-02

    Consumers are concerned about the quality of commercially available eggs. Eggs used in this study were marketed in Portugal and originated from laying hens raised in cages, barns, free-range, organic eggs, and eggs enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and from native Portuguese breeds. The eggs were analyzed for chemical and physical properties. Results indicated that yolk color was lighter in organic eggs and darker in n-3 PUFA enriched eggs. Eggs from caged hens had lower Haugh units in contrast with organic eggs. Caged hens produced eggs with a higher protein content while organic eggs had the lowest level of protein in the albumen. As might be expected, eggs enriched in n-3 PUFA had the highest n-3 PUFA content. Choosing an egg by its production system or labeling specificities may not be a guarantee of superior product quality. The layer genotype, age, diet, and the quality of the range also may affect egg properties. Due to a different layer diet, enriched eggs seem to be of superior quality.

  6. Adoption of exotic chicken breeds by rural poultry keepers in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wondmeneh, E.; Waaij, van der E.H.; Tadelle, D.; Udo, H.M.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines factors that determine the probability and intensity of adoption of exotic chickens among rural poultry producers in Ethiopia. A total of 240 respondents were interviewed from households that were selected by systematic random sampling. The differences between adopters and

  7. Breed effect on early cytokine mRNA expression in spleen and cecum of chickens with and without Salmonella enteritidis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseman, Jennifer H; Kaiser, Michael G; Ciraci, Ceren; Kaiser, Pete; Lamont, Susan J

    2007-01-01

    We examined mRNA expression of 11 genes: BAK, Bcl-x, Interferon [IFN]-gamma, Interleukin [IL]-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12alpha, IL-12beta, IL-18, CXCLi2 [IL-8/CAF], and a MIP family chemokine, CCLi2, in the spleen and cecum of day-old chicks after oral inoculation with Salmonella enteritidis (SE) or medium. Three distinct chicken breeds (broiler, Fayoumi, and Leghorn) were evaluated for mRNA expression levels at 2 and 18h post-inoculation using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). SE exposure significantly increased splenic IL-18 and IFN-gamma expression. Breed effect was significant (Pbreed genetics influencing cytokine mRNA expression in young chickens and may potentially explain some generalized immune response differences between breeds.

  8. Evaluation of an indigenous source of rock phosphate as a supplement for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, M; Lughmani, A B; Pesti, G M

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of replacing dicalcium phosphate (DCP) with Hazara rock phosphate (HRP) on the growth performance of broiler chickens. The purpose was to determine the maximum level of F that could be well tolerated. The HRP (13.16% P and 2.98% F) was incorporated into a standard corn- and soybean meal-based diet by replacing 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of DCP based on P. Each treatment consisted of 5 replicate pens of 10 chicks each. The Ca and nonphytate P contents of all diets were maintained constant at 1.0 and 0.45%, respectively. Replacing 25% DCP with HRP significantly increased average BW gain. Substituting 100% HRP (562 mg of F/kg) decreased (P DCP:HRP) using a quadratic relationship: BW gain (g) = 1,128.6 + 2.6848 × HRP - 0.0368 × HRP(2). Increasing the level of HRP decreased feed intake: feed intake (g) = 1,987.4 + 2.775 × HRP - 0.0515 × HRP(2). The effect of HRP was not pronounced (significant at P DCP was replaced by HRP. Feed intake decreased by an average 3.77 g with each 1.0% increase in the levels of HRP beyond 27% HRP substitution. Replacing DCP with HRP up to 50% caused a significant increase in hot carcass weights. The Ca content of tibia was a quadratic function of HRP and was predicted to be highest at 56% HRP substitution. However, increasing HRP in the diet gradually decreased tibia P content (linear function). Serum Ca was increased by substituting HRP for DCP (linear effect). Increasing HRP in the diet decreased the P content of the serum and was predicted to be lowest (P DCP as P supplements. Using a multiple range test, it was concluded that between 25 and 50% DCP with HRP replacement (141 and 281 mg of F/kg, respectively) could be used safely without significantly decreasing the growth performance of broiler chickens.

  9. Effects of stocking density on growth performance, carcass yield, and immune status of a local chicken breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, H B; Lu, J; Zou, J M; Wang, Q; Shi, S R

    2012-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of stocking density on growth performance, carcass yield, and immune status of a local chicken breed. In total, 840 one-day-old male Suqin yellow chickens were placed into 4-m(2) cages in groups of 50 (low), 70 (medium), or 90 (high) birds. Each treatment was represented by 4 replicates (cages). The cages measured 2.84 × 1.42 m; half of the area of the cage (2 m(2)) was used from 1 to 28 d and the whole cage was used from 29 to 42 d. Stocking densities were 25, 35, and 45 birds/m(2) from 1 to 28 d and 12.5, 17.5, and 22.5 birds/m(2) from 29 to 42 d (low, medium, and high, respectively). Final production (live bird mass after fasting) per unit area was 14.46, 19.46, and 24.23 kg/m(2), respectively, at 42 d of age. Several immune parameters were evaluated, and the growth performance, carcass yield, and meat quality were determined. Body weight at 28 and 42 d of age was significantly reduced as the stocking density increased (P 0.05). The thigh yield of chickens in the medium-density group improved significantly (P 0.05) by the stocking density, but pH values increased slightly as density increased. No significant difference was noted in the immunological parameters, but the blood total protein and potassium were significantly affected by stocking density (P < 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that increasing the stocking density advantageously affected feed/gain and decreased the final BW, whereas no evidence was found that stocking density caused changes in any of the measured immune parameters.

  10. Expression profile of heat shock protein 70 in indigenous Huainan partridge chicken exposed to low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Yong Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is clear that heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 is responsible for stressful conditions. However, the expression level and profile of HSP70 during cold stress are still unknown. In this study, the expression profile of HSP70 in the heart, liver, muscle and spleen of Huainan partridge chicken exposed to low temperature was investigated. HSP70 expression was showed tissue-dependent with highest expression in muscle, followed by liver and heart; conversely, there was no evidence of changes in spleen, where there were two expression peaks during cold stress, before 3 and after 72 h, respectively. The plasma creatine kinase (CK activity exhibited a significant increase (P<0.01 after 1 h of cold stress exposure, and then decreased till to the lowest level after 72 h of cold stress exposure. On the other hand, nitric oxide content arose and reached the peak level (P<0.01 after 3 h of cold stress exposure, and then suddenly decreased to the original level with the duration of exposure time. In conclusion, mRNA expression of HSP70 turned out to be tissueand time-dependent in muscle, liver and heart in broilers under cold stress exposure. The distinct expression of HSP70 suggested that highenergy supply and balance of CK activity might be responsible for the HSP70 high expression.

  11. ADAPTATION OF INDIGENOUS INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VIRUS (IBDV IN EMBRYONATED CHICKEN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ahmad, I. Hussain, M. Siddique and M. S. Mahmood

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease virus was isolated from bursae of broilers suffering from Gumboro disease and was designated as field virus (FV. The virus was confirmed through agar gel precipitation test (AGPT and counter current immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE. The virus was titrated by using reverse passive haemagglutination (RPHA test and egg infective dose fifty (EID50. The FV was inoculated into 9-to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs through chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM. At each passage, the virus in the chorio-allantoic fluid (CAF and embryos was confirmed by AGPT and titrated by RPHA test. Geometric mean titer (GMT of the virus in CAF was 37 to 64 in 1-3rd passage, 111 to 239 in 4-7th passages. In 8 to 15th passages, virus titer remained from 294 to 588 and in 16-24th passages virus titer ranged from 675 to 2195. Similarly, virus titer in the embryos was 1024 to 512 in 1st -10th passages, while the virus titer in passages 11-24th ranged from 478 to 111. Embryos were monitored for lesions and mortality. Severe lesions were present on the CAM in 1st-7th passages, while moderate to mild haemorrhages were seen in 8th to 16th passages and in 17th _ 24th passages no lesions were observed.

  12. Breeding value prediction for production traits in layer chickens using pedigree or genomic relationships in a reduced animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolc, Anna; Stricker, Chris; Arango, Jesus; Settar, Petek; Fulton, Janet E; O'Sullivan, Neil P; Preisinger, Rudolf; Habier, David; Fernando, Rohan; Garrick, Dorian J; Lamont, Susan J; Dekkers, Jack C M

    2011-01-21

    Genomic selection involves breeding value estimation of selection candidates based on high-density SNP genotypes. To quantify the potential benefit of genomic selection, accuracies of estimated breeding values (EBV) obtained with different methods using pedigree or high-density SNP genotypes were evaluated and compared in a commercial layer chicken breeding line. The following traits were analyzed: egg production, egg weight, egg color, shell strength, age at sexual maturity, body weight, albumen height, and yolk weight. Predictions appropriate for early or late selection were compared. A total of 2,708 birds were genotyped for 23,356 segregating SNP, including 1,563 females with records. Phenotypes on relatives without genotypes were incorporated in the analysis (in total 13,049 production records).The data were analyzed with a Reduced Animal Model using a relationship matrix based on pedigree data or on marker genotypes and with a Bayesian method using model averaging. Using a validation set that consisted of individuals from the generation following training, these methods were compared by correlating EBV with phenotypes corrected for fixed effects, selecting the top 30 individuals based on EBV and evaluating their mean phenotype, and by regressing phenotypes on EBV. Using high-density SNP genotypes increased accuracies of EBV up to two-fold for selection at an early age and by up to 88% for selection at a later age. Accuracy increases at an early age can be mostly attributed to improved estimates of parental EBV for shell quality and egg production, while for other egg quality traits it is mostly due to improved estimates of Mendelian sampling effects. A relatively small number of markers was sufficient to explain most of the genetic variation for egg weight and body weight.

  13. Microarray analysis of adipose tissue gene expression profiles between two chicken breeds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hongbao Wang; Hui Li; Qigui Wang; Yuxiang Wang; Huabin Han; Hui Shi

    2006-12-01

    The chicken is an important model organism that bridges the evolutionary gap between mammals and other vertebrates and provides a major protein source from meat and eggs throughout the world. Excessive accumulation of lipids in the adipose tissue is one of the main problems faced by the broiler industry nowadays. In order to visualize the mechanisms involved in the gene expression and regulation of lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, cDNA microarray containing 9 024 cDNA was used to construct gene expression profile and screen differentially expressed genes in adipose tissue between broilers and layers of 10 wk of age. Sixty-seven differentially expressed sequences were screened out, and 42 genes were found when blasted with the GenBank database. These genes are mainly related to lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, transcription and splicing factor, protein synthesis and degradation. The remained 25 sequences had no annotation available in the GenBank database. Furthermore, Northern blot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR were developed to confirm 4 differentially expressed genes screened by cDNA microarray, and it showed great consistency between the microarray data and Northern blot results or semi-quantitative RT-PCR results. The present study will be helpful for clarifying the molecular mechanism of obesity in chickens.

  14. Effects of breed and dietary nutrient density on the growth performance, blood metabolite, and genes expression of target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling pathway of female broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X-q; Jiang, W; Tan, H-z; Zhang, D-x; Zhang, H-j; Wei, S; Yan, H-c

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of exchanged diets with identical energy level on characteristics of slow-growing (WENs Yellow-Feathered Chicken, WYFC) and fast-growing (White Recessive Rock Chicken, WRRC) female chickens. A total of 1450 WYFC and 1150 WRRC 1-day-old female hatchlings were used. A high-nutrient-density (HND) diet and a low-nutrient-density (LND) diet were formulated for three phases. A completely randomized experimental design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (diet and breed), each with five replicates of 145 and 115 birds, was applied. The results showed that WRRC had a higher body weight (BW), average daily feed intake and average daily gain than WYFC throughout the experiment (pbreeds (pchickens. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Analysis of genetic diversity of the heat shock protein 70 gene on the basis of abundant sequence polymorphisms in chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, J K; Jiang, L Y; Kong, L N; Zhang, X Q; Luo, Q B

    2015-03-06

    This study was designed to detect the sequence variation of the chicken heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene. A total of 102 individuals from 8 native Chinese breeds together with Dwarf White Chicken and Red Junglefowl were used to detect sequence variations. The coding regions of the chicken HSP70 gene from 102 individuals were cloned and sequenced. Thirty-six variations were identified, which included 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 2 indel mutations. Fifty-seven haplotypes were observed, of which, 43 were breed-specific and 14 were shared. There were 7 Red Junglefowl-specific haplotypes, while Haidong and Silkie only had 2 specific haplotypes. Eleven and 3 haplotypes were shared between and within species, respectively. The variation in nucleotide diversity (Pi) and average number of nucleotide differences (K) among species were consistent. The total Pi of HSP70 was 0.0016, and the total K was 4.1998. The Pi value of Red Junglefowl was the highest (0.0018) and K was 4.8000, while the Pi of Silkie was the lowest (0.0010) and K was 2.5000. These results demonstrated that variation in chicken HSP70 was abundant between and within species.

  16. indigenous cattle breeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns of the Brahman (zebu) and the Jersey ... that bottlenecks have played in the evolution of the species. ..... Length mutations in human mitochondrial DNA: direct sequencing of enzymatically amplified.

  17. Seroprevalence of fowl pox antibody in indigenous chickens in jos north and South council areas of plateau state, Nigeria: implication for vector vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebajo, Meseko Clement; Ademola, Shittu Ismail; Oluwaseun, Akinyede

    2012-01-01

    Fowl pox is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The large size of the genome makes it a useful vector for recombinant DNA technology. Although the disease has been described in both commercial and indigenous chickens in Nigeria, data are limited on seroprevalence in free range chickens. Such data are, however, important in the design and implementation of fowl pox virus vector vaccine. We surveyed current antibody status to fowl pox virus in free range chickens by testing 229 sera collected from 10 villages in Jos North and Jos South LGA of Plateau State Nigeria. Sera were analyzed by AGID against standard fowl pox antigen. Fifty-two of the 229 (23%) tested sera were positive for fowl pox virus antibody, and the log titre in all positive specimen was >2. Thirty (21%) and twenty-two (27%) of the samples from Jos South and Jos North, respectively, tested positive. This was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.30). Generally the study showed a significant level of antibody to fowl pox virus in the study area. This observation may hinder effective use of fowl pox vectored viral vaccine. Fowl pox control is recommended to reduce natural burden of the disease.

  18. [Screening efficient siRNAs in vitro as the candidate genes for chicken anti-avian influenza virus H5N1 breeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P; Wang, J G; Wan, J G; Liu, W Q

    2010-01-01

    The frequent disease outbreaks caused by avian influenza virus not only affect the poultry industry but also pose a threat to human safety. To address the problem, RNA interference (RNAi) has recently been widely used as a potential antiviral approach. Transgenesis in combination with RNAi to specifically inhibit avian enza virus gene expression has been proposed to make chickens resistant to the infection. For the transgenic breeding, screening in vitro efficient siRNAs as the candidate genes is one of the most important tasks. Here, we combined an online search tool and a series of bioinformatics programs with a set of rules for designing siRNAs targeted towards different mRNA regions of H5N1 avian influenza virus. Five rational siRNAs were chosen by this method, five U6 promoter-driven shRNA expression plasmids containing the siRNA genes were constructed and used for producing stably transfected MDCK cells. The data obtained by virus titration, IFA, PI-stained flow cytometry, real-time quantitative RT-PCR, and DAS-ELISA analyses showed that all five stably transfected cell lines we re resistant to virusreplication when exposed to 100 CCID50 of avian influenza virus H5N1. Finally, most effective plasmids (pSi-604i and pSi-1597i) as the candidates for making the transgenic chickens were chosen. These findings provide baseline information on use of RNAi technique for breeding transgenic chickens resistant to avian influenza virus.

  19. [MspI-POLYMORPHISM IN FOURTH INTRON OF THE GROWTH HORMONE GENE IN CHICKEN POPULATIONS OF DIFFERENT BREEDS. ANALYSIS OF THE CAUSES OF ADDITIONAL RESTRICTION PATTERN ORIGIN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulibaba, R A; Yurko, P S; Liashenkon, Y V

    2015-01-01

    The MspI-polymorphism in the fourth intron of the growth hormone gene in populations of White Plymouth Rock, Poltava Clay, Rhode Island Red and Borkovskaya Barvistaya chicken breeds was studied. It is shown that in all examined chicken populations the growth hormone gene is polymorphic. It was found that the presence of "additional" phenotype (restriction pattern) is not associated with duplication of the growth hormone gene. The possibility of formation of heteroduplex DNA of two different types in the course of amplification of heterozygous samples B/C, containing the site 'CCGG', which leads to formation the additional DNA fragment which do not contain the site 'CCGG', was described. The nucleotide sequences of alleles A, B, C and "additional" fragment is described. Frequencies of alleles A, B and C in chicken population of White Plymouth Rock breed were 0.56; 0.16 and 0.28; Poltava Clay--0.10; 0.07 and 0.83; Rhode Island Red--0.27; 0.31 and 0.42; Borkovskaya Barvistaya--0.75; 0.08 and 0.17 respectively.

  20. Genomic sequence analysis and biological characteristics of a rescued clone of avian leukosis virus strain JS11C1, isolated from indigenous chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ning; Su, Shuai; Chen, Zimeng; Zhao, Xiaomin; Cui, Zhizhong

    2014-11-01

    The strain JS11C1, a member of a putative new subgroup of avian leukosis virus (ALV) that is different from all six known subgroups from chickens based on Gp85 amino acid sequence comparison, was isolated from Chinese native chicken breeds in 2012. In order to further study the genome structure, biological characteristics, and the evolutionary relationship of the virus with others of known subgroups from infected chickens, we determined the complete genome sequence, constructed an infectious clone of ALV strain JS11C1, and performed comparative analysis using the whole genome sequence or elements with that of other ALVs available in GenBank. The results showed that the full-length sequence of the JS11C1 DNA provirus genome was 7707 bp, which is consistent with a genetic organization typical of a replication-competent type C retrovirus lacking viral oncogenes. The rescued infectious clone of JS11C1 showed similar growth rate and biological characteristics to its original virus. All the comparison analyses based on whole genomes support the opinion that the new isolates are relatively distantly related to any known subgroups of ALVs and might be classified as a new subgroup.

  1. Selection of indigenous lactic acid bacteria to reinforce the intestinal microbiota of newly hatched chicken: relevance of in vitro and ex vivo methods for strains characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babot, Jaime D; Argañaraz-Martínez, Eloy; Saavedra, Lucila; Apella, María C; Perez Chaia, Adriana

    2014-08-01

    Based on the natural benefits of the indigenous microbiota, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from poultry origin were isolated from hens and broilers intestine, and their probiotic potential was further studied. The tolerance to digestion, adhesion, capture of a mannose-binding lectin, absence of virulent factors and antibiotic resistances were studied. Different in vitro and ex vivo assays were performed to select tolerant and adherent strains because standardized protocols have not been defined. Fourteen strains highly tolerant to gastrointestinal digestion were genetically identified. Hydrophobic surfaces were not required for the bacterial adhesion and only nine strains adhered ex vivo to the intestinal mucosa. Three strains captured a lectin of the same specificity of Type-1 fimbriae. Virulence factors were absent but some strains evidenced multiple antibiotic resistances. These results provide bases for a future standardization of methods for the selection of probiotic strains intended to reinforce the microbiota of newly hatched chickens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Association of neuropeptide Y and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone receptor gene SNPs with breeding value for growth and egg production traits in Mazandaran native chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, S A; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, H; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Niknafs, Sh

    2012-08-16

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) are two candidate genes with a wide variety of physiological functions in growth and especially in reproduction processes. We examined the association of one SNP from each of these genes with growth- and egg production-related traits in Mazandaran native chickens. Two hundred and six individuals were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. Marker-trait association analyses were performed using both breeding value and phenotypic information. The data came from 18 successive generations of selection at a Mazandaran native chicken breeding station in Iran. Data were analyzed with a univariate animal model in an ASREML procedure to estimate breeding values of the birds for these traits. Two alleles were found for both genes, A and a alleles for GnRHR, with frequencies of 0.614 and 0.386, B and b alleles for NPY, with frequencies of 0.780 and 0.221, respectively. The additive genetic effects of the GnRHR gene on egg number and egg mass were significant. Also, body weight at sexual maturity was significantly influenced by the NPY gene. We conclude that GnRHR and NPY genes are associated with egg production and growth traits, respectively.

  3. 抗生素替代品在鸡养殖中的应用研究进展%Application of antibiotics alternatives in the chicken breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梦芸; 冯凤琴

    2016-01-01

    In recent years,the widely use of antibiotics has caused some problems such as microbial resistance and antibiotic residues in animal food products.Efficient,environmental and non-toxic feed additives have a broad application prospect in breeding industry,which have gradually used to replace antibiotics.We briefly introduced some kinds of feed additives replace of antibiotics,and its application in chicken breeding industry,in order to provide reference for theoretical research and practi-cal application of antibiotic alternatives in chicken breeding.%近年来,抗生素的不当使用造成了微生物耐药性和动物源食品中的抗生素残留等问题。高效、环保、无毒副作用的饲料添加剂在畜禽养殖业中正在逐步替代抗生素,具有广阔的应用前景。简要介绍了鸡养殖中几种常用饲用抗生素替代品的研究进展及应用现状,以期为鸡养殖中抗生素替代品的理论研究和实际应用提供理论基础。

  4. A molecular tool to assessment indigenous chicken breeds%7个地方鸡种的分子评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠云洁; 高玉时; 陈国宏; 唐修君; 王克华; 张学余

    2008-01-01

    成熟的基因扩增及测序技术,结合比较发达的网络与信息技术,给我们提供了以DNA为基础的系统分类方法.一种新的DNA分类方法--DNA条形编码(DNA Barcoding)技术应运而生.本研究以线粒体细胞色素C氧化酶亚基Ⅰ(cytochrome c oxidase Ⅰ,CD Ⅰ)基因的特定序列作为DNA条形码,对我国7个地方鸡种进行分子评估.研究结果表明:选择的这段CO Ⅰ基因序列有22个突变位点,为13个单倍型,其中11个单倍型为各品种所特有;6个鸡种有其特异位点,这些特异单倍型和特异位点作为DNA条形码可以对其进行分子评估,并可以作为辅助各品种鉴定的依据.7个品种间Kimura双参数遗传距离为0.017~0.389.7个品种的DNA分类和形态学分类基本一致,该基因可以探讨地方鸡种分类问题.

  5. Identification of spontaneous mutations within the long-range limb-specific Sonic Hedgehog enhancer (ZRS) that alter Sonic Hedgehog expression in the chicken limb mutants oligozeugodactly and Silkie Breed

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved, non-coding ~800 base-pair zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) regulatory sequence (ZRS) controls Shh expression in the posterior limb. We report that the chicken mutant oligozeugodactly (ozd), which lacks limb Shh expression, has a large deletion within the ZRS. Furthermore, the preaxial polydactylous, Silkie Breed chicken, which develops ectopic anterior limb Shh expression, has a single base-pair change within the ZRS. Using an in vivo reporter assay to examine e...

  6. Growth and carcass traits of three Portuguese autochthonous chicken breeds: Amarela, Preta Lusitânica and Pedrês Portuguesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Soares

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the growth curve parameters and carcass traits yields of three Portuguese autochthonous chicken breeds, Amarela (AM, Preta Lusitânica (PL and Pedrês Portuguesa (PP. Birds (198 were individually weighed at pre-established time intervals (6682 records and the study period lasted 30 months. The growth data were fitted to a mixed nonlinear model based on the Gompertz growth function. Fixed effects were breed, sex, lot, temperature and photoperiod. The adult weight estimated for males (females were 2851.3 (1951.6 g for AM, 3047.5 (2147.7 g for PL, and 3243.7 (2344.0 g for PP, respectively. The males (females estimated maximum daily growth were 22.7 (18.1 g at 77 (69 days for AM, 20.7 (17.5 g at 79 (72 days for PL, and 18.1 (16.3 g at 82 (74 days for PP, respectively. Within breed the males were heavier than females at 365 days but with lower maturity rates. Yields of carcass and noble meat pieces were evaluated on data collected from 10 males of each breed, sacrificed at 240 days. Traditionally, these breeds are commercialised whole and again the PP had the heaviest carcass with the highest yield. Growth of these autochthonous breeds after 240 days was minimal and may justify the decrease of the traditional slaughter age of approximately one year, in order to increase profitability. Establishing special market niches will also be a valuable complement for the rural economy of Portugal and an important contribution to the conservation of this genetic heritage.

  7. Study on Tibetan Chicken embryonic adaptability to chronic hypoxia by revealing differential gene expression in heart tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mei; ZHAO ChunJiang

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen concentration is essential for appropriate metabolism. Hypoxia can exert a significant impact on physiological alteration of the cell and organism. Tibetan Chicken (Gallus gallus) is a Chinese in-digenous breed inhabiting in Tibetan areas, which is also a chicken breed living at high altitude for the longest time in the world. It has developed an adaptive mechanism to hypoxia, which is demonstrated by that Tibetan Chicken has much higher hatchability than low-land chicken breeds in high-altitude areas of Tibet. In the present study, Tibetan Chicken fertilized full sib eggs were incubated up to Ham-burger-Hamilton stage 43 under 13% and 21% oxygen concentration, respectively. Shouguang Chicken and Dwarf Recessive White Chicken were used as control groups. The hearts in all of the 3 chicken breeds under hypoxic and normoxic conditions were isolated and hybridized to GeneChip Chicken Genome Array to study molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation to high altitude of Tibetan Chicken. As a result, 50 transcripts highly expressed in hypoxia are screened out. Among up-regulated genes, some are involved in the gone ontology (GO) such as cell growth, cell difference, muscle con-traction and signal transduction. However, the expression levels of 21 transcripts are lower in hypoxia than those in normoxia. Some down-regulated genes take part in cell communication, ion transport, protein amino acid phosphorylation and signal transduction. Interestingly, gene enrichment analyses of these differential gone expressions are mainly associated with immune system response and ion channel activity in response to stimulus. Moreover, the transcriptional expression profiles analyzed by hierarchical clustering and CPP-SOM software in all of the 3 different chicken breeds revealed that TI-betan Chicken is much closely related to Shouguang Chicken rather than Dwarf Recessive White Chicken. In addition, 12 transcripts of Tibetan Chicken breed-specific expressed genes were

  8. Study on Tibetan Chicken embryonic adaptability to chronic hypoxia by revealing differential gene expression in heart tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen concentration is essential for appropriate metabolism.Hypoxia can exert a significant impact on physiological alteration of the cell and organism.Tibetan Chicken(Gallus gallus) is a Chinese indigenous breed inhabiting in Tibetan areas,which is also a chicken breed living at high altitude for the longest time in the world.It has developed an adaptive mechanism to hypoxia,which is demonstrated by that Tibetan Chicken has much higher hatchability than low-land chicken breeds in high-altitude areas of Tibet.In the present study,Tibetan Chicken fertilized full sib eggs were incubated up to Hamburger-Hamilton stage 43 under 13% and 21% oxygen concentration,respectively.Shouguang Chicken and Dwarf Recessive White Chicken were used as control groups.The hearts in all of the 3 chicken breeds under hypoxic and normoxic conditions were isolated and hybridized to Genechip Chicken Genome Array to study molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation to high altitude of Tibetan Chicken.As a result,50 transcripts highly expressed in hypoxia are screened out.Among up-regulated genes,some are involved in the gene ontology(GO) such as cell growth,cell difference,muscle contraction and signal transduction.However,the expression levels of 21 transcripts are lower in hypoxia than those in normoxia.Some down-regulated genes take part in cell communication,ion transport,protein amino acid phosphorylation and signal transduction.Interestingly,gene enrichment analyses of these differential gene expressions are mainly associated with immune system response and ion channel activity in response to stimulus.Moreover,the transcriptional expression profiles analyzed by hierarchical clustering and CPP-SOM software in all of the 3 different chicken breeds revealed that Tibetan Chicken is much closely related to Shouguang Chicken rather than Dwarf Recessive White Chicken.In addition,12 transcripts of Tibetan Chicken breed-specific expressed genes were identified,which seem to result in a

  9. 隔离器饲育SPF鸡微生物质量控制方法的建立%Establishment of microbiological quality control methods on breeding SPF chickens raised in the isolators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴韬奋; 张瑞忠; 孙凤萍; 王佳乐

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish production management and the methods of microbiological quality control on breeding SPF chickens raised in the isolator. Methods The chickens were bred in the isolator after the eggs from introduced SPF chickens were hatched out. The sera obtained from 10 ,20,40-week-old SPF chickens were used to monitor microbiological quality in order to detect the effectiveness of the current production management and the methods of microbiological quality control on SPF chickens. Results Because the hatching process was not strickly controlled during the early stage of breeding SPF chickens in the isolator,there were the emergence of microbiological contamination. Microbiological condition of the isolator breeding SPF chickens was effectively controlled after improving the operation management during the hatching process. Conclusion If the disinfection during all breeding stages is strengthened ,the microbiological quality of SPF chickens in the isolator could be ensured. The appropriate control on the density of SPF chickens in the isolator is not only beneficial to the breeding of SPF chickens and the recycling of hatching eggs ,but also helpful to the control of environmental microbiology.%目的 建立隔离器饲育SPF鸡生产管理方式,探讨并建立其微生物质量控制方法.方法 对引进的SPF鸡种蛋进行孵化后,将种鸡置于隔离器中进行饲养,在种鸡10、20、40周龄时采取鸡血清进行微生物质量监测,检验当前SPF鸡生产管理和微生物质量控制方法的有效性.结果 隔离器饲育SPF鸡初期由于对孵化环节控制不严出现了微生物污染现象.在对孵化环节操作管理改进后,隔离器饲育SPF鸡的微生物状况得到控制.结论通过加强各个环节消毒,隔离器饲育环境能够保证SPF鸡的微生物质量.适当控制隔离器内SPF鸡的密度不仅有利于SPF鸡的繁育和种蛋回收,而且有利于环境微生物的控制.

  10. Impact of semen quality of Aseel chicken on induced molting.

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    Yousaf A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous chickens are an important source of animal proteins. Aseel is the very famous chicken breed of Pakistan which is facing the reproductive issues. Molting is economically used for the improvement of reproductive performance of male rosters. So the current experiment was designed to investigate the effect of molting on semen quality of indigenous Aseel chicken. Roosters (n=20 were divided into two groups, Group A molted (n=10 and group B non-molted (control (n=10. Molting was performed through the method of feed restrictions. After the molting phase, semen was analyzed for six weeks. The semen quality was significantly (P< 0.05 improved in terms of volume (0.34±0.8 & 0.16±0.4 ml, mortality (73.7±2.5 & 63.5±2.2%, semen concentration (3.36±1.2 & 1.63±0.2 x 115/ml, morphological defect of sperm, (6.5±0.5 & 8.7±0.6 % and livability of sperm (75±2.3 & 64±2.5% were significant (P< 0.05 better for group A as group B. It was concluded that molting could be used for improvement of semen quality of indigenous Aseel chicken to cover the reproductive problems.

  11. Breed-related number and size of muscle fibres and their response to carcass quality in chickens

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    Nunyarat Koomkrong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the number and size of muscle fibre and their relation to carcass quality traits in chickens (slow- and fast-growing chicken strains. A total of 40 one-day-old Arbor Acres broiler (fast-growing and 40 Thai native chickens (slow-growing were reared to 45 and 112 days, respectively. The Arbor Acres broilers had heavier live weight, higher breast and thigh percentage than Thai native chickens (P<0.001. In breast muscle, there was no significant difference in total number of fibres and perimysium thickness. Thai native chickens had smaller fibre diameter and fibre area (P<0.01, and thicker endomysium in comparison with Arbor Acres broiler (P<0.001. The difference between the thigh and breast muscle fibre characteristics was not significant (P>0.05. The fibre diameter was positively correlated with live weight (P<0.05 and breast percentage (P<0.01. Endomysium thickness was correlated with live weight and breast percentage (P<0.05. There was no significant difference for the correlation between muscle fibre characteristics and thigh muscle. These results suggest that muscle fibre characteristics might be related to carcass quality.

  12. Non-experimental validation of ethnoveterinary plants and indigenous knowledge used for backyard pigs and chickens in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, C; Georges, K; Brown, G

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study on ethnoveterinary medicines used for backyard pigs and backyard chickens in Trinidad and Tobago. Research data was collected from 1995 to September 2000. Six plants are used for backyard pigs. Crushed leaves of immortelle (Erythrina pallida, E. micropteryx) are used to remove dead piglets from the uterus. Leaf decoctions of bois canôt (Cecropia peltata) and bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) are used for labour pains or leaves are fed as a postpartum cleanser. Boiled green papaya fruit (Carica papaya) is fed to pigs to induce milk let-down. The leaves and flowers of male papaya plants (Carica papaya) are fed to deworm pigs. Sour orange juice (Citrus aurantium) is given to pigs to produce lean meat, and coffee grounds are used for scours. Eyebright and plantain leaves (Plantago major) are used for eye injuries of backyard chickens. Worm grass (Chenopodium ambrosioides) and cotton bush (Gossypium species) are used as anthelmintics. Aloe gel (Aloe vera) is used for internal injuries and the yellow sap from the cut Aloe vera leaf or the juice of Citrus limonia is used to purge the birds. A literature review revealed few toxicity concerns and the potential usefulness of the plants.

  13. Effect of mixed spices in lemon glass marinade cuisine on changes in chemical physical and microbiological quality of ready-to-cook Thai indigenous chicken meat during chilled storage

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    Wongwiwat, P.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of spices on chemical, physical and microbiological quality of ready-to-cook Thai indigenous chicken meat were investigated during storage at 4oC for 15 days. The spices used with marinade ingredient (soya sauce, oyster sauce, sugar and salt were lemon glass, black pepper, garlic, coriander root and mixed spices. Non-marinated chicken meat (control 1 and marinated only ingredients (control 2 were used as control treatments. The qualities of ready-to-cook chicken meat that were evaluated were shear force, % drip loss, surface color (L*, a*, b*, lipid oxidation (TBARS, myoglobin oxidation (% metmyoglobin and microbial growth. Effects of spices on shear force and % drip loss were not significantly different (P>0.05 but they efficiently reduced lipid oxidation and microbial growth of chicken meat. Mixed spices significantly reduced oxidation of lipid (P0.05. However, marinade at 12.5% (w/w showed high efficiency in inhibiting deterioration of ready-to-cook chicken meat.

  14. Pathology of a H5N1, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, in two Indian native chicken breeds and a synthetic broiler line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suba, S; Nagarajan, S; Saxena, V K; Kumar, M; Vanamayya, P R; Rajukumar, K; Gowthaman, V; Jain, V; Singh, D P; Dubey, S C

    2015-04-01

    In this study, susceptibility to H5N1 virus infection was studied in two Indian native chicken breeds viz. Kadaknath and Aseel (Peela) and an Indian synthetic broiler strain (Synthetic dam line (SDL-IC). Fifty birds from each genetic group were infected intra-nasally with 1000 EID50 of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) strain A/chicken/Navapur/India/7972/ 06 (H5N1) and observed for a period of 10 days. Significant differences in severity of clinical signs, gross lesions and time for onset of symptoms were observed. The overall severity of clinical signs and gross lesions was less in SDL-IC broilers as compared to the other two genetic groups. The mortality percentages were 100, 98 and 92% with Mean Death Time (MDT) of 3.12, 5.92 and 6.96 days, respectively for the two native breeds Kadaknath and Aseel (Peela), the and SDL-IC broiler strain. Comparison of histological lesions revealed differences in disease progression among the genetic groups. Vascular lesions such as disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) were predominant on 3 days post infection (dpi) in Kadaknath, and on 5 and 6 dpi in Aseel (Peela) and SDL-IC broiler. The mean log2 HA titres of the re-isolated virus from various organs of H5N1 AIV infected birds of the three genetic groups ranged from 2.32 (lung, trachea and bursa) to 5.04 (spleen) in Kadaknath; 2.32 (lung) to 6.68 (brain) in Aseel (Peela); and 2.06 (liver) to 7.01 (lungs and kidney) in SDL-IC broiler. These results suggest that the susceptibility to H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection differed among the three breeds; Kadaknath being highest followed by Aseel (Peela) and synthetic SDL-IC broiler. This is possibly the first report on the differences in the susceptibility of the India native breeds to H5N1 virus infection and its severity.

  15. Differential effects of two indigenous broilers exposed to cold stress and characters of follicle density and diameter

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    Zhao Y. Geng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous chickens from various part of China, due to different feather characters, always performed differently when countered with cold stress. In this study, the effects of long term hypothermia on serum hormones (triiodothyronine, thyroxine and insulin and activity of plasma enzymes (Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatine kinase and lactic dehydrogenase were studied in two indigenous broiler breeds, Huainan partridge (H and Wenchang (W chickens. Chickens in 20°C±2°C were compared with those subjected to moderate (15°C±2°C and severe low temperature (10°C±2°C for one week. Long-term hypothermia elevated plasma insulin and reduced T4 in W, decelerated insulin and increased T4 in H, while T3 did not change in the two breeds. Plasma enzymes AST, LDH and CK decreased in the two breeds and ALT only decreased in W exposed to cold stress. A significantly decreased body weight gain of H and no variations in W at low temperature were observed. However, a trend of decreased weight gain in W was observed when bred under low temperature condition. Follicle density and diameter were compared in the two breeds with back density in H significantly higher than W and diameter from back of H significantly smaller than W, while much larger than the latter at latero-abdominal part. We investigated the pattern of serum biological change, follicle diameter and density under cold stress condition in two indigenous broiler breeds from different areas of China to provide informative guidance for broiler production and indications in breeding of cold resistant breed.

  16. Campylobacter colonization and proliferation in the broiler chicken upon natural field challenge is not affected by the bird growth rate or breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Fraser J; Bailey, Richard A; Watson, Kellie A; McAdam, Jim; Avendaño, Santiago; Stanley, William A; Koerhuis, Alfons N M

    2014-11-01

    The zoonotic association between Campylobacter bacteria in poultry and humans has been characterized by decades of research which has attempted to elucidate the epidemiology of this complex relationship and to reduce carriage within poultry. While much work has focused on the mechanisms facilitating its success in contaminating chicken flocks (and other animal hosts), it remains difficult to consistently exclude Campylobacter under field conditions. Within the United Kingdom poultry industry, various bird genotypes with widely varying growth rates are available to meet market needs and consumer preferences. However, little is known about whether any differences in Campylobacter carriage exist across this modern broiler range. The aim of this study was to establish if a relationship exists between growth rate or breed and cecal Campylobacter concentration after natural commercial flock Campylobacter challenge. In one investigation, four pure line genotypes of various growth rates were grown together, while in the second, eight different commercial broiler genotypes were grown individually. In both studies, the Campylobacter concentration was measured in the ceca at 42 days of age, revealing no significant difference in cecal load between birds of different genotypes both in mixed- and single-genotype pens. This is important from a public health perspective and suggests that other underlying reasons beyond genotype are likely to control and affect Campylobacter colonization within chickens. Further studies to gain a better understanding of colonization dynamics and subsequent proliferation are needed, as are novel approaches to reduce the burden in poultry. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Campylobacter Colonization and Proliferation in the Broiler Chicken upon Natural Field Challenge Is Not Affected by the Bird Growth Rate or Breed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Richard A.; Watson, Kellie A.; McAdam, Jim; Avendaño, Santiago; Stanley, William A.; Koerhuis, Alfons N. M.

    2014-01-01

    The zoonotic association between Campylobacter bacteria in poultry and humans has been characterized by decades of research which has attempted to elucidate the epidemiology of this complex relationship and to reduce carriage within poultry. While much work has focused on the mechanisms facilitating its success in contaminating chicken flocks (and other animal hosts), it remains difficult to consistently exclude Campylobacter under field conditions. Within the United Kingdom poultry industry, various bird genotypes with widely varying growth rates are available to meet market needs and consumer preferences. However, little is known about whether any differences in Campylobacter carriage exist across this modern broiler range. The aim of this study was to establish if a relationship exists between growth rate or breed and cecal Campylobacter concentration after natural commercial flock Campylobacter challenge. In one investigation, four pure line genotypes of various growth rates were grown together, while in the second, eight different commercial broiler genotypes were grown individually. In both studies, the Campylobacter concentration was measured in the ceca at 42 days of age, revealing no significant difference in cecal load between birds of different genotypes both in mixed- and single-genotype pens. This is important from a public health perspective and suggests that other underlying reasons beyond genotype are likely to control and affect Campylobacter colonization within chickens. Further studies to gain a better understanding of colonization dynamics and subsequent proliferation are needed, as are novel approaches to reduce the burden in poultry. PMID:25172857

  18. Identification of quantitative trait loci affecting shank length, body weight and carcass weight from the Japanese cockfighting chicken breed, Oh-Shamo (Japanese Large Game).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsudzuki, M; Onitsuka, S; Akiyama, R; Iwamizu, M; Goto, N; Nishibori, M; Takahashi, H; Ishikawa, A

    2007-01-01

    We performed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis to map QTLs controlling shank length, body weight, and carcass weight in a resource family of 245 F(2) birds developed from a cross of the large-sized, native, Japanese cockfighting breed, Oh-Shamo (Japanese Large Game), and the White Leghorn breed of chickens. Interval mapping revealed three significant QTLs for shank length on chromosomes 1, 4 and 24 at the experiment-wise 5% level, and a suggestive shank length QTL on chromosome 27 at the experiment-wise 10% level. For body weight two QTLs, one significant and the other suggestive, were identified on chromosomes 4 and 24, respectively. As expected, QTLs for carcass weight, which was highly correlated with body weight (r = 0.95), were detected at the same chromosomal locations as the detected body weight QTLs. Interestingly, the chromosomal locations containing these body weight and carcass weight QTLs coincided with those of two of the four shank length QTLs detected. No QTL with an epistatic interaction effect was discovered for any trait. The total contribution of all detected QTLs to genetic variance was 98.4%, 27.0% and 25.9% for shank length, body weight and carcass weight, respectively, indicating that most shank length QTLs have been identified but many body weight and carcass weight QTLs have been overlooked by the present analysis because of a low coverage rate of the 88 microsatellite markers used here (approximately 46% of the whole genome). Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and parasite DNA in backyard chicken breeding in Northeast, Brazil

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    Marcela Fernanda Torres Samico Fernandes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and parasite DNA in backyard chickens bred in the metropolitan area of Recife, Brazil. In total, 212 serum samples were collected from 16 properties, and 12 backyard chickens were collected in the six sanitary districts of Recife. An indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA was used to investigate the occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to detect T. gondii DNA in brain, heart, liver and lung specimens. Of the samples analyzed by serology, 86/212 (40.56% were positive; of the samples analyzed by PCR, 2/12 (16.7% were positive, with both samples positive by both tests (serological and molecular. The presence of antibody anti-T. gondii and parasite DNA in tissues of these animals are worrying aspects for public health because there is a risk of transmission of the parasite to humans through eating undercooked or raw meat. Based on the results, the adoption of preventive measures to prevent the cats access to the chickens creations should be encouraged, since these animals were identified in most of the studied properties.

  20. Frequency of different shell color and its effect on the fertility and hatchability in Black rock, Gramapriya and Vanaraja breeds of chicken

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    Abhay Kumar

    Full Text Available Aim: A study was undertaken to assess the effect of shell color on the fertility and hatchability in three different breeds of chicken viz, Black Rock, Gramapriya and Vanaraja maintained at Government Poultry Farm, Durg (Chhattisgarh. Materials and Methods: A total of 180 eggs from each breed (Black rock, Gramapriya and Vanaraja were studied in each trial and total three trials were conducted. All the eggs were individually marked. Eggs were divided into Brown, Light Brown and Creamy White. Eggs were candled twice during incubation i.e. on 7th and 18th days. Fertility percent was calculated by number of fertile eggs divided by total numbers of eggs set for incubation multiplied by 100. Likewise hatchability was calculated on TES (total egg set basis and FES (fertile egg set basis by the formulae Data were analyzed by chi-square test Results: The findings shown that the overall average for shell color among the three breeds, brown shell color (46.98% was found to be most frequent as compare to light brown (43.02% and creamy white (10.00% colors, respectively. The fertility percentage among three different classes of shell color of eggs irrespective of breeds or batches highest pooled mean was in brown shell color (90.80% followed by light brown (85.22% and creamy white (83.33%. Whereas, on total egg set (TES basis the hatchability percentage irrespective of breeds or hatches were 73.72 for brown, 67.00 for light brown and 52.47 for creamy white shell colored eggs, respectively and the pooled hatchability on fertile egg set (FES basis, percentage followed same trend as in the case of hatchability on TES and brown shelled eggs group had higher hatchability rate with 81.19 percent followed by light brown (78.62% and creamy white (62.96%, respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that dark colored eggs had higher fertility rate and also hatched at higher rate than did light colored eggs. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 594-598

  1. Effect of free-range days on a local chicken breed: growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, H B; Wang, Q; Lu, J; Zou, J M; Chang, L L; Fu, S Y

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of free-range days on growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index of a local chicken breed. In total, 1,000 one-day-old male Suqin yellow chickens were raised for 21 d. On d 21, 720 birds with similar BW (536 ± 36 g) were selected and randomly assigned to free-range treatment at 21, 28, 35, and 42 d of age (assigned to free-range treatment for 21, 14, 7, and 0 d, respectively). Each treatment was represented by 5 replicates (pens) containing 36 birds (180 birds per treatment). All the birds were raised in indoor floor pens measuring 1.42 × 1.42 m (2 m(2), 18 birds/m(2)) in conventional poultry research houses before free-range treatment. In the free-range treatment, the chickens were raised in indoor floor houses measuring 3 × 5 m (15 m(2), 2.4 birds/m(2)). In addition, they also had an outdoor free-range paddock measuring 3 × 8 m (24 m(2), 1.5 birds/m(2)). The BW of birds after being assigned to free-range treatment for 7 d decreased significantly compared with that in the conventional treatment (P 0.05). The daily weight gain, feed per gain, daily feed intake, and mortality from 21 to 42 d of age were unaffected by free-range days (P > 0.05). At 42 d of age, the breast yield increased linearly with increasing free-range days (P 0.05). The absolute thymus weight and thymus:BW ratio showed a significant increasing and then decreasing quadratic response to increasing free-range days (P < 0.05). The findings of this study suggest that increasing free-range days advantageously affects breast yield, but decreases thigh, leg, thigh bone, and foot yields as well as the water-holding capacity of thigh. No evidence was found that increasing free-range days caused changes in growth performance, meat quality, and lymphoid organs except for changes in water-holding capacity and thymus. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Differential effects of two indigenous broilers exposed to cold stress and characters of follicle density and diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Y. Chen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available digenous chickens from various part of China, due to different feather characters, always performed differently when countered with cold stress. In this study, the effects of long term hypothermia on serum hormones (triiodothyronine, thyroxine and insulin and activity of plasma enzymes (Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, creatine kinase and lactic dehydrogenase were studied in two indigenous broiler breeds, Huainan partridge (H and Wenchang (W chickens. Chickens in 20°C±2°C were compared with those subjected to moderate (15°C±2°C and severe low temperature (10°C±2°C for one week. Long-term hypothermia elevated plasma insulin and reduced T4 in W, decelerated insulin and increased T4 in H, while T3 did not change in the two breeds. Plasma enzymes AST, LDH and CK decreased in the two breeds and ALT only decreased in W exposed to cold stress. A significantly decreased body weight gain of H and no variations in W at low temperature were observed. However, a trend of decreased weight gain in W was observed when bred under low temperature condition. Follicle density and diameter were compared in the two breeds with back density in H significantly higher than W and diameter from back of H significantly smaller than W, while much larger than the latter at latero-abdominal part. We investigated the pattern of serum biological change, follicle diameter and density under cold stress condition in two indigenous broiler breeds from different areas of China to provide informative guidance for broiler production and indications in breeding of cold resistant breed.

  3. STATUS OF BACKYARD CHICKEN REARED BY WOMEN IN CHITRAL, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farooq, M. K. Shakir1, M. A. Mian, S. Mussawar2, F. R. Durrani and A. Cheema3

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Information from 150 females was obtained during the year 1998-99 to investigate status of backyard chicken in Chitral. Estimated human population and number of backyard birds in Chitral were 0.295 and 0.747 million, respectively. Average household flock size was 23.14 ± 1.97 birds, representing 8.04 ± 1.23, 6.83 ± 1.13, 5.67 ± 0.85 and 2.60 ± 0.27 number of Saso, Desi (non-descript indigenous chicken, Rhode Island Red (RIR and Fayumi birds, respectively. Household flock size and per capita available birds were higher in double than in transitional crop zone. Training status of the farmers, vaccination schedule and crop production zone affected egg production and mortality in backyard chickens. Average mortality in a flock was 13.56 ± 1.38%, representing higher mortality (P<0.05 in Saso as compared to non-descript indigenous Desi chicken. Total annual number of eggs obtained by a household from backyard chicken was 2975.95 ± 71.22 eggs, representing 378.28 ± 17.45 and 128.61 ± 21.14 eggs per capita and per bird, respectively. Saso chicken (176.22 ± 21.23 eggs as compared to non-descript indigenous Desi chicken (58.83 ± 5.27 eggs produced higher number of eggs per bird. Average number of eggs used for hatching purpose and per capita eggs consumed was 56.34 ± 3.37 and 137.68 ± 23.61, respectively. Mixed rearing practice of exotic birds with Desi chicken resulted in non-broodiness problem that adversely affected hatching performance as reported by most of the farmers. Proper health coverage, provision of training in poultry production, higher flock size, introduction of exotic birds, avoiding haphazard breeding and reduction in mortality were suggested as key factors for better backyard chicken productivity in Chitral.

  4. Differentially expressed genes in a flock of Chinese local-breed chickens infected with a subgroup J avian leukosis virus using suppression subtractive hybridization

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    Guiping Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J is a new type of virus that mainly induces myeloid leukosis (ML in chickens. To further elucidate the pathogenesis of ALV-J infection and tumor development, expression profiles from the bone marrow tissue of 15 infected and 18 non-infected birds from a local-breed poultry-farm under naturally infected conditions, were analyzed by suppression-subtractive hybridization. The birds were diagnosed as ML+ (or ML- by specific ALV-J detection methods, involving serological tests for antigens and antibodies, and RT-PCR to detect viral RNA. A total of 59 partial gene sequences were revealed by differential screening of 496 forward and 384 reverse subtracted cDNA clones. Of these, 22 identified genes, including 8 up-regulated and 14 down-regulated, were related to immune functions, these genes being, MHC B-G antigen, translationally-controlled tumor protein (TPT1/TPTC, transferrin and ferritin, hemoglobin and Carbonic anhydrase. Four of the down-regulated genes were selected for further analysis, in view of their predicted roles in infection and immunity by real-time qRT-PCR, using RNA collected from the same birds as those used for SSH. The four genes were expressed at significantly lower levels (p < 0.001 in ALV-J infected birds than in non-infected ones.

  5. Differentially expressed genes in a flock of Chinese local-breed chickens infected with a subgroup J avian leukosis virus using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guiping; Zheng, Maiqing; Chen, Jilan; Wen, Jie; Wu, Chunmei; Li, Wenjuan; Liu, Libo; Zhang, Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is a new type of virus that mainly induces myeloid leukosis (ML) in chickens. To further elucidate the pathogenesis of ALV-J infection and tumor development, expression profiles from the bone marrow tissue of 15 infected and 18 non-infected birds from a local-breed poultry-farm under naturally infected conditions, were analyzed by suppression-subtractive hybridization. The birds were diagnosed as ML+ (or ML-) by specific ALV-J detection methods, involving serological tests for antigens and antibodies, and RT-PCR to detect viral RNA. A total of 59 partial gene sequences were revealed by differential screening of 496 forward and 384 reverse subtracted cDNA clones. Of these, 22 identified genes, including 8 up-regulated and 14 down-regulated, were related to immune functions, these genes being, MHC B-G antigen, translationally-controlled tumor protein (TPT1/TPTC), transferrin and ferritin, hemoglobin and Carbonic anhydrase. Four of the down-regulated genes were selected for further analysis, in view of their predicted roles in infection and immunity by real-time qRT-PCR, using RNA collected from the same birds as those used for SSH. The four genes were expressed at significantly lower levels (p < 0.001) in ALV-J infected birds than in non-infected ones.

  6. Differences in the early response of hatchlings of different chicken breeding lines to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schokker, D; Peters, T H F; Hoekman, A J W; Rebel, J M J; Smits, M A

    2012-02-01

    Poultry products are the major source of food-borne Salmonella infection in humans. Broiler lines selected to be more resistant to Salmonella could reduce the transfer of Salmonella to humans. To investigate differences in the susceptibility of newly hatched chicks to oral infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, 3 commercial broiler lines (A, B, and C) were infected immediately after hatch and compared to healthy controls at 0.33, 1, and 2 d postinfection. Weight, bacteriological examination, and the jejunal influx of CD4, CD8, TCRαβ, TCRγδ, and KUL01 (macrophages and dendritic cells) cells that are positive was investigated. In addition, the jejunal transcriptional response was analyzed using whole-genome chicken cDNA arrays. Salmonella colony-forming unit counts from cecal content and liver revealed that Salmonella enterica entered the body at 0.33 d postinfection. Broiler line A appeared most susceptible to intestinal colonization and the systemic spread of Salmonella. In addition, the Salmonella-induced jejunal influx of macrophages in this line showed a clear increase in time, which is in contrast to lines B and C. On the other hand, all lines showed a peak of CD4(+) cells at 1 d postinfection when infected chicks were compared to control chicks. The transcriptional response of line A clearly differed from the responses in lines B and C. Functional analysis indicated that the majority of the differentially expressed genes at 0.33 d postinfection in line A were involved in cell-cycle functions, whereas at 2 d postinfection the majority of the differentially expressed genes could be assigned to inflammatory disorder, differentiation and proliferation of (T) lymphocytes. These data indicate that hatchlings of different broiler lines differ in their systemic spread of Salmonella and suggest that intestinal barrier functions, as well as immunological responses, may be the underlying factors. We hypothesize that the differences between genetic

  7. Identification of spontaneous mutations within the long-range limb-specific Sonic Hedgehog enhancer (ZRS) that alter Sonic Hedgehog expression in the chicken limb mutants oligozeugodactly and Silkie Breed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Sarah A.; Suzuki, Takayuki; Fallon, John F.

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved, non-coding ~800 base-pair zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) regulatory sequence (ZRS) controls Shh expression in the posterior limb. We report that the chicken mutant oligozeugodactly (ozd), which lacks limb Shh expression, has a large deletion within the ZRS. Furthermore, the preaxial polydactylous, Silkie Breed chicken, which develops ectopic anterior limb Shh expression, has a single base-pair change within the ZRS. Using an in vivo reporter assay to examine enhancer function in the chick limb, we demonstrate that the wild-type ZRS drives β-galactosidase reporter expression in the ZPA of both wild-type and ozd limbs. The Silkie ZRS drives β-galactosidase in both posterior and anterior Shh domains in wild-type limb buds. These results support the hypothesis that the ZRS integrates positive and negative prepatterned regulatory inputs in the chicken model system and demonstrate the utility of the chicken limb as an efficient genetic system for gene regulatory studies. PMID:21509895

  8. Determination of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of Exon 21 in GARS-AIRS-GART Gene in Three Chicken Breeds%3个鸡种GARS-AIRS-GART基因第21号外显子的SNPs检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚琳琳; 常国斌; 喻礼怀; 徐琪; 栾德琴; 刘艳; 陈国宏

    2011-01-01

    采用PCR-SSCP和DNA测序法对安卡鸡、文昌鸡和如皋鸡中GARS-AIRS-GART基因的第21号外显子进行SNPs检测.结果发现该外显子含4个核苷酸多态位点:G29943A、C29968T、T30011C和C30017T,其中3处为非同义突变,分别为:29 943处天冬氨酸(Asp)→天冬酰胺(Asn)、30 011处色氨酸(Trp)→精氨酸(Arg)、30 017处精氨酸(Arg)→半胱氨酸(Cys);另一处为同义突变.对多态位点进行单倍型分析,发现12种单倍型,其中两种单倍型(5号和6号)的频率超过10%,分别为0.330 0和0.162 8,1号、3号、9号和10号单倍型频率介于1%~10%之间,其余都小于1%.另外共检测到11种基因型,存在5种等位基因,安卡鸡的D和E等位基因的基因频率较高,基因型与其它两个鸡品种之间都存在着极显著的差异(P<0.01),表明我国地方鸡种和外来鸡种在遗传组成上存在着差异.本研究将为鸡肉品质相关研究积累基础数据,为今后深入开展肉品质的开发利用奠定理论基础.%The PCR-SSCP technology and DNA sequencing were conducted to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of exon 21 in GARS-AIRS-GART genes in three breeds, Wenchang chicken, Rugao chicken and Anka chiken. 4 SNPs were founded, including 1 synonymous mutation, C29968T, and 3 non-synonymous mutations, G29943A, T30011C and C30017T, resulting in amino acid sequence altered from Asp to Asn, Trp to Arg and Arg to Cys, respectively. 12 haplotypes were detected in the 3 chicken breeds. The frequency of number 5 and number 6 haplotypes were 0.330 0 and 0.162 8, respectively, the frequencies of number 1, 3, 9, and 10 haplotype were between l%~10%, and the others were less than 1%. In addition, 11 genotypes and 5 alleles were founded. The alleles of D and E in Anka chicken were higher than that of other two breeds, and there existed significant difference (P<0.01) in genotype distributions between Anka and the other two breeds, Wenchang and Rugao which indicated Chinese local

  9. Determination of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of Exon 21 in GARS- AIRS-GART Gene in Three Chicken Breeds%3个鸡种GARS-AIRS-GART基因第21号外显子的SNPs检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚琳琳; 常国斌; 喻礼怀; 徐琪; 栾德琴; 刘艳; 陈国宏

    2011-01-01

    The PCR-SSCP technology and DNA sequencing were conducted to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of exon 21 in GARS-AIRS-GART genes in three breeds, Wenchang chicken, Rugao chicken and Anka chiken. 4 SNPs were founded, including 1 synonymous mutation, C29968T, and 3 non-synonymous muta- tions, G29943A, T30011C and C30017T, resulting in amino acid sequence altered from Asp to Asn, Trp to Arg and Arg to Cys, respectively. 12 haplotypes were detected in the 3 chicken breeds. The frequency of number 5 and number 6 haplotypes were 0.330 0 and 0.162 8, respectively, the frequencies of number 1, 3, 9, and 10 haplotype were between 1%-10%, and the others were less than 1%. In addition, 11 genotypes and 5 alleles were founded. The alleles of D and E in Anka chicken were higher than that of other two breeds, and there existed significant difference (P〈0.01) in genotype distributions between Anka and the other two breeds, Wenchang and Rugao which indicated Chinese local chicken breeds were different from alien breeds in genetic composition. This paper should be provided the base for the study and exploitation of meat quality in chicken.%采用PCR.SSCP和DNA测序法对安卡鸡、文昌鸡和如皋鸡中GARS-AIRS-GART基因的第21号外显子进行SNPs检测。结果发现该外显子含4个核苷酸多态位点:G29943A、C29968T、T30011C和C30017T,其中3处为非同义突变,分别为:29943处天冬氨酸(Asp)→天冬酰胺(Asn)、30011处色氨酸(Trp)→精氨酸(Arg)、30017处精氨酸(Arg)→半胱氨酸(cys);另一处为同义突变。对多态位点进行单倍型分析,发现12种单倍型,其中两种单倍型(5号和6号)的频率超过10%,分别为0.3300和0.1628,1号、3号、9号和10号单倍型频率介于1%~10%之间,其余都小于l%。另外共检测到11种基因型,存在5种等位基因,安卡鸡的D和E等位基因的基因频率较高,基因型与其它两个

  10. The USDA Feed the Future Initiative for genetic improvement of African goats: an update on genomic resources and genetic characterization of indigenous breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food production systems in Africa depend heavily on the use of locally adapted animals such as goats which are critical to small-scale farmers as they are easier to acquire, maintain, and act as scavengers in sparse pasture and marginal crop regions. Indigenous goat ecotypes have undergone generatio...

  11. Analysis of the genetic effects of CAPN1 gene polymorphisms on chicken meat tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, J T; Zhang, M; Shan, Y J; Xu, W J; Chen, K W; Li, H F

    2015-02-13

    The micromolar calcium-activated neutral protease gene (CAPN1) is a physiological candidate gene for meat tenderness. Four previously identified single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers located within the CAPN1 gene were evaluated for their associations with variation in the meat tenderness of a Chinese indigenous chicken breed, a higher meat quality breed (i.e., Qingyuan partridge chicken), and the commercial Recessive White chicken breed. Warner-Bratzler shear force measurements were used to determine tenderness phenotypes for all animals; intramuscular fat (IMF) content and rate of water loss in the breast muscles were also measured. Genotyping was performed by the polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction method. Polymorphisms were identified for all markers, except CAPN1 2546. The frequency of allele T was zero, and allele C was fixed for CAPN1 2546 in the studied populations. The SNP CAPN1 3535 in the CAPN1 gene was significantly associated with tenderness and other meat quality traits, where animals inheriting the AA genotype had smaller shear force values, lower water loss rates, and higher IMF contents. Moreover, H1 (AAA) was the most advantageous haplotype for meat tenderness. The results of this study confirm some previously documented associations. Furthermore, novel associations have been identified that, following validation in other populations, could be incorporated into breeding programs to improve meat quality.

  12. Effects of outdoor access days on growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index of a local chicken breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, H B; Cai, J; Lu, J; Wang, Q; Shao, D; Zou, J M

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of outdoor access days on growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, and lymphoid organ index of a local chicken breed. In total, 864 twenty one-day-old male Suqin yellow chickens, with similar body weight (536±36g), were selected and raised in indoor floor pens that measured 1.42×1.42 m (2 m2, 18 birds/m2) in conventional poultry research houses (36 birds per pen). Two hundred and sixteen birds were allowed outdoor access treatments at 21, 28, 35, and 42 d of age, respectively (access to outdoor for 35, 28, 21, and 14 days, respectively). Each treatment was represented by 6 replicates (pens) containing 36 birds (216 birds per treatment). In the outdoor access treatment, the birds had an outdoor free-range paddock that measured 3×8 m (24 m2, 1.5 birds/m2). The body weight of birds at 56 d of age increased linearly with increasing outdoor access days (P<0.001), but there was no effect of the outdoor access days on the body weight at 42 d of age (P=0.161). The daily weight gain, daily feed intake, and feed per gain from 21 to 42 d of age were unaffected by outdoor access days (P=0.401, P=0.463, P=0.223, respectively). However, the daily weight gain and daily feed intake from 42 to 56 and from 21 to 56 d of age increased linearly with increasing outdoor access days (P=0.002, P<0.001; P=0.001, P=0.004; respectively), while the feed per gain tended to decrease linearly from 21 to 56 d of age (P=0.060). The mortality from 21 to 56 d of age was unaffected by outdoor access days (P=0.261). At 56 d of age, the breast yield increased linearly with increasing outdoor access days (P<0.001), while the foot yield decreased linearly (P=0.016). The light (L*) and red (b*) values of leg meat color increased linearly with increasing outdoor access days (P=0.032, P=0.013, respectively). The spleen: the body weight ratio showed a decreasing and then increasing quadratic response to increasing outdoor access days (P=0

  13. Indigenous homelessness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    attempts at assimilation that disrupted Indigenous practices, languages, and cultures—including patterns of housing and land use—can be seen today in the disproportionate number of Indigenous people affected by homelessness in both rural and urban settings. Essays in this collection explore the meaning......Being homeless in one’s homeland is a colonial legacy for many Indigenous people in settler societies. The construction of Commonwealth nation-states from colonial settler societies depended on the dispossession of Indigenous peoples from their lands. The legacy of that dispossession and related...... and scope of Indigenous homelessness in the Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. They argue that effective policy and support programs aimed at relieving Indigenous homelessness must be rooted in Indigenous conceptions of home, land, and kinship, and cannot ignore the context of systemic inequality...

  14. Comparative study on haematological traits of endangered Andaman wild pig and other indigenous pig breeds available at Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar De

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim:The present experiment was conducted to investigate and compare the haematological parameters of different pig breedsavailable at Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India viz. Andaman wild pig, Nicobari pig, Andaman desi pig and Large WhiteYorkshire (LWY. Six erythrocyte traits, seven leukocyte traits and four platelet traits were assessed.Materials and Methods: 10 ml blood was collected from each adult pig via external jugular vein aseptically in a collectiontube containing anticoagulant EDTA (2 mg EDTA/ml of blood. All these haematological parameters were measured by aninstrument named Cell Counter Analyzer MS9-5V(Melet Schloesing Laboratories.Results:Asignificantly (p<0.05 higher Red Blood Cell Concentration (RBC in 106/μl, Packed Cell Volume (PCVin % andHaemoglobin concentration (Hgb in g/dl was found in Andaman wild pig in comparison to all other pig breeds. The TotalWhite Blood Cell Concentration (WBC in 103/μl was significantly (P<0.05 higher in Andaman wild pig in comparison to allthe other pig breeds studied. The ratio of Neutrophil and Lymphocyte (N:L was lowest in Andaman wild pig and was highestin LWY. No significant difference (P<0.05 was found in total Blood Platelet Concentration (PLTin 103/μl between Andamanwild pig and LWYbut the values were significantly higher in comparison to Andaman desi pig and Nicobari pig.Conclusions: The haematological parameters of different pig breeds available at Andaman and Nicobar Islands wereinvestigated and compared and based on haematological parameters it was found that Andaman wild pig is best adapted in thehot humid climate of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Large White Yorkshire is least adapted.

  15. Reciprocal Antibody and Complement Responses of Two Chicken Breeds to Vaccine Strains of Newcastle Disease Virus, Infectious Bursal Disease Virus and Infectious Bronchitis Virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baelmans, R.; Parmentier, H.K.; Dorny, P.; Demey, F.; Berkvens, D.

    2006-01-01

    Serum antibody responses and haemolytic complement activity were evaluated in White Leghorn (WLH) and Rhode Island Red (RIR) chickens that were vaccinated with live-attenuated vaccines of Newcastle disease virus, or infectious bronchitis virus, or infectious bursal disease virus by means of ocular c

  16. Mitochondrial DNA control region polymorphisms in Dongxiang blue-eggshell chicken and their evolutionary relatedness with nine domestic Wugu breeds%东乡绿壳蛋鸡线粒体DNA控制区多态性及与9种地方乌鸡的进化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章学东; 李庆海; 张成先; 陈贤惠; 楼立峰; 王欢欢

    2014-01-01

    Wugu chicken is a marvel of traditional Chinese poultry breeds and is characterized by black skin and bones , and grayish-black meat . There are nearly 17 species of Wugu chicken , not including breeds with partially black skin and bones , recorded in A nimal Genetic Resources in China published by the China National Commission of Animal Genetic Resources . Among these breeds , the Dongxiang blue-eggshell chicken was originally bred in Dongxiang County , Jiangxi Province , China . This breed is characterized by black feathers and most of the crest , beak , skin , muscle , bone , shins , and its toes are also black . The unique characteristic of the Dongxiang chicken is a blue eggshell . Mitochondrial DNA ( mtDNA) analysis has become an effective method to explore genetic relation among populations because of its low molecular mass , simple structure , rapid evolutionary rate , maternal inheritance , and non-tissue specification , among other features . The aim of the present study was to analyze mtDNA control region polymorphisms and evolution in conservative groups of Dongxiang blue-eggshell chickens in comparison to other domestic Wugu breeds to better elucidate the genetic structure of Dongxiang chickens to further develop conservation and exploitation programs . Blood samples were collected from 39 ( 19 cocks and 20 hens) eleventh generation Dongxiang blue-eggshell conservative chickens and DNA was extracted and then PCR-amplified and the products were sequenced . Nine other samples from domestic Wugu chicken breeds bred by our team or collected from the NCBI database were used for nucleotide sequence analysis . All breeds used in this study were recorded in A nimal Genetic Resources in China and all collected data were analyzed using DNASTAR 5 .0 , DNASP 5 .10 , and MEGA 5 .10 softwares . The results showed that the 534 bp mtDNA control region sequence of the Dongxiang blue-eggshell chicken had a G+C content of 43 .1% and included 21 variable sites , of which

  17. Evaluation of consumption and costa of the electric power in broiler chicken poultry house, during two breeding cycles; Avaliacao do consumo e custo de energia eletrica em galpao para criacao de frangos de corte, em dois ciclos de criacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Luiz Fernando S.A.; Turco, Jose Eduardo Pitelli [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2000-07-01

    This work analyzes the consumption and cost of electric energy in a broiler chickens house, in two breeding cycles. Measurements of fans, sprayers, illumination and feed boxes consumptions were performed during the handling of 10500 birds in a poultry house of 12 m width, 80 m length, located in the municipal district of Jardinopolis - SP, in the periods of June to July of 1997 and October to December of 1998. To determine the expenditures with electric energy, of the electric equipment, Tariffs were obtained from CPFL (Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz) for determination of expenditures with electric power. The results of this study show that for the first experiment the consumption forecasted, of active electric energy consumption of the equipment for production of a broiler chickens was of 0.12 kWh and for the second experiment 0.2 kWh. The expenditures with electric energy for both first and second experiments amounted R$ 0.02 and R$ 0.03, respectively. (author)

  18. The effects of selective breeding on the architectural properties of the pelvic limb in broiler chickens: a comparative study across modern and ancestral populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Heather; Anthony, Nicolas B; Corr, Sandra A; Hutchinson, John R

    2010-08-01

    Intensive artificial selection has led to the production of the modern broiler chicken, which over the last few decades has undergone a dramatic increase in growth rate and noticeable changes in body conformation. Unfortunately, this has been associated with musculoskeletal abnormalities which have altered the walking ability of these birds, raising obvious welfare concerns, as well as causing economic losses. Here we present a comparative study of ancestral and derived muscle anatomy in chickens to begin to tease apart how evolutionary alterations of muscle form in chickens have influenced their locomotor function and perhaps contributed to lameness. We measured the muscle architectural properties of the right pelvic limb in 50 birds, including the Giant Junglefowl, a commercial strain broiler and four pureline commercial broiler breeder lines (from which the broiler populations are derived) to identify which features of the broiler's architectural design have diverged the most from the ancestral condition. We report a decline in pelvic limb muscle mass in the commercial line birds that may compromise their locomotor abilities because they carry a larger body mass. This greater demand on the pelvic limb muscles has mostly led to changes in support at the hip joint, revealing significantly larger abductors and additionally much larger medial rotators in the broiler population. Differences were seen within the commercial line bird populations, which are likely attributed to different selection pressures and may reflect differences in the walking ability of these birds. In addition, Junglefowl seem to have both greater force-generating capabilities and longer, presumably faster contracting muscles, indicative of superior musculoskeletal/locomotor function. We have provided baseline data for generating hypotheses to investigate in greater depth the specific biomechanical constraints that compromise the modern broiler's walking ability and propose that these factors

  19. Physical, biochemical and genetic characterization of enterocin CE5-1 produced by Enterococcus faecium CE5-1 isolated from Thai indigenous chicken intestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraiyot Saelim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterocin CE5-1 produced by Enterococcus faecium CE5-1 isolated from the chicken gastrointestinal tract was active in the wide range of pH 2-10 and temperature 30-100°C and sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and -amylase. It remained active after storage at -20°C for 2 months. Moreover, enterocin CE5-1 showed antibacterial activity against lactobacilli, bacilli, listeria, staphylococci and enterococci, especially antibiotic-resistant enterococci. In vitro study of enterocin CE5-1 decreased the population of Ent. faecalis VanB from 6.03 to 4.03 log CFU/ml. The lethal mode of action of enterocin CE5-1 appeared to be pore and filament formation in the cell wall. PCR sequencing analysis revealed the presence of two open reading frames (ORFs, containing enterocin CE5-1 (entCE5-1 and enterocin immunity (entI gene. Therefore, enterocin CE5-1 from Ent. faecium CE5-1 could possibly be used as an antimicrobial agent to control foodborne pathogen, spoilage bacteria and antibiotic-resistant enterococci in foods, feeds and the environments.

  20. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwayelu, D O; Todd, D; Olaleye, O D

    2008-12-01

    This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6% and 4% nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2% amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/CI-8 and NGR/CI-9) were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  1. Native Chicken Production in Indonesia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hidayat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a country rich in native chicken genetic resources. There are 31 native chicken breed in Indonesia. Native chicken farming was developed for decades. In early period of 1907’s, mostly farmers reared their native chicken by traditional system (about 80%. In 1980s until now, the number of native chicken farmers which rear native chicken by semi intensive and intensive system have been increasing. These rearing system changing have significantly increased the native chicken productivity. The major constraints for the development of native chicken i.e. low growth rate, risks of high mortality, low egg production. Many research results stated that improving in breeding, feeding and management aspect will increase native chicken production. The information and data contained in this paper is the result of study literature for scientific papers, either in the form of journals, books, or proceedings, and livestock statistics books. This paper is made to support the development of native chickens in Indonesia.

  2. Indigenous religions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertz, Armin W.

    2009-01-01

    Dette essay diskuterer en publikation af James L. Cox med titlen From Primitive to Indigenous (2007). Bogen analyserer forskellige forfatteres holdninger til studiet af indfødte kulturers religioner. Cox's analyser tages op i dette essay og de problematiseres i forhold til mit eget arbejde....

  3. Associated Analysis on Polymorphisms of UCP Genotypes, Reactive Oxygen Species Contents and Birth Weight with Three Chicken Breeds%鸡解耦联蛋白基因型与活性氧含量、初生重的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程甲; 程曦; 朱庆鸿; 赵兴波

    2011-01-01

    为了研究解耦联蛋白基因(uncoupling protein,UCP)对鸡(Gallus gallus)初生重及活性氧含量的影响,本实验通过对3个品种鸡初生重、UCP C353T多态位点基因型以及肌肉组织活性氧(ROS)含量的测定,发现丝羽乌鸡ROS值显著低于白莱航、寿光鸡,UCPTT基因型ROS值显著高于CT和CC基因型,而ROS含量与雏鸡初生重之间存在着正向的相关性(r=0.5011),UCPTT基因型的初生重显著高于CT和CC基因型.实验结果揭示了鸡UCP基因型对初生重性状具有选择效应.%In order to explore the effect of uncoupling protein gene (UCP) on birth weight and content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in chickens (Gallus gallus), the birth weight, UCP C353T mutation genotyping and muscle ROS contents from three chicken breeds were analyzed.The results indicated Silky chicken had higher ROS contents than that of White Leghorn and Shouguang chickens, and ROS contents for genotype TT of UCP appeared notably higher than that of CT and CC genotypes.ROS contents presented a positive correlation with chicken birth weight (r=0.5011).The birth weight for genotype TT of UCPdemonstrated notably higher than that of CT and CC genotype.The findings showed UCP genotypes can impact chicken birth weight for selections.

  4. Population structure and genetic diversity of Sudanese native chickens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-11-06

    Nov 6, 2013 ... origin of breeding populations, molecular marker informa-. *Corresponding .... on the phenotypic characteristics of each local breed (Desai, 1962). ..... Development of a genetic map of the chicken with markers of ... variation and population structure of Italian native sheep breeds ... evolutionary studies. Mol.

  5. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Oluwayelu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6 % and 4 % nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2 % amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/Cl-8 and NGR/Cl-9 were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  6. Changes in endogenous bioactive compounds of Korean native chicken meat at different ages and during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Jung, Samooel; Bae, Young Sik; Kim, Sun Hyo; Lee, Soo Kee; Lee, Jun Heon; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of bird age on the contents of endogenous bioactive compounds, including carnosine, anserine, creatine, betaine, and carnitine, in meat from a certified meat-type commercial Korean native chicken strain (KNC; Woorimatdag). Additionally, the effects of the meat type (breast or leg meat) and the state of the meat (raw or cooked) were examined. Cocks of KNC were raised under similar standard commercial conditions at a commercial chicken farm. At various ages (10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 wk), breast and leg meats from a total of 10 birds from each age group were obtained. Raw and cooked meat samples were then prepared separately and analyzed for bioactive compounds. The age of the KNC had a significant effect only on the betaine content. The breast meat of KNC had higher amounts of carnosine and anserine but had lower amounts of betaine and carnitine than the leg meat (P bioactive compounds during cooking (P bioactive compounds in KNC meat, which can be useful for selection and breeding programs, and also for popularizing indigenous chicken meat.

  7. East Asian contributions to Dutch traditional and western commercial chickens inferred from mtDNA analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullu, N.D.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Hanotte, O.; Mwacharo, J.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the complex origin of domesticated populations is of vital importance for understanding, preserving and exploiting breed genetic diversity. Here, we aim to assess Asian contributions to European traditional breeds and western commercial chickens for mitochondrial genetic diversity. To

  8. Tissue-Specific Expression of the Chicken Calpain2 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Rong Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We quantified chicken calpain 2 (CAPN2 expression in two Chinese chicken breeds (mountainous black-bone chicken breed [MB] and a commercial meat type chicken breed [S01] to discern the tissue and ontogenic expression pattern and its effect on muscle metabolism. Real-time quantitative PCR assay was developed for accurate measurement of the CAPN2 mRNA expression in various tissues from chickens of different ages (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks. Results showed that the breast muscle and leg muscle tissues had the highest expression of CAPN2 compared to the other tissues from the same individual (P<.05. Overall, the CAPN2 mRNA level exhibited a “rise” developmental change in all tissues. The S01 chicken had a higher expression of the CAPN2 mRNA in all tissues than the MB chicken. Our results suggest that chicken CAPN2 expression may be related to chicken breeds and tissues.

  9. Development of Local Chicken Production Based on Local Feed Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Hidayat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of local chicken production based on local feed ingredient is in line with the vision of Indonesian goverment to fulfill meat and egg national requirement based on local resources. There are two big problem which become stumblingblock in developing local chicken production. The first problem is the difficulty to get day old chick of local chicken. This problem can be solved by integrating breeder institutions belong to goverment with research institution and with local chicken producer association. The second problem is the low performance of local chicken. To improve local chicken performance, it can be done by improving the breed, feed and management. Several research results show that good performance of local chicken were obtained by inclusion of local feed ingredients in the ration. Therefore, development of local chicken production based an local feed resources can be applied.

  10. Performance differences of Rhode Island Red, Bashang Long-tail Chicken, and their reciprocal crossbreds under natural cold stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Xie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The Bashang Long-tail chicken (BS, an indigenous Chinese breed, is considered cold tolerant. We selected BS, the Rhode Island Red (RIR, and their reciprocal crossbreds for the present study. The objectives were: i to validate whether BS is cold tolerant and whether egg production and cold tolerance of crossbreds could be improved; and ii to determine the physiological characteristics that underlie cold tolerance and favorable egg production performance in cold environments. Methods A total of 916 chickens were reared in warm and natural cold environments (daily mean ambient temperature varied from 7.4°C to 26.5°C in the warm environment and from −17.5°C to 27.0°C in the cold environment. To investigate their adaptability to the cold environment, the egg production performance and body weight were monitored and compared between breeds and environments. The cloacal temperature and serum biochemical parameters were monitored to reveal the physiological characteristics underlie cold tolerance and favorable egg production performance in the cold environment. Results The warm environment experiment showed that RIR had the highest egg production performance, and that the reciprocal crossbreds had a higher egg production performance than BS. While in the cold environment RIR had the lowest egg production performance, and the reciprocal crossbreds had a higher egg production performance than BS. In the cold environment BS and reciprocal crossbreds had higher triiodothyronine, tetraiodothyronine levels than RIR. At 35 and 39 wk of age, when the ambient temperature was extremely low (varied from −20°C to 0°C, serum glucose, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol of BS and crossbreds were higher than RIR. Conclusion Bashang Long-tail chicken has a favorable cold tolerance ability. Crossbreeding with RIR and BS is an effective way to develop cold tolerant chickens with improved egg production performance.

  11. Maternal Origin of Turkish and Iranian Native Chickens Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA D-loop Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Meydan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To assess genetic diversity and maternal origin of Turkish and Iranian native chicken breeds, we analyzed the mtDNA D-loop sequences of 222 chickens from 2 Turkish (Denizli and Gerze and 7 Iranian (White Marandi, Black Marandi, Naked Neck, Common Breed, Lari, West Azarbaijan, and New Hampshire native chicken breeds, together with the available reference sequences of G. gallus gallus in GenBank. The haplotype diversity was estimated as 0.24±0.01 and 0.36±0.02 for Turkish and Iranian populations, respectively. In total, 19 haplotypes were observed from 24 polymorphic sites in Turkish and Iranian native chicken populations. Two different clades or haplogroups (A and E were found in Turkish and Iranian chickens. Clade A haplotypes were found only in White Marandi, Common Breed and New Hampshire populations. Clade E haplotypes, which are quite common, were observed in Turkish and Iranian populations with 18 different haplotypes, of which Turkish and Iranian chickens, Clade E, haplotype 1 (TRIRE1 was a major haplotype with the frequency of 81.5% (181/222 across all breeds. Compared to red jungle fowl, Turkish and Iranian chicken breeds are closely related to each other. These results suggest that Turkish and Iranian chickens originated from the same region, the Indian subcontinent. Our results will provide reliable basic information for mtDNA haplotypes of Turkish and Iranian chickens and for studying the origin of domestic chickens.

  12. Maternal Origin of Turkish and Iranian Native Chickens Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA D-loop Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meydan, Hasan; Jang, Cafer Pish; Yıldız, Mehmet Ali; Weigend, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    To assess genetic diversity and maternal origin of Turkish and Iranian native chicken breeds, we analyzed the mtDNA D-loop sequences of 222 chickens from 2 Turkish (Denizli and Gerze) and 7 Iranian (White Marandi, Black Marandi, Naked Neck, Common Breed, Lari, West Azarbaijan, and New Hampshire) native chicken breeds, together with the available reference sequences of G. gallus gallus in GenBank. The haplotype diversity was estimated as 0.24±0.01 and 0.36±0.02 for Turkish and Iranian populations, respectively. In total, 19 haplotypes were observed from 24 polymorphic sites in Turkish and Iranian native chicken populations. Two different clades or haplogroups (A and E) were found in Turkish and Iranian chickens. Clade A haplotypes were found only in White Marandi, Common Breed and New Hampshire populations. Clade E haplotypes, which are quite common, were observed in Turkish and Iranian populations with 18 different haplotypes, of which Turkish and Iranian chickens, Clade E, haplotype 1 (TRIRE1) was a major haplotype with the frequency of 81.5% (181/222) across all breeds. Compared to red jungle fowl, Turkish and Iranian chicken breeds are closely related to each other. These results suggest that Turkish and Iranian chickens originated from the same region, the Indian subcontinent. Our results will provide reliable basic information for mtDNA haplotypes of Turkish and Iranian chickens and for studying the origin of domestic chickens. PMID:27189637

  13. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  14. Chicken Toast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 200 grams chicken breast; 50 grams sliced bread; 5 grams vegetable oil; one egg; minced ginger root and scallions; 25 grams Shredded radish; vinegar; sugar; salt and pepper to taste. Method: First chop the chicken and mix it with the vegetable oil, a beaten egg, ginger, scallions, Salt

  15. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  16. 中国地方绵羊品种的地域分布及肉用相关性状的多元分析%The Geographical Distribution and Multivariate Analysis of Chinese Indigenous Sheep Breeds and Their Meat-Related Traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧华; 赵福平; 张莉; 魏彩虹; 杜立新

    2015-01-01

    Objective] China has among the world’s most abundant animal genetic resources; the number of mammal and poultry breeds account for 1/6 of global known taxa.Animal Genetic Resources in China was investigated and edited under the ministry of agriculture’s leadership and organization over 8 years. This book summarizes the geographical distribution and characteristics of China's indigenous and imported cultivars and species of imported livestock. We analyzed some production traits of Chinese indigenous sheep breeds using the section, sheep and goats ofAnimal Genetic Resources in China, We expected to determine cultivation material suitable for meat breeding.[Method] 13 meat-related traits including data on body size, carcass and reproductive traits of indigenous sheep breeds were summarized from this resource. First, the indigenous breeds were divided into Mongolian, Kazakh and Tibetan groups and then their traits were analyzed using multiple comparison, principal component and hierarchical clustering methods within the statistical program R environment.[Result] Chinese indigenous sheep breeds are widely distributed according to our generated geographical distribution map. Four provinces (autonomous regions) of Xinjiang, Yunnan, Inner Mongolia and Shandong have relatively high level of diversity which respectively contain 13, 7, 5 and 5 breeds. Chinese indigenous sheep were mainly concentrated in the north, northwest and southwest plateau of China. The Kazakh group breeds mainly concentrate in the Xinjiang area, while the Tibetan group is on the Yunnan-Guizhou plateau. The Mongolian group is the largest and most widely distributed in the northern, central, and eastern parts of China. The multiple comparison analysis indicates that the productions performance of the Mongolia group is best, and Kazakh is worst. Three major lineages are distinguished via principal components 1 and 2, These results infer that Large-tailed Han, Guangling Large-tailed and Yecheng sheep

  17. Genomic regions associated with necrotic enteritis resistance in Fayoumi and White Leghorn chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we used two breeds of chicken to identify genomic regions corresponding to necrotic enteritis (NE) resistance. We scanned the genomes of a resistant and susceptible line of Fayoumi and White Leghorn chicken using a chicken 60K Illumina SNP panel. A total of 235 loci with divergently ...

  18. Association of polymorphisms in adipocyte fatty acid binding protein gene with fat-related traits in chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manhong YE; Jie WEN; Honghe CAO; Hongbin LI; Jilan CHEN; Guiping ZHAO; Maiqing ZHENG

    2008-01-01

    PCR-SSCP analysis was used to detect poly-morphic sites in chicken adipocyte fatty acid binding pro-tein (A-FABP) gene. Six Chinese local breeds, Beijing-You chicken, Dwarf chicken, Taihe silky chicken, Chong-renma chicken, Xiayan chicken, Luyuan chicken and an introduced foreign breed, Arbor Acre broiler, were used as test populations. Three PCR-SSCP loci were detected. Statistical results showed that frequencies of genotypes and alleles were significantly different in the test popula-tions. Sequence analysis revealed that C → T, G → A, and C → T transitions were responsible for the polymorph-isms. Some fat-related traits such as body weight, content of intramuscular fat (IMF) and percentage of abdominal fat (AFP) were measured in Dwarf chickens and male Beijing-You chickens. We found out that chicken quality was significantly related to different genotypes in these two populations.

  19. Prairie Chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — An outline of the general range occupied by greayter and lesser prairie chickens. The range was delineated by expert opinion, then varified by local wildlife...

  20. Comparison and analysis of Wuding and avian chicken skeletal muscle satellite cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, H Q; Jiang, Z Q; Dou, T F; Li, Q H; Xu, Z Q; Liu, L X; Gu, D H; Rong, H; Huang, Y; Chen, X B; Jois, M; Te Pas, M F W; Ge, C R; Jia, J J

    2016-10-05

    Chicken skeletal muscle satellite cells are located between the basement membrane and the sarcolemma of mature muscle fibers. Avian broilers have been genetically selected based on their high growth velocity and large muscle mass. The Wuding chicken is a famous local chicken in Yunnan Province that undergoes non-selection breeding and is slow growing. In this study, we aimed to explore differences in the proliferation and differentiation properties of satellite cells isolated from the two chicken breeds. Using immunofluorescence, hematoxylin-eosin staining and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, we analyzed the in vitro characteristics of proliferating and differentiating satellite cells isolated from the two chicken breeds. The growth curve of satellite cells was S-shaped, and cells from Wuding chickens entered the logarithmic phase and plateau phase 1 day later than those from Avian chicken. The results also showed that the two skeletal muscle satellite cell lines were positive for Pax7, MyoD and IGF-1. The expression of Pax7 followed a downward trend, whereas that of MyoD and IGF-1 first increased and subsequently decreased in cells isolated from the two chickens. These data indicated that the skeletal muscle satellite cells of Avian chicken grow and differentiate faster than did those of Wuding chickens. We suggest that the methods of breeding selection applied to these breeds regulate the characteristics of skeletal muscle satellite cells to influence muscle growth.

  1. Indigenous Education in Mexico: Indigenous Students' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despagne, Colette

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether, despite a shift in political and educational discourses over the last decades that suggests that Indigenous cultures and languages are recognized, any real change has occurred in terms of Indigenous education in Mexico. It is possible that official bilingual intercultural education is still…

  2. Indigenous Education in Mexico: Indigenous Students' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despagne, Colette

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether, despite a shift in political and educational discourses over the last decades that suggests that Indigenous cultures and languages are recognized, any real change has occurred in terms of Indigenous education in Mexico. It is possible that official bilingual intercultural education is still…

  3. The ascent of cat breeds: genetic evaluations of breeds and worldwide random-bred populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipinski, Monika J; Froenicke, Lutz; Baysac, Kathleen C; Billings, Nicholas C; Leutenegger, Christian M; Levy, Alon M; Longeri, Maria; Niini, Tirri; Ozpinar, Haydar; Slater, Margaret R; Pedersen, Niels C; Lyons, Leslie A

    2008-01-01

    The diaspora of the modern cat was traced with microsatellite markers from the presumed site of domestication to distant regions of the world. Genetic data were derived from over 1100 individuals, representing 17 random-bred populations from five continents and 22 breeds. The Mediterranean was reconfirmed to be the probable site of domestication. Genetic diversity has remained broad throughout the world, with distinct genetic clustering in the Mediterranean basin, Europe/America, Asia and Africa. However, Asian cats appeared to have separated early and expanded in relative isolation. Most breeds were derived from indigenous cats of their purported regions of origin. However, the Persian and Japanese bobtail were more aligned with European/American than with Mediterranean basin or Asian clusters. Three recently derived breeds were not distinct from their parental breeds of origin. Pure breeding was associated with a loss of genetic diversity; however, this loss did not correlate with breed popularity or age.

  4. Why Indigenous Nations Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Robert; Yellow Bird, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The development of a new Indigenous Nations Studies program at the University of Kansas is described. Success depended on a critical mass of Indigenous and non-Indigenous faculty and students that had a sense of political and social justice and understood the need for institutional change. The biggest challenge was countering the entrenched…

  5. Art meets science: The Cosmopolitan Chicken Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinckens, A; Vereijken, A; Ons, E; Konings, P; Van As, P; Cuppens, H; Moreau, Y; Sakai, R; Aerts, J; Goddeeris, B; Buys, N; Vanmechelen, K; Cassiman, J J

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmopolitan Chicken Project is an artistic undertaking of renowned artist Koen Vanmechelen. In this project, the artist interbreeds domestic chickens from different countries aiming at the creation of a true Cosmopolitan Chicken as a symbol for global diversity. The unifying theme is the chicken and the egg, symbols that link scientific, political, philosophical and ethical issues. The Cosmopolitan Chicken Research Project is the scientific component of this artwork. Based on state of the art genomic techniques, the project studies the effect of the crossing of chickens on the genetic diversity. Also, this research is potentially applicable to the human population. The setup of the CC®P is quite different from traditional breeding experiments: starting from the crossbreed of two purebred chickens (Mechelse Koekoek x Poule de Bresse), every generation is crossed with a few animals from another breed. For 26 of these purebred and crossbred populations, genetic diversity was measured (1) under the assumption that populations were sufficiently large to maintain all informative SNP within a generation and (2) under the circumstances of the CCP breeding experiment. Under the first assumption, a steady increase in genetic diversity was witnessed over the consecutive generations, thus indeed indicating the creation of a "Cosmopolitan Chicken Genome". However, under the conditions of the CCP, which reflects the reality within the human population, diversity is seen to fluctuate within given boundaries instead of steadily increasing. A reflection on this might be that this is because, in humans, an evolutionary optimum in genetic diversity is reached. Key words.

  6. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the microRNA miR-1596 locus with residual feed intake in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, C; Sun, L; Ma, J; Wang, J; Qu, H; Shu, D

    2015-06-01

    MicroRNAs are an abundant class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Genetic variations in microRNA sequences may be associated with phenotype differences by influencing the expression of microRNAs and/or their targets. This study identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genomic region of the microRNA miR-1596 locus of chicken. Of the two SNPs, one was 95 bp upstream of miR-1596 (g.5678784A>T) and the other was in the middle of the sequence producing the mature microRNA gga-miR-1596-3p (g.5678944A>G). Genotypic distribution of the two SNPs had large differences among 12 chicken breeds (lines), especially between the fast-growing commercial lines and the slow-growing Chinese indigenous breeds for the g.5678784A>T SNP. Only the g.5678784A>T SNP was significantly associated with residual feed intake (RFI) in the F2 population derived from a fast-growing and a slow-growing broiler as well as in the pure Huiyang bearded chicken. The birds with the AA genotype of the g.5678784A>T SNP had lower RFI and higher expression of the mature gga-miR-1596-3p microRNA of miR-1596 than did those with the other genotypes of the same SNP. We also found that the expression of the mature gga-miR-1596-3p microRNA of miR-1596 was significantly associated with RFI. These findings suggest that miR-1596 can become a candidate gene related to RFI, and its genetic variation may contribute to changes in RFI by altering expression levels of the mature gga-miR-1596-3p microRNA in chicken. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  7. Molecular Genotype Identification of Different Chickens: Major Histocompatibility Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhi Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chicken is a main poultry in China. Molecular breeding for disease resistance plays an important role in the control of diseases, especially infectious diseases. Choice of genes for disease resistance is the key technology of molecular breeding. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is of great interest to poultry breeding scientists for its extraordinary polymorphism and close relation with traits of resistance against infectious diseases. The MHC-B haplotype plays an important role in the study of disease resistance in chicken. The traditional chicken MHC-B haplotype is commonly defined by serologic reactions of erythrocytes and the majority of studies have been conducted in Leghorn and broiler but study about other chicken breeds is little. In this study, firstly, the microsatellite marker LEI0258 which is located within the MHC was sequenced by using target sequence capture assay in different chicken breeds, and then according to the number of repeated structures and polymorphic sequences in microsatellite, sequence information for the region defined by LEI0258 was obtained for different haplotypes. Afterwards, we identified the relation between MHC-B haplotypes and disease resistance. Collectively, these observed results provided the reference data for disease-resistant breeding association with blood type and for further study of MHC gene function in poultry.

  8. Indigenous Storytelling in Namibia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike

    2016-01-01

    fairytales to outsiders with little relevance to the physical world, they are very functional and foundational for communities where storytelling is enacted. This paper debates concepts related to indigenous storytelling and its relevance to knowledge and learning for indigenous youths. In an attempt...... to understand indigenous youths’ own conception of storytelling the paper presents empirical data from a study with indigenous Khoisan children in Namibia. This is followed by a discussion of an effort of digitizing indigenous intangible cultural heritage in relation to technologies’ embodied bias...

  9. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh D. Jayasena

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for

  10. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  11. Associations of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor (GnRHR) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) Genes' Polymorphisms with Egg-Laying Traits in Wenchang Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xu; ZHU Wen-qi; LI Hui-fang; YAN Mei-jiao; TANG Qing-ping; CHEN Kuan-wei; WANG Jin-yu; GAO Yu-shi; TU Yun-jie; YU Ya-bo

    2007-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were selected to identify the genotypes of Wenchang (Chinese indigenous breed) chicken with restricton fragment length polymorphisms. The associations of the SNPs with the total egg production (NE), average days of continual laying (ADCL), and number of double-yolked eggs (DYE) traits were analyzed. The frequency of restriction enzyme A/a alleles in the population was for GnRHR 0.69 (Bpu1102 Ⅰ A) and 0.31 (Bpu1102 Ⅰ a) and for NPY 0.46 (Dra Ⅰ B) and 0.54 (Dra Ⅰ b). Trait data from a total of 120 hens, which were purebred introduced from Hainan Province, China from one generation were recorded. Two significant effects of genes' marker were found: for GnRHR and number of eggs (dominant; t= 2.67, df= 116) and NPY and number of eggs (additive; t= 1.97, df= 116). The current research supports the effects of GnRHR and NPY genes on egg-laying traits of chickens.

  12. A Pan-Indigenous Vision of Indigenous Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaquiza, Martina; B'alam, Pakal

    2000-01-01

    Identifies four groups with conflicting interests in indigenous studies programs and the nature of the conflicts. Proposes the formation of a pan-indigenous intellectual network. Describes the ideal indigenous studies program devoted to building a pan-indigenous infrastructure that indigenous nations would direct and use as a tool to strengthen…

  13. Comparison of external genetic of Wareng and Kampung Chicken, observed from introgression rate and genetic variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Sartika

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Wareng and Kampung chicken are Indonesian native chicken that have good potential to be dual purpose chicken. Information on these chickens has not hast’n widely published so that their genetic potential is unknown. The purpose of this research is to collect basic data of the external genetic characteristic from Wareng and Kampung chickens consisting feather color, feather pattern, feather feature, feather shine, shank color and comb shape; to identify rate of introgression imported breed (Rhode Island Red, White Leghorn and Barred Plymouth Rock, the purity and genetic variability of Wareng and Kampung chickens. This study was carried out at the Research Institute for Animal Production, Ciawi, Bogor. Materials used were 361 of Wareng chickens (313 females, 48 males and 439 of Kampung chickens (352 females, 87 males. Data were analyzed using formulas to identify gene frequency, rate of introgression of purity native gene frequency and the genetic variability. The result showed that the control of gene constitution on external characteristic of Wareng chicken was I_ E_ bb S_ Id_ pp and ii e+ _bb ss idid pp on Kampung chicken. Wareng chicken own constitution of gene the same as with White Leghorn (II EE SS BB IdId pp. Wareng Chicken is not containing frequency of original gene of Indonesian local chicken (Kampung. The level of influence value (rate of introgression from Europe and American chicken for Wareng chicken was of equal to 84% and 25% to Kampung chicken. So that the purity for Wareng chicken was 16% and 75% was for Kampung chicken. The variability genetic of Kampung chickens (39% higher than Wareng chicken (16%.

  14. aCGH Analysis to Estimate Genetic Variations among Domesticated Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyoshi Komiyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chickens have been familiar to humans since ancient times and have been used not only for culinary purposes but also for cultural purposes including ritual ceremonies and traditional entertainment. The various chicken breeds developed for these purposes often display distinct morphological and/or behavioural traits. For example, the Japanese Shamo is larger and more aggressive than other domesticated chickens, reflecting its role as a fighting cock breed, whereas Japanese Naganakidori breeds, which have long-crowing behaviour, were bred instead for their entertaining and aesthetic qualities. However, the genetic backgrounds of these distinct morphological and behavioural traits remain unclear. Therefore, the question arises as to which genomic regions in these chickens were acted upon by selective pressures through breeding. We compared the entire genomes of six chicken breeds domesticated for various cultural purposes by utilizing array comparative genomic hybridization. From these analyses, we identified 782 regions that underwent insertions, deletions, or mutations, representing man-made selection pressure in these chickens. Furthermore, we found that a number of genes diversified in domesticated chickens bred for cultural or entertainment purposes were different from those diversified in chickens bred for food, such as broilers and layers.

  15. 405 Nigerian Indigenous vs Exotic Hens: the Correlation Factor in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... a breeding stock of about 500 chickens were used to assess age and body ... Albumen pH was determined using a digital Jen way® 3015 pH meter with ... Differences in age at sexual maturity are subject to genetic variation.

  16. A REVIEW ON INDIGENOUS CATTLE GENETIC RESOURCES IN ETHIOPIA: ADAPTATION, STATUS AND SURVIVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getinet MEKURIAW

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia is endowed with different Indigenous cattle genetic resources with millions of people directly depending on them. However, despite the potentials of these diversified genetic resources, the huge loss of cattle genetic diversity is becoming a prominent challenge these days. The aim of this review is to show the current status and performance of some selected indigenous cattle breeds of Ethiopia for better understanding of the situation of these breeds for the collective efforts towards conserving and improving the breeds. Based on the review, there are persuasive evidences on the critical situation of the selected indigenous cattle breeds. The facts and figures of the past and current situation of the selected indigenous cattle of Ethiopia showed that the situation of these breeds is very critical. This situation therefore demands the need to devise strategies to conserve and improve the cattle breeds based on the challenges that threatens them. Use of new biological and information technologies is also imperative to facilitate the genetic restoration process. Besides, use of new biological and information technologies which can enhance the conservation and improvement program are crucial. Various ongoing development interventions like Artificial Insemination and introduction of genotypes into new environments that are exacerbating threat of the breeds should totally be avoided by revising and designing sound approaches for cattle Conservation and improvement programs. Strict regulations and by laws should also be in place for illegal movement of breeding cattle to the neighboring countries.

  17. Genetic diversity and maternal origin of Bangladeshi chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, M S A; Chen, Shanyuan; Faruque, S; Bhuiyan, A K F H; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2013-06-01

    Local domestic chicken populations are of paramount importance as a source of protein in developing countries. Bangladesh possesses a large number of native chicken populations which display a broad range of phenotypes well adapted to the extreme wet and hot environments of this region. This and the fact that wild jungle fowls (JFs) are still available in some regions of the country, it urges to study the present genetic diversity and relationships between Bangladeshi autochthonous chicken populations. Here, we report the results of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence polymorphisms analyses to assess the genetic diversity and possible maternal origin of Bangladeshi indigenous chickens. A 648-bp fragment of mtDNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed in 96 samples from four different chicken populations and one red JF population. Sequence analysis revealed 39 variable sites that defined 25 haplotypes. Estimates of haplotype and nucleotide diversities ranged from 0.745 to 0.901 and from 0.011 to 0.016, respectively. The pairwise differences between populations ranged from 0.091 to 1.459 while most of the PhiST (ΦST) values were significant. Furthermore, AMOVA analysis revealed 89.16 % of the total genetic diversity was accounted for within population variation, indicating little genetic differentiation among the studied populations. The median network analysis from haplotypes of Bangladeshi chickens illustrated five distinct mitochondrial haplogroups (A, D, E, F and I). Individuals from all Bangladeshi chicken populations were represented in the major clades D and E; those maternal origins are presumed to be from Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asian countries, more particularly from South China, Vietnam, Myanmar and Thailand. Further, phylogenetic analysis between indigenous chicken populations and sub-species of red JFs showed G. g. gallus and G. g. spadiceus shared with almost all haplogroups and had major influence than G. g. murghi in the origin of

  18. Indigenous Existentialism and the Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Hokowhitu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article begins a discussion on indigenous existentialism. The theme developed as a result of engagement at the intersection between Indigenous Studies and Cultural Studies, and the realisation that cultural concepts often canonised within Indigenous Studies departments, such as tradition and authenticity (when exclusive, detract from the conception of indigenous culture as part of the immediate material reality of indigenous lives. In turn, when indigenous culture is too often defined only in relation to an imagined authentic past, indigenous existentialism is inhibited because indigenous people lack a conscious awareness of cultural immediacy. There is nothing more immediate than the body and, thus, I began to theorise indigenous existentialism through an analyses of the indigenous body, its genealogy, and its immediacy. To help me process this theorisation I engage with current Cultural Studies debates surrounding the analyses of the body. I conclude that an indigenous existentialism will recognise that the power of the body is still unknown.

  19. Chicken Breast Paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 150 grams of egg white, ham, cucumber and water chestnuts, 50 grams of starch, 50 grams of oil, salt and MSG. Directions: 1. Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnuts. Mix with egg white and starch into chicken breast paste. 2. Heat the oil for a moment and then place chicken paste in pot.

  20. My Chicken Adventure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOROTHY; TECKLENBURG

    2006-01-01

    I am suffering from chicken envy. I'm determined to cook a chicken like the golden brown ones you buy in any Washington grocery store, those beautiful roasted chickens done on a revolving spit. Those chickens you take for granted because you can just waltz in at 6 p.m. and buy one for dinner.

  1. Effect of Effective Microorganisms (EM®) on the Growth Parameters of Fayoumi and Horro Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wondmeneh, E.; Getachew, T.; Tadelle, D.

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine growth promoter effects of Effective Microorganisms (EM) on Horro and Fayoumi chickens. This study was conducted at Agricultural Research Center and National Veterinary Institute (Debre Zeit). A total of 450 chickens (225 from each breed) were used in this study.

  2. Campylobacter jejuni Is Not Merely a Commensal in Commercial Broiler Chickens and Affects Bird Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Suzanne; Chaloner, Gemma; Kemmett, Kirsty; Davidson, Nicola; Williams, Nicola; Kipar, Anja; Humphrey, Tom

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne infection; chicken meat is its main source. C. jejuni is considered commensal in chickens based on experimental models unrepresentative of commercial production. Here we show that the paradigm of Campylobacter commensalism in the chicken is flawed. Through experimental infection of four commercial breeds of broiler chickens, we show that breed has a significant effect on C. jejuni infection and the immune response of the animals, although these factors have limited impact on the number of bacteria in chicken ceca. All breeds mounted an innate immune response. In some breeds, this response declined when interleukin-10 was expressed, consistent with regulation of the intestinal inflammatory response, and these birds remained healthy. In another breed, there was a prolonged inflammatory response, evidence of damage to gut mucosa, and diarrhea. We show that bird type has a major impact on infection biology of C. jejuni. In some breeds, infection leads to disease, and the bacterium cannot be considered a harmless commensal. These findings have implications for the welfare of chickens in commercial production where C. jejuni infection is a persistent problem. PMID:24987092

  3. Selection for growth performance in broiler chickens associates with less diet flexibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Pauwels

    Full Text Available Global competition for high standard feed-food resources between man and livestock, such as industrial broilers, is a concerning problem. In addition, the low productivity of scavenger chickens in developing countries leaves much to be desired. Changing the ingredients, and therefore, the nutrient composition of feed intake by commercial fed as well as scavenger chickens seems like an obvious solution. In this study, the ability of four broiler chicken breeds to perform on a commercial versus a scavenger diet was tested. The four broiler breeds differed genetically in growth potential. A significant (P < 0.01 negative effect of the scavenger diet on the bodyweight of the fast growing breeds was found and this effect decreased with decreasing growth rate in the other breeds. These differences in bodyweight gain could not be explained by differences in nutrient digestibility but were caused by the lack of ability of the fast growing breeds to increase their feed intake sufficiently.

  4. Chromosomal profile of indigenous pig (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guru Vishnu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the chromosomal profile of indigenous pigs by computing morphometric measurements. Materials and Methods: A cytogenetic study was carried out in 60 indigenous pigs to analyze the chromosomal profile by employing the short term peripheral blood lymphocyte culture technique. Results: The modal chromosome number (2n in indigenous pigs was found to be 38 and a fundamental number of 64 as in the exotic. First chromosome was the longest pair, and thirteenth pair was the second largest while Y-chromosome was the smallest in the karyotype of the pig. The mean relative length, arm ratio, centromeric indices and morphological indices of chromosomes varied from 1.99±0.01 to 11.23±0.09, 1.04±0.05 to 2.95±0.02, 0.51±0.14 to 0.75±0.09 and 2.08±0.07 to 8.08±0.15%, respectively in indigenous pigs. Sex had no significant effect (p>0.05 on all the morphometric measurements studied. Conclusion: The present study revealed that among autosomes first five pairs were sub metacentric, next two pairs were sub telocentric (6-7, subsequent five pairs were metacentric (8-12 and remaining six pairs were telocentric (13-18, while both allosomes were metacentric. The chromosomal number, morphology and various morphometric measurements of the chromosomes of the indigenous pigs were almost similar to those established breeds reported in the literature.

  5. Identification of 19 loci for reproductive traits in a local Chinese chicken by genome-wide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Q C; Wu, P F; Dai, G J; Zhang, G X; Zhang, T; Xue, Q; Shi, H Q; Wang, J Y

    2017-03-22

    Reproductive traits have long been studied and have an important influence on chicken breeding. To identify quantitative trait loci affecting reproductive traits, a genome-wide analysis of a Chinese chicken breed was performed to analyze age at first egg body weight at first egg, first egg weight, egg weight at the age of 300 days, egg weight at the age of 462 days, egg number at the age of 300 days, egg number between the ages of 300 and 462 days and egg number at the age of 462 days. Nineteen SNPs related to reproductive traits were presented (P breeding programs, especially in Jinghai Yellow Chicken.

  6. Identification of an alternative splicing isoform of chicken Lmbr1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanqun; Chen, Wen; Li, Ning; Deng, Xuemei; Kang, Xiangtao; Liu, Xiaojun

    2011-10-01

    Lmbr1 is the key candidate gene for limb development. Until now, at least five and four alternative splicing isoforms of Lmbr1 gene have been found in human and mouse, respectively. However, only two alternative splicing isoforms of this homologous gene have been reported in chicken. In the present study, one novel chicken Lmbr1 transcript variant (designated Lmbr1-1) was identified by 5' RACE and RT-PCR. Chicken Lmbr1-1 possesses one novel transcription start site different from Lmbr1-N, and was predicted to encode one 192 amino acid protein with length variation in comparison with chicken LMBR1-N protein, which was produced by 5' spliced site variation of chicken Lmbr1-N exon 10. Comparing with Lmbr1-N transcript, chicken Lmbr1-1 exhibited restricted tissue distribution of the expression. Comparative sequence analysis revealed a highly conservative intron element between chicken and mammalians from the intron 9 of chicken Lmbr1-N, indicating their possible importance as intronic elements in the regulation of alternative splicing of Lmbr1 in vertebrates. By direct PCR sequencing the exon 10 and its flanking sequences in chicken Lmbr1-N, four variation sites/haplotypes were identified from six chicken breeds. One 797A/G nonsynonymous mutation (266Arg/Gln) locating in exon 10 of chicken Lmbr1-N was predicted to affect the exon splice enhancer motif for serine/arginine-rich protein recognition. These data demonstrated that chicken Lmbr1 was alternatively spliced to generate multiple splice forms, as was the case in mammals and each of the alternative splicing isoforms might function differentially.

  7. Consequences of splitting whole-genome sequencing effort over multiple breeds on imputation accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, A.C.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the consequences of splitting sequencing effort over multiple breeds for imputation accuracy from a high-density SNP chip towards whole-genome sequence. Such information would assist for instance numerical smaller cattle breeds, but also pig and chicken

  8. Genetic diversity and population structure of 20 North European cattle breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    kantanen, J; Olsaker, Ingrid; Holm, Lars-Erik

    2000-01-01

    , allelic diversity has been reduced in several breeds, which was explained by limited effective population sizes over the course of man-directed breed development and demographic bottlenecks of indigenous breeds. A tree showing genetic relationships between breeds was constructed from a matrix of random......Blood samples were collected from 743 animals from 15 indigenous, 2 old imported, and 3 commercial North European cattle breeds. The samples were analyzed for 11 erythrocyte antigen systems, 8 proteins, and 10 microsatellites, and used to assess inter- and intrabreed genetic variation and genetic...... population structures. The microsatellites BoLA-DRBP1 and CSSM66 were nonneutral markers according to the Ewens-Watterson test, suggesting some kind of selection imposed on these loci. North European cattle breeds displayed generally similar levels of multilocus heterozygosity and allelic diversity. However...

  9. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SUBGROUP A AVIAN LEUKOSIS VIRUS FROM CHICKENS OF A LOCAL BREED%地方品系鸡中一株A亚群鸡白血病病毒的分离和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱美真; 吴玉宝; 崔治中

    2009-01-01

    将种蛋孵化到9~11 d,分别制备成鸡胚成纤维细胞(chicken fibroblast cells,CEF)培养,再将其细胞上清接种对内源性白血病病毒(avian leukosis virus,ALV)有抵抗力的DF1细胞,从山东某地方品系种蛋中分离到一株外源性ALV,SDAU09E1.用PCR扩增其囊膜蛋白基因(env)并隆测序后,将其gp85序列与已发表的各亚群ALV比较分析表明,该毒株与A亚群6个毒株同源性最高,为89.1%~90.9%,而与已发表的鸡的A、C、D、E亚群ALV的gp85的同源性仅在73.2%~87.9%之间,与目前国内最常见的J亚群的gp85的同源性更是低至30.3%~32.4%.这是我国地方品系鸡群中第一次分离和鉴定出ALV-A及其gp85基因.

  10. Vietnamese chickens: a gate towards Asian genetic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bed'Hom B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickens represent an important animal genetic resource and the conservation of local breeds is an issue for the preservation of this resource. The genetic diversity of a breed is mainly evaluated through its nuclear diversity. However, nuclear genetic diversity does not provide the same information as mitochondrial genetic diversity. For the species Gallus gallus, at least 8 maternal lineages have been identified. While breeds distributed westward from the Indian subcontinent usually share haplotypes from 1 to 2 haplogroups, Southeast Asian breeds exhibit all the haplogroups. The Vietnamese Ha Giang (HG chicken has been shown to exhibit a very high nuclear diversity but also important rates of admixture with wild relatives. Its geographical position, within one of the chicken domestication centres ranging from Thailand to the Chinese Yunnan province, increases the probability of observing a very high genetic diversity for maternal lineages, and in a way, improving our understanding of the chicken domestication process. Results A total of 106 sequences from Vietnamese HG chickens were first compared to the sequences of published Chinese breeds. The 25 haplotypes observed in the Vietnamese HG population belonged to six previously published haplogroups which are: A, B, C, D, F and G. On average, breeds from the Chinese Yunnan province carried haplotypes from 4.3 haplogroups. For the HG population, haplogroup diversity is found at both the province and the village level (0.69. The AMOVA results show that genetic diversity occurred within the breeds rather than between breeds or provinces. Regarding the global structure of the mtDNA diversity per population, a characteristic of the HG population was the occurrence of similar pattern distribution as compared to G. gallus spadiceus. However, there was no geographical evidence of gene flow between wild and domestic populations as observed when microsatellites were used. Conclusions

  11. Production performance, egg quality and biochemical parameters of three way crossbred chickens with reciprocal F1 crossbred chickens in sub-tropical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabinda Khawaja

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 225 hens (18 weeks of age of each Rhode Island Red male x Fayoumi female (RIFI, Fayoumi male x Rhode Island Red female (FIRI and White Leghorn male x FIRI female (RLH were maintained on deep litter system for a period of 72 weeks of age. In floor pens, each crossbred chicken was randomly distributed between pens, with 21 to 24 birds of the same breed per pen (2.00 to 2.50 ft2/bird. The results revealed that the age of sexual maturity was lowest in RIFI followed by FIRI and RLH chickens. The highest egg production was obtained by three-way crossbred chickens (RLH as compared with two-way crossbred chickens (RIFI and FIRI. The highest egg weight was observed in RLH than those of FIRI and RIFI crossbred chickens. The internal egg quality parameters included yolk weight, albumen weight, yolk + albumen weight and albumen height were same in all crossbred chickens. There was non-significant (p>0.05 difference in blood glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, calcium, protein, uric acid and ALP values among all crossbred chickens. It may be concluded that three-way crossbred chickens (RLH showed better egg traits than two-way crossbred chickens (RIFI and FIRI with lower mortality. The RIFI crossbred chickens achieved sexual maturity earlier than both FIRI and RLH crossbred chickens with lower egg traits.

  12. Conservation of indigenous cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa’s smallholder areas: turning threats into opportunities — A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamushamba, G. B.; Mapiye, C.; Tada, O.; Halimani, T. E.; Muchenje, V.

    2017-01-01

    The current review focuses on characterization and conservation efforts vital for the development of breeding programmes for indigenous beef cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa. Indigenous African cattle breeds were identified and characterized using information from refereed journals, conference papers and research reports. Results of this current review reviewed that smallholder beef cattle production in Southern Africa is extensive and dominated by indigenous beef cattle strains adaptable to the local environment. The breeds include Nguni, Mashona, Tuli, Malawi Zebu, Bovino de Tete, Angoni, Landim, Barotse, Twsana and Ankole. These breeds have important functions ranging from provision of food and income to socio-economic, cultural and ecological roles. They also have adaptive traits ranging from drought tolerant, resistance to ticks and tick borne diseases, heat tolerance and resistance to trypanosomosis. Stakeholders in the conservation of beef cattle were also identified and they included farmers, national government, research institutes and universities as well as breeding companies and societies in Southern Africa. Research efforts made to evaluate threats and opportunities of indigenous beef cattle production systems, assess the contribution of indigenous cattle to household food security and income, genetically and phenotypically characterize and conserve indigenous breeds, and develop breeding programs for smallholder beef production are highlighted. Although smallholder beef cattle production in the smallholder farming systems contributes substantially to household food security and income, their productivity is hindered by several constraints that include high prevalence of diseases and parasites, limited feed availability and poor marketing. The majority of the African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized although most of the indigenous cattle breeds have been identified. PMID:27004814

  13. Conservation of indigenous cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa's smallholder areas: turning threats into opportunities - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamushamba, G B; Mapiye, C; Tada, O; Halimani, T E; Muchenje, V

    2017-05-01

    The current review focuses on characterization and conservation efforts vital for the development of breeding programmes for indigenous beef cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa. Indigenous African cattle breeds were identified and characterized using information from refereed journals, conference papers and research reports. Results of this current review reviewed that smallholder beef cattle production in Southern Africa is extensive and dominated by indigenous beef cattle strains adaptable to the local environment. The breeds include Nguni, Mashona, Tuli, Malawi Zebu, Bovino de Tete, Angoni, Landim, Barotse, Twsana and Ankole. These breeds have important functions ranging from provision of food and income to socio-economic, cultural and ecological roles. They also have adaptive traits ranging from drought tolerant, resistance to ticks and tick borne diseases, heat tolerance and resistance to trypanosomosis. Stakeholders in the conservation of beef cattle were also identified and they included farmers, national government, research institutes and universities as well as breeding companies and societies in Southern Africa. Research efforts made to evaluate threats and opportunities of indigenous beef cattle production systems, assess the contribution of indigenous cattle to household food security and income, genetically and phenotypically characterize and conserve indigenous breeds, and develop breeding programs for smallholder beef production are highlighted. Although smallholder beef cattle production in the smallholder farming systems contributes substantially to household food security and income, their productivity is hindered by several constraints that include high prevalence of diseases and parasites, limited feed availability and poor marketing. The majority of the African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized although most of the indigenous cattle breeds have been identified.

  14. The development and characterization of a 60K SNP chip for chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, M.A.M.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Zare, Y.; Warren, W.C.; Hillier, L.W.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Vereijken, A.; Okimoto, R.; Muir, W.M.; Cheng, H.H.

    2011-01-01

    Background In livestock species like the chicken, high throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assays are increasingly being used for whole genome association studies and as a tool in breeding (referred to as genomic selection). To be of value in a wide variety of breeds and popul

  15. Genetic relationships of Kampung, Pelung, Sentul and Black Kedu Chicken using Microsatellite DNA Markers: I. Lingkage group of macro chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Genetic relationships of Kampung, Pelung, Sentul and Black Kedu chickens were studied on the basis of microsatellite DNA polymorphism. DNA samples were analyzed using nine microsatellite markers which chosen from linkage group of macrochromosome (chromosome 1-8 such as, locus ABR 258, ABR359, ABR 297, ABR 339, ABR 75, ABR 209, ABR 28, ABR 419 and ABR 604. Analyses of amplified DNA fragments were performed using Gene Mapper 2.0 software (PE, Applied Biosystems. The allele frequencies in each breed estimated by direct counting. Since all nine microsatellite markers were polymorphic, genetic distance between the breeds could be calculated based on the frequencies of alleles of the microsatellite. Genetic relationships between the breeds could be constructed. The results indicated that a total of 73 allele were detected while typing all the four breeds of local chicken and one breed of White Leghorn as outgroup breed acrossed nine loci. The number of alleles was observed in all of the breed ranged 3-17 alleles according to the microsatellite under scrutiny. Highest observed number of alleles was found in Kampung Chicken 60 alleles (82.2%. The UPGMA method for dendogram based on Nei genetic distances indicated that the local chickens have the same of ancestor, while Kampung and Sentul chicken have the same cluster followed by Black Kedu and Pelung Chicken.

  16. Selection for avian immune response: a commercial breeding company challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J E

    2004-04-01

    Selection for immune function in the commercial breeding environment is a challenging proposition for commercial breeding companies. Immune response is only one of many traits that are under intensive selection, thus selection pressure needs to be carefully balanced across multiple traits. The selection environment (single bird cages, biosecure facilities, controlled environment) is a very different environment than the commercial production facilities (multiple bird cages, potential disease exposure, variable environment) in which birds are to produce. The testing of individual birds is difficult, time consuming, and expensive. It is essential that the results of any tests be relevant to actual disease or environmental challenge in the commercial environment. The use of genetic markers as indicators of immune function is being explored by breeding companies. Use of genetic markers would eliminate many of the limitations in enhancing immune function currently encountered by commercial breeding companies. Information on genetic markers would allow selection to proceed without subjecting breeding stock to disease conditions and could be done before production traits are measured. These markers could be candidate genes with known interaction or involvement with disease pathology or DNA markers that are closely linked to genetic regions that influence the immune response. The current major limitation to this approach is the paucity of mapped chicken immune response genes and the limited number of DNA markers mapped on the chicken genome. These limitations should be eliminated once the chicken genome is sequenced.

  17. Evolutionary pets: offspring numbers reveal speciation process in domesticated chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Tiemann

    Full Text Available Since Darwin, the nature of the relationship between evolution and domestication has been debated. Evolution offers different mechanisms of selection that lead to adaptation and may end in the origin of new species as defined by the biological species concept. Domestication has given rise to numerous breeds in almost every domesticated species, including chickens. At the same time, so-called artificial selection seems to exclude mechanisms of sexual selection by the animals themselves. We want to forward the question to the animal itself: With whom do you reproduce successfully? This study focused on the sexual behavior of the domestic chicken Gallus gallus f.dom., particularly the White Crested Polish breed. Experiments on mate choice and the observation of fertilization and hatching rates of mixed-breeding groups revealed breed-specific preferences. In breeding groups containing White Crested Polish and a comparative breed, more purebred chicks hatched than hybrids (number of eggs collected: 1059. Mating was possible in equal shares, but in relation to the number of eggs collected, purebred offspring (62.75% ± 7.10%, M ± SE hatched to a greater extend compared to hybrid offspring (28.75% ± 15.32%, M ± SE. These data demonstrate that the mechanism of sexual selection is still present in domestic chicken breeds, which includes the alteration of gene frequencies typical for domestication and evolutionary speciation. Due to selection and mate choice we state that breeding in principle can generate new species. Therefore, we see domestication as an evolutionary process that integrates human interests of animal breeding with innate mate choice by the animal.

  18. Evolutionary pets: offspring numbers reveal speciation process in domesticated chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemann, Inga; Rehkämper, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Since Darwin, the nature of the relationship between evolution and domestication has been debated. Evolution offers different mechanisms of selection that lead to adaptation and may end in the origin of new species as defined by the biological species concept. Domestication has given rise to numerous breeds in almost every domesticated species, including chickens. At the same time, so-called artificial selection seems to exclude mechanisms of sexual selection by the animals themselves. We want to forward the question to the animal itself: With whom do you reproduce successfully? This study focused on the sexual behavior of the domestic chicken Gallus gallus f.dom., particularly the White Crested Polish breed. Experiments on mate choice and the observation of fertilization and hatching rates of mixed-breeding groups revealed breed-specific preferences. In breeding groups containing White Crested Polish and a comparative breed, more purebred chicks hatched than hybrids (number of eggs collected: 1059). Mating was possible in equal shares, but in relation to the number of eggs collected, purebred offspring (62.75% ± 7.10%, M ± SE) hatched to a greater extend compared to hybrid offspring (28.75% ± 15.32%, M ± SE). These data demonstrate that the mechanism of sexual selection is still present in domestic chicken breeds, which includes the alteration of gene frequencies typical for domestication and evolutionary speciation. Due to selection and mate choice we state that breeding in principle can generate new species. Therefore, we see domestication as an evolutionary process that integrates human interests of animal breeding with innate mate choice by the animal.

  19. Indigenous knowledge in cattle breeding in Sierra Leone | Abdul ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and production under traditional cattle production system in Sierra Leone. ... were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire and by direct observation. ... Solid fawn color was the most preferred (93%) followed by complete spotted ...

  20. Comparison of Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Korean Local Chickens and Silky Fowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. K. Choo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of 4 breeds of local chicken. A total of 480 1-d-old chicks were distributed to 16 pens, with 4 treatments of breed, 4 replicates and 30 chicks per pen. Three Korean local breeds of white-mini broiler, Hanhyup-3-ho, and Woorimatdag, and a breed of silky fowl were raised under identical rearing and feeding conditions for 31-d, 37-d, 36-d, and 59-d, respectively. The BW and feed consumption on a pen basis were weekly measured for all pens, and ADFI, ADG and gain:feed were calculated for each pen. The ADFI and ADG of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were greater than those of silky fowl (p<0.05. Within the Korean local breeds, ADFI of white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05, and ADG of Hanhyup-3-ho and white-mini broiler was the highest (p<0.05. Gain:feed of silky fowl was less than that of the 3 breeds of Korean local chicken. The carcass and breast yield of white-mini broiler were the greater than those of other breeds (p<0.05. The breast meat color (CIE L*, a*, and b* of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken were higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05. The breast meat of Hanhyup-3-ho had greater cooking loss (p<0.05, whereas water holding capacity and pH were less than those of other breeds (p<0.05. The color score of 3 breeds of Korean local chicken was higher than that of silky fowl (p<0.05. Woorimatdag had a higher score on tenderness (p<0.05, whereas flavor score was less than that of other breeds (p<0.05. In conclusion, 4 local breeds of chicken have some unique features and seem to have more advantages, and this information can help consumers who prefer healthy and premium chicken meat.

  1. Indigenous Partner Violence, Indigenous Sentencing Courts, and Pathways to Desistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Elena; Daly, Kathleen

    2016-09-13

    Mainstream sentencing courts do little to change the behavior of partner violence offenders, let alone members of more socially marginal groups. Indigenous offenders face a court system that has little relevance to the complexity of their relations and lived experiences. Assisted by respected Elders and Community Representatives, Australian Indigenous sentencing courts seek to create a more meaningful sentencing process that has a deeper impact on Indigenous offenders' attitudes and, ultimately, their behavior. Drawing from interviews with 30 Indigenous offenders, we explore the ways in which the courts can motivate Indigenous partner violence offenders on pathways to desistence.

  2. 不同品种鸡对肠炎沙门氏菌人工感染初期免疫应答反应的差异%Differences of Early Innate Immunity between Chicken Breeds against Salmonella Enteritidis Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璐; 李建超; 刘冉冉; 李庆贺; 文杰; 常国斌; 郑麦青; 陈国宏; 赵桂苹

    2015-01-01

    本试验以中国地方鸡种北京油鸡(Beijing-You chicken,BJY)和引入蛋鸡品种白来航鸡(White Leghorn,WL)为试验对象,通过人工感染肠炎沙门氏菌(Salmonella Enteritidis,SE),研究两个不同遗传背景新生雏鸡在接种沙门氏菌后,部分免疫指标和相关基因的变化规律,揭示两品种鸡在早期对SE感染抗性的的异同点.选择1日龄的北京油鸡和白来航鸡各40只,隔离舱饲养,相同日粮水平条件下,两侧胸肌各注射8.7×108cfu·mL-1沙门氏菌0.5 mL,分别在攻毒后12、24、72和144 h(12 hpi、24 hpi、72 hpi、144 hpi)测定IgY、IL-6和TNF-α血清介质变化,荧光定量检测血液载菌量、盲肠组织中TLR4受体、DNMT3a、DNMT3b和DNMT1甲基转移酶基因的表达情况.结果表明:(1)攻毒沙门氏菌后,北京油鸡的IgY、IL-6、TNF-α血清介质水平显著高于白来航鸡(P<0.05);(2)在12 hpi、24 hpi和72 hpi,血液载菌量品种间差异不显著(P>0.05),但在144 hpi白来航鸡血液中载菌量显著高于北京油鸡(P<0.05);(3)在24 hpi,TLR4受体在北京油鸡盲肠组织中的表达显著高于白来航鸡;北京油鸡与白来航鸡DNMT3a、DNMT3b和DNMT1甲基转移酶基因在两品种间的表达差异显著(P<0.05).结果提示,北京油鸡和白来航鸡对沙门氏菌的免疫性状具有明显的遗传差异,北京油鸡对沙门氏菌的抗性优于白来航鸡.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Daweishan Mini chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming-Li; Ding, Su-Ping; Ye, Shao-Hui; Wang, Chun-Guang; He, Bao-Li; Yuan, Zhi-Dong; Liu, Li-Li

    2016-01-01

    Daweishan Mini chicken is a valuable chicken breed in China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Daweishan Mini chicken using PCR amplification, sequencing and assembling has been obtained for the first time. The total length of the mitochondrial genome was 16,785 bp, with the base composition of 30.26% A, 23.73% T, 32.51% C, 13.51% G. It contained 37 genes (2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes) and a major non-coding control region (D-loop region). The protein start codons are ATG, except for COX1 that begins with GTG. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Daweishan Mini chicken provides an important data set for further investigation on the phylogenetic relationships within Gallus gallus.

  4. Myostatin mRNA expression and its association with body weight and carcass traits in Yunnan Wuding chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L X; Dou, T F; Li, Q H; Rong, H; Tong, H Q; Xu, Z Q; Huang, Y; Gu, D H; Chen, X B; Ge, C R; Jia, J J

    2016-12-02

    Myostatin (MSTN) is expressed in the myotome and developing skeletal muscles, and acts to regulate the number of muscle fibers. Wuding chicken large body, developed muscle, high disease resistance, and tender, delicious meat, and are not selected for fast growth. Broiler chickens (Avian broiler) are selected for fast growth and have a large body size and high muscle mass. Here, 240 one-day-old chickens (120 Wuding chickens and 120 broilers) were examined. Twenty chickens from each breed were sacrificed at days 1, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150. Breast and leg muscle samples were collected within 20 min of sacrifice to investigate the effects of MSTN gene expression on growth performance and carcass traits. Body weight, carcass traits, and skeletal muscle mass in Wuding chickens were significantly (P chickens at all time points. Breast muscle MSTN mRNA was lower in Wuding chickens than in broilers before day 30 (P chicken than in broilers (P chicken than in broilers at all ages except for day 60 (P chickens than in the fast growing broilers. In contract, leg muscle MSTN mRNA level has a greater effect in broilers than in Wuding chickens. MSTN regulates growth performance and carcass traits in chickens.

  5. Designing Indigenous Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Mary; Bang, Megan; Marin, Ananda

    2012-01-01

    Endangered Indigenous languages have received little attention within the American educational research community. However, within Native American communities, language revitalization is pushing education beyond former iterations of culturally relevant curriculum and has the potential to radically alter how we understand culture and language in…

  6. Designing Indigenous Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Mary; Bang, Megan; Marin, Ananda

    2012-01-01

    Endangered Indigenous languages have received little attention within the American educational research community. However, within Native American communities, language revitalization is pushing education beyond former iterations of culturally relevant curriculum and has the potential to radically alter how we understand culture and language in…

  7. The specific expression pattern of globin mRNAs in Tibetan chicken during late embryonic stage under hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C; Zhang, L F; Li, N

    2013-04-01

    Tibetan chicken (Gallus gallus) is a specific chicken breed with strong ability to resist hypoxia, especially during embryonic stage. Though this breed has lived in Tibet plateau for thousands of years, the adaptive mechanism in response to hypoxia is still unknown. In order to obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of hypoxic adaptability in high altitude, we analyzed the mRNA expression pattern of globins in the present study. The fertilized eggs from Tibetan chicken and dwarf recessive white chicken breeds were incubated under normoxic (21% O2) and hypoxic (13% O2) conditions, equivalent to the altitude of 3600m. We observed that Tibetan chicken embryos had higher hatchability (48%) in hypoxia than their lowland controls (7.8%). Northern blot showed that globin mRNA expression in Tibetan chicken embryos differed greatly from lowland controls under hypoxia. The expressions of four dominant globin mRNAs, named α(A), α(D), β(A) and β(H), were significantly induced under hypoxia. Tibetan chicken embryos had lower globin mRNA level in red cells than that of lowland controls at day 19 (Pchicken embryos than that of lowland chicken embryos. Overall, our results provide new evidence that flexible regulation of globins at the level of transcription and translation may play a role in allowing the Tibetan chicken embryo to resist hypoxia. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Perkembangan Embrio dan Penentuan Jenis Kelamin DOC (Day-Old Chicken Ayam Jawa Super

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmarani Kusumawati

    2017-02-01

    Super Javanese chicken embryonic development. This study attempts to provide information about embryonic development and sexing on Super Javanese chicken. This study used Super Javanese chicken fertile eggs from Java Farm, Maguwoharjo, Depok, Sleman. These eggs were incubated at temperature of 37o-38oC. Samples were observed with Neutral Red and Hematoxilin Eosine (HE staining. The measurement of the Super Javanese chicken embryo were about length of the third finger, beak, and the length of the embryo's body. This observation obtained embryonic development of the super Javanese chicken spesifically. This concluded that Super Javanese chicken as a first generation from cross breeding has slower growth in embryonic development

  9. Association between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Gene and Newcastle Disease Virus Titre and Body Weight in Leung Hang Khao Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molee, A; Kongroi, K; Kuadsantia, P; Poompramun, C; Likitdecharote, B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II gene on resistance to Newcastle disease virus and body weight of the Thai indigenous chicken, Leung Hang Khao (Gallus gallus domesticus). Blood samples were collected for single nucleotide polymorphism analysis from 485 chickens. Polymerase chain reaction sequencing was used to classify single nucleotide polymorphisms of class II MHC. Body weights were measured at the ages of 3, 4, 5, and 7 months. Titres of Newcastle disease virus at 2 weeks to 7 months were determined and the correlation between body weight and titre was analysed. The association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and body weight and titre were analysed by a generalized linear model. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified: C125T, A126T, C209G, C242T, A243T, C244T, and A254T. Significant correlations between log titre and body weight were found at 2 and 4 weeks. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms and titre were found for C209G and A254T, and between all single nucleotide polymorphisms (except A243T) and body weight. The results showed that class II MHC is associated with both titre of Newcastle disease virus and body weight in Leung Hang Khao chickens. This is of concern because improved growth traits are the main goal of breeding selection. Moreover, the results suggested that MHC has a pleiotropic effect on the titre and growth performance. This mechanism should be investigated in a future study.

  10. Marek's disease in local chicken strains of Ethiopia reared under confined management regime in central Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duguma, R.; Yami, A.; Dana, N.; Hassen, H.H.; Esatu, W.

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence, clinical and pathological manifestations and extent of mortality due to Marek’s disease (MD) was investigated from November 2003 to January 2004 among indigenous chickens of Ethiopia reared under confined management at the Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center, central Ethiopia.

  11. High-altitude adaptation of Tibetan chicken from MT-COI and ATP-6 perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoling; Wu, Nan; Zhu, Qing; Gaur, Uma; Gu, Ting; Li, Diyan

    2016-09-01

    The problem of hypoxia adaptation in high altitudes is an unsolved brainteaser in the field of life sciences. As one of the best chicken breeds with adaptability to highland environment, the Tibetan chicken, is genetically different from lowland chicken breeds. In order to gain a better understanding of the mechanism of hypoxic adaptability in high altitude, in the present study, we focused on the MT-COI together with ATP-6 gene to explore the regulatory mechanisms for hypoxia adaptability in Tibet chicken. Here, we sequenced MT-COI of 29 Tibetan chickens and 30 Chinese domestic chickens and ATP-6 gene of 28 Tibetan chickens and 29 Chinese domestic chickens. In MT-COI gene, 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected though none of these was a missense mutation, confirming the fact that MT-COI gene is a largely conservative sequence. In ATP-6 gene, 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected and we found a missense mutation (m.9441G > A) in the ATP-6 gene of Tibetan chicken resulting in an amino acid substitution. Due to the critical role of ATP-6 gene in the proton translocation and energy metabolism, we speculated the possibility of this mutation playing an important role in easier energy conversion and metabolism in Tibetan chickens than Chinese domestic chickens so as to better adapt to the harsh environment of the high-altitude areas. The Median-joining profile also suggested that haplotype Ha2 has the ancestral position to the other haplotypes and has significant relationship with high-altitude adaptation in ATP-6 gene. Therefore, we considered that the polymorphism (m.9441G > A) in the ATP-6 gene may affect the specific functions of ATP-6 enzyme relating to high-altitude adaptation of Tibetan chicken and MT-COI gene is a largely conservative sequence.

  12. Indigenous microbiota and Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, M E M; Carneiro, M B H; Dos Santos, L M; Vieira, L Q

    2016-01-01

    Animals are colonized by their indigenous microbiota from the early days of life. The estimated number of associated bacterial cells in humans is around of 10(14) per individual, most of them in the gut. Several studies have investigated the microbiota-host relationship, and the use of germfree animals has been an important tool in these studies. These animals, when infected with a pathogen, have shown to be sometimes more resistant and other times more susceptible than conventional animals. Leishmaniasis is a worldwide public health problem and presents a spectrum of clinical manifestations. However, very few studies have addressed the role of the indigenous microbiota on the outcome of this disease. In this review, we will highlight and discuss the data available on the ways by which the microbiota can influence the outcome of the disease in murine experimental models of cutaneous infection with Leishmania.

  13. INDIGENISM AND EXCLUSION

    OpenAIRE

    José Angel Vera Noriega

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARYThe objective of the work is to carry out an analysis of the Western vision of the indigenous towns from the four types of exclusion of which Focault speaks (1978) when he talks about madness. The Social exclusion or work exclusion, family exclusion or emotional affective exclusion, the symbolic or linguistic exclusion and the playful or images exclusion. It is a reflection and transformation of ideas that allows coexisting worlds playing the power game in where the most important thin...

  14. INDIGENISM AND EXCLUSION

    OpenAIRE

    José Angel Vera Noriega

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARYThe objective of the work is to carry out an analysis of the Western vision of the indigenous towns from the four types of exclusion of which Focault speaks (1978) when he talks about madness. The Social exclusion or work exclusion, family exclusion or emotional affective exclusion, the symbolic or linguistic exclusion and the playful or images exclusion. It is a reflection and transformation of ideas that allows coexisting worlds playing the power game in where the most important thin...

  15. Genetic analysis of local Vietnamese chickens provides evidence of gene flow from wild to domestic populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi C Vu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies suggested that multiple domestication events in South and South-East Asia (Yunnan and surrounding areas and India have led to the genesis of modern domestic chickens. Ha Giang province is a northern Vietnamese region, where local chickens, such as the H'mong breed, and wild junglefowl coexist. The assumption was made that hybridisation between wild junglefowl and Ha Giang chickens may have occurred and led to the high genetic diversity previously observed. The objectives of this study were i to clarify the genetic structure of the chicken population within the Ha Giang province and ii to give evidence of admixture with G. gallus. A large survey of the molecular polymorphism for 18 microsatellite markers was conducted on 1082 chickens from 30 communes of the Ha Giang province (HG chickens. This dataset was combined with a previous dataset of Asian breeds, commercial lines and samples of Red junglefowl from Thailand and Vietnam (Ha Noï. Measurements of genetic diversity were estimated both within-population and between populations, and a step-by-step Bayesian approach was performed on the global data set. Results The highest value for expected heterozygosity (> 0.60 was found in HG chickens and in the wild junglefowl populations from Thailand. HG chickens exhibited the highest allelic richness (mean A = 2.9. No significant genetic subdivisions of the chicken population within the Ha Giang province were found. As compared to other breeds, HG chickens clustered with wild populations. Furthermore, the neighbornet tree and the Bayesian clustering analysis showed that chickens from 4 communes were closely related to the wild ones and showed an admixture pattern. Conclusion In the absence of any population structuring within the province, the H'mong chicken, identified from its black phenotype, shared a common gene pool with other chickens from the Ha Giang population. The large number of alleles shared exclusively

  16. Indigenous Australian Education and Globalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Wendy

    1997-09-01

    This article focuses on the impact of colonisation and its associated impact on Indigenous teaching and learning. Western European institutions have dominated Indigenous ways of knowing and in Australia this has led to barriers which restrict the participation of Aboriginal people in education systems. Globally Indigenous people are attempting to bring into the introduced educational systems culturally appropriate teaching and learning practices so that a more holistic approach to education can become the norm rather than the exception. The relationship between Indigenous knowledge and western European concepts of knowledge and knowing need to placed in a framework of mutual interaction so that not only do Indigenous people benefit, but so do non-Indigenous educators and students.

  17. Blood biochemical profiles of thai indigenous and Simmental x Brahman crossbred cattle in the Central Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonprong, S; Sribhen, C; Choothesa, A; Parvizi, N; Vajrabukka, C

    2007-03-01

    Plasma biochemical profiles were studied in 112 mature (3 to 5-year-old) healthy cattle comprised of 61 Thai indigenous and 51 Simmental x Brahman crossbred male and cyclic female cattle at Nongkwang (Central Thailand) Livestock Research and Breeding Center, Thailand. Data were analysed for the effect of breed and sex. The results showed that the plasma glucose and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in the two breeds were significantly (P < 0.05) different. Furthermore, the urea, creatinine, albumin, total protein, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in Thai indigenous were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than in crossbred cattle. However, creatine kinase did not significantly differ in crossbred and indigenous animals. A sex difference was found in glucose level with male Thai indigenous having significantly higher levels (P < 0.05) than the other three groups. Plasma urea concentration in male crossbred cattle was lower than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Female crossbred cattle had significantly (P < 0.05) lower plasma creatinine levels than the other animals. Furthermore, levels of albumin in male and total protein in female crossbred were the lowest (P < 0.05) among the groups. The AST, ALT, ALP and GGT levels were significantly (P < 0.05) different between male and female. Female crossbred cattle had the lowest (P < 0.05) AST and GGT levels, whereas lowest (P < 0.05) ALT and ALP concentration was determined in male individuals of these breeds.

  18. Fibre, yarn and fabric properties of the Cashmere component of South African indigenous goat hair

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Anton F

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has over 4 million indigenous goats (Boer, Savannah and Nguni/Mbusi breeds), many of which have two coats of fibre, namely a cashmere-like fine down and a coarse guard hair. These goats are primarily kept for their meat, milk and skin...

  19. Determination and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Taoyuan chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Li; Xie, Hong-Bing; Yu, Qi-Fang; He, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Taoyuan chicken is excellent native breeds in China. This study firstly determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Taoyuan chicken using PCR-based amplification and Sanger sequencing. The characteristic of the entire mitochondrial genome was analyzed in detail, with the base composition of 30.26% A, 23.79% T, 32.44% C, 13.50% G in the Taoyuan chicken (16,784 bp in length). It contained 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a major non-coding control region (D-loop region). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Taoyuan chicken will be useful for the phylogenetics of poultry, and be available as basic data for the genetics and breeding.

  20. Chicken's Genome Decoded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ After completing the work on mapping chicken genome sequence and chicken genome variation in early March, 2004, two international research consortiums have made significant progress in reading the maps, shedding new light on the studies into the first bird as well as the first agricultural animal that has its genome sequenced and analyzed in the world.

  1. Transcriptomics Research in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, D.Y.; Gao, C.; Zhu, L.Q.; Tang, L.G.; Liu, J.; Nie, H.

    2012-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology and evolutionary research. Moreover, besides being an important model organism the chicken is also a very important agricultural species and an important source of food (eggs and meat). The avai

  2. Analysis of genome-wide structure, diversity and fine mapping of Mendelian traits in traditional and village chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wragg, D; Mwacharo, J M; Alcalde, J A; Hocking, P M; Hanotte, O

    2012-01-01

    Extensive phenotypic variation is a common feature among village chickens found throughout much of the developing world, and in traditional chicken breeds that have been artificially selected for traits such as plumage variety. We present here an assessment of traditional and village chicken populations, for fine mapping of Mendelian traits using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping while providing information on their genetic structure and diversity. Bayesian clustering analysis reveals two main genetic backgrounds in traditional breeds, Kenyan, Ethiopian and Chilean village chickens. Analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) reveals useful LD (r2⩾0.3) in both traditional and village chickens at pairwise marker distances of ∼10 Kb; while haplotype block analysis indicates a median block size of 11–12 Kb. Association mapping yielded refined mapping intervals for duplex comb (Gga 2:38.55–38.89 Mb) and rose comb (Gga 7:18.41–22.09 Mb) phenotypes in traditional breeds. Combined mapping information from traditional breeds and Chilean village chicken allows the oocyan phenotype to be fine mapped to two small regions (Gga 1:67.25–67.28 Mb, Gga 1:67.28–67.32 Mb) totalling ∼75 Kb. Mapping the unmapped earlobe pigmentation phenotype supports previous findings that the trait is sex-linked and polygenic. A critical assessment of the number of SNPs required to map simple traits indicate that between 90 and 110K SNPs are required for full genome-wide analysis of haplotype block structure/ancestry, and for association mapping in both traditional and village chickens. Our results demonstrate the importance and uniqueness of phenotypic diversity and genetic structure of traditional chicken breeds for fine-scale mapping of Mendelian traits in the species, with village chicken populations providing further opportunities to enhance mapping resolutions. PMID:22395157

  3. Identification of differentially expressed genes and pathways for intramuscular fat deposition in pectoralis major tissues of fast-and slow-growing chickens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cui, Huan-Xian; Liu, Ran-Ran; Zhao, Gui-Ping; Zheng, Mai-Qing; Chen, Ji-Lan; Wen, Jie

    2012-01-01

    .... In this study, a systematic identification of candidate genes and new pathways related to IMF deposition in chicken breast tissue has been made using gene expression profiles of two distinct breeds: Beijing-you (BJY...

  4. Comparative Gastric Morphometry of Muong Indigenous and Vietnamese Wild Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Hong Trang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is hypothesized that despite sharing a similar habitat, the Muong indigenous and Vietnamese wild pigs may reveal different gastric morphology. Due to the protective nature of procuring these pigs, a total of 12 Muong indigenous pigs and nine Vietnamese wild pigs stomach collected post mortem were analysed for selected biometric parameters and histology. The result indicated that the stomach of the Vietnamese wild pig is broader with a bigger capacity and greater proportion of proper gastric glands. Interestingly, the stomach mass correlated well with live body weight in both breeds apart from possessing similar histomorphometry of the gastric gland regions. On the other hand, the thicker (P<0.05 submucosa in the Vietnamese wild pig is attributed to the presence of numerous loose connective tissues, abundant blood vessels, adipose tissues and nerve plexus. The appearance of lymphoid follicles underneath the tubular gastric glands in the Vietnamese wild pig exceeded that of Muong indigenous pigs. This finding suggested that the difference in feeding behavior as well as immunity. In conclusion, adaptations found in the Vietnamese wild pig indicated that this breed is equipped with a bigger and effectively functional stomach to suit its digestive physiology and immunity in the wild.

  5. Neuroglobin mutation associated with hypoxia adaptation in Tibet chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Globin protein family plays an important role in storing and transporting oxygen.As a newly reported globin,the revealed function of neuroglobin includes binding and storing oxygen as well as facilitating the utilization of oxygen in neuronal cells.In the Dresent study,mutations in exons of chicken Ngb gene were identified with the method of sequencing and created restriction site PCR in Tibet chicken and other four lowland chicken breeds.The mutations of Lys-2224(E4)-Asn and Ser-2279(E4)-Gly were identified in exon 4 of the gene.The Lys-2224(E4)-Asn mutation existed only in Tibet chicken and the mutation frequencies increased with increasing altitude.Analysis of the haplotype and diplotype of the two mutations in Tibet chicken populations of different altitudes showed that the frequencies of TG haplotype and TTGG diplotype also increased with increasing altitude,while the reverse tendency was found on GGAA diplotype.Under the hypoxic simulation incubation,the main haplotype was TG in living embryos and GA in dead embryos.The results showed that the Lys-2224(E4)-Asn mutation may be a specific mutation associated with hypoxia adaptation in Tibet chicken.

  6. Anger in Australian Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, Peter; Mergler, Amanda; Furlong, Michael; Caltabiano, Nerina

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive pilot study examined the cultural differences in the dimensions of self-reported anger in Indigenous and non-Indigenous (Caucasian) students aged 10-13 years in Far North Queensland, Australia. The Multidimensional School Anger Inventory-Revised (MSAI-R) (Boman, Curtis, Furlong, & Smith, 2006) was used to measure affective,…

  7. Indigenous Language Immersion Schools for Strong Indigenous Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyhner, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on evidence from indigenous language immersion programs in the United States, this article makes the case that these immersion programs are vital to healing the negative effects of colonialism and assimilationist schooling that have disrupted many indigenous homes and communities. It describes how these programs are furthering efforts to…

  8. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure...... the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  9. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure...... the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  10. The chicken SLAM family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Christian; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors is critically involved in the immune regulation of lymphocytes but has only been detected in mammals, with one member being present in Xenopus. Here, we describe the identification, cloning, and analysis of the chicken homologues to the mammalian SLAMF1 (CD150), SLAMF2 (CD48), and SLAMF4 (CD244, 2B4). Two additional chicken SLAM genes were identified and designated SLAMF3like and SLAM5like in order to stress that those two receptors have no clear mammalian counterpart but share some features with mammalian SLAMF3 and SLAMF5, respectively. Three of the chicken SLAM genes are located on chromosome 25, whereas two are currently not yet assigned. The mammalian and chicken receptors share a common structure with a V-like domain that lacks conserved cysteine residues and a C2-type Ig domain with four cysteines forming two disulfide bonds. Chicken SLAMF2, like its mammalian counterpart, lacks a transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain and thus represents a glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored protein. The cytoplasmic tails of SLAMF1 and SLAMF4 display two and four conserved immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motifs (ITSMs), respectively, whereas both chicken SLAMF3like and SLAMF5like have only a single ITSM. We have also identified the chicken homologues of the SLAM-associated protein family of adaptors (SAP), SAP and EAT-2. Chicken SAP shares about 70 % identity with mammalian SAP, and chicken EAT-2 is homologous to mouse EAT-2, whereas human EAT-2 is much shorter. The characterization of the chicken SLAM family of receptors and the SAP adaptors demonstrates the phylogenetic conservation of this family, in particular, its signaling capacities.

  11. The Double Binds of Indigeneity and Indigenous Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Ludlow

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During the twentieth century, indigenous peoples have often embraced the category of indigenous while also having to face the ambiguities and limitations of this concept. Indigeneity, whether represented by indigenous people themselves or others, tends to face a “double bind”, as defined by Gregory Bateson, in which “no matter what a person does, he can’t win.” One exit strategy suggested by Bateson is meta-communication—communication about communication—in which new solutions emerge from a questioning of system-internal assumptions. We offer case studies from Ecuador, Peru and Alaska that chart some recent indigenous experiences and strategies for such scenarios.

  12. Indigenous innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Jun; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, China has earned the reputation of ‘manufacturing power house’ of the world. Chinese companies in their vast numbers have been very successful in exploiting their access to low-cost labour and have established themselves as unbeatable high volume low-cost manufacturing...... on their own in-house resources. The development and implementation of indigenous innovation solutions for these companies is an imperative which has not been adequately addressed in the literature. Therefore, by employing an explorative case of a Chinese company behind an innovative logistics concept...

  13. Identification of differentially expressed genes and pathways for intramuscular fat deposition in pectoralis major tissues of fast-and slow-growing chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Cui Huan-Xian; Liu Ran-Ran; Zhao Gui-Ping; Zheng Mai-Qing; Chen Ji-Lan; Wen Jie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Intramuscular fat (IMF) is one of the important factors influencing meat quality, however, for chickens, the molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying this trait have not yet been determined. In this study, a systematic identification of candidate genes and new pathways related to IMF deposition in chicken breast tissue has been made using gene expression profiles of two distinct breeds: Beijing-you (BJY), a slow-growing Chinese breed possessing high meat quality and Arbo...

  14. Molecular genetic diversity and genetic structure of Vietnamese indigenous pig populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, L. D.; Do, Duy Ngoc; Nam, L. Q.

    2014-01-01

    The study characterized genetic diversity and genetic structure of five indigenous pig populations (Ha Lang, Muong Te, Mong Cai, Lung and Lung Pu), two wild pig populations (Vietnamese and Thai wild pigs) and an exotic pig breed (Yorkshire) using FAO/ISAG recommended 16 microsatellite markers...... eight populations into four groups including Yorkshire, two wild populations, Mong Cai population and a group of four other indigenous populations. The Bayesian clustering with the admixture model implemented in Structure 2.1 indicated seven possible homogenous clusters among eight populations. From 79......% (Ha Lang) to 98% (Mong Cai). individuals in indigenous pigs were assigned to their own populations. The results confirmed high level of genetic diversity and shed a new light on genetic structure of Vietnam indigenous pig populations....

  15. A complex genomic rearrangement involving the endothelin 3 locus causes dermal hyperpigmentation in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorshorst, Ben; Molin, Anna-Maja; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Johansson, Anna M; Strömstedt, Lina; Pham, Manh-Hung; Chen, Chih-Feng; Hallböök, Finn; Ashwell, Chris; Andersson, Leif

    2011-12-01

    Dermal hyperpigmentation or Fibromelanosis (FM) is one of the few examples of skin pigmentation phenotypes in the chicken, where most other pigmentation variants influence feather color and patterning. The Silkie chicken is the most widespread and well-studied breed displaying this phenotype. The presence of the dominant FM allele results in extensive pigmentation of the dermal layer of skin and the majority of internal connective tissue. Here we identify the causal mutation of FM as an inverted duplication and junction of two genomic regions separated by more than 400 kb in wild-type individuals. One of these duplicated regions contains endothelin 3 (EDN3), a gene with a known role in promoting melanoblast proliferation. We show that EDN3 expression is increased in the developing Silkie embryo during the time in which melanoblasts are migrating, and elevated levels of expression are maintained in the adult skin tissue. We have examined four different chicken breeds from both Asia and Europe displaying dermal hyperpigmentation and conclude that the same structural variant underlies this phenotype in all chicken breeds. This complex genomic rearrangement causing a specific monogenic trait in the chicken illustrates how novel mutations with major phenotypic effects have been reused during breed formation in domestic animals.

  16. Haematological and serum biochemical responses of chickens to hydric stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikumba, N; Swatson, H; Chimonyo, M

    2013-09-01

    Dehydration can be extremely damaging to the performance and welfare of indigenous chickens. The effect of water restriction on haematological and biochemical parameters was compared in Naked Neck (NNK) and Ovambo (OVB) chickens. A total of 54 8-week-old pullets each of NNK and OVB chickens with an initial average weight of 641 ± 10 g/bird were randomly assigned to three water intake treatments with three replications, each having six birds. The water restriction treatments were ad libitum, 70% and 40% of ad libitum intake. Nine experimental pens with a floor space of 3.3 m2 per strain were used. Feed was provided ad libitum. Packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte count (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and total leucocyte count (WBC), and biochemical parameters (uric acid (UA)), creatinine (CREAT), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), globulin (GLOB), triglyceride (TGA), total cholesterol (TC), high- (HDLC) and low- (LDLC) density lipoprotein cholesterol and activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate transaminase (AST) were determined from blood collected after 60 days of water restriction. PCV was higher (P chickens offered water ad libitum, but similar in birds offered 70% and 40% of ad libitum. There were no differences in RBC and MCV values between strains, but MCV was higher in birds on 40% than 70% of ad libitum water intake, irrespective of strain. Naked neck chickens had higher (P chickens. The opposite was observed for UA. ALT activity indicated that liver function was not affected by water restriction. It was concluded that the two strains can withstand up to 40% of ad libitum water restriction, but NNK tolerated water stress better than OVB chickens.

  17. Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Fecal Escherichia coli Isolates from Penned Broiler and Scavenging Local Chickens in Arusha, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugumisa, Bernadether T; Call, Douglas R; Mwanyika, Gaspary O; Mrutu, Rehema I; Luanda, Catherine M; Lyimo, Beatus M; Subbiah, Murugan; Buza, Joram J

    2016-08-01

    We compared the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from household-level producers of broiler (commercial source breeds) and local chickens in the Arusha District of Tanzania. Households were composed of a single dwelling or residence with independent, penned broiler flocks. Free-range, scavenging chickens were mixed breed and loosely associated with individual households. A total of 1,800 E. coli isolates (1,200 from broiler and 600 from scavenging local chickens) from 75 chickens were tested for their susceptibility against 11 antibiotics by using breakpoint assays. Isolates from broiler chickens harbored a higher prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli relative to scavenging local chickens, including sulfamethoxazole (80.3 versus 34%), followed by trimethoprim (69.3 versus 27.7%), tetracycline (56.8 versus 20%), streptomycin (52.7 versus 24.7%), amoxicillin (49.6 versus 17%), ampicillin (49.1 versus 16.8%), ciprofloxacin (21.9 versus 1.7%), and chloramphenicol (1.5 versus 1.2%). Except for resistance to chloramphenicol, scavenging local chickens harbored fewer resistant E. coli isolates (P < 0.05). Broiler chickens harbored more isolates that were resistant to ≥7 antibiotics (P < 0.05). The higher prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli from broiler chickens correlated with the reported therapeutic and prophylactic use of antibiotics in this poultry population. We suggest that improved biosecurity measures and increased vaccination efforts would reduce reliance on antibiotics by these households.

  18. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indigenous Affairs, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This document contains the three 1997 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the three corresponding issues in Spanish. (The last two quarterly issues were combined.) These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world.…

  19. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indigenous Affairs, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the four 1998 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. The first issue is a theme issue on the indigenous…

  20. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indigenous Affairs, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document contains the four 1996 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These newsletters provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. Articles on the United States and Canada (1) discuss…

  1. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indigenous Affairs, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the four 1998 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. The first issue is a theme issue on the indigenous…

  2. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indigenous Affairs, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This document contains the four 1996 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the four corresponding issues in Spanish. These newsletters provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world. Articles on the United States and Canada (1) discuss…

  3. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indigenous Affairs, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This document contains the three 1997 English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs and the three corresponding issues in Spanish. (The last two quarterly issues were combined.) These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and struggles for self-determination and human rights of indigenous peoples around the world.…

  4. Indigenous rights, performativity and protest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanna, Philippe; Langdon, Esther Jean; Vanclay, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Protests to claim rights are a common practice among Indigenous peoples of the world, especially when their interests conflict with those of nation states and/or multinational corporations regarding the use of their lands and resources. Drawing on a case study of the National Indigenous Mobilization

  5. Indigenous education and heritage revitalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ke, Wen-Li

    2011-01-01

    The thesis (working title: 'Indigenous Education and Heritage Revitalization') focuses on the (possible) roles of tangible and intangible cultural heritage in the education of indigenous peoples in Taiwan, against the background of worldwide discussions and studies of the possibilities to create and

  6. Impact of Family Chickens on the Livelihoods of People Living with HIV and AIDS in Four Villages of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenaleone Gabanakgosi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of family chickens on the livelihoods of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA was investigated in Khudumelapye, Mogobane, Mokubilo and Serowe villages of Botswana. The objectives of this study were to determine the consumption and marketing of family chickens and to evaluate the contribution of family chickens towards household income and nutrition of PLWHA in four villages of Botswana. Data were collected from 100 respondents (25 from each village using a structured questionnaire and through direct observation. The results showed that 79% of the respondents slaughtered chickens for family consumption and 21% to honour guests. Sixty-one percent of respondents consumed eggs while the remainder used eggs for breeding purposes. Seventy-four percent of the respondents sold some chickens to meet immediate family needs. Eighty-two percent of chickens were sold for cash followed by barter (10%. A total of 874 chickens were sold from the surveyed villages earning the sum of P18, 030.00 (2253.75USD. The average price of a chicken was P57.50 (7.19USD. These results suggest that family chickens were mainly used for consumption and were also sold to meet family needs, thus contributing to improved household income and nutrition of PLWHA. In order to increase the benefits of rearing family chickens, the rearers should be trained in general poultry management. In addition, the rearers should be encouraged to form associations which will assist in marketing chickens

  7. A quantitative trait locus for a primary antibody response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin on chicken chromosome 14-Confirmation and candidate gene approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siwek, M.; Slawinska, A.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Witkowski, A.; Zieba, G.; Minozzi, G.; Knol, E.F.; Bednarczyk, M.

    2010-01-01

    A QTL involved in the primary antibody response toward keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) was detected on chicken chromosome 14 in the experimental population, which was created by crossing commercial White Leghorn and a Polish native chicken breed (green-legged partridgelike). The current QTL location

  8. Characterization of the expression profile of calpain-3 (CAPN3) gene in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zeng-Rong; Zhu, Qing; Yao, Yong-Gang; Jiang, Xiao-Song; Du, Hua-Rui; Liu, Yi-Ping

    2012-04-01

    Calpain-3 is a skeletal muscle-specific protease and participates in the regulation of myogenesis. In this study, we quantified the expression of calpain-3 (CAPN3) mRNA in a Chinese local chicken breed (Sichuan Mountainous Black-boned chicken [MB]), to discern the tissue and ontogenic expression pattern. Meanwhile, we compared the CAPN3 mRNA expression pattern in MB chicken at 10 weeks with a commercial meat type chicken line (S01) of the same age to identify the unique expression pattern under different genetic background. A real time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was developed for an accurate measurement of its expression in various tissues from chickens at different ages (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks). Expression of the CAPN3 mRNA was detected in the selected tissues, regardless of age. The breast muscle and leg muscle tissues had a significantly higher expression than the other tissues from the same individual (P chicken had a higher expression of the CAPN3 mRNA in detected tissues than the MB chicken at 10 weeks. The present expression data of chicken CAPN3 gene may provide some information to shed light on the tissue and ontogenic expression pattern during chicken development.

  9. Large scale variation in DNA copy number in chicken breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Detecting genetic variation is a critical step in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic diversity. Until recently, such detection has mostly focused on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) because of the ease in screening complete genomes. Another type of variant, c...

  10. ChickVD: a sequence variation database for the chicken genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jing; He, Ximiao; Ruan, Jue

    2005-01-01

    Working in parallel with the efforts to sequence the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome, the Beijing Genomics Institute led an international team of scientists from China, USA, UK, Sweden, The Netherlands and Germany to map extensive DNA sequence variation throughout the chicken genome by sampling DNA...... from domestic breeds. Using the Red Jungle Fowl genome sequence as a reference, we identified 3.1 million non-redundant DNA sequence variants. To facilitate the application of our data to avian genetics and to provide a foundation for functional and evolutionary studies, we created the 'Chicken...... Variation Database' (ChickVD). A graphical MapView shows variants mapped onto the chicken genome in the context of gene annotations and other features, including genetic markers, trait loci, cDNAs, chicken orthologs of human disease genes and raw sequence traces. ChickVD also stores information...

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Xuefeng black-boned chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Li; Xie, Hong-Bing; Yang, Yong-Sheng; Yu, Qi-Fang; He, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Xuefeng black-boned chicken is one of the famous native breeds in China. In this work, we reported the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Xuefeng black-boned chicken for the first time, which was determined through PCR-based method. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,783 bp, with the base composition of 30.24% for A, 23.72% for T, 32.52% for C, 13.53% for G, in the order C > A > T > G feature occurring in the Xuefeng black-boned chicken. It contained the typical structure, including 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region (D-loop region). It was similar to the gene arrangement in Silky chicken. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Xuefeng black-boned chicken provided an important data for further study on the genetic mechanism.

  12. Some hematological changes in chickens infected with ectoparasites in Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Al-Saffar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to identify different ectoparasites infesting 280 chicken (native breed out door house reared layers, 6 months – 2 years old, from various regions of Mosul city (poultry market, Hadba' Flock, and six flocks at Kogialli village, for one year. Total percentage of ectoparasites in chickens were 19.3 % of which (54 positive case out of 280 chicken 81% were single infections and 19 % mixed infections. Lice infestation (12.5 % and four types of chewing lice were classified (Menacanthus stramineus, Cuclotogaster hetrographus, Goniocoteus gallinae, and Columbicola columbae. One species of flies (1.4% (Pseudolynchia canariensis. One species of mites (4.3% (Dermanyssus gallinae were seen. One species of soft ticks (6.8% (Argas persicus were seen. Parasitological findings of skin and feathers examination for all types of ectoparasites on chicken showed three degrees of infestation depending on the number of these ectoparasites on each bird (low degree 1–50/ bird, moderate degree 51–100/ bird, and heavy degree more than 100/ bird. Clinical signs of the infected chicken with ectoparasites especially severe infection were itching, annoyance, loss of sleep, general weakness, loss of appetite, restless, allergy, drop of egg production in layers and anemia. It clear from results of blood examinations the presence of anemia in infected birds blood sucking ectoparasites with significant decrease in PCV % , TRBC and Hb concentration in chicken especially in severe (heavily infestation with soft ticks and mites. Results also showed increase in total white blood cells (Leucocytosis with increase in heterophils, and eosinophils in infected chicken with ticks, mites and lice, with bad nutrition and unhygienic management as compared with non-infected chicken control group.

  13. Meta-analysis of Chicken – Salmonella infection experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    te Pas Marinus FW

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chicken meat and eggs can be a source of human zoonotic pathogens, especially Salmonella species. These food items contain a potential hazard for humans. Chickens lines differ in susceptibility for Salmonella and can harbor Salmonella pathogens without showing clinical signs of illness. Many investigations including genomic studies have examined the mechanisms how chickens react to infection. Apart from the innate immune response, many physiological mechanisms and pathways are reported to be involved in the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of diverse experiments to identify general and host specific mechanisms to the Salmonella challenge. Results Diverse chicken lines differing in susceptibility to Salmonella infection were challenged with different Salmonella serovars at several time points. Various tissues were sampled at different time points post-infection, and resulting host transcriptional differences investigated using different microarray platforms. The meta-analysis was performed with the R-package metaMA to create lists of differentially regulated genes. These gene lists showed many similarities for different chicken breeds and tissues, and also for different Salmonella serovars measured at different times post infection. Functional biological analysis of these differentially expressed gene lists revealed several common mechanisms for the chicken host response to Salmonella infection. The meta-analysis-specific genes (i.e. genes found differentially expressed only in the meta-analysis confirmed and expanded the biological functional mechanisms. Conclusions The meta-analysis combination of heterogeneous expression profiling data provided useful insights into the common metabolic pathways and functions of different chicken lines infected with different Salmonella serovars.

  14. Indigenization of urban mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zimo; Lian, Defu; Yuan, Nicholas Jing; Xie, Xing; Rui, Yong; Zhou, Tao

    2017-03-01

    The identification of urban mobility patterns is very important for predicting and controlling spatial events. In this study, we analyzed millions of geographical check-ins crawled from a leading Chinese location-based social networking service (Jiepang.com), which contains demographic information that facilitates group-specific studies. We determined the distinct mobility patterns of natives and non-natives in all five large cities that we considered. We used a mixed method to assign different algorithms to natives and non-natives, which greatly improved the accuracy of location prediction compared with the basic algorithms. We also propose so-called indigenization coefficients to quantify the extent to which an individual behaves like a native, which depends only on their check-in behavior, rather than requiring demographic information. Surprisingly, the hybrid algorithm weighted using the indigenization coefficients outperformed a mixed algorithm that used additional demographic information, suggesting the advantage of behavioral data in characterizing individual mobility compared with the demographic information. The present location prediction algorithms can find applications in urban planning, traffic forecasting, mobile recommendation, and so on.

  15. Protecting indigenous rights. Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Guatemala's recent ratification of the International Labor Organization (ILO) Convention regarding indigenous and tribal peoples (1989, No. 169) represents a commitment to guarantee the rights of the country's majority Mayan population. Ratifying governments are obligated to respect the traditional values and land rights of tribal and indigenous peoples and to consult with them on any decisions affecting their economic or social development. Ratification of this Convention was a key element in an eight-part UN-sponsored negotiation aimed at ending the civil war in Guatemala. Efforts are underway to promote dialogue between organized civil society and government. Negotiations in May 1996, conducted with ILO assistance, resulted in a socioeconomic agreement under which Guatemala will increase social investment in education, undertake agrarian reform, and institute tripartite consultation on all major social and economic issues. However, two key issues in the peace negotiations--the role of the army in civil society and constitutional reform--remain unresolved. The final global peace accord is expected to be signed in September 1996. UN organizations are already working to mobilize international support for transforming these agreements into political and social realities for the Guatemalan people.

  16. Indigenous Contributions to Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhardt, R.

    2010-12-01

    Throughout the course of the Fourth International Polar Year(s), indigenous peoples have assumed a prominent role as significant partners in the pursuit of a broader and deeper understanding of the multifaceted dimensions of the human role in the Arctic region. Most salient in this partnership has been the substantial underlying differences in perspective, some political, some ideological, but most fundamental and intractable are the differences in world views, between those of the relative newcomers to the area (i.e. the miners, loggers, oil field workers, commercial fishermen, tourists, and even the occasional scientist), and the Native people with roots in the land that go back millennia. But no longer can these differences be cast in simplistic either/or terms, implying some kind of inherent dichotomy between those who live off the land vs. those tied to the cash economy, or traditional vs. modern technologies, or anecdotal vs. scientific evidence. These lines have been blurred with the realities that indigenous cultures are not static, and western structures are no longer dominant. Instead, we now have a much more fluid and dynamic situation in which once competing views of the world are striving toward reconciliation through new structures and frameworks that foster co-existence rather than domination and exploitation.

  17. Age-related expression profile of the SLC27A1 gene in chicken tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zhu, Qing; Zhao, Xiao-Ling; Yao, Yong-Gang; Liu, Yi-Ping

    2011-11-01

    The solute carrier family 27 (SLC27, also known as fatty acid transport proteins [FATPs]) plays important biological roles in cells. However, there is no report about the expression profile of SLC27 member in chicken. In this study, we quantified the expression of SLC27A1 (FATP1) mRNA in a mountainous black-boned chicken breed (MB) and a commercial meat type chicken breed (S01), to discern the tissue and age-related specific expression pattern and their potential involvement in fat deposition and muscle fatty acid metabolism. Real-time quantitative PCR assays were developed for accurate measurement of SLC27A1 mRNA levels in different tissues from chicken with different ages (0-12 weeks). Expression of SLC27A1 mRNA was detected in all tissues examined. There was a significantly age-related change of the SLC27A1 mRNAs in heart, breast muscle (BMW), leg muscle (LMW), liver, and abdominal fat (AF) tissues (P chicken had a higher expression of the SLC27A1 mRNA in breast muscle, subcutaneous fat, and heart tissues than the MB chicken. Our results showed that the expression of SLC27A1 mRNA in chicken tissues exhibits specific developmental changes and age-related patterns.

  18. Implementation in breeding programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffey, M.P.; McParland, S.; Bastin, C.; Wall, E.; Berry, D.P.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic improvement is easy when selecting for one heritable and well-recorded trait at a time. Many industrialised national dairy herds have overall breeding indices that incorporate a range of traits balanced by their known or estimated economic value. Future breeding goals will contain more non-p

  19. Implementation in breeding programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffey, M.P.; McParland, S.; Bastin, C.; Wall, E.; Berry, D.P.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic improvement is easy when selecting for one heritable and well-recorded trait at a time. Many industrialised national dairy herds have overall breeding indices that incorporate a range of traits balanced by their known or estimated economic value. Future breeding goals will contain more non-p

  20. Cryopreservation of specialized chicken lines using cultured primordial germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Whyte, J; Taylor, L; Sherman, A; Nair, V; Kaiser, P; McGrew, M J

    2016-08-01

    Biosecurity and sustainability in poultry production requires reliable germplasm conservation. Germplasm conservation in poultry is more challenging in comparison to other livestock species. Embryo cryopreservation is not feasible for egg-laying animals, and chicken semen conservation has variable success for different chicken breeds. A potential solution is the cryopreservation of the committed diploid stem cell precursors to the gametes, the primordial germ cells ( PGCS: ). Primordial germ cells are the lineage-restricted cells found at early embryonic stages in birds and form the sperm and eggs. We demonstrate here, using flocks of partially inbred, lower-fertility, major histocompatibility complex- ( MHC-: ) restricted lines of chicken, that we can easily derive and cryopreserve a sufficient number of independent lines of male and female PGCs that would be sufficient to reconstitute a poultry breed. We demonstrate that germ-line transmission can be attained from these PGCs using a commercial layer line of chickens as a surrogate host. This research is a major step in developing and demonstrating that cryopreserved PGCs could be used for the biobanking of specialized flocks of birds used in research settings. The prospective application of this technology to poultry production will further increase sustainability to meet current and future production needs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  1. Indigenous Educational Attainment in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the educational attainment of Indigenous peoples of working age (25 to 64 years in Canada is examined. This diverse population has typically had lower educational levels than the general population in Canada. Results indicate that, while on the positive side there are a greater number of highly educated Indigenous peoples, there is also a continuing gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples. Data also indicate that the proportion with less than high school education declined, which corresponds with a rise of those with a PSE; the reverse was true in 1996. Despite these gains, however, the large and increasing absolute numbers of those without a high school education is alarming. There are intra-Indigenous differences: First Nations with Indian Status and the Inuit are not doing as well as non-Status and Métis peoples. Comparisons between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations reveal that the documented gap in post-secondary educational attainment is at best stagnant. Out of the data analysis, and based on the history of educational policy, we comment on the current reform proposed by the Government of Canada, announced in February of 2014, and propose several policy recommendations to move educational attainment forward.

  2. Indigenous Child Health in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pino Marchito, Sandra; Vitoy, Bernardino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Improving the health status of indigenous children is a long-standing challenge. Several United Nations committees have identified the health of indigenous peoples as a human rights concern. Addressing the health of indigenous children cannot be separated from their social, cultural, and historic contexts, and any related health program must offer culturally appropriate services and a community perspective broad enough to address the needs of children and the local worlds in which they live. Evaluations of programs must, therefore, address process as well as impacts. This paper assesses interventions addressing indigenous children’s health in Brazil, ranging from those explicitly targeting indigenous children’s health, such as the targeted immunization program for indigenous peoples, as well as more generalized programs, including a focus upon indigenous children, such as the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness. The paper discusses the tensions and complexities of ethnically targeted health interventions as well as the conceptual and methodological challenge of measuring the processes employed and their impact. The lessons learned, especially the need for countries to more systematically collect data and evaluate impacts using ethnicity as an analytical category, are drawn out with respect to ensuring human rights for all within health sector responses. PMID:27781012

  3. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in IGFBP-2 Gene and Their Associations with Body Weight Traits on Jinghai Yellow Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XH Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2 regulates a broad spectrum of biological activities involved in growth, development, and differentiation. This study aimed at comparing polymorphisms in intron2 of the IGFBP-2 gene among four chicken breeds and at analyzing the associations between its genotypes and body weight in Jinghai Yellow chicken by using PCR-SSCP technique. For primer P2, three genotypes (AA, AB and BB were observed in the four chicken breeds. Gene sequencing revealed one insertion/deletion (the inserted/deleted TC after position 552bp in the intron 2 of IGFBP-2 gene. For primer P5, three genotypes were identified in Jinghai Yellow chickens, and named CC, CD and DD. Gene sequencing revealed two SNPs (C1107G, C1130T and one inserted/deleted GCCAGGT after 1115bp in the intron 2 of IGFBP-2 gene. The results of the linear model analysis showed that Jinghai Yellow chickens with AA genotype had significantly heavier body weight, at hatch and 12 weeks of age, than those of the AB genotype (p<0.05. The A allele had a positive effect on body weight. We speculate that mutations in intron 2 could be used as genetic markers for body weight in Jinghai Yellow chicken. This study provides valuable information for the protection of genetic resources and for breeding of Jinghai Yellow chicken.

  4. Indigenous Nations' Responses to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Zoltan

    2008-01-01

    On August 1st, 2007, Indigenous nations from within the United States, Canada, Australia, and Aotearoa (New Zealand) signed a treaty to found the United League of Indigenous Nations. The Treaty of Indigenous Nations offers a historic opportunity for sovereign Indigenous governments to build intertribal cooperation outside the framework of the…

  5. Bioactivities of chicken essence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y F; He, R R; Tsoi, B; Kurihara, H

    2012-04-01

    The special flavor and health effects of chicken essence are being widely accepted by people. Scientific researches are revealing its truth as a tonic food in traditional health preservation. Chicken essence has been found to possess many bioactivities including relief of stress and fatigue, amelioration of anxiety, promotion of metabolisms and post-partum lactation, improvement on hyperglycemia and hypertension, enhancement of immune, and so on. These activities of chicken essence are suggested to be related with its active components, including proteins, dipeptides (such as carnosine and anserine), polypeptides, minerals, trace elements, and multiple amino acids, and so on. Underlying mechanisms responsible for the bioactivities of chicken essence are mainly related with anti-stress, anti-oxidant, and neural regulation effects. However, the mechanisms are complicated and may be mediated via the combined actions of many active components, more than the action of 1 or 2 components alone. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Eggcited about Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  7. The Chicken Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  8. Indigenous innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Jun; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2012-01-01

    on their own in-house resources. The development and implementation of indigenous innovation solutions for these companies is an imperative which has not been adequately addressed in the literature. Therefore, by employing an explorative case of a Chinese company behind an innovative logistics concept......In the past two decades, China has earned the reputation of ‘manufacturing power house’ of the world. Chinese companies in their vast numbers have been very successful in exploiting their access to low-cost labour and have established themselves as unbeatable high volume low-cost manufacturing...... champions. However, recently growing number of Chinese companies are seeking to create a foundation for growth and development based on innovation. As a result of this, many of them spread their operations to the countries of the traditional industrial ‘triad’ of North America, Europe and Japan to capture...

  9. INDIGENISM AND EXCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Angel Vera Noriega

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYThe objective of the work is to carry out an analysis of the Western vision of the indigenous towns from the four types of exclusion of which Focault speaks (1978 when he talks about madness. The Social exclusion or work exclusion, family exclusion or emotional affective exclusion, the symbolic or linguistic exclusion and the playful or images exclusion. It is a reflection and transformation of ideas that allows coexisting worlds playing the power game in where the most important thing is not the one who wins or that loses, but the imagination and the creativity to modify the order of the rules and norms for that power game. It is discussed and it is exemplified about the territory concept, medicine and religion. It is discussed in terms of fairness policies and equality in a pertinent and relevant dialog for the construction of possible alliances.

  10. Overview and assessment of support measures for endangered livestock breeds : Subsibreed : Final project report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompan, D.; Klopcic, M.; Martyniuk, E.; Hiemstra, S.J.; Hoving, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock production has contributed to food security and economic development for thousands of years. Adaptation to wide range of environmental conditions and artificial selection has led to the development of numerous indigenous breeds that are part of the wealth of diversity in agriculture. They

  11. Overview and assessment of support measures for endangered livestock breeds : Subsibreed : Final project report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompan, D.; Klopcic, M.; Martyniuk, E.; Hiemstra, S.J.; Hoving, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock production has contributed to food security and economic development for thousands of years. Adaptation to wide range of environmental conditions and artificial selection has led to the development of numerous indigenous breeds that are part of the wealth of diversity in agriculture. They

  12. Cyber-Indigeneity: Urban Indigenous Identity on Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumby, Bronwyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses understandings and theorising of identity in cyberspace. In particular, it focuses on the construction, maintenance and performance of urban Indigenous identities on the contemporary internet social space, Facebook.

  13. Cyber-Indigeneity: Urban Indigenous Identity on Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumby, Bronwyn

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses understandings and theorising of identity in cyberspace. In particular, it focuses on the construction, maintenance and performance of urban Indigenous identities on the contemporary internet social space, Facebook.

  14. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the breeding and selection of animals based on balanced and quality manner. The textbook material can be divided into several thematic sections. The first one relates to the classical notions of domestic animals breeding such as the history of breeding, domestication, breed, hereditary and non-hereditary variability and description of general and production traits. The second section focuses on the basic concepts in population and quantitative genetics, as well as biometrics. The third unit is dedicated to the principles of selection and domestic animals improving. The fourth unit relates to the current concepts and objectives of the molecular markers use in domestic animals selection and breeding. The above material has been submitted to the Croatian universities, but so far it has not been published as a textbook. The Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of Republic of Croatia approved financial support for the textbook publication.

  15. Polymorphic microsatellites developed by cross-species amplifications in common pheasant breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baratti, M.; Alberti, A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Veenendaal, T.; Fulgheri, F.D.

    2001-01-01

    Genetic variability was analysed in two common breeds of pheasant (Phasianus colchicus L. 1758) by means of cross-species amplifications of microsatellite loci: 154 chicken, Gallus gallus and 32 turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, primers were tested for amplification of pheasant DNA. Thirty-six primers (2

  16. Whole genomic prediction of growth and carcass traits in a Chinese quality chicken population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Xu, Z-Q; Luo, Y-Y; Zhang, H-B; Gao, N; He, J-L; Ji, C-L; Zhang, D-X; Li, J-Q; Zhang, X-Q

    2017-01-01

    By incorporating high-density markers into breeding value prediction models, the whole genomic prediction (WGP) method can effectively accelerate genetic improvement in livestock breeding. However, the performance of WGP varies across species and populations and is affected by the underlying genetic architecture. In particular, very little is known about the performance of WGP for many chicken breeds. Here we estimate the genetic parameters and evaluate the performance of WGP for 18 growth and carcass traits in a Chinese quality chicken population. In total, 435 chickens were systematically phenotyped and genotyped using a 600K genotyping array. Two variance component estimation scenarios, 3 breeding value prediction methods, and 2 validation procedures were compared. The results showed that the heritability of these 18 traits was medium to high (ranging from 0.28 to 0.60) and that deviations existed between the heritability estimated from pedigrees and markers. Compared with conventional breeding methods, WGP could potentially increase the selection accuracy by 20% or more depending on the prediction model used, the trait under consideration, and the genetic connectedness between the training and validation individuals. Our results showed the potential of implementing genomic selection in small breeding herds.

  17. Pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.

  18. INDIGENOUS LANGUAGE IMPLEMENTATION AND NATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    language teaching and use in the early child education stages can enhance nation building. .... Experience. 48 the second language learners (L2) and a multilingual nation. Is it ... banish the indigenous cultures and languages, but to erect a ...

  19. Towards Conservation of Omani Local Chicken: Phenotypic Characteristics, Management Practices and Performance Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Al-Qamashoui

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing local chicken types and their mostly rural production systems is prerequisite for designing and implementing development and conservation programs. This study evaluated the management practices of small-scale chicken keepers and the phenotypic and production traits of their chickens in Oman, where conservation programs for local livestock breeds have currently started. Free-range scavenging was the dominant production system, and logistic regression analysis showed that socio-economic factors such as training in poultry keeping, household income, income from farming and gender of chicken owners influenced feeding, housing, and health care practices (p<0.05. A large variation in plumage and shank colors, comb types and other phenotypic traits within and between Omani chicken populations were observed. Male and female body weight differed (p<0.05, being 1.3±0.65 kg and 1.1±0.86 kg respectively. Flock size averaged 22±7.7 birds per household with 4.8 hens per cock. Clutch size was 12.3±2.85 and annual production 64.5±2.85 eggs per hen. Egg hatchability averaged 88±6.0% and annual chicken mortality across all age and sex categories was 16±1.4%. The strong involvement of women in chicken keeping makes them key stakeholders in future development and conservation programs, but the latter should be preceded by a comprehensive study of the genetic diversity of the Omani chicken populations.

  20. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  1. Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2011 Arctic Coastal Plain...

  2. Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2010 Arctic Coastal Plain...

  3. Garlic breeding system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual ste

  4. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  5. Messenger RNA expression of chicken CLOCK gene in the response to Campylobacter jejuni inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyi; Liu, Liying; Zhang, Maozhi; Yang, Ning; Qi, Yukai; Sun, Yu; Li, Xianyao

    2015-09-01

    Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Previous research has shown that circadian rhythm plays a critical role in host response to C. jejuni colonization. The CLOCK gene is one of the core genes regulating circadian rhythms and shows significant expression on 7 d post-C. jejuni inoculation. The objective of this study was to investigate temporal and spatial expression of chicken CLOCK gene post-C. jejuni inoculation. Cecal and splenic RNA were isolated from 2 distinct chicken breeds and used to compare the mRNA expression of CLOCK gene between inoculated and noninoculated chickens within each breed and between breeds within each of inoculated and noninoculated groups. Our results showed that the CLOCK gene was significantly down-regulated at 20 h postinoculation (hpi) in cecum and spleen in Jiningbairi chicken. CLOCK gene was significantly down-regulated at 4 and 16 hpi and up-regulated at 8 hpi in cecum and spleen in specific pathogen free white leghorn noninoculated chicken. The findings suggested that expression of CLOCK gene was significantly changed post C. jejuin inoculation. This change was affected by genetic background, tissue, and time points postinoculation. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. The value of resequence data for poultry breeding: a primary layer breeder perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Janet E

    2014-02-01

    Poultry breeding companies are facing a new paradigm. Since 2004, extensive resources have been developed to increase understanding of the fundamental biology of the chicken. The chicken genome has been sequenced and revised twice, millions of novel DNA variants have been identified, and new tools have been created that allow rapid and inexpensive detection of these DNA variations. These developments have led to the establishment of molecular-based breeding programs within major poultry breeding companies that are revolutionizing the primary poultry breeding industries. Costs of sequencing continue to drop and are predicted to eventually reach the point where it is feasible to sequence the entire genome of elite birds before selection. There are multiple challenges to be resolved before this information can be fully incorporated into a breeding program. These include handling and analyzing the extremely large data sets generated, understanding which genes, variants, or both are relevant for commercial production traits, development of new bio-informatic tools, and integration of molecular information with traditional breeding programs. The novel variation identified within elite commercial lines will lead to enhancements in commercial breeding programs. Applications of this information include whole genomic selection, parentage identification, trait association studies, and quality control.

  7. Genetic diversity and population structure of locally adapted South African chicken lines: Implications for conservation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marle-Koster, van E.; Hefer, C.A.; Nel, L.H.; Groenen, M.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study microsatellite markers were applied to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of the six local chicken lines kept in the “Fowls for Africa” program, for better clarification of parameters for breed differentiation and genetic conservation of this valuable resource.

  8. Gene expression responses to a Salmonella infection in the chicken intestine differ between lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemert, van S.; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Smits, M.A.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Poultry products are an important source of Salmonella enterica. An effective way to reduce food poisoning due to Salmonella would be to breed chickens more resistant to Salmonella. Unfortunately host responses to Salmonella are complex with many factors involved. To learn more about responses to

  9. Genetics of mechanisms controlling responses to two major pathogens in broiler and layer chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamzic, Edin

    The objective of this thesis was to improve the understanding of molecular mechanisms controlling the response to two major pathogens, Eimeria maxima (coccidiosis) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), in broiler and layer chickens, respectively. Breeding for the improved response to the two pat...

  10. Offspring sex ratio bias and sex related characteristics of eggs in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factors influencing sex of egg and sex ratio in laying chicken may lead to finding potential solutions for the problem of killing of day old male chicks, which is the current practice in breeding of laying hens. In studies described in this thesis, it was investigated if the sex of

  11. Offspring sex ratio bias and sex related characteristics of eggs in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factors influencing sex of egg and sex ratio in laying chicken may lead to finding potential solutions for the problem of killing of day old male chicks, which is the current practice in breeding of laying hens. In studies described in this thesis, it was investigated if the sex of

  12. Gene expression responses to a Salmonella infection in the chicken intestine differ between lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemert, van S.; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Smits, M.A.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Poultry products are an important source of Salmonella enterica. An effective way to reduce food poisoning due to Salmonella would be to breed chickens more resistant to Salmonella. Unfortunately host responses to Salmonella are complex with many factors involved. To learn more about responses to Sa

  13. Sustained by First Nations: European newcomers' use of Indigenous plant foods in temperate North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Turner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Peoples of North America have collectively used approximately 1800 different native species of plants, algae, lichens and fungi as food. When European explorers, traders and settlers arrived on the continent, these native foods, often identified and offered by Indigenous hosts, gave them sustenance and in some cases saved them from starvation. Over the years, some of these species – particularly various types of berries, such as blueberries and cranberries (Vaccinium spp., wild raspberries and blackberries (Rubus spp., and wild strawberries (Fragaria spp., and various types of nuts (Corylus spp., Carya spp., Juglans spp., Pinus spp., along with wild-rice (Zizania spp. and maple syrup (from Acer saccharum – became more widely adopted and remain in use to the present day. Some of these and some other species were used in plant breeding programs, as germplasm for hybridization programs, or to strengthen a crop's resistance to disease. At the same time, many nutritious Indigenous foods fell out of use among Indigenous Peoples themselves, and along with their lessened use came a loss of associated knowledge and cultural identity. Today, for a variety of reasons, from improving people's health and regaining their cultural heritage, to enhancing dietary diversity and enjoyment of diverse foods, some of the species that have dwindled in their use have been “rediscovered” by Indigenous and non-Indigenous Peoples, and indications are that their benefits to humanity will continue into the future.

  14. Indigenous health and socioeconomic status in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S V Subramanian

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systematic evidence on the patterns of health deprivation among indigenous peoples remains scant in developing countries. We investigate the inequalities in mortality and substance use between indigenous and non-indigenous, and within indigenous, groups in India, with an aim to establishing the relative contribution of socioeconomic status in generating health inequalities. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cross-sectional population-based data were obtained from the 1998-1999 Indian National Family Health Survey. Mortality, smoking, chewing tobacco use, and alcohol use were four separate binary outcomes in our analysis. Indigenous status in the context of India was operationalized through the Indian government category of scheduled tribes, or Adivasis, which refers to people living in tribal communities characterized by distinctive social, cultural, historical, and geographical circumstances.Indigenous groups experience excess mortality compared to non-indigenous groups, even after adjusting for economic standard of living (odds ratio 1.22; 95% confidence interval 1.13-1.30. They are also more likely to smoke and (especially drink alcohol, but the prevalence of chewing tobacco is not substantially different between indigenous and non-indigenous groups. There are substantial health variations within indigenous groups, such that indigenous peoples in the bottom quintile of the indigenous-peoples-specific standard of living index have an odds ratio for mortality of 1.61 (95% confidence interval 1.33-1.95 compared to indigenous peoples in the top fifth of the wealth distribution. Smoking, drinking alcohol, and chewing tobacco also show graded associations with socioeconomic status within indigenous groups. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic status differentials substantially account for the health inequalities between indigenous and non-indigenous groups in India. However, a strong socioeconomic gradient in health is also evident within indigenous

  15. Chicken NK cell receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Christian; Neulen, Marie-Luise; Sperling, Beatrice; Windau, Katharina; Zechmann, Maria; Jansen, Christine A; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W

    2013-11-01

    Natural killer cells are innate immune cells that destroy virally infected or transformed cells. They recognize these altered cells by a plethora of diverse receptors and thereby differ from other lymphocytes that use clonally distributed antigen receptors. To date, several receptor families that play a role in either activating or inhibiting NK cells have been identified in mammals. In the chicken, NK cells have been functionally and morphologically defined, however, a conclusive analysis of receptors involved in NK cell mediated functions has not been available. This is partly due to the low frequencies of NK cells in blood or spleen that has hampered their intensive characterization. Here we will review recent progress regarding the diverse NK cell receptor families, with special emphasis on novel families identified in the chicken genome with potential as chicken NK cell receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Broiler breeding : breeding goals, selection schemes and the usefulness of local breeds for China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, X.

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation considers three aspects of broiler breeding: definition of breeding goals, selection schemes for specialized lines, and the usefulness of local breeds for China. Economic values in broiler breeding were derived based on a deterministic model. A systematic design for the application

  17. Pepper and Sesame Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: 250 grams of chicken breast, 50 grams of water chestnut, thick pieces of white bread or steamed bun. Supplementary Ingredients: Sesame, lard, MSG, salt, whites of three eggs, starch. Directions: Chop up the chicken breast into mash, cut the water chestnuts into small pieces and put them in a bowl. Mix in the supplementary ingredients. Spread the mixed mash onto the bread pieces and roll them in sesame. Heat 250 grams of oil. When hot, put in the pieces one by one. When the pieces turn

  18. Breeding-assisted genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Jesse

    2015-04-01

    The revolution of inexpensive sequencing has ushered in an unprecedented age of genomics. The promise of using this technology to accelerate plant breeding is being realized with a vision of genomics-assisted breeding that will lead to rapid genetic gain for expensive and difficult traits. The reality is now that robust phenotypic data is an increasing limiting resource to complement the current wealth of genomic information. While genomics has been hailed as the discipline to fundamentally change the scope of plant breeding, a more symbiotic relationship is likely to emerge. In the context of developing and evaluating large populations needed for functional genomics, none excel in this area more than plant breeders. While genetic studies have long relied on dedicated, well-structured populations, the resources dedicated to these populations in the context of readily available, inexpensive genotyping is making this philosophy less tractable relative to directly focusing functional genomics on material in breeding programs. Through shifting effort for basic genomic studies from dedicated structured populations, to capturing the entire scope of genetic determinants in breeding lines, we can move towards not only furthering our understanding of functional genomics in plants, but also rapidly improving crops for increased food security, availability and nutrition.

  19. Influence of different concentrates on milk yield and quality from Italian indigenous goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Palocci

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a study of the effects of in-pasture dietary supplementation by different concentrates on the milk yield and quality of Bianca Monticellana, an indigenous goat breed reared in Italy. Two groups of lactating goats put out to pasture were fed poliphita hay; each group received one of two dietary concentrates during the first lactation stage. The administered concentrates contained similar energy (0.53-0.55 Milk FU and protein (101.5-102.8 g. The average milk yield from morning-only milking in groups, 0.78-0.95 kg/head, was higher than the yield recorded during previous years in the same breed and lactation stage. The fat and protein content of the milk from the two groups were similar to those observed in animals of the same breed that produced lower milk yield. Comparison with values from cosmopolitan goat breeds indicates that this milk has an optimal ability to clot. In conclusion, the milk yield and quality of Bianca Monticellana can improve following administration of rations that appropriately address the dietary requirements. Moreover, the milk from these goats is suitable for cheese-making, a basic condition that brings a gratifying income to the farmer and consequently assures a greater population of indigenous breeds.

  20. Strategy for Developing Local Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofjan Iskandar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken industry in Indonesia offer jobs for people in the village areas . The balance in development industry of selected and local chicken has to be anticipated as there has been threat of reducing importation of grand parent stock of selected chicken due to global avian influenza . In the mean time, high appreciation to the local chicken has been shown by the existence of local chicken farms in the size of business scale . For local chicken business, the government has been built programs, projects, and infrastructures, although the programs and projects were dropped scattered in to several institutions, which were end up with less significant impact to the people. Therefore, it is the time that the government should put more efforts to integrate various sources . focusing in enhancing local chicken industry .

  1. Population genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population size of conserved and extensively raised village chicken populations of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khulekhani Sedwell Khanyile

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Extensively raised village chickens are considered a valuable source of biodiversity, with genetic variability developed over thousands of years that ought to be characterised and utilized. Surveys that can reveal a population’s genetic structure and provide an insight into its demographic history will give valuable information to manage and conserve important indigenous animal genetic resources. This study reports population diversity and structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population sizes of Southern African village chickens and conservation flocks from South Africa. DNA samples from 312 chickens from South African village and conservation flocks (n =146, Malawi (n =30 and Zimbabwe (n =136 were genotyped using the Illumina iSelect chicken SNP60K BeadChip. Population genetic structure analysis distinguished the four conservation flocks from the village chicken populations. Of the four flocks, the Ovambo clustered closer to the village chickens particularly those sampled from South Africa. Clustering of the village chickens followed a geographic gradient whereby South African chickens were closer to those from Zimbabwe than to chickens from Malawi. Different conservation flocks seemed to have maintained different components of the ancestral genomes with a higher proportion of village chicken diversity found in the Ovambo population. Overall population LD averaged over chromosomes ranged from 0.03 ± 0.07 to 0.58 ± 0.41 and averaged 0.15 ± 0.16. Higher LD, ranging from 0.29-0.36, was observed between SNP markers that were less than 10kb apart in the conservation flocks. LD in the conservation flocks steadily decreased to 0.15 (PK and 0.24 (VD at SNP marker interval of 500kb. Genomewide LD decay in the village chickens from Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa followed a similar trend as the conservation flocks although the mean LD values for the investigated SNP intervals were lower. The results suggest low effective population

  2. Using the chicken genome sequence in the development and mapping of genetic markers in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, L D; Knutson, T P; Krueth, S B; Reed, K M

    2006-04-01

    The efficacy of employing the chicken genome sequence in developing genetic markers and in mapping the turkey genome was studied. Eighty previously uncharacterized microsatellite markers were identified for the turkey using BLAST alignment to the chicken genome. The chicken sequence was then used to develop primers for polymerase chain reaction where the turkey sequence was either unavailable or insufficient. A total of 78 primer sets were tested for amplification and polymorphism in the turkey, and informative markers were genetically mapped. Sixty-five (83%) amplified turkey genomic DNA, and 33 (42%) were polymorphic in the University of Minnesota/Nicholas Turkey Breeding Farms mapping families. All but one marker genetically mapped to the position predicted from the chicken genome sequence. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the chicken sequence for the development of genomic resources in other avian species.

  3. Adult Learning, Transformative Education, and Indigenous Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes an innovative program that weaves together adult learning, transformative education, and indigenous epistemology in order to prepare Alaskan rural indigenous social service providers to better serve their communities.

  4. Reflecting on Research Practices and Indigenous Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reflecting on Research Practices and Indigenous Community Benefits for Poverty ... of various research projects within indigenous communities that brought forth ... Best research practices as well as practices that do not yield much success ...

  5. Adult Learning, Transformative Education, and Indigenous Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes an innovative program that weaves together adult learning, transformative education, and indigenous epistemology in order to prepare Alaskan rural indigenous social service providers to better serve their communities.

  6. Ethical dimension of indigenous knowledge systems | Mutula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethical dimension of indigenous knowledge systems. ... by way of social exclusion, linguistic marginalization, erosion of cultural identity, preference for ... The World Summit on Information Society (WSIS) provided an opportunity for indigenous ...

  7. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...

  8. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...

  9. The World Indigenous Research Alliance (WIRA): Mediating and Mobilizing Indigenous Peoples' Educational Knowledge and Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitinui, Paul; McIvor, Onowa; Robertson, Boni; Morcom, Lindsay; Cashman, Kimo; Arbon, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    There is an Indigenous resurgence in education occurring globally. For more than a century Euro-western approaches have controlled the provision and quality of education to, and for Indigenous peoples. The World Indigenous Research Alliance (WIRA) established in 2012, is a grass-roots movement of Indigenous scholars passionate about making a…

  10. Reassembling the Indigenous Public Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Latimore

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to provide an initial theoretical grounding to assess a practical project: a new software application that attempts to be a beneficial resource in the field of Indigenous representation. As a starting point, we are concerned to provide a theoretical ground for considering the inherited and shifting spaces of Indigenous media representation. To this end, this paper reconsiders the strengths and weaknesses of debates surrounding the ‘Indigenous public sphere’. This is used as grounds for critically understanding the relations that constitute this field. Following this, we consider how a more materialist approach to publics might enable a productive reconceptualization, and in particular how digital media initiatives and shifting news markets may be contributing to change. Finally, drawing on this model, we outline both the ‘Wakul app’ project, and how this framework might inform an assessment of its impact.

  11. Three-Cup Chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredents:500 grams chicken legs,100 grams(about one tea cup)rice wine,50 grams(a small tea cup)sesame oil,50grams refined soy sauce,25 grams white sugar,10grams oyster sauce,chopped scallions,ginger root,garlic,and some hot chili peppers

  12. Twin Flavor Chicken Wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:1000g chicken wings,about,100g Shredded rape-seedleaves,100g black sesame seeds,7g salt,5g sugar,3gMSG,10g cooking wine,5g cassia bark,1000g cookingoil(actual consumption only 100 grams),one egg,anoptional amount of scallion,ginger root,starch and

  13. Immunomodulating Lactobacilli in Chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Koenen (Marjorie)

    2004-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The gastro-intestinal (GI) tract of a chicken starts with the beak, followed by the esophagus and crop, proventriculus (glandular stomach), gizzard (muscular stomach), duodenum, ileum, a pair of blind elongated caeca, colon and ending in the cloaca. The GI-tract

  14. Toward an Integrative Framework of Indigenous Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping

    2012-01-01

    It has long been recognized that indigenous research should be helpful, if not essential, for an adequate understanding of local phenomena. The indigenous approach is consistent with, but extends beyond, the repeated calls for contextualizing management and organization research. However, the cha......It has long been recognized that indigenous research should be helpful, if not essential, for an adequate understanding of local phenomena. The indigenous approach is consistent with, but extends beyond, the repeated calls for contextualizing management and organization research. However...

  15. Indigenous Research on Chinese Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Leung, Kwok; Chen, Chao C.

    2012-01-01

    We attempt to provide a definition and a typology of indigenous research on Chinese management as well as outline the general methodological approaches for this type of research. We also present an integrative summary of the four articles included in this special issue and show how they illustrate...... our definition and typology of indigenous research on Chinese management, as well as the various methodological approaches we advocate. Further, we introduce a commentary on the four articles from the perspective of engaged scholarship, and also three additional articles included in this issue...

  16. Y-Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Diversity in Chinese Indigenous Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Haoyuan; Zhang, Qin; Gao, Kexin; Yue, Xiangpeng; Zhang, Tao; Dang, Ruihua; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chuzhao

    2015-08-01

    In contrast to high genetic diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), equine Y chromosome shows extremely low variability, implying limited patrilines in the domesticated horse. In this study, we applied direct sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods to investigate the polymorphisms of 33 Y chromosome specific loci in 304 Chinese indigenous horses from 13 breeds. Consequently, two Y-single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (Y-45701/997 and Y-50869) and one Y-indel (Y-45288) were identified. Of those, the Y-50869 (T>A) revealed the highest variation frequency (24.67%), whereas it was only 3.29% and 1.97% in Y-45288 (T/-) and Y-45701/997 (G>T) locus, respectively. These three mutations accounted for 27.96% of the total samples and identified five Y-SNP haplotypes, demonstrating genetic diversity of Y chromosome in Chinese horses. In addition, all the five Y-SNP haplotypes were shared by different breeds. Among 13 horse breeds analyzed, Balikun horse displayed the highest nucleotide diversity (π = 5.6×10(-4)) and haplotype diversity (h = 0.527), while Ningqiang horse showed the lowest nucleotide diversity (π = 0.00000) and haplotype diversity (h = 0.000). The results also revealed that Chinese horses had a different polymorphic pattern of Y chromosome from European and American horses. In conclusion, Chinese horses revealed genetic diversity of Y chromosome, however more efforts should be made to better understand the domestication and paternal origin of Chinese indigenous horses.

  17. Y-Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Diversity in Chinese Indigenous Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyuan Han

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to high genetic diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, equine Y chromosome shows extremely low variability, implying limited patrilines in the domesticated horse. In this study, we applied direct sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP methods to investigate the polymorphisms of 33 Y chromosome specific loci in 304 Chinese indigenous horses from 13 breeds. Consequently, two Y-single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (Y-45701/997 and Y-50869 and one Y-indel (Y-45288 were identified. Of those, the Y-50869 (T>A revealed the highest variation frequency (24.67%, whereas it was only 3.29% and 1.97% in Y-45288 (T/- and Y-45701/997 (G>T locus, respectively. These three mutations accounted for 27.96% of the total samples and identified five Y-SNP haplotypes, demonstrating genetic diversity of Y chromosome in Chinese horses. In addition, all the five Y-SNP haplotypes were shared by different breeds. Among 13 horse breeds analyzed, Balikun horse displayed the highest nucleotide diversity (π = 5.6×10−4 and haplotype diversity (h = 0.527, while Ningqiang horse showed the lowest nucleotide diversity (π = 0.00000 and haplotype diversity (h = 0.000. The results also revealed that Chinese horses had a different polymorphic pattern of Y chromosome from European and American horses. In conclusion, Chinese horses revealed genetic diversity of Y chromosome, however more efforts should be made to better understand the domestication and paternal origin of Chinese indigenous horses.

  18. More Like Ourselves: Indigenous Capitalism through Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunten, Alexis Celeste

    2010-01-01

    Through a comparison of Indigenous-owned cultural tourism businesses in southeastern Alaska and New Zealand as well as secondary data examining Indigenous tourism across the Pacific, this article introduces the concept of "Indigenous capitalism" as a distinct strategy to achieve ethical, culturally appropriate, and successful Indigenous…

  19. More Like Ourselves: Indigenous Capitalism through Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunten, Alexis Celeste

    2010-01-01

    Through a comparison of Indigenous-owned cultural tourism businesses in southeastern Alaska and New Zealand as well as secondary data examining Indigenous tourism across the Pacific, this article introduces the concept of "Indigenous capitalism" as a distinct strategy to achieve ethical, culturally appropriate, and successful Indigenous…

  20. Indigenous Studies and the Politics of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGloin, Colleen; Carlson, Bronwyn L.

    2013-01-01

    Language use changes over time. In Indigenous contexts, language alters to suit the shifting nature of cultural expression as this might fit with Indigenous peoples' preference or as a consequence of changes to outdated and colonial modes of expression. For students studying in the discipline of Indigenous Studies, learning to use appropriate…

  1. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1994-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indigenous Affairs, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of the eight issues of the IWGIA newsletter "Indigenous Affairs" published during 1994-95. Each issue is published in separate English and Spanish versions. The newsletter is published by the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA), an organization that supports indigenous peoples in their efforts…

  2. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 1994-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indigenous Affairs, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of the eight issues of the IWGIA newsletter "Indigenous Affairs" published during 1994-95. Each issue is published in separate English and Spanish versions. The newsletter is published by the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA), an organization that supports indigenous peoples in their efforts to gain…

  3. Indigenous Specializations: Dreams, Developments, Delivery and Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Cathy; Thomas, Robina; Green, Jacquie; Ormiston, Todd

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the establishment of the Indigenous Specializations program in the School of Social Work at the University of Victoria. In the absence of funding for Indigenous programs, First Nations professors Robina Thomas and Jacquie Green developed the Indigenous Specializations program "off the side of their desk". This…

  4. Welfare of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sirri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Broiler chickens have been selected for their rapid growth rate as well as for high carcass yields, with particular regard to the breast, and reared in intensive systems at high stocking density ranging from 30 to 40 kg live weight/m2. These conditions lead to a worsening of the welfare status of birds. In Europe a specific directive for the protection of broiler chickens has been recently approved whereas in Italy there is not yet any regulation. The EU directive lays down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production and gives indications on management practices with particular focus on stocking density, light regimen and air quality, training and guidance for people dealing with chickens, as well as monitoring plans for holding and slaughterhouse. In this review the rearing factors influencing the welfare conditions of birds are described and detailed information on the effects of stocking density, light regimen, litter characteristic and air quality (ammonia, carbon dioxide, humidity, dust are provided. Moreover, the main health implications of poor welfare conditions of the birds, such as contact dermatitis, metabolic, skeletal and muscular disorders are considered. The behavioural repertoire, including scratching, dust bathing, ground pecking, wing flapping, locomotor activity, along with factors that might impair these aspects, are discussed. Lastly, farm animal welfare assessment through physiological and behavioural indicators is described with particular emphasis on the “Unitary Welfare Index,” a tool that considers a wide range of indicators, including productive traits, in order to audit and compare the welfare status of chickens kept in different farms.

  5. Breeding kennel management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, S

    1992-09-01

    Veterinarians and dog breeders should work together to establish protocols for health care and breeding management that are based on sound scientific principles as well as practical systems. These protocols should involve bitches, stud dogs, and puppies. Tantamount importance must be placed on record keeping so that problems may be identified and solved before they are irreversible.

  6. Plant breeding and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of plant breeding is to develop improved crops. Improvements can be made in crop productivity, crop processing and marketing, and/or consumer quality. The process of developing an improved cultivar begins with intercrossing lines with high performance for the traits of interest, th...

  7. Travelling to breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, RJ; Fox, AD; Stahl, J

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, investigation of the dynamics of avian migration has been heavily biased towards the autumn return trip to the wintering quarters. Since the migratory prelude to breeding has direct fitness consequences, the European Science Foundation recently redressed the balance and sponsored a wo

  8. Penguin breeding in Edinburgh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillespie, T.H.; F.R.S.E.,; F.Z.S.,

    1939-01-01

    The Scottish National Zoological Park at Edinburgh has been notably successful in keeping and breeding penguins. It is happy in possessing as a friend and benefactor, Mr Theodore E. Salvesen, head of the firm of Christian Salvesen & Co., Leith, to whose interest and generosity it owes the great numb

  9. Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, R.; Dun, van K.P.M.; Snoo, de B.; Berg, van den M.; Lelivelt, C.L.C.; Voermans, W.; Woudenberg, L.; Wit, de J.P.C.; Reinink, K.; Schut, J.W.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Wijnker, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on re

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Huang Lang chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qi-Fang; Liu, Li-Li; Fu, Chen-Xing; He, Shao-Ping; Li, Si; He, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Huang Lang chicken is the native breed of Hunan province in China. The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence plays an important role in the accurate determination of phylogenetic relationships among metazoans. It is the first time that the complete mt genome sequence of the Huang Lang chicken was reported in this work, which was determined through the polymerase chain reaction-based method. The total length of the mitogenome is 16,786 bp, with the base composition of 30.25% for A, 23.71% for T, 32.53% for C and 13.51% for G, in the order C > A > T > G feature occurs in the Huang Lang chicken. It contains the typical structure, including two ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region (D-loop region). The complete mt genome sequence of the Huang Lang chicken provided an important data for further study on the genetic mechanism.

  11. Culturally capable and culturally safe: Caseload care for Indigenous women by Indigenous midwifery students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R; Gamble, J; Kelly, J; Milne, T; Duffy, E; Sidebotham, M

    2016-12-01

    Evidence is emerging of the benefits to students of providing continuity of midwifery care as a learning strategy in midwifery education, however little is known about the value of this strategy for midwifery students. To explore Indigenous students' perceptions of providing continuity of midwifery care to Indigenous women whilst undertaking a Bachelor of Midwifery. Indigenous Bachelor of Midwifery students' experiences of providing continuity of midwifery care to Indigenous childbearing women were explored within an Indigenous research approach using a narrative inquiry framework. Participants were three Indigenous midwifery students who provided continuity of care to Indigenous women. Three interconnected themes; facilitating connection, being connected, and journeying with the woman. These themes contribute to the overarching finding that the experience of providing continuity of care for Indigenous women creates a sense of personal affirmation, purpose and a validation of cultural identity in Indigenous students. Midwifery philosophy aligns strongly with the Indigenous health philosophy and this provides a learning platform for Indigenous student midwives. Privileging Indigenous culture within midwifery education programs assists students develop a sense of purpose and affirms them in their emerging professional role and within their community. The findings from this study illustrate the demand for, and pertinence of, continuity of care midwifery experiences with Indigenous women as fundamental to increasing the Indigenous midwifery workforce in Australia. Australian universities should provide this experience for Indigenous student midwives. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biculturalism among Indigenous College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Colton D.

    2011-01-01

    "Indigenous" college students in both Canada and the United States have the lowest rates of obtaining postsecondary degrees, and their postsecondary dropout rates are higher than for any other minority (Freeman & Fox, 2005; Mendelson, 2004; Reddy, 1993). There has been very little research done to uncover possible reasons for such…

  13. Indigenous agroforestry in American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malala (Mike) Misa; Agnes M. Vargo

    1993-01-01

    Agroforestry exists in American Samoa as a system where indigenous trees and natural vegetation used for food, fuelwood, crafts and medicine are incorporated with traditional staple crops and livestock on a set piece of land, usually a mountainous slope. Most agroforests are taro-based (Colocasia esculenta). While nutritional, cultural, social,...

  14. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indigenous Affairs, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the four English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs published in 2000 and four corresponding issues in Spanish. The Spanish issues contain all or some of the articles contained in the English issues plus additional articles on Latin America. These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and…

  15. Indigenous Affairs = Asuntos Indigenas, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indigenous Affairs, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This document contains the four English-language issues of Indigenous Affairs published in 2000 and four corresponding issues in Spanish. The Spanish issues contain all or some of the articles contained in the English issues plus additional articles on Latin America. These periodicals provide a resource on the history, current conditions, and…

  16. Rethinking resilience from indigenous perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Dandeneau, Stéphane; Marshall, Elizabeth; Phillips, Morgan Kahentonni; Williamson, Karla Jessen

    2011-02-01

    The notions of resilience that have emerged in developmental psychology and psychiatry in recent years require systematic rethinking to address the distinctive cultures, geographic and social settings, and histories of adversity of indigenous peoples. In Canada, the overriding social realities of indigenous peoples include their historical rootedness to a specific place (with traditional lands, communities, and transactions with the environment) and the profound displacements caused by colonization and subsequent loss of autonomy, political oppression, and bureaucratic control. We report observations from an ongoing collaborative project on resilience in Inuit, Métis, Mi'kmaq, and Mohawk communities that suggests the value of incorporating indigenous constructs in resilience research. These constructs are expressed through specific stories and metaphors grounded in local culture and language; however, they can be framed more generally in terms of processes that include: regulating emotion and supporting adaptation through relational, ecocentric, and cosmocentric concepts of self and personhood; revisioning collective history in ways that valorize collective identity; revitalizing language and culture as resources for narrative self-fashioning, social positioning, and healing; and renewing individual and collective agency through political activism, empowerment, and reconciliation. Each of these sources of resilience can be understood in dynamic terms as emerging from interactions between individuals, their communities, and the larger regional, national, and global systems that locate and sustain indigenous agency and identity. This social-ecological view of resilience has important implications for mental health promotion, policy, and clinical practice.

  17. Moving toward reconciliation in indigenous child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The Touchstones of Hope reconciliation movement consists of principles (culture and language, self-determination, structural interventions, non discrimination, and holistic approach) that guide a reconciliation process of truth-telling, acknowledging, restoring and relating to reshape indigenous child welfare led by indigenous peoples and supported by their non-indigenous counterparts. This article describes a reconciliation movement in Canada grounded in Touchstones of Hope principles, involving a reconciliation process between indigenous and non-indigenous individuals, which has enabled culturally relevant concepts of child welfare and plans for child safety to emerge.

  18. Specific learning processes and indigenous teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adir Casaro Nascimento

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous teacher formation and the issue of specific learning processes, as a right of the indigenous peoples derived from the 1988 Constitution, aim at the re-signification of pedagogical practices in specific socio-cultural contexts and at the visibility of indigenous education. Taking indigenous children as a reference, or rather, the agents that produce knowledge within the context of their particularities and territorialities, the essay points to the necessity of constructing new theoretical bases and a pedagogy that gives visibility to other local epistemic logics produced by “power coloniality”. They are different from the dominant Western logic in the process of training indigenous educators.

  19. Riemerella Anatipestifer Infection in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Li*, Y. Tang, J. Y. Gao, C. H. Huang1 and M. J. Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA is the causative agent of septicemic and exudative disease for a variety of bird species. Although RA had been isolated from chickens, whether can bring damages to them is not unrevealed yet. In this study, we report a flock of SanHuang chickens infected by RA with 15% morbidity and less than 8% mortality. The infection is further substantiated by case duplicate. The tested chickens demonstrate typical signs of pericarditis, air sacculitis and perihepatitis that are completely consistent with the field outbreak. The results suggest that RA is pathogenic to SanHuang chickens, which can then be theoretically and practicably incorporated into its infection spectrum.

  20. Winter habitat use and survival of lesser prairie-chickens in West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirius, Nicholas E.; Boal, Clint W.; Haukos, David A.; Wallace, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has experienced declines in population and occupied range since the late 1800s and is currently proposed for Federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. Populations and the distribution of lesser prairie-chickens in Texas, USA, are thought to be at or near all-time lows. Currently, there is a paucity of data on the wintering ecology of the species. We measured home range, habitat use, and survival of lesser prairie-chickens during the non-breeding seasons (1 Sep-28 Feb) of 2008-2009, 2009-2010, and 2010-2011 in sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii) landscapes in the West Texas panhandle region. Home range size did not differ among years or between females (503 ha) andmales (489 ha). Over 97% of locations of both male and female prairie-chickens were within 3.2 km of the lek of capture, and 99.9% were within 3.2 km of an available water source (i.e., livestock water tank). Habitat cover types were not used proportional to occurrence within the home ranges; grassland-dominated areas with co-occurring sand shinnery oak were used more than available, but sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia)-dominated areas with grassland and sand sagebrush-dominated areas with bare ground were both used less than available. Survival rates during the first 2 non-breeding seasons (>80%) were among the highest reported for the species. However, survival during the third non-breeding season was only 57%, resulting in a 3-year average of 72%. It does not appear that non-breeding season mortality is a strong limiting factor in lesser prairie-chicken persistence in the study area.

  1. Expression and Regulation of Cholecystokinin Receptor in the Chicken's Immune Organs and Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kassas, Seham; Odemuyiwa, Solomon; Hajishengallis, George; Connell, Terry D; Nashar, Toufic O

    2017-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a neuropeptide that affects growth rate in chickens by regulating appetite. CCK peptides exert their function by binding to two identified receptors, CCKAR and CCKBR in the GI tract and the brain, respectively, as well as in other organs. In mammals, CCK/CCKAR interactions affect a number of immunological parameters, including regulation of lymphocytes and functioning of monocytes. Thus, food intake and growth can potentially be altered by infection and the resulting inflammatory immune response. It is uncertain, however, whether chicken express CCKAR in immune organs and cells, and, if so, whether CCKAR expression is regulated by pathogen derived inflammatory stimuli. Herein, we identify expression of CCKAR protein in chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) including monocytes, and expression of the CCKAR gene in PBMC, thymus, bursa, and spleen, in selected commercial and pure chicken breeds. Further, stimulation with various types of E. coli heat-labile enterotoxins or lipopolysaccharide significantly regulated expression of CCKAR on monocytes in the different breeds. Ligation of CCKAR with antibodies in PBMC induced mobilization of Ca2+, indicating that CCKAR is signal competent. Injection with polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), a synthetic analogue of double stranded viral RNA that binds Toll-Like Receptor-3 (TLR3), also regulated gene expressions of CCKAR and proinflammatory cytokines, in the different breeds. Interestingly, variations in the expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the different breeds were highly correlated with CCKAR expression levels. Taken together, these findings indicate that the physiological function of CCKAR in the chicken is tightly regulated in immune organs and cells by external inflammatory stimuli, which in turn regulate growth. This is the first report CCKAR expression in immune organs and cells, in any species, and the initial observation that CCKAR is regulated by

  2. The development and characterization of a 60K SNP chip for chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vereijken Addie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In livestock species like the chicken, high throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping assays are increasingly being used for whole genome association studies and as a tool in breeding (referred to as genomic selection. To be of value in a wide variety of breeds and populations, the success rate of the SNP genotyping assay, the distribution of the SNP across the genome and the minor allele frequencies (MAF of the SNPs used are extremely important. Results We describe the design of a moderate density (60k Illumina SNP BeadChip in chicken consisting of SNPs known to be segregating at high to medium minor allele frequencies (MAF in the two major types of commercial chicken (broilers and layers. This was achieved by the identification of 352,303 SNPs with moderate to high MAF in 2 broilers and 2 layer lines using Illumina sequencing on reduced representation libraries. To further increase the utility of the chip, we also identified SNPs on sequences currently not covered by the chicken genome assembly (Gallus_gallus-2.1. This was achieved by 454 sequencing of the chicken genome at a depth of 12x and the identification of SNPs on 454-derived contigs not covered by the current chicken genome assembly. In total we added 790 SNPs that mapped to 454-derived contigs as well as 421 SNPs with a position on Chr_random of the current assembly. The SNP chip contains 57,636 SNPs of which 54,293 could be genotyped and were shown to be segregating in chicken populations. Our SNP identification procedure appeared to be highly reliable and the overall validation rate of the SNPs on the chip was 94%. We were able to map 328 SNPs derived from the 454 sequence contigs on the chicken genome. The majority of these SNPs map to chromosomes that are already represented in genome build Gallus_gallus-2.1.0. Twenty-eight SNPs were used to construct two new linkage groups most likely representing two micro-chromosomes not covered by the

  3. Effect of chronic heat exposure on fat deposition and meat quality in two genetic types of chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Q; Wen, J; Zhang, H

    2007-06-01

    The effects of chronic heat stress on growth, proportion of carcass and fat deposition, and meat quality were investigated in 2 genetic types of chickens. One hundred and eight 5-wk-old male chickens from a commercially fast-growing strain (Arbor Acres, AA) and a locally slow-growing species (Beijing You chicken, BJY) were kept in the following conditions: constant optimal ambient temperature at 21 degrees C and ad libitum feeding (21AL), constant high ambient temperature at 34 degrees C and ad libitum feeding (34AL), and constant optimal ambient temperature 21 degrees C and pair-fed to the 34AL chickens (21PF). The results showed that feed intakes were decreased by heat exposure in both type of chickens at 8 wk of age (Pchickens were not affected in hot condition. Abdominal fat deposition of BJY chickens was enhanced by heat exposure (Pheat-exposed and pair-fed chickens. Abdominal and intermuscular fat deposition in 34AL birds, however, were enhanced compared with 21PF birds (Pchickens were not affected by treatments. In AA birds, chronic heat stress increased L* values and drip loss compared with 21AL, but pH and shear force were not affected by treatments. The results from this study indicated that the impact of heat stress was breed dependent and that BJY chickens showed higher resistance to high ambient temperature, which could be related to their increased feed efficiency and deposition of abdominal fat under heat exposure.

  4. Identification and association of the single nucleotide polymorphisms in calpain3 (CAPN3 gene with carcass traits in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Hua-Rui

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to screen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP of chicken Calpain3 (CAPN3 gene and to analyze the potential association between CAPN3 gene polymorphisms and carcass traits in chickens. We screened CAPN3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in 307 meat-type quality chicken from 5 commercial pure lines (S01, S02, S03, S05, and D99 and 4 native breeds from Guangdong Province (Huiyang Huxu chicken and Qingyuan Ma chicken and Sichuan Province (Caoke chicken and Shandi Black-bone chicken, China. Results Two SNPs (11818T>A and 12814T>G were detected by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP method and were verified by DNA sequencing. Association analysis showed that the 12814T>G genotypes were significantly associated with body weight (BW, carcass weight (CW, breast muscle weight (BMW, and leg muscle weight (LMW. Haplotypes constructed on the two SNPs (H1, TG; H2, TT; H3, AG; and H4, AT were associated with BW, CW (P P Conclusion We speculated that the CAPN3 gene was a major gene affecting chicken muscle growth and carcass traits or it was linked with the major gene(s. Diplotypes H1H2 and H2H2 might be advantageous for carcass traits.

  5. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  6. Optimizing the use of breed types in developing country livestock production systems: a neglected research area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, K

    2014-10-01

    Developing country livestock production systems are diverse and dynamic, and include those where existing indigenous breeds are currently optimal and likely to remain so, those where non-indigenous breed types are already in common use, and systems that are changing, such as by intensification, where the introduction of new breed types represents significant opportunities. These include opportunities to improve the livelihood of the world's poor, increase food and nutrition security and enhance environmental sustainability. At present, very little research has focused on this issue, such that significant knowledge gaps in relation to breed-change interventions remain. The purpose of this study is to raise awareness of this issue and suggests strategic research areas to begin filling these knowledge gaps. Such strategic research would include (i) assessing the impact of differing breed types in developing country livestock productions systems, from a range of viewpoints including intrahousehold livelihood benefit, food and nutrition security at different scales, and environmental sustainability; (ii) identification of specific livestock production systems within developing countries, and the type of livestock keepers within these system, that are most likely to benefit from new breed types; and (iii) identification of new breed types as candidates for in-situ testing within these systems, such as through the use of spatial analysis to identify similar production environments combined with community acceptance studies. Results of these studies would primarily assist stakeholders in agriculture, including both policy makers and livestock keepers, to make informed decisions on the potential use of new breed types. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. The effects of polymorphisms in 7 candidate genes on resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis in native chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohidi, R; Idris, I B; Malar Panandam, J; Hair Bejo, M

    2013-04-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection is a common concern in poultry production for its negative effects on growth as well as food safety for humans. Identification of molecular markers that are linked to resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis may lead to appropriate solutions to control Salmonella infection in chickens. This study investigated the association of candidate genes with resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis in young chickens. Two native breeds of Malaysian chickens, namely, Village Chickens and Red Junglefowl, were evaluated for bacterial colonization after Salmonella Enteritidis inoculation. Seven candidate genes were selected on the basis of their physiological role in immune response, as determined by prior studies in other genetic lines: natural resistance-associated protein 1 (NRAMP1), transforming growth factor β3 (TGFβ3), transforming growth factor β4 (TGFβ4), inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (IAP1), caspase 1 (CASP1), lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α factor (LITAF), and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Polymerase chain reaction-RFLP was used to identify polymorphisms in the candidate genes; all genes exhibited polymorphisms in at least one breed. The NRAMP1-SacI polymorphism correlated with the differences in Salmonella Enteritidis load in the cecum (P = 0.002) and spleen (P = 0.01) of Village Chickens. Polymorphisms in the restriction sites of TGFβ3-BsrI, TGFβ4-MboII, and TRAIL-StyI were associated with Salmonella Enteritidis burden in the cecum, spleen, and liver of Village Chickens and Red Junglefowl (P Salmonella Enteritidis in native Malaysian chickens.

  8. Economic assessment of the performance of trypanotolerant cattle breeds in a pastoral production system in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.W. Maichomo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are the major source of food security and income for pastoral farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. However, infectious and parasitic diseases remain a major constraint to improved cattle productivity in the region. The use of animal health economics to support decision-making on cost-effective disease control options is increasingly becoming important in the developing world. Trypano-tolerant indigenous Orma / zebu cattle in a trypanosomosis-endemic area of Kenya were evaluated for economic performance using gross-margin analysis and partial-farm budgeting. Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu cross-bred cattle were exposed to similar husbandry practices and monitored for growth rate, incidence of common infections (trypanosomosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, East Coast Fever and helminthosis and the cost of treatment assessed. Interview questionnaires were also used to assess the preference rating of the 2 breeds. Results indicated that incidence of infection was trypanosomosis 3 %, anaplasmosis 58 %, babesiosis 11 %, East Coast Fever 22 % and helminthosis 28 %, with no significant difference between breeds. The Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu breeds had comparable economic benefits, hence a pastoralist in Magadi division is likely to get similar returns from both breeds. This study therefore recommends adoption of not only the Sahiwal / zebu but also the Orma / zebu breed for cattle improvement in trypanosomosis endemic areas and conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  9. Extraction of total RNA in the developing chicken forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Rasoul Zaker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gene expression of Gama-Aminobutyric acid (GABA A receptor subunits may change during development. Procedures in molecular biology are required to understand the gene expression profile GABA A R in chicken. The outcome of the results depends on good-quality high-molecular-weight RNA. Several procedures can be used to isolate RNA from the brain of chicken; however, most of them are time-consuming and require disruption of cells or freeze and thaw in the presence of RNase inhibitors. The aim of this experiment was isolation of RNA from chicken embryonic brain tissues using appropriate RNA extraction kit. Materials and Methods: Fertilized eggs from Ross breed (Gallus gallus were incubated at 38°C and 60% relative humidity in a forced-draft incubator and were turned every 3 h. After 3, 7, 14 and 20 days of incubation, eggs were cooled on ice to induce deep anesthesia. Then whole brains were dissected out. As brains could not be excised in a reproducible way from earlier embryos (embryonic days 4 and 6, whole heads were collected. Chicken embryos between day 7 to 20 and 1 day after birth were decapitated, and their brains removed. Samples were immediately inserted into lysis buffer and stored at −70°C. Total RNA was isolated and a contaminating genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA was digested. RNA quality was checked using gel electrophoresis. Results: We obtained 52 mg/ml to 745 mg/ml with A260/280 1.7-2.2. Only high-quality RNA, with no signs of degradation, was used for further experiments. Conclusion: In conclusion, protocol was found to be suitable for the isolation of total RNA from embryonic chicken cells.

  10. Genomic selection needs to be carefully assessed to meet specific requirements in livestock breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth eJonas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Genomic selection is a promising development in agriculture, aiming improved production by exploiting molecular genetic markers to design novel breeding programs and to develop new markers-based models for genetic evaluation. It opens opportunities for research, as novel algorithms and lab methodologies are developed. Genomic selection can be applied in many breeds and species. Further research on the implementation of genomic selection in breeding programs is highly desirable not only for the common good, but also the private sector (breeding companies. It has been projected that this approach will improve selection routines, especially in species with long reproduction cycles, late or sex-limited or expensive trait recording and for complex traits. The task of integrating genomic selection into existing breeding programs is, however, not straightforward. Despite successful integration into breeding programs for dairy cattle, it has yet to be shown how much emphasis can be given to the genomic information and how much additional phenotypic information is needed from new selection candidates. Genomic selection is already part of future planning in many breeding companies of pigs and beef cattle among others, but further research is needed to fully estimate how effective the use of genomic information will be for the prediction of the performance of future breeding stock. Genomic prediction of production in crossbreeding and across-breed schemes, costs and choice of individuals for genotyping are reasons for a reluctance to fully rely on genomic information for selection decisions. Breeding objectives are highly dependent on the industry and the additional gain when using genomic information has to be considered carefully. This review synthesizes some of the suggested approaches in selected livestock species including cattle, pig, chicken and fish. It outlines tasks to help understanding possible consequences when applying genomic information in

  11. A genome-wide scan of selective sweeps in two broiler chicken lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Shou-Zhi; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Da, Yang; Wang, Ning; Hu, Xiao-Xiang; Zhang, Yuan-Dan; Wang, Yu-Xiang; Leng, Li; Tang, Zhi-Quan; Li, Hui

    2012-12-15

    Genomic regions controlling abdominal fatness (AF) were studied in the Northeast Agricultural University broiler line divergently selected for AF. In this study, the chicken 60KSNP chip and extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) test were used to detect genome-wide signatures of AF. A total of 5357 and 5593 core regions were detected in the lean and fat lines, and 51 and 57 reached a significant level (Pchickens. We provide a genome-wide map of selection signatures in the chicken genome, and make a contribution to the better understanding the mechanisms of selection for AF content in chickens. The selection for low AF in commercial breeding using this information will accelerate the breeding progress.

  12. Correlation analysis of relationships between polymorphisms of high quality chicken myogenin gene and slaughter and meat quality traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong WANG; Chaowu YANG; Yiping LIU; Xiaosong JIANG; Huarui DU; Mohan QIU; Qing ZHU

    2008-01-01

    In this study, PCR-SSCP technique was de-signed to investigate the effect of the myogenin (MyoG) gene on quality of chicken meat (developed by Sichuan Dahen Poultry Breeding Company using local breeds). Four muta-tions at base position in the promoter region were detected among individuals in each line, i.e. T/C in locus A, and T/A, T/C and A/G in locus B. Least squares analysis showed that there was a significant difference between genotype and breast muscle percentage and some carcass traits (P0.05) was detected in the other traits. It was concluded that the MyoG gene is the major gene affecting the muscle fiber traits of chicken or it links with the candidate gene, and the mutation can be used as the molecular genetic marker to select the chickens for meat quality traits.

  13. Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Main ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 200 grams of gray sea cucumbers Supplementary ingredients: 100 grams of water chestnut, the whites of four eggs, MSG, salt, wine, meat soup, starch, sugar, scallions, ginger, soy sauce Directions: Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnut into small

  14. Survey of Salmonella serovars in broilers and laying breeding reproducers in East of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Ayachi; Alloui, Nadir; Bennoune, Omar; Kassah-Laouar, Ahmed

    2010-03-08

    Avian salmonellosis affects the poultry industry in underdeveloped and in developed countries. The aim of this study was to identify the most common Salmonella serovars in broilers and laying breeding reproducers in Eastern Algeria according to the ISO 6579 method. A total of 294 samples were obtained from two flocks of 10,000 broilers and laying breeding reproducers. Samples included livers and spleens, drag swabs of bottom boxes of young chickens, cloacal swabs, and faecal samples of chickens. Additional samples were also taken from water, feed and dusty surfaces. Only the cloacal swabs, poultry faeces and samples from dusty surfaces were positive for Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Livingstone with a detection rate of 12% and 1.6% respectively. The results showed evidence of legislative failure regarding biosafety within the poultry industry in the area of Batna, Eastern Algeria.

  15. Circle of Courage Infusion into the Alberta Indigenous Games 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Dawn Marie

    2011-01-01

    Thousands of indigenous people from across North America came to the Enoch Cree Nation for the Alberta Indigenous Games, six days of sport, education, and cultural awakening. The vision of the Alberta Indigenous Games is to recognize the value and potential of Indigenous culture and the young people. Activities include sports, indigenous arts,…

  16. Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nishath K Ganguli; Ivan R Kennedy

    2013-11-01

    Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with their indigenous actinorhizal plants have only a minor presence in Australia. Most Australian actinorhizal plants have their native range only in Australia, whereas two of these plants are also found indigenously elsewhere. The nitrogen-fixing ability of these plants varies between species. This ability needs to be investigated in some of these plants. Casuarinas form a distinctive but declining part of the Australian landscape. Their potential has rarely been applied in forestry in Australia despite their well-known uses, which are being judiciously exploited elsewhere. To remedy this oversight, a programme has been proposed for increasing and improving casuarinas that would aid in greening more regions of Australia, increasing the soil fertility and the area of wild life habitat (including endangered species). Whether these improved clones would be productive with local strains of Frankia or they need an external inoculum of Frankia should be determined and the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on these clones also should be investigated.

  17. Analysis of Gene Expression Responses to a Infection in Rugao Chicken Intestine Using GeneChips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Q. Luan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Poultry products are an important source of Salmonella enterica. An effective way to reduce food poisoning due to Salmonella would be to breed chickens more resistant to infection. Unfortunately host responses to Salmonella are complex with many factors involved. To learn more about responses to Salmonella in young chickens of 2 wk old, a cDNA Microarray containing 13,319 probes was performed to compare gene expression profiles between two chicken groups under control and Salmonella infected conditions. Newly hatched chickens were orally infected with S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. Since the intestine is one of the important barriers the bacteria encounter after oral inoculation, intestine gene expression was investigated at 2 wk old. There were 588 differentially expressed genes detected, of which 276 were known genes, and of the total number 266 were up-regulated and 322 were down-regulated. Differences in gene expression between the two chicken groups were found in control as well as Salmonella infected conditions indicating a difference in the intestine development between the two chicken groups which might be linked to the difference in Salmonella susceptibility. The differential expressions of 4 genes were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and the results indicated that the expression changes of these genes were generally consistent with the results of GeneChips. The findings in this study have lead to the identification of novel genes and possible cellular pathways, which are host dependent.

  18. Prolactin promoter gene as marker assisted selection (MAS for the control of broodiness of Kampung chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary research about MAS (Marker Assisted Selection was conducted to detect broodiness trait of Kampung chicken. MAS currently is very important in situations, where the accuracy of selection is low, such as, traits with low heritability, e.g. broodiness trait and egg production. Prolactin promoter was selected as a marker gene for broodiness because it plays a critical part in the neuroendocrine cascade which is triggered at the onset of broodiness. DNA samples were collected from low and highbroodiness samples on basic population (G0 each 24 samples, and from selected population (G3 each 28 samples. As control population without broody behavior was used 16 samples White Leghorn (WL chicken. Prolactin promoter gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. PCR product was analyzed using electrophoresis agarose gel 2%. The results showed four types of bands represent in the Kampung chicken, three types called as wild type band and one type as the WL band. The chickens with low and high broodiness on G0 generation have 75 and 87.5% of wild type band while in the G3 generation was decreased to 25 and 75%. Conclusions of the research indicated that the selected breed of the Kampung chicken on G3 generation increased WL band like White Leghorn chicken as much as 31,25% from the G0 generation.

  19. Molecular characterization of Saudi local chicken strains using mitochondrial DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, H A; Ramadan, H A I; Baeshen, Nabih A; Sadek, Mahmoud Abdel; Abou Alsoud, M E

    2015-08-01

    The current study was carried out to investigate and estimate the genetic diversity of native breeds based on cytochrome b (cyt-b) gene of mitochondrial DNA information. The obtained sequences of cyt-b gene segment have TAA as a stop codon at 488 position with no insertions or deletion in all individuals of both native chicken strains. The blast results showed that no variation was found among individuals within both native chicken strains, but when a comparison was established among them and other species of genus Gallus the variation is exploring, additionally many mutant sites were detected as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in different sites. The phylogenetic trees exhibited three different groups. The results revealed that the native chicken strains were closely related to the cluster of Gallus gallus and subspecies of Gallus, suggesting that they may be separated from the same origin. According to this result and previously studies, the native chicken strains are genetically closer to Gallus gallus and it could be successfully distinguished from the other wild types of Gallus chicken based on cyt-b gene information. We recommended that the governmental concerns for native chicken strain should be enhanced to screen its genetic structure for large scale in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  20. Identification and SNP association analysis of a novel gene in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xingxing; Kang, Xiangtao; Liu, Xiaojun; Jia, Lijuan; Li, Hong; Li, Zhuanjian; Jiang, Ruirui

    2016-02-01

    A novel gene that was predicted to encode a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) transcript was identified in a previous study that aimed to detect candidate genes related to growth rate differences between Chinese local breed Gushi chickens and Anka broilers. To characterise the biological function of the lncRNA, we cloned and sequenced the complete open reading frame of the gene. We performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to analyse the expression patterns of the lncRNA in different tissues of chicken at different development stages. The qPCR data showed that the novel lncRNA gene was expressed extensively, with the highest abundance in spleen and lung and the lowest abundance in pectoralis and leg muscle. Additionally, we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the 5'-end of the gene and studied the association between the SNP and chicken growth traits using data from an F2 resource population of Gushi chickens and Anka broilers. The association analysis showed that the SNP was significantly (P chickens at 1 day, 4 weeks and 6 weeks of age. We concluded that the novel lncRNA gene, which we designated pouBW1, may play an important role in regulating chicken growth.

  1. Indo-European and Asian origins for Chilean and Pacific chickens revealed by mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Jaime; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Mobegi, Victor A; Jianlin, Han; Alcalde, Jose A; Matus, Jose T; Hanotte, Olivier; Moran, Chris; Austin, Jeremy J; Ulm, Sean; Anderson, Atholl J; Larson, Greger; Cooper, Alan

    2008-07-29

    European chickens were introduced into the American continents by the Spanish after their arrival in the 15th century. However, there is ongoing debate as to the presence of pre-Columbian chickens among Amerindians in South America, particularly in relation to Chilean breeds such as the Araucana and Passion Fowl. To understand the origin of these populations, we have generated partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 41 native Chilean specimens and compared them with a previously generated database of approximately 1,000 domestic chicken sequences from across the world as well as published Chilean and Polynesian ancient DNA sequences. The modern Chilean sequences cluster closely with haplotypes predominantly distributed among European, Indian subcontinental, and Southeast Asian chickens, consistent with a European genetic origin. A published, apparently pre-Columbian, Chilean specimen and six pre-European Polynesian specimens also cluster with the same European/Indian subcontinental/Southeast Asian sequences, providing no support for a Polynesian introduction of chickens to South America. In contrast, sequences from two archaeological sites on Easter Island group with an uncommon haplogroup from Indonesia, Japan, and the Philippines [corrected] and may represent a genetic signature of an early Polynesian dispersal. Modeling of the potential marine carbon contribution to the Chilean archaeological specimen casts further doubt on claims for pre-Columbian chickens, and definitive proof will require further analyses of ancient DNA sequences and radiocarbon and stable isotope data from archaeological excavations within both Chile and Polynesia.

  2. Responding to Indigenous Australian Sexual Assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janya McCalman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians experience a high prevalence of sexual assault, yet a regional sexual assault service found few Indigenous Australians accessed their services. This prompted exploration of how its services might be improved. A resultant systematic search of the literature is reported in this article. Seven electronic databases and seven websites were systematically searched for peer reviewed and gray literature documenting responses to the sexual assault of Indigenous Australians. These publications were then classified by response type and study type. Twenty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. They included studies of legal justice, media, and community-based and mainstream service responses for Indigenous survivors and perpetrators. We located program descriptions, measurement, and descriptive research, but no intervention studies. There is currently insufficient evidence to confidently prescribe what works to effectively respond to Indigenous Australian sexual assault. The study revealed an urgent need for researchers, Indigenous communities, and services to work together to develop the evidence base.

  3. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term...

  4. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken...

  5. Content of macroelements in the blood serum of polbar chicken depending on sex and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Gryzińska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on chickens protected genetic resources polbar breed. In each case from 100 birds (50 hen and 50 cockerels being in 8-, 12-, and 18-weeks of age blood was collected to determine the content of minerals (Ca, Na, K and Mg in the blood plasma. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of gender and age of polbar breed on the level of calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium in the blood serum. The concentration of each macronutrient was varied in different age groups. Higher average concentration of calcium, magnesium and sodium in three test periods were obtained for the cocks, while for hens higher concentrations of potassium were recorded. For each of the elements studied, there was no statistically significant difference between hens and cocks. The results of the mineral content in the plasma of consolidated genetically breed can be used for comparison to other poultry breeds.

  6. Beyond breeding area management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lykke; Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P.

    Every year, billions of songbirds migrate thousands of kilometres between their European breeding grounds and African overwintering area. As migratory birds are dependent on resources at a number of sites varying in both space and time, they are likely to be more vulnerable to environmental change...... technological advances are currently enabling us to track yet smaller songbirds throughout their migration cycle providing valuable insight into the life cycle of individual birds. However, direct tracking of migratory birds has so far mainly been conducted on single populations and our understanding of entire...... and provide important information for conservation management of migratory birds....

  7. Breeding tropical forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Jank

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has the largest commercial beef cattle herd and is the main beef exporter in the world. Cultivated pastures arethe basis for the Brazilian beef production, and occupy an area of 101.4 million hectares. However, very few forage cultivars arecommercially available, and the majority of these are of apomictic reproduction, thus genetically homogeneous. Tropical foragebreeding is at its infancy, but much investment and efforts have been applied in the last three decades and some new cultivars havebeen released. In this paper, origin of different species, modes of reproduction, breeding programs and targets are discussed andthe resulting new cultivars released are presented.

  8. Emerging Ideas for Innovation in Indigenous Education: A Research Synthesis of Indigenous Educative Roles in Mainstream and Flexi Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Marnee

    2017-01-01

    The Indigenous education agenda in Australia remains focused on mainstream schooling contexts. Although overlooked in Indigenous education discourse, flexi schools appear to be engaging with disproportionately high numbers of Indigenous students and staff. The educative roles of Indigenous peoples in broader Indigenous education discourse are…

  9. Taiwanese Indigenous Knowledge Categories and Their Distribution: A Survey of Indigenous Publications

    OpenAIRE

    Gu-Le-Le Lu; Mei-Mei Wu

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, indigenous knowledge has received significant attention in Taiwan. Yet, due to the lack of a clear definition and framework of indigenous knowledge, government ministries and social organizations at all levels face enormous challenges in legislation and policymaking concerning indigenous knowledge preservation, organization, and transmission. This research intends to analyze the scope of published indigenous knowledge contents in Taiwan. By taking a qualitative ap...

  10. Indigenous Law and Identity Politics in Mexico: Indigenous Men's and Women's Struggles for a Multicultural Nation

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Castillo, Rosalva Aída

    2002-01-01

    The author approaches the debate on multiculturalism in Mexico emphasizing the tensions that exist among gendered perspectives on identity politics within the indigenous movement and also among Mexican intellectuals. It demonstrates how Indigenous women have played a very important role in confronting the uses of a discourse about indigenous women's rights as arguments against indigenous cultural rights and shows how they are not intrinsically opposed to each other. Their conception of multic...

  11. Potential for using indigenous pigs in subsistence-oriented and market-oriented small-scale farming systems of Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzimure, James; Chimonyo, Michael; Zander, Kerstin K; Dzama, Kennedy

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous pigs in South Africa are a source of food and economic autonomy for people in rural small-scale farming systems. The objective of the study was to assess the potential of indigenous pigs for improving communal farmer's livelihoods and to inform policy-makers about the conservation of indigenous pigs. Data were collected from 186 small-scale subsistence-oriented households and 102 small-scale market-oriented households using interviews and direct observations. Ninety-three percent of subsistence-oriented and 82 % of market-oriented households kept indigenous pigs such as Windsnyer, Kolbroek and non-descript crosses with exotic pigs mainly for selling, consumption and investment. Farmers in both production systems named diseases and parasites, followed by feed shortages, inbreeding and abortions as major constraints for pig production. Diseases and parasites were more likely to be a constraint to pig production in subsistence-oriented systems, for households where the head was not staying at home and for older farmers. Market-oriented farmers ranked productive traits such as fast growth rate, good meat quality and decent litter size as most important selection criteria for pig breeding stock, while subsistence-oriented farmers ranked good meat quality first, followed by decent growth rate and by low feed costs. We conclude that there is high potential for using indigenous pigs in subsistence-oriented production systems and for crossbreeding of indigenous pigs with imported breeds in market-oriented systems.

  12. Plant Provocations: Botanical Indigeneity and (Decolonial Imaginations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendran Kumarakulasingam

    Full Text Available Abstract Abstract: This paper examines the possibilities and limitations of an emergent global discourse of indigeneity to offer an oppositional praxis in the face of the depredations of settler colonialism in post-apartheid South Africa. Self-conscious articulations of indigeneity, we argue, reveal the fraught relationship between increasingly hegemonic and narrow understandings of the indigenous and the carceral logic of apartheid. We examine this by focusing on the meanings and attachments forged through indigenous plants in two realms: the world of indigenous gardening practised by white suburban dwellers and that of subsistence farming undertaken by rural black women. This juxtaposition reveals that in contrast to the pervasive resurrection of colonial time that defines metropolitan indigenous gardening, the social relations of a subsistence cultivator challenge the confines of colonial temporality, revealing a creative mode of dissent structured around dreams, ancestral knowledge, and the commons. Our exploration of struggles around botanical indigeneity suggests that anticolonial modes of indigeneity do not necessarily inhere in recognisable forms and that studies of the indigenous need to proceed beyond those that bear familial resemblance to emergent global understandings.

  13. THE INDIGENOUS GROUPS AND THE BRAZILIAN SWEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mártin César Tempass

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the books of Gilberto Freyre and Câmara Cascudo, that influencied so much the literature about brazilian alimentation, the participation of indigenous groups in the national sweets formation process is negligencied. However, is possible to find in book´s “interlineations” of these two authors valuables informations about indigenous contributions to this process. Starting from these two authors and based in the culinary system notion, this paper quests to situate the role of indigenous groups in the brazilian sweets formation and numbers the possibles causes to invisibility of sweets by indigenous at the culinary formation process.

  14. Preparing to Be Allies: Narratives of Non-Indigenous Researchers Working in Indigenous Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophey, Alison; Raptis, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Insensitive research approaches have resulted in damaged relationships between non-Indigenous researchers and Indigenous communities, prompting scholars and funding agencies to call for more culturally compatible research methods. This paper addresses the qualities, skills and knowledge developed by six non-Indigenous researchers as they…

  15. The Impact of Professional Development and Indigenous Education Officers on Australian Teachers' Indigenous Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Han, Feifei

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the impact of professional development (PD) in Indigenous teaching on teachers' psychological and behavioural aspects, and Indigenous students' learning engagement. Adopting a multiple-indicator-multiple-indicator-cause model, frequency of PD was found to have positive paths to teachers' self-concept in Indigenous teaching…

  16. Motivation Matters: Profiling Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Students' Motivational Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magson, Natasha R.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Nelson, Genevieve F.; Yeung, Alexander S.; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian H.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    This research explored gender and cross-cultural similarities and differences in the motivational profiles of Indigenous Papua New Guinean (PNG) and Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Secondary students (N = 1,792) completed self-report motivational measures. Invariance testing demonstrated that the Inventory of School Motivation…

  17. Genomic variability in Mexican chicken population using Copy Number Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Gorla

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Copy number variants (CNVs are polymorphisms which influence phenotypic variation and are an important source of genetic variability [1]. In Mexico the backyard poultry population is a unique widespread Creole chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus population, an undefined cross among different breeds brought to Mexico from Europe and under natural selection for almost 500 years [2-3]. The aim of this study was to investigate genomic variation in the Mexican chicken population using CNVs. A total of 256 DNA samples genotyped with Axiom® Genome-Wide Chicken Genotyping Array were used in the analyses. The individual CNV calling, based on log-R ratio and B-allele frequency values, was performed using the Hidden Markov Model (HMM of PennCNV software on the autosomes [4-5]. CNVs were summarized to CNV regions (CNVRs at a population level (i.e. overlapping CNVs, using BEDTools. The HMM detected a total of 1924 CNVs in the genome of 256 samples resulting, at population level, in 1216 CNV regions, of which 959 gains, 226 losses and 31 complex CNVRs (i.e. containing both losses and gains, covering a total of 47 Mb of sequence length corresponding to 5,12 % of the chicken galGal4 assembly autosome. A comparison among this study and 7 previous reports about CNVs in chicken was performed, finding that the 1,216 CNVRs detected in this study overlap with 617 regions (51% mapped by others studies.   This study allowed a deep insight into the structural variation in the genome of unselected Mexican chicken population, which up to now has not been never genetically characterized with SNP markers. Based on a cluster analysis (pvclust – R package on CNV markers the population, even if presenting extreme morphological variation, does not resulted divided in differentiated genetic subpopulations. Finally this study provides a CNV map based on the 600K SNP chip array jointly with a genome-wide gene copy number estimates in Mexican chicken population.

  18. Radiation mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.

  19. Genetic polymorphisms of the AMPD1 gene and their correlations with IMP contents in Fast Partridge and Lingshan chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jin; Yu, Ping; Ding, Xiaoling; Xu, Minglong; Guo, Baoping; Xu, Yinxue

    2015-12-15

    The object of this study was to evaluate associations between the adenosine monophosphate deaminase 1 (AMPD1) gene polymorphisms and inosine monophosphate acid (IMP) contents of chicken to provide a molecular marker for breeding. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), g.4064G/A, g.5573A/G and g.6805G/A were detected in exons IV, VI, and VIII of the AMPD1 gene in Fast Partridge and Lingshan chickens, respectively. All were purine conversion and caused no alteration in amino acid sequence. Statistical analysis revealed that Lingshan chicken with the homozygous genotype AA at position 4064 and 6805 had a significantly greater IMP content than those with the GG genotype (Pchicken with the genotype GG at position 6805 had a significantly greater IMP content compared with those with the AA genotype (Pchickens. The results in our study suggest that SNP 6805A/G can be used as a possible candidate marker of IMP content of chicken.

  20. The Nature of Indigenized Englishes: Interference--Creativity--Universals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, John

    1989-01-01

    Examines the concept of indigenized Englishes and compares them with pidgins and creoles, focusing on attitudes about indigenized English, creative aspects of indigenized English, substratum influences, and universals. (Author/CB)

  1. CONTRIBUTIONS TO KNOWING THE SEGMENTED MESODERM DEVELOPMENT IN TRANSYLVANIAN NAKED NECK BREED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. DRONCA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the Transylvanian Naked Neck hen breed is considered to be an “endangered” population, reason for which we consider that a special attention should have been given then until now. Plymouth Rock breed was imported for the first time to Romania from the Studler Company, France in 1969. The present work is aiming to study profoundly the development model for development at 26, 30, 40, 50 and 60 hours incubation age, in Transylvanian Naked Neck hen breed and compare it to Plymouth Rock breed. The observations are proving that in the first 60 incubation hours the segmented mesoderm morphogenesis in the two breed, is different, dictated by the two different genetic structures. It is noticeable that Transylvanian Naked Neck is characterized by a vigorous embryonic development, overcoming, the other breed tested by the age of 40 incubation hours. We estimate that the two breeds have a good combinative capacity, which recommend the utilization of these genetic materials to obtain hybrids for producing “peasant-type” chicken meat, very well-appreciated by the Europeans between the two World Wars.

  2. Comparison the physicochemical quality indicators of Musculus Longissimus Dorsi from Mangalitsa Breed and their crossbreeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej Debreceni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a current trend in the market of pork to create products based on traditional, regional specialities, where is used technology such as drying, smoking and fermentation of products. These products require a specific quality of meat from pure-bred indigenous breeds or their crossbreeds with emphasis on dry matter content, intramuscular fat content in meat and fatty acid composition with higher share of unsaturated fatty acids and essential fatty acids. Due to this fact, indigenous breed such as the Mangalitsa has received attention from the aspect of high meat quality and meat products compared to pig meat breeds. The aim of study was to compare the meat quality of Musculus longissimus dorsi from Mangalitsa breed, the crossbreeds Mangalitsa x Duroc and the pig meat breed Slovak Large White. The experimental material comprised of 28 pcs of pigs, which were reared in the same intensive conditions and they were fed ad libitum by complete feed mixtures for fatteners. The fattening period lasted from 30 kg to 100 kg of body weight. In the presented study was found that the crossbreeds Mangalitsa x Duroc had lighter colour of meat and the Mangalitsa had darker colour than Slovak Large White (P < 0.01. From the point of texture of meat, it was found stiffer meat from Slovak Large White and more tender meat from crossbreeds Mangalitsa x Duroc compared to meat of Mangalitsa (P < 0.01. The crossbreeds Mangalitsa x Duroc had the highest intramuscular fat content and cholesterol content in meat (P < 0.01. The intramuscular fat content and cholesterol content was the lowest in Slovak Large White (P < 0.01. The results indicate that utilization of Mangalitsa breed for crossing with pig meat breeds can improve quality meat traits in their crossbreeds, which are requiring for production of special meat products.

  3. Conservation and Improvement Strategy for Fogera Cattle: A Lesson for Ethiopia Ingenious Cattle Breed Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assemu Tesfa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is initiated to design appropriate conservation strategies and breeding scheme for Fogera cattle breed that will be used as a guide for other Ethiopian indigenous cattle breed. Two types of data, on-farm and on-station, were used; the on-farm data was collected from three districts, namely, Fogera, Dera, and Bahir Dar Zuria; those are expected as the home of the breed. A total of 150 farmers, which are knowledgeable and having at least one cattle of Fogera phenotype in their herd, were purposively selected and interviewed. Additionally, farmer’s focus group discussion (FGD was conducted to capture the historical background, population, and distribution of the breed. SPSS (version 16 and index method was used to analyze the quantitative and scoring data’s, respectively. A meeting at national and regional level was also conducted to evaluate the existing conservation strategy and to identify the major stakeholders for the strategy. The main reasons to conserve Fogera breed are due to presence of interrelated constraints, presence of unique traits of the breed, better attitude of farmers, and decreasing population trend of the breed. Community-based in situ conservation strategy, to ensure the participation of the community, was designed for the breed. With the conservation strategy, related activities like feed development, animal health interventions, market linkage, and development of cooperatives will be implemented to improve the working environment. The stakeholders that are identified as an actor in the strategy should realize their honest participation for the sustainability of conservation and improvement of the breed.

  4. Population genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population size of conserved and extensively raised village chicken populations of Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanyile, Khulekani S; Dzomba, Edgar F; Muchadeyi, Farai C

    2015-01-01

    Extensively raised village chickens are considered a valuable source of biodiversity, with genetic variability developed over thousands of years that ought to be characterized and utilized. Surveys that can reveal a population's genetic structure and provide an insight into its demographic history will give valuable information that can be used to manage and conserve important indigenous animal genetic resources. This study reports population diversity and structure, linkage disequilibrium and effective population sizes of Southern African village chickens and conservation flocks from South Africa. DNA samples from 312 chickens from South African village and conservation flocks (n = 146), Malawi (n = 30) and Zimbabwe (n = 136) were genotyped using the Illumina iSelect chicken SNP60K BeadChip. Population genetic structure analysis distinguished the four conservation flocks from the village chicken populations. Of the four flocks, the Ovambo clustered closer to the village chickens particularly those sampled from South Africa. Clustering of the village chickens followed a geographic gradient whereby South African chickens were closer to those from Zimbabwe than to chickens from Malawi. Different conservation flocks seemed to have maintained different components of the ancestral genomes with a higher proportion of village chicken diversity found in the Ovambo population. Overall population LD averaged over chromosomes ranged from 0.03 ± 0.07 to 0.58 ± 0.41 and averaged 0.15 ± 0.16. Higher LD, ranging from 0.29 to 0.36, was observed between SNP markers that were less than 10 kb apart in the conservation flocks. LD in the conservation flocks steadily decreased to 0.15 (PK) and 0.24 (VD) at SNP marker interval of 500 kb. Genomewide LD decay in the village chickens from Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa followed a similar trend as the conservation flocks although the mean LD values for the investigated SNP intervals were lower. The results suggest low effective

  5. Comparative study of growth traits and haematological parameters of Anak and Nigerian heavy ecotype chickens fed with graded levels of mango seed kernel (Mangifera indica) meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbunwen, Ndofor-Foleng Harriet; Ngongeh, Lucas Atehmengo; Okolie, Peter Nzeribe; Okoli, Emeka Linus

    2015-08-01

    One hundred fifty Anak and 120 Nigerian heavy local ecotype (NHLE) chickens were used to study the effects of feeding graded levels of mango seed kernel meal (MKM) replacing maize diet on growth traits and haematological parameters. A 2 × 5 factorial arrangement was employed: two breeds and five diets. The birds were randomly allocated to five finisher diets formulated such that MKM replaced maize at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5) inclusion levels, respectively. The effect of breed and dietary treatments on growth performance and blood characteristics were determined. The results showed a significant (P  0.05) when the breeds and treatments were compared. It was concluded that inclusion of dietary MKM below 30% could replace maize in the diets of Anak and NHLE growing chickens without adverse effect on growth performance and blood constituents. This work suggests that genetic differences exist in growth traits of these breeds of chickens. This advantage could be useful in breed improvement programmes and better feeding managements of the NHLE and Anak chickens.

  6. Chicken and Fish Maw Gruel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Mince the chicken breast, add egg white and chicken broth, and cook until the mixture thickens.Slice the soaked fish maw, and cleanse in lukewarm water. Slice the cooked ham and then shred. Put green soya beans in a wok and scald. Rinse in cold water to retain the original color.Heat some lard in a wok, add spring onion sections, stir-fry until their fragrance exudes, and remove the onion. Add chicken broth, salt, the Shaoxing wine, spring onion and ginger mixture, and fish maw slices. Bring to the boil, turn down the heat

  7. Recognizing appropriate representation of indigenous knowledge in design practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelly, Meghan; Kennedy, Russell

    2016-01-01

    ... of indigenous culture. Incorporating indigenous symbols into visual communication design strategies impacts a wide range of stakeholders and therefore requires a sensitive approach with broad consultation in regard...

  8. Cloning and tissue expression characterization of the chicken APOB gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sen; Shi, Hui; Li, Hui

    2007-01-01

    Apolipoprotein B (APOB) serves an essential role in the assembly and secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and lipids transport. This study was designed to clone the full-length cDNA of the chicken APOB gene, to characterize the expression profile, and investigate the differential expression between layer and broiler of the chicken APOB gene. The full-length cDNA sequence (14,150-bp) that contained a 13,896-bp ORF encoding 4,631 amino acids was obtained by RT-PCR, RACE, and bioinformatics analysis. qReal-Time PCR analysis showed that the chicken APOB gene was highly expressed in kidney, liver, and intestine. The results of differential expression showed that the APOB gene was more highly expressed in intestine and kidney in Bai'er layer than in broiler, but there was no significant difference in liver between the two breeds. The results of this study provided basic molecular information for studying the role of APOB in the energy transportation in avian species.

  9. Early feeding to modify digestive enzyme activity in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagro León T.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect on digestive enzyme activity in broiler chickens by providing food in the first 48 hrs. after birth. Materials and methods. After incubating 300 fertile eggs from Hubbard breeding and immediately after hatching, the chicks were randomly assigned to treatments: fasting (from hatching to 48 hrs.; Hydrated Balanced Food (HBF from birth to 48 hrs.; commercial hydrating supplement (CHS from birth to 48 hrs. The diets were provided ad libitum. After 48 hrs. a commercial diet was fed. At birth and at 48 and 72 hrs. of age 30 chicks/treatment were sacrificed to determine the enzyme activity of maltase, sucrase, alkaline phosphatase, phytase, a-amylase, trypsin and lipase in samples of duodenal or pancreatic homogenate. Results. The supply of HBF or CHS during the first 48 hrs. of life increased the activity of maltase, sucrase and phytase in the first 3 days of life, with values between 1.2 and up to 4-fold compared to the control (p<0.05. Chickens that fasted for the first 48 hrs. had higher activity of the pancreatic enzymes a-amylase, trypsin, and lipase at 72 hrs. of life (p<0.05. Conclusions. The food supply in the first 48 hrs. after hatching increases the duodenal enzyme activity in the intestinal brush border during the first 3 days of age in broiler chickens.

  10. Site-Directed Genome Knockout in Chicken Cell Line and Embryos Can Use CRISPR/Cas Gene Editing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qisheng Zuo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study established an efficient genome editing approach for the construction of stable transgenic cell lines of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus. Our objectives were to facilitate the breeding of high-yield, high-quality chicken strains, and to investigate gene function in chicken stem cells. Three guide RNA (gRNAs were designed to knockout the C2EIP gene, and knockout efficiency was evaluated in DF-1 chicken fibroblasts and chicken ESCs using the luciferase single-strand annealing (SSA recombination assay, T7 endonuclease I (T7EI assay, and TA clone sequencing. In addition, the polyethylenimine-encapsulated Cas9/gRNA plasmid was injected into fresh fertilized eggs. At 4.5 d later, frozen sections of the embryos were prepared, and knockout efficiency was evaluated by the T7EI assay. SSA assay results showed that luciferase activity of the vector expressing gRNA-3 was double that of the control. Results of the T7EI assay and TA clone sequencing indicated that Cas9/gRNA vector-mediated gene knockdown efficiency was approximately 27% in both DF-1 cells and ESCs. The CRISPR/Cas9 vector was also expressed in chicken embryos, resulting in gene knockdown in three of the 20 embryos (gene knockdown efficiency 15%. Taken together, our results indicate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can mediate stable gene knockdown at the cell and embryo levels in domestic chickens.

  11. Next generation breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabaschi, Delfina; Tondelli, Alessandro; Desiderio, Francesca; Volante, Andrea; Vaccino, Patrizia; Valè, Giampiero; Cattivelli, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    The genomic revolution of the past decade has greatly improved our understanding of the genetic make-up of living organisms. The sequencing of crop genomes has completely changed our vision and interpretation of genome organization and evolution. Re-sequencing allows the identification of an unlimited number of markers as well as the analysis of germplasm allelic diversity based on allele mining approaches. High throughput marker technologies coupled with advanced phenotyping platforms provide new opportunities for discovering marker-trait associations which can sustain genomic-assisted breeding. The availability of genome sequencing information is enabling genome editing (site-specific mutagenesis), to obtain gene sequences desired by breeders. This review illustrates how next generation sequencing-derived information can be used to tailor genomic tools for different breeders' needs to revolutionize crop improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence and Characteristics of Salmonella Isolated from Free-Range Chickens in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaonan; Gao, Yanxia; Ye, Chaoqun; Yang, Lingling; Wang, Tao; Chang, Weishan

    2016-01-01

    Compared with chickens raised in intensively managed breeding farms, free-range chickens in China are quite popular due to lower breeding density and less antibiotics usage. However, investigations about Salmonella enterica from free-range chickens are quite rare. The aim of the present study was to investigate prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella in free-range chickens in Shandong province, China. During the period of August and November 2015, 300 fresh fecal swabs from different broilers in three free-range chicken farms (100 samples per farm) were collected to isolate Salmonella, and then these isolates were subjected to serotyping, antibiotic sensitivity testing, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR), and multilocus sequence typing (ST). A total of 38 Salmonella isolates (38/300, 12.7%) were recovered. The most common serotype was Enteritidis (81.6%), followed by Indiana (13.2%) and Typhimurium (5.3%). Twenty-two out of 38 isolates (57.9%) were resistant to ampicillin, the highest resistance rate, but resistance rates to cefazolin, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime were only 7.9%. The multidrug resistance (MDR) rate was 26.3%. Additionally, the Salmonella isolates could be classified into 25 genotypes by ERIC-PCR and were divided into three ST types (ST11, ST17, and ST19), with ST11 the highest isolation rate (81.6%). In summary, as with other poultry, free-ranging chickens may also serve as potential reservoir for antibiotic resistant Salmonella, thereby posing a threat to public health.

  13. Prevalence and Characteristics of Salmonella Isolated from Free-Range Chickens in Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with chickens raised in intensively managed breeding farms, free-range chickens in China are quite popular due to lower breeding density and less antibiotics usage. However, investigations about Salmonella enterica from free-range chickens are quite rare. The aim of the present study was to investigate prevalence and characteristics of Salmonella in free-range chickens in Shandong province, China. During the period of August and November 2015, 300 fresh fecal swabs from different broilers in three free-range chicken farms (100 samples per farm were collected to isolate Salmonella, and then these isolates were subjected to serotyping, antibiotic sensitivity testing, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR, and multilocus sequence typing (ST. A total of 38 Salmonella isolates (38/300, 12.7% were recovered. The most common serotype was Enteritidis (81.6%, followed by Indiana (13.2% and Typhimurium (5.3%. Twenty-two out of 38 isolates (57.9% were resistant to ampicillin, the highest resistance rate, but resistance rates to cefazolin, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime were only 7.9%. The multidrug resistance (MDR rate was 26.3%. Additionally, the Salmonella isolates could be classified into 25 genotypes by ERIC-PCR and were divided into three ST types (ST11, ST17, and ST19, with ST11 the highest isolation rate (81.6%. In summary, as with other poultry, free-ranging chickens may also serve as potential reservoir for antibiotic resistant Salmonella, thereby posing a threat to public health.

  14. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  15. Differential gene expression of phosphoglyceric kinase (PGK) and hypoxic adaptation in chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG CunFang; YUAN CunZhong; ZHANG Lao; WU ChangXin; LI Ning

    2007-01-01

    Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the Phosphoglyceric Kinase (PGK) gene were discovered based on comparison of the sequences from an altiplano chicken breed (Tibetan chicken) and two lowland breeds (White Leghorn and Shouguang chicken). Gel-shift results indicate that one of these SNPs, an A→G mutation at position 59 in exon10, is able to bind hypoxia-induced factor-I (HIF-1),functioning as a hypoxia response element (HRE). The mutant gene results in M→T mutation at position 379 amino acid. The combined activity of this HRE and HIF-1 could increase correspondingly under a hypoxic stimulus. Hypoxia leads to increased death rates of chicken embryos; while the M→T mutation described herein is prevalent in healthy embryos grown under hypoxic conditions, thus it may represent an adaptation to hypoxia. Fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription PCR results revealed that HIF-1 upregulates the transcript level of the glycolytic enzyme PGK in the brain and skeletal muscle of animals subjected to hypoxia. Thus, a large amount of ATP is produced by increased glycolysis,allowing the organism to meet energy metabolism demands. As such, we believe this SNP to be an adaptation to the external anoxic environment.

  16. Differential gene expression of phosphoglyceric kinase (PGK) and hypoxic adaptation in chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the Phosphoglyceric Kinase (PGK) gene were discov- ered based on comparison of the sequences from an altiplano chicken breed (Tibetan chicken) and two lowland breeds (White Leghorn and Shouguang chicken). Gel-shift results indicate that one of these SNPs, an A→G mutation at position 59 in exon10, is able to bind hypoxia-induced factor-l (HIF-1), functioning as a hypoxia response element (HRE). The mutant gene results in M→T mutation at position 379 amino acid. The combined activity of this HRE and HIF-1 could increase correspondingly under a hypoxic stimulus. Hypoxia leads to increased death rates of chicken embryos; while the M→T mutation described herein is prevalent in healthy embryos grown under hypoxic conditions, thus it may repre- sent an adaptation to hypoxia. Fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription PCR results revealed that HIF-1 upregulates the transcript level of the glycolytic enzyme PGK in the brain and skeletal mus- cle of animals subjected to hypoxia. Thus, a large amount of ATP is produced by increased glycolysis, allowing the organism to meet energy metabolism demands. As such, we believe this SNP to be an adaptation to the external anoxic environment.

  17. Towards a critique of indigenous African religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Strijdom

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is argued that a postcolonial critique of the colonial study of religion should not preclude a critique of indigenous African religion itself. The latter may be developed from a human rights perspective and a critique of exclusionary views of indigeneity. The argument is illustrated by means of specific case studies.

  18. Including People with Disabilities: An Indigenous Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan-Brown, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Being victims of racial prejudice, religious intolerance, poverty, disempowerment and language loss it could be expected that indigenous people would be supportive of the Inclusion Movement with its philosophy of valuing and acceptance of all people. This supposition is examined for Maori, the indigenous people of Aotearoa/New Zealand. In…

  19. Bilingual Discourse Markers in Indigenous Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lourdes

    2006-01-01

    This review of research considers the occurrence and function of Spanish discourse markers and other particles in indigenous speech. I discuss important research that has examined these phenomena and refer to studies of bilingual discourse markers in other non-indigenous language contact situations to address unresolved issues concerning the form…

  20. Indigenous Rights and Schooling in Highland Chiapas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Margaret Freedson; Perez, Elias Perez

    1998-01-01

    Educational reforms in Mexico to preserve indigenous linguistic and cultural rights often originate in Mexico City and lack grassroots support. Although native language instruction improves literacy development and preserves culture, Native parents may reject it because Spanish is the language of status. However, some indigenous communities in…

  1. Positive Educational Responses to Indigenous Student Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Angela; Lynch, Andrea; Dalley-Trim, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    Engaging positively with the mobility of Indigenous students has been the centre of a 5-year action research project in Queensland, Australia. Drawing on responses developed for other marginalised mobile populations, and with consideration for the extent of mobility amongst many Indigenous people in Australia, this paper focuses on the…

  2. Gambling: A Poison Chalice for Indigenous Peoples'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyall, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous populations are now being encouraged to be involved in the business of gambling as an operator or if not given that status, are actively encouraged to participate in gambling activities. Research both published and unpublished show that different indigenous populations often have a higher prevalence of problem and pathological gambling…

  3. Indigenous Students in the Tertiary Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandias, Susan; Fuller, Don; Larkin, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Important recent objectives of indigenous education policy in Australia have been aimed at redressing indigenous economic and social disadvantage through increasing student retention, progression and completion rates in both compulsory and post-compulsory education. The two sectors of the tertiary education system, vocational education and…

  4. Performance in Basic Mathematics of Indigenous Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicat, Lolita V.; David, Ma. Elena D.

    2016-01-01

    This analytical study analyzed the performance in Basic Mathematics of the indigenous students, the Aeta students (Grade 6) of Sta. Juliana Elementary School, Capas, Tarlac, and the APC students of Malaybalay City, Bukidnon. Results were compared with regular students in rural, urban, private, and public schools to analyze indigenous students'…

  5. Indigenous Documents Related to the Quincentenary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Charles R., Comp.

    1993-01-01

    Three documents of the "500 Years of Resistance" movement, which held continental meetings of indigenous peoples in July 1990 and October 1991, reject the celebration of the Columbus Quincentenary and call for true democracy and human rights for the Americas' indigenous peoples and an end to neocolonialism and social inequality. (SV)

  6. Science, Metaphoric Meaning, and Indigenous Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Western cultural approaches to teaching science have excluded Indigenous knowledges and culturally favored many non-Aboriginal science students. By asking the question "What connections exist between Western science and Indigenous knowledge?" elements of epistemological (how do we determine what is real?) and ontological (what is real?)…

  7. Potato breeding in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de H.

    1953-01-01

    A remarkable feature of potato breeding in the Netherlands is the great number of private breeders who have concentrated their efforts on the improvement of the potato. The author calls attention to some circumstances and measures that have made potato breeding attractive in the Netherlands

  8. Molecular characterization of chicken syndecan-2 proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ligong; Couchman, John R; Smith, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    A partial syndecan-2 sequence (147 bp) was obtained from chicken embryonic fibroblast poly(A)+ RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. This partial sequence was used to produce a 5'-end-labelled probe. A chicken liver cDNA library was screened with this probe, and overlapping clones were obtained......Da. Western blotting of chicken embryonic fibroblast cell lysates with species-specific monoclonal antibody mAb 8.1 showed that chicken syndecan-2 is substituted with heparan sulphate, and that the major form of chicken syndecan-2 isolated from chicken fibroblasts is consistent with the formation of SDS......-resistant dimers, which is common for syndecans. A 5'-end-labelled probe hybridized to two mRNA species in chicken embryonic fibroblasts, while Northern analysis with poly(A)+ RNAs from different tissues of chicken embryos showed wide and distinct distributions of chicken syndecan-2 during embryonic development...

  9. Weak recognition: Indigenous rights in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Fuentes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After seventeen years of debate, the Chilean Congress approved the ilo 169 Convention on indigenous rights that compels the State to consult indigenous communities on issues that directly affect them. As the political and economic conditions were unfavourable, this political outcome is surprising. Indeed, the legal status of the indigenous people in Chile is weaker than in the rest of Latin America. This article explains this outcome through a detailed description of institutional changes as well as social pressures from the indigenous movement. These factors made right-wing sectors to adapt their discourses in order to accept Chile as a multicultural society. Moreover, a relevant part of the story is related to territorial differences among legislators. Discourse adaptation toward a soft recognition of indigenous rights is a likely outcome in a very conservative environmental setting.

  10. Community-based livestock breeding programmes: essentials and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, J P; Rischkowsky, B; Haile, A; Philipsson, J; Mwai, O; Besbes, B; Valle Zárate, A; Tibbo, M; Mirkena, T; Duguma, G; Sölkner, J; Wurzinger, M

    2015-04-01

    Breeding programmes described as community-based (CBBP) typically relate to low-input systems with farmers having a common interest to improve and share their genetic resources. CBBPs are more frequent with keepers of small ruminants, in particular smallholders of local breeds, than with cattle, pigs or chickens with which farmers may have easier access to alternative programmes. Constraints that limit the adoption of conventional breeding technologies in low-input systems cover a range of organizational and technical aspects. The analysis of 8 CBBPs located in countries of Latin-America, Africa and Asia highlights the importance of bottom-up approaches and involvement of local institutions in the planning and implementation stages. The analysis also reveals a high dependence of these programmes on organizational, technical and financial support. Completely self-sustained CBBPs seem to be difficult to realize. There is a need to implement and document formal socio-economic evaluations of CBBPs to provide governments and other development agencies with the information necessary for creating sustainable CBBPs at larger scales.

  11. Chicken from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chickens are graded according to the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service 's regulations and standards for meatiness, appearance, and ... ahead of time and refrigerated. However, do not mix wet and dry ingredients until just before spooning ...

  12. Comparison of growth performance and immune parameters of three commercial chicken lines used in organic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjærup, R B; Juul-Madsen, H R; Norup, L R; Sørensen, P; Dalgaard, T S

    2017-05-01

    Owing to the higher demands for avoiding medication and antibiotics, health status of the production animals plays an important role in the poultry industry, especially in organic poultry systems. Immunity plays a major role in keeping the host free from disease, and it is evident that the host's genetic make-up influences immunity and disease resistance/susceptibility in chickens. Previously, breeding strategies aimed at selection for resistance against specific diseases with the risk of creating less disease resistance against other pathogens. Changing breeding strategies towards selection of chickens with a more general and broad disease resistance or robustness may therefore improve the overall health status, animal welfare, and food security in the poultry production. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the immunocompetence of the presumed "robust" Hellevad chickens with two chicken lines widely used in organic production, Bovans Brown (Bovans) and Hisex White (Hisex). The chickens were subjected to a routine vaccination program comprising one parasite and four viral vaccines. The current study indicates that considerable differences in immunocompetence may exist between commercial layer lines used in organic production. The Hellevad chickens were found to have higher body weight at the end of the experiment (17 weeks of age) than the other two lines. Furthermore, Hellevad and Hisex chickens were found to have higher levels of humoral innate immunity with regard to sample to positive ratio of natural antibodies in serum and concentration of mannose-binding lectin in serum as compared to Bovans. Moreover, indications of an inflammatory response were observed in the Bovans at week 5, corresponding to 1 week after vaccination with live infectious bursal disease virus. With regard to adaptive immune parameters such as IgY concentration in blood and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)-specific antibody titres, the Hellevad and Hisex chickens had lower

  13. [Mendelism in animal breeding as developed by professor Leopold Frateur, Louvain (1877-1946)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, A

    2000-01-01

    Educated as a veterinarian at Cureghem, Leopold Frateur started his scientific career in 1899 as a professor at the Faculty of Sciences of the Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium, in charge of the course in zootechnology. After a study tour to zootechnical institutes and centres of animal breeding in Europe he was invited by the governmental department of Agriculture and the Belgian Society of Zootechnology to investigate the relevance of the Mendelian laws of heredity for the improvement of cattle breeding. In the early years of the century, Frateur conducted field research in order to determine the characteristics of the cattle breeds in Belgium. In 1908 Frateur founded the Institute of Animal Husbandry at his university. Here he worked out his programme of experimental genetics until his retirement in 1936. The last six years of his professorship he teached also agricultural economics in the Faculty of Economical Sciences. In Frateur's experimental research the following main lines can be distinguished: 1) The analysis of simple and complex hereditary factors in cattle, rabbits and poultry; 2) The study of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of importance for the improvement of animal breeds; 3) The synthesis of genetic factors from different stock in order to obtain higher yielding breeds with stable characteristics; 4) Theoretical study of the relationship between genotype and phenotype and the influence of environment factors; 5) Theoretical exploration of the issue of variability and modification of newly formed characteristics; 6) Research leading to an explanation of telegony and atavism; 7) The formulation of a theory on the creation of new breeds in domestic animals and plants, and the relation between breed and species. Also he was responding to topical needs, e.g. he determined the causal factor of pullorum epidemic in chicken farming, or he investigated the hereditary resistance against diphteric infection amongst chickens. Frateur took

  14. Molecular characterization of eimeria species naturally infecting egyptian baldi chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar M Gadelhaq

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis is a serious protozoal disease of poultry. The identification of Eimeria species has important implications for diagnosis and control as well as for epidemiology. The molecular characterization of Eimeria species infecting Egyptian baladi chickens was investigated.Eimeria species oocysts were harvested from intestines of naturally infected Egyptian baldi chickens. The morphometry characterization of oocysts along with COCCIMORPH software was done. The DNA was extracted initially by freezing and thawing then the prepared samples was subjected to commercial DNA kits. The DNA products were analyzed through conventional polymerase chain reaction by using amplified region (SCAR marker.The PCR results confirmed the presence of 7 Eimeria species in the examined fecal samples of Egyptian baldi breed with their specific ampilicon sizes being E. acervulina (811bp, E. brunette (626bp, E. tenella (539bp, E. maxima (272bp, E. necatrix (200bp, E. mitis (327bp and E. praecopx (354bp. A sequencing of the two most predominant species of Eimeria was done, on E. tenella and E. máxima. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed high identities 99% between Egyptian isolates and the reference one. Similarly, E. maxima isolated from Egyptian baldi chickens showed 98% nucleotide identities with the reference strain. Only single nucleotide substitution was observed among the Egyptian E. tenella isolates (A181G when compared to the reference one. The Egyptian isolates acquired 4 unique mutations (A68T, C164T, G190A and C227G in compared with the reference sequence.This is the first time to identify the 7 species of Eimeria from Egyptian baladi chickens.

  15. Analysis of genetic distribution and population genetic structure of the MyoD gene in 10 pig breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li ZHU; Xuewei LI; Surong SHUAI; Mingzhou LI; Fangqiong LI; Lei CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) data was applied to analyze the distribution of the MyoD gene in 10 pig breeds and pig breed crosses.The population genetic information about genetic distribution,variation,and heterozygosity of the MyoD gene in different breed populations were analyzed.Based on the allele frequency,genetic distance and evolution distance among each breed populations were calculated and Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean (UPGMA) phylogenetic tree was gained based on the evolution distances between populations.The results indicated that the distribution of the MyoD genotype kept in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in most tested groups but not in Duroc (D) and Duroc × (Landrance × Yorkshire)(DLY) population.Generally,the genetic diversity of the MyoD gene was abundant and these tested breed populations had high genetic variations.The evolution of the MyoD gene was under natural selection pressure.On the phylogenetic tree,10 pig breeds were divided into 4 clusters.The first cluster consisted of four breeds developed from Landrace.The second cluster was two indigenous Chinese pig breeds.The third cluster was three breeds developed from Duroc.The fourth cluster was a Tibetan pig breed.The constitution of the topology of the phylogenetic tree was consistent with the breeding history of each pig breed.From this experiment,we can conclude that some RFLP data obtained from functional gene can be used in the genetic deviation research between some closely related species or between different populations in certain species.

  16. Opportunities for animal breeding to meet the challenges of the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes A.M. van Arendonk

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The challenges for the next 50 years are to increase the productivity of major livestock species to address the food needs of the world, while at the same time minimizing the environmental impact and the loss in genetic diversity. This paper describes on a number of contributions of animal breeding to meet these challenges of the future. First it is discussed how to incorporate environmental impact in the breeding objective, i.e. the goal of an animal breeding program. Over the last two decades, breeding in poultry, pigs and dairy cattle has not only resulted in increased productivity but also in decreased emission of greenhouse gases per ton of animal product. Opportunities are discussed to further reduce the impact on the environment. Subsequent sections describe the impact of genomics, social interactions, and product quality on animal breeding programs. The final section deals with opportunities to use animal breeding in developing countries. The completion of genome sequences has generated the tools for whole-genome selection programs for a wide spectrum of traits which are now being applied in practise. Furthermore, research is increasing our understanding of the underlying biology of important traits such as animal welfare. Developments in the area of quantitative genetics and in recording of phenotypes are required to fully exploit the wealth of genomic information. For the developed world, new tools and techniques are now being implemented to increase the genetic gain from breeding programs. These techniques, however, also offer opportunities to better characterize and use indigenous breeds in developing countries. Through international collaboration in training, research and implementation, animal breeding can help in meeting the challenges for the next 50 years.

  17. RosBREED: Enabling Marker-Assisted Breeding in Rosaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including ES...

  18. RosBREED: Enabling marker-assisted breeding in Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iezzoni, A.F.; Weebadde, C.; Luby, J.; Yue, C.; Weg, van de W.E.; Fazio, G.; Main, D.; Peace, C.P.; Bassil, N.V.; McFerson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including EST

  19. Curriculum and the production of indigenous subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adir Casaro Nascimento

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The policy on school education has always been explicit in its intentions to produce identities for indigenous peoples. The Federal Constitution of 1988 broke with the assimilationist/integrationist/colonizing proposal of curricula imposed on indigenous people and recognizes the ethnic identities of indigenous people inserted within the context of their cultural relations and the right to their customs, values, traditions, languages and knowledge. The use of the mother tongue and of learning processes has been orienting categories in the curricula of their schools. With culture as the focal point of discussion, this text is supported on testimonies by indigenous teachers from Terena, Guarani and Kaiowá tribes, subjects living the ambiguities and conflicts as well as their identities and the identities of those looking for schooling in different communities. Despite the difficulties that the indigenous school still faces, indigenous movements question homogenous and colonizing schooling models. This school is part of their lives and plays its social role of working with knowledge without excluding cultures as producers of sense and meaning, their knowledge that guarantees the difference in curriculum, area of struggle, and in the production of indigenous subjects.

  20. Revolutionizing Environmental Education through Indigenous Hip Hop Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlewski, Julie; Porfilio, Brad J.

    2012-01-01

    Based upon the life histories of six Indigenous hip hop artists of the Beat Nation artist collective, this essay captures how Indigenous hip hop has the potential to revolutionize environmental education. Hip hop provides Indigenous youth an emancipatory space to raise their opposition to neocolonial controls of Indigenous territories that…