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Sample records for indicating primary magnetization

  1. Key Performance Indicators for Primary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Steve

    Focusing mostly on their application for primary schools, this document describes the educational key performance indicators (KPI) employed by the Wendsworth, England, Local Educational Authority (LEA). Indicators are divided into 3 areas, educational context, resource development, and outcomes. Contextual indicators include pupil mobility, home…

  2. Concepts and indications of abdominal magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murillo Viera, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    A literature review and conceptualization was performed of the main indications of magnetic resonance studies of the abdomen and the characteristic findings for each sequence, according to organ and pathology. The radiologist has had in mind main indications for magnetic resonance studies of the abdomen, with the purpose to guide the clinician in the choice of imaging modality that works best for the patient at diagnosis [es

  3. Indications for fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, D.

    2006-01-01

    Indications to perform fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are composed of common ones related to methodological problems of ultrasound (US) assessment (such as for instance hydramnios) and special ones. The latter are related to MR capability of high-resolution soft tissue contrast and an extended field of view that allows visualization of the whole fetus, even in later stages of pregnancy. The most important indications include confirmation of US findings, work-up of malformations with respect to individual prognosis and genetic background, differentiation between acquired conditions and malformations, visualization of pathologies that have to be treated surgically immediately after birth, and morphological changes of the placenta. (orig.) [de

  4. The european primary care monitor: structure, process and outcome indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Andrew

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scientific research has provided evidence on benefits of well developed primary care systems. The relevance of some of this research for the European situation is limited. There is currently a lack of up to date comprehensive and comparable information on variation in development of primary care, and a lack of knowledge of structures and strategies conducive to strengthening primary care in Europe. The EC funded project Primary Health Care Activity Monitor for Europe (PHAMEU aims to fill this gap by developing a Primary Care Monitoring System (PC Monitor for application in 31 European countries. This article describes the development of the indicators of the PC Monitor, which will make it possible to create an alternative model for holistic analyses of primary care. Methods A systematic review of the primary care literature published between 2003 and July 2008 was carried out. This resulted in an overview of: (1 the dimensions of primary care and their relevance to outcomes at (primary health system level; (2 essential features per dimension; (3 applied indicators to measure the features of primary care dimensions. The indicators were evaluated by the project team against criteria of relevance, precision, flexibility, and discriminating power. The resulting indicator set was evaluated on its suitability for Europe-wide comparison of primary care systems by a panel of primary care experts from various European countries (representing a variety of primary care systems. Results The developed PC Monitor approaches primary care in Europe as a multidimensional concept. It describes the key dimensions of primary care systems at three levels: structure, process, and outcome level. On structure level, it includes indicators for governance, economic conditions, and workforce development. On process level, indicators describe access, comprehensiveness, continuity, and coordination of primary care services. On outcome level, indicators

  5. [Quality Indicators of Primary Health Care Facilities in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semlitsch, Thomas; Abuzahra, Muna; Stigler, Florian; Jeitler, Klaus; Posch, Nicole; Siebenhofer, Andrea

    2017-07-11

    Background The strengthening of primary health care is one major goal of the current national health reform in Austria. In this context, a new interdisciplinary concept was developed in 2014 that defines structures and requirements for future primary health care facilities. Objective The aim of this project was the development of quality indicators for the evaluation of the scheduled primary health care facilities in Austria, which are in accordance with the new Austrian concept. Methods We used the RAND/NPCRDC method for the development and selection of the quality indicators. We conducted systematic literature searches for existing measures in international databases for quality indicators as well as in bibliographic databases. All retrieved measures were evaluated and rated by an expert panel in a 2-step process regarding relevance and feasibility. Results Overall, the literature searches yielded 281 potentially relevant quality indicators, which were summarized to 65 different quality measures for primary health care. Out of these, the panel rated and accepted 30 measures as relevant and feasible for use in Austria. Five of these indicators were structure measures, 14 were process measures and the remaining 11 were outcome measures. Based on the Austrian primary health care concept, the final set of quality indicators was grouped in the 5 following domains: Access to primary health care (5), quality of care (15), continuity of care (5), coordination of care (4), and safety (1). Conclusion This set of quality measures largely covers the four defined functions of primary health care. It enables standardized evaluation of primary health care facilities in Austria regarding the implementation of the Austrian primary health care concept as well as improvement in healthcare of the population. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of the breast: current indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalonde, L.; David, J.; Trop, I.

    2005-01-01

    Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an increasing role in the management of selecting breast cancer patients. MRI is recognized as the most sensitive modality for the detection of invasive breast cancer. Several valuable clinical applications of MRI have emerged for breast cancer detection and diagnosis from clinical investigations. Breast MRI is helpful for women diagnosed with breast cancer who contemplate breast conserving surgery; it provides valuable information on the extent of the disease. MRI can also help assess for residual invasive cancer in patients who have undergone lumpectomy with positive margins at pathology. It is very reliable in differentiating scar tissue from recurrence at the lumpectomy site. MRI is also reliable in finding a breast cancer in women with axillary nodal metastases and unknown primary tumour. MRI can help to monitor the response to chemotherapy. Breast MRI could be a better screening tool than mammography in women with very high risks of developing breast cancer, such as breast cancer gene carriers and patients treated with chest radiation. Other potential uses of MRI include evaluation of the integrity of silicone breast implants and evaluation of the parenchyma in women with silicone gel implants or free injection of silicone gel. However, like any other technique, breast MRI has some drawbacks, including low-to-moderate specificity, high costs, and variability in technique and interpretation. Radiologists must have a clear understanding of valid indications and selection criteria to use this technique appropriately. (author)

  7. Simple Magnetic Device Indicates Thickness Of Alloy 903

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Pin Jeng; Rodriguez, Sergio; Bright, Mark L.

    1995-01-01

    Handheld device called "ferrite indicator" orginally designed for use in determining ferrite content of specimen of steel. Placed in contact with specimen and functions by indicating whether magnet attracted more strongly to specimen or to calibrated reference sample. Relative strength of attraction shows whether alloy overlay thinner than allowable.

  8. Indications for primary cesarean delivery relative to body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Tetsuya; Reddy, Uma M.; Landy, Helain J.; Iqbal, Sara N.; Huang, Chun-Chih; Grantz, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a known risk factor for cesarean delivery. Limited data are available regarding the reasons for the increased rate of primary cesarean in obese women. It is important to identify the factors leading to an increased risk of cesarean to identify opportunities to reduce the primary cesarean rate. Objective We evaluated indications for primary cesarean across body mass index kg/m2 classes to identify the factors contributing to the increase rate of cesarean among obese women. Study design In the Consortium of Safe Labor study between 2002 and 2008, we calculated indications for primary cesarean including failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion, non-reassuring fetal heart tracing, malpresentation, elective, hypertensive disease, multiple gestation, placenta previa or vasa previa, failed induction, human immunodeficiency virus or active herpes simplex virus, history of uterine scar, fetal indication, placental abruption, chorioamnionitis, macrosomia, and failed operative delivery. For women with primary cesarean for failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion, dilation at the last recorded cervical examination was evaluated. Women were categorized according to body mass index on admission: normal weight (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), obese class I (30.0-34.9), II (35.0-39.9), and III (≥40). Cochran-Armitage Trend Test and Chi-square tests were performed. Results Of 66,502 nulliparous and 76,961 multiparous women in the study population, 19,431 nulliparous (29.2%) and 7,329 multiparous women (9.5%) underwent primary cesarean. Regardless of parity, malpresentation, failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion, and non-reassuring fetal heart tracing were the common indications for primary cesarean. Regardless of parity, the rates of primary cesarean for failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion increased with increasing body mass index (normal weight, class I, II and III obesity in nulliparous: 33.2%, 41.6%, 46

  9. Indicators for monitoring screening programs with primary HPV test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Manuel; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    following scientific evidence produced in numerous studies, as well as national and international guidelines, organized cervical cancer screening programs in Italy have gradually introduced the HPV test as primary screening test, replacing cytology. As public health interventions, screening programs must ensure equity, improvement in quality of life, and adequate information for the population involved with regards to benefits and possible risks; therefore, it is essential for quality to be constantly checked at every phase of the project.The Italian Cervical Screening Group (Gruppo Italiano per lo Screening Cervicale, GISCi) has written a handbook for the calculation and interpretation of cervical screening program monitoring indicators that take into account the new protocol based on primary HPV test with cytology triage. based on the European guidelines and Italian recommendations on primary HPVbased screening, the working group, which includes professionals from all the fields involved in cervical screening, identified the essential points needed to monitor the screening process, the accuracy of individual tests, and early outcomes, defining a specific indicator for each aspect. The indicators were grouped as follows: baseline indicators, indicators for test repeat after one year, cumulative indicators, and waiting times. For every indicator, the source of data, calculation formula, any standards or critical thresholds, and interpretation were defined. The standards are based on the results of NTCC trials or Italian pilot studies. the main indicators proposed for the organization are the following: number of invitations, compliance with first invitation, with one-year test repeat and with colposcopy; for test and process accuracy, a cohort approach was utilised, where indicators are based on women who must be followed for at least one year, so as to integrate the results obtained after the first HPV test with the outcome of the test's repetition after one year

  10. Sustainable Environmental Management Indicators in South African Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza O. de Sousa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research explores sustainable environmental management indicators in South African primary schools. Of key interest is the comparison of a township, farm and urban primary school that identify indicators that promote education for sustainable development in schools that implement an environmental management system. Data are drawn from one-on-one interviews, focus group interviews, observations and document analysis from 35 participants in three schools. A comparison of the three schools was done by content and thematic analysis of a within-case analysis. Data from the township school revealed that socioeconomic factors and organisational structure promote education for sustainable development. The farm school data revealed that health promotion can be managed within an environmental management system within a hierarchical school structure. The urban school data revealed that an economic inducement brings a school to realise that it can reduce its carbon footprint, gain financially and utilize its resources with innovation. A case is made that the four pillars of sustainable development (environment, society, economy, and governance endorse education for sustainable development. Furthermore, the objectives of environmental education ought to remain nested in an environmental management system to ensure that the global goal of quality education is achieved.

  11. Elements and indicators for identification of quality of primary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sučević Vlasta M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Education is one of the main pillars of the quality of knowledge, and, in turn, social progress in general. There are numerous positions concerning quality of education, some more, and some less detailed. In order to determine the quality of a primary school, for example as 'poor', 'mediocre' or 'excellent', we use, more or less precisely, a certain idea about the value, and thus identify, again with a certain extent of accuracy, the position of the school in question in relation to other schools. In terms of the quality of education, it is necessary to analyze all segments of educational process. This includes the analysis of objectives of educational process, products of quality education as well as adequate and accessible technical-instrumental, that is, operational-procedural level of quality of educational process. Most authors connect the quality of primary education to results, that is, outcomes of education. In order to achieve quality of education, we need to achieve quality of particular components or elements of the whole of education. This paper deals with theoretical review of elements and indicators of quality of basic education, and provides a review of pedagogical strategies and their effect on certain components of quality with the aim to improve the effects on pedagogical and didactical resources of the quality of education.

  12. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the primary motor cortex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have been performed on 20 right handed volunteers at 1.5 Tesla using echo planar imaging (EPI) protocol. Index finger tapping invoked localized activation in the primary motor area. Consistent and highly reproducible activation in the primary motor area was observed ...

  13. Measuring Progress toward Universal Primary Education: An Examination of Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langsten, Ray

    2014-01-01

    The Education Millennium Development Goal of universal primary education (UPE) states that "by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling." The 2008 midterm Global Monitoring Report claims that "A country's distance from UPE appears most clearly in terms of the net…

  14. Design of magnetic flux concentrator of permancent magnet for control rod position indicator of SMART CEDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, J. Y.; Kim, J. H.; Hur, H.; Kim, J. I.

    2002-01-01

    The reliability and accuracy of the information on control rod position are very important to the reactor safety and the design of the core protection system. A survey on the RSPT(Reed Switch Position Transmitter) type control rod position indication system and its actual implementation in the exiting nuclear power plants in Korea was performed first. The control rod position indicator having the high performance for SMART was developed on the basis of RSPT technology identified through the survey. The arrangement of permanent magnet and reed switches is the most important procedure in the design of control rod position indication. In this study, the magnetic flux concentrator of permanent magnet is introduced and the calculation method for effective flux area for reed switch is presented

  15. Sepsis: Primary indication for peripartum hysterectomies in a South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Peripartum hysterectomies are lifesaving procedures but definitions vary. Indications are variable and dependant on resources and geographical factors. Objectives. To evaluate the incidence, aetiology and complications associated with peripartum hysterectomies in a tertiary hospital in South Africa. Methods.

  16. Primary Teeth and Hair as Indicators of Environmental Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishniashvili, T E; Suladze, N N; Margvelashvili, V V

    2016-01-01

    To study the influence of environmental pollution on the mineralization of dental hard tissues by using biosubstrates: teeth and hair. : At the first stage epidemiological survey was conducted in polluted and less polluted areas of Tbilisi (Georgia). We studied 525 children aged 3 and 4 years. Caries prevalence and intensity was defined by the methodology of World Health Organization. At the second stage the chemical elements content was studied in hair and teeth hard tissues of 24 children by X-ray fluorescent spectroscopy method. The prevalence of dental caries in the polluted region was 46%, caries intensity--1.92 (± 2.842). In the less polluted region prevalence was 37%, caries intensity--1.47 (± 2.571). These data are statistically reliable (p < 0.05). The study of hair and tooth tissues showed that the toxic elements (Pb, Hg, Sn, Ti) content in these tissues was higher in environmentally unfavorable than in favorable conditions. Hair and dental tissues can be used as indicators of environmental pollution. Our survey showed that toxic elements content in dental hard tissues was higher and the level of essential elements was less in polluted than in less polluted areas of Tbilisi.

  17. Soil magnetic susceptibility as indicator of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curda, S.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement of magnetic susceptibility is a method, which is used in many areas of research. The locality Ak-Tjuz is typical example of old ecological load. One of the negative effects represents radioactive contamination. This situation is caused by environmental disaster in 1964. For useful reparation it is really necessary to determinate the surface range of contamination. And measurement of the magnetic susceptibility could be the suitable method for that kind of monitoring. (author)

  18. Indications and technique of fetal magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenbaum, U.; Woitek, R.; Furtner, J.; Prayer, D.; Brugger, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation and confirmation of fetal pathologies previously suspected or diagnosed with ultrasound. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Technique for prenatal fetal examination. Fetal MRI is an established supplementary technique to prenatal ultrasound. Fetal MRI should only be used as an additional method in prenatal diagnostics and not for routine screening. Fetal MRI should only be performed in perinatal medicine centers after a previous level III ultrasound examination. (orig.) [de

  19. Magnetic resonance in the preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabada, M.T.; Gomez, M.N.; Friera, A.; Carvajal, I.; Garcia, A.

    1995-01-01

    We assess the role of magnetic resonance (MR) as an imaging method for the preoperative localization of pathological parathyroid glands in a series of 14 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism secondary to parathyroid adenoma who underwent surgical resection. We selected 14 patients diagnosed as having primary hyperparathyroidism who underwent preoperative MR. All the studies were carried out with a toshiba MRT 50 MR unit with a 0.5 T superconductor magnet. MR located the adenoma in nine of the 14 patients (64%), including the only two who had previously undergone surgery. Our results indicate that MR without contrast is not effective in the preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas and should be performed only in patients with recurrent hyperparathyroidism or that persisting after surgical treatment. (Author)

  20. A double-sided linear primary permanent magnet vernier machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yi; Zou, Chunhua; Liu, Xianxing

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new double-sided linear primary permanent magnet (PM) vernier (DSLPPMV) machine, which can offer high thrust force, low detent force, and improved power factor. Both PMs and windings of the proposed machine are on the short translator, while the long stator is designed as a double-sided simple iron core with salient teeth so that it is very robust to transmit high thrust force. The key of this new machine is the introduction of double stator and the elimination of translator yoke, so that the inductance and the volume of the machine can be reduced. Hence, the proposed machine offers improved power factor and thrust force density. The electromagnetic performances of the proposed machine are analyzed including flux, no-load EMF, thrust force density, and inductance. Based on using the finite element analysis, the characteristics and performances of the proposed machine are assessed.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of breast. Actual technique and indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardivon, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Optimal breast MRI protocols are required using dedicated breast coils, high spatial resolution dynamic sequences (morphologic criteria are significantly more accurate than kinetic criteria) and bolus injection of contrast medium. Any abnormal MR enhancement must be described using BI-RADSMRI lexicon. Main indications of breast MRI are: suspicion of intra-capsular rupture (silicone implants), local relapse in a treated breast, search for breast cancer (metastatic axillary lymph nodes), locals staging of a breast cancer (dense breasts), follow-up of cancer under neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and screening in high-risk patients (gene mutation background). MRI is also useful for patients with unresolved problems at standard imaging (high negative predictive value of MRI). In patients with breast cancer, it is important to underline the need for radiologists to work with the multidisciplinary team and the ability to perform MR-guided biopsies for additional suspicious enhancements. (author) [es

  2. Indication-related dosing for magnetic resonance contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuh, W.T.C.; Parker, J.R.; Carvlin, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation reviews the issue of contrast media dosing and imaging protocols for the optimal MR imaging detection and characterization of pathology. The cumulative clinical experience gained in performing contrast-enhanced MR examinations with gadolinium chelates indicates that a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight provides safe and effective enhancement of most CNS pathology. Doses lower than 0.1 mmol/kg have been shown to be inadequate for delineating all but selected types of CNS pathology, such as masses with a high lesion to background ratio on post-contrast images (acoustic neuromas) or lesions located in areas in which the normal tissue very rapidly takes up contrast agent (e. g. microadenomas in the pituitary gland). Recent clinical studies have suggested a role for high dose gadolinium administration (up to 0.3 mmol/kg) for the optimal detection and delineation of cerebral metastases or other small or poorly enhancing lesions. Differences in the histopathologic characteristics (capillary permeability, vascularity, location, size) of specific diseased tissues may require varying doses or even a different contrast agent to be used for optimal imaging results. As new MR contrast agents and new scanning techniques are introduced, the specific diagnostic question posed will likely determine the choice of pulse sequence, contrast agent and dose used. (orig.)

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging texture analysis classification of primary breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waugh, S.A.; Lerski, R.A.; Purdie, C.A.; Jordan, L.B.; Vinnicombe, S.; Martin, P.; Thompson, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Patient-tailored treatments for breast cancer are based on histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) subtypes. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) texture analysis (TA) may be useful in non-invasive lesion subtype classification. Women with newly diagnosed primary breast cancer underwent pre-treatment dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI. TA was performed using co-occurrence matrix (COM) features, by creating a model on retrospective training data, then prospectively applying to a test set. Analyses were blinded to breast pathology. Subtype classifications were performed using a cross-validated k-nearest-neighbour (k = 3) technique, with accuracy relative to pathology assessed and receiver operator curve (AUROC) calculated. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess raw entropy feature values. Histological subtype classifications were similar across training (n = 148 cancers) and test sets (n = 73 lesions) using all COM features (training: 75 %, AUROC = 0.816; test: 72.5 %, AUROC = 0.823). Entropy features were significantly different between lobular and ductal cancers (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney U). IHC classifications using COM features were also similar for training and test data (training: 57.2 %, AUROC = 0.754; test: 57.0 %, AUROC = 0.750). Hormone receptor positive and negative cancers demonstrated significantly different entropy features. Entropy features alone were unable to create a robust classification model. Textural differences on contrast-enhanced MR images may reflect underlying lesion subtypes, which merits testing against treatment response. (orig.)

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of primary intracranial tumors: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, B.A.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.; Norman, D.; Newton, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    The experience in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of primary intracranial neoplasia at University of California, San Francisco is reviewed. Seventy patients have been evaluated by MR and computerized tomography (CT). MR scans were performed using a multi-slice spin echo technique with a long pulse repetition time (TR = 2000 msec), and long echo sampling delay (TE = 56 msec). This method was most sensitive in differentiating normal gray and white matter and in detecting both cerebral edema and abnormal tissue with prolonged T 2 characteristics. More sensitive to slight alterations in normal tissue, MR may detect a focal lesion in cases in which CT shows only mass effect. Moreover, MR may demonstrate more thoroughly the extent of tumor infiltration and broaden the characterization of abnormal tissue. Posterior fossa and brainstem anatomy are invariably better depicted by MR. The major limitations of MR include its inability to detect foci of tumor calcification, demonstrate the severity of bone destruction, or reliably distinguish tumor nidus from surrounding edema

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging texture analysis classification of primary breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, S.A.; Lerski, R.A. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Medical Physics, Dundee (United Kingdom); Purdie, C.A.; Jordan, L.B. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Pathology, Dundee (United Kingdom); Vinnicombe, S. [University of Dundee, Division of Imaging and Technology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom); Martin, P. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Clinical Radiology, Dundee (United Kingdom); Thompson, A.M. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Surgical Oncology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Patient-tailored treatments for breast cancer are based on histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) subtypes. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) texture analysis (TA) may be useful in non-invasive lesion subtype classification. Women with newly diagnosed primary breast cancer underwent pre-treatment dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI. TA was performed using co-occurrence matrix (COM) features, by creating a model on retrospective training data, then prospectively applying to a test set. Analyses were blinded to breast pathology. Subtype classifications were performed using a cross-validated k-nearest-neighbour (k = 3) technique, with accuracy relative to pathology assessed and receiver operator curve (AUROC) calculated. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to assess raw entropy feature values. Histological subtype classifications were similar across training (n = 148 cancers) and test sets (n = 73 lesions) using all COM features (training: 75 %, AUROC = 0.816; test: 72.5 %, AUROC = 0.823). Entropy features were significantly different between lobular and ductal cancers (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney U). IHC classifications using COM features were also similar for training and test data (training: 57.2 %, AUROC = 0.754; test: 57.0 %, AUROC = 0.750). Hormone receptor positive and negative cancers demonstrated significantly different entropy features. Entropy features alone were unable to create a robust classification model. Textural differences on contrast-enhanced MR images may reflect underlying lesion subtypes, which merits testing against treatment response. (orig.)

  6. OECD Health Care Quality Indicator Project. The expert panel on primary care prevention and health promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marshall, Martin; Klazinga, Niek; Leatherman, Sheila; Hardy, Charlie; Bergmann, Eckhard; Pisco, Luis; Mattke, Soeren; Mainz, Jan

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: This article describes a project undertaken as part of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)'s Healthcare Quality Indicator (HCQI) Project, which aimed to develop a set of quality indicators representing the domains of primary care, prevention and health

  7. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the primary motor cortex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abbreviations used: BOLD, Blood oxygenation level dependent; CBF, cerebral blood flow; fMRI, functional magnetic resonance imaging; EPI, eco-planar imaging; FOV, field of view; MRI, Magnetic resonance imaging; MRS, magnetic resonance spectroscopy;. PET, position emission tomography; rCBF, regional cerebral ...

  8. [Identification of health outcome indicators in Primary Care. A review of systematic reviews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olry de Labry Lima, A; García Mochón, L; Bermúdez Tamayo, C

    Outcome measures are being widely used by health services to assess the quality of health care. It is important to have a battery of useful performance indicators with high validity and feasibility. Thus, the objective of this study is to perform a review of reviews in order to identify outcome indicators for use in Primary Care. A review of systematic reviews (umbrella review) was carried out. The following databases were consulted: MedLine, EMBASE, and CINAHL, using descriptors and free terms, limiting searches to documents published in English or Spanish. In addition, a search was made for free terms in different web pages. Those reviews that offered indicators that could be used in the Primary Care environment were included. This review included a total of 5 reviews on performance indicators in Primary Care, which consisted of indicators in the following areas or clinical care processes: in osteoarthritis, chronicity, childhood asthma, clinical effectiveness, and prescription safety indicators. A total of 69 performance indicators were identified, with the percentage of performance indicators ranging from 0% to 92.8%. None of the reviews identified performed an analysis of the measurement control (feasibility or sensitivity to change of indicators). This paper offers a set of 69 performance indicators that have been identified and subsequently validated and prioritised by a panel of experts. Copyright © 2017 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. [Preventable drug-related morbidity: determining valid indicators for primary care in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Mara Pereira; Cantrill, Judith A; Martins, Ana Paula

    2007-01-01

    Preventable drug-related morbidity (PDRM) indicators are operational measures of therapeutic risk management. These clinical indicators, which cover a wide range of drugs, combine process and outcome in the same instrument. They were developed in the US and have been validated for primary care settings in the US, UK and Canada. This study is part of a research programme; it aimed to determine a valid set of PDRM indicators for adult patients in primary care in Portugal. Face validity of 61 US and UK-derived indicators translated to Portuguese was preliminarily determined by means of a postal questionnaire using a purposive sample of four Portuguese pharmacists with different backgrounds. Preliminary content validity of indicators approved in the previous stage was determined by cross-checking each definition of PDRM with standard drug information sources in Portugal. Face and content validity of indicators yielded by preliminary work were then established by a 37 expert panel (20 community pharmacists and 17 general practitioners) using a two-round Delphi survey. Data were analysed using SPSS release 11.5. Nineteen indicators were ruled out in preliminary validation. Changes were made in the content of eight of the remaining 42 indicators; these were related to differences in the drugs being marketed and patterns of drug monitoring between countries. Thirty-five indicators were consensus approved as PDRM for adult patients in Portuguese primary care by the Delphi panel.

  10. Sudden motility reversal indicates sensing of magnetic field gradients in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Lina M; Ruder, Warren C; Mitchell, Aaron P; Messner, William C; LeDuc, Philip R

    2015-06-01

    Many motile unicellular organisms have evolved specialized behaviors for detecting and responding to environmental cues such as chemical gradients (chemotaxis) and oxygen gradients (aerotaxis). Magnetotaxis is found in magnetotactic bacteria and it is defined as the passive alignment of these cells to the geomagnetic field along with active swimming. Herein we show that Magnetospirillum magneticum (AMB-1) show a unique set of responses that indicates they sense and respond not only to the direction of magnetic fields by aligning and swimming, but also to changes in the magnetic field or magnetic field gradients. We present data showing that AMB-1 cells exhibit sudden motility reversals when we impose them to local magnetic field gradients. Our system employs permalloy (Ni(80)Fe(20)) islands to curve and diverge the magnetic field lines emanating from our custom-designed Helmholtz coils in the vicinity of the islands (creating a drop in the field across the islands). The three distinct movements we have observed as they approach the permalloy islands are: unidirectional, single reverse and double reverse. Our findings indicate that these reverse movements occur in response to magnetic field gradients. In addition, using a permanent magnet we found further evidence that supports this claim. Motile AMB-1 cells swim away from the north and south poles of a permanent magnet when the magnet is positioned less than ∼30 mm from the droplet of cells. All together, these results indicate previously unknown response capabilities arising from the magnetic sensing systems of AMB-1 cells. These responses could enable them to cope with magnetic disturbances that could in turn potentially inhibit their efficient search for nutrients.

  11. Performance indicators for clinical practice management in primary care in Portugal: consensus from a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Furtado, Sara Isabel Félix; Silva, Ricardo Jorge Pereira; Fachado González, Francisco; Vara Fernandes, Tito Manuel; Correia de Sousa, Jaime; Yaphe, John

    2015-03-01

    Performance indicators assessing the quality of medical care and linked to pay for performance may cause disagreement. Portuguese indicators included in recent health care reform are controversial. To obtain consensus from opinion leaders in family medicine regarding the performance indicators for practice management used in the evaluation of Family Health Units in Portugal. Eighty-nine specialists in primary care were invited to answer the following question in an online Delphi study: 'Which performance indicators should be assessed regarding the organization and management of clinical practice in primary care in Portugal?' A Likert scale was used to evaluate validity, reliability, feasibility and sensitivity to change. Twenty-seven experts participated in the second round and achieved a high degree of consensus. Eight categories were created for analysis. The experts suggested the use of existing indicators as well as new indicators. Thirty-nine indicators suggested by the experts are currently in use in Portugal. The assessment of the number of clinical acts performed, the number of administrative acts, and evaluation of the clinical demographic profile achieved a high degree of consensus. The expert panel suggested fifty new indicators. Five categories of these new indicators had a high degree of consensus, and three categories had a low degree of consensus. The expert panel recommended that performance indicators of practice management should first assess the quantity of clinical and administrative activities undertaken. These indicators must take into account the human and financial resources available to the clinic and its demographic context.

  12. Renal impairment as a surgical indication in primary hyperparathyroidism: do the data support this recommendation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Chase D; Castro Pereira, Daniel J; Comi, Richard J

    2014-08-01

    Management of primary hyperparathyroidism has evolved over the past two decades, yet impaired renal function has consistently been a surgical indication. This recommendation has been based upon the historical association between primary hyperparathyroidism and renal impairment, and a review of the literature is needed to determine whether such a recommendation is warranted. PubMed was utilized to identify English-language articles published between January 1990 and February 2014 using keywords related to hyperparathyroidism and renal function. The keywords were "primary hyperparathyroidism," "surgery," "parathyroidectomy," "kidney," "renal," "glomerular filtration rate," and "creatinine." Of the 1926 articles obtained with this search, all articles germane to the topic that quantified the relationship between primary hyperparathyroidism and renal function were included. All references within these articles were investigated for inclusion. When helpful, data tables were constructed to summarize the results succinctly. A secondary elevation of PTH levels has not been consistently shown to occur at the threshold currently indicated for surgical intervention. While renal impairment is seen with more significant disease, mild asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism has not been conclusively associated with renal impairment. Furthermore, there is no evidence to suggest that surgically curing primary hyperparathyroidism via a parathyroidectomy has any impact upon renal function.

  13. Capturing pan-Canadian Primary Health Care indicator data using multiple approaches for data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Vicky; Sullivan-Taylor, Patricia; Webster, Greg; Macphail, Judith

    2009-01-01

    The Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI), in collaboration with diverse stakeholders, led the development of pan-Canadian indicators to measure primary health care. In 2006, CIHI released a set of 105 pan-Canadian Primary Health Care (PHC) indicators that were developed with the assistance of national, provincial and territorial representatives, clinicians and researchers. Additionally, data gaps were identified in a series of reports. In 2006 and 2007, CIHI assessed options for closing the data gaps so that the indicators could be measured and reported. CIHI then began a program to build the data infrastructure needed for the PHC indicators. The program included the development of content standards for electronic medical records, a prototype of a voluntary reporting system, enhancements to surveys, and the development of reports. In 2006, fewer than 10% of the 105 indicators could be calculated with existing data sources. Now, four projects have begun and over 50% of the indicators are being captured. Important relationships have been established with key collaborators. These relationships will lead to the development of a reporting system prototype and to the refinement of PHC indicators and electronic medical record (EMR) content standards. The project for pan-Canadian PHC indicators has encouraged consultation and synergy. It has motivated CIHI to establish an information program to fill data gaps and to make PHC indicators available.

  14. Performance indicators used to assess the quality of primary dental care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González, Grisel Zacca; Klazinga, Niek; ten Asbroek, Guus; Delnoij, Diana M.

    2006-01-01

    An appropriate quality of medical care including dental care should be an objective of every government that aims to improve the oral health of its population. OBJECTIVES: To determine performance indicators that could be used to assess the quality of primary dental care at different levels of a

  15. Magnetic local time dependence of geomagnetic disturbances contributing to the AU and AL indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomita, S; Nose´, M; Iyemori, T

    2010-01-01

    activity in the auroral zone. In the present study, we examine magnetic local time (MLT) dependence of geomagnetic field variations contributing to the AU and AL indices. We use 1-min geomagnetic field data obtained in 2003. It is found that both AU and AL indices have two ranges of MLT (AU: 15:00-22:00MLT...

  16. Correlation Between Monthly Cumulative Auroral Electrojet Indices, DST Index and Interplanetary Electric Field During Magnetic Storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Kyung Park

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetospheric substorms occur frequently during magnetic storms, suggesting that the two phenomena are closely associated. We can investigate the relation between magnetospheric substorms and magnetic storms by examining the correlation between AE and Dst indices. For this purpose, we calculated the monthly cumulative AU, |AL| and |Dst| indices. The correlation coefficient between the monthly cumulative |AL| and |Dst| index is found to be 0.60, while that between monthly cumulative AU and |Dst| index is 0.28. This result indicates that substorms seem to contribute to the development of magnetic storms. On the other hand, it has been reported that the interplanetary electric field associated with southward IMF intensifies the magnetospheric convection, which injects charged particles into the inner magnetosphere, thus developing the ring current. To evaluate the contribution of the interplanetary electric field to the development of the storm time ring current belt, we compared the monthly cumulative interplanetary electric field and the monthly cumulative Dst index. The correlation coefficient between the two cumulative indices is 0.83 for southward IMF and 0.39 for northward IMF. It indicates that magnetospheric convection induced by southward IMF is also important in developing magnetic storms. Therefore, both magnetospheric substorm and enhanced magnetospheric convection seem to contribute to the buildup of magnetic storm.

  17. [Use of indicators of geographical accessibility to primary health care centers in addressing inequities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pietri, Diana; Dietrich, Patricia; Mayo, Patricia; Carcagno, Alejandro; de Titto, Ernesto

    2013-12-01

    Characterize geographical indicators in relation to their usefulness in measuring regional inequities, identify and describe areas according to their degree of geographical accessibility to primary health care centers (PHCCs), and detect populations at risk from the perspective of access to primary care. Analysis of spatial accessibility using geographic information systems (GIS) involved three aspects: population without medical coverage, distribution of PHCCs, and the public transportation network connecting them. The development of indicators of demand (real, potential, and differential) and analysis of territorial factors affecting population mobility enabled the characterization of PHCCs with regard to their environment, thereby contributing to local and regional analysis and to the detection of different zones according to regional connectivity levels. Indicators developed in a GIS environment were very useful in analyzing accessibility to PHCCs by vulnerable populations. Zoning the region helped identify inequities by differentiating areas of unmet demand and fragmentation of spatial connectivity between PHCCs and public transportation.

  18. Arrangement of permanent magnet and reed switches for control rod position indicator of SMART CEDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, J. Y.; Kim, J. I.; Kim, J. H.; Hur, H.; Jang, M. H.

    2001-01-01

    The reliability and accuracy of the information on control rod position are very important to the reactor safety and the design of the core protection system. A survey on the RSPT(Reed Switch Position Transmitter) type control rod position indication system and its actual implementation in the exiting nuclear power plants in Korea was performed first. The control rod position indicator having the high performance for SMART was developed on the basis of RSPT technology identified through the survey. The arrangement of permanent magnet and reed switches is the most important procedure in the design of control rod position indication. In this study, the characteristics of permanent magnet and reed switches are introduced and the calculation method for arrangement of permanent magnet and reed switch is presented

  19. Psychometric analysis of the TRANSIT quality indicators for cardiovascular disease prevention in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanji, Cynthia; Bareil, Céline; Hudon, Eveline; Goudreau, Johanne; Duhamel, Fabie; Lussier, Marie-Thérèse; Perreault, Sylvie; Lalonde, Gilles; Turcotte, Alain; Berbiche, Djamal; Martin, Élisabeth; Lévesque, Lise; Gagnon, Marie-Mireille; Lalonde, Lyne

    2017-12-01

    To assess a selection of psychometric properties of the TRANSIT indicators. Using medical records, indicators were documented retrospectively during the 14 months preceding the end of the TRANSIT study. Primary care in Quebec, Canada. Indicators were documented in a random subsample (n = 123 patients) of the TRANSIT study population (n = 759). For every patient, the mean compliance to all indicators of a category (subscale score) and to the complete set of indicators (overall scale score) were established. To evaluate test-retest and inter-rater reliabilities, indicators were applied twice, two months apart, by the same evaluator and independently by different evaluators, respectively. To evaluate convergent validity, correlations between TRANSIT indicators, Burge et al. indicators and Institut national d'excellence en santé et en services sociaux (INESSS) indicators were examined. Test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, and convergent validity. Test-retest reliability, as measured by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) was equal to 0.99 (0.99-0.99) for the overall scale score while inter-rater reliability was equal to 0.95 (0.93-0.97) for the overall scale score. Convergent validity, as measured by Pearson's correlation coefficients, was equal to 0.77 (P TRANSIT indicators were compared to Burge et al. indicators and to 0.82 (P TRANSIT indicators were compared to INESSS indicators. Reliability was excellent except for eleven indicators while convergent validity was strong except for domains related to the management of CVD risk factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. A study of the geomagnetic indices asymmetry based on the interplanetary magnetic field polarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Borie, M. A.; El-Taher, A. M.; Aly, N. E.; Bishara, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    Data of geomagnetic indices ( aa, Kp, Ap, and Dst) recorded near 1 AU over the period 1967-2016, have been studied based on the asymmetry between the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) directions above and below of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS). Our results led to the following conclusions: (i) Throughout the considered period, 31 random years (62%) showed apparent asymmetries between Toward (T) and Away (A) polarity days and 19 years (38%) exhibited nearly a symmetrical behavior. The days of A polarity predominated over the T polarity days by 4.3% during the positive magnetic polarity epoch (1991-1999). While the days of T polarity exceeded the days of A polarity by 5.8% during the negative magnetic polarity epoch (2001-2012). (ii) Considerable yearly North-South (N-S) asymmetries of geomagnetic indices observed throughout the considered period. (iii) The largest toward dominant peaks for aa and Ap indices occurred in 1995 near to minimum of solar activity. Moreover, the most substantial away dominant peaks for aa and Ap indices occurred in 2003 (during the descending phase of the solar cycle 23) and in 1991 (near the maximum of solar activity cycle) respectively. (iv) The N-S asymmetry of Kp index indicated a most significant away dominant peak occurred in 2003. (v) Four of the away dominant peaks of Dst index occurred at the maxima of solar activity in the years 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2013. The largest toward dominant peak occurred in 1991 (at the reversal of IMF polarity). (vi) The geomagnetic indices ( aa, Ap, and Kp) all have northern dominance during positive magnetic polarity epoch (1971-1979), while the asymmetries shifts to the southern solar hemisphere during negative magnetic polarity epoch (2001-2012).

  1. Radionuclide analyses taken during primary coolant decontamination at Three Mile Island indicate general circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Baston, V.F.; Hitz, C.G.; Malinauskas, A.P.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide concentration data taken during decontamination of the primary reactor coolant system at Three Mile Island by a feed-and-bleed process have provided information on future defueling operations. Analysis of the radiocesium concentrations in samples taken at the letdown point indicates general circulation within the primary system, including the reactor vessel and both steam generators. A standard dilution model with parameters consistent with engineering estimates (volume, flow rate, etc.) accurately predicts the radiocesium decontamination rates. Unlike cesium, the behavior of other principal soluble radionuclides ( 90 Sr and 3 H) cannot be readily described by dilution theory. A significant appearance rate is observed for 90 Sr suggesting a chemical solubility mechanism. The use of processed water containing high 3 H for makeup causes uncertainty in the interpretation of the 3 H analysis

  2. [Compliance with process indicators in people with type 2 diabetes and linking incentives in Primary Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual de la Pisa, Beatriz; Márquez Calzada, Cristina; Cuberos Sánchez, Carla; Cruces Jiménez, José Miguel; Fernández Gamaza, Manuel; Martínez Martínez, María Isabel

    2015-03-01

    Pay-for-performance programs to improve the quality of health care are extending gradually, particularly en Primary Health Care. Our aim was to explore the relationship between the degree of compliance with the process indicators (PrI) of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Primary Care and linkage to incentives. Cross-sectional, descriptive, observational study. Six Primary Health Care centers in Seville Aljarafe District randomly selected and stratified by population size. From 3.647 adults included in Integrated Healthcare Process of T2DM during 2008, 366 patients were included according sample size calculation by stratified random sampling. PrI: eye and feet examination, glycated hemoglobin, lipid profile, microalbuminuria and electrocardiogram. Confounding: Age, gender, characteristics town for patients and professional variables. The mean age was 66.36 years (standard deviation [DE]: 11,56); 48.9% were women. PrI with better compliance were feet examination, glycated hemoglobin and lipid profile (59.6%, 44.3% and 44%, respectively). 2.7% of patients had simultaneous compliance of the six PrI and 11.74% of patients three PrI linkage to incentives. Statistical association was observed in the compliance of the PrI incentives linked or not (P=.001). The degree of compliance with the PrI for screening chronic complications of T2DM is mostly low but this was higher on indicators linked to incentives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Different weathering stages indicated by the magnetization of limestones: An example from the southeast Pyrenees, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, P.; Gehring, A. U.

    1992-06-01

    Paleomagnetic and structural data from the Pedraforca thrust sheet in the southeast Pyrenees show that the chemical weathering of the late Cretaceous limestones is a multistage process. The first weathering stage, of latest Eocene to early Oligocene age, is indicated by a chemical remanent magnetization carried by hematite. The formation of hematite as the dominant weathering product suggests a subtropical climate in northeast Spain during this period. The second weathering stage is indicated by the presence of goethite, which carries a chemical remanent magnetization parallel to the present earth field. This suggests formation of the goethite since the late Pleistocene under cooler climatic conditions similar to the present-day climate in the Pyrenees.

  4. Grouping of Cities In Terms Of Primary Health Indicators in Turkey: An Application of Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan TEKİN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is thought that to determine the differences between cities that locate in Turkey is important in the context of primary health care indicators. The subject of this study is the classification of cities in Turkey in terms of health indicators. The cluster analysis method which is the one of the data mining and multivariate statistical methods is used for classification method. The main objective of the study is to examine the point of results of movement transformation in health in terms of basic health indicators on the basis of cities.. In this context, 81 cities, in Turkey are grouped with sixteen health indicators which is assumed to demonstrate the effectiveness of health care services, by the years of 2013. And also compared with the health and socio-economic development ranking in the previous studies. Providences are gathered in 21, 13, 11, 7 and 5 clusters. 11’s, 7’s and 5’s clusters are determined as the most significant clusters. As a result of the study the development gap between eastern and western provinces emerges in terms of the health variables.

  5. [Heavy Metals Accmultio in the Caofeidian Reclamation Soils: Indicated by Soil Magnetic Susceptibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yong; Zhou, Qian; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Hai-bo; Hu, Xue-feng; Luo, Yong-ming

    2016-04-15

    The environmental magnetism method has been widely applied to identify soil heavy metal pollution, which is characterized by simplicity, efficiency, non-destructivity and sensitivity. The present study used magnetic susceptibility to assess the accumulation of heavy metals in soils of the Caofeidian industrial zone which is a typical reclamation area in northern China. The study area was divided into three sub-zones based on the function, including industrial zone, living zone, natural tidal flat and wetland. A total of 35 topsoil samples (0-10 cm) and 3 soil profiles were collected from the three sub-zones. Magnetic susceptibility (X(lf)), iron oxide (Fe2O3) contents and heavy metals contents (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb, Mn and V) of the samples were analyzed. The results showed that X(lf) values and heavy metals contents exhibited higher spatial variability in the top soil of the industrial zone, indicating the severe impacts of industrial activities. In the soil profiles of the industrial and living zones, all heavy metals were enriched to different degrees in the upper layer (0-20 cm). However, there was no significant change of heavy metal contents in the soil profiles of tidal flat which was far from the industrial area. The X(lf) value was significantly (P soil. This indicated that X(lf) could be used as an indicator for heavy metal accumulation in the industrial zone. However, the X(lf) value was not suitable to be an indicator to show the heavy metal accumulation in the soils of living zone and natural tidal flat. This might be associated with the different sources of magnetic materials among the different sub-zones and the special characteristics of the soils in the tidal flat and wetland.

  6. Performance estimation of control rod position indicator due to aging of magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Je Yong; Kim, Ji Ho; Huh, Hyung; Choi, Myoung Hwan; Sohn, Dong Seong

    2009-01-01

    The Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) for the integral reactor is designed to raise and lower the control rod in steps of 2mm in order to satisfy the design features of the integral reactor which are the soluble boron free operation and the use of a nuclear heating for the reactor start-up. The actual position of the control rod could be achieved to sense the magnet connected to the control rod by the position indicator around the upper pressure housing of CEDM. It is sufficient that the actual position information of control rod at 20mm interval from the position indicator is used for the core safety analysis. As the magnet moves upward along the position indicator assembly from the bottom to the top in the upper pressure housing, the output voltage increases linearly step-wise at 0.2VDC increments. Between every step there are transient areas which occur by a contact closing of three reed switches which is the 2-3-2 contact closing sequence. In this paper the output voltage signal corresponding to the position of control rod was estimated on the 2-1-2 contact closing sequence due to the aging of the magnet.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of primary liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtomo, Kuni; Itai, Yuji; Furui, Shigeru; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Yashiro, Naobumi; Iio, Masahiro

    1985-01-01

    In seven primary liver cancers (HCC 5, CCC 1, mixed 1), MR images (0.35 Tesla superconducting) were compared with macroscopic appearances, and relaxation times (T 1 and T 2 ) with microscopic characteristics. MRI was able to reveal the gross appearance of five nodular lesions, but did not reveal one diffuse HCC and one nodular HCC with marked extracapsular extension. T 2 -weighted SE images could not demonstrate fibrous capsules around the tumor in four nodular HCCs. The T 1 and T 2 values of the tumors were longer than those of the surrounding liver parenchyma, and the T 1 elongation corresponded roughly to the degree of necrosis and fibrosis within the tumors. (author)

  8. [Indicator condition guided human immunodeficiency virus requesting in primary health care: results of a collaboration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayuelas-Redondo, Laia; Menacho-Pascual, Ignacio; Noguera-Sánchez, Pablo; Goicoa-Gago, Carmen; Pollio-Peña, Gernónimo; Blanco-Delgado, Rebeca; Barba-Ávila, Olga; Sequeira-Aymar, Ethel; Muns, Mercè; Clusa, Thais; García, Felipe; León, Agathe

    2015-12-01

    The search of HIV infected patients guided by indicator conditions (IC) is a strategy used to increase the early detection of HIV. The objective is to analyze whether a collaboration to raise awareness of the importance of early detection of HIV in 3 primary care centers influenced the proportion of HIV serology requested. Multicenter retrospective study was conducted comparing the baseline and a post-collaboration period. The collaboration consisted of training sessions and participation in the HIDES study (years 2009-2010). Patients between 18 and 64 years old with newly diagnosed herpes zoster, seborrheic eczema, mononucleosis syndrome, and leucopenia/thrombocytopenia in 3 primary care centers in 2008 (baseline period) and 2012 (post-collaboration period). The sociodemographic variables, HIV risk conditions, requests for HIV serology, and outcomes were evaluated. A total of 1,219 ICs were included (558 in 2008 and 661 in 2012). In 2008 the number of HIV tests in patients with an IC was 3.9%, and rose to 11.8% in 2012 (Pde Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. Primary physical mechanism of different magnetic fields action on roots of some plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Sheykina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Though the magnetic field action on biological object is proved now by many experiments it cannot be explained. The counterarguments are the small value of magnetic induction, that is effective for static magnetic field and the small value of ions free path length for ion cyclotron resonance presence.   Objectives of the article were to generalize all the results that had been obtained before in static, alternative and combined magnetic fields and to explain all results by one and the same primary physical mechanism. Materials and methods that were used to obtain experimental results were based on the using of well reproducible magnetic conditions. For this purpose 3 lays µ-metal shield and superconductive shield with warm volume were used. The artificial magnetic field was created in the shield. The objects of the investigation were roots of cress, maize and pea. Their gravitropic reaction was studied. Results and discussion: All experimental results were compared with the theories and calculations maid before and following from the three mechanisms proposed below.  It was shown that there were three physical primary mechanisms that could lead to effect of low frequency alternative and combined magnetic fields and permanent magnetic field on gravitropic reaction in plants. All of them depended on the relative location of roots, gravity and components of permanent and alternative magnetic fields between themselves. The first mechanism is based on the classic model of the rotation of ions in the plane that is perpendicular to the magnetic field direction or precession of magnetic moments round the direction of magnetic field vector. The second mechanism is connected with the piezoelectric properties of starch grain (porous piezoelectricity. This property of starch may create the change in the moving of starch grains in alternative and combined magnetic fields, and even in static one. The third mechanism is caused by the phase

  10. 'Virtual lesion' in pain research; a study on magnetic stimulation of the primary motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Y; Liem, K S; Weissman-Fogel, I; Yarnitsky, D; Chistyakov, A; Sinai, A

    2016-02-01

    'Virtual lesion' ('VL') is a transient disruption of cortical activity during task performance. It can be induced by single pulses or short trains of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) directed to functionally relevant brain areas. We applied 'VL' methodology of a short train of TMS given on top of experimental tonic pain, expecting to see changes in pain scores. Thirty young healthy subjects (15 women) were assessed with active ('VL') or 'sham' TMS in different sessions, randomly. In each session, 30 sec-long contact heat (47.5 °C, right forearm) was applied stand-alone ('baseline') and with 5 sec-long 10 Hz-TMS over left primary motor cortex (M1) starting at 17 sec of the heat stimulation. Pain scores decreased after 'VL' or 'sham' (p < 0.001). Independently of the type of TMS, pain reduction was stronger in women (p = 0.012). A triple Sex x Stimulation type ('VL' or 'sham') x Condition ('baseline' heat pain vs. heat pain with TMS) interaction (p = 0.027) indicated stronger pain reduction by 'VL' in women (p = 0.008) and not in men (p = 0.78) as compared to 'baseline'. Pain catastrophizing and perceived stress ratings affected the model (p = 0.010 and p < 0.001, respectively), but without sex differences. This study indicates that interactions between cortical excitability of the motor cortex and nociceptive processing may be gender-related. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  11. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to the Primary Motor Cortex Interferes with Motor Learning by Observing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Liana E.; Wilson, Elizabeth T.; Gribble, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    Neural representations of novel motor skills can be acquired through visual observation. We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to test the idea that this "motor learning by observing" is based on engagement of neural processes for learning in the primary motor cortex (M1). Human subjects who observed another person learning…

  12. Measurement tools and process indicators of patient safety culture in primary care. A mixed methods study by the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Dianne; Wensing, Michel; Esmail, Aneez; Valderas, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: There is little guidance available to healthcare practitioners about what tools they might use to assess the patient safety culture. Objective: To identify useful tools for assessing patient safety culture in primary care organizations in Europe; to identify those aspects of performance that should be assessed when investigating the relationship between safety culture and performance in primary care. Methods: Two consensus-based studies were carried out, in which subject matter experts and primary healthcare professionals from several EU states rated (a) the applicability to their healthcare system of several existing safety culture assessment tools and (b) the appropriateness and usefulness of a range of potential indicators of a positive patient safety culture to primary care settings. The safety culture tools were field-tested in four countries to ascertain any challenges and issues arising when used in primary care. Results: The two existing tools that received the most favourable ratings were the Manchester patient safety framework (MaPsAF primary care version) and the Agency for healthcare research and quality survey (medical office version). Several potential safety culture process indicators were identified. The one that emerged as offering the best combination of appropriateness and usefulness related to the collection of data on adverse patient events. Conclusion: Two tools, one quantitative and one qualitative, were identified as applicable and useful in assessing patient safety culture in primary care settings in Europe. Safety culture indicators in primary care should focus on the processes rather than the outcomes of care. PMID:26339832

  13. How primary care reforms influenced health indicators in Manisa district in Turkey: Lessons for general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Celalettin; Sozmen, Kaan; Kilic, Bulent

    2018-12-01

    Turkish health reforms began in 2003 and brought some significant changes in primary care services. Few studies in Turkey compare the shift from health centres (HC) to family physicians (FP) approach, which was initiated by reforms. This study compares health status indicators during the HC period before reforms (2003-2007) and the FP period after reforms (2008-2012) in Turkey. This study encompasses time series data consisting of the results of a 10-year assessment (2003-2012) in Manisa district. All the data were obtained electronically and by month. The intersection points of the regression curves of these two periods and the beta coefficients were compared using segmented linear regression analysis. The mean number of follow-up per person/year during the HC period in infants (10.5), pregnant women (6.6) and women (1.8) was significantly higher than the mean number of follow-up during the FP period in infants (6.7), pregnant women (5.6) and women (0.9). Rates of BCG and measles vaccinations were significantly higher during the FP period; however, rates of HBV and DPT were same. The mean number of outpatient services per person/year during the FP period (3.3) was significantly higher than HC period (2.8). Within non-communicable diseases, no difference was detected for hypertension prevalence. Within communicable diseases, there was no difference for rabies suspected bites but acute haemorrhagic gastroenteritis significantly decreased. The infant mortality rate and under five-year child mortality rate significantly increased during the FP period. Primary care services should be reorganized and integrated with public health services.

  14. Evaluation of field recognizable morbidity indicators of Schistosoma haematobium infection among primary school children in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ato Kwamena Tetteh

    2016-09-01

    Materials and Methods — In all, 417 pupils in three primary schools (Kasseh sub-District, Dangme East District, Ghana, provided urine samples, which were examined for S. haematobium ova. The study utilized a structured questionnaire, the Urit 10V multi-stick urine reagent strips and the filtration method. Results — Overall, prevalence by microscopy was 20.9% (requires targeted treatment once every two years, and was higher (14.0% among the 10-15 years age group (χ2=22.44, p<0.001. The lowest prevalence was among the <6 (0.5%, 2/417 and ≥19 (1.4%, 6/417 years age groups. There was no significant difference in prevalence among females (7.9%, 33/417 and males (12.9%, 54/417 (χ2=2.58, p=0.108. Self-reported haematuria was 43.2% (targeted treatment once a year. There was a significant difference between female (16.1%, 67/417 and male (27.1%, 113/417 responses to self-reported haematuria (χ2=4.170, p<0.001. A lower consolidated mean prevalence of 11.7% was estimated among pupils who had ova in their urine and also exhibited three morbidity indicators (haematuria, leucocyturia and proteinuria. Combined and averaged sensitivity and specificity estimations (sensitivity = 55.4%, specificity = 67.8%, Positive Predictive Value (PPV = 53.4%, Negative Predictive Value (NPV = 64.2% of these morbidity indicators, was insufficient in equalizing the reliability of ova quantification. With the exception of leucocyturia, which was common among all pupils, 28.75% (25/87 of the infected individuals did not have any form of haematuria or proteinuria. Out of these, one pupil had heavy ova intensity (80 eggs/10ml of urine while the remaining 24 had low ova intensity infection (1-44 eggs/10ml of urine. Questionnaire correctly identified 56.3% of pupils with S. haematobium ova in their urine, also reporting bloody urine (PPV=27.2%; NPV=84.0%. It also identified 49.4% of pupils with ova, reporting painful urination (PPV=26.1%, NPV=82.5%. Conclusion — This study emphasizes the

  15. Sensitivity of vegetation indices and gross primary production of tallgrass prairie to severe drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagle, Pradeep; Xiao, Xiangming; Torn, Margaret S.; Cook, David R.; Matamala, Roser; Fischer, Marc L.; Jin, Cui; Dong, Jinwei; Biradar, Chandrashekhar

    2014-09-01

    Drought affects vegetation photosynthesis and growth.Many studies have used the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which is calculated as the normalized ratio between near infrared and red spectral bands in satellite images, to evaluate the response of vegetation to drought. In this study, we examined the impacts of drought on three vegetation indices (NDVI, enhanced vegetation index, EVI, and land surface water index, LSWI) and CO2 flux from three tallgrass prairie eddy flux tower sites in the U.S. Gross primary production (GPP) was also modeled using a satellite-based Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM), and the modeled GPP (GPPVPM) was compared with the GPP (GPPEC) derived from eddy covariance measurements. Precipitation at two sites in Oklahoma was 30% below the historical mean in both years of the study period (2005–2006), while the site in Illinois did not experience drought in the 2005–2007 study period. The EVI explained the seasonal dynamics of GPP better than did NDVI. The LSWI dropped below zero during severe droughts in the growing season, showing its potential to track drought. The result shows that GPP was more sensitive to drought than were vegetation indices, and EVI and LSWI were more sensitive than NDVI. We developed a modified function (Wscalar), calculated as a function of LSWI, to account for the effect of severe droughts on GPP in VPM. The GPPVPM from the modified VPM accounted for the rapid reduction in GPP during severe droughts and the seasonal dynamics of GPPVPM agreed reasonably well with GPPEC. Our analysis shows that 8-day averaged values (temperature, vapor-pressure deficit) do not reflect the short-term extreme climate events well, suggesting that satellite based models may need to be run at daily or hourly scales, especially under unfavorable climatic conditions.

  16. Annual Gross Primary Production from Vegetation Indices: A Theoretically Sound Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Amparo Gilabert

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A linear relationship between the annual gross primary production (GPP and a PAR-weighted vegetation index is theoretically derived from the Monteith equation. A semi-empirical model is then proposed to estimate the annual GPP from commonly available vegetation indices images and a representative PAR, which does not require actual meteorological data. A cross validation procedure is used to calibrate and validate the model predictions against reference data. As the calibration/validation process depends on the reference GPP product, the higher the quality of the reference GPP, the better the performance of the semi-empirical model. The annual GPP has been estimated at 1-km scale from MODIS NDVI and EVI images for eight years. Two reference data sets have been used: an optimized GPP product for the study area previously obtained and the MOD17A3 product. Different statistics show a good agreement between the estimates and the reference GPP data, with correlation coefficient around 0.9 and relative RMSE around 20%. The annual GPP is overestimated in semiarid areas and slightly underestimated in dense forest areas. With the above limitations, the model provides an excellent compromise between simplicity and accuracy for the calculation of long time series of annual GPP.

  17. Primary hyperthyroidism--diagnosis and treatment. Indications and contraindications for radioiodine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgul, Edyta; Sowinski, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    Isotope therapy is one of the methods used in primary hyperthyroidism. The therapy is based on short-range beta radiation emitted from radioactive iodine. Radioiodine administration must always be preceded by pharmacological normalization of thyroid function. Otherwise, post-radiation thyrocyte destruction and thyroid hormones release may lead to hyperthyroidism exacerbation. Indications for radioiodine therapy in Graves-Basedow disease include recurrent hyperthyroidism after thyrostatic treatment or thyroidectomy and side-effects observed during thyrostatic treatment. In toxic nodule, isotope therapy is the first choice therapy. Radioiodine is absorbed only in autonomous nodule. Therefore, it destroys only this area and does not damage the remaining thyroid tissue. In toxic goitre, radioiodine is used mostly in recurrent nodules. Absolute contraindications for radioiodine treatment are pregnancy and lactation. Relative contraindications are thyroid nodules suspected of malignancy and age under 15 years. In patients with thyroid nodules suspected of malignancy, radioiodine treatment may be applied as a preparation for surgery, if thyrostatic drugs are ineffective or contraindicated. In children, radioiodine therapy should be considered in recurrent toxic goitre and when thyrostatic drugs are ineffective. In patients with Graves-Basedow disease and thyroid-associated orbitopathy, radioiodine treatment may increase the inflammatory process and exacerbate the ophthalmological symptoms. However, thyroid-associated orbitopathy cannot be considered as a contraindication for isotope therapy. The potential carcinogenic properties of radioiodine, especially associated with tissues with high iodine uptake (thyroid, salivary glands, stomach, intestine, urinary tract, breast), have not been confirmed.

  18. Preoperative Thyroid Ultrasound Is Indicated in Patients Undergoing Parathyroidectomy for Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cletus A. Arciero, Zita S. Shiue, Jeremy D. Gates, George E. Peoples, Alan P. B. Dackiw, Ralph P. Tufano, Steven K. Libutti, Martha A. Zeiger, Alexander Stojadinovic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary hyperaparathyroidism (pHPT is often accompanied by underlying thyroid pathology that can confound preoperative parathyroid localization studies and complicate intra-operative decision making. The aim of this study was to examine the utility of preoperative thyroid ultrasonography (US in patients prior to undergoing parathyroidectomy for pHPT.Methods: An Institutional Review Board approved prospective study was undertaken from January 2005 through July 2008. All patients with pHPT meeting inclusion criteria (n=94 underwent preoperative thyroid ultrasound in addition to standard 99mTc-sestamibi scintigraphy for parathyroid localization. Demographics, operative management and final pathology were examined in all cases.Results: Fifty-four of the 94 patients (57% were noted to have a thyroid nodule on preoperative US, of which 30 (56% underwent further examination with fine needle aspiration biopsy. Alteration of the operative plan attributable to underlying thyroid pathology occurred in 16 patients (17%, with patients undergoing either total thyroidectomy (n=9 or thyroid lobectomy (n=7. Thyroid cancer was noted in 33% of patients undergoing thyroid resection, and 6% of all patients with HPT.Conclusions: The routine utilization of preoperative thyroid ultrasound in patients prior to undergoing parathyroid surgery for pHPT is indicated. The added information from this non-invasive modality facilitates timely management of co-incidental, and sometimes malignant, thyroid pathology.

  19. Thixotropic Phenomena in Water: Quantitative Indicators of Casimir-Magnetic Transformations from Vacuum Oscillations (Virtual Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Persinger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The ~1.5 × 10−20 J which is considered a universal quantity and is associated with the movement of protons in water also relates to the ratio of the magnetic moment of a proton divided by its unit charge, multiplied by viscosity and applied over the O-H distance. There is quantitative evidence that thixotropy, the “spontaneous” increased viscosity in water when undisturbed, originates from the transformation of virtual particles or vacuum oscillations to real states through conversion of Casimir-magnetic energies that involve the frequency of the neutral hydrogen line and the upper bound threshold value for intergalactic magnetic fields. The results indicate that ½ of a single electron orbit is real (particle and the other ½ is virtual (wave. The matter equivalent per s for virtual-to-real states for electrons in 1 mL of water with a neutral pH is consistent with the numbers of protons (H+ and the measured range of molecules in the coherent domains for both width and duration of growth and is similar to widths of intergalactic dust grains from which planets and stars may condense. The de Broglie momentum for the lower boundary of the width of coherent domains multiplied by the fine structure velocity of an electron is concurrent with the quantum when one proton is being removed from another and when the upper boundary of the rest mass of a photon is transformed by the product of velocities for putative “entanglement” and light. Theoretical and experimental results indicate that components of thixotropy, such as specific domains of intercalated water molecules, could display excess correlations over very large distances. Because the energies of the universal quantity and water converge it may be a special conduit for discrete transformations from virtual to real states.

  20. Midterm Periodicity Analysis of the Mount Wilson Magnetic Indices Using the Synchrosqueezing Transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Song; Wang, Feng; Deng, Hui; Yang, Yunfei [Yunnan Key Laboratory of Computer Technology Application/Faculty of Information Engineering and Automation, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Yu, Lan, E-mail: ynkmfs@escience.cn [Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Yunnan Land and Resources Vocational College, Kunming 650217 (China)

    2017-08-10

    A novel time–frequency technique, called the synchrosqueezing transform (SST), is used to investigate the midterm periodic variations of magnetic fields on the solar surface. The Magnetic Plage Strength Index (MPSI) and the Mount Wilson Sunspot Index (MWSI), measured daily by the Mount Wilson Observatory between 1970 January 19 and 2012 January 22, are selected. Short-, mid, and longer-term periodicities are represented and decomposed by the SST with hardly any mode mixing. This demonstrates that the SST is a useful time–frequency analysis technique to characterize the periodic modes of helioseismic data. Apart from the fundamental modes of the annual periodicity, ∼27 day rotational cycle and ∼11 year solar cycle, the SST reveals several midterm periodicities in the two magnetic activity indices, specifically, ∼157 days (i.e., Rieger-type periodicity), and ∼1.3 and 1.7 years. The periodic modes, with 116.4 and 276.2 day periodicity in the MPSI, 108.5 and 251.6 day periodicity in the MWSI, and 157.7 day periodicity in the two indices, are in better accord with those significant periodicities derived from the Rossby waves theoretical model. This study suggests that the modes are caused by Rossby waves. For the 1.30 and 1.71 year periodicity of the MPSI, and the 1.33 and 1.67 year periodicity of the MWSI, our analysis infers that they are related to those periodicities with the same timescale in the interior of the Sun and in the high atmospheric layers.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based indication for neoadjuvant treatment of rectal carcinoma and the surrogate endpoint CRM status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, Joachim; Junginger, Theo; Trinh, Trong; Püttcher, Olaf; Oberholzer, Katja; Heald, Richard J; Hermanek, Paul

    2008-11-01

    Is it possible to reduce the frequency of neoadjuvant therapy for rectal carcinoma and nevertheless achieve a rate of more than 90% circumferential resection margin (CRM)-negative resection specimens by a novel concept of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based therapy planning? One hundred eighty-one patients from Berlin and Mainz, Germany, with primary rectal carcinoma, without distant metastasis, underwent radical surgery with curative intention. Surgical procedures applied were anterior resection with total mesorectal excision (TME) or partial mesorectal excision (PME; PME for tumours of the upper rectum) or abdominoperineal excision with TME. With MRI selection of the highest-risk cases, neoadjuvant therapy was given to only 62 of 181 (34.3%). The rate of CRM-negative resection specimens on histology was 170 of 181 (93.9%) for all patients, and in Berlin, only 1 of 93 (1%) specimens was CRM-positive. Patients selected for primary surgery had CRM-negative specimens on histology in 114 of 119 (95.8%). Those selected for neoadjuvant therapy had a lower rate of clear margin: 56 of 62 (90%). By applying a MRI-based indication, the frequency of neoadjuvant treatment with its acute and late adverse effects can be reduced to 30-35% without reduction of pathologically CRM-negative resection specimens and, thus, without the danger of worsening the oncological long-term results. This concept should be confirmed in prospective multicentre observation studies with quality assurance of MRI, surgery and pathology.

  2. On a fine structure of a primary impulse of a magnetic storm sudden commencement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhomov, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    A fine structure of a primary reverse impulse of a sudden commencement (SSC*) of a magnetic storm is analyzed. 200 cases of SSC* recorded in 1965-79 have been chosen for the investigation. It is shown that the preliminary impulse of the sudden copmencement of magnetic storms has a fine structure in the form of the train of damped oscillations in Pc2-3 range of < or approximately 2 min durations. The excitation of oscillations is related with the propagation of the fast magnetoacoustic wave which is generated during interaction of the interplanetary shock wave with the earth magnetosphere

  3. Two pragmatic trials of treatment for shoulder disorders in primary care: generalisability, course, and prognostic indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, E.; Windt-Mens, van der D.A.W.M.; Hay, E.M.; Smidt, N.; Dziedzic, K.; Bouter, L.M.; Croft, P.R.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate predictors of long term prognosis in patients treated for shoulder pain in primary care. METHODS: Data were taken from two pragmatic randomised clinical trials investigating the effectiveness of conservative treatments for shoulder pain presenting to primary care. Shoulder

  4. How Do Primary and Lower Secondary Teachers Compare? Education Indicators in Focus. No. 58

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2018

    2018-01-01

    While policy debate is often focused on the whole teaching profession, primary and secondary teachers differ in more ways than one. While all countries require teachers to have at least a bachelor degree to enter the profession in primary or lower secondary education, the structure and content of the programmes vary and are less geared towards…

  5. [Breastfeeding indicators produced at time of vaccination in four Primary Care Centres in southern Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisser, Mario Boris; Barragán, Tatiana del Carmen; Weisstaub, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    To compare official breastfeeding (BF) data with those obtained by interviews conducted during regular vaccination visits. A pilot descriptive study with convenience sampling was conducted by interviewing guardians of children attending vaccination in four Primary Care Centres in south Santiago. BF prevalence indicators were calculated and stratified by age and education of mothers. A comparison was made between the results and the official ones reported by each Centre. Chi-squared (X2) was calculated to evaluate differences (P<.05) RESULTS: A total of 1990 cases were analysed, in which exclusive BF prevalence was 43.4%, 34.2% and 8.8%, at 2, 4, and 6 months, respectively. At the sixth month, official data (41%) was significantly higher (P<.001). Mothers with less than 12 years of schooling have a lower prevalence of exclusive BF at the 4th month than those with higher education (28.4% vs. 37.8%, respectively, P<.05). Even considering the small size of the sample studied, exclusive BF prevalence obtained is surprisingly lower than official reported data. That difference might be explained by: (a) children brought to vaccinations are roughly two fold the number brought to well-child clinics and, (b) potential bias in official data obtained by staff in charge of promotion and education on BF practices, which could distort the results. Further studies are needed to improve the methodology for collecting and analysis BF data. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging appearances in primary and secondary angiosarcoma of the breast.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Ailbhe C

    2014-04-01

    Angiosarcomas are malignant tumours of endovascular origin. They are rare tumours accounting for 0.04-1% of all breast malignancies. Two different forms are described: primary, occurring in young women, and secondary angiosarcoma, which occurs in older women with a history of breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Imaging findings on mammography and ultrasound are non-specific, but magnetic resonance imaging with dynamic contrast enhancement is more informative. We present two cases - one of primary and one of secondary angiosarcoma - and review the imaging findings.

  7. Interhemispheric Inhibition Induced by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Over Primary Sensory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Yasuyuki; Jono, Yasutomo; Mizusawa, Hiroki; Kinoshita, Atsushi; Hiraoka, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the long-interval interhemispheric inhibition (LIHI) is induced by the transcranial magnetic stimulation over the primary sensory area (S1-TMS) without activation of the conditioning side of the primary motor area (M1) contributing to the contralateral motor evoked potential (MEP), whether the S1-TMS-induced LIHI is dependent on the status of the S1 modulated by the tactile input, and whether the pathways mediating the LIHI are different from those mediating the M1-TMS-induced LIHI. In order to give the TMS over the S1 without eliciting the MEP, the intensity of the S1-TMS was adjusted to be the sub-motor-threshold level and the trials with the MEP response elicited by the S1-TMS were discarded online. The LIHI was induced by the S1-TMS given 40 ms before the test TMS in the participants with the attenuation of the tactile perception of the digit stimulation (TPDS) induced by the S1-TMS, indicating that the LIHI is induced by the S1-TMS without activation of the conditioning side of the M1 contributing to the contralateral MEP in the participants in which the pathways mediating the TPDS is sensitive to the S1-TMS. The S1-TMS-induced LIHI was positively correlated with the attenuation of the TPDS induced by the S1-TMS, indicating that the S1-TMS-induced LIHI is dependent on the effect of the S1-TMS on the pathways mediating the TPDS at the S1. In another experiment, the effect of the digit stimulation given before the conditioning TMS on the S1- or M1-TMS-induced LIHI was examined. The digit stimulation produces tactile input to the S1 causing change in the status of the S1. The S1-TMS-induced LIHI was enhanced when the S1-TMS was given in the period in which the tactile afferent volley produced by the digit stimulation just arrived at the S1, while the LIHI induced by above-motor-threshold TMS over the contralateral M1 was not enhanced by the tactile input. Thus, the S1-TMS-induced LIHI is dependent on the status of the S1

  8. Primary haemochromatosis. Early detection of commitment myocardium through cardiac magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbella, F.; Rivas, Carlos; Dragonetti, Laura; Eyheremendy, Eduardo; Calo, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Primary haemochromatosis is the most common genetic disease of the West (1 in 300 to 400 people). Cardiac involvement during its early stages is not detected by imaging techniques.During this period potentially lethal arrhythmias can occur. Using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) with T2 star sequence it is possible an early detection of cardiac involvement as well as a risk stratification and a monitoring the progress of the therapy. [es

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging guided reirradiation of recurrent and second primary head and neck cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Allen M.; Cao, Minsong; Hsu, Sophia; Lamb, James; Mikaeilian, Argin; Yang, Yingli; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Low, Daniel A.; Steinberg, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To report a single-institutional experience using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided radiation therapy for the reirradiation of recurrent and second cancers of the head and neck. Methods and materials: Between October 2014 and August 2016, 13 consecutive patients with recurrent or new primary cancers of the head and neck that occurred in a previously irradiated field were prospectively enrolled in an institutional registry trial to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of ...

  10. A reassessment of the indicators of primary education quality in developing countries: Emerging evidence from Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosha, Herme Joseph

    1988-03-01

    This article seeks to identify factors affecting the quality of primary education in five regions of Tanzania by extensively reviewing relevant literature and empirical data. Some of the shortcomings emphasised by the author are: frequent staff turnover, declining financial support for primary education, ineffective curricula, shortage of teachers' guides and textbooks, and unfavourable working conditions for teachers in rural areas. Beyond this, the need for freely available material, efficient school management and regular inspections is stressed by the author.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in primary lymphoma of the liver: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilaj Fatmir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary lymphoma of the liver is an extremely rare finding, with the few such cases reported in the literature to date describing indeterminate imaging findings, being focused more on computed tomography. To the best of our knowledge, there is no prior report describing magnetic resonance imaging scan findings with such a lesion. In the case reported here, magnetic resonance imaging gave us the opportunity to ascertain the correct diagnosis, confirmed by histopathology, thus avoiding unnecessary surgery or other treatments. Although this condition is rare, knowledge of magnetic resonance imaging findings will be invaluable for radiologists and other medical subspecialties that may face such cases in the future in helping to provide adequate management for affected patients. Case presentation A focal lesion was incidentally detected by ultrasound in a 75-year-old asymptomatic Albanian man being treated for benign hypertrophy of prostate. Chest and abdomen computed tomography scans did not reveal any abnormal findings besides a solid focal lesion on the right lobe of the liver and a mild homogenous enlargement of the prostate gland. Subsequently, magnetic resonance imaging of the upper abdomen was performed for better characterization of this lesion. Our patient was free of symptoms and his laboratory test results were normal. Conclusions The magnetic resonance imaging scan results showed some distinctive features that helped us to make the correct diagnosis, and were thus very important in helping us provide the correct treatment for our patient.

  12. Treatment of primary hip osteoarthritis for the primary care physician and the indications for total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Mathew E; Nace, James; Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Issa, Kimona; Banerjee, Samik; Cherian, Jeffery J; Mont, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a degenerative condition that commonly affects knees and hips with an annual incidence of 88 in 100,000 people in the United States. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical presentation of osteoarthritis of the hip as well as the available management options. We reviewed the recent literature in regard to epidemiology, presentation, and treatment options available to patients. Nonoperative treatments include weight loss and low-impact, aerobic exercises. Along with weight loss and exercise, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), narcotics, and intra-articular steroid injections have been used to improve patient's symptoms. Surgical intervention is a viable option; however, indications such as severe pain that is refractory to nonsurgical management, osteophytes, or joint space narrowing on radiographic films, or impairment of function should be present. The most common surgical option, total hip arthroplasty, has been shown to improve a patient's physical and psychological well-being. However, inherent risks are present with surgery and these should be addressed with the patient so a sound decision can be made. Osteoarthritis of the hip can be bothersome to patients, but physicians can begin management with lifestyle changes or pharmaceuticals. In the event nonoperative measures fail to markedly improve quality of life, total hip arthroplasty remains a viable option.

  13. Indicators for continuous quality improvement for otitis media in primary health care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorpe, Beverly; Agostino, Jason; Coates, Harvey; Weeks, Sharon; Lehmann, Deborah; Wood, Marianne; Lannigan, Francis; McAullay, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Otitis media is a common, generally self-limiting childhood illness that can progress to severe disease and have lifelong sequelae, including hearing loss and developmental delays. Severe disease is disproportionately prevalent among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Primary health care is at the frontline of appropriate prevention and treatment. Continuous quality improvement in the prevention and management of important causes of morbidity in client populations is accepted best practice in primary health care and now a requirement of Australian Government funding to services providing care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. To date, there have been no indicators for continuous quality improvement in the prevention and management of otitis media and its sequelae in primary health care. Through an expert group consensus process, seven evidence-based indicators, potentially extractable from electronic health records, have been developed. The development process and indicators are described.

  14. Effects of intermediate frequency magnetic fields on male fertility indicators in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, K; Capstick, M; Cassara, A M; Herrala, M; Koivisto, H; Naarala, J; Tanila, H; Viluksela, M; Juutilainen, J

    2017-08-01

    Human exposure to intermediate frequency (IF) fields is increasing due to new applications such as electronic article surveillance systems, wireless power transfer and induction heating cookers. However, limited data is available on effects of IF magnetic fields (MF) on male fertility function. This study was conducted to assess possible effects on fertility indicators from exposure to IF MF. Male C57BL/6J mice were exposed continuously for 5 weeks to 7.5kHz MF at 12 and 120μT. Sperm cells from cauda epididymis were analysed for motility, total sperm counts, and head abnormalities. Motile sperm cells were classified as progressive or non-progressive. Testicular spermatid heads were counted as well. The body weight development and reproductive tissue weights were not affected. No exposure-related differences were observed in sperm counts or sperm head abnormalities. Proportion of non-motile cells was significantly decreased in the 120µT group, and a corresponding increase was seen in the percentage of motile cells (significant in non-progressive motile cells). In conclusion, no adverse effects on fertility indicators were observed. Increased sperm motility is an interesting finding that needs to be confirmed in further studies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Indications for fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); Indikationen zur fetalen Magnetresonanztomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, D. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Klinik fuer Radiodiagnostik; Brugger, P.C. [Zentrum fuer Anatomie und Zellbiologie der Medizinischen Universitaet Wien (Austria). Arbeitsgruppe Integrative Morphologie; Krampl, E. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria). Klinik fuer Gynaekologie und Geburtshilfe; Prayer, L. [Diagnosezentrum Urania, Wien (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Indications to perform fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are composed of common ones related to methodological problems of ultrasound (US) assessment (such as for instance hydramnios) and special ones. The latter are related to MR capability of high-resolution soft tissue contrast and an extended field of view that allows visualization of the whole fetus, even in later stages of pregnancy. The most important indications include confirmation of US findings, work-up of malformations with respect to individual prognosis and genetic background, differentiation between acquired conditions and malformations, visualization of pathologies that have to be treated surgically immediately after birth, and morphological changes of the placenta. (orig.) [German] Indikationen zur Durchfuehrung einer fetalen Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) setzen sich aus allgemeinen Fragestellungen zusammen, die auf methodischen Problemen von Ultraschalluntersuchungen (US) beruhen (wie beispielsweise Anhydramnion), und speziellen, bei denen die MR-Eigenschaften der hochaufloesenden Gewebedifferenzierung und eines Untersuchungsfensters, das eine Abbildung des gesamten Fetus auch im fortgeschrittenen Schwangerschaftsalter erlaubt, ausgenuetzt werden. Im Vordergrund stehen dabei die Absicherung von US-Befunden, die Abklaerung von Fehlbildungen in Hinblick auf individuelle Prognose und Vorliegen eines Syndroms mit genetisch determiniertem Hintergrund, und die Differenzierung erworbener Stoerungen von Fehlbildungen, die Abklaerung von Veraenderungen, die einer unmittelbar postnatalen operativen Therapie beduerfen, und morphologischer Veraenderungen der Plazenta. (orig.)

  16. Effects of magnetized water application on soil and maize growth indices under different amounts of salt in the water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Abedinpour

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Application of low quality water for irrigation is compulsive in facing water scarcity. Use of a magnetic field is an approach to overcome this challenge. This study examined the impact of magnetic field technology on improving germination under water of different salinity levels. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of saline water levels, i.e. (S1:0.5, (S2:2, (S3:4 and (S4:6 dS/m combined with magnetized technology (with or without on maize growth. Thus, magnetic treatment was applied by passing the irrigation water through a 1,500 mT magnetic field at 3 litres per minute (lpm flow rate. Some emergence indices, such as emergence index, emergence rate index (ERI and mean emergence time, were used to evaluate the germination of maize seed. As for soil properties after plant harvest, the use of magnetically treated irrigation water reduced soil pH but increased soil electrical conductivity and available N and P. ERI increased from 7.6 to 10.2, 9.1 to 11.1, 10.3 to 13.3, and 11.8 to 13.3 when applying the magnetized field for S1, S2, S3 and S4, respectively. Overall, the growth parameters of maize were improved by using magnetic technology with saline water, while the opposite trend was shown for increasing salinity without magnetic treatment.

  17. Mode of primary cancer detection as an indicator of screening practice for second primary cancer in cancer survivors: a nationwide survey in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh Beomseok

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While knowledge and risk perception have been associated with screening for second primary cancer (SPC, there are no clinically useful indicators to identify who is at risk of not being properly screened for SPC. We investigated whether the mode of primary cancer detection (i.e. screen-detected vs. non-screen-detected is associated with subsequent completion of all appropriate SPC screening in cancer survivors. Methods Data were collected from cancer patients treated at the National Cancer Center and nine regional cancer centers across Korea. A total of 512 cancer survivors older than 40, time since diagnosis more than 2 years, and whose first primary cancer was not advanced or metastasized were selected. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine factors, including mode of primary cancer detection, associated with completion of all appropriate SPC screening according to national cancer screening guidelines. Results Being screen-detected for their first primary cancer was found to be significantly associated with completion of all appropriate SPC screening (adjusted odds ratio, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–3.33, after controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Screen-detected cancer survivors were significantly more likely to have higher household income, have other comorbidities, and be within 5 years since diagnosis. Conclusions The mode of primary cancer detection, a readily available clinical information, can be used as an indicator for screening practice for SPC in cancer survivors. Education about the importance of SPC screening will be helpful particularly for cancer survivors whose primary cancer was not screen-detected.

  18. Strain indicators and magnetic fabric in intraplate fault zones: Case study of Daroca thrust, Iberian Chain, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Sainz, A. M.; Gil-Imaz, A.; Simón, J. L.; Izquierdo-Llavall, E.; Aldega, L.; Román-Berdiel, T.; Osácar, M. C.; Pueyo-Anchuela, Ó.; Ansón, M.; García-Lasanta, C.; Corrado, S.; Invernizzi, C.; Caricchi, C.

    2018-04-01

    Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) has been applied to the study of shallow fault zones, although interpretation of the results requires establishing clear relationships between petrofabric and magnetic features, magnetic behaviour of fault rocks, and an extensive knowledge of P-T conditions. In this work, we demonstrate that magnetic methods can be applied to the study of heterogeneous fault zones, provided that a series of requisites are met. A major fault zone within the Iberian plate (Daroca thrust), showing transpressional movements during Cenozoic time was chosen for this purpose, because of the exceptional outcrops of fault gouge and microbreccia and its relevance within the context of the northeastern Iberian Plate. Magnetic fabrics were analysed and the results were compared with foliation and S-C structures measured within the fault zone. Clay mineral assemblages suggest maximum burial depths shallower than 2 km (kinematic indicators are consistent with a reverse movement for most of the fault zone.

  19. Magnetic susceptibility in the deep layers of the primary motor cortex in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Costagli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS is a progressive neurological disorder that entails degeneration of both upper and lower motor neurons. The primary motor cortex (M1 in patients with upper motor neuron (UMN impairment is pronouncedly hypointense in Magnetic Resonance (MR T2* contrast. In the present study, 3D gradient-recalled multi-echo sequences were used on a 7 Tesla MR system to acquire T2*-weighted images targeting M1 at high spatial resolution. MR raw data were used for Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM. Measures of magnetic susceptibility correlated with the expected concentration of non-heme iron in different regions of the cerebral cortex in healthy subjects. In ALS patients, significant increases in magnetic susceptibility co-localized with the T2* hypointensity observed in the middle and deep layers of M1. The magnetic susceptibility, hence iron concentration, of the deep cortical layers of patients' M1 subregions corresponding to Penfield's areas of the hand and foot in both hemispheres significantly correlated with the clinical scores of UMN impairment of the corresponding limbs. QSM therefore reflects the presence of iron deposits related to neuroinflammatory reaction and cortical microgliosis, and might prove useful in estimating M1 iron concentration, as a possible radiological sign of severe UMN burden in ALS patients.

  20. Behavioral testing of mice exposed to intermediate frequency magnetic fields indicates mild memory impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajal Kumari

    Full Text Available Human exposure to intermediate frequency magnetic fields (MF is increasing due to applications like electronic article surveillance systems and induction heating cooking hobs. However, limited data is available on their possible health effects. The present study assessed behavioral and histopathological consequences of exposing mice to 7.5 kHz MF at 12 or 120 μT for 5 weeks. No effects were observed on body weight, spontaneous activity, motor coordination, level of anxiety or aggression. In the Morris swim task, mice in the 120 μT group showed less steep learning curve than the other groups, but did not differ from controls in their search bias in the probe test. The passive avoidance task indicated a clear impairment of memory over 48 h in the 120 μT group. No effects on astroglial activation or neurogenesis were observed in the hippocampus. The mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor did not change but expression of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA was significantly increased in the 120 μT group. These findings suggest that 7.5 kHz MF exposure may lead to mild learning and memory impairment, possibly through an inflammatory reaction in the hippocampus.

  1. Identifying intestinal malrotation on magnetic resonance examinations ordered for unrelated indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, Jill S.; Chernyak, Victoria; Taragin, Benjamin H.

    2017-01-01

    Anatomical imaging findings indicating normal bowel rotation can be identified on cross-sectional imaging, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed for non-related indications. The goal of our study was to assess whether non-targeted MRI can accurately assess intestinal malrotation. Four anatomical landmarks were assessed on MRIs of the chest, spine or abdomen performed from January 2006 to June 2014, on patients who also had upper gastrointestinal series (UGI) performed within 10 years of the MRI date: 1) retroperitoneal duodenum, 2) left upper quadrant duodenojejunal junction, 3) superior mesenteric artery to the left of the superior mesenteric vein, and 4) right lower quadrant cecum. Two attending radiologists, one pediatric and one abdominal radiologist, independently reviewed the MR images. The pediatric radiologist reviewed images from UGI (considered the gold standard) to determine the intestinal rotation for each case. Validation of the criteria was performed on new patients imaged through January 2016. The original cohort included 109 MRIs (15 chest, 41 spine and 53 abdomen) done on 109 patients (42% males, mean age: 10.2 years). If each of the 4 anatomical questions were answered ''yes'' (4-YES), specificity was 100% for each radiologist and malrotation was appropriately excluded. Using the 4-YES criteria, the pediatric radiologist excluded malrotation in 71 patients (65%) and the abdominal radiologist excluded it in 65 (60%), with concurrence for 57 patients. Validation of the 4-YES criteria in 23 new patients appropriately proved the 4-YES rule, with neither labeling the one new malrotation case 4-YES. If a radiologist can confidently answer ''yes'' to the four questions evaluated in this study, then intestinal rotation can be safely considered normal. Normal bowel rotation should be commented upon in MRI reports when these four anatomical locations are imaged, thus helping patients avoid unnecessary

  2. Identifying intestinal malrotation on magnetic resonance examinations ordered for unrelated indications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fay, Jill S.; Chernyak, Victoria; Taragin, Benjamin H. [Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2017-10-15

    Anatomical imaging findings indicating normal bowel rotation can be identified on cross-sectional imaging, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed for non-related indications. The goal of our study was to assess whether non-targeted MRI can accurately assess intestinal malrotation. Four anatomical landmarks were assessed on MRIs of the chest, spine or abdomen performed from January 2006 to June 2014, on patients who also had upper gastrointestinal series (UGI) performed within 10 years of the MRI date: 1) retroperitoneal duodenum, 2) left upper quadrant duodenojejunal junction, 3) superior mesenteric artery to the left of the superior mesenteric vein, and 4) right lower quadrant cecum. Two attending radiologists, one pediatric and one abdominal radiologist, independently reviewed the MR images. The pediatric radiologist reviewed images from UGI (considered the gold standard) to determine the intestinal rotation for each case. Validation of the criteria was performed on new patients imaged through January 2016. The original cohort included 109 MRIs (15 chest, 41 spine and 53 abdomen) done on 109 patients (42% males, mean age: 10.2 years). If each of the 4 anatomical questions were answered ''yes'' (4-YES), specificity was 100% for each radiologist and malrotation was appropriately excluded. Using the 4-YES criteria, the pediatric radiologist excluded malrotation in 71 patients (65%) and the abdominal radiologist excluded it in 65 (60%), with concurrence for 57 patients. Validation of the 4-YES criteria in 23 new patients appropriately proved the 4-YES rule, with neither labeling the one new malrotation case 4-YES. If a radiologist can confidently answer ''yes'' to the four questions evaluated in this study, then intestinal rotation can be safely considered normal. Normal bowel rotation should be commented upon in MRI reports when these four anatomical locations are imaged, thus helping patients avoid unnecessary

  3. Creation of a synthetic indicator of quality of care as a clinical management standard in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coma, Ermengol; Ferran, Manel; Méndez, Leonardo; Iglesias, Begoña; Fina, Francesc; Medina, Manuel

    2013-12-01

    The development of electronic medical records has allowed the creation of new quality indicators in healthcare. Among them, synthetic indicators facilitate global interpretation of results and comparisons between professionals. A healthcare quality standard (EQA, the Catalan acronym for Estàndard de Qualitat Assistencial) was constructed to serve as a synthetic indicator to measure the quality of care provided by primary care professionals in Catalonia (Spain). The project phases were to establish the reference population; select health problems to be included; define, select and deliberate about subindicators; and construct and publish the EQA. Construction of the EQA involved 107 healthcare professionals, and 91 health problems were included. In addition, 133 experts were consulted, who proposed a total of 339 indicators. After systematic paired comparison, 61 indicators were selected to create the synthetic indicator. The EQA is now calculated on a monthly basis for more than 8000 healthcare professionals using an automated process that extracts data from electronic medical records; results are published on a follow-up website. Along with the use of the online EQA results tool, there has been an ongoing improvement in most of the quality of care indicators. Creation of the EQA has proven to be useful for the measurement of the quality of care of primary care services. Also an improvement trend over 5 years is shown across most of the measured indicators. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2193-1801-2-51) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  4. Neuroendocrine liver metastases: Vascular patterns on triple-phase MDCT are indicative of primary tumour location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronot, Maxime, E-mail: maxime.ronot@aphp.fr [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Beaujon, Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine (France); University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris (France); INSERM U1149, centre de recherche biomédicale Bichat-Beaujon, CRB3, Paris (France); Cuccioli, Francesco; Dioguardi Burgio, Marco; Vullierme, Marie-Pierre [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Beaujon, Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine (France); Hentic, Olivia [Department of Pancreatology, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Beaujon, Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine (France); Ruszniewski, Philippe [University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris (France); Department of Pancreatology, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Beaujon, Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine (France); D’Assignies, Gaspard [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Beaujon, Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine (France); Vilgrain, Valérie [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Beaujon, Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine (France); University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris (France); INSERM U1149, centre de recherche biomédicale Bichat-Beaujon, CRB3, Paris (France)

    2017-04-15

    Purpose: To re-evaluate and compare CT features of neuroendocrine liver metastases (NLM) from pancreatic (p) and enteric (e) gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) tumours. Material and methods: From 2006–2013, all patients with proven GEP-neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) with at least one NLM, no previous treatment were included. On unenhanced, arterial and portal phases, NLMs were characterized as hypo-, iso- or hyperattenuating in consensus by 2 radiologists blinded to clinical data. Enhancement patterns (EP) corresponded to the combination of arterial/portal CT attenuation. Results: 78 patients (43 men, 55%, mean 56 ± 13 yo) and 559 NLMs were analyzed. pNLMs were more frequently hypoattenuating on unenhanced CT than eNLMs (72% vs. 57%, p < 0.001). 70% of the lesions were hypervascular with no significant difference between pNLMs and eNLMs (p = 0.32). eNLMs were more frequently hypoattenuating on portal phase than pNLMs (88% vs. 56%, p < 0.001). eNLMs were more frequently hyper/hypo than pNLMs (56% vs. 28%, p < 0.001). pNLMs were more frequently hyper/iso than eNLMs (33% vs. 8%, p < 0.001). Other NLMs showed various patterns, including hypo/hypo in 12%. Conclusion: Most NLMs of GEP tumours are hypervascular but the enhancement pattern on multiphasic CT depends on the primary tumour. These differences are helpful when the primary tumour has not been diagnosed.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging with liver-specific contrast agent in primary amyloidosis and intrahepatic cholestasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, J.M.; Santoni-Rugiu, E.; Chabanova, E.; Logager, V.; Hansen, A.B.; Thomsen, H.S. [Depts. of Radiology and Pathology, Copenhagen Univ. Hospital, Herlev (Denmark)

    2007-02-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in hepatic amyloidosis are not well defined. Here, we report on a patient with renal failure caused by primary amyloidosis (AL type) who developed jaundice. Ultrasound and computed tomography were normal except for some ascites. MRI with oral manganese-containing contrast agent revealed several focal areas without contrast uptake in the hepatocytes and no bile secretion after 8 hours. No extrahepatic bile obstructions were found. Liver biopsy showed severe intraportal, vascular, and parenchymal amyloidosis causing severe cholestasis and atrophy of hepatocytes.

  6. Indications for and clinical procedures resulting from magnetic resonance imaging of the knee in older patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Marc-Etienne; Vézina, François; Carrier, Nathalie; Masetto, Ariel

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To analyze the indications for and clinical procedures resulting from knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in older patients. Design We retrospectively analyzed 215 medical records of patients 50 years of age and older who had undergone a unilateral knee MRI in 2009. Setting Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke in Quebec. Participants Patients 50 years of age and older who underwent a knee MRI in 2009. Main outcome measures The main outcome measure was an invasive procedure in the same knee that underwent an MRI. Medical charts were reviewed up to 2014 for patient characteristics, MRI indication, ordering physician specialty, radiography before MRI, MRI findings, and clinical procedures resulting from the MRI. Results The patients’ mean (SD) age was 60.6 (7.5) years. The main MRI indications were meniscopathy (148 [68.8%]) and chronic pain (92 [42.8%]). The main MRI findings were osteoarthritis (OA) (185 [86.0%]) and meniscal lesions (170 [79.1%]). Only 82 (38.1%) patients had a plain radiograph in the 24 months preceding the MRI, usually without a standing anteroposterior view. Findings on pre-MRI radiography (n = 201) demonstrated OA in 144 (71.6%) patients. Overall, 87 (40.5%) patients were seen by an orthopedic surgeon and 27 (31.0%) of these patients underwent an invasive intervention. Among the 81 patients with moderate to severe OA on MRI, 36 (44.4%) had radiographic evidence of moderate to severe OA and only 3 (3.7%) underwent arthroscopic meniscectomy. Conclusion Our study reproduces the known association between OA and degenerative meniscal changes in older patients. We have found a surprising underuse of the standing anteroposterior view on radiography. Most patients in our cohort could have been appropriately diagnosed and treated based on such radiographic information, as demonstrated by pre-MRI findings, thus avoiding the MRI and subsequent evaluation by an orthopedic surgeon. Meniscectomy was rarely performed

  7. Development of a core set of quality indicators for paediatric primary care practices in Europe, COSI-PPC-EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Dominik A; Huss, Gottfried; Auras, Silke; Caceres, Juan Ruiz-Canela; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Geraedts, Max

    2018-06-01

    Paediatric ambulatory healthcare systems in Europe are, because of historical reasons, diverse and show strikingly different outcomes. All across Europe, the benchmarking of structures, processes and outcomes could reveal opportunities for improving Paediatric Primary Care (PPC). The aim of this study was to develop a set of Quality Indicators (QIs) to assess and monitor PPC in Europe. In a three-step process, we used the available external evidence and European expert consensus in a modified RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method (RAM) to develop an indicator set. (1) A broad literature and online research of published QI and guidelines yielded an inventory of 1516 QI. (2) A collaborative panel of paediatric senior experts from the European Academy of Paediatrics (EAP) and the European Confederation of Primary Care Paediatricians (ECPCP) from 15 European countries participated in a first consensus process to reduce the initial indicator inventory by eliminating not PPC-focused indicators and duplicates. (3) In a second consensus process, the panel rated the QI regarding validity and feasibility. The final QI set "COSI-PPC-EU" consists of 42 indicators in five categories of PPC: (A) health promotion/prevention/screening (13 QI), (B) acute care (9 QI), (C) chronic care (8 QI), (D) practice management (3 QI) and (E) patient safety (9 QI). COSI-PPC-EU represents a consented set of a limited number of valid quality indicators for the application in paediatric primary care in different healthcare systems throughout Europe. What is Known: • Paediatric ambulatory healthcare systems in Europe are diverse and show strikingly different outcomes. • There are known gaps in quality performance measures of paediatric primary care in Europe. Pre-existing sets of quality indicators are predominantly limited to national populations, specific diseases and hospital care. What is New: • A set of 42 quality indicators for primary paediatric care in Europe was developed in a multi

  8. Electron and Positron Fluxes in Primary Cosmic Rays Measured with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, M; Alvino, A; Ambrosi, G; Andeen, K; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bigongiari, G; Bindi, V; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Borsini, S; Boschini, M J; Bourquin, M; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Casaus, J; Cascioli, V; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cervelli, F; Chae, M J; Chang, Y H; Chen, A I; Chen, H; Cheng, G M; Chen, H S; Cheng, L; Chikanian, A; Chou, H Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C H; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Coste, B; Cui, Z; Dai, M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Di Masso, L; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Du, W J; Duranti, M; D’Urso, D; Eline, A; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Fan, Y Y; Farnesini, L; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Fiasson, A; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Gillard, W; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guandalini, C; Guerri, I; Guo, K H; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K C; He, Z H; Heil, M; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T H; Huang, Z C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W Y; Jinchi, H; Kanishev, K; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kirn, Th; Kossakowski, R; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M S; Kunz, S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H T; Lee, S C; Leluc, C; Li, H L; Li, J Q; Li, Q; Li, Q; Li, T X; Li, W; Li, Y; Li, Z H; Li, Z Y; Lim, S; Lin, C H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, H; Lomtadze, T; Lu, M J; Lu, Y S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J Z; Lv, S S; Majka, R; Malinin, A; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D C; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Müller, M; Ni, J Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Obermeier, A; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Papi, A; Pedreschi, E; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Pilo, F; Piluso, A; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Postaci, E; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X M; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Sbarra, C; Schael, S; Schmidt, S M; Schuckardt, D; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shan, B S; Shan, Y H; Shi, J Y; Shi, X Y; Shi, Y M; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Spada, F; Spinella, F; Sun, W; Sun, W H; Tacconi, M; Tang, C P; Tang, X W; Tang, Z C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vaurynovich, S; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J P; Wang, L Q; Wang, Q L; Wang, R S; Wang, X; Wang, Z X; Weng, Z L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Wu, H; Xia, X; Xie, M; Xie, S; Xiong, R Q; Xin, G M; Xu, N S; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Ye, Q H; Yi, H; Yu, Y J; Yu, Z Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, J H; Zhang, M T; Zhang, X B; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z M; Zhuang, H L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P; Zurbach, C

    2014-01-01

    Precision measurements by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station of the primary cosmic-ray electron flux in the range 0.5 to 700 GeV and the positron flux in the range 0.5 to 500 GeV are presented. The electron flux and the positron flux each require a description beyond a single power-law spectrum. Both the electron flux and the positron flux change their behavior at ∼30  GeV but the fluxes are significantly different in their magnitude and energy dependence. Between 20 and 200 GeV the positron spectral index is significantly harder than the electron spectral index. The determination of the differing behavior of the spectral indices versus energy is a new observation and provides important information on the origins of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons.

  9. Electron and Positron Fluxes in Primary Cosmic Rays Measured with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M.; Aisa, D.; Alvino, A.; Ambrosi, G.; Andeen, K.; Arruda, L.; Attig, N.; Azzarello, P.; Bachlechner, A.; Barao, F.; Barrau, A.; Barrin, L.; Bartoloni, A.; Basara, L.; Battarbee, M.; Battiston, R.; Bazo, J.; Becker, U.; Behlmann, M.; Beischer, B.; Berdugo, J.; Bertucci, B.; Bigongiari, G.; Bindi, V.; Bizzaglia, S.; Bizzarri, M.; Boella, G.; de Boer, W.; Bollweg, K.; Bonnivard, V.; Borgia, B.; Borsini, S.; Boschini, M. J.; Bourquin, M.; Burger, J.; Cadoux, F.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caroff, S.; Casaus, J.; Cascioli, V.; Castellini, G.; Cernuda, I.; Cervelli, F.; Chae, M. J.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, A. I.; Chen, H.; Cheng, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Cheng, L.; Chikanian, A.; Chou, H. Y.; Choumilov, E.; Choutko, V.; Chung, C. H.; Clark, C.; Clavero, R.; Coignet, G.; Consolandi, C.; Contin, A.; Corti, C.; Coste, B.; Cui, Z.; Dai, M.; Delgado, C.; Della Torre, S.; Demirköz, M. B.; Derome, L.; Di Falco, S.; Di Masso, L.; Dimiccoli, F.; Díaz, C.; von Doetinchem, P.; Du, W. J.; Duranti, M.; D'Urso, D.; Eline, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Eronen, T.; Fan, Y. Y.; Farnesini, L.; Feng, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fiasson, A.; Finch, E.; Fisher, P.; Galaktionov, Y.; Gallucci, G.; García, B.; García-López, R.; Gast, H.; Gebauer, I.; Gervasi, M.; Ghelfi, A.; Gillard, W.; Giovacchini, F.; Goglov, P.; Gong, J.; Goy, C.; Grabski, V.; Grandi, D.; Graziani, M.; Guandalini, C.; Guerri, I.; Guo, K. H.; Habiby, M.; Haino, S.; Han, K. C.; He, Z. H.; Heil, M.; Hoffman, J.; Hsieh, T. H.; Huang, Z. C.; Huh, C.; Incagli, M.; Ionica, M.; Jang, W. Y.; Jinchi, H.; Kanishev, K.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, K. S.; Kirn, Th.; Kossakowski, R.; Kounina, O.; Kounine, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Krafczyk, M. S.; Kunz, S.; La Vacca, G.; Laudi, E.; Laurenti, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, H. T.; Lee, S. C.; Leluc, C.; Li, H. L.; Li, J. Q.; Li, Q.; Li, Q.; Li, T. X.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Lim, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lipari, P.; Lippert, T.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Lomtadze, T.; Lu, M. J.; Lu, Y. S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luo, F.; Luo, J. Z.; Lv, S. S.; Majka, R.; Malinin, A.; Mañá, C.; Marín, J.; Martin, T.; Martínez, G.; Masi, N.; Maurin, D.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meng, Q.; Mo, D. C.; Morescalchi, L.; Mott, P.; Müller, M.; Ni, J. Q.; Nikonov, N.; Nozzoli, F.; Nunes, P.; Obermeier, A.; Oliva, A.; Orcinha, M.; Palmonari, F.; Palomares, C.; Paniccia, M.; Papi, A.; Pedreschi, E.; Pensotti, S.; Pereira, R.; Pilo, F.; Piluso, A.; Pizzolotto, C.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Poireau, V.; Postaci, E.; Putze, A.; Quadrani, L.; Qi, X. M.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rapin, D.; Ricol, J. S.; Rodríguez, I.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rozhkov, A.; Rozza, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Saouter, P.; Sbarra, C.; Schael, S.; Schmidt, S. M.; Schuckardt, D.; von Dratzig, A. Schulz; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E. S.; Shan, B. S.; Shan, Y. H.; Shi, J. Y.; Shi, X. Y.; Shi, Y. M.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Spada, F.; Spinella, F.; Sun, W.; Sun, W. H.; Tacconi, M.; Tang, C. P.; Tang, X. W.; Tang, Z. C.; Tao, L.; Tescaro, D.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tomassetti, N.; Torsti, J.; Türkoǧlu, C.; Urban, T.; Vagelli, V.; Valente, E.; Vannini, C.; Valtonen, E.; Vaurynovich, S.; Vecchi, M.; Velasco, M.; Vialle, J. P.; Wang, L. Q.; Wang, Q. L.; Wang, R. S.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z. X.; Weng, Z. L.; Whitman, K.; Wienkenhöver, J.; Wu, H.; Xia, X.; Xie, M.; Xie, S.; Xiong, R. Q.; Xin, G. M.; Xu, N. S.; Xu, W.; Yan, Q.; Yang, J.; Yang, M.; Ye, Q. H.; Yi, H.; Yu, Y. J.; Yu, Z. Q.; Zeissler, S.; Zhang, J. H.; Zhang, M. T.; Zhang, X. B.; Zhang, Z.; Zheng, Z. M.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zhukov, V.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, N.; Zuccon, P.; Zurbach, C.; AMS Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Precision measurements by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station of the primary cosmic-ray electron flux in the range 0.5 to 700 GeV and the positron flux in the range 0.5 to 500 GeV are presented. The electron flux and the positron flux each require a description beyond a single power-law spectrum. Both the electron flux and the positron flux change their behavior at ˜30 GeV but the fluxes are significantly different in their magnitude and energy dependence. Between 20 and 200 GeV the positron spectral index is significantly harder than the electron spectral index. The determination of the differing behavior of the spectral indices versus energy is a new observation and provides important information on the origins of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons.

  10. Diffuse vascular damage in a transplanted kidney: an indication for nuclear magnetic resonance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdese, M; Consiglio, V; Mezza, E; Savio, D; Guarena, C; Rossetti, M; Messina, M; Soragna, G; Suriani, C; Rabbia, C; Segoloni, G P; Piccoli, G B

    2005-06-01

    Vascular lesions are an increasing challenge after renal transplantation due to the wider indications for recipients and acceptance criteria for donors. Diagnostic approach and prognostic interpretation are still matter of controversy. The case reported herein may summarize some of the issues in this regard. A 54-year-old woman, on renal replacement therapy since 1974, and a kidney graft recipient from 1975 to 1999, received a second graft in 2001. The donor age was 65 years (cold ischemia 22 hours; two mismatches). The early posttransplant follow-up was characterized by delayed graft function, hypertension, and diabetes. During the initial hypertension workup, renal graft ultrasound (US) Doppler demonstrated increased vascular resistances, stable over time (resistance index 0.74 to 0.77); renal scintiscan displayed homogeneously parenchymoa and angio-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an homogeneous parenchymal vascularization. Initial immunosuppression with tacrolimus and steroids was modulated by adding mycophenolate mofetil to taper tacrolimus (to reduce nephrotoxicity and hypertension). Despite this, kidney function slowly deteriorated; serum creatinine reached 3 to 3.5 mg/dL by the second year. After a severe hypertensive crisis with unchanged scintiscan and US doppler examinations, angio-MRI revealed the almost complete disappearance of parenchymal enhancement beyond the lobar arteries. A renal biopsy confirmed the severe vascular damage. The patient was switched to rapamycine and a low-dose of an angiotension converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. She did relatively well (serum creatinine 2.2 to 3 mg/dL) for 6 months, when rapid functional impairment forced her to restart hemodialysis. This case, almost paradigmatic of the problems occurring when the rigid vasculature of long-term dialysis patients is matched with "marginal kidneys," suggests that MRI may be a sensible good to define vascular damage in the grafted kidney.

  11. Cross sectional study of performance indicators for English Primary Care Trusts: testing construct validity and identifying explanatory variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilford Richard

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The performance of Primary Care Trusts in England is assessed and published using a number of different performance indicators. Our study has two broad purposes. Firstly, to find out whether pairs of indicators that purport to measure similar aspects of quality are correlated (as would be expected if they are both valid measures of the same construct. Secondly, we wanted to find out whether broad (global indicators correlated with any particular features of Primary Care Trusts, such as expenditure per capita. Methods Cross sectional quantitative analysis using data from six 2004/05 PCT performance indicators for 303 English Primary Care Trusts from four sources in the public domain: Star Rating, aggregated Quality and Outcomes Framework scores, Dr Foster mortality index, Dr Foster equity index (heart by-pass and hip replacements, NHS Litigation Authority Risk Management standards and Patient Satisfaction scores from the Star Ratings. Forward stepwise multiple regression analysis to determine the effect of Primary Care Trust characteristics on performance. Results Star Rating and Quality and Outcomes Framework total, both summary measures of global quality, were not correlated with each other (F = 0.66, p = 0.57. There were however positive correlations between Quality and Outcomes Framework total and patient satisfaction (r = 0.61, p Conclusion Performance assessment in healthcare remains on the Government's agenda, with new core and developmental standards set to replace the Star Ratings in 2006. Yet the results of this analysis provide little evidence that the current indicators have sufficient construct validity to measure the underlying concept of quality, except when the specific area of screening is considered.

  12. [Selection of indicators for continuous monitoring of the impact of programs optimizing antimicrobial use in Primary Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Urrusuno, Rocío; Flores-Dorado, Macarena; Moreno-Campoy, Eva; Montero-Balosa, M Carmen

    2015-05-01

    To determine core indicators for monitoring quality prescribing in Primary Care based on the evidence, and to assess the feasibility of these indicators for monitoring the use of antibiotics. A literature review was carried out on quality indicators for antimicrobial prescribing through an electronic search limited to the period 2001-2012. It was completed with an "ad hoc" search on the websites of public national and international health services. Finally, indicators were chosen by consensus by a multidisciplinary group of professionals dedicated to managing infections from several areas. The feasibility and applicability of these indicators was verified through the reporting and use of data in the prescription database. Twenty two indicators were found. The consensus group selected 16 indicators. Eleven of them measure the specific antimicrobial selection, and 5 are consumption rates. The indicators were successfully applied to the prescription database, being able to make comparisons between different geographical areas and to observe trends in prescriptions. The definition of a basic set of indicators to monitor antibiotic use adapted to local conditions is required. The results of these indicators can be used for feedback to professionals and for evaluating the impact of programs aimed at improving antimicrobial use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. Can Lucifer Yellow Indicate Correct Permeability of Biological Cell Membrane under An Electric and Magnetic Field?

    OpenAIRE

    Tahereh Pourmirjafari Firoozabadi; Zeinab Shankayi; Azam Izadi; Seyed Mohammad Pourmirjafari Firoozabadi

    2015-01-01

    The effect of external magnetic and electric fields, in the range of electroporation and magnetoporation, on Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescence in the absence of cells is studied. Electric-field-induced quenching and magnetic field-induced increase are observed for fluorescence intensity of LY. Regard to the fact that the variation of field-induced fluorescence, even in the absence of cells, can be observed, the application of LY, as a marker, is debatable in electroporation and magnetoporation...

  14. Prognostic indicators in primary plasma cell leukaemia: a multicentre retrospective study of 117 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurczyszyn, Artur; Radocha, Jakub; Davila, Julio; Fiala, Mark A; Gozzetti, Alessandro; Grząśko, Norbert; Robak, Paweł; Hus, Iwona; Waszczuk-Gajda, Anna; Guzicka-Kazimierczak, Renata; Atilla, Erden; Mele, Giuseppe; Sawicki, Waldemar; Jayabalan, David S; Charliński, Grzegorz; Szabo, Agoston G; Hajek, Roman; Delforge, Michel; Kopacz, Agnieszka; Fantl, Dorotea; Waage, Anders; Avivi, Irit; Rodzaj, Marek; Leleu, Xavier; Richez, Valentine; Knopińska-Posłuszny, Wanda; Masternak, Anna; Yee, Andrew J; Barchnicka, Agnieszka; Druzd-Sitek, Agnieszka; Guerrero-Garcia, Thomas; Liu, Jieqi; Vesole, David H; Castillo, Jorge J

    2018-03-01

    We report a multicentre retrospective study that analysed clinical characteristics and outcomes in 117 patients with primary plasma cell leukaemia (pPCL) treated at the participating institutions between January 2006 and December 2016. The median age at the time of pPCL diagnosis was 61 years. Ninety-eight patients were treated with novel agents, with an overall response rate of 78%. Fifty-five patients (64%) patients underwent upfront autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). The median follow-up time was 50 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 33; 76), with a median overall survival (OS) for the entire group of 23 months (95% CI 15; 34). The median OS time in patients who underwent upfront ASCT was 35 months (95% CI 24·3; 46) as compared to 13 months (95% CI 6·3; 35·8) in patients who did not receive ASCT (P = 0·001). Multivariate analyses identified age ≥60 years, platelet count ≤100 × 10 9 /l and peripheral blood plasma cell count ≥20 × 10 9 /l as independent predictors of worse survival. The median OS in patients with 0, 1 or 2-3 of these risk factors was 46, 27 and 12 months, respectively (P < 0·001). Our findings support the use of novel agents and ASCT as frontline treatment in patients with pPCL. The constructed prognostic score should be independently validated. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Derivation and validation of a multivariable model to predict when primary care physicians prescribe antidepressants for indications other than depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong J

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Jenna Wong, Michal Abrahamowicz, David L Buckeridge, Robyn Tamblyn Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada Objective: Physicians commonly prescribe antidepressants for indications other than depression that are not evidence-based and need further evaluation. However, lack of routinely documented treatment indications for medications in administrative and medical databases creates a major barrier to evaluating antidepressant use for indications besides depression. Thus, the aim of this study was to derive a model to predict when primary care physicians prescribe antidepressants for indications other than depression and to identify important determinants of this prescribing practice. Methods: Prediction study using antidepressant prescriptions from January 2003–December 2012 in an indication-based electronic prescribing system in Quebec, Canada. Patients were linked to demographic files, medical billings data, and hospital discharge summary data to create over 370 candidate predictors. The final prediction model was derived on a random 75% sample of the data using 3-fold cross-validation integrated within a score-based forward stepwise selection procedure. The performance of the final model was assessed in the remaining 25% of the data. Results: Among 73,576 antidepressant prescriptions, 32,405 (44.0% were written for indications other than depression. Among 40 predictors in the final model, the most important covariates included the molecule name, the patient’s education level, the physician’s workload, the prescribed dose, and diagnostic codes for plausible indications recorded in the past year. The final model had good discrimination (concordance (c statistic 0.815; 95% CI, 0.787–0.847 and good calibration (ratio of observed to expected events 0.986; 95% CI, 0.842–1.136. Conclusion: In the absence of documented treatment indications, researchers may be able to use

  16. Is there an indication for computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of coronary artery bypass grafts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, R.; van der Zaag-Loonen HJ, [No Value; Willems, T.P.; Post, W.J.; Oudkerk, M.

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analysis evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for bypass graft occlusion and stenosis detection compared with coronary angiography in post-coronary artery bypass graft patients. The indication for noninvasive

  17. Primary care consultations about medically unexplained symptoms: how do patients indicate what they want?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Peter; Ring, Adele; Humphris, Gerry M; Davies, John C; Dowrick, Christopher F

    2009-04-01

    Patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUS) are often thought to deny psychological needs when they consult general practitioners (GPs) and to request somatic intervention instead. We tested predictions from the contrasting theory that they are transparent in communicating their psychological and other needs. To test predictions that what patients tell GPs when they consult about MUS is related transparently to their desire for (1) emotional support, (2) symptom explanation and (3) somatic intervention. Prospective naturalistic study. Before consultation, patients indicated what they wanted from it using a self-report questionnaire measuring patients' desire for: emotional support, explanation and reassurance, and physical investigation and treatment. Their speech during consultation was audio-recorded, transcribed and coded utterance-by-utterance. Multilevel regression analysis tested relationships between what patients sought and what they said. Patients (N = 326) consulting 33 GPs about symptoms that the GPs designated as MUS. Patients who wanted emotional support spoke more about psychosocial problems, including psychosocial causes of symptoms and their need for psychosocial help. Patients who wanted explanation and reassurance suggested more physical explanations, including diseases, but did not overtly request explanation. Patients' wish for somatic intervention was associated only with their talk about details of such interventions and not with their requests for them. In general, patients with medically unexplained symptoms provide many cues to their desire for emotional support. They are more indirect or guarded in communicating their desire for explanation and somatic intervention.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging at primary diagnosis cannot predict subsequent contralateral slip in slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wensaas, Anders [Akershus University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Loerenskog (Norway); Wiig, Ola; Terjesen, Terje [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rikshospitalet (Norway); Castberg Hellund, Johan; Khoshnewiszadeh, Behzad [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Ullevaal (Norway)

    2017-12-15

    Prophylactic fixation of the contralateral hip in slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is controversial, and no reliable method has been established to predict subsequent contralateral slip. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate if magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed at primary diagnosis could predict future contralateral slip. Twenty-two patients with unilateral SCFE were included, all had MRI of both hips taken before operative fixation. Six different parameters were measured on the MRI: the MRI slip angle, the greatest focal widening of the physis, the global widening of the physis measured at three locations (the midpoint of the physis and 1 cm lateral and medial to the midpoint), periphyseal (epiphyseal and metaphyseal) bone marrow edema, the presence of pathological joint effusion, and the amount of joint effusion measured from the lateral edge of the greater trochanter. Mean follow-up was 33 months (range, 16-63 months). Six patients were treated for contralateral slip during the follow-up time and a comparison of the MRI parameters of the contralateral hip in these six patients and in the 16 patients that remained unilateral was done to see if subsequent contralateral slip was possible to predict at primary diagnosis. All MRI parameters were significantly altered in hips with established SCFE compared with the contralateral hips. However, none of the MRI parameters showed any significant difference between patients who had a subsequent contralateral slip and those that remained unilateral. MRI taken at primary diagnosis could not predict future contralateral slip. (orig.)

  19. Indicators for the Data Usage Index (DUI): an incentive for publishing primary biodiversity data through global information infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter; Chavan, Vishwas

    2011-01-01

    download instances. The DUI is proposed to include relative as well as species profile weighted comparative indicators. Conclusions We believe that in addition to the recognition to the data publisher and all players involved in the data life cycle, a DUI will also provide much needed yet novel insight...... into how users use primary biodiversity data. A DUI consisting of a range of usage indicators obtained from the GBIF network and other relevant access points is within reach. The usage of biodiversity datasets leads to the development of a family of indicators in line with well known citation-based......Background A professional recognition mechanism is required to encourage expedited publishing of an adequate volume of 'fit-for-use' biodiversity data. As a component of such a recognition mechanism, we propose the development of the Data Usage Index (DUI) to demonstrate to data publishers...

  20. Magnetic field structure influence on primary electron cusp losses for micro-scale discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dankongkakul, Ben; Araki, Samuel J.; Wirz, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental effort was used to examine the primary electron loss behavior for micro-scale (≲3 cm diameter) discharges. The experiment uses an electron flood gun source and an axially aligned arrangement of ring-cusps to guide the electrons to a downstream point cusp. Measurements of the electron current collected at the point cusp show an unexpectedly complex loss pattern with azimuthally periodic structures. Additionally, in contrast to conventional theory for cusp losses, the overall radii of the measured collection areas are over an order of magnitude larger than the electron gyroradius. Comparing these results to Monte Carlo particle tracking simulations and a simplified analytical analysis shows that azimuthal asymmetries of the magnetic field far upstream of the collection surface can substantially affect the electron loss structure and overall loss area

  1. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The CMS magnet has been running steadily and smoothly since the summer, with no detected flaw. The magnet instrumentation is entirely operational and all the parameters are at their nominal values. Three power cuts on the electrical network affected the magnet run in the past five months, with no impact on the data-taking as the accelerator was also affected at the same time. On 22nd June, a thunderstorm caused a power glitch on the service electrical network. The primary water cooling at Point 5 was stopped. Despite a quick restart of the water cooling, the inlet temperature of the demineralised water on the busbar cooling circuit increased by 5 °C, up to 23.3 °C. It was kept below the threshold of 27 °C by switching off other cooling circuits to avoid the trigger of a slow dump of the magnet. The cold box of the cryogenics also stopped. Part of the spare liquid helium volume was used to maintain the cooling of the magnet at 4.5 K. The operators of the cryogenics quickly restarted ...

  2. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in primary writing tremor and writer’s cramp: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Hirdesh; Jayakumar, Peruvumba N.; Pal, Pramod Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The precise pathophysiology of primary writing tremor (PWT) and writer’s cramp (WC) is not known. The aim of this study is to compare the cerebral activation patterns in patients of PWT, WC and healthy controls, during a task of signing on paper, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Materials and Methods: Six subjects with PWT, three with WC and six healthy volunteers were examined using a 1.5-Tesla scanner. The paradigm consisted of three times repetition of a set of period of rest and activity. Each set consisted of 10 blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) echo-planar imaging (EPI) acquisitions at rest followed by 10 BOLD EPI acquisitions while signing their names on paper using the dominant right hand. Entire brain was covered. SPM99 analysis was done. Results: In comparison to the healthy controls, the following differences in cerebral activation were noted in the patients: (a) primary and supplementary motor areas showed overactivation in patients of PWT and underactivation in patients of WC, (b) the cingulate motor area showed underactivation in patients of PWT and overactivation in patients of WC and (c) the cerebellar activity was reduced in both WC and PWT. Conclusion: Our preliminary findings suggest that the cerebral and cerebellar activation patterns in PWT and WC during signing on paper are distinct from each other and from healthy controls. There may be cerebellar dysfunction in addition to motor dysfunctions in the pathogenesis of these disorders. PMID:21085530

  3. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the human primary visual cortex during visual stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Atsushi; Abe, Haruki; Nakajima, Takashi; Fujita, Motoi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Kuwabara, Takeo; Naruse, Shoji; Takagi, Mineo.

    1995-01-01

    Signal changes in the human primary visual cortex during visual stimulation were evaluated using non-invasive functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The experiments were performed on 10 normal human volunteers and 2 patients with homonymous hemianopsia, including one who was recovering from the exacerbation of multiple sclerosis. The visual stimuli were provided by a pattern generator using the checkerboard pattern for determining the visual evoked potential of full-field and hemifield stimulation. In normal volunteers, a signal increase was observed on the bilateral primary visual cortex during the full-field stimulation and on the contra-lateral cortex during hemifield stimulation. In the patient with homonymous hemianopsia after cerebral infarction, the signal change was clearly decreased on the affected side. In the other patient, the one recovering from multiple sclerosis with an almost normal visual field, the fMRI was within normal limits. These results suggest that it is possible to visualize the activation of the visual cortex during visual stimulation, and that there is a possibility of using this test as an objective method of visual field examination. (author)

  4. A magnetization transfer imaging study of bilateral optic radiation and visual cortex in patients with primary glaucoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Wenwen; Zhang Xuelin; Jiang Xiaoyong; Xu Yongming; Yang Zhihui; Zhang Yan; Chang Renmin; Wang Jianping; Wu Guijun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the changes in bilateral optic radiation and visual cortex in patients with primary glaucoma detected by magnetization transfer imaging (MTI), and try to explore the influence of the disease on posterior visual pathway. Methods: MTI was performed in 20 patients with primary glaucoma with normal signal on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The same scanning was performed in 31 matched healthy controls. MTI was obtained using spoiled gradient recalled acquisition sequence (SPGR). Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) of bilateral optic radiation and visual cortex was measured after post-processing. The MTR value differences of the same area between two groups were compared by independent-sample t test or Satterthwaite t test if variances were not equality. Result: The MTR value in the left and right optic radiation were (32.8 ± 2.2)% and (32.7 ± 2.0)% in the glaucoma group, (34.6 ± 1.4 )% and (34.8 ± 1.3)% in the control group. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (left t=3.284, right t=4.040; P<0.01). The MTR value of the left and right visual cortex were (30.1± 2.0)% and (30.8 ± 1.8)% in the glaucoma group, and (32.3 ± 1.2 )% and (32.4 ± 1.2)% in the control group. Statistically significant difference was found between the two groups (left t=4.319, right t=3.445; P<0.01). Conclusions: Potential neuropathology changes occurring in the posterior visual pathway of patients with glaucoma indicate that the whole visual pathway may be involved by glaucoma.The micro physiological changes can be detected by MTI which can not be found by conventional MRI. It is a useful method of studying trans-synaptic damage of visual pathway n vivo glaucoma which provides more information for guiding the clinic diagnosis, cure and prognosis of glaucoma. (authors)

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging guided reirradiation of recurrent and second primary head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Allen M; Cao, Minsong; Hsu, Sophia; Lamb, James; Mikaeilian, Argin; Yang, Yingli; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Low, Daniel A; Steinberg, Michael L

    2017-01-01

    To report a single-institutional experience using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided radiation therapy for the reirradiation of recurrent and second cancers of the head and neck. Between October 2014 and August 2016, 13 consecutive patients with recurrent or new primary cancers of the head and neck that occurred in a previously irradiated field were prospectively enrolled in an institutional registry trial to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of MRI guided radiation therapy using a 0.35-T MRI scanner with a cobalt-60 radiation therapy source called the ViewRay system (ViewRay Inc., Cleveland, OH). Eligibility criteria included biopsy-proven evidence of recurrent or new primary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, measurable disease, and previous radiation to >60 Gy. MRI guided reirradiation was delivered either using intensity modulated radiation therapy with conventional fractionation to a median dose of 66 Gy or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using 7 to 8 Gy fractions on nonconsecutive days to a median dose of 40 Gy. Two patients (17%) received concurrent chemotherapy. The 1- and 2-year estimates of in-field control were 72% and 72%, respectively. A total of 227 daily MRI scans were obtained to guide reirradiation. The 2-year estimates of overall survival and progression-free survival were 53% and 59%, respectively. There were no treatment-related fatalities or hospitalizations. Complications included skin desquamation, odynophagia, otitis externa, keratitis and/or conjunctivitis, and 1 case of aspiration pneumonia. Our preliminary findings show that reirradiation with MRI guided radiation therapy results in effective disease control with relatively low morbidity for patients with recurrent and second primary cancers of the head and neck. The superior soft tissue resolution of the MRI scans that were used for planning and delivery has the potential to improve the therapeutic ratio.

  6. Availability and structure of primary medical care services and population health and health care indicators in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Geoffrey

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proposed that greater availability of primary medical care practitioners (GPs contributes to better population health. We evaluated whether measures of the supply and structure of primary medical services are associated with health and health care indicators after adjusting for confounding. Methods Data for the supply and structure of primary medical services and the characteristics of registered patients were analysed for 99 health authorities in England in 1999. Health and health care indicators as dependent variables included standardised mortality ratios (SMR, standardised hospital admission rates, and conceptions under the age of 18 years. Linear regression analyses were adjusted for Townsend score, proportion of ethnic minorities and proportion of social class IV/ V. Results Higher proportions of registered rural patients and patients ≥ 75 years were associated with lower Townsend deprivation scores, with larger partnership sizes and with better health outcomes. A unit increase in partnership size was associated with a 4.2 (95% confidence interval 1.7 to 6.7 unit decrease in SMR for all-cause mortality at 15–64 years (P = 0.001. A 10% increase in single-handed practices was associated with a 1.5 (0.2 to 2.9 unit increase in SMR (P = 0.027. After additional adjustment for percent of rural and elderly patients, partnership size and proportion of single-handed practices, GP supply was not associated with SMR (-2.8, -6.9 to 1.3, P = 0.183. Conclusions After adjusting for confounding with health needs of populations, mortality is weakly associated with the degree of organisation of practices as represented by the partnership size but not with the supply of GPs.

  7. Magnetic cell labeling of primary and stem cell-derived pig hepatocytes for MRI-based cell tracking of hepatocyte transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwayne R Roach

    Full Text Available Pig hepatocytes are an important investigational tool for optimizing hepatocyte transplantation schemes in both allogeneic and xenogeneic transplant scenarios. MRI can be used to serially monitor the transplanted cells, but only if the hepatocytes can be labeled with a magnetic particle. In this work, we describe culture conditions for magnetic cell labeling of cells from two different pig hepatocyte cell sources; primary pig hepatocytes (ppHEP and stem cell-derived hepatocytes (PICM-19FF. The magnetic particle is a micron-sized iron oxide particle (MPIO that has been extensively studied for magnetic cell labeling for MRI-based cell tracking. ppHEP could endocytose MPIO with labeling percentages as high as 70%, achieving iron content as high as ~55 pg/cell, with >75% viability. PICM-19FF had labeling >97%, achieving iron content ~38 pg/cell, with viability >99%. Extensive morphological and functional assays indicated that magnetic cell labeling was benign to the cells. The results encourage the use of MRI-based cell tracking for the development and clinical use of hepatocyte transplantation methodologies. Further, these results generally highlight the importance of functional cell assays in the evaluation of contrast agent biocompatibility.

  8. Patient-reported quality indicators for osteoarthritis: a patient and public generated self-report measure for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Steven; Higginbottom, Adele; Taylor, Robert; Bird, Jo; Østerås, Nina; Hagen, Kåre Birger; Edwards, John J; Jordan, Kelvin P; Jinks, Clare; Dziedzic, Krysia

    2016-01-01

    People with osteoarthritis desire high quality care, support and information. However, the quality of care for people with OA in general practice is not routinely collected. Quality Indicators can be used to benefit patients by measuring whether minimum standards of quality care are being met from a patient perspective. The aim of this study was to describe how a Research User Group (RUG) worked alongside researchers to co-produce a set of self-reported quality indicators for people with osteoarthritis when visiting their general practitioner or practice nurse (primary care). These were required in the MOSAICS study, which developed and evaluated a new model of supported self-management of OA to implement the NICE quality standards for OA. This article describes the public involvement in the MOSAICS study. This was 1) the co-development by RUG members and researchers of an Osteoarthritis Quality Indicators United Kingdom (OA QI (UK)) questionnaire for use in primary care, and 2) the comparison of the OA QI (UK) with a similar questionnaire developed in Norway. This study shows how important and effective a research user group can be in working with researchers in developing quality care indicators for osteoarthritis for use in a research study and, potentially, routine use in primary care. The questionnaire is intended to benefit patients by enabling the assessment of the quality of primary care for osteoarthritis from a patient's perspective. The OA QI (UK) has been used to examine differences in the quality of osteoarthritis care in four European countries. Background People with osteoarthritis (OA) desire high quality care, support and information about OA. However, the quality of care for people with OA in general practice is not routinely collected. Quality Indicators (QI) can be used to benefit patients by measuring whether minimum standards of quality care (e.g. NICE quality standards) are being met from a patient perspective. A Research User Group (RUG

  9. Indications and technique of fetal magnetic resonance imaging; Indikationen und Technik der fetalen Magnetresonanztomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asenbaum, U.; Woitek, R.; Furtner, J.; Prayer, D. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie und Muskuloskelettale Radiologie, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Brugger, P.C. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Zentrum fuer Anatomie und Zellbiologie, Wien (Austria)

    2013-02-15

    Evaluation and confirmation of fetal pathologies previously suspected or diagnosed with ultrasound. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Technique for prenatal fetal examination. Fetal MRI is an established supplementary technique to prenatal ultrasound. Fetal MRI should only be used as an additional method in prenatal diagnostics and not for routine screening. Fetal MRI should only be performed in perinatal medicine centers after a previous level III ultrasound examination. (orig.) [German] Evaluierung und Bestaetigung von im praenatalen Ultraschall entdeckten Pathologien. Ultraschall und Magnetresonanztomographie. Praenatale Untersuchungsmethode. Die fetale MRT ist inzwischen als ergaenzende Methode zum praenatalen Ultraschall anerkannt. Die fetale MRT soll als additive Methode bei klinischer Relevanz, nicht jedoch als Routinescreeningverfahren waehrend der Schwangerschaft angewendet werden. Durchfuehrung ausschliesslich an einem Perinatalzentrum nach vorangegangenem Level-III-Ultraschall. (orig.)

  10. INVIVO 31P MAGNETIC-RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY (MRS) OF TENDER POINTS IN PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY FIBROMYALGIA SYNDROME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBLECOURT, AC; WOLF, RF; VANRIJSWIJK, MH; KAMMAN, RL; KNIPPING, AA; MOOYAART, EL

    1991-01-01

    31P Magnetic Resonance-Spectroscopy was performed at the site of tender points in the trapezius muscle of patients with primary fibromyalgia syndrome. Earlier, in vitro studies have reported changes in the high energy phosphate-metabolism in biopsies taken from tender points of fibromyalgia

  11. Primary Angiitis of the Central Nervous System: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Spectrum of Parenchymal, Meningeal, and Vascular Lesions at Baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulouis, Grégoire; de Boysson, Hubert; Zuber, Mathieu; Guillevin, Loïc; Meary, Eric; Costalat, Vincent; Pagnoux, Christian; Naggara, Olivier

    2017-05-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system remains challenging. To report an overview and pictorial review of brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in adult primary angiitis of the central nervous system and to determine the distribution of parenchymal, meningeal, and vascular lesions in a large multicentric cohort. Adult patients from the French COVAC cohort (Cohort of Patients With Primary Vasculitis of the Central Nervous System), with biopsy or angiographically proven primary angiitis of the central nervous system and brain magnetic resonance imaging available at the time of diagnosis were included. A systematic imaging review was performed blinded to clinical data. Sixty patients met inclusion criteria. Mean age was 45 years (±12.9). Patients initially presented focal deficit(s) (83%), headaches (53%), cognitive disorder (40%), and seizures (38.3%). The most common magnetic resonance imaging finding observed in 42% of patients was multiterritorial, bilateral, distal acute stroke lesions after small to medium artery distribution, with a predominant carotid circulation distribution. Hemorrhagic infarctions and parenchymal hemorrhages were also frequently found in the cohort (55%). Acute convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage was found in 26% of patients and 42% demonstrated pre-eminent leptomeningeal enhancement, which is found to be significantly more prevalent in biopsy-proven patients (60% versus 28%; P =0.04). Seven patients had tumor-like presentations. Seventy-seven percent of magnetic resonance angiographic studies were abnormal, revealing proximal/distal stenoses in 57% and 61% of patients, respectively. Adult primary angiitis of the central nervous system is a heterogenous disease, with multiterritorial, distal, and bilateral acute stroke being the most common pattern of parenchymal lesions found on magnetic resonance imaging. Our findings suggest a higher than previously thought prevalence of hemorrhagic transformation and other hemorrhagic

  12. Thin resolver using the easy magnetization axis of the grain-oriented silicon steel as an angle indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisho Oshino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A new type of thin resolver is presented, in which the easy axis of the magnetic anisotropy in the grain-oriented silicon steel is used as an angle indicator. The total thickness including a rotor, PCB coils and a back yoke can be made less than 4 mm. With a rotor of 50 mm diameter, a good linear response (non-linearity error < 0.4% between the mechanical angle input and the electrical angle output has been obtained. The influence of a weak magnetic anisotropy in the non-grain-oriented silicon steel used for the back yoke on the accuracy of the resolver can be deleted by the method proposed in this paper.

  13. Indications and value of bone scintigraphy in comparison to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haug, A.; Hacker, M.; Weiss, M.; Hahn, K.; Pfluger, T.

    2006-01-01

    With increasing use of cross-sectional imaging (CT/MRI) in radiology as well as PET and PET/CT in nuclear medicine, remaining indications for bone scintigraphy are in question. Recently introduced whole-body MRI represents an attractive alternative to bone scintigraphy, as MRI is additionally able to assess lesions that are limited to bone marrow and are located extraosseously. In this overview, indication-related strengths and limitations of MRI and bone scintigraphy are presented and discussed. Furthermore, complementary use of both modalities for special clinical questions is demonstrated. (orig.)

  14. Analysis of magnetic field and hysteresis of reed switches for control rod position indicator of SMART CEDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, J. W.; Kim, J. H.; Heo, H.; Kim, J. I.; Jang, M. H.

    2002-01-01

    The reliability and accuracy of the information on control rod position are very important to the reactor safety and the design of the core protection system. A survey on the RSPT(Reed Switch Position Transmitter) type control rod position indication system and its actual implementation in the exiting nuclear power plants in Korea was performed first. The control rod position indicator having the high performance for SMART was developed on the basis of RSPT technology identified through the survey. The hysteresis of reed switches is one of the important factors in a repeat accuracy of control rod position indication. In this study, the hysteresis of reed switches is introduced and the design method using the magnetic analysis of reed switches in presented

  15. Changes of visual-field global indices after cataract surgery in primary open-angle glaucoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Bo Ram; Jeoung, Jin Wook; Park, Ki Ho

    2016-11-01

    To determine changes of visual-field (VF) global indices after cataract surgery and the factors associated with the effect of cataracts on those indices in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. A retrospective chart review of 60 POAG patients who had undergone phacoemulsification and intraocular lens insertion was conducted. All of the patients were evaluated with standard automated perimetry (SAP; 30-2 Swedish interactive threshold algorithm; Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc.) before and after surgery. VF global indices before surgery were compared with those after surgery. The best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), number of glaucoma medications before surgery, mean total deviation (TD) values, mean pattern deviation (PD) value, and mean TD-PD value were also compared with the corresponding postoperative values. Additionally, postoperative peak IOP and mean IOP were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the factors associated with the effect of cataract on global indices. Mean deviation (MD) after cataract surgery was significantly improved compared with the preoperative MD. Pattern standard deviation (PSD) and visual-field index (VFI) after surgery were similar to those before surgery. Also, mean TD and mean TD-PD were significantly improved after surgery. The posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC) type showed greater MD changes than did the non-PSC type in both the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. In the univariate logistic regression analysis, the preoperative TD-PD value and type of cataract were associated with MD change. However, in the multivariate logistic regression analysis, type of cataract was the only associated factor. None of the other factors was associated with MD change. MD was significantly affected by cataracts, whereas PSD and VFI were not. Most notably, the PSC type showed better MD improvement compared with the non-PSC type after cataract surgery

  16. Atrophy and Primary Somatosensory Cortical Reorganization after Unilateral Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury: A Longitudinal Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Sheng Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI on the changes in the central nervous system (CNS over time may depend on the dynamic interaction between the structural integrity of the spinal cord and the capacity of the brain plasticity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used in a longitudinal study on five rhesus monkeys to observe cerebral activation during upper limb somatosensory tasks in healthy animals and after unilateral thoracic SCI. The changes in the spinal cord diameters were measured, and the correlations among time after the lesion, structural changes in the spinal cord, and primary somatosensory cortex (S1 reorganization were also determined. After SCI, activation of the upper limb in S1 shifted to the region which generally dominates the lower limb, and the rostral spinal cord transverse diameter adjacent to the lesion exhibited obvious atrophy, which reflects the SCI-induced changes in the CNS. A significant correlation was found among the time after the lesion, the spinal cord atrophy, and the degree of contralateral S1 reorganization. The results indicate the structural changes in the spinal cord and the dynamic reorganization of the cerebral activation following early SCI stage, which may help to further understand the neural plasticity in the CNS.

  17. Rectal Cancer: Mucinous Carcinoma on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Indicates Poor Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberholzer, Katja; Menig, Matthias; Kreft, Andreas; Schneider, Astrid; Junginger, Theodor; Heintz, Achim; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich; Hötker, Andreas M.; Hansen, Torsten; Düber, Christoph; Schmidberger, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess response of locally advanced rectal carcinoma to chemoradiation with regard to mucinous status and local tumor invasion found at pretherapeutic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: A total of 88 patients were included in this prospective study of patients with advanced mrT3 and mrT4 carcinomas. Carcinomas were categorized by MRI as mucinous (mucin proportion >50% within the tumor volume), and as nonmucinous. Patients received neoadjuvant chemoradiation consisting of 50.4 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction) and 5-fluorouracil on Days 1 to 5 and Days 29 to 33. Therapy response was assessed by comparing pretherapeutic MRI with histopathology of surgical specimens (minimum distance between outer tumor edge and circumferential resection margin = CRM, T, and N category). Results: A mucinous carcinoma was found in 21 of 88 patients. Pretherapeutic mrCRM was 0 mm (median) in the mucinous and nonmucinous group. Of the 88 patients, 83 underwent surgery with tumor resection. The ypCRM (mm) at histopathology was significantly lower in mucinous carcinomas than in nonmucinous carcinomas (p ≤ 0.001). Positive resection margins (ypCRM ≤ 1 mm) were found more frequently in mucinous carcinomas than in nonmucinous ones (p ≤ 0.001). Treatment had less effect on local tumor stage in mucinous carcinomas than in nonmucinous carcinomas (for T downsizing, p = 0.012; for N downstaging, p = 0.007). Disease progression was observed only in patients with mucinous carcinomas (n = 5). Conclusion: Mucinous status at pretherapeutic MRI was associated with a noticeably worse response to chemoradiation and should be assessed by MRI in addition to local tumor staging to estimate response to treatment before it is initiated.

  18. Radiocarbon dating of magnetic and non magnetic soil fractions as a method to estimate the heterotrophic component of soil respiration in a primary forest of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiti, T.; Certini, G.; Marzaioli, F.; Valentini, R.

    2012-04-01

    We estimated the heterotrophic component (Rh) of soil respiration in a primary forest of Ghana by radiocarbon dating, a method we already successfully applied in temperate and Mediterranean forests. In this case, given the advanced stage of alteration of tropical soils, which are thus rich in oxides, we implemented the method on soil fractions obtained by High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS), hence based on different degrees of magnetic susceptibility. In particular, we separated an organic pool associated with magnetic minerals (e.g iron oxides) from an organic pool engaged with non-magnetic minerals. This non destructive method of fractionation, often applied to the finest fraction of soil (clay), is here attempted on the bulk fine earth (sieved at 2 mm and further at 0.5 mm ,so as to have two size fractions: 2 to 0.5 mm and aggregates. Surprisingly, the non magnetic fraction is not influenced at all by the bomb C (negative delta 14) already at a depth of 5-15 cm and, even, at 15-30 cm all the four fractions have pre-bomb C, which means relatively high radiocarbon age. The finest fractions are the main contributors to the Rh flux, particularly the magnetic fraction (analysis of the bulk soil alone, and only by means of a SOC fractionation the Rh flux can be estimated quite accurately. This alternative approach for estimating the Rh component of CO2 from soils of tropical areas is currently being applied in 10 tropical forest sites in western and central Africa in the context of the ERC Africa GHG project, and together with measurements of the C inputs annually entering the soil will allow determining the sink-source capacity of primary forest soils.

  19. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    MAGNET During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bough...

  20. Systems analysis determining critical items, critical assembly processes, primary failure modes and corrective actions on ASST magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arden, C.S.

    1993-04-01

    During the assembly process through the completion of the Accelerator Surface String Test (ASST) phase one test, Magnet Systems Division Reliability Engineering has tracked all the known discrepancies utilizing the Failure Reporting, Analysis and Corrective Action System (FRACAS) and data base. This paper discusses the critical items, critical assembly processes, primary failure modes and corrective actions (lessons learned) based on actual data for the ASST magnets. The ASST magnets include seven Brookhaven Lab Dipoles (DCA-207 through 213), fourteen Fermi Lab Dipoles (DCA-310 through 323) and five Lawrence Berkeley Lab Quadrupoles (QCC-402 through 406). Between all the ASST magnets built there were one hundred eighty six (186) class one discrepancies reported out of approximately eleven hundred total discrepancy reports. The class one or critical discrepancies are defined as form, fit, function, safety or reliability problem. Each and every ASST magnet is considered a success, as they all achieved the quench performance requirements and were capable of being incorporated into the string test. This paper also discuss some specific magnet discrepancies, including failure cause(s), corrective action and possible open issues

  1. Systems analysis determining critical items, critical assembly processes, primary failure modes and corrective actions on ASST magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arden, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    During the assembly process through the completion of the Accelerator Surface String Test (ASST) phase one test, Magnet Systems Division Reliability Engineering has tracked all the known discrepancies utilizing the Failure Reporting, Analysis and Corrective Action System (FRACAS) and data base. This paper discusses the critical items, critical assembly processes, primary failure modes and corrective actions (lessons learned) based on actual data for the ASST magnets. The ASST magnets include seven Brookhaven Lab Dipoles (DCA-207 through 213), fourteen Fermi Lab Dipoles (DCA-310 through 323) and five Lawrence Berkeley Lab Quadrupoles (QCC-402 through 406). Between all the ASST magnets built there were one hundred eighty six (186) class one discrepancies reported out of approximately eleven hundred total discrepancy reports. The class one or critical discrepancies are defined as form, fit, function, safety or reliability problem. Each and every ASST magnet is considered a success, as they all achieved the quench performance requirements and were capable of being incorporated into the string test. This paper will also discuss some specific magnet discrepancies, including failure cause(s), corrective action and possible open issues

  2. Electrical and magnetic repetitive transcranial stimulation of the primary motor cortex in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, Francesca; Iacovelli, Elisa; Frasca, Vittorio; Gabriele, Maria; Giacomelli, Elena; De Lena, Carlo; Cipriani, Anna Maria; Inghilleri, Maurizio

    2009-05-08

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) delivered in short trains at 5Hz frequency and suprathreshold intensity over the primary motor cortex (M1) in healthy subjects facilitates the motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude by increasing cortical excitability through mechanisms resembling short-term synaptic plasticity. In this study, to investigate whether rTES acts through similar mechanisms we compared the effects of rTMS and repetitive transcranial electrical stimulation (rTES) (10 stimuli-trains, 5Hz frequency, suprathreshold intensity) delivered over the M1 on the MEP amplitude. Four healthy subjects were studied in two separate sessions in a relaxed condition. rTMS and anodal rTES were delivered in trains to the left M1 over the motor area for evoking a MEP in the right first dorsal interosseous muscle. Changes in MEP size and latency during the course of the rTMS and rTES trains were compared. The possible effects of muscle activation on MEP amplitude were evaluated, and the possible effects of cutaneous trigeminal fibre activation on corticospinal excitability were excluded in a control experiment testing the MEP amplitude before and after supraorbital nerve repetitive electrical stimulation. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that rTES and rTMS trains elicited similar amplitude first MEPs and a similar magnitude MEP amplitude facilitation during the trains. rTES elicited a first MEP with a shorter latency than rTMS, without significant changes during the course of the train of stimuli. The MEP elicited by single-pulse TES delivered during muscle contraction had a smaller amplitude than the last MEP in the rTES trains. Repetitive supraorbital nerve stimulation left the conditioned MEP unchanged. Our results suggest that 5 Hz-rTES delivered in short trains increases cortical excitability and does so by acting on the excitatory interneurones probably through mechanisms similar to those underlying the rTMS-induced MEP facilitation.

  3. Secondary emission yield at low-primary energies of magnetic materials for anti-multipactor applications

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilera, L; Olano, L; Casas, A; Morales, P; Vázquez, M; Galán, L; Caspers, F; Costa-Pinto, P; Taborelli, M; Raboso, D

    2014-01-01

    Secondary electron emission processes under electron bombardment are central to many effects at surfaces and interfaces, and to many in vacuum high power RF electronic devices where multipactor can be very intense [1,2]. Ferrite materials are usually used in microwave components used in space telecommunication systems, as circulators, phase-shifters, switches, and isolators. The physics of the multipactor phenomenon existing in microwave devices based on ferrite materials is an important issue and it is urgent to be researched [3]. One difficulty in the analysis of the multipactor effect in RF components containing ferrite lies on the fact that this material is an anysotropic magnetic medium controlled by an applied permanent magnetic field, which is used to magnetize the ferrite material. SEY and other properties (structure, magnetic behaviour,...) of soft-magnetic materials were studied in this work. MnZn soft ferrites magnets are suitable in the situation of frequency < 3MHz, low loss and high μi. Comp...

  4. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bought. Th...

  5. Cellulose-Pectin Spatial Contacts Are Inherent to Never-Dried Arabidopsis Primary Cell Walls: Evidence from Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tuo; Park, Yong Bum; Hong, Mei

    2015-01-01

    The structural role of pectins in plant primary cell walls is not yet well understood because of the complex and disordered nature of the cell wall polymers. We recently introduced multidimensional solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to characterize the spatial proximities of wall polysaccharides. The data showed extensive cross peaks between pectins and cellulose in the primary wall of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), indicating subnanometer contacts between the two polysaccharides. This result was unexpected because stable pectin-cellulose interactions are not predicted by in vitro binding assays and prevailing cell wall models. To investigate whether the spatial contacts that give rise to the cross peaks are artifacts of sample preparation, we now compare never-dried Arabidopsis primary walls with dehydrated and rehydrated samples. One-dimensional 13C spectra, two-dimensional 13C-13C correlation spectra, water-polysaccharide correlation spectra, and dynamics data all indicate that the structure, mobility, and intermolecular contacts of the polysaccharides are indistinguishable between never-dried and rehydrated walls. Moreover, a partially depectinated cell wall in which 40% of homogalacturonan is extracted retains cellulose-pectin cross peaks, indicating that the cellulose-pectin contacts are not due to molecular crowding. The cross peaks are observed both at −20°C and at ambient temperature, thus ruling out freezing as a cause of spatial contacts. These results indicate that rhamnogalacturonan I and a portion of homogalacturonan have significant interactions with cellulose microfibrils in the native primary wall. This pectin-cellulose association may be formed during wall biosynthesis and may involve pectin entrapment in or between cellulose microfibrils, which cannot be mimicked by in vitro binding assays. PMID:26036615

  6. Evaluating Zeta Potential and the Calcite/Aragonite Ratio as Potential Success Indicators for Magnetic Water Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambert, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    The potential benefits of anti-scale magnetic treatment (AMT) are not realized or reliably predicted because the factors measuring performance of magnetic treatment have either not been identified or are poorly defined...

  7. Primary health clinic toilet/bathroom surface swab sampling can indicate community profile of sexually transmitted infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Giffard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The microbiome of built environment surfaces is impacted by the presence of humans. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that analysis of surface swabs from clinic toilet/bathroom yields results correlated with sexually transmitted infection (STI notifications from corresponding human populations. We extended a previously reported study in which surfaces in toilet/bathroom facilities in primary health clinics in the Australian Northern Territory (NT were swabbed then tested for nucleic acid from the STI agents Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis. This was in the context of assessing the potential for such nucleic acid to contaminate specimens collected in such facilities. STIs are notifiable in the NT, thus allowing comparison of swab and notification data. Methods An assumption in the design was that while absolute built environment loads of STI nucleic acids will be a function of patient traffic density and facility cleaning protocols, the relative loads of STI nucleic acids from different species will be largely unaffected by these processes. Another assumption was that the proportion of swabs testing positive for STIs provides a measure of surface contamination. Accordingly, “STI profiles” were calculated. These were the proportions that each of the three STIs of interest contributed to the summed STI positive swabs or notifications. Three comparisons were performed, using swab data from clinics in remote Indigenous communities, clinics in small-medium towns, and a single urban sexual health clinic. These data were compared with time and place-matched STI notifications. Results There were significant correlations between swab and notifications data for the both the remote Indigenous and regional data. For the remote Indigenous clinics the p values ranged from 0.041 to 0.0089, depending on data transformation and p value inference method. Further, the swab data appeared to strongly indicate

  8. Mitochondrial NAD(PH in vivo: identifying natural indicators of oxidative phosphorylation in the 31P magnetic resonance spectrum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eConley

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural indicators provide intrinsic probes of metabolism, biogenesis and oxidative protection. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolites (NAD(P are one class of indicators that have roles as co-factors in oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis and anti-oxidant protection, as well as signaling in the mitochondrial biogenesis pathway. These many roles are made possible by the distinct redox states (NAD(P+ and NAD(PH, which are compartmentalized between cell and mitochondria. Here we provide evidence for detection of NAD(P+ and NAD(PH in separate mitochondrial and cell pools in vivo in human tissue by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS. These NAD(P pools are identified by chemical standards (NAD+, NADP+ and NADH and by physiological tests. A unique resonance reflecting mitochondrial NAD(PH is revealed by the changes elicited by elevation of mitochondrial oxidation. The decline of NAD(PH with oxidation is matched by a stoichiometric rise in the NAD(P+ peak. This unique resonance also provides a measure of the improvement in mitochondrial oxidation that parallels the greater phosphorylation found after exercise training in these elderly subjects. The implication is that the dynamics of the mitochondrial NAD(PH peak provides an intrinsic probe of the reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction in elderly muscle. Thus non-invasive detection of NAD(P+ and NAD(PH in cell vs. mitochondria yield natural indicators of redox compartmentalization and sensitive intrinsic probes of the improvement of mitochondrial function with an intervention in human tissues in vivo. These natural indicators hold the promise of providing mechanistic insight into metabolism and mitochondrial function in vivo in a range of tissues in health, disease and with treatment.

  9. Application of pulsed-magnetic field enhances non-viral gene delivery in primary cells from different origins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamau Chapman, Sarah W. [Institute of Veterinary Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstr. 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Hassa, Paul O. [Institute of Veterinary Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstr. 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) Heidelberg, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Koch-Schneidemann, Sabine; Rechenberg, Brigitte von [Musculoskeletal Research Unit, Equine Hospital, Vetsuisse Faculty Zurich, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstr. 260, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Hofmann-Amtenbrink, Margarethe [MatSearch, Chemin Jean Pavillard 14, 1009 Pully (Switzerland); Steitz, Benedikt; Petri-Fink, Alke; Hofmann, Heinrich [Laboratory of Powder Technology, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Hottiger, Michael O. [Institute of Veterinary Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstr. 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland)], E-mail: hottiger@vetbio.uzh.ch

    2008-04-15

    Primary cell lines are more difficult to transfect when compared to immortalized/transformed cell lines, and hence new techniques are required to enhance the transfection efficiency in these cells. We isolated and established primary cultures of synoviocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, melanocytes, macrophages, lung fibroblasts, and embryonic fibroblasts. These cells differed in several properties, and hence were a good representative sample of cells that would be targeted for expression and delivery of therapeutic genes in vivo. The efficiency of gene delivery in all these cells was enhanced using polyethylenimine-coated polyMAG magnetic nanoparticles, and the rates (17-84.2%) surpassed those previously achieved using other methods, especially in cells that are difficult to transfect. The application of permanent and pulsating magnetic fields significantly enhanced the transfection efficiencies in synoviocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, melanocytes and lung fibroblasts, within 5 min of exposure to these magnetic fields. This is an added advantage for future in vivo applications, where rapid gene delivery is required before systemic clearance or filtration of the gene vectors occurs.

  10. The Cardiovascular Health in Ambulatory Care Research Team performance indicators for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a modified Delphi panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jack V; Maclagan, Laura C; Ko, Dennis T; Atzema, Clare L; Booth, Gillian L; Johnston, Sharon; Tu, Karen; Lee, Douglas S; Bierman, Arlene; Hall, Ruth; Bhatia, R Sacha; Gershon, Andrea S; Tobe, Sheldon W; Sanmartin, Claudia; Liu, Peter; Chu, Anna

    2017-04-25

    High-quality ambulatory care can reduce cardiovascular disease risk, but important gaps exist in the provision of cardiovascular preventive care. We sought to develop a set of key performance indicators that can be used to measure and improve cardiovascular care in the primary care setting. As part of the Cardiovascular Health in Ambulatory Care Research Team initiative, we established a 14-member multidisciplinary expert panel to develop a set of indicators for measuring primary prevention performance in ambulatory cardiovascular care. We used a 2-stage modified Delphi panel process to rate potential indicators, which were identified from the literature and national cardiovascular organizations. The top-rated indicators were pilot tested to determine their measurement feasibility with the use of data routinely collected in the Canadian health care system. A set of 28 indicators of primary prevention performance were identified, which were grouped into 5 domains: risk factor prevalence, screening, management, intermediate outcomes and long-term outcomes. The indicators reflect the major cardiovascular risk factors including smoking, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and atrial fibrillation. All indicators were determined to be amenable to measurement with the use of population-based administrative (physician claims, hospital admission, laboratory, medication), survey or electronic medical record databases. The Cardiovascular Health in Ambulatory Care Research Team indicators of primary prevention performance provide a framework for the measurement of cardiovascular primary prevention efforts in Canada. The indicators may be used by clinicians, researchers and policy-makers interested in measuring and improving the prevention of cardiovascular disease in ambulatory care settings. Copyright 2017, Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  11. Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    A magnet pole piece for an NMR imaging magnet is made of a plurality of magnetic wires with one end of each wire held in a non-magnetic spacer, the other ends of the wires being brought to a pinch, and connected to a magnetic core. The wires may be embedded in a synthetic resin and the magnetisation and uniformity thereof can be varied by adjusting the density of the wires at the spacer which forms the pole piece. (author)

  12. Indications for and outcome of primary repair compared with faecal diversion in the management of traumatic colon injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, E; Emile, S; Elfeki, H; Youssef, M; Ghanem, A; Fikry, A A; Elshobaky, A; Omar, W; Khafagy, W; Morshed, M

    2016-08-01

    Injuries of the colon are a serious sequel of abdominal trauma owing to the associated morbidity and mortality. This study aims to assess postoperative outcome and complications of faecal diversion and primary repair of colon injuries when applied according to established guidelines for the management of colon injuries. This retrospective study was conducted on 110 patients with colon injuries. Guided by estimation of risk factors, patients were managed either by primary repair alone, repair with proximal diversion or diversion alone. There were 102 (92.7%) male patients and 8 (7.3%) female patients of median age 38 years. Thirty-seven were managed by primary repair and 73 by faecal diversion. Colon injuries were caused by penetrating abdominal trauma in 65 and blunt trauma in 45 patients. Forty-three patients were in shock on admission, and were all managed by faecal diversion. Forty patients developed 84 complications after surgery. Primary repair had a significantly lower complication rate than faecal diversion (P = 0.037). Wound infection was the commonest complication. The overall mortality rate was 3.6%. Primary repair, when employed properly, resulted in a significantly lower complication rate than faecal diversion. Significant predictive factors associated with a higher complication rate were faecal diversion, severe faecal contamination, multiple colon injuries, an interval of more than 12 h after colon injury and shock. Colorectal Disease © 2016 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  13. Recognition of primary and diagenetic magnetizations to determine the magnetic polarity record and timing of deposition of the moat-fill rocks of the Oligocene Creede Caldera, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Rosenbaum, Joseph G.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Robert, Andrew P.; Verosub, Kenneth L.

    2000-01-01

    postdepositional magnetite and maghemite that formed in rocks in which most or all detrital megnetic iron oxide was destroyed. Incipient oxidation of early diagenetic pyrite may have normal polarity Snowshoe Mountain Tuff (26.89 ± 0.0 Ma, 1 δ) and on the normal polarity postcaldera Fisher lava flows (as young as 26.23 ± 0.05 Ma, 1 δ) indicate that deposition of the Creede Formation spanned about 340-660 k.y. The intermittently defined normal polarity magnetization for the caldera-fill sequence, compared with different versions of the geomagnetic polarity time scale, is consistent with the shorter time span.

  14. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    The magnet subsystems resumed operation early this spring. The vacuum pumping was restarted mid March, and the cryogenic power plant was restarted on March 30th. Three and a half weeks later, the magnet was at 4.5 K. The vacuum pumping system is performing well. One of the newly installed vacuum gauges had to be replaced at the end of the cool-down phase, as the values indicated were not coherent with the other pressure measurements. The correction had to be implemented quickly to be sure no helium leak could be at the origin of this anomaly. The pressure measurements have been stable and coherent since the change. The cryogenics worked well, and the cool-down went quite smoothly, without any particular difficulty. The automated start of the turbines had to be fine-tuned to get a smooth transition, as it was observed that the cooling power delivered by the turbines was slightly higher than needed, causing the cold box to stop automatically. This had no consequence as the cold box safety system acts to keep ...

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of primary bone lymphoma presenting with pathological fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Karadeli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Malignant bone lymphomas are uncommonly encountered clinically. Men, 77-years-old, was admitted to hospital because of pain in the left shoulder. After imaging and histological examination diagnosed primary bone lymphoma. Primary lymphoma of the bone is an extranodal lymphoma that arises from the medullary cavity and manifests as a localized, solitary lesion, which represents 1% of all malignant lymphomas. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(0.100: 103-104

  16. Paleolatitudes of the Tibetan Himalaya from primary and secondary magnetizations of Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous sedimentary rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wentao; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Dekkers, Mark J.; Garzanti, Eduardo; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Lippert, Peter C.; Li, Xiaochun; Maffione, Marco; Langereis, Cor G.; Hu, Xiumian; Guo, Zhaojie; Kapp, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Tibetan Himalaya represents the northernmost continental unit of the Indian plate that collided with Asia in the Cenozoic. Paleomagnetic studies on the Tibetan Himalaya can help constrain the dimension and paleogeography of "Greater India," the Indian plate lithosphere that subducted and underthrusted below Asia after initial collision. Here we present a paleomagnetic investigation of a Jurassic (limestones) and Lower Cretaceous (volcaniclastic sandstones) section of the Tibetan Himalaya. The limestones yielded positive fold test, showing a prefolding origin of the isolated remanent magnetizations. Detailed paleomagnetic analyses, rock magnetic tests, end-member modeling of acquisition curves of isothermal remanent magnetization, and petrographic investigation reveal that the magnetic carrier of the Jurassic limestones is authigenic magnetite, whereas the dominant magnetic carrier of the Lower Cretaceous volcaniclastic sandstones is detrital magnetite. Our observations lead us to conclude that the Jurassic limestones record a prefolding remagnetization, whereas the Lower Cretaceous volcaniclastic sandstones retain a primary remanence. The volcaniclastic sandstones yield an Early Cretaceous paleolatitude of 55.5°S [52.5°S, 58.6°S] for the Tibetan Himalaya, suggesting it was part of the Indian continent at that time. The size of "Greater India" during Jurassic time cannot be estimated from these limestones. Instead, a paleolatitude of the Tibetan Himalaya of 23.8°S [21.8°S, 26.1°S] during the remagnetization process is suggested. It is likely that the remagnetization, caused by the oxidation of early diagenetic pyrite to magnetite, was induced during 103-83 or 77-67 Ma. The inferred paleolatitudes at these two time intervals imply very different tectonic consequences for the Tibetan Himalaya.

  17. Effects of magnetized water application on soil and maize growth indices under different amounts of salt in the water

    OpenAIRE

    Meysam Abedinpour; Ebrahim Rohani

    2017-01-01

    Application of low quality water for irrigation is compulsive in facing water scarcity. Use of a magnetic field is an approach to overcome this challenge. This study examined the impact of magnetic field technology on improving germination under water of different salinity levels. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of saline water levels, i.e. (S1):0.5, (S2):2, (S3):4 and (S4):6 dS/m combined with magnetized technology (with or without) on maize growth. Thus, magnetic treatm...

  18. Discriminative power of three indices of renal calcium excretion for the distinction between familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia and primary hyperparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Signe Engkjær; Nissen, Peter H; Vestergaard, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background: Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH) must be differentiated from primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) since prognosis and treatment differ. In daily practice this discrimination is often based on the renal calcium excretion or the calcium/creatinine clearance ratio (CCCR). However......, the diagnostic performance of these variables is poorly documented. Aim: To appraise the power of various simple biochemical variables to differentiate between FHH and PHPT using calcium sensing receptor (CASR) gene analysis and histopathological findings as gold standards. Design: Follow-up approach (direct...

  19. Indications for and clinical procedures resulting from magnetic resonance imaging of the knee in older patients: Are we choosing wisely?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Marc-Etienne; Vézina, François; Carrier, Nathalie; Masetto, Ariel

    2018-03-01

    To analyze the indications for and clinical procedures resulting from knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in older patients. We retrospectively analyzed 215 medical records of patients 50 years of age and older who had undergone a unilateral knee MRI in 2009. Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke in Quebec. Patients 50 years of age and older who underwent a knee MRI in 2009. The main outcome measure was an invasive procedure in the same knee that underwent an MRI. Medical charts were reviewed up to 2014 for patient characteristics, MRI indication, ordering physician specialty, radiography before MRI, MRI findings, and clinical procedures resulting from the MRI. The patients' mean (SD) age was 60.6 (7.5) years. The main MRI indications were meniscopathy (148 [68.8%]) and chronic pain (92 [42.8%]). The main MRI findings were osteoarthritis (OA) (185 [86.0%]) and meniscal lesions (170 [79.1%]). Only 82 (38.1%) patients had a plain radiograph in the 24 months preceding the MRI, usually without a standing anteroposterior view. Findings on pre-MRI radiography (n = 201) demonstrated OA in 144 (71.6%) patients. Overall, 87 (40.5%) patients were seen by an orthopedic surgeon and 27 (31.0%) of these patients underwent an invasive intervention. Among the 81 patients with moderate to severe OA on MRI, 36 (44.4%) had radiographic evidence of moderate to severe OA and only 3 (3.7%) underwent arthroscopic meniscectomy. Our study reproduces the known association between OA and degenerative meniscal changes in older patients. We have found a surprising underuse of the standing anteroposterior view on radiography. Most patients in our cohort could have been appropriately diagnosed and treated based on such radiographic information, as demonstrated by pre-MRI findings, thus avoiding the MRI and subsequent evaluation by an orthopedic surgeon. Meniscectomy was rarely performed, particularly in patients with advanced OA. Educational and pragmatic measures must be emphasized

  20. Better Measurement for Performance Improvement in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: The Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI) Experience of Conceptual Framework Development and Indicator Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veillard, Jeremy; Cowling, Krycia; Bitton, Asaf; Ratcliffe, Hannah; Kimball, Meredith; Barkley, Shannon; Mercereau, Laure; Wong, Ethan; Taylor, Chelsea; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Wang, Hong

    2017-12-01

    Policy Points: Strengthening accountability through better measurement and reporting is vital to ensure progress in improving quality primary health care (PHC) systems and achieving universal health coverage (UHC). The Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI) provides national decision makers and global stakeholders with opportunities to benchmark and accelerate performance improvement through better performance measurement. Results from the initial PHC performance assessments in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are helping guide PHC reforms and investments and improve the PHCPI's instruments and indicators. Findings from future assessment activities will further amplify cross-country comparisons and peer learning to improve PHC. New indicators and sources of data are needed to better understand PHC system performance in LMICs. The Primary Health Care Performance Initiative (PHCPI), a collaboration between the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, The World Bank, and the World Health Organization, in partnership with Ariadne Labs and Results for Development, was launched in 2015 with the aim of catalyzing improvements in primary health care (PHC) systems in 135 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), in order to accelerate progress toward universal health coverage. Through more comprehensive and actionable measurement of quality PHC, the PHCPI stimulates peer learning among LMICs and informs decision makers to guide PHC investments and reforms. Instruments for performance assessment and improvement are in development; to date, a conceptual framework and 2 sets of performance indicators have been released. The PHCPI team developed the conceptual framework through literature reviews and consultations with an advisory committee of international experts. We generated 2 sets of performance indicators selected from a literature review of relevant indicators, cross-referenced against indicators available from international sources, and evaluated through

  1. Plasma HIV Viral Rebound following Protocol-Indicated Cessation of ART Commenced in Primary and Chronic HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamlyn, Elizabeth; Ewings, Fiona M; Porter, Kholoud

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The magnitude of HIV viral rebound following ART cessation has consequences for clinical outcome and onward transmission. We compared plasma viral load (pVL) rebound after stopping ART initiated in primary (PHI) and chronic HIV infection (CHI). DESIGN: Two populations with protocol......VL levels, at a median of 50 (95% CI 48-51) weeks after stopping ART. Four weeks after stopping treatment, although the proportion with pVL≥400 copies/ml was similar (78% PHI versus 79% CHI), levels were 0.45 (95% CI 0.26-0.64) log(10) copies/ml lower for PHI versus CHI, and remained lower up to 48 weeks...

  2. Cardiac remodelling and function with primary mitral valve insufficiency studied by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aplin, Mark; Kyhl, Kasper; Bjerre, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    (MIVol) related to severe MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: In total, 24, 20, and 28 patients determined to have mild, moderate, and severe primary MI, respectively, were studied. Combining cine stacks with phase-contrast velocity mapping across the ascending aorta, CMR-determined MIVol was reproducibly obtained...

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging guided reirradiation of recurrent and second primary head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen M. Chen, MD

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Our preliminary findings show that reirradiation with MRI guided radiation therapy results in effective disease control with relatively low morbidity for patients with recurrent and second primary cancers of the head and neck. The superior soft tissue resolution of the MRI scans that were used for planning and delivery has the potential to improve the therapeutic ratio.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in fatal primary cerebral infection due to Chaetomium strumarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aribandi, M.; Bazan, C.; Rinaldi, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes MRI findings of a rare case of biopsy-proven fatal cerebral infection with Chaetomium strumarium in a 28-year-old man with a history of i.v. drug abuse. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed rapidly progressing lesions with irregular peripheral enhancement, possible central haemorrhage and significant mass effect. Only six cases of cerebral infection with Chaetomium have been reported in the English literature. This is the first report in the radiology literature describing the imaging findings. The previously reported cases of cerebral infection by the Chaetomium species are also reviewed Copyright (2005) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in fatal primary cerebral infection due to Chaetomium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aribandi, M; Bazan Iii, C; Rinaldi, M G

    2005-04-01

    This report describes MRI findings of a rare case of biopsy-proven fatal cerebral infection with Chaetomium strumarium in a 28-year-old man with a history of i.v. drug abuse. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed rapidly progressing lesions with irregular peripheral enhancement, possible central haemorrhage and significant mass effect. Only six cases of cerebral infection with Chaetomium have been reported in the English literature. This is the first report in the radiology literature describing the imaging findings. The previously reported cases of cerebral infection by the Chaetomium species are also reviewed.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in fatal primary cerebral infection due to Chaetomium strumarium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aribandi, M; Bazan, C [University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Rinaldi, M G [University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas (United States). Dept. of Pathology

    2005-04-15

    This report describes MRI findings of a rare case of biopsy-proven fatal cerebral infection with Chaetomium strumarium in a 28-year-old man with a history of i.v. drug abuse. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed rapidly progressing lesions with irregular peripheral enhancement, possible central haemorrhage and significant mass effect. Only six cases of cerebral infection with Chaetomium have been reported in the English literature. This is the first report in the radiology literature describing the imaging findings. The previously reported cases of cerebral infection by the Chaetomium species are also reviewed Copyright (2005) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. The use of outcome and process indicators to incentivize integrated care for frail older people: a case study of primary care services in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Lars Anell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of reforms have been implemented in Swedish health care to support integrated care for frail older people and to reduce utilization of hospital care by this group. Outcomes and process indicators have been used in pay-for-performance (P4P schemes by both national and local governments to support developments.Objective: To analyse limitations in the use of outcome and process indicators to incentivize integrated care for elderly patients with significant health care needs in the context of primary care.Method: Data were collected from the Region Skåne county council. Eight primary care providers and associated community services were compared in a ranking exercise based on information from interviews and registered data. Registered data from 150 primary care providers were analysed in regression models.Results and conclusion: Both the ranking exercise and regression models revealed important problems related to risk-adjustment, attribution, randomness and measurement fixation when using indicators in P4P schemes and for external accountability purposes. Instead of using indicators in incentive schemes targeting individual providers, indicators may be used for diagnostic purposes and to support development of new knowledge, targeting local systems that move beyond organizational boundaries.

  8. Auroral Electrojet Indices Designed to Provide a Global Measure, 2.5-Minute Intervals, of Auroral Zone Magnetic Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auroral Electrojet index (AE) is designed to provide a global quantitative measure of auroral zone magnetic activity produced by enhanced ionospheric currents...

  9. Is bone marrow biopsy always indicated in patients with primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniesa, C; Hernández-Machín, B

    2013-10-01

    Bone marrow involvement at the time of diagnosis is uncommon in patients with primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (PCMZL). Moreover, in these patients such involvement is rarely found in isolation on diagnosis. Typically the few patients with PCMZL who have early bone marrow involvement also present secondary nodal or visceral involvement, which is detected by other staging studies (usually computed tomography). In recent years, this has given rise to some debate about whether a bone marrow biopsy should be routinely performed in patients diagnosed with PCMZL in view of the good prognosis and low incidence of bone marrow infiltration and/or extracutaneous involvement in this type of lymphoma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  10. Request of laboratory liver tests in primary care in Spain: potential savings if appropriateness indicator targets were achieved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Maria; López-Garrigós, Maite; Flores, Emilio; Uris, Joaquín; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    Liver laboratory tests are used to screen for liver disease, suggest the underlying cause, estimate the severity, assess prognosis, and monitor the efficacy of therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the liver laboratory tests requesting patterns by GPs in Spain, according to geographic and hospital characteristics, to investigate the degree of requesting appropriateness. One hundred and forty-one clinical laboratories were invited to participate from diverse regions across Spain. They filed out the number of laboratory liver tests requested by GPs for the year 2012. Two types of appropriateness indicators were calculated: every test request per 1000 inhabitants or ratios of related tests requests. The indicator results obtained were compared between the different hospitals, according to their setting, location, and management. The savings generated, if each area would have achieved indicator targets, were calculated. We recruited 76 laboratories covering a population of 17,679,195 inhabitants. GPs requested 20,916,780 laboratory liver tests in the year 2012. No differences were obtained according to their setting. Lactate dehydrogenase and direct bilirubin per 1000 inhabitants were significantly higher in institutions with private management. Largest differences were observed between communities. Nine, 31, 0, and 13 laboratories, respectively, achieved the aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and total bilirubin-related alanine aminotransferase indicator targets. Reaching ratios would have resulted in savings of €1,028,468. There was a high variability in the request of liver tests. This emphasizes the need to implement interventions to improve appropriate use of liver tests.

  11. Magnetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Essam; El-Masry, Nabil; Qaddah, Atef; Alqahtani, Faisal; Moufti, Mohammed R. H.

    2015-06-01

    The Rahat volcanic field represents one of the widely distributed Cenozoic volcanic fields across the western regions of the Arabian Peninsula. Its human significance stems from the fact that its northern fringes, where the historical eruption of 1256 A.D. took place, are very close to the holy city of Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah. In the present work, we analyzed aeromagnetic data from the northern part of Rahat volcanic field as well as carried out a ground gravity survey. A joint interpretation and inversion of gravity and magnetic data were used to estimate the thickness of the lava flows, delineate the subsurface structures of the study area, and estimate the depth to basement using various geophysical methods, such as Tilt Derivative, Euler Deconvolution and 2D modeling inversion. Results indicated that the thickness of the lava flows in the study area ranges between 100 m (above Sea Level) at the eastern and western boundaries of Rahat Volcanic field and getting deeper at the middle as 300-500 m. It also showed that, major structural trend is in the NW direction (Red Sea trend) with some minor trends in EW direction.

  12. Hypermineralization and High Osteocyte Lacunar Density in Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type V Bone Indicate Exuberant Primary Bone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Stéphane; Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Glorieux, Francis H; Roschger, Paul; Klaushofer, Klaus; Marini, Joan C; Rauch, Frank

    2017-09-01

    In contrast to "classical" forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) types I to IV, caused by a mutation in COL1A1/A2, OI type V is due to a gain-of-function mutation in the IFITM5 gene, encoding the interferon-induced transmembrane protein 5, or bone-restricted interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM)-like protein (BRIL). Its phenotype distinctly differs from OI types I to IV by absence of blue sclerae and dentinogenesis imperfecta, by the occurrence of ossification disorders such as hyperplastic callus and forearm interosseous membrane ossification. Little is known about the impact of the mutation on bone tissue/material level in untreated and bisphosphonate-treated patients. Therefore, investigations of transiliac bone biopsy samples from a cohort of OI type V children (n = 15, 8.7 ± 4 years old) untreated at baseline and a subset (n = 8) after pamidronate treatment (2.6 years in average) were performed. Quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) was used to determine bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) as well as osteocyte lacunar density. The BMDD of type V OI bone was distinctly shifted toward a higher degree of mineralization. The most frequently occurring calcium concentration (CaPeak) in cortical (Ct) and cancellous (Cn) bone was markedly increased (+11.5%, +10.4%, respectively, p < 0.0001) compared to healthy reference values. Treatment with pamidronate resulted in only a slight enhancement of mineralization. The osteocyte lacunar density derived from sectioned bone area was elevated in OI type V Ct and Cn bone (+171%, p < 0.0001; +183.3%, p < 0.01; respectively) versus controls. The high osteocyte density was associated with an overall immature primary bone structure ("mesh-like") as visualized by polarized light microscopy. In summary, the bone material from OI type V patients is hypermineralized, similar to other forms of OI. The elevated osteocyte lacunar density in connection with lack of regular bone

  13. Magnetic susceptibility as an indicator to paleo-environmental pollution in an urban lagoon near Istanbul city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpar, Bedri; Unlu, Selma; Altinok, Yildiz; Ongen, Sinan

    2014-05-01

    For assessing anthropogenic pollution, magnetic susceptibility profiles and accompanying data were measured along three short cores recovered at the southern part of an urban lagoon; Kucukcekmece, Istanbul, Turkey. This marine inlet, connected to the Sea of Marmara by a very narrow channel, was used as a drinking water reservoir 40-50 years ago before it was contaminated by municipal, agricultural and industrial activities, mainly carried by three streams feeding the lagoon. The magnetic signals decrease gradually from the lake bottom towards the core base showing some characteristic anomalies. These signatures were tested as an environmental magnetic parameter against the lithological diversity (silici-clastic, total organic matter and carbonate), metal enrichments with larger variations (Pb, Mn, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr, U and Al) and probable hydrocarbon contamination. Mineral assemblage was determined by a computer driven X-ray diffractometer. The heavy metal concentrations and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were measured by ICP-MS and UVF spectrometry, respectively. Magnetic susceptibility shows slightly higher values in interlayers containing higher silici-clastic material and organic content which may suggest first-order changes in the relative supplies of terrigenous and biogenic materials. On the basis of cluster analyses, enhanced magnetic signals could be correlated with the elevated concentrations of Co, Zn, U, Pb and TPH along the cores. The Pb concentrations at the upper parts of the cores were higher than the "Severe Effect Level" and could pose a potential risk for living organisms. Greater amounts of organic carbon tend to accumulate in muddy sediments. In fact, there are a few studies reporting some relationship between enhanced magnetic signals and organic contamination mainly due to petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons. In conclusion, the magnetic susceptibility changes in sedimentary depositional environments could be used as a rapid and cost

  14. Primary Leiomyosarcoma of the Oral Tongue: Magnetic Resonance and Ultrasonography Findings with Histopathologic Correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldi, A.; Arcuri, T.; Carta, M.; Quilici, P.; Derchi, L.E. [Galliera Hospital, Genoa (Italy). Depts. of Neuroradiology, Maxillofacial Surgery, and Pathology

    2006-06-15

    Leiomyosarcoma is a malignant smooth muscle tumor that frequently occurs in the gastrointestinal tract and female genital tract. It is aggressive and tends to recur and metastasize. Clinical behavior is unpredictable, mostly influenced by a proper surgical approach. Oral leiomyosarcoma, in particular of the tongue, is extremely rare and poorly documented in the radiology literature. Diagnostic assessment of oral leiomyosarcoma is often challenging, mostly founded on its peculiar immunohistological features. However, imaging evaluation is essential in staging and for preoperative planning. We illustrate the case of a 52-year-old woman with 2-months history of a painless growing mass on the left hemitongue, with magnetic resonance and ultrasonographic features correlated to histopathologic examination.

  15. Size of pneumothorax can be a new indication for surgical treatment in primary spontaneous pneumothorax: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Adnan; Kök, Abdulaziz; Citak, Necati; Metin, Muzaffer; Büyükkale, Songül; Gürses, Atilla

    2014-01-01

    Surgical treatment of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is usually performed in cases of prolonged air leak (PAL) or recurrence. We investigated the effect of the size of pneumothorax in surgically treated PSP cases. Between 2007 and 2008, 181 patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of PSP were prospectively recorded. The size of pneumothorax was calculated in percentages by the method defined by Kircher and Swartzel. Patients were divided into two groups, according to pneumothorax size: Group A (large pneumothorax, ≥50%), and Group B (small or moderate pneumothorax, <50%). The mean size of pneumothorax was 80.5 ± 10.4% in Group A (n = 54, 29%) and 39.5 ± 6.5% in Group B (n = 127, 71%). History of smoking and smoking index were significantly higher in Group A patients (p = 0.02, p <0.001, respectively). Fifty-five patients (29.3%) required surgery because of PAL or ipsilateral recurrence. The rate of patients requiring surgical operation was significantly higher in Group A (51.9%) than in Group B (n = 25; p <0.001). Rates of PAL and recurrence were higher in Group A than in Group B (p = 0.007, p = 0.004, respectively). The size of pneumothorax is larger in those with a smoking history and a higher smoking index. Surgical therapy can be considered in cases with a pneumothorax size ≥50% after the first episode immediately.

  16. Non-magnetic indicators of pedogenesis related to loess magnetic enhancement and depletion: Examples from the Czech Republic and southern Siberia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bábek, O.; Chlachula, J.; Matys Grygar, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 30, 7-8 (2011), s. 967-979 ISSN 0277-3791 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : Pedogenesis * Sediment color * Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy * Cation exchange capacity * Magnetic susceptibility * Long-distance stratigraphic correlation Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 3.973, year: 2011

  17. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of primary intracranial histiocytic sarcoma in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, B.T.; Park, C.; Yoo, J.H.; Gu, S.H.; Jang, D.P.; Kim, Y.B.; Woo, E.J.; Kim, D.Y.; Cho, Z.H.; Park, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    A 10-year-old, neutered male, Maltese dog presented with a three week history of intention tremor, right hind limb rigidity, poor coordination, and occasional circling to the left. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, a mass was identified in the right occipital lobe and cerebellum. Three weeks after the initial MRI scan, we performed an sup(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) of the brain. The FDG-PET demonstrated areas of hypermetabolism in the right occipital lobe, cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata. When the standardized uptake value was calculated, the hypermetabolic lesion was higher than the gray matter values. The anatomical location of the hypermetabolic lesion was more precisely identified by the PET-MRI fusion images. The dog was definitively diagnosed as a primary histiocytic sarcoma of the brain. This is the first report of PET findings of an intracranial histiocytic sarcoma in a dog

  18. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    by B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The magnet operation was very satisfactory till the technical stop at the end of the year 2010. The field was ramped down on 5th December 2010, following the successful regeneration test of the turbine filters at full field on 3rd December 2010. This will limit in the future the quantity of magnet cycles, as it is no longer necessary to ramp down the magnet for this type of intervention. This is made possible by the use of the spare liquid Helium volume to cool the magnet while turbines 1 and 2 are stopped, leaving only the third turbine in operation. This obviously requires full availability of the operators to supervise the operation, as it is not automated. The cryogenics was stopped on 6th December 2010 and the magnet was left without cooling until 18th January 2011, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The maintenance of the vacuum pumping was done immediately after the magnet stop, when the magnet was still at very low temperature. Only the vacuum pumping of the ma...

  19. Magnetic resonance features of primary central nervous system lymphoma in the immunocompetent patient: a pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, Kelvin K.; Sutherland, Tom; Liew, Elain; Tartaglia, Con J.; Trost, Nick; Pang, Mei

    2012-01-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an uncommon but important variant of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and represents up to 6% of all primary central nervous system (CNS) malignancies. Recognition of this entity by radiologist on MRI may avoid unnecessary neurosurgical resection and redirect to biopsy. The pretreatment MRI of patients with biopsy proven PCNSL from the last 5 years at our institution was reviewed. Selected examples were used to construct a pictorial essay to illustrate some of the typical and atypical MR features of PCNSL. MRI of other CNS conditions with imaging similarities to PCNSL was included to demonstrate possible mimics. The typical features of PCNSL lymphoma are intra-axial homogenous single or multiple contrast enhancing lesions, with marked surrounding oedema and restricted diffusion, usually contacting a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surface. Necrosis, peripheral enhancement, haemorrhage or calcification are unusual and other diagnoses should be considered if any of these features are present. Potential mimics include high grade glioma, infarcts, metastatic disease, demyelination, abscess and secondary lymphoma. Careful assessment of the MR features and correlation with the clinical findings should enable the radiologists to raise the possibility of PCNSL and minimise the risk of unnecessary resection.

  20. Indication for a chiral phase in the molecular magnetic chain Gd(hfac)3NiTiPr by specific heat and μ+SR measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lascialfari, A.; Ullu, R.; Affronte, M.; Cinti, F.; Caneschi, A.; Gatteschi, D.; Rovai, D.; Pini, M.G.; Rettori, A.

    2004-01-01

    Specific heat and muon spin relaxation (μ + SR) measurements performed in the molecular magnetic chain Gd(hfac) 3 NiTiPr provide indication for the onset, at T 0 =2.08 K, of a phase with chiral order in the absence of long-range helical order. Specific heat data (probing the chirality-chirality correlation function) show a peak at T 0 that disappears upon application of a 5 T magnetic field, while μ + SR data (probing the spin-spin correlation function) do not present any anomaly at T 0 nor oscillations in the asymmetry curve below T 0

  1. Primary granulomatous angiitis of the central nervous system: findings of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and fractional anisotropy in diffusion tensor imaging prior to surgery. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppu, Takaaki; Inoue, Takashi; Nishimoto, Hideaki; Nakamura, Shinichi; Nakazato, Yoichi; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Ogawa, Akira

    2007-10-01

    Primary granulomatous angiitis of the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely rare. Its preoperative diagnosis is difficult as the condition displays nonspecific features on routine neuroimaging investigations. In this paper, the authors report findings of magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy and fractional anisotropy (FA) with diffusion tensor MR imaging in a case of granulomatous angiitis of the CNS. A 30-year-old man presented with morning headaches and grand mal seizures. An MR image revealed a mass resembling glioblastoma in the right temporal lobe. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed a high choline/creatine (Cho/Cr) ratio indicative of a malignant neoplasm, accompanied by a slight elevation of glutamate and glutamine. The FA value was very low, which is inconsistent with malignant glioma. The mass was totally removed surgically. Histologically, the peripheral lesion of the mass consisted of a rough accumulation of fat granule cells, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and distribution of capillary vessels. Some vessels within the lesion were replaced by granulomas. The histological diagnosis was granulomatous angiitis of the CNS. The MIB-1-positive rate of the granuloma was approximately 5%. Both MR spectroscopy and FA were unable to accurately diagnose granulomatous angiitis of the CNS prior to surgery; however, elevated Cho/Cr and glutamate and glutamine shown by MR spectroscopy may indicate the moderate proliferation potential of the granuloma and the inflammatory process, respectively, in this condition. Although the low FA value in the present case enabled the authors to rule out a diagnosis of glioblastoma, FA values in inflammatory lesions require careful interpretation.

  2. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1H-MRS reveals geniculocalcarine and striate area degeneration in primary glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is a collection of neurodegenerative diseases that affect both the retina and the central visual pathway. We investigated whether metabolites' concentrations changed in the geniculocalcarine (GCT and the striate area of occipital lobe by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1H-MRS, suggesting neurodegeneration of the central visual pathway in primary glaucoma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 20 patients with glaucoma in both eyes were paired with 20 healthy volunteers in same gender and an age difference less than 3 years. All the participants were examined by MR imaging including T1 Flair, T2 FSE and (1H-MRS. The T1 intensity and T2 intensity of their GCTs and striate areas were measured. The ratio of N-acetylaspartate (NAA/Creatine (Cr, Choline (Cho/Cr, glutamine and glutamate (Glx/Cr were derived by multi-voxels (1H-MRS in the GCT and the striate area of each brain hemisphere. The T1 intensity and T2 intensity had no difference between the groups. Significant decreases in NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr but no difference in Glx/Cr was found between the groups in both the GCT and the striate area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Primary glaucoma affects metabolites' concentrations in the GCT and the striate area suggesting there is ongoing neurodegenerative process.

  3. Feasibility of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) follow-up as the primary imaging modality after coiling of intracranial aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, Nicolaas A.; Metzemaekers, Jan D. M.; Dijk, J. Marc C. van; Mooij, Jan Jakob A.; Groen, Rob J. M.; Westerlaan, Henriette E.; Eshghi, Omid S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is still regarded as the gold standard for detecting residual flow in treated aneurysms. Recent reports have also shown excellent results from magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) imaging. This is an important observation, since DSA is associated with a risk of medical complications, is time consuming, and is more expensive. Purpose: To determine whether MRA could replace conventional DSA and serve as the primary postinterventional imaging modality in patients with coiled intracranial aneurysms. Material and Methods: We studied a prospectively enrolled cohort of 190 patients treated endovascularly for a first-ruptured and/or unruptured intracranial aneurysm between January 2004 and December 2008. The imaging protocol included a 1.5T time-of-flight (TOF) MRA and a DSA at 3 months (on the same day) and, depending on comparability, a 1.5T TOF-MRA or DSA 1 year after treatment. All images were evaluated by a multidisciplinary panel. Results: In 141/190 patients, both an MRA and DSA were performed after 3-month follow-up. In 2/141 patients (1.4%), (small) neck remnants gave false-negative MRA results. In one patient (0.7%), this led to additional neurosurgical clipping of the aneurysm. In 25/141 patients, future follow-up (>3 months) consisted of DSA because of various reasons. In 24/25 of these patients, primary MRA images alone would invariably have led to additional DSA imaging. Conclusion: The present study shows that 1.5T TOF-MRA is a feasible primary follow-up modality after coiling of intracranial aneurysms. Given our data, we now suggest that, in every patient with a coiled intracranial aneurysm, the first follow-up, 3 months after coiling, should be an MRA study. Only when this MRA is inconclusive (e.g., because of coil artifacts), or in the case of suspicion of recanalization, should DSA be performed additionally

  4. Limits on the interstellar magnetic field imposed by observational constraints indicate that Voyager 1 remains in the inner heliosheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloeckler, G.; Fisk, L. A.

    2016-01-01

    The unmeasured interstellar magnetic field strength is an essential parameter for models of the heliosphere moving relative to the Local Interstellar Cloud (LIC) that surrounds it. Here we use recent measurements of the differential energy spectra of energetic neutral hydrogen (ENH) combined with Voyager 1 (V1) measurements of energetic particles to calculate the total pressure and its 1-0 limit in the inner heliosheath, the region between the termination shock at ∼90 AU and the heliopause that V1 presumably crossed at 122 AU. Balancing pressure across the heliopause, we find the magnetic pressure in the outer heliosheath at ∼ 135 AU where V1 is currently located. From this magnetic pressure we find an extraordinarily large magnetic field strength of 0.84 ± 0.08 nT compared to the 0.464 ± 0.009 nT field strength currently measured by V1. We conclude that V1 is currently not measuring the interstellar field, but rather the solar magnetic field. Voyager 1 is thus not in interstellar space but still inside a new, unanticipated, and most unusual region of heliosphere that it entered in late August 2012. We recalculate total pressures in the ordinary heliosheath (∼90 - 122 AU), in the new, co-called cold inner heliosheath (122 - 145 AU), in the outer heliosheath and in the unperturbed LIC. Pressure balance again requires that all these pressures must be equal. Constrained by the requirement of pressure equality between all regions and minimum reduced χ 2 fits to the ENH spectrum and the differential intensities of particles measured by V1 in the ordinary, co-called hot heliosheath, we find the common pressure to be (3.45 ± 0.39)x10 -12 dyne-cm -2 . The magnetic field strength in the outer heliosheath is calculated to be 0.90 ± 0.089 nT, and in the unperturbed LIC it is 0.86 ± 0.11 nT. To achieve common pressure for all regions imposes firm limits on the LIC neutral hydrogen density, n(HI) = 0.10 ± 0.02 cm -3 . Pressure balance between the LIC and the hot

  5. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    Operation of the magnet has gone quite smoothly during the first half of this year. The magnet has been at 4.5K for the full period since January. There was an unplanned short stop due to the CERN-wide power outage on May 28th, which caused a slow dump of the magnet. Since this occurred just before a planned technical stop of the LHC, during which access in the experimental cavern was authorized, it was decided to leave the magnet OFF until 2nd June, when magnet was ramped up again to 3.8T. The magnet system experienced a fault also resulting in a slow dump on April 14th. This was triggered by a thermostat on a filter choke in the 20kA DC power converter. The threshold of this thermostat is 65°C. However, no variation in the water-cooling flow rate or temperature was observed. Vibration may have been the root cause of the fault. All the thermostats have been checked, together with the cables, connectors and the read out card. The tightening of the inductance fixations has also been checked. More tem...

  6. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      The magnet was energised at the beginning of March 2012 at a low current to check all the MSS safety chains. Then the magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T on 6 March 2012. Unfortunately two days later an unintentional switch OFF of the power converter caused a slow dump. This was due to a misunderstanding of the CCC (CERN Control Centre) concerning the procedure to apply for the CMS converter control according to the beam-mode status at that time. Following this event, the third one since 2009, a discussion was initiated to define possible improvement, not only on software and procedures in the CCC, but also to evaluate the possibility to upgrade the CMS hardware to prevent such discharge from occurring because of incorrect procedure implementations. The magnet operation itself was smooth, and no power cuts took place. As a result, the number of magnetic cycles was reduced to the minimum, with only two full magnetic cycles from 0 T to 3.8 T. Nevertheless the magnet suffered four stops of the cryogeni...

  7. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      Following the unexpected magnet stops last August due to sequences of unfortunate events on the services and cryogenics [see CMS internal report], a few more events and initiatives again disrupted the magnet operation. All the magnet parameters stayed at their nominal values during this period without any fault or alarm on the magnet control and safety systems. The magnet was stopped for the September technical stop to allow interventions in the experimental cavern on the detector services. On 1 October, to prepare the transfer of the liquid nitrogen tank on its new location, several control cables had to be removed. One cable was cut mistakenly, causing a digital input card to switch off, resulting in a cold-box (CB) stop. This tank is used for the pre-cooling of the magnet from room temperature down to 80 K, and for this reason it is controlled through the cryogenics control system. Since the connection of the CB was only allowed for a field below 2 T to avoid the risk of triggering a fast d...

  8. Magnetic fabric of sheared till: A strain indicator for evaluating the bed deformation model of glacier flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooyer, T.S.; Iverson, N.R.; Lagroix, F.; Thomason, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Wet-based portions of ice sheets may move primarily by shearing their till beds, resting in high sediment fluxes and the development of subglacial landforms. This model of glacier movement, which requires high bed shear strains, can be tested using till microstructural characteristics that evolve during till deformation. Here we examine the development of magnetic fabric using a ring shear device to defom two Wisconsin-age basal tills to shear strains as high as 70. Hysteresis experiments and the dependence of magnetic susceptibility of these tills on temperature demonstrate that anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) develops during shear due to the rotation of primarily magnetite particles that are silt sized or smaller. At moderate shear strains (???6-25), principal axes of maximum magnetic susceptibility develop a strong fabric (S1 eignevalues of 0.83-0.96), without further strengthening at higher strains, During deformation, directions of maximum susceptibility cluster strongly in the direction of shear and plunge 'up-glacier,' consistent with the behavior of pebbles and sand particles studied in earlier experiments. In contrast, the magnitude of AMS does not vary systematically with strain and is small relative to its variability among samples; this is because most magnetite grains are contained as inclusions in larger particles and hence do not align during shear. Although processes other than pervasive bed deformation may result in strong flow parallel fabrics, AMS fabrics provide a rapid and objective means of identifying basal tills that have not been sheared sufficiently to be compatible with the bed deformation model. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Monitoring biodiversity loss with primary species-occurrence data: toward national-level indicators for the 2010 target of the convention on biological diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberón, Jorge; Peterson, A Townsend

    2009-02-01

    Development of effective indicators is indispensable for countries and societies to monitor effects of their actions on biodiversity, as is recognized in decision VI/26 of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Good indicators would ideally be scalable, at least for the different scales that characterize biodiversity patterns and process. Existing indicators are mostly global in scope, and often based on secondary information, such as classifications of endangered species, rather than on primary data. We propose a complementary approach, based on the increased availability of raw data about occurrences of species, cutting-edge modeling techniques for estimating distributional areas, and land-use information based on remotely sensed data to allow estimation of rates of range loss for species affected by land-use conversion. This method can be implemented by developing countries, given increasing availability of data and the open and well-documented nature of the techniques required.

  10. Using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to understand adherence to multiple evidence-based indicators in primary care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Rebecca; Heyhoe, Jane; Louch, Gemma; Ingleson, Emma; Glidewell, Liz; Willis, Thomas A; McEachan, Rosemary R C; Foy, Robbie

    2016-08-08

    There are recognised gaps between evidence and practice in general practice, a setting posing particular implementation challenges. We earlier screened clinical guideline recommendations to derive a set of 'high-impact' indicators based upon criteria including potential for significant patient benefit, scope for improved practice and amenability to measurement using routinely collected data. Here, we explore health professionals' perceived determinants of adherence to these indicators, examining the degree to which determinants were indicator-specific or potentially generalisable across indicators. We interviewed 60 general practitioners, practice nurses and practice managers in West Yorkshire, the UK, about adherence to four indicators: avoidance of risky prescribing; treatment targets in type 2 diabetes; blood pressure targets in treated hypertension; and anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation. Interview questions drew upon the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Data were analysed using framework analysis. Professional role and identity and environmental context and resources featured prominently across all indicators whilst the importance of other domains, for example, beliefs about consequences, social influences and knowledge varied across indicators. We identified five meta-themes representing more general organisational and contextual factors common to all indicators. The TDF helped elicit a wide range of reported determinants of adherence to 'high-impact' indicators in primary care. It was more difficult to pinpoint which determinants, if targeted by an implementation strategy, would maximise change. The meta-themes broadly underline the need to align the design of interventions targeting general practices with higher level supports and broader contextual considerations. However, our findings suggest that it is feasible to develop interventions to promote the uptake of different evidence-based indicators which share common features whilst also including

  11. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      The magnet and its sub-systems were stopped at the beginning of the winter shutdown on 8th December 2011. The magnet was left without cooling during the cryogenics maintenance until 17th January 2012, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The vacuum pumping was maintained during this period. During this shutdown, the yearly maintenance was performed on the cryogenics, the vacuum pumps, the magnet control and safety systems, and the power converter and discharge lines. Several preventive actions led to the replacement of the electrovalve command coils, and the 20A DC power supplies of the magnet control system. The filters were cleaned on the demineralised water circuits. The oil of the diffusion pumps was changed. On the cryogenics, warm nitrogen at 343 K was circulated in the cold box to regenerate the filters and the heat exchangers. The coalescing filters have been replaced at the inlet of both the turbines and the lubricant trapping unit. The active cha...

  12. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2013-01-01

      The magnet was operated without any problem until the end of the LHC run in February 2013, apart from a CERN-wide power glitch on 10 January 2013 that affected the CMS refrigerator, causing a ramp down to 2 T in order to reconnect the coldbox. Another CERN-wide power glitch on 15 January 2013 didn’t affect the magnet subsystems, the cryoplant or the power converter. At the end of the magnet run, the reconnection of the coldbox at 2.5 T was tested. The process will be updated, in particular the parameters of some PID valve controllers. The helium flow of the current leads was reduced but only for a few seconds. The exercise will be repeated with the revised parameters to validate the automatic reconnection process of the coldbox. During LS1, the water-cooling services will be reduced and many interventions are planned on the electrical services. Therefore, the magnet cryogenics and subsystems will be stopped for several months, and the magnet cannot be kept cold. In order to avoid unc...

  13. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    The magnet was successfully operated at the end of the year 2009 despite some technical problems on the cryogenics. The magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T at the end of November until December 16th when the shutdown started. The magnet operation met a few unexpected stops. The field was reduced to 3.5 T for about 5 hours on December 3rd due to a faulty pressure sensor on the helium compressor. The following day the CERN CCC stopped unintentionally the power converters of the LHC and the experiments, triggering a ramp down that was stopped at 2.7 T. The magnet was back at 3.8 T about 6 hours after CCC sent the CERN-wide command. Three days later, a slow dump was triggered due to a stop of the pump feeding the power converter water-cooling circuit, during an intervention on the water-cooling plant done after several disturbances on the electrical distribution network. The magnet was back at 3.8 T in the evening the same day. On December 10th a break occurred in one turbine of the cold box producing the liquid ...

  14. Effect of 30 Hz Theta Burst Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on the Primary Motor Cortex in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest ePedapati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen healthy children (13.8±2.2 years, range 10 to 16; M:F=5:9 received 30 Hz intermittent theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (iTBS with a stimulation intensity of 70% of resting motor threshold (RMT with a total of 300 (iTBS300 pulses. All volunteers were free of neurologic, psychiatric and serious medical illnesses, not taking any neuropsychiatric medications, and did not have any contraindications to Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. Changes in the mean amplitudes of motor-evoked potentials from baseline following iTBS were expressed as a ratio and assessed from 1 to 10 minutes (BLOCK1 and 1 to 30 minutes (BLOCK2 using repeated-measures analysis of variance. All 14 subjects completed iTBS300 over the dominant primary motor cortex (M1 without any clinically reported adverse events. ITBS300 produced significant M1 facilitation (F5,65=3.165, p=0.01 at BLOCK1 and trend level M1 facilitation at BLOCK2 (F10,129=1.69, p=0.089. Although iTBS300 (stimulation duration of 92 seconds at 70% RMT delivered over M1 in typically developed children was well-tolerated and produced on average significant facilitatory changes in cortical excitability, the post-iTBS300 neurophysiologic response was variable in our small sample. ITBS300-induced changes may represent a potential neuroplastic biomarker in healthy children and those with neuro-genetic or neuro-psychiatric disorders. However, a larger sample size is needed to address safety and concerns of response variability.

  15. Effect of 30 Hz theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation on the primary motor cortex in children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedapati, Ernest V.; Gilbert, Donald L.; Horn, Paul S.; Huddleston, David A.; Laue, Cameron S.; Shahana, Nasrin; Wu, Steve W.

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen healthy children (13.8 ± 2.2 years, range 10–16; M:F = 5:9) received 30 Hz intermittent theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (iTBS) with a stimulation intensity of 70% of resting motor threshold (RMT) with a total of 300 (iTBS300) pulses. All volunteers were free of neurologic, psychiatric and serious medical illnesses, not taking any neuropsychiatric medications, and did not have any contraindications to transcranial magnetic stimulation. Changes in the mean amplitudes of motor-evoked potentials from baseline following iTBS were expressed as a ratio and assessed from 1 to 10 min (BLOCK1) and 1–30 min (BLOCK2) using repeated-measures analysis of variance. All 14 subjects completed iTBS300 over the dominant primary motor cortex (M1) without any clinically reported adverse events. ITBS300 produced significant M1 facilitation [F(5, 65) = 3.165, p = 0.01] at BLOCK1 and trend level M1 facilitation at BLOCK2 [F(10, 129) = 1.69, p = 0.089]. Although iTBS300 (stimulation duration of 92 s at 70% RMT) delivered over M1 in typically developed children was well-tolerated and produced on average significant facilitatory changes in cortical excitability, the post-iTBS300 neurophysiologic response was variable in our small sample. ITBS300-induced changes may represent a potential neuroplastic biomarker in healthy children and those with neuro-genetic or neuro-psychiatric disorders. However, a larger sample size is needed to address safety and concerns of response variability. PMID:25762919

  16. Occult primary tumors of the head and neck: accuracy of thallium 201 single-photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, S. A.; Balm, A. J.; Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Hoefnagel, C. A.; Hilgers, F. J.; Tan, I. B.; Pameijer, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of thallium 201 single-photon emission computed tomography (thallium SPECT) and computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) in the detection of occult primary tumors of the head and neck. Study of diagnostic tests. National Cancer Institute, Amsterdam,

  17. The Melbourne East Monash General Practice Database (MAGNET: Using data from computerised medical records to create a platform for primary care and health services research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Mazza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Melbourne East MonAsh GeNeral PracticE DaTabase (MAGNET research platform was launched in 2013 to provide a unique data source for primary care and health services research in Australia.  MAGNET contains information from the computerised records of 50 participating general practices and includes data from the computerised medical records of more than 1,100,000 patients.  The data extracted is patient-level episodic information and includes a variety of fields related to patient demographics and historical clinical information, along with the characteristics of the participating general practices.  While there are limitations to the data that is currently available, the MAGNET research platform continues to investigate other avenues for improving the breadth and quality of data, with the aim of providing a more comprehensive picture of primary care in Australia

  18. The Melbourne East Monash General Practice Database (MAGNET): Using data from computerised medical records to create a platform for primary care and health services research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Danielle; Pearce, Christopher; Turner, Lyle Robert; De Leon-Santiago, Maria; McLeod, Adam; Ferriggi, Jason; Shearer, Marianne

    2016-07-04

    The Melbourne East MonAsh GeNeral PracticE DaTabase (MAGNET) research platform was launched in 2013 to provide a unique data source for primary care and health services research in Australia.  MAGNET contains information from the computerised records of 50 participating general practices and includes data from the computerised medical records of more than 1,100,000 patients.  The data extracted is patient-level episodic information and includes a variety of fields related to patient demographics and historical clinical information, along with the characteristics of the participating general practices.  While there are limitations to the data that is currently available, the MAGNET research platform continues to investigate other avenues for improving the breadth and quality of data, with the aim of providing a more comprehensive picture of primary care in Australia.

  19. Pretreatment Evaluation of Microcirculation by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predicts Survival in Primary Rectal Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVries, Alexander Friedrich [Department of Radio-Oncology, Academic Teaching Hospital Feldkirch, Feldkirch (Austria); Piringer, Gudrun, E-mail: gudrun.piringer@hotmail.com [Department of Oncology, Wels-Grieskirchen Medical Hospital, Wels (Austria); Kremser, Christian; Judmaier, Werner [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Saely, Christoph Hubert [Department of Medicine and Cardiology, Academic Teaching Hospital Feldkirch, Feldkirch (Austria); Lukas, Peter [Department of Radio-Oncology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Öfner, Dietmar [Department of Surgery, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of the perfusion index (PI), a microcirculatory parameter estimated from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), which integrates information on both flow and permeability, to predict overall survival and disease-free survival in patients with primary rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 83 patients with stage cT3 rectal cancer requiring neoadjuvant chemoradiation were investigated with DCE-MRI before start of therapy. Contrast-enhanced dynamic T{sub 1} mapping was obtained, and a simple data analysis strategy based on the calculation of the maximum slope of the tissue concentration–time curve divided by the maximum of the arterial input function was used as a measure of tumor microcirculation (PI), which integrates information on both flow and permeability. Results: In 39 patients (47.0%), T downstaging (ypT0-2) was observed. During a mean (±SD) follow-up period of 71 ± 29 months, 58 patients (69.9%) survived, and disease-free survival was achieved in 45 patients (54.2%). The mean PI (PImean) averaged over the group of nonresponders was significantly higher than for responders. Additionally, higher PImean in age- and gender-adjusted analyses was strongly predictive of therapy nonresponse. Most importantly, PImean strongly and significantly predicted disease-free survival (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.85 [ 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.54; P<.001)]; HR adjusted for age and sex, 1.81 [1.30-2.51]; P<.001) as well as overall survival (unadjusted HR 1.42 [1.02-1.99], P=.040; HR adjusted for age and sex, 1.43 [1.03-1.98]; P=.034). Conclusions: This analysis identifies PImean as a novel biomarker that is predictive for therapy response, disease-free survival, and overall survival in patients with primary locally advanced rectal cancer.

  20. Imaging diagnostics in ovarian cancer: magnetic resonance imaging and a scoring system guiding choice of primary treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Sigrid M; Dueholm, Margit; Marinovskij, Edvard; Blaakær, Jan

    2017-03-01

    To analyze the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and systematic evaluation at surgery to predict optimal cytoreduction in primary advanced ovarian cancer and to develop a preoperative scoring system for cancer staging. Preoperative MRI and standard laparotomy were performed in 99 women with either ovarian or primary peritoneal cancer. Using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis of a systematic description of the tumor in nine abdominal compartments obtained by MRI and during surgery plus clinical parameters, a scoring system was designed that predicted non-optimal cytoreduction. Non-optimal cytoreduction at operation was predicted by the following: (A) presence of comorbidities group 3 or 4 (ASA); (B) tumor presence in multiple numbers of different compartments, and (C) numbers of specified sites of organ involvement. The score includes: number of compartments involved (1-9 points), >1 subdiaphragmal location with presence of tumor (1 point); deep organ involvement of liver (1 point), porta hepatis (1 point), spleen (1 point), mesentery/vessel (1 point), cecum/ileocecal (1 point), rectum/vessels (1 point): ASA groups 3 and 4 (2 points). Use of the scoring system based on operative findings gave an area under the curve (AUC) of 91% (85-98%) for patients in whom optimal cytoreduction could not be achieved. The score AUC obtained by MRI was 84% (76-92%), and 43% of non-optimal cytoreduction patients were identified, with only 8% of potentially operable patients being falsely evaluated as suitable for non-optimal cytoreduction at the most optimal cut-off value. Tumor in individual locations did not predict operability. This systematic scoring system based on operative findings and MRI may predict non-optimal cytoreduction. MRI is able to assess ovarian cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis with satisfactory concordance with laparotomic findings. This scoring system could be useful as a clinical guideline and should be evaluated and

  1. Weak cation magnetic separation technology and MALDI-TOF-MS in screening serum protein markers in primary type I osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X L; Li, C W; Liang, B C; He, K H; Li, X Y

    2015-11-30

    We investigated weak cation magnetic separation technology and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) in screening serum protein markers of primary type I osteoporosis. We selected 16 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and nine postmenopausal women as controls to find a new method for screening biomarkers and establishing a diagnostic model for primary type I osteoporosis. Serum samples were obtained from controls and patients. Serum protein was extracted with the WCX protein chip system; protein fingerprints were examined using MALDI-TOF-MS. The preprocessed and model construction data were handled by the ProteinChip system. The diagnostic models were established using a genetic arithmetic model combined with a support vector machine (SVM). The SVM model with the highest Youden index was selected. Combinations with the highest accuracy in distinguishing different groups of data were selected as potential biomarkers. From the two groups of serum proteins, 123 cumulative MS protein peaks were selected. Significant intensity differences in the protein peaks of 16 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were screened. The difference in Youden index between the four groups of protein peaks showed that the highest peaks had mass-to-charge ratios of 8909.047, 8690.658, 13745.48, and 15114.52. A diagnosis model was established with these four markers as the candidates, and the model specificity and sensitivity were found to be 100%. Two groups of specimens in the SVM results on the scatterplot were distinguishable. We established a diagnosis model, and provided a new serological method for screening and diagnosis of osteoporosis with high sensitivity and specificity.

  2. Primary Endoscopic Transnasal Transsphenoidal Surgery for Magnetic Resonance Image-Positive Cushing Disease: Outcomes of a Series over 14 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chao-Hung; Yen, Yu-Shu; Wu, Jau-Ching; Chen, Yu-Chun; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Cheng, Henrich

    2015-09-01

    There are scant data of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (ETS) with adjuvant therapies of Cushing disease (CD). To report the remission rate, secondary management, and outcomes of a series of CD patients. Patients with CD with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-positive adenoma who underwent ETS as the first and primary treatment were included. The diagnostic criteria were a combination of 24-hour urine-free cortisol, elevated serum cortisol levels, or other tests (e.g., inferior petrosal sinus sampling). All clinical and laboratory evaluations and radiological examinations were reviewed. Forty consecutive CD patients, with an average age of 41.0 years, were analyzed with a mean follow-up of 40.2 ± 29.6 months. These included 22 patients with microadenoma and 18 with macroadenoma, including 9 cavernous invasions. The overall remission rate of CD after ETS was 72.5% throughout the entire follow-up. Patients with microadenoma or noninvasive macroadenoma had a higher remission rate than those who had macroadenoma with cavernous sinus invasion (81.8% or 77.8% vs. 44.4%, P = 0.02). After ETS, the patients who had adrenocorticotropic hormone-positive adenoma had a higher remission rate than those who had not (76.5% vs. 50%, P = 0.03). In the 11 patients who had persistent/recurrent CD after the first ETS, 1 underwent secondary ETS, 8 received gamma-knife radiosurgery (GKRS), and 2 underwent both. At the study end point, two (5%) of these CD patients had persistent CD and were under the medication of ketoconazole. For MRI-positive CD patients, primary (i.e., the first) ETS yielded an overall remission rate of 72.5%. Adjuvant therapies, including secondary ETS, GKRS, or both, yielded an ultimate remission rate of 95%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A study of north-south asymmetry of interplanetary magnetic field plasma and some solar indices throughout four solar cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Borie, M A; Bishara, A A; Abdel-halim, A A; El-Monier, S Y

    2017-01-01

    We provide a long epoch study of a set of solar and plasma parameters (sunspot number Rz, total solar irradiance TSI, solar radio flux SF, solar wind speed V , ion density n, dynamic pressure n V 2 , and ion temperature T) covering a temporal range of several decades corresponding to almost four solar cycles. Such data have been organized accordingly with the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) polarity, i.e. away (A) if the azimuthal component of the IMF points away from the Sun and T if it points towards, to examine the N-S asymmetries between the northern and southern hemispheres. Our results displayed the sign of the N-S asymmetry in solar activity depends on the solar magnetic polarity state (qA>0 or qA<0). The solar flux component of toward field vector was larger in magnitude than those of away field vector during the negative polarity epochs (1986-88 and 2001-08). In addition, the solar wind speeds (SWS) are faster by about 22.11±4.5 km/s for away polarity days than for toward polarity days during the qA<0 epoch (2001-08), where the IMF points away from the Sun. Moreover, during solar cycles 21 st and 24 th the solar plasma is more dense, hotter, and faster south of the HCS. (paper)

  4. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The magnet ran smoothly in the last few months until a fast dump occurred on 9th May 2011. Fortunately, this occurred in the afternoon of the first day of the technical stop. The fast dump was due to a valve position controller that caused the sudden closure of a valve. This valve is used to regulate the helium flow on one of the two current leads, which electrically connects the coil at 4.5 K to the busbars at room temperature. With no helium flow on the lead, the voltage drop and the temperatures across the leads increase up to the defined thresholds, triggering a fast dump through the Magnet Safety System (MSS). The automatic reaction triggered by the MSS worked properly. The helium release was limited as the pressure rise was just at the limit of the safety valve opening pressure. The average temperature of the magnet reached 72 K. It took four days to recover the temperature and refill the helium volumes. The faulty valve controller was replaced by a spare one before the magnet ramp-up resumed....

  5. Detection of Cholangiocarcinoma with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Bile in Patients with and without Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albiin, N.; Smith, I.C.P.; Arnelo, U.; Lindberg, B.; Bergquist, A.; Dolenko, B.; Bryksina, N.; Bezabeh, T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Early detection of cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is very difficult, especially in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) who are at increased risk of developing CC. Purpose: To evaluate 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) of bile as a diagnostic marker for CC in patients with and without PSC. Material and Methods: The institutional review board approved the study, and all patients gave informed consent. Bile from 49 patients was sampled and investigated using 1 H-MRS. MR spectra of bile samples from 45 patients (18 female; age range 22-87 years, mean age 57 years) were analyzed both conventionally and using computerized multivariate analysis. Sixteen of the patients had CC, 18 had PSC, and 11 had other benign findings. Results: The spectra of bile from CC patients differed from the benign group in the levels of phosphatidylcholine, bile acids, lipid, and cholesterol. It was possible to distinguish CC from benign conditions in all patients with malignancy. Two benign non-PSC patients were misclassified as malignant. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 88.9%, 87.1%, and 87.8%, respectively. Conclusion: With 1 H-MRS of bile, cholangiocarcinoma could be discriminated from benign biliary conditions with or without PSC

  6. General indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document summarizes the main 2002 energy indicators for France. A first table lists the evolution of general indicators between 1973 and 2002: energy bill, price of imported crude oil, energy independence, primary and final energy consumption. The main 2002 results are detailed separately for natural gas, petroleum and coal (consumption, imports, exports, production, stocks, prices). (J.S.)

  7. K Indices of Magnetic Activity Relative to an assumed Quiet-day for each 3-Hour Period

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (formerly National Geophysical Data Center) receives the K indices on a current basis from approximately 85...

  8. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  9. Waste indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  10. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    The magnet worked very well at 3.8 T as expected, despite a technical issue that manifested twice in the cryogenics since June. All the other magnet sub-systems worked without flaw. The issue in the cryogenics was with the cold box: it could be observed that the cold box was getting progressively blocked, due to some residual humidity and air accumulating in the first thermal exchanger and in the adsorber at 65 K. This was later confirmed by the analysis during the regeneration phases. An increase in the temperature difference between the helium inlet and outlet across the heat exchanger and a pressure drop increase on the filter of the adsorber were observed. The consequence was a reduction of the helium flow, first compensated by the automatic opening of the regulation valves. But once they were fully opened, the flow and refrigeration power reduced as a consequence. In such a situation, the liquid helium level in the helium Dewar decreased, eventually causing a ramp down of the magnet current and a field...

  11. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé.

    The magnet operation restarted end of June this year. Quick routine checks of the magnet sub-systems were performed at low current before starting the ramps up to higher field. It appeared clearly that the end of the field ramp down to zero was too long to be compatible with the detector commissioning and operations plans. It was decided to perform an upgrade to keep the ramp down from 3.8T to zero within 4 hours. On July 10th, when a field of 1.5T was reached, small movements were observed in the forward region support table and it was decided to fix this problem before going to higher field. At the end of July the ramps could be resumed. On July 28th, the field was at 3.8T and the summer CRAFT exercise could start. This run in August went smoothly until a general CERN wide power cut took place on August 3rd, due to an insulation fault on the high voltage network outside point 5. It affected the magnet powering electrical circuit, as it caused the opening of the main circuit breakers, resulting in a fast du...

  12. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2013-01-01

    The magnet is fully stopped and at room temperature. The maintenance works and consolidation activities on the magnet sub-systems are progressing. To consolidate the cryogenic installation, two redundant helium compressors will be installed as ‘hot spares’, to avoid the risk of a magnet downtime in case of a major failure of a compressor unit during operation. The screw compressors, their motors, the mechanical couplings and the concrete blocks are already available and stored at P5. The metallic structure used to access the existing compressors in SH5 will be modified to allow the installation of the two redundant ones. The plan is to finish the installation and commissioning of the hot spare compressors before the summer 2014. In the meantime, a bypass on the high-pressure helium piping will be installed for the connection of a helium drier unit later during the Long Shutdown 1, keeping this installation out of the schedule critical path. A proposal is now being prepared for the con...

  13. Indication for a chiral phase in the molecular magnetic chain Gd(hfac){sub 3}NiTiPr by specific heat and {mu}{sup +}SR measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascialfari, A.; Ullu, R.; Affronte, M.; Cinti, F.; Caneschi, A.; Gatteschi, D.; Rovai, D.; Pini, M.G. E-mail: mgpini@ifac.cnr.it; Rettori, A

    2004-05-01

    Specific heat and muon spin relaxation ({mu}{sup +}SR) measurements performed in the molecular magnetic chain Gd(hfac){sub 3}NiTiPr provide indication for the onset, at T{sub 0}=2.08 K, of a phase with chiral order in the absence of long-range helical order. Specific heat data (probing the chirality-chirality correlation function) show a peak at T{sub 0} that disappears upon application of a 5 T magnetic field, while {mu}{sup +}SR data (probing the spin-spin correlation function) do not present any anomaly at T{sub 0} nor oscillations in the asymmetry curve below T{sub 0}.

  14. Effects of a community-oriented obesity prevention programme on indicators of body fatness in preschool and primary school children. Main results from the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Henauw, S; Huybrechts, I; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Bammann, K; Barba, G; Lissner, L; Mårild, S; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; Pigeot, I; Tornaritis, M; Veidebaum, T; Verbestel, V; Ahrens, W

    2015-12-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health concern but evidence-based approaches to tackle this epidemic sustainably are still lacking. The Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS) study investigated the aetiology of childhood obesity and developed a primary prevention programme. Here, we report on the effects of the IDEFICS intervention on indicators of body fatness. The intervention modules addressed the community, school and parental level, focusing on diet, physical activity and stress-related lifestyle factors. A cohort of 16,228 children aged 2-9.9 years - about 2000 per country - was equally divided over intervention and control regions. (Participating countries were Sweden, Germany, Estonia, Hungary, Cyprus, Italy, Spain and Belgium.) We compared the prevalence of overweight/obesity and mean values of body mass index z-score, per cent body fat and waist-to-height ratio over 2 years of follow-up. Mixed models adjusting for age and socioeconomic status of the parents and with an additional random effect for country accounted for the clustered study design. The prevalence of overweight and obesity increased in both the intervention and control group from 18.0% at baseline to 22.9% at follow-up in the control group and from 19.0% to 23.6% in the intervention group. The difference in changes between control and intervention was not statistically significant. For the cohort as a whole, the changes in indicators of body fatness did not show any clinically relevant differences between the intervention and control groups. Changes in favour of intervention treatment in some indicators were counterbalanced by changes in favour of the control group in some other indicators. Over the 2-year-observation period, the IDEFICS primary prevention programme for childhood obesity has not been successful in reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity nor in improving indicators of body fatness in

  15. Monitoring and Assessing the 2012 Drought in the Great Plains: Analyzing Satellite-Retrieved Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Drought Indices, and Gross Primary Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siheng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the relationship between satellite measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF and several meteorological drought indices, including the multi-time-scale standard precipitation index (SPI and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI, to evaluate the potential of using SIF to monitor and assess drought. We found significant positive relationships between SIF and drought indices during the growing season (from June to September. SIF was found to be more sensitive to short-term SPIs (one or two months and less sensitive to long-term SPI (three months than were the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI or the normalized difference water index (NDWI. Significant correlations were found between SIF and PDSI during the growing season for the Great Plains. We found good consistency between SIF and flux-estimated gross primary production (GPP for the years studied, and synchronous declines of SIF and GPP in an extreme drought year (2012. We used SIF to monitor and assess the drought that occurred in the Great Plains during the summer of 2012, and found that although a meteorological drought was experienced throughout the Great Plains from June to September, the western area experienced more agricultural drought than the eastern area. Meanwhile, SIF declined more significantly than NDVI during the peak growing season. Yet for senescence, during which time the reduction of NDVI still went on, the reduction of SIF was eased. Our work provides an alternative to traditional reflectance-based vegetation or drought indices for monitoring and assessing agricultural drought.

  16. Estimation of pulmonary artery pressure in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension by quantitative analysis of magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, T I; Boxt, L M; Katz, J; Reagan, K; Barst, R J

    1994-01-01

    The use of magnetic resonance (MR) images for estimating mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) was tested by comparing main pulmonary artery (MPA) and middescending thoracic aorta (AO) caliber in 12 patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) with measurements made in eight other patients who were observed for diseases other than heart disease (controls). The ratio MPA/AO and the ratios of vessel caliber normalized to body surface area (MPAI and AOI, respectively) were computed. The PAP was obtained in all PPH patients and compared with caliber measurements. The PPH MPA (3.6 +/- 0.8 cm) was significantly larger than the control MPA (2.9 +/- 0.3 cm, p = 0.02); the PPH MPAI (2.8 +/- 0.7 cm/M2) was significantly greater than the control MPA (1.7 +/- 0.2 cm/M2, p < 0.0001). Control AO (2.2 +/- 0.3 cm) was significantly greater than PPH AO (1.6 +/- 0.4 cm, p < 0.0001); there was no significant difference between control AOI (1.3 +/- 0.2 cm/M2) and PPH AOI (1.2 +/- 0.2 cm/M2, p = 0.25). The PPH MPA/AO (2.3 +/- 0.6) was significantly greater than the control MPA/AO (1.3 +/- 0.1, p < 0.0001); overlap between MPA in the two groups was eliminated by indexing values to AO caliber (MPA/AO). Among PPH patients there was strong correlation between PAP and MPA/AO (PAP = 24 x MPA/AO + 3.7, r = 0.7, p < 0.01). Increased MPA/AO denotes the presence of pulmonary hypertension and may be used to estimate PAP.

  17. Artifact correction and source analysis of early electroencephalographic responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak, Vladimir; Komssi, Soile; Scherg, Michael; Hoechstetter, Karsten; Classen, Joseph; Zaaroor, Menashe; Pratt, Hillel; Kahkonen, Seppo

    2007-08-01

    Analyzing the brain responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) using electroencephalography (EEG) is a promising method for the assessment of functional cortical connectivity and excitability of areas accessible to this stimulation. However, until now it has been difficult to analyze the EEG responses during the several tens of milliseconds immediately following the stimulus due to TMS-induced artifacts. In the present study we show that by combining a specially adapted recording system with software artifact correction it is possible to remove a major part of the artifact and analyze the cortical responses as early as 10 ms after TMS. We used this methodology to examine responses of left and right primary motor cortex (M1) to TMS at different intensities. Based on the artifact-corrected data we propose a model for the cortical activation following M1 stimulation. The model revealed the same basic response sequence for both hemispheres. A large part of the response could be accounted for by two sources: a source close to the stimulation site (peaking approximately 15 ms after the stimulus) and a midline frontal source ipsilateral to the stimulus (peaking approximately 25 ms). In addition the model suggests responses in ipsilateral temporo-parietal junction areas (approximately 35 ms) and ipsilateral (approximately 30 ms) and middle (approximately 50 ms) cerebellum. Statistical analysis revealed significant dependence on stimulation intensity for the ipsilateral midline frontal source. The methodology developed in the present study paves the way for the detailed study of early responses to TMS in a wide variety of brain areas.

  18. Primary hypertension among a population of Nigerian secondary school adolescents: Prevalence and correlation with anthropometric indices: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwaezuoke, S N; Okoli, C V; Ubesie, A C; Ikefuna, A N

    2016-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of primary hypertension and its correlation with anthropometric indices among a population of Nigerian adolescents. A cross-sectional study of secondary school adolescents aged 10-19 years in Enugu, Nigeria, using multi-staged sampling method. Anthropometry and blood pressures were measured using standardized instruments. Data analysis was with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20.0 (Chicago, IL, USA). A total of 2419 adolescents (mean age, 14.80 ± 2.07 years) were included in the study. Prevalence of hypertension was 10.7%. Systolic and diastolic hypertension were observed in 232 (9.6%) and 85 (3.5%) of the participants, respectively. Forty-two of the 137 obese (30.7%) compared to 158 among the 1777 (7.7%) with normal body mass index (BMI) (P hypertension. Waist circumference (r = 0.37) and BMI (r = 0.37) significantly and positively correlated with systolic hypertension. Obese and overweight adolescents had higher prevalence of primary hypertension than their counterparts with normal BMI.

  19. High-throughput gene expression profiling indicates dysregulation of intestinal cell cycle mediators and growth factors during primary simian immunodeficiency virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Michael D; Sankaran, Sumathi; Reay, Elizabeth; Gelli, Angie C; Dandekar, Satya

    2003-07-20

    During primary simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection, CD4+ T cells are severely depleted in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), while CD8+ T-cell numbers dramatically increase. To gain an understanding of the molecular basis of this disruption in T-cell homeostasis, host gene expression was monitored in longitudinal jejunum tissue biopsies from SIV-infected rhesus macaques by DNA microarray analysis. Transcription of cyclin E1, CDC2, retinoblastoma, transforming growth factor (TGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and interleukin-2 was repressed while cyclins B1 and D2 and transcription factor E2F were upregulated, indicating a complex dysregulation of growth and proliferation within the intestinal mucosa. Innate, cell-mediated, and humoral immune responses were markedly upregulated in animals that significantly reduced their viral loads and retained more intestinal CD4+ T cells. We conclude that the alterations in intestinal gene expression during primary SIV infection were characteristic of a broad-range immune response, and reflective of the efficacy of viral suppression.

  20. High-throughput gene expression profiling indicates dysregulation of intestinal cell cycle mediators and growth factors during primary simian immunodeficiency virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Michael D.; Sankaran, Sumathi; Reay, Elizabeth; Gelli, Angie C.; Dandekar, Satya

    2003-01-01

    During primary simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection, CD4+ T cells are severely depleted in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), while CD8+ T-cell numbers dramatically increase. To gain an understanding of the molecular basis of this disruption in T-cell homeostasis, host gene expression was monitored in longitudinal jejunum tissue biopsies from SIV-infected rhesus macaques by DNA microarray analysis. Transcription of cyclin E1, CDC2, retinoblastoma, transforming growth factor (TGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and interleukin-2 was repressed while cyclins B1 and D2 and transcription factor E2F were upregulated, indicating a complex dysregulation of growth and proliferation within the intestinal mucosa. Innate, cell-mediated, and humoral immune responses were markedly upregulated in animals that significantly reduced their viral loads and retained more intestinal CD4+ T cells. We conclude that the alterations in intestinal gene expression during primary SIV infection were characteristic of a broad-range immune response, and reflective of the efficacy of viral suppression

  1. WHO/INRUD patient care and facility-specific drug use indicators at primary health care centres in Eastern province, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mahalli, A A; Akl, O A M; Al-Dawood, S F; Al-Nehab, A A; Al-Kubaish, H A; Al-Saeed, S; Elkahky, A A A; Salem, A M A A

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to measure the performance of primary health care centres in Eastern province, Saudi Arabia, using the WHO/International Network of Rational Use of Drugs patient care and facility-specific drug use indicators. In a cross-sectional study, 10 health centres were selected using systematic random sampling. A total of 300 patients were interviewed while visiting the centre from January to March 2011 and 10 pharmacists from the same centres were interviewed. Average consultation time was 7.3 min (optimal > or = 30 min), percentage of drugs adequately labelled was 10% (optimal 100%) and patient's knowledge of correct dosage was 79.3% (optimal 100%). The percentage of key drugs in stock was only 59.2% (optimal 100%). An overall index of rational facility-specific drug use was calculated and applied to rank the health centres for benchmarking.

  2. Whole-body multislice computed tomography as the primary and sole diagnostic tool in patients with blunt trauma: searching for its appropriate indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurmb, Thomas Erik; Frühwald, Peter; Hopfner, Wittiko; Roewer, Norbert; Brederlau, Jörg

    2007-11-01

    In our hospital, whole-body multislice computed tomography is used as the primary diagnostic tool in patients with suspected multiple trauma. A triage rule is used for its indication. We have retrospectively analyzed data of sedated, intubated and ventilated patients consecutively admitted to our trauma center to assess whether the triage rule can help identify patients with severe trauma (injury severity score > or = 16). We have found that overtriage (injury severity score < 16) occurs in 30%, and undertriage occurs in 6% of patients. Although we have found the triage rule to be highly sensitive, this results in a high rate of overtriage. Until we know more about the most relevant and independent predictive factors, sole reliance upon multislice computed tomography in triaging suspected polytrauma victims will imply the risk to overscan many patients.

  3. Spatial patterns of primary productivity derived from the Dynamic Habitat Indices predict patterns of species richness and distributions in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttidate, Naparat

    Humans are changing the Earth's ecosystems, which has profound consequences for biodiversity. To understand how species respond to these changes, biodiversity science requires accurate assessments of biodiversity. However, biodiversity assessments are still limited in tropical regions. The Dynamic Habitat Indices (DHIs), derived from satellite data, summarize dynamic patterns of annual primary productivity: (a) cumulative annual productivity, (b) minimum annual productivity, and (c) seasonal variation in productivity. The DHIs have been successfully used in temperate regions, but not yet in the tropics. My goal was to evaluate the importance of primary productivity measured via the DHIs for assessing patterns of species richness and distributions in Thailand. First, I assessed the relationships between the DHIs and tropical bird species richness. I also evaluated the complementarity of the DHIs and topography, climate, latitudinal gradients, habitat heterogeneity, and habitat area in explaining bird species richness. I found that among three DHIs, cumulative annual productivity was the most important factor in explaining bird species richness and that the DHIs outperformed other environmental variables. Second, I developed texture measures derive from DHI cumulative annual productivity, and compared them to habitat composition and fragmentation as predictors of tropical forest bird distributions. I found that adding texture measures to habitat composition and fragmentation models improved the prediction of tropical bird distributions, especially area- and edge-sensitive tropical forest bird species. Third, I predicted the effects of trophic interactions between primary productivity, prey, and predators in relation to habitat connectivity for Indochinese tigers (Panthera tigris). I found that including trophic interactions improved habitat suitability models for tigers. However, tiger habitat is highly fragmented with few dispersal corridors. I also identified

  4. Greigite (Fe3S4) as an indicator of drought - The 1912-1994 sediment magnetic record from White Rock Lake, Dallas, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R.L.; Rosenbaum, J.G.; Van Metre, P.; Tuttle, M.; Callender, E.; Goldin, A.

    1999-01-01

    Combined magnetic and geochemical studies were conducted on sediments from White Rock Lake, a reservoir in suburban Dallas (USA), to investigate how land use has affected sediment and water quality since the reservoir was filled in 1912. The chronology of a 167-cm-long core is constrained by the recognition of the pre-reservoir surface and by 137Cs results. In the reservoir sediments, magnetic susceptibility (MS) and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) are largely carried by detrital titanomagnetite that originally formed in igneous rocks. Titanomagnetite and associated hematite are the dominant iron oxides in a sample from the surficial deposit in the watershed but are absent in the underlying Austin Chalk. Therefore, these minerals were transported by wind into the watershed. After about 1960, systematic decreases in Ti, Fe, and Al suggest diminished input of detrital Fe-Ti oxides from the surficial deposits. MS and IRM remain constant over this interval, however, implying compensation by an increase in strongly magnetic material derived from human activity. Anthropogenic magnetite in rust and ferrite spherules (from fly ash?) are more common in sediment deposited after about 1970 than before and may account for the constant magnetization despite the implied decrease in detrital Fe-Ti oxides. An unexpected finding is the presence of authigenic greigite (Fe3S4), the abundance of which is at least partly controlled by climate. Greigite is common in sediments that predate about 1975, with zones of concentration indicated by relatively high IRM/MS. High greigite contents in sediment deposited during the early to mid-1950s and during the mid-1930s correspond to several-year periods of below-average precipitation and drought from historical records. Relatively long water-residence times in the reservoir during these periods may have led to elevated levels of sulfate available for bacterial sulfate reduction. The sulfate was probably derived via the oxidation of

  5. Activity in the primary somatosensory cortex induced by reflexological stimulation is unaffected by pseudo-information: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Naoki; Akitsuki, Yuko; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-05-27

    Reflexology is an alternative medical practice that produces beneficial effects by applying pressure to specific reflex areas. Our previous study suggested that reflexological stimulation induced cortical activation in somatosensory cortex corresponding to the stimulated reflex area; however, we could not rule out the possibility of a placebo effect resulting from instructions given during the experimental task. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how reflexological stimulation of the reflex area is processed in the primary somatosensory cortex when correct and pseudo-information about the reflex area is provided. Furthermore, the laterality of activation to the reflexological stimulation was investigated. Thirty-two healthy Japanese volunteers participated. The experiment followed a double-blind design. Half of the subjects received correct information, that the base of the second toe was the eye reflex area, and pseudo-information, that the base of the third toe was the shoulder reflex area. The other half of the subjects received the opposite information. fMRI time series data were acquired during reflexological stimulation to both feet. The experimenter stimulated each reflex area in accordance with an auditory cue. The fMRI data were analyzed using a conventional two-stage approach. The hemodynamic responses produced by the stimulation of each reflex area were assessed using a general linear model on an intra-subject basis, and a two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed on an intersubject basis to determine the effect of reflex area laterality and information accuracy. Our results indicated that stimulation of the eye reflex area in either foot induced activity in the left middle postcentral gyrus, the area to which tactile sensation to the face projects, as well as in the postcentral gyrus contralateral foot representation area. This activity was not affected by pseudo information. The results also indicate

  6. Activity in the primary somatosensory cortex induced by reflexological stimulation is unaffected by pseudo-information: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Reflexology is an alternative medical practice that produces beneficial effects by applying pressure to specific reflex areas. Our previous study suggested that reflexological stimulation induced cortical activation in somatosensory cortex corresponding to the stimulated reflex area; however, we could not rule out the possibility of a placebo effect resulting from instructions given during the experimental task. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how reflexological stimulation of the reflex area is processed in the primary somatosensory cortex when correct and pseudo-information about the reflex area is provided. Furthermore, the laterality of activation to the reflexological stimulation was investigated. Methods Thirty-two healthy Japanese volunteers participated. The experiment followed a double-blind design. Half of the subjects received correct information, that the base of the second toe was the eye reflex area, and pseudo-information, that the base of the third toe was the shoulder reflex area. The other half of the subjects received the opposite information. fMRI time series data were acquired during reflexological stimulation to both feet. The experimenter stimulated each reflex area in accordance with an auditory cue. The fMRI data were analyzed using a conventional two-stage approach. The hemodynamic responses produced by the stimulation of each reflex area were assessed using a general linear model on an intra-subject basis, and a two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed on an intersubject basis to determine the effect of reflex area laterality and information accuracy. Results Our results indicated that stimulation of the eye reflex area in either foot induced activity in the left middle postcentral gyrus, the area to which tactile sensation to the face projects, as well as in the postcentral gyrus contralateral foot representation area. This activity was not affected by pseudo information

  7. Effect of an educational intervention in primary care physicians on the compliance of indicators of good clinical practice in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus [OBTEDIGA project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Pardo, J I; Pérez-Castro, T R; López-Álvarez, X L; Santiago-Pérez, M I; García-Soidán, F J; Muñiz, J

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of an educational intervention among primary care physicians on several indicators of good clinical practice in diabetes care. Two groups of physicians were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group (IG and CG). Every physician randomly selected two samples of patients from all type 2 diabetic patients aged 40 years and above and diagnosed more than a year ago. Baseline and final information were collected cross-sectionally 12 months apart, in two independent samples of 30 patients per physician. The educational intervention comprised: distribution of educational materials and physicians' specific bench-marking information, an on-line course and three on-site educational workshops on diabetes. External observers collected information directly from the physicians and from the medical records of the patients on personal and family history of disease and on the evolution and treatment of their disease. Baseline information was collected retrospectively in the control group. Intervention group comprised 53 physicians who included a total of 3018 patients in the baseline and final evaluations. CG comprised 50 physicians who included 2868 patients in the same evaluations. Measurement of micro-albuminuria in the last 12 months (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4) and foot examination in the last year (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.6) were the indicators for which greater improvement was found in the IG. No other indicator considered showed statistically significant improvement between groups. The identification of indicators with very low level of compliance and the implementation of a simple intervention in physicians to correct them is effective in improving the quality of care of diabetic patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Use of chemical fractionation and proton nuclear magnetic resonance to probe the physical structure of the primary plant cell wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, I.E.P.; Wallace, J.C.; MacKay, A.L.; Volke, F.

    1990-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance has been used to monitor the microscopic physical properties of etiolated hypocotyl cell walls from Phaseolus vulgaris L. at all stages in a series of chemical fractionations with ammonium oxalate and potassium hydroxide. Solid echo measurements indicate that 75% of the polymers in the intact cell wall, including the cellulose and most of the hemicelluloses, are arranged such that there is almost complete restraint of molecular motion. The chemical fractionations generally altered the physical structures of the remaining cell wall components. Digestion with 0.25% ammonium oxalate/oxalic acid solubilized the pectin and increased the mobility of the hemicellulose I component. Extraction with 4% potassium hydroxide removed the hemicellulose I component and loosened the hemicellulose II. Further extraction with 24% potassium hydroxide removed the hemicellulose II and loosened some of the cellulose. The cellulose crystallinity, as monitored by Jeener echo measurements decreased from 83% to 63% during these fractionations. We conclude that, while hemicellulose I is firmly attached to hemicellulose II, it is not in a closely packed structure. Hemicellulose II is strongly bound to cellulose and has a much more closely packed structure

  9. Analysis of a hundred-years series of magnetic activity indices. III. Is the frequency distribution logarithmo-normal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayaud, P.N.

    1976-01-01

    Because of the various components of positive conservation existing in the series of aa indices, their frequency distribution is necessarily distorted with respect to any random distribution. However when one takes these various components into account, the observed distribution can be considered as being a logarithmo-normal distribution. This implies that the geomagnetic activity satisfies the conditions of the central limit theorem, according to which a phenomenon which presents such a distribution is due to independent causes whose effects are multiplicative. Furthermore, the distorsion of the frequency distribution caused by the 11-year and 90-year cycles corresponds to a pure attenuation effect; an interpretation by the solar 'coronal holes' is proposed [fr

  10. Cortical Plasticity Induction by Pairing Subthalamic Nucleus Deep-Brain Stimulation and Primary Motor Cortical Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udupa, Kaviraja; Bahl, Nina; Ni, Zhen; Gunraj, Carolyn; Mazzella, Filomena; Moro, Elena; Hodaie, Mojgan; Lozano, Andres M; Lang, Anthony E; Chen, Robert

    2016-01-13

    Noninvasive brain stimulation studies have shown abnormal motor cortical plasticity in Parkinson's disease (PD). These studies used peripheral nerve stimulation paired with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to primary motor cortex (M1) at specific intervals to induce plasticity. Induction of cortical plasticity through stimulation of the basal ganglia (BG)-M1 connections has not been studied. In the present study, we used a novel technique of plasticity induction by repeated pairing of deep-brain stimulation (DBS) of the BG with M1 stimulation using TMS. We hypothesize that repeated pairing of subthalamic nucleus (STN)-DBS and M1-TMS at specific time intervals will lead to plasticity in the M1. Ten PD human patients with STN-DBS were studied in the on-medication state with DBS set to 3 Hz. The interstimulus intervals (ISIs) between STN-DBS and TMS that produced cortical facilitation were determined individually for each patient. Three plasticity induction conditions with repeated pairings (180 times) at specific ISIs (∼ 3 and ∼ 23 ms) that produced cortical facilitation and a control ISI of 167 ms were tested in random order. Repeated pairing of STN-DBS and M1-TMS at short (∼ 3 ms) and medium (∼ 23 ms) latencies increased M1 excitability that lasted for at least 45 min, whereas the control condition (fixed ISI of 167 ms) had no effect. There were no specific changes in motor thresholds, intracortical circuits, or recruitment curves. Our results indicate that paired-associative cortical plasticity can be induced by repeated STN and M1 stimulation at specific intervals. These results show that STN-DBS can modulate cortical plasticity. We introduced a new experimental paradigm to test the hypothesis that pairing subthalamic nucleus deep-brain stimulation (STN-DBS) with motor cortical transcranial magnetic stimulation (M1-TMS) at specific times can induce cortical plasticity in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We found that repeated pairing of STN

  11. Non-invasive modulation of somatosensory evoked potentials by the application of static magnetic fields over the primary and supplementary motor cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirimoto, Hikari; Asao, Akihiko; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Onishi, Hideaki

    2016-10-04

    This study was performed to investigate the possibility of non-invasive modulation of SEPs by the application of transcranial static magnetic field stimulation (tSMS) over the primary motor cortex (M1) and supplementary motor cortex (SMA), and to measure the strength of the NdFeB magnetic field by using a gaussmeter. An NdFeB magnet or a non-magnetic stainless steel cylinder (for sham stimulation) was settled on the scalp over M1 and SMA of 14 subjects for periods of 15 min. SEPs following right median nerve stimulation were recorded before and immediately after, 5 min after, and 10 min after tSMS from sites C3' and F3. Amplitudes of the N33 component of SEPs at C3' significantly decreased immediately after tSMS over M1 by up to 20%. However, tSMS over the SMA did not affect the amplitude of any of the SEP components. At a distance of 2-3 cm (rough depth of the cortex), magnetic field strength was in the range of 110-190 mT. Our results that tSMS over M1 can reduce the amplitude of SEPs are consistent with those of low-frequency repeated TMS and cathodal tDCS studies. Therefore, tSMS could be a useful tool for modulating cortical somatosensory processing.

  12. Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin (GIB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin is a one page sheet containing the magnetic indices Kp, Ap, Cp, An, As, Am and the provisional aa indices. The bulletin is published...

  13. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    The cooling down to the nominal temperature of 4.5 K was achieved at the beginning of August, in conjunction with the completion of the installation work of the connection between the power lines and the coil current leads. The temperature gradient on the first exchanger of the cold box is now kept within the nominal range. A leak of lubricant on a gasket of the helium compressor station installed at the surface was observed and several corrective actions were necessary to bring the situation back to normal. The compressor had to be refilled with lubricant and a regeneration of the filters and adsorbers was necessary. The coil cool down was resumed successfully, and the cryogenics is running since then with all parameters being nominal. Preliminary tests of the 20kA coil power supply were done earlier at full current through the discharge lines into the dump resistors, and with the powering busbars from USC5 to UXC5 without the magnet connected. On Monday evening August 25th, at 8pm, the final commissionin...

  14. MAGNET

    CERN Document Server

    B. Curé

    The first phase of the commissioning ended in August by a triggered fast dump at 3T. All parameters were nominal, and the temperature recovery down to 4.5K was carried out in two days by the cryogenics. In September, series of ramps were achieved up to 3 and finally 3.8T, while checking thoroughly the detectors in the forward region, measuring any movement of and around the HF. After the incident of the LHC accelerator on September 19th, corrective actions could be undertaken in the forward region. When all these displacements were fully characterized and repetitive, with no sign of increments in displacement at each field ramp, it was possible to start the CRAFT, Cosmic Run at Four Tesla (which was in fact at 3.8T). The magnet was ramped up to 18.16kA and the 3 week run went smoothly, with only 4 interruptions: due to the VIP visits on 21st October during the LHC inauguration day; a water leak on the cooling demineralized water circuit, about 1 l/min, that triggered a stop of the cooling pumps, and resulte...

  15. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance work and consolidation activities on the magnet cryogenics and its power distribution are progressing according to the schedules. The manufacturing of the two new helium compressor frame units has started. The frame units support the valves, all the sensors and the compressors with their motors. This activity is subcontracted. The final installation and the commissioning at CERN are scheduled for March–April 2014. The overhauls of existing cryogenics equipment (compressors, motors) are in progress. The reassembly of the components shall start in early 2014. The helium drier, to be installed on the high-pressure helium piping, has been ordered and will be delivered in the first trimester of 2014. The power distribution for the helium compressors in SH5 on the 3.3kV network is progressing. The 3.3kV switches, between each compressor and its hot spare compressor, are being installed, together with the power cables for the new compressors. The 3.3kV electrical switchboards in SE5 will ...

  16. Magnetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Aboud

    2015-06-01

    Results indicated that the thickness of the lava flows in the study area ranges between 100 m (above Sea Level at the eastern and western boundaries of Rahat Volcanic field and getting deeper at the middle as 300–500 m. It also showed that, major structural trend is in the NW direction (Red Sea trend with some minor trends in EW direction.

  17. [Early diagnosis of HIV in Primary Care in Spain. Results of a pilot study based on targeted screening based on indicator conditions, behavioral criteria and region of origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustí, Cristina; Martín-Rabadán, María; Zarco, José; Aguado, Cristina; Carrillo, Ricard; Codinachs, Roger; Carmona, Jose Manuel; Casabona, Jordi

    2018-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of HIV infection in patients diagnosed with an indicator condition (IC) for HIV and/or risk behavior for their acquisition and/or coming from high prevalence countries. To determine the acceptability and feasibility of offering HIV testing based on IC and behavioral and origin criteria in Primary Care (PC). Cross-sectional study in a convenience sample. Six PC centers in Spain. The inclusion criteria were: patients between 16 and 65years old who presented at least one of the proposed ICs and/or at least one of the proposed behavioral and/or origin criteria. A total of 388 patients participated. HIV serology was offered to all patients who met the inclusion criteria. Description of IC frequency, behavioral and origin criteria. Prevalence of HIV infection. Level of acceptability and feasibility of the HIV screening based on IC and behavioral and origin criteria. A total of 174 patients had an IC (44.84%). The most common behavioral criterion was: having unprotected sex at some time in life with people who did not know their HIV status (298; 76.8%). Four HIV+ patients (1.03%) were diagnosed. All had an IC and were men who had sex with men. The level of acceptability in PC was high. Offering HIV testing to patients with IC and behavioral criteria is feasible and effective in PC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical relevance and indications for cardiac magnetic resonance imaging 2013. An interdisciplinary expert statement; Klinischer Stellenwert und Indikationen zur Magnetresonanztomografie des Herzens 2013. Ein interdisziplinaeres Expertenstatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hergan, Klaus [Universitaetsklinikum Salzburg (Austria). Universitaetsinst. fuer Radiologie; Globits, S. [Herz-Kreislauf-Zentrum Gross Gerungs (Austria); Schuchlenz, H. [Landeskrankenhaus Graz-West (Austria). Dept. fuer Kardiologie/Intensivmedizin] [and others

    2013-03-15

    During the last years the indications of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CMRI) have been continuously expanded. However, the acceptance of the method by cardiologists and radiologists does not correlate with respect to the diagnostic potential. Several factors, such as expensive equipment, relatively long examination times, high technical know how and lack of remuneration, limit the application of CMRI in everyday clinical practice. Furthermore, doctors tend to apply more conventional, well established diagnostic procedures, the access to the method is still limited and there exist difficulties in the interdisciplinary collaboration. The interdisciplinary Austrian approach to Cardiac Imaging is aimed to improve the aforementioned problems and to support the implementation of CMRI in the diagnostic tree of cardiac diseases thus enabling a cost efficient management of patients in cardiology. (orig.)

  19. The Role of Low-frequency TRANS-orbital Magnetic Stimulation in Normalization of Intraocular Pressure in Patients with Primary Open-angle Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Makarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Assessment of the effectiveness of low-frequency magnetic therapy on the dynamics of intraocular pressure in the treatment of primary and uncompensated medical means of open-angle glaucoma. Patients and Methods. 46 patients with uncompensated open-angle glaucoma. The first group: 24 patients (42 eyes with open-angle glaucoma (I, II, III stages during 2–13 years. The second group: 22 patients (22 eyes with newly diagnosed elevated intraocular pressure in one eye. The age of patients ranged from 43 to 59 years. Treatment included antiglaucoma hypotensive eye drops and TRANS-orbital magnetic stimulation on the domestic device“Polus-2”. Results. Intraocular pressure before treatment ranged from 25 to 32 mm Hg. (average of 28.9±1.4 mm Hg. in the first group . After magnetic stimulation IOP decreased within 2–5 days in all patients to 18 to 21 mm Hg (average of 17.9±1.1 mm Hg, reaching values “pressure goal.” Second group: in the primary treatment in patients IOP was 28–39 mm Hg (average of 32.6±1.8 mm Hg on one of the eyes. IOP decreased to 16–21 mm Hg in the period from 3 to 9 days in all patients of study group after daily magnetic stimulation and instillation of xalatan and timolol. In the control subgroup of patients with uncompensated openangle glaucoma loweringof the IOP to “pressure goal,” noted only in 7 patients (70,0% 11–14 days after instillation of anti-hypertensive glaucoma eye drops only. Conclusion. Low-frequency TRANS-orbital magnetic stimulation in enhanced hypotensive effect antiglaucomatous eye drops and makes it easier to achieve compensation of IOP to values “pressure goals” in patients with uncompensated open-angle glaucoma. The marked dependence of the efficiency of reduction of IOP from biotropic parameters of the magnetic field. The pulsed mode with a higher amplitude value of the magnetic induction has a more pronounced effect and makes it easier to achieve the reduction of IOP.

  20. Magnetic fields and flows between 1 and 0.3 AU during the primary mission of Helios 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlaga, L.F.; Ness, N.F.; Mariani, F.; Bavassano, B.; Villante, U.; Rosenbauer, H.; Schwenn, R.; Harvey, J.

    1978-01-01

    Helios 1 moved from 1 AU on December 10, 1974, to 0.31 AU on March 15, 1975, and the sun rotated beneath the spacecraft nearly 4 times during the interval. Recurrent high-speed streams with uniform magnetic polarity were observed, and they were associated with coronal holes of the same polarity. Although they were recurrent, the streams and their magnetic field patterns were not stationary, because the coronal holes which produced them changed in shape and latitude from one rotation to the next. We estimated that the magnetic field intensity of open field lines in some of these holes was of the order 10--20 G. Recurrent slow flows were also observed. The magnetic field polarity and intensity in these flows were irregular, and they changed from one rotation to the next. Cold magnetic enhancements (CME's) characterized by a twofold to threefold enhancement of magnetic field intensity and a fivefold to sevenfold depression of proton temperature relative to conditions ahead of the CME's were observed in some slow flows. Some of these CME's were contiguous with interaction regions of streams. At perihelion, Helios observed a recurrent stream which was associated with a lobe of the south polar coronal hole. The longitudinal width of the stream was three times that of the hole. We estimate that the width of the eastern and western boundaries of the streams at the coronal holes was only 2.5 0 +- 1.5 0 , and we infer that the width at the northern boundary of the stream was 0 . We conclude that between the sun and 0.3 AU there was a diverging stream surrounded by a thin boundary layer in which there was a large velocity shear. There is evidence for compression of the magnetic field in the western boundary layer (interaction region), presumably due to steepening of the stream within 0.31 AU

  1. Role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) establishing the indication for, planning, and following up uterine artery embolization (UAE) for treating symptomatic leiomyomas of the uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroencke, T.J.; Hamm, B.

    2003-01-01

    To describe the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in establishing the indication for, planning, and following up uterine artery embolization (UAE) for treating symptomatic leiomyomas of the uterus on the basis of the current literature and our results. Retrospective analysis of the MRI findings obtained in 130 patients before and after UAE. Presentation of characteristic MRI features and their relevance in establishing the indication for, performing, and following up of UAE. Discussion of the results in conjunction with published data. The intermediate results of UAE reported in the literature show a successful improvement of leiomyoma-related symptoms in 82-94% of cases and an average reduction of leiomyoma size by 36-64%. The typical MRI appearance of degenerating leiomyomas is presented together with that of relevant differential diagnoses. MRI findings allow for establishing the indication for UAE by providing reliable information on the location, size, and number of uterine leiomyomas. Analysis of 60 patients of our study population showed solitary leiomyoma in 16% of cases, 2-10 leiomyomas in 47%, and over 10 in 37%. Subserosal, pedunculated leiomyomas cannot be treated by UAE; these were present in 5% of the patients. MR angiography is useful in assessing pelvic vascular anatomy before the intervention and identifies collateral vascular supply to the uterus. Contrast-enhanced imaging is suitable for monitoring successful devascularization following embolization and evaluating complications. (orig.) [de

  2. Primary productivity, heterotrophy, metabolic indicators of stress and interactions in algal-bacterial mat communities affected by a fluctuating thermal regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tison, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal habitats in effluent cooling waters from production nuclear reactors at the Savannah River Plant are unlike natural thermal habitats in that reactor operations are periodically halted, exposing the organisms growing in these thermal habitats to ambient temperatures for unpredictable lengths of time. Rates of primary production, glucose heterotrophy, and the composition of algal-bacterial mat communities growing along a thermal gradient from about 50 to 35 0 C during periods of reactor operation were studied. Cyanobacteria were the only photoautotrophs in mat communities above 40 0 C while cyanobacteria and eucaryotic algae comprised the photoautotrophic component of mat communities below 40 0 C. The heterotrophic component of these communities above 40 0 C was made up of stenothermic and eurythermic thermophilic bacteria while both eurythermic thermophiles and mesophilic bacteria were found in communities below 40 0 C. Net CO 2 -fixation rates during thermal conditions dropped after initial exposure to ambient temperatures. After prolonged exposure of the thermal communities to ambient temperatures, adaptation and colonization by mesophilic algae occurred. Rates of glucose utilization under varying degrees of thermal influence suggested that the heterotrophic component may not have been optimally adapted to thermal conditions. During periods of changing thermal conditions, an increase in the percentage extracellular release of photosynthetically fixed 14 CO 2 by cyanobacteria and algae and an increase in the percentage of glucose mineralized (respired) by the heterotrophic component of the mat communities was observed. Results of temperature shift experiments indicated that the short-term response of the photoautotrophic component of these communities to thermal stress was an increase in the percentage of photosynthate released extracellularly

  3. Automated Monitoring of Carbon Fluxes in a Northern Rocky Mountain Forest Indicates Above-Average Net Primary Productivity During the 2015 Western U.S. Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, J.; Hudiburg, T. W.

    2016-12-01

    As global temperatures rise in the 21st century, "hotter" droughts will become more intense and persistent, particularly in areas which already experience seasonal drought. Because forests represent a large and persistent terrestrial carbon sink which has previously offset a significant proportion of anthropogenic carbon emissions, forest carbon cycle responses to drought have become a prominent research concern. However, robust mechanistic modeling of carbon balance responses to projected drought effects requires improved observation-driven representations of carbon cycle processes; many such component processes are rarely monitored in complex terrain, are modeled or unrepresented quantities at eddy covariance sites, or are monitored at course temporal scales that are not conducive to elucidating process responses at process time scales. In the present study, we demonstrate the use of newly available and affordable automated dendrometers for the estimation of intra-seasonal Net Primary Productivity (NPP) in a Northern Rocky Mountain conifer forest which is impacted by seasonal drought. Results from our pilot study suggest that NPP was restricted by mid-summer moisture deficit under the extraordinary 2015 Western U.S. drought, with greater than 90% off stand growth occurring prior to August. Examination of growth on an inter-annual scale, however, suggests that the study site experienced above-average NPP during this exceptionally hot year. Taken together, these findings indicate that intensifying mid-summer drought in regional forests has affected the timing but has not diminished the magnitude of this carbon flux. By employing automated instrumentation for the intra-annual assessment of NPP, we reveal that annual NPP in regional forests is largely determined before mid-summer and is therefore surprisingly resilient to intensities of seasonal drought that exceed normal conditions of the 20th century.

  4. Magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor imaging analyses indicate heterogeneous strains along human medial gastrocnemius fascicles caused by submaximal plantar-flexion activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakuzu, Agah; Pamuk, Uluç; Ozturk, Cengizhan; Acar, Burak; Yucesoy, Can A

    2017-05-24

    Sarcomere length changes are central to force production and excursion of skeletal muscle. Previous modeling indicates non-uniformity of that if mechanical interaction of muscle with its surrounding muscular and connective tissues is taken into account. Hence, quantifying length changes along the fascicles of activated human muscle in vivo is crucial, but this is lacking due to technical complexities. Combining magnetic resonance imaging deformation analyses and diffusion tensor imaging tractography, the aim was to test the hypothesis that submaximal plantar flexion activity at 15% MVC causes heterogeneous length changes along the fascicles of human medial gastrocnemius (GM) muscle. A general fascicle strain distribution pattern shown for all subjects indicates that proximal track segments are shortened, whereas distal ones are lengthened (e.g., by 13% and 29%, respectively). Mean fiber direction strains of different tracts also shows heterogeneity (for up to 57.5% of the fascicles). Inter-subject variability of amplitude and distribution of fascicle strains is notable. These findings confirm the hypothesis and are solid indicators for the functionally dependent mechanics of human muscle, in vivo. Heterogeneity of fascicle strains can be explained by epimuscular myofascial force transmission. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study, which quantified local deformations along human skeletal muscle fascicles caused by sustained submaximal activation. The present approach and indicated fascicle strain heterogeneity has numerous implications for muscle function in health and disease to estimate the muscle's contribution to the joint moment and excursion and to evaluate mechanisms of muscle injury and several treatment techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of upright weight bearing and the knee flexion angle on patellofemoral indices using magnetic resonance imaging in patients with patellofemoral instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Christoph; Fleischer, Benjamin; Rase, Marten; Schumacher, Thees; Ettinger, Max; Ostermeier, Sven; Smith, Tomas

    2017-08-01

    This study analysed the effects of upright weight bearing and the knee flexion angle on patellofemoral indices, determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in patients with patellofemoral instability (PI). Healthy volunteers (control group, n = 9) and PI patients (PI group, n = 16) were scanned in an open-configuration MRI scanner during upright weight bearing and supine non-weight bearing positions at full extension (0° flexion) and at 15°, 30°, and 45° flexion. Patellofemoral indices included the Insall-Salvati Index, Caton-Deschamp Index, and Patellotrochlear Index (PTI) to determine patellar height and the patellar tilt angle (PTA), bisect offset (BO), and the tibial tubercle-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance to assess patellar rotation and translation with respect to the femur and alignment of the extensor mechanism. A significant interaction effect of weight bearing by flexion angle was observed for the PTI, PTA, and BO for subjects with PI. At full extension, post hoc pairwise comparisons revealed a significant effect of weight bearing on the indices, with increased patellar height and increased PTA and BO in the PI group. Except for the BO, no such changes were seen in the control group. Independent of weight bearing, flexing the knee caused the PTA, BO, and TT-TG distance to be significantly reduced. Upright weight bearing and the knee flexion angle affected patellofemoral MRI indices in PI patients, with significantly increased values at full extension. The observations of this study provide a caution to be considered by professionals when treating PI patients. These patients should be evaluated clinically and radiographically at full extension and various flexion angles in context with quadriceps engagement. Explorative case-control study, Level III.

  6. Preoperative evaluation of the depth of anal canal invasion in very low rectal cancer by magnetic resonance imaging and surgical indications for intersphincteric resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamba, Yoshiko; Itabashi, Michio; Kameoka, Shingo

    2012-01-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the depth of anal canal invasion (DACI), and determine whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment of the conjoined longitudinal muscle (CLM) can be used to identify the surgical indication for intersphincteric resection. Sixty-six patients with T1 (n=2), T2 (n=20), T3 (n=39), and T4 (n=5) lower rectal cancer were included. Depth of anal canal invasion was defined as extension of the tumor to the anal canal. The outline of the CLM on MRI was assessed as clear, unclear, or absent (indicating invasion). A comparison of overall T-stage and DACI of 22 pT1-pT2 tumors revealed that none had a higher T-stage within the anal canal, and 16 of 39 pT3 tumors had only pT0-pT2 invasion within the anal canal. The CLM was clear in 30 cases of T0-T2 DACI, unclear in 5 cases of T0-T2 DACI, and 3 cases of T3-T4 DACI, and showed invasion in 3 cases of T2 DACI and 25 cases of T3-T4 DACI. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of using a clear CLM outline for determining T0-T2 DACI was 78.9, 91.9, 100, and 77.8%, respectively. Preoperative evaluation of DACI was compatible with the surgical indications. A clear CLM accurately indicates T0-T2 DACI. (author)

  7. Activation of lateral geniculate nucleus and primary visual cortex as detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging in normal subjects and in patients with visual disturbance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, Atsushi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences

    2002-12-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during visual stimulation can detect regional cerebral blood flow changes that reflect neural activity in the lateral geniculate nucleus and primary visual cortex, which are major relay points in the human afferent visual system. FMRI has been used in the clinical evaluation of visual disorders such as homonymous hemianopia and unilateral eye diseases (optic neuritis, amblyopia, and so on). Future development in the data acquisition and data analysis may facilitate the use of fMRI for the management of patients with visual deficits and understanding of the visual disorders. (author)

  8. Activation of lateral geniculate nucleus and primary visual cortex as detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging in normal subjects and in patients with visual disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Atsushi

    2002-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during visual stimulation can detect regional cerebral blood flow changes that reflect neural activity in the lateral geniculate nucleus and primary visual cortex, which are major relay points in the human afferent visual system. FMRI has been used in the clinical evaluation of visual disorders such as homonymous hemianopia and unilateral eye diseases (optic neuritis, amblyopia, and so on). Future development in the data acquisition and data analysis may facilitate the use of fMRI for the management of patients with visual deficits and understanding of the visual disorders. (author)

  9. Does T2 mapping of the posterior annulus fibrosus indicate the presence of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation? A 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Alina; Stelzeneder, David; Trattnig, Stefan; Welsch, Götz H; Schinhan, Martina; Apprich, Sebastian; Brix, Martin; Windhager, Reinhard; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2017-03-01

    Indicating lumbar disc herniation via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 mapping in the posterior annulus fibrosus (AF). Sagittal T2 maps of 313 lumbar discs of 64 patients with low back pain were acquired at 3.0 Tesla (3T). The discs were rated according to disc herniation and bulging. Region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed on median, sagittal T2 maps. T2 values of the AF, in the most posterior 10% (PAF-10) and 20% of the disc (PAF-20), were compared. A significant increase in the T2 values of discs with herniations affecting the imaged area, compared to bulging discs and discs with lateral herniation, was shown in the PAF-10, where no association to the NP was apparent. The PAF-20 exhibited a moderate correlation to the nucleus pulposus (NP). High T2 values in the PAF-10 suggest the presence of disc herniation (DH). The results indicate that T2 values in the PAF-20 correspond more to changes in the NP.

  10. Feasibility study of FDG PET/CT-derived primary tumour glycolysis as a prognostic indicator of survival in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, G.; Chander, A.; Huang, C.; Kelly, M.; Fielding, P.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To assess the feasibility and prognostic value of measuring total lesion glycolysis of the primary tumour (TLG primary ) using combined 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with proven or suspected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the routine diagnostic setting. Materials and methods: At the All wales Research and Diagnostic Positron Emission Tomography Centre in Cardiff (PETIC), in the calendar year 2011, 288 consecutive patients were identified with a single pulmonary mass in whom NSCLC was confirmed or clinically diagnosed following multidisciplinary team review. In a retrospective analysis, for each patient the PET-derived volume of the primary tumour and SUV MEAN was calculated using adaptive thresholds of 40% and 50% of the SUV MAX of the primary tumour. The TLG primary (calculated by volume x SUV MEAN ) was calculated at these two thresholds and was used to predict survival in a multivariate analysis with TNM (tumour, node, metastasis) stage, age, sex, and SUV MAX . The primary endpoint was overall survival over a minimum follow-up of at least 7 months. Results: In virtually every case, the primary tumour could be measured using the automated software with minimal use of manual adjustments. In multivariate analysis, TNM clinical stage, log(TLG primary ) and sex were independent predictors of overall survival. Conclusion: Measurements of primary tumour total lesion glycolysis are simple to perform and provide additional prognostic information over and above that provided by TNM staging

  11. Three ulcerative colitis susceptibility loci are associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis and indicate a role for IL2, REL, and CARD9

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Marcel; Lamberts, Laetitia E.; Franke, Lude; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Ellinghaus, Eva; Muri Boberg, Kirsten; Melum, Espen; Folseraas, Trine; Schrumpf, Erik; Bergquist, Annika; Björnsson, Einar; Fu, Jingyuan; Jan Westra, Harm; Groen, Harry J. M.; Fehrmann, Rudolf S. N.; Smolonska, Joanna; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Porte, Robert J.; Weismüller, Tobias J.; Wedemeyer, Jochen; Schramm, Christoph; Sterneck, Martina; Günther, Rainer; Braun, Felix; Vermeire, Severine; Henckaerts, Liesbet; Wijmenga, Cisca; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Schreiber, Stefan; Karlsen, Tom H.; Franke, Andre; Weersma, Rinse K.

    2011-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the bile ducts. Both environmental and genetic factors contribute to its pathogenesis. To further clarify its genetic background, we investigated susceptibility loci recently

  12. Three Ulcerative Colitis Susceptibility Loci Are Associated with Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis and Indicate a Role for IL2, REL, and CARD9

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Marcel; Lamberts, Laetitia E.; Franke, Lude; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Ellinghaus, Eva; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Melum, Espen; Folseraas, Trine; Schrumpf, Erik; Bergquist, Annika; Bjornsson, Einar; Fu, Jingyuan; Westra, Harm Jan; Groen, Harry J. M.; Fehrmann, Rudolf S. N.; Smolonska, Joanna; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Porte, Robert J.; Weismueller, Tobias J.; Wedemeyer, Jochen; Schramm, Christoph; Sterneck, Martina; Guenther, Rainer; Braun, Felix; Vermeire, Severine; Henckaerts, Liesbet; Wijmenga, Cisca; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Schreiber, Stefan; Karlsen, Tom H.; Franke, Andre; Weersma, Rinse K.

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the bile ducts. Both environmental and genetic factors contribute to its pathogenesis. To further clarify its genetic background, we investigated susceptibility loci recently

  13. Central Motor Conduction Studies and Diagnostic Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Children with Severe Primary and Secondary Dystonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Verity; Mills, Kerry; Siddiqui, Ata; Selway, Richard; Lin, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Dystonia in childhood has many causes. Imaging may suggest corticospinal tract dysfunction with or without coexistent basal ganglia damage. There are very few published neurophysiological studies on children with dystonia; one previous study has focused on primary dystonia. We investigated central motor conduction in 62 children (34 males, 28…

  14. Assessment of the quality of fall detection and management in primary care in the Netherlands based on the ACOVE quality indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Askari, M; Eslami, S; van Rijn, M; Medlock, S; Moll van Charante, E P; van der Velde, N; de Rooij, S E; Abu-Hanna, A

    UNLABELLED: We determined adherence to nine fall-related ACOVE quality indicators to investigate the quality of management of falls in the elderly population by general practitioners in the Netherlands. Our findings demonstrate overall low adherence to these indicators, possibly indicating

  15. Assessment of the quality of fall detection and management in primary care in the Netherlands based on the ACOVE quality indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Askari, M.; Eslami, S.; van Rijn, M.; Medlock, S.; Moll van Charante, E. P.; van der Velde, N.; de Rooij, S. E.; Abu-Hanna, A.

    2016-01-01

    We determined adherence to nine fall-related ACOVE quality indicators to investigate the quality of management of falls in the elderly population by general practitioners in the Netherlands. Our findings demonstrate overall low adherence to these indicators, possibly indicating insufficiency in the

  16. Value of Single-Dose Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography Versus Intraarterial Digital Subtraction Angiography in Therapy Indications in Abdominal and Iliac Arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Philipp J.; Schaefer, Fritz K. W.; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Both, Markus; Heller, Martin; Jahnke, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to prove the value of single-dose contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography [three-dimensional (3D) ceMRA] in abdominal and iliac arteries versus the reference standard intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (i.a.DSA) when indicating a therapy. Patients suspected of having abdominal or iliac artery stenosis were included in this study. A positive vote of the local Ethics Committee was given. After written informed consent was obtained, 37 patients were enrolled, of which 34 were available for image evaluation. Both 3D ceMRA and i.a. DSA were performed for each patient. The dosage for 3D ceMRA was 0.1 mmol/kg body weight in a 1.5-T scanner with a phased-array coil. The parameters of the 3D-FLASH sequence were as follows: TR/TE 4.6/1.8 ms, effective thickness 3.5 mm, matrix 512 x 200, flip angle 30 o , field of view 420 mm, TA 23 s, coronal scan orientation. Totally, 476 vessel segments were evaluated for stenosis degree by two radiologists in a consensus fashion in a blinded read. For each patient, a therapy was proposed, if clinically indicated. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy for stenoses ≥50% were 68%, 92%, 44%, 97%, and 90%, respectively. In 13/34 patients, a discrepancy was found concerning therapy decisions based on MRA findings versus therapy decisions based on the reference standard DSA. The results showed that the used MRA imaging technique of abdominal and iliac arteries is not competitive to i.a. DSA, with a high rate of misinterpretation of the MRAs resulting in incorrect therapies

  17. Clinical indications for high-field 1.5 T intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging and neuro-navigation for neurosurgical procedures. Review of initial 100 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maesawa, Satoshi; Nakahara, Norimoto; Watanabe, Tadashi; Fujii, Masazumi; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kajita, Yasukazu; Nagatani, Tetsuya; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Initial experiences are reviewed in an integrated operation theater equipped with an intraoperative high-field (1.5 T) magnetic resonance (MR) imager and neuro-navigation (BrainSUITE), to evaluate the indications and limitations. One hundred consecutive cases were treated, consisting of 38 gliomas, 49 other tumors, 11 cerebrovascular diseases, and 2 functional diseases. The feasibility and usefulness of the integrated theater were evaluated for individual diseases, focusing on whether intraoperative images (including diffusion tensor imaging) affected the surgical strategy. The extent of resection and outcomes in each histological category of brain tumors were examined. Intraoperative high-field MR imaging frequently affected or modified the surgical strategy in the glioma group (27/38 cases, 71.1%), but less in the other tumor group (13/49 cases, 26.5%). The surgical strategy was not modified in cerebrovascular or functional diseases, but the success of procedures and the absence of complications could be confirmed. In glioma surgery, subtotal or greater resection was achieved in 22 of the 31 patients (71%) excluding biopsies, and intraoperative images revealed tumor remnants resulting in the extension of resection in 21 of the 22 patients (95.4%), the highest rate of extension among all types of pathologies. The integrated neuro-navigation improved workflow. The best indication for intraoperative high-field MR imaging and integrated neuro-navigation is brain tumors, especially gliomas, and is supplementary in assuring quality in surgery for cerebrovascular or functional diseases. Immediate quality assurance is provided in several types of neurosurgical procedures. (author)

  18. Accuracy of national key performance indicator reporting from two Aboriginal medical services: potential to underestimate the performance of primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-09

    Objective The aim of the present study was to assess the accuracy of extracting national key performance indicator (nKPI) data for the Online Community Health Reporting Environment for Health Services (OCHREStreams) program using the Pen Computer Systems (Leichhardt, NSW, Australia) Clinical Audit Tool (CAT) from Communicare (Telstra Health Communicare Systems, Perth, WA, Australia), a commonly used patient information management system (PIMS) in Aboriginal primary care. Methods Two Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs) were recruited to the present study. A sample of regular clients aged ≥55 years from each ACCHS was selected and a subset of 13 nKPIs was examined. A manual case note audit of the nKPI subset within Communicare was undertaken by a clinician at each participating ACCHS and acted as a 'gold standard' comparator for three query methods: (1) internal Communicare nKPI reports; (2) PenCS CAT nKPI manual filtering (a third-party data-extraction tool); and (3) nKPI data submitted to the Improvement Foundation qiConnect portal. Results No errors were found in nKPI data extraction from Communicare using the CAT and subsequent submission to the qiConnect portal. However, the Communicare internal nKPI report included deceased clients and past patients, and we can be very confident that deceased clients and past patients are also included in the qiConnect portal data. This resulted in inflation of client denominators and an underestimation of health service performance, particularly for nKPIs recording activity in the past 6 months. Several minor errors were also detected in Communicare internal nKPI reports. Conclusions CAT accurately extracts a subset of nKPI data from Communicare. However, given the widespread use of Communicare in ACCHSs, the inclusion of deceased clients and past patients in the OCHREStreams nKPI data program is likely to have resulted in systematic under-reporting of health service performance nationally. What is known

  19. Evaluation of Tumor Viability for Primary and Bone Metastases in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Using Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromichi Iwamura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to bone scan and computed tomography (CT, which depend on osteoblastic response to detect bone metastasis, whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI may be able to directly detect viable tumors. A 75-year-old male who had progressive metastatic prostate cancer during primary androgen deprivation therapy was referred to our hospital. Although bone scan and CT showed multiple bone metastases, WB-MRI suggested nonviable bone metastasis and viable tumor of the primary lesion. Prostate needle biopsy demonstrated viable prostate cancer cells from 10 of 12 cores. In contrast, CT-guided needle biopsy from bone metastasis of the lumbar vertebra revealed no malignant cells. Based on these findings, we reasoned that viable tumor cells inducing disease progression may primarily exist in the primary lesions and not in the metastatic lesions, and combined prostate radiotherapy and systemic hormonal therapy resulted in successful clinical response and disease control. The use of WB-MRI to detect viable disease lesions may enable us to design optimal treatment strategies for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  20. Results of surgery in symptomatic non-hydrocephalic pineal cysts: role of magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers indicative of central venous hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Per Kristian; Ringstad, Geir

    2017-02-01

    We have previously proposed that pineal cysts (PCs) may result in crowding of the pineal recess, causing symptoms due to compression of the internal cerebral veins and central venous hypertension. In the present study, we compared clinical outcome of different treatment modalities in symptomatic individuals with non-hydrocephalic PCs. The study included all patients managed surgically for non-hydrocephalic PCs in our Department of Neurosurgery over a 10-year period. We applied a questionnaire to determine occurrence of symptoms before and after surgery, which allowed the use of a grading scale for symptom severity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers indicative of central venous hypertension were assessed before and after surgery. Relief of symptoms after surgery was most efficiently obtained by complete microsurgical cyst removal [n = 15; no (0/15), some (1/15) or marked (14/15) improvement], and to a lesser extent by microsurgical cyst fenestration [n = 6; no (2/6), some (4/6) or marked (0/6) improvement]. Shunt surgery was not successful [n = 6; no (5/6), some (1/6) or marked (0/6) improvement]. In all patients, the proposed MRI biomarkers gave evidence of central venous hypertension (PC grades 2-4). Microsurgical cyst removal provided marked symptom relief in symptomatic individuals with non-hydrocephalic PCs and MRI biomarkers of central venous hypertension. The hypothesis that PC-induced crowding of the pineal recess may compromise venous run-off and induce a central venous hypertension syndrome deserves further study.

  1. Magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) of bone metastases: From primary pain palliation to local tumor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, A.; Leonardi, A.; Andrani, F.; Boni, F.; Anzidei, M.; Catalano, C.

    2017-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical performance of MRgFUS in primary pain palliation of painful bone metastases and in local tumor control. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 26 consecutive patients (female/male 12/14; age: 64.7±7.5yrs) with painful bone metastases. Before and 3 months after MRgFUS treatment pain severity and pain interference scores were assessed according to Brief Pain Inventory-Quality of Life (BPI-QoL) criteria and patients underwent both CT and MRI. Local tumor control was evaluated according to lesion size, density and perfusion at CT, dynamic contrast enhancement at MRI (Discovery 750HD, GE; Gd-Bopta, Bracco) and metabolic activity at PET or scintigraphy. Patients were classified as responders or non-responders. Results: No treatment-related adverse events were recorded during the study. As statistically significant difference between baseline and follow-up values for both pain severity and pain interference scores was observed (p<0.05). Increased bone density was observed in 9/26 (34.6%) patients. Non-Perfused Volume values ranged between 20% and 92%. There was no difference in NPV values between responders and non-responders (46.7±24.2% [25 - 90 %] vs. 45±24.9% [20 - 93 %]; p=0.7). In 6 patients (5 prostate and 1 breast primary cancer) there was nearly absence of metabolic activity after treatment (mean SUV=1.2). Conclusion: MRgFUS can be safely and effectively used as the primary treatment for pain palliation in patients with painful bone metastases; moreover our experience demonstrated also a potential role for the MRgFUS in local tumor control.

  2. Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer Local Recurrence After Radiation Therapy Occurs at the Site of Primary Tumor: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Step-Section Pathology Evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucar, Darko; Hricak, Hedvig; Shukla-Dave, Amita; Kuroiwa, Kentaro; Drobnjak, Marija; Eastham, James; Scardino, Peter T.; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether prostate cancer local recurrence after radiation therapy (RT) occurs at the site of primary tumor by retrospectively comparing the tumor location on pre-RT and post-RT magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and using step-section pathology after salvage radical prostatectomy (SRP) as the reference standard. Methods and Materials: Nine patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with intensity modulated RT (69-86.4 Gy), and had pre-RT and post-RT prostate MRI, biopsy-proven local recurrence, and SRP. The location and volume of lesions on pre-RT and post-RT MRI were correlated with step-section pathology findings. Tumor foci >0.2 cm 3 and/or resulting in extraprostatic disease on pathology were considered clinically significant. Results: All nine significant tumor foci (one in each patient; volume range, 0.22-8.63 cm 3 ) were detected both on pre-RT and post-RT MRI and displayed strikingly similar appearances on pre-RT and post-RT MRI and step-section pathology. Two clinically insignificant tumor foci (≤0.06 cm 3 ) were not detected on imaging. The ratios between tumor volumes on pathology and on post-RT MRI ranged from 0.52 to 2.80. Conclusions: Our study provides a direct visual confirmation that clinically significant post-RT local recurrence occurs at the site of primary tumor. Our results are in agreement with reported clinical and pathologic results and support the current practice of boosting the radiation dose within the primary tumor using imaging guidance. They also suggest that monitoring of primary tumor with pre-RT and post-RT MRI could lead to early detection of local recurrence amenable to salvage treatment

  3. An early start to STEM education among year 1 primary students through project-based inquiry learning in the context of a magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safiee, N.; Jusoh, Z. M.; Noor, A. M. H. M.; Tek, O. E.; Salleh, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    For the needs of the 21st century, the Government of Malaysia has conceptualized the Malaysia Education Blueprint 2013-2025 which embodies 11 strategic and operational shifts. In Shift 1, it is emphasized that the quality of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education will be enhanced. This study employed the mixed-method approach using the “one-group pre-test and post-test design”. Accordingly, this paper describes the pedagogical practice of Project-based Inquiry Learning (PIL) which promotes STEM Education among Year 1 students in the move to progress in tandem with Shift 1. Specifically, using the context of a magnet which has been stipulated in the Primary School Standard Curriculum, Year 1 students experienced the STEM Education through the STEM Pedagogy in which they raised questions upon the presentation of a relevant stimulus (Inquiry Phase), explored the ways in which a train carriage or coach could be assembled by means of recycled materials and magnets (Exploration Phase), designed a train carriage (Design Phase), and ultimately reflected on their inventions (Reflection Phase). The cognitive and affective impacts through the use of this Project-based Inquiry Learning are presented. Implications for the teaching and learning of science are discussed within the context of STEM Education.

  4. [Differential diagnosis of primary and secondary mathematical learning disability – indications from the dyscalculia test Basis-Math 4–8].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinzinger, Helga

    2016-09-01

    Studies in children with AD(H)D without mathematical learning disability (MLD) as well as studies on the effects of methylphenidate on arithmetic have shown that most deficits in mathematics and most error types commonly described as specific to developmental dyscalculia (e. g., finger-counting, fact-retrieval deficit, complex counting, difficulties with carry/borrow procedures, self-corrections) cannot be classified as such and should thus not be used for the differential diagnosis of primary dyscalculia and secondary MLD. This article proposes using the overall score in the dyscalculia test Basis-Math 4-8 (Moser Opitz et al., 2010) as well as implausible subtraction errors as a marker for dyscalculia and the number of self-corrections made during the test as a cognitive marker for attention deficits. Hierarchical cluster analyses were calculated in a sample of 51 clinically referred children with normal IQ and suspicion of MLD, using IQ, years of schooling, overall score of the Basis-Math 4–8 and number of self-corrections in this test as variables. The results revealed a subgroup with primary dyscalculia as well as three subgroups with secondary MLD (two with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, one with depression and one small subgroup with high IQ). In conclusion, the Basis-Math 4–8 (Moser Opitz et al., 2010) can offer substantial information for the differential diagnosis of dyscalculia and secondary deficits in mathematics due to attention problems and enable optimization of treatment decisions for the different groups.

  5. Measurement of tumour size with mammography, sonography and magnetic resonance imaging as compared to histological tumour size in primary breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, Ines V; Rueckert, Miriam; Kagan, Karl O; Staebler, Annette; Siegmann, Katja C; Hartkopf, Andreas; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Hahn, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Tumour size in breast cancer influences therapeutic decisions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate sizing of primary breast cancer using mammography, sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and thereby establish which imaging method most accurately corresponds with the size of the histological result. Data from 121 patients with primary breast cancer were analysed in a retrospective study. The results were divided into the groups “ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)”, invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) + ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)”, “invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC)”, “invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC)” and “other tumours” (tubular, medullary, mucinous and papillary breast cancer). The largest tumour diameter was chosen as the sizing reference in each case. Bland-Altman analysis was used to determine to what extent the imaging tumour size correlated with the histopathological tumour sizes. Tumour size was found to be significantly underestimated with sonography, especially for the tumour groups IDC + DCIS, IDC and ILC. The greatest difference between sonographic sizing and actual histological tumour size was found with invasive lobular breast cancer. There was no significant difference between mammographic and histological sizing. MRI overestimated non-significantly the tumour size and is superior to the other imaging techniques in sizing of IDC + DCIS and ILC. The histological subtype should be included in imaging interpretation for planning surgery in order to estimate the histological tumour size as accurately as possible

  6. MAGNETIC DENSITOMETER

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, J.A.; Jones, R.H.

    1961-08-15

    A magnetic densitometer for locating defects and metallic inclusions in materials is described. The apparatus consists of two primary coils connected in series opposition and adapted te be placed in inductive relation to the material under test, a source of constant frequency alternating current coupled across the primary coil combination, a pick-up coil disposed in symmetrical inductive relationship with said primary coils, a phase-shifter coupled to the output of the energizing source. The output of the phase-shifter is coupled in series with the pick-up coil. An amplifier is provided selective to the third harmonic of the energizing source frequency. The series combination of the pick-up coil and the phase-shifter output are connected across the input of the amplifier, and an amplitude comparitor is coupled to the output of the amplifier and the energizing source for comparing the instantaneous amplitude of the amplifier output and the instantaneous output of the energizing source and producing an output proportional to the difference in amplitude. A recorder is coupled to the output of the amplitude comparison means to give an indication of the amplitude difference, thereby providing a permanent presentation of the character of the changes in characteristics exhibited by the material under test. (AEC)

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging indicators of blood-brain barrier and brain water changes in young rats with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bigio, Marc R; Slobodian, Ili; Schellenberg, Angela E; Buist, Richard J; Kemp-Buors, Tanya L

    2011-08-11

    Hydrocephalus is associated with enlargement of cerebral ventricles. We hypothesized that magnetic resonance (MR) imaging parameters known to be influenced by tissue water content would change in parallel with ventricle size in young rats and that changes in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability would be detected. Hydrocephalus was induced by injection of kaolin into the cisterna magna of 4-week-old rats, which were studied 1 or 3 weeks later. MR was used to measure longitudinal and transverse relaxation times (T1 and T2) and apparent diffusion coefficients in several regions. Brain tissue water content was measured by the wet-dry weight method, and tissue density was measured in Percoll gradient columns. BBB permeability was measured by quantitative imaging of changes on T1-weighted images following injection of gadolinium diethylenetriamine penta-acetate (Gd-DTPA) tracer and microscopically by detection of fluorescent dextran conjugates. In nonhydrocephalic rats, water content decreased progressively from age 3 to 7 weeks. T1 and T2 and apparent diffusion coefficients did not exhibit parallel changes and there was no evidence of BBB permeability to tracers. The cerebral ventricles enlarged progressively in the weeks following kaolin injection. In hydrocephalic rats, the dorsal cortex was more dense and the white matter less so, indicating that the increased water content was largely confined to white matter. Hydrocephalus was associated with transient elevation of T1 in gray and white matter and persistent elevation of T2 in white matter. Changes in the apparent diffusion coefficients were significant only in white matter. Ventricle size correlated significantly with dorsal water content, T1, T2, and apparent diffusion coefficients. MR imaging showed evidence of Gd-DTPA leakage in periventricular tissue foci but not diffusely. These correlated with microscopic leak of larger dextran tracers. MR characteristics cannot be used as direct surrogates for water

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging indicators of blood-brain barrier and brain water changes in young rats with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Bigio Marc R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrocephalus is associated with enlargement of cerebral ventricles. We hypothesized that magnetic resonance (MR imaging parameters known to be influenced by tissue water content would change in parallel with ventricle size in young rats and that changes in blood-brain barrier (BBB permeability would be detected. Methods Hydrocephalus was induced by injection of kaolin into the cisterna magna of 4-week-old rats, which were studied 1 or 3 weeks later. MR was used to measure longitudinal and transverse relaxation times (T1 and T2 and apparent diffusion coefficients in several regions. Brain tissue water content was measured by the wet-dry weight method, and tissue density was measured in Percoll gradient columns. BBB permeability was measured by quantitative imaging of changes on T1-weighted images following injection of gadolinium diethylenetriamine penta-acetate (Gd-DTPA tracer and microscopically by detection of fluorescent dextran conjugates. Results In nonhydrocephalic rats, water content decreased progressively from age 3 to 7 weeks. T1 and T2 and apparent diffusion coefficients did not exhibit parallel changes and there was no evidence of BBB permeability to tracers. The cerebral ventricles enlarged progressively in the weeks following kaolin injection. In hydrocephalic rats, the dorsal cortex was more dense and the white matter less so, indicating that the increased water content was largely confined to white matter. Hydrocephalus was associated with transient elevation of T1 in gray and white matter and persistent elevation of T2 in white matter. Changes in the apparent diffusion coefficients were significant only in white matter. Ventricle size correlated significantly with dorsal water content, T1, T2, and apparent diffusion coefficients. MR imaging showed evidence of Gd-DTPA leakage in periventricular tissue foci but not diffusely. These correlated with microscopic leak of larger dextran tracers. Conclusions MR

  9. Space weather monitoring and forecasting in South America: products from the user requests to the development of regional magnetic indices and GNSS vertical error maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Padilha, Antonio; Takahashi, Hisao; Souza, Jonas; Mendes, Odim; Batista, Inez S.; SantAnna, Nilson; Gatto, Rubens; Costa, D. Joaquim

    . Recently, we have release brand new products, among them, some regional magnetic indices and the GNSS vertical error map over South America. Contacting Author: C. M. Denardini (clezio.denardin@inpe.br)

  10. Gender and urban-rural difference in anthropometric indices predicting dyslipidemia in Chinese primary school children: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Ai; Xue, Yong; Zheng, Yingdong; Chen, Yun; Mu, Zhishen; Wang, Peiyu; Zhang, Yumei

    2016-04-30

    Childhood dyslipidemia is a critical factor of lifelong health. Therefore, screening and controlling dyslipidemia from childhood is a practical healthy strategy. However, few studies have examined the performance of anthropometric predictors of dyslipidemia in Chinese children, let alone the potential gender and urban-rural disparity. Thus, we evaluated anthropometric indices predicting dyslipidemia by genders and living areas in Chinese children. Data were from a health and nutrition survey conducted in seven urban areas and two rural areas in China between 2011 and 2012. The serum lipid levels of the participants were compared between genders and living areas. The body mass index z-score (BMI z-score), waist-hip ratio (WHR), waist-height ratio (WHtR), and mid-upper arm height ratio (MaHtR) were used as predictors. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to investigate the ability of anthropometric indices predicting dyslipidemia. A total of 773 participants (average age = 9.3 ± 1.7 y) were included. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 10.9%. Anthropometric indices were all significantly related to blood lipid profiles in boys after adjustment for age. The areas under the ROC curves (ACUs) were significantly larger than 0.5 in boys (ranged between 0.66-0.73), and were larger in rural boys (ranged between 0.68 and 0.94). MaHtR and WHR were associated with the highest specificity (93.8%) and highest sensitivity (100%), respectively. Using anthropometric indices, screening for dyslipidemia may be more appropriate in boys than in girls in China, especially in rural boys. The BMI z-score, WHR, WHtR, and MaHtR were all significantly associated with dyslipidemia in boys; using WHR and MaHtR as indicators achieved the highest sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

  11. Physical activity in primary versus secondary prevention indication implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients 6-12 months after implantation - a cross-sectional study with register follow up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, S. K.; Thygesen, L. C.; Svendsen, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe (i) physical activity status among ICD patients according to the indication for ICD implant compared to international guidelines and compared to a matched normal population in order to detect potentials for improved physical outcomes, (ii) patients' beliefs regarding...... and participation in physical exercise by ICD indication, (iii) factors predicting low physical activity, and (iv) physical activity as a predictor of mortality. DESIGN: National survey with register follow-up. Comparisons were made to a matched healthy reference population and patients were followed in registers...... MEASURES: Questions regarding physical activity and the IPAQ questionnaire were used to assess physical activity. RESULTS: The response rate was 71.7%. Mean age 65.5 years with 82% males. 37% participated in a rehabilitation programme. 21 % were sedentary compared to 8 % in the reference population (p

  12. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danly, C R; Merrill, F E; Barlow, D; Mariam, F G

    2014-08-01

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL's pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  13. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G.

    2014-01-01

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components

  14. Nonuniform radiation damage in permanent magnet quadrupoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Barlow, D.; Mariam, F. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    We present data that indicate nonuniform magnetization loss due to radiation damage in neodymium-iron-boron Halbach-style permanent magnet quadrupoles. The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos uses permanent-magnet quadrupoles for magnifying lenses, and a system recently commissioned at GSI-Darmsdadt uses permanent magnets for its primary lenses. Large fluences of spallation neutrons can be produced in close proximity to these magnets when the proton beam is, intentionally or unintentionally, directed into the tungsten beam collimators; imaging experiments at LANL’s pRad have shown image degradation with these magnetic lenses at proton beam doses lower than those expected to cause damage through radiation-induced reduction of the quadrupole strength alone. We have observed preferential degradation in portions of the permanent magnet quadrupole where the field intensity is highest, resulting in increased high-order multipole components.

  15. Diagnostic value of whole-body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for detection of primary and metastatic malignancies: A meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin, E-mail: lllb146@163.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Li, Qiong [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Nie, Wei [Department of Respiratory Disease, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Liu, Shiyuan, E-mail: lsy20112077@163.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To perform a meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic performance of whole-body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (WB-DWI) technique in detection of primary and metastatic malignancies compared with that of whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (WB-PET/CT). Materials and methods: Search Pubmed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library database from January 1984 to July 2013 for studies comparing WB-DWI with WB-PET/CT for detection of primary and metastatic malignancies. Methodological quality was assessed by the quality assessment of diagnostic studies (QUADAS) instrument. Sensitivities, specificities, predictive values, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and areas under the summary receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated. Potential threshold effect, heterogeneity and publication bias were investigated. Result: Thirteen eligible studies were included, with a total of 1067 patients. There was no significant threshold effect. WB-DWI had a similar AUC (0.966 (95% CI, 0.940–0.992) versus 0.984 (95% CI, 0.965–0.999)) with WB-PET/CT. No significant difference was detected between AUC of WB-DWI and WB-PET/CT. WB-DWI had a pooled sensitivity of 0.897 (95% CI, 0.876–0.916) and a pooled specificity of 0.954 (95% CI, 0.944–0.962). WB-PET/CT had a pooled sensitivity of 0.895 (95% CI, 0.865–0.920) and a pooled specificity of 0.975 (95% CI, 0.966–0.981). Heterogeneity was found to stem primarily from data type (per lesion versus per patient), MR sequence (DWIBS only and DWIBS with other sequence), and primary lesion type (single type and multiple type). The Deeks's funnel plots suggested the absence of publication bias. Conclusion: WB-DWI has similar, good diagnostic performance for the detection of primary and metastatic malignancies compared with WB-PET/CT. DWIBS with other MR sequences could further improve the diagnostic performance. More high-quality studies regarding comparison of WB-DWI and WB

  16. Quantitative assessment of primary mitral regurgitation using left ventricular volumes obtained with new automated three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiographic software: A comparison with 3-Tesla cardiac magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Franck; Marechaux, Sylvestre; Iacuzio, Laura; Schouver, Elie Dan; Castel, Anne Laure; Toledano, Manuel; Rusek, Stephane; Dor, Vincent; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Dreyfus, Gilles

    2018-03-30

    Quantitative assessment of primary mitral regurgitation (MR) using left ventricular (LV) volumes obtained with three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (3D TTE) recently showed encouraging results. Nevertheless, 3D TTE is not incorporated into everyday practice, as current LV chamber quantification software products are time consuming. To investigate the accuracy and reproducibility of new automated fast 3D TTE software (HeartModel A.I. ; Philips Healthcare, Andover, MA, USA) for the quantification of LV volumes and MR severity in patients with isolated degenerative primary MR; and to compare regurgitant volume (RV) obtained with 3D TTE with a cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) reference. Fifty-three patients (37 men; mean age 64±12 years) with at least mild primary isolated MR, and having comprehensive 3D TTE and CMR studies within 24h, were eligible for inclusion. MR RV was calculated using the proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method and the volumetric method (total LV stroke volume minus aortic stroke volume) with either CMR or 3D TTE. Inter- and intraobserver reproducibility of 3D TTE was excellent (coefficient of variation≤10%) for LV volumes. MR RV was similar using CMR and 3D TTE (57±23mL vs 56±28mL; P=0.22), but was significantly higher using the PISA method (69±30mL; P<0.05 compared with CMR and 3D TTE). The PISA method consistently overestimated MR RV compared with CMR (bias 12±21mL), while no significant bias was found between 3D TTE and CMR (bias 2±14mL). Concordance between echocardiography and CMR was higher using 3D TTE MR grading (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]=0.89) than with PISA MR grading (ICC=0.78). Complete agreement with CMR grading was more frequent with 3D TTE than with the PISA method (76% vs 63%). 3D TTE RV assessment using the new generation of automated software correlates well with CMR in patients with isolated degenerative primary MR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. A Longitudinal Study into Indicators of Mental Health, Strengths and Difficulties Reported by Boarding Students as They Transition from Primary School to Secondary Boarding Schools in Perth, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, David J.; Lester, Leanne

    2017-01-01

    This study examined indicators of mental health, as well as strengths and difficulties, as reported by same-age boarding and non-boarding students spanning four time points over a 2-year period as they transitioned from primary to boarding school in Western Australia (i.e., at the end of Grade 7, beginning of Grade 8, end of Grade 8, and end of…

  18. Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Local Tumor Staging in Patients With Primary Breast Cancer: A Comparison With Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueneisen, Johannes; Nagarajah, James; Buchbender, Christian; Hoffmann, Oliver; Schaarschmidt, Benedikt Michael; Poeppel, Thorsten; Forsting, Michael; Quick, Harald H; Umutlu, Lale; Kinner, Sonja

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of integrated positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast for lesion detection and local tumor staging of patients with primary breast cancer in comparison to PET/computed tomography (CT) and MRI. The study was approved by the local institutional review board. Forty-nine patients with biopsy-proven invasive breast cancer were prospectively enrolled in our study. All patients underwent a PET/CT, and subsequently, a contrast-enhanced PET/MRI of the breast after written informed consent was obtained before each examination. Two radiologists independently evaluated the corresponding data sets (PET/CT, PET/MRI, and MRI) and were instructed to identify primary tumors lesions as well as multifocal/multicentric and bilateral disease. Furthermore, the occurrence of lymph node metastases was assessed, and the T-stage for each patient was determined. Histopathological verification of the local tumor extent and the axillary lymph node status was available for 30 of 49 and 48 of 49 patients, respectively. For the remaining patients, a consensus characterization was performed for the determination of the T-stage and nodal status, taking into account the results of clinical staging, PET/CT, and PET/MRI examinations. Statistical analysis was performed to test for differences in diagnostic performance between the different imaging procedures. P values less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Positron emission tomography/MRI and MRI correctly identified 47 (96%) of the 49 patients with primary breast cancer, whereas PET/CT enabled detection of 46 (94%) of 49 breast cancer patients and missed a synchronous carcinoma in the contralateral breast in 1 patient. In a lesion-by-lesion analysis, no significant differences could be obtained between the 3 imaging procedures for the identification of primary breast cancer lesions (P > 0.05). Positron emission tomography/MRI and

  19. Ultra-fast speech comprehension in blind subjects engages primary visual cortex, fusiform gyrus, and pulvinar – a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals suffering from vision loss of a peripheral origin may learn to understand spoken language at a rate of up to about 22 syllables (syl) per second - exceeding by far the maximum performance level of normal-sighted listeners (ca. 8 syl/s). To further elucidate the brain mechanisms underlying this extraordinary skill, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in blind subjects of varying ultra-fast speech comprehension capabilities and sighted individuals while listening to sentence utterances of a moderately fast (8 syl/s) or ultra-fast (16 syl/s) syllabic rate. Results Besides left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and left supplementary motor area (SMA), blind people highly proficient in ultra-fast speech perception showed significant hemodynamic activation of right-hemispheric primary visual cortex (V1), contralateral fusiform gyrus (FG), and bilateral pulvinar (Pv). Conclusions Presumably, FG supports the left-hemispheric perisylvian “language network”, i.e., IFG and superior temporal lobe, during the (segmental) sequencing of verbal utterances whereas the collaboration of bilateral pulvinar, right auditory cortex, and ipsilateral V1 implements a signal-driven timing mechanism related to syllabic (suprasegmental) modulation of the speech signal. These data structures, conveyed via left SMA to the perisylvian “language zones”, might facilitate – under time-critical conditions – the consolidation of linguistic information at the level of verbal working memory. PMID:23879896

  20. Chronic treatment with rivastigmine in patients with Alzheimer's disease: a study on primary motor cortex excitability tested by 5 Hz-repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebbastoni, A; Gilio, F; D'Antonio, F; Cambieri, C; Ceccanti, M; de Lena, C; Inghilleri, M

    2012-05-01

    To investigate changes in cortical excitability and short-term synaptic plasticity we delivered 5 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the primary motor cortex in 11 patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) before and after chronic therapy with rivastigmine. Resting motor threshold (RMT), motor evoked potential (MEP), cortical silent period (CSP) after single stimulus and MEP facilitation during rTMS trains were tested three times during treatment. All patients underwent neuropsychological tests before and after receiving rivastigmine. rTMS data in patients were compared with those from age-matched healthy controls. At baseline, RMT was significantly lower in patients than in controls whereas CSP duration and single MEP amplitude were similar in both groups. In patients, rTMS failed to induce the normal MEP facilitation during the trains. Chronic rivastigmine intake significantly increased MEP amplitude after a single stimulus, whereas it left the other neurophysiological variables studied unchanged. No significant correlation was found between patients' neuropsychological test scores and TMS measures. Chronic treatment with rivastigmine has no influence on altered cortical excitability and short-term synaptic plasticity as tested by 5 Hz-rTMS. The limited clinical benefits related to cholinesterase inhibitor therapy in patients with AD depend on factors other than improved plasticity within the cortical glutamatergic circuits. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimal time for predicting left ventricular remodeling after successful primary coronary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction using serial myocardial contrast echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Tadamichi; Okada, Takenori; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Otsuka, Masaya; Hirai, Yuukou

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimal time to assess microvascular integrity within the risk area for myocardial infarction in order to predict unfavorable left ventricular remodeling (LVR) after successful primary coronary angioplasty. Fifty-three patients who underwent myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) just before recanalization, shortly after and 1 day (Day 2) and 3 weeks after recanalization were studied. The no- and low-reflow ratio (LR ratio) was analyzed at each stage. The wall-tinning ratio within the risk area was determined using magnetic resonance imaging performed 3-4 weeks after the recanalization. Thirteen of the 53 patients showed LVR 3-8 months after recanalization. The optimal time to predict LVR was found to be Day 2 based on the receiver operating characteristic curves. The LR ratio on Day 2 (χ 2 =7.39, p=0.007) and the collateral circulation before recanalization (χ 2 =4.57, p=0.03) were chosen as independent variables for predicting LVR. Patients with greater than 0.43 in the LR ratio on Day 2 showed a lower wall-thinning ratio (58±19% vs 72±20%, p=0.05). This study shows that the optimal time to estimate the microvascular integrity for predicting LVR is 1 day after recanalization, which is neither shortly after recanalization nor during the convalescent stage. (author)

  2. Magnetism of Carbonados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletetschka, G.; Taylor, P. T.; Wasilewski, P. J.

    2000-01-01

    Origin of Carbonado is not clear. Magnetism of Carbonado comes from the surface, indicating contemporary formation of both the surface and magnetic carriers. The interior of carbonado is relatively free of magnetic phases.

  3. Active Magnetic Regenerative Liquefier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, John A. [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Oseen-Send, Kathryn [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ferguson, Luke [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Pouresfandiary, Jamshid [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Cousins, Anand [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ralph, Heather [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Hampto, Tom [Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-01-12

    This final report for the DOE Project entitled Active Magnetic Regenerative Liquefier (AMRL) funded under Grant DE-FG36-08GO18064 to Heracles Energy Corporation d.b.a. Prometheus Energy (Heracles/Prometheus) describes an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator (AMRR) prototype designed and built during the period from July 2008 through May 2011. The primary goal of this project was to make significant technical advances toward highly efficient liquefaction of hydrogen. Conventional hydrogen liquefiers at any scale have a maximum FOM of ~0.35 due primarily to the intrinsic difficulty of rapid, efficient compression of either hydrogen or helium working gases. Numerical simulation modeling of high performance AMRL designs indicates certain designs have promise to increase thermodynamic efficiency from a FOM of ~0.35 toward ~0.5 to ~0.6. The technical approach was the use of solid magnetic working refrigerants cycled in and out of high magnetic fields to build an efficient active regenerative magnetic refrigeration module providing cooling power for AMRL. A single-stage reciprocating AMRR with a design temperature span from ~290 K to ~120 K was built and tested with dual magnetic regenerators moving in and out of the conductively-cooled superconducting magnet subsystem. The heat transfer fluid (helium) was coupled to the process stream (refrigeration/liquefaction load) via high performance heat exchangers. In order to maximize AMRR efficiency a helium bypass loop with adjustable flow was incorporated in the design because the thermal mass of magnetic refrigerants is higher in low magnetic field than in high magnetic field. Heracles/Prometheus designed experiments to measure AMRR performance under a variety of different operational parameters such as cycle frequency, magnetic field strength, heat transfer fluid flow rate, amount of bypass flow of the heat transfer fluid while measuring work input, temperature span, cooling capability as a function of cold temperature

  4. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging for detection of skeletal metastases in children and young people with primary solid tumors - systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smets, A.M.; Deurloo, E.E.; Slager, T.J.E.; Stoker, J.; Bipat, S. [Academic Medical Center (AMC), Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2018-02-15

    Many solid neoplasms have a propensity for osteomedullary metastases of which detection is important for staging and subsequent treatment. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) has been shown to accurately detect osteomedullary metastases in adults, but these findings cannot be unconditionally extrapolated to staging of children with malignant solid tumors. To conduct a literature review on the sensitivity of WB-MRI for detecting skeletal metastases in children with solid tumors. Searches in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases up to 15 May 2017 were performed to identify studies on the diagnostic value of WB-MRI. Inclusion criteria were children and adolescents (age <21 years) with a primary solid tumor who were evaluated for skeletal metastases by WB-MRI and compared to any type of reference standard. The number of included patients had to be at least five and data on true positives, true negatives, false-positives and false-negatives had to be extractable. Five studies including 132 patients (96 patients with solid tumors) were eligible. Patient groups and used reference tests were heterogeneous, producing unclear or high risk of bias. Sensitivity of WB-MRI ranged between 82% and 100%. The positive predictive value of WB-MRI was variable among the studies and influenced by the used reference standard. Although WB-MRI may seem a promising radiation-free technique for the detection of skeletal metastases in children with solid tumors, published studies are small and too heterogeneous to provide conclusive evidence that WB-MRI can be an alternative to currently used imaging techniques. (orig.)

  5. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging for detection of skeletal metastases in children and young people with primary solid tumors - systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smets, A.M.; Deurloo, E.E.; Slager, T.J.E.; Stoker, J.; Bipat, S.

    2018-01-01

    Many solid neoplasms have a propensity for osteomedullary metastases of which detection is important for staging and subsequent treatment. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) has been shown to accurately detect osteomedullary metastases in adults, but these findings cannot be unconditionally extrapolated to staging of children with malignant solid tumors. To conduct a literature review on the sensitivity of WB-MRI for detecting skeletal metastases in children with solid tumors. Searches in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases up to 15 May 2017 were performed to identify studies on the diagnostic value of WB-MRI. Inclusion criteria were children and adolescents (age <21 years) with a primary solid tumor who were evaluated for skeletal metastases by WB-MRI and compared to any type of reference standard. The number of included patients had to be at least five and data on true positives, true negatives, false-positives and false-negatives had to be extractable. Five studies including 132 patients (96 patients with solid tumors) were eligible. Patient groups and used reference tests were heterogeneous, producing unclear or high risk of bias. Sensitivity of WB-MRI ranged between 82% and 100%. The positive predictive value of WB-MRI was variable among the studies and influenced by the used reference standard. Although WB-MRI may seem a promising radiation-free technique for the detection of skeletal metastases in children with solid tumors, published studies are small and too heterogeneous to provide conclusive evidence that WB-MRI can be an alternative to currently used imaging techniques. (orig.)

  6. Repetitive deep transcranial magnetic stimulation improves verbal fluency and written language in a patient with primary progressive aphasia-logopenic variant (LPPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebbastoni, Alessandro; Raccah, Ruggero; de Lena, Carlo; Zangen, Abraham; Inghilleri, Maurizio

    2013-07-01

    To date, no therapies are available for the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia (LPPA). Even though deep repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may improve cognitive functions in some neurodegenerative disorders, no previous studies investigated its effects in patients with LPPA. Our aim was to investigate the effects on cognitive function of high frequency rTMS (hf-rTMS) delivered over the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) through a coil designed for deep rTMS, compared to a SHAM stimulation, in a right-handed patient with LPPA. The patient presented a progressive language impairment (phonological errors in speech and naming, impaired single word retrieval and sentences repetition) and predominant left perisylvian atrophy and hypoperfusion. He received four stimulation cycles (two REAL and two SHAM) each of whom lasted 20 min for 5 consecutive days. Patient's performances in frontal, visuo-spatial and linguistic tasks were evaluated before and after each stimulation session. Test scores after REAL were compared with those obtained at baseline and after SHAM. We found a temporary and highly significant improvement in the linguistic skills (both oral and written tasks) but not in the other cognitive domains tested, after REAL, but not SHAM stimulations. Hf-rTMS delivered over the DLPFC could improve language in LPPA by enhancing long-term potentiation and synaptic plasticity within the stimulated and interconnected areas involved in language network. Our findings might prompt future researches into the feasibility and efficacy of deep hf-rTMS as a therapeutic tool in progressive aphasia syndromes and other neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Utility of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for differentiating glioblastoma, primary central nervous system lymphoma and brain metastatic tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shanshan, E-mail: lushan1118@163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Gao, Qianqian, E-mail: gaoqian123011@163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Yu, Jing, E-mail: yujing0303@163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Li, Yang, E-mail: yuhao040511@163.com [Department of Pathology,The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Cao, Peng, E-mail: peng.cao@ge.com [GE healthcare, Shanghai (China); Shi, Haibin, E-mail: hbshi346@163.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Hong, Xunning, E-mail: hongxunning@sina.com [Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2016-10-15

    Purpose: The study aimed to investigate the use of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived permeability parameters for the differentiation of glioblastoma multiformes (GBMs), primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs), and brain metastatic tumors (MTs). Materials and methods: Seventy-five patients with histopathologically confirmed GBMs (n = 38), PCNSLs (n = 16) and MTs (n = 21) underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MRIs before surgery. The volume transfer constant K{sup trans}, the flux rate constant between extravascular extracellular space and plasma K{sub ep}, the extravascular extracellular volume V{sub e} and the fractional plasma volume V{sub p} were measured within the entire contrast-enhancing tumor by extended Tofts model. A one-way analysis of variance was used to compare all of the parameters among these three tumors, followed by the post-hoc test. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the permeability parameters. Results: Mean K{sup trans} value and V{sub e} value were significantly higher in PCNSLs than in GBMs (P < 0.001 and P = 0.011) and MTs (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001). No significant difference was observed in all of the permeability parameters between GBMs and MTs. According to the receiver operating characteristic analyses, both K{sup trans} and V{sub e} had good diagnostic performance for discriminating between PCNSLs and GBMs (the area under the curve: 0.847 and 0.785, respectively), as well as between PCNSLs and MTs (the area under the curve: 0.851 and 0.884, respectively). Conclusions: The K{sup trans} and V{sub e} derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI facilitate the differentiation of PCNSLs from GBMs and MTs.

  8. Whole-body water flow stimulation to the lower limbs modulates excitability of primary motor cortical regions innervating the hands: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Sato

    Full Text Available Whole-body water immersion (WI has been reported to change sensorimotor integration. However, primary motor cortical excitability is not affected by low-intensity afferent input. Here we explored the effects of whole-body WI and water flow stimulation (WF on corticospinal excitability and intracortical circuits. Eight healthy subjects participated in this study. We measured the amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs produced by single transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS pulses and examined conditioned MEP amplitudes by paired-pulse TMS. We evaluated short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI and intracortical facilitation (ICF using the paired-TMS technique before and after 15-min intervention periods. Two interventions used were whole-body WI with water flow to the lower limbs (whole-body WF and whole-body WI without water flow to the lower limbs (whole-body WI. The experimental sequence included a baseline TMS assessment (T0, intervention for 15 min, a second TMS assessment immediately after intervention (T1, a 10 min resting period, a third TMS assessment (T2, a 10 min resting period, a fourth TMS assessment (T3, a 10 min resting period, and the final TMS assessment (T4. SICI and ICF were evaluated using a conditioning stimulus of 90% active motor threshold and a test stimulus adjusted to produce MEPs of approximately 1-1.2 mV, and were tested at intrastimulus intervals of 3 and 10 ms, respectively. Whole-body WF significantly increased MEP amplitude by single-pulse TMS and led to a decrease in SICI in the contralateral motor cortex at T1, T2 and T3. Whole-body WF also induced increased corticospinal excitability and decreased SICI. In contrast, whole-body WI did not change corticospinal excitability or intracortical circuits.

  9. Whole-body water flow stimulation to the lower limbs modulates excitability of primary motor cortical regions innervating the hands: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Yamashiro, Koya; Onishi, Hideaki; Baba, Yasuhiro; Nakazawa, Sho; Shimoyama, Yoshimitsu; Maruyama, Atsuo

    2014-01-01

    Whole-body water immersion (WI) has been reported to change sensorimotor integration. However, primary motor cortical excitability is not affected by low-intensity afferent input. Here we explored the effects of whole-body WI and water flow stimulation (WF) on corticospinal excitability and intracortical circuits. Eight healthy subjects participated in this study. We measured the amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) produced by single transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulses and examined conditioned MEP amplitudes by paired-pulse TMS. We evaluated short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) using the paired-TMS technique before and after 15-min intervention periods. Two interventions used were whole-body WI with water flow to the lower limbs (whole-body WF) and whole-body WI without water flow to the lower limbs (whole-body WI). The experimental sequence included a baseline TMS assessment (T0), intervention for 15 min, a second TMS assessment immediately after intervention (T1), a 10 min resting period, a third TMS assessment (T2), a 10 min resting period, a fourth TMS assessment (T3), a 10 min resting period, and the final TMS assessment (T4). SICI and ICF were evaluated using a conditioning stimulus of 90% active motor threshold and a test stimulus adjusted to produce MEPs of approximately 1-1.2 mV, and were tested at intrastimulus intervals of 3 and 10 ms, respectively. Whole-body WF significantly increased MEP amplitude by single-pulse TMS and led to a decrease in SICI in the contralateral motor cortex at T1, T2 and T3. Whole-body WF also induced increased corticospinal excitability and decreased SICI. In contrast, whole-body WI did not change corticospinal excitability or intracortical circuits.

  10. Simple anthropometric measures correlate with metabolic risk indicators as strongly as magnetic resonance imaging-measured adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, Rebecca; Shen, Wei; Bacchetti, Peter; Kotler, Donald; Lewis, Cora E; Shlipak, Michael G; Heymsfield, Steven B; Grunfeld, Carl

    2008-06-01

    Studies in persons without HIV infection have compared percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference as markers of risk for the complications of excess adiposity, but only limited study has been conducted in HIV-infected subjects. We compared anthropometric and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based adiposity measures as correlates of metabolic complications of adiposity in HIV-infected and control subjects. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 666 HIV-positive and 242 control subjects in the Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) study assessing body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip (HC) circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), %BF, and MRI-measured regional adipose tissue. Study outcomes were 3 metabolic risk variables [homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol]. Analyses were stratified by sex and HIV status and adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and HIV-related factors. In HIV-infected and control subjects, univariate associations with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL were strongest for WC, MRI-measured visceral adipose tissue, and WHR; in all cases, differences in correlation between the strongest measures for each outcome were small (r HDL, WC appeared to be the best anthropometric correlate of metabolic complications, whereas, for triglycerides, the best was WHR. Relations of simple anthropometric measures with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol are approximately as strong as MRI-measured whole-body adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects.

  11. Simple anthropometric measures correlate with metabolic risk indicators as strongly as magnetic resonance imaging–measured adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, Rebecca; Shen, Wei; Bacchetti, Peter; Kotler, Donald; Lewis, Cora E; Shlipak, Michael G; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies in persons without HIV infection have compared percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference as markers of risk for the complications of excess adiposity, but only limited study has been conducted in HIV-infected subjects. Objective We compared anthropometric and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)–based adiposity measures as correlates of metabolic complications of adiposity in HIV-infected and control subjects. Design The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 666 HIV-positive and 242 control subjects in the Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) study assessing body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip (HC) circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), %BF, and MRI-measured regional adipose tissue. Study outcomes were 3 metabolic risk variables [homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol]. Analyses were stratified by sex and HIV status and adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and HIV-related factors. Results In HIV-infected and control subjects, univariate associations with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL were strongest for WC, MRI-measured visceral adipose tissue, and WHR; in all cases, differences in correlation between the strongest measures for each outcome were small (r ≤ 0.07). Multivariate adjustment found no significant difference for optimally fitting models between the use of anthropometric and MRI measures, and the magnitudes of differences were small (adjusted R2 ≤ 0.06). For HOMA and HDL, WC appeared to be the best anthropometric correlate of metabolic complications, whereas, for triglycerides, the best was WHR. Conclusion Relations of simple anthropometric measures with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol are approximately as strong as MRI-measured whole-body adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects. PMID:18541572

  12. From proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra to pH. Assessment of {sup 1}H NMR pH indicator compound set for deuterium oxide solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tynkkynen, Tuulia, E-mail: tuulia.tynkkynen@uku.fi [Laboratory of Chemistry, Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Tiainen, Mika; Soininen, Pasi; Laatikainen, Reino [Laboratory of Chemistry, Department of Biosciences, University of Kuopio, PO Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2009-08-19

    In this study, a protocol for pH determination from D{sub 2}O samples using {sup 1}H NMR pH indicator compounds was developed and assessed by exploring the pH-dependency of 13 compounds giving pH-dependent {sup 1}H NMR signals. The indicators cover the pH range from pH* 0 to 7.2. Equations to transform the indicator chemical shifts to pH estimates are given here for acetic acid, formic acid, chloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, creatine, creatinine, glycine, histidine, 1,2,4-triazole, and TSP (2,2,3,3-tetradeutero-3-(trimethylsilyl)-propionic acid). To characterize the method in presence of typical solutes, the effects of common metabolites, albumin and ionic strength were also evaluated. For the ionic strengths, the effects were also modelled. The experiments showed that the use of pH sensitive {sup 1}H NMR chemical shifts allows the pH determination of typical metabolite solutions with accuracy of 0.01-0.05 pH units. Also, when the ionic strength is known with accuracy better than 0.1 mol dm{sup -3} and the solute concentrations are low, pH{sub nmr}{sup *} (the NMR estimate of pH) can be assumed to be within 0.05 pH units from potentiometrically determined pH.

  13. Empirical Productivity Indices and Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Balk (Bert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe empirical measurement of productivity change (or difference) by means of indices and indicators starts with the ex post profit/loss accounts of a production unit. Key concepts are profit, leading to indicators, and profitability, leading to indices. The main task for the productivity

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehnholm, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an electron spin resonance enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (ESREMRI) apparatus able to generate a primary magnetic field during periods of nuclear spin transition excitation and magnetic resonance signal detection. This allows the generation of ESREMRI images of a subject. A primary magnetic field of a second and higher value generated during periods of nuclear spin transition excitation and magnetic resonance signal detection can be used to generate conventional MR images of a subject. The ESREMRI and native MR images so generated may be combined, (or superimposed). (author)

  15. Complexity Index as Applied to Magnetic Resonance: Study Based on a Scale of Relative Units; Indice de complejidad en resonancia magnetica: estudio basado en una escala de unidades relativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capelastegui, A.; Villanua, J.

    2003-07-01

    To analyze the merit and repercussions of measuring magnetic resonance (MR) activity in units of radiological activity, and of using complexity index (CI) as an activity indicator. We studied the MR activity of Osatek, Inc. during an 8-year period (1994-2001). We measured this activity both in number of MR procedures performed and in units of radiological activity, such units being based on the scale of relative units published in the Radiological Services Administration Guidelines published by the Spanish Society or Medical Radiology. We calculated the annual complexity index, this being a quotient between the number of MR procedures performed and corresponding value in units of radiological activity. We also analyzed factors that can have an impact on the CI: type of exploration and power of the equipment's magnetic field. The CL stayed practically stable during the first 4 years of the study, while it increased during the second 4 years. There exists a direct relationship between this increase and the percentage of explorations that we term complex (basically, body-and angio-MR). The increasing complexity of MR studies in the last years is evident from a consideration of CI. MR productivity is more realistically expressed in units of radiological activity than in number of procedures performed by any one center. It also allows for making external comparisons. CI is a useful indicator that can be utilized as an administrative tool. (Author) 13 refs.

  16. The Ratio of Blood T Follicular Regulatory Cells to T Follicular Helper Cells Marks Ectopic Lymphoid Structure Formation While Activated Follicular Helper T Cells Indicate Disease Activity in Primary Sjögren's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Valter R; Romão, Vasco C; Agua-Doce, Ana; Santos, Mara; López-Presa, Dolores; Ferreira, Ana Cristina; Fonseca, João Eurico; Graca, Luis

    2018-05-01

    To investigate whether the balance of blood follicular helper T (Tfh) cells and T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells can provide information about ectopic lymphoid neogenesis and disease activity in primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS). We prospectively recruited 56 patients clinically suspected of having SS. Sixteen of these patients subsequently fulfilled the American-European Consensus Group criteria for SS and were compared to 16 patients with non-SS sicca syndrome. Paired blood and minor salivary gland (MSG) biopsy samples were analyzed to study Tfr cells and subsets of Tfh cells in both compartments. Patients with primary SS had normal Tfh cell counts in peripheral blood; however, activated programmed death 1-positive (PD-1+) inducible costimulator-positive (ICOS+) Tfh cells in peripheral blood were strongly associated with disease activity assessed by the European League Against Rheumatism Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index (r = 0.8547, P = 0.0008). Conversely, the blood Tfr cell:Tfh cell ratio indicated ectopic lymphoid structure formation in MSGs, being strongly associated with B cell, CD4+ T cell, and PD-1+ICOS+ T cell infiltration in MSGs, and was especially increased in patients with focal sialadenitis. Further analysis showed that the blood Tfr cell:Tfh cell ratio allowed discrimination between SS patients and healthy donors with excellent accuracy and was a strong predictor of SS diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] 12.96, P = 0.028) and the presence of focal sialadenitis (OR 10, P = 0.022) in patients investigated for sicca symptoms, thus highlighting the potential clinical value of this marker. The blood Tfr cell:Tfh cell ratio and PD-1+ICOS+ Tfh cells constitute potential novel biomarkers for different features of primary SS. While the blood Tfr cell:Tfh cell ratio is associated with ectopic lymphoid neogenesis, activated Tfh cells indicate disease activity. © 2018, American College of Rheumatology.

  17. [Utility and validity of indicators from the Nursing Outcomes Classification as a support tool for diagnosing Ineffective Self Health Management in patients with chronic conditions in primary health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morilla-Herrera, J C; Morales-Asencio, J M; Fernández-Gallego, M C; Cobos, E Berrobianco; Romero, A Delgado

    2011-01-01

    Self-care and management of therapeutic regime (drugs adherence, preventive behaviours and development of healthy life-styles) are key components for managing chronic diseases. Nursing has standardized languages which describe many of these situations, such as the diagnosis "Ineffective Self Health Management" (ISHM) or many of the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) indicators. The aims of this study were to determine the interobserver reliability of a NOC-based instrument for assessment and aid in diagnosis of the ISHM in patients with chronic conditions in Primary Health Care, to determine its diagnostic validity and to describe the prevalence of patients with this problem. Cross-sectional validation study developed in the provinces of Málaga, Cádiz and Almería from 2006 to 2009. Each patient was assessed by 3 independent observers: the first two observers evaluated scoring of the NOC indicators and the third one acted as the "gold-standard". Two hundred and twenty-eight patients were included, 37.7% of them with more than one chronic condition. NOC indicators showed a high interobserver reliability (ICC>0,70) and a consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.81). With a cut-point of 10.5, sensitivity was 61% and specificity 85%, and the area under the curve was 0.81 (CI95%: 0.77 to 0.85). The prevalence of patients with ISHM was 36% (CI 95%: 34 to 40). The use of NOC indicators allows evaluation of management of the therapeutic regime in people with chronic conditions with a satisfactory validity and it provides new approaches for dealing with this problem.

  18. Associação entre atenção básica em saúde bucal e indicadores socioeconômicos municipais Association between primary dental care and municipal socioeconomic indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Simara Fernandes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Testar associações entre indicadores de atenção básica em saúde bucal e indicadores municipais socioeconômicos e de provisão de serviços odontológicos. MÉTODOS: Estudo ecológico realizado nos 293 municípios do Estado de Santa Catarina, no período 2000 a 2003. Foram utilizados indicadores de atenção básica a saúde bucal: (1 Cobertura; (2 Razão entre procedimentos odontológicos coletivos e a população de zero a 14 anos de idade; (3 razão entre exodontias de dentes permanentes e procedimentos odontológicos individuais na atenção básica. As variáveis investigadas foram: razão entre o número total de dentistas por mil habitantes, razão entre o número total de dentistas cadastrados no Sistema Único de Saúde por mil habitantes, fluoretação da água de abastecimento, índice de desenvolvimento infantil, índice de desenvolvimento humano municipal e a população do município. Foram realizadas as análises pelos testes de Kruskall-Wallis, qui-quadrado e o teste de Spearman para avaliar a correlação entre as variáveis. RESULTADOS: A cobertura foi de 21,8%, a razão de procedimentos coletivos na população entre zero a 14 anos foi de 0,37 e a proporção de exodontias em relação ao total de procedimentos odontológicos individuais foi de 11,9%. Menores proporções de exodontias foram associadas às maiores proporções de dentistas no Sistema (pOBJECTIVE: To test associations between primary dental care indicators and municipal socioeconomic and dental service provision indicators. METHODS: An ecological study was carried out in the 293 municipalities of the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, between 2000 and 2003. The primary dental care indicators utilized were: (1 coverage; (2 the ratio between preventive dental procedures and the size of the population aged zero to 14 years; and (3 the ratio between the numbers of extractions of permanent teeth and individual dental procedures within primary dental

  19. Quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth-Andersen, Christian

    1991-01-01

    In recent literature it has been suggested that consumers need have no knowledge of product quality as a number of quality indicators (or signals) may be used as substitutes. Very little attention has been paid to the empirical verification of these studies. The present paper is devoted...... to the issue of how well these indicators perform, using market data provided by consumer magazines from 3 countries. The results strongly indicate that price is a poor quality indicator. The paper also presents some evidence which suggests that seller reputation and easily observable characteristics are also...

  20. Lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  1. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  2. A primary exploration to quasi-two-dimensional rare-earth ferromagnetic particles: holmium-doped MoS2 sheet as room-temperature magnetic semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Lin, Zheng-Zhe

    2018-05-01

    Recently, two-dimensional materials and nanoparticles with robust ferromagnetism are even of great interest to explore basic physics in nanoscale spintronics. More importantly, room-temperature magnetic semiconducting materials with high Curie temperature is essential for developing next-generation spintronic and quantum computing devices. Here, we develop a theoretical model on the basis of density functional theory calculations and the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida theory to predict the thermal stability of two-dimensional magnetic materials. Compared with other rare-earth (dysprosium (Dy) and erbium (Er)) and 3 d (copper (Cu)) impurities, holmium-doped (Ho-doped) single-layer 1H-MoS2 is proposed as promising semiconductor with robust magnetism. The calculations at the level of hybrid HSE06 functional predict a Curie temperature much higher than room temperature. Ho-doped MoS2 sheet possesses fully spin-polarized valence and conduction bands, which is a prerequisite for flexible spintronic applications.

  3. Abnormal Functional Connectivity of Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Patients With Primary Insomnia: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Qun Yan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, there have been many reports about abnormalities regarding structural and functional brain connectivity of the patients with primary insomnia. However, the alterations in functional interaction between the left and right cerebral hemispheres have not been well understood. The resting-state fMRI approach, which reveals spontaneous neural fluctuations in blood-oxygen-level-dependent signals, offers a method to quantify functional interactions between the hemispheres directly.Methods: We compared interhemispheric functional connectivity (FC between 26 patients with primary insomnia (48.85 ± 12.02 years and 28 healthy controls (49.07 ± 11.81 years using a voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC method. The patients with primary insomnia and healthy controls were matched for age, gender, and education. Brain regions, which had significant differences in VMHC maps between the primary insomnia and healthy control groups, were defined as seed region of interests. A seed-based approach was further used to reveal significant differences of FC between the seeds and the whole contralateral hemisphere.Results: The patients with primary insomnia showed higher VMHC than healthy controls in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC bilaterally. The seed-based analyses demonstrated increased FC between the left ACC and right thalamus (and the right ACC and left orbitofrontal cortex in patients with primary insomnia, revealing abnormal connectivity between the two cerebral hemispheres. The VMHC values in the ACC were positively correlated with the time to fall asleep and Self-Rating Depression Scale scores (SDS.Conclusions: The results demonstrate that there is abnormal interhemispheric resting-state FC in the brain regions of patients with primary insomnia, especially in the ACC. Our finding demonstrates valid evidence that the ACC is an area of interest in the neurobiology of primary insomnia.

  4. Operational indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The chapter presents the operational indicators related to budget, travel costs and tickets, the evolution of the annual program for regulatory inspection, the scientific production, requested patents and the numbers related to the production of the services offered by the Institution

  5. Prospective, blinded trial of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging versus computed tomography positron emission tomography in staging primary and recurrent cancer of the head and neck.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, J P

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the use of computed tomography - positron emission tomography and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging for the staging of head and neck cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January to July 2009, 15 consecutive head and neck cancer patients (11 men and four women; mean age 59 years; age range 19 to 81 years) underwent computed tomography - positron emission tomography and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging for pre-therapeutic evaluation. All scans were staged, as per the American Joint Committee on Cancer tumour-node-metastasis classification, by two blinded consultant radiologists, in two sittings. Diagnoses were confirmed by histopathological examination of endoscopic biopsies, and in some cases whole surgical specimens. RESULTS: Tumour staging showed a 74 per cent concordance, node staging an 80 per cent concordance and metastasis staging a 100 per cent concordance, comparing the two imaging modalities. CONCLUSION: This study found radiological staging discordance between the two imaging modalities. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging is an emerging staging modality with superior visualisation of metastatic disease, which does not require exposure to ionising radiation.

  6. Primary secondary amine as a sorbent material in dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up for the determination of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental water samples by gas chromatography with electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuanming; Hu, Hongmei; Li, Tiejun; Xue, Lijian; Zhang, Xiaoning; Zhong, Zhi; Zhang, Yurong; Jin, Yanjian

    2017-08-01

    A simple, rapid, and novel method has been developed and validated for determination of seven indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in water samples by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. 1 L of water samples containing 30 g of anhydrous sodium sulfate was first liquid-liquid extracted with an automated Jipad-6XB vertical oscillator using n-hexane/dichloromethane (1:1, v/v). The concentrated extract was cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction with 100 mg of primary secondary amine as sorbent material. The linearity of this method ranged from 1.25 to 100 μg/L, with regression coefficients ranging between 0.9994 and 0.9999. The limits of detection were in the ng/L level, ranging between 0.2 and 0.3 ng/L. The recoveries of seven spiked polychlorinated biphenyls with external calibration method at different concentration levels in tap water, lake water, and sea water were in the ranges of 85-112, 76-116, and 72-108%, respectively, and with relative standard deviations of 3.3-4.5, 3.4-5.6, and 3.1-4.8% (n = 5), respectively. The performance of the proposed method was compared with traditional liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction clean-up methods, and comparable efficiencies were obtained. It is concluded that this method can be successfully applied for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in different water samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. NRC performance indicator program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    The performance indicator development work of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) interoffice task group involved several major activities that included selection of candidate indicators for a trial program, data collection and review, validation of the trial indicators, display method development, interactions with the industry, and selection of an optimum set of indicators for the program. After evaluating 27 potential indicators against certain ideal attributes, the task group selected 17 for the trial program. The pertinent data for these indicators were then collected from 50 plants at 30 sites. The validation of the indicators consisted of two primary processes: logical validity and statistical analysis. The six indicators currently in the program are scrams, safety system actuations, significant events, safety system failures, forced outage rate, and equipment forced outages per 100 critical hours. A report containing data on the six performance indicators and some supplemental information is issued on a quarterly basis. The NRC staff is also working on refinements of existing indicators and development of additional indicators as directed by the commission

  8. A novel dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation paradigm to probe fast facilitatory inputs from ipsilateral dorsal premotor cortex to primary motor cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groppa, Sergiu; Werner-Petroll, Nicole; Münchau, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) plays an import role in action control, sensorimotor integration and motor recovery. Animal studies and human data have demonstrated direct connections between ipsilateral PMd and primary motor cortex hand area (M1(HAND)). In this study we adopted a multimodal app...

  9. Positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for assessing tumour resectability in advanced epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube and/or primary peritoneal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendam, Jacob P.; Roze, Joline F.; van de Wetering, Fleur T.; Spijker, René; Verleye, Leen; Vlayen, Joan; Veldhuis, Wouter B.; Scholten, Rob J P M; Zweemer, RP

    2017-01-01

    This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Diagnostic test accuracy). The objectives are as follows: To assess the diagnostic test accuracy of PET(-CT), conventional and diffusion-weighted MRI as an replacement or an add-on to abdominal CT, for predicting tumour resectability at primary debulking

  10. Position indication apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, T

    1964-02-24

    A plurality of magnetically operated switches are spaced equally in the hollow tube of a control rod actuating mechanism. One side of each switch is connected, via a low resistance, to a corresponding tap of a low resistance voltage divider network consisting of an equivalent number of low resistance sections with the opposite side of each switch connected to a common conducting wire A. To both ends of the voltage dividing network are connected, respectively, conducting wires B and C. Wires A, B, and C are further coupled to a fuel rod position indicator comprising a voltmeter and power source external to the control rod actuating member. The control rod actuating member is adapted to slide in the hollow tube so that switches passing a position facing a magnet secured to the lower end of the actuating member are rendered closed. Hence, the position of the control rod may be read by reading the voltage off the meter.

  11. High field superconducting beam transport in a BNL primary proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allinger, J.; Brown, H.N.; Carroll, A.S.; Danby, G.; DeVito, B.; Glenn, J.W.; Jackson, J.; Keith, W.; Lowenstein, D.; Prodell, A.G.

    1979-01-01

    Construction of a slow external beam switchyard at the BNL AGS requires a rapid 20.4 0 bend in the upstream end of the beam line. Two curved superconducting window dipole magnets, operating at 6.0 T and about 80% of short sample magnetic field, will be utilized with two small superconducting sextupoles to provide the necessary deflection for a 28.5 GeV/c primary proton beam. Because the magnets will operate in a primary proton beam environment, they are designed to absorb large amounts of radiation heating from the beam without quenching. The field quality of the superconducting magnets is extremely good. Computer field calculations indicate a field error, ΔB/B 0 , equivalent to approx. = 1 x 10 -4 up to 75% of the 8.26 cm full aperture diameter in the magnet

  12. Superconducting magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Extensive computer based engineering design effort resulted in optimization of a superconducting magnet design with an average bulk current density of approximately 12KA/cm(2). Twisted, stranded 0.0045 inch diameter NbTi superconductor in a copper matrix was selected. Winding the coil from this bundle facilitated uniform winding of the small diameter wire. Test coils were wound using a first lot of the wire. The actual packing density was measured from these. Interwinding voltage break down tests on the test coils indicated the need for adjustment of the wire insulation on the lot of wire subsequently ordered for construction of the delivered superconducting magnet. Using the actual packing densities from the test coils, a final magnet design, with the required enhancement and field profile, was generated. All mechanical and thermal design parameters were then also fixed. The superconducting magnet was then fabricated and tested. The first test was made with the magnet immersed in liquid helium at 4.2K. The second test was conducted at 2K in vacuum. In the latter test, the magnet was conduction cooled from the mounting flange end.

  13. Optimization of a partially non-magnetic primary radiation shielding for the triple-axis spectrometer PANDA at the Munich high-flux reactor FRM-II

    CERN Document Server

    Pyka, N M; Rogov, A

    2002-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations have been used to optimize the monochromator shielding of the polarized cold-neutron triple-axis spectrometer PANDA at the Munich high-flux reactor FRM-II. By using the Monte Carlo program MCNP-4B, the density of the total spectrum of incoming neutrons and gamma radiation from the beam tube SR-2 has been determined during the three-dimensional diffusion process in different types of heavy concrete and other absorbing material. Special attention has been paid to build a compact and highly efficient shielding, partially non-magnetic, with a total biological radiation dose of less than 10 mu Sv/h at its outsides. Especially considered was the construction of an albedo reducer, which serves to reduce the background in the experiment outside the shielding. (orig.)

  14. Amenorrhea - primary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of periods - primary Images Primary amenorrhea Normal uterine anatomy (cut section) Absence of menstruation (amenorrhea) References Bulun SE. The physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In: ...

  15. Role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) establishing the indication for, planning, and following up uterine artery embolization (UAE) for treating symptomatic leiomyomas of the uterus; Stellenwert der Magnetresonanztomographie fuer Indikationsstellung, Interventionsplanung und Nachsorge bei transarterieller Embolisationsbehandlung des Uterus myomatosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroencke, T.J. [Institut fuer Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Charite, Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Charite, Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Schumannstrasse 20/21, 10117, Berlin (Germany); Hamm, B. [Institut fuer Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Charite, Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany)

    2003-08-01

    To describe the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in establishing the indication for, planning, and following up uterine artery embolization (UAE) for treating symptomatic leiomyomas of the uterus on the basis of the current literature and our results. Retrospective analysis of the MRI findings obtained in 130 patients before and after UAE. Presentation of characteristic MRI features and their relevance in establishing the indication for, performing, and following up of UAE. Discussion of the results in conjunction with published data. The intermediate results of UAE reported in the literature show a successful improvement of leiomyoma-related symptoms in 82-94% of cases and an average reduction of leiomyoma size by 36-64%. The typical MRI appearance of degenerating leiomyomas is presented together with that of relevant differential diagnoses. MRI findings allow for establishing the indication for UAE by providing reliable information on the location, size, and number of uterine leiomyomas. Analysis of 60 patients of our study population showed solitary leiomyoma in 16% of cases, 2-10 leiomyomas in 47%, and over 10 in 37%. Subserosal, pedunculated leiomyomas cannot be treated by UAE; these were present in 5% of the patients. MR angiography is useful in assessing pelvic vascular anatomy before the intervention and identifies collateral vascular supply to the uterus. Contrast-enhanced imaging is suitable for monitoring successful devascularization following embolization and evaluating complications. (orig.) [German] Darstellung des Stellenwerts der Magnetresonanztomographie fuer die Indikationsstellung, Interventionsplanung und Nachsorge bei der transarteriellen Embolisationsbehandlung des symptomatischen Uterus myomatosus unter Beruecksichtigung der aktuellen Literatur sowie eigener Ergebnisse. Retrospektive Auswertung der MRT-Untersuchungen vor und nach Myomembolisation eines Kollektivs von 130 Patientinnen. Darlegung charakteristischer

  16. Transcranial magnetic stimulation probes the excitability of the primary motor cortex: A framework to account for the facilitating effects of acute whole-body exercise on motor processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Davranche

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exercise on decision-making performance have been studied using a wide variety of cognitive tasks and exercise interventions. Although the current literature supports a beneficial influence of acute exercise on cognitive performance, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not yet been elucidated. We review studies that used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to probe the excitability of motor structures during whole-body exercise and present a framework to account for the facilitating effects of acute exercise on motor processes. Recent results suggest that, even in the absence of fatigue, the increase in corticospinal excitability classically reported during submaximal and exhausting exercises may be accompanied by a reduction in intracortical inhibition. We propose that reduced intracortical inhibition elicits an adaptive central mechanism that counteracts the progressive reduction in muscle responsiveness caused by peripheral fatigue. Such a reduction would render the motor cortex more sensitive to upstream influences, thus causing increased corticospinal excitability. Furthermore, reduction of intracortical inhibition may account for the more efficient descending drive and for the improvement of reaction time performance during exercise. The adaptive modulation in intracortical inhibition could be implemented through a general increase in reticular activation that would further account for enhanced sensory sensitivity.

  17. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) evaluation of the metabolite concentration of optic radiation in primary open angle glaucoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidek, Sabrilhakim [University of Malaya, Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (UMRIC), Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Universiti Teknologi MARA, Medical Imaging Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Sg Buloh, Selangor (Malaysia); Ramli, Norlisah; Rahmat, Kartini; Kuo, Tan Li [University of Malaya, Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre (UMRIC), Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ramli, Norlina Mohd; Abdulrahman, Fadzlina [University of Malaya, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-12-15

    To compare the metabolite concentration of optic radiation in glaucoma patients with that of healthy subjects using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS). 1H-MRS utilising the Single-Voxel Spectroscopy (SVS) technique was performed using a 3.0Tesla MRI on 45 optic radiations (15 from healthy subjects, 15 from mild glaucoma patients, and 15 from severe glaucoma patients). A standardised Volume of Interest (VOI) of 20 x 20 x 20 mm was placed in the region of optic radiation. Mild and severe glaucoma patients were categorised based on the Hodapp-Parrish-Anderson (HPA) classification. Mean and multiple group comparisons for metabolite concentration and metabolite concentration ratio between glaucoma grades and healthy subjects were obtained using one-way ANOVA. The metabolite concentration and metabolite concentration ratio between the optic radiations of glaucoma patients and healthy subjects did not demonstrate any significant difference (p > 0.05). Our findings show no significant alteration of metabolite concentration associated with neurodegeneration that could be measured by single-voxel 1H-MRS in optic radiation among glaucoma patients. (orig.)

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of capsulolabral tears after traumatic primary anterior shoulder dislocation. A prospective comparison with arthroscopy of 25 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suder, P.A.; Frich, Lars Henrik; Hougaard, K.

    1995-01-01

    . Subacute MRI evaluation identified 15 labral tears, 12 Hill-Sachs lesions, 1 total rotator cuff lesion, 1 partial joint side rotator cuff lesion, and 1 partial rupture of the biceps tendon. Arthroscopic examination revealed 22 labral tears, 15 Hill-Sachs lesions, 1 total rotator cuff lesion, 1 partial...... joint side rotator cuff tear, 1 partial rupture of the biceps tendon, and 1 osseous Bankart lesion. Anterior capsulolabral tears and Hill-Sachs lesions appeared with a high incidence after acute anterior primary shoulder dislocation. Conventional MRI was only moderately reliable in the preoperative...... evaluation of labral tears and Hill-Sachs lesions, and it failed to give an accurate, differentiated preoperative diagnosis of the capsulolabral lesions....

  19. Common primary headaches in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Mitra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Headache is a very common problem in pregnancy. Evaluation of a complaint of headache requires categorizing it as primary or secondary. Migrainous headaches are known to be influenced by fluctuation of estrogen levels with high levels improving it and low levels deteriorating the symptoms. Tension-type Headaches (TTHs are the most common and usually less severe types of headache with female to male ratio 3:1. Women known to have primary headache before conception who present with a headache that is different from their usual headache, or women not known to have primary headache before conception who present with new-onset of headache during pregnancy need neurologic assessments for potential secondary cause for their headache. In addition to proper history and physical examination, both non-contrast computed tomography (CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI are considered safe to be performed in pregnant women when indicated. Treatment of abortive and prophylactic therapy should include non-pharmacologic tools, judicious use of drugs which are safe for mother and fetus.

  20. Is magnetic resonance imaging a viable alternative to ultrasound as the primary imaging modality in the diagnosis of paediatric appendicitis? A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunmefun, G.; Hardy, M.; Boynes, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdominal pain requiring surgical intervention in paediatric patients. Ultrasound is generally the diagnostic imaging modality of choice, followed by CT, where paediatric appendicitis is suspected. However, high operator dependency and diagnostic restrictions related to anatomical and clinical presentation may limit consistency of application. This paper explores whether MRI is a viable alternative to ultrasound as the primary imaging modality. Method: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken. A search of Medline, Cinahl, PubMed Central and Google Scholar was undertaken supplemented by a review of reference lists, author searching and review of NICE evidence base for existing guidelines. Included studies were assessed for bias using the QUADAS-2 quality assessment tool and data were extracted systematically using a purposefully designed electronic data extraction proforma. Results: Seven studies were included in final review. The age range of participants extended from 0 to 19 years. Only one study with a patient age range of 0–14 used sedation. Sensitivity estimates from the included studies ranged from 92% to 100% while specificity ranged from 89% to 100%. A significant variation in the number and type of sequences was noted between the studies. Conclusion: MRI offers high sensitivity and specificity comparable to contrast enhanced CT and greater than ultrasound as reported in the literature. Where accessibility is not a restriction, MRI is a viable alternative to ultrasound in the assessment and diagnosis of paediatric appendicitis. Clinical practice recommendations have been provided to facilitate the translation of evidence into practice. - Highlights: • MRI may be used as the primary imaging tool to investigate paediatric appendicitis. • Gadolinium is not necessary for MRI evaluation of appendicitis in children. • Sedation for MRI evaluation of appendicitis is not required

  1. Primary Hyperparathyroidism: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica MacKenzie-Feder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hyperparathyroidism is a common condition that affects 0.3% of the general population. Primary and tertiary care specialists can encounter patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, and prompt recognition and treatment can greatly reduce morbidity and mortality from this disease. In this paper we will review the basic physiology of calcium homeostasis and then consider genetic associations as well as common etiologies and presentations of primary hyperparathyroidism. We will consider emerging trends in detection and measurement of parathyroid hormone as well as available imaging modalities for the parathyroid glands. Surgical indications and approach will be reviewed as well as medical management of primary hyperparathyroidism with bisphosphonates and calcimimetics.

  2. Magnetic separation of antibiotics by electrochemical magnetic seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihara, I; Toyoda, K [Department of Agricultural Engineering and Socio Economics, Kobe University, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Beneragama, N; Umetsu, K [Department of Animal Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555 (Japan)

    2009-03-01

    Magnetic separation of several classes of antibiotics was investigated using electrochemical magnetic seeding. Electrocoagulation with a sacrificial anode followed by addition of magnetite particles was applied for the magnetic seeding of antibiotics. With electrochemical magnetic seeding using an iron anode, tetracycline antibiotics (oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline and tetracycline) and cephalosporin antibiotic (cefdinir) were rapidly removed from synthetic wastewater by magnetic separation using a neodymium magnet. Iron and aluminium anodes were suitable for magnetic seeding of the antibiotics. The results indicated that the ability of antibiotics to form strong complex with iron and aluminium allowed the higher removal by magnetic separation. This method would be appropriate for rapid treatment of antibiotics in wastewater.

  3. Magnetic separation of antibiotics by electrochemical magnetic seeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, I; Toyoda, K; Beneragama, N; Umetsu, K

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic separation of several classes of antibiotics was investigated using electrochemical magnetic seeding. Electrocoagulation with a sacrificial anode followed by addition of magnetite particles was applied for the magnetic seeding of antibiotics. With electrochemical magnetic seeding using an iron anode, tetracycline antibiotics (oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline and tetracycline) and cephalosporin antibiotic (cefdinir) were rapidly removed from synthetic wastewater by magnetic separation using a neodymium magnet. Iron and aluminium anodes were suitable for magnetic seeding of the antibiotics. The results indicated that the ability of antibiotics to form strong complex with iron and aluminium allowed the higher removal by magnetic separation. This method would be appropriate for rapid treatment of antibiotics in wastewater.

  4. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate levels and laboratory and clinical parameters indicating expression of disease are not associated with fatigue, well-being and functioning in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartkamp, A.; Geenen, R.; Kruize, A. A.; Bossema, E. R.; Godaert, G. L. R.; Bootsma, H.; Bijlsma, J. W. J.; Derksen, R. H. W. M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to compare serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) levels and clinical and laboratory parameters reflecting expression of disease between female patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) and age-matched healthy women and to examine in pSS patients the

  5. Primary electric propulsion thrust subsystem definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, T. D.; Ward, J. W.; Kami, S.

    1975-01-01

    A review is presented of the current status of primary propulsion thrust subsystem (TSS) performance, packaging considerations, and certain operational characteristics. Thrust subsystem related work from recent studies by Jet Propulsion Laboratories (JPL), Rockwell and Boeing is discussed. Existing performance for 30-cm thrusters, power processors and TSS is present along with projections for future improvements. Results of analyses to determine (1) magnetic field distributions resulting from an array of thrusters, (2) thruster emitted particle flux distributions from an array of thrusters, and (3) TSS element failure rates are described to indicate the availability of analytical tools for evaluation of TSS designs.

  6. Magnetic Fabrics and Source Implications of Chisulryoung Ignimbrites, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoabin Hong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS of late Cretaceous ash-flow tuffs in Chisulryoung Volcanic Formation, southeastern Korea was studied to define the primary pyroclastic flow azimuth. AMS data revealed a dominant oblate fabric with a tight clustering of k3 (minimum axis of magnetic susceptibility and shallow dispersal of k1 (maximum axis of magnetic susceptibility and k2 (intermediate axis of magnetic susceptibility. Dominance of oblate fabrics indicates clast imbrications imposed by compaction and welding. Flow azimuth inferred from AMS data indicates the nearby intrusive welded tuff (IWT as the source of calderas for ignimbrites. Such an inference is supported by geologic investigations, in which the IWT displays eutaxitic textures nearly parallel to its subvertical contacts. The results are compatible with a unique prolate fabric and an anomalously high inclination observed for the IWT, possibly produced by rheomorphic flows as the welded tuff is squeezed along the rough-surfaced dyke walls due to agglutination.

  7. Whole Tumor Histogram-profiling of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Images Reflects Tumorbiological Features of Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schob, Stefan; Münch, Benno; Dieckow, Julia; Quäschling, Ulf; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Richter, Cindy; Garnov, Nikita; Frydrychowicz, Clara; Krause, Matthias; Meyer, Hans-Jonas; Surov, Alexey

    2018-04-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) quantifies motion of hydrogen nuclei in biological tissues and hereby has been used to assess the underlying tissue microarchitecture. Histogram-profiling of DWI provides more detailed information on diffusion characteristics of a lesion than the standardly calculated values of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)-minimum, mean and maximum. Hence, the aim of our study was to investigate, which parameters of histogram-profiling of DWI in primary central nervous system lymphoma can be used to specifically predict features like cellular density, chromatin content and proliferative activity. Pre-treatment ADC maps of 21 PCNSL patients (8 female, 13 male, 28-89 years) from a 1.5T system were used for Matlab-based histogram profiling. Results of histopathology (H&E staining) and immunohistochemistry (Ki-67 expression) were quantified. Correlations between histogram-profiling parameters and neuropathologic examination were calculated using SPSS 23.0. The lower percentiles (p10 and p25) showed significant correlations with structural parameters of the neuropathologic examination (cellular density, chromatin content). The highest percentile, p90, correlated significantly with Ki-67 expression, resembling proliferative activity. Kurtosis of the ADC histogram correlated significantly with cellular density. Histogram-profiling of DWI in PCNSL provides a comprehensible set of parameters, which reflect distinct tumor-architectural and tumor-biological features, and hence, are promising biomarkers for treatment response and prognosis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Within-digit functional parcellation of Brodmann areas of the human primary somatosensory cortex using functional magnetic resonance imaging at 7 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Panchuelo, Rosa M; Besle, Julien; Beckett, Alex; Bowtell, Richard; Schluppeck, Denis; Francis, Susan

    2012-11-07

    The primary somatosensory cortex (S1) can be subdivided cytoarchitectonically into four distinct Brodmann areas (3a, 3b, 1, and 2), but these areas have never been successfully delineated in vivo in single human subjects. Here, we demonstrate the functional parcellation of four areas of S1 in individual human subjects based on high-resolution functional MRI measurements made at 7 T using vibrotactile stimulation. By stimulating four sites along the length of the index finger, we were able to identify and locate map reversals of the base to tip representation of the index finger in S1. We suggest that these reversals correspond to the areal borders between the mirrored representations in the four Brodmann areas, as predicted from electrophysiology measurements in nonhuman primates. In all subjects, maps were highly reproducible across scanning sessions and stable over weeks. In four of the six subjects scanned, four, mirrored, within-finger somatotopic maps defining the extent of the Brodmann areas could be directly observed on the cortical surface. In addition, by using multivariate classification analysis, the location of stimulation on the index finger (four distinct sites) could be decoded with a mean accuracy of 65% across subjects. Our measurements thus show that within-finger topography is present at the millimeter scale in the cortex and is highly reproducible. The ability to identify functional areas of S1 in vivo in individual subjects will provide a framework for investigating more complex aspects of tactile representation in S1.

  9. A 3 T event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of primary and secondary gustatory cortex localization using natural tastants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, Marion; Peeters, Ronald R.; Hecke, Paul van; Sunaert, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    It is known that taste is centrally represented in the insula, frontal and parietal operculum, as well as in the orbitofrontal cortex (secondary gustatory cortex). In functional MRI (fMRI) experiments activation in the insula has been confirmed, but activation in the orbitofrontal cortex is only infrequently found, especially at higher field strengths (3 T). Due to large susceptibility artefacts, the orbitofrontal cortex is a difficult region to examine with fMRI. Our aim was to localize taste in the human cortex at 3 T, specifically in the orbitofrontal cortex as well as in the primary gustatory cortex. Event-related fMRI was performed at 3 T in seven healthy volunteers. Taste stimuli consisted of lemon juice and chocolate. To visualize activation in the orbitofrontal cortex a dedicated 3D SENSE EPI fMRI sequence was used, in addition to a 2D SENSE EPI fMRI sequence for imaging the entire brain. Data were analyzed using a perception-based model. The dedicated 3D SENSE EPI sequence successfully reduced susceptibility artefacts in the orbitofrontal area. Significant taste-related activation was found in the orbitofrontal and insular cortices. fMRI of the orbitofrontal cortex is feasible at 3 T, using a dedicated sequence. Our results corroborate findings from previous studies. (orig.)

  10. A 3 T event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of primary and secondary gustatory cortex localization using natural tastants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smits, Marion [Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, CA Rotterdam (Netherlands); K.U.Leuven, Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Peeters, Ronald R.; Hecke, Paul van; Sunaert, Stefan [K.U.Leuven, Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    2007-01-15

    It is known that taste is centrally represented in the insula, frontal and parietal operculum, as well as in the orbitofrontal cortex (secondary gustatory cortex). In functional MRI (fMRI) experiments activation in the insula has been confirmed, but activation in the orbitofrontal cortex is only infrequently found, especially at higher field strengths (3 T). Due to large susceptibility artefacts, the orbitofrontal cortex is a difficult region to examine with fMRI. Our aim was to localize taste in the human cortex at 3 T, specifically in the orbitofrontal cortex as well as in the primary gustatory cortex. Event-related fMRI was performed at 3 T in seven healthy volunteers. Taste stimuli consisted of lemon juice and chocolate. To visualize activation in the orbitofrontal cortex a dedicated 3D SENSE EPI fMRI sequence was used, in addition to a 2D SENSE EPI fMRI sequence for imaging the entire brain. Data were analyzed using a perception-based model. The dedicated 3D SENSE EPI sequence successfully reduced susceptibility artefacts in the orbitofrontal area. Significant taste-related activation was found in the orbitofrontal and insular cortices. fMRI of the orbitofrontal cortex is feasible at 3 T, using a dedicated sequence. Our results corroborate findings from previous studies. (orig.)

  11. Golimumab therapy-induced indicators of X-ray inflammation progression and magnitude according to magnetic resonance imaging evidence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, or psoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Viktorovich Smirnov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives data on the progression of X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging changes in the hand and foot joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthropathy and in the axial skeleton of those with ankylosing spondylitis when golimumab is used. Golimumab therapy is shown to retard the progression of structural changes in the peripheral joints and vertebral column. There is a significant correlation between magnetic resonance imaging evidence and blood C-reactive protein concentrations.

  12. A superconducting magnet upgrade of the ATF2 final focus

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, B; Escallier, J; He, P; Jain, P; Marone, A; Wanderer, P; Wu, KC; Hauviller, C; Marin, E; Tomas, R; Zimmermann, F; Bolzon, B; Jeremie, A; Kimura, N; Kubo, K; Kume, T; Kuroda, S; Okugi, T; Tauchi, T; Terunuma, N; Tomaru, T; Tsuchiya, K; Urakawa, J; Yamamoto, A; Bambade, P; Coe, P; Urner, D; Seryi, A; Spencer, C; White, G

    2010-01-01

    The ATF2 facility at KEK is a proving ground for linear collider technology with a well instrumented extracted beam line and Final Focus (FF). The primary ATF2 goal is to demonstrate the extreme beam demagnification and spot stability needed for a linear collider FF [1]. But the ATF2 FF uses water cooled magnets and the ILC baseline has a superconducting (SC) FF [2]. We plan to upgrade ATF2 and replace some of the warm FF magnets with SC FF magnets. The ATF2 SC magnets, like the ILC FF, will made via direct wind construction [3]. ATF2 coil winding is in progress at BNL and warm magnetic measurements indicate we have achieved good field quality. Studies indicate that having ATF2 FF magnets with larger aperture and better field quality should allow reducing the ATF2 FF beta function for study of focusing regimes relevant to CLIC [4]. The ATF2 magnet cryostat will have laser view ports for directly monitoring cold mass movement. We plan to make stability measurements at BNL and KEK to relate ATF2 FF magnet perfo...

  13. Differences in short-term primary motor cortex synaptic potentiation as assessed by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in migraine patients with and without aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Antonella; Barbanti, Piero; Frasca, Vittorio; Iacovelli, Elisa; Gabriele, Maria; Giacomelli, Elena; Aurilia, Cinzia; Pichiorri, Floriana; Gilio, Francesca; Inghilleri, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    To find out more about glutamatergic and gabaergic transmission in migraine, in this study we investigated glutamate-dependent short-term synaptic potentiation and GABA-dependent inhibitory cortical interneuron excitability as assessed by 5Hz-rTMS delivered over primary motor cortex (M1) (motor evoked potential, MEP, amplitude facilitation and cortical silent period, CSP, duration lengthening) in migraine patients with (MA) and without aura (MwoA) and healthy controls. We studied 37 patients with migraine (19 MA and 18 MwoA) and 19 healthy control subjects. 5Hz-rTMS was delivered at 120% resting motor threshold to the hand motor area of the left hemisphere with the target muscle at rest and during contraction. Three of the MA patients were also tested at the end of visual aura during a spontaneous migraine attack. ANOVA showed that the MEP significantly increased in size and CSP significantly lengthened during 5Hz-rTMS in the three groups tested. The 5Hz-rTMS-induced MEP facilitation differed significantly being highest in MA patients. In the three patients tested both ictally and interictally the MEP increased during the interictal session but remained unchanged when the visual aura ended. Our study shows that the neurophysiological feature that differentiates MA patients from MwoA patients and healthy controls is an abnormal M1 susceptibility to 5Hz-rTMS both outside and during the attack suggesting that glutamate-dependent short-term M1 cortical potentiation patterns differ in migraine with and without aura. Copyright 2009 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Value of (18F)-FDG positron emission tomography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosing primary and recurrent ovarian carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubik-Huch, R.A.; Doerffler, W.; Marincek, B.; Schulthess, G.K.; Steinert, H.C.; Koechli, O.R.; Haller, U.; Seifert, B.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare prospectively the accuracy of whole-body positron emission tomography (PET), CT and MRI in diagnosing primary and recurrent ovarian cancer. Nineteen patients (age range 23-76 years) were recruited with suspicious ovarian lesions at presentation (n = 8) or follow-up for recurrence (n = 11). All patients were scheduled for laparotomy and histological confirmation. Whole-body PET with FDG, contrast-enhanced spiral CT of the abdomen, including the pelvis, and MRI of the entire abdomen were performed. Each imaging study was evaluated separately. Imaging findings were correlated with histopathological diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for lesion characterization in patients with suspicious ovarian lesions (n = 7) were, respectively: 100, 67 and 86 % for PET; 100, 67 and 86 % for CT; and 100, 100 and 100 % for MRI. For the diagnosis of recurrent disease (n = 10), PET had a sensitivity of 100 %, specificity of 50 % and accuracy of 90 %. The PET technique was the only technique which correctly identified a single transverse colon metastasis. Results for CT were 40, 50 and 43 %, and for MRI 86, 100 and 89 %, respectively. No statistically significant difference was seen. Neither FDG PET nor CT nor MRI can replace surgery in the detection of microscopic peritoneal disease. No statistically significant difference was observed for the investigated imaging modalities with regard to lesion characterization or detection of recurrent disease; thus, the methods are permissible alternatives. The PET technique, however, has the drawback of less accurate spatial assignment of small lesions compared with CT and MRI. (orig.)

  15. Magnets and magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuris, Ch.; Rifflet, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the world's largest highest-energy particle collider that the CERN plans to commission in 2008, gets a double boost from superconducting magnet technology. Superconducting magnets are first used to guide the particles scheduled for collision through the accelerator, and then to observe the events triggered by the collision inside giant detectors in a known magnetic field. Despite the installation's massive dimensions, all this is done with minimal expenditure of energy. (author)

  16. Rock magnetic characterization of faulted sediments with associated magnetic anomalies in the Albuquerque Basin, Rio Grande rift, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M.R.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Minor, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    different exposure levels into the fault. These data indicate that tectonic juxtaposition of primary variations of magnetic properties of strata across the fault is the source of the associated magnetic anomaly. This study indicates that magnetic anomalies over faults and folds can be generated by sediments (1) deposited within tectonic basins having volcanic or basement source areas rich in magnetite, (2) having depositional environments with sufficient but varying energy to transport dense magnetic minerals and cause stratigraphic changes of magnetic properties, and (3) having magnetic minerals preserved owing to their youth or nonreactive geochemical environments. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  17. Primary Meningeal Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Manisha; Riedel, Richard F.; Vredenburgh, James J.; Cummings, Thomas J.; Green, Scott; Chang, Zheng; Kirkpatrick, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Primary meningeal rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare primary brain malignancy, with scant case reports. While most reports of primary intracranial rhabdomyosarcoma occur in pediatric patients, a handful of cases in adult patients have been reported in the medical literature. We report the case of a 44-year-old male who developed primary meningeal rhabdomyosarcoma. After developing episodes of right lower extremity weakness, word finding difficulty, and headaches, a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a vertex lesion with radiographic appearance of a meningeal-derived tumor. Subtotal surgical resection was performed due to sagittal sinus invasion and initial pathology was interpreted as an anaplastic meningioma. Re-review of pathology demonstrated rhabdomyosarcoma negative for alveolar translocation t(2;13). Staging studies revealed no evidence of disseminated disease. He was treated with stereotactic radiotherapy with concurrent temozolamide to be followed by vincristine, actinomycin-D, and cyclophosphamide (VAC) systemic therapy. PMID:21772793

  18. Primary Meningeal Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Palta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary meningeal rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare primary brain malignancy, with scant case reports. While most reports of primary intracranial rhabdomyosarcoma occur in pediatric patients, a handful of cases in adult patients have been reported in the medical literature. We report the case of a 44-year-old male who developed primary meningeal rhabdomyosarcoma. After developing episodes of right lower extremity weakness, word finding difficulty, and headaches, a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated a vertex lesion with radiographic appearance of a meningeal-derived tumor. Subtotal surgical resection was performed due to sagittal sinus invasion and initial pathology was interpreted as an anaplastic meningioma. Re-review of pathology demonstrated rhabdomyosarcoma negative for alveolar translocation t(2;13. Staging studies revealed no evidence of disseminated disease. He was treated with stereotactic radiotherapy with concurrent temozolamide to be followed by vincristine, actinomycin-D, and cyclophosphamide (VAC systemic therapy.

  19. Primary meningeal rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Manisha; Riedel, Richard F; Vredenburgh, James J; Cummings, Thomas J; Green, Scott; Chang, Zheng; Kirkpatrick, John P

    2011-01-01

    Primary meningeal rhabdomyosarcoma is a rare primary brain malignancy, with scant case reports. While most reports of primary intracranial rhabdomyosarcoma occur in pediatric patients, a handful of cases in adult patients have been reported in the medical literature. We report the case of a 44-year-old male who developed primary meningeal rhabdomyosarcoma. After developing episodes of right lower extremity weakness, word finding difficulty, and headaches, a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a vertex lesion with radiographic appearance of a meningeal-derived tumor. Subtotal surgical resection was performed due to sagittal sinus invasion and initial pathology was interpreted as an anaplastic meningioma. Re-review of pathology demonstrated rhabdomyosarcoma negative for alveolar translocation t(2;13). Staging studies revealed no evidence of disseminated disease. He was treated with stereotactic radiotherapy with concurrent temozolamide to be followed by vincristine, actinomycin-D, and cyclophosphamide (VAC) systemic therapy.

  20. Magnetic rubber inspection (MRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carro, L.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic Rubber Inspection (MRI) was developed to inspect for small cracks and flaws encountered in high performance aircraft. A formula of very fine magnetic particles immersed in a room temperature curing rubber is catalysed and poured into dams (retainers) on the surface of the part to be inspected. Inducing a magnetic field then causes the particles to be drawn to discontinuities in the component under test. These indicating particles are held to the discontinuity by magnetic attraction, as the rubber cures. The solid rubber cast (Replica) is then removed and examined under a microscope for indicating lines of particle concentrations. 3 refs., 6 figs

  1. Magnetism and magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    It describes the actual status of physics in Brazil concerning the study of magnetism and magnetic materials. It gives an overview of different research groups in Brazil, their needs, as well as the investments needed to improve the area. (A.C.A.S.)

  2. Biogenic magnetite as a primary remanence carrier in limestone deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Bin R.; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Stolz, John F.

    1987-06-01

    Studies on the microbial communities and magnetic phases of samples collected from carbonate oozes at Sugarloaf Key, FL, U.S.A. and calcareous laminated sediments from Laguna Figueroa, Baja California, Mexico have revealed the existence of magnetotactic bacteria and ultrafine-grained single domain magnetite in both environments. Magnetotactic bacteria were identified by light and electron microscopy. The single domain magnetite was detected by coercivity spectra analysis with a SQUID magnetometer and examined under the transmission electron microscope. The similarity, in terms of size and shape, between the single domain magnetite found in these sediments and the magnetite observed in the bacterial magnetosome from enriched cultures indicates the ultrafine-grained magnetite in these two marine environments was biologically formed. These results, combined with the common occurrences of ultrafine-grained magnetite in limestone deposits detected rock magnetically, suggest biogenic magnetite may be present and contribute to the magnetic remanence in these rocks. Several Cambrian limestone samples, separately collected from Siberia, China, and Kazakhstan, were examined for the presence of bacterial magnetite. Samples from the Lower Cambrian Sinskian Formation at Siberia Platform were found to contain both a large amount of apparently bacterial magnetite particles and a very stable primary magnetic component. Post-Cambrian diagenesis does not seem to affect the microgranulometry of these apparently bacterial magnetite crystals or the magnetic remanence carried by them. Assessing the potential role of biogenic magnetite as a primary remanence carrier in other Phanerozoic limestone deposits ought to be further pursued.

  3. Multi-component assessment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease : an evaluation of the ADO and DOSE indices and the global obstructive lung disease categories in international primary care data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Rupert C.; Price, David; Chavannes, Niels H.; Lee, Amanda J.; Hyland, Michael E.; Stallberg, Bjorn; Lisspers, Karin; Sundh, Josefin; van der Molen, Thys; Tsiligianni, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    Suitable tools for assessing the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) include multi-component indices and the global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) categories. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dyspnoea, obstruction, smoking, exacerbation (DOSE)

  4. The spin structure of magnetic nanoparticles and in magnetic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Disch, Sabrina

    2011-09-26

    The present thesis provides an extensive and original contribution to the investigation of magnetic nanoparticles regarding synthesis and structural characterization using advanced scattering methods in all length scales between the atomic and mesoscopic size range. Particular emphasis is on determination of the magnetic structure of single nanoparticles as well as preparation and characterization of higher dimensional assemblies thereof. The unique physical properties arising from the finite size of magnetic nanoparticles are pronounced for very small particle sizes. With the aim of preparing magnetic nanoparticles suitable for investigation of such properties, a micellar synthesis route for very small cobalt nanoparticles is explored. Cobalt nanoparticles with diameters of less than 3 nm are prepared and characterized, and routes for variation of the particle size are developed. The needs and limitations of primary characterization and handling of such small and oxidation-sensitive nanoparticles are highlighted and discussed in detail. Comprehensive structural and magnetic characterization is performed on iron oxide nanoparticles of {proportional_to} 10 nm in diameter. Particle size and narrow size distribution are determined with high precision. Investigation of the long range and local atomic structure reveals a particle size dependent magnetite - maghemite structure type with lattice distortions induced at the particle surface. The spatial magnetization distribution within these nanoparticles is determined to be constant in the particle core with a decrease towards the particle surface, thus indicating a magnetic dead layer or spin canting close to the surface. Magnetically induced arrangements of such nanoparticles into higher dimensional assemblies are investigated in solution and by deposition of long range ordered mesocrystals. Both cases reveal a strong dependence of the found structures on the nanoparticle shape (spheres, cubes, and heavily truncated

  5. Primary coolant circuits in FBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutani, Masushiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate the requirement of a pump for the forcive circulation of primary coolants and avoid the manufacturing difficulty of equipments. Constitution: In primary coolant circuits of an LMFBR type reactor having a recycling path forming a closed loop between a reactor core and a heat exchanger, coolants recycled through the recycling path are made of a magnetic fluid comprising liquid sodium incorporated with fine magnetic powder, and an electromagnet is disposed to the downstream of the heat exchanger. In the above-mentioned structure, since the magnetic fluid as the primary coolants losses its magnetic property when heated in the reactor core but recovers the property at a lower temperature after the completion of the heat exchange, the magnetic fluid can forcively be flown through the recycling path under the effect of the electromagnet disposed to the down stream of the heat exchanger to thereby forcively recycle the primary coolants. (Kawakami, Y.)

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lung as an Alternative for a Pregnant Woman with Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloß, Manuel; Heckrodt, Jan; Schneider, Christian; Discher, Thomas; Krombach, Gabriele Anja

    2015-05-01

    We report a case of a pregnant 21-year-old woman with pulmonary tuberculosis in which magnetic resonance imaging of the lung was used to assess the extent and characteristics of the pathological changes. Although the lung has been mostly ignored in magnetic resonance imaging for many decades, today technical development enables detailed examinations of the lung. The technique is now entering the clinical arena and its indications are increasing. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lung is not only an alternative method without radiation exposure, it can provide additional information in pulmonary imaging compared to other modalities including computed tomography. We describe a successful application of magnetic resonance imaging of the lung and the imaging appearance of post-primary tuberculosis. This case report indicates that magnetic resonance imaging of the lung can potentially be the first choice imaging technique in pregnant women with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis.

  7. Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzii (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE IN PERIDOMICILIARY AREA DURING ASYMPTOMATIC MALARIA TRANSMISSION IN THE ATLANTIC FOREST: MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF BLOOD-MEAL SOURCES INDICATES HUMANS AS PRIMARY INTERMEDIATE HOSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kirchgatter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzii has been implicated as the primary vector of human and simian malarias out of the Brazilian Amazon and specifically in the Atlantic Forest regions. The presence of asymptomatic human cases, parasite-positive wild monkeys and the similarity between the parasites infecting them support the discussion whether these infections can be considered as a zoonosis. Although many aspects of the biology of An. cruzii have already been addressed, studies conducted during outbreaks of malaria transmission, aiming at the analysis of blood feeding and infectivity, are missing in the Atlantic Forest. This study was conducted in the location of Palestina, Juquitiba, where annually the majority of autochthonous human cases are notified in the Atlantic Forest of the state of São Paulo. Peridomiciliary sites were selected for collection of mosquitoes in a perimeter of up to 100 m around the residences of human malaria cases. The mosquitoes were analyzed with the purpose of molecular identification of blood-meal sources and to examine the prevalence of Plasmodium. A total of 13,441 females of An. (Ker. cruzii were collected. The minimum infection rate was calculated at 0.03% and 0.01%, respectively, for P. vivax and P. malariae and only human blood was detected in the blood-fed mosquitoes analyzed. This data reinforce the hypothesis that asymptomatic human carriers are the main source of anopheline infection in the peridomiciliary area, making the probability of zoonotic transmission less likely to happen.

  8. Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii (Diptera: Culicidae) in peridomiciliary area during asymptomatic malaria transmission in the Atlantic Forest: molecular identification of blood-meal sources indicates humans as primary intermediate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchgatter, Karin; Tubaki, Rosa Maria; Malafronte, Rosely dos Santos; Alves, Isabel Cristina; Lima, Giselle Fernandes Maciel de Castro; Guimarães, Lilian de Oliveira; Zampaulo, Robson de Almeida; Wunderlich, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii has been implicated as the primary vector of human and simian malarias out of the Brazilian Amazon and specifically in the Atlantic Forest regions. The presence of asymptomatic human cases, parasite-positive wild monkeys and the similarity between the parasites infecting them support the discussion whether these infections can be considered as a zoonosis. Although many aspects of the biology of An. cruzii have already been addressed, studies conducted during outbreaks of malaria transmission, aiming at the analysis of blood feeding and infectivity, are missing in the Atlantic Forest. This study was conducted in the location of Palestina, Juquitiba, where annually the majority of autochthonous human cases are notified in the Atlantic Forest of the state of São Paulo. Peridomiciliary sites were selected for collection of mosquitoes in a perimeter of up to 100 m around the residences of human malaria cases. The mosquitoes were analyzed with the purpose of molecular identification of blood-meal sources and to examine the prevalence of Plasmodium. A total of 13,441 females of An. (Ker.) cruzii were collected. The minimum infection rate was calculated at 0.03% and 0.01%, respectively, for P. vivax and P. malariae and only human blood was detected in the blood-fed mosquitoes analyzed. This data reinforce the hypothesis that asymptomatic human carriers are the main source of anopheline infection in the peridomiciliary area, making the probability of zoonotic transmission less likely to happen.

  9. Primary explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas, Robert; Pachman, Jiri [Pardubice Univ. (Czech Republic). Faculty of Chemical Technology

    2013-06-01

    The first chapter provides background such as the basics of initiation and differences between requirements on primary explosives used in detonators and igniters. The authors then clarify the influence of physical characteristics on explosive properties, focusing on those properties required for primary explosives. Furthermore, the issue of sensitivity is discussed. All the chapters on particular groups of primary explosives are structured in the same way, including introduction, physical and chemical properties, explosive properties, preparation and documented use.

  10. Primary Ectopic Ethmoidal Craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Andrea; Karligkiotis, Apostolos; Facco, Carla; Ottini, Giorgia; Volpi, Luca; Castelnuovo, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are benign but aggressive epithelial tumors usually originating in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland from squamous remnants of an incompletely involuted craniopharingeal duct developing from the Rathke pouch. To the authors' knowledge only 1 patient of a primary isolated ethmoidal craniopharyngioma has been reported in the literature.The authors report the case of a 17-year-old boy with a primary extracranial ethmoidal craniopharyngioma. An endoscopic endonasal approach was employed to resect the tumor. After 2 years of clinical and radiological follow-up no recurrence of disease was observed.Primary ethmoidal craniopharyngiomas are rare entities and biopsy is necessary for diagnosis. However, a preoperative assessment by means of nasal endoscopy, computed tomography scan, and enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is mandatory to better evaluate the extension and characteristics of the tumor. The endoscopic endonasal technique is a safe and effective approach for the treatment of these lesions.

  11. Primary fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S; Jensen, L T; Foldager, M

    1990-01-01

    Serum concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide have previously been reported to be low in some patients with primary fibromyalgia and the aim of this study was to determine if such patients differ clinically from primary fibromyalgia patients with normal levels of procollagen...... type III aminoterminal peptide. Subjective symptoms, tender points and dynamic muscle strength in 45 women with primary fibromyalgia were related to serum concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide. Patients with low serum concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide...... concentrations of procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide of primary fibromyalgia patients are connected to the disease impact....

  12. Specialty magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbach, K.

    1986-07-01

    A number of basic conceptual designs are explained for magnet systems that use permanent magnet materials. Included are iron free multipoles and hybrid magnets. Also appended is a discussion of the manufacturing process and magnetic properties of some permanent magnet materials

  13. Great magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurutani, B.T.; Yen Te Lee; Tang, F.; Gonzalez, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    The five largest magnetic storms that occurred between 1971 and 1986 are studied to determine their solar and interplanetary causes. All of the events are found to be associated with high speed solar wind streams led by collisionless shocks. The high speed streams are clearly related to identifiable solar flares. It is found that (1) it is the extreme values of the southward interplanetary magnetic fields rather than solar wind speeds that are the primary causes of great magnetic storms, (2) shocked and draped sheath fields preceding the driver gas (magnetic cloud) are at least as effective in causing the onset of great magnetic storms (3 of 5 events ) as the strong fields within the driver gas itself, and (3) precursor southward fields ahead of the high speed streams allow the shock compression mechanism (item 2) to be particularly geoeffective

  14. Distribution of magnetic particulates in a roadside snowpack based on magnetic, microstructural and mineralogical analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bućko, Michał S.; Mattila, Olli-Pekka; Chrobak, Artur; Ziółkowski, Grzegorz; Johanson, Bo; Čuda, Jan; Filip, Jan; Zbořil, Radek; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Leppäranta, Matti

    2013-10-01

    Vehicle traffic is at present one of the major sources of environmental pollution in urban areas. Magnetic parameters are successfully applied in environmental studies to obtain detailed information about concentrations and quality of iron-bearing minerals. A general aim of this research was to investigate the magnetic, microstructural and mineralogical properties of dust extracted from the roadside snowpack accumulated on the side of an urban highway, northern Helsinki. Vertical snow profiles were taken at different distances (5, 10 and 15 m) from the road edge, during winter season 2010-2011. The temporal distribution of mass magnetic susceptibility (χ) of the road dust shows that the concentration of magnetic particles increases in the snowpack during winter. Roadside snowpack preserves a large fraction of the magnetic particulate until the late stages of melting and this could be considered as one of the main factors responsible for the resuspension phenomenon observed in Nordic countries. The vertical distribution of χ and SIRM (saturation isothermal remanent magnetization)/χ ratio may indicate the migration of magnetic particles down in the snowpack during melting conditions. Ultrafine to coarse-grained (superparamagnetic to multidomain) magnetite was identified as the primary magnetic mineral in all the studied road dust samples. The examined road dust contains significant amount of dia/paramagnetic minerals (e.g. quartz, albite, biotite) and the content of magnetite is relatively low (below 1 weight percent, wt%). The roadside snowpack is enriched in anthropogenic particles such as angular and spherical iron-oxides, tungsten-rich particles and sodium chloride. This study demonstrates the suitability of snow as an efficient collecting medium of magnetic particulates generated by anthropogenic activities.

  15. Assessment of DNA methylation profiling and copy number variation as indications of clonal relationship in ipsilateral and contralateral breast cancers to distinguish recurrent breast cancer from a second primary tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Katie T.; Mikeska, Thomas; Li, Jason; Takano, Elena A.; Millar, Ewan K A; Graham, Peter H.; Boyle, Samantha E.; Campbell, Ian G.; Speed, Terence P.; Dobrovic, Alexander; Fox, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with breast cancer have an increased risk of developing subsequent breast cancers. It is important to distinguish whether these tumours are de novo or recurrences of the primary tumour in order to guide the appropriate therapy. Our aim was to investigate the use of DNA methylation profiling and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to determine whether the second tumour is clonally related to the first tumour. Methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting was used to screen promoter methylation in a panel of 13 genes reported as methylated in breast cancer (RASSF1A, TWIST1, APC, WIF1, MGMT, MAL, CDH13, RARβ, BRCA1, CDH1, CDKN2A, TP73, and GSTP1) in 29 tumour pairs (16 ipsilateral and 13 contralateral). Using the methylation profile of these genes, we employed a Bayesian and an empirical statistical approach to estimate clonal relationship. Copy number alterations were analysed using aCGH on the same set of tumour pairs. There is a higher probability of the second tumour being recurrent in ipsilateral tumours compared with contralateral tumours (38 % versus 8 %; p <0.05) based on the methylation profile. Using previously reported recurrence rates as Bayesian prior probabilities, we classified 69 % of ipsilateral and 15 % of contralateral tumours as recurrent. The inferred clonal relationship results of the tumour pairs were generally concordant between methylation profiling and aCGH. Our results show that DNA methylation profiling as well as aCGH have potential as diagnostic tools in improving the clinical decisions to differentiate recurrences from a second de novo tumour. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1676-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  16. Expression analysis of the N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 1 indicates that myelinating Schwann cells are the primary disease target in hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Philipp; Sirkowski, Erich E; Scherer, Steven S; Suter, Ueli

    2004-11-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding N-myc downstream-regulated gene-1 (NDRG1) lead to truncations of the encoded protein and are associated with an autosomal recessive demyelinating neuropathy--hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom. NDRG1 protein is highly expressed in peripheral nerve and is localized in the cytoplasm of myelinating Schwann cells, including the paranodes and Schmidt-Lanterman incisures. In contrast, sensory and motor neurons as well as their axons lack NDRG1. NDRG1 mRNA levels in developing and injured adult sciatic nerves parallel those of myelin-related genes, indicating that the expression of NDRG1 in myelinating Schwann cells is regulated by axonal interactions. Oligodendrocytes also express NDRG1, and the subtle CNS deficits of affected patients may result from a lack of NDRG1 in these cells. Our data predict that the loss of NDRG1 leads to a Schwann cell autonomous phenotype resulting in demyelination, with secondary axonal loss.

  17. Magnetic S-parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We propose a direct test of the existence of gauge duals for nonsupersymmetric asymptotically free gauge theories developing an infrared fixed point by computing the S-parameter in the electric and dual magnetic description. In particular we show that at the lower bound of the conformal window...... the magnetic S-parameter, i.e. the one determined via the dual magnetic gauge theory, assumes a simple expression in terms of the elementary magnetic degrees of freedom. The results further support our recent conjecture of the existence of a universal lower bound on the S parameter and indicates...

  18. Strong Magnetic Field Characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    an advertised surface field of approximately 0.5 T were used to supply the static magnetic field source. The disc magnet had a diameter of 50 mm and... colour bar indicates the magnetic field strength set to an arbitrary 0.25 T. The white area has a field >0.25 T. The size of the arrow is proportional...9 shows the magnetic field strength along a slice in the XZ plane. The colours represent the total UNCLASSIFIED 10 UNCLASSIFIED DSTO-TR-2699

  19. Ferumoxtran-10 advanced magnetics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, W.P.J.

    2003-01-01

    Ferumoxtran-10 (Combidex) is an ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide molecular resonance imaging contrast agent under development by Advanced Magnetics Ltd and Guerbet for the principal indication of lymph node imaging.

  20. Magnetic mineral exploration using ground magnetic survey data of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The field data were quantitatively interpreted and the results gave values for the total component measurements of the ground magnetic anomaly that varied ... from the Earth surface fall in the interval of 1.28m to 13.57m, which indicates the magnetic source body suspected to be magnetic mineral, are near surface features.

  1. 從家課的質與量看香港課程改革的實施 The Quality and Quantity of Homework in Hong Kong Primary Schools: An Indicator of Curriculum Reform Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    林智中 Chi-Chung Lam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available 華人地區深受傳統儒家文化影響,不少家長及教師都認同「勤有功、戲無益」、「有志者、事竟成」和「鐵柱磨成針」等傳統觀念。因此長期以來,香港學童都面對家課量多、家課深、長時間做家課的問題。2001年,香港特區政府推行教育改革,建議學校適當編排學生家課的數量,從而提升教與學的質素。為求了解香港學童家課的質與量是否因家課政策的實施而得以改善,本研究在香港10所小學進行調查,邀請各所學校其中一班五年級學生填寫問卷,統計完成家課的時間和家課類型,並訪問教師了解他們在家課設計、家課類型、家課功能等方面的考量。研究顯示,相對於課程改革之前,學生每天花在家課的時間的確減少;然而,大部分家課仍是紙筆練習,以鞏固課堂所學為主,較少有發展性的家課。分析這些研究結果背後的成因,有助於了解香港課程改革實施的狀況。Parents and teachers across Chinese societies mostly uphold the traditional belief of Confucianism that “hard work is the key to success.” As such, Hong Kong students have long been using much of their time doing lots of difficult homework. In 2001, curriculum reform was launched in Hong Kong, requesting schools and teachers to adjust the quantity and quality of homework assigned to students for the improvement of teaching and learning. The present study attempts to reveal the level of implementation of this homework policy. Ten primary schools participated in this study. One class of Grade 5 students in each school was chosen to complete a questionnaire for identifying the amount of time students spent on homework and the types of homework. Teachers of these classes were interviewed to find out how schools and teachers design and plan homework for their students. The study reveals that the time students spent on homework has decreased

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, R.

    1991-01-01

    In order to include the effect of a magnetic object in a subject under investigation, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) apparatus is operable at more than one radio frequency (RF) frequency. The apparatus allows normal practice as far as obtaining an NMR response or image from a given nuclear species is concerned, but, in addition, interrogates the nuclear spin system at a frequency which is different from the resonance frequency normally used for the given nuclear species, as determined from the applied magnetic field. The magnetic field close to a magnetised or magnetisable object is modified and the given nuclear species gives a response at the different frequency. Thus detection of a signal at the frequency indicates the presence of the chosen nuclei close to the magnetised or magnetisable object. Applications include validation of an object detection or automatic shape inspection system in the presence of magnetic impurities, and the detection of magnetic particles which affect measurement of liquid flow in a pipe. (author)

  3. Bat head contains soft magnetic particles: evidence from magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lanxiang; Lin, Wei; Zhang, Shuyi; Pan, Yongxin

    2010-10-01

    Recent behavioral observations have indicated that bats can sense the Earth's magnetic field. To unravel the magnetoreception mechanism, the present study has utilized magnetic measurements on three migratory species (Miniopterus fuliginosus, Chaerephon plicata, and Nyctalus plancyi) and three non-migratory species (Hipposideros armiger, Myotis ricketti, and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum). Room temperature isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition and alternating-field demagnetization showed that the bats' heads contain soft magnetic particles. Statistical analyses indicated that the saturation isothermal remanent magnetization of brains (SIRM(1T_brain)) of migratory species is higher than those of non-migratory species. Furthermore, the SIRM(1T_brain) of migratory bats is greater than their SIRM(1T_skull). Low-temperature magnetic measurements suggested that the magnetic particles are likely magnetite (Fe3O4). This new evidence supports the assumption that some bats use magnetite particles for sensing and orientation in the Earth's magnetic field.

  4. Formal consensus to identify clinically important changes in management resulting from the use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients who activate the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pufulete, Maria; Brierley, Rachel C; Bucciarelli-Ducci, Chiara; Greenwood, John P; Dorman, Stephen; Anderson, Richard A; Harris, Jessica; McAlindon, Elisa; Rogers, Chris A; Reeves, Barnaby C

    2017-06-22

    To define important changes in management arising from the use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients who activate the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) pathway. Formal consensus study using literature review and cardiologist expert opinion to formulate consensus statements and setting up a consensus panel to review the statements (by completing a web-based survey, attending a face-to-face meeting to discuss survey results and modify the survey to reflect group discussion and completing the modified survey to determine which statements were in consensus). Formulation of consensus statements: four cardiologists (two CMR and two interventional) and six non-clinical researchers. Formal consensus: seven cardiologists (two CMR and three interventional, one echocardiography and one heart failure). Forty-nine additional cardiologists completed the modified survey. Thirty-seven draft statements describing changes in management following CMR were generated; these were condensed into 12 statements and reviewed through the formal consensus process. Three of 12 statements were classified in consensus in the first survey; these related to the role of CMR in identifying the cause of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, providing a definitive diagnosis in patients found to have unobstructed arteries on angiography and identifying patients with left ventricular thrombus. Two additional statements were in consensus in the modified survey, relating to the ability of CMR to identify patients who have a poor prognosis after PPCI and assess ischaemia and viability in patients with multivessel disease. There was consensus that CMR leads to clinically important changes in management in five subgroups of patients who activate the PPCI pathway. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Patterns of Primary Tumor Invasion and Regional Lymph Node Spread Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Early-Stage Nasal NK/T-cell Lymphoma: Implications for Clinical Target Volume Definition and Prognostic Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Run-Ye [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Liu, Kang [Department of Imaging Diagnosis, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Wang, Wei-Hu; Jin, Jing; Song, Yong-Wen; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Ren, Hua; Fang, Hui; Liu, Qing-Feng; Yang, Yong; Chen, Bo; Qi, Shu-Nan; Lu, Ning-Ning; Tang, Yu; Tang, Yuan; Li, Ning [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Ouyang, Han [Department of Imaging Diagnosis, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Li, Ye-Xiong, E-mail: yexiong12@163.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the pathways of primary tumor invasion (PTI) and regional lymph node (LN) spread based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in early-stage nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL), to improve clinical target volume (CTV) delineation and evaluate the prognostic value of locoregional extension patterns. Methods and Materials: A total of 105 patients with newly diagnosed early-stage nasal NKTCL who underwent pretreatment MRI were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy. Results: The incidences of PTI and regional LN involvement were 64.7% and 25.7%, respectively. Based on the incidence of PTI, involved sites surrounding the nasal cavity were classified into 3 risk subgroups: high-risk (>20%), intermediate-risk (5%-20%), and low-risk (<5%). The most frequently involved site was the nasopharynx (35.2%), followed by the maxillary (21.9%) and ethmoid (21.9%) sinuses. Local disease and regional LN spread followed an orderly pattern without LN skipping. The retropharyngeal nodes (RPNs) were most frequently involved (19.0%), followed by level II (11.4%). The 5-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and locoregional control (LRC) rates for all patients were 72.8%, 65.2%, and 90.0%, respectively. The presence of PTI and regional LN involvement based on MRI significantly and negatively affected PFS and OS. Conclusions: Early-stage nasal NKTCL presents with a high incidence of PTI but a relatively low incidence of regional LN spread. Locoregional spread followed an orderly pattern, and PTI and regional LN spread are powerful prognostic factors for poorer survival outcomes. CTV reduction may be feasible for selected patients.

  6. Primary productivity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Photosynthetic production in the oceans in relation to light, nutrients and mixing processes is discussed. Primary productivity in the estuarine region is reported to be high in comparison to coastal and oceanic waters. Upwelling phenomenon...

  7. Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Neoplasia Type 1 Thyroid Disease & Pregnancy Primary Hyperparathyroidism Prolactinoma National Hormone and Pituitary Program (NHPP): Information for ... qualified health care provider nearby. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition Eating, diet, and nutrition have not been shown ...

  8. Primary Myelofibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... attack is higher. Patients also have an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia or primary myelofibrosis . Symptoms of polycythemia vera include headaches and a feeling of fullness below the ribs on the left ...

  9. Magnetic study of iron sorbitol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, F.J. E-mail: osoro@posta.unizar.es; Larrea, A.; Abadia, A.R.; Romero, M.S

    2002-09-01

    A magnetic study of iron sorbitol, an iron-containing drug to treat the iron deficiency anemia is presented. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the system contains nanometric particles with an average diameter of 3 nm whose composition is close to two-line ferrihydrite. The characterisation by magnetisation and AC susceptibility measurements indicates superparamagnetic behaviour with progressive magnetic blocking starting at 8 K. The quantitative analysis of the magnetic results indicates that the system consists of an assembly of very small magnetic moments, presumably originated by spin uncompensation of the antiferromagnetic nanoparticles, with Arrhenius type magnetic dynamics.

  10. Magnetism in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, John

    2000-03-01

    For centuries physicians, scientists and others have postulated an important role, either as a cause of disease or as a mode of therapy, for magnetism in medicine. Although there is a straightforward role in the removal of magnetic foreign bodies, the majority of the proposed magnetic applications have been controversial and have often been attributed by mainstream practitioners to fraud, quackery or self-deception. Calculations indicate that many of the proposed methods of action, e.g., the field-induced alignment of water molecules or alterations in blood flow, are of negligible magnitude. Nonetheless, even at the present time, the use of small surface magnets (magnetotherapy) to treat arthritis and similar diseases is a widespread form of folk medicine and is said to involve sales of approximately one billion dollars per year. Another medical application of magnetism associated with Mesmer and others (eventually known as animal magnetism) has been discredited, but has had a culturally significant role in the development of hypnotism and as one of the sources of modern psychotherapy. Over the last two decades, in marked contrast to previous applications of magnetism to medicine, magnetic resonance imaging or MRI, has become firmly established as a clinical diagnostic tool. MRI permits the non-invasive study of subtle biological processes in intact, living organisms and approximately 150,000,000 diagnostic studies have been performed since its clinical introduction in the early 1980s. The dramatically swift and widespread acceptance of MRI was made possible by scientific and engineering advances - including nuclear magnetic resonance, computer technology and whole-body-sized, high field superconducting magnets - in the decades following World War Two. Although presently used much less than MRI, additional applications, including nerve and muscle stimulation by pulsed magnetic fields, the use of magnetic forces to guide surgical instruments, and imaging utilizing

  11. Method of regulating magnetic field of magnetic pole center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Masao; Yamada, Teruo; Kato, Norihiko; Toda, Yojiro; Kaneda, Yasumasa.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide the subject method comprising using a plurality of magnetic metal pieces having different thicknesses, regulating very easily symmetry of the field of the magnetic pole center depending upon the combination of said metal pieces, thereby obtaining a magnetic field of high precision. Method: The regulation of magnetic field at the central part of the magnetic field is not depending only upon processing of the center plug, axial movement of trim coil and ion source but by providing a magnetic metal piece such as an iron ring, primary higher harmonics of the field at the center of the magnetic field can be regulated simply while the position of the ion source slit is on the equipotential surface in the field. (Yoshihara, H.)

  12. Magnetic Spinner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouseph, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    A science toy sometimes called the "magnetic spinner" is an interesting class demonstration to illustrate the principles of magnetic levitation. It can also be used to demonstrate Faraday's law and a horizontally suspended physical pendulum. The levitated part contains two circular magnets encased in a plastic housing. Each magnet stays…

  13. Some indicators of (unsuccessful reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we set the aim to determine whether phonological awareness and short-term verbal memory are indicators of a subsequent reading acquisition. The sample consisted of 194 first graders from two primary schools in Belgrade. The results of our research showed that the most significant indicator of the subsequent (unsuccessful reading was phonological awareness. The short-term verbal memory is, to a lesser extent, an indicator of the subsequent reading acquisition defined by the time needed for reading the text and by the text comprehension. Our findings offer basis for proposing that the phonological awareness assessment should be implemented into the regular procedure of assessing child's readiness for school. In this way children in need for preventive stimulation within the inclusive programme in primary schools could be identified.

  14. High frequency oscillations evoked by peripheral magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller, S; Simon, L; Fiedler, P; Strohmeier, D; Haueisen, J

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and / or fields (SEF) is a well-established and important tool for investigating the functioning of the peripheral and central human nervous system. A standard technique to evoke SEPs / SEFs is the stimulation of the median nerve by using a bipolar electrical stimulus. We aim at an alternative stimulation technique enabling stimulation of deep nerve structures while reducing patient stress and error susceptibility. In the current study, we apply a commercial transcranial magnetic stimulation system for peripheral magnetic stimulation of the median nerve. We compare the results of simultaneously recorded EEG signals to prove applicability of our technique to evoke SEPs including low frequency components (LFC) as well as high frequency oscillations (HFO). Therefore, we compare amplitude, latency and time-frequency characteristics of the SEP of 14 healthy volunteers after electric and magnetic stimulation. Both low frequency components and high frequency oscillations were detected. The HFOs were superimposed onto the primary cortical response N20. Statistical analysis revealed significantly lower amplitudes and increased latencies for LFC and HFO components after magnetic stimulation. The differences indicate the inability of magnetic stimulation to elicit supramaximal responses. A psycho-perceptual evaluation showed that magnetic stimulation was less unpleasant for 12 out of the 14 volunteers. In conclusion, we showed that LFC and HFO components related to median nerve stimulation can be evoked by peripheral magnetic stimulation.

  15. Magnetic skyrmions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-06-01

    Welcome to the special issue of Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials on magnetic skyrmions. We are proud to present, with great pleasure, a timely collection of 9 original research articles on the recent hot topic "magnetic skyrmions" which studies the static and dynamic properties of skyrmions and the methods to control them in a variety of ways, including magnetic field, electric current and applied strain.

  16. Functional rearrangement of the primary and secondary motor cortex in patients with primary tumors of the central nervous system located in the region of the central sulcus depending on the histopathological type and the size of tumor: Examination by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryszewski, Bartosz; Pfajfer, Lucjan; Antosik-Biernacka, Aneta; Tybor, Krzysztof; Śmigielski, Janusz; Zawirski, Marek; Majos, Agata

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the reorganization of the centers of the motor cortex in patients with primary neuroepithelial tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) located in the region of the central sulcus in relation to the histopathological type and the size of tumor, as determined by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The fMRI was performed prior to the surgical treatment of patients with tumors located in the region of the central sulcus (WHO stage I and II, n=15; WHO stage III and IV, n=25). The analysis included a record of the activity in the areas of the primary motor cortex (M1) and the secondary motor cortex: the premotor cortex (PMA) and the accessory motor area (SMA). The results were correlated with the histopathological type of the tumor and its size expressed in cm 3 . The frequency of activation of the motor center was higher in the group of patients who had less aggressive tumors, such as low-grade glioma (LGG), as well as in tumors of lower volume, and this was true both for the hemisphere where the tumor was located and in the contralateral one. Mean values of t-statistics of activation intensity, mean numbers of activated clusters, and their ranges were lower in all analyzed motor areas of LGG tumors. The values of t-statistics and activation areas were higher in the case of small tumors located in ipsilateral centers, and in large tumors located in contralateral centers, aside from the SMA area where the values of t-statistics were equal for both groups. The contralateral SMA area was characterized by the highest stability of all examined centers of secondary motor cortex. No significant association (p>0.05) was observed between the absolute value of the mean registered activity (t-statistics) and the size of examined areas (number of clusters) when the groups were stratified with regards to the analyzed parameters. The presence of a neoplastic lesion, its histopathological type and finally its size modulate the

  17. Magnetic Field Measurements in Beam Guiding Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Henrichsen, K N

    1998-01-01

    Electromagnets used as beam guiding elements in particle accelerators and colliders require very tight tole-rances on their magnetic fields and on their alignment along the particle path. This article describes the methods and equipment used for magnetic measurements in beam transport magnets. Descriptions are given of magnetic resonance techniques, various induction coil methods, Hall generator measurements, the fluxgate magnetometer as well as the recently developed method of beam based alignment. References of historical nature as well as citations of recent work are given. The present commercial availability of the different sensors and asso-ciated equipment is indicated. Finally we shall try to analyze possible future needs for developments in those fields.

  18. Dietary fat intake and nutritional status indicators of primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels, as well as dietary fat intakes usually associated with cardiovascular ... higher than the national prevalence rate of 10%. ... Serum cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels were within the normal ... The total dietary fat intakes showed significant relationships with

  19. Sepsis: Primary indication for peripartum hysterectomies in a South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    limit the definition to a hysterectomy performed for uncontrolled haemorrhage only[4 ... and peripartum care due to limited resources, a high burden of HIV infection and a ... countries the aetiology is variable, with studies from Turkey, India and. Thailand ..... Improving access to ART is important as all the women who were.

  20. Monte Carlo simulated dynamical magnetization of single-chain magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun; Liu, Bang-Gui, E-mail: bgliu@iphy.ac.cn

    2015-03-15

    Here, a dynamical Monte-Carlo (DMC) method is used to study temperature-dependent dynamical magnetization of famous Mn{sub 2}Ni system as typical example of single-chain magnets with strong magnetic anisotropy. Simulated magnetization curves are in good agreement with experimental results under typical temperatures and sweeping rates, and simulated coercive fields as functions of temperature are also consistent with experimental curves. Further analysis indicates that the magnetization reversal is determined by both thermal-activated effects and quantum spin tunnelings. These can help explore basic properties and applications of such important magnetic systems. - Highlights: • Monte Carlo simulated magnetization curves are in good agreement with experimental results. • Simulated coercive fields as functions of temperature are consistent with experimental results. • The magnetization reversal is understood in terms of the Monte Carlo simulations.

  1. Magnetic catalysis and inverse magnetic catalysis in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, N.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effects of strong magnetic fields on the QCD phase structure at vanishing density by solving the gluon and quark gap equations. The chiral crossover temperature as well as the chiral condensate is computed. For asymptotically large magnetic fields we find magnetic catalysis, while we find inverse magnetic catalysis for intermediate magnetic fields. Moreover, for large magnetic fields the chiral phase transition for massless quarks turns into a crossover. The underlying mechanisms are then investigated analytically within a few simplifications of the full numerical analysis. We find that a combination of gluon screening effects and the weakening of the strong coupling is responsible for the phenomenon of inverse catalysis seen in lattice studies. In turn, the magnetic catalysis at large magnetic field is already indicated by simple arguments based on dimensionality. (author)

  2. Lanthanide single molecule magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jinkui; Zhang, Peng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun (China). Changchun Inst. of Applied Chemistry

    2015-10-01

    This book begins by providing basic information on single-molecule magnets (SMMs), covering the magnetism of lanthanide, the characterization and relaxation dynamics of SMMs and advanced means of studying lanthanide SMMs. It then systematically introduces lanthanide SMMs ranging from mononuclear and dinuclear to polynuclear complexes, classifying them and highlighting those SMMs with high barrier and blocking temperatures - an approach that provides some very valuable indicators for the structural features needed to optimize the contribution of an Ising type spin to a molecular magnet. The final chapter presents some of the newest developments in the lanthanide SMM field, such as the design of multifunctional and stimuli-responsive magnetic materials as well as the anchoring and organization of the SMMs on surfaces. In addition, the crystal structure and magnetic data are clearly presented with a wealth of illustrations in each chapter, helping newcomers and experts alike to better grasp ongoing trends and explore new directions.

  3. Lanthanide single molecule magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Jinkui

    2015-01-01

    This book begins by providing basic information on single-molecule magnets (SMMs), covering the magnetism of lanthanide, the characterization and relaxation dynamics of SMMs, and advanced means of studying lanthanide SMMs. It then systematically introduces lanthanide SMMs ranging from mononuclear and dinuclear to polynuclear complexes, classifying them and highlighting those SMMs with high barrier and blocking temperatures – an approach that provides some very valuable indicators for the structural features needed to optimize the contribution of an Ising type spin to a molecular magnet. The final chapter presents some of the newest developments in the lanthanide SMM field, such as the design of multifunctional and stimuli-responsive magnetic materials as well as the anchoring and organization of the SMMs on surfaces. In addition, the crystal structure and magnetic data are clearly presented with a wealth of illustrations in each chapter, helping newcomers and experts alike to better grasp ongoing trends and...

  4. Metallic Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hernando

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we reviewed some relevant aspects of the magnetic properties of metallic nanoparticles with small size (below 4 nm, covering the size effects in nanoparticles of magnetic materials, as well as the appearance of magnetism at the nanoscale in materials that are nonferromagnetic in bulk. These results are distributed along the text that has been organized around three important items: fundamental magnetic properties, different fabrication procedures, and characterization techniques. A general introduction and some experimental results recently obtained in Pd and Au nanoparticles have also been included. Finally, the more promising applications of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedicine are indicated. Special care was taken to complete the literature available on the subject.

  5. Magnetic particle inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastri, Sankar

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to familiarize the student with magnetic particle inspection and relate it to classification of various defects. Magnetic particle inspection is a method of detecting the presence of cracks, laps, tears, inclusions, and similar discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials such as iron and steel. This method will most clearly show defects that are perpendicular to the magnetic field. The Magnaglo method uses a liquid which is sprayed on the workpiece to be inspected, and the part is magnetized at the same time. The workpiece is then viewed under a black light, and the presence of discontinuity is shown by the formation of a bright indication formed by the magnetic particles over the discontinuity. The equipment and experimental procedures are described.

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethier, R.; Melanson, D.; Peters, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    Ten years following computerized tomography, a new technique called nuclear magnetic resonance revolutionizes the field of diagnostic imaging. A major advantage of nuclear magnetic resonance is that the danger of radiation is non-existent as compared to computerized tomography. When parts of the human body are subject to radio-frequencies while in a fixed magnetic field, its most detailed structures are revealed. The quality of images, the applications, as well as the indications are forever increasing. Images obtained at the level of the brain and spinal cord through nuclear magnetic resonance supercede those obtained through computerized tomography. Hence, it is most likely that myelography, along with pneumoencephalography will be eliminated as a diagnostic means. It is without a doubt that nuclear magnetic resonance is tomorrow's computerized tomography [fr

  7. Study on Magnetic Responsibility of Rare Earth Ferrite/Polyacrylamide Magnetic Microsphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ming; Wang Zhifeng; Zhang Hong; Dai Shaojun; Qiu Guanming; Okamoto Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    In inverse microemulsion, rare earth ferrite/polyacrylamide magnetic microsphere were prepared and their magnetic responsibility were studied by magnetic balance. Results indicate that the magnetic responsibility of microsphere relates to magnetic moment of rare earth ion, and it can be improved by the addition of dysprosium ion of high magnetic moment. Dysprosium content has an effect on magnetic responsibility of dysprosium ferrite/polyacrylamide magnetic microsphere. The microsphere displays strong magnetic responsibility when the molar ratio of Dy3+/iron is 0.20.

  8. Magnetic study of turbidites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanty, Cyrielle; Valet, Jean Pierre; Carlut, Julie

    2015-04-01

    turbiditic levels have been compared with those of the surrounding hemipelagic sediments. In all cases, the magnetization of remanence reflect the expected field direction at the site location without significant change in direction inside the turbiditic levels. This is an indication that magnetization acquisition likely obeys the same rules as for slowly deposited hemipelagic sediments. As expected there is a grain size grading with relatively coarse sediment at the bottom and fine-grained sediment at the top, similarly to what is observed with laboratory redeposited sediments and thus further justify the comparison. Surprisingly, in most cases the magnetic grain sizes follow a similar pattern, which would imply that magnetic grains were not clustered inside sedimentary particles, otherwise we would expect a different relationship.

  9. External validation of the fatty liver index and lipid accumulation product indices, using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, to identify hepatic steatosis in healthy controls and obese, insulin-resistant individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Weickert, Martin O; Lythgoe, Daniel; Sprung, Victoria S; Dobson, Rebecca; Shoajee-Moradie, Fariba; Umpleby, Margot; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Thomas, E Louise; Bell, Jimmy D; Jones, Helen; Kemp, Graham J

    2014-11-01

    Simple clinical algorithms including the fatty liver index (FLI) and lipid accumulation product (LAP) have been developed as surrogate markers for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), constructed using (semi-quantitative) ultrasonography. This study aimed to validate FLI and LAP as measures of hepatic steatosis, as determined quantitatively by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Data were collected from 168 patients with NAFLD and 168 controls who had undergone clinical, biochemical and anthropometric assessment. Values of FLI and LAP were determined and assessed both as predictors of the presence of hepatic steatosis (liver fat>5.5%) and of actual liver fat content, as measured by 1H-MRS. The discriminative ability of FLI and LAP was estimated using the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC). As FLI can also be interpreted as a predictive probability of hepatic steatosis, we assessed how well calibrated it was in our cohort. Linear regression with prediction intervals was used to assess the ability of FLI and LAP to predict liver fat content. Further validation was provided in 54 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. FLI, LAP and alanine transferase discriminated between patients with and without steatosis with an AUROC of 0.79 (IQR=0.74, 0.84), 0.78 (IQR=0.72, 0.83) and 0.83 (IQR=0.79, 0.88) respectively although could not quantitatively predict liver fat. Additionally, the algorithms accurately matched the observed percentages of patients with hepatic steatosis in our cohort. FLI and LAP may be used to identify patients with hepatic steatosis clinically or for research purposes but could not predict liver fat content. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  10. [Hypertension: once primary, always primary?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, R.L.; Pieters, G.F.F.M.; Thien, Th.

    2002-01-01

    Three patients diagnosed with primary hypertension suddenly developed hard-to-treat blood pressure after several years of stable blood pressure. One patient, a man aged 48 years, had developed a renal artery stenosis, which had not been present five years earlier. The other two patients, a man aged

  11. Hyperthyroidism (primary)

    OpenAIRE

    Nygaard, Birte

    2010-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is characterised by high levels of serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine, and low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Thyrotoxicosis is the clinical effect of high levels of thyroid hormones, whether or not the thyroid gland is the primary source.The main causes of hyperthyroidism are Graves' disease, toxic multinodular goitre, and toxic adenoma.About 20 times more women than men have hyperthyroidism.

  12. Superconducting Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    Starting from the beam requirements for accelerator magnets, we will outline the main issues and the physical limitations for producing strong and pure magnetic fields with superconductors. The seminar will mainly focus on the magnets for the accelerator, and give some hints on the magnets for the experiments. Prerequisite knowledge: Basic knowledge of Maxwell equations, and linear optics for particle accelerators (FODO cell, beta functions).

  13. Magnetic strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, Max

    2006-01-01

    The conception of the magnetic string is presented as an infinitely thin bundle of magnetic flux lines. The magnetic strings are surrounded by a film of current that rotates around them, and are a solution of Maxwell's equations. The magnetic potential contains a line singularity, and its stability can be established topologically. A few comments are added on the possibility that they may exist at a cosmological scale as relics of the Big Bang. (author) [es

  14. Magnetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaldin, Nicola A.

    2003-04-01

    Magnetic materials are the foundation of multi-billion dollar industries and the focus of intensive research across many disciplines. This book covers the fundamentals, basic theories and applications of magnetism and conventional magnetic materials. Based on a lecture course given by Nicola Spaldin in the Materials Department at University of California, Santa Barbara, the book is ideal for a one- semester course in magnetic materials. It contains numerous homework problems and solutions.

  15. Spontaneous expression of magnetic compass orientation in an epigeic rodent: the bank vole, Clethrionomys glareolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveriusová, Ludmila; Němec, Pavel; Pavelková, Zuzana; Sedláček, František

    2014-07-01

    Magnetoreception has been convincingly demonstrated in only a few mammalian species. Among rodents, magnetic compass orientation has been documented in four species of subterranean mole rats and two epigeic (i.e. active above ground) species—the Siberian hamster and the C57BL/6J mouse. The mole rats use the magnetic field azimuth to determine compass heading; their directional preference is spontaneous and unimodal, and their magnetic compass is magnetite-mediated. By contrast, the primary component of orientation response is learned in the hamster and the mouse, but both species also exhibit a weak spontaneous bimodal preference in the natural magnetic field. To determine whether the magnetic compass of wild epigeic rodents features the same functional properties as that of laboratory rodents, we investigated magnetic compass orientation in the bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus (Cricetidae, Rodentia). The voles exhibited a robust spontaneous bimodal directional preference, i.e. built nests and slept preferentially along the north-south axis, and deflected their directional preference according to a shift in the direction of magnetic north, clearly indicating that they were deriving directional information from the magnetic field. Thus, bimodal, axially symmetrical directional choice seems to be a common feature shared by epigeic rodents. However, spontaneous directional preference in the bank vole appeared to be more pronounced than that reported in the hamster and the mouse. These findings suggest that bank voles are well suited for future studies investigating the adaptive significance and mechanisms of magnetic orientation in epigeic rodents.

  16. Superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics on superconducting magnets: D19B and -C: The next steps for a record-setting magnet; D20: The push beyond 10 T: Beyond D20: Speculations on the 16-T regime; other advanced magnets for accelerators; spinoff applications; APC materials development; cable and cabling-machine development; and high-T c superconductor at low temperature

  17. Superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willen, E.

    1996-01-01

    Superconducting dipole magnets for high energy colliders are discussed. As an example, the magnets recently built for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven are reviewed. Their technical performance and the cost for the industry-built production dipoles are given. The cost data is generalized in order to extrapolate the cost of magnets for a new machine

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Sacroiliac Joints Indicating Sacroiliitis According to the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society Definition in Healthy Individuals, Runners, and Women With Postpartum Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, Janneke; de Hooge, Manouk; van de Sande, Marleen; de Jong, Henriëtte; van Hoeven, Lonneke; de Koning, Anoek; Berg, Inger Jorid; Ramonda, Roberta; Baeten, Dominique; van der Heijde, Désirée; Weel, Angelique; Landewé, Robert

    2018-03-07

    To compare magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of the sacroiliac (SI) joints of healthy subjects and individuals with known mechanical strain acting upon the SI joints to those of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) and patients with chronic back pain. Three readers who had received standardized training and were blinded with regard to study group randomly scored MRIs of the SI joints of 172 subjects, including 47 healthy individuals without current or past back pain, 47 axial SpA patients from the Spondyloarthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort (with a previous MRI confirmed positive for sacroiliitis), 47 controls with chronic back pain (irrespective of MRI results) from the SPACE cohort, 7 women with postpartum back pain, and 24 frequent runners. MRIs were scored according to the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) definition and Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) index. Of the 47 healthy volunteers, 11 (23.4%) had an MRI positive for sacroiliitis, compared to 43 (91.5%) of 47 axial SpA patients and 3 (6.4%) of 47 patients with chronic back pain. Three (12.5%) of the 24 runners and 4 (57.1%) of the 7 women with postpartum back pain had a positive MRI. Using a SPARCC cutoff of ≥2 for positivity, 12 (25.5%) of 47 healthy volunteers, 46 (97.9%) of 47 positive axial SpA patients, 5 (10.6%) of 47 controls with chronic back pain, 4 (16.7%) of 24 runners, and 4 (57.1%) of 7 women with postpartum back pain had positive MRIs. Deep bone marrow edema (BME) lesions were not found in healthy volunteers, patients with chronic back pain, or runners, but were found in 42 (89.4%) of 47 positive axial SpA patients and in 1 (14.3%) of 7 women with postpartum back pain. A substantial proportion of healthy individuals without current or past back pain has an MRI positive for sacroiliitis according to the ASAS definition. Deep (extensive) BME lesions are almost exclusively found in axial SpA patients. © 2018 The Authors. Arthritis

  19. Bilateral supernumerary primary maxillary canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Mukhopadhyay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary teeth are more common in the permanent than in primary dentition. In the primary dentition, the anomaly is most frequently observed in the maxillary lateral incisor region, followed by the maxillary midline where they are termed as mesiodens. Supernumerary teeth in the primary canine region are rare. This paper describes a rare case of nonsyndromic supernumerary primary maxillary canine distributed bilaterally in a 4-year-old boy. Both the supernumeraries resembled size and shape of normal primary canine. The right supplemental canine is high labially placed, whereas the left one is seen normally aligned in the dental arch distal to lateral incisor. One of the most significant sequelae of primary supernumerary teeth is their duplication in the permanent series. Radiographic examination of supernumerary primary canine did not indicate any such anomaly in the permanent dentition. The patient was kept under observation.

  20. Primary intracerebral lymphoma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcay Eser

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of primary central nervous lymphoma (PCNSL that may be confused with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings of high grade glioma. Primary central nervous lymphoma is a rare tumour and it account for 0.3-3% of intracranial tumours. A 61 year’s old woman was admitted to our clinic with a severe headache, vomiting, left hemiparesia and transient loss of consciousness. Primary central nervous lymphoma may show various biological and radiological characteristics. We herein emphasized being confused with MRI findings of PCNSL and high grade glioma. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3 (3: 409-411Key words: Primary central nervous lymphoma, high grade glioma, B-cell, diagnosis

  1. Magnetic field dependent atomic tunneling in non-magnetic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, S.; Enss, C.; Hunklinger, S.

    2003-01-01

    The low-temperature properties of insulating glasses are governed by atomic tunneling systems (TSs). Recently, strong magnetic field effects in the dielectric susceptibility have been discovered in glasses at audio frequencies at very low temperatures. Moreover, it has been found that the amplitude of two-pulse polarization echoes generated in non-magnetic multi-component glasses at radio frequencies and at very low temperatures shows a surprising non-monotonic magnetic field dependence. The magnitude of the latter effect indicates that virtually all TSs are affected by the magnetic field, not only a small subset of systems. We have studied the variation of the magnetic field dependence of the echo amplitude as a function of the delay time between the two excitation pulses and at different frequencies. Our results indicate that the evolution of the phase of resonant TSs is changed by the magnetic field

  2. Magnetic field dependent atomic tunneling in non-magnetic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, S.; Enss, C.; Hunklinger, S.

    2003-05-01

    The low-temperature properties of insulating glasses are governed by atomic tunneling systems (TSs). Recently, strong magnetic field effects in the dielectric susceptibility have been discovered in glasses at audio frequencies at very low temperatures. Moreover, it has been found that the amplitude of two-pulse polarization echoes generated in non-magnetic multi-component glasses at radio frequencies and at very low temperatures shows a surprising non-monotonic magnetic field dependence. The magnitude of the latter effect indicates that virtually all TSs are affected by the magnetic field, not only a small subset of systems. We have studied the variation of the magnetic field dependence of the echo amplitude as a function of the delay time between the two excitation pulses and at different frequencies. Our results indicate that the evolution of the phase of resonant TSs is changed by the magnetic field.

  3. Magnetic short range order and the exchange coupling in magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antropov, V.P.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss our recent results of time-dependent density functional simulations of magnetic properties of Fe and Ni at finite temperatures. These results indicated that a strong magnetic short range order is responsible for the magnetic properties of elementary Ni and any itinerant magnet in general. We demonstrated that one can use the value of the magnetic short range order parameter to produce new quantitative classification of magnets. We also discuss the nature of the exchange coupling and its connection with the short range order. The spin-wave like propagating and diffusive excitations in paramagnetic localized systems with small short range order have been predicted while in the itinerant systems the short range order is more complicated. The possible smallness of the quantum factor in the itinerant magnets with short range order is discussed

  4. Does the Primary Imaging Modality-Computed Tomography or Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Influence Stroke Physicians' Certainty on Whether or Not to Give Thrombolysis to Randomized Acute Stroke Patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christine Krarup; Christensen, Anders; Rodgers, Helen

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Door-to-needle time of 20 minutes to stroke patients with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (iv-tPA) is feasible when computed tomography (CT) is used as first-line of brain imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based assessment is more time-consuming but superior in detect......BACKGROUND: Door-to-needle time of 20 minutes to stroke patients with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (iv-tPA) is feasible when computed tomography (CT) is used as first-line of brain imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based assessment is more time-consuming but superior...

  5. Conventional angiography in comparison with magnetic resonance tomography and arthroscopy for the diagnosis of knee joint lesion - specific indications?; Die konventionelle Arthrographie im Vergleich zu Magnetresonanztomographie und Arthroskopie bei Kniegelenkbinnenlaesionen: Verbleiben Indikationen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Steglitz, Radiologische Klinik, Abt. fuer Roentgendiagnostik und Nuklearmedizin, FU Berlin (Germany); Andresen, R. [Universitaetsklinikum Steglitz, Radiologische Klinik, Abt. fuer Roentgendiagnostik und Nuklearmedizin, FU Berlin (Germany); Radmer, S. [Orthopaedisches Institut, Berlin (Germany); Schmidt, M. [Krankenhaus Moabit, Roentgenabteilung, Berlin (Germany); Wolf, K.J. [Universitaetsklinikum Steglitz, Radiologische Klinik, Abt. fuer Roentgendiagnostik und Nuklearmedizin, FU Berlin (Germany)

    1995-03-01

    Twenty-one patients with suspected internal knee joint lesions were examined prospectively. In all patients an MRI was carried out first and was followed within two weeks by an arthrography and an arthrocopy. Lesions of the menisci, cruciate ligaments, hyaline cartilage, and synovial tissues were evaluated. Arthroscopy findings were defined as the `gold standard`. MRI achieved an accuracy of 96.4%, a sensitivity of 93.6%, and a specifity of 92.5%, whereas arthrography achieved an accuracy of 67.8%, a sensitivity of 66.6%, and a specifity of 71.4%. These statistical data as well as the single findings revealed no special indications for arthrography in suspected knee joint lesions. (orig.) [Deutsch] In einer prospektiven Studie wurden insgesamt 21 Patienten mit suspekten Kniegelenksbinnenlaesionen untersucht. Bei allen Patienten erfolgte zunaechst eine Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT), anschliessend innerhalb von zwei Wochen eine Arthrographie und Arthroskopie des Kniegelenks. Beurteilt wurden Laesionen der Meniski, der Kreuzbaender, des hyalinen Gelenkknorpels und des Synovialgewebes. Bezogen auf den Arthroskopiebefund als `Gold-Standard` erreichte die MRT eine Treffsicherheit von 96,4%, eine Sensitivitaet von 93,6% und eine Spezifitaet von 92,5%; dagegen die Arthrographie eine Treffsicherheit von 67,8%, eine Sensitivitaet von 66,6% und eine Spezifitaet von 71,4%. Sowohl eine Uebersicht als auch die Auswertung der Einzelbefunde ergaben keine speziellen Indikationen zur Durchfuehrung einer Kniegelenksarthrographie bei suspekten Binnenlaesionen. (orig.)

  6. Review of MFTF yin-yang magnet displacement and magnetic field measurements and calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, C.L.; Myall, J.O.; Wohlwend, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    During the recent testing of the MFTF yin-yang magnet, measurements of coil position, structural case strain, and magnetic field were made to verify calculated values. Measurements to detect magnet movement were taken throughout cooldown and during the operation of the magnet. The magnetic field at the mirror points was measured by Hall-effect probes. The magnet position, structural case strain, and magnetic field measurements indicated a reasonably close correlation with calculated values. Information obtained from the yin-yang test has been very useful in setting realistic mechanical alignment values for the new MFTF-B magnet system

  7. The physical principles of rock magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Frank

    1974-01-01

    Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics 5: The Physical Principles of Rock Magnetism explores the physical principles of rock magnetism, with emphasis on the properties of finely divided magnetic materials. It discusses the origin and stability of rock magnetizations, the role of remanent magnetism in interpreting magnetic surveys, magnetic anisotropy as an indicator of rock fabric, and the relationship between piezomagnetic changes and seismic activity. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume discusses the properties of solids, magnetite and hematite grains, and rocks with magnetite grains

  8. The enigma of lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.

    1981-01-01

    Current understandings of the nature and probable origin of lunar magnetism are surveyed. Results of examinations of returned lunar samples are discussed which reveal the main carrier of the observed natural remanent magnetization to be iron, occasionally alloyed with nickel and cobalt, but do not distinguish between thermoremanent and shock remanent origins, and surface magnetometer data is presented, which indicates small-scale magnetic fields with a wide range of field intensities implying localized, near-surface sources. A detailed examination is presented of orbital magnetometer and charged particle data concerning the geologic nature and origin of magnetic anomaly sources and the directional properties of the magnetization, which exhibit a random distribution except for a depletion in the north-south direction. A lunar magnetization survey with global coverage provided by a polar orbiting satellite is suggested as a means of placing stronger constraints on the origin of lunar crustal magnetization.

  9. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlart, I.P.; Guhl, L.

    1992-01-01

    An account is given in this paper of the physical and technical principles underlying the 'time-of-flight' technique for imaging of vessels by magnetic resonance tomography. Major indications for the new procedure of magnetic resonance angiography at present are intracerebral and extracerebral vessels, with digital subtraction angiography quite often being required to cope with minor alterations (small aneurysms, small occlusions). Magnetic resonance angiography and digital subtraction angiography are compared to each other for advantages and disadvantages. Basically, replacement of radiological angiography by magnetic resonance angiography appears to be possible only within limits, since X-ray diagnostics primarily provides morphological information about vessels, whereas flow dynamics is visualized by the 'time-of-flight' technique. (orig.) [de

  10. Encephalitis in primary HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, M; Kirk, O

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of primary HIV encephalitis, which initially presented as acute psychosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was suggestive of vasculitis and multiple infarctions, whereas a brain biopsy after six weeks of symptoms showed HIV encephalitis with microglial nodules, but no signs...... of vasculitis. We review previous reported cases and radiological findings in HIV encephalitis and discuss the role of antiretroviral therapy and steroids in its management....

  11. Primary cerebral lymphoma: radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, J.C.; Grandse, D.; Equidazu, J.; Elizagaray, E.; Grande, J.; Carrandi, J.

    1990-01-01

    We present four cases of primary cerebral lymphoma in non-immunodepressed adult patients. All cases were dsemonstrated with pathological study. CAT study showed solitary or multiple isodense lesions, which incorporated avidly and homoneneously the contrast. Arteriography performed in three patients and magnetic resonance, performed in one did not help for diagnosis. We also review the radiological findings obtained with different imaging methods, and suggest the criteria which could be useful for early diagnosis (Author)

  12. Quantitative Evaluation of the Total Magnetic Moments of Colloidal Magnetic Nanoparticles: A Kinetics-based Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiyi; Sun, Jianfei; Wang, Haoyao; Wang, Peng; Song, Lina; Li, Yang; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning

    2015-06-08

    A kinetics-based method is proposed to quantitatively characterize the collective magnetization of colloidal magnetic nanoparticles. The method is based on the relationship between the magnetic force on a colloidal droplet and the movement of the droplet under a gradient magnetic field. Through computational analysis of the kinetic parameters, such as displacement, velocity, and acceleration, the magnetization of colloidal magnetic nanoparticles can be calculated. In our experiments, the values measured by using our method exhibited a better linear correlation with magnetothermal heating, than those obtained by using a vibrating sample magnetometer and magnetic balance. This finding indicates that this method may be more suitable to evaluate the collective magnetism of colloidal magnetic nanoparticles under low magnetic fields than the commonly used methods. Accurate evaluation of the magnetic properties of colloidal nanoparticles is of great importance for the standardization of magnetic nanomaterials and for their practical application in biomedicine. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Magnetic Hysteresis

    CERN Document Server

    Della Torre, Edward

    2000-01-01

    Understanding magnetic hysteresis is vitally important to the development of the science of magnetism as a whole and to the advancement of practical magnetic device applications. Magnetic Hysteresis, by acclaimed expert Edward Della Torre, presents a clear explanation of the connection between physical principles and phenomenological hysteresis. This comprehensive book offers a lucid analysis that enables the reader to save valuable time by reducing trial-and-error design. Dr. Della Torre uses physical principles to modify Preisach modeling and to describe the complex behavior of magnetic media. While Pretsach modeling is a useful mathematical tool, its congruency and deletion properties present limitations to accurate descriptions of magnetic materials. Step-by-step, this book describes the modifications that can overcome these limitations. Special attention is given to the use of feedback around a Preisach transducer to remove the congruency restriction, and to the use of accommodation and aftereffect model...

  14. Planetary Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerney, J. E. P.

    2007-01-01

    The chapter on Planetary Magnetism by Connerney describes the magnetic fields of the planets, from Mercury to Neptune, including the large satellites (Moon, Ganymede) that have or once had active dynamos. The chapter describes the spacecraft missions and observations that, along with select remote observations, form the basis of our knowledge of planetary magnetic fields. Connerney describes the methods of analysis used to characterize planetary magnetic fields, and the models used to represent the main field (due to dynamo action in the planet's interior) and/or remnant magnetic fields locked in the planet's crust, where appropriate. These observations provide valuable insights into dynamo generation of magnetic fields, the structure and composition of planetary interiors, and the evolution of planets.

  15. The assessment of changes in cognitive functioning: age-, education-, and gender-specific reliable change indices for older adults tested on the CERAD-NP battery: results of the German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Janine; Luppa, Melanie; Luck, Tobias; Maier, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael; Daerr, Moritz; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Zimmermann, Thomas; Köhler, Mirjam; Bickel, Horst; Mösch, Edelgard; Weyerer, Siegfried; Kaufeler, Teresa; Pentzek, Michael; Wiese, Birgitt; Wollny, Anja; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2012-01-01

    The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease-Neuropsychological (CERAD-NP) battery represents a commonly used neuropsychological instrument to measure cognitive functioning in the elderly. This study provides normative data for changes in cognitive function that normally occur in cognitively healthy individuals to interpret changes in CERAD-NP test scores over longer time periods. Longitudinal cohort study with three assessments at 1.5-year intervals over a period of 3 years. : Primary care medical record registry sample. As part of the German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia in Primary Care Patients, a sample of 1,450 cognitively healthy general practitioner patients, age 75 years and older, was assessed. Age-, education-, and gender-specific Reliable Change Indices (RCIs) were computed for a 90% confidence interval for selected subtests of the CERAD-NP battery. Across different age, education, and gender subgroups, changes from at least six to nine points in Verbal Fluency, four to eight points in Word List Memory, two to four points in Word List Recall, and one to four points in Word List Recognition indicated significant (i.e. reliable) changes in CERAD-NP test scores at the 90% confidence level. Furthermore, the calculation of RCIs for individual patients is demonstrated. Smaller changes in CERAD-NP test scores can be interpreted with only high uncertainty because of probable measurement error, practice effects, and normal age-related cognitive decline. This study, for the first time, provides age-, education-, and gender-specific CERAD-NP reference values on the basis of RCI methods for the interpretation of cognitive changes in older-age groups.

  16. Magnetic levitation

    OpenAIRE

    Štěpánek,B.; Paleček,M.

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with magnetism and its influence on superconducting materials. We describe the discovery and development of superconductivity, superconducting levitation and its use in future technology - called. MAGLEV speed trains. We show the interaction of the magnetic field of a strong neodymium magnet and high-temperature superconductor, cooled with liquid nitrogen at about -200 ° C. Of superconductors at this temperature becomes perfect diamagnetic material. That is ejected from the ma...

  17. Inhibition of the primary motor cortex and the upgoing thumb sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Nucera

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The upgoing thumb sign has been frequently observed in patients with minor strokes and transient ischemic attacks as an indicator of brain involvement. We assessed the effect of primary motor cortex (M1 inhibition in the development of the upgoing thumb sign. Methods: Used repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS, 1Hz frequency for 15min, 1s ISI, 900 pulses at 60% of resting motor threshold to inhibit the right or left primary motor cortex of 10 healthy individuals. Participants were examined before and after rTMS by a neurologist who was blind to the site of motor cortex inhibition. Results: 10 neurological intact participants (5 women/5 men were recruited for this study. 2 cases were excluded due to pre-existing possible thumb signs. After the inhibition of the primary motor cortex, in 6 subjects out of 8, we observed a thumb sign contralateral to the site of primary motor cortex inhibition. In one subject an ipsilateral thumbs sign was noted. In another case, we did not find an upgoing thumb sign. Conclusion: The upgoing thumb sign is a subtle neurological finding that may be related to the primary motor cortex or corticospinal pathways involvements. Keywords: Corticospinal tract, Upper motor neuron lesions, Primary motor cortex, Transcranial magnetic stimulation

  18. Magnet Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Over the decades, Fermilab has been responsible for the design, construction, test and analysis of hundreds of conventional and superconducting accelerator magnets...

  19. Planetary Magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.T.

    1980-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft have now probed the magnetic fields of all the terrestrial planets, the moon, Jupiter, and Saturn. These measurements reveal that dynamos are active in at least four of the planets, Mercury, the earth, Jupiter, and Saturn but that Venus and Mars appear to have at most only very weak planetary magnetic fields. The moon may have once possessed an internal dynamo, for the surface rocks are magnetized. The large satellites of the outer solar system are candidates for dynamo action in addition to the large planets themselves. Of these satellites the one most likely to generate its own internal magnetic field is Io

  20. Magnetics Processing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Magnetics Processing Lab equipped to perform testing of magnetometers, integrate them into aircraft systems, and perform data analysis, including noise reduction...

  1. Hoosier Magnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-09-30

    Hoosier Magnetics proposes to replace the indirect clinker water cooling system with a cooling system that recycles heat from the hot ferrite to preheat the combustion air. This innovative process would significantly reduce the amount of natural gas required to heat the combustion air while eliminating Hoosier’s largest source of downtime. According to the Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, process temperature is customarily used as a rough indication of where preheating air will be cost effective. Previous studies have concluded that processes operating above 1,600° F are ideal candidates for the utilization of pre-heated combustion air. Hoosier Magnetics’ operating temperatures run between 1800-2200° F making Hoosier the perfect candidate. Using preheated air at 1200° F will result in 35% fuel savings, or $298,935 annually. Additionally, the new system would have improved process reliability and result in both production efficiency increases and cost savings. This technology is NOT practiced or utilized on a wide-spread basis but could have a significant energy reduction impact in many different high heat utilizing industries in the country. While the energy savings is apparent with this theory the application and design of such a process has not been studied.

  2. Effect of loading speed on the stress-induced magnetic behavior of ferromagnetic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Sheng, E-mail: longtubao@zju.edu.cn; Gu, Yibin; Fu, Meili; Zhang, Da; Hu, Shengnan

    2017-02-01

    The primary goal of this research is to investigate the effect of loading speed on the stress-induced magnetic behavior of a ferromagnetic steel. Uniaxial tension tests on Q235 steel were carried out with various stress levels under different loading speeds. The variation of the magnetic signals surrounding the tested specimen was detected by a fluxgate magnetometer. The results indicated that the magnetic signal variations depended not only on the tensile load level but on the loading speed during the test. The magnetic field amplitude seemed to decrease gradually with the increase in loading speed at the same tensile load level. Furthermore, the evolution of the magnetic reversals is also related to the loading speed. Accordingly, the loading speed should be considered as one of the influencing variables in the Jies-Atherton model theory of the magnetomechanical effect. - Highlights: • Magnetic behaviors induced by different loading speeds were investigated. • Loading speed imposes strong impact on the variation of the magnetic field signals. • The magnetic field amplitude reduces gradually with the increasing loading speed. • The Jies-Atherton model theory should consider the effect of loading speed.

  3. Effect of loading speed on the stress-induced magnetic behavior of ferromagnetic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Sheng; Gu, Yibin; Fu, Meili; Zhang, Da; Hu, Shengnan

    2017-01-01

    The primary goal of this research is to investigate the effect of loading speed on the stress-induced magnetic behavior of a ferromagnetic steel. Uniaxial tension tests on Q235 steel were carried out with various stress levels under different loading speeds. The variation of the magnetic signals surrounding the tested specimen was detected by a fluxgate magnetometer. The results indicated that the magnetic signal variations depended not only on the tensile load level but on the loading speed during the test. The magnetic field amplitude seemed to decrease gradually with the increase in loading speed at the same tensile load level. Furthermore, the evolution of the magnetic reversals is also related to the loading speed. Accordingly, the loading speed should be considered as one of the influencing variables in the Jies-Atherton model theory of the magnetomechanical effect. - Highlights: • Magnetic behaviors induced by different loading speeds were investigated. • Loading speed imposes strong impact on the variation of the magnetic field signals. • The magnetic field amplitude reduces gradually with the increasing loading speed. • The Jies-Atherton model theory should consider the effect of loading speed.

  4. Propulsion of magnetically levitated trains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipf, S L

    1976-05-01

    A propulsion system for magnetically levitated trains is proposed. A method of periodically energizing magnetic loops on a train moving over a periodically undulating track allows the net repulsive magnetic force to tilt forward or backward for either propulsion or braking. The principle is explained and a specific example discussed. Approximate calculations show feasibility. Problems requiring technical solutions which cannot be considered present state-of-the-art are AC losses at frequencies up to 20 Hz and mechanical fatigue properties at low temperatures. Suitable primary power could be derived from hydrogen-fueled turbines yet to be developed.

  5. Indicators and their functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Joumard, Robert; Aschemann, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    indicators? How can several indicators be jointly considered? And how can indicators be used in planning and decision making? Firstly we provide definition of 'indicator of environmental sustainability in transport'. The functions, strengths and weaknesses of indicators as measurement tools, and as decision...... for indicators and assessments. As the decision making context influences the perceived and actual needs for indicators and methods, we also analysed the dimensions and context of decision making. We derived criteria and methods for the assessment and selection of indicators of environmental sustainability......This report is the final report of the action COST 356 'EST - Towards the definition of a measurable environmentally sustainable transport'. It tries to answer the following questions: How can environmental impacts of transport be measured? How can measurements be transformed into operational...

  6. Geomagnetic aa Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa indices are the continuation of the series beginning in the year 1868. A full description of these indices is given in the International...

  7. Oscillating magnetic field disrupts magnetic orientation in Zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiltschko Wolfgang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zebra finches can be trained to use the geomagnetic field as a directional cue for short distance orientation. The physical mechanisms underlying the primary processes of magnetoreception are, however, largely unknown. Two hypotheses of how birds perceive magnetic information are mainly discussed, one dealing with modulation of radical pair processes in retinal structures, the other assuming that iron deposits in the upper beak of the birds are involved. Oscillating magnetic fields in the MHz range disturb radical pair mechanisms but do not affect magnetic particles. Thus, application of such oscillating fields in behavioral experiments can be used as a diagnostic tool to decide between the two alternatives. Methods In a setup that eliminates all directional cues except the geomagnetic field zebra finches were trained to search for food in the magnetic north/south axis. The birds were then tested for orientation performance in two magnetic conditions. In condition 1 the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field was shifted by 90 degrees using a helmholtz coil. In condition 2 a high frequently oscillating field (1.156 MHz was applied in addition to the shifted field. Another group of birds was trained to solve the orientation task, but with visual landmarks as directional cue. The birds were then tested for their orientation performance in the same magnetic conditions as applied for the first experiment. Results The zebra finches could be trained successfully to orient in the geomagnetic field for food search in the north/south axis. They were also well oriented in test condition 1, with the magnetic field shifted horizontally by 90 degrees. In contrast, when the oscillating field was added, the directional choices during food search were randomly distributed. Birds that were trained to visually guided orientation showed no difference of orientation performance in the two magnetic conditions. Conclusion The results

  8. Magnetic starspots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, K.; Stepien, K.

    1984-01-01

    Models of large magnetic starspots with an axisymmetric untwisted magnetic field on late type stars are discussed. It is assumed that the magnetic field reduces the efficiency of convection inside the spot. A unique relation between the stellar mass and the difference of effective temperatures of the spot and the surrounding photosphere is adopted from observations. It is equivalent to the reduction of a s (the mixing length theory parameter) inside the spot to the value 0.15 independently of the stellar mass. The surface magnetic field of large spots covering a considerable part of the stellar surface is a decreasing function of the magnetic flux. Hence a coverage of a star by magnetic regions rapidly increases as a function of the magnetic flux in a narrow range of fluxes. This behaviour can explain the Vaughan-Preston gap. Recent observations of magnetic fields on G and K type stars are in a good agreement with our predictions. 35 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs. (author)

  9. Magnetic superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwo, J.; Hong, M.; McWhan, D.B.; Yafet, Y.; Fleming, R.M.; DiSalvo, F.J.; Waszczak, J.V.; Majkrzak, C.F.; Gibbs, D.; Goldmann, A.I.; Boni, P.; Bohr, J.; Grimm, H.; Bohr, J.; Chien, C.L.; Grimm, H.; Cable, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Single crystal magnetic rare earth superlattices were synthesized by molecular beam epitaxy. The studies include four rare earth systems: Gd-Y, Dy-Y, Ho-Y, and Gd-Dy. The magnetic properties and the long-range spin order are reviewed in terms of the interfacial behavior, and the interlayer exchange coupling across Y medium

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    This report summarises the aspects of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) considered by the National Health Technology Advisory Panel and makes recommendations on its introduction in Australia with particular regard to the need for thorough evaluation of its cost effectiveness. Topics covered are: principles of the technique, equipment required, installation, costs, reliability, performance parameters, clinical indications, training and staff requirements, and safety considerations

  11. Characterizing the Degree of Fuel Magnetization for MagLIF Using Neutron Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, K. D.; Chandler, G. A.; Schmit, P. F.; Knapp, P. F.; Hansen, S. B.; Harding, E.; Ruiz, C. L.; Jones, B.; Gomez, M. R.; Ampleford, D. J.; Torres, J. A.; Alberto, P. J.; Cooper, G. W.; Styron, J. D.

    2017-10-01

    We are studying Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion sources which utilize deuterium fuel and produce up to 4e12 primary DD and 5e10 secondary DT neutrons. For this concept, magnetizing the fuel can relax the stagnation pressures and densities required for ignition by insulating the hot fuel and confining the charged fusion products. The degree of magnetization of the fuel at stagnation is quantified using secondary DT neutron spectral measurements in the axial and radial directions and is also related to the ratio of the secondary DT yield to the primary DD yield. Measurements have confirmed that charged fusion products are strongly magnetized, as indicated by the product of the magnetic field and the fuel radius, to 0.4 MG-cm. We present new results that compare the degree of fuel magnetization inferred from spectral and yield measurements. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA-0003525.

  12. Microstructure, magnetic properties and magnetic hardening in 2:17 Sm-Co magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, W.; Zhang, Y.; Hadjipanayis, G.C.

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive and systematic study has been made on Sm(Co,Fe,M,L) z magnets (M=Cu or Ni, and L=Zr or Ti) to completely understand the effects of composition and processing on the microstructure and magnetic properties of magnets. Ti-containing magnets do not have a lamellar phase but exhibit only a cellular microstructure, resulting in a much lower coercivity (below 10 kOe). Ni-containing magnets exhibit a perfect cellular/lamellar microstructure, but without a large domain wall energy gradient at the interface of the 2:17 and 1:5 phases, leading to a low coercivity. Only in the magnets containing both Cu and Zr, a uniform and stable cellular/lamellar microstructure with a high domain wall energy gradient across the 1:5 phase is formed, resulting in high coercivity. These results indicate that the conditions for effective magnetic hardening are: (1) Formation of a cellular/lamellar microstructure, and (2) establishment of a domain wall energy gradient at the cell boundaries. Based on all of these experimental results, the magnetization reversal mechanism of 2:17 Sm-Co magnets can be explained by both the domain wall pinning and nucleation models. The nucleation mechanism holds at any temperature in the Cu-rich magnets, and only above the Curie temperature of the 1:5 phase in the alloys with the lower Cu content. In these cases, the 2:17 cells become magnetically decoupled. (orig.)

  13. Magnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    he Earth has a large and complicated magnetic field, the major part of which is produced by a self-sustaining dynamo operating in the fluid outer core. Magnetic field observations provide one of the few tools for remote sensing the Earth’s deep interior, especially regarding the dynamics...... of the fluid flow at the top of the core. However, what is measured at or near the surface of the Earth is the superposition of the core field and fields caused by magnetized rocks in the Earth’s crust, by electric currents flowing in the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and oceans, and by currents induced...... in the Earth by time-varying external fields. These sources have their specific characteristics in terms of spatial and temporal variations, and their proper separation, based on magnetic measurements, is a major challenge. Such a separation is a prerequisite for remote sensing by means of magnetic field...

  14. Superconducting hexapole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupland, J.H.; Stovold, R.V.

    1978-01-01

    One metre long magnet, intended for polarising and focusing a beam of cold neutrons, has been tested to 1.1x10 4 T.m -2 , or 90% of the design value. It showed considerable training to this level with every indication that it would have continued further upwards had more liquid helium been available. Field measurements indicate an eighteen pole harmonic of 1.2% at the full bore radius of 25 mm. (author)

  15. Superconducting hexapole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupland, J.H.; Stovold, R.V.

    1977-08-01

    This metre long magnet, intended for polarising and focusing a beam of cold neutrons, has been tested to 1.1 x 10 4 T m -2 , or 90% of the design value. It showed considerable training to this level with every indication that it would have continued further upwards had more liquid helium been available. Field measurements indicate an eighteen pole harmonic of 1.2% at the full bore radius of 25 mm. (author)

  16. Thermodynamic analysis of binary Fe{sub 85}B{sub 15} to quinary Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 8}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 1} alloys for primary crystallizations of α-Fe in nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, A., E-mail: takeuchi@imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Zhang, Y.; Takenaka, K.; Makino, A. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    Fe-based Fe{sub 85}B{sub 15}, Fe{sub 84}B{sub 15}Cu{sub 1}, Fe{sub 82}Si{sub 2}B{sub 15}Cu{sub 1}, Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 12}Cu{sub 1}, and Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 8}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 1} (NANOMET{sup ®}) alloys were experimental and computational analyzed to clarify the features of NANOMET that exhibits high saturation magnetic flux density (B{sub s}) nearly 1.9 T and low core loss than conventional nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys. The X-ray diffraction analysis for ribbon specimens produced experimentally by melt spinning from melts revealed that the samples were almost formed into an amorphous single phase. Then, the as-quenched samples were analyzed with differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) experimentally for exothermic enthalpies of the primary and secondary crystallizations (ΔH{sub x1} and ΔH{sub x2}) and their crystallization temperatures (T{sub x1} and T{sub x2}), respectively. The ratio ΔH{sub x1}/ΔH{sub x2} measured by DSC experimentally tended to be extremely high for the Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 8}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 1} alloy, and this tendency was reproduced by the analysis with commercial software, Thermo-Calc, with database for Fe-based alloys, TCFE7 for Gibbs free energy (G) assessments. The calculations exhibit that a volume fraction (V{sub f}) of α-Fe tends to increase from 0.56 for the Fe{sub 85}B{sub 15} to 0.75 for the Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 8}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 1} alloy. The computational analysis of the alloys for G of α-Fe and amorphous phases (G{sub α-Fe} and G{sub amor}) shows that a relationship G{sub α-Fe} ∼ G{sub amor} holds for the Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 12}Cu{sub 1}, whereas G{sub α-Fe} < G{sub amor} for the Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 8}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 1} alloy at T{sub x1} and that an extremely high V{sub f} = 0.75 was achieved for the Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B{sub 8}P{sub 4}Cu{sub 1} alloy by including 2.8 at. % Si and 4.5 at. % P into α-Fe. These computational results indicate that the Fe{sub 85}Si{sub 2}B

  17. Effect of the concentration of magnetite on the structure, electrical and magnetic properties of a polyester resin-based composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Peña-Rodriguez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the effect of the concentration of magnetite powders (Fe3O4 on the electrical and magnetic properties of a resin-based composite of thermoset polyester. The samples were prepared by the casting method at different concentrations: 60-40, 70-30, 80-20, 90-10 and 100-0 (% in weight, where the primary phase was resin and the secondary, Fe3O4 powders. The crystalline structure was studied using X-ray diffraction and surface characterization was carried out applying the scanning electron microscopy technique. The electrical response was measured by electric polarization curves as a function of the electric field; and the volumetric electrical resistivity, by an electrometer. The magnetic response was determined by magnetization curves as a function of temperature and intensity of the applied magnetic field. The structural analysis indicates that crystallinity increases as higher concentrations of Fe3O4 are added to the samples. The electrical characterization of the material reveals that the volumetric resistivity decreases as the content of magnetite increases. These reactions indicate an insulation-conductor transition with increasing dielectric constant values. The magnetic characterization presents a linear increase of the saturation of magnetization and magnetic moment as a function of the amount of magnetite added to the polymer matrix, whereas the coercivity shows behaviors of soft magnetic materials for T ˃ Tv and for T < Tv, where Tv represents the temperature of Verwey.

  18. Magnetic susceptibility of curium pnictides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nave, S.E.; Huray, P.G.; Peterson, J.R.; Damien, D.A.; Haire, R.G.

    1981-09-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of microgram quantities of 248 CmP and 248 CmSb has been determined with the use of a SQUID micromagnetic susceptometer over the temperature range 4.2 to 340 K and in the applied magnetic field range of 0.45 to 1600 G. The fcc (NaCl-type) samples yield magnetic transitions at 73K and 162 K for the phosphide and antimonide, respectively. Together with published magnetic data for CmN and CmAs, these results indicate spatially extended exchange interactions between the relatively localized 5f electrons of the metallic actinide atoms

  19. Recurrent Primary Spinal Hydatid Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Turk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary hydatid disease of spine is rare and spinal hydatitosis constitute only 1% of all hydatitosis. We report a case of recurrent primary intraspinal extradural hydatid cyst of the thoracic region causing progressive paraparesis. The patient was operated 16 years ago for primary spinal hydatid disease involvement and was instrumented dorsally for stabilization. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of thoracic spine showed a cystic lesion at T11-12 level and compressed spinal cord posterolaterally. Intraspinal cyst was excised through T11-12 laminectomy which made formerly. The early postoperative period showed a progressive improvement of his neurological deficit and he was discharged with antihelmintic treatment consisting of albendazole and amoxicillin-sulbactam combination. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 84-89

  20. Magnetic properties of point defects in proton irradiated diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makgato, T.N., E-mail: Thuto.Makgato@students.wits.ac.za [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Sideras-Haddad, E. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Center of Excellence in Strong Materials, Physics Building, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Ramos, M.A. [CMAM, Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/Faraday 3, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC) and Instituto Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); García-Hernández, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Climent-Font, A.; Zucchiatti, A.; Muñoz-Martin, A. [CMAM, Centro de Micro-Analisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/Faraday 3, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Shrivastava, S. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Erasmus, R. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Center of Excellence in Strong Materials, Physics Building, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa)

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the magnetic properties of ultra-pure type-IIa diamond following irradiation with proton beams of ≈1–2 MeV energy. SQUID magnetometry indicate the formation of Curie type paramagnetism according to the Curie law. Raman and Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements show that the primary structural features created by proton irradiation are the centers: GR1, ND1, TR12 and 3H. The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) Monte Carlo simulations together with SQUID observations show a strong correlation between vacancy production, proton fluence and the paramagnetic factor. At an average surface vacancy spacing of ≈1–1.6 nm and bulk (peak) vacancy spacing of ≈0.3-0.5 nm Curie paramagnetism is induced by formation of ND1 centres with an effective magnetic moment μ{sub eff}~(0.1–0.2)μ{sub B}. No evidence of long range magnetic ordering is observed in the temperature range 4.2-300 K. - Highlights: • Proton macro-irradiation of pure diamond creates fluence dependent paramagnetism. • The effective magnetic moment is found to be in the range μ{sub eff}~(0.1–0.2)μ{sub B}. • No evidence of long range magnetic ordering is observed.

  1. Magnetic properties of point defects in proton irradiated diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makgato, T.N.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Ramos, M.A.; García-Hernández, M.; Climent-Font, A.; Zucchiatti, A.; Muñoz-Martin, A.; Shrivastava, S.; Erasmus, R.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the magnetic properties of ultra-pure type-IIa diamond following irradiation with proton beams of ≈1–2 MeV energy. SQUID magnetometry indicate the formation of Curie type paramagnetism according to the Curie law. Raman and Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements show that the primary structural features created by proton irradiation are the centers: GR1, ND1, TR12 and 3H. The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) Monte Carlo simulations together with SQUID observations show a strong correlation between vacancy production, proton fluence and the paramagnetic factor. At an average surface vacancy spacing of ≈1–1.6 nm and bulk (peak) vacancy spacing of ≈0.3-0.5 nm Curie paramagnetism is induced by formation of ND1 centres with an effective magnetic moment μ eff ~(0.1–0.2)μ B . No evidence of long range magnetic ordering is observed in the temperature range 4.2-300 K. - Highlights: • Proton macro-irradiation of pure diamond creates fluence dependent paramagnetism. • The effective magnetic moment is found to be in the range μ eff ~(0.1–0.2)μ B . • No evidence of long range magnetic ordering is observed.

  2. Localization of primary aldosteronism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagny, J.Y.; Chatellier, G.; Raynaud, A.; Plouin, P.F.; Corvol, P.

    1988-01-01

    After diagnosis of primary aldosteronism on the basis of biochemical evidence, the detection of the tumour is of crucial importance in the management of the disease. The efficacy of CT-Scan, Iodo-Cholesterol Scintigraphy, digitalized phlebography, adrenal vein sampling for steroid measurements (AVS), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) in 160 hypertensive patients with primary aldosteronism was reviewed. Diagnosis of Conn's adenoma (n=96) or Adrenal Hyperplasia (n=40) was confirmed by surgery or at least two concordant tumour localization tests. Scintigraphy gave a correct diagnosis in 53% of the 51 exams, CT-Scan in 82% of the 85 exams, and phlebography in 79% of 61 exams. Plasma Aldosterone/ Cortisol ratio was 5 times higher on the side of adenoma in 55% of the 47 cases but this ratio was also present in 23% of 22 patients with adrenal hyperplasia. Each procedure exhibited few false positive and false negative cases. NMR performed in 15 patients with Conn's adenoma identified all the cases. But tumours displayed a signal close to the liver signal and identical to the normal adrenal. These results and the risk of invasive procedure (failure of catheterization of the right adrenal vein (n=6) and adrenal haematoma (n=2) lead to propose a schema of exploration of patients with primary aldosteronism. The CT-Scan could be performed at the first step once the biological diagnosis confirmed. Phlebography and AVS will be performed only if tumour was less than 1 cm at the CT-Scan despite important biological abnormalities. This schema requires to be validated by a prospective evaluation [fr

  3. Feasibility of low-cost magnetic rail designs by integrating ferrite magnets and NdFeB magnets for HTS Maglev systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, R. X.; Deng, Z. G.; Gou, Y. F.; Li, Y. J.; Zheng, J.; Wang, S. Y.; Wang, J. S.

    2015-09-01

    Permanent magnet guideway (PMG) is an indispensable part of high temperature superconducting (HTS) Maglev systems. Present PMGs are made of NdFeB magnets with excellent performance and cost much. As another permanent magnet material, the ferrite magnet is weak at magnetic energy product and coercive force, but inexpensive. So, it is a possible way to integrate the ferrite and NdFeB magnets for cutting down the cost of present PMGs. In the paper, the equivalent on magnetic field intensity between ferrite magnets and NdFeB magnets was evaluated by finite element simulation. According to the calculation results, the magnetic field of the PMG integrating ferrite magnets and NdFeB magnets can be increased remarkably comparing with the pure ferrite PMG. It indicates that low-cost PMG designs by integrating the two permanent magnet materials are feasible for the practical HTS Maglev system.

  4. Investigations on magnetic field induced optical transparency in magnetic nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Dillip Kumar; Philip, John

    2018-02-01

    We study the magnetic field induced optical transparency and its origin in magnetic nanoemulsion of droplets of average size ∼200 nm containing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Beyond a certain volume fraction (Φ > 0.0021) of magnetic nanoemulsion and a critical magnetic field (Hc1), the transmitted light intensity increases drastically and reaches a maximum at another critical magnetic field (Hc2), beyond which the transmitted light intensity decreases and reaches a plateau. Interestingly, the transmitted light intensity at Hc2 is found to increase linearly with Φ and the critical magnetic fields Hc1 and Hc2 follow power law decay with Φ (i.e. Hc ∼ Φ-x), with exponents 0.48 and 0.27, respectively. The light intensity recovers to its initial value when the magnetic field is switched off, indicating the perfect reversibility of the field induced transparency process. The observed straight line scattered patterns above Hc2, on a screen placed perpendicular to the incident beam, confirms the formation of rod like anisotropic nanostructures perpendicular to the direction of light propagation. The magneto-optical measurements in the emulsion confirm that the observed field induced transparency in magnetic emulsions for Φ > 0.0021 is due to the optical birefringence caused by the rod like nanostructures. The reduced birefringence is found to be proportional to the square of the applied magnetic field. This finding offers several possibilities in using magnetic nanofluids in tunable optical devices.

  5. Design of combined magnetic field system for magnetic-bottle time-of-flight spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chao; Tian Jinshou; Zhang Meizhi; Kang Yifan

    2011-01-01

    Based on the primary requirement for the magnetic field system in magnetic-bottle time-of-flight spectrometer, an appropriate combined inhomogeneous magnetic field system is designed. The inhomogeneous higher magnetic field part, with the highest field of 1.2 T, is produced by the combination of a permanent magnet and a pole piece with optimized shape. The magnet,known as NdFeB magnet,is one of rare earth permanent magnets in N52. The guiding uniform magnetic field of 1.0 x 10 -3 T is provided by solenoid, with length of 3 m and radius of 3 cm. The pitch between the pole piece and the near end of used solenoid is determined to be 5 cm, which can satisfy the actual engineering needs. (authors)

  6. eHealth indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HYPPÖNEN, Hannele; AMMENWERTH, Elske; Nøhr, Christian

    2012-01-01

    eHealth indicators are needed to measure defined aspects of national eHealth implementations. However, until now, eHealth indicators are ambiguous or unclear. Therefore, an expert workshop "Towards an International Minimum Dataset for Monitoring National Health Information System Implementations......" was organized. The objective was to develop ideas for a minimum eHealth indicator set. The proposed ideas for indicators were classified based on EUnetHTA and De-Lone & McClean, and classification was compared with health IT evaluation criteria classification by Ammenwerth & Keizer. Analysis of the workshop...... results emphasized the need for a common methodological framework for defining and classifying eHealth indicators. It also showed the importance of setting the indicators into context. The results will benefit policy makers, developers and researchers in pursuit of provision and use of evidence...

  7. Float level indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishchuk, M.Kh.; Laptev, A.G.; Pashkov, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    Specially developed level indicator is suggested with differential to-transformer converter of the float motion, operating in line with a movable electronic block, intended for indicating the level of the dissociating nitrogen tetroxide liquid phase. On the basis of the indicator elements the device is realized to measure the time of calibrated volume fillino. in by liquid nitrogen tetroxide in steady state operation of the experimental bench-marks [ru

  8. Three-dimensional quadrupole lenses made with permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of accelerator systems with quadrupole magnets can be improved by using permanent magnets in quadrupole lenses. This requires better methods for treating the three-dimensional nature of the magnetic fields and the nonlinear characteristics of the magnets. A numerical method is described for simulating three-dimensional magnetic fields and used to analyze quadrupole lenses and doublets with permanent magnets. The results, which are confirmed experimentally, indicate that both the quadrupole magnetic gradient and the effective field length are changed in permanent-magnet quadrupole lenses when the pole lengths and the gap between the lenses are varied while the other characteristics of the magnets remain unchanged

  9. Magnetic manipulation device for the optimization of cell processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Kato, Ryuji; Ino, Kosuke; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2010-02-01

    Variability in human cell phenotypes make it's advancements in optimized cell processing necessary for personalized cell therapy. Here we propose a strategy of palm-top sized device to assist physically manipulating cells for optimizing cell preparations. For the design of such a device, we combined two conventional approaches: multi-well plate formatting and magnetic cell handling using magnetite cationic liposomes (MCLs). From our previous works, we showed the labeling applications of MCL on adhesive cells for various tissue engineering approaches. To feasibly transfer cells in multi-well plate, we here evaluated the magnetic response of MCL-labeled suspension type cells. The cell handling performance of Jurkat cells proved to be faster and more robust compared to MACS (Magnetic Cell Sorting) bead methods. To further confirm our strategy, prototype palm-top sized device "magnetic manipulation device (MMD)" was designed. In the device, the actual cell transportation efficacy of Jurkat cells was satisfying. Moreover, as a model of the most distributed clinical cell processing, primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from different volunteers were evaluated. By MMD, individual PBMCs indicated to have optimum Interleukin-2 (IL-2) concentrations for the expansion. Such huge differences of individual cells indicated that MMD, our proposing efficient and self-contained support tool, could assist the feasible and cost-effective optimization of cell processing in clinical facilities. Copyright (c) 2009 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Climate Change Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presents information, charts and graphs showing measured climate changes across 40 indicators related to greenhouse gases, weather and climate, oceans, snow and ice, heath and society, and ecosystems.

  11. VP Ellipsis without Indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardt, Daniel; Asher, Nicholas; Hunter, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares two views on the status of indices in syntactic and logical representations. On a structural view, indices are syntactic formants on a par with node labels and phrase bracketings, and are thus a part of the logical forms that are derived from syntactic representations. On the ......This paper compares two views on the status of indices in syntactic and logical representations. On a structural view, indices are syntactic formants on a par with node labels and phrase bracketings, and are thus a part of the logical forms that are derived from syntactic representations...

  12. Diagnostic apparatus employing nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, K.; Yamada, N.; Yoshitome, E.; Matsuura, H.

    1987-01-01

    An NMR diagnostic apparatus is described comprising means for applying a primary magnetic field to a subject; means for applying RF pulses to the subject to give nuclear magnetic resonance to the nuclei of atoms in the subject; means for applying gradient magnetic fields to project an NMR signal of the nuclei at least in one direction; means for observing the NMR signal projected by the gradient magnetic fields applying means; and arithmetic means for constructing a distribution of information on resonance energy as an image from an output signal from the observing means; wherein the gradient magnetic fields applying means comprises means for applying the gradient magnetic fields at a predetermined time and for not applying the gradient magnetic fields at another predetermined time, during the time period of one view; and wherein the gradient magnetic fields applying means further comprises means for measuring the NMR signal during the predetermined time when the gradient magnetic fields are applied, and means for measuring the intensity of the primary magnetic field during the other predetermined time when no gradient magnetic fields are applied

  13. Magnetization of three Nubia Sandstone formations from Central Western Desert of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. El-Shayeb

    2013-06-01

    The first magnetic component obtained from the two older formations is considered primary, as the corresponding pole reflects the age when compared with the previously obtained Cretaceous poles for North Africa. On other hand, the second pole obtained from the Maghrabi formation (the younger is inconsistent with the Cretaceous pole positions for North Africa, but falls closer to the Eocene pole indicating that the rocks of this formation could have suffered remagnetization during the late Eocene time.

  14. Cancer of unknown primary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Yderstræde, Knud Bonnet; Gerke, Oke

    2017-01-01

    210 (38.7%) had a CUP diagnosis confirmed. Within the cohort, 347 patients (64.0%) had a registration in CR matching with the NPR registration. Exposure to diagnostic procedures included biopsy (n = 439, 81.0%) and image modalities (n = 532, 98.2%). Survival was poor with 67 (12.4%) individuals alive...... after 4 years.The validity of a CUP diagnosis in NPR was low when using data from CR as reference. More than half the suspected CUP patients had a previous cancer diagnosis with CUP being the most frequent. Patients were diagnosed in compliance with guidelines indicating high external validity, but less...... than 1 quarter had their primary identified and the 1-year survival was approximately 20%. Research is needed to develop efficacious methods for primary detection....

  15. Review of MFTF yin-yang magnet displacement and magnetic field measurements and calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, C.L.; Myall, J.O.; Wohlwend, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    During the recent testing of the MFTF yin-yang magnet, measurements of coil position, structural case strain, and magnetic field were made to verify calculated values. Measurements to detect magnet movement were taken throughout cooldown and during the operation of the magnet. The magnetic field at the mirror points was measured by Hall-effect probes. The magnet position, structural case strain, and magntic field measurements indicated a reasonably close correlation with calculated values. Information obtained from the yin-yang test has been very useful in setting realistic mechanical alignment values for the new MFTF-B magnet system

  16. MTN magnet for the SPS extracted beam.

    CERN Document Server

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    This type of dipole magnet was used in the extracted beam lines of the North Area. It shows an opening for three different proton beam lines: a primary extracted proton beam, split by an upstream magnetic beam splitter (see photo 7612017) into three separated beams passes through different parts of its aperture: right, left up, left down. These magnets were designed to be concrete-insulated for radiation resistance. F. Streun stands on the right.

  17. Magnetic monopole search experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental searches for the elusive magnetic monopole have extended over 50 years -- ever since Dirac showed that the existence of isolated magnetic charges could account for the observation of quantized electric charge. Early searches for Dirac's monopole were hampered since there was no indication of the expected monopole mass, velocity, or origin in the theory. Consequently, numerous experiments searched more or less blindly for relativistic low mass monopoles in the cosmic rays and in particle collisions at high energy accelerators. In this paper, the author reviews briefly the monopole properties which are relevant for their detection and summarize current experimental efforts using induction, ionization/excitation, and catalysis techniques

  18. Solar magnetism: a new look

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golub, L.

    1981-01-01

    With the growing evidence for the ubiquity of magnetic fields, researchers feel a growing need for an adequate theory for the generation of such fields in nature. This article looks at the sun and its magnetic fields. The fundamental property that must be explained aside from the existence of magnetic fields is the solar cycle. The traditional picture of the solar cycle has three primary components: (1) solar activity; (2) latitude migration; and (3) Hale's law and reversal of polarity. The aspects of internal motion which can generate magnetic fields and cycles of activity like those observed are discussed. There are two major elements to the flow patterns of the sun. More important than the visible differential rotation of solar surface is the belief that the sun's interior rotates faster than the surface. It is this mechanism which probably produces the magnetic fields which bubble up from interior. It's also possible to show that this mechanism can produce the migration of solar activity. The reversal of polarity is explained by convection zones and sun's rotation. Due to x-ray imaging and improved magnetic field measurements, it has been observed that enormous quantities of magnetic flux emerge from solar interior in form of very small regions. This data along with rocket data show that the rate of generation of magnetic flux does not change during a solar cycle - instead, the observed cycle represents a shift from large emerging regions to numerous small regions and back again

  19. Quality indicators in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cionini, Luca; Gardani, Gianstefano; Gabriele, Pietro; Magri, Secondo; Morosini, Pier Luigi; Rosi, Antonella; Viti, Vincenza

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: There is a widespread and increasing tendency to develop hospital performance indicators in the field of accreditation/certification systems and quality benchmarking. A study has been undertaken to develop a set of performance indicators for a typical radiotherapy Centre and to evaluate their ability to provide a continuous quality improvement. Materials and methods: A working group consisting of radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiation technologists under the coordination of experts in health technology assessment has elaborated a set of general indicators able to monitor performances and the quality level of a typical radiotherapy Centre. The work has been carried out through four steps: a preliminary set of indicators was selected; data on these indicators were collected in a number of Italian radiotherapy Centres and medical physics Services; problems in collection and analysis of data were discussed; a final set of indicators was developed. Results: A final set of 13 indicators is here presented. They concern general structural and/or operational features, health physics activities and accuracy and technical complexity of the treatment. Conclusions: The indicators tested in a few Italian Centres of radiotherapy and medical physics Services are now ready to be utilized by a larger community

  20. Indicators of sustainable tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dobrica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The indicators, precisely describing the linkages between tourism and the environment, social and cultural base, are not easily available. How ever, some relevant organizations (WTO, EU, OECD, etc., institutions and experts, have been hardly working to create the indicators of sustainable tourism. Whereas the economic objectives are easily defined by the use of the traditional indicators used in national and business economics, it is very difficult to identify widely applicable environmental, social and cultural indicators. In order to stimulate and alleviate the process of sustainable tourism development, EU created the list of comparative indicators of sustainable tourism. In preparing this list, special attention is paid to identification of valid indicators of real tourism impacts on the social and cultural environment (the entire set of traditions, customs, history, hospitality and culture that characterize a given area, that is a very complex task. Assuming the fact that the related indicators have been analyzed in many European countries, this paper is focused on applying the related indicators in research of tourism development in villages of the Kosjerić community. .

  1. Key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without

  2. Indicators for environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    . In this study, we reviewed indicators applied in life cycle assessment (LCA), planetary boundary framework (PB), and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) developed under United Nation. The aim is to 1) identify their applications and relevant decision context; 2) Review their indicators and categorize them...

  3. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birčiaková Naďa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determine what factors influence each indicator and what factors affect living standards. We have chosen regression analysis as our main method. From the study of factors, we can deduce their impact on living standards, and thus the value of indicators of living standards. Indicators with a high degree of reliability include the following factors: size and density of population, health care and spending on education. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also have a certain lower degree of reliability.

  4. Magnetic novae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemko, Polina; Orio, Marina

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of optical and X-ray observations of two quiescent novae, V2491 Cyg and V4743 Sgr. Our observations suggest the intriguing possibility of localization of hydrogen burning in magnetic novae, in which accretion is streamed to the polar caps. V2491 Cyg was observed with Suzaku more than 2 years after the outburst and V4743 Sgr was observed with XMM Newton 2 and 3.5 years after maximum. In the framework of a monitoring program of novae previously observed as super soft X-ray sources we also obtained optical spectra of V4743 Sgr with the SALT telescope 11.5 years after the eruption and of V2491 Cyg with the 6m Big Azimutal Telescope 4 and 7 years post-outburst. In order to confirm the possible white dwarf spin period of V2491 Cyg measured in the Suzaku observations we obtained photometric data using the 90cm WIYN telescope at Kitt Peak and the 1.2 m telescope in Crimea. We found that V4743 Sgr is an intermediate polar (IP) and V2491 Cyg is a strong IP candidate. Both novae show modulation of their X-ray light curves and have X-ray spectra typical of IPs. The Suzaku and XMM Newton exposures revealed that the spectra of both novae have a very soft blackbody-like component with a temperature close to that of the hydrogen burning white dwarfs in their SSS phases, but with flux by at least two orders of magnitude lower, implying a possible shrinking of emitting regions in the thin atmosphere that is heated by nuclear burning underneath it. In quiescent IPs, independently of the burning, an ultrasoft X-ray flux component originates at times in the polar regions irradiated by the accretion column, but the soft component of V4743 Sgr disappeared in 2006, indicating that the origin may be different from accretion. We suggest it may have been due to an atmospheric temperature gradient on the white dwarf surface, or to continuing localized thermonuclear burning at the bottom of the envelope, before complete turn-off. The optical spectra of V2491 Cyg and V

  5. Rare earth permanent magnet with easy magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.S.; Camp, F.E.

    1998-01-01

    Rare earth permanent magnets have high energy products and coercivities, and thus the volume miniaturization of magnetic devices has been possible with improved magnetic performance. Although the high energy products of these rare earth permanent magnets provide substantial advantages for magnetic design and application, the strong magnetic force of the magnetized magnets makes assembly difficult. Therefore, a special device is needed to assemble the magnetized magnets. On the other hand, unmagnetized magnets are assembled and then they are magnetized. The assembled magnets are generally more difficult to magnetize than unassembled magnets because a much less effective magnetic field may be applied to them. This is particularly true for the rare earth permanent magnets because they usually need a much higher magnetic field to be fully magnetized than alnico or ferrite magnets. To obtain optimum magnetic properties, the required minimum magnetizing fields for SmCo 5 , Sm 2 TM 17 and Nd 2 Fe 14 B magnets were reported as 25-30 kOe, 45-60 kOe and 25-30 kOe, respectively. If the required magnetizing field for full saturation could be lowered, the effective utilization of magnetic properties would be maximized and the magnetic design option could be expanded with reduced restrictions. To meet this demand, we have sought to lower the field required for full magnetic saturation, and found that an increase in Dy content in R-(Fe,Co,Cu)-B type magnets lowers the field required for full saturation as well as improves the temperature stability. By increasing the H ci with Dy addition from 14 kOe to 24 and 34 kOe, the field required for full magnetic saturation decreases from about 20 to 15 and 10 kOe, respectively. This dual benefit will open up new application areas with more freedom for magnet design options. The mechanism for the lower magnetizing fields will be discussed. (orig.)

  6. Magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryberger, D.

    1984-12-01

    In this talk on magnetic monopoles, first the author briefly reviews some historical background; then, the author describes what several different types of monopoles might look like; and finally the author discusses the experimental situation. 81 references

  7. Quantum magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Johannes; Farnell, Damian; Bishop, Raymod

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of magnetic systems where quantum effects play a dominant role has become a very active branch of solid-state-physics research in its own right. The first three chapters of the "Quantum Magnetism" survey conceptual problems and provide insights into the classes of systems considered, namely one-dimensional, two-dimensional and molecular magnets. The following chapters introduce the methods used in the field of quantum magnetism, including spin wave analysis, exact diagonalization, quantum field theory, coupled cluster methods and the Bethe ansatz. The book closes with a chapter on quantum phase transitions and a contribution that puts the wealth of phenomena into the context of experimental solid-state physics. Closing a gap in the literature, this volume is intended both as an introductory text at postgraduate level and as a modern, comprehensive reference for researchers in the field.

  8. Magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preskill, J

    1984-01-01

    This article offers a review of the physics of the magnetic monopole, which, although as yet unseen, offers sound theoretical reasons to believe that it must exist. Several theories are presented and equations are given. The idea that magnetic monopoles, stable particles carrying magnetic charges, ought to exist has, according to the authors, proved to be very durable. One theory presented demonstrates the consistency of magnetic monopoles with quantum electrodynamics. Another theory demonstrates the necessity of monopoles in grand unified gauge theories. The authors believe it is reasonable to expect the monopole to be an extremely heavy stable elementary particle. The stability of the classical monopole solution given is ensured by a topological principle explained

  9. Magnetic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jane Bray; Nelson, Jim

    1992-01-01

    Describes the history of Richard Blakemore's discovery of magnetotaxic organisms. Discusses possible reasons why the magnetic response in bacteria developed. Proposes research experiments integrating biology and physics in which students investigate problems using cultures of magnetotaxic organisms. (MDH)

  10. LHC magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Preparations for the LHC proton collider to be built in CERN's LEP tunnel continue to make good progress. In particular development work for the high field superconducting magnets to guide the almost 8 TeVproton beams through the 'tight' curve of the 27-kilometre ring are proceeding well, while the magnet designs and lattice configuration are evolving in the light of ongoing experience. At the Evian LHC Experiments meeting, this progress was covered by Giorgio Brianti

  11. Core damage risk indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to show a method for the fast recalculation of the PSA. To avoid the information loose, it is necessary to simplify the PSA models, or at least reorganize them. The method, introduced in this document, require that preparation, so we try to show, how to do that. This document is an introduction. This is the starting point of the work related to the development of the risk indicators. In the future, with the application of this method, we are going to show an everyday use of the PSA results to produce the indicators of the core damage risk. There are two different indicators of the plant safety performance, related to the core damage risk. The first is the core damage frequency indicator (CDFI), and the second is the core damage probability indicator (CDPI). Of course, we cannot describe all of the possible ways to use these indicators, rather we will try to introduce the requirements to establish such an indicator system and the calculation process

  12. High Statistics Measurement of the Positron Fraction in Primary Cosmic Rays of 0.5–500 GeV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Accardo, L; Aisa, D; Alpat, B; Alvino, A; Ambrosi, G; Andeen, K; Arruda, L; Attig, N; Azzarello, P; Bachlechner, A; Barao, F; Barrau, A; Barrin, L; Bartoloni, A; Basara, L; Battarbee, M; Battiston, R; Bazo, J; Becker, U; Behlmann, M; Beischer, B; Berdugo, J; Bertucci, B; Bigongiari, G; Bindi, V; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Boella, G; de Boer, W; Bollweg, K; Bonnivard, V; Borgia, B; Borsini, S; Boschini, M J; Bourquin, M; Burger, J; Cadoux, F; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Caroff, S; Carosi, G; Casaus, J; Cascioli, V; Castellini, G; Cernuda, I; Cerreta, D; Cervelli, F; Chae, M J; Chang, Y H; Chen, A I; Chen, H; Cheng, G M; Chen, H S; Cheng, L; Chikanian, A; Chou, H Y; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Chung, C H; Cindolo, F; Clark, C; Clavero, R; Coignet, G; Consolandi, C; Contin, A; Corti, C; Coste, B; Cui, Z; Dai, M; Delgado, C; Della Torre, S; Demirköz, M B; Derome, L; Di Falco, S; Di Masso, L; Dimiccoli, F; Díaz, C; von Doetinchem, P; Du, W J; Duranti, M; D’Urso, D; Eline, A; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Fan, Y Y; Farnesini, L; Feng, J; Fiandrini, E; Fiasson, A; Finch, E; Fisher, P; Galaktionov, Y; Gallucci, G; García, B; García-López, R; Gast, H; Gebauer, I; Gervasi, M; Ghelfi, A; Gillard, W; Giovacchini, F; Goglov, P; Gong, J; Goy, C; Grabski, V; Grandi, D; Graziani, M; Guandalini, C; Guerri, I; Guo, K H; Haas, D; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Han, K C; He, Z H; Heil, M; Henning, R; Hoffman, J; Hsieh, T H; Huang, Z C; Huh, C; Incagli, M; Ionica, M; Jang, W Y; Jinchi, H; Kanishev, K; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Kirn, Th; Kossakowski, R; Kounina, O; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V; Krafczyk, M S; Kunz, S; La Vacca, G; Laudi, E; Laurenti, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lebedev, A; Lee, H T; Lee, S C; Leluc, C; Levi, G; Li, H L; Li, J Q; Li, Q; Li, Q; Li, T X; Li, W; Li, Y; Li, Z H; Li, Z Y; Lim, S; Lin, C H; Lipari, P; Lippert, T; Liu, D; Liu, H; Lolli, M; Lomtadze, T; Lu, M J; Lu, Y S; Luebelsmeyer, K; Luo, F; Luo, J Z; Lv, S S; Majka, R; Malinin, A; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Martin, T; Martínez, G; Masi, N; Massera, F; Maurin, D; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meng, Q; Mo, D C; Monreal, B; Morescalchi, L; Mott, P; Müller, M; Ni, J Q; Nikonov, N; Nozzoli, F; Nunes, P; Obermeier, A; Oliva, A; Orcinha, M; Palmonari, F; Palomares, C; Paniccia, M; Papi, A; Pauluzzi, M; Pedreschi, E; Pensotti, S; Pereira, R; Pilastrini, R; Pilo, F; Piluso, A; Pizzolotto, C; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Poireau, V; Postaci, E; Putze, A; Quadrani, L; Qi, X M; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Ricol, J S; Rodríguez, I; Rosier-Lees, S; Rossi, L; Rozhkov, A; Rozza, D; Rybka, G; Sagdeev, R; Sandweiss, J; Saouter, P; Sbarra, C; Schael, S; Schmidt, S M; Schuckardt, D; Schulz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shan, B S; Shan, Y H; Shi, J Y; Shi, X Y; Shi, Y M; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Spada, F; Spinella, F; Sun, W; Sun, W H; Tacconi, M; Tang, C P; Tang, X W; Tang, Z C; Tao, L; Tescaro, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tomassetti, N; Torsti, J; Türkoğlu, C; Urban, T; Vagelli, V; Valente, E; Vannini, C; Valtonen, E; Vaurynovich, S; Vecchi, M; Velasco, M; Vialle, J P; Vitale, V; Volpini, G; Wang, L Q; Wang, Q L; Wang, R S; Wang, X; Wang, Z X; Weng, Z L; Whitman, K; Wienkenhöver, J; Wu, H; Wu, K Y; Xia, X; Xie, M; Xie, S; Xiong, R Q; Xin, G M; Xu, N S; Xu, W; Yan, Q; Yang, J; Yang, M; Ye, Q H; Yi, H; Yu, Y J; Yu, Z Q; Zeissler, S; Zhang, J H; Zhang, M T; Zhang, X B; Zhang, Z; Zheng, Z M; Zhou, F; Zhuang, H L; Zhukov, V; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, N; Zuccon, P; Zurbach, C

    2014-01-01

    A precision measurement by AMS of the positron fraction in primary cosmic rays in the energy range from 0.5 to 500 GeV based on 10.9 million positron and electron events is presented. This measurement extends the energy range of our previous observation and increases its precision. The new results show, for the first time, that above ∼200  GeV the positron fraction no longer exhibits an increase with energy.

  13. Precision Measurement of the Proton Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays from Rigidity 1 GV to 1.8 TV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M.; Aisa, D.; Alpat, B.; Alvino, A.; Ambrosi, G.; Andeen, K.; Arruda, L.; Attig, N.; Azzarello, P.; Bachlechner, A.; Barao, F.; Barrau, A.; Barrin, L.; Bartoloni, A.; Basara, L.; Battarbee, M.; Battiston, R.; Bazo, J.; Becker, U.; Behlmann, M.; Beischer, B.; Berdugo, J.; Bertucci, B.; Bigongiari, G.; Bindi, V.; Bizzaglia, S.; Bizzarri, M.; Boella, G.; de Boer, W.; Bollweg, K.; Bonnivard, V.; Borgia, B.; Borsini, S.; Boschini, M. J.; Bourquin, M.; Burger, J.; Cadoux, F.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caroff, S.; Casaus, J.; Cascioli, V.; Castellini, G.; Cernuda, I.; Cerreta, D.; Cervelli, F.; Chae, M. J.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, A. I.; Chen, H.; Cheng, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Cheng, L.; Chou, H. Y.; Choumilov, E.; Choutko, V.; Chung, C. H.; Clark, C.; Clavero, R.; Coignet, G.; Consolandi, C.; Contin, A.; Corti, C.; Gil, E. Cortina; Coste, B.; Creus, W.; Crispoltoni, M.; Cui, Z.; Dai, Y. M.; Delgado, C.; Della Torre, S.; Demirköz, M. B.; Derome, L.; Di Falco, S.; Di Masso, L.; Dimiccoli, F.; Díaz, C.; von Doetinchem, P.; Donnini, F.; Du, W. J.; Duranti, M.; D'Urso, D.; Eline, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Eronen, T.; Fan, Y. Y.; Farnesini, L.; Feng, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fiasson, A.; Finch, E.; Fisher, P.; Galaktionov, Y.; Gallucci, G.; García, B.; García-López, R.; Gargiulo, C.; Gast, H.; Gebauer, I.; Gervasi, M.; Ghelfi, A.; Gillard, W.; Giovacchini, F.; Goglov, P.; Gong, J.; Goy, C.; Grabski, V.; Grandi, D.; Graziani, M.; Guandalini, C.; Guerri, I.; Guo, K. H.; Haas, D.; Habiby, M.; Haino, S.; Han, K. C.; He, Z. H.; Heil, M.; Hoffman, J.; Hsieh, T. H.; Huang, Z. C.; Huh, C.; Incagli, M.; Ionica, M.; Jang, W. Y.; Jinchi, H.; Kanishev, K.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, K. S.; Kirn, Th.; Kossakowski, R.; Kounina, O.; Kounine, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Krafczyk, M. S.; La Vacca, G.; Laudi, E.; Laurenti, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, H. T.; Lee, S. C.; Leluc, C.; Levi, G.; Li, H. L.; Li, J. Q.; Li, Q.; Li, Q.; Li, T. X.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Lim, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lipari, P.; Lippert, T.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Lolli, M.; Lomtadze, T.; Lu, M. J.; Lu, S. Q.; Lu, Y. S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luo, J. Z.; Lv, S. S.; Majka, R.; Mañá, C.; Marín, J.; Martin, T.; Martínez, G.; Masi, N.; Maurin, D.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meng, Q.; Mo, D. C.; Morescalchi, L.; Mott, P.; Müller, M.; Ni, J. Q.; Nikonov, N.; Nozzoli, F.; Nunes, P.; Obermeier, A.; Oliva, A.; Orcinha, M.; Palmonari, F.; Palomares, C.; Paniccia, M.; Papi, A.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pedreschi, E.; Pensotti, S.; Pereira, R.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Pilo, F.; Piluso, A.; Pizzolotto, C.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Poireau, V.; Postaci, E.; Putze, A.; Quadrani, L.; Qi, X. M.; Qin, X.; Qu, Z. Y.; Räihä, T.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rapin, D.; Ricol, J. S.; Rodríguez, I.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rozhkov, A.; Rozza, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Saouter, P.; Sbarra, C.; Schael, S.; Schmidt, S. M.; von Dratzig, A. Schulz; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E. S.; Shan, B. S.; Shan, Y. H.; Shi, J. Y.; Shi, X. Y.; Shi, Y. M.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Spada, F.; Spinella, F.; Sun, W.; Sun, W. H.; Tacconi, M.; Tang, C. P.; Tang, X. W.; Tang, Z. C.; Tao, L.; Tescaro, D.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tomassetti, N.; Torsti, J.; Türkoǧlu, C.; Urban, T.; Vagelli, V.; Valente, E.; Vannini, C.; Valtonen, E.; Vaurynovich, S.; Vecchi, M.; Velasco, M.; Vialle, J. P.; Vitale, V.; Vitillo, S.; Wang, L. Q.; Wang, N. H.; Wang, Q. L.; Wang, R. S.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z. X.; Weng, Z. L.; Whitman, K.; Wienkenhöver, J.; Wu, H.; Wu, X.; Xia, X.; Xie, M.; Xie, S.; Xiong, R. Q.; Xin, G. M.; Xu, N. S.; Xu, W.; Yan, Q.; Yang, J.; Yang, M.; Ye, Q. H.; Yi, H.; Yu, Y. J.; Yu, Z. Q.; Zeissler, S.; Zhang, J. H.; Zhang, M. T.; Zhang, X. B.; Zhang, Z.; Zheng, Z. M.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zhukov, V.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, N.; Zuccon, P.; Zurbach, C.; AMS Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    A precise measurement of the proton flux in primary cosmic rays with rigidity (momentum/charge) from 1 GV to 1.8 TV is presented based on 300 million events. Knowledge of the rigidity dependence of the proton flux is important in understanding the origin, acceleration, and propagation of cosmic rays. We present the detailed variation with rigidity of the flux spectral index for the first time. The spectral index progressively hardens at high rigidities.

  14. High Statistics Measurement of the Positron Fraction in Primary Cosmic Rays of 0.5-500 GeV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardo, L.; Aguilar, M.; Aisa, D.; Alvino, A.; Ambrosi, G.; Andeen, K.; Arruda, L.; Attig, N.; Azzarello, P.; Bachlechner, A.; Barao, F.; Barrau, A.; Barrin, L.; Bartoloni, A.; Basara, L.; Battarbee, M.; Battiston, R.; Bazo, J.; Becker, U.; Behlmann, M.; Beischer, B.; Berdugo, J.; Bertucci, B.; Bigongiari, G.; Bindi, V.; Bizzaglia, S.; Bizzarri, M.; Boella, G.; de Boer, W.; Bollweg, K.; Bonnivard, V.; Borgia, B.; Borsini, S.; Boschini, M. J.; Bourquin, M.; Burger, J.; Cadoux, F.; Cai, X. D.; Capell, M.; Caroff, S.; Casaus, J.; Cascioli, V.; Castellini, G.; Cernuda, I.; Cervelli, F.; Chae, M. J.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, A. I.; Chen, H.; Cheng, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Cheng, L.; Chikanian, A.; Chou, H. Y.; Choumilov, E.; Choutko, V.; Chung, C. H.; Clark, C.; Clavero, R.; Coignet, G.; Consolandi, C.; Contin, A.; Corti, C.; Coste, B.; Cui, Z.; Dai, M.; Delgado, C.; Della Torre, S.; Demirköz, M. B.; Derome, L.; Di Falco, S.; Di Masso, L.; Dimiccoli, F.; Díaz, C.; von Doetinchem, P.; Du, W. J.; Duranti, M.; D'Urso, D.; Eline, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Eronen, T.; Fan, Y. Y.; Farnesini, L.; Feng, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fiasson, A.; Finch, E.; Fisher, P.; Galaktionov, Y.; Gallucci, G.; García, B.; García-López, R.; Gast, H.; Gebauer, I.; Gervasi, M.; Ghelfi, A.; Gillard, W.; Giovacchini, F.; Goglov, P.; Gong, J.; Goy, C.; Grabski, V.; Grandi, D.; Graziani, M.; Guandalini, C.; Guerri, I.; Guo, K. H.; Habiby, M.; Haino, S.; Han, K. C.; He, Z. H.; Heil, M.; Hoffman, J.; Hsieh, T. H.; Huang, Z. C.; Huh, C.; Incagli, M.; Ionica, M.; Jang, W. Y.; Jinchi, H.; Kanishev, K.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, K. S.; Kirn, Th.; Kossakowski, R.; Kounina, O.; Kounine, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Krafczyk, M. S.; Kunz, S.; La Vacca, G.; Laudi, E.; Laurenti, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, H. T.; Lee, S. C.; Leluc, C.; Li, H. L.; Li, J. Q.; Li, Q.; Li, Q.; Li, T. X.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. H.; Li, Z. Y.; Lim, S.; Lin, C. H.; Lipari, P.; Lippert, T.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Lomtadze, T.; Lu, M. J.; Lu, Y. S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luo, F.; Luo, J. Z.; Lv, S. S.; Majka, R.; Malinin, A.; Mañá, C.; Marín, J.; Martin, T.; Martínez, G.; Masi, N.; Maurin, D.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meng, Q.; Mo, D. C.; Morescalchi, L.; Mott, P.; Müller, M.; Ni, J. Q.; Nikonov, N.; Nozzoli, F.; Nunes, P.; Obermeier, A.; Oliva, A.; Orcinha, M.; Palmonari, F.; Palomares, C.; Paniccia, M.; Papi, A.; Pedreschi, E.; Pensotti, S.; Pereira, R.; Pilo, F.; Piluso, A.; Pizzolotto, C.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Poireau, V.; Postaci, E.; Putze, A.; Quadrani, L.; Qi, X. M.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rapin, D.; Ricol, J. S.; Rodríguez, I.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rozhkov, A.; Rozza, D.; Sagdeev, R.; Sandweiss, J.; Saouter, P.; Sbarra, C.; Schael, S.; Schmidt, S. M.; Schuckardt, D.; von Dratzig, A. Schulz; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E. S.; Shan, B. S.; Shan, Y. H.; Shi, J. Y.; Shi, X. Y.; Shi, Y. M.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Spada, F.; Spinella, F.; Sun, W.; Sun, W. H.; Tacconi, M.; Tang, C. P.; Tang, X. W.; Tang, Z. C.; Tao, L.; Tescaro, D.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tomassetti, N.; Torsti, J.; Türkoǧlu, C.; Urban, T.; Vagelli, V.; Valente, E.; Vannini, C.; Valtonen, E.; Vaurynovich, S.; Vecchi, M.; Velasco, M.; Vialle, J. P.; Wang, L. Q.; Wang, Q. L.; Wang, R. S.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z. X.; Weng, Z. L.; Whitman, K.; Wienkenhöver, J.; Wu, H.; Xia, X.; Xie, M.; Xie, S.; Xiong, R. Q.; Xin, G. M.; Xu, N. S.; Xu, W.; Yan, Q.; Yang, J.; Yang, M.; Ye, Q. H.; Yi, H.; Yu, Y. J.; Yu, Z. Q.; Zeissler, S.; Zhang, J. H.; Zhang, M. T.; Zhang, X. B.; Zhang, Z.; Zheng, Z. M.; Zhuang, H. L.; Zhukov, V.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, N.; Zuccon, P.; Zurbach, C.; AMS Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    A precision measurement by AMS of the positron fraction in primary cosmic rays in the energy range from 0.5 to 500 GeV based on 10.9 million positron and electron events is presented. This measurement extends the energy range of our previous observation and increases its precision. The new results show, for the first time, that above ∼200 GeV the positron fraction no longer exhibits an increase with energy.

  15. Safety performance indicators program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, Patricia G.

    2004-01-01

    In 1997 the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) initiated a program to define and implement a Safety Performance Indicators System for the two operating nuclear power plants, Atucha I and Embalse. The objective of the program was to incorporate a set of safety performance indicators to be used as a new regulatory tool providing an additional view of the operational performance of the nuclear power plants, improving the ability to detect degradation on safety related areas. A set of twenty-four safety performance indicators was developed and improved throughout pilot implementation initiated in July 1998. This paper summarises the program development, the main criteria applied in each stage and the results obtained. (author)

  16. Solar Indices - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  17. NOHSS Child Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Data for School year-end 1994 through year-end 2016. State oral health surveys are the data sources for these indicators. States periodically conduct independent...

  18. NOHSS Adult Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2012-2014 (even years). Data from BRFSS for indicators of adult oral health for even years from 2012 through 2014. National estimates are represented by the median...

  19. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...

  20. Solar Indices - Sunspot Numbers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  1. Solar Indices Bulletin

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Solar Indices Bulletin is a prompt monthly information product that is distributed within two weeks after the observation month closes. For the month just ended,...

  2. Indicators and SEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    Abstract: Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation. Indicators can be seen as part of the implementation...... and if the information requirement for different target groups is not addressed. Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation...... process helping to understand, communicate and, integrate important environmental issues in planning and decision-making. On the other hand, use of indicators can also limit SEA effectiveness, if the ones chosen are biased or limited, if the aggregation gives incorrect interpretation...

  3. Fishery Performance Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Performance indicators for landings, effort, revenue and distribution of revenue are collected for various fisheries nation-wide. The fisheries include catch and...

  4. Indicators: Sediment Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment enzymes are proteins that are produced by microorganisms living in the sediment or soil. They are indicators of key ecosystem processes and can help determine which nutrients are affecting the biological community of a waterbody.

  5. Solar Indices - Plage Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  6. Solar Indices - Solar Ultraviolet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  7. Solar Indices - Solar Corona

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  8. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  9. NOHSS Child Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Data for School year-end 1994 through year-end 2017. State oral health surveys are the data sources for these indicators. States periodically conduct independent...

  10. Indicators of Ecological Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    H. 1990. Strategy for monitoring the effects of land use change on atmospheric CO2 concentrations . In Proceedings of “Global Natural Resource...Working Group in Santiago , Chile , February 1995, ten nations agreed to a comprehensive set of criteria and indicators for forest conservation and...chemistry variables, the concentrations of total and inorganic suspended sediments during baseflow and storm periods were excellent indicators of

  11. Magnetically tunable elasticity for magnetic hydrogels consisting of carrageenan and carbonyl iron particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumata, Tetsu; Honda, Atomu; Kanazawa, Hiroki; Kawai, Mika

    2012-10-11

    A new class of magnetoelastic gel that demonstrates drastic and reversible changes in storage modulus without using strong magnetic fields was obtained. The magnetic gel consists of carrageenan and carbonyl iron particles. The magnetic gel with a volume fraction of magnetic particles of 0.30 exhibited a reversible increase by a factor of 1400 of the storage modulus upon a magnetic field of 500 mT, which is the highest value in the past for magnetorheological soft materials. It is considered that the giant magnetoelastic behavior is caused by both high dispersibility and high mobility of magnetic particles in the carrageenan gel. The off-field storage modulus of the magnetic gel at volume fractions below 0.30 obeyed the Krieger-Dougherty equation, indicating random dispersion of magnetic particles. At 500 mT, the storage modulus was higher than 4.0 MPa, which is equal to that of magnetic fluids, indicating that the magnetic particles move and form a chain structure by magnetic fields. Morphological study revealed the evidence that the magnetic particles embedded in the gel were aligned in the direction of magnetic fields, accompanied by stretching of the gel network. We conclude that the giant magnetoelastic phenomenon originates from the chain structure consisting of magnetic particles similar to magnetic fluids.

  12. Air quality indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clench-Aas, Jocelyn; Guerreiro, Cristina; Bartonova, Alena

    1999-06-01

    This report proposes and describes in detail several air quality indicators that may be used to describe population exposure. The suggested indicators account for temporal and spatial patterns of pollution and movements of individuals between different micro-environments. The Air Quality Indicator /AQI) should represent both the spatial and temporal aspects of pollution exposure that may have important effects on health. Two indicators are needed, the Population Air Quality Indicator and the Individual Air Quality Indicator. Mean concentrations, 98th percentile and maximum values are the traditional indicators for estimating exposure. the temporal variability of PM-10 and NO 2 , however, is here described by means of: 1) The rate of change of pollution as the difference between two consecutive hourly values and of 2) episodes, described in terms of number, duration and winter episode period, maximum concentration in the episode and integrated episode exposure (episode AOT50/100). The spatial variation of AQIs can be described in several ways, e.g.: 1) Concentrations in neighbouring grid squares can be compared as an indication of spatial variation and 2) point estimates can be compared to grid values for a description of variation within a grid. Both methods are presented here. A test of the representativity of static point estimates for pollution exposure is to compare them to an estimate of air pollution exposure accounting for movements between different locations, obtained using diaries. The ultimate aim of AQIs is to describe the population exposure to ambient pollution. This is done by estimating the number of people exposed using different characteristics of AQIs. The data used to describe these indicators originates from dispersion modelling of short-term air pollution concentrations in Oslo. Two series of data are used. One represents hour-for hour concentrations in the 1 km 2 grid system covering the city of Oslo, winter 1994/95, calculated by the grid

  13. A gestão do Ensino Fundamental pelo governo do estado de São Paulo: uma análise do financiamento e dos indicadores sociais de educação (1980-1993 The management of the primary teaching by the S.P. state: an analysis of the loan and of the social indicators of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Fracalanza

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo contribui para a avaliação do Sistema Educacional de Ensino Fundamental gerido pelo governo do estado de São Paulo, por intermédio de sua Secretaria de Educação, no período de 1980 a 1993. Para tanto, foi realizado um estudo empírico do financiamento da educação no estado e agregadas informações de alguns indicadores sociais de educação.Mostra-se que, ao longo do período de análise, o volume de recursos alocado neste nível de ensino não evoluiu positivamente, embora tenha se ampliado significativamente o número de matrículas, bem como, proporcionalmente, a rede física e os recursos humanos. Uma das decorrências desse processo foi a brutal perda do poder aquisitivo do salário dos professores. Além disso, entre outros aspectos, evidencia-se a baixa eficiência do sistema de ensino, com elevadas taxas de repetência, práticas pedagógicas autoritárias, professores desmotivados e deficientes instalações dos estabelecimentos de ensino.This work contributes with the evaluation of the public primary education system administered by SEESP, the office that is responsible for public policies on education in the state of São Paulo (Brazil between the years of 1980 and 1993. In order to do so, an empirical study of the finances of the state of São Paulo was executed and some social indicators of education were added to this analysis. We show that the amount of resources destined to the primary level have not changed in a significant way during this period, although the enrolments have increased, as well as, proportionally, the physical and human resources. As a result of this process the teachers have experienced a huge loss in their purchasing power. On the evidence of high repetition rates, authoritarian pedagogical practices, lack of motivation of the teachers and deficient physical resources, we testify the inefficiency of the educational system.

  14. Magnetizing of permanent magnet using HTS bulk magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Tetsuo; Muraya, Tomoki; Kawasaki, Nobutaka; Fukui, Satoshi; Ogawa, Jun; Sato, Takao; Terasawa, Toshihisa

    2011-01-01

    A demagnetized Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet was scanned just above the magnetic pole containing the HTS bulk magnet, generating a magnetic field of 3.27 T. The magnet sample was subsequently found to be fully magnetized in the open space of the static magnetic fields. We examined the magnetic field distributions when the magnetic poles were scanned twice to activate the magnetic plates inversely with various overlap distances between the tracks of the HTS bulk magnet. The magnetic field of the 'rewritten' magnet reached the values of the magnetically saturated region of the material, showing steep gradients at the border of each magnetic pole. As a replacement for conventional pulse field magnetizing methods, this technique is proposed to expand the degree of freedom in the design of electromagnetic devices, and is proposed as a novel practical method for magnetizing rare-earth magnets, which have excellent magnetic performance and require intense fields of more than 3 T to be activated. (author)

  15. Indicators for energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruyt, Bert; Van Vuuren, D.P.; De Vries, H.J.M.; Groenenberg, H.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of energy security is widely used, yet there is no consensus on its precise interpretation. In this research, we have provided an overview of available indicators for long-term security of supply (SOS). We distinguished four dimensions of energy security that relate to the availability, accessibility, affordability and acceptability of energy and classified indicators for energy security according to this taxonomy. There is no one ideal indicator, as the notion of energy security is highly context dependent. Rather, applying multiple indicators leads to a broader understanding. Incorporating these indicators in model-based scenario analysis showed accelerated depletion of currently known fossil resources due to increasing global demand. Coupled with increasing spatial discrepancy between consumption and production, international trade in energy carriers is projected to have increased by 142% in 2050 compared to 2008. Oil production is projected to become increasingly concentrated in a few countries up to 2030, after which production from other regions diversifies the market. Under stringent climate policies, this diversification may not occur due to reduced demand for oil. Possible benefits of climate policy include increased fuel diversity and slower depletion of fossil resources. (author)

  16. CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Haugbølle, Kim

    2010-01-01

    During the past two years the Nordic Baltic research project CREDIT (Construction and Real Estate – Developing Indicators for Transparency) has worked with the aim to improve transparency of value creation in building and real estate. One of the central deliverables of the CREDIT project was a fr......During the past two years the Nordic Baltic research project CREDIT (Construction and Real Estate – Developing Indicators for Transparency) has worked with the aim to improve transparency of value creation in building and real estate. One of the central deliverables of the CREDIT project...... was a framework of indicators relevant in building and real estate and applicable in the Nordic and Baltic countries as well as a proposal for a set of key indicators. The study resulting in CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework has been based on 28 case studies of evaluation practises in the building and real...... estate sector each addressing three interlinked levels: building/ projects level, company or enterprise level and benchmarking system level. Additionally it has been based on dialogue with researchers and professional organisation, international research and standardisation work and national building...

  17. Magnetic spring based on two permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsivilitsin, V.Yu.; Mil'man, Yu.V.; Goncharuk, V.A.; Bondar, I.B.

    2011-01-01

    A new type of the magnetic spring construction 'two permanent magnets' has been considered. A mathematical expression for the estimation of a pulling-in force has been offered. This expression is verified experimentally on the produced operating magnetic spring. The theoretical and experimental data are in good accordance. A number of advantages of the magnetic spring over the construction 'permanent magnet - magnetic circuit' such as an insignificant friction force between two magnets and a higher pulling force are discussed.

  18. Magnetic Fields Versus Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Kerry

    2018-04-01

    polarized emission toward all three sources. By extracting the magnetic field orientations from the polarization vectors, Koch and collaborators found that the molecular cloud contains an ordered magnetic field with never-before-seen structures. Several small clumps on the perimeter of the massive star-forming cores exhibit comet-shaped magnetic field structures, which could indicate that these smaller cores are being pulled toward the more massive cores.These findings hint that the magnetic field structure can tell us about the flow of material within star-forming regions key to understanding the nature of star formation itself.Maps of sin for two of the protostars (e2 and e8) and their surroundings. [Adapted from Koch et al. 2018]Guiding Star FormationDo the magnetic fields in W51 help or hinder star formation? To explore this question,Koch and collaborators introduced the quantity sin , where is the angle between the local gravity and the local magnetic field.When the angle between gravity and the magnetic field is small (sin 0), the magnetic field has little effect on the collapse of the cloud. If gravity and the magnetic field are perpendicular (sin 1), the magnetic field can slow the infall of gas and inhibit star formation.Based on this parameter, Koch and collaborators identified narrow channels where gravity acts unimpeded by the magnetic field. These magnetic channels may funnel gas toward the dense cores and aid the star-formation process.The authors observations demonstrate just one example of the broad realm ALMAs polarimetry capabilities have opened to discovery. These and future observations of dust polarization will continue to reveal more about the delicate magnetic structure within molecular clouds, furtherilluminating the role that magnetic fields play in star formation.CitationPatrick M. Koch et al 2018 ApJ 855 39. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaa4c1

  19. Epilepsy in primary intracranial tumors in a neurosurgical hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Seizures may be manifestation of intracranial tumor (IT) and demand thorough neurological evaluation. This paper examines epidemiology, lesion characteristics and outcome of seizures associated with primary IT. Methods: Retrospective analysis of medical records, computed tomography and magnetic ...

  20. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    ; the Cumulated Publication Point Indicator (CPPI), which graphically illustrates the cumulated gain of obtained vs. ideal points, both seen as vectors; and the normalized Cumulated Publication Point Index (nCPPI) that represents the cumulated gain of publication success as index values, either graphically......The paper presents comparative analyses of two publication point systems, The Norwegian and the in-house system from the interdisciplinary Danish Institute of International Studies (DIIS), used as case in the study for publications published 2006, and compares central citation-based indicators...... with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS...

  1. Minimum risk trigger indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, F.H.

    1979-01-01

    A viable safeguards system includes among other things the development and use of indices which trigger various courses of action. The usual limit of error calculation provides such an index. The classical approach is one of constructing tests which, under certain assumptions, make the likelihood of a false alarm small. Of concern also is the test's failure to indicate a loss (diversion) when in fact one has occurred. Since false alarms are usually costly and losses both costly and of extreme strategic sinificance, there remains the task of balancing the probability of false alarm and its consequences against the probability of undetected loss and its consequences. The application of other than classical hypothesis testing procedures are considered in this paper. Using various consequence models, trigger indices are derived which have certain optimum properties. Application of the techniques would enhance the material control function

  2. Primary neurolymphomatosis of the lower cranial nerves presenting as Dysphagia and hoarseness: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Naoto; Ito-Yamashita, Tae; Takahashi, Goro; Baba, Satoshi; Koizumi, Shinichiro; Yamasaki, Tomohiro; Tokuyama, Tsutomu; Namba, Hiroki

    2014-08-01

    Primary neurolymphomatosis is an extremely rare tumor. We report the case of a 74-year-old patient presenting with dysphagia and hoarseness. Initial contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the head, neck, and chest did not reveal any lesions. His symptoms improved with short-term administration of prednisone but recurred and deteriorated. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a tumor along the ninth and tenth cranial nerves across the jugular foramen. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography indicated this was a primary tumor. Repeated MR imaging after 2 months revealed considerable tumor enlargement. A left suboccipital craniotomy was performed to remove the tumor that infiltrated the ninth and tenth cranial nerves. The histopathologic diagnosis was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Although focal radiation therapy was administered to ensure complete eradication of the tumor, the patient died of aspiration pneumonia with systemic metastasis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of primary neurolymphomatosis in the lower cranial nerves.

  3. Primary biliary cirrhosis complicated by transverse myelitis in a patient without Sjögren's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Transverse myelitis is an acute inflammatory process, affecting one or more segments of the spinal cord. Its association with primary biliary cirrhosis has been documented in only four cases - all along with Sjögren's syndrome. Herein, we report for the first time, a patient who developed recurrent acute transverse myelitis in association with primary biliary cirrhosis without any clinical or histological indication of Sjögren's syndrome. A 42-year-old woman with primary biliary cirrhosis developed acute onset quadriparesis and urinary retention. Diagnostic evaluation excluded the presence of Sjögren's syndrome, other autoimmune syndromes, infections and multiple sclerosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal cord disclosed signal intensity abnormalities from C1 to T2 after gadolinium enhancement. As diagnosis of acute transverse myelitis was prominent, the patient was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone. The patient had a fair outcome despite an early recurrence of the symptoms after treatment withdrawal.

  4. Temperature indicating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, J.P.; Salt, D.

    1988-01-01

    A temperature indicating device comprises a plurality of planar elements some undergoing a reversible change in appearance at a given temperature the remainder undergoing an irreversible change in appearance at a given temperature. The device is useful in indicating the temperature which an object has achieved as well as its actual temperature. The reversible change is produced by liquid crystal devices. The irreversible change is produced by an absorbent surface carrying substances e.g. waxes which melt at predetermined temperatures and are absorbed by the surface; alternatively paints may be used. The device is used for monitoring processes of encapsulation of radio active waste. (author)

  5. Injector of solid indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyshev, G.I.; Luk' yanov, E.P.; Pruslin, Y.A.; Zabrodin, P.I.

    1981-04-25

    The injector can be used with remote introduction of indicators into a borehole for study in an oil well of the parameters of movement of fluid currents, control of the state of the equipment, and study of the properties of the rocks. Proposed is a method of increasing the reliability of operation of the injector by stabilizing the rate of its dispersing. Introduced to the injector of a solid indicator are auxiliary brackets and a cathode made from nonmetallic electrical conducting material and reinforced at the end by an elastic bracket. The auxillary cathode is attached to the end surface of the anode and cathode.

  6. Economic Indicators Selected Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    DEFENCE I ECONOMIC INDICATORS SELECTED COUNTRIES DECEMBER QUARTER 1987 . ’-H ISSUED BY MANPOWER POLICY & STRATEGIES BRANCH " "’ :.S S ’,1l f ,am -m mW...100 Sour:e: Main Economic Indicators (OECD) Manufactured Basic Metal Year Goods Chemicals Metals Products 1980 100 100 100 100 1981 110 117 102 107...Earnings of all 1982 1986 7.4 Male Employees (a) Aug 1986 Aug 1987 4.8 Hourly Wace Rates 3 1979 1987 lt.2 Garden Island 1983 1987 6.7 Dockyards Dec

  7. Indications for coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltenbach, M.; Vallbracht, C.

    1985-01-01

    Today selective coronary angiography, introduced by Sones in 1957, is used as clinical routine for diagnosing morphological changes in the coronary arteries. Hitherto, more recent techniques such as digital subtraction angiography cannot provide comparable information. Strict criteria for its indication depending on possible therapeutic consequences, have to be applied, although the risk is low with a letality of 0.01 to 0.05 percent. Radionuclear investigations can be used as additional tool in selected cases. The careful indication for coronary angiography usually implies the possible need for coronary bypass graft surgery of balloon angioplasty. (orig./MG) [de

  8. The Phenix Detector magnet subsystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, R.M.; Bowers, J.M.; Harvey, A.R.

    1995-01-01

    The PHENIX [Photon Electron New Heavy Ion Experiment] Detector is one of two large detectors presently under construction for RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) located at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Its primary goal is to detect a new phase of matter; the quark-gluon plasma. In order to achieve this objective, the PHENIX Detector utilizes a complex magnet subsystem which is comprised of two large magnets identified as the Central Magnet (CM) and the Muon Magnet (MM). Muon Identifier steel is also included as part of this package. The entire magnet subsystem stands over 10 meters tall and weighs in excess of 1900 tons (see Fig. 1). Magnet size alone provided many technical challenges throughout the design and fabrication of the project. In addition, interaction with foreign collaborators provided the authors with new areas to address and problems to solve. Russian collaborators would fabricate a large fraction of the steel required and Japanese collaborators would supply the first coil. This paper will describe the overall design of the PHENIX magnet subsystem and discuss its present fabrication status

  9. The Phenix Detector magnet subsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, R.M.; Bowers, J.M.; Harvey, A.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-19

    The PHENIX [Photon Electron New Heavy Ion Experiment] Detector is one of two large detectors presently under construction for RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) located at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Its primary goal is to detect a new phase of matter; the quark-gluon plasma. In order to achieve this objective, the PHENIX Detector utilizes a complex magnet subsystem which is comprised of two large magnets identified as the Central Magnet (CM) and the Muon Magnet (MM). Muon Identifier steel is also included as part of this package. The entire magnet subsystem stands over 10 meters tall and weighs in excess of 1900 tons (see Fig. 1). Magnet size alone provided many technical challenges throughout the design and fabrication of the project. In addition, interaction with foreign collaborators provided the authors with new areas to address and problems to solve. Russian collaborators would fabricate a large fraction of the steel required and Japanese collaborators would supply the first coil. This paper will describe the overall design of the PHENIX magnet subsystem and discuss its present fabrication status.

  10. Primary hepatic pheochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimmelin, A.; Hartheiser, M.; Gangi, A.; Welsch, M.; Jeung, M.Y.; Jaeck, D.; Tongio, J.; Dietemann, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas are uncommon tumors that represent a potentially curable cause of hypertension. They are usually located in the adrenal glands, but 10% arise from extra-adrenal sites, located along the paravertebral sympathetic chains. We report a case of primary hepatic pheochromocytoma responsible for a severe hypertension in a 24-year-old man. Echotomography showed a lightly heterogeneous mass located in the segment 8 of the liver. Iodine 131 -metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy showed a large hepatic concentration of the tracer and no other localization. This tumor appeared highly vascularized on enhanced CT scan and on aortic angiography. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hepatic tumor with a high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and with a signal isointense to the liver on T1-weighted images. The hepatic venous sampling contained the highest catecholamine level, whereas the adrenal venous samping was normal. After surgical resection of the hepatic tumor, the tension level and catecholamines plasmatic level normalized. No recurrent symptoms appeared during a 3-year follow-up. (orig.)

  11. Magnetic reheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saga, Shohei; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Shuichiro

    2018-02-01

    We provide a new bound on the amplitude of primordial magnetic fields (PMFs) by using a novel mechanism, magnetic reheating. The damping of the magnetohydrodynamics fluid motions in a primordial plasma brings the dissipation of the PMFs. In the early Universe with z ≳ 2 × 106, cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons are quickly thermalized with the dissipated energy and shift to a different Planck distribution with a new temperature. In other words, the PMF dissipation changes the baryon-to-photon number ratio, and we name such a process magnetic reheating. From the current baryon-to-photon number ratio obtained from the big bang nucleosynthesis and CMB observations, we put the strongest constraint on the PMFs on small scales which CMB observations cannot access, B0 ≲ 1.0 μG at the scales 104 generation mechanisms of PMFs in the early Universe.

  12. Magnetic monopoles and dipoles

    CERN Multimedia

    Dominguez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Conventional bar magnets are also called ‘magnetic dipoles’ because they have two magnetic poles (a “North” and a “South” magnetic pole, like the Earth). In theory, “magnetic monopoles” could exist that act like an isolated “magnetic charge”, i.e. either a “North” or a “South” magnetic pole.

  13. Characteristic and magnetic field analysis of a high temperature superconductor axial-flux coreless induction maglev motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qin; Yu, Fan; Jin, Fang; Shuo, Li; Guoguo, Li; Gang, Lv

    2012-04-01

    A new high temperature superconductor axial-flux coreless maglev motor (HTS AFIM) is proposed, of which the primary windings are made of HTS tapes and the secondary is a non-magnetic conductor. The main works of this paper are the magnetic-field computation and characteristics analysis of HTS AFIM. For the first one, the reduction of magnetic fields near outer and inner radius of the HTS AFIM is solved by introducing the sub-loop electro-magnetic model along the radial position. For the second one, the AC losses of HTS coils are calculated. The relationships between the device's characteristics and device parameters are presented, and the results indicate that under certain frequency and current levitation device can output enough lift force. The conclusions are verified by finite element calculations.

  14. The logarithmic hypervolume indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Tobias; Bringmann, Karl; Voß, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    It was recently proven that sets of points maximizing the hypervolume indicator do not give a good multiplicative approximation of the Pareto front. We introduce a new “logarithmic hypervolume indicator” and prove that it achieves a close-to-optimal multiplicative approximation ratio. This is exp...

  15. Maslov indices and monodromy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dullin, H R; Robbins, J M; Waalkens, H; Creagh, S C; Tanner, G

    2005-01-01

    We prove that for a Hamiltonian system on a cotangent bundle that is Liouville-integrable and has monodromy the vector of Maslov indices is an eigenvector of the monodromy matrix with eigenvalue 1. As a corollary, the resulting restrictions on the monodromy matrix are derived. (letter to the editor)

  16. Lichen indicator [Section 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul L. Patterson; Susan Will-Wolf; Marie T. Trest

    2009-01-01

    Lichens are very responsive to environmental stressors in forests, including changes in forest structure, air quality, and climate. Each lichen species on a plot is an indicator of how lichen communities respond to ecological conditions. Individual lichen species occur erratically and even common species are often absent from plots with suitable habitat. The combined...

  17. Contributing Indications to the Rising Cesarean Delivery Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARBER, Emma L.; LUNDSBERG, Lisbet; BELANGER, Kathleen; PETTKER, Christian M.; FUNAI, Edmund F.; ILLUZZI, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine physician-documented indications for cesarean delivery in order to investigate the specific indications contributing to this increase. METHODS We analyzed rates of primary and repeat cesarean delivery, including indications for the procedure, among 32,443 live births at a major academic hospital between 2003–2009. Time trends for each indication were modeled to estimate the absolute and cumulative annualized relative risk of cesarean by indication over time and the relative contribution of each indication to the overall increase in primary cesarean delivery rate. RESULTS The cesarean delivery rate increased from 26% to 36.5% between 2003 and 2009; 50.0% of the increase was attributable to an increase in primary cesarean delivery. Among the documented indications, nonreassuring fetal status, arrest of dilation, multiple gestation, pre-eclampsia, suspected macrosomia, and maternal request increased over time, while arrest of descent, malpresentation, maternal-fetal indications, and other obstetric indications (eg, cord prolapse, placenta previa) did not increase. The relative contributions of each indication to the total increase in primary cesarean rate were: Non-reassuring fetal status (32%), labor arrest disorders (18%), multiple gestation (16%), suspected macrosomia (10%), pre-eclampsia (10%), maternal request (8%), maternal-fetal conditions (5%), and other obstetric conditions (1%). CONCLUSION Primary cesarean births accounted for 50% of the increasing cesarean rate. Among primary cesareans, more subjective indications (nonreassuring fetal status and arrest of dilation) contributed larger proportions than more objective indications (malpresentation, maternal-fetal, and obstetric conditions). PMID:21646928

  18. Designing a magnet for magnetic refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerk, R

    2010-03-15

    This thesis investigates the design and optimization of a permanent magnet assembly for use in a magnetic refrigeration device. The heart of magnetic refrigeration is the adiabatic temperature change in the magnetocaloric material which is caused by the magnetic field. In order to design an ideal magnet assembly the magnetocaloric materials and the refrigeration process itself and their properties and performance as a function of magnetic field are investigated. For the magnetocaloric materials it is the magnetization, specific heat capacity and adiabatic temperature that are investigated as functions of the magnetic field. Following this the process utilized by a magnetic refrigerator to provide cooling is investigated using a publicly available one dimensional numerical model. This process is called active magnetic regeneration (AMR). The aim is to determine the performance of the AMR as a function of the magnetic field in order to learn the properties of the optimal magnet assembly. The performance of the AMR as a function of the synchronization and width of the magnetic field with respect to the AMR cycle, the ramp rate and maximum value of the magnetic field are investigated. Other published magnet designs used in magnetic refrigeration devices are also evaluated, using a figure of merit based on the properties of the investigated magnetocaloric materials, to learn the properties of the best magnet designs to date. Following this investigation the Halbach cylinder, which is a hollow permanent magnet cylinder with a rotating remanent flux density, is investigated in detail as it forms the basis of many magnet designs used in magnetic refrigeration. Here the optimal dimensions of a Halbach cylinder, as well as analytical calculations of the magnetic field for a Halbach cylinder of infinite length, are presented. Once it has been determined which properties are desirable for a magnet used in magnetic refrigeration the design of a new magnet is described. This is

  19. Magnetic collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frew, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A collector for use in a magnetic separator is formed by isostatically pressing a metal which is resistant to attack by acid about ferromagnetic bodies whereby to encase the bodies in the metal. In one arrangement, as shown, the bodies are encapsulated between inner and outer cylinders. In other arrangements the encapsulating metal is in the form of a tube or planar sheets. The bodies are of Fe or an oxide thereof and the acid-resistant metal parts may be of stainless steel, Au, Pt, Pa or an alloy. The magnetic separator is intended for use in removing particles from liquids during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel materials. (author)

  20. Random magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, C.

    1980-03-01

    The 'ingredients' which control a phase transition in well defined system as well as in random ones (e.g. random magnetic systems) are listed and discussed within a somehow unifying perspective. Among these 'ingredients' we find the couplings and elements responsible for the cooperative phenomenon, the topological connectivity as well as possible topological incompatibilities, the influence of new degrees of freedom, the order parameter dimensionality, the ground state degeneracy and finally the 'quanticity' of the system. The general trends, though illustrated in magnetic systems, essentially hold for all phase transitions, and give a basis for connection of this area with Field theory, Theory of dynamical systems, etc. (Author) [pt