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Sample records for indicus diseases referred

  1. Toleransi Tanaman Peneduh Polyalthia longifolia dan Pterocarpus indicus terhadap Ganoderma sp.

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    Siti Muslimah Widyastuti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of Urban Trees Polyalthia longifolia and Pterocarpus indicus to Infection of  the red root rot fungus Ganoderma sp. Urban trees on the Gadjah Mada University (UGM area play an important role in increasing environmental qualities as well as in supporting the teaching and learning processes. However, red root rot disease caused by Basidiomycete Ganoderma sp. has severely infected some existing urban trees. This experiment was aimed to determine the susceptibility of Polyalthia longifolia (glodokan and Pterocarpus indicus (angsana to the infection of Ganoderma sp. Identification of infected trees was performed in UGM area. Further steps were carried out to achieve those objectives : (1 isolation of Ganoderma spp. and testing of Koch’s postulate and (2 examination of the susceptibility of  P. longifolia and P. indicus to infection of Ganoderma sp. The susceptibility test of P. longifolia and P. indicus to Ganoderma sp. indicated that P. longifolia was more resistant to fungal pathogen infection than that of P. indicus. Based on this experiment, it can be concluded that P. longifolia is a species that is more suitable than P. indicus.  P. longifolia should be planted on the areas that have been infested with inocula of Ganoderma sp..

  2. Absence of heat intolerance (panting) syndrome in foot-and-mouth disease-affected Indian cattle (Bos indicus) is associated with intact thyroid gland function.

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    Maddur, M S; Rao, S; Chockalingam, A K; Kishore, S; Gopalakrishna, S; Singh, N; Suryanarayana, V V S; Gajendragad, M R

    2011-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease with high morbidity and reduced productivity of affected animals. We studied the heat intolerance (HI) (panting) syndrome and the effect of FMD virus (FMDV) infection on thyroid gland function in Indian cattle (Bos indicus). Experimental infection with FMDV Asia 1 resulted in a mild form of disease with superficial lesions. Heat intolerance syndrome and its signs were not observed among the recovered animals. Subtle changes in the serum level of thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T₃) and thyroxine (T₄) were observed. However, there were no distinct histological changes in the thyroid gland, and FMDV antigens were not detected in the thyroid tissues. Our results thus suggest that the absence of panting syndrome in FMD-affected Bos indicus cattle may be associated with intact thyroid gland function.

  3. Comparative "in vitro" evaluation of the antiresorptive activity residing in four Ayurvedic medicinal plants. Hemidesmus indicus emerges for its potential in the treatment of bone loss diseases.

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    Di Pompo, Gemma; Poli, Ferruccio; Mandrone, Manuela; Lorenzi, Beatrice; Roncuzzi, Laura; Baldini, Nicola; Granchi, Donatella

    2014-06-11

    Four Indian plants, traditionally used in Ayurvedic medicine: Asparagus racemosus Willd., Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Hemidesmus indicus R. Br., and Rubia cordifolia L. were selected on the basis of their ethnobotanical use and of scientific evidence that suggests a potential efficacy in the treatment of bone-loss diseases. The antiresorptive properties of the four plants have been investigated. The aim was to provide adequate evidence for the exploitation of natural compounds as alternative therapeutics for the treatment of diseases caused by increased osteoclast activity. Decoctions were prepared from dried plant material according to the traditional procedure and standardization by HPLC was performed using marker compounds for each species. Total polyphenols, flavonoids and radical scavenging activity of the decoctions were also determined. The bioactivity of the plant decoctions was evaluated in subsequent phases. (1) A cytotoxicity screening was performed on the mouse monocytic RAW 264.7 cell line to define the concentrations that could be utilized in the following step. (2) The antiresorptive properties of plant decoctions were compared with that of a "gold standard" drug (alendronate) by measuring osteoclastogenesis inhibition and osteoclast apoptosis. (3) The toxic effect on bone forming cells was excluded by evaluating the impact on the proliferation of osteogenic precursors (mesenchymal stem cells, MSC). All the decoctions inhibited osteoclastogenesis similarly to alendronate at the highest doses, but Hemidesmus indicus and Rubia cordifolia were also effective at lower concentrations. Apoptosis increased significantly when cells were exposed to the highest concentration of Emblica officinalis, Hemidesmus indicus, and Rubia cordifolia. All concentrations of Emblica officinalis tested inhibited the proliferation of osteogenic precursors, while only the highest doses of Asparagus racemosus and Rubia cordifolia were toxic. On the contrary, Hemidesmus indicus

  4. In vivo comparison of susceptibility between Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle types to Theileria parva infection

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    S.G. Ndungu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether Bos taurus cattle differ form Bos indicus in their susceptibility to infection with the Muguga stabilate of Theileria parva and in their resistance to the resultant disease. Ten Friesians (B. taurus, ten improved Borans (B. indicus, ten unimproved Borans (B. indicus and ten Zebus (B. indicus born to dams from an East Coast fever (ECF endemic area were inoculated with an infective dose50 dilution of T. parva Muguga stabilate 147. All the animals except one Friesian and one Zebu developed schizont parasitosis. All the improved Borans, nine of the Friesians, eight of the unimproved Borans and six of the Zebus developed a febrile response. Four of the improved Borans, four of the Friesians and three of the unimproved Borans died of theileriosis. No significant difference (P > 0.05 in the prepatent period occurred between the groups, but the Zebus had a significantly shorter duration of schizont parasitosis (P > 0.05 and took a significantly shorter time to recover (P > 0.05 than the other three groups. There was no significant difference in the two parameters between the other three groups. The study showed that three B. indicus breds and a B. taurus breed are equally susceptible to T. parva infection. However, Zebus born to dams from an ECF endemic area showed a better ability to control the course of disease than cattle from ECF free areas.

  5. Biomass Briquette Investigation from Pterocarpus Indicus Leaves Waste as an Alternative Renewable Energy

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    Anggono, Willyanto; Sutrisno; Suprianto, Fandi D.; Evander, Jovian

    2017-10-01

    Indonesia is a tropical country located in Southeast Asia. Indonesia has a lot of variety of plant species which are very useful for life. Pterocarpus indicus are commonly used as greening and easily found everywhere in Surabaya city because of its characteristics that they have dense leaves and rapid growth. Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste would be a problem for residents of Surabaya and disturbing the cleanliness of the Surabaya city. Therefore, the Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste would be used as biomass briquettes. This research investigated the calorific value of biomass briquettes from the Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste, the effect of tapioca as an adhesive material to the calorific value of biomass briquettes from the Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste, the optimum composition for Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste biomass briquette as an alternative renewable fuel and the property of the optimum resulted biomass briquette using ultimate analysis and proximate analysis based on the ASTM standard. The calorific value biomass briquettes from the Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste were performed using an oxygen bomb calorimeter at various composition of Pterocarpus indicus from 50% to 90% rising by 10% for each experiment. The experimental results showed that the 90% raw materials (Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste)-10% adhesive materials (tapioca) mixtures is the optimum composition for biomass briquette Pterocarpus indicus leaves waste. The lower the percentage of the mass of tapioca in the biomass briquettes, the higher calorific value generated.

  6. Carbapenem-resistance and pathogenicity of bovine Acinetobacter indicus-like isolates.

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    Peter Klotz

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize blaOXA-23 harbouring Acinetobacter indicus-like strains from cattle including genomic and phylogenetic analyses, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and evaluation of pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo. Nasal and rectal swabs (n = 45 from cattle in Germany were screened for carbapenem-non-susceptible Acinetobacter spp. Thereby, two carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter spp. from the nasal cavities of two calves could be isolated. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 16S rDNA sequencing identified these isolates as A. indicus-like. A phylogenetic tree based on partial rpoB sequences indicated closest relation of the two bovine isolates to the A. indicus type strain A648T and human clinical A. indicus isolates, while whole genome comparison revealed considerable intraspecies diversity. High mimimum inhibitory concentrations were observed for carbapenems and other antibiotics including fluoroquinolones and gentamicin. Whole genome sequencing and PCR mapping revealed that both isolates harboured blaOXA-23 localized on the chromosome and surrounded by interrupted Tn2008 transposon structures. Since the pathogenic potential of A. indicus is unknown, pathogenicity was assessed employing the Galleria (G. mellonella infection model and an in vitro cytotoxicity assay using A549 human lung epithelial cells. Pathogenicity in vivo (G. mellonella killing assay and in vitro (cytotoxicity assay of the two A. indicus-like isolates was lower compared to A. baumannii ATCC 17978 and similar to A. lwoffii ATCC 15309. The reduced pathogenicity of A. indicus compared to A. baumannii correlated with the absence of important virulence genes encoding like phospholipase C1+C2, acinetobactin outer membrane protein BauA, RND-type efflux system proteins AdeRS and AdeAB or the trimeric autotransporter adhesin Ata. The emergence of carbapenem-resistant A. indicus-like strains from cattle carrying blaOXA-23 on transposable elements and

  7. Resorptive tooth root lesions in the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

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    Da Silva, Mari-Ann O; Kortegaard, Hanne E; Choong, Siew Shean; Arnbjerg, Jens; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2011-03-01

    Facial abscessation and osteomyelitis due to dental disease is commonly seen in the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), but little is known about the prevalence or etiology of these lesions. To determine the prevalence of dental ailments, 56 skulls and mandibles of deceased Malayan tapirs were visually and radiographically evaluated. Dental lesions were scored according to severity, and individuals were classified according to their age (juvenile/ young adult/adult) and origin (captive/free ranging). All of the lesions identified were of a resorptive nature. seemingly originating at the cementoenamel junction and burrowing towards the center of the tooth. Overall, 27% of the investigated skulls presented radiolucent dental lesions. The prevalence among captive animals was 52% (13/25), while only 6% (2/31) of the free-ranging tapirs had dental lesions. The second, third, and fourth premolars and first molar were the teeth most commonly affected, and the mandibular teeth were more often involved than the maxillary dentition. This study demonstrates a high prevalence of resorptive dental lesions in captive Malayan tapirs and provides a strong indication that age and captivity are significant risk factors in the development of these lesions. Dental disease, Malayan tapir, radiology, resorptive lesions, Tapirus indicus.

  8. Ethanol Production from Lignocellulose by the Dimorphic Fungus Mucor Indicus

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    Lennartsson, P.R.; Taherzadeh, M.J. (School of Engineering, Univ. of Boraas, SE-50190, Boraas (Sweden)). e-mail: Patrik.Lennartsson@hb.se; Karimi, K. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan Univ. of Technology, 84156-83111, Isfahan (IR)); Edebo, L. (Dept. of Clinical Bacteriology, Univ. of Goeteborg, SE-41346, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-10-15

    Ethanol production from dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolyzate by the dimorphic fungus Mucor indicus was investigated. A mixture of different forest wood chips dominated by spruce was hydrolyzed with 0.5 g/L sulfuric acid at 15 bar for 10 min, yielding different sugars including galactose, glucose, mannose, and xylose, but also different fermentation inhibitors such as acetic acid, furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), and phenolic compounds. We induced different morphological growth of M. indicus from purely filamentous, mostly filamentous, mostly yeast-like to purely yeast-like. The different forms were then used to ferment the hydrolyzate. They tolerated the presence of the inhibitors under anaerobic batch cultivation well and the ethanol yield was 430-440 g/kg consumed sugars. The ethanol productivity depended on the morphology. Judging from these results, we conclude that M. indicus, is useful for ethanol production from toxic substrates independent of its morphology. Keywords: bio-ethanol, lignocellulosic materials, dilute acid hydrolysis, Mucor indicus, dimorphic fungi

  9. Anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Hemidesmus indicus in rats fed with high-fat diet

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    Suganya Venkateshan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dietary changes playmajor risk roles in oxidative stress andcardiovascular disease and modulate normal metabolic function. The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of different extracts of Hemidesmus indicus to experimental high-fat diet in wistar rats, and their possible mechanism of action.  Materials and Methods: Male wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n=6/group andfed with a standard diet (control, high-fat diet (HFD, high-fat diet supplemented with different extracts and positive control for 9 weeks. High-fat diet induced changes in average body weight andoxidative stress and elevated levels of plasma lipid profilein rats. Results: Oral administration of methanolic extract of H. indicus(200 mg/kg offered a significant dose-dependent protection against HFD-induced oxidative stress, as reflected in the levels of catalase (pConclusion: The present study revealed that the methanolic extract of H.indicus protects against oxidative stress, hyperlipidemia and liver damage.

  10. When and how did Bos indicus introgress into Mongolian cattle?

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    Yue, Xiangpeng; Li, Ran; Liu, Li; Zhang, Yunsheng; Huang, Jieping; Chang, Zhenhua; Dang, Ruihua; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chuzhao

    2014-03-10

    The Mongolian cattle are one of the most widespread breeds with strictly Bos taurus morphological features in northern China. In our current study, we presented a diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region and Y chromosome SNP markers in 25 male and 8 female samples of Mongolian cattle from the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region in Western China, and detected 21 B. taurus and four Bos indicus (zebu) mtDNA haplotypes. Among four B. indicus mtDNA haplotypes, two haplotypes belonged to I1 haplogroup and the remaining two haplotypes belonged to I2 haplogroup. In contrast, all 25 male Mongolian cattle samples revealed B. taurus Y chromosome haplotype and no B. indicus haplotypes were found. Historical and archeological records indicate that B. taurus was introduced to Xinjiang during the second millennium BC and B. indicus appeared in this region by the second century AD. The two types of cattle coexisted for many centuries in Xinjiang, as depicted in clay and wooden figurines unearthed in the Astana cemetery in Turfan (3rd-8th century AD). Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the earliest B. indicus introgression in the Mongolian cattle may have occurred during the 2nd-7th centuries AD through the Silk Road around the Xinjiang region. This conclusion differs from the previous hypothesis that zebu introgression to Mongolian cattle happened during the Mongol Empire era in the 13th century. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. First record of Galeodes indicus Pocock, 1900 (Arachnida: Solifugae: Galeodidae from Rajasthan, India

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    Ruquaeya Bano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During a regular survey to collect soil arthropods in Lasiurus sindicus Henrard grassland by pitfall methods at Chandan Village near Jaisalmer City, Rajasthan, we found a dead specimen of Galeodes indicus in a sample.  Galeodes indicus (Pocock, 1900 has been reported from Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana but so far was unknown to Rajasthan, India.  In this communication, we report Galeodes indicus from Jaisalmer District, Rajasthan, India. 

  12. Dietary Administration of Yeast β 1,3 1,6 Glucan on Immunity and Survival Rate of White Indian Shrimp, Fennerpenaeus indicus Challenged with White Spot Syndrome Disease

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    Babak Ghaednia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The potency of dietary β 1,3 1,6 glucan (BG, derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in stimulating the non-specific immunity of white Indian shrimp, Fennerpenaeus indicus (Milne-Edwards, 1837 and improving its resistance to white spot syndrome disease were investigated. F. indicus (11.32±1.20 g were fed for 20 days on a series of treatment diets containing graded levels of BG (blank control, 0 as control, 2, 10, 20 g kg-1 feed and were then challenged by injection of WSSV virus. Total haemocyte count (THC, total plasma protein (TPP, phagocytic activity (PA and Bacterial Clearance activity (BC were measured at days 0, 7, 14, 21 after BG feeding, and shrimp survival rate was also recorded daily after challenge. THC, TPP, PA and BC of the 10 and 20 g kg-1 BG treatments were significantly higher (P<0.05 by day 14 than control and 2 g kg-1 treatment shrimp. Survival rate of shrimp fed with the diet containing 10 and 20 g kg-1 BG after 21 days, were 53.32±5.77 and 48.32±5.77%, respectively. Accordingly, oral administration of BG at an optimal level of 10 g kg-1 diet for 20 days efficaciously stimulate the immune defense and improve the survival rate of WSV-infected F. indicus.

  13. Meiotic Chromosome Analysis of the Giant Water Bug, Lethocerus indicus

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    Wisoram, Wijit; Saengthong, Pradit; Ngernsiri, Lertluk

    2013-01-01

    The giant water bug, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae), a native species of Southeast Asia, is one of the largest insects belonging to suborder Heteroptera. In this study, the meiotic chromosome of L. indicus was studied in insect samples collected from Thailand, Myanmar, Loas, and Cambodia. Testicular cells stained with lacto-acetic orcein, Giemsa, DAPI, and silver nitrate were analyzed. The results revealed that the chromosome complement of L. indicus was 2n = 22A + neo-XY + 2m, which differed from that of previous reports. Each individual male contained testicular cells with three univalent patterns. The frequency of cells containing neo-XY chromosome univalent (∼5%) was a bit higher than that of cells with autosomal univalents (∼3%). Some cells (∼0.5%) had both sex chromosome univalents and a pair of autosomal univalents. None of the m-chromosome univalents were observed during prophase I. In addition, this report presents clear evidence about the existence of m-chromosomes in Belostomatidae. PMID:23895100

  14. Is the American Zebu really Bos indicus?

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    Meirelles Flávio V.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The American continent was colonized in the 16th century by Europeans who first introduced cattle of Bos taurus origin. Accounts register introduction of Bos indicus cattle into South America in the 19th and continuing through the 20th century, and most reported imports were males derived from the Indian subcontinent. In the present study we show, by using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA polymorphism, major participation of matrilineages of taurus origin in the American Zebu purebred origin, i.e., 79, 73 and 100% for the Nellore, Gyr and Brahman breeds, respectively. Moreover, we have created a restriction map identifying polymorphism among B. taurus and B. indicus mtDNA using three restriction enzymes. Results are discussed concerning American Zebu origins and potential use of this information for investigating the contribution of cytoplasmic genes in cattle production traits.

  15. Diversity and ecology of Varanus indicus in Pepaya Island at Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, West Irian Jaya

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    DENY ANJELIUS IYAI

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitor lizard (Varanidae has dispersed widely in Indonesia, even in Papua. Papua contents of six species. It’s distribution, abundance, both in land and island have been known yet, even carrying capacity of feeding relative limited. However, species extinction rates in nature were increasing both in it. This research was done in Papaya Island in Teluk Cenderawasih National Park, Nabire, Papua since 24th -25th October 2005. Descriptive method was done to answer this study. This research resulted that in Papaya island contents only one species that is Varanus indicus. The V. indicus chosen same habitat in southern part of Papaya island. This species dispersed on 0-4 m above sea level, humidity about 78.6%, and temperature about 23.90C. Vegetation was dominated by coconut (Cocos nucifera, bitangur (Calophyllum inophyllum and tikar (Pandanus sp., papaya (Carica papaya, and ketapang (Terminalia catappa. V. indicus chosen Megapodius reinwadt nest as nesting area. Population of V. indicus was estimated as much 36.3 ≈ 36 pieces by King Method. The nest of V. indicus placed in Cassuarina sp. tree where cutting down. The diet of V. indicus was found such as megapods, sea birds, lizard (sauria, butterflies and bats (Macrochyroptera. People were caused threatened both direct and indirect toward the V. indicus existence.

  16. Molecular analysis of clinical isolates previously diagnosed as Mycobacterium intracellulare reveals incidental findings of "Mycobacterium indicus pranii" genotypes in human lung infection.

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    Kim, Su-Young; Park, Hye Yun; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Jeon, Kyeongman; Huh, Hee Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong; Han, Seung-Jung; Shin, Sung Jae; Koh, Won-Jung

    2015-09-30

    Mycobacterium intracellulare is a major cause of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease in many countries. Molecular studies have revealed several new Mycobacteria species that are closely related to M. intracellulare. The aim of this study was to re-identify and characterize clinical isolates from patients previously diagnosed with M. intracellulare lung disease at the molecular level. Mycobacterial isolates from 77 patients, initially diagnosed with M. intracellulare lung disease were re-analyzed by multi-locus sequencing and pattern of insertion sequences. Among the 77 isolates, 74 (96 %) isolates were designated as M. intracellulare based on multigene sequence-based analysis. Interestingly, the three remaining strains (4 %) were re-identified as "Mycobacterium indicus pranii" according to distinct molecular phylogenetic positions in rpoB and hsp65 sequence-based typing. In hsp65 sequevar analysis, code 13 was found in the majority of cases and three unreported codes were identified. In 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequevar analysis, all isolates of both species were classified within the Min-A ITS sequevar. Interestingly, four of the M. intracellulare isolates harbored IS1311, a M. avium-specific element. Two of three patients infected with "M. indicus pranii" had persistent positive sputum cultures after antibiotic therapy, indicating the clinical relevance of this study. This analysis highlights the importance of precise identification of clinical isolates genetically close to Mycobacterium species, and suggests that greater attention should be paid to nontuberculous mycobacteria lung disease caused by "M. indicus pranii".

  17. Effect of Cooking on Quality Commonly Consumed Marine Fish Platycephalidae (Platycephalus indicus in Iran

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    Ali Aberoumand

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fish Platycephalus indicus usually are consumed by southern people in Iran. The present study assessed the effect of processing on proximate compositions in the fillets of P.indicus. The fish samples were prepared by boiling, baking and frying, while proximate analysis was done by standard methods. Boiling processing method significantly reduced ash content in the fillet whereas fat content was significantly increased in frying. Baking method recorded highest ash content of 10.64%. The highest protein concentration was obtained for boiled fillet (82.73%. Lipid content was recorded highest in fried fillet (17.27%. P. indicus was, rich in fat, protein, and ash, thus its consumption should be encouraged.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis reveals two genotypes of the emerging fungus Mucor indicus, an opportunistic human pathogen in immunocompromised patients.

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    Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; Almaslamani, Muna; Theelen, Bart; Boekhout, Teun

    2017-07-12

    Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection caused by Mucor indicus. Phylogenetic analysis of many M. indicus isolates, mainly sampled from different clinical and environmental specimens collected worldwide, revealed two genotypes, I and II, based on ITS and D1/D2 LSU rDNA sequences. A retrospective review of the literature revealed 13 cases. Eight (76.9%) patients had disseminated infections, and the overall mortality rate was 30.7%. A pulmonary infection caused by M. indicus genotype I in a liver transplant recipient was disseminated to include the skin and was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B and aggressive surgery. M. indicus can infect a wide variety of patients with no real preference for the site of infection. We concluded that M. indicus has emerged as a significant cause of invasive mycosis in severely immunocompromised patients worldwide. Early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate therapy could enhance survival in these immunocompromised patient populations.

  19. Bacterial flora of pond reared Penaeus indicus (Milne Edwards)

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    Singh, I.S.B.; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P.; Chandramohan, D.

    The population size, generic diversity and potential to produce hydrolytic enzymes of heterotrophic bacteria associated with pond reared Penaeus indicus was worked out following standard bacteriological procedures. Chitinoclastic vibrios were found...

  20. Mucor indicus: biology and industrial application perspectives: a review.

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    Karimi, Keikhosro; Zamani, Akram

    2013-01-01

    Mucor indicus, one of the most important strains of zygomycetes fungi, has been the subject of several studies since a couple of hundred years ago. This fungus, regarded as a non-pathogenic dimorphic microorganism, is used for production of several beers and foods. Morphology of the fungus can be manipulated and well controlled by changing a number of parameters. Furthermore, M. indicus can grow on a variety of substrates including lignocellulosic hydrolysates which are mixtures of hexoses, pentoses, and different severe fermentation inhibitors. Indeed, high yield ethanol production is among the most important features of this strain. Presence of considerable amounts of chitosan in the cell wall is another important aspect of the fungus. Besides production of ethanol and chitosan, the biomass of this fungus has shown a great potential to be used as a rich nutritional source, e.g. fish feed. The fungus is also among the oleaginous fungi and produces high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids particularly γ-linolenic acid. Furthermore, the biomass autolysate has a high potential for yeast extract replacement in fermentation by the fungus. Additionally, the strain has shown promising results in heavy metal removal from wastewaters. This review discusses different aspects of biology and industrial application perspectives of M. indicus. Furthermore, open areas for the future basic and applied levels of research are also presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Successful treatment of a necrotizing fasciitis patient caused by Mucor indicus with amphotericin B and skin grafting.

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    Luo, Yijin; Zeng, Fanqin; Huang, Xiaowen; Li, Qun; Tan, Guozhen; Xi, Liyan; Lu, Changming; Guo, Qing

    2014-04-01

    Cutaneous mucormycosis, an uncommon disease caused by Mucorales, predominantly occurs in immunocompromised host. The present case is a primary cutaneous mucormycosis due to Mucor indicus in an immunocompetent individual. It is with the features of necrotizing fasciitis over the right pretibial area. We are presenting this case owing to its rarity and the successful treatment with amphotericin B and skin grafting.

  2. Characterization of pterin deaminase from Mucor indicus MTCC 3513

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    Thandeeswaran, M.; Karthika, P.; Mahendran, R.; Palaniswamy, M.; Angayarkanni, J.

    2018-03-01

    Pterin deaminase is an amidohydrolase enzyme which hydrolyses pteridines to produce lumazine derivatives and ammonia. Even though the enzyme was shown as early as 1959 for its anticancer efficacy there was a long gap in the communique after that which was in 2013. In our study we have chosen Mucor indicus MTCC 3513 which was a promising strain for production of different industrial products.The pterin deaminase enzyme was harvested and extracellular from M. indicus. The extracellular sample was partially purified by using ethanol precipitation and ion exchange column (Hi-Trap QFF) in Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified pterin deaminase enzyme was apparently determined by SDS-PAGE. The purified enzyme was further biochemically characterized. Molecular docking studies with the predicted sequence showed higher binding affinity towards folic acid interaction. The structure of this protein may open the windows for new drug targets for cancer therapy.

  3. Analgesic Activity of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn

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    P. Malairajan; G. Venu Babu; A. Saral; S. Mahesh; Gitanjali

    2012-01-01

    The ethanol extracts of the whole plant Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (ALSI) (Compositae) was tested for analgesic activity by tail immersion method in rat models. The test extracts were tested at 250 mg and 500 mg/kg body weight. The analgesic activity was assessed by keeping pentazocine 10 mg/kg as standard drug. The parameters studied were tail withdrawal reflex and percentage protection. In tail immersion method ALSI pretreatment caused significant increase in analgesic activity and percenta...

  4. Phylogenetic analysis reveals two genotypes of the emerging fungus Mucor indicus, an opportunistic human pathogen in immunocompromised patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taj-Aldeen, Saad J.; Almaslamani, Muna; Theelen, B.J.F.; Boekhout, Teun

    2017-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection caused by Mucor indicus. Phylogenetic analysis of many M. indicus isolates, mainly sampled from different clinical and environmental specimens collected worldwide, revealed two genotypes, I and II, based on ITS and D1/D2 LSU rDNA sequences. A retrospective

  5. The first complete mitochondrial genome of a Belostomatidae species, Lethocerus indicus, the giant water bug: An important edible insect.

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    Devi, Kshetrimayum Miranda; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Debaraj, Hajarimayum

    2016-10-10

    Lethocerus indicus of the family Belostomatidae is one of the most preferred and delicious edible insects in different parts of South-East Asia including North-East, India. The mitogenome of L. indicus represents the first complete mitogenome sequence of a Belostomatidae species in Heteroptera order. The mitogenome of L. indicus is 16,251bp and contains 37 genes including 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a large non-coding region. The genome has a typical gene order which is identical to other Heteroptera species. All tRNAs exhibit the classic cloverleaf secondary structure except tRNASer (AGN). All the PCGs employ a complete translation termination codon either TAA or TAG except COII. The nucleotide composition showed heavy biased toward AT accounting to 70.9% of total mitogenome. The overall A+T content of L. indicus mitogenome was comparatively lower than some other Heteropteran bugs mitogenomes. The control region is divided into seven different parts which includes the putative stem loop, repeats, tandem repeats, GC and AT rich regions. The phylogenetic relationship based on maximum-likelihood method using all protein coding genes was congruent with the traditional morphological classification that Belostomatidae is closely related to Nepidae. The complete mitogenome sequence of L. indicus provides fundamental data useful in conservation genetics and aquaculture diversification. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA single nucleotide polymorphism associated with weight estimated breeding values in Nelore cattle (Bos indicus

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    Fernando Henrique Biase

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We sampled 119 Nelore cattle (Bos indicus, 69 harboring B. indicus mtDNA plus 50 carrying Bos taurus mtDNA, to estimate the frequencies of putative mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and investigate their association with Nelore weight and scrotal circumference estimated breeding values (EBVs. The PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method was used to detect polymorphisms in the mitochondrial asparagine, cysteine, glycine, leucine and proline transporter RNA (tRNA genes (tRNAasn, tRNAcys, tRNAgly, tRNAleu and tRNApro. The 50 cattle carrying B. taurus mtDNA were monomorphic for all the tRNA gene SNPs analyzed, suggesting that they are specific to mtDNA from B. indicus cattle. No tRNAcys or tRNAgly polymorphisms were detected in any of the cattle but we did detect polymorphic SNPs in the tRNAasn, tRNAleu and tRNApro genes in the cattle harboring B. indicus mtDNA, with the same allele observed in the B. taurus sequence being present in the following percentage of cattle harboring B. indicus mtDNA: 72.46% for tRNAasn, 95.23% for tRNAleu and 90.62% for tRNApro. Analyses of variance using the tRNAasn SNP as the independent variable and EBVs as the dependent variable showed that the G -> T SNP was significantly associated (p < 0.05 with maternal EBVs for weight at 120 and 210 days (p < 0.05 and animal's EBVs for weight at 210, 365 and 455 days. There was no association of the tRNAasn SNP with the scrotal circumference EBVs. These results confirm that mtDNA can affect weight and that mtDNA polymorphisms can be a source of genetic variation for quantitative traits.

  7. Optimization of xylanase production by Mucor indicus, Mucor hiemalis, and Rhizopus oryzae through solid state fermentation

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    Sanaz Behnam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Xylan is the main hemicellulosic polymer in a number of lignocelluloses which can be hydrolyzed by xylanolytic enzymes. One of the main ways for enzymes production is solid state fermentation (SSF. The ability of three fungal strains (Mucor indicus, Mucor hiemalis, and Rhizopus oryzae for xylanase production on wheat bran by SSF was investigated. Materials and methods: The effects of cultivation temperature, medium moisture content, and cultivation time on the enzyme production were investigated. Experiments were designed with an orthogonal central composite design on three variables using response surface methodology (RSM. Analysis of variance was applied and the enzyme production was expressed with a mathematical equation as a function of the three factors. The optimum operating conditions for the enzyme production was obtained. Results: For xylanase production by M. indicus, M. hiemalis and R. oryzae the optimum temperatures were 40.0, 43.4 and 43.4ºC respectively. These values were 49.8, 54.2 and 71.8% for moisture percent and 51.3, 53.2 and 53.5 h for cultivation time. The highest enzyme activities per g of dry substrate (gds were 43.1, 43.8 and 25.9 U/gds for M. indicus, M. hiemalis and R. oryzae respectively. Discussion and conclusion: All the fungi were able to produce xylanase. Maximum xylanase production was predicted by M. indicus and M. hiemalis at similar optimum conditions, while R. oryzae produced relatively lower xylanase activity even at the best condition. 

  8. Feeding efficiency of Penaeus indicus and Metapenaeus dobsoni in different experimental substrata

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.; Balasubramanian, T.; Iyer, H.K.; Kutty, M.K.

    Preying efficiency in the substrata of different concentrations of mud sand, silt and clay and also in mud from natural habitat was examined with respect to Penaeus indicus and Metapenaeus dobsoni in order to understand the factors in their natural...

  9. Genome sequence of the thermophilic sulfate-reducing ocean bacterium Thermodesulfatator indicus type strain (CIR29812T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iain [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Saunders, Elizabeth H [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Liolios, Konstantinos [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Palaniappan, Krishna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Spring, Stefan [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Goker, Markus [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bristow, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Eisen, Jonathan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany

    2012-01-01

    Thermodesulfatator indicus Moussard et al. 2004 is a member of the genomically so far poorly characterized family Thermodesulfobacteriaceae in the phylum Thermodesulfobacteria. Members of this phylum are of interest because they represent a distinct, deep-branching, Gram-negative lineage. T. indicus is an anaerobic, thermophilic, chemolithoautotrophic sulfate reducer isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. The 2,322,224 bp long chromosome with its 2,233 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  10. Growth and maturation of Penaeus indicus under blue and green light

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth of the penaeid prawn Penaeus indicus was tested by comparing dim green ... light quantity and quality. tank size and/or handling stress. It was decided to ... Three circular, temperature-controlled 8000 e (2,8 m diameter) glass ... of eggs and nauplii in the water. Occasional ..... Penaeus vannamei Boone. J. expo mar.

  11. Biochemical changes of Litopenaeus vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus in the different stages of WSSV infection

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    Ramachandran Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the difference in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of both the species of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus (F. indicus infected with different stages of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Methods: Standard methods were followed by estimating the proximate composition and fatty acid analysis. Each fish specimens were beheaded, eviscerated and filleted manually. The tissue samples were oven dried at 67 °C for 24 h. Then the samples were grounded finely with pestle and mortar. The saponified samples were cooled at room temperature for 25 min. They were acidified and methylated by adding 2 mL 54% 6 mol/L HCL in 46% aqueous methanol and incubated at 80 °C for 10 min in water bath. Following the base wash step, the fatty acid methyl esters were cleaned in anhydrous sodium sulphate and then transferred into gas chromatograph sample vial for analysis. Fatty acid methyl esters were separated by gas chromatograph. Results: The proximate composition was higher in the both control tissue than the three (low, moderate, severe infected ones. For L. vannamei and F. indicus, the carbohydrates are 5.07% and 6.18%, and the proteins are 25.01% and 22.17%, respectively. Lipid level recorded was little higher in the shrimps maintained and showed severe sign of WSSV infection than the control and the fatty acid profile result revealed that saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acid was in higher [48.72% (Severe & 16.87% (low] L. vannamei. In the polyunsaturated fatty acid, F. indicus was 40.47% (low. Conclusions: Our study showed that the healthy shrimps are nutritionally rich than the WSSV affected shrimps.

  12. Biochemical changes of Litopenaeus vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus in the different stages of WSSV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Shalini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the difference in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of both the species of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus (F. indicus infected with different stages of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Methods: Standard methods were followed by estimating the proximate composition and fatty acid analysis. Each fish specimens were beheaded, eviscerated and filleted manually. The tissue samples were oven dried at 67 °C for 24 h. Then the samples were grounded finely with pestle and mortar. The saponified samples were cooled at room temperature for 25 min. They were acidified and methylated by adding 2 mL 54% 6 mol/L HCL in 46% aqueous methanol and incubated at 80 °C for 10 min in water bath. Following the base wash step, the fatty acid methyl esters were cleaned in anhydrous sodium sulphate and then transferred into gas chromatograph sample vial for analysis. Fatty acid methyl esters were separated by gas chromatograph. Results: The proximate composition was higher in the both control tissue than the three (low, moderate, severe infected ones. For L. vannamei and F. indicus, the carbohydrates are 5.07% and 6.18%, and the proteins are 25.01% and 22.17%, respectively. Lipid level recorded was little higher in the shrimps maintained and showed severe sign of WSSV infection than the control and the fatty acid profile result revealed that saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acid was in higher [48.72% (Severe & 16.87% (low] L. vannamei. In the polyunsaturated fatty acid, F. indicus was 40.47% (low. Conclusions: Our study showed that the healthy shrimps are nutritionally rich than the WSSV affected shrimps.

  13. Effects of Plant Growth Hormones on Mucor indicus Growth and Chitosan and Ethanol Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Zahra; Karimi, Keikhosro; Golkar, Poorandokht; Zamani, Akram

    2015-07-22

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and kinetin (KIN) on Mucor indicus growth, cell wall composition, and ethanol production. A semi-synthetic medium, supplemented with 0-5 mg/L hormones, was used for the cultivations (at 32 °C for 48 h). By addition of 1 mg/L of each hormone, the biomass and ethanol yields were increased and decreased, respectively. At higher levels, however, an inverse trend was observed. The glucosamine fraction of the cell wall, as a representative for chitosan, followed similar but sharper changes, compared to the biomass. The highest level was 221% higher than that obtained without hormones. The sum of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine (chitin and chitosan) was noticeably enhanced in the presence of the hormones. Increase of chitosan was accompanied by a decrease in the phosphate content, with the lowest phosphate (0.01 g/g cell wall) being obtained when the chitosan was at the maximum (0.45 g/g cell wall). In conclusion, IAA and KIN significantly enhanced the M. indicus growth and chitosan production, while at the same time decreasing the ethanol yield to some extent. This study shows that plant growth hormones have a high potential for the improvement of fungal chitosan production by M. indicus.

  14. Encephalomyocarditis virus in a captive Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercammen, Francis; Bosseler, Leslie; Tignon, Marylène; Cay, Ann Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    A 5-month-old female captive Malayan tapir ( Tapirus indicus ) died suddenly without preceding symptoms. Gross necropsy revealed numerous white circular and linear foci in the myocard. Differential diagnosis all turned out negative, except for encephalomyocarditis virus. Histopathology revealed mineralisation of myocardial cells and interstitial infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and less neutrophils. Encephalomyocarditis virus was detected by PCR. Although encephalomyocarditis virus occurs in many mammals, this is the first published description of this virus in a Malayan tapir.

  15. Polyphasic taxonomic analysis establishes Mycobacterium indicus pranii as a distinct species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Saini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP, popularly known as Mw, is a cultivable, non-pathogenic organism, which, based on its growth and metabolic properties, is classified in Runyon Group IV along with M. fortuitum, M. smegmatis and M. vaccae. The novelty of this bacterium was accredited to its immunological ability to undergo antigen driven blast transformation of leukocytes and delayed hypersensitivity skin test in leprosy patients, a disease endemic in the Indian sub-continent. Consequently, MIP has been extensively evaluated for its biochemical and immunological properties leading to its usage as an immunomodulator in leprosy and tuberculosis patients. However, owing to advances in sequencing and culture techniques, the citing of new strains with almost 100% similarity in the sequences of marker genes like 16S rRNA, has compromised the identity of MIP as a novel species. Hence, to define its precise taxonomic position, we have carried out polyphasic taxonomic studies on MIP that integrate its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular phylogenetic attributes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The comparative analysis of 16S rRNA sequence of MIP by using BLAST algorithm at NCBI (nr database revealed a similarity of > or =99% with M. intracellulare, M. arosiense, M. chimaera, M. seoulense, M. avium subsp. hominissuis, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. bohemicum. Further analysis with other widely used markers like rpoB and hsp65 could resolve the phylogenetic relationship between MIP and other closely related mycobacteria apart from M. intracellulare and M. chimaera, which shares > or =99% similarity with corresponding MIP orthologues. Molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on the concatenation of candidate orthologues of 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB, also substantiated its distinctiveness from all the related organisms used in the analysis excluding M. intracellulare and M. chimaera with which it exhibited a close proximity. This

  16. Effect of heat stress on the expression profile of Hsp90 among Sahiwal (Bos indicus) and Frieswal (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) breed of cattle: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Rajib; Sajjanar, Basavaraj; Singh, Umesh; Kumar, Sushil; Singh, Rani; Sengar, G; Sharma, Arjava

    2014-02-25

    We evaluated the effect of thermal challenge on the expression profile of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) among Sahiwal (Bos indicus) and Frieswal (Bos indicus × Bos taurus) breeds of cattle. The present investigation was focused on the comparative studies on Hsp90 expression among Frieswal and Sahiwal under in vitro and environmental heat stress. Measured immediately after the in vitro heat shock to the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), the relative expression of Hsp90 mRNA was significantly (Pcows consistently recorded higher rectal temperatures than the Sahiwal breed. Further during this peak summer stress, Sahiwal showed significantly higher levels of mRNA transcripts as well as protein concentration compared to the Frieswal breed. Our findings also interestingly showed that, the cell viability of PBMC are significantly higher among the Sahiwal than Frieswal. Taken together, the experiments of both induced in vitro and environmental stress conditions indicate that, Sahiwal may express higher levels of Hsp90 then Frieswal to regulate their body temperature and increase cell survivality under heat stressed conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Encephalomyocarditis virus in a captive Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Vercammen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A 5-month-old female captive Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus died suddenly without preceding symptoms. Gross necropsy revealed numerous white circular and linear foci in the myocard. Differential diagnosis all turned out negative, except for encephalomyocarditis virus. Histopathology revealed mineralisation of myocardial cells and interstitial infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and less neutrophils. Encephalomyocarditis virus was detected by PCR. Although encephalomyocarditis virus occurs in many mammals, this is the first published description of this virus in a Malayan tapir.

  18. Recombinant lactoferrin (Lf) of Vechur cow, the critical breed of Bos indicus and the Lf gene variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisha, Shashidharan; Bhasker, Salini; Mohankumar, Chinnamma

    2012-03-01

    Vechur cow, categorized as a critically maintained breed by the FAO, is a unique breed of Bos indicus due to its extremely small size, less fodder intake, adaptability, easy domestication and traditional medicinal property of the milk. Lactoferrin (Lf) is an iron-binding glycoprotein that is found predominantly in the milk of mammals. The full coding region of Lf gene of Vechur cow was cloned, sequenced and expressed in a prokaryotic system. Antibacterial activity of the recombinant Lf showed suppression of bacterial growth. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that the full coding region of Lf gene of B. indicus Vechur breed is sequenced, successfully expressed in a prokaryotic system and characterized. Comparative analysis of Lf gene sequence of five Vechur cows with B. taurus revealed 15 SNPs in the exon region associated with 11 amino acid substitutions. The amino acid arginine was noticed as a pronounced substitution and the tertiary structure analysis of the BLfV protein confirmed the positions of arginine in the β sheet region, random coil and helix region 1. Based on the recent reports on the nutritional therapies of arginine supplementation for wound healing and for cardiovascular diseases, the higher level of arginine in the lactoferrin protein of Vechur cow milk provides enormous scope for further therapeutic studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Complete genome sequence of the thermophilic sulfate-reducing ocean bacterium Thermodesulfatator indicus type strain (CIR29812(T)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Iain; Saunders, Elizabeth; Lapidus, Alla; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Jeffries, Cynthia D; Chang, Yun-Juan; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Spring, Stefan; Göker, Markus; Detter, John C; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan A; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2012-05-25

    Thermodesulfatator indicus Moussard et al. 2004 is a member of the Thermodesulfobacteriaceae, a family in the phylum Thermodesulfobacteria that is currently poorly characterized at the genome level. Members of this phylum are of interest because they represent a distinct, deep-branching, Gram-negative lineage. T. indicus is an anaerobic, thermophilic, chemolithoautotrophic sulfate reducer isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. The 2,322,224 bp long chromosome with its 2,233 protein-coding and 58 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  20. Influence of the age on hematological parameters of Sindi cattle (Bos indicus in Paraíba backwoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano José Bezerra Delfino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Delfino L.J.B., de Souza B.B., Silva W.W., Ferreira A.F. & Soares C.E.A. Influence of the age on hematological parameters of Sindi cattle (Bos indicus in Paraíba backwoods. [Influência da idade nos parâmetros hematológicos do gado Sindi (Bos indicus no sertão paraibano.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(3:266-270, 2014. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Campus de Patos, Av. Universitária, s/n, Santa Cecília, Patos, PB 58708-110, Brasil. Email: zulu_vet@hotmail.com The aim this work was to establish reference values of the hemogram of Sindi cattle raised in Paraiba backwood and evaluate the influence of same age, on blood samples we collected from 60 clinically healthy animals, being 30 females and 30 males, with the following age groups: Group I: 6 - 24 months, Group II: 24 - 48 months and Group III: up to 48 months. The experiment was conducted at the Center for Research and Development for the Semiarid Tropics (NUPEÁRIDO and the Veterinary Clinical Pathology Laboratory of the Health Center and Rural Technology (CSTR, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG, Campus de Patos-PB. Blood samples were placed in tubes containing EDTA (tetracético-ethylenediamine-di-sodium as an anticoagulant were performed the following tests: counting the number of red blood cells, packed cell volume (PCV, Hemoglobin (Hb content, calculations of absolute Erythrocyte count (RBC, Mean corpuscular volume (MCV and Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (CHGH. Held global count and differential leukocyte such as segmented neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes and monocytes. Reference values for erythrocyte count (RBC, hematocrit (PCV, hemoglobin (Hb, MCV and CHGH were, respectively, (6375 to 13,400 X106 / MM3 , (32 – 50 %, (9 - 15 G/DL (37 – 60 µ3, (23 to 33 µµG. And for the WBC were obtained the following results: WBC (5270 to 17,170 UL, segmented neutrophils (from 1360 to 5780

  1. Genotype x environment interactions for fatty acid profiles in Bos indicus and Bos taurus finished on pasture or grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, M C; Rossato, L V; Rodrigues, E C; Alves, S P; Bessa, R J B; Ramos, E M; Gama, L T

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to characterize lipid profiles in the M. longissimus thoracis of commercial Brazilian beef and to assess how those profiles are influenced by finishing system, genetic group, and their interaction. Intramuscular fat (IMF) and fatty acid (FA) profiles were determined in 160 bulls of the Bos taurus (n = 75) and Bos indicus (n = 85) genetic groups, finished on pasture (n = 46) or with grain supplementation (n = 114) and slaughtered in a commercial abattoir. Finishing system had a major impact on the deposition of IMF, as well as on the concentration of SFA, PUFA, and their ratio, but genetic groups showed important differences in the ability to convert SFA into cis-9 MUFA and to convert 16:0 into 18:0. When compared with pasture-finished animals, those finished with grain had greater content of IMF and SFA (P 0.05), and about one-half the amount of PUFA (P 0.05). With pasture-finishing, no differences were observed among the 2 genetic groups in SFA and MUFA (P > 0.05), but PUFA were decreased in B. taurus (P genetic groups were compared in grain-finishing, B. taurus had a decreased ability for elongation and B. indicus had a decreased aptitude for desaturation of FA. On the other hand, with pasture-finishing a greater deposition of intermediate FA from ruminal biohydrogenation was observed in B. indicus than in B. taurus. Overall, FA profiles were affected more by finishing system in B. indicus than in B. taurus.

  2. Effects of a high-energy diet on oocyte quality and in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, J N S; Iguma, L T; Batista, R I T P; Quintão, C C R; Gama, M A S; Freitas, C; Pereira, M M; Camargo, L S A; Viana, J H M; Souza, J C; Baruselli, P S

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different dietary energy levels [100 and 170% for maintenance (M) and high energy (1.7M), respectively] on metabolic, endocrine, and reproductive parameters were evaluated in nonlactating Bos indicus (Gir; n=14) and Bos taurus (Holstein; n=14) cows submitted to ultrasound-guided ovum pick-up followed by in vitro embryo production. The oocyte donor cows were housed in a tiestall system and fed twice daily (0800 and 1600 h). Twenty-one days before the beginning of the experiment, the animals were fed with a maintenance diet for adaptation followed by the experimental diets (M and 1.7M), and each cow underwent 9 ovum pick-up procedures 14 d apart. The recovered oocytes were cultured in vitro for 7 d. We measured glucose and insulin concentrations and performed glucose tolerance tests and the relative quantification of transcripts (PRDX1, HSP70.1, GLUT1, GLUT5, IGF1R, and IGF2R) from the oocytes recovered at the end of the experimental period. No interactions were observed between the effects of genetic groups and dietary energy level on the qualitative (viable oocytes, quality grade, and oocyte quality index) and quantitative (oocytes recovered) oocyte variables. There were no effects of dietary energy level on the qualitative and quantitative oocyte variables. However, Bos indicus cows had greater numbers of recovered structures, viable oocytes, and A and B oocyte grades as well as better oocyte quality index scores and lower DNA fragmentation rates compared with Bos taurus donors. In vitro embryo production (cleavage and blastocyst rates and number of embryos) was similar between diets, but the 1.7M diet reduced in vitro embryo production in Bos indicus cows after 60 d of treatment. Moreover, Bos indicus cows on the 1.7M diet showed lower transcript abundance for the HSP70.1, GLUT1, IGF1R, and IGF2R genes. All cows fed 1.7M diets had greater glucose and insulin concentrations and greater insulin resistance according to the glucose tolerance test. In

  3. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts against the mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Nareshkumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Prasannakumar, Kanagarajan; Thangamani, Sundaram; Barnard, Donald R

    2012-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for their toxicity effect on the third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The leaves of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus were collected from natural habitats (forests) in Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 250 g of fresh, mature leaves were rinsed with distilled water and dried in shade. The dried leaves were put in Soxhlet apparatus and extract prepared using 100% ethanol for 72 h at 30-40°C. Dried residues were obtained from 100 g of extract evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator. Larvicidal properties of ethanolic leaf extracts showed that the extracts are effective as mosquito control agents. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. No mortality was observed in the control. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values observed for the larvicidal activities are 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68% for extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus, respectively. The observed mortality were statistically significant at P < 0.05 level. C. dactylon showed the highest mortality rate against the three species of mosquito larvae in laboratory and field. The selected plants were shown to exhibit water purification properties. Water quality parameters such as turbidity, pH and water clarity were analyzed in the water samples (pre-treatment and post-treatment of plant extracts) taken from the different breeding sites of mosquitoes. Water colour, turbidity and pH were reduced significantly after treatment with C. dactylon (13 HU, 31.5 mg/l and 6.9), H. indicus (13.8 HU, 33 mg/l and 7.1), A. vera (16 HU, 33.8 mg/l and 7.4) and C. amboinicus (21 HU, 35 mg/l and 7.5) extracts. The study proved that the extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus have both mosquitocidal and water sedimentation properties.

  4. Heterosis for meat quality and fatty acid profiles in crosses among Bos indicus and Bos taurus finished on pasture or grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, L T; Bressan, M C; Rodrigues, E C; Rossato, L V; Moreira, O C; Alves, S P; Bessa, R J B

    2013-01-01

    Physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles of meat from Bos indicus, Bos taurus and crossbred B. taurus×B. indicus bullocks (n=216), finished on pasture or grain, were used to estimate the effects of heterosis. Meat quality and fatty acid profiles generally benefited with crossbreeding, but the advantages from heterosis differed among finishing systems. The Warner-Bratzler shear-force in fresh and aged meat was reduced due to heterosis in pasture-finishing, but the effect was minor under grain-finishing. With pasture-finishing, heterosis caused an increase of 5% in CLA concentration, but few other changes in fatty acid profiles. In grain-finishing, heterosis caused a reduction in intramuscular fat and cholesterol, increased amounts of PUFA, n-6 fatty acids and PUFA/SFA ratio, and a decline in atherogenic index. The Δ(9) desaturase estimated activity in crossbreds showed a behavior close to B. indicus, suggesting the existence of few loci and a dominance genetic effect on enzymes involved in fatty acid synthesis and metabolism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Successful treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma with intralesional fluorouracil in a Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C L; Templeton, R S; Karpinski, L

    2000-06-01

    An oral mass was observed in a Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus). Squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed by histologic examination of a biopsy specimen. A series of intralesional injections using fluorouracil resulted in complete regression of the neoplasm with no recognized adverse effects.

  6. Fixed-time artificial insemination with estradiol and progesterone for Bos indicus cows II: strategies and factors affecting fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá Filho, O G; Meneghetti, M; Peres, R F G; Lamb, G C; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2009-07-15

    In Experiments 1, 2, and 3, we evaluated the effects of temporary weaning (TW), equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) treatments on results of a fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI) protocol in postpartum Bos indicus cows. In Experiment 1, treatment with 400 IU eCG or with TW for 48 h consistently improved pregnancy rates (PRs) at TAI, but, in Experiment 2, FSH treatment was less effective than eCG or TW. In Experiment 3, the inclusion of eCG treatment in cows subjected to TW did not improve PRs. We concluded that TW or 400 IU eCG should be included in the TAI protocol in postpartum Bos indicus cows to enhance fertility. In Experiment 4, we used records from heifers and cows treated with the proposed protocol during the 2006-2007 (n=27,195) and 2007-2008 (n=36,838) breeding seasons from multiple locations in Brazil to evaluate factors potentially affecting PRs. Overall PR at TAI was 49.6% (31,786 of 64,033). Pregnancy rate differed (Pcow group within farm, by breed (Bos indicus, 48.3% [26,123 of 54,145]; Bos taurus, 61.7% [3652 of 5922]; and crossbred Bos indicus x Bos taurus, 50.7% [2011 of 3966]), category (nulliparous, 39.6% [2095 of 5290]; suckled primiparous, 45.2% [3924 of 8677]; suckled multiparous, 51.8% [24,245 of 46,767]; and nonsuckled multiparous, 46.1% [1522 of 3299]), body condition score at TAI ( or =3.5, 52.7% [9419 of 17,881]). Days postpartum at beginning of protocol did not affect PR (30 to 60 d, 47.6% [4228 of 8881]; 61 to 90 d, 51.7% [16,325 to 31,572]; and 91 to 150 d, 50.8% [7616 to 14,991]; P>0.1). Pregnancy rate was also consistently affected (P<0.01) by sire (results ranging from 7.2% to 77.3%) and artificial insemination technician (results ranging from 15.1% to 81.8%).

  7. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Temperament and acclimation to human handling influence growth, health, and reproductive responses in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F

    2014-12-01

    Temperament in cattle is defined as the fear-related behavioral responses when exposed to human handling. Our group evaluates cattle temperament using 1) chute score on a 1 to 5 scale that increases according to excitable behavior during restraint in a squeeze chute, 2) exit velocity (speed of an animal exiting the squeeze chute), 3) exit score (dividing cattle according to exit velocity into quintiles using a 1 to 5 scale where 1=cattle in the slowest quintile and 5=cattle in the fastest quintile), and 4) temperament score (average of chute and exit scores). Subsequently, cattle are assigned a temperament type of adequate temperament (ADQ; temperament score≤3) or excitable temperament (EXC; temperament score>3). To assess the impacts of temperament on various beef production systems, our group associated these evaluation criteria with productive, reproductive, and health characteristics of Bos taurus and Bos indicus-influenced cattle. As expected, EXC cattle had greater plasma cortisol vs. ADQ cattle during handling, independent of breed type (B. indicus×B. taurus, Preproduction, EXC females had reduced annual pregnancy rates vs. ADQ cohorts across breed types (B. taurus, P=0.03; B. indicus, P=0.05). Moreover, B. taurus EXC cows also had decreased calving rate (P=0.04), weaning rate (P=0.09), and kilograms of calf weaned/cow exposed to breeding (P=0.08) vs. ADQ cohorts. In regards to feedlot cattle, B. indicus EXC steers had reduced ADG (P=0.02) and G:F (P=0.03) during a 109-d finishing period compared with ADQ cohorts. Bos taurus EXC cattle had reduced weaning BW (P=0.04), greater acute-phase protein response on feedlot entry (P≤0.05), impaired feedlot receiving ADG (P=0.05), and reduced carcass weight (P=0.07) vs. ADQ cohorts. Acclimating B. indicus×B. taurus or B. taurus heifers to human handling improved temperament (P≤0.02), reduced plasma cortisol (Preproductive, and health characteristics of beef cattle independent of breed type. Hence, strategies

  8. The infestation by an exotic ambrosia beetle, Euplatypus parallelus (F. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Platypodinae of Angsana trees (Pterocarpus indicus Willd. in southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bumrungsri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An exotic ambrosia beetle, Euplatypus parallelus (F. was collected from infested Pterocarpus indicus Willd. trees in Prince of Songkla University. Larvae and eggs were found in simple galleries with a single branch. Either a single male or a male and a female were found in each gallery. Half of these infested trees were previously attacked by long-horned beetles probably Aristobia horridula (Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, while some of them appeared to be healthy. Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht.:Fr. was isolated from frass, sapwood samples and insect larvae, and might be a cause of death of P.indicus.

  9. Studies on the growth of penaeid prawns: 2. Growth of @iPenaeus indicus@@ under different levels of feeding

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Iyer, H.K.; Balasubramanian, T.; Kutty, M.K.

    @iPenaeus indicus@@ was subjected to four different levels of feeding with live earthworm. The growth increments irrespective of the feeding levels did not show any decreasing trend throughout the experimental period. This is probably because...

  10. MADURACIÓN DEL SOLOMO (Biceps femoris EN VACAS DE DESCARTE Bos indicus Y Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Alonso Cubero-Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la maduración sobre la terneza del músculo Biceps femoris en vacas de descarte Bos indicus y Bos taurus. En la planta procesadora de Montecillos R.L., ubicada en Alajuela, se realizó la escogencia y sacrificio de los animales, la maduración y empaque al vacío de la carne. La cocción, determinación de la terneza y evaluación sensorial se llevó a cabo a los 0, 14 y 28 días de maduración, en el Laboratorio de Análisis Sensorial del Centro de Investigaciones en Tecnología de Alimentos de la Universidad de Costa Rica, ubicado en San Pedro de Montes de Oca, San José, en julio del año 2011. De acuerdo con la evaluación instrumental, la especie y la cronometría dental no fueron factores significativos en la determinación de la terneza de la carne, mientras que el tiempo de maduración sí mostró cambios altamente significativos (p>0,001 sobre el mismo parámetro. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron a los 28 días, donde B. indicus mostró 3,78 kg de fuerza al corte, mientras que para B. taurus se obtuvo 3,88 kg. En la evaluación sensorial, los animales B. indicus se calificaron como más jugosos (p=0,016 y con mejor sabor (p<0,001. Se determinó una relación inversa entre sabor y tiempo de maduración, lo cual indicó que a mayor tiempo de maduración el sabor de la carne se volvió menos agradable al paladar.

  11. Length-weight relation and condition factor of @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ in the Cochin Backwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.; Nair, K.K.C.; Balasubramanian, T.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Aravindakshan, P.N.; Kutty, M.K.

    Length-weight relation and condition factor of @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ were estimated using samples from Cochin backwater. Statistical tests support the view that the length-weight exponent of these species may be species...

  12. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for toxicity to 3rd instar Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) were, respectively, 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68%. Cynodon dactylon...

  13. Studies on the growth of penaeid prawns. 3. Growth pattern of @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R; Nair, K.K.C.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Kutty, M.K.

    Experimental studies on the growth of @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ for three and a half months under different levels of feeding gave a growth pattern different from that of von Bertalanffy. The two distinct growth patterns...

  14. cDNA cloning, characterization and expression analysis of a novel antimicrobial peptide gene penaeidin-3 (Fi-Pen3) from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, S; Vaseeharan, B

    2012-03-20

    A new member of antimicrobial peptide genes of the penaeidin family, penaeidin 3, was cloned from the haemocytes of Indian white shrimp Fenneropeneaus indicus (F. indicus), by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE-PCR) methods. The complete nucleotide sequence of cDNA clone of Indian white shrimp F. indicus Penaeidin 3 (Fi-Pen3) was 243bp long and has an open reading frame which encodes 80 amino acid peptide. The homology analysis of Fi-Pen3 sequence with other Penaeidins 3 shows higher similarity with Penaeus monodon (92%). The theoretical 3D structure generated through ab initio modelling indicated the presence of two-disulphide bridges in the alpha-helix. The signal peptide sequence of Fi-Pen3 is almost entirely homologous to that of other Penaeidin 3 of crustaceans, while differing relatively in the N-terminal domain of the mature peptide. The mature peptide has a predicted molecular weight of 84.9kDa, and a theoretical pI of 9.38. Phylogenetic analysis of Fi-Pen3 shows high resemblance with other Pen-3 from P. monodon, Litopenaeus stylirostris, Litopenaeus vannamei and Litopenaeus setiferus. Fi-Pen3 found to be expressed in haemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, muscles, gills, intestine, and eyestalk with higher expression in haemocytes. Microbial challenge resulted in mRNA up-regulation, up to 6h post injection of Vibrio parahemolyticus. The Fi-Pen3 mRNA expression of F. indicus in the premolt stage (D(01) and D(02)) was significantly up-regulated than the postmolt (A and B) and intermolt stages (C). The findings of the present paper underline the involvement of Fi-Pen3 in innate immune system of F. indicus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. A breeding site record of Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus (Aves: Accipitriformes: Accipitridae from Bejjur Reserve Forest, Telangana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Stotrabhashyam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Long-billed Vulture Gyps indicus is, Critically Endangered with few known breeding sites in peninsular India.  We present a previously undocumented Long-billed Vulture breeding site in Bejjur Reserve Forest, Adilabad District, northern Telangana.

  16. Influence of Type of Electric Bright Light on the Attraction of the African Giant Water Bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Chinaru Nwosu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of type of electric bright light (produced by fluorescent light tube and incandescent light bulb on the attraction of the African giant water bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae. Four fluorescent light tubes of 15 watts each, producing white-coloured light and four incandescent light bulbs of 60 watts each, producing yellow-coloured light, but both producing the same amount of light, were varied and used for the experiments. Collections of bugs at experimental house were done at night between the hours of 8.30 pm and 12 mid-night on daily basis for a period of four months per experiment in the years 2008 and 2009. Lethocerus indicus whose presence in any environment has certain implications was the predominant belostomatid bug in the area. Use of incandescent light bulbs in 2009 significantly attracted more Lethocerus indicus 103 (74.6% than use of fluorescent light tubes 35 (25.41% in 2008 [4.92=0.0001]. However, bug’s attraction to light source was not found sex dependent [>0.05; (>0.18=0.4286 and >0.28=0.3897]. Therefore, this study recommends the use of fluorescent light by households, campgrounds, and other recreational centres that are potentially exposed to the nuisance of the giant water bugs. Otherwise, incandescent light bulbs should be used when it is desired to attract the presence of these aquatic bugs either for food or scientific studies.

  17. Genital tract of zebu (Bos indicus cows in Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moussa Garba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical characteristics, and the ovarian and pathological structures of the genital tract of 500 zebu (Bos indicus females belonging to four breeds (Azawak, Bororo, Djelli, Goudali were studied at Niamey’s slaughterhouse in Niger from August 15 to December 15, 2011. Each animal was examined before slaughter. The cows and heifers were on average 8 ± 2.5 years old. Their mean body condition score was 1.6 ± 0.6 and mean carcass weight 113 ± 21 kg. The anatomical characteristics of the genital tract did not show differences between breeds (p > 0.05. The following characteristics were observed: cervix diameter 3.4 ± 1.1 cm, cervix length 8.1 ± 2.5 cm, horn length 21.6 ± 5.2 cm, horn diameter 1.6 ± 0.5 cm, length and width of the right ovary 19.8 ± 4.4 and 11.2 ± 3.8 mm, of the left ovary 18.8 ± 4.5 and 10.2 ± 3.3 mm, and weight of the right and left ovaries 2.9 ± 1.8 and 2.5 ± 1.6 g, respectively. A corpus luteum was identified in only 14% cases and no visible follicles were found on the surface of the ovaries in 32% cases. These characteristics were significantly (p < 0.05 influenced by the age of the animal. Among the examined females, 7.4% were confirmed pregnant. Various genital tract diseases (cysts, uterine infection, free martinism, pyometra... were observed in 10.4% of the genital tracts.

  18. A deterministic simulation study of embryo marker-assisted selection for age at first calving in Nellore ( Bos indicus) beef cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosa, A.J.M.; Bijma, P.; Oliveira, H.N.; Lobo, R.B.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    We used deterministic simulation of four alternative multiple ovulation and embryo manipulation (MOET) closed nucleus schemes to investigate the benefits of using marker-assisted selection (MAS) of Nellore (Bos indicus) beef cattle embryos prior to transplantation to reduce the age at first calving

  19. Full-length cloning and phylogenetic analyses of translationally controlled tumour protein and ferritin genes from the Indian white prawn, Fenneropenaeus indicus (H. Milne Edwards)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, S.; Ramaiah, N.; Meena, R.M.; Sreepada, R.A.

    -length sequences of these immune-relevant genes, this study highlighted their conserved natures, which perhaps make them important defence-related proteins in the innate immune system of F. indicus....

  20. Breeding Biology of Critically Endangered Long-billed Vulture (Gyps indicus at a Unique Site in Telangana State, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikanth Manchiryala

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Out of nine species of vultures, the population of three Gyps species, White-backed Vulture (Gyps bengalensis, Slender-billed Vulture (Gyps tenuirostris and Long-billed Vulture (Gyps indicus has declined drastically by 99% over the past decade (Prakash, 1999. The Gyps vultures' population declined in India by 97% and by 92% in Pakistan (Virani, 2006, Prakash et al., 2012. Possibly the widespread usage of Diclofenac drug in the animal led to the rapid population decline for these Vultures (Green et al., 2004. The Long-billed Vulture G. indicus is a bald headed vulture with very broad wings and short tail feathers, having no sexual dimorphism. In Malabar hills region of India the breeding season of Long-billed Vultures was noted to be November to May where it breed mainly on cliffs (Edward, 1915. Presently, it is in the most critical category of endangerment, listed in Schedule-I of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act-1972 followed by IUCN, 2015 (http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22729731/0. The Andhra Pradesh State Biodiversity Board, Hyderabad announced that vultures are already 'Extinct' in the state (Medicheti, 2013.

  1. Tractus génital des vaches zébus (Bos indicus) au Niger.

    OpenAIRE

    Moussa Garba, Mahamadou; Marichatou, H; Issa, M; Abdoul Aziz, ML; Hanzen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Les caractéristiques anatomiques et les structures ovariennes et pathologiques du tractus génital de 500 femelles zébus (Bos indicus), appartenant à quatre races bovines (Azawak, Bororo, Djelli, Goudali), ont été étudiées à l’abattoir de Niamey au Niger du 15 août au 15 décembre 2011. Chaque animal a été examiné avant abattage. Ces vaches et génisses, âgées en moyenne de 8 ± 2,5 ans, ont eu une note d’état corporel moyenne de 1,6 ± 0,6 et un poids moyen de carcasse de 113 ± ...

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Asian tapirs (Tapirus indicus): the only extant Tapiridae species in the old world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangkram, Yuttamol; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Kaolim, Nongnid; Buddhakosai, Waradee; Kamolnorranath, Sumate; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Tipkantha, Wanlaya; Dongsaard, Khwanruean; Maikaew, Umaporn; Sanannu, Saowaphang

    2016-01-01

    Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) is categorized as Endangered on the 2008 IUCN red list. The first full-length mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Asian tapir is 16,717 bp in length. Base composition shows 34.6% A, 27.2% T, 25.8% C and 12.3% G. Highest polymorphic site is on the control region as typical for many species.

  3. Resposta superovulatória na primeira onda de crescimento folicular em doadoras Nelore (Bos indicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Fernando Tonissi Nasser

    2006-01-01

    Três experimentos foram realizados para testar a hipótese de que a resposta superestimulatória de doadoras Nelore (Bos indicus) com tratamentos iniciados próximo à ovulação durante a primeira onda de crescimento folicular seria maior ou comparável àquela decorrente de tratamentos convencionais. Os animais foram aleatoriamente alocados em três grupos. As doadoras dos Grupos 1 - Onda 1 s/P4 e 2 - Onda 1 c/P4 foram superestimuladas na primeira onda de crescimento folicular, e as do Grupo 3 - Sin...

  4. Evidence of Bos javanicus x Bos indicus hybridization and major QTLs for birth weight in Indonesian Peranakan Ongole cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartati, Hartati; Utsunomiya, Yuri Tani; Sonstegard, Tad Stewart; Garcia, José Fernando; Jakaria, Jakaria; Muladno, Muladno

    2015-07-04

    Peranakan Ongole (PO) is a major Indonesian Bos indicus breed that derives from animals imported from India in the late 19(th) century. Early imports were followed by hybridization with the Bos javanicus subspecies of cattle. Here, we used genomic data to partition the ancestry components of PO cattle and map loci implicated in birth weight. We found that B. javanicus contributes about 6-7% to the average breed composition of PO cattle. Only two nearly fixed B. javanicus haplotypes were identified, suggesting that most of the B. javanicus variants are segregating under drift or by the action of balancing selection. The zebu component of the PO genome was estimated to derive from at least two distinct ancestral pools. Additionally, well-known loci underlying body size in other beef cattle breeds, such as the PLAG1 region on chromosome 14, were found to also affect birth weight in PO cattle. This study is the first attempt to characterize PO at the genome level, and contributes evidence of successful, stabilized B. indicus x B. javanicus hybridization. Additionally, previously described loci implicated in body size in worldwide beef cattle breeds also affect birth weight in PO cattle.

  5. Developmental changes in concentrations of vitellin, vitellogenin, and lipids in hemolymph, hepatopancreas, and ovaries from different ovarian stages of Indian white prawn Fenneropenaeus indicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boucard, C.G.V.; Levy, P.; Ceccaldi, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the relationship between vitellogenin (Vtg) and vitellin (Vt) concentration profiles during the reproductive cycle of the penaeid prawn Fenneropenaeus indicus. Vt was purified from ovaries of vitellogenic females by gradient ultracentrifugati...

  6. Feed intake and weight changes in Bos indicus-Bos taurus crossbred steers following Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 1b challenge under production conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has major impacts on beef cattle production worldwide, but the understanding of host animal genetic influence on illness is limited. This study evaluated rectal temperature, weight change and feed intake in Bos indicus crossbred steers (n = 366) that were challenge...

  7. Effect of monensin withdrawal on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation parameters by Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus steers consuming bermudagrass hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of monensin withdrawal and cattle subspecies on the utilization of bermudagrass hay (14.3% CP, 72.3% NDF, and 36.9% ADF) were evaluated using ruminally cannulated steers (5 Bos Taurus indicus [BI] and 5 Bos taurus taurus [BT]). Subspecies were concurrently subjected to a 2-period, 2-treatme...

  8. Superovulation and embryo production in tropical adapted Bos taurus (Caracu and Bos indicus (Nelore cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Herrera Alvarez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare ovarian response and embryo production of superovulated Bos indicus and Bos taurus cows adapted to the environmental conditions from São Paulo State, Brazil. Ninety non-lactating cows from Caracu ( Bos taurus, n=40 and Nelore (Bos indicus, n=50 were treated with an intravaginal device containing progesterone (1.38 mg; CIDRB ®, Pfizer Animal Health, Montreal, Québec, Canada and 2.5 mg, intramuscularly (IM, of estradiol benzoate (Estrogin®, Farmavet, São Paulo, Brazil. Four days later, all animals were treated with multiple IM injections of 400 IU of FSH (Pluset®, Calier, Spain in decreasing doses (75–75; 75–50; 50–25, and 25–25 IU at 12-h intervals over 4 days. On the seventh day, CIDR-B device was removed and cows received, IM, 150 ìg of cloprostenol (Veteglan®, Calier, Spain. Cows were then inseminated 48 and 62 h after cloprostenol treatment and embryos were recovered non-surgically seven days after first insemination. Differences in the number of corpora lutea (CL number, total number of structures (ova/embryos, and number of transferable embryos were analyzed by Student t test. There was no difference (P > 0.05 in the average number of CL, total ova/embryos and transferable embryos of Caracu (11.4 ± 3.3; 8.6 ± 2.6 e 6.0 ± 2.4 and Nelore (12.0 ± 4.1; 9.0 ± 4.3 e 5.1 ± 2.9 cows, respectively. These results suggest that Caracu and Nelore cows superovulated in tropical climate had similar ovarian responses and embryo production.

  9. Effect of monensin inclusion on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation parameters by Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus steers consuming bermudagrass hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of monensin inclusion and cattle subspecies on utilization of bermudagrass hay (13.7% CP, 77.3% NDF, and 38.8% ADF) were evaluated using ruminally cannulated steers (5 Bos taurus indicus [BI] and 5 Bos taurus taurus [BT]; 398 kg BW). Subspecies were concurrently subjected to a 2-period, 2-t...

  10. Neospora caninum abortion in a Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, M; Osmann, C; Wohlsein, P; Schares, G

    2017-05-30

    A captive 17-year old female Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) aborted a fetus with a crown rump length of 19cm in early pregnancy. The fetus showed an early state of mummification. Histologically, a multifocal mononuclear encephalitis, myocarditis and periportal hepatitis was present indicating a possible protozoal cause of abortion. Although immunohistologically, Neospora (N.) caninum antigen could not be demonstrated, N. caninum DNA was detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in brain, heart, liver and lung of the fetus. N. caninum DNA was extracted from the aborted fetus and the microsatellite marker MS10 was amplified by PCR and sequenced. The obtained MS10 microsatellite pattern has not been described in Germany yet. Nevertheless, the MS10 pattern was very similar to those reported for N. caninum isolated from dogs and cattle in Germany. Because of the histological pattern and extent of the lesions, neosporosis was suspected as the cause of fetal death and abortion. This case report describes for the first time transplacental transmission of N. caninum and abortion due to neosporosis in a tapir. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ethanol production by Mucor indicus and Rhizopus oryzae from rice straw by separate hydrolysis and fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedinifar, Sorahi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran); Karimi, Keikhosro [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran); School of Engineering, University of Boraas, SE-501 90 Boraas (Sweden); Khanahmadi, Morteza [Isfahan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Centre, Isfahan (Iran); Taherzadeh, Mohammad J. [School of Engineering, University of Boraas, SE-501 90 Boraas (Sweden)

    2009-05-15

    Rice straw was successfully converted to ethanol by separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The hydrolysis temperature and pH of commercial cellulase and {beta}-glucosidase enzymes were first investigated and their best performance obtained at 45 C and pH 5.0. The pretreatment of the straw with dilute-acid hydrolysis resulted in 0.72 g g{sup -1} sugar yield during 48 h enzymatic hydrolysis, which was higher than steam-pretreated (0.60 g g{sup -1}) and untreated straw (0.46 g g{sup -1}). Furthermore, increasing the concentration of the dilute-acid pretreated straw from 20 to 50 and 100 g L{sup -1} resulted in 13% and 16% lower sugar yield, respectively. Anaerobic cultivation of the hydrolyzates with M. indicus resulted in 0.36-0.43 g g{sup -1} ethanol, 0.11-0.17 g g{sup -1} biomass, and 0.04-0.06 g g{sup -1} glycerol, which is comparable with the corresponding yields by S. cerevisiae (0.37-0.45 g g{sup -1} ethanol, 0.04-0.10 g g{sup -1} biomass and 0.05-0.07 glycerol). These two fungi produced no other major metabolite from the straw and completed the cultivation in less than 25 h. However, R. oryzae produced lactic acid as the major by-product with yield of 0.05-0.09 g g{sup -1}. This fungus had ethanol, biomass and glycerol yields of 0.33-0.41, 0.06-0.12, and 0.03-0.04 g g{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  12. Objective Measures for the Assessment of Post-Operative Pain in Bos indicus Bull Calves Following Castration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musk, Gabrielle C.; Hyndman, Timothy H.; Lehmann, Heidi S.; Tuke, S. Jonathon; Collins, Teresa; Johnson, Craig B.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Surgical castration of cattle is a common husbandry procedure, and although this procedure is known to cause pain in cattle and other species, in some countries it is often performed without anaesthesia or analgesia. Society is increasingly aware of this animal welfare issue and it is creating pressure to drive research into animal welfare science with the aim of identifying practical and economical approaches to pain management in livestock. To effectively manage pain, a pain assessment must be performed. Pain assessment methods are often subjective and therefore influenced by the observer. Ideally, objective assessments that generate consistent and repeatable results between observers should be identified. Bos indicus bull calves were divided into four groups: no castration (NC, n = 6); castration with pre-operative local anaesthetic (CL n = 12); castration with pre-operative anti-inflammatory medication (CM, n = 12); and, castration without pain relief (C, n = 12). A range of objective assessments was performed: bodyweight measurements, activity, and rest levels, and four different compounds in the blood. The results of this study suggest that animals rest for longer periods after the pre-operative administration of anti-inflammatory medication. The other objective assessments measured in this study were not able to consistently differentiate between treatment groups. These findings emphasise the need for alternative quantifiable and objective indicators of pain in Bos indicus bull calves. Abstract The aim of the study was to assess pain in Bos indicus bull calves following surgical castration. Forty-two animals were randomised to four groups: no castration (NC, n = 6); castration with pre-operative lidocaine (CL, n = 12); castration with pre-operative meloxicam (CM, n = 12); and, castration alone (C, n = 12). Bodyweight was measured regularly and pedometers provided data on activity and rest from day −7 (7 days prior to surgery) to 13. Blood

  13. The trans-Himalayan flights of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, L.A.; Balachandran, S.; Batbayar, N.; Butler, P.J.; Frappell, P.B.; Milsom, W.K.; Tseveenmyadag, N.; Newman, S.H.; Scott, G.R.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Takekawa, John Y.; Wikelski, M.; Bishop, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Birds that fly over mountain barriers must be capable of meeting the increased energetic cost of climbing in low-density air, even though less oxygen may be available to support their metabolism. This challenge is magnified by the reduction in maximum sustained climbing rates in large birds. Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) make one of the highest and most iconic transmountain migrations in the world. We show that those populations of geese that winter at sea level in India are capable of passing over the Himalayas in 1 d, typically climbing between 4,000 and 6,000min 7-8 h. Surprisingly, these birds do not rely on the assistance of upslope tailwinds that usually occur during the day and can support minimum climb rates of 0.8-2.2 km??h-1, even in the relative stillness of the night. They appear to strategically avoid higher speed winds during the afternoon, thus maximizing safety and control during flight. It would seem, therefore, that bar-headed geese are capable of sustained climbing flight over the passes of the Himalaya under their own aerobic power.

  14. AVALIAÇÕES DA PARASITEMIA, DO HEMATÓCRITO E DOS NÍVEIS BIOQUÍMICOS SÉRICOS, DE BEZERROS NELORE (Bos indicus), INOCULADOS COM ISOLADOS DE Babesia bigemina (Smith & Kilborne, 1893) DAS REGIÕES SUL, SUDESTE, CENTRO-OESTE, NORDESTE E NORTE DO BRASIL

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Aparecida Schenki; Cláudio Roberto Madruga; Aguemi Kohayagawa; Carla Lopes Mendonça; Dirson Vieira; Raul Kessler

    2006-01-01

    Avaliaram-se a parasitemia, o hematócrito e os níveis séricos de bilirrubina total, creatinina, uréia e colesterol de bezerros Nelore (Bos indicus) inoculados com isolados de Babesia bigemina das cinco regiões fisiográficas do Brasil. Constatou-se que os diferentes isolados desenvolveram baixa parasitemia, nos animais experimentalmente inoculados, diminuição do colesterol sérico, e que não houve variações nos níveis de bilirrubina, creatinina e uréia sérica. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Bos indicus, ...

  15. Multi-target activity of Hemidesmus indicus decoction against innovative HIV-1 drug targets and characterization of Lupeol mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Francesca; Mandrone, Manuela; Del Vecchio, Claudia; Carli, Ilaria; Distinto, Simona; Corona, Angela; Lianza, Mariacaterina; Piano, Dario; Tacchini, Massimo; Maccioni, Elias; Cottiglia, Filippo; Saccon, Elisa; Poli, Ferruccio; Parolin, Cristina; Tramontano, Enzo

    2017-08-31

    Despite the availability of several anti-retrovirals, there is still an urgent need for developing novel therapeutic strategies and finding new drugs against underexplored HIV-1 targets. Among them, there are the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT)-associated ribonuclease H (RNase H) function and the cellular α-glucosidase, involved in the control mechanisms of N-linked glycoproteins formation in the endoplasmic reticulum. It is known that many natural compounds, such as pentacyclic triterpenes, are a promising class of HIV-1 inhibitors. Hence, here we tested the pentacyclic triterpene Lupeol, showing that it inhibits the HIV-1 RT-associated RNase H function. We then performed combination studies of Lupeol and the active site RNase H inhibitor RDS1759, and blind docking calculations, demonstrating that Lupeol binds to an HIV-1 RT allosteric pocket. On the bases of these results and searching for potential multitarget active drug supplement, we also investigated the anti-HIV-1 activity of Hemidesmus indicus, an Ayurveda medicinal plant containing Lupeol. Results supported the potential of this plant as a valuable multitarget active drug source. In fact, by virtue of its numerous active metabolites, H. indicus was able to inhibit not only the RT-associated RNase H function, but also the HIV-1 RT-associated RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity and the cellular α-glucosidase. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Distribución de la garrapata Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae sobre Bos taurus y Bos indicus en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Alvarez C.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Se informa sobre la casuística de A. cajennense encontrada sobre B. taurus y B. indicus en Costa Rica en 532 fincas muestreadas a nivel nacional en los diferentes sistemas de producción (leche, carne y doble propósito. Existe desigual distribución Amblyomma spp. (incluidas A. cajennense, A. maculatum, A. inornatum y A. oblongoguttatum en las diferentes regiones administrativas y en las zonas ecológicas. La presencia de Amblyomma spp. fue 12 veces (X², PResistance to acaricides in the cattle tick population was surveyed in 532 farms throughout Costa Rica. Samples were collected from bovines (Bos taurus and Bos indicus, in three production systems: dairy, meat and double-purpose. There is an uneven distribution of Amblyomma spp. (including A. cajennense, A. maculatum and A. oblongoguttatum in the administrative regions in which the country is divided, as well as in ecological zones. Administratively, Amblyomma spp., was 12 times more frecuent (X², p<0.001 in the Central Pacific and Chorotega regions (Pacific coast, than elsewhere. Ecologically, ticks of this genus were more common in the Tropical Humid Forest (33 % and the Very Humid Montain Forest (18 %. There was at least one sample of Amblyomma in 41% of counties. The most frecuent Amblyomma was A. cajennense. The wide distribution of Amblyomma spp. in very warm places with a marked six months rainy season suggests a potential danger of the substitution capacity of Amblyomma spp., which can also affect public health. The paper also reviews Amblyomma literature in detail.

  17. Efficacy of Mycobacterium indicus pranii immunotherapy as an adjunct to chemotherapy for tuberculosis and underlying immune responses in the lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankan Gupta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 9-month-long chemotherapy of tuberculosis often results in poor compliance and emergence of drug-resistant strains. So, improved therapeutic strategy is urgently needed. Immunotherapy could be beneficial for the effective management of the disease. Previously we showed the protective efficacy of Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP when given as prophylactic vaccine in animal models of tuberculosis. METHODS: We sought to investigate whether MIP can be used as an adjunct to the chemotherapy in guinea pig models of tuberculosis. Efficacy of MIP was evaluated when given subcutaneously or by aerosol. RESULTS: MIP-therapy as an adjunct to the chemotherapy was found to be effective in accelerating bacterial killing and improving organ pathology. MIP-immunotherapy resulted in higher numbers of activated antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes in the infected lungs and also modulated the granulomatous response. Early increase in protective Th1 immune response was observed in the immunotherapy group. Following subsequent doses of MIP, decrease in the inflammatory response and increase in the immunosuppressive response was observed, which resulted in the improvement of lung pathology. CONCLUSION: MIP immunotherapy is a valuable adjunct to chemotherapy for tuberculosis. Aerosol route of immunotherapy can play a crucial role for inducing immediate local immune response in the lung.

  18. Esophageal dissection and hematoma associated with obstruction in an Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phair, Kristen A; Sutherland-Smith, Meg; Pye, Geoffrey W; Pessier, Allan P; Clippinger, Tracy L

    2014-06-01

    A 42-year-old female Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) developed a sudden onset of excessive salivation and dysphagia. Esophageal obstruction was suspected; possibly related to palm frond ingestion. Esophageal endoscopy revealed a mat of plant material in the distal esophagus. An initial attempt at relieving the obstruction was unsuccessful, but subsequent use of custom-made instruments along with insufflation and hydropulsion enabled partial removal of the material. Postimmobilization care included aggressive intravenous and rectal fluids, anti-inflammatory and antibiotic administration, and fasting. Despite treatment, the dysphagia persisted and the elephant was euthanized due to lack of improvement and grave prognosis. Postmortem examination revealed remaining plant material in the esophagus, complicated by an esophageal dissection, mural hematoma, and secondary bacterial infection. Iatrogenic trauma may have contributed to the extent of esophageal injury. Although treatment was ultimately unsuccessful, the supportive care employed could potentially aid recovery in cases of less severe esophageal trauma.

  19. AVALIAÇÕES DA PARASITEMIA, DO HEMATÓCRITO E DOS NÍVEIS BIOQUÍMICOS SÉRICOS, DE BEZERROS NELORE (Bos indicus, INOCULADOS COM ISOLADOS DE Babesia bigemina (Smith & Kilborne, 1893 DAS REGIÕES SUL, SUDESTE, CENTRO-OESTE, NORDESTE E NORTE DO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Schenki

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a parasitemia, o hematócrito e os níveis séricos de bilirrubina total, creatinina, uréia e colesterol de bezerros Nelore (Bos indicus inoculados com isolados de Babesia bigemina das cinco regiões fisiográficas do Brasil. Constatou-se que os diferentes isolados desenvolveram baixa parasitemia, nos animais experimentalmente inoculados, diminuição do colesterol sérico, e que não houve variações nos níveis de bilirrubina, creatinina e uréia sérica. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Bos indicus, Babesia bigemina, parasitemia, bioquímica sérica.

  20. Incidence and transplacental transmission of Neospora caninum in primiparous females from Bos indicus slaughtered in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil / Incidência e transmissão transplacentária de Neospora caninum em fêmeas primíparas da raça Bos indicus abatidos em Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio do Nascimento Kronka

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available To produce an epidemiological map of neosporosis in Brazil and identify the types of transmission of this disease, the present study evaluated the occurrence of Neospora caninum in Nelore cattle (Bos indicus in Presidente Prudent, west region of Sao Paulo state; its vertical transmission; and the early stage in which fetuses are infected. To achieve this, serum samples from 518 slaughtered pregnant heifers and their fetuses were tested by ELISA technique and fetal brain tissues subjected to PCR. One hundred and three heifers (19.88% had antibodies to N. caninum, as well as 38 (36.8% of fetuses from 4 months of gestation. The conventional PCR failed to detect N. caninum DNA. These findings show that neosporosis occurs in the area studied and that it may be transmitted the transplacental route, althought N. caninum had not detected in brain tissue from non-aborted fetuses. The use of nested PCR it would be applied to increase the sensitivy of test.Para produzir um mapa epidemiológico da neosporose no Brasil e identificar os tipos de transmissão dessa doença, o presente estudo avaliou a ocorrência de Neospora caninum em fêmea Nelore (Bos Indicus em Presidente Prudente, região oeste do Estado de São Paulo e o risco de infecção fetal nos estágios iniciais da gestação. Para a realização deste estudo, amostras de soro de 518 novilhas prenhas abatidas e seus fetos foram testadas pela técnica de ELISA e para avaliação de transmissão vertical, tecido cerebral fetal foi submetido à reação da polimerase em cadeia (PCR. Dessas novilhas, 103 (19,88% tinham anticorpos para N. caninum dos quais 38 (36,8% estavam no 4 mês de gestação. Esses achados mostram que a Neosporose ocorre na área estudada e que pode ser transmitido pela via placentária, embora o N. caninum não tenha sido detectado em tecido cerebral de fetos não abortado. O uso de nested PCR poderia ser aplicado como forma de aumentar a sensibilidade do teste.

  1. Childhood Antecedents to Adult Coronary Artery Diseases. Special Reference Briefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winick, Myron

    This reference brief deals with the childhood antecedents to atherosclerosis and hypertension. While diet is related to the development of coronary artery diseases, there is some disagreement about what dietary changes are necessary or desirable in children to prevent their development, and at what age such changes should be made. Fifty-five…

  2. Temperature effect on behaviour, oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion and tolerance limit of the post larvae of shrimp Penaeus indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, R; Mohamed, E H Syed; Rao, T Subba; Venugopalanj, V P; Hameed, P Shahul

    2008-01-01

    The present study has been carried out to know the effect of temperature on behaviour, equilibrium loss and tolerance limit of the post larvae of shrimp Penaeus indicus. The experimental temperatures were selected based on the thermal tolerance limit. The experiments were conducted at a specific temperature for duration of 48 hr. The thermal tolerance experiments were conducted in two ways: in direct exposure and in gradually increasing temperature. The upper and lower lethal temperatures for the post larvae of shrimp P. indicus were 43.5 degrees C and 8 degrees C respectively. During tolerance experiment, no mortality was observed at 33 degrees C and 35 degrees C. But at 38 degrees C with gradual increase in temperature, 30% loss of equilibrium and mortality were recorded in 24.31 hrs and 25.07 hrs, and the remaining 70% were alive. On the contrary, when the post larvae of shrimps were directly exposed to 38 degrees C, almost 80% loss of equilibrium and mortality were recorded in 30.22 hrs and 30.40 hrs, remaining 20% were alive. At 40 degrees C with gradual increase in temperature, 100% loss of equilibrium and mortality were recorded in 25.32 hrs and 25.56 hrs. On the other hand, when the post larvae of shrimps were directly exposed to 40 degrees C, 100% loss of equilibrium was observed in 0.37 hrs and mortality in 1.40 hrs. These behavioral responses include an elevated temperature of 12 degrees C, surfacing, dashing against glass wall, jumping out of the water, etc. In general, the rate of oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion was found to enhance with increasing temperature. In the present study, it was found that gradual increase in temperature favours the shellfish population to escape from the thermal exposure as compared to direct exposure.

  3. Gross anatomy and ultrasonographic images of the reproductive system of the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilia, K; Rosnina, Y; Abd Wahid, H; Zahari, Z Z; Abraham, M

    2010-12-01

    The Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) is the largest among the four tapir species and is listed as an endangered species. Ultrasound examination and description of the external anatomy of the female reproductive system of three adult females were performed, whereas the internal anatomy was investigated in necropsied samples of four adult females and one subadult female. Descriptions of the male external genitalia were conducted on one adult male. Gross examination revealed the presence of a bicornuate uterus. The uterine cervix is firm and muscular with projections towards its lumen, which is also evident on ultrasonography. The elongated and relatively small ovaries, which have a smooth surface, could not be imaged on ultrasonography, due to their anatomical position. The testes are located inside a slightly pendulous scrotum that is sparsely covered with soft, short hairs. The penis has one dorsal and two lateral penile projections just proximal to the glans penis. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore Cattle Are Modulators of Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirene G T Pereira

    Full Text Available Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS, were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1 as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1, IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2, GH1 (growth hormone 1, IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor and GHR (growth hormone receptor, suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway.

  5. Customized Internal Reference Controls for Improved Assessment of Circulating MicroRNAs in Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Schlosser

    Full Text Available Altered levels of circulating extracellular miRNA in plasma and serum have shown promise as non-invasive biomarkers of disease. However, unlike the assessment of cellular miRNA levels for which there are accepted housekeeping genes, analogous reference controls for normalization of circulating miRNA are lacking. Here, we provide an approach to identify and validate circulating miRNA reference controls on a de novo basis, and demonstrate the advantages of these customized internal controls in different disease settings. Importantly, these internal controls overcome key limitations of external spike-in controls.Using a global RT-qPCR screen of 1066 miRNAs in plasma from pulmonary hypertension patients (PAH and healthy subjects as a case example, we identified a large pool of initial candidate miRNAs that were systematically ranked according to their plasma level stability using a predefined algorithm. The performance of the top candidates was validated against multiple comparators, and in a second independent cohort of PAH and control subjects. The broader utility of this approach was demonstrated in a completely different disease setting with 372 miRNAs screened in plasma from septic shock patients and healthy controls.Normalization of data with specific internal reference controls significantly reduced the overall variation in circulating miRNA levels between subjects (relative to raw data, provided a more balanced distribution of up- and down-regulated miRNAs, replicated the results obtained by the benchmark geometric averaging of all detected miRNAs, and outperformed the commonly used external spike-in strategy.We demonstrate the feasibility of identifying circulating reference controls that can reduce extraneous technical variations, and improve the assessment of disease-related changes in plasma miRNA levels. This study provides a novel conceptual framework that addresses a critical and previously unmet need if circulating miRNAs are to

  6. Evaluation of two progestogen-based estrous synchronization protocols in yearling heifers of Bos indicus × Bos taurus breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinniss, E N; Esterman, R D; Woodall, S A; Austin, B R; Hersom, M J; Thatcher, W W; Yelich, J V

    2011-06-01

    Yearling Bos indicus × Bos taurus heifers (n = 410) from three locations, were synchronized with either the Select Synch/CIDR+timed-AI (SSC+TAI) or 7-11+timed-AI (7-11+TAI) treatments. On Day 0 of the experiment, within each location, heifers were equally distributed to treatments by reproductive tract score (RTS; Scale 1-5: 1 = immature, 5 = estrous cycling) and body condition score. The 7-11+TAI treatment consisted of melengestrol acetate (0.5 mg/head/d) from Days 0 to 7, with PGF(2α) (25 mg im) on Day 7, GnRH (100 μg im) on Day 11, and PGF(2α) (25 mg im) on Day 18. The SSC+TAI heifers received the same carrier supplement (without MGA) from Days 0 to 7, and on Day 11 they were given 100 μg GnRH and an intravaginal CIDR (containing 1.38 g progesterone). The CIDR were removed on Day 18, concurrent with 25 mg PGF(2α) im For both treatments, estrus was visually detected for 1 h twice daily (0700 and 1600 h) for 72 h after PGF(2α), with AI done 6 to 12 h after a detected estrus. Non-responders were timed-AI and received GnRH (100 μg im) 72 to 76 h post PGF(2α). The 7-11+TAI heifers had a greater (P conception rate (47.0 vs 31.3%), and synchronized pregnancy rate (33.5 vs 24.8%) compared to SSC+TAI heifers, respectively. Heifers exhibiting estrus at 60 h (61.7%) had a greater (P conception rate compared to heifers that exhibited estrus at ≤ 36 (35.3%), 48 (31.6%), and 72 h (36.2%), which were similar (P > 0.05) to each other. As RTS increased from ≤ 2 to ≥ 3, estrous response, conception rate, synchronized pregnancy rate, and 30 d pregnancy rate all increased (P rates compared to SSC+TAI treatment in yearling Bos indicus × Bos taurus heifers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of brain reference genes for RT-qPCR studies in neurodegenerative diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Rydbirk, Rasmus; Folke, Jonas; Winge, Kristian; Aznar, Susana; Pakkenberg, Bente; Brudek, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of gene expression levels by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) has for many years been the favourite approach for discovering disease-associated alterations. Normalization of results to stably expressed reference genes (RGs) is pivotal to obtain reliable results. This is especially important in relation to neurodegenerative diseases where disease-related structural changes may affect the most commonly used RGs. We analysed 15 candidate RGs in 98 brain sampl...

  8. Radiation preservation of sea-foods : development of dehydro-irradiation processes for shrimp (Penaeus indicus) and Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, N.F.

    1978-01-01

    Bombay duck which comprises more than 10% of India's annual fish catch is not amenable to freezing and canning mainly due to the high content of free water and extreme lability of its proteins. The commercially available sun-dried product is suspect to rapid spoilage by mould leading to impairment of organoleptic qualities. The dehydro-irradiation process using heat and gamma radiation has been developed to stabilise sea foods and is studied with Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus) and shrimp (Penaeus indicus). The process has been found to preserve Bombay duck laminates for a period of four months at ambient temperature and the products are more superior in organoleptic qualities to those prepared by the conventional sun-drying method. (M.G.B.)

  9. Effect of Punica granatum fruit peel on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in amphistome Gastrothylax indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Rama; Bagai, Upma

    2017-03-01

    Increasing anthelmintic resistance and the impact of conventional anthelmintics on the environment, it is important to look for alternative strategies against helminth parasite in sheep. Important lipogenic enzymes like glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) show subcellular distribution pattern. Activity of G-6-PDH was largely restricted to cytosolic fraction while MDH was found in both cytosolic and mitochondrial fraction in Gastrothylax indicus. Following in vitro treatment with ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Punica granatum fruit peel and commercial anthelmintic, albendazole G-6-PDH activity was decreased by 19-32 %, whereas MDH was suppressed by 24-41 %, compared to the respective control. Albendazole was quite effective when compared with negative control and both the extracts. The results indicate that phytochemicals of plant may act as potential vermifuge or vermicide.

  10. PEMANFAATAN KULIT KAYU ANGSANA (Pterocarpus indicus SEBAGAI SUMBER ZAT WARNA ALAM PADA PEWARNAAN KAIN BATIK SUTERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Wiji Lestari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian pemanfaatan kulit kayu angsana (Pterocarpus indicus sebagai sumber zat warna alam untuk pewarnaan kain batik sutera. Ekstraksi ZWA dilakukan dengan pelarut air dengan variasi suhu ekstraksi 75 °C dan 100 °C. Pewarnaan zat warna alam kemudian diaplikasikan pada kain batik sutera pada kondisi pencelupan asam (pH 4 dan basa (pH 10. Mordan awal yang digunakan adalah tawas dan jirak. Diakhir pewarnaan alam dilakukan fiksasi dengan menggunakan tawas dan tunjung. Berdasar hasil penelitian, kulit kayu angsana terbukti dapat digunakan sebagai sumber zat warna alam untuk batik sutera. Ketuaan warna paling tinggi diperoleh pada pewarnaan batik sutera dengan menggunakan mordan jirek pada suhu ekstraksi 100 °C dalam kondisi pencelupan basa dengan fiksator tunjung. Arah warna yang dihasilkan adalah coklat tua pada suasana pencelupan asam dengan fiksasi tunjung, coklat kemerahan pada suasana  pencelupan asam fiksasi tawas, coklat kemerahan pada suasana  pencelupan basa fiksasi tawas dan coklat tanah pada suasana  pencelupan basa dengan fiksasi tunjung. Hasil uji ketahanan luntur warna terhadap pencucian dari sampel pewarnaan menunjukkan kualitas baik yaitu pada skala 4-5 (Baik. Study on utilizationof angsana (Pterocarpus indicus as natural dye for silk batik has been conducted. The study was aimed to determine the quality of the natural dyeing of the bark of angsana by use jirak (Symplocos fasciculata Zoll. and alum as the natural mordant. Extraction of natural dye was carried out using water by varying the extraction temperature of 75 and 100 °C. The coloration was applied to silk batik at both acid (pH 4 and basic (pH 6 impregnations. The mordant employed  were alum and jirak. The last stage was fixation using alum and ferrosulfate. Based on the results, angsana was proved to be used as a source of natural dyes for silk batik. The highest color intensity was obtained by using angsana bark extract and jirak as mordant at

  11. Efecto de la proporción de genes Bos indicus x Bos taurus sobre peso al destete y edad a primer parto en una población multirracial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo O. Toledo Alvarado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron 1,289 registros de hembras de primer parto con diversas proporciones de genes Bos indicus y Bos taurus (Charolais, Suizo, Simmental, Holstein Friesian y Salers. Tanto animales puros y cruzados de un hato comercial, ubicado en el municipio de Hueytamalco, Puebla, nacidas entre 1966 a 2006, con el objetivo de estimar la combinación óptima de genes Cebú y la retención de heterosis (RVH sobre las características de peso al destete ajustado a 270 días (PD y edad a primer parto (EPP. A partir de modelos de regresión múltiple se identificó la proporción de Cebú con el mejor comportamiento para las dos características de acuerdo al coeficiente de determinación (R 2 y al estadístico de Mallow (CP. La mejor respuesta para PD se encontró en el rango de 42 a 70 % de genes Bos indicus ; mientras que las menores EPP se establecieron entre 27 al 40 % de proporción Cebú. La retención de heterosis que mostró mayor potencial para PD fue de 76 a 78 % y para EPP de 79 a 92 %. Estos resultados manifiestan la importancia de los efectos no aditivos en ambas características, así como la necesidad de realizar cruzamientos dirigidos.

  12. Assessment of antimicrobial activity of c-type lysozyme from Indian shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus

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    Viswanathan Karthik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the multitudinal antimicrobial effects of recombinant lysozyme from Fenneropenaeus indicus (rFi-Lyz in comparison with commercially available recombinant hen egg white lysozyme (rHEWL. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of the recombinant rFi-Lyz using several Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and fungi in comparison with rHEWL has been evaluated. rFi-Lyz was expressed and purified using Ni2+ affinity chromatography. The effect of rFi-Lyz in the growth of yeast Candida krusei, plant molds Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani was assessed by well diffusion assay in petri plates with potato dextrose agar. Results: rFi-Lyz exhibited high inhibitory activity on Gram positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Among various Gram negative bacteria tested Klebsiella pneumoniae exhibited the highest inhibition followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella dysenteriae. rFi-Lyz also exhibited significant inhibition on two marine pathogens Aeromonas veronii and Vibrio alginolyticus. Among the various fungal strains tested, rFi-Lyz inhibited the growth of budding yeast Candida krusei significantly. Further the growth of two other plants fungus Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum were retarded by rFi-Lyz in the plate inhibition assay. Conclusions: rFi-Lyz exhibits a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity like a natural antibiotic on various pathogenic bacteria and fungal strains.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Alzheimer disease Alzheimer disease Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Alzheimer disease is a degenerative disease of the brain ...

  14. Reliability, reference values and predictor variables of the ulnar sensory nerve in disease free adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruediger, T M; Allison, S C; Moore, J M; Wainner, R S

    2014-09-01

    The purposes of this descriptive and exploratory study were to examine electrophysiological measures of ulnar sensory nerve function in disease free adults to determine reliability, determine reference values computed with appropriate statistical methods, and examine predictive ability of anthropometric variables. Antidromic sensory nerve conduction studies of the ulnar nerve using surface electrodes were performed on 100 volunteers. Reference values were computed from optimally transformed data. Reliability was computed from 30 subjects. Multiple linear regression models were constructed from four predictor variables. Reliability was greater than 0.85 for all paired measures. Responses were elicited in all subjects; reference values for sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) amplitude from above elbow stimulation are 3.3 μV and decrement across-elbow less than 46%. No single predictor variable accounted for more than 15% of the variance in the response. Electrophysiologic measures of the ulnar sensory nerve are reliable. Absent SNAP responses are inconsistent with disease free individuals. Reference values recommended in this report are based on appropriate transformations of non-normally distributed data. No strong statistical model of prediction could be derived from the limited set of predictor variables. Reliability analyses combined with relatively low level of measurement error suggest that ulnar sensory reference values may be used with confidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: celiac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do not have celiac disease . On average, a diagnosis of celiac disease is not made until 6 to 10 years ... and tissues and leads to the signs and symptoms of celiac disease . Almost all people with celiac disease have specific ...

  16. Daboia russellii and Naja kaouthia venom neutralization by lupeol acetate isolated from the root extract of Indian sarsaparilla Hemidesmus indicus R.Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Ipshita; Chakravarty, A K; Gomes, A

    2006-06-15

    The present study reports the isolation and purification of lupeol acetate from the methanolic root extract of Indian medicinal plant Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R.Br. (family: Asclepiadaceae) which could neutralize venom induced action of Daboia russellii and Naja kaouthia on experimental animals. Lupeol acetate could significantly neutralize lethality, haemorrhage, defibrinogenation, edema, PLA(2) activity induced by Daboia russellii venom. It also neutralized Naja kaouthia venom induced lethality, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity and respiratory changes in experimental animals. Lupeol acetate potentiated the protection by snake venom antiserum action against Daboia russellii venom induced lethality in male albino mice. Venom induced changes in lipid peroxidation and super oxide dismutase activity was antagonized by lupeol acetate. Snake venom neutralization by lupeol acetate and its possible mechanism of action has been discussed.

  17. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives as an index of microbial protein supply in cross-bred (Bos indicus x Bos taurus) cattle in tropical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojeda, A.; Parra, O.

    1999-01-01

    Four experiments were carried out to establish a response model between urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) and microbial production in Bos indicus x Bos taurus cross-bred cattle: LZ, MZ and HZ (3/8, 1/2 and 5/8 Bos indicus, respectively). The fasting PD excretion was considered as endogenous excretion and amounted to 268 (± 85.1), 294 (± 128.1) and 269 (± 68.4) μmol/kg W 0.75 for LZ, MZ and HZ, respectively. Urinary recovery of absorbed purine bases (PB) was calculated as the urinary recovery of a single dose of intrajugular infused uric acid (1,3- 15 N). In HZ crossbred cattle 83% (± 20.3) of infused uric acid was recovered in the urinary PD. The relationship between duodenal purine absorption (X, mmol/d) and urinary PD excretion (Y, mmol/d) was defined in HZ crossbred cattle as Y = 0.83 X + 0.269W 0.75 (± 85.1), assuming that the endogenous contribution was constant and independent of the exogenous PB supply. The activity of xanthine oxidase (EC 1.2.3.2.) was determined in HZ and MZ and was found to be higher in the liver (0.62 and 0.66 units/g, respectively) than in intestinal mucosa (0.09 and 0.03 units/g, respectively), whereas xanthine oxidase activity was practically absent in plasma of both cross breeds. The ratio PB:total N was determined in microbial extracts taken from rumen fluid of cows fed Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) as the sole diet or supplemented (ratio of 80:20, grass: supplement) with gluten feed, soybean hulls or Gliricidia species and were found to range from 1.52-1.62 μmol PB/mg N. (author)

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Fabry disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke: Fabry's Disease Information Page National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Lipid Storage Diseases Fact Sheet Educational Resources (8 links) Children Living With Inherited Metabolic Diseases (CLIMB) (UK): Fabry ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Parkinson disease

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    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Parkinson disease Parkinson disease Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Parkinson disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Cole disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Cole disease Cole disease Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Cole disease is a disorder that affects the skin. People ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Graves disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Graves disease Graves disease Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Graves disease is a condition that affects the function of ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Norrie disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Norrie disease Norrie disease Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Norrie disease is an inherited eye disorder that leads to ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: Hirschsprung disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... occur in combination with other conditions, such as Waardenburg syndrome , type IV; Mowat-Wilson syndrome ; or congenital central ... Disease MalaCards: hirschsprung disease 1 Orphanet: Hirschsprung disease Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (4 links) Bowel Group ...

  4. Effect of follicular diameter, time of first cleavage and H3K4 methylation on embryo production rates of Bos indicus cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Alvares Lunardelli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed investigate the relationship between epigenetics, follicular diameter and cleavage speed, by evaluating the developmental potential and occurence of H3K4 monomethylation of early-, intermediate- and late-cleaving Bos indicus embryos from in vitro fertilized oocytes originating from follicles up to 2 mm in diameter or between 4 and 8 mm in diameter. Oocytes (n = 699 from small follicles (? 2 mm and 639 oocytes from large follicles (4-8 mm were punched from 1,982 Bos indicus’ slaughterhouse ovaries. After maturation and in vitro fertilization (IVF, the cultured embryos were separated into early (? 28 h post-IVF, intermediate (> 28 h and ? 34 h post-IVF and late (> 34 h and ? 54 h post-IVF cleavage groups. Blastocysts were subjected to an immunofluorescence assessment for H3K4me investigation. The blastocyst rate for large follicles (36.3% was higher than that for small follicles (22.9%, P < 0.05. In addition, blastocyst rates for early and intermediate cleavage groups (45.3% and 33.8%, respectively were higher than that for late cleavage group (13.5%, P < 0.05. The blastocysts from all groups displayed H3K4me staining by immunofluorescence, particularly intense in what seemed to be trophectoderm cells and weak or absent in cells seemingly from the inner cell mass. For the first time for indicus embryos, data from this study demonstrate that higher blastocyst embryo rates are obtained from embryos that cleave within 34 h after fertilization and from those produced from follicles of 4-8 mm in diameter, indicating a greater ability of these embryos to develop to the stage of embryonic preimplantation. This is the first article demonstrating the occurrence of H3K4me in cattle embryos; its presence in all the evaluated blastocysts suggests that this histone modification plays a key role in maintaining embryo viability at preimplantation stage.

  5. Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Their Relation to Future Surgery for Valvular Heart Disease or Ascending Aortic Disease: A Case-Referent Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungberg, Johan; Johansson, Bengt; Engström, Karl Gunnar; Albertsson, Elin; Holmer, Paul; Norberg, Margareta; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Söderberg, Stefan

    2017-05-05

    Risk factors for developing heart valve and ascending aortic disease are based mainly on retrospective data. To elucidate these factors in a prospective manner, we have performed a nested case-referent study using data from large, population-based surveys. A total of 777 patients operated for heart valve disease or disease of the ascending aorta had previously participated in population-based health surveys in Northern Sweden. Median time (interquartile range) from survey to surgery was 10.5 (9.0) years. Primary indications for surgery were aortic stenosis (41%), aortic regurgitation (12%), mitral regurgitation (23%), and dilatation/dissection of the ascending aorta (17%). For each case, referents were allocated, matched for age, sex, and geographical area. In multivariable models, surgery for aortic stenosis was predicted by hypertension, high cholesterol levels, diabetes mellitus, and active smoking. Surgery for aortic regurgitation was associated with a low cholesterol level, whereas a high cholesterol level predicted surgery for mitral regurgitation. Hypertension, blood pressure, and previous smoking predicted surgery for disease of the ascending aorta whereas diabetes mellitus was associated with reduced risk. After exclusion of cases with coronary atherosclerosis, only the inverse associations between cholesterol and aortic regurgitation and between diabetes mellitus and disease of the ascending aorta remained. This is the first truly prospective study of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and their association with valvular heart disease and disease of the ascending aorta. We confirm the strong association between traditional risk factors and aortic stenosis, but only in patients with concomitant coronary artery disease. In isolated valvular heart disease, the impact of traditional risk factors is varying. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  6. DGAT1 and ABCG2 polymorphism in Indian cattle (Bos indicus and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Bina

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indian cattle (Bos indicus and riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis give a poor yield of milk but it has a high fat and protein percentage compared to taurine cattle. The identification of QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci on BTA14 and BTA6 and its subsequent fine mapping has led to identification of two non conservative mutations affecting milk production and composition. Our objective was to estimate the frequency of K232A (DGAT1 – diacylglycerol – acyltransferase 1 and Y581S (ABCG2 – ATP binding cassette sub family G member 2 polymorphisms in diverse cattle and buffalo breeds of India having large variation in terms of milk production. Results We screened the reported missense mutations in six cattle and five buffalo breeds. The DGAT1K and ABCG2Y alleles were found to be fixed in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds studied. Conclusion This study provides an indirect evidence that all the Indian cattle and buffalo breeds have fixed alleles with respect to DGAT1 and ABCG2 genes reported to be responsible for higher milk fat yield, higher fat and protein percent.

  7. In vivo Efficacy of Vernonia amygdalina (Compositae Against Natural Helminth Infection in Bunaji (Bos indicus Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. I. Alawa ab*, A. M. Adamu, J. O. Gefub, O. J. Ajanusic, P. A. Abdud and N. P. Chiezeyb

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen Bunaji calves (Bos indicus averaging 105±12.5 Kg liveweight and approximately nine months of age with natural helminth infection were distributed into three treatment groups of five animals each. Animals were either treated orally with aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina at a dose concentration of 1.1g/Kg body weight, a conventional anthelmintic or left untreated. V. amygdalina treatment produced 59.5% reduction in eggs per gram (EPG of faeces which was significantly different (P<0.001 from the untreated control (-17.24%, whereas levamisol hydrochloride treatment produced 100% reduction in EPG. A total of six genera of helminths were recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts and liver of experimental animals. These were Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus spp, Bunostomum spp, Oesophagostomum spp, Fasciola spp and Dicrocoelium spp. There was significant difference (P<0.001 in worm load between the different treatment groups. Except for Haemonchus spp, animals in the untreated group had significantly (P<0.001 higher worm load for all the genera of helminth recovered than those of the V. amygdalina treated group, indicating that V. amygdalina had no effect on Haemonchus contortus.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: prion disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which have overlapping signs and symptoms, include familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), and fatal ... Sc . Sporadic forms of prion disease include sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI), and variably protease- ...

  9. Congenital heart diseases in a reference service: clinical evolution and associated illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Janaína; Peres, Vivian Catarino; Santos, Tiago Jeronimo dos; Beltrão, Lauro da Fontoura; Baumont, Angélica Cerveira de; Cañedo, Andrés Delgado; Schaan, Beatriz D'Agord; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2010-03-01

    Several factors, which include prenatal diagnosis and availability of new therapeutic procedures, have contributed to change the profile of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Knowing these changes is important to a better health care. Description of profile of patients with CHD in a reference service in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It is a cross-sectional study including 684 patients with CHD in a service of pediatric cardiology from January 2007 to May 2008. We interviewed the patients (and/or their parents) and examined these patients (congenital malformations, anthropometric measures). Moreover, their charts were reviewed in order to detail heart diseases, procedures and echocardiography. Patients were from 16 days to 66 years old, 51.8% were female, and 93.7% were Caucasian. The mean age at diagnosis was 15.8 +/- 46.8 months. Ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus and Tetralogy of Fallot were the most prevalent CHD. 59.1% of examined patients, whose average age was 44.3 +/- 71.2 months, have been undergoing therapeutic procedures; 30.4% had congenital extracardiac malformations; and 12 patients had genetic syndrome. Regarding development, 46.6% had low weight and height gain, and 13.7% had neuropsychomotor delay. Furthermore, 18.4% had family history of congenital heart disease. Neuropsychomotor delay and low weight and height gain may be related to CHD. Establishing a profile of patients with CHD, who were treated at an institution of reference, may function as a basis in which health care of this population can be planed appropriately.

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Asiatic tapir [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Asiatic tapir Tapirus indicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Tapirus_indicus_L.png Tapi...rus_indicus_NL.png Tapirus_indicus_S.png Tapirus_indicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tapirus+indicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tapirus+ind...icus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tapirus+indicus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tapirus+indicus&t=NS ...

  11. Hemidesmus indicus and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Affect Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinoth Kumar Megraj Khandelwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemidesmus indicus (L. R. Br. (HI and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (HRS are widely used traditional medicine. We investigated cardioprotective effects of these plants applied for 15 min at concentrations of 90, 180, and 360 μg/mL in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts prior to 25-min global ischemia/120-min reperfusion (I/R. Functional recovery (left ventricular developed pressure—LVDP, and rate of development of pressure, reperfusion arrhythmias, and infarct size (TTC staining served as the endpoints. A transient increase in LVDP (32%–75% occurred at all concentrations of HI, while coronary flow (CF was significantly increased after HI 180 and 360. Only a moderate increase in LVDP (21% and 55% and a tendency to increase CF was observed at HRS 180 and 360. HI and HRS at 180 and 360 significantly improved postischemic recovery of LVDP. Both the drugs dose-dependently reduced the numbers of ectopic beats and duration of ventricular tachycardia. The size of infarction was significantly decreased by HI 360, while HRS significantly reduced the infarct size at all concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, it can be concluded that HI might cause vasodilation, positive inotropic effect, and cardioprotection, while HRS might cause these effects at higher concentrations. However, further study is needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of their actions.

  12. Iron deficiency anemia in captive āalayan tapir calves (Tapirus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmick, Kelly E; Milne, Victoria E

    2012-12-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was diagnosed in two captive female neonatal Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) at separate institutions. Both calves had unremarkable exams and normal blood parameters within the first 3 days of life. Microcytic hypochromic anemia (hematocrit, HCT= 20%; mean corpuscular volume, MCV = 32.8 fl; mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCH = 10.5 pg) was diagnosed at day 66 of age in calf EPZ-1. Iron dextran (10 mg/kg i.m.) was administered at day 71. A normal HCT (33%) with microcytosis and hypochromasia (MCV = 33.0 fl; MCH = 11.7 pg) was identified at day 80. No further concerns were noted through 610 days of age. Microcytic hypochromic anemia (HCT = 16%; MCV = 38.4 fl; MCH = 13.3 pg; mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, MCHC= 34.6 g/dl) with thrombocytosis (platelets= 1018 10(3)/UL) and poikilocytosis was diagnosed at day 38 of age in calf WPZ-1 by samples obtained through operant conditioning. Iron dextran (10 mg/kg i.m.) was administered at day 40 and day 68. Improving hematocrit (32%) and low serum iron (45 micorg/dl) was identified at day 88; total iron binding capacity (TIBC; 438 microg/dl) and percentage saturation (10%) were also measured. No further concerns were noted through day 529 of age. Retrospective evaluation identified presumptive IDA in two male siblings of calf WPZ-1. One calf died at day 40 (iron = 40 microg/dl; TIBC = 482 microg/dl; percentage saturation = 4%) and another at day 72 (HCT = 11%; iron = 26 microg/dl; TIBC = 470 microg/dl; percentage saturation = 6%). Death in both calves was attributed to disseminated intravascular coagulation and bacterial septicemia. IDA can develop in Malayan tapirs between day 38 and day 72 of age and may be a significant precursor to bacterial septicemia and death in neonatal Malayan tapirs.

  13. Estimating the population density of the Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) in a selectively logged forest in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, D Mark; Mohamad, Shariff Wan; Dorward, Leejiah; Aziz, Sheema Abdul; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Christopher, Wong Chai Thiam; Traeholt, Carl; Magintan, David

    2012-12-01

    The endangered Asian tapir (Tapirus indicus) is threatened by large-scale habitat loss, forest fragmentation and increased hunting pressure. Conservation planning for this species, however, is hampered by a severe paucity of information on its ecology and population status. We present the first Asian tapir population density estimate from a camera trapping study targeting tigers in a selectively logged forest within Peninsular Malaysia using a spatially explicit capture-recapture maximum likelihood based framework. With a trap effort of 2496 nights, 17 individuals were identified corresponding to a density (standard error) estimate of 9.49 (2.55) adult tapirs/100 km(2) . Although our results include several caveats, we believe that our density estimate still serves as an important baseline to facilitate the monitoring of tapir population trends in Peninsular Malaysia. Our study also highlights the potential of extracting vital ecological and population information for other cryptic individually identifiable animals from tiger-centric studies, especially with the use of a spatially explicit capture-recapture maximum likelihood based framework. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: moyamoya disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as neurofibromatosis type 1 , sickle cell disease , or Graves disease . These individuals are said to have moyamoya syndrome. ... altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. However, some people who have a ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Tangier disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Maxfield FR, Tabas I. Role of cholesterol and lipid organization in disease. Nature. 2005 Dec 1;438(7068):612-21. ... Hubácek JA. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in human metabolism and diseases. Physiol Res. 2004;53(3):235-43. Review. ...

  16. Spatial distribution of Brucella antibodies with reference to indigenous cattle populations among contrasting agro-ecological zones of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabi, Fredrick; Muwanika, Vincent; Masembe, Charles

    2015-09-01

    Indigenous cattle populations exhibit various degrees of agro-ecological fitness and provide desirable opportunities for investments to improve sustainable production for better rural small-scale farmers' incomes globally. However, they could be a source of infection to their attendants and other susceptible livestock if their brucellosis status remains unknown. This study investigated the spatial distribution of Brucella antibodies among indigenous cattle populations in Uganda. Sera from a total of 925 indigenous cattle (410 Ankole Bos taurus indicus, 50 Nganda and 465 East African Shorthorn Zebu (EASZ) - B. indicus) obtained randomly from 209 herds spread throughout Uganda were sequentially analysed for Brucella antibodies using the indirect (I) and competitive (C) enzyme linked Immuno-sorbent assays (ELISA). Recent incidences of abortion within the previous 12 months and routine hygienic practices during parturition were explored for public health risks. Brucella antibodies occurred in approximately 8.64% (80/925) and 28.70% (95% CI: 22.52, 34.89) of the sampled individual cattle and herds, respectively. Findings have shown that Ankole and EASZ cattle had similar seroprevalences. Indigenous cattle from the different study agro-ecological zones (AEZs) exhibited varying seroprevalences ranging from approximately 1.78% (95% CI: 0, 5.29) to 19.67% (95% CI: 8.99, 30.35) in the Lake Victoria Crescent (LVC) and North Eastern Drylands (NED) respectively. Significantly higher odds for Brucella antibodies occurred in the NED (OR: 3.40, 95% CI: 1.34, 8.57, p=0.01) inhabited by EASZ cattle compared to the KP (reference category) AEZ. Recent incidences of abortions within the previous 12 months were significantly (p<0.001) associated with seropositive herds. These findings add critical evidence to existing information on the widespread occurrence of brucellosis among indigenous cattle populations in Uganda and could guide allocation of meagre resources for awareness creation

  17. Food selection of the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) under semi-wild conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Boyd K.; Shukor, M. N.; Magintan, David

    2013-11-01

    A study on the selection of food plants by captive Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus) was undertaken in a 30 hectare natural forest enclosure at the Sungai Dusun Wildlife Reserve, Malaysia. Tapirs browsed on 217 species of plants (from 99 genera and 49 families) from a total of the 1142 specimens collected and identified. Food plants were heavily dominated by sapling trees and shrubs which comprised 93% of all plants taken, with the remainder comprising woody lianas, vines and herbaceous plants. Although tapirs browsed on a wide variety of plant species, the top 30 species consumed represented more than 60% of all the plants selected, whilst the vast majority of species were rarely eaten. More than 80 species of trees and shrubs were available, but not eaten at all. The most readily consumed species were the sub-canopy and understorey trees Xerospermum noronhianum, Aporosa prainiana and Baccaurea parviflora, while Aporosa, Knema and Xerospermum were the dominant plant genera. The Phyllanthaceae (leaf flowers), Myristicaceae (nutmegs) and Sapindaceae (rambutans) were the most commonly selected families comprising 45% of the diet. Tapirs fed on saplings trees up to 8.3 m in height, while plants taller than about 1.6 m were bent, broken or pushed to the ground to gain access to the foliage. Sapling stems up to 4.2 cm in diameter could be snapped by biting, while larger trees to 7 cm diameter could be pushed down. Tapirs typically fed on the newer leaves and shoots, however, often only consuming half of the available foliage on a plant. This study documents 160 new plant species suitable as Malayan tapir food, and is consistent with the generalist, but selective browsing nature of the Tapirus species in general.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Sandhoff disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cooper A, Ferrie CD. Juvenile Sandhoff disease--nine new cases and a review of the literature. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2004;27(2):241-9. Review. Citation on PubMed Tay SK, Low PS, Ong HT, Loke KY. Sandhoff disease--a case report of 3 siblings and a review of potential therapies. Ann Acad ...

  19. Microbiota composition, gene pool and its expression in Gir cattle (Bos indicus) rumen under different forage diets using metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Ramesh J; Hinsu, Ankit T; Patel, Shriram H; Jakhesara, Subhash J; Koringa, Prakash G; Bruno, Fosso; Psifidi, Androniki; Shah, S V; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2018-03-09

    Zebu (Bos indicus) is a domestic cattle species originating from the Indian subcontinent and now widely domesticated on several continents. In this study, we were particularly interested in understanding the functionally active rumen microbiota of an important Zebu breed, the Gir, under different dietary regimes. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data were compared at various taxonomic levels to elucidate the differential microbial population and its functional dynamics in Gir cattle rumen under different roughage dietary regimes. Different proportions of roughage rather than the type of roughage (dry or green) modulated microbiome composition and the expression of its gene pool. Fibre degrading bacteria (i.e. Clostridium, Ruminococcus, Eubacterium, Butyrivibrio, Bacillus and Roseburia) were higher in the solid fraction of rumen (Pcomparison of metagenomic shotgun and metatranscriptomic sequencing appeared to be a much richer source of information compared to conventional metagenomic analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of shadow availability at pasture on reproductive traits of Nelore bulls (Bos indicus raised in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Fabián Bao Tarragó

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation is responsible for bull body temperature elevation. An alternative to minimize heat stress is to use artificial shade. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of thermal stress reduction, through shade availability, on reproductive characteristics of Nellore bulls (Bos indicus. For this, ten bulls were divided in: Available artificial shade (AS, n = 5 and Unavailable shade (US, n = 5. Each group was kept in two hectare paddocks, in which shade availability for group AS was artificially created. Animals were submitted to a clinical-reproductive evaluation and seminal analyses. No interaction was observed between treatments (AS and US and time (8 collections for all analyzed variables (P>0.05. No significant effect (P > 0.05 of treatment was observed for all parameters analyzed. So, it can be concluded that the absence of shaded areas during summer does not negatively affect reproductive characteristics such as: scrotal circumference, testicular consistency, progressive motility, percentage of rapidly moving cells (Computer Assisted Semen Analysis - CASA, morphology or sperm viability in Nellore bulls raised in southeastern Brazil, considering that results could be different in other regions of the country where average temperature is higher.

  1. Assessment of brain reference genes for RT-qPCR studies in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydbirk, Rasmus; Folke, Jonas; Winge, Kristian; Aznar, Susana; Pakkenberg, Bente; Brudek, Tomasz

    2016-11-17

    Evaluation of gene expression levels by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) has for many years been the favourite approach for discovering disease-associated alterations. Normalization of results to stably expressed reference genes (RGs) is pivotal to obtain reliable results. This is especially important in relation to neurodegenerative diseases where disease-related structural changes may affect the most commonly used RGs. We analysed 15 candidate RGs in 98 brain samples from two brain regions from Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Multiple System Atrophy, and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy patients. Using RefFinder, a web-based tool for evaluating RG stability, we identified the most stable RGs to be UBE2D2, CYC1, and RPL13 which we recommend for future RT-qPCR studies on human brain tissue from these patients. None of the investigated genes were affected by experimental variables such as RIN, PMI, or age. Findings were further validated by expression analyses of a target gene GSK3B, known to be affected by AD and PD. We obtained high variations in GSK3B levels when contrasting the results using different sets of common RG underlining the importance of a priori validation of RGs for RT-qPCR studies.

  2. Obtenção de oócitos e produção in vitro de embriões em doadoras lactantes da raça Gir (Bos taurus indicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Marcos Brandão Dias [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    Raças zebuínas (Bos taurus indicus) e seus cruzamentos têm papel fundamental na pecuária brasileira, e a raça Gir, em especial, acrescenta rusticidade e produtividade nas suas descendentes leiteiras. A produção in vitro de embriões bovinos é uma biotécnica de alto valor econômico, que, aliada à utilização de sêmen sexado para cromossoma X, possibilita a multiplicação com fêmeas de valor genético superior. Foram realizados dois experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar a produção in vitro (PIV) d...

  3. Identification of a set of endogenous reference genes for miRNA expression studies in Parkinson's disease blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Alice; Foco, Luisa; Blankenburg, Hagen; Picard, Anne; Zanigni, Stefano; Zanon, Alessandra; Pramstaller, Peter P; Hicks, Andrew A; Schwienbacher, Christine

    2014-10-10

    Research on microRNAs (miRNAs) is becoming an increasingly attractive field, as these small RNA molecules are involved in several physiological functions and diseases. To date, only few studies have assessed the expression of blood miRNAs related to Parkinson's disease (PD) using microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Measuring miRNA expression involves normalization of qRT-PCR data using endogenous reference genes for calibration, but their choice remains a delicate problem with serious impact on the resulting expression levels. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the suitability of a set of commonly used small RNAs as normalizers and to identify which of these miRNAs might be considered reliable reference genes in qRT-PCR expression analyses on PD blood samples. Commonly used reference genes snoRNA RNU24, snRNA RNU6B, snoRNA Z30 and miR-103a-3p were selected from the literature. We then analyzed the effect of using these genes as reference, alone or in any possible combination, on the measured expression levels of the target genes miR-30b-5p and miR-29a-3p, which have been previously reported to be deregulated in PD blood samples. We identified RNU24 and Z30 as a reliable and stable pair of reference genes in PD blood samples.

  4. Impact of Phosphate, Potassium, Yeast Extract, and Trace Metals on Chitosan and Metabolite Production by Mucor indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Zahra; Karimi, Keikhosro; Zamani, Akram

    2016-08-30

    In this study the effects of phosphate, potassium, yeast extract, and trace metals on the growth of Mucor indicus and chitosan, chitin, and metabolite production by the fungus were investigated. Maximum yield of chitosan (0.32 g/g cell wall) was obtained in a phosphate-free medium. Reversely, cell growth and ethanol formation by the fungus were positively affected in the presence of phosphate. In a phosphate-free medium, the highest chitosan content (0.42 g/g cell wall) and cell growth (0.66 g/g sugar) were obtained at 2.5 g/L of KOH. Potassium concentration had no significant effect on ethanol and glycerol yields. The presence of trace metals significantly increased the chitosan yield at an optimal phosphate and potassium concentration (0.50 g/g cell wall). By contrast, production of ethanol by the fungus was negatively affected (0.33 g/g sugars). A remarkable increase in chitin and decrease in chitosan were observed in the absence of yeast extract and concentrations lower than 2 g/L. The maximum chitosan yield of 51% cell wall was obtained at 5 g/L of yeast extract when the medium contained no phosphate, 2.5 g/L KOH, and 1 mL/L trace metal solution.

  5. A case study of Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) husbandry practice across 10 zoological collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Paul E; Roffe, Sarah M

    2013-01-01

    The Malayan, or Asian, tapir (Tapirus indicus) has a diminishing wild population and is becoming more common in captivity as zoos attempt to manage sustainable ex situ populations. Tapirs can be relatively easy to maintain and breed, but captive animals appear to suffer from reduced activity budgets, obesity, and poor public image. A questionnaire-based survey was designed and sent specifically to 10 collections around the world that exhibit Malayan tapirs, with the aim of assessing husbandry regimes to determine prevalence of standardized practices as well as highlighting any key differences, and to showcase good practice, thus providing information beneficial to those maintaining this species in their zoo. Twenty-five animals were included in the survey from collections across four continents. The research's major conclusions show differing dietary make-up, with a lack of forage provision, contrasting with a diverse array of enrichment protocols used. Significant differences were noted between zoos for total amount of food offered (P = 0.000) as well as ratios of forage to concentrate pellet offered (P = 0.004). Comparing food offered to male and female tapirs with published requirements for an "average" of either gender shows not all zoos providing the amount suggested in husbandry guidelines. Intelligently designed and original enrichment was provided to all animals but differences between zoos were noted in the application and "usefulness" of enrichment for individual tapir. Overall, animals are benefiting from enrichment but welfare could be further improved via consistent feeding of ad libitum forage and regular use of browse as a constituent part of daily rations. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Anticorpos em bovinos (Bos indicus e Bos taurus e bubalinos (Bubalus bubalis inoculados com oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii. Estudo comparativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira F.C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Três animais de cada espécie (Bos indicus, Bos taurus e Bubalus bubalis foram inoculados, via oral, com 2×10(5 oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii. Seis outros animais, dois de cada espécie, foram mantidos como testemunhas. A resposta de anticorpos avaliada por meio da reação de imunofluorescência indireta iniciou-se a partir do quinto dia pós-inoculação (DPI nos zebuínos e bubalinos, e no sétimo DPI nos taurinos. Os títulos sorológicos nos taurinos permaneceram elevados até o final do experimento (70º DPI, alcançando níveis máximos (1:16.384 entre o 42º e 49º DPI. Nos zebuínos e bubalinos o maior título de anticorpos anti-Toxoplasma foi de 1:256. A resposta de anticorpos mais ou menos acentuada não está necessariamente relacionada à sensibilidade ao T. gondii.

  7. The self-reference effect on episodic memory recollection in young and older adults and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalanne, Jennifer; Rozenberg, Johanna; Grolleau, Pauline; Piolino, Pascale

    2013-12-01

    The Self-reference effect (SRE) on long-term episodic memory and autonoetic consciousness has been investigated in young adults, scarcely in older adults, but never in Alzheimer's patients. Is the functional influence of Selfreference still present when the individual's memory and identity are impaired? We investigated this issue in 60 young subjects, 41 elderly subjects, and 28 patients with Alzheimer's disease, by using 1) an incidental learning task of personality traits in three encoding conditions, inducing variable degrees of depth of processing and personal involvement, 2) a 2- minute retention interval free recall task, and 3) a 20-minute delayed recognition task, combined with a remember-know paradigm. Each recorded score was corrected for errors (intrusions in free recall, false alarms in recognition, and false source memory in remember responses). Compared with alternative encodings, the Self-reference significantly enhanced performance on the free recall task in the young group, and on the recognition task both in the young and older groups but not in the Alzheimer group. The most important finding in the Alzheimer group is that the Self-reference led the most often to a subjective sense of remembering (especially for the positive words) with the retrieval of the correct encoding source. This Self-reference recollection effect in patients was related to independent subjective measures of a positive and definite sense of Self (measured by the Tennessee Self Concept Scale), and to memory complaints in daily life. In conclusion, these results demonstrated the power and robustness of the Self-reference effect on recollection in long-term episodic memory in Alzheimer's disease, albeit the retrieval is considerably reduced. These results should open new perspectives for the development of rehabilitation programs for memory deficits.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... condition worsens, affected children develop spasticity leading to joint deformities (contractures) that restrict movement. Individuals with connatal ... Topic: Leukodystrophies Health Topic: Neurologic Diseases Health Topic: Neuromuscular Disorders Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: critical congenital heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Critical congenital heart disease Critical congenital heart disease Printable PDF Open All Close All ... for Disease Control and Prevention: Congenital Heart Defects Disease InfoSearch: Congenital Heart Defects KidsHealth from Nemours Lucile Packard Children's ...

  10. Evaluation of Mucor indicus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae capability to ferment hydrolysates of rape straw and Miscanthus giganteus as affected by the pretreatment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Małgorzata; Szymańska, Karolina; Kordala, Natalia; Dąbrowska, Aneta; Bednarski, Włodzimierz; Juszczuk, Andrzej

    2016-07-01

    Rape straw and Miscanthus giganteus was pretreated chemically with oxalic acid or sodium hydroxide. The pretreated substrates were hydrolyzed with enzymatic preparations of cellulase, xylanase and cellobiase. The highest concentration of reducing sugars was achieved after hydrolysis of M. giganteus pretreated with NaOH (51.53gdm(-3)). In turn, the highest yield of enzymatic hydrolysis determined based on polysaccharides content in the pretreated substrates was obtained in the experiments with M. giganteus and oxalic acid (99.3%). Rape straw and M. giganteus hydrolysates were fermented using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 7, NRRL 978 or filamentous fungus Mucor rouxii (Mucor indicus) DSM 1191. The highest ethanol concentration was determined after fermentation of M. giganteus hydrolysate pretreated with NaOH using S. cerevisiae (1.92% v/v). Considering cellulose content in the pretreated solid, the highest degree of its conversion to ethanol (86.2%) was achieved after fermentation of the hydrolysate of acid-treated M. giganteus using S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: CLN3 disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... age, and people with CLN3 disease are often blind by late childhood or adolescence. Also around age 4 to 8, children with CLN3 disease start to fall behind in school. They have difficulty learning new information and lose ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: autoimmune Addison disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common in particular ethnic groups? Genetic Changes The cause of autoimmune Addison disease is complex and not completely understood. A combination ... is not caused by an autoimmune reaction. Other causes include infections that ... adrenal glands. Addison disease can also be one of several features of ...

  13. 9 CFR 94.0 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... than poultry or game birds). Bovine. Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and Bison bison. Bovine spongiform... loaded with meat product, or the areas at various points along the belt in an oven chamber, slowest to.... Game birds. Migratory birds, including certain ducks, geese, pigeons, and doves (“migratory” refers to...

  14. The OIE World Animal Health Information System: the role of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres in disease reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Jebara, K

    2010-12-01

    One of the main objectives of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is to ensure transparency in and knowledge of the world animal health situation. To achieve this objective, the OIE relies on its network of Member Countries, which is complemented by the activities of 221 Reference Laboratories (RLs) and Collaborating Centres. The RL mandate states that, in the case of positive results for diseases notifiable to the OIE, the laboratory should inform the OIE Delegate of the Member Country from which the samples originated and send a copy of the information to OIE Headquarters. However, since 2006 the OIE has received a lower than expected number of notifications from RLs, which implies eitherthat the majority of samples are sent to national laboratories or that some RLs are not fully complying with their mandate. The OIE sent a questionnaire to RLs in preparation for the Second Global Conference of OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres (Paris, France, 21-23 June 2010). Two main factors emerged: the need for RLs to clarify their role and responsibilities in disease reporting and the need for an awareness campaign to sensitise national Veterinary Services to the importance of conducting more surveillance (and consequently of submitting samples to RLs) for all OIE-listed diseases. Reference laboratories indicated two main reasons for not sharing more data on positive samples with the OIE: i) a perceived contradiction between their mandate as OIE RLs and the standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) dealing with confidentiality; and ii) certain Member Countries or stakeholders asking RLs not to share positive results with the OIE, for political or economic reasons. The OIE has put forward proposals to help RLs resolve these problems in future. The use of ISO standards must be clarified and there must be improved communication between the OIE and its RLs. A lack of transparency about a significant disease event can

  15. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked lymphoproliferative disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... my area? Other Names for This Condition Duncan disease Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphoproliferative disease in males familial fatal ... the proapoptotic SAP function in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease aggravates Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) induced mononucleosis and promotes lymphoma development. ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Kawasaki disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how do mutations occur? How can gene mutations affect health and development? More about ... but the inheritance pattern is unknown. Children of parents who have had Kawasaki disease have twice the ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Danon disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are compartments in the cell that digest and recycle materials. The role the LAMP-2 protein plays ... Page Boucek D, Jirikowic J, Taylor M. Natural history of Danon disease. Genet Med. 2011 Jun;13( ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Dent disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body effectively. Some people with Dent disease develop rickets , a bone disorder that results when the levels ... including calcium) in the blood become too low. Rickets can be associated with weakening and softening of ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Crohn disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JH. Host-microbe interactions have shaped the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease. Nature. 2012 Nov 1; ... Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical ...

  20. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children With Sickle Cell Disease Referred for an Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquazzino, Melissa A; Miller, Meghan; Myrvik, Matthew; Newby, Robert; Scott, John Paul

    2017-07-01

    Neuropsychological deficits, including difficulties with attention, are well described in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Very little is known about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with SCD. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of ADHD in children with SCD referred for neuropsychological evaluation. This prospective, cross-sectional study included patients (age, 4 to 18 y) with SCD and completion of a neuropsychological evaluation between December 2013 and March 2016. Patients were referred for neuropsychological evaluation because of concern regarding school performance, development, and/or behavior. The diagnosis of ADHD was made by a neuropsychologist on the basis of the diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual-Fourth or Fifth Editions. ADHD medication usage rate was obtained by medical record review. Of the 89 patients with SCD referred for neuropsychological evaluation, 25% (95% confidence interval, 16%-35%) met diagnostic criteria for ADHD. Only 21% of the patients with SCD and ADHD were prescribed an ADHD medication. Our study supports routine ADHD screening in children with SCD who have poor school performance or behavioral concerns. Despite the benefits of pharmacologic treatment, the majority of patients with SCD and ADHD did not receive a medication for management of their ADHD.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Caffey disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mundlos S, Sillence D, Ala Kokko L, Seidman JG, Cole WG, Jüppner H. A novel COL1A1 mutation in infantile cortical hyperostosis (Caffey disease) expands the spectrum of collagen-related disorders. J ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Darier disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when they are exposed to heat and humidity. UV light; minor injury or friction, such as rubbing or ... the social stigma experienced by people with numerous skin blemishes. A form of Darier disease known as ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: Refsum disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease is caused by an eye disorder called retinitis pigmentosa . This disorder affects the retina , the light-sensitive ... the retina gradually deteriorate. The first sign of retinitis pigmentosa is usually a loss of night vision, which ...

  4. Altas concentrações de FSH-p na maturação in vitro de oócitos Bos indicus High concentrations of FSH-p on the in vitro maturation of Bos indicus oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana D'Arc Rocha Alves

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência de diferentes concentrações de um FSH-p comercial sobre a maturação nuclear de oócitos Bos indicus, clivagem e desenvolvimento in vitro de embriões até estádios de blastocisto. Após seleção e transferência para o meio TCM 199/HEPES suplementado com diferentes concentrações de FSH-p (T1 = 10mg/m ; T2 = 20mg/m ; T3 = 40mg/m, os oócitos foram incubados, durante 24 horas, a 39ºC em atmosfera úmida contendo 5% de CO2. Parte dos oócitos foram retirados para análise da maturação nuclear e os demais foram transferidos para o meio de fecundação (mDM. Após 18 horas de incubação nas mesmas condições atmosféricas mencionadas para os oócitos, os presumíveis zigotos foram distribuídos no meio de desenvolvimento embrionário (KSOM contendo monocamada de células da granulosa. As porcentagens de metáfase II, de clivagem e de blastocisto foram, respectivamente, de 81,8/62,5/17,6% (T1; 55,6/64,0/19,5% (T2 e 50,0/65,0/16,3% (T3. A análise estatística revelou que uma menor porcentagem (P £ 0,05 de oócitos tratados com 20mg/m e 40mg/m de FSH-p alcançou o estádio de metáfase II e que as taxas de clivagem e blastocisto não diferiram (P ³ 0,05 entre os tratamentos. Os resultados permitem concluir que a adição de 20mg/m e 40mg/m de FSH-p ao meio de cultura interfere no processo de maturação nuclear, mas todas as concentrações testadas podem ser utilizadas sem prejuízo aparente para a clivagem e o posterior desenvolvimento embrionário.The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of different concentrations of a commercial FSH-p on the nuclear maturation of Bos indicus oocytes, cleavage and in vitro development of embryos until blastocyst stages. The oocytes were selected and transferred to the maturation medium (TCM 199/25 mM HEPES supplemented with different concentrations of FSH-p (T1 = 10mg/m ; T2 - 20mg/m ; T3 - 40mg/m and after 24 hours of incubation, at 39º

  5. Characterization of potent odorants in male giant water bug (Lethocerus indicus Lep. and Serv.), an important edible insect of Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatbenjakul, Patthamawadi; Intarapichet, Kanok-Orn; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2015-02-01

    Potent odorants in frozen fresh (FFB) and salted boiled (SBB) male giant water bugs (Lethocerus indicus), or 'Maengdana' in Thai, were characterized by application of direct solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA). Twenty and 27 potent odorants were detected in FFB and SBB, respectively. Most odorants were lipid-derived compounds, including the two most abundant volatile components (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenyl butanoate, which contributed banana-like odours. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, responsible for popcorn-like odours, were detected in SBB only. An aroma reconstitution model of SBB was constructed in an oil-in-water emulsion matrix using 12 selected potent odorants based on the results of AEDA, accurate compound quantification and the calculated odour-activity values (OAV). Omission studies were carried out to verify the significance of esters, particularly (E)-2-hexenyl acetate was determined to be an important character-impact odorant in male giant water bug aroma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Gaucher disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 500 to 1,000 people of Ashkenazi Jewish heritage. The other forms of Gaucher disease are uncommon and do not occur more frequently in people of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. Related Information What information about a genetic condition can statistics provide? Why are some genetic ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: uromodulin-associated kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Related Information How are genetic conditions and genes named? Additional Information & Resources MedlinePlus (3 links) Health Topic: Gout Health Topic: Kidney Diseases Health Topic: Kidney Failure ...

  8. Doença de Coats: perfil de casos encaminhados para serviço referência em oncologia ocular Coats Disease: profile of patients referred to a reference ocular oncology service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ferrari Marback

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar o perfil de pacientes com doença de Coats encaminhados para afastar o diagnóstico de retinoblastoma. MÉTODOS: Realizado estudo retrospectivo, com base na revisão de prontuários e exames de imagem, de dez pacientes consecutivos. Foram avaliados os dados referentes à idade, sexo, queixa principal, estágio da doença à apresentação, tratamento e evolução. RESULTADOS: A média de idade à apresentação foi de 43,9 meses. Oito pacientes eram do sexo masculino. Leucocoria ou estrabismo foram as principais queixas, presentes em nove casos. Oito pacientes tinham doença em estágio 3B, um estágio 3A e um estágio 2B. Dos oito casos com descolamento total de retina (3B em sete foi optado apenas pela observação e um submetido a retinopexia sem sucesso. O caso com descolamento parcial (3A foi tratado por crioterapia e depois feita fotocoagulação por laser diodo, evoluindo com reaplicação da retina e obliteração das teleangiectasias. O caso sem descolamento associado (2B foi tratado por fotocoagulação por laser de argônio, com boa obliteração dos vasos anormais. A acuidade visual final foi de percepção luminosa em 3 e ausência de percepção luminosa em 5 dos 8 casos com doença 3B, os casos com doença 3A e 2B mantiveram visão de movimentos de mão. Nenhum dos casos evoluiu para glaucoma neovascular no segmento médio de 26,7 meses. CONCLUSÃO: A maioria dos pacientes com doença de Coats encaminhados para afastar a suspeita de retinoblastoma apresenta doença avançada ao diagnóstico. Nestes casos, devido ao péssimo prognóstico visual e alta complexidade do tratamento cirúrgico, pode-se optar apenas pela observação.PURPOSE: To report the profile of Coats' disease patients, referred to exclude retinoblastoma. METHODS: Retrospective study of medical charts from ten consecutive patients. Data evaluated include age at diagnosis, gender, chief complain, disease stage, treatment and evolution. RESULTS: Mean

  9. Genetics Home Reference: adult polyglucosan body disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Spasticity Information Page Educational Resources (6 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Neurogenic Bladder Disease InfoSearch: Polyglucosan body disease, ...

  10. Pulsed electric field processing of functional drink based on tender coconut water (Cococus nucifera L. - nannari (Hemidesmus indicus blended beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tender coconut water (Cocos nucifera L. Nannari extract (Hemidesmus indicus L. ready-to serve (RTS blended beverage were optimised. Response Surface Methodology (RSM was employed to optimize the levels of independent variables (levels of tender coconut water, nannari extract and sugar. The responses of pH, ºBrix, CIE colour (L*, a* and b* value and OAA were studied. The data obtained were analysed by multiple regression technique to generate suitable mathematical models. The developed blended beverage was processed using pulsed electric field (PEF with electric field 31.2 kV/cm, 20 pulse widths at 100 Hz frequency to minimise nutritional and sensory attributes losses and compared with conventional thermal pasteurization (96 ºC for 360 s with p-value of 8.03. Thermal pasteurization showed a significant (p<0.05 decrease in colour value, radical scavenging activity and overall acceptability after treatment and also during storage, when compared to PEF treated tender coconut water-nannari blended beverage. PEF treatment also achieved a 3.01 ± 0.69 log inactivation, similar to thermal pasteurization of native micro flora. PEF treated tender coconut water-nannari blended beverage was stable up to 120 days under ambient storage condition (27-30 °C.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: glycogen storage disease type VII

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Glycogen storage disease type VII Glycogen storage disease type VII Printable PDF Open All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Glycogen storage disease type VII (GSDVII) is an inherited ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: glycogen storage disease type IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Glycogen storage disease type IV Glycogen storage disease type IV Printable PDF Open All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD IV) is an ...

  13. Ultrasonographic measurement of fetal growth parameters over three successive pregnancies in a captive Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, M J; van Engeldorp Gastelaars, H M D

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish representative curves that allow evaluation of fetal growth and estimation of gestational age from measurement of fetal structures by ultrasound in Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus). Three pregnancies (i.e. 3 fetuses) were examined in one female Malayan tapir. Transabdominal ultrasonographic examination was performed without anesthesia from 79 ± 8 days to 281 ± 48 days (mean ± S.D.) post mating. To assess fetal growth attempts were made to measure biparietal diameter (BPD), head length (HL), thorax diameter A (TDA), thorax height A (THA), thorax diameter B (TDB), thorax height B (THB), abdomen diameter (AD), abdomen height (AH), humerus length (HUL) and Crown rump length (CRL). The value of each parameter as an estimator of gestational age was assessed by ease of observation and the length of time the parameter was measurable throughout gestation. The most precise predictors for gestational age in this study were BPD and CRL (weeks 10-20 of gestation), as well as AD and AH (weeks 14-43 of gestation). The parameters TDB, THB and HUL (weeks 15-41 of gestation) gave almost as good predictions. Fetal viability was assessed by identifying a fetal heartbeat and movement. All pregnancies resulted in normal deliveries and healthy offspring. The ultrasound examination was well tolerated by the female. The gestation lengths (399 ± 3 days) were within reported ranges. The serial transabdominal ultrasound, without the need for anesthesia, was an effective method to evaluate fetal growth, development and well being in a Malayan tapir. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effect of high pressure treatment on microbiological quality of Indian white prawn (Fenneropenaeus indicus) during chilled storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginson, J; Panda, Satyen Kumar; Bindu, J; Kamalakanth, C K; Srinivasa Gopal, T K

    2015-04-01

    High pressure treatment of 250 MPa for 6 min at 25 °C was applied to headless Indian white prawn (Fenneropenaeus indicus) to evaluate changes in microbiological characteristics of the species during chilled storage. Changes in load of mesophilic bacteria, psychrotrophic bacteria, proteolytic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., H2S producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Brochothrix thermosphacta and yeast & mold were estimated in pressurized and un-pressurized samples during chilled storage. All microbes were reduced significantly after high pressure treatment and there was significant difference in microbial quality of control and high pressure treated samples in the entire duration of chilled storage (p high pressure treated samples. In high pressure treated sample, no lag phase (λ) was observed for psychrotrophic bacteria, H2S producing bacteria, B. thermosphacta, Pseudomonas spp. and lactic acid bacteria; however, other bacteria showed a reduced lag phase during chilled storage. Kinetic parameter such as specific growth rate (μmax) in high pressure treated samples was significantly reduced in most of the bacterial groups except for psychrotrophic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria. Mesophilic bacterial count of control samples crossed the marginal limit of acceptability on 12th day and unacceptable limit on 18th day of storage, whereas high pressure treated samples never breached the acceptability limit during entire duration of chilled storage. The present study indicated that application of high pressure processing can be used to improve microbial quality of Indian white prawn and extend the chilled storage life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Graves' disease with special reference to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seegenschmidt, M. H.; Heyd, R.; Esser, J.; Mould, R.F.

    2006-01-01

    Graves' disease, although not malignant, nevertheless can lead to serious events such as permanent loss of vision if it remains untreated. This review article describes the clinical symptoms of the disease, includes a commentary on the Graves' disease subgroup of thyroid-associated orbitipathy (TAO), and defines clinical activity scoring systems which grade the severity of the disease in patients (clinical activity, NOSPECS and LEMO scoring ). An review of radiotherapy in the 1980s is followed by a summary of the 2003 German national survey on radiotherapy for Graves' disease. Radiation therapy technique is then described and discussed. Case histories are from the Alfred Krupp Hospital in Essen. (author)

  16. Pulmonary Rehabilitation: The Reference Therapy for Undernourished Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Samaras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD combines the deleterious effects of chronic hypoxia, chronic inflammation, insulin-resistance, increased energy expenditure, muscle wasting, and exercise deconditioning. As for other chronic disorders, loss of fat-free mass decreased survival. The preservation of muscle mass and function, through the protection of the mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, is an important challenge in the management of COPD patients. As the prevalence of the disease is increasing and the medical advances make COPD patients live longer, the prevalence of COPD-associated nutritional disorders is expected to increase in future decades. Androgenopenia is observed in 40% of COPD patients. Due to the stimulating effects of androgens on muscle anabolism, androgenopenia favors loss of muscle mass. Studies have shown that androgen substitution could improve muscle mass in COPD patients, but alone, was insufficient to improve lung function. Two multicentric randomized clinical trials have shown that the association of androgen therapy with physical exercise and oral nutritional supplements containing omega-3 polyinsaturated fatty acids, during at least three months, is associated with an improved clinical outcome and survival. These approaches are optimized in the field of pulmonary rehabilitation which is the reference therapy of COPD-associated undernutrition.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Tay-Sachs disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH Resources (4 links) GeneEd National Human Genome Research Institute National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Lipid Storage Diseases Fact Sheet National Institute of Neurological ...

  18. PERIODONTAL DISEASE IN DOGS AND CATS REFERRED TO THE VETERINARY HOSPITAL OF UFMT, CAMPUS SINOP, MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Camargo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Canine and feline oral cavity was examined, referred to the small animal surgery and obstetric classes of the school veterinary hospital, between 2013, August and December. The study was conducted using a dental chart developed to enable proper oral assessment. The data were compared to the information relayed by the owners, mostly based on the type of food that was given to their pets and used dental care to keep the oral health of their animals. The results showed a lack of owners interest and knowledge about their pets dental care and, additionally, that most animals was not receiving adequate pet meal, what caused accumulation of food between the teeth and the early onset of periodontal disease. Finally, it was concluded that age is an important predisposing factor for the disease.

  19. Quantitative trait locus affecting birth weight on bovine chromosome 5 in a F2 Gyr x Holstein population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gasparin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Segregation between a genetic marker and a locus influencing a quantitative trait in a well delineated population is the basis for success in mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL. To detect bovine chromosome 5 (BTA5 birth weight QTL we genotyped 294 F2 Gyr (Bos indicus x Holstein (Bos taurus crossbreed cattle for five microsatellite markers. A linkage map was constructed for the markers and an interval analysis for the presence of QTL was performed. The linkage map indicated differences in the order of two markers relative to the reference map (http://www.marc.usda.gov. Interval analysis detected a QTL controlling birth weight (p < 0.01 at 69 centimorgans (cM from the most centromeric marker with an effect of 0.32 phenotypic standard-error. These results support other studies with crossbred Bos taurus x Bos indicus populations.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Niemann-Pick disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are compartments within cells that break down and recycle different types of molecules. Acid sphingomyelinase is responsible ... A, Brodie SE, Desnick RJ, Wasserstein MP. Natural history of Type A Niemann-Pick disease: possible endpoints ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: von Willebrand disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mildest and most common of the three types, accounting for 75 percent of affected individuals. Type 3 ... diseases that affect bone marrow or immune cell function. This rare form of the condition is characterized ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: CLN10 disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foundation CLIMB: Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases March of Dimes: Neonatal Death The ... Sources for This Page Anderson GW, Goebel HH, Simonati A. Human pathology in NCL. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 Nov;1832( ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: CLN6 disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the accumulation of proteins and other substances in lysosomes , which are cell structures that digest and recycle ... are involved in the buildup of substances in lysosomes in CLN6 disease . These accumulations occur in more ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Dowling-Degos disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be triggered by UV light, sweating, or friction on the skin. The pigmentation changes characteristic of ... A, Ruzicka T, Betz RC, Hanneken S. The First Report of KRT5 Mutation Underlying Acantholytic Dowling-Degos Disease ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: CLN8 disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about four to six times per year. By middle age, seizures become even less frequent. In addition to ... What is precision medicine? What is newborn screening? New Pages RAB18 deficiency Depression Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease ...

  6. Effects of 12 hour calf withdrawal on conception rate and calf performance of Bos indicus cattle under extensive conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escrivão, R J A; Webb, E C; Garcês, A P J T

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-two multiparous Brahman type cows with reproductive tract scoring (RTS) >/=4 at 45 days post-partum were randomly assigned to two groups of 26 cows each separated into an ad libitum suckling group (C) and treatment group (T). Calves in the T group were separated for 12 h during the night from 45 days post-partum to the onset of the breeding season. Body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) were recorded 45 days post-partum, at the start of the breeding season, and at pregnancy diagnosis. Calves were weighed at calving and weaning. Weaning weights were corrected to 205 days. BW and BCS at the onset of the breeding season were similar (p > 0.05) between the experimental groups. Calving to breeding intervals were 93 +/- 18 d and 99 +/- 22 d for T and C groups, respectively. Calving to conception intervals differed significantly between the groups (111 +/- 10 d for T and 133 +/- 19 d for C) and a similar result was obtained for the breeding to conception intervals (18 +/- 15 d for T and 31 +/- 19 d for C). Conception rates were 80% for the T group and 59% for the C group, which correlated better with BW than BCS at the onset of the breeding season. Weaning weights differed (p conception rates and improves the calf weaning weights of Bos indicus beef cattle under extensive production systems in sub-tropical conditions.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: chronic granulomatous disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other common areas of infection in people with chronic granulomatous disease include the skin, liver , and lymph nodes . Inflammation can occur in ... Other common areas of inflammation in people with chronic granulomatous ... and skin. Additionally, granulomas within the gastrointestinal tract can lead ...

  8. Electrical conductivity modification using silver nano particles of Jatropha Multifida L. and Pterocarpus Indicus w. extracts films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diantoro, Markus, E-mail: markus.diantoro.fmipa@um.ac.id; Hidayati, Nisfi Nahari Sani; Latifah, Rodatul; Fuad, Abdulloh; Nasikhudin,; Sujito,; Hidayat, Arif [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Negeri Malang, Jl. Semarang 5 Malang 65145 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    Natural polymers can be extracted from leaf or stem of plants. Pterocarpus Indicus W. (PIW) and Jatropha Multifida L. (JIL) plants are good candidate as natural polymer sources. PIW and JIW polymers contain chemical compound so-called flavonoids which has C{sub 6}-C{sub 3}-C{sub 6} carbons conjugated configuration. The renewable type of polymer as well as their abundancy of flavonoid provide us to explore their physical properties. A number of research have been reported related to broad synthesis method and mechanical properties. So far there is no specific report of electrical conductivity associated to PIW and JIL natural polymers. In order to obtain electrical conductivity and its crystallinity of the extracted polymer films, it was induced on them a various fraction of silver nano particles. The film has been prepared by means of spin coating method on nickel substrate. It was revealed that FTIR spectra confirm the existing of rutine flavonoid. The crystallinity of the samples increase from 0.66%, to 4.11% associated to the respective various of silver fractions of 0.1 M to 0.5 M. SEM images show that there are some grains of silver in the film. The nature of electric conductivity increases a long with the addition of silver. The electrical conductivity increase significantly from 3.22 S/cm, to 542.85 S/cm. On the other hand, PIW films also shows similar trends that increase of Ag induce the increase its crystallinity as well as its electrical conductivity at semiconducting level. This result opens a prospective research and application of the green renewable polymer as optoelectronic materials.

  9. Crossbreeding to increase beef production: additive and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The indicus x sanga and indicus x taurus direct heterosis effects on all weight traits were greater than either the taurus x sanga or taurus x taurus effects, whereas the indicus x sanga maternal heterosis effect was consistently less than the estimated taurus x sanga maternal heterosis effect. Keywords: Direct effects, heterosis, ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shizukuda Y, Plehn JF, Minter K, Brown B, Coles WA, Nichols JS, Ernst I, Hunter LA, Blackwelder WC, Schechter AN, Rodgers GP, Castro O, Ognibene FP. Pulmonary hypertension as a risk factor for death in patients with sickle cell disease. N Engl J Med. 2004 Feb 26;350( ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Unverricht-Lundborg disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease is believed to be the most common cause of this type of epilepsy, but its worldwide prevalence is unknown. Unverricht-Lundborg ... V, Zerovnik E. Protein aggregation as a possible cause for pathology in a subset of familial ... progressive myoclonus epilepsy (EPM1). J Neurobiol. 2003 Sep 15;56(4): ...

  12. Relative frequency and estimated minimal frequency of Lysosomal Storage Diseases in Brazil: Report from a Reference Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Giugliani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs comprise a heterogeneous group of more than 50 genetic conditions of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM caused by a defect in lysosomal function. Although there are screening tests for some of these conditions, diagnosis usually depends on specific enzyme assays, which are only available in a few laboratories around the world. A pioneer facility for the diagnosis of IEM and LSDs was established in the South of Brazil in 1982 and has served as a reference service since then. Over the past 34 years, samples from 72,797 patients were referred for investigation of IEM, and 3,211 were confirmed as having an LSD (4.41%, or 1 in 22, with 3,099 of these patients originating from Brazil. The rate of diagnosis has increased over time, in part due to the creation of diagnostic networks involving a large number of Brazilian services. These cases, referred from Brazilian regions, provide insight about the relative frequency of LSDs in the country. The large amount of data available allows for the estimation of the minimal frequency of specific LSDs in Brazil. The reported data could help to plan health care policies, as there are specific therapies available for most of the cases diagnosed.

  13. Diseases of corals with particular reference to Indian reefs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, J.; Raghukumar, C.

    Diseases are one of the factors that change the structure and functioning of coral-reef communities as they cause irreversible damage to the corals Reports on coral diseases describe the etiological agents responsible for the disease and in a few...

  14. Clinical characteristics and usage of statins in patients with stable ischemic heart disease referred for angiography or coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Shklianka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim – to compare the clinical characteristics and frequency of statins usage in real clinical practice in patients referred to a specialized clinic for angiography or coronary artery bypass grafting. Materials and methods. In a retrospective slice single-center study data from a primary examination of 155 patients with stable ischemic heart disease, consecutively selected for coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, were analyzed. Depending on the inclusion of statins in the list of medicinal prescriptions, patients were retrospectively divided into two groups: those who had been prescribed statins while they were initially referred to a specialized cardiac surgery center for angiography or revascularization (n = 84 and those who were not prescribed statins (n ​​= 71. Results. The studied patients’ cohort was characterized by earlier coronary events, signs of the peripheral artery atherosclerosis and other absolute indications for treatment with statins in vast majority of cases. At the same time, groups of patients who had been and had not been prescribed statins, did not differ by vast majority of demographic, clinical and instrumental characteristics, concomitant diseases and risk factors. No statin therapy was associated with higher levels of total cholesterol and interleukin-6 compared with the group of patients taking statins (total cholesterol, respectively, 4.8 versus 4.2 mmol/l (p = 0.016 and interleukin-6, respectively, 4.4 versus. 3.1 p/ml (p = 0.022. In general, statins were prescribed in 54,2 % of patients, among them high doses – in 17 patients (20.2 %, moderate – 46 patients (54.8 %, low – 21 patients (25 %. Conclusions. The obtained data show the insufficient level of ambulatory statins usage in patients with ischemic heart disease referred for myocardial revascularization and significant discrepancy between clinical characteristics and real statins usage. Therefore, there is a great need to determine the

  15. INFLUÊNCIA DO GENÓTIPO BOS INDICUS NA ATIVIDADE DE CALPASTATINA E NA TEXTURA DA CARNE DE NOVILHOS ABATIDOS NO SUL DO BRASIL EFFECTS OF THE BOS INDICUS GENOTYPE ON CALPASTATIN ACTIVITIY AND TEXTURE OF BEEF FROM STEERS SLAUGHTERED IN THE SOUTH OF BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane M. RUBENSAM

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de contrafilé (músculo L. dorsi provenientes de 26 bovinos, sendo 14 Polled Hereford (HH, sete 3/4Hereford 1/4Nelore (3/4H1/4N e cinco 5/8Hereford 3/8Nelore (5/8H3/8N, machos castrados, abatidos aos dois anos de idade, foram coletadas 24 h após o abate e analisadas quanto à atividade de calpastatina e textura, tanto no 1o dia post mortem quanto após um período de maturação de 10 dias a 2o C. A atividade de calpastatina foi determinada pelo ensaio de inibição da m-calpaína e a textura através da força de cisalhamento (Warner-Bratzler. A carne de novilhos 5/8H3/8N apresentou, no 1o dia, maiores (p0,05 entre os grupos HH e 3/4H1/4N para as mesmas características. Após 10 dias, houve uma diferença na atividade de calpastatina, porém não significativa (p>0,05, entre o grupo 5/8H3/8N (1,57U/g e os demais (HH=1,23U/g; 3/4H1/4N=1,35U/g, e diferença significativa entre os grupos HH e 5/8H3/8N para força de cisalhamento (3,67 e 5,00kg, respectivamente. Conclui-se que a atividade de calpastatina determinada 24 h post mortem pode ser útil para a previsão da textura da carne, maturada ou não, em programas de melhoramento genético, e que a participação crescente do genótipo Bos indicus nos rebanhos da Região Sul, a par das conhecidas vantagens zootécnicas, poderá resultar em carne de pior textura.Boneless rib steaks (L. dorsi muscle from 26 two years old steers, 14 Polled Hereford, seven 3/4Hereford 1/4Nelore (3/4H1/4N and five 5/8Hereford 3/8Nelore (5/8H3/8N, were collected 24 hs after slaughter and analysed for calpastatin activity and texture at the 1st day post mortem and at the 10th day of aging at 2o C. Calpastatin activity was determined by m-calpain inhibition assay and texture by shear force (Warner-Bratzler. Beef from 5/8H3/8N steers showed higher (p0.05 were detected in the same traits between groups HH and 3/4H1/4N. After 10 days of aging, there was a difference in calpastatin activity, although non

  16. Adjuvant effects and antiserum action potentiation by a (herbal) compound 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid isolated from the root extract of the Indian medicinal plant 'sarsaparilla' (Hemidesmus indicus R. Br.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M I; Gomes, A

    1998-10-01

    The adjuvant effect and antiserum potentiation of a compound 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid were explored in the present investigation. This compound, isolated and purified from the Indian medicinal plant Hemidesmus indicus R. Br, possessed antisnake venom activity. Rabbits immunized with Vipera russellii venom in the presence and absence of the compound along with Freund's complete adjuvant, produced a precipitating band in immunogel diffusion and immunogel electrophoresis. The venom neutralizing capacity of this antiserum showed positive adjuvant effects as evident by the higher neutralization capacity (lethal and hemorrhage) when compared with the antiserum raised with venom alone. The pure compound potentiated the lethal action neutralization of venom by commercial equine polyvalent snake venom antiserum in experimental models. These observations raised the possibility of the use of chemical antagonists (from herbs) against snake bite, which may provide a better protection in presence of antiserum, especially in the rural parts of India.

  17. Control of Huanglongbing (HLB) disease with reference to its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WBDL is a phloem limited phytoplasma disease of lime. HLB disease causing citrus greening (Candidatus liberibacter spp.) is the second most severe disease on citrus industry all over the world. HLB has destroyed an estimated 60 million trees in Africa and Asia. More than 40 countries were infected by HLB in Africa, Asia ...

  18. Assessment of brain reference genes for RT-qPCR studies in neurodegenerative diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydbirk, Rasmus; Folke, Jonas; Winge, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of gene expression levels by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) has for many years been the favourite approach for discovering disease-associated alterations. Normalization of results to stably expressed reference genes (RGs) is pivotal to obtain reliable results......, and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy patients. Using RefFinder, a web-based tool for evaluating RG stability, we identified the most stable RGs to be UBE2D2, CYC1, and RPL13 which we recommend for future RT-qPCR studies on human brain tissue from these patients. None of the investigated genes were affected...... by experimental variables such as RIN, PMI, or age. Findings were further validated by expression analyses of a target gene GSK3B, known to be affected by AD and PD. We obtained high variations in GSK3B levels when contrasting the results using different sets of common RG underlining the importance of a priori...

  19. Children's Perceived Competence Scale: Reference values in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Yukiyo; Nomura, Kayo; Nagata, Masako; Ohgi, Shohei; Iwasa, Mitsuji

    2015-12-01

    To support children with chronic diseases, reference values to measure developmental changes in self-perception and self-esteem are considered a useful yardstick. To develop reference values to measure self-perceived competence and self-esteem in Japanese children, the Children's Perceived Competence Scale (CPCS) was administered to 768 children of elementary school grade 1 (6 years) to grade 6 (11 years) at four public schools in Japan, from November to December 2012. After excluding 74 with chronic diseases and/or incomplete responses, 694 children were included. CPCS measures children's self-perceived competence in cognitive, social, physical domains, and general self-worth, namely self-esteem. There was a tendency for scores of cognitive and general self-worth to decrease with increasing grade. Scores among grade 5 respondents were significantly lower than those among grade 4 respondents for both social and physical domains. Scores among boys and girls differed significantly, with boys scoring higher for physical domain in grades 3 and 6 and for general self-worth domain in grade 6. The CPCS reference values to measure self-perceived competence and self-esteem in Japanese children were developed in this study. These reference values are useful to inform practitioners supporting children with psychological or psychiatric problems or those with chronic diseases. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Suitable reference tissues for quantitative susceptibility mapping of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Sina; Schneider, Till M; Emmerich, Julian; Freitag, Martin T; Ziener, Christian H; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Ladd, Mark E; Laun, Frederik B

    2017-07-01

    Since quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) quantifies magnetic susceptibility relative to a reference value, a suitable reference tissue has to be available to compare different subjects and stages of disease. To find such a suitable reference tissue for QSM of the brain, melanoma patients with and without brain metastases were measured. Twelve reference regions were chosen and assessed for stability of susceptibility values with respect to multiple intra-individual and inter-individual measurements, age, and stage of disease. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the internal capsule and one region in the splenium of the corpus callosum are the regions with the smallest standard deviations of the mean susceptibility value. The mean susceptibility is 0.010 ± 0.014 ppm for CSF in the atrium of the lateral ventricles (csf post ), -0.060 ± 0.019 ppm for the posterior limb of the internal capsule (ci2), and -0.008 ± 0.019 ppm for the splenium of the corpus callosum. csf post and ci2 show nearly no dependence on age or stage of disease, whereas some other regions, e.g., the red nucleus, show moderate dependence on age or disease. The internal capsule and CSF appear to be the most suitable reference regions for QSM of the brain in the melanoma patients studied. Both showed virtually no dependence on age or disease and small variations among patients. Magn Reson Med 78:204-214, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Clinical Characteristic of the HIV/AIDS Patients with Cryptosporidiosis Referring to Behavioral Diseases Consultation Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Rashid; Gholami, Shirzad; Emadi-Kouchak, Hamid; Abdollahi, Alireza; Shahriari, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is known as an opportunist disease-causing agent in man in recent decades. It causes diarrhea and intestinal disorders in the immune deficit and immune competent individuals. This study was aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of HIV/AIDS patients with cryptosporidiosis infection. This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on 53 HIV/AIDS patients referred to the Behavior Disease Consultation Center of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran in 2013. First, the patients were studied clinically and the context data were recorded in a questionnaire for parasitological examination and referred to the laboratory for eosinophil count, and CD4 count per ml of blood. Cryptosporidiosis was observed in 4 (7.6%) of the total 53 HIV/AIDS patients. The highest prevalence of infection was observed in the age range of 30-39 yr. It was observed in different sexes as 5.7% of male and 1.9% of female, but statistically was insignificant (P=0.163).75% of patients had no intestinal symptom, 11.4% with acute diarrhea and 3.8% with chronic diarrhea. Cryptosporidiosis cases were observed in 5.7% of patients without intestinal symptom. Practitioners in the clinical examination for the detection of the opportunistic intestinal protozoan infection should use clinical and paraclinical characteristics of the HIV/AIDS patients for the diagnostic of Cryptosporidium and other opportunistic parasitic diseases.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: REN-related kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 Related Information How are genetic conditions and genes named? Additional Information & Resources MedlinePlus (5 links) Encyclopedia: Hyperkalemia Encyclopedia: Renin Health Topic: Anemia Health Topic: Gout Health Topic: Kidney Diseases Additional NIH Resources (2 ...

  3. Differences in Beef Quality between Angus (Bos taurus taurus) and Nellore (Bos taurus indicus) Cattle through a Proteomic and Phosphoproteomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rafael Torres de Souza; Chizzotti, Mario Luiz; Vital, Camilo Elber; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina; Barros, Edvaldo; Busato, Karina Costa; Gomes, Rafael Aparecido; Ladeira, Márcio Machado; Martins, Taiane da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Proteins are the major constituents of muscle and are key molecules regulating the metabolic changes during conversion of muscle to meat. Brazil is one of the largest exporters of beef and most Brazilian cattle are composed by zebu (Nellore) genotype. Bos indicus beef is generally leaner and tougher than Bos taurus such as Angus. The aim of this study was to compare the muscle proteomic and phosphoproteomic profile of Angus and Nellore. Seven animals of each breed previously subjected the same growth management were confined for 84 days. Proteins were extracted from Longissimus lumborum samples collected immediately after slaughter and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Pro-Q Diamond stain was used in phosphoproteomics. Proteins identification was performed using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Tropomyosin alpha-1 chain, troponin-T, myosin light chain-1 fragment, cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase, alpha-enolase and 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein were more abundant in Nellore, while myosin light chain 3, prohibitin, mitochondrial stress-70 protein and heat shock 70 kDa protein 6 were more abundant in Angus (PAngus had greater phosphorylation of phosphoglucomutase-1 and troponin-T (PAngus and Nellore. Furthermore, prohibitin appears to be a potential biomarker of intramuscular fat in cattle. Additionally, differences in phosphorylation of myofilaments and glycolytic enzymes could be involved with differences in muscle contraction force, susceptibility to calpain, apoptosis and postmortem glycolysis, which might also be related to differences in beef quality among Angus and Nellore.

  4. Pulse Wave Velocity as Marker of Preclinical Arterial Disease: Reference Levels in a Uruguayan Population Considering Wave Detection Algorithms, Path Lengths, Aging, and Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Farro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV has emerged as the gold standard for non-invasive evaluation of aortic stiffness; absence of standardized methodologies of study and lack of normal and reference values have limited a wider clinical implementation. This work was carried out in a Uruguayan (South American population in order to characterize normal, reference, and threshold levels of PWV considering normal age-related changes in PWV and the prevailing blood pressure level during the study. A conservative approach was used, and we excluded symptomatic subjects; subjects with history of cardiovascular (CV disease, diabetes mellitus or renal failure; subjects with traditional CV risk factors (other than age and gender; asymptomatic subjects with atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries; patients taking anti-hypertensives or lipid-lowering medications. The included subjects (n=429 were categorized according to the age decade and the blood pressure levels (at study time. All subjects represented the “reference population”; the group of subjects with optimal/normal blood pressures levels at study time represented the “normal population.” Results. Normal and reference PWV levels were obtained. Differences in PWV levels and aging-associated changes were obtained. The obtained data could be used to define vascular aging and abnormal or disease-related arterial changes.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CMT1 or CMT4. CMTX5 is also known as Rosenberg-Chutorian syndrome. Some researchers believe that this condition ... Dejerine Sottas Disease National Organization for Rare Disorders: Rosenberg-Chutorian Syndrome National Organization for Rare Disorders: Roussy- ...

  6. Geographic variation in Bar-headed geese Anser indicus: connectivity of wintering and breeding grounds across a broad front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Heath, Shane R.; Douglas, David C.; Perry, William M.; Javed, Sàlim; Newman, Scott H.; Suwal, Rajendra N.; Rahman, Asad R.; Choudhury, Binod C.; Prosser, Diann J.; Yan, Baoping; Hou, Yuansheng; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmayadag; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Frappell, Peter B.; Milsom, William K.; Scott, Graham R.; Hawkes, Lucy A.; Wikelski, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The connectivity and frequency of exchange between sub-populations of migratory birds is integral to understanding population dynamics over the entire species' range. True geese are highly philopatric and acquire lifetime mates during the winter, suggesting that the number of distinct sub-populations may be related to the number of distinct wintering areas. In the Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus, a species found exclusively in Central Asia, the connectivity between breeding and wintering areas is not well known. Their migration includes crossing a broad front of the Himalaya Cordillera, a significant barrier to migration for most birds. Many Bar-headed Geese fly to breeding areas on the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau (TQP), the highest plateau in the world. From 2005-2008, 60 Bar-headed Geese were captured and marked with satellite transmitters in Nepal (n = 2), India (n = 6), China (n = 29), and Mongolia (n = 23) to examine their migration and distribution. Distinct differences were observed in their migration corridors and timing of movements, including an apparent leap-frog migration pattern for geese from Mongolia. Measurements of geese from Mongolia were larger than their counterparts from China, providing some evidence of morphological differences. Alteration of habitats in China, including the warming effects of climate change on glaciers increasing runoff to TQP wetlands, may be changing goose migration patterns and timing. With the exception of one individual, all geese from Qinghai Lake, China wintered in the southern TQP near Lhasa, and their increasing numbers in that region may be related to the effects of climate change and agricultural development. Thus, our findings document both morphological and geographical variation in sub-populations of Bar-headed Geese, but their resilience to environmental change may be lost if migratory short-stopping results in larger congregations restricted to a smaller number of wintering areas.

  7. Comparative sensitivity to environmental variation and human disturbance of Asian tapirs (Tapirus indicus) and other wild ungulates in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Antony J; Tantipisanuh, Naruemon; Chutipong, Wanlop; Ngoprasert, Dusit; Baker, Megan C; Cutter, Passanan; Gale, George; Kitamura, Shumpei; Steinmetz, Robert; Sukmasuang, Ronglarp; Thunhikorn, Somying

    2012-12-01

    Southeast Asia's tropical forests suffer the highest rates of deforestation and disturbance of any on Earth, with poorly understood impacts on native fauna. Asian tapirs (Tapirus indicus) are among the least studied of the large mammals in these forests. Using records from 9 camera trap surveys in 7 of the largest (>1000 km(2) ) protected area complexes, we assessed the influence of environmental variation and human-induced disturbance on tapir occurrence. Tapirs were detected at 13% of locations sampled, significantly associated with evergreen forest (P tapir presence 87% of the time. According to this model, tapir occurrence was positively influenced by annual rainfall and proximity to the forest edge. However, tapirs may not avoid edges but instead prefer wetter evergreen forest, a habitat type that tended to occur further from the forest edge at higher elevations in our particular study sites (P tapirs showed a range of differing responses. Tapirs are expected to be less sensitive to disturbance because they are not targets for hunting and trade, and are almost entirely active at night, so avoid peak traffic periods in parks. Tapir populations in Thailand may be more stable than in other parts of their global range because rates of forest loss have decreased >40% over the past 20 years. We recommend surveys to fill gaps in the understanding of the status in lesser-known protected areas, research to better understand the fine-scale environmental influences on behavior and habitats of tapirs, and other forest ungulates, and continued legal status for tapirs in the highest category of protection. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  8. Paediatric gastroenterology evaluation of overweight and obese children referred from primary care for suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwimmer, J B; Newton, K P; Awai, H I; Choi, L J; Garcia, M A; Ellis, L L; Vanderwall, K; Fontanesi, J

    2013-01-01

    Background Screening overweight and obese children for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is recommended by paediatric and endocrinology societies. However, gastroenterology societies have called for more data before making a formal recommendation. Aim To determine whether the detection of suspected NAFLD in overweight and obese children through screening in primary care and referral to paediatric gastroenterology resulted in a correct diagnosis of NAFLD. Methods Information generated in the clinical evaluation of 347 children identified with suspected NAFLD through screening in primary care and referral to paediatric gastroenterology was captured prospectively. Diagnostic outcomes were reported. The diagnostic performance of two times the upper limit of normal (ULN) for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was assessed. Results Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was diagnosed in 55% of children identified by screening and referral. Liver disease other than NAFLD was present in 18% of those referred. Autoimmune hepatitis was the most common alternative diagnosis. Children with NAFLD had significantly (P gastroenterology has the potential to identify clinically relevant liver pathology. Consensus is needed on how to value the risk and rewards of screening and referral, to identify children with liver disease in the most appropriate manner. PMID:24117728

  9. Reference values for the incremental shuttle walk test in patients with cardiovascular disease entering exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Fernando M F; Almodhy, Meshal; Pepera, Garyfalia; Stasinopoulos, Dimitrios M; Sandercock, Gavin R H

    2017-01-01

    The incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) is used to assess functional capacity of patients entering cardiac rehabilitation. Factors such as age and sex account for a proportion of the variance in test performance in healthy individuals but there are no reference values for patients with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to produce reference values for the ISWT. Participants were n = 548 patients referred to outpatient cardiac rehabilitation who underwent a clinical examination and performed the ISWT. We used regression to identify predictors of performance and produced centile values using the generalised additive model for location, scale and shape model. Men walked significantly further than women (395 ± 165 vs. 269 ± 118 m; t = 9.5, P < 0.001) so data were analysed separately by sex. Age (years) was the strongest predictor of performance in men (β = -5.9; 95% CI: -7.1 to -4.6 m) and women (β = -4.8; 95% CI: -6.3 to 3.3). Centile curves demonstrated a broadly linear decrease in expected ISWT values in males (25-85 years) and a more curvilinear trend in females. Patients entering cardiac rehabilitation present with highly heterogeneous ISWT values. Much of the variance in performance can be explained by patients' age and sex. Comparing absolute values with age-and sex-specific reference values may aid interpretation of ISWT performance during initial patient assessment at entry to cardiac rehabilitation.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Paget disease of bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is most common in people of western European heritage. Early-onset Paget disease of bone is much rarer. This form of the disorder has been reported in only a few families. Related Information What information about a genetic condition can statistics provide? Why are some genetic ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: nonsyndromic hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centre for Genetics Education (Australia) Disease InfoSearch: Deafness Harvard Medical School Center for Hereditary Deafness Hereditary Hearing ... Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1434/ Citation on ... Bulletins Genetics Home Reference Celebrates Its 15th Anniversary ...

  12. heart disease in southern africa with special reference to ischaemic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-06-12

    Jun 12, 1971 ... The cities of. Cape Town ... nition of cardiac disease, both during life and in the registration of .... cardiac failure, cardiac arrhythmias, and sudden death. Moreover ... young females, a great difference in the prevalence of the disease ...... have an increased risk of coronary disease under American conditions.

  13. Stress and quality of life among parents of children with congenital heart disease referred for psychological services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaugars, Astrida; Shields, Clarissa; Brosig, Cheryl

    2018-01-01

    The study examined parent stress and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among families of children with congenital heart disease (CHD) referred for psychological services. Parents of 54 children (85% boys) aged 3 to 13 (M age  = 7.48, SD = 2.38) completed measures to assess parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index - Short Form; Pediatric Inventory for Parents) and the PedsQL Family Impact Module. Medical information was retrieved from medical record review. Half of parents of children with single ventricle anatomy had clinically significant levels of parenting stress. Parents of children with single ventricle anatomy reported more frequent illness-related stress and more difficulty dealing with illness-related stress than parents of children with two ventricle anatomy. Younger gestational age at birth and referral for attention or behavior problems were associated with greater likelihood of parent at-risk psychosocial functioning. Among children referred for psychological services, many parents report significant stress and significant negative impact of the child's medical condition on the family. Results underscore the need to consider assessing parent psychosocial functioning and providing additional support for parents of children with CHD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Assessment of reference gene stability influenced by extremely divergent disease symptoms in Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Przemysław; Wrzesińska, Barbara; Obrępalska-Stęplowska, Aleksandra

    2013-12-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most important vegetables of great worldwide economic value. The scientific importance of the vegetable results from the fact that the genome of S. lycopersicum has been sequenced. This allows researchers to study fundamental mechanisms playing an essential role during tomato development and response to environmental factors contributing significantly to cell metabolism alterations. Parallel with the development of contemporary genetics and the constant increase in sequencing data, progress has to be aligned with improvement of experimental methods used for studying genes functions and gene expression levels, of which the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is still the most reliable. As well as with other nucleic acid-based methods used for comparison of the abundance of specific RNAs, the RT-qPCR data have to be normalised to the levels of RNAs represented stably in a cell. To achieve the goal, the so-called housekeeping genes (i.e., RNAs encoding, for instance, proteins playing an important role in the cell metabolism or structure maintenance), are used for normalisation of the target gene expression data. However, a number of studies have indicated the transcriptional instability of commonly used reference genes analysed in different situations or conditions; for instance, the origin of cells, tissue types, or environmental or other experimental conditions. The expression of ten common housekeeping genes of S. lycopersicum, namely EF1α, TUB, CAC, EXP, RPL8, GAPDH, TBP, ACT, SAND and 18S rRNA were examined during viral infections of tomato. Changes in the expression levels of the genes were estimated by comparison of the non-inoculated tomato plants with those infected with commonly known tomato viral pathogens, Tomato torrado virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Tobacco mosaic virus and Pepino mosaic virus, inducing a diverse range of disease symptoms on the common host, ranging from mild leaves chlorosis to

  15. Detection and quantification of Duffy antigen on bovine red blood cell membranes using a polyclonal antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa B.F. Antonangelo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Babesiosis is one of the most important diseases affecting livestock agriculture worldwide. Animals from the subspecies Bos taurus indicus are more resistant to babesiosis than those from Bos taurus taurus. The genera Babesia and Plasmodium are Apicomplexa hemoparasites and share features such as invasion of red blood cells (RBC. The glycoprotein Duffy is the only human erythrocyte receptor for Pasmodium vivax and a mutation which abolishes expression of this glycoprotein on erythrocyte surfaces is responsible for making the majority of people originating from the indigenous populations of West Africa resistant to P. vivax. The current work detected and quantified the Duffy antigen on Bos taurus indicus and Bos taurus taurus erythrocyte surfaces using a polyclonal antibody in order to investigate if differences in susceptibility to Babesia are due to different levels of Duffy antigen expression on the RBCs of these animals, as is known to be the case in human beings for interactions of Plasmodium vivax-Duffy antigen. ELISA tests showed that the antibody that was raised against Duffy antigens detected the presence of Duffy antigen in both subspecies and that the amount of this antigen on those erythrocyte membranes was similar. These results indicate that the greater resistance of B. taurus indicus to babesiosis cannot be explained by the absence or lower expression of Duffy antigen on RBC surfaces.

  16. Stability of bacterial carotenoids in the presence of iron in a model of the gastric compartment - comparison with dietary reference carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Charlotte; Dangles, Olivier; Borel, Patrick; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine

    2015-04-15

    Recently isolated spore-forming pigmented marine bacteria, Bacillus indicus HU36 and Bacillus firmus GB1 are sources of carotenoids (∼fifteen distinct yellow and orange pigments and ∼thirteen distinct pink pigments, respectively). They are glycosides of oxygenated lycopene derivatives (apo-lycopenoids) and are assumed to be more heat- and gastric-stable than common carotenoids. In this study, the oxidation by O2 of the bacterial carotenoids was initiated by free iron (Fe(II) and Fe(III)) or by heme iron (metmyoglobin) in a mildly acidic aqueous solution mimicking the gastro-intestinal compartment and compared to the oxidation of the common dietary carotenoids β-carotene, lycopene and astaxanthin. Under these conditions, all bacterial carotenoids appear more stable in the presence of heme iron vs. free iron. Carotenoid autoxidation initiated by Fe(II) is relatively fast and likely involves reactive oxygen-iron species derived from Fe(II) and O2. By contrast, the corresponding reaction with Fe(III) is kinetically blocked by the slow preliminary reduction of Fe(III) into Fe(II) by the carotenoids. The stability of carotenoids toward autoxidation increases as follows: β-carotenecarotenoids react more quickly than reference carotenoids with Fe(III), but much more slowly than the reference carotenoids with Fe(II). This reaction is correlated with the structure of the carotenoids, which can have opposite effects in a micellar system: bacterial carotenoids with electro-attracting terminal groups have a lower reducing capacity than β-carotene and lycopene. However, their polar head favours their location close to the interface of micelles, in closer contact with oxidative species. Kinetic analyses of the iron-induced autoxidation of astaxanthin and HU36 carotenoids has been performed and gives insights in the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of a flow assay for brucellosis antibodies with the reference cELISA test in West African Bos indicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barend M deC Bronsvoort

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is considered by the Food and Agricultural Organisation and the World Health Organisation as one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. It is a major veterinary public health challenge as animals are almost exclusively the source of infection for people. It is often undiagnosed in both human patients and the animal sources and it is widely acknowledged that the epidemiology of brucellosis in humans and animals is poorly understood, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. It is therefore important to develop better diagnostic tools in order to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and also for use in the field for disease control and eradication. As with any new diagnostic test, it is essential that it is validated in as many populations as possible in order to characterise its performance and improve the interpretation of its results. This paper describes a comparison between a new lateral flow assasy (LFA for bovine brucellosis and the widely used cELISA in a no gold standard analysis to estimate test performance in this West African cattle population. A Bayesian formulation of the Hui-Walter latent class model incorporated previous studies' data on sensitivity and specificity of the cELISA. The results indicate that the new LFA is very sensitive (approximately 87% and highly specific (approximately 97%. The analysis also suggests that the current cut-off of the cELSIA may not be optimal for this cattle population but alternative cut-offs did not significantly change the estimates of the LFA. This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of this simple to use test in field based surveillance and control which could be easily adopted for use in developing countries with only basic laboratory facilities.

  18. Comparison of a Flow Assay for Brucellosis Antibodies with the Reference cELISA Test in West African Bos indicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronsvoort, Barend M. deC.; Koterwas, Bronwyn; Land, Fiona; Handel, Ian G.; Tucker, James; Morgan, Kenton L.; Tanya, Vincent N.; Abdoel, Theresia H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2009-01-01

    Brucellosis is considered by the Food and Agricultural Organisation and the World Health Organisation as one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. It is a major veterinary public health challenge as animals are almost exclusively the source of infection for people. It is often undiagnosed in both human patients and the animal sources and it is widely acknowledged that the epidemiology of brucellosis in humans and animals is poorly understood, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. It is therefore important to develop better diagnostic tools in order to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and also for use in the field for disease control and eradication. As with any new diagnostic test, it is essential that it is validated in as many populations as possible in order to characterise its performance and improve the interpretation of its results. This paper describes a comparison between a new lateral flow assasy (LFA) for bovine brucellosis and the widely used cELISA in a no gold standard analysis to estimate test performance in this West African cattle population. A Bayesian formulation of the Hui-Walter latent class model incorporated previous studies' data on sensitivity and specificity of the cELISA. The results indicate that the new LFA is very sensitive (∼87%) and highly specific (∼97%). The analysis also suggests that the current cut-off of the cELSIA may not be optimal for this cattle population but alternative cut-offs did not significantly change the estimates of the LFA. This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of this simple to use test in field based surveillance and control which could be easily adopted for use in developing countries with only basic laboratory facilities. PMID:19381332

  19. Genetics Home Reference: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... individual is considered to have a fatty liver (hepatic steatosis) if the liver contains more than 5 to ... Resources Genetic Testing (2 links) Genetic Testing Registry: Fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic 1 Genetic Testing Registry: Fatty liver ...

  20. crossbreeding wit}i africander dam as basis . 3. post-weaning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'n stelsel van rntensiewe vetmesting, het laasgenoemde drie 8os taurus vaarras nageslaggroepe opvallend beter presteer as eersgenoemde twee Bos indicus vaarras nageslaggroepe. Onder ekstensiewe veldtoestande het alle krusgeteelde groepe egter die Afrikanerkontroles geklop. Die nageslag van beide Bos indicus ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: glycogen storage disease type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resulting from uric acid crystals in the joints (gout), kidney disease, and high blood pressure in the ... particular ethnic groups? Genetic Changes Mutations in two genes, G6PC and SLC37A4 , cause GSDI. G6PC gene mutations ...

  2. 78 FR 47319 - Fee Schedule for Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Fee Schedule for Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and... for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), located within the Department of Health and Human Services...

  3. Feed Intake and Weight Changes in Bos indicus-Bos taurus Crossbred Steers Following Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 1b Challenge Under Production Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase A. Runyan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV has major impacts on beef cattle production worldwide, but the understanding of host animal genetic influence on illness is limited. This study evaluated rectal temperature, weight change and feed intake in Bos indicus crossbred steers (n = 366 that were challenged with BVDV Type 1b, and where family lines were stratified across three vaccine treatments of modified live (MLV, killed, (KV or no vaccine (NON. Pyrexia classification based on 40.0 °C threshold following challenge and vaccine treatment were investigated for potential interactions with sire for weight change and feed intake following challenge. Pyrexia classification affected daily feed intake (ADFI, p = 0.05, and interacted with day (p < 0.001 for ADFI. Although low incidence of clinical signs was observed, there were marked reductions in average daily gain (ADG and cumulative feed intake during the first 14 day post-challenge; ADG (CV of 104% and feed efficiency were highly variable in the 14-day period immediately post-challenge as compared to the subsequent 14-day periods. A sire × vaccine strategy interaction affected ADFI (p < 0.001, and a sire by time period interaction affected ADG (p = 0.03 and total feed intake (p = 0.03. This study demonstrates that different coping responses may exist across genetic lines to the same pathogen, and that subclinical BVDV infection has a measurable impact on cattle production measures.

  4. Symptoms, diagnoses, and sporting consequences among athletes referred to a Danish sports cardiology clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser-Nielsen, L V; Tischer, S G; Prescott, E B

    2017-01-01

    investigated the prevalence of cardiac symptoms and diagnoses among 201 athletes referred for cardiac evaluation at a Sports Cardiology Clinic in Denmark. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic study of athletes referred for suspected cardiac disease. The athletes were all well-trained recreational...... to elite athletes who participated in various sports with different training loads and a wide age span (13-66 years). All patients were referred by physicians, primarily their general practitioner (38%), and palpitations were the most common cardiac symptom (40%). Cardiac symptoms had a sensitivity of 86......% in detecting cardiac disease and a specificity of 13%. Cardiac disease was diagnosed in 44% of the patients, and atrial fibrillation was the most prevalent diagnosis (7.5%). Cardiac diseases with therapeutic- or sports-related consequences for the patients were diagnosed in 28% of the population, but only 1...

  5. Iron storage disease in tapirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Christopher J; Trupkiewicz, John G; Toddes, Barbara; Lewandowski, Albert H

    2006-03-01

    Recent studies of serum iron and iron binding capacity have indicated that tapirs could be at risk of developing hemochromatosis. However, in recent surveys of pathologic findings in tapirs, hemochromatosis was not reported as a cause of death. This study reviews necropsy reports from three species of tapir (Baird's tapir [Tapirus bairdii], Malayan tapir [Tapirus indicus], and Brazilian tapir [Tapirus terrestris]) at the Philadelphia Zoological Garden between 1902 and 1994. Twelve cases of hemosiderosis, including fatal hemochromatosis in two Baird's tapirs, were found among 19 cases examined histologically. Hemochromatosis has previously been reported in the horse, rhinoceros, and in one Brazilian tapir. Dietary factors were investigated but could not be confirmed to have contributed to the incidence of hemosiderosis and hemochromatosis in the three species of tapir in the Philadelphia Zoological Garden collection.

  6. Prenatal Detection of Congenital Heart Diseases: One-Year Survey Performing a Screening Protocol in a Single Reference Center in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Alves Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the experience of a tertiary center in Brazil to which patients are referred whose fetuses are at increased risk for congenital heart diseases (CHDs. Methods. This was a cross-sectional observational study. The data was collected prospectively, during the year 2012, through a screening protocol of the fetal heart adapted from the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology (ISUOG guideline. We performed a fetal echocardiogram screening for all pregnant women who were referred to the fetal cardiology outpatient obstetrics clinic of a university hospital. The exams were classified as normal or abnormal. The cases considered abnormal were undergone to a postnatal echocardiogram. We categorized the abnormal fetal heart according to severity in “complex,” “significant,” “minor,” and “others.” Results. We performed 271 fetal heart screening. The incidence of abnormal screenings was 9.96% (27 fetuses. The structural CHD when categorized due to severity showed 48.1% (n=13 of “complex” cases, 18.5% (n=5 “significant” cases, and 7.4% (n=2 “minor” cases. The most common referral reason was by maternal causes (67% followed by fetal causes (33%. The main referral indication was maternal metabolic disease (30%, but there was just one fetus with CHD in such cases (1.2%. CHDs were found in 19/29 fetuses with suspicion of some cardiac abnormality by obstetrician (65.5%. Conclusion. We observed a high rate of CHD in our population. We also found that there was higher incidence of complex cases.

  7. The role of genotype on classification grades of beef carcasses produced under mexican tropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Zorrilla-Ríos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio identificó la distribución de 22,850 canales de bovino de diferentes genotipos. Éstos, en función del juzgamiento visual del tamaño de la giba (grande, representativa de un genotipo Bos indicus; mediana, genotipo producto de la cruza entre B. taurus y B. indicus y pequeña, considerada como genotipo B. taurus en los grados de clasificación obtenidos bajo la norma mexicana NMX-FF-078-SCFI-2002, en el rastro Tipo Inspección Federal No. 51 de La Unión, Tabasco (México. Se determinó el grado de asociación y la proporción de canales, juzgados por el tamaño de su giba; y el criterio de clasificación de la canal, por el procedimiento analítico de Chi-Cuadrada. Cincuenta y cuatro por ciento de las canales correspondieron al tipo de giba grande (genotipo B. indicus, 35% al de pequeña (genotipo B. taurus y el 10.70% al de mediana (genotipo producto de la cruza entre B. taurus y B. indicus. En los genotipos B. taurus y cruza se concentró un mayor número de canales con clasificación de selecta (P<0.0001; 17.90 y 18.50%, respectivamente y estándar (55.20 y 60.10%, respectivamente que el genotipo B. indicus (10.10% para canales selectas y 39.30% de estándar. El genotipo B. indicus concentró un mayor número de canales de grado comercial (36.20% y fuera de clasificación (14.40% (P<0.0001. Los tres genotipos de bovinos considerados (B. indicus, B. taurus y Cruzas dieron lugar a canales clasificadas como selectas, sugiriendo que el genotipo no sea un factor de sesgo en la norma de clasificación de canales de bovino mexicano NMX-FF-078-SCFI-2002.

  8. Differential abundances of four forms of Binder of SPerm 1 in the seminal plasma of Bos taurus indicus bulls with different patterns of semen freezability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Marcos Jorge; Martins, Leonardo Franco; Senra, Renato Lima; Santos, Thaís Ferreira Dos; Okano, Denise Silva; Pereira, Paulo Roberto Gomes; Faria-Campos, Alessandra; Campos, Sérgio Vale Aguiar; Guimarães, José Domingos; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina

    2016-08-01

    The Binder of SPerm 1 (BSP1) protein is involved in the fertilization and semen cryopreservation processes and is described to be both beneficial and detrimental to sperm. Previously, the relationship of BSP1 with freezability events has not been completely understood. The objective of this work was to determine the differential abundance of the forms of the BSP1 protein in cryopreserved seminal plasma of Bos taurus indicus bulls with different patterns of semen freezability using proteomics. A wide cohort of adult bulls with high genetic value from an artificial insemination center was used as donors of high quality, fresh semen. Nine bulls presenting different patterns of semen freezability were selected. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed differential abundance in a group of seven protein spots in the frozen/thawed seminal plasma from the bulls, ranging from 15 to 17 kDa, with pI values from 4.6 to 5.8. Four of these spots were confirmed to be BSP1 using mass spectrometry, proteomics, biochemical, and computational analysis (Tukey's test at P semen freezability and its absence in bulls presenting high semen freezability. This is the first report showing that more than two forms of BSP1 are found in the seminal plasma of Nelore adult bulls and not all animals have a similar abundance of each BSP1 form. Different BSP1 forms may be involved in different events of fertilization and the cryopreservation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Anatomical study of the articular branches innervated the hip and knee joint with reference to mechanism of referral pain in hip joint disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Junya; Manabe, Yoshitaka; Oyamada, Joichi; Kataoka, Hideki; Nakano, Jiro; Saiki, Kazunobu; Okamoto, Keishi; Tsurumoto, Toshiyuki; Okita, Minoru

    2018-03-25

    Referred pain in the anterior knee joint is the most common symptom in hip disease patients. The development of referred pain is considered to be related to dichotomizing peripheral sensory fibers. However, no gross anatomical findings identify any dichotomizing fibers innervating both the hip and knee joints. We dissected the femoral and obturator nerves in human cadavers to investigate the distribution of the articular branches in the hip and knee joints. Fourteen embalmed left lower limbs from 14 Japanese adult cadavers (five from females, nine from males, average age 73.8 ± 14.1 years) were observed macroscopically. The articular branches of the femoral and obturator nerves were dissected at the anterior margin of the groin toward the thigh region. After dissections of the articular nerves of the hip joints, the femoral and obturator nerves were exposed from proximally to distally to identify the articular nerves of the knee joints. The branching pattern of the articular branches in the hip and knee joints was recorded. In six of 14 limbs (42.9%), the femoral nerve supplied articular branches to the anteromedial aspect of both the hip and knee joints. These articular branches were derived from the same bundle of femoral nerve. These gross anatomical findings suggested that dichotomizing peripheral sensory fibers innervate the hip and knee joints and these could relate to the referred pain confirmed in the anterior knee joints of patients with hip disease. Clin. Anat., 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Staphylococcal disease in Africa: another neglected 'tropical' disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmann, Mathias; Abdullah, Salim; Alabi, Abraham; Alonso, Pedro; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Fuhr, Günther; Germann, Anja; Kern, Winfried V.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Mandomando, Inacio; Mellmann, Alexander C.; Pluschke, Gerd; Rieg, Siegbert; Ruffing, Ulla; Schaumburg, Frieder; Tanner, Marcel; Peters, Georg; von Briesen, Hagen; von Eiff, Christof; von Müller, Lutz; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2013-01-01

    The term 'neglected tropical diseases' predominantly refers to single-entity, mostly parasitic diseases. However, a considerable morbidity and mortality burden is carried by patients infected with Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli that are prevalent all over the world, yet have impact in

  11. Staphylococcal disease in Africa : another neglected 'tropical' disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmann, Mathias; Abdullah, Salim; Alabi, Abraham; Alonso, Pedro; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Fuhr, Guenther; Germann, Anja; Kern, Winfried V.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Mandomando, Inacio; Mellmann, Alexander C.; Pluschke, Gerd; Rieg, Siegbert; Ruffing, Ulla; Schaumburg, Frieder; Tanner, Marcel; von Briesen, Hagen; von Eiff, Christof; von Mueller, Lutz; Grobusch, Martin P.; Peters, Georg

    The term 'neglected tropical diseases' predominantly refers to single-entity, mostly parasitic diseases. However, a considerable morbidity and mortality burden is carried by patients infected with Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli that are prevalent all over the world, yet have impact in

  12. Genetics Home Reference: neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... named? Additional Information & Resources MedlinePlus (6 links) Encyclopedia: Hypothyroidism Encyclopedia: Type 2 Diabetes Health Topic: Cardiomyopathy Health Topic: Lipid Metabolism Disorders Health Topic: Muscle Disorders Health Topic: Pancreatitis Genetic and Rare Diseases ...

  13. Relationship between dietary approaches to stop hypertension score and presence or absence of coronary heart diseases in patients referring to Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Mokhtari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH dietary pattern reduces blood pressure. However, there is little information about the relationship between DASH and coronary heart diseases. This study aimed to assess the relationship between a DASH-style diet adherence score and coronary heart diseases (CHD in patients referring for coronary angiography. METHODS: In this study, 201 adults (102 males, 99 females within the age range of 40-80 years who referred for coronary angiography were selected. Diet was evaluated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. DASH score was calculated based on 8 food components (fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and legumes, low fat dairy, red/processed meats, soft drinks/sweets, and sodium. The relationship between DASH score and CHD was assessed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Mean of DASH score was 23.99 ± 4.41. Individuals in the highest quartile of DASH score were less likely to have CHD [odds ratio (OR = 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.16-0.86]. However, after adjustment for gender or smoking, there was little evidence that coronary heart disease was associated with DASH diet score. There was a significant negative correlation between DASH score and diastolic blood pressure (P ≤ 0.05. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, having a diet similar to DASH plan was not independently related to CHD in this study. This might indicate that having a healthy dietary pattern, such as DASH pattern, is highly related to gender (dietary pattern is healthier in women than men or smoking habit (non-smokers have healthier dietary pattern compared to smokers.   Keywords: Coronary Heart Disease, Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension, Blood Pressure 

  14. Hypertensive heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000163.htm Hypertensive heart disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hypertensive heart disease refers to heart problems that occur because of ...

  15. Arthritis and Rheumatic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Topics Arthritis and Rheumatic Diseases Arthritis and Rheumatic Diseases Arthritis is often used to refer to any ... primary immunodeficiency syndrome March 11, 2013 Arthritis and Rheumatic Disease News Research Brief | January 9, 2017 Tofacitinib Shows ...

  16. USA hCG reference service, 10-year report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Laurence A; Laidler, Laura L; Muller, Carolyn Y

    2010-08-01

    The USA hCG Reference Service has been dealing with cases of persistent low levels of hCG and gestational trophoblastic diseases for 10years. Here we present the complete experience. Total hCG in serum and urine was measured using the Siemen's Immulite 1000 assay. Hyperglycosylated hCG, nicked hCG, free ss-subunit and ss-core fragment were measured using microtiterplate assays with antibodies B152, B151, FBT11 and B210, respectively. The USA hCG Reference Service has identified 83 cases of false-positive hCG, 71 cases of aggressive gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), 52 cases of minimally invasive GTD, 168 cases of quiescent GTD and 22 cases of placenta site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT). In addition, 103 cases of pituitary hCG have been identified, 60 cases of nontrophoblastic tumor, 4 cases of inherited hCG and 2 cases of Munchausen's syndrome. This is 565 cases total. Multiple new methods are described and tested for diagnosing all of these disorders. The USA hCG Reference Service experience shows new methods for detecting multiple hCG-related disorders and recommends new approaches for detecting these hCG-related disorders. 2010 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. "Diseases and natural kinds".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2005-01-01

    David Thomasma called for the development of a medical ethics based squarely on the philosophy of medicine. He recognized, however, that widespread anti-essentialism presented a significant barrier to such an approach. The aim of this article is to introduce a theory that challenges these anti-essentialist objections. The notion of natural kinds presents a modest form of essentialism that can serve as the basis for a foundationalist philosophy of medicine. The notion of a natural kind is neither static nor reductionistic. Disease can be understood as making necessary reference to living natural kinds without invoking the claim that diseases themselves are natural kinds. The idea that natural kinds have a natural disposition to flourish as the kinds of things that they are provides a telos to which to tether the notion of disease - an objective telos that is broader than mere survival and narrower than subjective choice. It is argued that while nosology is descriptive and may have therapeutic implications, disease classification is fundamentally explanatory. Sickness and illness, while referring to the same state of affairs, can be distinguished from disease phenomenologically. Scientific and diagnostic fallibility in making judgments about diseases do not diminish the objectivity of this notion of disease. Diseases are things, not kinds. Injury is a concept parallel to disease that also makes necessary reference to living natural kinds. These ideas provide a new possibility for the development of a philosophy of medicine with implications for medical ethics.

  18. Prevalence and sonographic changes compatible with fatty liver disease in patients referred for abdominal ultrasound examination in Aracaju, SE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josilda Ferreira Cruz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To estimate the prevalence and evaluate sonographic findings compatible with changes consistent with hepatic steatosis in patients referred for abdominal ultrasonography at four reference centers in Aracaju, SE, Brazil. Materials and Methods: Prospective, descriptive survey, with analytical and quantitative approach, comprising abdominal ultrasonography scans performed with a convex, dynamic 3.75 MHz transducer. Liver dimensions and parenchymal echotexture were evaluated, classifying hepatic steatosis into grades (1, 2 or 3. The SPSS® 22.0 software was used for statistical analysis, adopting p < 0.05 as significance level. Results: A total of 800 individuals (561 women and 239 men were evaluated. The prevalence of steatosis was 29.1%, and the male patients were most affected, presenting with more advanced grades of disease (p = 0.021, as follows: 119 grade 1 (51.0%; 94 grade 2 (40.4%; and 20 grade 3 (8.6%. The median age patients' was 46 years. Conclusion: In the present study sample, the prevalence of hepatic steatosis was high, particularly in the male patients. Ultrasonography is suggested as a first choice for the diagnosis of this condition, considering its wide availability, low cost and absence of side effects or risks to the patient.

  19. A deterministic simulation study of embryo marker-assisted selection for age at first calving in Nellore (Bos indicus beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur J.M. Rosa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We used deterministic simulation of four alternative multiple ovulation and embryo manipulation (MOET closed nucleus schemes to investigate the benefits of using marker-assisted selection (MAS of Nellore (Bos indicus beef cattle embryos prior to transplantation to reduce the age at first calving (AFC. We found that MAS resulted in increased genetic gain as compared to selection without AFC quantitative trait loci (AFC-QTL information. With single-stage selection the genetic response (GR increased as follows: GR = 0.68% when the AFC-QTL explained 0.02 of the AFC additive genetic variance (sigma2A; GR = 1.76% for AFC-QTL explaining 0.05 sigma2A; GR = 3.7% for AFC-QTL explaining 0.1 sigma2A; and GR = 55.76% for AFC-QTL explaining 0.95 sigma2A. At the same total selected proportion, two-stage selection resulted in less genetic gain than single stage MAS at two-years of age. A single stage selection responses of > 95% occurred with pre-selected proportions of 0.4 (0.1 sigma2A explained by AFC-QTL, 0.2 (0.3 sigma2A explained by AFC-QTL and 0.1 (0.5 sigma2A explained by AFC-QTL, indicating that the combined use of MAS and pre-selection can substantially reduce the cost of keeping recipient heifers in MOET breeding schemes. When the number of recipients was kept constant, the benefit of increasing embryo production was greater for the QTL explaining a higher proportion of the additive genetic variance. However this advantage had a diminishing return especially for QTL explaining a small proportion of the additive genetic variance. Thus, marker assisted selection of embryos can be used to achieve increased genetic gain or a similar genetic response at reduced expense by decreasing the number of recipient cows and number of offspring raised to two-years of age.

  20. Roaming Reference: Reinvigorating Reference through Point of Need Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kealin M. McCabe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Roaming reference service was pursued as a way to address declining reference statistics. The service was staffed by librarians armed with iPads over a period of six months during the 2010-2011 academic year. Transactional statistics were collected in relation to query type (Research, Facilitative or Technology, location and approach (librarian to patron, patron to librarian or via chat widget. Overall, roaming reference resulted in an additional 228 reference questions, 67% (n=153 of which were research related. Two iterations of the service were implemented, roaming reference as a standalone service (Fall 2010 and roaming reference integrated with traditional reference desk duties (Winter 2011. The results demonstrate that although the Weller Library’s reference transactions are declining annually, they are not disappearing. For a roaming reference service to succeed, it must be a standalone service provided in addition to traditional reference services. The integration of the two reference models (roaming reference and reference desk resulted in a 56% decline in the total number of roaming reference questions from the previous term. The simple act of roaming has the potential to reinvigorate reference services as a whole, forcing librarians outside their comfort zones, allowing them to reach patrons at their point of need.

  1. PATHOGENECITY OF GROUPER SLEEPY DISEASE IRIDOVIRUS (GSDIV: Megalocytivirus, FAMILY Iridoviridae TO CORAL TROUT GROUPER Plectrophomus leopardus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Mahardika

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Grouper sleepy disease iridovirus (GSDIV, a member of the genus Megalocytivirus in the family Iridoviridae, has been known to cause large scale mortalities resulting in severe economic losses in grouper industries in south-east Asia including Indonesia. In this study, experimental infection of coral trout grouper Plectrophomus indicus with GSDIV was performed to evaluate the viral pathogenecity to this fish species. After virus exposure, the mortalities of coral trout grouper injected with primary and 10-1 dilution of spleen homogenates derived from tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus were 100% and 90%, respectively. Histopathology revealed that moribund fish receiving GSDIV inoculum displayed massive formation of enlarged cells in the spleen and hematopoitic tissues. Under electron microscopy, the enlarged cells were observed as inclusion body bearing cells (IBCs and necrotic cells allowing virus propagation within an intracytoplasmic virus assembly site (VAS. GSDIV virions were 167-200 nm in size. These findings confirmed that GSDIV has severe pathogenicity to coral trout grouper and IBCs as well as necrotic cells were determined to be the pathognomonic sign of megalocytivirus-infected coral trout grouper.

  2. Multifactorial diseases and risk estimations: special reference of mutation component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Norikazu

    1995-01-01

    Genetic effects of radiation in man have been tractable such aspects as genes, chromosomes, genomes, individuals and populations. In spite of enormous interest from an academic view point on the mechanism studies, it is rather a little study on incidence or prevalence of genetic diseases as hereditary effects when human population in general have been exposed by radiation. Such studies are valuable for radiation protection as well as radiation public health. In this review, I have attempted to reconcile some fragments evidences to derive an important conclusion: the hereditary effects of radiation could not be detected from examination of disease incidence (or prevalence) for the genetic risk. (J.P.N.)

  3. Angara disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... 1988). Since the disease emerged in this specific geographic area, HHS was initially referred to as “Angara. Disease”. The disease is caused by an avian adenovirus serotype-iv in Pakistan. This virus is responsible for development of intranuclear inclusion bodies in the cells of liver, pancreas and kidneys.

  4. Effects of retinol on the in vitro development of Bos indicus embryos to blastocysts in two different culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, P F; Oliveira, M A L; Gonçalves, P B D; Montagner, M M; Reichenbach, H-D; Weppert, M; Neto, C C C; Pina, V M R; Santos, M H B

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of retinol on the in vitro development of early embryos of cultured Bos indicus (Expt 1) to the blastocyst stage in medium simplex of optimization (KSOM) or sintetic fluid of oviduct (SOF) or co-cultured (Expt 2) with an oviduct cell monolayer (OCM) in KSOM or SOF. A total of 3149 cumulus-oocyte complexes obtained by aspirating follicles (2-5 mm diameter) from ovaries of slaughtered animals were selected for IVM and incubated in TCM 199 supplemented with 25 mM HEPES at 39 degrees C in air with 5% CO(2) and maximum humidity for 24 h. In vitro fertilization (IVF) was performed in modified defined medium (mDM) medium. Eighteen hours after IVF, cumulus cells were removed and presumptive zygotes were randomly allocated to the experimental groups. Zygotes cultured (Expt 1) in KSOM + retinol, KSOM, SOF + retinol and SOF were incubated in maximum humidity at 39 degrees C, 5% CO(2), 5% O(2) and 90% N(2). Zygotes co-cultured (Expt 2) in KSOM + retinol + OCM, KSOM + OCM, SOF + retinol + OCM and SOF + OCM were incubated at 39 degrees C, 5% CO(2). In both experiments media were partially changed 48 h after IVF and unfertilized ova were removed. Afterwards embryos were kept in culture or co-culture for further 9 days. In Expt 1, blastocyst rates (day 7) were 14.6% (KSOM + retinol), 15.8% (KSOM), 16.4% (SOF + retinol) and 15.9% (SOF). In Expt 2, the blastocyst rates (day 7) were 25.4% (KSOM + retinol + OCM) 14.2% (KSOM + OCM), 24.3% (SOF + retinol + OCM) and 15.9% (SOF + OCM). The same influence profile of retinol was observed in the formation of the expanded (day 9) and hatched (day 11) blastocysts. The results obtained in Expt 2 demonstrated that the addition of 0.28 microg/ml retinol to the embryo culture media used in this study had a significant (p < 0.05) positive effect on bovine early embryonic development, under the conditions tested, and can be used to enhance in vitro embryo production.

  5. Genetic susceptibility to infectious disease in East African Shorthorn Zebu: a genome-wide analysis of the effect of heterozygosity and exotic introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Gemma G R; Woolhouse, Mark E J; Tapio, Miika; Mbole-Kariuki, Mary N; Sonstegard, Tad S; Thumbi, Samuel M; Jennings, Amy E; van Wyk, Ilana Conradie; Chase-Topping, Margo; Kiara, Henry; Toye, Phil; Coetzer, Koos; deC Bronsvoort, Barend M; Hanotte, Olivier

    2013-11-09

    Positive multi-locus heterozygosity-fitness correlations have been observed in a number of natural populations. They have been explained by the correlation between heterozygosity and inbreeding, and the negative effect of inbreeding on fitness (inbreeding depression). Exotic introgression in a locally adapted population has also been found to reduce fitness (outbreeding depression) through the breaking-up of co-adapted genes, or the introduction of non-locally adapted gene variants. In this study we examined the inter-relationships between genome-wide heterozygosity, introgression, and death or illness as a result of infectious disease in a sample of calves from an indigenous population of East African Shorthorn Zebu (crossbred Bos taurus x Bos indicus) in western Kenya. These calves were observed from birth to one year of age as part of the Infectious Disease in East African Livestock (IDEAL) project. Some of the calves were found to be genetic hybrids, resulting from the recent introgression of European cattle breed(s) into the indigenous population. European cattle are known to be less well adapted to the infectious diseases present in East Africa. If death and illness as a result of infectious disease have a genetic basis within the population, we would expect both a negative association of these outcomes with introgression and a positive association with heterozygosity. In this indigenous livestock population we observed negative associations between heterozygosity and both death and illness as a result of infectious disease and a positive association between European taurine introgression and episodes of clinical illness. We observe the effects of both inbreeding and outbreeding depression in the East African Shorthorn Zebu, and therefore find evidence of a genetic component to vulnerability to infectious disease. These results indicate that the significant burden of infectious disease in this population could, in principle, be reduced by altered breeding

  6. PTPN22 gene polymorphisms in autoimmune diseases with special reference to systemic lupus erythematosus disease susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a prototype autoimmune disease. SLE is a result of one or more immune mechanisms, like autoantibody production, complement activation, multiple inflammation and immune complex deposition leading to organ tissue damage. SLE affected patients are susceptible to common and opportunistic infections. There are several reports suggesting that Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection precipitates SLE in patients from endemic areas. Genetic factors and environmental factors also play an important role in the overall susceptibility to SLE pathophysiology. Recently, protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22 gene, has been found to be associated with several autoimmune diseases like SLE, Grave′s disease and Hashimoto thyroiditis. The missense R620W polymorphism, rs 2476601, in PTPN22 gene at the nucleotide 1858 in codon 620 (620Arg > Trp has been associated with autoimmune diseases. The PTPN22 locus is also found to be responsible for development of pulmonary tuberculosis in certain populations. The PTPN22 1858C/T gene locus will be ideal to look for SLE susceptibility to tuberculosis in the Indian population. In this review, we focus on human PTPN22 gene structure and function as well as the association of PTPN22 gene polymorphisms with SLE susceptibility

  7. Creatine and guanidinoacetate reference values in a French population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joncquel-Cheval Curt, M.; Cheillan, D.; Briand, G.; Salomons, G.S.; Mention-Mulliez, K.; Dobbelaere, D.; Cuisset, J.M.; Lion-Francois, L.; Portes, V.D.; Chabli, A.; Valayannopoulos, V.; Benoist, J.F.; Pinard, J.M.; Simard, G.; Douay, O.; Deiva, K.; Tardieu, M.; Afenjar, A.; Heron, D.; Rivier, F.; Chabrol, B.; Prieur, F.; Cartault, F.; Pitelet, G.; Goldenberg, A.; Bekri, S.; Gerard, M.; Delorme, R.; Porchet, N.; Vianey-Saban, C.; Vamecq, J.

    2013-01-01

    Creatine and guanidinoacetate are biomarkers of creatine metabolism. Their assays in body fluids may be used for detecting patients with primary creatine deficiency disorders (PCDD), a class of inherited diseases. Their laboratory values in blood and urine may vary with age, requiring that reference

  8. Self-reference effect on memory in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: Influence of identity valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Mona; Laisney, Mickaël; Lamidey, Virginie; Egret, Stéphanie; de La Sayette, Vincent; Chételat, Gaël; Piolino, Pascale; Rauchs, Géraldine; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The self-reference effect (SRE) has been shown to benefit episodic memory in healthy individuals. In healthy aging, its preservation is acknowledged, but in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the jury is still out. Furthermore, there has yet to be a study of the SRE in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). As self-reference implies subjective self-representations, and positive information enhance memory performance, we set out to examine the effects of 1) material and 2) identity valence on the SRE across the early stages of AD. Twenty healthy older individuals and 40 patients (20 diagnosed with aMCI and 20 diagnosed with mild AD) performed a memory task. Participants had to judge positive and negative personality trait adjectives with reference to themselves or to another person, or else process these adjectives semantically. We then administered a recognition task. Participants also completed a questionnaire on identity valence. Among healthy older individuals, the SRE benefited episodic memory independently of material and identity valence. By contrast, among aMCI patients, we only observed the SRE when the material was positive. When self-referential material was negative, patients' performance depended on the valence of their self-representations: negative self-representations correlated with poor recognition of negative self-referential adjectives. Finally, performance of patients with mild AD by condition and material valence were too low and inappropriate to be subjected to relevant analyses. The persistence of an SRE for positive adjectives in aMCI suggests the existence of a positivity effect for self-related information, which contributes to wellbeing. The absence of an SRE for negative adjectives, which led aMCI patients to dismiss negative self-related information, could be due to low self-esteem. These results corroborate the mnenic neglect model and point out the importance of the psychoaffective dimension in patients with aMCI, which could constitute a

  9. Assessment of the swallowing function in older individuals referred to myocardial revascularization surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Mara de Oliveira Rodrigues Luiz; Auler, José Otávio Costa; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim de

    2010-01-01

    Swallowing evaluation of older individuals with coronary disease referred to heart surgery. To identify the characteristics of the swallowing function in older individuals referred to myocardial revascularization surgery (MR), using an evaluating protocol composed by a water test, cervical auscultation and pulse oximetry. The Assessment Protocol for Dysphagia Risk through a Combined Swallowing test and Vital Signs monitoring was used (PADTC)--measurements of HR and SpO2 (heart rate and oxygen saturation), water swallowing test with 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 e 20 ml, measurement of respiratory rate and cervical auscultation. The electronic stethoscope was used to analyze the number of swallows, response time and swallowing sound classification. In the Research Group (RG) older individuals with heart disease who were referred to MR were included. In the Control Group (CG) healthy older individuals were included. 38 older individuals were evaluated in the RG (mean age 68 years). In the CG, 30 older individuals were evaluated (mean age 70 years). There was a significant difference for the swallowing response time in older individuals with heart disease who presented HR below 60: swallowing response was shorter for 3 ml, 10 ml, 15 ml e 20 ml. HR was lower for individuals with heart disease. No significant difference was found between the groups for the other analyzed parameters. Older individuals with heart disease presented differences in the swallowing function when compared to healthy older individuals. Older individuals with heart disease presented alterations in the temporal coordination between breathing and swallowing, thus indicating risk for dysphagia.

  10. Developing primary care in Hong Kong: evidence into practice and the development of reference frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Sian M; Lee, Jeff P M

    2012-10-01

    Enhancing primary care is one of the proposals put forward in the Healthcare Reform Consultation Document "Your Health, Your Life" issued in March 2008. In 2009, the Working Group on Primary Care, chaired by the Secretary for Food and Health, recommended the development of age-group and disease-specific primary care conceptual models and reference frameworks. Drawing on international experience and best evidence, the Task Force on Conceptual Model and Preventive Protocols of the Working Group on Primary Care has developed two reference frameworks for the management of two common chronic diseases in Hong Kong, namely diabetes and hypertension, in primary care settings. Adopting a population approach for the prevention and control of diabetes and hypertension across the life course, the reference frameworks aim to provide evidence-based and appropriate recommendations for the provision of continuing and comprehensive care for patients with chronic diseases in the community.

  11. Complications in autopsy cases of Hashimoto's disease with special reference to A-bomb exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Masahide; Kato, Hiroo

    1978-01-01

    To clarify a relationship between A-bomb exposure and Hashimoto's disease and that between Hashimoto's disease and carcinoma of the thyroid gland, autopsy cases of Hashimoto's disease (112 cases in Hiroshima and 43 cases in Nagasaki) were examined. Incidence of Hashimoto's disease was not related to exposure doses and ages at the time of exposure. Incidence of carcinoma of the thyroid gland from Hashimoto's disease was 1.3% (2 cases), and there was no relationship between them. Incidence of ovarian cancer as cancer accompanied with Hashimoto's disease was significantly high, but that of stomach cancer was significantly low. Incidence of total cancer from Hashimoto's disease was also significantly low. Incidences of rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis which were collagen diseases and diseases similar to them complicated by Hashimoto's disease was significantly high. (Tsunoda, M.)

  12. Retinal diseases in a reference center from a Western Amazon capital city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerbi, Fernando Korn; Matsudo, Nilson Hideo; Carneiro, Adriano Biondi Monteiro; Lottenberg, Claudio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To describe retinal diseases found in patients who were waiting for treatment at a tertiary care hospital in Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. Patients underwent slit lamp biomicroscopy, dilated fundus exam and ocular ultrasound. Patients were classified according to phakic status and retinal disease of the most severely affected eye. A total of 138 patients were examined. The mean age was 51.3 years. Diabetes was present in 35.3% and hypertension in 45.4% of these patients. Cataract was found in 23.2% of patients, in at least one eye. Retinal examination was possible in 129 patients. The main retinal diseases identified were rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (n=23; 17.8%) and diabetic retinopathy (n=32; 24.8%). Out of 40 patients evaluated due to diabetes, 13 (32.5%) had absent or mild forms of diabetic retinopathy and did not need further treatment, only observation. Diabetic retinopathy was the main retinal disease in this population. It is an avoidable cause of blindness and can be remotely evaluated, in its initial stages, by telemedicine strategies. In remote Brazilian areas, telemedicine may be an important tool for retinal diseases diagnosis and follow-up.

  13. Hematology and serum chemistry reference ranges of free-ranging moose (Alces Alces) in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Rostal, Melinda K.; Evans, Alina L.; Solberg, Erling L.; Arnemo, Jon Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article is also available here: http://www.jwildlifedis.org/ Baseline reference ranges of serum chemistry and hematology data can be important indicators for the status of both individuals or populations of wild animals that are affected by emerging pathogens, toxicants, or other causes of disease. Frequently, reference ranges for these values are not available for wildlife species or subspecies. We present hematologic and serum chemistry reference ranges for moose (Alces ...

  14. Co-Production of Fungal Biomass Derived Constituents and Ethanol from Citrus Wastes Free Sugars without Auxiliary Nutrients in Airlift Bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satari, Behzad; Karimi, Keikhosro; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Zamani, Akram

    2016-02-26

    The potential of two zygomycetes fungi, Mucor indicus and Rhizopus oryzae, in assimilating citrus waste free sugars (CWFS) and producing fungal chitosan, oil, and protein as well as ethanol was investigated. Extraction of free sugars from citrus waste can reduce its environmental impact by decreasing the possibility of wild microorganisms growth and formation of bad odors, a typical problem facing the citrus industries. A total sugar concentration of 25.1 g/L was obtained by water extraction of citrus waste at room temperature, used for fungal cultivation in shake flasks and airlift bioreactor with no additional nutrients. In shake flasks cultivations, the fungi were only able to assimilate glucose, while fructose remained almost intact. In contrast, the cultivation of M. indicus and R. oryzae in the four-liter airlift bioreactor resulted in the consumption of almost all sugars and production of 250 and 280 g fungal biomass per kg of consumed sugar, respectively. These biomasses correspondingly contained 40% and 51% protein and 9.8% and 4.4% oil. Furthermore, the fungal cell walls, obtained after removing the alkali soluble fraction of the fungi, contained 0.61 and 0.69 g chitin and chitosan per g of cell wall for M. indicus and R. oryzae, respectively. Moreover, the maximum ethanol yield of 36% and 18% was obtained from M. indicus and R. oryzae, respectively. Furthermore, that M. indicus grew as clump mycelia in the airlift bioreactor, while R. oryzae formed spherical suspended pellets, is a promising feature towards industrialization of the process.

  15. Co-Production of Fungal Biomass Derived Constituents and Ethanol from Citrus Wastes Free Sugars without Auxiliary Nutrients in Airlift Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Satari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The potential of two zygomycetes fungi, Mucor indicus and Rhizopus oryzae, in assimilating citrus waste free sugars (CWFS and producing fungal chitosan, oil, and protein as well as ethanol was investigated. Extraction of free sugars from citrus waste can reduce its environmental impact by decreasing the possibility of wild microorganisms growth and formation of bad odors, a typical problem facing the citrus industries. A total sugar concentration of 25.1 g/L was obtained by water extraction of citrus waste at room temperature, used for fungal cultivation in shake flasks and airlift bioreactor with no additional nutrients. In shake flasks cultivations, the fungi were only able to assimilate glucose, while fructose remained almost intact. In contrast, the cultivation of M. indicus and R. oryzae in the four-liter airlift bioreactor resulted in the consumption of almost all sugars and production of 250 and 280 g fungal biomass per kg of consumed sugar, respectively. These biomasses correspondingly contained 40% and 51% protein and 9.8% and 4.4% oil. Furthermore, the fungal cell walls, obtained after removing the alkali soluble fraction of the fungi, contained 0.61 and 0.69 g chitin and chitosan per g of cell wall for M. indicus and R. oryzae, respectively. Moreover, the maximum ethanol yield of 36% and 18% was obtained from M. indicus and R. oryzae, respectively. Furthermore, that M. indicus grew as clump mycelia in the airlift bioreactor, while R. oryzae formed spherical suspended pellets, is a promising feature towards industrialization of the process.

  16. Analytical performance, reference values and decision limits. A need to differentiate between reference intervals and decision limits and to define analytical quality specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Jensen, Esther A; Brandslund, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    of the values of analytical components measured on reference samples from reference individuals. Decision limits are based on guidelines from national and international expert groups defining specific concentrations of certain components as limits for decision about diagnosis or well-defined specific actions....... Analytical quality specifications for reference intervals have been defined for bias since the 1990s, but in the recommendations specified in the clinical guidelines analytical quality specifications are only scarcely defined. The demands for negligible biases are, however, even more essential for decision...... limits, as the choice is no longer left to the clinician, but emerge directly from the concentration. Even a small bias will change the number of diseased individuals, so the demands for negligible biases are obvious. A view over the analytical quality as published gives a variable picture of bias...

  17. Endocrine diseases in ferrets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, N.J.; van Zeeland, Y.R.A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Endocrine diseases are among the most commonly seen conditions in ferrets. Tumours of the islet cells in the pancreas, referred to as insulinomas, and tumours of the adrenal glands, referred to as hyperadrenocorticism, are more commonly described in this species than in any other species.

  18. Cardiopatias congênitas em um serviço de referência: evolução clínica e doenças associadas Congenital heart diseases in a reference service: clinical evolution and associated illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Huber

    2010-03-01

    disease (CHD. Knowing these changes is important to a better health care. OBJECTIVES: Description of profile of patients with CHD in a reference service in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study including 684 patients with CHD in a service of pediatric cardiology from January 2007 to May 2008. We interviewed the patients (and/or their parents and examined these patients (congenital malformations, anthropometric measures. Moreover, their charts were reviewed in order to detail heart diseases, procedures and echocardiography. RESULTS: Patients were from 16 days to 66 years old, 51.8% were female, and 93.7% were Caucasian. The mean age at diagnosis was 15.8 ± 46.8 months. Ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus and Tetralogy of Fallot were the most prevalent CHD. 59.1% of examined patients, whose average age was 44.3 ± 71.2 months, have been undergoing therapeutic procedures; 30.4% had congenital extracardiac malformations; and 12 patients had genetic syndrome. Regarding development, 46.6% had low weight and height gain, and 13.7% had neuropsychomotor delay. Furthermore, 18.4% had family history of congenital heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: Neuropsychomotor delay and low weight and height gain may be related to CHD. Establishing a profile of patients with CHD, who were treated at an institution of reference, may function as a basis in which health care of this population can be planed appropriately. (Arq Bras Cardiol 2010; 94(3:313-318

  19. Validation of a case definition for leptospirosis diagnosis in patients with acute severe febrile disease admitted in reference hospitals at the State of Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque Filho, Alfredo Pereira Leite de; Araújo, Jéssica Guido de; Souza, Inacelli Queiroz de; Martins, Luciana Cardoso; Oliveira, Marta Iglis de; Silva, Maria Jesuíta Bezerra da; Montarroyos, Ulisses Ramos; Miranda Filho, Demócrito de Barros

    2011-01-01

    Leptospirosis is often mistaken for other acute febrile illnesses because of its nonspecific presentation. Bacteriologic, serologic, and molecular methods have several limitations for early diagnosis: technical complexity, low availability, low sensitivity in early disease, or high cost. This study aimed to validate a case definition, based on simple clinical and laboratory tests, that is intended for bedside diagnosis of leptospirosis among hospitalized patients. Adult patients, admitted to two reference hospitals in Recife, Brazil, with a febrile illness of less than 21 days and with a clinical suspicion of leptospirosis, were included to test a case definition comprising ten clinical and laboratory criteria. Leptospirosis was confirmed or excluded by a composite reference standard (microscopic agglutination test, ELISA, and blood culture). Test properties were determined for each cutoff number of the criteria from the case definition. Ninety seven patients were included; 75 had confirmed leptospirosis and 22 did not. Mean number of criteria from the case definition that were fulfilled was 7.8±1.2 for confirmed leptospirosis and 5.9±1.5 for non-leptospirosis patients (pcase definition, for a cutoff of at least 7 criteria, reached average sensitivity and specificity, but with a high positive predictive value. Its simplicity and low cost make it useful for rapid bedside leptospirosis diagnosis in Brazilian hospitalized patients with acute severe febrile disease.

  20. [Psychosomatic aspects of hyperthyroidism with special reference to Basedow's disease. An overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodewig, K

    1993-08-01

    The following paper deals with the current research in hyperthyroidism, with special accent to Graves' disease. Besides severe psychological trauma a breakdown of neurotic defense mechanism on the ground of a special personality structure was thought to be the trigger of the disease. The metabolic changes became the main point of interest. The influence of thyrostatic, surgical and radioactive therapies on psychological symptoms, was investigated. Thereby, the previously anticipated emotional factors became less significant in the aetiology of the disease. A recent study (Paschke 1990) suggests that patient with hyperthyroidism have, even in an euthyrotic state, an increased vulnerability to anxiety provoking situations. At this point it is not clear, due to the retrospective nature of the study, whether the vulnerability exists prior to the unset of the disease or is a result of the metabolic disorder. Both thyroxin and TRH are being successfully used in the treatment of major depression. TRH acts as a neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system and can be demonstrated in the peripheral lymphocytes. However, the exact mechanisms of action of thyroxin and TRH are still unknown. Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease, that can be caused by specific HLA antigens. Thereby, a changed subpopulation of lymphocytes can be demonstrated, as well as there disturbed functions. A correlation between high scores for anxiety and depression on one hand and the occurrence of an abnormal T4/T8 ratio on the other hand, have been reported in a small number of cases (Paschke 1990). The psychological symptoms in hyperthyroidism are similar to the symptomatology of neurotic anxiety and the anxious depressive syndrome.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Prognostic factors in Hodgkin's disease stage III with special reference to tumour burden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L.; Nissen, N.I.

    1988-01-01

    of lymphographically involved regions), histologic subtype, B-symptoms, number of involved regions, mediastinal involvement, pretreatment ESR, sex, age, laparotomy, and substage were examined in multivariate analysis. With regard to disease-free survival, total tumour burden (intraabdominal and peripheral...... regarding early stage disease to the effect that tumour burden is the single most important prognostic factor in Hodgkin's disease....

  2. Sickle cell disease: reference values and interhemispheric differences of nonimaging transcranial Doppler blood flow parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkuszewski, M; Krejza, J; Chen, R; Kwiatkowski, J L; Ichord, R; Zimmerman, R; Ohene-Frempong, K; Desiderio, L; Melhem, E R

    2011-09-01

    TCD screening is widely used to identify children with SCD at high risk of stroke. Those with high mean flow velocities in major brain arteries have increased risk of stroke. Thus, our aim was to establish reference values of interhemispheric differences and ratios of blood flow Doppler parameters in the tICA, MCA, and ACA as determined by conventional TCD in children with sickle cell anemia. Reference limits of blood flow parameters were established on the basis of a consecutive cohort of 56 children (mean age, 100 ± 40 months; range, 29-180 months; 30 females) free of neurologic deficits and intracranial stenosis detectable by MRA, with blood flow velocities <170 cm/s by conventional TCD. Reference limits were estimated by using tolerance intervals, within which are included with a probability of .90 of all possible data values from 95% of a population. Average peak systolic velocities were significantly higher in the right hemisphere in the MCA and ACA (185 ± 28 cm/s versus 179 ± 27 and 152 ± 30 cm/s versus 143 ± 34 cm/s respectively). Reference limits for left-to-right differences in the mean flow velocities were the following: -43 to 33 cm/s for the MCA; -49 to 38 cm/s for the ACA, and -38 to 34 cm/s for the tICA, respectively. Respective reference limits for left-to-right velocity ratios were the following: 0.72 to 1.25 cm/s for the MCA; 0.62 to 1.39 cm/s for the ACA, and 0.69 to 1.27 cm/s for the tICA. Flow velocities in major arteries were inversely related to age and Hct or Hgb. The study provides reference intervals of TCD flow velocities and their interhemispheric differences and ratios that may be helpful in identification of intracranial arterial stenosis in children with SCD undergoing sonographic screening for stroke prevention.

  3. Stage line diagram: an age-conditional reference diagram for tracking development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buuren, Stef; Ooms, Jeroen C L

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents a method for calculating stage line diagrams, a novel type of reference diagram useful for tracking developmental processes over time. Potential fields of applications include: dentistry (tooth eruption), oncology (tumor grading, cancer staging), virology (HIV infection and disease staging), psychology (stages of cognitive development), human development (pubertal stages) and chronic diseases (stages of dementia). Transition probabilities between successive stages are modeled as smoothly varying functions of age. Age-conditional references are calculated from the modeled probabilities by the mid-P value. It is possible to eliminate the influence of age by calculating standard deviation scores (SDS). The method is applied to the empirical data to produce reference charts on secondary sexual maturation. The mean of the empirical SDS in the reference population is close to zero, whereas the variance depends on age. The stage line diagram provides quick insight into both status (in SDS) and tempo (in SDS/year) of development of an individual child. Other measures (e.g. height SDS, body mass index SDS) from the same child can be added to the chart. Diagrams for sexual maturation are available as a web application at http://vps.stefvanbuuren.nl/puberty. The stage line diagram expresses status and tempo of discrete changes on a continuous scale. Wider application of these measures scores opens up new analytic possibilities. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. CONCEPTS IN HUMAN NUTRITION AND ANIMAL FEEDING New Reference Values for nutrient intake in Germany, Austria and Switzerland (DACH-reference values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Günther

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In accordance to their very good collaboration through decades especially at the “3 Countries Meetings” the Nutrition Societies of Germany, Austria and Switzerland (D, A, CH decided to prepare new Reference Values for nutrient intake as a joint edition in the year 2000. The Reference Values consist of two parts: Part 1, Nutritive aspects of nutrients. Part 2, Preventive aspect of nutrient and food components. The Reference Values presented should protect almost all individuals of the respective group against potential damage to health from their diet and provide a basis for full functional capacity. In detail recommendations, estimates or guideline values are presented for the different nutrients. Total fat should not exceed 30% of energy, saturated fatty acids should not provide more than 10% of energy and polyunsaturated fatty acids 7% of energy with n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in a ratio of 5:1. Preventive aspect concern the prophylaxis of nutrition-related diseases.

  5. Spirometry Reference Equations from the HCHS/SOL (Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVange, Lisa; Davis, Sonia M; Hankinson, John; Enright, Paul; Wilson, Rebbecca; Barr, R Graham; Aldrich, Thomas K; Kalhan, Ravi; Lemus, Hector; Ni, Ai; Smith, Lewis J; Talavera, Gregory A

    2017-10-15

    Accurate reference values for spirometry are important because the results are used for diagnosing common chronic lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, estimating physiologic impairment, and predicting all-cause mortality. Reference equations have been established for Mexican Americans but not for others with Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. To develop spirometry reference equations for adult Hispanic/Latino background groups in the United States. The HCHS/SOL (Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos) recruited a population-based probability sample of 16,415 Hispanics/Latinos aged 18-74 years living in the Bronx, Chicago, Miami, and San Diego. Participants self-identified as being of Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, or Central or South American background. Spirometry was performed using standardized methods with central quality control monitoring. Spirometric measures from a subset of 6,425 never-smoking participants without respiratory symptoms or disease were modeled as a function of sex, age, height, and Hispanic/Latino background to produce background-specific reference equations for the predicted value and lower limit of normal. Dominican and Puerto Rican Americans had substantially lower predicted and lower limit of normal values for FVC and FEV 1 than those in other Hispanic/Latino background groups and also than Mexican American values from NHANES III (Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). For patients of Dominican and Puerto Rican background who present with pulmonary symptoms in clinical practice, use of background-specific spirometry reference equations may provide more appropriate predicted and lower limit of normal values, enabling more accurate diagnoses of abnormality and physiologic impairment.

  6. Prognostic factors in Hodgkin's disease stage III with special reference to tumour burden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, L; Nissen, N I

    1988-01-01

    143 patients with Hodgkin's disease stage III (65 PS III, 78 CS III) were treated with radiotherapy alone (33 patients), combination chemotherapy alone (56 patients), or radiotherapy plus combination chemotherapy (54 patients). They were followed till death or from 7 to 191 months. Prognostic fac...... regarding early stage disease to the effect that tumour burden is the single most important prognostic factor in Hodgkin's disease....

  7. Indirect methods for reference interval determination - review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Graham R D; Haeckel, Rainer; Loh, Tze Ping; Sikaris, Ken; Streichert, Thomas; Katayev, Alex; Barth, Julian H; Ozarda, Yesim

    2018-04-19

    Reference intervals are a vital part of the information supplied by clinical laboratories to support interpretation of numerical pathology results such as are produced in clinical chemistry and hematology laboratories. The traditional method for establishing reference intervals, known as the direct approach, is based on collecting samples from members of a preselected reference population, making the measurements and then determining the intervals. An alternative approach is to perform analysis of results generated as part of routine pathology testing and using appropriate statistical techniques to determine reference intervals. This is known as the indirect approach. This paper from a working group of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) Committee on Reference Intervals and Decision Limits (C-RIDL) aims to summarize current thinking on indirect approaches to reference intervals. The indirect approach has some major potential advantages compared with direct methods. The processes are faster, cheaper and do not involve patient inconvenience, discomfort or the risks associated with generating new patient health information. Indirect methods also use the same preanalytical and analytical techniques used for patient management and can provide very large numbers for assessment. Limitations to the indirect methods include possible effects of diseased subpopulations on the derived interval. The IFCC C-RIDL aims to encourage the use of indirect methods to establish and verify reference intervals, to promote publication of such intervals with clear explanation of the process used and also to support the development of improved statistical techniques for these studies.

  8. Comparative Analyses of Nonpathogenic, Opportunistic, and Totally Pathogenic Mycobacteria Reveal Genomic and Biochemical Variabilities and Highlight the Survival Attributes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yadvir; Kohli, Sakshi; Ahmad, Javeed; Ehtesham, Nasreen Z.; Tyagi, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycobacterial evolution involves various processes, such as genome reduction, gene cooption, and critical gene acquisition. Our comparative genome size analysis of 44 mycobacterial genomes revealed that the nonpathogenic (NP) genomes were bigger than those of opportunistic (OP) or totally pathogenic (TP) mycobacteria, with the TP genomes being smaller yet variable in size—their genomic plasticity reflected their ability to evolve and survive under various environmental conditions. From the 44 mycobacterial species, 13 species, representing TP, OP, and NP, were selected for genomic-relatedness analyses. Analysis of homologous protein-coding genes shared between Mycobacterium indicus pranii (NP), Mycobacterium intracellulare ATCC 13950 (OP), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (TP) revealed that 4,995 (i.e., ~95%) M. indicaus pranii proteins have homology with M. intracellulare, whereas the homologies among M. indicus pranii, M. intracellulare ATCC 13950, and M. tuberculosis H37Rv were significantly lower. A total of 4,153 (~79%) M. indicus pranii proteins and 4,093 (~79%) M. intracellulare ATCC 13950 proteins exhibited homology with the M. tuberculosis H37Rv proteome, while 3,301 (~82%) and 3,295 (~82%) M. tuberculosis H37Rv proteins showed homology with M. indicus pranii and M. intracellulare ATCC 13950 proteomes, respectively. Comparative metabolic pathway analyses of TP/OP/NP mycobacteria showed enzymatic plasticity between M. indicus pranii (NP) and M. intracellulare ATCC 13950 (OP), Mycobacterium avium 104 (OP), and M. tuberculosis H37Rv (TP). Mycobacterium tuberculosis seems to have acquired novel alternate pathways with possible roles in metabolism, host-pathogen interactions, virulence, and intracellular survival, and by implication some of these could be potential drug targets. PMID:25370496

  9. Hospital morbidity in the Fiji islands with special reference to the saccharine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, M

    1975-08-23

    The concept of the excessive consumption of carbohydrates as a cause of many diseases of civilisation has previously been proposed under the name of the 'saccharine disease'. A review of the hospital morbidity figures for these diseases in a divisional hospital in the Fiji Islands is presented. The hospital serves a population comprised of Indians and Fijians, suggesting comparison with the province of Natal, South Africa. Indians have a higher incidence of diabetes melitus, myocardial infarction, duodenal ulcer, acute appendicitis, gallstones, renal stones and eclampsia. Their diets differ mainly in the higher consumption of refined fibre-depleted carbohydrates, and it is suggested that the association is compatible with the concept of the "saccharine disease".

  10. Growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The

  11. Reference values of spirometry for Finnish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainu, A; Timonen, K L; Toikka, J; Qaiser, B; Pitkäniemi, J; Kotaniemi, J T; Lindqvist, A; Vanninen, E; Länsimies, E; Sovijärvi, A R A

    2016-09-01

    Diagnostic assessment of lung function necessitates up-to-date reference values. The aim of this study was to estimate reference values for spirometry for the Finnish population between 18 and 80 years and to compare them with the existing Finnish, European and the recently published global GLI2012 reference values. Spirometry was performed for 1380 adults in the population-based FinEsS studies and for 662 healthy non-smoking volunteer adults. Detailed predefined questionnaire screening of diseases and symptoms, and quality control of spirometry yielded a sample of 1000 native Finns (387 men) healthy non-smokers aged 18-83 years. Sex-specific reference values, which are estimated using the GAMLSS method and adjusted for age and height, are provided. The predicted values for lung volumes are larger than those obtained by GLI2012 prediction for the Caucasian subgroup for forced vital capacity (FVC) by an average 6·2% and 5·1% and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) by an average 4·2% and 3·0% in men and women, respectively. GLI2012 slightly overestimated the ratio FEV1/FVC with an age-dependent trend. Most reference equations from other European countries, with the exception of the Swiss SAPALDIA study, showed an underestimation of FVC and FEV1 to varying degrees, and a slight overestimation of FEV1/FVC. This study offers up-to-date reference values of spirometry for native Finns with a wide age range. The GLI2012 predictions seem not to be suitable for clinical use for native Finns due to underestimation of lung volumes. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  12. Recent advances in understanding autoimmune thyroid disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Sofie; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) is often observed together with other autoimmune diseases. The coexistence of two or more autoimmune diseases in the same patient is referred to as polyautoimmunity, and AITD is the autoimmune disease most frequently involved. The occurrence of polyautoimmunity h...

  13. Prevalence of Neoplastic Diseases in Pet Birds Referred for Surgical Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia F. Castro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoplastic disease is common in pet birds, particularly in psittacines, and treatment should be primarily aimed at tumor eradication. Nineteen cases of pet birds submitted to diagnostic and/or therapeutic surgical procedures due to neoplastic disease characterized by the presence of visible masses were retrospectively analyzed; affected species, types of neoplasms and respective locations, and outcomes of surgical procedures were determined. All birds undergoing surgery belonged to the order Psittaciformes; the Blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva was the prevalent species. Lipoma was the most frequent neoplasm in the sample studied. Most neoplasms affected the integumentary system, particularly the pericloacal area. Tumor resection was the most common surgical procedure performed, with high resolution and low recurrence rates.

  14. Prevalence of Neoplastic Diseases in Pet Birds Referred for Surgical Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Patrícia F.; Fantoni, Denise T.; Miranda, Bruna C.; Matera, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Neoplastic disease is common in pet birds, particularly in psittacines, and treatment should be primarily aimed at tumor eradication. Nineteen cases of pet birds submitted to diagnostic and/or therapeutic surgical procedures due to neoplastic disease characterized by the presence of visible masses were retrospectively analyzed; affected species, types of neoplasms and respective locations, and outcomes of surgical procedures were determined. All birds undergoing surgery belonged to the order Psittaciformes; the Blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva) was the prevalent species. Lipoma was the most frequent neoplasm in the sample studied. Most neoplasms affected the integumentary system, particularly the pericloacal area. Tumor resection was the most common surgical procedure performed, with high resolution and low recurrence rates. PMID:26981315

  15. Recent references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramavataram, S.

    1991-01-01

    In support of a continuing program of systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data, the National Nuclear Data Center maintains a complete computer file of references to the nuclear physics literature. Each reference is tagged by a keyword string, which indicates the kinds of data contained in the article. This master file of Nuclear Structure References (NSR) contains complete keyword indexes to literature published since 1969, with partial indexing of older references. Any reader who finds errors in the keyword descriptions is urged to report them to the National Nuclear Data Center so that the master NSR file can be corrected. In 1966, the first collection of Recent References was published as a separate issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. Every four months since 1970, a similar indexed bibliography to new nuclear experiments has been prepared from additions to the NSR file and published. Beginning in 1978, Recent References was cumulated annually, with the third issue completely superseding the two issues previously published during a given year. Due to publication policy changes, cumulation of Recent Reference was discontinued in 1986. The volume and issue number of all the cumulative issues published to date are given. NNDC will continue to respond to individual requests for special bibliographies on nuclear physics topics, in addition to those easily obtained from Recent References. If the required information is available from the keyword string, a reference list can be prepared automatically from the computer files. This service can be provided on request, in exchange for the timely communication of new nuclear physics results (e.g., preprints). A current copy of the NSR file may also be obtained in a standard format on magnetic tape from NNDC. Requests for special searches of the NSR file may also be directed to the National Nuclear Data Center

  16. CT coronary angiography versus conventional invasive coronary angiography. The view of the referring physician

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, Martin H. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Universitaetsspital Bern (Switzerland). Dept. fuer Diagnostische, Interventionelle und Paediatrische Radiologie; Zimmermann, E.; Hamm, B. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Dewey, M.

    2014-12-15

    Assessment of experience gained by local referring physicians with the procedure of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in the everyday clinical routine. A 25-item questionnaire was sent to 179 physicians, who together had referred a total of 1986 patients for CCTA. They were asked about their experience to date with CCTA, the indications for coronary imaging, and their practice in referring patients for noninvasive CCTA or invasive catheter angiography. 53 questionnaires (30%) were assessable, corresponding to more than 72% of the patients referred. Of the referring physicians who responded, 94% saw a concrete advantage of CCTA in the treatment of patients, whereby 87% were 'satisfied' or 'very satisfied' with the reporting. For excluding coronary heart disease (CHD) where there was a low pre-test probability of disease, the physicians considered CCTA to be superior to conventional coronary diagnosis (4.2 on a scale of 1-5) and vice versa for acute coronary syndrome (1.6 of 5). The main reasons for unsuitability of CCTA for CT diagnosis were claustrophobia and the absence of a sinus rhythm. The level of exposure to radiation in CCTA was estimated correctly by only 42% of the referring physicians. 90% of the physicians reported that their patients evaluated their coronary CT overall as 'positive' or 'neutral', while 87% of the physicians whose patients had undergone both procedures reported that the patients had experienced CCTA as the less disagreeable of the two. CCTA is accepted by the referring physicians as an alternative imaging procedure for the exclusion of CHD and received a predominantly positive assessment from both the referring physicians and the patients.

  17. Indirect costs of inflammatory bowel diseases: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalec, Paweł

    2016-04-01

    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are lifelong illnesses which have a significant impact on quality of life and personal burden through a reduction in the ability to work, sick leave and restrictions of leisure time. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the indirect costs of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The search was carried out in Medline, EMBASE, the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, and reference lists of identified articles and reference lists of identified articles were also handsearched. All costs were adjusted to 2013 USD values by using the consumer price index and purchasing power parity. Identified studies were then analysed in order to assess their heterogeneity and possibility of inclusion in the meta-analysis. Eleven of the identified publications presented indirect costs of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. The range of estimated yearly indirect costs per patient was large, from $1 159.09 for loss of earnings to $14 135.64 for lost productivity and sick leave for Crohn's disease. The values for ulcerative colitis ranged from $926.49 to $6 583.17. Because of the imprecise definition of methods of indirect cost calculations as well as heterogeneity of indirect cost components, a meta-analysis was not performed. The indirect costs of ulcerative colitis seem to be slightly lower than in the case of Crohn's disease. A small number of studies referring to indirect costs of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis were identified, which indicates the need to conduct further investigations on this problem.

  18. Evaluation of pregnancy rates of Bos indicus cows subjected to different synchronization ovulation protocols using injectable progesterone or an intravaginal device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Tadeu Campos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the pregnancy rate in Nelore cows (Bos indicus that were subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI using different protocols consisting of injectable progesterone (P4 or an intravaginal device (impregnated with P4. Multiparous cows 72-84 months in age, 30-45 days postpartum, were selected on the basis of the absence of a corpus luteum (CL and follicles < 8 mm after transrectal palpation and ultrasound examinations. On a random day of the estrus cycle (D0, the selected animals (n = 135 were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups (n = 45 each. Group I (injectable P4/FTAI 36 hours received 250 mg of injectable P4 and 2 mg EB on D0; on D7, they received 500 µg of cloprostenol; on D8, 300 IU of eCG and 1 mg of EB were administered; and finally, FTAI was performed 36 hours after the application of EB. Group II (injectable P4/FTAI 48 hours received the same protocol as Group I, except that the FTAI was performed 48 hours after ovulation induction. The animals of Group III (Control/CIDR received a conventional protocol for FTAI using an intravaginal device (D0: P4 and 2 mg EB; D8: device removal, 500 µg cloprostenol, 300 IU eCG, 1 mg EB; and FTAI performed 48 hours after removal of the device. The results showed that cows synchronized with the conventional protocol for FTAI (Control/CIDR had a higher pregnancy rate (60 %, 27/45 than those synchronized with an injectable P4/FTAI 36 hours (33.33 %; 15/45, P = 0.010. However, the group receiving injectable P4 group/FTAI 48 hours had a similar pregnancy rate (48.9 %; 22/45; P = 0.290 when compared to both the group receiving the conventional protocol and that receiving injectable P4/FTAI 36 hours (P = 0.134. Although the injectable P4 may affect pregnancy rate with the FTAI performed in 36 hours, we found similar pregnancy rates from cows inseminated 48 hours after induction ovulation, considering injectable or intravaginal P4. Therefore, we suggest that

  19. User satisfaction with referrals at a collaborative virtual reference service Virtual reference services, Reference services, Referrals, User satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahyun Kwon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study investigated unmonitored referrals in a nationwide, collaborative chat reference service. Specifically, it examined the extent to which questions are referred, the types of questions that are more likely to be referred than others, and the level of user satisfaction with the referrals in the collaborative chat reference service. Method. The data analysed for this study were 420 chat reference transaction transcripts along with corresponding online survey questionnaires submitted by the service users. Both sets of data were collected from an electronic archive of a southeastern state public library system that has participated in 24/7 Reference of the Metropolitan Cooperative Library System (MCLS. Results. Referrals in the collaborative chat reference service comprised approximately 30% of the total transactions. Circulation-related questions were the most often referred among all question types, possibly because of the inability of 'outside' librarians to access patron accounts. Most importantly, user satisfaction with referrals was found to be significantly lower than that of completed answers. Conclusion. The findings of this study addressed the importance of distinguishing two types of referrals: the expert research referrals conducive to collaborative virtual reference services; and the re-directional local referrals that increase unnecessary question traffic, thereby being detrimental to effective use of collaborative reference. Continuing efforts to conceptualize referrals in multiple dimensions are anticipated to fully grasp complex phenomena underlying referrals.

  20. Prospect theory, reference points, and health decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Schwartz

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In preventative health decisions, such as the decision to undergo an invasive screening test or treatment, people may be deterred from selecting the test because its perceived disutility relative to not testing is greater than the utility associated with prevention of possible disease. The prospect theory editing operation, by which a decision maker's reference point is determined, can have important effects on the disutility of the test. On the basis of the prospect theory value function, this paper develops two approaches to reducing disutility by directing the decision maker's attention to either (actual past or (expected future losses that result in shifted reference points. After providing a graphical description of the approaches and a mathematical proof of the direction of their effect on judgment, we briefly illustrate the potential value of these approaches with examples from qualitative research on prostate cancer treatment decisions.

  1. [Reference citation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkić, Silvija

    2013-01-01

    Scientific and professional papers represent the information basis for scientific research and professional work. References important for the paper should be cited within the text, and listed at the end of the paper. This paper deals with different styles of reference citation. Special emphasis was placed on the Vancouver Style for reference citation in biomedical journals established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. It includes original samples for citing various types of articles, both printed and electronic, as well as recommendations related to reference citation in accordance with the methodology and ethics of scientific research and guidelines for preparing manuscripts for publication.

  2. Effects of communication with important social referents on beliefs and intentions to use condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strader, M K; Beaman, M L; McSweeney, M

    1992-06-01

    Data from a 1989 survey using the condom attitude and belief instrument with 310 clients from two sexually transmitted disease clinics identified significant social referents who influence condom-use intentions. They are sexual partner, father and friends. The present study found that communication with these referents had a positive net effect on beliefs about and intentions to use condoms. Implications applicable for intervention programmes to increase condom use are to promote talking about condoms between the sexual partners and important social referents and to develop such communication skills.

  3. 大蒜对印度明对虾黑鳃病原耐药菌株哈维氏弧菌抗菌活性的研究%Antibacterial activity of Allium sativum against multidrug-resistant Vibrio harveyi isolated from black gill-diseased Fenneropenaeus indicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仲明(译)

    2012-01-01

    本研究针对大蒜提取物对印度明对虾(Fenneropenaeusindicus)黑腮病病原多重耐药哈维氏弧菌(Vibrioharveyi)体外和体内的抗菌活性进行了评价。先利用市售的几种抗生素记录致病性哈维氏弧菌的抗菌谱。然后,利用琼脂扩散法来研究大蒜对哈维氏弧菌的抗菌活性。将哈维氏弧菌接种在琼脂平板上,对每种大蒜提取物(鲜榨大蒜提取物-FsGE,冻干大蒜提取物-FDGE以及用甲醇提取的大蒜提取物-MGE)设计三种不同的浓度。结果表明,鲜榨大蒜提取物对哈维氏弧菌的抑菌活性明显优于冻干大蒜提取物和用甲醇提取的大蒜提取物。本研究分别在对虾基础饲料中添加O%(对照)、0.5%和1%浓度梯度的大蒜来评价大蒜治疗感染哈维氏弧菌的对虾的效果。结果表明,综合大蒜提取物的短期和长期防治(1%含量)的效果分析,对虾累积死亡率降低了75%。本研究探讨了鲜榨大蒜提取物替代抗生素在印度明对虾饲养防病上的优点。%The present study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo inhibitory effects of Allium sativum extracts against the multidrug- resistant Vibrio harveyi, isolated from the black gill-diseased Fenneropenaeus indicus. Initially, the antibiogram of pathogenic V. harveyi was documented for its resistance towards selected commercial antibiotics. Further, antibacterial activity of A. sativum against Vibrio harveyi was performed by the agar well diffusion method. V. harveyi culture was seeded over the agar plates, and each of the garlic extracts (freshly squeezed garlic extract-FSGE, freeze-dried garlic extract-FDGE and methanolic garlic extract-MGE) was tested at three different concentrations. FSGE showed greater inhibitory activity against V. harveyi than FDGE and MGE. Three diets of standard meal preparation for shrimp containing 0% garlic as a control, 0. 5% garlic and 1% garlic treatments were formulated to

  4. Immunologic lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    The term immunologic lung disease comprises a broad spectrum of disease. The authors have covered a few entities in which recent studies have been particularly helpful in elucidating pathophysiology though not in uncovering the inciting cause. Common to all of these entities is the problem of finding appropriate methods of defining disease activity and response to treatment. As exemplified by the improved outlook for Goodpasture's syndrome with elucidation of its underlying immunopathology, it is likely that better understanding of the immunologic basis of sarcoid and interstitial disease may be helpful in planning more effective treatment strategies. 44 references

  5. Cattle phenotypes can disguise their maternal ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srirattana, Kanokwan; McCosker, Kieren; Schatz, Tim; St John, Justin C

    2017-06-26

    Cattle are bred for, amongst other factors, specific traits, including parasite resistance and adaptation to climate. However, the influence and inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are not usually considered in breeding programmes. In this study, we analysed the mtDNA profiles of cattle from Victoria (VIC), southern Australia, which is a temperate climate, and the Northern Territory (NT), the northern part of Australia, which has a tropical climate, to determine if the mtDNA profiles of these cattle are indicative of breed and phenotype, and whether these profiles are appropriate for their environments. A phylogenetic tree of the full mtDNA sequences of different breeds of cattle, which were obtained from the NCBI database, showed that the mtDNA profiles of cattle do not always reflect their phenotype as some cattle with Bos taurus phenotypes had Bos indicus mtDNA, whilst some cattle with Bos indicus phenotypes had Bos taurus mtDNA. Using D-loop sequencing, we were able to contrast the phenotypes and mtDNA profiles from different species of cattle from the 2 distinct cattle breeding regions of Australia. We found that 67 of the 121 cattle with Bos indicus phenotypes from NT (55.4%) had Bos taurus mtDNA. In VIC, 92 of the 225 cattle with Bos taurus phenotypes (40.9%) possessed Bos indicus mtDNA. When focusing on oocytes from cattle with the Bos taurus phenotype in VIC, their respective oocytes with Bos indicus mtDNA had significantly lower levels of mtDNA copy number compared with oocytes possessing Bos taurus mtDNA (P cattle with a Bos taurus phenotype. The phenotype of cattle is not always related to their mtDNA profiles. MtDNA profiles should be considered for breeding programmes as they also influence phenotypic traits and reproductive capacity in terms of oocyte quality.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of disease activity in Crohn's disease: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsthuis, Karin; Bipat, Shandra; Stokkers, Pieter C. F.; Stoker, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    To systematically review the evidence on the accuracy of MRI for grading disease activity in Crohn's disease (CD). The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane databases were searched for studies on the accuracy of MRI in grading CD compared to a predefined reference standard. Two independent observers

  7. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma referred for radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Balawi, Ibrahim A.; Meir, Hadir M.; Yousef, Mohammad K.; Nayel, Hala A.; Al-Mobarak, Mohammad F.

    2001-01-01

    The current work was conducted to study the disease status and treatment results of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma referred for radioactive iodine therapy. Retrospective review of 78 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma referred for radioiodine therapy in the Nuclear Medicine Unit, King Abdulaziz Hospital and Oncology Center, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Analysis of the clinicopathologic characteristics, age correlation to different risk factors, treatment protocol and results were performed. Seventy seven percent were female and the female to male ratio was 3.5:1. The age of patients ranged between 13-63 years with a median age of 36 years. Cervical lymph node involvement was detected in 22 patients (25%). Papillary carcinoma was encountered in 78 patients (90%) and follicular carcinoma in 9 patients (10%). Analysis of the clinicopathologic characteristics showed no statistically significant difference between patients in the different age groups except for extrathyroid extension and lymph node involvement. Patients older than 45 years had a statistically significant lower incidence of nodal involvement and higher incidence of extra thyroid extension (P<0.02). In the current study we used a high dose method (Radioiodine-131 dose 75-100mCi) for thyroid remnant ablation after thyroidectomy (total or near total) in 67 patients. An Iodine 131 dose of 150 mCi was used in 12 patients with radioiodine-avid cervical lymph nodes and in 3 patients with gross residual tumor. In 4 patients with distant metastases an Iodine 131 dose of 200 mCi was used. For the whole study group the 5 year overall survival and disease-free survival was 96% and 88%. The current study, as with many other retrospective studies, concluded that despite the fact that differentiated thyroid carcinoma is among the most curable cancers, some patients are still at high risk for recurrent disease and associated mortality. (author)

  8. Celiac disease presenting as rickets in Saudi children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assiri, Asaad; Saeed, Anjum; AlSarkhy, Ahmed; El Mouzan, Mohammed Issa; El Matary, Wael

    2013-01-01

    Rickets is commonly seen as a sign of malabsorption like celiac disease if it is not treated appropriately with vitamin D and calcium supplements. The aim of this study was to examine the frequency of diagnosis of celiac disease among children with unexplained rickets in Saudi children at a tertiary hospital setting. Retrospective review of records of patients referred over 10 years to a pediatric gastroenterology and hepatology unit. The study included all patients referred for evaluation of unexplained rickets and osteomalacia and screened for celiac disease. The diagnosis of rickets was made on the basis of history, physical examination, biochemical and radiological investigations. The diagnosis of celiac disease was made based on the ESPGHAN (European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition) criteria. Twenty-six children with a mean (SD) age of 9.5 (4.6) years (5 males, range 1-15 years) were referred for evaluation of unexplained rickets and were screened for celiac disease. The diagnosis of celiac disease based on small bowel biopsy findings was confirmed in 10 (38.4%) patients with rickets. Serological markers for celiac disease including antiendomyseal antibodies and antitissue transglutaminase antibodies were positive in all ten children. Rickets is not an uncommon presentation of celiac disease in Saudi children and pediatricians should consider celiac disease as an underlying cause for rickets.

  9. Reference intervals and longitudinal changes in copeptin and MR-proADM concentrations during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, Annemiek M C P; van der Linden, Ivon J M; Schrauwen, Lianne; Theeuwes, Alisia; de Groot, Monique J M; Ermens, Antonius A M

    2017-11-27

    Vasopressin and adrenomedullin and their stable by-products copeptin and midregional part of proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) are promising biomarkers for the development of preeclampsia. However, clinical use is hampered by the lack of trimester-specific reference intervals. We therefore estimated reference intervals for copeptin and MR-proADM in disease-free Dutch women throughout pregnancy. Apparently healthy low risk pregnant women were recruited. Exclusion criteria included current or past history of endocrine disease, multiple pregnancy, use of medication known to influence thyroid function and current pregnancy as a result of hormonal stimulation. Women who miscarried, developed hyperemesis gravidarum, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, hemolysis elevated liver enzymes and low platelets, diabetes or other disease, delivered prematurely or had a small for gestational age neonate were excluded from analyses. Blood samples were collected at 9-13 weeks (n=98), 27-29 weeks (n=94) and 36-39 weeks (n=91) of gestation and at 4-13 weeks post-partum (PP) (n=89). Sixty-two women had complete data during pregnancy and PP. All analyses were performed on a Kryptor compact plus. Copeptin increases during pregnancy, but 97.5th percentiles remain below the non-pregnant upper reference limit (URL) provided by the manufacturer. MR-proADM concentrations increase as well during pregnancy. In trimesters 2 and 3 the 97.5th percentiles are over three times the non-pregnant URL provided by the manufacturer. Trimester- and assay-specific reference intervals for copeptin and MR-proADM should be used. In addition, consecutive measurements and the time frame between measurements should be considered as the differences seen with or in advance of preeclampsia can be expected to be relatively small compared to the reference intervals.

  10. 78 FR 57293 - Distribution of Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 7 [Docket No. CDC-2013-0013] RIN 0920-AA52 Distribution of Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (HHS/CDC), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Confirmation of...

  11. Reference values for paediatric pulmonary function testing: The Utrecht dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Marije; Zanen, Pieter; Kruitwagen, Cas L J J; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Arets, Hubertus G M

    2011-01-01

    Since populations evolve, measurement protocols and equipment improve and analysis techniques progress, there is an ongoing need to reassess reference data for pulmonary function tests. Furthermore, reference values for total lung capacity and carbon monoxide diffusion capacity are scarcely available in children. We aimed to provide updated reference equations for most commonly used pulmonary function indices in Caucasian children. In the 'Utrecht Pulmonary Function Reference Data Study' we collected data in Caucasian children aged 2-18 years. We analyzed them using the 'Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape' (GAMLSS) statistical method. Measurements of interrupter resistance (R(int)) (n = 877), spirometry (n = 1042), body plethysmography (n = 723) and carbon monoxide diffusion/helium dilution (n = 543) were obtained in healthy children. Height (or the natural logarithm of height) and age (or the natural logarithm of age) were both significantly related to most outcome measures. Also sex was a significant determinant, except for RV, RV/TLC, FRC(pleth), Raw(0,5), Raw(tot), R(int) and FEF values. The application of previously published reference equations on the study population resulted in misinterpretation of pulmonary function. These new paediatric reference equations provide accurate estimates of the range of normality for most commonly used pulmonary function indices, resulting in less underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis of pulmonary diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk factors related to resistance to Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and weight gain of heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of age and genetics in dairy heifers on resistance to the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus and correlate these parameters with weight gain. Twenty-two heifers were evaluated from birth up to two years of age. Resistance to the cattle tick was evaluated by counting the number of engorged female ticks and subjective qualification of the larvae and nymph infestation. The animals were weighted in the first 24 hours after birth and at six, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. The average tick count and weight gain were compared by Tukey’s test at 5% significance. Subsequently, linear regression was performed to verify the strength of the association between the risk factors age and genetics and infestation by R. (B. microplus. Age and genetics were both significant risk factors for R. (B. microplus infestation in heifers. Between the third and sixth months of age, the animals showed a window of susceptibility to R. (B. microplus. Regardless of age, Bos taurus heifers had higher infestations than Bos indicus, crossbred F1 (½ B. taurus x ½ B. indicus and crossbred Gir-Holstein (Girolando (? B. taurus x ? B. indicus heifers. B. taurus heifers were heavier than B. indicus heifers at birth and had significantly greater weight gain (p < 0.01.

  13. PEMBIAKAN NEMATODA PATOGEN SERANGGA (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditis DAN Steinernema PADA MEDIA SEMI PADAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Chaerani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Field application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN is still hampered by inefficient mass production. The aim of this study was to compare three published in vitro media (medium Wouts, Bedding and Han for mass propagation of three indigenous EPNs (Heterorhabditis indicus PLR2, H. indicus isolate 5, and Steinernema T96 and one commercial strain (S. carpocapsae #25. The media were impregnated in shredded polyurethane sponge, pre-inoculated with symbiotic bacteria of each nematode and inoculated with the respective infective juveniles (Ijs of the nematode. Nematode yields at three weeks after nematode inoculation were inconsistent accross replications and experiments and generally not significantly influenced by the kind of media tested. Average yields showed that the highest IJ productions were obtained on medium Han for  H. indicus PLR2 (0,4×105 Ijs/g medium and for S. carpocapsae #25  (2.2×105 IJs/g medium, and on  medium Wouts for H. indicus  isolate 5 (6.5×105 Ijs/g medium and Steinernema T96 (1.5×105 IJs/g medium. The Ijs’ body were significantly shorter than those of in vivo propagated, which may impair the nematode pathogenicity. Modifications of the propagation technique and media formulation are needed to improve the quantity and quality of Ijs.

  14. Spirometry reference values in Indigenous Australians: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Tamara L; Chang, Anne B; Petsky, Helen L; Rodwell, Leanne T; Brown, Michael G; Hill, Debra C; Thompson, Bruce; McElrea, Margaret S

    2016-07-04

    To evaluate published spirometry data for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) peoples to determine (i) whether their ethnicity influenced spirometry results; and (ii) if any reliable spirometry reference values exist for Indigenous Australians. Systematic review of published and grey literature. PubMed and Cochrane Library databases, references of included articles and appropriate grey literature. Last searches were conducted in April 2016. We included any study that performed spirometry on healthy Indigenous Australians and compared their results with those from people of European ancestry. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts and then reviewed potentially relevant full-text articles for possible inclusion. We used PRISMA systematic review reporting methods to collate data. Of a possible 125 studies, 18 full-text articles were reviewed, but only nine fulfilled the inclusion criteria. None specified Torres Strait Islander inclusion. All studies reported lower spirometry values (as much as 30% lower) for Aboriginal people compared with non-Indigenous people. Five studies developed spirometry reference values for Indigenous Australians; however, none adhered to all participant inclusion and exclusion criteria outlined by the American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society. Hence, reported results and subsequent reference values may not be a true representation of spirometry values in healthy Indigenous people. The lower spirometry values reported for Indigenous Australians may be due to study limitations. Furthermore, there are currently no reliable spirometry reference values for Indigenous Australians that adhere to current guidelines. Developing a set of Indigenous Australian reference values will improve the accuracy of test interpretation and aid in the diagnosis of respiratory disease in this population.

  15. Uso de extratos vegetais, vitaminas e sua associação sobre o desempenho, temperamento e qualidade de carne de bovinos nelore confinados com dieta de alto grão

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Maurícia Brandão da [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-six Nellore (Bos taurus indicus) young bulls of 360 (±19,8) kg initial weight and 20 month of age were used to evaluate the effect of plant extract, vitamins A, D3 supplementation and their associations on the temperament, feedlot performance (finishing phase) and meat quality of Bos indicus cattle. Animals were located in individual pens during 105 days (21 and 84 days, for adaptation and trial period, respectively). Animals were individually weighed, and blocked by initial body weight...

  16. Serum protein profiles predict coronary artery disease in symptomatic patients referred for coronary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaFramboise William A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than a million diagnostic cardiac catheterizations are performed annually in the US for evaluation of coronary artery anatomy and the presence of atherosclerosis. Nearly half of these patients have no significant coronary lesions or do not require mechanical or surgical revascularization. Consequently, the ability to rule out clinically significant coronary artery disease (CAD using low cost, low risk tests of serum biomarkers in even a small percentage of patients with normal coronary arteries could be highly beneficial. Methods Serum from 359 symptomatic subjects referred for catheterization was interrogated for proteins involved in atherogenesis, atherosclerosis, and plaque vulnerability. Coronary angiography classified 150 patients without flow-limiting CAD who did not require percutaneous intervention (PCI while 209 required coronary revascularization (stents, angioplasty, or coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Continuous variables were compared across the two patient groups for each analyte including calculation of false discovery rate (FDR ≤ 1% and Q value (P value for statistical significance adjusted to ≤ 0.01. Results Significant differences were detected in circulating proteins from patients requiring revascularization including increased apolipoprotein B100 (APO-B100, C-reactive protein (CRP, fibrinogen, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1, myeloperoxidase (MPO, resistin, osteopontin, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and N-terminal fragment protein precursor brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pBNP and decreased apolipoprotein A1 (APO-A1. Biomarker classification signatures comprising up to 5 analytes were identified using a tunable scoring function trained against 239 samples and validated with 120 additional samples. A total of 14 overlapping signatures classified patients without significant coronary disease (38% to 59% specificity while maintaining 95% sensitivity for patients requiring

  17. [The National Reference Centres and Reference Laboratories. Importance and tasks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laude, G; Ammon, A

    2005-09-01

    Since 1995, the German Federal Ministry for Health and Social Security funds National Reference Centres (NRC) for the laboratory surveillance of important pathogens and syndromes. Which pathogens or syndromes are selected to be covered by a NRC depends on their epidemiological relevance, the special diagnostic tools, problems with antimicrobial resistance and necessary infection control measures. Currently, there are 15 NRC, which are appointed for a period of 3 years (currently from January 2005 through December 2007). Towards the end of their appointment all NRC are evaluated by a group of specialists. The assessment of their achievements is guided by a catalogue of tasks for the NRC. In addition to the NRC, a total of 50 laboratories are appointed which provide specialist expertise for additional pathogens in order to have a broad range of pathogens for which specialist laboratories are available. Their predominant task is to give advice and support for special diagnostic problems. Both NRC and the specialist laboratories are important parts of the network for infectious disease epidemiology.

  18. Editorial: Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Andres M.; Willeberg, Preben W

    2017-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most devastating diseases of livestock. The disease is caused by infection with a picornavirus, generically referred as FMD virus (FMDV), which is considered one of the most infectious agents affecting animals. FMD status affects national and international...

  19. Construction and application of a Korean reference panel for imputing classical alleles and amino acids of human leukocyte antigen genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangwoo; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Bae, Sang-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus are strongly associated with disease susceptibility and prognosis for many diseases, including many autoimmune diseases. In this study, we developed a Korean HLA reference panel for imputing classical alleles and amino acid residues of several HLA genes. An HLA reference panel has potential for use in identifying and fine-mapping disease associations with the MHC locus in East Asian populations, including Koreans. A total of 413 unrelated Korean subjects were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the MHC locus and six HLA genes, including HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DPB1, and -DQB1. The HLA reference panel was constructed by phasing the 5,858 MHC SNPs, 233 classical HLA alleles, and 1,387 amino acid residue markers from 1,025 amino acid positions as binary variables. The imputation accuracy of the HLA reference panel was assessed by measuring concordance rates between imputed and genotyped alleles of the HLA genes from a subset of the study subjects and East Asian HapMap individuals. Average concordance rates were 95.6% and 91.1% at 2-digit and 4-digit allele resolutions, respectively. The imputation accuracy was minimally affected by SNP density of a test dataset for imputation. In conclusion, the Korean HLA reference panel we developed was highly suitable for imputing HLA alleles and amino acids from MHC SNPs in East Asians, including Koreans.

  20. Construction and application of a Korean reference panel for imputing classical alleles and amino acids of human leukocyte antigen genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangwoo Kim

    Full Text Available Genetic variations of human leukocyte antigen (HLA genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC locus are strongly associated with disease susceptibility and prognosis for many diseases, including many autoimmune diseases. In this study, we developed a Korean HLA reference panel for imputing classical alleles and amino acid residues of several HLA genes. An HLA reference panel has potential for use in identifying and fine-mapping disease associations with the MHC locus in East Asian populations, including Koreans. A total of 413 unrelated Korean subjects were analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at the MHC locus and six HLA genes, including HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DPB1, and -DQB1. The HLA reference panel was constructed by phasing the 5,858 MHC SNPs, 233 classical HLA alleles, and 1,387 amino acid residue markers from 1,025 amino acid positions as binary variables. The imputation accuracy of the HLA reference panel was assessed by measuring concordance rates between imputed and genotyped alleles of the HLA genes from a subset of the study subjects and East Asian HapMap individuals. Average concordance rates were 95.6% and 91.1% at 2-digit and 4-digit allele resolutions, respectively. The imputation accuracy was minimally affected by SNP density of a test dataset for imputation. In conclusion, the Korean HLA reference panel we developed was highly suitable for imputing HLA alleles and amino acids from MHC SNPs in East Asians, including Koreans.

  1. Optimal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Odelta; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomonosis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. This infection is associated with several health consequences, including cervical and prostate cancers and HIV acquisition. Gene expression analysis has been facilitated because of available genome sequences and large-scale transcriptomes in T. vaginalis, particularly using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), one of the most used methods for molecular studies. Reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, to the best of our knowledge, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been performed for T. vaginalis. In this study, the transcripts of nine candidate reference genes were quantified using qRT-PCR under different cultivation conditions, and the stability of these genes was compared using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The most stable reference genes were α-tubulin, actin and DNATopII, and, conversely, the widely used T. vaginalis reference genes GAPDH and β-tubulin were less stable. The PFOR gene was used to validate the reliability of the use of these candidate reference genes. As expected, the PFOR gene was upregulated when the trophozoites were cultivated with ferrous ammonium sulfate when the DNATopII, α-tubulin and actin genes were used as normalizing gene. By contrast, the PFOR gene was downregulated when the GAPDH gene was used as an internal control, leading to misinterpretation of the data. These results provide an important starting point for reference gene selection and gene expression analysis with qRT-PCR studies of T. vaginalis. PMID:26393928

  2. Reference values of thirty-one frequently used laboratory markers for 75-year-old males and females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryden, Ingvar; Lind, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Background We have previously reported reference values for common clinical chemistry tests in healthy 70-year-old males and females. We have now repeated this study 5 years later to establish reference values also at the age of 75. It is important to have adequate reference values for elderly patients as biological markers may change over time, and adequate reference values are essential for correct clinical decisions. Methods We have investigated 31 frequently used laboratory markers in 75-year-old males (n = 354) and females (n = 373) without diabetes. The 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles for these markers were calculated according to the recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry. Results Reference values are reported for 75-year-old males and females for 31 frequently used laboratory markers. Conclusion There were minor differences between reference intervals calculated with and without individuals with cardiovascular diseases. Several of the reference intervals differed from Scandinavian reference intervals based on younger individuals (Nordic Reference Interval Project). PMID:22300333

  3. Long-term safety and efficacy of biosimilar infliximab among patients with inflammatory arthritis switched from reference product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abuelmagd Abdalla, Niamh Byrne, Richard Conway, Thomas Walsh, Geraldine Mannion, Michael Hanly, Miriam O’Sullivan, Ann Maria Curran, John J Carey Department of Rheumatology, Galway University Hospitals, Galway, Ireland Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the biosimilar infliximab in adult patients with inflammatory arthritis switched from reference product in our center. Patients and methods: In April 2014, patients attending our rheumatology service for infliximab infusions were switched from reference product to the biosimilar infliximab following consent and hospital approval. Results: Around 34 patients with inflammatory arthritis were switched from reference product to biosimilar infliximab in 2014: 50% female, mean age 55 years (standard deviation=12.9, mean disease duration 14.79 years (9.7, median duration on infliximab 57 months, and two-thirds on oral disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. There was no difference in efficacy or safety in the first 6 months of therapy. By the end of 2015, the mean follow-up on biosimilar infliximab was 15.8 (standard deviation=6.3 months. Our results showed no significant difference in Health Assessment Questionnaire score, patient global assessment of disease activity, number of disease flares, or the medication dose between the originator and the biosimilar infliximab. However, reported pain and C-reactive protein values were significantly higher during the longer follow-up period (p=0.043, 0.001 respectively. There was no significant difference in the number of adverse events or infusion reactions during follow-up periods. Only five (14.7% patients discontinued the biosimilar infliximab. Conclusion: Our patients experienced similar efficacy and safety for managing their arthritis with the biosimilar infliximab as the reference product infliximab, but at a much lower cost. Keywords: biologic therapy, rheumatic diseases, biosimilar exchange, infliximab, adult

  4. Enterprise Reference Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  5. Bayesian modeling and inference for diagnostic accuracy and probability of disease based on multiple diagnostic biomarkers with and without a perfect reference standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, S Reza; Johnson, Wesley O; Gardner, Ian A

    2016-03-15

    The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) is used as a performance metric for quantitative tests. Although multiple biomarkers may be available for diagnostic or screening purposes, diagnostic accuracy is often assessed individually rather than in combination. In this paper, we consider the interesting problem of combining multiple biomarkers for use in a single diagnostic criterion with the goal of improving the diagnostic accuracy above that of an individual biomarker. The diagnostic criterion created from multiple biomarkers is based on the predictive probability of disease, conditional on given multiple biomarker outcomes. If the computed predictive probability exceeds a specified cutoff, the corresponding subject is allocated as 'diseased'. This defines a standard diagnostic criterion that has its own ROC curve, namely, the combined ROC (cROC). The AUC metric for cROC, namely, the combined AUC (cAUC), is used to compare the predictive criterion based on multiple biomarkers to one based on fewer biomarkers. A multivariate random-effects model is proposed for modeling multiple normally distributed dependent scores. Bayesian methods for estimating ROC curves and corresponding (marginal) AUCs are developed when a perfect reference standard is not available. In addition, cAUCs are computed to compare the accuracy of different combinations of biomarkers for diagnosis. The methods are evaluated using simulations and are applied to data for Johne's disease (paratuberculosis) in cattle. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Brucella abortus strain 2308 Wisconsin genome: importance of the definition of reference strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Suárez-Esquivel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a bacterial infectious disease affecting a wide range of mammals and a neglected zoonosis caused by species of the genetically homogenous genus Brucella. As in most studies on bacterial diseases, research in brucellosis is carried out by using reference strains as canonical models to understand the mechanisms underlying host pathogen interactions. We performed whole genome sequencing (WGS analysis of the reference strain Brucella abortus 2308 routinely used in our laboratory, including manual curated annotation accessible as an editable version at www.wikipedia.Comparison of this genome with two publically available 2308 genomes showed significant differences, particularly indels related to insertional elements, suggesting variability related to the transposition of these elements within the same strain. Considering the outcome of high resolution genomic techniques in the bacteriology field, the conventional concept of strain definition needs to be revised.

  7. Fish and Shellfish Associated Disease Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of disease outbreaks related to fish and shellfish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers the chemical, bacterial, and viral diseases that are transmitted by fish and shellfish. A list of 50 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. Genetics Home Reference: inclusion body myopathy with early-onset Paget disease and frontotemporal dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions IBMPFD Inclusion body myopathy with early-onset Paget disease and ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Inclusion body myopathy with early-onset Paget disease and ...

  9. Validation of a case definition for leptospirosis diagnosis in patients with acute severe febrile disease admitted in reference hospitals at the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pereira Leite de Albuquerque Filho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is often mistaken for other acute febrile illnesses because of its nonspecific presentation. Bacteriologic, serologic, and molecular methods have several limitations for early diagnosis: technical complexity, low availability, low sensitivity in early disease, or high cost. This study aimed to validate a case definition, based on simple clinical and laboratory tests, that is intended for bedside diagnosis of leptospirosis among hospitalized patients. METHODS: Adult patients, admitted to two reference hospitals in Recife, Brazil, with a febrile illness of less than 21 days and with a clinical suspicion of leptospirosis, were included to test a case definition comprising ten clinical and laboratory criteria. Leptospirosis was confirmed or excluded by a composite reference standard (microscopic agglutination test, ELISA, and blood culture. Test properties were determined for each cutoff number of the criteria from the case definition. RESULTS: Ninety seven patients were included; 75 had confirmed leptospirosis and 22 did not. Mean number of criteria from the case definition that were fulfilled was 7.8±1.2 for confirmed leptospirosis and 5.9±1.5 for non-leptospirosis patients (p<0.0001. Best sensitivity (85.3% and specificity (68.2% combination was found with a cutoff of 7 or more criteria, reaching positive and negative predictive values of 90.1% and 57.7%, respectively; accuracy was 81.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The case definition, for a cutoff of at least 7 criteria, reached average sensitivity and specificity, but with a high positive predictive value. Its simplicity and low cost make it useful for rapid bedside leptospirosis diagnosis in Brazilian hospitalized patients with acute severe febrile disease.

  10. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of zebu dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ariosto Ardila Silva

    2010-01-01

    In tropical regions, Gyr and Guzerat breeds (Bos indicus) are most explored for dairy industry and are much more adapted to climate. Gyr and Guzerat are Zebu breeds very common in Brazil and they are being used to generate Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses in order to combine good production, heat and parasite tolerance on the tropics. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of Zebu dairy cattle have been recently introduced in Brazil and is based on the use of genetically...

  11. Destination and source memory in Huntington's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Haj, M.; Caillaud, M.; Verny, C.; Fasotti, L.; Allain, P.

    2016-01-01

    Destination memory refers to the recall of the destination of previously relayed information, and source memory refers to the recollection of the origin of received information. We compared both memory systems in Huntington's disease (HD) participants. For this, HD participants and healthy adults

  12. 2002 reference document; Document de reference 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  13. Dieulafoy's disease: endosonographic detection and endosonography-guided treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fockens, P.; Meenan, J.; van Dullemen, H. M.; Bolwerk, C. J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1996-01-01

    To investigate whether endosonography can help in the detection and treatment of Dieulafoy's disease, we examined eight patients with suspicion of Dieulafoy's disease. Between December 1992 and April 1995, eight patients were referred because of suspicion of Dieulafoy's disease. Seven presented with

  14. Diversity in non-repetitive human sequences not found in the reference genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehr, Birte; Helgadottir, Anna; Melsted, Pall; Jonsson, Hakon; Helgason, Hannes; Jonasdottir, Adalbjörg; Jonasdottir, Aslaug; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Gylfason, Arnaldur; Halldorsson, Gisli H; Kristmundsdottir, Snaedis; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Olafsson, Isleifur; Holm, Hilma; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Sulem, Patrick; Helgason, Agnar; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Halldorsson, Bjarni V; Stefansson, Kari

    2017-04-01

    Genomes usually contain some non-repetitive sequences that are missing from the reference genome and occur only in a population subset. Such non-repetitive, non-reference (NRNR) sequences have remained largely unexplored in terms of their characterization and downstream analyses. Here we describe 3,791 breakpoint-resolved NRNR sequence variants called using PopIns from whole-genome sequence data of 15,219 Icelanders. We found that over 95% of the 244 NRNR sequences that are 200 bp or longer are present in chimpanzees, indicating that they are ancestral. Furthermore, 149 variant loci are in linkage disequilibrium (r 2 > 0.8) with a genome-wide association study (GWAS) catalog marker, suggesting disease relevance. Additionally, we report an association (P = 3.8 × 10 -8 , odds ratio (OR) = 0.92) with myocardial infarction (23,360 cases, 300,771 controls) for a 766-bp NRNR sequence variant. Our results underline the importance of including variation of all complexity levels when searching for variants that associate with disease.

  15. Metaphorical Singular Reference. The Role of Enriched Composition in Reference Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bezuidenhout

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that, in the course of interpreting a metaphorical utterance, both literal and metaphorical interpretations of the utterance are available to the interpreter, although there may be disagreement about the order in which these interpretations are accessed. I call this the dual availability assumption. I argue that it does not apply in cases of metaphorical singular reference. These are cases in which proper names, complex demonstratives or definite descriptions are used metaphorically; e.g., ‘That festering sore must go’, referring to a derelict house. We are forced to give up dual availability in these cases because a process of predicate transfer happens in the restriction clauses of such metaphorically used definite phrases (DPs, so that a denotation-less definite concept is never constructed. A process of enriched composition yields only a metaphorical referent/denotation. I compare cases of metaphorical reference both to cases of metonymic reference and to uses of epithets of the ‘That N of an N’ form. Reflection on the former is helpful in getting clear about the kind of property transfer involved in referential metaphors. Such transfer happens directly at the level of properties and is not mediated via a correspondence between objects, as is the case with metonymic reference. Reflection on epithets such as ‘that festering sore of a house’ is helpful since these are a sort of intermediate case between cases of literal and metaphorical reference. They provide support for my claim that in cases of metaphorical reference there is only a single referent (the metaphorical one. Moreover, constraints on the use of these epithets suggest that referential metaphors are similarly constrained. In particular, I argue that referential metaphors can only be used when the implicit category restriction (e.g., house in the case of the example ‘That festering sore must go’ is highly salient, and that the evaluative

  16. Establishment of reference CD4+ T cell values for adult Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Krishnangshu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD4+ T lymphocyte counts are the most important indicator of disease progression and success of antiretroviral treatment in HIV infection in resource limited settings. The nationwide reference range of CD4+ T lymphocytes was not available in India. This study was conducted to determine reference values of absolute CD4+ T cell counts and percentages for adult Indian population. Methods A multicentric study was conducted involving eight sites across the country. A total of 1206 (approximately 150 per/centre healthy participants were enrolled in the study. The ratio of male (N = 645 to female (N = 561 of 1.14:1. The healthy status of the participants was assessed by a pre-decided questionnaire. At all centers the CD4+ T cell count, percentages and absolute CD3+ T cell count and percentages were estimated using a single platform strategy and lyse no wash technique. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Scientist (SPSS, version 15 and Prism software version 5. Results The absolute CD4+ T cell counts and percentages in female participants were significantly higher than the values obtained in male participants indicating the true difference in the CD4+ T cell subsets. The reference range for absolute CD4 count for Indian male population was 381-1565 cells/μL and for female population was 447-1846 cells/μL. The reference range for CD4% was 25-49% for male and 27-54% for female population. The reference values for CD3 counts were 776-2785 cells/μL for Indian male population and 826-2997 cells/μL for female population. Conclusion The study used stringent procedures for controlling the technical variation in the CD4 counts across the sites and thus could establish the robust national reference ranges for CD4 counts and percentages. These ranges will be helpful in staging the disease progression and monitoring antiretroviral therapy in HIV infection in India.

  17. Reference values for 27 clinical chemistry tests in 70-year-old males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Lena; Lind, Lars; Larsson, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Reference values are usually defined based on blood samples from healthy men or nonpregnant women in the age range of 20-50 years. These values are not optimal for elderly patients, as many biological markers change over time and adequate reference values are important for correct clinical decisions. To validate NORIP (Nordic Reference Interval Project) reference values in a 70-year-old population. We studied 27 frequently used laboratory tests. The 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles for these markers were calculated according to the recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry on the statistical treatment of reference values. Reference values are reported for plasma alanine aminotransferase, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, pancreas amylase, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, calcium, chloride, cholesterol, creatinine, creatine kinase, C-reactive protein, glucose, gamma-glutamyltransferase, HDL-cholesterol, iron, lactate dehydrogenase, LDL-cholesterol, magnesium, phosphate, potassium, sodium, transferrin, triglycerides, urate and urea. Reference values calculated from the whole population and a subpopulation without cardiovascular disease showed strong concordance. Several of the reference interval limits were outside the 90% CI of a Scandinavian population (NORIP). 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Hematology and serum chemistry reference ranges of free-ranging moose (Alces alces) in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostal, Melinda K; Evans, Alina L; Solberg, Erling J; Arnemo, Jon M

    2012-07-01

    Baseline reference ranges of serum chemistry and hematology data can be important indicators for the status of both individuals or populations of wild animals that are affected by emerging pathogens, toxicants, or other causes of disease. Frequently, reference ranges for these values are not available for wildlife species or subspecies. We present hematologic and serum chemistry reference ranges for moose (Alces alces) adults, yearlings, and calves in Norway sampled from 1992-2000. Additionally, we demonstrated that both induction time and chase time were correlated with initial rectal temperature, although they were not significantly correlated with cortisol, aspartate aminotransferase, glucose, or creatine kinase. Overall, the reference ranges given here are similar to those given for American moose, with a few differences that can be attributed to environment, testing methodology, or subspecies or species status. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of reference ranges for moose in Norway.

  19. A low-cost density reference phantom for computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Zachary H.; Li, Mingdong; Reeves, Anthony P.; Yankelevitz, David F.; Chen, Joseph J.; Siegel, Eliot L.; Peskin, Adele; Zeiger, Diana N.

    2009-01-01

    The authors characterized a commercially available foam composed of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate which is marketed for modeling parts in the aircraft, automotive, and related industries. The authors found that the foam may be suitable for use as a density reference standard in the range below −400 Hounsfield units. This range is coincident with the density of lung tissue. The foam may be helpful in making the diagnosis of lung disease more systematic.

  20. A low-cost density reference phantom for computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Zachary H; Li, Mingdong; Reeves, Anthony P; Yankelevitz, David F; Chen, Joseph J; Siegel, Eliot L; Peskin, Adele; Zeiger, Diana N

    2009-02-01

    The authors characterized a commercially available foam composed of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate which is marketed for modeling parts in the aircraft, automotive, and related industries. The authors found that the foam may be suitable for use as a density reference standard in the range below -400 Hounsfield units. This range is coincident with the density of lung tissue. The foam may be helpful in making the diagnosis of lung disease more systematic.

  1. Uranium reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.

    1987-07-01

    The Technical Measurements Center has prepared uranium mill tailings reference materials for use by remedial action contractors and cognizant federal and state agencies. Four materials were prepared with varying concentrations of radionuclides, using three tailings materials and a river-bottom soil diluent. All materials were ground, dried, and blended thoroughly to ensure homogeneity. The analyses on which the recommended values for nuclides in the reference materials are based were performed, using independent methods, by the UNC Geotech (UNC) Chemistry Laboratory, Grand Junction, Colorado, and by C.W. Sill (Sill), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Several statistical tests were performed on the analytical data to characterize the reference materials. Results of these tests reveal that the four reference materials are homogeneous and that no large systematic bias exists between the analytical methods used by Sill and those used by TMC. The average values for radionuclides of the two data sets, representing an unbiased estimate, were used as the recommended values for concentrations of nuclides in the reference materials. The recommended concentrations of radionuclides in the four reference materials are provided. Use of these reference materials will aid in providing uniform standardization among measurements made by remedial action contractors. 11 refs., 9 tabs

  2. End-stage kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stage; Kidney failure - end stage; ESRD; ESKD Images Kidney anatomy References Fogarty DG, Taal MW. A stepped care approach to the management of chronic kidney disease. In: Skorecki K, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, ...

  3. The use of hormonal treatments to improve reproductive performance of anestrous beef cattle in tropical climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruselli, P S; Reis, E L; Marques, M O; Nasser, L F; Bó, G A

    2004-07-01

    Most of the world's bovine herd is found in tropical regions. Bos indicus predominates, due to their adaptation to the climate and management conditions. Anestrous is the main factor that negatively affects reproductive performance of animals bred in these regions of the globe. Several factors affect postpartum anestrous, including suckling and maternal-offspring bond, and pre- and postpartum nutritional status. The short duration of estrus and the tendency to show estrus during the night, greatly affect the efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) programs in B. indicus cattle managed in tropical areas. Several restricted suckling or weaning procedures (temporary or permanent), and hormonal treatments have been used to induce ovulation and cyclicity in postpartum cows. Most hormonal treatments are based on progesterone/progestogen (P4) releasing devices associated with estradiol benzoate (EB), or a combination of GnRH/PGF(2alpha)/GnRH (Ovsynch). Treatments with GnRH/PGF(2alpha)/GnRH has presented inconsistent results, probably due to the variable number of cows in anestrous. Treatments using P4 devices and EB have resulted in apparently more consistent results than Ovsynch programs in B. indicus cattle; however, pregnancy rates are low in herds presenting high anestrous rates and moderate to low body condition. The addition of an eCG treatment at the time of device removal, which increased plasma progesterone concentrations and pregnancy rates in anestrous postpartum suckled B. indicus cows, may be useful to improve reproductive performance of beef cattle in tropical climates.

  4. Reference Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  5. Clinical chemistry reference values for 75-year-old apparently healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Klaus Roland; Mostafaie, Nazanin; Stangl, Gerhard; Worofka, Brigitte; Kittl, Eva; Hofmann, Jörg; Hejtman, Milos; Michael, Rainer; Weissgram, Silvia; Leitha, Thomas; Jungwirth, Susanne; Fischer, Peter; Tragl, Karl-Heinz; Bauer, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    Clinical chemistry reference values for elderly persons are sparse and mostly intermixed with those for younger subjects. To understand the links between metabolism and aging, it is paramount to differentiate between "normal" physiological processes in apparently healthy elderly subjects and metabolic changes due to long-lasting diseases. The Vienna Transdanube Aging (VITA) study, which began in 2000 and is continuing, will allow us to do just that, because more than 600 male and female volunteers aged exactly 75 years (to exclude any influence of the "aging" factor in this cohort) are participating in this study. Extensive clinical, neurological, biochemical, psychological, genetic, and radiological analyses, with a special emphasis on consumption of medication and abuse of drugs, were performed on each of the probands. The multitude of data and questionnaires obtained made possible an a posteriori approach to select individuals fulfilling criteria for a reference sample group of apparently healthy 75-year-old subjects for our study. Specific analytes were quantified on automated clinical analyzers, while manual methods were used for hormonal analytes. All clinical chemistry analytes were evaluated using in-depth statistical analyses with SPSS for Windows. In all, reference intervals for 45 analytes could be established. These include routine parameters for the assessment of organ functions, as well as hormone concentrations and hematological appraisals. Because all patients were reevaluated after exactly 30 months in the course of this study, we had the opportunity to reassess their health status at the age of 77.5 years. This was very useful for validation of the first round data set. Data of the second round evaluation corroborate the reference limits of the baseline analysis and further confirm our inclusion and exclusion criteria. In summary, we have established a reliable set of reference data for hormonal, hematological, and clinical chemistry analytes for

  6. Genetics Home Reference: COL4A1-related brain small-vessel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hemorrhage Johns Hopkins Medicine Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery: Intracerebral Hemorrhage Johns Hopkins Medicine Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery: Stroke MalaCards: col4a1-related brain small-vessel disease ...

  7. Incidence of malignancy in patients with pleural effusion referred for workup by pulmonologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Dennis V.; Reuter, Simon; Laursen, Christian B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pleural effusion (PE) is a common condition. Malignancy accounts for lt;25% in general populations. The proportion is unknown in patients referred to pulmonologists for workup.Finding malignant cells in PE by thoracentesis suggests metastatic and incurable disease making further tests...

  8. Perspectives of radiation therapy in benign diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultze, J.; Eilf, K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: the numbers of patients with nonmalignant diseases referred for radiation therapy had to be evaluated for the last 4 years. Patients and methods: in the years 2002, 2004, and 2005 radiation therapy was performed in 61, 40, and 26 patients, respectively. Regularly, more women than men were treated, median age annually was 57, 54, and 55 years, respectively (table 1). The radiotherapy scheme was not modified within the evaluated period. Results: the proportion of nonmalignant diseases among all patients treated decreased from 4.7% in 2002 to 3.3% in 2004 and 2.2% in 2005, respectively. A shift was noticed toward the treatment of four main diseases (endocrine orbitopathy, prevention of heterotopic ossification, meningeoma, tendinitis, table 2). The number of referring physicians decreased from 19 to six. Conclusion: due to administrative restrictions for treatment in hospitals, budget restrictions in private practices and lasting, insufficient revenues for radiotherapy in nonmalignant diseases, radiation therapy for the entire group of benign diseases is endangered. (orig.)

  9. Brucella abortus Strain 2308 Wisconsin Genome: Importance of the Definition of Reference Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Esquivel, Marcela; Ruiz-Villalobos, Nazareth; Castillo-Zeledón, Amanda; Jiménez-Rojas, César; Roop II, R. Martin; Comerci, Diego J.; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Caswell, Clayton C.; Baker, Kate S.; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Moreno, Edgardo; Letesson, Jean J.; De Bolle, Xavier; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a bacterial infectious disease affecting a wide range of mammals and a neglected zoonosis caused by species of the genetically homogenous genus Brucella. As in most studies on bacterial diseases, research in brucellosis is carried out by using reference strains as canonical models to understand the mechanisms underlying host pathogen interactions. We performed whole genome sequencing analysis of the reference strain B. abortus 2308 routinely used in our laboratory, including manual curated annotation accessible as an editable version through a link at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brucella#Genomics. Comparison of this genome with two publically available 2308 genomes showed significant differences, particularly indels related to insertional elements, suggesting variability related to the transposition of these elements within the same strain. Considering the outcome of high resolution genomic techniques in the bacteriology field, the conventional concept of strain definition needs to be revised. PMID:27746773

  10. Characterizing functional lung heterogeneity in COPD using reference equations for CT scan-measured lobar volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Come, Carolyn E; Diaz, Alejandro A; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Muralidhar, Nivedita; Hersh, Craig P; Zach, Jordan A; Schroeder, Joyce; Lynch, David A; Celli, Bartolome; Washko, George R

    2013-06-01

    CT scanning is increasingly used to characterize COPD. Although it is possible to obtain CT scan-measured lung lobe volumes, normal ranges remain unknown. Using COPDGene data, we developed reference equations for lobar volumes at maximal inflation (total lung capacity [TLC]) and relaxed exhalation (approximating functional residual capacity [FRC]). Linear regression was used to develop race-specific (non-Hispanic white [NHW], African American) reference equations for lobar volumes. Covariates included height and sex. Models were developed in a derivation cohort of 469 subjects with normal pulmonary function and validated in 546 similar subjects. These cohorts were combined to produce final prediction equations, which were applied to 2,191 subjects with old GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) stage II to IV COPD. In the derivation cohort, women had smaller lobar volumes than men. Height positively correlated with lobar volumes. Adjusting for height, NHWs had larger total lung and lobar volumes at TLC than African Americans; at FRC, NHWs only had larger lower lobes. Age and weight had no effect on lobar volumes at TLC but had small effects at FRC. In subjects with COPD at TLC, upper lobes exceeded 100% of predicted values in GOLD II disease; lower lobes were only inflated to this degree in subjects with GOLD IV disease. At FRC, gas trapping was severe irrespective of disease severity and appeared uniform across the lobes. Reference equations for lobar volumes may be useful in assessing regional lung dysfunction and how it changes in response to pharmacologic therapies and surgical or endoscopic lung volume reduction.

  11. Intravascular ultrasound assessment of remodelling and reference segment plaque burden in type-2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Mintz, Gary S

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) assesses arterial remodelling by comparing the lesion external elastic membrane (EEM) with the reference segments; however, reference segments are rarely disease-free. The aim was to assess lesion and reference segment remodelling and plaque burden in patients...... with type-2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used pre-intervention IVUS to study 62 de novo lesions in 43 patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. The lesion site was the image slice with the smallest lumen cross-sectional area (CSA). The proximal and distal reference segments were the most normal...... size [slope = -0.12 (95% CI -0.17 to -0.07); P type-2 diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSION: Lesions in type-2 diabetic patients are different from previous reports in non-diabetics. Lesions in type-2 diabetics are characterized by a large reference segment plaque burden...

  12. Progress in genetics of coronary artery disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radwa Gamal

    To the Editor. Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide [1] and it is a result of coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary artery disease refers to the build-up of atherosclerotic plaque in the blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the heart. Progressive infiltration of the ...

  13. Identification of valid reference genes for the normalization of RT qPCR gene expression data in human brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravid Rivka

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of gene expression in post mortem human brain can contribute to understanding of the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD, Parkinson's disease (PD and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT qPCR is often used to analyse gene expression. The validity of results obtained using RT qPCR is reliant on accurate data normalization. Reference genes are generally used to normalize RT qPCR data. Given that expression of some commonly used reference genes is altered in certain conditions, this study aimed to establish which reference genes were stably expressed in post mortem brain tissue from individuals with AD, PD or DLB. Results The present study investigated the expression stability of 8 candidate reference genes, (ubiquitin C [UBC], tyrosine-3-monooxygenase [YWHAZ], RNA polymerase II polypeptide [RP II], hydroxymethylbilane synthase [HMBS], TATA box binding protein [TBP], β-2-microglobulin [B2M], glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH], and succinate dehydrogenase complex-subunit A, [SDHA] in cerebellum and medial temporal gyrus of 6 AD, 6 PD, 6 DLB subjects, along with 5 matched controls using RT qPCR (TaqMan® Gene Expression Assays. Gene expression stability was analysed using geNorm to rank the candidate genes in order of decreasing stability in each disease group. The optimal number of genes recommended for accurate data normalization in each disease state was determined by pairwise variation analysis. Conclusion This study identified validated sets of mRNAs which would be appropriate for the normalization of RT qPCR data when studying gene expression in brain tissue of AD, PD, DLB and control subjects.

  14. The Global Burden of Disease assessments--WHO is responsible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stein

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Global Burden of Disease (GBD concept has been used by the World Health Organization (WHO for its reporting on health information for nearly 10 years. The GBD approach results in a single summary measure of morbidity, disability, and mortality, the so-called disability-adjusted life year (DALY. To ensure transparency and objectivity in the derivation of health information, WHO has been urged to use reference groups of external experts to estimate burden of disease. Under the leadership and coordination of WHO, expert groups have been appraising and abstracting burden of disease information. Examples include the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG, the Malaria Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group (MERG, and the recently established Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG. The structure and functioning of and lessons learnt by these groups are described in this paper. External WHO expert groups have provided independent scientific health information while operating under considerable differences in structure and functioning. Although it is not appropriate to devise a single "best practice" model, the common thread described by all groups is the necessity of WHO's leadership and coordination to ensure the provision and dissemination of health information that is to be globally accepted and valued.

  15. Riga-Fede disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    indifference to pain, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome or Tourette's syndrome. Neurological evaluation is therefore essential in affected children. [11] All of our patients were referred to a neurologist for assessment before treatment, but no abnormalities were found. The differential diagnosis of Riga-Fede disease includes infectious.

  16. Valores de referência para carboxiemoglobina Reference values for carboxyhemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa P. B. de Siqueira

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os valores de referência de indicadores biológicos são utilizados como parâmetros para interpretação de resultados de valores obtidos em indivíduos expostos ocupacionalmente aos agentes químicos. O Grupo Brasileiro para Estabelecimento dos Valores de Referência tem se dedicado a estas determinações objetivando estabelecer valores de referência para os diferentes bioindicadores em diversas regiões do País. Determinaram-se os valores de referência para a carboxiemoglobina (COHb no Sul de Minas Gerais. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A COHb foi analisada pelo método espectrofométrico, otimizado no laboratório de análises toxicológicas. Em todas as amostras também foram realizadas análises de alguns parâmetros bioquímicos e hematológicos para atestar o estado de saúde da população, constituída de 200 voluntários não-fumantes e não-expostos, por motivo profissional, ao monóxido de carbono. Cada indivíduo respondeu um questionário para levantamento de dados relevantes à interpretação dos resultados. Os valores de referência foram expressos em termos da média ± desvio-padrão, intervalo de confiança 95% e valor de referência superior. A distribuição estatística dos resultados obtidos foi realizada para possibilitar sua comparação com grupos de trabalhadores, preferentemente à avaliação individual. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: O valor médio ± desvio-padrão para a carboxiemoglobina foi de 1,0 % ± 0,75; o intervalo de confiança 95%, entre 0,9 e 1,1 % e o valor de referência superior, de 2,5%. Através do teste t de Student (p INTRODUCTION: The reference values (RV of biological indicators are used in the interpretation of the results of such indicators in individuals occupationally exposed to chemical agents. The Brazilian Group for the Establishment of Reference Values has worked on these definitions for the purpose of establishing RVs for several bioindicators in various regions of the country. In

  17. Metabolic, endocrine, and related bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    Bone is living tissue, and old bone is constantly removed and replaced with new bone. Normally this exchange is in balance, and the mineral content remains relatively constant. This balance may be disturbed as a result of certain metabolic and endocrinologic disorders. The term dystrophy, referring to a disturbance of nutrition, is applied to metabolic and endocrine bone diseases and should be distinguished from the term dysplasia, referring to a disturbance of bone growth. The two terms are easily confused but are not interchangeable. Metabolic bone disease is caused by endocrine imbalance, vitamin deficiency or excess, and other disturbances in bone metabolism leading to osteoporosis and osteomalacia

  18. Establishment of reference intervals for plasma protein electrophoresis in Indo-Pacific green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Mark; Matthews, Beren J; Limpus, Colin J; Mills, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    Biochemical and haematological parameters are increasingly used to diagnose disease in green sea turtles. Specific clinical pathology tools, such as plasma protein electrophoresis analysis, are now being used more frequently to improve our ability to diagnose disease in the live animal. Plasma protein reference intervals were calculated from 55 clinically healthy green sea turtles using pulsed field electrophoresis to determine pre-albumin, albumin, α-, β- and γ-globulin concentrations. The estimated reference intervals were then compared with data profiles from clinically unhealthy turtles admitted to a local wildlife hospital to assess the validity of the derived intervals and identify the clinically useful plasma protein fractions. Eighty-six per cent {19 of 22 [95% confidence interval (CI) 65-97]} of clinically unhealthy turtles had values outside the derived reference intervals, including the following: total protein [six of 22 turtles or 27% (95% CI 11-50%)], pre-albumin [two of five, 40% (95% CI 5-85%)], albumin [13 of 22, 59% (95% CI 36-79%)], total albumin [13 of 22, 59% (95% CI 36-79%)], α- [10 of 22, 45% (95% CI 24-68%)], β- [two of 10, 20% (95% CI 3-56%)], γ- [one of 10, 10% (95% CI 0.3-45%)] and β-γ-globulin [one of 12, 8% (95% CI 0.2-38%)] and total globulin [five of 22, 23% (8-45%)]. Plasma protein electrophoresis shows promise as an accurate adjunct tool to identify a disease state in marine turtles. This study presents the first reference interval for plasma protein electrophoresis in the Indo-Pacific green sea turtle.

  19. Determination of thyrotropin reference values in an adult Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rebollar, Armando; Moreno-Castañeda, Lidia; Vega-Servín, Norman S; López-Carrasco, Guadalupe; Ruiz-Juvera, Aída

    2015-02-01

    The upper limit of TSH reference level is controversial. The purpose of our study was to determine TSH reference values in a Mexican population in accordance with the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) criteria and in correlation with thyroid ultrasound (US) examination. The study was conducted in volunteers with no known thyroid disease. We recruited 482 subjects, most of them medical or administrative staff from our hospital. They answered a questionnaire on demographic data, family history, co-morbidities, and drug use. Their thyroid hormone levels and thyroid antibodies were determined, and a complete physical examination and thyroid US were performed. The population used to establish the TSH reference intervals was selected according to the NACB criteria and their normal thyroid structural and echogenic characteristics in US examination. Among 482 subjects (209 males) with a median age of 26 years, prevalence rates of TPOAb and TgAb were 9.3% and 10.3% respectively. Mean TSH level in the overall population was 1.90±1.94, with a 97.5th percentile of 6.76 mIU/L. The reference population was limited to 282 subjects (41.5% were excluded) with a mean TSH of 1.86±1.63 and a 97.5th percentile of 4.88 mIU/L. No sex difference was found (p=0.287). Median urinary iodine level in the reference population was 267 μg/L IQR (161.3-482.5). The TSH reference interval in the reference population was 0.71 (CI 0.65-0.77) to 4.88 mIU/L (CI 4.5-5.3); these limits may be influenced by iodine nutritional status in this population. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Pregnancy and Fifth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cheek Rash Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses References Pregnancy and Fifth Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... half of pregnancy. Testing for Parvovirus B19 during Pregnancy A blood test for parvovirus B19 can show ...

  1. [Celiac disease - disease of children and adults: symptoms, disease complications, risk groups and comorbidities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majsiak, Emilia; Cichoż-Lach, Halina; Gubska, Olena; Cukrowska, Bożena

    2018-01-23

    About 1% of human population suffers from celiac disease (CD) and it is one of the most commonly diagnosed autoimmune disorders. Until recently it was believed that CD affects mainly children, but as the newest studies show, up to 60% recently diagnosed patients are adults, often over the age of 60. CD's medical signs are nonspecific. Atypical course of the disease with extraintestinal symptoms is being increasingly observed. The disease may also be asymptomatic over many years. The studies show that the average diagnosis of CD takes more than 10 years since the first symptoms appear. Nonspecific medical signs cause undiagnosed patients suffering from CD to visit gastroenterologists, endocrinologists, allergists, gynaecologists and other medical specialists. However, most frequently general practitioners have the first encounter with patients suffering from CD, therefore they are able to recognize symptoms of the disease at the earliest and refer the patient to a gastroenterologist. Early diagnosis and beginning of the treatment reduce complications of untreated CD. The aim of this paper is to show general practitioners symptoms, disease complications, risk groups and comorbidities of CD.

  2. Evaluation of pleural disease using MR and CT: With special reference to malignant pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuuttila, A.; Kivisaari, L.; Kivisaari, A.; Palomaeki, M.; Tervahartiala, P.; Mattson, K.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate MR imaging and CT in differentiating malignant pleural mesothelioma from other malignancies or benign pleural disease. Material and Methods: Thirty-four patients (18 pleural mesothelioma, 9 other malignancies, 7 benign pleural diseases) were examined using enhanced CT and MR. Two radiologists reviewed the CT and two others the MR images. Comparisons were made between the diagnostic groups and the imaging methods. Results: The abnormalities commonly found in malignant disease, but significantly less frequently in benign pleural disease, were focal thickening and enhancement of inter lobar fissures. In mesothelioma, enhancement of inter lobar fissures, tumour invasion of the diaphragm, mediastinal soft tissue or chest wall, were significantly more often observed than in other malignancies and MR was the most sensitive method. In other malignancies, invasion of bony structures was a more common finding and was also better shown by MR. The contrast-enhanced T1 fat-suppressed (CET1fs) sequence detected these features better than other MR sequences. Conclusion: MR, especially the CET1fs sequence in three planes, gave more information than enhanced CT. Focal thickening and enhancement of inter lobar fissures were early abnormalities indicating malignant pleural disease. MR could be clinically useful for differentiating mesothelioma from other pleural diseases

  3. Evaluation of pleural disease using MR and CT: With special reference to malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuuttila, A. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Medicine; Kivisaari, L.; Kivisaari, A.; Palomaeki, M.; Tervahartiala, P. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology; Mattson, K. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Medicine

    2001-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate MR imaging and CT in differentiating malignant pleural mesothelioma from other malignancies or benign pleural disease. Material and Methods: Thirty-four patients (18 pleural mesothelioma, 9 other malignancies, 7 benign pleural diseases) were examined using enhanced CT and MR. Two radiologists reviewed the CT and two others the MR images. Comparisons were made between the diagnostic groups and the imaging methods. Results: The abnormalities commonly found in malignant disease, but significantly less frequently in benign pleural disease, were focal thickening and enhancement of inter lobar fissures. In mesothelioma, enhancement of inter lobar fissures, tumour invasion of the diaphragm, mediastinal soft tissue or chest wall, were significantly more often observed than in other malignancies and MR was the most sensitive method. In other malignancies, invasion of bony structures was a more common finding and was also better shown by MR. The contrast-enhanced T1 fat-suppressed (CET1fs) sequence detected these features better than other MR sequences. Conclusion: MR, especially the CET1fs sequence in three planes, gave more information than enhanced CT. Focal thickening and enhancement of inter lobar fissures were early abnormalities indicating malignant pleural disease. MR could be clinically useful for differentiating mesothelioma from other pleural diseases.

  4. IAEA biological reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Schelenz, R.; Ballestra, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Analytical Quality Control Services programme of the IAEA encompasses a wide variety of intercomparisons and reference materials. This paper reviews only those aspects of the subject having to do with biological reference materials. The 1988 programme foresees 13 new intercomparison exercises, one for major, minor and trace elements, five for radionuclides, and seven for stable isotopes. Twenty-two natural matrix biological reference materials are available: twelve for major, minor and trace elements, six for radionuclides, and four for chlorinated hydrocarbons. Seven new intercomparisons and reference materials are in preparation or under active consideration. Guidelines on the correct use of reference materials are being prepared for publication in 1989 in consultation with other major international producers and users of biological reference materials. The IAEA database on available reference materials is being updated and expanded in scope, and a new publication is planned for 1989. (orig.)

  5. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  6. Evaluation of reference gene suitability for quantitative expression analysis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in the mandibular condyle of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xin; Xue, Yang; Zhou, Hongzhi; Li, Shouhong; Zhang, Zongmin; Hou, Rui; Ding, Yuxiang; Hu, Kaijin

    2015-10-01

    Reference genes are commonly used as a reliable approach to normalize the results of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and to reduce errors in the relative quantification of gene expression. Suitable reference genes belonging to numerous functional classes have been identified for various types of species and tissue. However, little is currently known regarding the most suitable reference genes for bone, specifically for the sheep mandibular condyle. Sheep are important for the study of human bone diseases, particularly for temporomandibular diseases. The present study aimed to identify a set of reference genes suitable for the normalization of qPCR data from the mandibular condyle of sheep. A total of 12 reference genes belonging to various functional classes were selected, and the expression stability of the reference genes was determined in both the normal and fractured area of the sheep mandibular condyle. RefFinder, which integrates the following currently available computational algorithms: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ΔCt method, was used to compare and rank the candidate reference genes. The results obtained from the four methods demonstrated a similar trend: RPL19, ACTB, and PGK1 were the most stably expressed reference genes in the sheep mandibular condyle. As determined by RefFinder comprehensive analysis, the results of the present study suggested that RPL19 is the most suitable reference gene for studies associated with the sheep mandibular condyle. In addition, ACTB and PGK1 may be considered suitable alternatives.

  7. [Corneal manifestations in systemic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarranz Ventura, J; De Nova, E; Moreno-Montañés, J

    2008-01-01

    Systemic diseases affecting the cornea have a wide range of manifestations. The detailed study of all pathologies that cause corneal alteration is unapproachable, so we have centered our interest in the most prevalent or characteristic of them. In this paper we have divided these pathologies in sections to facilitate their study. Pulmonar and conective tissue (like colagen, rheumatologic and idiopathic inflamatory diseases), dermatologic, cardiovascular, hematologic, digestive and hepatopancreatic diseases with corneal alteration are described. Endocrine and metabolic diseases, malnutrition and carential states are also studied, as well as some otorhinolaryngologic and genetic diseases that affect the cornea. Finally, a brief report of ocular toxicity induced by drugs is referred.

  8. Comparison between the triglycerides standardization of routine methods used in Japan and the chromotropic acid reference measurement procedure used by the CDC Lipid Standardization Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masakazu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kitamura, Akihiko; Imano, Hironori; Noda, Hiroyuki; Kiyama, Masahiko; Sato, Shinichi; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Nakai, Michikazu; Vesper, Hubert W; Teramoto, Tamio; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-11-01

    Background The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ensured adequate performance of the routine triglycerides methods used in Japan by a chromotropic acid reference measurement procedure used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lipid standardization programme as a reference point. We examined standardized data to clarify the performance of routine triglycerides methods. Methods The two routine triglycerides methods were the fluorometric method of Kessler and Lederer and the enzymatic method. The methods were standardized using 495 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference pools with 98 different concentrations ranging between 0.37 and 5.15 mmol/L in 141 survey runs. The triglycerides criteria for laboratories which perform triglycerides analyses are used: accuracy, as bias ≤5% from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference value and precision, as measured by CV, ≤5%. Results The correlation of the bias of both methods to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference method was: y (%bias) = 0.516 × (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference value) -1.292 ( n = 495, R 2  = 0.018). Triglycerides bias at medical decision points of 1.13, 1.69 and 2.26 mmol/L was -0.71%, -0.42% and -0.13%, respectively. For the combined precision, the equation y (CV) = -0.398 × (triglycerides value) + 1.797 ( n = 495, R 2  = 0.081) was used. Precision was 1.35%, 1.12% and 0.90%, respectively. It was shown that triglycerides measurements at Osaka were stable for 36 years. Conclusions The epidemiologic laboratory in Japan met acceptable accuracy goals for 88.7% of all samples, and met acceptable precision goals for 97.8% of all samples measured through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lipid standardization programme and demonstrated stable results for an extended period of time.

  9. A multicenter study on PIVKA reference interval of healthy population and establishment of PIVKA cutoff value for hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, X; Tang, G; Gao, R; Guo, Z; Liu, Z; Yu, S; Chen, M; Tao, Z; Li, S; Liu, M; Wang, L; Hou, L; Xia, L; Cheng, X; Han, J; Qiu, L

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reference interval of protein-induced vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) in China population and to evaluate its medical decision level for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosis. To determine the reference range for Chinese individuals, a total of 855 healthy subjects in five typical regions of China were enrolled in this study to obtain a 95% reference interval. In a case-control study which recruited the subjects diagnosed with HCC, metastatic liver cancer, bile duct cancer, hepatitis, cirrhosis, other benign liver diseases and the subjects administrated anticoagulant, receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine PIVKA-II cutoff value for a medical decision. The concentration of PIVKA-II had no relationship with age or gender and that region was a significant factor associated with the level of PIVKA-II. The 95% reference interval determined in this study for PIVKA-II in Chinese healthy individuals was 28 mAU/mL, and the cutoff value which to distinguish patients with HCC from disease control groups is 36.5 mAU/mL. In clinical applications, it is recommended that each laboratory chooses their own reference interval based on the regional population study or cutoff value for disease diagnosis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Risk of Fractures in Youths with Celiac Disease-A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, Cristina; Pitter, Gisella; Zanier, Loris; Simonato, Lorenzo; Michaelsson, Karl; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2018-04-19

    To assess the risk of any fracture requiring hospital care in a cohort of individuals with celiac disease diagnosed in childhood/adolescence compared with reference individuals matched by age and sex. Our study cohort consisted of 213 635 people born and residing in Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region, Italy, in 1989-2011. We selected, through pathology reports, hospital discharge records, or co-payment exemptions, 1233 individuals with celiac disease (aged 0-17 years at diagnosis) and compared them with 6167 reference individuals matched by sex and year of birth. Fractures were identified through hospital discharge records. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for any fracture after celiac disease diagnosis (or index date for reference individuals) with Cox regression and ORs for any fracture before celiac disease diagnosis with conditional logistic regression. During the follow-up period (maximum 23 years), 22 individuals with celiac disease (9394 person-years) and 128 reference individuals (47 308 person-years) experienced a fracture, giving an overall HR of 0.87 (95% CI 0.55-1.37). The risk was not modified by sex, age at diagnosis, or calendar period of diagnosis. We obtained similar HRs when excluding fractures occurring after the age of 18 years and adjusting for maternal education or vitamin D supplementation. The odds of previous fracture also did not differ between subjects with celiac disease and reference individuals (22 and 96 cases, respectively: OR 1.15; 95% CI 0.72-1.84). We did not find any evidence of an increased risk of fractures during childhood and youth among patients with celiac disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Retinome – Defining a reference transcriptome of the adult mammalian retina/retinal pigment epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goetz Thomas

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian retina is a valuable model system to study neuronal biology in health and disease. To obtain insight into intrinsic processes of the retina, great efforts are directed towards the identification and characterization of transcripts with functional relevance to this tissue. Results With the goal to assemble a first genome-wide reference transcriptome of the adult mammalian retina, referred to as the retinome, we have extracted 13,037 non-redundant annotated genes from nearly 500,000 published datasets on redundant retina/retinal pigment epithelium (RPE transcripts. The data were generated from 27 independent studies employing a wide range of molecular and biocomputational approaches. Comparison to known retina-/RPE-specific pathways and established retinal gene networks suggest that the reference retinome may represent up to 90% of the retinal transcripts. We show that the distribution of retinal genes along the chromosomes is not random but exhibits a higher order organization closely following the previously observed clustering of genes with increased expression. Conclusion The genome wide retinome map offers a rational basis for selecting suggestive candidate genes for hereditary as well as complex retinal diseases facilitating elaborate studies into normal and pathological pathways. To make this unique resource freely available we have built a database providing a query interface to the reference retinome 1.

  12. Reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson-Lamb, Gavin C; Schoeman, Johan P; Hooijberg, Emma H; Heinrich, Sonja K; Tordiffe, Adrian S W

    2016-02-26

    Published haematologic and serum biochemistry reference intervals are very scarce for captive cheetahs and even more for free-ranging cheetahs. The current study was performed to establish reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs. Baseline serum biochemistry analytes were analysed from 66 healthy Namibian cheetahs. Samples were collected from 30 captive cheetahs at the AfriCat Foundation and 36 free-ranging cheetahs from central Namibia. The effects of captivity-status, age, sex and haemolysis score on the tested serum analytes were investigated. The biochemistry analytes that were measured were sodium, potassium, magnesium, chloride, urea and creatinine. The 90% confidence interval of the reference limits was obtained using the non-parametric bootstrap method. Reference intervals were preferentially determined by the non-parametric method and were as follows: sodium (128 mmol/L - 166 mmol/L), potassium (3.9 mmol/L - 5.2 mmol/L), magnesium (0.8 mmol/L - 1.2 mmol/L), chloride (97 mmol/L - 130 mmol/L), urea (8.2 mmol/L - 25.1 mmol/L) and creatinine (88 µmol/L - 288 µmol/L). Reference intervals from the current study were compared with International Species Information System values for cheetahs and found to be narrower. Moreover, age, sex and haemolysis score had no significant effect on the serum analytes in this study. Separate reference intervals for captive and free-ranging cheetahs were also determined. Captive cheetahs had higher urea values, most likely due to dietary factors. This study is the first to establish reference intervals for serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs according to international guidelines. These results can be used for future health and disease assessments in both captive and free-ranging cheetahs.

  13. Radiological Atlas of Gastrointestinal Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    This book is a reference to gastrointestinal disease and radiographic methods. It provides complete information for diagnosis and management and includes coverage of plain radiography, barium studies, water-soluble contrast studies, and more

  14. An integrated catalog of reference genes in the human gut microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Junhua; Jia, Huijue; Cai, Xianghang

    2014-01-01

    Many analyses of the human gut microbiome depend on a catalog of reference genes. Existing catalogs for the human gut microbiome are based on samples from single cohorts or on reference genomes or protein sequences, which limits coverage of global microbiome diversity. Here we combined 249 newly...... signatures. This expanded catalog should facilitate quantitative characterization of metagenomic, metatranscriptomic and metaproteomic data from the gut microbiome to understand its variation across populations in human health and disease.......) comprising 9,879,896 genes. The catalog includes close-to-complete sets of genes for most gut microbes, which are also of considerably higher quality than in previous catalogs. Analyses of a group of samples from Chinese and Danish individuals using the catalog revealed country-specific gut microbial...

  15. Sexuality and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide Sexuality and Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print Email Can ... It's something everyone needs. Many people think that sexuality refers only to sexual intercourse. But sexuality includes ...

  16. Changing quantum reference frames

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Matthew C.; Girelli, Florian; Bartlett, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the process of changing reference frames in the case where the reference frames are quantum systems. We find that, as part of this process, decoherence is necessarily induced on any quantum system described relative to these frames. We explore this process with examples involving reference frames for phase and orientation. Quantifying the effect of changing quantum reference frames serves as a first step in developing a relativity principle for theories in which all objects includ...

  17. Avaliação do estado nutricional de escolares segundo três referências Nutritional status evaluation in schoolchildren according to three references

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Moreira S. Barbosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a avaliação do estado nutricional de escolares de acordo com as três curvas de referências. MÉTODOS: AS variáveis peso e estatura de 181 crianças na faixa etária de cinco a dez anos foram obtidas de um banco de dados de vigilância nutricional de escolares da Ilha de Paquetá, organizado de acordo com as recomendações do Sistema de Vigilância Alimentar e Nutricional (Sisvan. O gráfico de Bland Altman e a razão de desvios foram empregados para construir perfis de concordância entre as três curvas de referência de avaliação nutricional dois a dois, utilizando-se os valores do índice de massa corporal. Na determinação da prevalência de déficit pôdero-estatural e sobrepeso, utilizaram-se os pontos de cortes recomendados por Cole, pelo Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention e por Conde e Monteiro. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de obesidade em meninas foi igual (3,1% para Cole e Conde e Monteiro e ambas se sobrepuseram à obtida por meio da curva do Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention de 2000 (2,0%. Em relação aos meninos, a prevalência de obesidade obtida por Conde e Monteiro (4,8% foi menor do que os percentuais encontrados por Cole (7,2% e pelo CDC (7,2%. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados sugerem que a escolha do referencial brasileiro (Conde e Monteiro não dificulta a comparação com outros critérios internacionais, principalmente no que tange à classificação de obesidade em escolares do gênero masculino.OBJECTIVE: To compare the nutritional status of schoolchildren according to three different reference curves. METHODS: The weight and height of 181 children aged 5-10 years were obtained from a database for the nutritional surveillance of schoolchildren from Paquetá Island, RJ, Brazil, which had been designed in compliance with recommendations of the Brazilian Food and Nutrition Surveillance System (Sistema de Vigilância Alimentar e Nutricional, Sisvan. Bland-Altman plot and deviation

  18. Maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnant patients with cardiac diseases referred for labour in northwest Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaghoubi, A.; Mirinazhad, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity rates in women with different types of significant heart diseases. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary heart care centre in Tabriz, Iran, and comprised 200 pregnant women between March 2007 and March 2012 who had different cardiac diseases and were admitted in labour wards first and then transferred to the heart center for child-bearing (vaginal delivery or caesarean section). They were categorised based on the underlying etiology into valvular heart disease, dilated cardiomyopathy, congenital heart disease and other etiologies. SPSS 18 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean age of the 200 subjects was 29.4+-4.28 years. Caesarean section was performed on 152 (76%) cases, while 48 (24%) underwent vaginal delivery. There were 216 neonates as 16 (8%) women had twins. Overall, 164 (75.9%) were female, and 52 (24.1%) male. Maternal and neonatal mortality rates were 4.0% (n=8) and 10% (n=22) respectively. Pregnant women with Congenital heart disease experienced more maternal (p<0.022) and neonatal (p<0.031) mortality rates than other cardiac diseases. Conclusion: Pregnant women with cardiac diseases are prone to higher maternal and neonatal mortality rates in northwest Iran. (author)

  19. [The reference of normal values of the sacroiliac joint index in bone scintigraphy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastjanowicz, Przemysław; Iwanowski, Jacek; Piwowarska-Bilska, Hanna; Elbl, Bogumiła; Birkenfeld, Bożena

    Scintigraphy of sacroiliac joints as functional imaging provides unique information on the existing disease process. By using radiopharmaceuticals that allow imaging of the metabolic activity within the joint, it is possible to assess the stage of the disease, even when there are no lesions in radiological images. Quantitative analysis of scintigrams of sacroiliac joints is performed by comparing the uptake in both of them in relation to the uptake in the sacral bone area. The values of sacroiliac (SI/S) indices are influenced by the age of the patient, sex, state of health, and a range of individual biological features. Therefore, reference values of SI/S ratios are very important for medical specialists who describe and diagnose locomotor system diseases. The aim of this paper is to develop a reference range of sacroiliac ratios. The innovativeness of this paper involves examining sacroiliac ratios for various age groups, in children and adult patients, taking their sex into consideration. The study comprised a group of 335 people with proper bone scintigraphy. These people were divided into children and patients aged ≥21. Children were divided into 4 age groups (1–5; 6–10; 11–15; 16–20) and adults into 6 age groups (21–30; 31–40; 41–50; 51–60; 61–70; ≥71). Sacroiliac ratios were calculated using the method of three rectangular region of interests located on the left and right sacroiliac joint and on the sacral bone. The sacroiliac ratio was calculated for both joints by dividing the average number of counts within a selected sacroiliac joint by the average number of counts within the sacral bone. SI/S borderline reference values covered the range of 1.18÷2.28 that was obtained for children aged ≤5 and for the group of 11–15-year-olds. Considerable discrepancies in the values of the coefficient for women and men were seen among 31–50-year-olds. Borderline reference results for the entire control group cover the range of 1.18 ±2

  20. STL pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lischner, Ray

    2003-01-01

    The STL Pocket Reference describes the functions, classes, and templates in that part of the C++ standard library often referred to as the Standard Template Library (STL). The STL encompasses containers, iterators, algorithms, and function objects, which collectively represent one of the most important and widely used subsets of standard library functionality. The C++ standard library, even the subset known as the STL, is vast. It's next to impossible to work with the STL without some sort of reference at your side to remind you of template parameters, function invocations, return types--ind

  1. VBE reference framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsarmanesh, H.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Ermilova, E.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Ollus, M.

    2008-01-01

    Defining a comprehensive and generic "reference framework" for Virtual organizations Breeding Environments (VBEs), addressing all their features and characteristics, is challenging. While the definition and modeling of VBEs has become more formalized during the last five years, "reference models"

  2. Concepts Concerning 'Disease\\' Causation, Control, and the current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an ethical necessity that doctors understand the complex social, political, environmental and economic dynamics involved in infectious disease outbreaks. This article discusses some important concepts concerning 'disease' causation and control with specific reference to the current cholera outbreak in Zimbabwe ...

  3. Plant Science. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference. Volume 24, Numbers 3 and 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, John Kevin

    This document consists of two separately published guides for a course on plant science: an instructor's guide and a student's reference manual. Each part consists of eight lessons and cover the following topics: (1) importance of plants; (2) classification of plants; (3) plant growth factors; (4) weeds, diseases, insects; (5) germination; (6)…

  4. Selection of reference genes is critical for miRNA expression analysis in human cardiac tissue. A focus on atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masè, Michela; Grasso, Margherita; Avogaro, Laura; D'Amato, Elvira; Tessarolo, Francesco; Graffigna, Angelo; Denti, Michela Alessandra; Ravelli, Flavia

    2017-01-24

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as key regulators of complex biological processes in several cardiovascular diseases, including atrial fibrillation (AF). Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction is a powerful technique to quantitatively assess miRNA expression profile, but reliable results depend on proper data normalization by suitable reference genes. Despite the increasing number of studies assessing miRNAs in cardiac disease, no consensus on the best reference genes has been reached. This work aims to assess reference genes stability in human cardiac tissue with a focus on AF investigation. We evaluated the stability of five reference genes (U6, SNORD48, SNORD44, miR-16, and 5S) in atrial tissue samples from eighteen cardiac-surgery patients in sinus rhythm and AF. Stability was quantified by combining BestKeeper, delta-C q , GeNorm, and NormFinder statistical tools. All methods assessed SNORD48 as the best and U6 as the worst reference gene. Applications of different normalization strategies significantly impacted miRNA expression profiles in the study population. Our results point out the necessity of a consensus on data normalization in AF studies to avoid the emergence of divergent biological conclusions.

  5. Development of a classification scheme for disease-related enzyme information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söhngen Carola

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BRENDA (BRaunschweig ENzyme DAtabase, http://www.brenda-enzymes.org is a major resource for enzyme related information. First and foremost, it provides data which are manually curated from the primary literature. DRENDA (Disease RElated ENzyme information DAtabase complements BRENDA with a focus on the automatic search and categorization of enzyme and disease related information from title and abstracts of primary publications. In a two-step procedure DRENDA makes use of text mining and machine learning methods. Results Currently enzyme and disease related references are biannually updated as part of the standard BRENDA update. 910,897 relations of EC-numbers and diseases were extracted from titles or abstracts and are included in the second release in 2010. The enzyme and disease entity recognition has been successfully enhanced by a further relation classification via machine learning. The classification step has been evaluated by a 5-fold cross validation and achieves an F1 score between 0.802 ± 0.032 and 0.738 ± 0.033 depending on the categories and pre-processing procedures. In the eventual DRENDA content every category reaches a classification specificity of at least 96.7% and a precision that ranges from 86-98% in the highest confidence level, and 64-83% for the smallest confidence level associated with higher recall. Conclusions The DRENDA processing chain analyses PubMed, locates references with disease-related information on enzymes and categorises their focus according to the categories causal interaction, therapeutic application, diagnostic usage and ongoing research. The categorisation gives an impression on the focus of the located references. Thus, the relation categorisation can facilitate orientation within the rapidly growing number of references with impact on diseases and enzymes. The DRENDA information is available as additional information in BRENDA.

  6. The relative frequency of common neuromuscular diagnoses in a reference center

    OpenAIRE

    Cotta, Ana; Paim, Júlia Filardi; Carvalho, Elmano; da-Cunha-Júnior, Antonio Lopes; Navarro, Monica M.; Valicek, Jaquelin; Menezes, Miriam Melo; Nunes, Simone Vilela; Xavier-Neto, Rafael; Baptista Junior, Sidney; Lima, Luciano Romero; Takata, Reinaldo Issao; Vargas, Antonio Pedro

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The diagnostic procedure in neuromuscular patients is complex. Knowledge of the relative frequency of neuromuscular diseases within the investigated population is important to allow the neurologist to perform the most appropriate diagnostic tests. Objective: To report the relative frequency of common neuromuscular diagnoses in a reference center. Methods: A 17-year chart review of patients with suspicion of myopathy. Results: Among 3,412 examinations, 1,603 (46.98%) yielded confir...

  7. Linear IgA Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horvath, Barbara; Jonkman, Marcel F.; Jonkman, Marcel F

    2016-01-01

    ​This book provides obligatory study material on courses on autoimmune bullous diseases. Residents and researchers in dermatology and adjacent disciplines can use the book as a quick reference guide when dealing with these patients. The book contains protocols and follows international guidelines.​

  8. Radioisotopic studies of bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ell, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    Consideration is given to the study of bone diseases. The most used radionuclides in the skeletal investigation are analysed and a table of radiopharmaceuticals of localization in the skeleton is showed. Emphasis is given to the use of Strontium 85 and 87m, fluorine 18 and technetium 99m. The phosphate compounds labelled with Technetium 99m are studied in detail and the structures of these organic and inorganic compounds are given. A table with values of the blood clearance of those compounds is presented. The skeletal distribution of the phosphate compounds-sup(99m)Tc, as well as the abnormal scintigraphy of skeleton by means of them, are analysed. Referring to bone diseases, the benign and malignant ones are studied: a table is given of bone diseases with positive imaging to the skeleton scintigraphy in the former case and the main applications of this scintigraphy in the latter one. Emphasis is given, in all the cases, to the clinical applications of the method, with recommendations in each one. Scintigraphic imagings are presented referring to each item studied [pt

  9. User Preferences in Reference Services: Virtual Reference and Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Joel; Cummings, Lara; Frederiksen, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the use of chat in an academic library's user population and where virtual reference services might fit within the spectrum of public services offered by academic libraries. Using questionnaires, this research demonstrates that many within the academic community are open to the idea of chat-based reference or using chat for…

  10. Continuous age- and sex-adjusted reference intervals of urinary markers for cerebral creatine deficiency syndromes: a novel approach to the definition of reference intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørkrid, Lars; Rowe, Alexander D; Elgstoen, Katja B P; Olesen, Jess H; Ruijter, George; Hall, Patricia L; Tortorelli, Silvia; Schulze, Andreas; Kyriakopoulou, Lianna; Wamelink, Mirjam M C; van de Kamp, Jiddeke M; Salomons, Gajja S; Rinaldo, Piero

    2015-05-01

    Urinary concentrations of creatine and guanidinoacetic acid divided by creatinine are informative markers for cerebral creatine deficiency syndromes (CDSs). The renal excretion of these substances varies substantially with age and sex, challenging the sensitivity and specificity of postanalytical interpretation. Results from 155 patients with CDS and 12 507 reference individuals were contributed by 5 diagnostic laboratories. They were binned into 104 adjacent age intervals and renormalized with Box-Cox transforms (Ξ). Estimates for central tendency (μ) and dispersion (σ) of Ξ were obtained for each bin. Polynomial regression analysis was used to establish the age dependence of both μ[log(age)] and σ[log(age)]. The regression residuals were then calculated as z-scores = {Ξ - μ[log(age)]}/σ[log(age)]. The process was iterated until all z-scores outside Tukey fences ±3.372 were identified and removed. Continuous percentile charts were then calculated and plotted by retransformation. Statistically significant and biologically relevant subgroups of z-scores were identified. Significantly higher marker values were seen in females than males, necessitating separate reference intervals in both adolescents and adults. Comparison between our reconstructed reference percentiles and current standard age-matched reference intervals highlights an underlying risk of false-positive and false-negative events at certain ages. Disease markers depending strongly on covariates such as age and sex require large numbers of reference individuals to establish peripheral percentiles with sufficient precision. This is feasible only through collaborative data sharing and the use of appropriate statistical methods. Broad application of this approach can be implemented through freely available Web-based software. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  11. Reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin C. Hudson-Lamb

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Published haematologic and serum biochemistry reference intervals are very scarce for captive cheetahs and even more for free-ranging cheetahs. The current study was performed to establish reference intervals for selected serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs. Baseline serum biochemistry analytes were analysed from 66 healthy Namibian cheetahs. Samples were collected from 30 captive cheetahs at the AfriCat Foundation and 36 free-ranging cheetahs from central Namibia. The effects of captivity-status, age, sex and haemolysis score on the tested serum analytes were investigated. The biochemistry analytes that were measured were sodium, potassium, magnesium, chloride, urea and creatinine. The 90% confidence interval of the reference limits was obtained using the non-parametric bootstrap method. Reference intervals were preferentially determined by the non-parametric method and were as follows: sodium (128 mmol/L – 166 mmol/L, potassium (3.9 mmol/L – 5.2 mmol/L, magnesium (0.8 mmol/L – 1.2 mmol/L, chloride (97 mmol/L – 130 mmol/L, urea (8.2 mmol/L – 25.1 mmol/L and creatinine (88 µmol/L – 288 µmol/L. Reference intervals from the current study were compared with International Species Information System values for cheetahs and found to be narrower. Moreover, age, sex and haemolysis score had no significant effect on the serum analytes in this study. Separate reference intervals for captive and free-ranging cheetahs were also determined. Captive cheetahs had higher urea values, most likely due to dietary factors. This study is the first to establish reference intervals for serum biochemistry analytes in cheetahs according to international guidelines. These results can be used for future health and disease assessments in both captive and free-ranging cheetahs.

  12. Python essential reference

    CERN Document Server

    Beazley, David M

    2009-01-01

    Python Essential Reference is the definitive reference guide to the Python programming language — the one authoritative handbook that reliably untangles and explains both the core Python language and the most essential parts of the Python library. Designed for the professional programmer, the book is concise, to the point, and highly accessible. It also includes detailed information on the Python library and many advanced subjects that is not available in either the official Python documentation or any other single reference source. Thoroughly updated to reflect the significant new programming language features and library modules that have been introduced in Python 2.6 and Python 3, the fourth edition of Python Essential Reference is the definitive guide for programmers who need to modernize existing Python code or who are planning an eventual migration to Python 3. Programmers starting a new Python project will find detailed coverage of contemporary Python programming idioms.

  13. Common Periodontal Diseases of Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayat Al-Ghutaimel

    2014-01-01

    “microbiology of periodontal diseases,” “classification of periodontal diseases,” “epidemiology of periodontal diseases,” and “treatment of periodontal diseases.” Articles were evaluated by title and/or abstract and relevance to pediatric dentistry. Sixty-five citations were selected by this method and by the references within the chosen articles. A review of the comprehensive textbooks on pediatric dentistry and periodontology was done. Some recommendations were based on the opinions of experienced researchers and clinicians, when data were inconclusive.

  14. Haz-Map: Information on Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Glossary References About Us Search Hazardous Agents Occupational Diseases High Risk Jobs Non-Occupational Activities Industries Job ... Findings Haz-Map®: Information on Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases by Jay A. Brown, M.D., M.P. ...

  15. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    When you're working with CSS and need a quick answer, CSS Pocket Reference delivers. This handy, concise book provides all of the essential information you need to implement CSS on the fly. Ideal for intermediate to advanced web designers and developers, the 4th edition is revised and updated for CSS3, the latest version of the Cascading Style Sheet specification. Along with a complete alphabetical reference to CSS3 selectors and properties, you'll also find a short introduction to the key concepts of CSS. Based on Cascading Style Sheets: The Definitive Guide, this reference is an easy-to-us

  16. PDON: Parkinson's disease ontology for representation and modeling of the Parkinson's disease knowledge domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younesi, Erfan; Malhotra, Ashutosh; Gündel, Michaela; Scordis, Phil; Kodamullil, Alpha Tom; Page, Matt; Müller, Bernd; Springstubbe, Stephan; Wüllner, Ullrich; Scheller, Dieter; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin

    2015-09-22

    Despite the unprecedented and increasing amount of data, relatively little progress has been made in molecular characterization of mechanisms underlying Parkinson's disease. In the area of Parkinson's research, there is a pressing need to integrate various pieces of information into a meaningful context of presumed disease mechanism(s). Disease ontologies provide a novel means for organizing, integrating, and standardizing the knowledge domains specific to disease in a compact, formalized and computer-readable form and serve as a reference for knowledge exchange or systems modeling of disease mechanism. The Parkinson's disease ontology was built according to the life cycle of ontology building. Structural, functional, and expert evaluation of the ontology was performed to ensure the quality and usability of the ontology. A novelty metric has been introduced to measure the gain of new knowledge using the ontology. Finally, a cause-and-effect model was built around PINK1 and two gene expression studies from the Gene Expression Omnibus database were re-annotated to demonstrate the usability of the ontology. The Parkinson's disease ontology with a subclass-based taxonomic hierarchy covers the broad spectrum of major biomedical concepts from molecular to clinical features of the disease, and also reflects different views on disease features held by molecular biologists, clinicians and drug developers. The current version of the ontology contains 632 concepts, which are organized under nine views. The structural evaluation showed the balanced dispersion of concept classes throughout the ontology. The functional evaluation demonstrated that the ontology-driven literature search could gain novel knowledge not present in the reference Parkinson's knowledge map. The ontology was able to answer specific questions related to Parkinson's when evaluated by experts. Finally, the added value of the Parkinson's disease ontology is demonstrated by ontology-driven modeling of PINK1

  17. Physiologic Reference Ranges for Captive Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keckler, M Shannon; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia F; Langham, Gregory L; Damon, Inger K; Karem, Kevin L; Carroll, Darin S

    2010-01-01

    The black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) is a member of the order Rodentia and the family Sciuridae. Ecologically, prairie dogs are a keystone species in prairie ecology. This species is used as an animal model for human gallbladder disease and diseases caused by infection with Clostridium difficile, Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, and most recently, Orthopoxvirus. Despite increasing numbers of prairie dogs used in research and kept as pets, few data are available on their baseline physiology in animal facility housing conditions. To establish baseline physiologic reference ranges, we designed a study using 18 wild-caught black-tailed prairie dogs. Telemetry data were analyzed to establish circadian rhythms for activity and temperature. In addition, hematologic and serum chemistry analyses were performed. Baseline measurements were used to establish the mean for each animal, which then were compiled and analyzed to determine the reference ranges. Here we present physiologic data on serum chemistry and hematology profiles, as well as weight, core body temperature, and daily activity patterns for black-tailed prairie dogs. These results reflect the use of multiple measurements from species- and age-matched prairie dogs and likely will be useful to ecologists, scientists interested in using this animal model in research, and veterinarians caring for pet prairie dogs. PMID:20587156

  18. Endogenizing Prospect Theory's Reference Point

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Schmidt; Horst Zank

    2010-01-01

    In previous models of (cumulative) prospect theory reference-dependence of preferences is imposed beforehand and the location of the reference point is exogenously determined. This note provides a foundation of prospect theory, where reference-dependence is derived from preference conditions and a unique reference point arises endogenously.

  19. [Emotional stress-induced Shanghuo syndrome increases disease susceptibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Si-Rui; Luo, Xiang; Li, Yi-Fang; Hiroshi, Kurihara; He, Rong-Rong

    2018-04-01

    Shanghuo(excessive internal heat) is a special organic state based on the concept of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), commonly known as the abnormal heating syndrome of body in folks. With the acceleration of modern life rhythm and the increase of the social competition pressure, emotional stress has become an important cause for the spread of Shanghuo symptoms. What's more, Shanghuo can impact the body physiological functions to cause the onset, recurrence and progression of common diseases, harming the health of the body. According to the long-term research findings, the author found that Shanghuo referred to the imbalance of multiple physiological functions, such as nerve, immunity and metabolism, caused by emotional stress. "Shanghuo" is not a disease itself, but it can increase the susceptibility to a variety of diseases. This study reviewed the traditional medicine theory and the modern medical studies, and explored the relevance and correlation mechanisms between the Shanghuo symptoms and disease susceptibility, so as to provide a reference to improve the state of sub-health and prevent or treat modern diseases. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. The citation with reference and the citation as a reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Antonio Cunha Perrone

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio objetiva estabelecer paralelos entre a citação acadêmica e a citação utilizada como referência, para a produção das obras ou projetos de arquitetura. O artigo discute o uso de figuras paradigmáticas ou significativas, transladadas ou amalgamadas nas obras de arquitetura, a partir do entendimento da citação como dado argumentativo e qualitativo. Investiga algumas de suas assimetrias e congruências em sua utilização na linguagem escrita, como transcrição direta ou como fonte interpretativa, reelaborada e incorporada como argumento em outro texto. Pondera que no ensinar, estudar e fazer arquitetura é preciso saber citar com referência, para poder citar como referência.

  1. Marketing Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  2. [The heart of Italians. A population survey on the perception and evaluation of the National Health Service by citizens with heart disease and without heart disease (with special reference to cardiology)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottani, Filippo; La Vecchia, Luigi; Diamanti, Ilvo; Pozzati, Andrea; Gardani, Ludovico; Fresco, Claudio; Lettino, Maddalena; Cuccia, Claudio

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect information to understand how citizens perceive the National Health System (NHS), and what is the degree of confidence they have in the NHS. We carried out an opinion poll with the Demos & Pi group on the perception of the NHS by Italian citizens, with particular reference to the activities related to cardiology, by interviewing 2311 people with a set of 33 questions, about the perception of their health status, lifestyles, the propensity to use public or private services, consideration of the level of the NHS, and the trust in the medical profession. The subjects included were also preliminarily stratified according to the presence or absence of heart disease. Overall, Italian citizens express a high level of satisfaction for the NHS (on average, 65% of approval rating), including the whole professional staff, hoping that the NHS will be kept appropriately funded. The result is even better in the subset of interviewed citizens, who suffered from cardiovascular disease. People also consider the NHS an essential requirement to ensure equity in access to medical treatment and to keep costs competitive, even compared to private healthcare. The NHS major weakness remains the waiting lists, which are considered too long for diagnostic procedures and ordinary interventions. There is a widespread positive feeling among Italian citizens concerning the role and functioning of the NHS. Such opinion, shared by the whole country, should be taken into account when the time will come to define strategies for health policy of the Italian society in the near future.

  3. LINQ Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Albahari, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Ready to take advantage of LINQ with C# 3.0? This guide has the detail you need to grasp Microsoft's new querying technology, and concise explanations to help you learn it quickly. And once you begin to apply LINQ, the book serves as an on-the-job reference when you need immediate reminders. All the examples in the LINQ Pocket Reference are preloaded into LINQPad, the highly praised utility that lets you work with LINQ interactively. Created by the authors and free to download, LINQPad will not only help you learn LINQ, it will have you thinking in LINQ. This reference explains: LINQ's ke

  4. A high-quality human reference panel reveals the complexity and distribution of genomic structural variants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hehir-Kwa, J.Y.; Marschall, T.; Kloosterman, W.P.; Francioli, L.C.; Baaijens, J.A.; Dijkstra, L.J.; Abdellaoui, A.; Koval, V.; Thung, D.T.; Wardenaar, R.; Renkens, I.; Coe, B.P.; Deelen, P.; de Ligt, J.; Lameijer, E.W.; Dijk, F.; Hormozdiari, F.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; van Duijn, C.M.; Eichler, E.E.; Bakker, P.I.W.; Swertz, M.A.; Wijmenga, C.; van Ommen, G.J.B; Slagboom, P.E.; Boomsma, D.I.; Schönhuth, A.; Ye, K.; Guryev, V.

    2016-01-01

    Structural variation (SV) represents a major source of differences between individual human genomes and has been linked to disease phenotypes. However, the majority of studies provide neither a global view of the full spectrum of these variants nor integrate them into reference panels of genetic

  5. A new birthweight reference in Guangzhou, southern China, and its comparison with the global reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian-Rong; Xia, Hui-Min; Liu, Yu; Xia, Xiao-Yan; Mo, Wei-Jian; Wang, Ping; Cheng, Kar Keung; Leung, Gabriel M; Feng, Qiong; Schooling, C Mary; Qiu, Xiu

    2014-12-01

    To formulate a new birthweight reference for different gestational ages in Guangzhou, southern China, and compare it with the currently used reference in China and the global reference. All singleton live births of more than 26 weeks' gestational age recorded in the Guangzhou Perinatal Health Care and Delivery Surveillance System for the years 2009, 2010 and 2011 (n=510 837) were retrospectively included in the study. In addition, the study sample was supplemented by all singleton live births (n=3538) at gestational ages 26-33 weeks from 2007 and 2008. We used Gaussian mixture models and robust regression to exclude outliers of birth weight and then applied Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale, and Shape (GAMLSS) to generate smoothed percentile curves separately for gender and parity. Of infants defined as small for gestational age (SGA) in the new reference, 15.3-47.7% (depending on gestational age) were considered appropriate for gestational age (AGA) by the currently used reference of China. Of the infants defined as SGA by the new reference, 9.2% with gestational ages 34-36 weeks and 14.3% with 37-41 weeks were considered AGA by the global reference. At the 50th centile line, the new reference curve was similar to that of the global reference for gestational ages 26-33 weeks and above the global reference for 34-40 weeks. The new birthweight reference based on birthweight data for neonates in Guangzhou, China, differs from the reference currently used in China and the global reference, and appears to be more relevant to the local population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Complete Blood Count Reference Intervals for Healthy Han Chinese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Runqing; Guo, Wei; Qiao, Rui; Chen, Wenxiang; Jiang, Hong; Ma, Yueyun; Shang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete blood count (CBC) reference intervals are important to diagnose diseases, screen blood donors, and assess overall health. However, current reference intervals established by older instruments and technologies and those from American and European populations are not suitable for Chinese samples due to ethnic, dietary, and lifestyle differences. The aim of this multicenter collaborative study was to establish CBC reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults. Methods A total of 4,642 healthy individuals (2,136 males and 2,506 females) were recruited from six clinical centers in China (Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Xi’an). Blood samples collected in K2EDTA anticoagulant tubes were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in consensus intervals according to the use of data from the combined sample and selected samples. Results Median and mean platelet counts from the Chengdu center were significantly lower than those from other centers. Red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), and hematocrit (HCT) values were higher in males than in females at all ages. Other CBC parameters showed no significant instrument-, region-, age-, or sex-dependent difference. Thalassemia carriers were found to affect the lower or upper limit of different RBC profiles. Conclusion We were able to establish consensus intervals for CBC parameters in healthy Han Chinese adults. RBC, HGB, and HCT intervals were established for each sex. The reference interval for platelets for the Chengdu center should be established independently. PMID:25769040

  7. Reference Japanese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Giichiro

    1985-01-01

    To make real and accurate dose assessment method so far, it is necessitated to provide ''Reference Japanese Man'' based on anotomical, physiological and biochemical data of Japanese people instead of the Reference Man presented in ICRP Publications 23 and 30. This review describes present status of researched for the purpose of establishing of Reference Japanese Man. The Reference Japanese Man is defined as a male or female adult who lives in Japan with a Japanese life-style and food custom. His stature and body weight, and the other data was decided as mean values of male or female people of Japan. As for food custom, Japanese people take significantly smaller amount of meat and milk products than Western people, while larger intake amount of cereals and marine products such as fish or seaweeds. Weight of organs is a principal factor for internal dose assessment and mean values for living Japanese adult has been investigated and the value employable for dose assessment for organs and tissues are shown. To employ these values of Reference Japanese Man, it should be taken into account of age. Metabolic parameters should also be considered. Iodine metabolism in Japanese is quite different from that of Western people. The above-mentioned data are now tentatively employing in modification of table of MIRD method and others. (Takagi, S.)

  8. Pattern and Diagnosis of Congenital Heart Disease in Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the pattern of Congenital Heart Diseases (CHD) in children referred to Ahmed Gasim Cardiac Center) in Khartoum. Methods: This is a prospective cross-sectional, clinic based study conducted over a six months period. The children were referred to the Cardiac Centre because of suspected heart ...

  9. Development of human protein reference database as an initial platform for approaching systems biology in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peri, Suraj; Navarro, J Daniel; Amanchy, Ramars

    2003-01-01

    Human Protein Reference Database (HPRD) is an object database that integrates a wealth of information relevant to the function of human proteins in health and disease. Data pertaining to thousands of protein-protein interactions, posttranslational modifications, enzyme/substrate relationships...

  10. Hormonal protocols for in vitro production of Zebu and taurine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antônio de Carvalho Fernandes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of hormonal synchronization protocols, associated or not with follicular development stimulation, on the recovery of oocytes and on in vitro production of Bos indicus and B. taurus embryos, in different seasons. Ultrasound-guided follicular aspirations (n=237 were performed without pre-treatment (G1, control group and after follicular wave synchronization (G2, or after follicular wave synchronization and follicle growth induction (G3. Bos indicus produced more oocytes and embryos than B. taurus (18.7±0.9 vs. 11.9±0.6 oocytes and 4.8±0.3 vs. 2.1±0.2 embryos. On average, oocyte and embryo yields were higher in G3 than in G2, and both were greater than in G1, which lead to a higher conversion of oocytes to embryos in these treatments. The hot or the cold season did not affect the B. indicus outcomes, whereas, in B. taurus, both oocyte recovery and embryo production were higher in the cold season. Follicular wave synchronization improves ovum pick-up and in vitro production of embryos in both cattle subspecies evaluated.

  11. Efektivitas Nematoda Patogenik Serangga (Rhabditida: Steinernema dan Heterorhabditis terhadap Penggerek Batang Padi Putih (Scirpophaga innotata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaerani Chaerani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available White rice stem borer (Scirpophaga innotata is a destructive insect pest which is difficult to control with various tactics. The possibility of the use of non-endemic natural enemies such as entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernema and Heterorhabditis has been investigated in green house trials. Test of 12 isolates and species of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis originated from local and exotic sources revealed that H. indicus INA H4 was the most efficacious nematode by causing 74% larval and pupal mortality within rice stems. Reduction in plant damage due to nematode application could not be demonstrated as the experiment was limited to potted plants. Subsequent test using H. indicus INA H4 showed that increasing nematode concentration from 0.5 to 2.0x10^4 IJs/ml did not significantly affect insect mortality. The survival ability of H. indicus INA H4 infective juveniles on rice plant was less than 96 hours. Improvement of nematode application strategies including repeated spray, addition of antidesiccant, increasing spray volume and application at plant damage threshold or plant critical stage are therefore necessary to increase nematode effectiveness and simultaneously to reduce plant damage in field.

  12. Reference in human and non-human primate communication: What does it take to refer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Christine; Gruber, Thibaud

    2016-07-01

    The concept of functional reference has been used to isolate potentially referential vocal signals in animal communication. However, its relatedness to the phenomenon of reference in human language has recently been brought into question. While some researchers have suggested abandoning the concept of functional reference altogether, others advocate a revision of its definition to include contextual cues that play a role in signal production and perception. Empirical and theoretical work on functional reference has also put much emphasis on how the receiver understands the referential signal. However, reference, as defined in the linguistic literature, is an action of the producer, and therefore, any definition describing reference in non-human animals must also focus on the producer. To successfully determine whether a signal is used to refer, we suggest an approach from the field of pragmatics, taking a closer look at specific situations of signal production, specifically at the factors that influence the production of a signal by an individual. We define the concept of signaller's reference to identify intentional acts of reference produced by a signaller independently of the communicative modality, and illustrate it with a case study of the hoo vocalizations produced by wild chimpanzees during travel. This novel framework introduces an intentional approach to referentiality. It may therefore permit a closer comparison of human and non-human animal referential behaviour and underlying cognitive processes, allowing us to identify what may have emerged solely in the human lineage.

  13. Comparison of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization references/standards for height in contemporary Australian children: analyses of the Raine Study and Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Ian; Harris, Mark; Cotterill, Andrew; Garnett, Sarah; Bannink, Ellen; Pennell, Craig; Sly, Peter; Leong, Gary M; Cowell, Chris; Ambler, Geoff; Werther, George; Hofman, Paul; Cutfield, Wayne; Choong, Catherine S

    2014-11-01

    (i) To compare the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reference and World Health Organization (WHO) standard/reference for height, particularly with respect to short stature and eligibility for growth hormone (GH) treatment by applying them to contemporary Australian children; (ii) To examine the implications for identifying short stature and eligibility for GH treatment. Children from the longitudinal Raine Study were serially measured for height from 1991 to 2005 (2-15-year-old girls (660) and boys (702) from Western Australia). In the cross-sectional Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity survey (2-16-year-old boys (2415) and girls (2379) from all states), height was measured in 2007. Heights were converted to standard deviation scores (SDSs) based on CDC and WHO. Means and standard deviations of height-SDS varied between CDC and WHO definitions and with age and gender within each definition. However, both identified similar frequencies of short stature (standard/reference for height. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  14. Reference class forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    optimisme og misinformation. RCF bygger på teorier, som vandt Daniel Kahneman Nobelprisen i økonomi i 2002. RCF estimerer budgettet for et givet projekt på grundlag af de faktiske udfald for budgetterne i en reference-klasse af projekter. RCF udføres i tre trin: 1. Identifikation af en relevant reference...

  15. Thyroid Function Within the Normal Range and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åsvold, Bjørn O; Vatten, Lars J; Bjøro, Trine

    2015-01-01

    documented, but conflicting evidence suggests that thyrotropin levels in the upper part of the reference range may be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between differences in thyroid function within the reference range and CHD risk. DESIGN...... known thyroid or cardiovascular disease at baseline. EXPOSURES: Thyroid function as expressed by serum thyrotropin levels at baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Hazard ratios (HRs) of CHD mortality and CHD events according to thyrotropin levels after adjustment for age, sex, and smoking status....... This finding suggests that differences in thyroid function within the population reference range do not influence the risk of CHD. Increased CHD risk does not appear to be a reason for lowering the upper thyrotropin reference limit....

  16. Android quick APIs reference

    CERN Document Server

    Cinar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    The Android Quick APIs Reference is a condensed code and APIs reference for the new Google Android 5.0 SDK. It presents the essential Android APIs in a well-organized format that can be used as a handy reference. You won't find any technical jargon, bloated samples, drawn out history lessons, or witty stories in this book. What you will find is a software development kit and APIs reference that is concise, to the point and highly accessible. The book is packed with useful information and is a must-have for any mobile or Android app developer or programmer. In the Android Quick APIs Refe

  17. Sensor employing internal reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same.......The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same....

  18. Age- and sex-specific reference limits for creatinine, cystatin C and the estimated glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Anke; Friedrich, Nele; Dittmann, Kathleen; Spielhagen, Christin; Wallaschofski, Henri; Völzke, Henry; Rettig, Rainer; Endlich, Karlhans; Lendeckel, Uwe; Stracke, Sylvia; Nauck, Matthias

    2011-11-14

    Early detection of patients with chronic kidney disease is of great importance. This study developed reference limits for serum creatinine and serum cystatin C concentrations and for the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in healthy subjects from the general population aged 25-65 years. This study defined a reference population including 985 subjects from the first follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania. Serum creatinine was measured with a modified kinetic Jaffé method. Serum cystatin C was measured with a nephelometric assay. The eGFR was calculated from serum creatinine according to the Cockcroft-Gault (eGFR(CG)) and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (eGFR(MDRD)) equation, respectively, as well as from serum cystatin C according to the formula by Larsson (eGFR(Larsson)). Non-parametric quantile regression was used to estimate the reference limits. For serum creatinine and serum cystatin C the 95th percentile and for eGFR(CG), eGFR(MDRD) and eGFR(Larsson) the 5th percentile were selected as reference limits. All data was weighted to reflect the age- and sex-structure of the German population in 2008. The reference limits for serum creatinine (men: 1.11-1.23 mg/dL; women: 0.93-1.00 mg/dL) and serum cystatin C levels (men: 0.92-1.04 mg/L; women: 0.84-1.02 mg/L) increased with advancing age. The reference limits for eGFR decreased with increasing age (eGFR(CG) men: 106.0-64.7 mL/min, women 84.4-57.9 mL/min; eGFR(MDRD) men: 82.5-62.2 mL/min/1.73 m², women 75.0-58.2 mL/min/1.73 m²; eGFR(Larsson) men: 85.5-72.9 mL/min, women 94.5-75.7 mL/min). This study presents age- and sex-specific reference limits for five measures of renal function based on quantile regression models.

  19. With Reference to Reference Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Joanne R; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The choice of reference genes that are stably expressed amongst treatment groups is a crucial step in real-time quantitative PCR gene expression studies. Recent guidelines have specified that a minimum of two validated reference genes should be used for normalisation. However, a quantitative review of the literature showed that the average number of reference genes used across all studies was 1.2. Thus, the vast majority of studies continue to use a single gene, with β-actin (ACTB) and/or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) being commonly selected in studies of vertebrate gene expression. Few studies (15%) tested a panel of potential reference genes for stability of expression before using them to normalise data. Amongst studies specifically testing reference gene stability, few found ACTB or GAPDH to be optimal, whereby these genes were significantly less likely to be chosen when larger panels of potential reference genes were screened. Fewer reference genes were tested for stability in non-model organisms, presumably owing to a dearth of available primers in less well characterised species. Furthermore, the experimental conditions under which real-time quantitative PCR analyses were conducted had a large influence on the choice of reference genes, whereby different studies of rat brain tissue showed different reference genes to be the most stable. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies.

  20. Prevalence of periodontal disease, its association with systemic diseases and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Muhammad Ashraf

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are prevalent both in developed and developing countries and affect about 20-50% of global population. High prevalence of periodontal disease in adolescents, adults, and older individuals makes it a public health concern. Several risk factors such as smoking, poor oral hygiene, diabetes, medication, age, hereditary, and stress are related to periodontal diseases. Robust evidence shows the association of periodontal diseases with systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Periodontal disease is likely to cause 19% increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease, and this increase in relative risk reaches to 44% among individuals aged 65 years and over. Type 2 diabetic individuals with severe form of periodontal disease have 3.2 times greater mortality risk compared with individuals with no or mild periodontitis. Periodontal therapy has been shown to improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetic subjects. Periodontitis is related to maternal infection, preterm birth, low birth weight, and preeclampsia. Oral disease prevention strategies should be incorporated in chronic systemic disease preventive initiatives to curtail the burden of disease in populations. The reduction in the incidence and prevalence of periodontal disease can reduce its associated systemic diseases and can also minimize their financial impact on the health-care systems. It is hoped that medical, dental practitioners, and other health-care professionals will get familiar with perio-systemic link and risk factors, and need to refer to the specialized dental or periodontal care.

  1. Setting reference targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets

  2. Integrating Multiple On-line Knowledge Bases for Disease-Lab Test Relation Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Soysal, Ergin; Moon, Sungrim; Wang, Jingqi; Tao, Cui; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    A computable knowledge base containing relations between diseases and lab tests would be a great resource for many biomedical informatics applications. This paper describes our initial step towards establishing a comprehensive knowledge base of disease and lab tests relations utilizing three public on-line resources. LabTestsOnline, MedlinePlus and Wikipedia are integrated to create a freely available, computable disease-lab test knowledgebase. Disease and lab test concepts are identified using MetaMap and relations between diseases and lab tests are determined based on source-specific rules. Experimental results demonstrate a high precision for relation extraction, with Wikipedia achieving the highest precision of 87%. Combining the three sources reached a recall of 51.40%, when compared with a subset of disease-lab test relations extracted from a reference book. Moreover, we found additional disease-lab test relations from on-line resources, indicating they are complementary to existing reference books for building a comprehensive disease and lab test relation knowledge base.

  3. A Proposal of New Reference System for the Standard Axial, Sagittal, Coronal Planes of Brain Based on the Serially-Sectioned Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Park, Hyo Seok; Shin, Dong Sun; Har, Dong-Hwan; Cho, Zang-Hee; Kim, Young-Bo; Han, Jae-Yong; Chi, Je-Geun

    2010-01-01

    Sectional anatomy of human brain is useful to examine the diseased brain as well as normal brain. However, intracerebral reference points for the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes of brain have not been standardized in anatomical sections or radiological images. We made 2,343 serially-sectioned images of a cadaver head with 0.1 mm intervals, 0.1 mm pixel size, and 48 bit color and obtained axial, sagittal, and coronal images based on the proposed reference system. This reference system consists of one principal reference point and two ancillary reference points. The two ancillary reference points are the anterior commissure and the posterior commissure. And the principal reference point is the midpoint of two ancillary reference points. It resides in the center of whole brain. From the principal reference point, Cartesian coordinate of x, y, z could be made to be the standard axial, sagittal, and coronal planes. PMID:20052359

  4. Early Lyme disease with spirochetemia - diagnosed by DNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones William

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A sensitive and analytically specific nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT is valuable in confirming the diagnosis of early Lyme disease at the stage of spirochetemia. Findings Venous blood drawn from patients with clinical presentations of Lyme disease was tested for the standard 2-tier screen and Western Blot serology assay for Lyme disease, and also by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR for B. burgdorferi sensu lato 16S ribosomal DNA. The PCR amplicon was sequenced for B. burgdorferi genomic DNA validation. A total of 130 patients visiting emergency room (ER or Walk-in clinic (WALKIN, and 333 patients referred through the private physicians' offices were studied. While 5.4% of the ER/WALKIN patients showed DNA evidence of spirochetemia, none (0% of the patients referred from private physicians' offices were DNA-positive. In contrast, while 8.4% of the patients referred from private physicians' offices were positive for the 2-tier Lyme serology assay, only 1.5% of the ER/WALKIN patients were positive for this antibody test. The 2-tier serology assay missed 85.7% of the cases of early Lyme disease with spirochetemia. The latter diagnosis was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Conclusion Nested PCR followed by automated DNA sequencing is a valuable supplement to the standard 2-tier antibody assay in the diagnosis of early Lyme disease with spirochetemia. The best time to test for Lyme spirochetemia is when the patients living in the Lyme disease endemic areas develop unexplained symptoms or clinical manifestations that are consistent with Lyme disease early in the course of their illness.

  5. Recognizing mild cognitive impairment based on network connectivity analysis of resting EEG with zero reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Peng; Xiong, Xiu Chun; Tian, Yin; Zhang, Rui; Li, Pei Yang; Yao, De Zhong; Xue, Qing; Wang, Yu Ping; Peng, Yueheng

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is very helpful for early therapeutic interventions of Alzheimer's disease (AD). MCI has been proven to be correlated with disorders in multiple brain areas. In this paper, we used information from resting brain networks at different EEG frequency bands to reliably recognize MCI. Because EEG network analysis is influenced by the reference that is used, we also evaluate the effect of the reference choices on the resting scalp EEG network-based MCI differentiation. The conducted study reveals two aspects: (1) the network-based MCI differentiation is superior to the previously reported classification that uses coherence in the EEG; and (2) the used EEG reference influences the differentiation performance, and the zero approximation technique (reference electrode standardization technique, REST) can construct a more accurate scalp EEG network, which results in a higher differentiation accuracy for MCI. This study indicates that the resting scalp EEG-based network analysis could be valuable for MCI recognition in the future. (paper)

  6. Observations of pretreatment prostate-specific antigen doubling time in 107 patients referred for definitive radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W. Robert; Hanks, Gerald E.; Corn, Benjamin W.; Schultheiss, Timothy E.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To determine pretreatment prostate-specific antigen doubling times (PSADT) in patients referred for definitive radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: One hundred and seven patients with histologically proven nonmetastatic prostate cancer and an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) who were referred for radiation therapy had three serum PSA values obtained prior to the start of definitive therapy. Prostate-specific antigen doubling times were calculated by linear regression. Results: Prostate-specific antigen values increased during the period of observation in 78 patients (73%). Forty-three patients (40%) had calculated PSADT of less than 2 years and of those patients with pretreatment serum PSA values of greater than 10 ng/mL more than 50% has calculated PSADT of less than 2 years. Conclusions: A significant minority of patients referred for radiotherapy have calculated PSADT of less than 2 years. The significance of this relatively fast growth rate is as yet undetermined, but suggests that patients referred for radiotherapy may have aggressive disease prior to treatment

  7. Current status of gene therapy for motor neuron disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingkai An; Rong Peng; Shanshan Zhao

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although the etiology and pathogenesis of motor neuron disease is still unknown, there are many hypotheses on motor neuron mitochondrion, cytoskeleton structure and functional injuries. Thus, gene therapy of motor neuron disease has become a hot topic to apply in viral vector, gene delivery and basic gene techniques.DATA SOURCES: The related articles published between January 2000 and October 2006 were searched in Medline database and ISl database by computer using the keywords "motor neuron disease, gene therapy", and the language is limited to English. Meanwhile, the related references of review were also searched by handiwork. STUDY SELECTION: Original articles and referred articles in review were chosen after first hearing, then the full text which had new ideas were found, and when refer to the similar study in the recent years were considered first.DATA EXTRACTION: Among the 92 related articles, 40 ones were accepted, and 52 were excluded because of repetitive study or reviews.DATA SYNTHESIS: The viral vectors of gene therapy for motor neuron disease include adenoviral, adeno-associated viral vectors, herpes simplex virus type 1 vectors and lentiviral vectors. The delivery of them can be achieved by direct injection into the brain, or by remote delivery after injection vectors into muscle or peripheral nerves, or by ex vivo gene transfer. The viral vectors of gene therapy for motor neuron disease have been successfully developed, but the gene delivery of them is hampered by some difficulties. The RNA interference and neuroprotection are the main technologies for gene-based therapy in motor neuron disease. CONCLUSION : The RNA interference for motor neuron disease has succeeded in animal models, and the neuroprotection also does. But, there are still a lot of questions for gene therapy in the clinical treatment of motor neuron disease.

  8. Nervous system disease associated with dominant cellular radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidson, C.; Chen, P.; Imray, F.P.; Gipps, E.

    1983-01-01

    Ionizing radiation sensitivity has been demonstrated in the following neurological diseases: sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease, familial non-specific dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinsonism dementia of Guam, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis. Family studies in many cases give data consistent with dominant genetics, as does cell fusion analysis in the one disease so studied. In no case was there an absolute association between radiosensitivity and a given neurological disease. It is proposed that the underlying mutations are in genes controlling facets of nervous or immune system differentiation and development. 15 references, 2 tables

  9. Infliximab Biosimilar (CT-P13; Infliximab-dyyb): A Review in Autoimmune Inflammatory Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Hannah A; Deeks, Emma D

    2016-10-01

    Infliximab biosimilar (CT-P13/infliximab-dyyb; Remsima ® , Inflectra ® ) is approved in several countries for use in all indications for which reference infliximab (Remicade ® ) is approved, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis. Clinical data contributing to the EU approval of infliximab biosimilar were obtained from two pivotal double-blind clinical trials in patients with AS (PLANETAS) or RA (PLANETRA). Infliximab biosimilar demonstrated equivalence to reference infliximab in terms of its pharmacokinetic profile in patients with AS, patients with RA, and in healthy volunteers, and in terms of its efficacy in patients with RA. Clinical response rates in patients with RA or AS were maintained over the longer term (up to 102 weeks). In addition, the efficacy of infliximab biosimilar in patients with RA or Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis [i.e. inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)] has been demonstrated in the real-world setting. Infliximab biosimilar was generally well tolerated, with a tolerability profile similar to that of reference infliximab. Switching from reference infliximab to infliximab biosimilar had no detrimental effect on efficacy, safety, or immunogenicity compared with continuous infliximab biosimilar therapy, according to the extensions of PLANETAS and PLANETRA, and real-world data in IBD. Current evidence therefore suggests that infliximab biosimilar is a useful alternative to reference infliximab in patients with autoimmune inflammatory diseases.

  10. Exercise echocardiography for structural heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumo, Masaki; Akashi, Yoshihiro J

    2016-03-01

    Since the introduction of transcatheter structural heart intervention, the term "structural heart disease" has been widely used in the field of cardiology. Structural heart disease refers to congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, and cardiomyopathy. In structural heart disease, valvular heart disease is frequently identified in the elderly. Of note, the number of patients who suffer from aortic stenosis (AS) and mitral regurgitation (MR) is increasing in developed countries because of the aging of the populations. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement and percutaneous mitral valve repair has been widely used for AS and MR, individually. Echocardiography is the gold standard modality for initial diagnosis and subsequent evaluation of AS and MR, although the difficulties in assessing patients with these diseases still remain. Here, we review the clinical usefulness and prognostic impact of exercise echocardiography on structural heart disease, particularly on AS and MR.

  11. Costs and consequences of automated algorithms versus manual grading for the detection of referable diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotland, G S; McNamee, P; Fleming, A D; Goatman, K A; Philip, S; Prescott, G J; Sharp, P F; Williams, G J; Wykes, W; Leese, G P; Olson, J A

    2010-06-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of an improved automated grading algorithm for diabetic retinopathy against a previously described algorithm, and in comparison with manual grading. Efficacy of the alternative algorithms was assessed using a reference graded set of images from three screening centres in Scotland (1253 cases with observable/referable retinopathy and 6333 individuals with mild or no retinopathy). Screening outcomes and grading and diagnosis costs were modelled for a cohort of 180 000 people, with prevalence of referable retinopathy at 4%. Algorithm (b), which combines image quality assessment with detection algorithms for microaneurysms (MA), blot haemorrhages and exudates, was compared with a simpler algorithm (a) (using image quality assessment and MA/dot haemorrhage (DH) detection), and the current practice of manual grading. Compared with algorithm (a), algorithm (b) would identify an additional 113 cases of referable retinopathy for an incremental cost of pound 68 per additional case. Compared with manual grading, automated grading would be expected to identify between 54 and 123 fewer referable cases, for a grading cost saving between pound 3834 and pound 1727 per case missed. Extrapolation modelling over a 20-year time horizon suggests manual grading would cost between pound 25,676 and pound 267,115 per additional quality adjusted life year gained. Algorithm (b) is more cost-effective than the algorithm based on quality assessment and MA/DH detection. With respect to the value of introducing automated detection systems into screening programmes, automated grading operates within the recommended national standards in Scotland and is likely to be considered a cost-effective alternative to manual disease/no disease grading.

  12. Serodiagnosis of celiac disease in children referred for evaluation of anemia: A pediatric hematology unit′s experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Bansal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children presenting with typical clinical features of celiac disease (CD are diagnosed relatively easily, however, diagnosis remains challenging and is often delayed when they present with ′difficult to treat anemia′ without overt gastrointestinal manifestations. Index study was undertaken to report profile of patients referred to pediatric hematology unit with ′difficult anemia′ who subsequently were diagnosed with CD. Materials and Methods: The records of 83 patients (1988-2008 with CD were scrutinized retrospectively who had presented with predominant hematological manifestations. Results: CD was confirmed histologically in 31 (37%, while 52 (63% were diagnosed by serology alone. The mean age at diagnosis was 8.0 ± 2.8 years. The mean duration of symptom-diagnosis interval was 40.9 ± 30.6 months. Eighty-one (98% children had anemia (Hb < 11 g/dl and 55 (66% had received iron supplements without discernible benefit. Thirty-nine (47% patients received a blood transfusion. Thirty-six (43% patients did not have diarrhea. Majority of the patients had either a microcytic-hypochromic (48% or dimorphic (43% anemia. Twenty-four (33% had thrombocytosis, while 5 (7% had thrombocytopenia. Mean duration of follow-up for patients on roll in the clinic for more than six months was 17.7 ± 20.9 months. Conclusion: Pediatricians and hematologists need to be aware of the extra-intestinal manifestations of CD. Prolonged duration of symptoms and a diagnosis at a relatively older age is striking in children presenting with predominantly hematological manifestations. Investigations for CD are recommended in children presenting with iron deficiency anemia refractory to hematinics or who have coexisting growth retardation. Necessity for biopsy in overtly symptomatic cases is discussed.

  13. Using Twitter to Measure Public Discussion of Diseases: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H Andrew; Hill, Shawndra; Merchant, Raina M; Arango, Catalina; Ungar, Lyle

    2015-01-01

    Background Twitter is increasingly used to estimate disease prevalence, but such measurements can be biased, due to both biased sampling and inherent ambiguity of natural language. Objective We characterized the extent of these biases and how they vary with disease. Methods We correlated self-reported prevalence rates for 22 diseases from Experian’s Simmons National Consumer Study (n=12,305) with the number of times these diseases were mentioned on Twitter during the same period (2012). We also identified and corrected for two types of bias present in Twitter data: (1) demographic variance between US Twitter users and the general US population; and (2) natural language ambiguity, which creates the possibility that mention of a disease name may not actually refer to the disease (eg, “heart attack” on Twitter often does not refer to myocardial infarction). We measured the correlation between disease prevalence and Twitter disease mentions both with and without bias correction. This allowed us to quantify each disease’s overrepresentation or underrepresentation on Twitter, relative to its prevalence. Results Our sample included 80,680,449 tweets. Adjusting disease prevalence to correct for Twitter demographics more than doubles the correlation between Twitter disease mentions and disease prevalence in the general population (from .113 to .258, P <.001). In addition, diseases varied widely in how often mentions of their names on Twitter actually referred to the diseases, from 14.89% (3827/25,704) of instances (for stroke) to 99.92% (5044/5048) of instances (for arthritis). Applying ambiguity correction to our Twitter corpus achieves a correlation between disease mentions and prevalence of .208 ( P <.001). Simultaneously applying correction for both demographics and ambiguity more than triples the baseline correlation to .366 ( P <.001). Compared with prevalence rates, cancer appeared most overrepresented in Twitter, whereas high cholesterol appeared most

  14. Echocardiographic reference ranges for sedentary donkeys in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S L; Dukes-McEwan, J

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to provide two-dimensional (2D) and M-mode echocardiographic reference ranges from a sample of the UK population of donkeys including geriatrics (>30 years), owned by The Donkey Sanctuary, and to assess the influence of gender, weight and age on these variables. A total of 36 donkeys with no clinical or echocardiographic evidence of cardiovascular disease were examined; 24 geldings and 12 females, aged 3-45 years old, weighing 130-262 kg. Left atrial to aortic ratio was larger in geldings (P=0.004). There was no significant difference for left ventricular M-mode diastolic diameter between females and geldings (P=0.121) after exclusion of one heavy female outlier. 2D measurements significantly increased with bodyweight including maximal left atrial diameter (R(2)=0.112; P=0.046), aortic diameter at various levels (e.g. annulus: R(2)=0.35; Pdonkeys across a wide age range and shows differences compared with reference ranges from working donkeys. British Veterinary Association.

  15. Dinâmica folicular e taxa de prenhez em novilhas receptoras de embrião (Bos taurus indicus x Bos taurus taurus tratadas com o protocolo "Ovsynch" para inovulação em tempo fixo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Sampaio Baruselli

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência da sincronização da ovulação para inovulação em tempo fixo em novilhas Bos taurus indicus x Bos taurus taurus receptoras de embrião. No Experimento 1, a dinâmica folicular foi acompanhada durante o protocolo "Ovsynch" (G1; n=35 e após a aplicação de PGF2alfa (G2; n=34. No Experimento 2, os mesmos tratamentos foram realizados a campo em 168 (G1 e 177 (G2 novilhas. No D6, colheu-se sangue para dosagem de P4 e se realizaram exames ultra-sonográficos. No D7, realizou-se a inovulação. No Experimento 1, 45,7% dos animais ovularam após o 1º GnRH (P;0,05. Ao final, a taxa de prenhez no Gl foi de 35,7% e no G2 de 25,4% (P<0,05. Foram detectadas em estro 53,7% das novilhas do G2 e 33,3% do Gl (P<0,05. Os corpos lúteos com maior área determinaram maiores concentrações de P4 e taxa de concepção (P<0,05. A sincronização da ovulação para inovulação em tempo fixo aumentou as taxas de ovulação, de aproveitamento e de prenhez em novilhas receptoras de embrião.

  16. CMS Statistics Reference Booklet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The annual CMS Statistics reference booklet provides a quick reference for summary information about health expenditures and the Medicare and Medicaid health...

  17. Spirometric reference values for Hopi Native American children ages 4-13 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnall, David A; Nelson, Arnold G; Hearon, Christopher M; Interpreter, Christina; Kanuho, Verdell

    2016-04-01

    Spirometry is the most important tool in diagnosing pulmonary disease and is the most frequently performed pulmonary function test. Respiratory disease is also one of the greatest causes for morbidity and mortality on the Hopi Nation, but no specific reference equations exist for this unique population. The purpose of this study was to determine if population reference equations were necessary for these children and, if needed, to create new age and race-specific pulmonary nomograms for Hopi children. Two hundred and ninety-two healthy children, ages 4-13 years, attending Hopi Nation elementary schools in Arizona, were asked to perform spirometry for a full battery of pulmonary volumes and capacities of which the following were analyzed: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 ), FEV1 % (FEV1 /FVC), FEF25-75% and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Spirometric data from Navajo children living in the same geographical region as the Hopi children were compared as well as spirometric data from common reference values used for other ethnic groups in the USA. Spirometry tests from 165 girls and 127 boys met American Thoracic Society quality control standards. We found that the natural log of height, body mass and age were significant predictors of FEV1 , FVC, and FEF25-75% in the gender-specific models and that lung function values all increased with height and age as expected. The predictions using the equations derived for Navajo, Caucasian, Mexican-American, African-American youth were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) from the predictions derived from the Hopi equations for all of the variables across both genders, with the exceptions of Hopi versus Navajo FEV1 /FVC in the males and Hopi versus Caucasians FEF25-75% in the females. Thus it would appear for this population important to have specific formulae to provide more accurate reference values. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Certified reference materials and reference methods for nuclear safeguards and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakopič, R; Sturm, M; Kraiem, M; Richter, S; Aregbe, Y

    2013-11-01

    Confidence in comparability and reliability of measurement results in nuclear material and environmental sample analysis are established via certified reference materials (CRMs), reference measurements, and inter-laboratory comparisons (ILCs). Increased needs for quality control tools in proliferation resistance, environmental sample analysis, development of measurement capabilities over the years and progress in modern analytical techniques are the main reasons for the development of new reference materials and reference methods for nuclear safeguards and security. The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) prepares and certifices large quantities of the so-called "large-sized dried" (LSD) spikes for accurate measurement of the uranium and plutonium content in dissolved nuclear fuel solutions by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) and also develops particle reference materials applied for the detection of nuclear signatures in environmental samples. IRMM is currently replacing some of its exhausted stocks of CRMs with new ones whose specifications are up-to-date and tailored for the demands of modern analytical techniques. Some of the existing materials will be re-measured to improve the uncertainties associated with their certified values, and to enable laboratories to reduce their combined measurement uncertainty. Safeguards involve the quantitative verification by independent measurements so that no nuclear material is diverted from its intended peaceful use. Safeguards authorities pay particular attention to plutonium and the uranium isotope (235)U, indicating the so-called 'enrichment', in nuclear material and in environmental samples. In addition to the verification of the major ratios, n((235)U)/n((238)U) and n((240)Pu)/n((239)Pu), the minor ratios of the less abundant uranium and plutonium isotopes contain valuable information about the origin and the 'history' of material used for commercial or possibly clandestine purposes, and

  19. Clinical features and applications of thallium-201. With reference to scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Tadashige

    1988-12-01

    Thallium-201 is not only used widely in myocardial imaging but also has a great potential in other various nuclear medicine imaging studies. This paper presents clinical features and applications of thallium-201, focusing on clinical trials with thallium-201 at the Shinshu University School of Medicine. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy offers information on (1) ventricular position and morphology, (2) hypertrophy or dilatation of the left ventricle, (3) hypertrophy or dilatation of the right ventricle, (4) site and extent of myocardial ischemia and infarct, (5) myocardial blood flow, (6) pulmonary congestion or interstitial pulmonary edema, and (7) pericardial effusion. It can be used in the following evaluation or diagnosis: (1) acute or old myocardial infarction, (2) angina pectoris, (3) treatment strategy or prognosis of ischemic heart disease, (4) treatment strategy or observation of bypass graft or drug therapy, (5) hypertrophic or dilated idiopathic cardiomyopathy, (6) myocardial lesions induced by sarcoidosis, collagen disease, and neuro-muscular disease, (7) ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary edema, and (9) pericarditis, pericardial effusion, and systolic pericarditis associated with underlying disease. The significance of tumor, liver, bone marrow scintigraphies is also referred to. (Namekawa, K) 69 refs.

  20. The generation and management of references with the Online Mechanism for References - MORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proxério Manoel Felisberto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The scientific production and the development of academic papers have their own formalities. In this paper, is sought seek from these formalities for the ones that refers to the way of granting merits to the authors of the works used in the theoretical basis, through quotations and references. The goal is to help users of libraries to generate and manage references using a web tool developed for this purpose. There are many applications, in desktop and web platforms, that could be used to do this task. However, some of them require the payment of an expensive license to be fully functional. Others offers free versions, but they are very limited and often do not generate references specified by ABNT. There are others that do not store the generate references for later use. In order to fill this gap, the Online Mechanism for References (MORE was developed and made available to the general public in the web. Even so, the fast technological advances combined with a high number of users demanded an update to the application, done recently. It is important to state that all the work was developed exclusively with proven and free to use technologies. Initially, sought up identified the main tools available to generate and manage references and which free technologies could be used to build interactive web applications. This paper briefly describes the reengineering process that MORE was submitted, its new structure, new requirements met and its expanded portfolio of features. Finally, the results achieved after the reengineering are compared to indicators of its previous version.

  1. Complex reference values for endocrine and special chemistry biomarkers across pediatric, adult, and geriatric ages: establishment of robust pediatric and adult reference intervals on the basis of the Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeli, Khosrow; Higgins, Victoria; Nieuwesteeg, Michelle; Raizman, Joshua E; Chen, Yunqi; Wong, Suzy L; Blais, David

    2015-08-01

    Defining laboratory biomarker reference values in a healthy population and understanding the fluctuations in biomarker concentrations throughout life and between sexes are critical to clinical interpretation of laboratory test results in different disease states. The Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) has collected blood samples and health information from the Canadian household population. In collaboration with the Canadian Laboratory Initiative on Pediatric Reference Intervals (CALIPER), the data have been analyzed to determine reference value distributions and reference intervals for several endocrine and special chemistry biomarkers in pediatric, adult, and geriatric age groups. CHMS collected data and blood samples from thousands of community participants aged 3 to 79 years. We used serum samples to measure 13 immunoassay-based special chemistry and endocrine markers. We assessed reference value distributions and, after excluding outliers, calculated age- and sex-specific reference intervals, along with corresponding 90% CIs, according to CLSI C28-A3 guidelines. We observed fluctuations in biomarker reference values across the pediatric, adult, and geriatric age range, with stratification required on the basis of age for all analytes. Additional sex partitions were required for apolipoprotein AI, homocysteine, ferritin, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. The unique collaboration between CALIPER and CHMS has enabled, for the first time, a detailed examination of the changes in various immunochemical markers that occur in healthy individuals of different ages. The robust age- and sex-specific reference intervals established in this study provide insight into the complex biological changes that take place throughout development and aging and will contribute to improved clinical test interpretation. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  2. [Errors in Peruvian medical journals references].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huamaní, Charles; Pacheco-Romero, José

    2009-01-01

    References are fundamental in our studies; an adequate selection is asimportant as an adequate description. To determine the number of errors in a sample of references found in Peruvian medical journals. We reviewed 515 scientific papers references selected by systematic randomized sampling and corroborated reference information with the original document or its citation in Pubmed, LILACS or SciELO-Peru. We found errors in 47,6% (245) of the references, identifying 372 types of errors; the most frequent were errors in presentation style (120), authorship (100) and title (100), mainly due to spelling mistakes (91). References error percentage was high, varied and multiple. We suggest systematic revision of references in the editorial process as well as to extend the discussion on this theme. references, periodicals, research, bibliometrics.

  3. Indoor air: Reference bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.; Staves, D.; McDonald, S.

    1989-07-01

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency initially established the indoor air Reference Bibliography in 1987 as an appendix to the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan. The document was submitted to Congress as required under Title IV--Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Reference Bibliography is an extensive bibliography of reference materials on indoor air pollution. The Bibliography contains over 4500 citations and continues to increase as new articles appear

  4. Clinical features and prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in infants attending a pediatric gastroenterology reference service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Yu Kar Ling; Ozaki, Marcos J; Murasca, Kelly; Vidolin, Eliana

    2010-01-01

    In infants, it is not always easy to distinguish between pathological and physiological gastroesophageal reflux based only on clinical criteria. In Brazil, studies about gastroesophageal reflux disease in infants are few and are even rare those that used prolonged esophageal pH monitoring for its evaluation. To describe the clinical features of gastroesophageal reflux disease and to determine its prevalence in infants with gastroesophageal reflux attending a tertiary Pediatric Gastroenterology Service and submitted to esophageal pH monitoring for investigation. Descriptive study in 307 infants in whom esophageal pH monitoring (Mark III Digitrapper, Synectics Medical AB, Sweden) was performed during the period December, 1998-December, 2008. The clinical features studied were age group (1-12 months and 13-24 months), and clinical manifestations that motivated the indication of pH monitoring. One hundred twenty-four (40.4%) were female and 183 (59.6%) male with mean age 12.2 +/- 6.2 months (1-23 months). The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease was 18.2% (56/307). One hundred forty-eight (48.2%) were 1-12 months old and 159 (51.8%), 13-24 months. No significant difference was found between the prevalence of these two age groups (P = 0.3006). Gastroesophageal reflux disease was more frequent in those with digestive manifestations (24.2%), crisis of cyanosis/apnea (23.8%) and mixed manifestations (21.5%). Respiratory manifestations were the most frequent indication (39.1%) of pH monitoring. However, the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease was lower (12.5%) in this group compared with in those with digestive manifestations (P = 0.0574), crisis of cyanosis/apnea (P = 0.0882) and mixed manifestations (P = 0.1377). All infants that presented clinical manifestations as crisis of cyanosis/apnea and abnormal pH-metry were Service, the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease associated with acid reflux in infants revealed elevated. Infants with crisis

  5. Kerlinger's Criterial Referents Theory Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Itai; Birenbaum, Menucha

    1980-01-01

    Kerlinger's criterial referents theory of attitudes was tested cross-culturally by administering an education attitude referents summated-rating scale to 713 individuals in Israel. The response pattern to criterial and noncriterial referents was examined. Results indicated empirical cross-cultural validity of theory, but questioned measuring…

  6. Treatment preferences in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weernink, Marieke Geertruida Maria

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this dissertation was to investigate the influence of process-utility (which is the value attached to the process and convenience of care without reference to the outcome) on the relative value of treatments in Parkinson’s Disease (PD). The main treatment modalities (processes) in

  7. Handbook of reference electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Inzelt, György; Scholz, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Reference Electrodes are a crucial part of any electrochemical system, yet an up-to-date and comprehensive handbook is long overdue. Here, an experienced team of electrochemists provides an in-depth source of information and data for the proper choice and construction of reference electrodes. This includes all kinds of applications such as aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, ionic liquids, glass melts, solid electrolyte systems, and membrane electrodes. Advanced technologies such as miniaturized, conducting-polymer-based, screen-printed or disposable reference electrodes are also covered. Essen

  8. Periodontal diseases in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerehugh, V

    2008-04-26

    Unlike in adults, currently there are no nationally agreed guidelines for the assessment of periodontal diseases in children and adolescents. This paper considers the range of periodontal diseases that can affect youngsters and documents a simple periodontal screening system for the younger age groups. It includes principles of periodontal diagnosis and management for the practitioner to apply to the young patient and considers when to treat in practice and when to refer to a specialist.

  9. Valores bioquímicos sanguíneos en hembras brahman bajo condiciones de pastoreo Clinical biochemistry values in serum from grazing brahman cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Alonso Villa

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de establecer un rango de referencia para diferentes metabolitos en hembras bovinas B. indicus, se tomaron 5-10 mL de suero sanguíneo a 21 hembras bovinas Brahman registradas en el departamento de Caldas, Colombia. Se determinó la concentración de los diferentes metabolitos que forman parte de un perfil metabólico estándar, como beta-hidroxibutirato, proteína total, albúmina, globulinas, urea, aspartato aminotransferasa (AST, calcio y magnesio. Los resultados fueron analizados mediante la obtención del rango, promedio y desviación estándar (DE. El intervalo de referencia se estableció en el 95% (x±2DE. El promedio y la DE obtenidos para cada metabolito fueron: beta-hidroxibutirato 0,34±0,15 mmol/L; proteína total 81±9 g/L; albúmina 41±3 g/L; globulinas 40±10 g/L; urea 3,31±1,43 mmol/L; AST 158±34 U/L; Ca 2,50±0,21 mmol/L y Mg 1,40±0,44 mmol/L. Se observó que las alteraciones más frecuentes fueron aumento en la concentración de butiratos y globulinas y aumento en la actividad de AST. Según los resultados obtenidos, se puede señalar que los valores encontrados para la concentración de diferentes metabolitos séricos en hembras Brahman mantenidas en pastoreo, son similares a los valores descritos para bovinos B. taurus.This study was designed in order to get the reference values for the concentration of different metabolites included in a standard metabolic profile for grazing Brahman cattle (B. indicus from Caldas, Colombia. Serum samples (5-10 mL were taken from 21 healthy grazing Brahman cows to analyse beta-hydroxybutyrate, total protein, albumin, globulines, urea, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, calcium and magnesium. The results were analyzed by calculating range, mean and standard deviation (SD. The reference interval was set at 95% (x±2SD. The mean and SD obtained for the concentration of the different metabolites were: beta-hydroxybutyrate 0.34±0.15 mmol/L; total protein 81±9 g/L; albumin 41±3

  10. ASTM reference radiologic digital image standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysnewski, R.; Wysnewski, D.

    1996-01-01

    ASTM Reference Radiographs have been essential in defining industry's material defect grade levels for many years. ASTM Reference Radiographs are used extensively as even the American Society for Metals Nondestructive Inspection and Quality Control Metals Handbook, Volume 11, eighth edition refers to ASTM Standard Reference Radiographs. The recently published E 1648 Standard Reference Radiographs for Examination of Aluminum Fusion Welds is a prime example of the on-going need for these references. To date, 14 Standard Reference Radiographs have been published to characterize material defects. Standard Reference Radiographs do not adequately address film-less radiologic methods. There are differences in mediums to content with. On a computer CRT defect indications appear differently when compared to indications viewed in a radiograph on a view box. Industry that uses non-film radiologic methods of inspection can be burdened with additional time and money developing internal standard reference radiologic images. These references may be deemed necessary for grading levels of product defects. Because there are no ASTM Standard Reference Radiologic data files for addressing this need in the industry, the authors of this paper suggested implementing a method for their creation under ASTM supervision. ASTM can assure continuity to those users making the transition from analog radiographic images to digital image data by swiftly addressing the requirements for reference digital image standards. The current status and possible future activities regarding a method to create digital data files is presented in this paper summary

  11. The case of the Disappearing House Sparrow (Passer domesticus indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Dandapat

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The fluffy brown sparrows are 15cm in length and distributed all over India up to 4000m in the Himalayas. The disappearance of sparrows has been widely reported in India. The sparrow population in Andhra Pradesh alone had dropped by 80 per cent, and in other states like Kerala, Gujarat and Rajasthan, it had dipped by 20 per cent, while the decline in coastal areas was as sharp as 70 to 80 per cent. But reliable information on sparrow populations is not available. No one is actually counting and keeping a record of the sparrows. The spread of diseases due to decline in sparrow population is an alarming danger. Introduction of unleaded petrol, use of chemically treated seeds, flow of electromagnetic waves from cellphone towers, reducing areas of free growing weeds or reducing numbers of badly maintained buildings, competition for food by other species etc. are possible reasons for this disappearance. The BirdLife International, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB, a UK-based organisation and the Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS have taken plan for the protection of sparrow population. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000: 97-100

  12. Knowledge Management and Reference Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Smiti

    2004-01-01

    Many corporations are embracing knowledge management (KM) to capture the intellectual capital of their employees. This article focuses on KM applications for reference work in libraries. It defines key concepts of KM, establishes a need for KM for reference services, and reviews various KM initiatives for reference services.

  13. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  14. Survey of reference materials. V. 2: Environmentally related reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and microcontaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    The present report presently contains over 250 reference materials with trace element and organic contaminant information on fuel, geological and mineral, anthropogenic disposal, soil reference and miscellaneous reference materials. Not included in the current report is information on most biological and environmental reference materials with trace element, stable isotope, radioisotope and organic contaminant information. 8 refs, tabs

  15. 32 CFR 634.2 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 634.2 Section 634.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Introduction § 634.2 References. Required and related publications along with prescribed and reference...

  16. An overview of digital reference services

    OpenAIRE

    Hemnani, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Digital reference service is an emerging trend of traditional reference service. Easily accessible digital reference service has become one of the hallmark of the library and information services. The paper highlights how new visage of traditional reference service is developing as a natural solution to keep pace with comprehensive technological environment. It discusses about the basic concepts, elements of digital reference service and give in detail modes, the advantages, limitations, and...

  17. Research on biomass fast pyrolysis for liquid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Zhongyang; Wang Shurong; Liao Yanfen; Zhou Jinsong; Gu Yueling; Cen Kefa

    2004-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor with 3 kg h -1 throughput operating at an atmospheric pressure with an inert atmosphere at 773 K has been used to produce bio-oils from the wood feedstocks such as Pterocarpus indicus, Cunninghamia lanceolata, and Fraxinus mandshurica, as well as from rice straw. The best oil-producing characteristics were for P. indicus and the worst were with rice straw. These data were used to design a larger scale unit of 20 kg h -1 throughput, and to estimate the production costs at an industrial scale. The quality of the bio-oil produced remains poor, and a combination of high value products and energy applications are needed for profitability

  18. Phytochemical profiling and in vitro screening for anticholinesterase, antioxidant, antiglucosidase and neuroprotective effect of three traditional medicinal plants for Alzheimer's Disease and Diabetes Mellitus dual therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penumala, Mohan; Zinka, Raveendra Babu; Shaik, Jeelan Basha; Mallepalli, Suresh Kumar Reddy; Vadde, Ramakrishna; Amooru, Damu Gangaiah

    2018-03-02

    Extensive epidemiological and clinical studies revealed that Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2D) are most likely to appear simultaneously in aged people as T2D is a major risk factor for AD. Therefore, development of potential multifunctional agents for dual therapy of AD and T2D has received much attention. Buchanania axillaris, Hemidesmus indicus and Rhus mysorensis have been used extensively in popular medicine. The present study was aimed at phytochemical profiling and evaluating multifunctional ability of titled plants in the AD and T2D dual therapy. Methanolic extracts and their derived fractions were evaluated for their inhibitory capacities against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) & butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and α- & β-glucosidase besides kinetic analysis of inhibition using methods of Elmann and Shibano, respectively. Antioxidant potency of active fractions was assessed by their DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities. Active fractions were tested by the MTT assay to verify cytotoxicity and neuroprotective ability in human nueroblastoma cell lines. Phytochemical screening was done with the aid of spectrophotometric methods. All the methanolic extracts of test plants (BAM, HIM, RMM) showed concentration dependent inhibitory activities against AChE, BuChE, α- and β-glucosidase enzymes. Subsequent fractionation and evaluation revealed that chloroform fractions BAC, HIC and RMC with IC 50 values of 12.29±2.14, 9.94±2.14, 16.65±1.99 and 27.38±1.24; 28.14±0.9, 5.16±0.22, 11.03±0.5 and 87.64±15.41; 41.35±1.6, 15.86±7.3, 26.04±0.37 and 25.33±0.3 were most prominent with regard to inhibition potential against AChE, BuChE, α- and β-glucosidase, respectively. Kinetic analysis of these active fractions proved that they disclosed mixed-type inhibition against AChE, BuChE, α- and β-glucosidase enzymes. In the MTT assay, active fractions BAC, HIC, RMC showed significant cell viability at high concentrations (400

  19. Doing the work of reference practical tips for excelling as a reference librarian

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Linda S

    2013-01-01

    Become more versatile, competent, and resourceful with these practical suggestions!Becoming a first-class reference librarian demands proficiency in a wide range of skills. Doing the Work of Reference offers sound advice for the full spectrum of your responsibilities. Though many aspects of a reference librarian's work are changing with astonishing speed, the classic principles in this volume will never go out of date. This comprehensive volume begins with hints for orienting yourself to a new job and concludes with ideas for serving the profession. On the way, Doing the Wo

  20. Serological diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis: high rate of inter-laboratorial variability among medical mycology reference centers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Scarpelli Martinelli Vidal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Serological tests have long been established as rapid, simple and inexpensive tools for the diagnosis and follow-up of PCM. However, different protocols and antigen preparations are used and the few attempts to standardize the routine serological methods have not succeeded.We compared the performance of six Brazilian reference centers for serological diagnosis of PCM. Each center provided 30 sera of PCM patients, with positive high, intermediate and low titers, which were defined as the "reference" titers. Each center then applied its own antigen preparation and serological routine test, either semiquantitative double immunodifusion or counterimmmunoelectrophoresis, in the 150 sera from the other five centers blindly as regard to the "reference" titers. Titers were transformed into scores: 0 (negative, 1 (healing titers, 2 (active disease, low titers and 3 (active disease, high titers according to each center's criteria. Major discordances were considered between scores indicating active disease and scores indicating negative or healing titers; such discordance when associated with proper clinical and other laboratorial data, may correspond to different approaches to the patient's treatment. Surprisingly, all centers exhibited a high rate of "major" discordances with a mean of 31 (20% discordant scores. Alternatively, when the scores given by one center to their own sera were compared with the scores given to their sera by the remaining five other centers, a high rate of major discordances was also found, with a mean number of 14.8 sera in 30 presenting a discordance with at least one other center. The data also suggest that centers that used CIE and pool of isolates for antigen preparation performed better.There are inconsistencies among the laboratories that are strong enough to result in conflicting information regarding the patients' treatment. Renewed efforts should be promoted to improve standardization of the serological diagnosis of PCM.

  1. 2002 reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  2. Fundamentals of Managing Reference Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Whether a library's reference collection is large or small, it needs constant attention. Singer's book offers information and insight on best practices for reference collection management, no matter the size, and shows why managing without a plan is a recipe for clutter and confusion. In this very practical guide, reference librarians will learn:…

  3. Testing the causal theory of reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaneschi, Filippo; Vignolo, Massimiliano; Di Paola, Simona

    2017-04-01

    Theories of reference are a crucial research topic in analytic philosophy. Since the publication of Kripke's Naming and Necessity, most philosophers have endorsed the causal/historical theory of reference. The goal of this paper is twofold: (i) to discuss a method for testing experimentally the causal theory of reference for proper names by investigating linguistic usage and (ii) to present the results from two experiments conducted with that method. Data collected in our experiments confirm the causal theory of reference for people proper names and for geographical proper names. A secondary but interesting result is that the semantic domain affects reference assignment: while with people proper names speakers tend to assign the semantic reference, with geographical proper names they are prompted to assign the speaker's reference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Asbestos and Asbestos-related Diseases in Vietnam: In reference to the International Labor Organization/World Health Organization National Asbestos Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Hai Pham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes progress on formulating a national asbestos profile for the country of Vietnam. The Center of Asbestos Resource, Vietnam, formulated a National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health, with due reference to the International Labor Organization/World Health Organization National Asbestos Profile. The Center of Asbestos Resource was established by the Vietnamese Health Environment Management Agency and the National Institute of Labor Protection, with the support of the Australian Agency for International Development, as a coordinating point for asbestos-related issues in Vietnam. Under the National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health framework, the Center of Asbestos Resource succeeded in compiling relevant information for 15 of the 18 designated items outlined in the International Labor Organization/World Health Organization National Asbestos Profile, some overlaps of the information items notwithstanding. Today, Vietnam continues to import and use an average of more than 60,000 metric tons of raw asbestos per year. Information on asbestos-related diseases is limited, but the country has begun to diagnose mesothelioma cases, with the technical cooperation of Japan. As it stands, the National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health needs further work and updating. However, we envisage that the National Profile on Asbestos-related Occupational Health will ultimately facilitate the smooth transition to an asbestos-free Vietnam.

  5. Reference Value Advisor: a new freeware set of macroinstructions to calculate reference intervals with Microsoft Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffré, Anne; Concordet, Didier; Braun, Jean-Pierre; Trumel, Catherine

    2011-03-01

    International recommendations for determination of reference intervals have been recently updated, especially for small reference sample groups, and use of the robust method and Box-Cox transformation is now recommended. Unfortunately, these methods are not included in most software programs used for data analysis by clinical laboratories. We have created a set of macroinstructions, named Reference Value Advisor, for use in Microsoft Excel to calculate reference limits applying different methods. For any series of data, Reference Value Advisor calculates reference limits (with 90% confidence intervals [CI]) using a nonparametric method when n≥40 and by parametric and robust methods from native and Box-Cox transformed values; tests normality of distributions using the Anderson-Darling test and outliers using Tukey and Dixon-Reed tests; displays the distribution of values in dot plots and histograms and constructs Q-Q plots for visual inspection of normality; and provides minimal guidelines in the form of comments based on international recommendations. The critical steps in determination of reference intervals are correct selection of as many reference individuals as possible and analysis of specimens in controlled preanalytical and analytical conditions. Computing tools cannot compensate for flaws in selection and size of the reference sample group and handling and analysis of samples. However, if those steps are performed properly, Reference Value Advisor, available as freeware at http://www.biostat.envt.fr/spip/spip.php?article63, permits rapid assessment and comparison of results calculated using different methods, including currently unavailable methods. This allows for selection of the most appropriate method, especially as the program provides the CI of limits. It should be useful in veterinary clinical pathology when only small reference sample groups are available. ©2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  6. Neptunium: a bibliographic reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosley, R.E.

    1979-06-01

    A comprehensive bibliograhy of the literature on the element neptunium published prior to January 1976 is presented. A short abstract is given for each listed reference, with a few exceptions. The references are divided into sections categorized as General, Man-Made Sources (Reactors), Man-Made Sources (Fuel Reprocessing), Chemistry (Solubility), Chemistry (Compounds), Chemistry (Isotopes), Analyses (Instrumental), Analyses (Chemical), Chemical (Animal), Biological (Effects), Biological (Animal-Metabolism-Retention), Biological (Air Movement), Biological (Human Inhalation), Measurement, and Dosimetry. The bibliography contains author and keyword indexes and was compiled to serve as a quick reference source for neptunium-related work. 184 citations

  7. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  8. Selection of Reference Genes for Expression Studies in Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassan, Meire Menezes; Angelotti-Mendonc A, Je Ssika; Alves, Gustavo Rodrigues; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao; Moura O Filho, Francisco de Assis Alves

    2017-12-05

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is considered the main vector of the bacteria associated with huanglongbing, a very serious disease that has threatened the world citrus industry. The absence of efficient control management protocols, including a lack of resistant cultivars, has led to the development of different approaches to study this pathosystem. The production of resistant genotypes relies on D. citri gene expression analyses by RT-qPCR to assess control of the vector population. High-quality, reliable RT-qPCR analyses depend upon proper reference gene selection and validation. However, adequate D. citri reference genes have not yet been identified. In the present study, we evaluated the genes EF 1-α, ACT, GAPDH, RPL7, RPL17, and TUB as candidate reference genes for this insect. Gene expression stability was evaluated using the mathematical algorithms deltaCt, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and geNorm, at five insect developmental stages, grown on two different plant hosts [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Sapindales: Rutaceae) and Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack (Sapindales: Rutaceae)]. The final gene ranking was calculated using RefFinder software, and the V-ATPase-A gene was selected for validation. According to our results, two reference genes are recommended when different plant hosts and developmental stages are considered. Considering gene expression studies in D. citri grown on M. paniculata, regardless of the insect developmental stage, GAPDH and RPL7 have the best fit as reference genes in RT-qPCR analyses, whereas GAPDH and EF 1-α are recommended as reference genes in insect studies using C. sinensis. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Double burden of disease in the slums of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oti, S.O.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to provide evidence of a double burden of disease in the slums of Nairobi and to make a case for an integrated health systems approach to tackling this situation. A double burden of disease refers to the coexistence of a high burden of communicable and non-communicable

  10. The Release 6 reference sequence of the Drosophila melanogaster genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Roger A; Carlson, Joseph W; Wan, Kenneth H; Park, Soo; Mendez, Ivonne; Galle, Samuel E; Booth, Benjamin W; Pfeiffer, Barret D; George, Reed A; Svirskas, Robert; Krzywinski, Martin; Schein, Jacqueline; Accardo, Maria Carmela; Damia, Elisabetta; Messina, Giovanni; Méndez-Lago, María; de Pablos, Beatriz; Demakova, Olga V; Andreyeva, Evgeniya N; Boldyreva, Lidiya V; Marra, Marco; Carvalho, A Bernardo; Dimitri, Patrizio; Villasante, Alfredo; Zhimulev, Igor F; Rubin, Gerald M; Karpen, Gary H; Celniker, Susan E

    2015-03-01

    Drosophila melanogaster plays an important role in molecular, genetic, and genomic studies of heredity, development, metabolism, behavior, and human disease. The initial reference genome sequence reported more than a decade ago had a profound impact on progress in Drosophila research, and improving the accuracy and completeness of this sequence continues to be important to further progress. We previously described improvement of the 117-Mb sequence in the euchromatic portion of the genome and 21 Mb in the heterochromatic portion, using a whole-genome shotgun assembly, BAC physical mapping, and clone-based finishing. Here, we report an improved reference sequence of the single-copy and middle-repetitive regions of the genome, produced using cytogenetic mapping to mitotic and polytene chromosomes, clone-based finishing and BAC fingerprint verification, ordering of scaffolds by alignment to cDNA sequences, incorporation of other map and sequence data, and validation by whole-genome optical restriction mapping. These data substantially improve the accuracy and completeness of the reference sequence and the order and orientation of sequence scaffolds into chromosome arm assemblies. Representation of the Y chromosome and other heterochromatic regions is particularly improved. The new 143.9-Mb reference sequence, designated Release 6, effectively exhausts clone-based technologies for mapping and sequencing. Highly repeat-rich regions, including large satellite blocks and functional elements such as the ribosomal RNA genes and the centromeres, are largely inaccessible to current sequencing and assembly methods and remain poorly represented. Further significant improvements will require sequencing technologies that do not depend on molecular cloning and that produce very long reads. © 2015 Hoskins et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  11. Java for dummies quick reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Doug

    2012-01-01

    A reference that answers your questions as you move through your coding The demand for Android programming and web apps continues to grow at an unprecedented pace and Java is the preferred language for both. Java For Dummies Quick Reference keeps you moving through your coding while you solve a problem, look up a command or syntax, or search for a programming tip. Whether you're a Java newbie or a seasoned user, this fast reference offers you quick access to solutions without requiring that you wade through pages of tutorial material. Leverages the true reference format that is organized with

  12. The changing scene of radiology: Value of urography as initial examination in infectious and hypertensive disease, hematuria and malignant disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethlin, J.H.; Gadeholt, G.; Hoeiem, L.; Aslaksen, A.

    1988-01-01

    Four to 20% positive findings were found in a review of 1913 excretory urographics. Possibly relevant findings were 20% in patients referred for infectious disease, 10% in hypertensive disease, 6% in hematuria and 4% in neoplasms. Urography influenced treatment mainly in the 2 groups with few positive findings. The costs for positive findings may be acceptable in patients with hematuria or suspicion of neoplasms, but are too high in the other groups. Until ultrasonography can replace intravenous urography as the first screening method in upper urinary tract disease, the patient selection for urography in infectious and hypertensive disease should be improved. (orig.)

  13. Myocardial sestamibi single-photon emission tomography: variations in reference values with gender, age and rest versus stress?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toft, J.; Hesse, B.; Raboel, A.; Carstensen, S.; Ali, S.

    1997-01-01

    Reference data files support the evaluation of myocardial perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The aim of this study was to create a large reference data base for technetium-99m sestamibi SPET, age and gender matched to the general patient population. One hundred and twenty-eight healthy volunteers (76 males and 52 females) with a likelihood of coronary artery disease of less than 5% underwent rest and maximal exercise 99m Tc-sestamibi SPET with a 2-day protocol and 180 elliptical rotation. The normalized activity values of 99m Tc-sestamibi in the inferior wall differed significantly between men and women. Age variations were found for men in the anterior wall. Normalized activity values in all four walls were strikingly similar during rest and stress. Our results suggest that the use of reference files in 99m Tc-sestamibi SPET requires a gender- and, for males, possibly an age-matched reference population. Different reference files at rest and during stress might not be necessary. (orig.). With 3 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Optimal primitive reference frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, David

    2011-01-01

    We consider the smallest possible directional reference frames allowed and determine the best one can ever do in preserving quantum information in various scenarios. We find that for the preservation of a single spin state, two orthogonal spins are optimal primitive reference frames; and in a product state, they do approximately 22% as well as an infinite-sized classical frame. By adding a small amount of entanglement to the reference frame, this can be raised to 2(2/3) 5 =26%. Under the different criterion of entanglement preservation, a very similar optimal reference frame is found; however, this time it is for spins aligned at an optimal angle of 87 deg. In this case 24% of the negativity is preserved. The classical limit is considered numerically, and indicates under the criterion of entanglement preservation, that 90 deg. is selected out nonmonotonically, with a peak optimal angle of 96.5 deg. for L=3 spins.

  15. Space-Time Reference Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Soffel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The high accuracy of modern astronomical spatial-temporal reference systems has made them considerably complex. This book offers a comprehensive overview of such systems. It begins with a discussion of ‘The Problem of Time’, including recent developments in the art of clock making (e.g., optical clocks) and various time scales. The authors address  the definitions and realization of spatial coordinates by reference to remote celestial objects such as quasars. After an extensive treatment of classical equinox-based coordinates, new paradigms for setting up a celestial reference system are introduced that no longer refer to the translational and rotational motion of the Earth. The role of relativity in the definition and realization of such systems is clarified. The topics presented in this book are complemented by exercises (with solutions). The authors offer a series of files, written in Maple, a standard computer algebra system, to help readers get a feel for the various models and orders of magnitude. ...

  16. Weather Test Reference Year of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Pedersen, Frank; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    the construction of two test reference years of Greenland used in the work of establishing new energy frame for the coming building code of Greenland. The first test reference year is constructed using measurements of climatic parameters from the town Nuuk located in the southwestern part of Greenland. The second...... test reference year is constructed using measurements from the town Uummannaq located in the north part of Greenland on the west coast. The construction of the test reference years fulfills the procedures described in the standard EN ISO 15927-4 using the following main weather parameters: Dry bulb...... temperature, global radiation, relative humidity and mean wind speed. To construct the test reference years a program called REFYEAR was developed in MatLab. REFYEAR automatically constructs the test reference year using an input file containing the climatic measurements. The two constructed test reference...

  17. DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA ENTRE SUBPOBLACIONES RACIALES BOVINAS DE COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue cuantificar la diversidad genética entre 16 subpoblaciones raciales bovinas de Costa Rica, con base en 1412 muestras de ADN bovino de todo el país, evaluadas mediante 18 marcadores microsatélites. El número promedio de alelos (Na por locus dentro de raza fue de 10,3, que varían entre 8 (Holstein×Jersey y 13 (Criolla para doble propósito. El número promedio de alelos efectivo (Ne fue de 5,04, con cambios entre 4,18 (Jersey y 5,64 (Bos taurus×Bos indicus. La heterocigosidad observada promedio fue de 0,77, variando entre 0,73 (Jersey y 0,81 (Bos taurus×Bos indicus. La heterocigosidad esperada (He promedio fue de 0,78, que oscilan entre 0,74 (Jersey y Holstein×Jersey y 0,81 (Bos taurus×Bos indicus, Criolla para doble propósito y Cruces para doble propósito. El contenido de información polimórfica (PIC fue de 0,76, con variaciones entre 0,71 (Jersey y Holstein×Jersey y 0,79 (Criollas para doble propósito y Cruces para doble propósito. El FIS promedio fue de 0,02, con oscilaciones entre -0,03 (Holstein×Jersey a 0,04 (Brahman, Criolla para carne y Cruces para leche. La desviación del equilibrio Hardy Weinberg no fue significativa (p>0,05 en la mayoría de los loci para las subpoblaciones raciales. El subgrupo con mayor número de loci en desequilibrio fue Jersey (8 loci, mientras que los subgrupos Bos taurus×Bos indicus, Criolla para leche y Holstein×Jersey presentaron solo 1 locus en desequilibrio. Los índices de fijación FIS (0,02, FIT (0,05 y FST (0,03 indicaron cierta tendencia hacia la homocigosidad. Los dendrogramas mostraron 3 agrupaciones raciales claramente diferenciadas que coinciden con las razas de origen Bos taurus, Bos indicus y sus respectivos cruces. Los resultados del análisis indicaron que el número de microsatélites empleados sí permitió establecer una discriminación clara a nivel de las frecuencias alélicas y en la distribución del tamaño de los alelos entre las

  18. Studies on the transmission of malignant catarrhal fever in experimental animals: A serial infection of cattle and buffalo by means of whole blood inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Wiyono

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF is a fatal disease especially affecting cattle and buffaloes. A study on the serial blood transmission of MCF was conducted by injecting whole blood of MCF animals into 9 experimental animals. Diagnosis of MCF was based on the clinico-pathological fmdings and polymerase chain reaction (PCR test. The disease has successfully, been achieved in six animals of three Bali cattle and three buffaloes but not in a Bali-cross breed and two Bos indicus (Ongole cattle. Wide range of clinical signs and gross-pathological features were observed. The study showed the degree of susceptibility of experimental animals: Bali cattle and buffalo were highly susceptible (3 out of 3 affected with MCF, Bali-cross breed and Bos indicus (Ongole cattle seemed not susceptible to whole blood experimental transmission. It shows that when Bali cattle acted as inoculum donor, buffalo tended to be clinically more severe than Bali cattle. On the other hand, when buffalo acted as inoculum donor, Bali cattle suffered from MCF more severe than buffalo. The diagnosis of MCF by histopathological examination and the PCR test bad positive correlation (100% in the first experiment, while in the second experiment the PCR test tends to be more sensitive. Based on the restriction endonuclease (RE test, the MCF causal agent in this study appeared to be genetically similar in each case. It is concluded that the serial experimental transmission of MCF by means of whole blood inoculation has been successfully achieved in Bali cattle and buffalo but not in Bali-cross breed and Ongole cattle, and there is a positive correlation between the PCR test and histopathological examination with the PCR test tends to be more sensitive.

  19. Efeito estacional sobre características ovarianas e produção de oócitos em vacas Bos indicus no Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eurico Fernandes

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se o efeito de duas distintas estações do ano (seca e chuvosa sobre algumas características ovarianas em vacas Bos indicus abatidas na região de Campo Grande, MS. Ovários (n = 10 foram obtidos nos meses de novembro e dezembro de 1998 e de janeiro a outubro de 1999. No laboratório, os ovários foram avaliados quanto ao peso (g, volume (Vol. (cm³ = 3/4 p x comprimento/2 x largura/2 x espessura/2, número de corpos lúteos, número de folículos com >; 9 mm de diâmetro, número total de folículos com menos de 9 mm, número de oócitos, oócitos viáveis e oócitos degenerados. O efeito principal da estação (seca ou chuvosa foi estimado pela análise de variância (teste t, para modelos completamente ao acaso. Utilizou-se a análise da correlação simples entre as variáveis estudadas, ajustadas para o efeito da estação. Os resultados revelaram que o peso dos ovários (5,1 x 6,5 g, folículos totais (10,1 x 13,7, corpos lúteos (0,32 x 0,47, p < 0,05 e a percentagem de oócitos viáveis (19,6% x 35,6% sobre o total de oócitos variaram significativamente (p < 0,01 entre as estações seca e chuvosa, respectivamente. A análise da correlação (r mostrou coeficientes significativos (p < 0,01 entre peso e volume (r = 0,78, peso e total de folículos (r = 0,32, peso e corpos lúteos (r = 0,41, total de folículos e oócitos viáveis (r = 57, entre outros. Concluiu-se que importantes modificações na função ovariana, com base na produção e qualidade dos oócitos, podem ser estimadas entre a estação seca e chuvosa. Com base nestas características, a estação chuvosa torna-se mais favorável para a implantação de programas reprodutivos em rebanhos comerciais.

  20. Verification of serum reference intervals for free light chains in a local South African population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemlin, Annalise E; Rensburg, Megan A; Ipp, Hayley; Germishuys, Jurie J; Erasmus, Rajiv T

    2013-11-01

    Monoclonal serum free light chain measurements are used to follow up and manage patients with monoclonal gammopathies, and abnormal serum free light chain ratios are associated with risk of progression in certain diseases. We aimed to validate the reference intervals in our population. Reference intervals for κ and λ free light chains were established on 120 healthy adults. Creatinine levels were measured to exclude renal dysfunction and serum protein electrophoresis was performed. All creatinine values were within normal limits. After exclusion of subjects with abnormal serum protein electrophoreses, 113 subjects were available for analysis. The 95% reference interval was 6.3-20.6 mg/L for κ free light chains, 8.7-25.9 mg/L for λ free light chains and 0.46-1.23 for free light chain ratio. Most of the values fell within the manufacturer's recommended limits and therefore could be used for our population.

  1. Reference values for physical performance measures in the aging working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Mark P; Kenny, Anne; Dussetschleger, Jeffrey; Farr, Dana; Chaurasia, Ashok; Cherniack, Martin

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine reference physical performance values in older aging workers. Cross-sectional physical performance measures were collected for 736 manufacturing workers to assess effects of work and nonwork factors on age-related changes in musculoskeletal function and health. Participants underwent surveys and physical testing that included bioelectrical impedance analysis, range-of-motion measures, exercise testing, and dynamic assessment. Physical characteristics, such as blood pressure and body fat percentage, were comparable to published values. Dynamic and range-of-motion measurements differed from published normative results. Women had age-related decreases in cervical extension and lateral rotation. Older men had better spinal flexion than expected. Predicted age-related decline in lower-extremity strength and shoulder strength in women was not seen. Men declined in handgrip, lower-extremity strength, and knee extension strength, but not trunk strength, across age groups. There was no appreciable decline in muscle fatigue at the trunk, shoulder, and knee with aging for either gender, except for the youngest age group of women. Normative values may underestimate physical performance in "healthy" older workers, thereby underappreciating declines in less healthy older workers. Work may be preservative of function for a large group of selected individuals. A "healthy worker effect" may be greater for musculoskeletal disease and function than for heart disease and mortality. Clinicians and researchers studying musculoskeletal function in older workers can use a more specific set of reference values.

  2. Accurate determination of brain metabolite concentrations using ERETIC as external reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoelch, Niklaus; Hock, Andreas; Heinzer-Schweizer, Susanne; Avdievitch, Nikolai; Henning, Anke

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) can provide in vivo metabolite concentrations in standard concentration units if a reliable reference signal is available. For 1 H MRS in the human brain, typically the signal from the tissue water is used as the (internal) reference signal. However, a concentration determination based on the tissue water signal most often requires a reliable estimate of the water concentration present in the investigated tissue. Especially in clinically interesting cases, this estimation might be difficult. To avoid assumptions about the water in the investigated tissue, the Electric REference To access In vivo Concentrations (ERETIC) method has been proposed. In this approach, the metabolite signal is compared with a reference signal acquired in a phantom and potential coil-loading differences are corrected using a synthetic reference signal. The aim of this study, conducted with a transceiver quadrature head coil, was to increase the accuracy of the ERETIC method by correcting the influence of spatial B 1 inhomogeneities and to simplify the quantification with ERETIC by incorporating an automatic phase correction for the ERETIC signal. Transmit field ( B1+) differences are minimized with a volume-selective power optimization, whereas reception sensitivity changes are corrected using contrast-minimized images of the brain and by adapting the voxel location in the phantom measurement closely to the position measured in vivo. By applying the proposed B 1 correction scheme, the mean metabolite concentrations determined with ERETIC in 21 healthy subjects at three different positions agree with concentrations derived with the tissue water signal as reference. In addition, brain water concentrations determined with ERETIC were in agreement with estimations derived using tissue segmentation and literature values for relative water densities. Based on the results, the ERETIC method presented here is a valid tool to derive in vivo metabolite

  3. Celiac disease and Helicobacter pylori infection in children: Is there any Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Manish; Puri, Amarender Singh; Sachdeva, Sanjeev; Singh, Jatinderpal; Kumar, Ajay; Saran, Ravindra K

    2017-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection can influence the inflammatory and immune responses in the gut and may therefore play a role in the development of gluten-related enteropathy in genetically susceptible individuals. Our objective was to assess the relationship between celiac disease and HP infection in children. Children (1-18 years) diagnosed as celiac disease (CD) (n = 324) with submission of gastric and duodenal biopsies and duodenal histology having Marsh grade III features were eligible for the study. Non-celiac patients referred for endoscopy were selected as controls. We studied proportion of HP prevalence in children with confirmed CD as compared with HP prevalence in reference group comprising non-celiac children referred for endoscopy. We also evaluated predictors of HP infection in children with celiac disease. Of the 324 participants with CD, gastric HP was seen in 37 (11.4%) patients. The prevalence of HP in patients without CD (50%, P Celiac disease and gastric HP infection have inverse relationship that raises the question whether development of HP infection confers protection against CD. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Effect of reference loads on fracture mechanics analysis of surface cracked pipe based on reference stress method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Do Jun; Son, Beom Goo; Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Yun Jae

    2004-01-01

    To investigate relevance of the definition of the reference stress to estimate J and C * for surface crack problems, this paper compares FE J and C * results for surface cracked pipes with those estimated according to the reference stress approach using various definitions of the reference stress. Pipes with part circumferential inner surface crack and finite internal axial crack are considered, subject to internal pressure and global bending. The crack depth and aspect ratio are systematically varied. The reference stress is defined in four different ways using (I) the local limit load, (II) the global limit load, (III) the global limit load determined from the FE limit analysis, and (IV) the optimised reference load. It is found that the reference stress based on the local limit load gives overall excessively conservative estimates of J and C * . Use of the global limit load clearly reduces the conservatism, compared to that of the local limit load, although it can provide sometimes non-conservative estimates of J and C * . The use of the FE global limit load gives overall non-conservative estimates of J and C * . The reference stress based on the optimised reference load gives overall accurate estimates of J and C * , compared to other definitions of the reference stress. Based on the present finding, general guidance on the choice of the reference stress for surface crack problems is given

  5. JavaScript programmer's reference

    CERN Document Server

    Valentine, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    JavaScript Programmer's Reference is an invaluable resource that won't stray far from your desktop (or your tablet!). It contains detailed information on every JavaScript object and command, and combines that reference with practical examples showcasing how you can use those commands in the real world. Whether you're just checking the syntax of a method or you're starting out on the road to JavaScript mastery, the JavaScript Programmer's Reference will be an essential aid.  With a detailed and informative tutorial section giving you the ins and outs of programming with JavaScript and the DOM f

  6. R quick syntax reference

    CERN Document Server

    Tollefson, Margot

    2014-01-01

    The R Quick Syntax Reference is a handy reference book detailing the intricacies of the R language. Not only is R a free, open-source tool, R is powerful, flexible, and has state of the art statistical techniques available. With the many details which must be correct when using any language, however, the R Quick Syntax Reference makes using R easier.Starting with the basic structure of R, the book takes you on a journey through the terminology used in R and the syntax required to make R work. You will find looking up the correct form for an expression quick and easy. With a copy of the R Quick

  7. Recent references May through August 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramavataram, S.

    1992-01-01

    In support of a continuing program of systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data, the National Nuclear Data Center maintains a complete computer file of references to the nuclear physics literature. Each reference is tagged by a keyword string, which indicates the kinds of data contained in the article. This master file of Nuclear Structure References (NSR) contains complete keyword indexes to literature published since 1969, with partial indexing of older references. Listed are Key Numbers and Keywords, a reaction index, and references and secondary sources for the data

  8. Sexual dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases: a systematic review of prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Rodrigues Nascimento

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature regarding the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular diseases. An article search of the ISI Web of Science and PubMed databases using the search terms "sexual dysfunction”, “cardiovascular diseases”, “coronary artery disease", “myocardial infarct" and “prevalence” was performed. In total, 893 references were found. Non-English-language and repeated references were excluded. After an abstract analysis, 91 references were included for full-text reading, and 24 articles that evaluated sexual function using validated instruments were selected for this review. This research was conducted in October 2012, and no time restrictions were placed on any of the database searches. Reviews and theoretical articles were excluded; only clinical trials and epidemiological studies were selected for this review. The studies were mostly cross-sectional, observational and case-control in nature; other studies used prospective cohort or randomized clinical designs. In women, all domains of sexual function (desire, arousal, vaginal lubrication, orgasm, sexual dissatisfaction and pain were affected. The domains prevalent in men included erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation and orgasm. Sexual dysfunction was related to the severity of cardiovascular disease. When they resumed sexual activity, patients with heart disease reported significant difficulty, including a lack of interest in sex, sexual dissatisfaction and a decrease in the frequency of sexual activity.

  9. AETIOPATHOGENESIS OF FEVER IN HOSPITALISED SICKLE CELL DISEASE CHILDREN REVISITED WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO BLOOD CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhana Panda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Sickle Cell Disease (SCD poses a considerable health burden in India. The sickle gene is widespread among many tribal population groups in India with prevalence of heterozygotes varying from 1-40 percent. The disease has multiple acute and chronic complications, including haemolytic crises, severe pain, renal complications, thromboembolic phenomenon and overwhelming infections; some complications of SCD generate high mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a cross-sectional, hospital inpatient based, observational study. Convenience sampling technique was used to include 74 consecutively diagnosed cases of sickle cell disease children less than 14 years of age and suffering from fever. A blood culture was performed in each case prior to starting of antibiotics. RESULTS The present study comprised of 74 children with confirmed sickle cell disease admitted to ward with fever. The largest numbers of cases were between 1 to 3 years age group. Febrile episodes decreased as the age advanced. Around 30% of febrile patients presented with cough followed by 24% with pain in limbs. Anaemia was the most common physical finding (92% followed by splenomegaly in 86% cases. URTI being most common aetiology. Most common organism isolated by blood culture was Staph. aureus in 8 samples. CONCLUSION As because fever is a consistent finding in severe bacterial infections, extensive evaluation, early intervention in febrile SCD children may reduce the morbidity and mortality rates. Although, the greatest concern has traditionally been S. pneumoniae, effective vaccination has reduced its incidence. It is probably wise to treat all highly febrile children with sickle cell disease with antibiotics pending the results of blood culture. Strengthening of routine immunisation programme is needed.

  10. Increased arterial stiffness in children with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häcker, Anna-Luisa; Reiner, Barbara; Oberhoffer, Renate; Hager, Alfred; Ewert, Peter; Müller, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Objective Central systolic blood pressure (SBP) is a measure of arterial stiffness and strongly associated with atherosclerosis and end-organ damage. It is a stronger predictor of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality than peripheral SBP. In particular, for children with congenital heart disease, a higher central SBP might impose a greater threat of cardiac damage. The aim of the study was to analyse and compare central SBP in children with congenital heart disease and in healthy counterparts. Patients and methods Central SBP was measured using an oscillometric method in 417 children (38.9% girls, 13.0 ± 3.2 years) with various congenital heart diseases between July 2014 and February 2017. The test results were compared with a recent healthy reference cohort of 1466 children (49.5% girls, 12.9 ± 2.5 years). Results After correction for several covariates in a general linear model, central SBP of children with congenital heart disease was significantly increased (congenital heart disease: 102.1 ± 10.2 vs. healthy reference cohort: 100.4 ± 8.6, p congenital heart disease subgroups revealed higher central SBP in children with left heart obstructions (mean difference: 3.6 mmHg, p congenital heart disease have significantly higher central SBP compared with healthy peers, predisposing them to premature heart failure. Screening and long-term observations of central SBP in children with congenital heart disease seems warranted in order to evaluate the need for treatment.

  11. Position statement on the role of healthcare professionals, patient organizations and industry in European Reference Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollak, C.E.; Biegstraaten, M.; Baumgartner, M.R.; Belmatoug, N.; Bembi, B.; Bosch, A. van den; Brouwers, M.; Dekker, H.; Dobbelaere, D.; Engelen, M.; Groenendijk, M.C.; Lachmann, R.; Langendonk, J.G.; Langeveld, M.; Linthorst, G.; Morava, E.; Poll-The, B.T.; Rahman, S.; Rubio-Gozalbo, M.E.; Spiekerkoetter, U.; Treacy, E.; Wanders, R.; Zschocke, J.; Hagendijk, R.

    2016-01-01

    A call from the EU for the set-up of European Reference Networks (ERNs) is expected to be launched in the first quarter of 2016. ERNs are intended to improve the care for patients with low prevalent or rare diseases throughout the EU by, among other things, facilitating the pooling and exchange of

  12. Position statement on the role of healthcare professionals, patient organizations and industry in European Reference Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.E.M. Hollak (Carla); M. Biegstraaten (Marieke); M.R. Baumgartner (Matthias R.); N. Belmatoug (Nadia); B. Bembi (Bruno); A.M. Bosch (Annet); M.C.G.J. Brouwers (M. C G J); H. Dekker (Hanka); D. Dobbelaere (Dries); M. Engelen (Marc); M.C. Groenendijk (Marike C.); R.H. Lachmann (Robin); J.G. Langendonk (Janneke); M. Langeveld (Mirjam); G. Linthorst (Gabor); E. Morava (Eva); B.T. Poll-The; S. Rahman (Shamima); M.E. Rubio-Gozalbo (Estela); U. Spiekerkoeter (Ute); E. Treacy (Eileen); R.J.A. Wanders (Ronald); J. Zschocke (Johannes); R. Hagendijk (Rob)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractA call from the EU for the set-up of European Reference Networks (ERNs) is expected to be launched in the first quarter of 2016. ERNs are intended to improve the care for patients with low prevalent or rare diseases throughout the EU by, among other things, facilitating the pooling and

  13. Systems medicine advances in interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiffo, Flavia R; Eickelberg, Oliver; Fernandez, Isis E

    2017-09-30

    Fibrotic lung diseases involve subject-environment interactions, together with dysregulated homeostatic processes, impaired DNA repair and distorted immune functions. Systems medicine-based approaches are used to analyse diseases in a holistic manner, by integrating systems biology platforms along with clinical parameters, for the purpose of understanding disease origin, progression, exacerbation and remission.Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) refer to a heterogeneous group of complex fibrotic diseases. The increase of systems medicine-based approaches in the understanding of ILDs provides exceptional advantages by improving diagnostics, unravelling phenotypical differences, and stratifying patient populations by predictable outcomes and personalised treatments. This review discusses the state-of-the-art contributions of systems medicine-based approaches in ILDs over the past 5 years. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  14. Dosimetric verification for radiotherapy quality audit under reference and non-reference conditions in Jiangsu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jin; Yu Ningle; Yang Chunyong; Du Xiang; Chen Wei; Luo Suming

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To verify the methodology for auditing dosimetric parameters in reference and non-reference conditions with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). Methods: Under reference and non-reference conditions, the established TLD methods were used to observe the absorbed dose variations with depth, SSD, field size and 45 wedges for 10 photon beams at 5 hospitals. Dosimetric parameters, including doses at D_m_a_x points in axis, on 5 electron beams of 9 MeV were measured. The measurement results were compared between the TLDs and plane parallel ionization chambers. Results: For 6 MV photon beams, the relative deviation of between finger ionization chamber method and TLD chips was in the range of -1.7% to 5.4% under on-axis non-reference conditions, and -6.3% to -0.6% under off-axis non-reference conditions, respectively, all within the range of ≤ ±7% as required by the IAEA. The relative deviation between plane parallel chamber and TLD method was -2.3% to 3.7%, within ±5% as required by the IAEA. Conclusions: It is convenient and feasible to use TLD method for quality audits of dosimetric parameters in radiotherapy. (authors)

  15. Addison's disease and its associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttanna, Amar; Cunningham, Alana Rosaleen; Dainty, Philip

    2013-07-26

    Addison's disease is a relatively rare endocrine condition resulting from adrenal insufficiency due to various causes. Weight loss is a common feature; however, patients may be seen by a variety of specialists, even requiring acute admission before the diagnosis is made. Addison's disease is commonly associated with other autoimmune diseases. In some cases such as autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS) types 1 and 2, these associations are more commonly found. We present a case of one such patient who presented to the acute medical team having been referred to the gastrointestinal services in the previous year for persistent vomiting and weight loss. On review of history, the cause of vomiting and weight loss was questioned and combined with subsequent biochemical testing a diagnosis of Addison's disease was made. The patient was also noted to have other associated endocrine and autoimmune conditions.

  16. A bibliography of references to avian cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sonoma S.

    1979-01-01

    Mrs. Wilson has made a genuine effort to include in this bibliography every significant reference to avian cholera since Louis Pasteur's articles appeared in 1880, although she recognizes the likelihood that a few have been overlooked. New listings have been added throughout 1978, but comprehensive coverage of the literature cannot be claimed beyond June of that year.Textbook accounts, because they are generally summaries of work published elsewhere, are excluded. Papers dealing primarily with the biology of Pasteurella multocida, as opposed to the disease it induces in birds, are also excluded, unless they report information of diagnostic usefulness. Short abstracts are not included unless the journals in which they are published are more widely available than those in which the complete articles appear or they are English summaries of foreign language articles.In compiling this bibliography, Mrs. Wilson has made extensive use of Biological Abstracts, the Pesticide Documentation Bulletin, and printouts generated by Bibliographic Retrieval Services, Inc. The "Literature Cited" sections of textbooks and journal articles pertinent to the subject were sources of many additional references. Regardless of the origin of the citation, its accuracy was confirmed by comparison with the original publication, except in those few instances (marked with an asterisk) when the journal was not on the shelves of the libraries accessible to us.The author will be grateful to users of the bibliography who point out errors or omissions.Wayne I. JensenMicrobiologist In Charge

  17. Diseases of the esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siewert, J.R.; Holscher, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    This book covers the entire range of esophaegeal diseases with regard to epidemiology, pathogenesis, pathophysiology, diagnosis, as well as conservative and, above all, surgical treatment. The book is divided into two parts. The first describes esophaegeal cancer. The newest methods for preoperative staging, perioperative management, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy of esophageal cancer, the surgical techniques for the different types of carcinoma are covered in detail. The long-term results of surgical treatment are discussed, referring to functional results, recurrance, and survival times. The second part of the book describes benign diseases of the esophagus. New, yet proven diagnostic methods are described in detail, including from a cost-benefit perspective

  18. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric A

    2007-01-01

    They say that good things come in small packages, and it's certainly true for this edition of CSS Pocket Reference. Completely revised and updated to reflect the latest Cascading Style Sheet specifications in CSS 2.1, this indispensable little book covers the most essential information that web designers and developers need to implement CSS effectively across all browsers. Inside, you'll find: A short introduction to the key concepts of CSS A complete alphabetical reference to all CSS 2.1 selectors and properties A chart displaying detailed information about CSS support for every style ele

  19. Echocardiographic reference ranges in older children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majonga, Edith D; Rehman, Andrea M; McHugh, Grace; Mujuru, Hilda A; Nathoo, Kusum; Patel, Mohammad S; Munyati, Shungu; Odland, Jon O; Kranzer, Katharina; Kaski, Juan P; Ferrand, Rashida A

    2017-12-01

    Echocardiographic reference ranges are important to identify abnormalities of cardiac dimensions. Reference ranges for children in sub-Saharan Africa have not been established. The aim of this study was to establish echocardiographic z-score references for Black children in sub-Saharan Africa. 282 healthy subjects aged 6-16years (143 [51%] males) with no known history of cardiac disease were enrolled in the study in Harare, Zimbabwe between 2014 and 2016. Standard M-mode echocardiography was performed and nine cardiac chamber dimensions were obtained. Two non-linear statistical models (gamma weighted model and cubic polynomial model) were tested on the data and the best fitting model was used to calculate z-scores of these cardiac chamber measures. The reference ranges are presented on scatter plots against BSA. Normative data for the following cardiac measures were obtained and z-scores calculated: right ventricular diameter at end diastole (RVEDD); left ventricular diameter at end diastole (LVEDD) and systole (LVESD); interventricular septal wall thickness at end diastole (IVSd) and systole (IVSs); left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end diastole (LVPWd) and systole (LVPWs); left atrium diameter at end systole (LA) and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE). Girls had higher values for BMI and heart rate than boys (p=0.048 and p=0.001, respectively). Mean interventricular septal and left ventricular posterior walls thickness was higher than published normal values in predominantly Caucasian populations. These are the first echocardiographic reference ranges for children from sub Saharan Africa and will allow accurate assessment of cardiac dimensions in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Common periodontal diseases of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghutaimel, Hayat; Riba, Hisham; Al-Kahtani, Salem; Al-Duhaimi, Saad

    2014-01-01

    Background. Since 2000, studies, experiments, and clinical observations revealed high prevalence of periodontal diseases among children and adolescents. Therefore, this paper was designed to provide an update for dental practitioners on epidemiology, microbiology, pathology, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of periodontal diseases in children and adolescents. Methods. This paper reviews the current literature concerning periodontal diseases in pediatric dentistry. It includes MEDLINE database search using key terms: "periodontal diseases in children," "Periodontal diseasesin adolescents," "periodontal diseases risk factors," "microbiology of periodontal diseases," "classification of periodontal diseases," "epidemiology of periodontal diseases," and "treatment of periodontal diseases." Articles were evaluated by title and/or abstract and relevance to pediatric dentistry. Sixty-five citations were selected by this method and by the references within the chosen articles. A review of the comprehensive textbooks on pediatric dentistry and periodontology was done. Some recommendations were based on the opinions of experienced researchers and clinicians, when data were inconclusive.

  1. Glycomic Expression in Esophageal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mohanty

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation is among the most common post translation modifications of proteins in humans. Decades of research have demonstrated that aberrant glycosylation can lead to malignant degeneration. Glycoproteomic studies in the past several years have identified techniques that can successfully characterize a glycan or glycan profile associated with a high-grade dysplastic or malignant state. This review summarizes the current glycomic and glycoproteomic literature with specific reference to esophageal cancer. Esophageal adenocarcinoma represents a highly morbid and mortal cancer with a defined progression from metaplasia (Barrett's esophagus to dysplasia to neoplasia. This disease is highlighted because (1 differences in glycan profiles between the stages of disease progression have been described in the glycoproteomic literature; (2 a glycan biomarker that identifies a given stage may be used as a predictor of disease progression and thus may have significant influence over clinical management; and (3 the differences in glycan profiles between disease and disease-free states in esophageal cancer are more dramatic than in other cancers.

  2. Revertant Mosaicism in Heritable Skin Diseases - Mechanisms of Natural Gene Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasmooij, Anna M. G.; Jonkman, Marcel F.; Uitto, Jouni

    Revertant mosaicism (RM) refers to the co-existence of cells carrying disease-causing mutations with cells in which the inherited mutation is genetically corrected by a spontaneous event. It has been discovered in an increasing number of heritable skin diseases: ichthyosis with confetti and

  3. Korean Reference HLW Disposal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. S. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    This report outlines the results related to the development of Korean Reference Disposal System for High-level radioactive wastes. The research has been supported around for 10 years through a long-term research plan by MOST. The reference disposal method was selected via the first stage of the research during which the technical guidelines for the geological disposal of HLW were determined too. At the second stage of the research, the conceptual design of the reference disposal system was made. For this purpose the characteristics of the reference spent fuels from PWR and CANDU reactors were specified, and the material and specifications of the canisters were determined in term of structural analysis and manufacturing capability in Korea. Also, the mechanical and chemical characteristics of the domestic Ca-bentonite were analyzed in order to supply the basic design parameters of the buffer. Based on these parameters the thermal and mechanical analysis of the near-field was carried out. Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical behavior of the disposal system was analyzed. The reference disposal system was proposed through the second year research. At the final third stage of the research, the Korean Reference disposal System including the engineered barrier, surface facilities, and underground facilities was proposed through the performance analysis of the disposal system.

  4. Therapeutic consequences of oesophageal function studies in patients with benign oesophageal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Kruse-Andersen, S; Wallin, Lene

    1988-01-01

    making the final decision for therapy. Eleven percent of the patients referred with a diagnosis of hiatal hernia or reflux had achalasia or oesophageal spasm. Nine percent of the patients referred for motility disorders had reflux-related disease. The referral diagnosis was changed to a diagnosis...

  5. Four new lycaenid butterfly records from the Kumaon Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Smetacek

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The known distribution of four species of Lycaenid butterflies, Talicada nyseus, Nacaduba kurava, Flos asoka and Arhopala abseus indicus, is extended to the Kumaon Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India.

  6. Electroacoustical reference data

    CERN Document Server

    Eargle, John M

    2002-01-01

    The need for a general collection of electroacoustical reference and design data in graphical form has been felt by acousticians and engineers for some time. This type of data can otherwise only be found in a collection of handbooks. Therefore, it is the author's intention that this book serve as a single source for many electroacoustical reference and system design requirements. In form, the volume closely resembles Frank Massa's Acoustic Design Charts, a handy book dating from 1942 that has long been out of print. The basic format of Massa's book has been followed here: For each entry, graphical data are presented on the right page, while text, examples, and refer­ ences appear on the left page. In this manner, the user can solve a given problem without thumbing from one page to the next. All graphs and charts have been scaled for ease in data entry and reading. The book is divided into the following sections: A. General Acoustical Relationships. This section covers the behavior of sound transmis­ sion in...

  7. Global Reference Tables Services Architecture

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This database stores the reference and transactional data used to provide a data-driven service access method to certain Global Reference Table (GRT) service tables.

  8. Sharing reference data and including cows in the reference population improve genomic predictions in Danish Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, G; Ma, P; Nielsen, U S; Aamand, G P; Wiggans, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Lund, M S

    2016-06-01

    Small reference populations limit the accuracy of genomic prediction in numerically small breeds, such like Danish Jersey. The objective of this study was to investigate two approaches to improve genomic prediction by increasing size of reference population in Danish Jersey. The first approach was to include North American Jersey bulls in Danish Jersey reference population. The second was to genotype cows and use them as reference animals. The validation of genomic prediction was carried out on bulls and cows, respectively. In validation on bulls, about 300 Danish bulls (depending on traits) born in 2005 and later were used as validation data, and the reference populations were: (1) about 1050 Danish bulls, (2) about 1050 Danish bulls and about 1150 US bulls. In validation on cows, about 3000 Danish cows from 87 young half-sib families were used as validation data, and the reference populations were: (1) about 1250 Danish bulls, (2) about 1250 Danish bulls and about 1150 US bulls, (3) about 1250 Danish bulls and about 4800 cows, (4) about 1250 Danish bulls, 1150 US bulls and 4800 Danish cows. Genomic best linear unbiased prediction model was used to predict breeding values. De-regressed proofs were used as response variables. In the validation on bulls for eight traits, the joint DK-US bull reference population led to higher reliability of genomic prediction than the DK bull reference population for six traits, but not for fertility and longevity. Averaged over the eight traits, the gain was 3 percentage points. In the validation on cows for six traits (fertility and longevity were not available), the gain from inclusion of US bull in reference population was 6.6 percentage points in average over the six traits, and the gain from inclusion of cows was 8.2 percentage points. However, the gains from cows and US bulls were not accumulative. The total gain of including both US bulls and Danish cows was 10.5 percentage points. The results indicate that sharing reference

  9. Physical fitness reference standards in European children: the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miguel-Etayo, P; Gracia-Marco, L; Ortega, F B; Intemann, T; Foraita, R; Lissner, L; Oja, L; Barba, G; Michels, N; Tornaritis, M; Molnár, D; Pitsiladis, Y; Ahrens, W; Moreno, L A

    2014-09-01

    A low fitness status during childhood and adolescence is associated with important health-related outcomes, such as increased future risk for obesity and cardiovascular diseases, impaired skeletal health, reduced quality of life and poor mental health. Fitness reference values for adolescents from different countries have been published, but there is a scarcity of reference values for pre-pubertal children in Europe, using harmonised measures of fitness in the literature. The IDEFICS study offers a good opportunity to establish normative values of a large set of fitness components from eight European countries using common and well-standardised methods in a large sample of children. Therefore, the aim of this study is to report sex- and age-specific fitness reference standards in European children. Children (10,302) aged 6-10.9 years (50.7% girls) were examined. The test battery included: the flamingo balance test, back-saver sit-and-reach test (flexibility), handgrip strength test, standing long jump test (lower-limb explosive strength) and 40-m sprint test (speed). Moreover, cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by a 20-m shuttle run test. Percentile curves for the 1st, 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 97th and 99th percentiles were calculated using the General Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). Our results show that boys performed better than girls in speed, lower- and upper-limb strength and cardiorespiratory fitness, and girls performed better in balance and flexibility. Older children performed better than younger children, except for cardiorespiratory fitness in boys and flexibility in girls. Our results provide for the first time sex- and age-specific physical fitness reference standards in European children aged 6-10.9 years.

  10. Impact of Relationships between Test and Reference Animals and between Reference Animals on Reliability of Genomic Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sun, Dongxiao

    This study investigated reliability of genomic prediction in various scenarios with regard to relationship between test and reference animals and between animals within the reference population. Different reference populations were generated from EuroGenomics data and 1288 Nordic Holstein bulls...... as a common test population. A GBLUP model and a Bayesian mixture model were applied to predict Genomic breeding values for bulls in the test data. Result showed that a closer relationship between test and reference animals led to a higher reliability, while a closer relationship between reference animal...... resulted in a lower reliability. Therefore, the design of reference population is important for improving the reliability of genomic prediction. With regard to model, the Bayesian mixture model in general led to slightly a higher reliability of genomic prediction than the GBLUP model...

  11. Maternal periodontal disease, pregnancy, and neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasanayake, Ananda P; Gennaro, Susan; Hendricks-Muñoz, Karen D; Chhun, Nok

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the current literature on the association between maternal periodontal disease and poor pregnancy and neonatal outcomes and outline the role nurses can play in improving the oral health of pregnant women. Maternal periodontal disease is linked to preterm birth, low birthweight, and preterm low birthweight, but treatment of periodontal disease during pregnancy has been shown to be safe and effective. Nurses, nurse practitioners, and nurse-midwives are in a position to educate pregnant women on the benefits of good oral health and identify and refer women who are in need of dental care for treatment.

  12. Disease mongering in psychiatry: fact or fiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Saddichha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Disease mongering starts at the top of recent accusations being hurled at psychiatry. It is used to refer to the attempts by pharmaceutical companies or others who have similar interests, to enlarge the market for a treatment by convincing people that they are sick and need medical intervention. This paper critically analyses the 'for' and 'against' arguments of disease mongering in psychiatric disorders, both new and old, such as Bipolar disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Restless legs syndrome, Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, female sexual dysfunction, social phobia, metabolic syndrome and road rage disorder. Keywords: disease mongeringpharmaceutical companies, psychiatry.

  13. Involvement of Endogenous Retroviruses in Prion Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Sun Kim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For millions of years, vertebrates have been continuously exposed to infection by retroviruses. Ancient retroviral infection of germline cells resulted in the formation and accumulation of inherited retrovirus sequences in host genomes. These inherited retroviruses are referred to as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs, and recent estimates have revealed that a significant portion of animal genomes is made up of ERVs. Although various host factors have suppressed ERV activation, both positive and negative functions have been reported for some ERVs in normal and abnormal physiological conditions, such as in disease states. Similar to other complex diseases, ERV activation has been observed in prion diseases, and this review will discuss the potential involvement of ERVs in prion diseases.

  14. Report of 121 Cases of Bell's Palsy Referred to the Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohrevandi, Behzad; Monsef Kasmaee, Vahid; Asadi, Payman; Tajik, Hosna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: According to the high incidence of Bell's palsy (IFP) and lack of clinical data regarding different aspects of disease, the present study investigated 121 Iranian patients with peripheral facial paralysis referred to the emergency department. Methods: In this retrospective study, all patients with peripheral facial paralysis, referred to the emergency department of Poursina hospital, Rasht, Iran, from August 2012 to August 2013, were enrolled. For all patients with diagnosis of Bell's palsy variables such as age, sex, occupation, clinical symptoms, comorbid disease, grade of paralysis, and the severity of the facial palsy were reviewed and analyzed using STATA version 11.0. Results: 121 patients with peripheral facial paralysis were assessed with a mean age of 47.14±18.45 years (52.9% male). The majority of patients were observed in the summer (37.2%) and autumn (33.1%) and the recurrence rate was 22.3%. The most common grades of nerve damage were IV and V based on House-Brackman grading scale (47.1%). Also, the most frequent signs and symptoms were ear pain (43.8%), taste disturbance (38.8%), hyperacusis (15.7%) and increased tearing (11.6%). There were not significant correlations between the severity of palsy with age (p= 0.08), recurrence rate (p=0.18), season (p=0.9), and comorbid disease including hypertension (p=0.18), diabetes (p=0.29), and hyperlipidemia (p=0.94). The patients with any of following symptoms such as ear pain (ppalsy. Conclusion: There was equal gender and occupational distribution, higher incidence in fourth decade of life, higher incidence in summer and autumn, higher grade of nerve damage (grade V and VI), and higher incidence of ear pain and taste disturbance in patients suffered from IFP. In addition, there was significant association between severity of nerve damage and presence of any simultaneous symptoms. PMID:26495349

  15. Reference values for serum ferritin and percentage of transferrin saturation in Korean children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hea Lin; Lee, Jun Ah; Kim, Dong Ho; Lim, Jung Sub

    2018-03-01

    Ferritin reference values vary by age, gender, and ethnicity. We aimed to determine reference values of serum ferritin (SF) and the percentage of transferrin saturation (TSAT) for Korean children and adolescents. We analyzed data from 2,487 participants (1,311 males and 1,176 females) aged 10-20 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012). We calculated age- and gender-stratified means and percentile values for SF and TSAT. We first plotted mean SF and TSAT by gender and according to age. In males, mean SF tended to be relatively constant among participants aged 10 to 14 years, with an upward trend thereafter. Mean SF trended downward among female participants until the age of 15 years and remained constant thereafter. Thus, significant gender differences in ferritin exist from the age of 14 years. High levels of SF were associated with obesity, and lower SF levels were associated with anemia and menarche status. We established reference values of SF and TSAT according to age and gender. The reference values for SF calculated in this study can be used to test the association between SF values and other defined diseases in Korean children and adolescents.

  16. Reference Intervals for Non-Fasting CVD Lipids and Inflammation Markers in Pregnant Indigenous Australian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Tracy L; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Clausen, Don; Weatherall, Loretta; Keogh, Lyniece; Pringle, Kirsty G; Rae, Kym M

    2017-10-14

    Indigenous Australians experience high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The origins of CVD may commence during pregnancy, yet few serum reference values for CVD biomarkers exist specific to the pregnancy period. The Gomeroi gaaynggal research project is a program that undertakes research and provides some health services to pregnant Indigenous women. Three hundred and ninety-nine non-fasting samples provided by the study participants (206 pregnancies and 175 women) have been used to construct reference intervals for CVD biomarkers during this critical time. A pragmatic design was used, in that women were not excluded for the presence of chronic or acute health states. Percentile bands for non-linear relationships were constructed according to the methods of Wright and Royston (2008), using the xriml package in StataIC 13.1. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, cystatin-C and alkaline phosphatase increased as gestational age progressed, with little change seen in high-sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and γ glutamyl transferase. Values provided in the reference intervals are consistent with findings from other research projects. These reference intervals will form a basis with which future CVD biomarkers for pregnant Indigenous Australian women can be compared.

  17. Animal in vivo models of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative diseases: special references to rabbit models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K; Teramoto, N; Akagi, T

    2002-10-01

    Animal models of human EBV-associated diseases are essential to elucidate the pathogenesis of EBV-associated diseases. Here we review those previous models using EBV or EBV-like herpesviruses and describe the details on our two newly-developed rabbit models of lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD) induced by simian EBV-like viruses. The first is Cynomolgus-EBV-induced T-cell lymphomas in rabbits inoculated intravenously (77-90%) and orally (82-89%) during 2-5 months. EBV-DNA was detected in peripheral blood by PCR from 2 days after oral inoculation, while anti-EBV-VCA IgG was raised 3 weeks later. Rabbit lymphomas and their cell lines contained EBV-DNA and expressed EBV-encoded RNA-1 (EBER-1). Rabbit lymphoma cell lines, most of which have specific chromosomal abnormality, showed tumorigenicity in nude mice. The second is the first animal model for EBV-infected T-cell LPD with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS), using rabbits infected with an EBV-like herpesvirus, Herpesvirus papio (HVP). Rabbits inoculated intravenously with HVP-producing cells showed increased anti-EBV-VCA-IgG titers, and most (85%) subsequently died of fatal LPD and VAHS, with bleeding and hepatosplenomegaly, during 22-105 days. Peroral spray of cell-free HVP induced viral infection with seroconversion in 3 out of 5 rabbits, with 2 of the 3 infected rabbits dying of LPD with VAHS. Atypical T lymphocytes containing HVP-DNA and expressing EBER-1 were observed in many organs. Hemophagocytic histiocytosis was observed in the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and thymus. These rabbit models are also useful and inexpensive alternative experimental model systems for studying the biology and pathogenesis of EBV, and prophylactic and therapeutic regimens.

  18. Recombinant human adenovirus-5 expressing capsid proteins of Indian vaccine strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus elicits effective antibody response in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasa, B P; Mohapatra, J K; Pauszek, S J; Koster, M; Dhanya, V C; Tamil Selvan, R P; Hosamani, M; Saravanan, P; Basagoudanavar, Suresh H; de Los Santos, T; Venkataramanan, R; Rodriguez, L L; Grubman, M J

    2017-05-01

    Recombinant adenovirus-5 vectored foot-and-mouth disease constructs (Ad5- FMD) were made for three Indian vaccine virus serotypes O, A and Asia 1. Constructs co-expressing foot-and- mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid and viral 3C protease sequences, were evaluated for their ability to induce a neutralizing antibody response in indigenous cattle (Bos indicus). Purified Ad5-FMD viruses were inoculated in cattle as monovalent (5×10 9 pfu/animal) or trivalent (5×10 9 pfu/animal per serotype) vaccines. Animals vaccinated with monovalent Ad5-FMD vaccines were boosted 63days later with the same dose. After primary immunization, virus neutralization tests (VNT) showed seroconversion in 83, 67 and 33% of animals vaccinated with Ad5-FMD O, A and Asia 1, respectively. Booster immunization elicited seroconversion in all of the animals (100%) in the monovalent groups. When used in a trivalent form, the Ad5-FMD vaccine induced neutralizing antibodies in only 33, 50 and 16% of animals against serotypes O, A and Asia 1, respectively on primo-vaccination, and titers were significantly lower than when the same vectors were used in monovalent form. Neutralizing antibody titers differed by serotype for both Ad5-FMD monovalent and trivalent vaccines, with Asia 1 serotype inducing the lowest titers. Antibody response to Ad5 vector in immunized cattle was also assessed by VNT. It appeared that the vector immunity did not impact the recall responses to expressed FMDV antigens on booster immunization. In summary, the study suggested that the recombinant Ad5-FMD vaccine has a potential use in monovalent form, while its application in multivalent form is not currently encouraging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A soil sampling reference site: The challenge in defining reference material for sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Fajgelj, Ales; Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Sansone, Umberto; Perk, Marcel van der

    2008-01-01

    In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the Italian Environmental Protection Agency, an agricultural area was established as a reference site suitable for performing soil sampling inter-comparison exercises. The reference site was characterized for trace element content in soil, in terms of the spatial and temporal variability of their mass fraction. Considering that the behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in soil can be expected to be similar to that of some stable trace elements and that the distribution of these trace elements in soil can simulate the distribution of radionuclides, the reference site characterised in term of trace elements, can be also used to compare the soil sampling strategies developed for radionuclide investigations

  20. A soil sampling reference site: The challenge in defining reference material for sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Zorzi, Paolo [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, Rome 100-00128 (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.dezorzi@apat.it; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, Rome 100-00128 (Italy); Fajgelj, Ales [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, Vienna A-1400 (Austria); Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Sansone, Umberto [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia); Perk, Marcel van der [Department of Physical Geography, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, TC Utrecht 3508 (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the Italian Environmental Protection Agency, an agricultural area was established as a reference site suitable for performing soil sampling inter-comparison exercises. The reference site was characterized for trace element content in soil, in terms of the spatial and temporal variability of their mass fraction. Considering that the behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in soil can be expected to be similar to that of some stable trace elements and that the distribution of these trace elements in soil can simulate the distribution of radionuclides, the reference site characterised in term of trace elements, can be also used to compare the soil sampling strategies developed for radionuclide investigations.

  1. A soil sampling reference site: the challenge in defining reference material for sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Fajgelj, Ales; Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Sansone, Umberto; van der Perk, Marcel

    2008-11-01

    In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the Italian Environmental Protection Agency, an agricultural area was established as a reference site suitable for performing soil sampling inter-comparison exercises. The reference site was characterized for trace element content in soil, in terms of the spatial and temporal variability of their mass fraction. Considering that the behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in soil can be expected to be similar to that of some stable trace elements and that the distribution of these trace elements in soil can simulate the distribution of radionuclides, the reference site characterised in term of trace elements, can be also used to compare the soil sampling strategies developed for radionuclide investigations.

  2. Research priorities for Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a review and analysis of the research landscape for three diseases - Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis - that disproportionately afflict poor and remote populations with limited access to health services. It represents the work of the disease reference group on Chagas Disease, Human African Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis (DRG3) which was established to identify key research priorities through review of research evidence and input from stakeholders' consultations. The diseases, which are caused by related protozoan parasites, are described in terms of their epidemiology and diseases burden, clinical forms and pathogenesis, HIV coinfection, diagnosis, drugs and drug resistance, vaccines, vector control, and health-care interventions. Priority areas for research are identified based on criteria such as public health relevance, benefit and impact on poor populations and equity, and feasibility. The priorities are found in the areas of diagnostics, drugs, vector control, asymptomatic infection, economic analysis of treatment and vector control methods, and in some specific issues such as surveillance methods or transmission-blocking vaccines for particular diseases. This report will be useful to researchers, policy and decision-makers, funding bodies, implementation organizations, and civil society. This is one of ten disease and thematic reference group reports that have come out of the TDR Think Tank, all of which have contributed to the development of the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty, available at: www.who.int/tdr/stewardship/global_report/en/index.html.

  3. Nuclear measurements and reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the JRC programs on nuclear data, nuclear metrology, nuclear reference materials and non-nuclear reference materials. Budget restrictions and personnel difficulties were encountered during 1987. Fission properties of 235 U as a function of neutron energy and of the resonances can be successfully described on the basis of a three exit channel fission model. Double differential neutron emission cross-sections were accomplished on 7 Li and were started for the tritium production cross-section of 9 Be. Reference materials of uranium minerals and ores were prepared. Special nuclear targets were prepared. A batch of 250 g of Pu0 2 was characterized in view of certification as reference material for the elemental assay of plutonium

  4. A bibliography of references to avian botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jack E.; Wilson, Sonoma S.

    1977-01-01

    This bibliography, first compiled in 1970 in response to many requests for information on avian botulism, has been updated to include the literature published through 1975.In general, only articles dealing primarily with the avian disease are included, as opposed to those concerned with various aspects of the biology of Clostridium botulinum, either type C or type E. A few exceptions, such as Bengton’s report of the first isolation and description of the type C organism, are included for their historical interest. Progress reports and other administrative documents not available for distribution or request are excluded, as are textbook accounts, which are generally summaries of work published elsewhere.Although Mr. Allen and Mrs. Wilson have attempted to list every important reference, they make no claim to complete coverage of the published literature. The authors will be grateful to users of the bibliography who call attention to errors or omissions.

  5. Collateral Damage and Communicable Disease with Particular Reference to Tactical Nuclear War in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-31

    incidence of communicable disease attrib- utable to the radiation exposure. Measles, chicken pox , etc., did occur but were within the normal range. 4.4...SMALLPOX MEXICO MILLIONS 50 1603 BUBONIC PLAGUE LONDON 34,000 14 1628 TYPHUS LYONS, FRANCE 60,000 1665 BUBONIC PLAGUE LONDON 100,000 27 1711 BUBONIC PLAGUE

  6. Perl Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Vromans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    If you have a Perl programming question, you'll find the answer quickly in this handy, easy-to-use quick reference. The Perl Pocket Reference condenses and organizes stacks of documentation down to the most essential facts, so you can find what you need in a heartbeat. Updated for Perl 5.14, the 5th edition provides a summary of Perl syntax rules and a complete list of operators, built-in functions, and other features. It's the perfect companion to O'Reilly's authoritative and in-depth Perl programming books, including Learning Perl, Programming Perl, and the Perl Cookbook..

  7. JDBC Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Bales, Donald

    2003-01-01

    JDBC--the Java Database Connectivity specification--is a complex set of application programming interfaces (APIs) that developers need to understand if they want their Java applications to work with databases. JDBC is so complex that even the most experienced developers need to refresh their memories from time to time on specific methods and details. But, practically speaking, who wants to stop and thumb through a weighty tutorial volume each time a question arises? The answer is the JDBC Pocket Reference, a data-packed quick reference that is both a time-saver and a lifesaver. The JDBC P

  8. COMAR - database for certified reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klich, H.; Caliste, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    With more than 130 producers of reference materials (RM) throughout the world, it is often difficult to find the best reference material for a specific application. The computer database COMAR has been developed to aid chemists in finding the needed reference material. (orig.)

  9. [Alzheimer's disease, the importance of the choice of words].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanuto, Muriel; Canovas, Stéphane; Khaddar, Marie; Sanchez, Stéphane; Denormandie, Philippe

    The terms 'dementia' and 'demented' are frequently used to refer to people with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. Based on the cross-analysis of some observational data (historical, linguistic, legal and medical), it is possible to highlight the risks and the issues related to the terminological choices for patients and health professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification and validation of suitable endogenous reference genes for gene expression studies in human peripheral blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turner Renee J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression studies require appropriate normalization methods. One such method uses stably expressed reference genes. Since suitable reference genes appear to be unique for each tissue, we have identified an optimal set of the most stably expressed genes in human blood that can be used for normalization. Methods Whole-genome Affymetrix Human 2.0 Plus arrays were examined from 526 samples of males and females ages 2 to 78, including control subjects and patients with Tourette syndrome, stroke, migraine, muscular dystrophy, and autism. The top 100 most stably expressed genes with a broad range of expression levels were identified. To validate the best candidate genes, we performed quantitative RT-PCR on a subset of 10 genes (TRAP1, DECR1, FPGS, FARP1, MAPRE2, PEX16, GINS2, CRY2, CSNK1G2 and A4GALT, 4 commonly employed reference genes (GAPDH, ACTB, B2M and HMBS and PPIB, previously reported to be stably expressed in blood. Expression stability and ranking analysis were performed using GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms. Results Reference genes were ranked based on their expression stability and the minimum number of genes needed for nomalization as calculated using GeNorm showed that the fewest, most stably expressed genes needed for acurate normalization in RNA expression studies of human whole blood is a combination of TRAP1, FPGS, DECR1 and PPIB. We confirmed the ranking of the best candidate control genes by using an alternative algorithm (NormFinder. Conclusion The reference genes identified in this study are stably expressed in whole blood of humans of both genders with multiple disease conditions and ages 2 to 78. Importantly, they also have different functions within cells and thus should be expressed independently of each other. These genes should be useful as normalization genes for microarray and RT-PCR whole blood studies of human physiology, metabolism and disease.

  11. 'Aussie normals': an a priori study to develop clinical chemistry reference intervals in a healthy Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerbin, G; Cavanaugh, J A; Potter, J M; Abhayaratna, W P; West, N P; Glasgow, N; Hawkins, C; Armbruster, D; Oakman, C; Hickman, P E

    2015-02-01

    Development of reference intervals is difficult, time consuming, expensive and beyond the scope of most laboratories. The Aussie Normals study is a direct a priori study to determine reference intervals in healthy Australian adults. All volunteers completed a health and lifestyle questionnaire and exclusion was based on conditions such as pregnancy, diabetes, renal or cardiovascular disease. Up to 91 biochemical analyses were undertaken on a variety of analytical platforms using serum samples collected from 1856 volunteers. We report on our findings for 40 of these analytes and two calculated parameters performed on the Abbott ARCHITECTci8200/ci16200 analysers. Not all samples were analysed for all assays due to volume requirements or assay/instrument availability. Results with elevated interference indices and those deemed unsuitable after clinical evaluation were removed from the database. Reference intervals were partitioned based on the method of Harris and Boyd into three scenarios, combined gender, males and females and age and gender. We have performed a detailed reference interval study on a healthy Australian population considering the effects of sex, age and body mass. These reference intervals may be adapted to other manufacturer's analytical methods using method transference.

  12. ENRAF gauge reference level calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This document describes the method for calculating reference levels for Enraf Series 854 Level Detectors as installed in the tank farms. The reference level calculation for each installed level gauge is contained herein.

  13. Celiac disease: From pathophysiology to treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzanese, Ilaria; Qehajaj, Dorina; Patrinicola, Federica; Aralica, Merica; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Stifter, Sanja; Elli, Luca; Grizzi, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Celiac disease, also known as “celiac sprue”, is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the small intestine, produced by the ingestion of dietary gluten products in susceptible people. It is a multifactorial disease, including genetic and environmental factors. Environmental trigger is represented by gluten while the genetic predisposition has been identified in the major histocompatibility complex region. Celiac disease is not a rare disorder like previously thought, with a global prevalence around 1%. The reason of its under-recognition is mainly referable to the fact that about half of affected people do not have the classic gastrointestinal symptoms, but they present nonspecific manifestations of nutritional deficiency or have no symptoms at all. Here we review the most recent data concerning epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, available diagnostic tests and therapeutic management of celiac disease. PMID:28573065

  14. Similarities of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Strain in Mother and Son in Spain to UK Reference Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diack, Abigail B; Boyle, Aileen; Ritchie, Diane; Plinston, Chris; Kisielewski, Dorothy; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Rábano, Alberto; Will, Robert G; Manson, Jean C

    2017-09-01

    We investigated transmission characteristics of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a mother and son from Spain. Despite differences in patient age and disease manifestations, we found the same strain properties in these patients as in UK vCJD cases. A single strain of agent appears to be responsible for all vCJD cases to date.

  15. Importance of intersectoral co-ordination in the control of communicable diseases, with special reference to plague in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilonzo, B S

    1994-07-01

    Human health, agriculture, including livestock, energy, education, wildlife, construction, forestry and trade sectors are inter-related and their co-ordination is an important pre-requisite for successful control of most communicable diseases including plague. Similar linkage between research, policy, training and extension activities in each sector are essential for any successful control strategy. Inadequate agricultural produce, inaccessibility of people to the available food and ignorance on proper preparation and usage of available food materials are responsible for malnutrition, and malnourished people are very vulnerable to disease. Irrigation schemes facilitate breeding of various disease vectors and transmission of some communicable diseases. Forests are ecologically favourable for some disease vectors and reservoirs for tsetse flies and rodents, while deforestation leads to soil erosion, lack of rainfall and consequently reduced productivity in agriculture which may result in poor nutrition of the population. Wildlife and livestock serve as reservoirs and/or carriers of various zoonoses including plague, trypanosomiasis and rabies. Lack of proper co-ordination of these sectors in communicable disease control programmes can result in serious and undesirable consequences. Indiscriminate killing of rodents in order to minimize food damage by these vermin forces their flea ectoparasites to seek alternative hosts, including man, a development which may result in transmission of plague from rodents to man. Similarly, avoidance of proper quarantine during plague epidemics, an undertaking which is usually aimed at maintaining economic and social links with places outside the affected focus, can result in the disease becoming widespread and consequently make any control strategies more difficult and expensive.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Extrapancreatic findings of IgG4-related disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, T.J.; Ng, Y.L.; Tan, D.; Fong, W.S.; Low, A.S.C.

    2014-01-01

    IgG4-related disease is a systemic fibro-inflammatory condition, which includes autoimmune pancreatitis as part of the disease spectrum. Imaging has been demonstrated to play a major role in the diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis. Recognizing the wide spectrum of extrapancreatic manifestations of IgG4-related disease coupled with a high clinical index of suspicion will allow for an accurate and timely diagnosis to be made, thus avoiding unnecessary invasive procedures and ensuring that early effective corticosteroid therapy is commenced. This review aims to serve as a concise reference tool for both clinicians and radiologists in the diagnosis of extrapancreatic IgG4-related disease

  17. TclTk Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Raines, Paul

    1998-01-01

    The Tcl/Tk combination is increasingly popular because it lets you produce sophisticated graphical interfaces with a few easy commands, develop and change scripts quickly, and conveniently tie together existing utilities or programming libraries. The Tcl/Tk Pocket Reference,a handy reference guide to the basic Tcl language elements, Tcl and Tk commands, and Tk widgets, is a companion volume to Tcl/Tk in a Nutshell.

  18. Writing more informative letters of reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Scott M; Ziegelstein, Roy C

    2004-05-01

    Writing a meaningful and valuable letter of reference is not an easy task. Several factors influence the quality of any letter of reference. First, the accuracy and reliability of the writer's impressions and judgment depend on how well he knows the individual being described. Second, the writer's frame of reference, which is determined by the number of persons at the same level that he has worked with, will impact the context and significance of his beliefs and estimations. Third, the letter-writing skills of the person composing the letter will naturally affect the letter. To support the other components of a candidate's application, a letter of reference should provide specific examples of how an individual's behavior or attitude compares to a reference group and should assess "intangibles" that are hard to glean from a curriculum vitae or from test scores. This report offers suggestions that should help physicians write more informative letters of reference.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: PURA syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TJ, Vreeburg M, Rouhl RPW, Stevens SJC, Stegmann APA, Schieving J, Pfundt R, van Dijk K, Smeets ... article on PubMed Central More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Genetics Home Reference Celebrates Its 15th Anniversary ...

  20. Japanese reference man 1988, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Gi-ichiro

    1988-01-01

    Quantitative description of physical properties and other characteristics of the human body is one of the basic data for estimating dose equivalent and calculating Annual Limit on Intake of radionuclides. The exact mass weight of organs and tissues are measured from about 1000 autopsy cases of normal Japanese adults and physical properties are obtained from recent Japanese Government publications. Japanese (Asian) Reference Man is completed by establishing the Normal Japanese, harmonizing with Caucasian Reference Man and coinciding with the ICRP Reference Man Task Group members concept. (author)