WorldWideScience

Sample records for indicating potential applications

  1. Potential applications of heat and cold stress indices to sporting events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, D S

    2001-01-01

    Many recreational and elite athletes participate in sporting events every year. However, when these events are conducted under hostile environmental conditions, whether in cold or hot climates, the risk for environmental illnesses increases. The higher the stress, the greater is the potential for performance decrements, injuries and illnesses. The most common expected heat illnesses are heat exhaustion and heatstroke, whereas hypothermia and frostbite are the most common cold injuries. However, heat and cold stress indices can minimise the risk for environmental illnesses and dehydration by following the recommendations and guidelines which accompany these indices. Stress indices should be used by athletes, coaches and officials to prevent injury and improve safety conditions for competitors and participants in recreational activities. All participants should be made aware of warning signs, susceptibility and predisposing conditions. Coaches should be aware of their responsibility with regard to the safety of their trainees, and officials should organise and plan events at times that are likely to be of low environmental stress. However, they must also be prepared and equipped with the means necessary to reduce injuries and treat cases of collapse and environmental illnesses. The lack of a friendly, small and simple device for environmental stress assessment is probably the main reason why stress indices are not commonly used. We believe that developing a new portable heat and cold stress monitor in wristwatch format for use by those exposed to environmental stress could help in the decision making process of expected hazards caused by exercising and working in hostile environments, and might help prevent heat and cold illnesses.

  2. Potential biological indicators of multi-organ damage: Application to radiation accident victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertho, J.M.; Souidi, M.; Gourmelon, P.

    2009-01-01

    Accidental irradiations induce a complex pathological situation, difficult to assess and to treat. However, recent results describing new biological indicators of radiation-induced damages such as Flt3-ligand, citrulline and oxy-sterol concentration in the plasma, together with results obtained in large animal models of high dose irradiation, allowed a better understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms induced by uncontrolled irradiations. This conducted to leave the classical paradigm of the acute radiation syndrome, described as the association of three individual syndromes, the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastro-intestinal syndrome and the cerebrovascular syndrome, in favour of a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, with the implication of other organs and systems. Follow-up of victims from two recent radiation accidents brings a confirmation of the usefulness of the newly described biological indicators, and also a partial confirmation of this new concept of a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. (authors)

  3. Aeromonas molluscorum Av27 is a potential tributyltin (TBT) bioremediator: phenotypic and genotypic characterization indicates its safe application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Andreia; Areias, Dário; Duarte, Ana; Correia, António; Suzuki, Satoru; Mendo, Sónia

    2013-09-01

    Aeromonas molluscorum Av27 is an estuarine bacterium highly resistant to tributyltin (TBT). Also, the strain is able to degrade TBT into the less toxic compounds dibutyltin and monobutyltin. Therefore, this bacterium has potential to be employed in bioremediation processes. In this context, defining its biological safety is crucial. With that purpose a number of intrinsic characteristics, usually present/associated with virulent strains, were investigated. Few virulence factors were detected in strain Av27. For instance, a DNase gene is present, but it is not apparently expressed in vitro. Motility, adherence factor and phospholipase activity were also detected. Additionally, cytotoxicity to Vero cells was negative. Resistance to penicillin (10 μg ml(-1)), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (30 μg ml(-1)) and cephalothin (30 μg ml(-1)) and also to the vibriostatic agent O/129 was observed. Five plasmids (4, 7, 10, 100 kb and one greater than 100 kb) were identified. No Class I and II integrons were detected. Study of the optimal growth conditions showed that Av27 easily adapts to different environmental conditions. Overall, the results suggest that A. molluscorum Av27 can be considered safe to use to bioremediate TBT in contaminated environments.

  4. Potential Expanded Indications for Neprilysin Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Elizabeth; Vader, Justin M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review The goal of this article is to review potential expanded indications for neprilysin inhibitors. This article reviews the rationale and design for ongoing and future trials of sacubitril/valsartan in cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular disease. Recent findings Randomized trial data are lacking for use of sacubitril/valsartan in acute heart failure and advanced heart failure. Mechanistic data from animal studies suggest a role for neprilysin inhibition in the treatment of post-myocardial infarction systolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Beyond the cardiovascular system, renal and neurological function may be impacted by neprilysin inhibition. Forthcoming randomized trials will address the clinical impact of sacubitril/valsartan on these conditions. Summary Neprolysin inhibition with sacubitril/valsartan offers a new therapeutic strategy with a broad range of potential therapeutic actions. In PARADIGM-HF, the combination of neprolysin and RAAS inhibition was proven to be superior to enalapril for patients with stable NYHA class II–III heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Preliminary data suggests it may also have a role in other cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular disease. Several ongoing and planned studies will determine the extent of its benefit for these other indications. PMID:28281174

  5. Skin Potential as an Indicator of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Linda

    1975-01-01

    The skin-potential responses of six college students were monitored while each was seen for 10 counseling sessions. Negative skin-potential responses were accompanied by feelings described as pleasant and released; positive responses were associated with unpleasant and inhibited feelings; and neutral responses were often associated with unpleasant…

  6. The role of IGFs and leptin in nutrition-reproduction interactions and their potential application as indicators of nutritional adequacy and predictors of reproductive performance in dairy cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanche, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The interaction between nutrition and reproductive activity has been described in both wild and farm animals. The lactating cow is one of the very best examples of this interaction. During lactation, the length of time spent in negative energy balance around parturition seems to be an important factor controlling the delay to return to breeding after parturition. The mechanism by which nutrition regulates the reproductive system is not fully understood in lactating dairy cows or indeed in any other situation in ruminants or mammals in general. However, to be effective, a nutritional signal should ultimately act on at least one of the 3 regulatory sites in the reproductive axis - the brain, the pituitary gland and the gonads. Nutrition is likely to involve metabolic signals that could act directly on one of these targets or it could interfere with other regulatory mechanisms such as the feedback by gonadal steroids on gonadotrophin secretion. In this presentation, we will use examples from laboratory rodents and ruminants, and from dairy cattle where they are available, to examine how IGF-1 and leptin, amongst several other blood metabolites and metabolic hormones, could be part of the link between nutrition and reproduction in the postpartum dairy cow. A number of studies have proposed a role for IGF-1 in the control of postpartum anoestrus and the framework of the current hypothesis will be presented. The role of leptin is still not clear for ruminants in general, but especially in cattle, because leptin was only recently discovered (about 6 years ago) and because a reliable radioimmunoassay for bovine leptin only became available since 1999. The possibilities and restrictions of a role for leptin in the control of reproduction by nutrition will be discussed. To conclude, we will examine the use of these two hormones as potential indicators of the adequacy of nutritional status for reproductive function and we will introduce insulin as another

  7. Chrysophyte cysts as potential environmental indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, David P.; Mahood, Albert D.

    1981-01-01

    Many Chrysophyte algae produce morphologically distinctive, siliceous, microscopic cysts during a resting stage of their life cycles; these cysts are often preserved in sediments. Scanning electron microscopy and Nomarski optics permit much more detailed observation of these cysts than was heretofore possible. We have used an ecologic and biogeographic approach to study the distribution of cyst forms in sediments and have established that many cyst types are found only in specific habitats, such as montane lakes, wet meadows, ephemeral ponds, and Sphagnum bogs. In the samples we have studied, cysts seem to be most common in fluctuating fresh-water habitats of low to moderate pH and some winter freezing. Numerous taxonomic problems have yet to be resolved. We believe that chrysophyte cysts have the potential to become a useful tool for both modern environmental assessments and paleoecological studies of Cenozoic fresh-water lacustrine deposits.

  8. Application of potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petris, L.

    1979-01-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained with the nucleon-nucleon potential presented previously for: 1) the deuteron properties and wave function, 2) a Hartree-Fock calculation on O 16 , and 3) the perturbation V-matrix and G-matrix results for the potential in relation to the results of other potentials and to saturation

  9. Kinetics of 13N-ammonia uptake in myocardial single cells indicating potential limitations in its applicability as a marker of myocardial blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, B.; Helus, F.; Grunze, M.; Braunwell, E.; Mall, G.; Hasselbach, W.; Kuebler, W.

    1985-01-01

    To study kinetics and principles of cellular uptake of 13 N-ammonia, a marker of coronary perfusion in myocardial scintigraphy, heart muscle cells of adult rats were isolated by perfusion with collagenase and hyaluronidase. Net uptake of 13 N, measured by flow dialysis, reached equilibrium within 20 sec in the presence of sodium bicarbonate and carbon dioxide (pH 7.4, 37 degrees C). Total extraction, 80 sec after the reaction start, was 786 +/- 159 mumol/ml cell volume. Cells destroyed by calcium overload were unable to extract 13 N-ammonia. Omission of bicarbonate and carbon dioxide reduced total extraction to 36% of control. 13 N-Ammonia uptake could also be reduced by 50 muM 4,4' diisothiocyanostilbene 2,2' disulfonic acid, by 100 micrograms/ml 1-methionine sulfoximine, and by preincubation with 5 muM free oleic acid. These results indicate that in addition to metabolic trapping by glutamine synthetase, the extraction of 13 N-ammonia by myocardial cells is influenced by cell membrane integrity, intracellular-extracellular pH gradient, and possibly an anion exchange system for bicarbonate. For this reason, the uptake of 13 N-ammonia may not always provide a valid measurement of myocardial perfusion

  10. Potentials and limitations of hazard indices for the determination of risk potentials of disposed toxic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Hazard indices are often used for the determination of risk potentials arising from the geological disposal of toxic wastes. They are based on simplified models for the calculation of potential health effects caused by the wastes. The attractiveness of hazard indices lies in their simplicity which nevertheless results in reliable data on necessary isolation times and the most toxic nuclides of a waste. They also make possible comparisons of the potential risks of different wastes. After a discussion of the processes that control the behavior of toxic wastes in the environment after a failure of the geological barriers, a new hazard index is presented. Originally developed for nuclear wastes, it is the first which involves the joint consideration of the composition of a waste, the probability for transport of waste nuclides to man, their toxicity, and the time-dependent changes of the risk potentials which are caused by radioactive buildup and decay processes after the waste has entered the biosphere. The new hazard index makes possible the calculation of risk potentials at a given time of release and time period of concern thereafter. Sample calculations for different nuclear wastes show the importance of the model improvements on resulting time-dependent risk potentials. Applicability of the new hazard index to non-nuclear wastes is described. Potentials and limitations of comparative risk assessments using hazard indices are discussed. (author)

  11. Potential theory, path integrals and the Laplacian of the indicator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.-J. Lange (Rutger-Jan)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstractThis paper links the field of potential theory — i.e. the Dirichlet and Neumann problems for the heat and Laplace equation — to that of the Feynman path integral, by postulating the some seemingly ill-defined potential. The Laplacian of the indicator can be interpreted using the

  12. Potential Applications of Manual Games,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    34 just because some electronic equipment is used to keep track of logistics, combat results, and force status. Even a highly computerized game like...D-A152 541 POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF MANUAL GAMES (U) RAND CORP ii SANTA MONICA CA T A BROW~N FEB 84 RAND/P-6957 UNCLASI7FIED F/G 12/2 N El..I 111 1...128 112.5 111 m; * _ 1.8 I1111 ’I’ll MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATI NAl fii~ t1 RI 1A L4k, I POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF MANUJAL GAMES Lfl N Lfl

  13. Diatomic interaction potential theory applications

    CERN Document Server

    Goodisman, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Diatomic Interaction Potential Theory, Volume 2: Applications discusses the variety of applicable theoretical material and approaches in the calculations for diatomic systems in their ground states. The volume covers the descriptions and illustrations of modern calculations. Chapter I discusses the calculation of the interaction potential for large and small values of the internuclear distance R (separated and united atom limits). Chapter II covers the methods used for intermediate values of R, which in principle means any values of R. The Hartree-Fock and configuration interaction schemes des

  14. Safety system function trend indicator: Theory and test application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarm, M.A.; Carbonaro, J.F.; Boccio, J.L.; Vesely, W.E.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize research conducted on the development and validation of quantitative indicators of safety performance. This work, performed under the Risk-Based Performance Indicator (RBPI) Project, FIN A-3295, for the Office of Research (RES), is considered part of NRC's Performance Indicator Program which is being coordinated through the Office for the Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD). The program originally focused on risk-based indicators at high levels of safety indices (e.g., core-damage frequency, functional unavailabilities, and sequence monitoring). The program was then redirected towards a more amenable goal, safety system unavailability indicators, mainly due to the lack of PRA models and plant data. In that regard, BNL published a technical report that introduced the concept of cycle-based indicators and also described various alternatives of monitoring safety system unavailabilities. Further simplification of these indicators was requested by NRC to facilitate their applications to all plants in a timely manner. This resulted in the development of Safety System Function Trend (SSFT) indicators which minimize the need for detailed system model as well as component history. The theoretical bases for these indicators were developed through various simulation studies to determine the ease of detecting a trend and/or unacceptable performance. These indicators, along with several other indicators, were then generated and compared using plant data as a part of a test application. The SSFT indicators, specifically, were constructed for a total of eight plants, consisting of two systems per plant. Emphasis was placed on examining relative changes, as well as the indicator's actual level. Both the trend and actual indicator level were found to be important in identifying plants with potential problems

  15. Potential therapeutic applications of biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Rangarajan, Vivek; Sen, Ramkrishna; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2013-12-01

    Biosurfactants have recently emerged as promising molecules for their structural novelty, versatility, and diverse properties that are potentially useful for many therapeutic applications. Mainly due to their surface activity, these molecules interact with cell membranes of several organisms and/or with the surrounding environments, and thus can be viewed as potential cancer therapeutics or as constituents of drug delivery systems. Some types of microbial surfactants, such as lipopeptides and glycolipids, have been shown to selectively inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and to disrupt cell membranes causing their lysis through apoptosis pathways. Moreover, biosurfactants as drug delivery vehicles offer commercially attractive and scientifically novel applications. This review covers the current state-of-the-art in biosurfactant research for therapeutic purposes, providing new directions towards the discovery and development of molecules with novel structures and diverse functions for advanced applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Geothermal Direct Heat Application Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J

    1989-01-01

    The geothermal direct-use industry growth trends, potential, needs, and how they can be met, are addressed. Recent investigations about the current status of the industry and the identification of institutional and technical needs provide the basis on which this paper is presented. Initial drilling risk is the major obstacle to direct-use development. The applications presented include space and district heating projects, heat pumps (heating and cooling), industrial processes, resorts and pools, aquaculture and agriculture.

  17. Potential biological indicators of multi-organ damage: Application to radiation accident victims; Bio-indicateurs potentiels d'atteinte multi-organe: application au cas des victimes d'irradiation accidentelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertho, J.M.; Souidi, M.; Gourmelon, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Dir. de la Radioprotection de l' Homme 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2009-09-15

    Accidental irradiations induce a complex pathological situation, difficult to assess and to treat. However, recent results describing new biological indicators of radiation-induced damages such as Flt3-ligand, citrulline and oxy-sterol concentration in the plasma, together with results obtained in large animal models of high dose irradiation, allowed a better understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms induced by uncontrolled irradiations. This conducted to leave the classical paradigm of the acute radiation syndrome, described as the association of three individual syndromes, the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastro-intestinal syndrome and the cerebrovascular syndrome, in favour of a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, with the implication of other organs and systems. Follow-up of victims from two recent radiation accidents brings a confirmation of the usefulness of the newly described biological indicators, and also a partial confirmation of this new concept of a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. (authors)

  18. Synthetic fibers as an indicator of land application of sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubris, Kimberly Ann V.; Richards, Brian K.

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic fabric fibers have been proposed as indicators of past spreading of wastewater sludge. Synthetic fiber detectability was examined in sludges (dewatered, pelletized, composted, alkaline-stabilized) and in soils from experimental columns and field sites applied with those sludge products. Fibers (isolated by water extraction and examined using polarized light microscopy) were detectable in sludge products and in soil columns over 5 years after application, retaining characteristics observed in the applied sludge. Concentrations mirrored (within a factor of 2) predictions based on soil dilution. Fibers were detectable in field site soils up to 15 years after application, again retaining the characteristics seen in sludge products. Concentrations correlated with residual sludge metal concentration gradients in a well-characterized field site. Fibers found along preferential flow paths and/or in horizons largely below the mixed layer suggest some potential for translocation. Synthetic fibers were shown to be rapid and semi-quantitative indicators of past sludge application. - Synthetic fabric fibers present in wastewater sludge are a semi-quantitative long-term indicator of past sludge application in soils

  19. Market Potential Indicators- a Comparative Analysis of Brazil and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. H. Abbasi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relations between the market potential indicators and their subsequent impact on the investment decision factors. After discussing the various elements in the form of index and their various dimensions that distinguish countries capabilities and their potentials, we will analyze how Brazil and India are coping with the requirement of the investment opportunities and how they fared when compared to each other. The last section systematizes a few perspectives regarding the two countries and what policies should be adopted by them to compete with the other developing and developed nations. The various economic reforms can help these two countries to be in the league of front runner among the emerging markets.

  20. Market Potential Indicators- a Comparative Analysis of Brazil and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehtesham Husain Abbasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relations between the market potential indicators and their subsequent impact on the investment decision factors. After discussing the various elements in the form of index and their various dimensions that distinguish countries capabilities and their potentials, we will analyze how Brazil and India are coping with the requirement of the investment opportunities and how they fared when compared to each other. The last section systematizes a few perspectives regarding the two countries and what policies should be adopted by them to compete with the other developing and developed nations. The various economic reforms can help these two countries to be in the league of front runner among the emerging markets.

  1. Scavenging rate ecoassay: a potential indicator of estuary condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Augustine G; Scanes, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of estuary condition is essential due to the highly productive and often intensely impacted nature of these ecosystems. Assessment of the physico-chemical condition of estuaries is expensive and difficult due to naturally fluctuating water quality and biota. Assessing the vigour of ecosystem processes is an alternative method with potential to overcome much of the variability associated with physico-chemical measures. Indicators of estuary condition should have small spatial and temporal variability, have a predictable response to perturbation and be ecologically relevant. Here, we present tests of the first criterion, the spatio-temporal variability of a potential ecoassay measuring the rate of scavenging in estuaries. We hypothesised that the proposed scavenging ecoassay would not vary significantly among A) sites in an estuary, B) trips separated by weeks, or C) days in a trip. Because not all habitats are present in all estuaries, this test was undertaken in two habitats. When conducted over bare substrate there were occasional significant differences, but no discernible patterns, within levels of the experiment. When conducted over vegetated substrate, days within a trip did not vary significantly, but later trips experienced greater scavenging. This scavenging ecoassay shows potential as a tool for assessing the condition of estuarine ecosystems, and further exploration of this protocol is warranted by implementation in estuaries across a gradient of anthropogenic stress.

  2. Barium as a potential indicator of phosphorus in agricultural runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgren, Joakim; Djodjic, Faruk; Wallin, Mats

    2012-01-01

    In many catchments, anthropogenic input of contaminants, and in particular phosphorus (P), into surface water is a mixture of agricultural and sewage runoff. Knowledge about the relative contribution from each of these sources is vital for mitigation of major environmental problems such as eutrophication. In this study, we investigated whether the distribution of trace elements in surface waters can be used to trace the contamination source. Water from three groups of streams was investigated: streams influenced only by agricultural runoff, streams influenced mainly by sewage runoff, and reference streams. Samples were collected at different flow regimes and times of year and analyzed for 62 elements using ICP-MS. Our results show that there are significant differences between the anthropogenic sources affecting the streams in terms of total element composition and individual elements, indicating that the method has the potential to trace anthropogenic impact on surface waters. The elements that show significant differences between sources are strontium (p barium (p barium shows the greatest potential as a tracer for an individual source of anthropogenic input to surface waters. We observed a strong relationship between barium and total P in the investigated samples (R(2) = 0.78), which could potentially be used to apportion anthropogenic sources of P and thereby facilitate targeting of mitigation practices. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. ZEB1 expression is a potential indicator of invasive endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Masataka; Masuda, Hirotaka; Hara, Kanako; Uchida, Hiroshi; Sato, Kenji; Sato, Suguru; Asada, Hironori; Maruyama, Tetsuo; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Katabuchi, Hidetaka; Tanaka, Mamoru; Saya, Hideyuki

    2017-09-01

    Although endometriosis is a benign disease, it shares some features with cancers, such as invasiveness and the potential to metastasize. This study sought to investigate the epithelial-mesenchymal transition status in human endometriotic lesions. Thirteen endometriosis patients and 10 control women without endometriosis undergoing surgery for benign indications were recruited. We examined the expression of E-cadherin, vimentin, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition-induced transcriptional factors, such as Snail and ZEB1, by immunohistochemistry. We evaluated the expression of each marker in epithelial cells of both endometriotic lesions (ovarian endometrioma, deep infiltrating endometriosis, adenomyosis) and normal endometria. The correlation between ZEB1 expression and serum level of CA125 was also investigated. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that although E-cadherin, vimentin, and Snail were expressed in epithelia of normal endometria and endometriotic lesions, ZEB1 expression was only expressed in epithelia of endometriotic lesions. Additionally, ZEB1 was most frequently observed in epithelial cells of invasive endometriosis. The endometriosis patients with high serum CA125 level were more likely to have ZEB1-positive lesions. This is the first observation of ZEB1 expression in epithelial cells of benign disease. The preferential expression of ZEB1 in epithelial cells of endometriotic lesions suggests that these cells may have, at least in part, a higher level of mesenchymal features possibly via ZEB1-driven epithelial-mesenchymal transition than normal endometria and that ZEB1 can be a potential indicator of invasiveness or severity of endometriosis. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Application of Some Biometric Indices in the Assessment of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of Some Biometric Indices in the Assessment of the Water Quality of the Benin River, Niger Delta, Nigeria. ... Username, Password, Remember me, or Register ... Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBP) using some biometric indices ...

  5. Regional applicability of seven meteorological drought indices in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Qing; LI MingXing; ZHENG ZiYan; MA ZhuGuo

    2017-01-01

    The definition of a drought index is the foundation of drought research.However,because of the complexity of drought,there is no a unified drought index appropriate for different drought types and objects at the same time.Therefore,it is crucial to determine the regional applicability of various drought indices.Using terrestrial water storage obtained from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment,and the observed soil moisture and streamflow in China,we evaluated the regional applicability of seven meteorological drought indices:the Palmer Drought Severity Index(PDSI),modified PDSI(PDSI_CN) based on observations in China,self-calibrating PDSI(scPDSI),Surface Wetness Index(SWI),Standardized Precipitation Index(SPI),Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index(SPEI),and soil moisture simulations conducted using the community land model driven by observed atmospheric forcing(CLM3.5/ObsFC).The results showed that the scPDSI is most appropriate for China.However,it should be noted that the scPDSI reduces the value range slightly compared with the PDSI and PDSI_CN;thus,the classification of dry and wet conditions should be adjusted accordingly.Some problems might exist when using the PDSI and PDSI_CN in humid and arid areas because of the unsuitability of empiricalparameters.The SPI and SPEI are more appropriate for humid areas than arid and semiarid areas.This is because contributions of temperature variation to drought are neglected in the SPI,but overestimated in the SPEI,when potential evapotranspiration is estimated by the Thornthwaite method in these areas.Consequently,the SPI and SPEI tend to induce wetter and drier results,respectively.The CLM3.5/ObsFC is suitable for China before 2000,but not for arid and semiarid areas after 2000.Consistent with other drought indices,the SWI shows similar interannual and decadal change characteristics in detecting annual dry/wet variations.Although the long-term trends of drought areas in China detected by these seven

  6. Potential pressure indicators for fishing, and their data requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piet, G.J.; Quirijns, F.J.; Robinson, L.; Greenstreet, S.P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Indicators of fishing pressure are necessary to support an ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM). We present a framework that distinguishes four levels of pressure indicators that move from being a simple description of anthropogenic activity to more precisely describing the actual

  7. State-of-charge indication in portable applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    2005-01-01

    The known methods of state-of-charge (SoC) indication in portable applications are not accurate enough under all practical conditions. The method presented in this paper aims at designing and testing an SoC indication system capable of predicting the remaining capacity of the battery and the

  8. State-of-Charge Indication in Portable Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    2005-01-01

    The known methods of state-of-charge (SoC) indication in portable applications are not accurate enough under all practical conditions. The method presented in this paper aims at designing and testing an SoC indication system capable of predicting the remaining capacity of the battery and the

  9. State-of-charge indication for portable applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Regtien, P.P.L.

    2005-01-01

    The known methods of state-of-charge (SoC) indication in portable applications are not accurate enough under all practical conditions. The method presented in this paper aims at designing and testing an SoC indication system capable of predicting the remaining capacity of the battery and the

  10. Exploring Methodologies and Indicators for Cross-disciplinary Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.; Pearlman, J.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing the impact and benefit of geospatial information is a multidisciplinary task that involves the social, economic and environmental knowledge to formulate indicators and methods. There are use cases that couple the social sciences including economics, psychology, sociology that incorporate geospatial information. Benefit - cost analysis is an empirical approach that uses money as an indicator for decision making. It is a traditional base for a use case and has been applied to geospatial information and other areas. A new use case that applies indicators is Meta Regression analysis, which is used to evaluate transfers of socioeconomic benefits from different geographic regions into a unifying statistical approach. In this technique, qualitative and quantitative variables are indicators, which provide a weighted average of value for the nonmarket good or resource over a large region. The expected willingness to pay for the nonmarket good can be applied to a specific region. A third use case is the application of Decision Support Systems and Tools that have been used for forecasting agricultural prices and analysis of hazard policies. However, new methods for integrating these disciplines into use cases, an avenue to instruct the development of operational applications of geospatial information, are needed. Experience in one case may not be broadly transferable to other uses and applications if multiple disciplines are involved. To move forward, more use cases are needed and, especially, applications in the private sector. Applications are being examined across a multidisciplinary community for good examples that would be instructive in meeting the challenge. This presentation will look at the results of an investigation into directions in the broader applications of use cases to teach the methodologies and use of indicators that have applications across fields of interest.

  11. Performance indicator system with application to NPP management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, J.; Roldan, J.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to present the work that is being conducted in the scope of a research project between Cofrentes NPP and the polytechnic university of Valencia aimed to the development and implementation of a performance indicators system to support plant management. In developing this system, attention is being paid to the areas of safety, production and dependability. The first step in the project was the development of the performance indicator system (PIS), in order to help in assessing the effectiveness of the different activities in plant (i.e. maintenance, inspections, tests, etc.). It is suggested establishing the operational indicators set in 3 levels. The lowest level concerns indicators monitoring performance and maintenance characteristics of components. The next one involves a subset of indicators placed at system level with a similar goal. And finally, the highest level summarizes the impact of the global policy in the whole plant from safety and performance point of view. The definition of an indicator should comprise, at least, the following items: indicator's name, performance area, definition and data needed. A strategy should define what, when and how indicators have to be evaluated, analyzed and reported. This article gives an example application of the methodology at the Cofrentes NPP, collective dose as safety indicator, power production as production indicator and the number of work orders as maintenance indicator are considered and their time evolution is given. (A.C.)

  12. Sublingual Delivery of Frovatriptan: An Indication of Potential Alternative Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Surajpal; Prasad, Shyam Baboo

    2014-01-01

    Frovatriptan, a 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptor agonist, is used for the treatment of acute migraine attack. This molecule is classified into second line therapy because of its slow onset of action (peak response obtained after 4 hours of administration) and low bioavailability (25%). Moreover, its therapy is the most costly among all triptans. Attempt has been made in present work to suggest a way out to fasten its onset of action and to enhance its bioavailability. Prepared tablets were evaluated by physicochemical tests, in vitro permeation studies, ex vivo permeation studies, and histopathological studies. Suitable mathematical calculations were performed to calculate the minimum amount of bioavailability that could be enhanced. Tablets containing chitosan (5% w/w) were found to give optimum results. Prepared tablets can double the bioavailability of frovatriptan and can initiate its response within 10 minutes of its administration. Suggestive alternative has the potential to increase the efficacy of frovatriptan for treating acute migraine attack. PMID:27433492

  13. Biologically controlled minerals as potential indicators of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, D. E.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Kaneshiro, E.

    1991-01-01

    Minerals can be produced and deposited either by abiotic or biologic means. Regardless of their origin, mineral crystals reflect the environment conditions (e.g., temperature, pressure, chemical composition, and redox potential) present during crystal formation. Biologically-produced mineral crystals are grown or reworked under the control of their host organism and reflect an environment different from the abiotic environment. In addition, minerals of either biologic or abiotic origin have great longevities. For these reasons, biologically produced minerals have been proposed as biomarkers. Biomarkers are key morphological, chemical, and isotopic signatures of living systems that can be used to determine if life processes have occurred. Studies of biologically controlled minerals produced by the protist, Paramecium tetraurelia, were initiated since techniques have already been developed to culture them and isolate their crystalline material, and methods are already in place to analyze this material. Two direct crystalline phases were identified. One phase, whose chemical composition is high in Mg, was identified as struvite. The second phase, whose chemical composition is high in Ca, has not been previously found occurring naturally and may be considered a newly discovered material. Analyses are underway to determine the characteristics of these minerals in order to compare them with characteristics of these minerals in order to compare them with characteristics of minerals formed abiotically, but with the same chemical composition.

  14. Automatically Assessing Lexical Sophistication: Indices, Tools, Findings, and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Kristopher; Crossley, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the construct of lexical sophistication and its applications for measuring second language lexical and speaking proficiency. In doing so, the study introduces the Tool for the Automatic Analysis of LExical Sophistication (TAALES), which calculates text scores for 135 classic and newly developed lexical indices related to word…

  15. Potential applications of high temperature helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleicher, R.W. Jr.; Kennedy, A.J.

    1992-09-01

    This paper discusses the DOE MHTGR-SC program's recent activity to improve the economics of the MHTGR without sacrificing safety performance and two potential applications of high temperature helium, the MHTGR gas turbine plant and a process heat application for methanol production from coal

  16. Applicability of spectral indices on thickness identification of oil slick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanfei; Shen, Yonglin; Chen, Qihao; Liu, Xiuguo

    2016-10-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing technology has played a vital role in the identification and monitoring of oil spill events, and amount of spectral indices have been developed. In this paper, the applicability of six frequently-used indices is analyzed, and a combination of spectral indices in aids of support vector machine (SVM) algorithm is used to identify the oil slicks and corresponding thickness. The six spectral indices are spectral rotation (SR), spectral absorption depth (HI), band ratio of blue and green (BG), band ratio of BG and shortwave infrared index (BGN), 555nm and 645nm normalized by the blue band index (NB) and spectral slope (ND). The experimental study is conducted in the Gulf of Mexico oil spill zone, with Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) hyperspectral imagery captured in May 17, 2010. The results show that SR index is the best in all six indices, which can effectively distinguish the thickness of the oil slick and identify it from seawater; HI index and ND index can obviously distinguish oil slick thickness; BG, BGN and NB are more suitable to identify oil slick from seawater. With the comparison among different kernel functions of SVM, the classify accuracy show that the polynomial and RBF kernel functions have the best effect on the separation of oil slick thickness and the relatively pure seawater. The applicability of spectral indices of oil slick and the method of oil film thickness identification will in aids of oil/gas exploration and oil spill monitoring.

  17. Neural Spike Train Synchronisation Indices: Definitions, Interpretations and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, D M; Rosenberg, J R

    2017-04-24

    A comparison of previously defined spike train syncrhonization indices is undertaken within a stochastic point process framework. The second order cumulant density (covariance density) is shown to be common to all the indices. Simulation studies were used to investigate the sampling variability of a single index based on the second order cumulant. The simulations used a paired motoneurone model and a paired regular spiking cortical neurone model. The sampling variability of spike trains generated under identical conditions from the paired motoneurone model varied from 50% { 160% of the estimated value. On theoretical grounds, and on the basis of simulated data a rate dependence is present in all synchronization indices. The application of coherence and pooled coherence estimates to the issue of synchronization indices is considered. This alternative frequency domain approach allows an arbitrary number of spike train pairs to be evaluated for statistically significant differences, and combined into a single population measure. The pooled coherence framework allows pooled time domain measures to be derived, application of this to the simulated data is illustrated. Data from the cortical neurone model is generated over a wide range of firing rates (1 - 250 spikes/sec). The pooled coherence framework correctly characterizes the sampling variability as not significant over this wide operating range. The broader applicability of this approach to multi electrode array data is briefly discussed.

  18. POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF BIOCHAR FOR COMPOSTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Malińska

    2014-10-01

    for composting of materials with high moisture and/or nitrogen contents. The addition of biochar to composting mixtures can reduce ammonia emissions, and thus limit nitrogen losses during composting, increase water holding capacity and retention of nutrients. Biochar can also function as a carrier substrate for microbial inoculants and a scrubing material used in biofilters at composting facilities. Due to the fact that the literature does not provide many examples of biochar applications for composting, and there is little known about the effects of biochar added to composting mixtures on composting dynamics and properties of final composts, futher investigations should focus on mechanisms of biochar-composting mixtures interactions and analysis of properties of biochar-based composts. The overall goal of the article is to analyze the potentials of biochars for composting, to report the effects of various biochars on composting dynamics and quality of produced biochar-based composts, and to indicate the areas of further studies on biochar properties that would allow optimization of composting and improve the quality of final products.

  19. Optical-based smart structures for tamper-indicating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sliva, P.; Anheier, N.C.; Simmons, K.L.; Undem, H.A.

    1996-11-01

    This report is a compilation of several related projects performed from 1991 through 1996 concerning the design, construction, and application of optical-based smart structure to tamper-indicating and sensing secure containers. Due to several influences, the projects were carried through to varying degrees of completion. Cancellation of the overall project at the client level motivated the authors to gather all of the technology and ideas about smart structures developed during these several projects, whether completed or just conceptualized, into one document. Although each section individually discusses a specific project, the overall document is written chronologically with each successive section showing how increased smart structure complexity was integrated into the container

  20. Sustainability indicators and their application to the mining companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas Pimiento, Elkin

    2000-01-01

    In this work it is sought to show that the design of sustainability indicators and of applicable environmental and social acting to the extractive industry contributes to the achievement of target of sustainable development. It is especially useful in a country in development as Colombia that has adopted such a pattern of economic development and where the mining sector that is projected as the sector leader of the exports and of the national economy, it has been responsible for a great environmental deterioration and of important conflicts of social order. The mining is essentially a destructive process for what can cause negative environmental and social impacts; those that depend on the size of the operations of the type of mineral deposit, of the used methods of exploitation and of the topographical and climatic conditions; in a same way the paper planned integrated games of sustainability indicators

  1. Potential biomedical applications of marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Min David; Li, Xiao-Chun; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2017-11-01

    Functional components extracted from algal biomass are widely used as dietary and health supplements with a variety of applications in food science and technology. In contrast, the applications of algae in dermal-related products have received much less attention, despite that algae also possess high potential for the uses in anti-infection, anti-aging, skin-whitening, and skin tumor treatments. This review, therefore, focuses on integrating studies on algae pertinent to human skin care, health and therapy. The active compounds in algae related to human skin treatments are mentioned and the possible mechanisms involved are described. The main purpose of this review is to identify serviceable algae functions in skin treatments to facilitate practical applications in this high-potential area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Testing the Potential of Vegetation Indices for Land Use/cover Classification Using High Resolution Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakacan Kuzucu, A.; Bektas Balcik, F.

    2017-11-01

    Accurate and reliable land use/land cover (LULC) information obtained by remote sensing technology is necessary in many applications such as environmental monitoring, agricultural management, urban planning, hydrological applications, soil management, vegetation condition study and suitability analysis. But this information still remains a challenge especially in heterogeneous landscapes covering urban and rural areas due to spectrally similar LULC features. In parallel with technological developments, supplementary data such as satellite-derived spectral indices have begun to be used as additional bands in classification to produce data with high accuracy. The aim of this research is to test the potential of spectral vegetation indices combination with supervised classification methods and to extract reliable LULC information from SPOT 7 multispectral imagery. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Ratio Vegetation Index (RATIO), the Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) were the three vegetation indices used in this study. The classical maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) and support vector machine (SVM) algorithm were applied to classify SPOT 7 image. Catalca is selected region located in the north west of the Istanbul in Turkey, which has complex landscape covering artificial surface, forest and natural area, agricultural field, quarry/mining area, pasture/scrubland and water body. Accuracy assessment of all classified images was performed through overall accuracy and kappa coefficient. The results indicated that the incorporation of these three different vegetation indices decrease the classification accuracy for the MLC and SVM classification. In addition, the maximum likelihood classification slightly outperformed the support vector machine classification approach in both overall accuracy and kappa statistics.

  3. Application of proximal surrogate indicators for safety evaluation: A review of recent developments and research needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Sohel Mahmud

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been a number of recent reviews on the use of traffic conflict techniques (TCTs, none have focused on the use of proximal surrogate indicators. This paper comprehensively reviews the development and application of proximal surrogate safety indicators to address this gap. There is a particular focus on more recent advancements in the application of such indicators. For each of the main indicators reviewed, the paper provides a synthesis of the main guiding principles, as well as the most prominent features, including critical or threshold values used in the past. In addition, the main advantages and disadvantages of the reviewed indicators are highlighted. Finally, a number of research gaps are identified together with recommendations for potentially useful avenues of future research. Keywords: Safety evaluation, Traffic conflict, Surrogate, Proximal, Indicators

  4. Application of exergy as thermodynamic indicator in ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, S.E.; Nors Nielsen, Soren

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a modified form of exergy named eco-exergy as an ecological indicator. Exergy of detritus and of various organisms are found based upon the definition of eco-exergy. Eco-exergy measures a system's deviation from chemical equilibrium. It is, therefore, crucial to find the concentration of detritus and the various organisms at chemical equilibrium which is possible by the calculation of the probability to form detritus and the various organisms by chemical equilibrium. It implies that the probability to form proteins with the right amino acid sequence must be determined by the use of the amount of coding genes. It is stressed that what we determine by this method of exergy calculation is a relative eco-exergy index. It is not possible to find the eco-exergy of entire ecosystems, because they are far too complex to allow us to know all the details of an ecosystem. The eco-exergy indices have been found in a few cases to demonstrate the usefulness of the method and to show how the exergy indices can be translated to applicable ecological information

  5. Potential of Starch Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, N. H.; Muhammad, N.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, the development of biodegradable materials from renewable sources based on polymeric biomaterials have grown rapidly due to increase environmental concerns and the shortage of petroleum sources. In this regard, naturally renewable polymers such as starch has shown great potential as environmental friendly materials. Besides, the unique properties of starch such as biodegradable and non-toxic, biocompatible and solubility make them useful for a various biomedical applications. Regardless of their unique properties, starch materials are known to have limitations in term of poor processability, low mechanical properties, poor long term stability and high water sensitivity. In order to overcome these limitations, the incorporation of nano size fillers into starch materials (nanocomposites) has been introduced. This review aims to give an overview about structure and characteristics of starch, modification of starch by nanocomposites and their potential for biomedical applications.

  6. Radioactive indicators in biology and their medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, F.

    1950-12-01

    This talk was given at the society of promotion of the national industry on December 1, 1949. The report is a pre-print of an article published in L'Industrie Nationale no.2 (1950). It presents the state-of-the-art of the use of artificial radioisotopes in biology and medicine: 1 - definitions (isotopes, decay, radiation emission); 2 - modalities of the use of radioisotopes in biology: basic instrumentation (Geiger-Mueller counter, counting techniques, photography, auto-histo-radiography); 3 - applications in physiology (digestive absorption, excretion, vascular exchanges, tracer techniques) and biochemistry (metabolism, thyroxine synthesis and fixation indicators, tracer techniques for drugs); 4 - radiotherapy, internal and external irradiation. (J.S.)

  7. Case studies on genetically modified organisms (GMOs): Potential risk scenarios and associated health indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santis, Barbara; Stockhofe, Norbert; Wal, Jean-Michel; Weesendorp, Eefke; Lallès, Jean-Paul; van Dijk, Jeroen; Kok, Esther; De Giacomo, Marzia; Einspanier, Ralf; Onori, Roberta; Brera, Carlo; Bikker, Paul; van der Meulen, Jan; Kleter, G

    2018-07-01

    Within the frame of the EU-funded MARLON project, background data were reviewed to explore the possibility of measuring health indicators during post-market monitoring for potential effects of feeds, particularly genetically modified (GM) feeds, on livestock animal health, if applicable. Four case studies (CSs) of potential health effects on livestock were framed and the current knowledge of a possible effect of GM feed was reviewed. Concerning allergenicity (CS-1), there are no case-reports of allergic reactions or immunotoxic effects resulting from GM feed consumption as compared with non-GM feed. The likelihood of horizontal gene transfer (HGT; CS-2) of GMO-related DNA to different species is not different from that for other DNA and is unlikely to raise health concerns. Concerning mycotoxins (CS-3), insect-resistant GM maize may reduce fumonisins contamination as a health benefit, yet other Fusarium toxins and aflatoxins show inconclusive results. For nutritionally altered crops (CS-4), the genetic modifications applied lead to compositional changes which require special considerations of their nutritional impacts. No health indicators were thus identified except for possible beneficial impacts of reduced mycotoxins and nutritional enhancement. More generally, veterinary health data should ideally be linked with animal exposure information so as to be able to establish cause-effect relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel biliary self-expanding metal stents: indications and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blero, Daniel; Huberty, Vincent; Devière, Jacques

    2015-03-01

    Endoscopic insertion of a self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) through a malignant common bile duct stricture is the first line of palliation for malignant jaundice. Patency of these stents remains a major concern. SEMS dysfunction can result from tumor ingrowth, overgrowth and/or clogging. Initial SEMS modifications involved covering the central part of the stent in order to reduce ingrowth and ultimately increase patency. Fully covered stents became available shortly after reports of their use in human patients. The potential removability and radial strength of SEMS have led to evaluation of their use in new indications including benign biliary strictures, post sphincterotomy bleeding and perforation. Other aspects of development include the addition of features such as anti-reflux valves, drug elution and spontaneous biodegradability. These aspects and their clinical implications are reviewed and discussed.

  9. Survey of potential applications of superconducting suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.K.; Bupara, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to survey the recent developments in applying the bulk superconductors to mechanical applications. These applications, called superconducting suspensions, can be broadly divided into three groups - Passive Magnetic Bearings, Passive Superconducting Dampers and Active Superconducting Bearings. Basically, passive magnetic bearings utilize bulk superconductors to support a rotating shaft without contact while active superconducting bearings employ superconducting wires. Passive superconducting dampers, on the other hand, dissipate energy from a vibrating component. Over the past one year, dramatic improvements have been made in processing large-size specimens made of high grade bulk superconductors. As a result, they can meet the size requirements and load capacity requirements of many applications. With this size-scale up, one can utilize them in a wider number of applications than what was possible a few years back. At present several organizations have demonstrated the capability of passive magnetic bearings. The targeted applications include miniature cryoturboexpanders, cryoturbopumps, energy storage wheels and turbomolecular pumps. These demonstrations indicate that the passive magnetic bearings are closer to technology maturity. (orig.)

  10. POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF NANOMETALS IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Malina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, great interest in metallic nanoparticles has been observed, both because of their unlimited application possibilities, and also because of the unusual biological, chemical and physical features. It is expected that developments in nanotechnology will become the main promoter of scientific and technological innovations in the coming decades. Searching for a new and safe alternative to chemical pesticides, high hopes are associated with nanotechnology development. Particularly useful may be preparations containing nanoscale metal particles with strong antimicrobial properties. Importantly, safe and non-toxic for the plant components of biological origin may be used in nanoparticles synthesis. This article is a description of the potential applications of nanomaterials in environmental protection, which may become the basis for developing of new protection plant products with antimicrobial properties relative to plant pathogens and non-toxic to higher organisms.

  11. Vibration Energy Harvesting Potential for Turbomachinery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian STOICESCU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The vibration energy harvesting process represents one of the research directions for increasing power efficiency of electric systems, increasing instrumentation nodes autonomy in hard to reach locations and decreasing total system mass by eliminating cables and higher-power adapters. Research based on the possibility of converting vibration energy into useful electric energy is used to evaluate the potential of its use on turbomachinery applications. Aspects such as the structure and characteristics of piezoelectric generators, harvesting networks, their setup and optimization, are considered. Finally, performance test results are shown using piezoelectric systems on a turbine engine.

  12. Potential aerospace applications of high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Raouf

    1994-01-01

    The recent discovery of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) with superconducting transition temperature, T(sub c), above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen has opened the door for using these materials in new and practical applications. These materials have zero resistance to electric current, have the capability of carrying large currents and as such have the potential to be used in high magnetic field applications. One of the space applications that can use superconductors is electromagnetic launch of payloads to low-earth-orbit. An electromagnetic gun-type launcher can be used in small payload systems that are launched at very high velocity, while sled-type magnetically levitated launcher can be used to launch larger payloads at smaller velocities. Both types of launchers are being studied by NASA and the aerospace industry. The use of superconductors will be essential in any of these types of launchers in order to produce the large magnetic fields required to obtain large thrust forces. Low Temperature Superconductor (LTS) technology is mature enough and can be easily integrated in such systems. As for the HTS, many leading companies are currently producing HTS coils and magnets that potentially can be mass-produced for these launchers. It seems that designing and building a small-scale electromagnetic launcher is the next logical step toward seriously considering this method for launching payloads into low-earth-orbit. A second potential application is the use of HTS to build sensitive portable devices for the use in Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE). Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID's) are the most sensitive instruments for measuring changes in magnetic flux. By using HTS in SQUID's, one will be able to design a portable unit that uses liquid nitrogen or a cryocooler pump to explore the use of gradiometers or magnetometers to detect deep cracks or corrosion in structures. A third use is the replacement of Infra-Red (IR) sensor leads on

  13. Potential commercial applications of centrifuge technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    As part of an effort to prevent the loss of and maximize the use of unique developments of the centrifuge program, this document identifies and briefly describes unclassified technologies potentially available for transfer. In addition, this document presents a preliminary plan for action needed to carry out the transfer activity. Continuing efforts will provide additional descriptions of technologies which have applications that are not as apparent or as obvious as those presented here. Declassification of some of the program information, now classified as restricted data, would permit the descriptions of additional technologies which have significant commercial potential. The following are major areas of technology where transfer opportunities exist: biomedical; separation; motors and control systems; materials; vacuum; dynamics and balancing; and diagnostics and instrumentation

  14. Thermoluminescence: Potential Applications in Forensic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, J. D.; Lawson, D. D.

    1973-01-01

    In crime laboratories one of the most difficult operations is to determine unequivocally whether or not two samples of evidence of the same type were originally part of the same thing or were from the same source. It has been found that high temperature thermoluminescence (room temperature to 723 K) can be used for comparisons of this type, although work to date indicates that there is generally a finite probability for coincidental matching of glass or soil samples. Further work is required to determine and attempt to minimize these probabilities for different types of materials, and to define more clearly the scope of applicability of thermoluminescence to actual forensic situations.

  15. Measurements and applications of dose indices in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.R.; Tyan, Y.S.; Yang, J.J.; Shao, C.H.; Lin, J.Y.; Tung, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Assessments of radiation dose and image quality are required in diagnostic radiography for quality assurance and optimization studies. In work currently being undertaken, dose indices were measured and image quality evaluated for a chest PA procedure. Thermoluminescent dosimeters of the GR-200 type were attached to the entrance and exit surfaces and placed at various depths of the PMMA phantom to measure the entrance surface dose, the exit surface dose, and the organ dose index. The effective dose was estimated from the entrance surface dose using PCXMC software. Two contrast-detail image plates, one with air holes for the low contrast objects and the other with gypsum holes for the high contrast objects, were used to obtain radiographic images. This image plate was placed at different depths from the entrance surface of the phantom to simulate objects at different positions in the body. Each image was evaluated by three independent radiologists to determine image quality. Analyses of radiation dose versus image quality were performed to determine the optimal technical factors such as, filtration and tube potential. It was found that an 11-cm thick PMMA phantom best simulated the patients. The fractional dose backscattered from this phantom was between 22% and 27% for kVp’s between 66 and 133. Optimization analyses showed that no extra filter was required. For low contrast objects, an optimal choice of tube potential was 120 kVp. For high contrast objects, a kVp as low as 77 kVp could be used, depending on the image quality requirement.

  16. Structure model of energy efficiency indicators and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Li-Ming; Chen, Bai-Sheng; Bor, Yun-Chang; Wu, Yin-Chin

    2007-01-01

    For the purposes of energy conservation and environmental protection, the government of Taiwan has instigated long-term policies to continuously encourage and assist industry in improving the efficiency of energy utilization. While multiple actions have led to practical energy saving to a limited extent, no strong evidence of improvement in energy efficiency was observed from the energy efficiency indicators (EEI) system, according to the annual national energy statistics and survey. A structural analysis of EEI is needed in order to understand the role that energy efficiency plays in the EEI system. This work uses the Taylor series expansion to develop a structure model for EEI at the level of the process sector of industry. The model is developed on the premise that the design parameters of the process are used in comparison with the operational parameters for energy differences. The utilization index of production capability and the variation index of energy utilization are formulated in the model to describe the differences between EEIs. Both qualitative and quantitative methods for the analysis of energy efficiency and energy savings are derived from the model. Through structural analysis, the model showed that, while the performance of EEI is proportional to the process utilization index of production capability, it is possible that energy may develop in a direction opposite to that of EEI. This helps to explain, at least in part, the inconsistency between EEI and energy savings. An energy-intensive steel plant in Taiwan was selected to show the application of the model. The energy utilization efficiency of the plant was evaluated and the amount of energy that had been saved or over-used in the production process was estimated. Some insights gained from the model outcomes are helpful to further enhance energy efficiency in the plant

  17. Marine bioactives and potential application in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Gemello, Eugenio; Riccioni, Graziano; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2014-04-30

    An enriched diet with antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene and phenolic compounds, has always been suggested to improve oxidative stress, preventing related diseases. In this respect, marine natural product (MNP), such as COX inhibitors, marine steroids, molecules interfering with factors involved in the modulation of gene expression (such as NF-κB), macrolides, many antioxidant agents, thermogenic substances and even substances that could help the immune system and that result in the protection of cartilage, have been recently gaining attention. The marine world represents a reserve of bioactive ingredients, with considerable potential as functional food. Substances, such as chitin, chitosan, n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive peptides, can provide several health benefits, such as the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. In addition, new marine bioactive substances with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and thermogenic capacity may provide health benefits and performance improvement, especially in those who practice physical activity, because of their increased free radical and Reacting Oxygen Species (ROS) production during exercise, and, particularly, in athletes. The aim of this review is to examine the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactive substances in sports.

  18. Graphene plasmonics: physics and potential applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Shenyang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasmon in graphene possesses many unique properties. It originates from the collective motion of massless Dirac fermions, and the carrier density dependence is distinctively different from conventional plasmons. In addition, graphene plasmon is highly tunable and shows strong energy confinement capability. Most intriguingly, as an atom-thin layer, graphene and its plasmon are very sensitive to the immediate environment. Graphene plasmons strongly couple to polar phonons of the substrate, molecular vibrations of the adsorbates, and lattice vibrations of other atomically thin layers. In this review, we present the most important advances in graphene plasmonics field. The topics include terahertz plasmons, mid-infrared plasmons, plasmon-phonon interactions, and potential applications. Graphene plasmonics opens an avenue for reconfigurable metamaterials and metasurfaces; it is an exciting and promising new subject in the nanophotonics and plasmonics research field.

  19. Some arachnidan peptides with potential medical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ME De Lima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for new active drugs that can alleviate or cure different diseases is a constant challenge to researchers in the biological area and to the pharmaceutical industry. Historically, research has focused on the study of substances from plants. More recently, however, animal venoms have been attracting attention and studies have been successful in addressing treatment of accidents. Furthermore, venoms and their toxins have been considered good tools for prospecting for new active drugs or models for new therapeutic drugs. In this review, we discuss some possibilities of using different toxins, especially those from arachnid venoms, which have shown some potential application in diseases involving pain, hypertension, epilepsy and erectile dysfunction. A new generation of drugs is likely to emerge from peptides, including those found in animal venoms.

  20. Assessment of environmental stability of agroserous soil according to indicator of energy potential of organic substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtazina, S. G.; Gaffarova, L. G.; Murtazin, MG

    2018-01-01

    Studies of the group and fractional composition of humus have determineded that the long-term use of soil (for 20 years) without the use of fertilizers (control) leads to a decrease in the content of humic acids and fulvic acids relative to the initial soil, which indicates an increase in mineralization of the soil humus. Under the influence of a long application of high doses of mineral fertilizers, the content of mobile fractions of humic and fulvic acids in the field rotation increases in the humus content. In systems of agriculture that are not balanced by organic matter, which are predominant in most farms of the Republic of Tatarstan, the use of very high doses of potassium fertilizers is not justified energetically. To compensate for losses of humus and its energy potential in calculating organic fertilizers on backgrounds with high doses of mineral fertilizers, the humification coefficients of organic residues should be increased by 30-40% during the rotational period of 5-6 years, which will reduce the loss of energy reserves and thereby improve the ecological stability of soils and the stability of agricultural landscapes

  1. Ultrasonic level indicator for liquids and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanngiesser, P.

    1976-01-01

    Ultrasonic level indicator for liquids where a piezo-element is used to reverse the piezoelectric effect may be applied in a more versatile way if the indicator is provided with a reflector. It becomes less susceptible to faults and may be used for all liquids, including liquid metals. The piezo-element may then be used at the same time as receiver for ultrasonic waves emitted previously and, in that case, echoed back by the refelctor. (UWI) [de

  2. Contrast-enhanced Spectral Mammography: Technique, Indications, and Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhimani, Chandni; Matta, Danielle; Roth, Robyn G; Liao, Lydia; Tinney, Elizabeth; Brill, Kristin; Germaine, Pauline

    2017-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) combines the benefits of full field digital mammography with the concept of tumor angiogenesis. Technique and practical applications of CESM are discussed. An overview of the technique is followed by a demonstration of practical applications of CESM in our practice. We have successfully implemented CESM into our practice as a screening, diagnostic, staging, and treatment response tool. It is important to understand the technique of CESM and how to incorporate it into practice. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Numerical indices for quantification of hydrogen mixing and deflagration potential in the nuclear reactor containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Nilesh, E-mail: nilesh_agrawal@igcar.gov.in [Safety Research Institute, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Government of India, Kalpakkam (India); Das, Sarit K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Four indices for mixing and deflagration potential of H{sub 2} distributions are presented. • Theoretical basis and significance are explained through illustrations. • The influence of steam condensation on H{sub 2} distributions is studied numerically. • The indices depict the rate of mixing and changes in deflagration potential. • Results show that the indices can give useful integral information for comparison. -- Abstract: Studies on hydrogen distribution in the nuclear reactor containment and the effect of a distribution on subsequent combustion are important to nuclear safety. Contour plots, concentration profiles and ternary diagrams are routinely used to represent a distribution. The significance to safety has to be qualitatively inferred from these representations. Thus, there is a need to quantify distributions in terms of gross parameters that are important to safety. In the present study, four numerical indices are developed to obtain quantitative information on the mixing and deflagration potential of a distribution of hydrogen, steam and air. Two indices, namely, Average mole fraction and Non-uniformity index can be used to give the state of mixing of hydrogen in an enclosure at any instant of time. Similarly, the other two indices, namely, deflagration volume fraction and deflagration pressure ratio can be used to indicate the relative size of combustible cloud and the expected pressure rise in case of deflagration in the cloud at any instant of time. The significance and utility of the indices are brought forth through simple illustrations and numerical studies on the influence of steam condensation on hydrogen distributions. The indices depict the rate of mixing and changes in deflagration potential for the situations considered. Results form the simple studies show that the indices can give useful integral information for comparison of mixing and mitigation measures deployed in the nuclear reactor containment.

  4. Luminescent Metal Nanoclusters for Potential Chemosensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthaiah Shellaiah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of metal nanocluster (M-NCs-based sensors for specific analyte detection have achieved significant progress in recent decades. Ultra-small-size (<2 nm M-NCs consist of several to a few hundred metal atoms and exhibit extraordinary physical and chemical properties. Similar to organic molecules, M-NCs display absorption and emission properties via electronic transitions between energy levels upon interaction with light. As such, researchers tend to apply M-NCs in diverse fields, such as in chemosensors, biological imaging, catalysis, and environmental and electronic devices. Chemo- and bio-sensory uses have been extensively explored with luminescent NCs of Au, Ag, Cu, and Pt as potential sensory materials. Luminescent bi-metallic NCs, such as Au-Ag, Au-Cu, Au-Pd, and Au-Pt have also been used as probes in chemosensory investigations. Both metallic and bi-metallic NCs have been utilized to detect various analytes, such as metal ions, anions, biomolecules, proteins, acidity or alkalinity of a solution (pH, and nucleic acids, at diverse detection ranges and limits. In this review, we have summarized the chemosensory applications of luminescent M-NCs and bi-metallic NCs.

  5. Potential applications of insect symbionts in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berasategui, Aileen; Shukla, Shantanu; Salem, Hassan; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Symbiotic interactions between insects and microorganisms are widespread in nature and are often the source of ecological innovations. In addition to supplementing their host with essential nutrients, microbial symbionts can produce enzymes that help degrade their food source as well as small molecules that defend against pathogens, parasites, and predators. As such, the study of insect ecology and symbiosis represents an important source of chemical compounds and enzymes with potential biotechnological value. In addition, the knowledge on insect symbiosis can provide novel avenues for the control of agricultural pest insects and vectors of human diseases, through targeted manipulation of the symbionts or the host-symbiont associations. Here, we discuss different insect-microbe interactions that can be exploited for insect pest and human disease control, as well as in human medicine and industrial processes. Our aim is to raise awareness that insect symbionts can be interesting sources of biotechnological applications and that knowledge on insect ecology can guide targeted efforts to discover microorganisms of applied value.

  6. The application and testing of diatom-based indices of stream water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The application and testing of diatom-based indices of stream water quality in Chinhoyi Town, Zimbabwe. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... test the applicability of foreign diatom-based water quality assessment indices to ...

  7. Current indications and new applications of intense pulsed light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, A J; Lorente-Gual, R

    2015-06-01

    Intense pulsed light (IPL) systems have evolved since they were introduced into medical practice 20 years ago. Pulsed light is noncoherent, noncollimated, polychromatic light energy emitted at different wavelengths that target specific chromophores. This selective targeting capability makes IPL a versatile therapy with many applications, from the treatment of pigmented or vascular lesions to hair removal and skin rejuvenation. Its large spot size ensures a high skin coverage rate. The nonablative nature of IPL makes it an increasingly attractive alternative for patients unwilling to accept the adverse effects associated with other procedures, which additionally require prolonged absence from work and social activities. In many cases, IPL is similar to laser therapy in effectiveness, and its versatility, convenience, and safety will lead to an expanded range of applications and possibilities in coming years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  8. Composite Indices of Development and Poverty: An Application to MDGs

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Muro, Pasquale; Mazziotta, Matteo; Pareto, Adriano

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of development or poverty as multidimensional phenomena is very difficult because there are several theoretical, methodological and empirical problems involved. The literature of composite indicators offers a wide variety of aggregation methods, all with their pros and cons. In this paper, we propose a new, alternative composite…

  9. Universal state-of-charge indication for portable applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.

    2007-01-01

    Many leading semiconductors companies (e.g. Philips, Texas Instruments, Microchip, Maxim, etc.) are paying even more attention to accurate State-of-Charge (SoC) indication. Following the technological revolution and the appearance of more power consuming devices on the automotive electronics and

  10. Potential Application of ENR/EPDM Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.L. Chan

    2017-06-01

    resistance properties, or some in the development of potential thermoplastic rubber and its thermoplastic vulcanizates. In this paper, the author would like to share some findingsof the ENR/EPDM blends that have good flexand dynamic properties, relatively low compression set, and tolerant tensile properties that satisfy most rubber products that are required for and used in the industrial, mechanical, and even automotive parts. More importantly, the sliding skid resistance/frictional property and wear resistance of the blends are also examined. In some blends, the thermal dynamic behaviour is also measured over a temperature range depicting the low-temperature stability, its temperature of transition and the dynamic factor like tangent delta (σ. These are the potential factors that could enhance the blend properties that give possible, good high speed and traction, applicable in tyres.

  11. Sustainability indicators and their application to the mining companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas Pimiento, Elkin

    2000-01-01

    Today mining companies suffer strong pressure from organizations such as environmental groups, multilateral agencies, national governments, mining associations and the international media, to comply with good environmental practices and to face the new and important challenges imposed by the exploitation of deposits, of increasingly lower-grade ore, deepness and difficulty, and to integrate community issues in their decision making process. This article seeks to show the contribution that the development of environmental and social performance indicators and sustainability markers in the mining companies have in achieving sustainable development. This is especially useful in a developing country like Colombia, which has adopted a sustainable development economic model and where the mining sector has lead exportations and economy, but has also been responsible of big environmental damages and important social conflicts. Additionally, this work reports the existence of technologies and methodologies, e.g. those recommended by the Federal Environmental Agency of Germany, to design integrated sets of proven biophysical, economic and social indicators, including the conventional indicators of the mining process: input-outcome, capacity building, well being and participation, to be used in performance evaluation and optimization, cost-benefit analysis and strategic decision making, participative planning and progress monitoring, according to Alyson Warhurst (1997) in the mining and environmental research program of the Bath University

  12. [Application of endosseous screw implants. Indications and planning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajarola, G F; Sailer, H F

    1991-01-01

    To achieve long term positive results for endosseous dental implants, three points have to be considered: the osséointegration, the correct indication and the suprastructural planification designed for the spécific type of implant. If the surgery part is done by a different practitioner as the prosthetic part, tight coworking for planning is necessary and the responsibility in each step has to be cleared in advance. The planification in implant cases is divided into three stages: clearing of contraindications, choice of the suprastructure, and the surgery planning. Aids for exact localisation of the implants are presented.

  13. Evaluating climate change mitigation potential of hydrochars: compounding insights from three different indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Brooks, Jennifer; Renz, Michael

    2017-01-01

    beet, fava bean, onion and lucerne) and two different countries (Spain and Germany), and used three different indicators of climate change: global warming potential (GWP), global temperature change potential (GTP), and climate tipping potential (CTP). We found that although climate change benefits (GWP......) from just sequestration and temporary storage of carbon are sufficient to outweigh impacts stemming from hydrochar production and transportation to the field, even greater benefits stem from replacing climate-inefficient biowaste management treatment options, like composting in Spain. By contrast...

  14. OMALIZUMAB FOR CHILDREN WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA: INDICATIONS TO APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Kulichenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies to IgE are a totally new class of medications currently used to enhance the supervision over severe persistent atopic bronchial asthma. Omalizumab is the most well studied, first and only medication of this group, which is recommended for the application and is allowed for treatment of uncontrolled bronchial asthma among adults and children aged 12 and over in different countries of the world, including Russia. High omalizumab assisted treatment costs, as well as the need in the monthly visits to the doctor for the omalizumab injections are justified for the patients, requiring repeat hospitalizations, emergency medical aid, using high doses of the inhalation and/or systemic glucocorticosteroids. The article reviews the criteria for the selection of patients fit for omalizumab assisted treatment.Key words: omalizumab, anti-ige-antibodies, bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, treatment, children.

  15. New Indicators Of Burnished Surface Evaluation – Reasons Of Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toboła Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern production technology requires new ways of surface examination and a special kind of surface profile parameters. Industrial quality inspection needs to be fast, reliable and inexpensive. In this paper it is shown how stochastic surface examination and its proper parameters could be a solution for many industrial problems not necessarily related with smoothing out a manufactured surface. Burnishing is a modern technology widely used in aircraft and automotive industries to the products as well as to process tools. It gives to the machined surface high smoothness, and good fatigue and wear resistance. Every burnished material behaves in a different manner. Process conditions strongly influence the final properties of any specific product. Optimum burnishing conditions should be preserved for any manufactured product. In this paper we deal with samples made of conventional tool steel – Sverker 21 (X153CrMoV12 and powder metallurgy (P/M tool steel – Vanadis 6. Complete investigations of product properties are impossible to perform (because of constraints related to their cost, time, or lack of suitable equipment. Looking for a global, all-embracing quality indicator it was found that the correlation function and the frequency analysis of burnished surface give useful information for controlling the manufacturing process and evaluating the product quality. We propose three new indicators of burnishing surface quality. Their properties and usefulness are verified with the laboratory measurement of material samples made of the two mentioned kinds of tool steel.

  16. Natural safety indicators and their application to repository safety cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, B.

    2002-01-01

    Radiological dose and risk are the standard end-points calculated in all performance assessments. Their calculation requires, however, assumptions to be made for future human behaviour. To complement dose and risk, other safety indicators have been suggested which do not require such assumptions to be made. One proposed set of safety indicators are the concentrations and fluxes of naturally-occurring chemical species in the environment which may be compared with the performance assessment predictions of repository releases. Such comparisons can be valid because both the natural and repository species would occur in the same system and their transport behaviour would be controlled by exactly the same processes at the same rates. Although simple in concept, there is currently no consensus on the most appropriate comparisons to make or on the interpretation of such comparisons. A number of national and international research projects are evaluating this proposed approach, including an IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme. These projects suggest that that the approach appears to be workable and that it may be a valuable component of a safety case, complementing the dose and risk presentations. Further work is, however, necessary to develop the approach to a level where it may be confidently applied in further performance assessments in a consistent and methodical manner. (author)

  17. Indicators of small town tourism development potential: the case of Fouriesburg, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Halseth, G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available of Clarens has developed a substantial tourism economy, we pose the question of whether there are already indicators that Fouriesburg may be poised for similar change. The findings suggest that, while Fouriesburg has potential for developing a tourism...

  18. Scientific Research in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Potential for Excellence and Indicators of Underdevelopment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshayea, Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the status of scientific research and development efforts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and then sheds lights on the potential for excellence in this area in terms of organization and structure, financing and partnership, and human resources. Accordingly, the study reviews both achievements and indicators of underdevelopment…

  19. EDUCATIONAL POTENTIAL OF DEVELOPMENT: INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS ON THE BASIS OF STATISTICAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bychkova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Using information WEF, UNDP, OECD investigated differences in the characteristics of education as a factor of competitiveness and level of development of countries, formed the group of OECD countries and their partners, significantly differ in indicators of education, studied Russian position among OECD countries and BRICS, formulated conclusions about ways of improving the educational potential of the country

  20. Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection: Indications and Application in Western Endoscopy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Michael J; Neuhaus, Horst; Bergman, Jacques J

    2018-05-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection was developed in Japan, early in this century, to provide a minimally invasive yet curative treatment for the large numbers of patients with early gastric cancer identified by the national screening program. Previously, the majority of these patients were treated surgically at substantial cost and with significant risk of short- and long-term morbidity. En-bloc excision of these early cancers, most with a limited risk of nodal metastasis, allowed complete staging of the tumor, stratification of the subsequent therapeutic approach, and potential cure. This transformative innovation changed the nature of endoscopic treatment for superficial mucosal neoplasia and, ultimately, for the first time allowed endoscopists to assert that the early cancer had been definitively cured. Subsequently, Western endoscopists have increasingly embraced the therapeutic possibilities offered by endoscopic submucosal dissection, but with some justifiable scientific caution. Here we provide an evidence-based critical appraisal of the role of endoscopic submucosal dissection in advanced endoscopic tissue resection. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Determinants of deposit potential as inverse liquidity indicator of commercial banks in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević-Avdalović Snežana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify determinants of liquidity of commercial banks in the Republic of Serbia, observing the macroeconomic and banking-specific indicators, or micro-economic indicators which were analyzed by descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analysis from 2008 to 2014. The correlation for the observed variables is calculated from 140 samples for internal and external independent variables of impact to the dependent variable - liquidity measured by indicator of deposits. The subject of research is the process of optimization model reducing the factors of liquidity to variables that have the most significant impact on liquidity indicator measured by deposit potential. Results of the model show that liquidity of banks is dominantly determined by the size of banks assets. With growth of the assets, banks are exposed to a greater risk of liquidity. The increase in capital adequacy ratio has a positive effect on the liquidity of banks. Net interest margin is positively correlated with the indicator of deposit potential which indicates a negative impact on the liquidity of banks as well as the ratio of operating expenses to operating income.

  2. Potential Applications of Polyamines in Agriculture and Plant Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcio, Antonio F; Alcázar, Rubén

    2018-01-01

    The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine have been implicated in a myriad of biological functions in many organisms. Research done during the last decades has accumulated a large body of evidence demonstrating that polyamines are key modulators of plant growth and development. Different experimental approaches have been employed including the measurement of endogenous polyamine levels and the activities of polyamine metabolic enzymes, the study of the effects resulting from exogenous polyamine applications and chemical or genetic manipulation of endogenous polyamine titers. This chapter reviews the role of PAs in seed germination, root development, plant architecture, in vitro plant regeneration, flowering and plant senescence. Evidence presented here indicates that polyamines should be regarded as plant growth regulators with potential applications in agriculture and plant biotechnology.

  3. Graphene electrochemistry: an overview of potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownson, Dale A C; Banks, Craig E

    2010-11-01

    Graphene, a 2D nanomaterial that possesses spectacular physical, chemical and thermal properties, has caused immense excitement amongst scientists since its freestanding form was isolated in 2004. With research into graphene rife, it promises enhancements and vast applicability within many industrial aspects. Furthermore, graphene possesses a vast array of unique and highly desirable electrochemical properties, and it is this application that offers the most enthralling and spectacular journey. We present a review of the current literature concerning the electrochemical applications and advancements of graphene, starting with its use as a sensor substrate through to applications in energy production and storage, depicting the truly remarkable journey of a material that has just come of age.

  4. Air quality indicators from the Environmental Performance Index: potential use and limitations in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Garland

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In responding to deteriorating air quality, many countries, including South Africa, have implemented national programmes that aim to manage and regulate ambient air quality, and the emissions of air pollutants. One aspect within these management strategies is effective communication to stakeholders, including the general public, with regard to the state and trend of ambient air quality in South Africa. Currently, information on ambient air quality is communicated through ambient mass concentration values, as well as number of exceedances of South African National Ambient Standards. However, these do not directly communicate the potential impact on human health and the ecosystem. To this end, the use of air quality indicators is seen as a potential way to achieve communication to stakeholders in a simplified, yet scientifically defensible manner. Air quality indicators and their source data from the Environmental Performance Index (EPI were interrogated to understand their potential use in South Africa. An assessment of four air quality indicators, together with their source data, showed improvements in air quality over the time period studied, though the input data do have uncertainties. The source data for the PM indicators, which came from a global dataset, underestimated the annual PM2.5 concentrations in the Highveld Priority Area and Vaal Triangle Airshed Priority Area over the time period studied (2009-2014 by ~3.7 times. This highlights a key limitation of national-scale indicators and input data, that while the data used by the EPI are a well-thought out estimate of a country’s air quality profile, they remain a generalised estimate. The assumptions and uncertainty inherent in such an ambitious global-wide attempt make the estimates inaccurate for countries without proper emissions tracking and accounting and few monitoring stations, such as South Africa. Thus, the inputs and resultant indicators should be used with caution until such

  5. The dissolved organic matter as a potential soil quality indicator in arable soils of Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filep, Tibor; Draskovits, Eszter; Szabó, József; Koós, Sándor; László, Péter; Szalai, Zoltán

    2015-07-01

    Although several authors have suggested that the labile fraction of soils could be a potential soil quality indicator, the possibilities and limitations of using the dissolved organic matter (DOM) fraction for this purpose have not yet been investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that DOM is an adequate indicator of soil quality. To test this, the soil quality indices (SQI) of 190 arable soils from a Hungarian dataset were estimated, and these values were compared to DOM parameters (DOC and SUVA254). A clear difference in soil quality was found between the soil types, with low soil quality for arenosols (average SQI 0.5) and significantly higher values for gleysols, vertisols, regosols, solonetzes and chernozems. The SQI-DOC relationship could be described by non-linear regression, while a linear connection was observed between SQI and SUVA. The regression equations obtained for the dataset showed only one relatively weak significant correlation between the variables, for DOC (R (2) = 0.157(***); n = 190), while non-significant relationships were found for the DOC and SUVA254 values. However, an envelope curve operated with the datasets showed the robust potential of DOC to indicate soil quality changes, with a high R (2) value for the envelope curve regression equation. The limitations to using the DOM fraction of soils as a quality indicator are due to the contradictory processes which take place in soils in many cases.

  6. Wind erosion potential after land application of biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    PI, H.; Sharratt, B. S.; Schillinger, W. F.; Bary, A.; Cogger, C.

    2017-12-01

    The world population is currently 7.6 billion and, along with continued population growth, comes the challenge of disposing of wastewater and sewage sludge (biosolids). Applying biosolids to agricultural land to replace synthetic fertilizers represents a relatively safe method to recycle or sustainably use biosolids. While land application of biosolids is recognized as a sustainable management practice for enhancing soil health, no studies have determined the effects of biosolids on soil wind erosion. Wind erosion potential of a silt loam was assessed using a portable wind tunnel after applying synthetic and biosolid fertilizer to conventional and conservation tillage practices during the summer fallow phase of a winter wheat-summer fallow rotation in 2015 and 2016 in east-central Washington. Little difference in soil loss was observed between biosolid and synthetic fertilizer treatments, but this result appeared to be dependent on susceptibility of the soil to erosion. Regression analysis between soil loss from fertilizer or tillage treatments indicated that soil loss was lower from biosolid versus synthetic fertilizer and conservation versus conventional tillage at high erosion rates. This suggests that biosolids may reduce wind erosion under highly erodible conditions. Meanwhile, heavy metal concentrations in the windblown sediment were similar for the biosolid and synthetic fertilizer treatments whereas metal loss in windblown sediment was 10% lower from biosolid than synthetic fertilizer. Our results indicate that land application of biosolids did not accelerate the loss of metals or nutrients from soils during high winds. KeywordsLand application of biosolids; wind erosion; wind tunnel; sustainable agriculture

  7. Potentials of RFID Application in Retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foscht, Thomas; Kotzab, Herbert; Maloles III, Cesar

    2008-01-01

    The willingness of retailers to adopt RFID systems, as well as finding optimal RFID applications has yet not been investigated. This paper examines the issues associated with the RFID adoption based on the results of a conjoint analysis. The conjoint measurement looked at the trade-off decisions...... among different possible set-ups of RFID applications in retailing companies. Considerable willingness to adopt, but low diffusion and a structure of preferences with respect to RFID features was shown throughout the examined retailing companies. Furthermore, differences were shown among different types...... of retailers in their preferences for RFID system features and clusters were implied....

  8. Intraoperative radiotherapy in early stage breast cancer: potential indications and evidence to date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, A M

    2015-01-01

    Following early results of recent studies of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) in the adjuvant treatment of patients with early breast cancer, the clinical utility of IORT is a subject of much recent debate within the breast oncology community. This review describes the intraoperative techniques available, the potential indications and the evidence to date pertaining to local control and toxicity. We also discuss any implications for current practice and future research. PMID:25734489

  9. Visual Indicators on Vaccine Boxes as Early Warning Tools to Identify Potential Freeze Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angoff, Ronald; Wood, Jillian; Chernock, Maria C; Tipping, Diane

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of visual freeze indicators on vaccines would assist health care providers in identifying vaccines that may have been exposed to potentially damaging temperatures. Twenty-seven sites in Connecticut involved in the Vaccine for Children Program participated. In addition to standard procedures, visual freeze indicators (FREEZEmarker ® L; Temptime Corporation, Morris Plains, NJ) were affixed to each box of vaccine that required refrigeration but must not be frozen. Temperatures were monitored twice daily. During the 24 weeks, all 27 sites experienced triggered visual freeze indicator events in 40 of the 45 refrigerators. A total of 66 triggered freeze indicator events occurred in all 4 types of refrigerators used. Only 1 of the freeze events was identified by a temperature-monitoring device. Temperatures recorded on vaccine data logs before freeze indicator events were within the 35°F to 46°F (2°C to 8°C) range in all but 1 instance. A total of 46,954 doses of freeze-sensitive vaccine were stored at the time of a visual freeze indicator event. Triggered visual freeze indicators were found on boxes containing 6566 doses (14.0% of total doses). Of all doses stored, 14,323 doses (30.5%) were of highly freeze-sensitive vaccine; 1789 of these doses (12.5%) had triggered indicators on the boxes. Visual freeze indicators are useful in the early identification of freeze events involving vaccines. Consideration should be given to including these devices as a component of the temperature-monitoring system for vaccines.

  10. Ionic profile of honey as a potential indicator of botanical origin and global environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermo, Paola; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Maffei Facino, Roberto; Gelmini, Fabrizio; Piazzalunga, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Aim of this study was to determine by Ion Chromatography ions (Na + , Ca ++ , Mg ++ , NH 4 + , Cl − , Br − , SO 4 2− , NO 3 − , PO 4 3− ) in honeys (honeydew and floral nectar honeys) from different Italian Regions and from countries of the Western Balkan area. The compositional data were processed by multivariate analysis (PCA and HCA). Arboreal honeydew honeys from the Western Balkans had higher concentrations (from two to three times) of some environmental pollutants (Br − , SO 4 2− and PO 4 3− contents), due to industrial and agricultural activities, than those from Italian regions. The cationic profiles were very similar in both groups. Multivariate analysis indicated a clear difference between nectar honeys and arboreal/honeydew honeys (recognition of the botanical origin). These findings point to the potential of ionic constituents of honey as indicators of environmental pollution, botanical origin and authenticity. -- Highlights: •Analysis by IC of honeys from two areas with different environmental pollution (Italy and Balkans). •Chemometric techniques such as PCA and HCA used. •In Balkans area higher Br − , SO 4 2− and PO 4 3− due to industrial and agricultural activities. •Discrimination of honey botanical origin and authenticity on the base of IC data. •Honey ionic profiles as indicators of environmental pollution and botanical origin. -- Capsule: Ionic profiles of honey could be potential indicators of environmental pollution (industrial and agricultural), botanical origin and authenticity

  11. Surplus Cost Potential as a Life Cycle Impact Indicator for Metal Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa D.M. Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the evaluation of product life cycles, methods to assess the increase in scarcity of resources are still under development. Indicators that can express the importance of an increase in scarcity of metals extracted include surplus ore produced, surplus energy required, and surplus costs in the mining and the milling stage. Particularly the quantification of surplus costs per unit of metal extracted as an indicator is still in an early stage of development. Here, we developed a method that quantifies the surplus cost potential of mining and milling activities per unit of metal extracted, fully accounting for mine-specific differences in costs. The surplus cost potential indicator is calculated as the average cost increase resulting from all future metal extractions, as quantified via cumulative cost-tonnage relationships. We tested the calculation procedure with 12 metals and platinum-group metals as a separate group. We found that the surplus costs range six orders of magnitude between the metals included, i.e., between $0.01–$0.02 (iron and $13,533–$17,098 (rhodium USD (year 2013 per kilogram of metal extracted. The choice of the reserve estimate (reserves vs. ultimate recoverable resource influenced the surplus costs only to a limited extent, i.e., between a factor of 0.7 and 3.2 for the metals included. Our results provide a good basis to regularly include surplus cost estimates as resource scarcity indicator in life cycle assessment.

  12. Potential application of electron accelerators in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alang Md Rashid, Nahrul Khair; Mohd Dahlan, Khairul Zaman [Nuclear Energy Unit, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1994-12-31

    Briefly discussed some applications of electron accelerators i.e. sterilization, pasteurization (high energy EBM - up to 10 MV), crosslinking of wire and cable and insulation (medium energy EBM - 1 to 5 MV), treatment of flue gases for removal of NO sub x and SO sub x from burning coal(low energy EBM - 700 to 900 kV), curing of surface coatings, printing ink, adhesives (low energy EBM - 200 to 500 kV); advantages and electron beam processing.

  13. Potential application of electron accelerators in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rashid; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan

    1994-01-01

    Briefly discussed some applications of electron accelerators i.e. sterilization, pasteurization (high energy EBM - up to 10 MV), crosslinking of wire and cable and insulation (medium energy EBM - 1 to 5 MV), treatment of flue gases for removal of NO sub x and SO sub x from burning coal(low energy EBM - 700 to 900 kV), curing of surface coatings, printing ink, adhesives (low energy EBM - 200 to 500 kV); advantages and electron beam processing

  14. Radioactive indicators in biology and their medical applications; Indicateurs radioactifs en biologie et leurs applications medicales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, F

    1950-12-01

    This talk was given at the society of promotion of the national industry on December 1, 1949. The report is a pre-print of an article published in L'Industrie Nationale no.2 (1950). It presents the state-of-the-art of the use of artificial radioisotopes in biology and medicine: 1 - definitions (isotopes, decay, radiation emission); 2 - modalities of the use of radioisotopes in biology: basic instrumentation (Geiger-Mueller counter, counting techniques, photography, auto-histo-radiography); 3 - applications in physiology (digestive absorption, excretion, vascular exchanges, tracer techniques) and biochemistry (metabolism, thyroxine synthesis and fixation indicators, tracer techniques for drugs); 4 - radiotherapy, internal and external irradiation. (J.S.)

  15. Nanotechnologies, technologies converging and potential biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capuano, Vincenzo

    2005-01-01

    The applications of nanotechnology to biology and medicine appear really promising far diagnostics, for various therapeutic approaches and in medical instrumentations. The growing synergism among nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive sciences, their convergence (NBIC) from the nano scale, could involve on next decades great changes in medicine, from a reactive to a predictive and preventive approach. It is expected that NBIC converging technologies could achieve tremendous improvements in human abilities and enhance societal achievements. It appears therefore necessary a careful assessment of related social and ethical implications, in the framework of a constant dialogue between science and society [it

  16. Zeta potential in colloid science principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Robert J; Rowell, R L

    2013-01-01

    Zeta Potential in Colloid Science: Principles and Applications covers the concept of the zeta potential in colloid chemical theory. The book discusses the charge and potential distribution at interfaces; the calculation of the zeta potential; and the experimental techniques used in the measurement of electrokinetic parameters. The text also describes the electroviscous and viscoelectric effects; applications of the zeta potential to areas of colloid science; and the influence of simple inorganic ions or more complex adsorbates on zeta potential. Physical chemists and people involved in the stu

  17. Geopolymer Composites for Potential Applications in Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ricciotti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A new class of geopolymer composites, as materials alternative to traditional binders, was synthesized and its potentialities as restoration material in Cultural Heritage has been explored. This material has been prepared through a co-reticulation reaction in mild conditions of a metakaolin-based geopolymer inorganic matrix and a commercial epoxy resin. The freshly prepared slurry displays a consistency, workability and thixotropic behavior that make it suitable to be spread on different substrates in restoration, repair and reinforcement actions, even on walls and ceilings. Applicability and compatibility tests on tuff and concrete substrates were carried out and the microstructure of the samples in correspondence of the transition zone was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM observations and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS mapping. Our studies pointed out the formation of a continuous phase between the geopolymer composite and tuff and concrete substrates, highlighting a high compatibility of the geopolymer binder with different kinds of materials. These features indicate a large potential for applications of these materials in Cultural Heritage.

  18. Survey of potential electronic applications of high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, R.B.; Bourne, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors present a survey of the potential electronic applications of high temperature superconductor (HTSC) thin films. During the past four years there has been substantial speculation on this topic. The authors will cover only a small fraction of the potential electronic applications that have been identified. Their treatment is influenced by the developments over the past few years in materials and device development and in market analysis. They present their view of the most promising potential applications. Superconductors have two important properties that make them attractive for electronic applications. These are (a) low surface resistance at high frequencies, and (b) the Josephson effect

  19. DISTANCE LEARNING: POTENTIAL APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OUTLOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulija Mihajlovna Tsarapkina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the actual problem of distance education potential and prospects research in the Russian education system. According to the UNESCO estimates, if the current trend continues, then the number of people with a firm desire to receive an education would increase from 165 millions to 263 millions [7, 12]. Thus 98 million qualified students worldwide will be excluded from higher education due to a shortage of university seats. The purpose of the study is to analyze the historical and present state of the problem, to identify the potential and prospects of the development in distance learning within higher education. The methodological base of the research has become common methods of pedagogical sciences: pedagogical observation, survey, questionnaire, testing, comparative analysis, pedagogical experiment. The analytical review has shown several problem areas within distance learning, such as student’s motivation while distance course learning and training efficiency as compared to full-time university training. Combination of full-time training and distance learning leads to 31% enhancement of training efficiency and shows a sustainable increase of student’s motivation.

  20. Are Managed Futures Indices Telling Truth? Biases in CTA Databases and Proposals of Potential Enhancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zaremba

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Managed futures are an alternative asset class which has recently became considerably popular among investment industry. However, due to its characteristics, access to managed futures historical performance statistics is relatively confined. All available information originates from commercial and academic databases, reporting to which is entirely voluntary. This situation results in series of biases which distort the managed futures performance in the eyes of investors. The paper consists of two parts. First, the author reviews and describes various biases that influence the reliability of the managed futures indices and databases. The second section encompasses author’s proposals of potential enhancements, which aim to reduce the impact of the biases in order to derive a benchmark that could better reflect characteristics of managed futures investment from the point of view of a potential investor.

  1. Geothermal energy in Yugoslavia, potentials and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boreli, F.; Paradjanin, Lj.; Stankovic, Srb.

    2002-01-01

    This paper promotes the use of Geothermal energy (GTE) in Serbia, and argues that while GTE is both a viable and environmentally friendly energy source, as demonstrated elsewhere in the world, there is also a multitude of opportunities in this region, and the local knowledge and capabilities required for implementing the GTE plants. First, a general introduction to GTE in is given. The basis of GTE is the thermal energy accumulated in fluids and rocks masses in the Earth's Crust. The main GTE advantage compared to the traditional energy sources like thermo-electric plants is the absence of environmental deterioration, however GTE also has advantages compared to other NARES, as the GT sources are permanently available and independent of weather conditions. Worldwide energy potential of GTE is huge, as the reduction of Earth Crust temperature for just 0.1 deg. C would give enough Energy to produce Electrical Energy, at the present dissipation level, for the next 15,000 years. An overview of the regions in Yugoslavia which have a high GTE potential is given. There are two distinct regions with higher GTE values in Serbia: the first is a part of the South Panonian basin including Vojvodina, with Macva and Yu-part along Danube and Morava rivers. This is a sedimental part of the Tercier's Panonic Sea 'Parathetis', with partial depression and Backa subsupression, and is well investigated due to oil and gas holeboring. The second region includes Central and Southern part of Serbia, south from the Panonia basin, with pretercier's and tercier's magmatic volcanic intrusions, which produce a very high and stable thermal flux. This Region is rich in GT-warm water springs with stable yields, and includes 217 locations with 970 natural springs with temperature above 20 deg. C. These compare very favorably with international locations where GTE is exploited. GTE can be used for Electric Energy production using corresponding heat pump systems, for house heating and warm water

  2. The Autonomous Stress Indicator for Remotely Monitoring Power System State and Watching for Potential Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geza Joos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The proposed Autonomous Stress Indicator (ASI is a device that monitors the contents of the protection relays on a suspect weak power system bus and generates a performance level related to the degree of system performance degradation or instability. This gives the system operators some time (minutes to take corrective action. In a given operating area there would not likely be a need for an ASI on every bus. Note that the ASI does not trip any breakers; it is an INFORMATION ONLY device. An important feature is that the system operator can subsequently interrogate the ASI to determine the factor(s that led to the performance level that has been initially annunciated, thereby leading to a course of action. This paper traces the development of the ASI which is an ongoing project. The ASI could be also described as a stress-alert device whose function is to alert the System Operator of a stressful condition at its location. The characteristics (or essential qualities of this device are autonomy, selectivity, accuracy and intelligence. These will fulfill the requirements of the recommendation of the Canada –US Task Force in the August 2003 system collapse. Preliminary tests on the IEEE 39-bus model indicate that the concept has merit and development work is in progress. While the ASI can be applied to all power system operating conditions, its principal application is to the degraded state of the system where the System Operator must act to restore the system to the secure state before it migrates to a stage of collapse. The work of ASI actually begins with the Areas of Vulnerability and ends with the Predictive Module as described in detail in this paper. An application example of a degraded system using the IEEE 39-bus system is included.

  3. Metagenomic analysis indicates Epsilonproteobacteria as a potential cause of microbial corrosion in pipelines injected with bisulfite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongshan eAn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium bisulfite (SBS is used as an oxygen scavenger to decrease corrosion in pipelines transporting brackish subsurface water used in the production of bitumen by steam-assisted gravity drainage. Sequencing 16S rRNA gene amplicons has indicated that SBS addition increased the fraction of the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB Desulfomicrobium, as well as of Desulfocapsa, which can also grow by disproportionating sulfite into sulfide, sulfur and sulfate. SRB use cathodic H2, formed by reduction of aqueous protons at the iron surface, or use low potential electrons from iron and aqueous protons directly for sulfate reduction. In order to reveal the effects of SBS treatment in more detail, metagenomic analysis was performed with pipe-associated solids (PAS scraped from a pipe section upstream (PAS-616P and downstream (PAS-821TP of the SBS injection point. A major SBS-induced change in microbial community composition and in affiliated hynL genes for the large subunit of [NiFe] hydrogenase was the appearance of sulfur-metabolizing Epsilonproteobacteria of the genera Sulfuricurvum and Sulfurovum. These are chemolithotrophs, which oxidize sulfide or sulfur with O2 or reduce sulfur with H2. Because O2 was absent, this class likely catalyzed reduction of sulfur (S0 originating from the metabolism of bisulfite with cathodic H2 (or low potential electrons and aqueous protons originating from the corrosion of steel (Fe0. Overall this accelerates reaction of of S0 and Fe0 to form FeS, making this class a potentially powerful contributor to microbial corrosion. The PAS-821TP metagenome also had increased fractions of Deltaproteobacteria including the SRB Desulfomicrobium and Desulfocapsa. Altogether, SBS increased the fraction of hydrogen-utilizing Delta- and Epsilonproteobacteria in brackish-water-transporting pipelines, potentially stimulating anaerobic pipeline corrosion if dosed in excess of the intended oxygen scavenger function.

  4. An Indicator-Based Framework to Evaluate Sustainability of Farming Systems: Review of Applications in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Vazzana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability at the farm level. Policymakers need accounting and evaluation tools to be able to assess the potential of sustainable production practices and to provide appropriate agro-environmental policy measures. Farmers are in search of sustainable management tools to cope with regulations and enhance efficiency. This study proposes an indicator-based framework to evaluate sustainability of farming systems. Main features of the indicators’ framework are the relevance given to different spatial scales (farm, site and field, production and pedo-climatic factors, and a holistic view of the agro-ecosystem. The framework has been conceived to tackle different purposes ranging from detailed scientific analyses to farm-level management systems and cross-compliance. Agro-environmental indicators can be calculated, simulated with models or directly measured with different levels of detail proportionally to the aims of the evaluation exercise. The framework is organised in a number of environmental and production systems and sub-systems. For each system environmental critical points are identified with corresponding agro-environmental indicators and processing methods. A review of applications of the framework in Tuscany, Italy, since 1991 is presented. Applications range from prototyping farming systems, to integrated farm ecological-economic modelling, comparisons between organic, integrated and conventional farming systems, farm eco-management voluntary audit schemes and cross-compliance. Strengths and weaknesses of the framework are discussed against generic requirements of information systems and operational issues.

  5. Applications of the Conceptual Density Functional Theory Indices to Organic Chemistry Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Luis R; Ríos-Gutiérrez, Mar; Pérez, Patricia

    2016-06-09

    Theoretical reactivity indices based on the conceptual Density Functional Theory (DFT) have become a powerful tool for the semiquantitative study of organic reactivity. A large number of reactivity indices have been proposed in the literature. Herein, global quantities like the electronic chemical potential μ, the electrophilicity ω and the nucleophilicity N indices, and local condensed indices like the electrophilic P k + and nucleophilic P k - Parr functions, as the most relevant indices for the study of organic reactivity, are discussed.

  6. Serum IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and their ratio: Potential biochemical growth maturity indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nimisha; Tripathi, Tulika; Gupta, S K; Rai, Priyank; Kanase, Anup; Kalra, Shilpa

    2017-12-01

    Determination of skeletal maturation and remaining growth potential is an essential part of treatment planning in orthodontics. The aim of our study was to determine the relationship between IGF-1 levels, IGFBP-3 levels with CVM staging to track the pre pubertal and pubertal growth spurts in female patients in North Indian population. This cross-sectional study was conducted on ninety female subjects in the age group of 8-20 years. Blood samples were collected and centrifuged and serum samples were then analysed by Human IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits, specific for IGF-1 and IGFBP-3, respectively. CVM staging on lateral cephalometric radiograph was determined for all patients. Analysis of variance test followed by a post hoc test was used to compare mean IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 corresponding to six stages of cervical vertebrae maturation stages. Linear Pearson's correlations were performed to determine the trends of IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and its ratio relating to CVM stage. The kappa statistic was used to measure inter and intra examiner reliability. P value IGF-1 levels were found to be highest (403.3 ± 12.3 ng/ml) at CVMI3 stage of CVMI. The post-hoc test revealed a significant difference in IGF-1 levels between all stages of CVMI, thereby indicating a specific range of IGF-1 levels for a specific skeletal stage. Mean serum IGFBP-3 levels were found to be highest (5186.8 ± 1384.2 ng/ml) at CVMI4 stage of CVMI. The mean serum IGFBP-3 levels at CVMI4 were found to be significantly higher than the levels at all other CVMI stages except CVMI3 stage. IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 can serve as a potential biochemical indicator for assessment of skeletal maturity.

  7. Land surface temperature as potential indicator of burn severity in forest Mediterranean ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintano, C.; Fernández-Manso, A.; Calvo, L.; Marcos, E.; Valbuena, L.

    2015-04-01

    Forest fires are one of the most important causes of environmental alteration in Mediterranean countries. Discrimination of different degrees of burn severity is critical for improving management of fire-affected areas. This paper aims to evaluate the usefulness of land surface temperature (LST) as potential indicator of burn severity. We used a large convention-dominated wildfire, which occurred on 19-21 September, 2012 in Northwestern Spain. From this area, a 1-year series of six LST images were generated from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data using a single channel algorithm. Further, the Composite Burn Index (CBI) was measured in 111 field plots to identify the burn severity level (low, moderate, and high). Evaluation of the potential relationship between post-fire LST and ground measured CBI was performed by both correlation analysis and regression models. Correlation coefficients were higher in the immediate post-fire LST images, but decreased during the fall of 2012 and increased again with a second maximum value in summer, 2013. A linear regression model between post-fire LST and CBI allowed us to represent spatially predicted CBI (R-squaredadj > 85%). After performing an analysis of variance (ANOVA) between post-fire LST and CBI, a Fisher's least significant difference test determined that two burn severity levels (low-moderate and high) could be statistically distinguished. The identification of such burn severity levels is sufficient and useful to forest managers. We conclude that summer post-fire LST from moderate resolution satellite data may be considered as a valuable indicator of burn severity for large fires in Mediterranean forest ecosytems.

  8. Updates on ultrasound research in implant dentistry: a systematic review of potential clinical indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Vaishnavi; Chan, Hsun-Liang; MacEachern, Mark; Kripfgans, Oliver D

    2018-05-23

    Ultrasonography has shown promising diagnostic value in dental implant imaging research; however, exactly how ultrasound was used and at what stage of implant therapy it can be applied has not been systematically evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this review is to investigate potential indications of ultrasound use in the three implant treatment phases, namely planning, intraoperative and postoperative phase. Eligible manuscripts were searched in major databases with a combination of key words related to the use of ultrasound imaging in implant therapy. An initial search yielded 414 articles, after further review, 28 articles were finally included for this systematic review. Ultrasound was found valuable, though at various development stages, for evaluating (1) soft tissues, (2) hard tissues (3) vital structures and (4) implant stability. B-mode, the main function to image anatomical structures of interest, has been evaluated in pre-clinical and clinical studies. Quantitative ultrasound parameters, e.g. sound speed and amplitude, are being developed to evaluate implant-bone stability, mainly in simulation and pre-clinical studies. Ultrasound could be potentially useful in all 3 treatment phases. In the planning phase, ultrasound could evaluate vital structures, tissue biotype, ridge width/density, and cortical bone thickness. During surgery, it can provide feedback by identifying vital structures and bone boundary. At follow-up visits, it could evaluate marginal bone level and implant stability. Understanding the current status of ultrasound imaging research for implant therapy would be extremely beneficial for accelerating translational research and its use in dental clinics.

  9. Antioxidant Potential of a Polyherbal Antimalarial as an Indicator of Its Therapeutic Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protus Arrey Tarkang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nefang is a polyherbal product composed of Mangifera indica (bark and leaf, Psidium guajava, Carica papaya, Cymbopogon citratus, Citrus sinensis, and Ocimum gratissimum (leaves, used for the treatment of malaria. Compounds with antioxidant activity are believed to modulate plasmodial infection. Antioxidant activity of the constituent aqueous plants extracts, in vitro, was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, total phenolic content (TPC, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP methods and, in vivo, Nefang (100 and 500 mg kg−1 activity was evaluated in carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stressed Wistar rats. Superoxide dismutase, catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation by the malondialdehyde and total proteins assays were carried out. P. guajava, M. indica leaf, and bark extracts had the highest antioxidant properties in all three assays, with no statistically significant difference. Rats treated with the carbon tetrachloride had a statistically significant decrease in levels of triglycerides, superoxide dismutase, and catalase (P<0.05 and increase in malondialdehyde activity, total protein levels, and liver and renal function markers, whereas rats treated with Nefang showed increased levels in the former and dose-dependent decrease towards normal levels in the later. These results reveal the constituent plants of Nefang that contribute to its in vivo antioxidant potential. This activity is a good indication of the therapeutic potential of Nefang.

  10. Increased Evoked Potentials and Behavioral Indices in Response to Pain Among Individuals with Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benromano, Tali; Pick, Chaim G; Granovsky, Yelena; Defrin, Ruth

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies on the sensitivity and reactivity to pain of individuals with intellectual disability (ID) are inconsistent. The inconsistency may result from the reliance on self-reports and facial expressions of pain that are subject to internal and external biases. The aim was therefore to evaluate the reactivity to pain of individuals with ID by recording pain-evoked potentials (EPs), here for the first time, and testing their association with behavioral pain indices. Forty-one healthy adults, 16 with mild-moderate ID and 25 controls. Subjects received series of phasic heat stimuli and rated their pain on self-report scales. Changes in facial expressions and in pain EPs were recorded and analyzed offline. Pain self-reports, facial expressions, and the N2P2 amplitudes of the EPs exhibited stimulus-response relationship with stimulation intensity in both groups. The facial expressions and N2P2 amplitudes of individuals with ID were increased and N2P2 latency prolonged compared with controls. N2P2 amplitudes correlated with self-reports only in controls. Individuals with ID are hypersensitive/reactive to pain, a finding bearing clinical implications. Although pain EPs may reflect a somewhat different aspect of pain than the behavioral indices do, there is evidence to support their use to record pain in noncommunicative individuals, pending further validation. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Development of potential map for landslides by comparing instability indices of various time periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jie-Lun; Tian, Yu-Qing; Chen, Yie-Ruey; Tsai, Kuang-Jung

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, extreme rainfall events occur frequently and induced serious landslides and debris flow disasters in Taiwan. The instability indices will differ when using landslide maps of different time periods. We analyzed the landslide records during the period year, 2008 2012, the landslide area contributed 0.42% 2.94% of the total watershed area, the 2.94% was caused by the typhoon Morakot in August, 2009, which brought massive rainfall in which the cumulative maximum rainfall was up to 2900 mm. We analyzed the instability factors including elevation, slope, aspect, soil, and geology. And comparing the instability indices by using individual landslide map of 2008 2012, the landslide maps of the union of the five years, and interaction of the five years. The landslide area from union of the five years contributed 3.71%,the landslide area from interaction of the five years contributed 0.14%. In this study, Kriging was used to establish the susceptibility map in selected watershed. From interaction of the five years, we found the instability index above 4.3 can correspond to those landslide records. The potential landslide area of the selected watershed, where collapses occur more likely, belongs to high level and medium-high level; the area is 13.43% and 3.04% respectively.

  12. National valuation of monarch butterflies indicates an untapped potential for incentive-based conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Loomis, John B.; Ries, Leslie; Oberhauser, Karen; Semmens, Darius; Semmens, Brice; Butterfield, Bruce; Bagstad, Ken; Goldstein, Josh; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Mattsson, Brady; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2013-01-01

    The annual migration of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) has high cultural value and recent surveys indicate monarch populations are declining. Protecting migratory species is complex because they cross international borders and depend on multiple regions. Understanding how much, and where, humans place value on migratory species can facilitate market-based conservation approaches. We performed a contingent valuation study of monarchs to understand the potential for such approaches to fund monarch conservation. The survey asked U.S. respondents about the money they would spend, or have spent, growing monarch-friendly plants, and the amount they would donate to monarch conservation organizations. Combining planting payments and donations, the survey indicated U.S. households valued monarchs as a total one-time payment of $4.78–$6.64 billion, levels similar to many endangered vertebrate species. The financial contribution of even a small percentage of households through purchases or donations could generate new funding for monarch conservation through market-based approaches.

  13. Defining indicators to motorize block valves aiming to reduce potential leakage applied to OSBRA pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, L.F.G. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Sousa, A.G.; Castro, N.C.; Spagnolo, R. [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The discussion about motorizing block valves is a constant point being brought up when it is intended to control or reduce the amount of liquid leaking in the event of a pipe rupture. During the pipeline's project stage the installation of blocking valves along the pipeline must be taken into consideration to meet the operation and maintenance requirements as well as to reduce the potential amounts of volume being leaked. In existing pipelines, the main concern is the definition of which valves are candidates to be motorized. In both situations criteria should be established to define this choice. A math algorithm was developed to define the potential leakage due to gravity along the pipeline profile where the influence of a valve over another is verified, as well as the contribution of the check valves existing in the pipeline. The present work defines a parameter based on the extension protected by the valve and the reduction of the potential leakage. This parameter is then fed to a worksheet where the efficiency indicators are calculated to each valve eligible to be motorized. It also takes into consideration factors relative to the valve location, such as the environmental sensitivity, risk assessment, social diagnosis and device's proximity to contingency resources. Finally, after considering all the above aspects, it's possible to come up with a final classification, recommending specific valves to be prioritized on an eventual process of motorization adequacies. This methodology was applied, experimentally on a pipe segment of TRANSPETRO's Sao Paulo-Brasilia pipeline - OSBRA , where it proved to be an important technological and management tool. (author)

  14. A study of the landslide potential along the mountain road using environmental indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Utilization of slope land in recent years is rapid as a result of the dense population and limit of land resources in Taiwan. Therefore, mountain road plays an essential role for the necessity of human life. However, landslide disaster resulting in road failure occurred frequently in Taiwan on the slope land due to earthquake and typhoon. Previous studies found that the extreme rainfall coupled with the property of fragile geology could cause landslide. Nevertheless, the landslide occurrence might be affected by the drainage of the road side ditches. Taiwan Highway No.21 in Chi-Shan watershed and the forest roads located in Xiao-Lin Village, which failure during the hit of Typhoon Morakot in 2009, were selected for exploring the potential of vulnerable to landslides. Topographic Wetness Index (TWI) and Road Curvature (RC) were extracted along the road to indicate the potential sites which are vulnerable to slope failure. The surface runoff diverted by the road side ditches could spoil the sites with high RC due to the straight movement characteristics of the diverted runoff and cause the downslope collapse. The sites with higher mean value and lower standard deviation of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from the SPOT imagery taken in dry and/or rainy seasons could be implied as the vegetation stands showing highly buffer effects in environmental stress due to having deeper soil layer, and are hardly interfered by the drought. The stands located in such sites once collapsed are often resulting in huge volumes of debris. Drainage Density (DD) index could be applied as the degrees of geologic fragile in the slope land. A road across the sites with higher mean value and lower standard deviation of NDVI and/or higher DD should be paid more attention because of having highly vulnerable to deep seated landslide. This study is focusing on extracting and analyzing the environmental indices such as TWI, RC, NDVI and DD for exploring the slope stability

  15. The potentials of ICT application to increased relevance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potentials of ICT application to increased relevance and sustainability of University Library Services in Nigeria. ... in Kenneth Dike library, University of Ibadan and University of Lagos Libraries and library search of recent literature on ICT application and marketing of ICT based services in Nigerian University libraries.

  16. Salmonella and fecal indicator bacteria in tile waters draining poultry litter application fields in central Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, C.; Soupir, M.

    2012-12-01

    E. coli and enterococci are commonly used as pathogen indicators in surface waters. Along with these indicators, pathogenic Salmonella are prevalent in poultry litter, and have the potential to be transported from land-application areas to tile waters and ultimately to impact waters that are used for drinking-water and recreation. The fate and transport of these bacteria to drainage tiles from application fields, and the correlation of fecal indicator bacteria to pathogens in this setting, is poorly understood. In this field study, samples were obtained from poultry litter, soil, and drainage tile waters below chisel-plowed and no-till cornfields in central Iowa where poultry litter was applied each year in late spring prior to planting. Litter was applied at three different rates; commercial fertilizer with no litter, a low application rate based on the nitrogen requirements of the corn (PL1), and double the low rate (PL2). This site is characterized by low sloping (0-9%) Clarion and Nicollet soils, which are derived from glacial till. Samples were collected from April to September for three years (2010-12) when tiles were flowing. Record high precipitation fell during the sampling period in 2010, while 2011 and 2012 were exceptionally dry years at this location. Grab samples were taken directly from flowing tiles after every rainfall event (>2 cm in less than 24 hours) and samples were collected hourly throughout selected events using an automatic sampling device. Concentrations of E. coli, enterococci and Salmonella spp. were quantified by membrane filtration and growth on selective agars. Peak bacteria concentrations following rainfall events were often one order of magnitude higher in tile waters discharging from no-till plots, despite the smaller size and lower tile flow rates at these plots compared to the chisel-plowed plots. Bacteria concentrations regularly varied by two orders of magnitude in response to rainfall events. Bacteria transport via macropores

  17. Oxidative potential of particulate matter 2.5 as predictive indicator of cellular stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crobeddu, Bélinda; Aragao-Santiago, Leticia; Bui, Linh-Chi; Boland, Sonja; Baeza Squiban, Armelle

    2017-01-01

    Particulate air pollution being recognized to be responsible for short and long term health effects, regulations for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 (PM 2.5 ) are more and more restrictive. PM 2.5 regulation is based on mass without taking into account PM 2.5 composition that drives toxicity. Measurement of the oxidative potential (OP) of PM could be an additional PM indicator that would encompass the PM components involved in oxidative stress, the main mechanism of PM toxicity. We compared different methods to evaluate the intrinsic oxidative potential of PM 2.5 sampled in Paris and their ability to reflect the oxidative and inflammatory response in bronchial epithelial cells used as relevant target organ cells. The dithiothreitol depletion assay, the antioxidant (ascorbic acid and glutathione) depletion assay (OP AO ), the plasmid scission assay and the dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) oxidation assay used to characterize the OP of PM 2.5 (10–100 μg/mL) provided positive results of different magnitude with all the PM 2.5 samples used with significant correlation with different metals such as Cu and Zn as well as total polyaromatic hydrocarbons and the soluble organic fraction. The OP AO assay showed the best correlation with the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species by NCI-H292 cell line assessed by DCFH oxidation and with the expression of anti-oxidant genes (superoxide dismutase 2, heme-oxygenase-1) as well as the proinflammatory response (Interleukin 6) when exposed from 1 to 10 μg/cm 2 . The OP AO assay appears as the most prone to predict the biological effect driven by PM 2.5 and related to oxidative stress. - Highlights: • 5 Acellular assays were used to compare the intrinsic oxidative potential (OP) of PM. • The amount of ROS generation in bronchial cells is particle dependent. • Particles induce the expression of anti-oxidant and proinflammatory genes. • Biological effects correlates with OP assay

  18. Potential game theory applications in radio resource allocation

    CERN Document Server

    Lã, Quang Duy; Soong, Boon-Hee

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a thorough examination of potential game theory and its applications in radio resource management for wireless communications systems and networking. The book addresses two major research goals: how to identify a given game as a potential game, and how to design the utility functions and the potential functions with certain special properties in order to formulate a potential game. After proposing a unifying mathematical framework for the identification of potential games, the text surveys existing applications of this technique within wireless communications and networking problems found in OFDMA 3G/4G/WiFi networks, as well as next-generation systems such as cognitive radios and dynamic spectrum access networks. Professionals interested in understanding the theoretical aspect of this specialized field will find Potential Game Theory a valuable resource, as will advanced-level engineering students. It paves the way for extensive and rigorous research exploration on a topic whose capacity for...

  19. Physics of Prestall Propagating Disturbances in Axial Compressors and Their Potential as a Stall Warning Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Eck

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Axial compressors in aero engines are prone to suffering a breakdown of orderly flow when operating at the peak of the pressure rise characteristic. The damaging potential of separated flows is why a safe distance has to be left between every possible operating point and an operating point at which stall occurs. During earlier investigations of stall inception mechanisms, a new type of prestall instability has been found. In this study, it could be demonstrated that the prestall instability characterised by discrete flow disturbances can be clearly assigned to the subject of “Rotating Instabilities”. Propagating disturbances are responsible for the rise in blade passing irregularity. If the mass flow is reduced successively, the level of irregularity increases until the prestall condition devolves into rotating stall. The primary objective of the current work is to highlight the basic physics behind these prestall disturbances by complementary experimental and numerical investigations. Before reaching the peak of the pressure rise characteristic flow, disturbances appear as small vortex tubes with one end attached to the casing and the other attached to the suction surface of the rotor blade. These vortex structures arise when the entire tip region is affected by blockage and at the same time the critical rotor incidence is not exceeded in this flow regime. Furthermore, a new stall indicator was developed by applying statistical methods to the unsteady pressure signal measured over the rotor blade tips, thus granting a better control of the safety margin.

  20. Potential Regrowth and Recolonization of Salmonellae and Indicators in Biosolids and Biosolid-Amended Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Kathleen J.; Josephson, Karen L.; Gerba, Charles P.; Pepper, Ian L.

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential for conversion of Class B to Class A biosolids with respect to salmonellae and fecal coliforms during solar drying in concrete lined drying beds. Anaerobically (8% solids) and aerobically (2% solids) digested Class B biosolids were pumped into field-scale drying beds, and microbial populations and environmental conditions were monitored. Numbers of fecal coliforms and salmonellae decreased as temperature and rate of desiccation increased. After 3 to 4 weeks, Class A requirements were achieved in both biosolids for the pathogens and the indicators. However, following rainfall events, significant increase in numbers was observed for both fecal coliforms and salmonellae. In laboratory studies, regrowth of fecal coliforms was observed in both biosolids and biosolid-amended soil, but the regrowth of salmonellae observed in the concrete-lined drying beds did not occur. These laboratory studies demonstrated that pathogens decreased in numbers when soil was amended with biosolids. Based on serotyping, the increased numbers of salmonellae seen in the concrete lined drying beds following rainfall events was most likely due to recolonization due to contamination from fecal matter introduced by animals and not from regrowth of salmonellae indigenous to biosolids. Overall, we conclude that the use of concrete-lined beds created a situation in which moisture added as rainfall accumulated in the beds, promoting the growth of fecal coliforms and salmonellae added from external sources. PMID:16000779

  1. Evaluating Zeta Potential and the Calcite/Aragonite Ratio as Potential Success Indicators for Magnetic Water Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambert, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    The potential benefits of anti-scale magnetic treatment (AMT) are not realized or reliably predicted because the factors measuring performance of magnetic treatment have either not been identified or are poorly defined...

  2. Magnetic nanoparticles as potential candidates for biomedical and biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinali Sehrig, Fatemeh; Majidi, Sima; Nikzamir, Nasrin; Nikzamir, Nasim; Nikzamir, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have become the main candidates for biomedical and biological applications, and the application of small iron oxide nanoparticles in in vitro diagnostics has been practiced for about half a century. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), in combination with an external magnetic field and/or magnetizable grafts, allow the delivery of particles to the chosen target area, fix them at the local site while the medication is released, and act locally. In this review, we focus mostly on the potential use of MNPs for biomedical and biotechnological applications, and the improvements made in using these nanoparticles (NPs) in biological applications.

  3. Smart and accurate state-of-charge indication in portable applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Regtien, P.P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Accurate state-of-charge (SoC) and remaining run-time indication for portable devices is important for the user-convenience and to prolong the lifetime of batteries. However, the known methods of SoC indication in portable applications are not accurate enough under all practical conditions. The

  4. Battery Management Systems: Accurate State-of-Charge Indication for Battery-Powered Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Danilov, D.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Battery Management Systems – Universal State-of-Charge indication for portable applications describes the field of State-of-Charge (SoC) indication for rechargeable batteries. With the emergence of battery-powered devices with an increasing number of power-hungry features, accurately estimating the

  5. Smart and accurate State-of-Charge indication in Portable Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, V.; Bergveld, H.J.; Notten, P.H.L.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate state-of-charge (SoC) and remaining run-time indication for portable devices is important for the user-convenience and to prolong the lifetime of batteries. However, the known methods of SoC indication in portable applications are not accurate enough under all practical conditions. The

  6. A comparison of propulsion systems for potential space mission applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvego, E.A.; Sulmeisters, T.K.

    1987-01-01

    A derivative of the NERVA nuclear rocket engine was compared with a chemical propulsion system and a nuclear electric propulsion system to assess the relative capabilities of the different propulsion system options for three potential space missions. The missions considered were (1) orbital transfer from low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), (2) LEO to a lunar base, and (3) LEO to Mars. The results of this comparison indicate that the direct-thrust NERVA-derivative nuclear rocket engine has the best performance characteristics for the missions considered. The combined high thrust and high specific impulse achievable with a direct-thrust nuclear stage permits short operating times (transfer times) comparable to chemical propulsion systems, but with considerably less required propellant. While nuclear-electric propulsion systems are more fuel efficient than either direct-nuclear or chemical propulsion, they are not stand-alone systems, since their relatively low thrust levels require the use of high-thrust ferry or lander stages in high gravity applications such as surface-to-orbit propulsion. The extremely long transfer times and inefficient trajectories associated with electric propulsion systems were also found to be a significant drawback

  7. Trehalose as an indicator of desiccation stress in Drosophila melanogaster larvae: A potential marker of anhydrobiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorat, Leena J. [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Gaikwad, Sushama M. [Division of Biochemical Sciences, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India); Nath, Bimalendu B., E-mail: bbnath@unipune.ac.in [Centre for Advanced Studies, Department of Zoology, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First report confirming anhydrobiosis in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose synthesis and accumulation in larvae that hydrolyzed on rehydration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose synthesis in concert with the enzymes involved in trehalose metabolism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of trehalose hydrolysis in presence of a specific trehalase inhibitor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trehalose proposed as a reliable marker for biomonitoring of climate change studies. -- Abstract: In the current scenario of global climate change, desiccation is considered as one of the major environmental stressors for the biota exposed to altered levels of ambient temperature and humidity. Drosophila melanogaster, a cosmopolitan terrestrial insect has been chosen as a humidity-sensitive bioindicator model for the present study since its habitat undergoes frequent stochastic and/or seasonally aggravated dehydration regimes. We report here for the first time the occurrence of anhydrobiosis in D. melanogaster larvae by subjecting them to desiccation stress under laboratory conditions. Larvae desiccated for ten hours at <5% relative humidity could enter anhydrobiosis and could revive upon rehydration followed by resumption of active metabolism. As revealed by FTIR and HPLC analyzes, our findings strongly indicated the synthesis and accumulation of trehalose in the desiccating larvae. Biochemical measurements pointed out the desiccation-responsive trehalose metabolic pathway that was found to be coordinated in concert with the enzymes trehalose 6-phosphate synthase and trehalase. Further, an inhibitor-based experimental approach using deoxynojirimycin, a specific trehalase inhibitor, demonstrated the pivotal role of trehalose in larval anhydrobiosis of D. melanogaster. We therefore propose trehalose as a potential marker for the assessment of anhydrobiosis in Drosophila. The present findings thus add

  8. Excess air in groundwater as a potential indicator of past environmental changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeschenbach-Hertig, W.; Beyerle, U.; Holocher, J.; Peeters, F.; Kipfer, R.

    2002-01-01

    Dissolved noble gases in groundwater are used to reconstruct paleotemperature, but also yield information about 'excess air', a component of dissolved gases in excess of solubility equilibrium, derived from dissolution of trapped air in the ground. A good characterization of the excess air component is necessary not only to obtain reliable noble gas temperatures, but also to investigate the potential of excess air as a proxy for past environmental conditions. Two excess air related quantities can be derived from groundwater noble gas data sets: The initial air/water ratio and the pressure exerted on the entrapped air. Under recharge conditions typical for many aquifers, the excess of dissolved gases, expressed by the relative Ne excess ΔNe, is mainly determined by the hydrostatic pressure on the entrapped air. Thus, we suggest that ΔNe is essentially a measure of the amplitude of water table fluctuations in the recharge area. Comparing data sets from three aquifers in temperate, humid latitudes and three aquifers in tropical, semi-arid regions, we find that ΔNe is generally higher in the tropical aquifers, possibly related to larger water table fluctuations in these aquifers characterized by deep unsaturated zones. Whereas ΔNe shows little temporal variation in the mid-latitude aquifers, there is a strong signal of higher ΔNe in the paleowaters of the tropical aquifers as compared to water recharged under modern climate conditions. This finding may indicate a higher variability of recharge in the past at the studied tropical sites. (author)

  9. Trehalose as an indicator of desiccation stress in Drosophila melanogaster larvae: A potential marker of anhydrobiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorat, Leena J.; Gaikwad, Sushama M.; Nath, Bimalendu B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► First report confirming anhydrobiosis in Drosophila melanogaster larvae. ► Trehalose synthesis and accumulation in larvae that hydrolyzed on rehydration. ► Trehalose synthesis in concert with the enzymes involved in trehalose metabolism. ► Inhibition of trehalose hydrolysis in presence of a specific trehalase inhibitor. ► Trehalose proposed as a reliable marker for biomonitoring of climate change studies. -- Abstract: In the current scenario of global climate change, desiccation is considered as one of the major environmental stressors for the biota exposed to altered levels of ambient temperature and humidity. Drosophila melanogaster, a cosmopolitan terrestrial insect has been chosen as a humidity-sensitive bioindicator model for the present study since its habitat undergoes frequent stochastic and/or seasonally aggravated dehydration regimes. We report here for the first time the occurrence of anhydrobiosis in D. melanogaster larvae by subjecting them to desiccation stress under laboratory conditions. Larvae desiccated for ten hours at <5% relative humidity could enter anhydrobiosis and could revive upon rehydration followed by resumption of active metabolism. As revealed by FTIR and HPLC analyzes, our findings strongly indicated the synthesis and accumulation of trehalose in the desiccating larvae. Biochemical measurements pointed out the desiccation-responsive trehalose metabolic pathway that was found to be coordinated in concert with the enzymes trehalose 6-phosphate synthase and trehalase. Further, an inhibitor-based experimental approach using deoxynojirimycin, a specific trehalase inhibitor, demonstrated the pivotal role of trehalose in larval anhydrobiosis of D. melanogaster. We therefore propose trehalose as a potential marker for the assessment of anhydrobiosis in Drosophila. The present findings thus add to the growing list of novel biochemical markers in specific bioindicator organisms for fulfilling the urgent need of

  10. Bacteriophages-potential for application in wastewater treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withey, S.; Cartmell, E.; Avery, L.M.; Stephenson, T.

    2005-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and lyse bacteria. Interest in the ability of phages to control bacterial populations has extended from medical applications into the fields of agriculture, aquaculture and the food industry. Here, the potential application of phage techniques in wastewater treatment systems to improve effluent and sludge emissions into the environment is discussed. Phage-mediated bacterial mortality has the potential to influence treatment performance by controlling the abundance of key functional groups. Phage treatments have the potential to control environmental wastewater process problems such as: foaming in activated sludge plants; sludge dewaterability and digestibility; pathogenic bacteria; and to reduce competition between nuisance bacteria and functionally important microbial populations. Successful application of phage therapy to wastewater treatment does though require a fuller understanding of wastewater microbial community dynamics and interactions. Strategies to counter host specificity and host cell resistance must also be developed, as should safety considerations regarding pathogen emergence through transduction

  11. Application of patient safety indicators internationally: a pilot study among seven countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drösler, Saskia E.; Klazinga, Niek S.; Romano, Patrick S.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Gogorcena Aoiz, Maria A.; Hewitt, Moira C.; Scobie, Sarah; Soop, Michael; Wen, Eugene; Quan, Hude; Ghali, William A.; Mattke, Soeren; Kelley, Edward

    2009-01-01

    To explore the potential for international comparison of patient safety as part of the Health Care Quality Indicators project of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) by evaluating patient safety indicators originally published by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and

  12. Ceriodaphnia dubia as a potential bio-indicator for assessing acute aluminum oxide nanoparticle toxicity in fresh water environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunandan Pakrashi

    Full Text Available Growing nanomaterials based consumer applications have raised concerns about their potential release into the aquatic ecosystems and the consequent toxicological impacts. So environmental monitoring of the nanomaterials in aqueous systems becomes imperative. The current study reveals the potential of Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia as a bio-indicator for aluminum oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water aquatic ecosystem where it occupies an important ecological niche as a primary consumer. This study aims to investigate the aluminium oxide nanoparticle induced acute toxicity on Ceriodaphnia dubia in a freshwater system. The bioavailability of the aluminum oxide nanoparticles has been studied with respect to their aggregation behavior in the system and correlated with the toxicity endpoints. The oxidative stress generated by the particles contributed greatly toward their toxicity. The crucial role of leached aluminium ion mediated toxicity in the later phases (48 h and 72 h in conjunction with the effects from the nano-sized particles in the initial phases (24 h puts forth the dynamics of nanotoxicity in the test system. The internalization of nanoparticles (both gross and systemic uptake as substantiated through the transmission electron microscopy (TEM and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectral (ICP-OES analysis was another major contributor toward acute toxicity. Concluding the present study, Ceriodaphnia dubia can be a promising candidate for bio-monitoring the aluminium oxide nanoparticles in a fresh water system.

  13. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS AND POTENTIAL USES OF THE MUSHROOM TRAMESTES VERSICOLOR

    OpenAIRE

    CÓRDOBA M., Ketty A.; RÍOS H., Alicia

    2012-01-01

    The use of products obtained from fungi (particularly mushrooms) has increased lately due to their broad applicability in different scientific and industrial fields. The genus Trametes comprises a group of white rot producing ligninolytic fungi, with medicinal properties, biotechnological importance and environmental applications. One of the most potentially useful species is T. versicolor, formerly known as Coriolus versicolor or Polyporus versicolor. Also known as Yun Zhi in China, is a fun...

  14. FEATURES OF THE APPLICATION OF STATISTICAL INDICATORS OF SCHEDULED FLIGHTS OF AIRCRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Тhe possibilities of increasing the effectiveness of management of safety of regular aircraft operations on the basis of systematic approach, under normal operating conditions are considered. These new opportunities within the airline are based on Flight Safety Management System integration with quality management system. So far, however, these possibili- ties are practically not implemented due to the limited application of statistical methods. A necessary condition for the implementation of the proposed approach is the use of statistical flight data results of the quality control flight. The proper- ties and peculiarities of application of statistical indicators of flight parameters during the monitoring of flight data are analyzed. It is shown that the main statistical indicators of the controlled process are averages and variations. The features of the application of theoretical models of mathematical statistics in the analysis of flight information are indicated. It is noted that in practice the theoretical models often do not fit into the framework of its application because of the violation of the initial assumptions. Recommendations are given for the integrated use of statistical indicators of the current quality control of flights. Ultimately, the article concludes that the capabilities of the proposed approach allows on the basis of knowledge about the dynamics of statistical indicators of controlled flight process to identify hazards and develop safety indicators for the new information based on data flight operation aircraft.

  15. KPI (KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS APPLICATION ON BALLAST WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülçin Vural

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Every day, more than 7,000 different marine species are transferred to different ecosystems via ballast water in ships. The introduction of invasive species can cause problems for native species. After realizing the serious potential problems associated with the transport of organisms in ballast water, national and international regulations were developed. In 2004, the International Maritime Organization introduced the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments. With these regulations, the problems caused by ballast water have attracted attention and many companies have started to research and develop technologies for the management of ballast water. Today, there are hundreds of different systems for ballast-water treatment, and the selection of the most suitable system for a specific vessel is an increasingly important issue as the Convention nears enforcement on September 8, 2017. The goal of this study is to demonstrate that the application of key performance indicators (KPIs to the selection of a ballast-water treatment system (BWTS leads to a very useful tool with which shipyards can compare BWTSs. This allows them to make better choices and to designate the most suitable system for each of their ships. In this study, we examine two types of vessel from a shipyard in Istanbul, Turkey. They have different ballast-water capacities and equipment, and the most suitable system for each is selected by using the KPI method.

  16. Protection from potential exposures: application to selected radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This ICRP Report begins with the general principles of radiation protection in the case of potential exposures, followed by special issues in application and compliance with regulatory aims. The rest of the report uses event trees or fault trees to derive the logical structure of six scenarios of potential exposure, i.e. two irradiators, a large research accelerator, an accelerator for industrial isotope production, an industrial radiography device using a mobile source of radiation, and finally a medical gamma radiotherapy device. (UK)

  17. Laser wakefield accelerator based light sources: potential applications and requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). NIF and Photon Sciences; Thomas, A. G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences; Mangles, S. P.D. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.; Banerjee, S. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Corde, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Flacco, A. [ENSTA, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Litos, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Neely, D. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL). Central Laser Facility; Viera, J. [Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal). GoLP-Inst. de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear-Lab. Associado; Najmudin, Z. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.; Bingham, R. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL). Central Laser Facility; Joshi, C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Katsouleas, T. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Platt School of Engineering

    2015-01-15

    In this article we review the prospects of laser wakefield accelerators as next generation light sources for applications. This work arose as a result of discussions held at the 2013 Laser Plasma Accelerators Workshop. X-ray phase contrast imaging, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and nuclear resonance fluorescence are highlighted as potential applications for laser-plasma based light sources. We discuss ongoing and future efforts to improve the properties of radiation from plasma betatron emission and Compton scattering using laser wakefield accelerators for these specific applications.

  18. Wildlife Abundance and Diversity as Indicators of Tourism Potential in Northern Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbach, Christiaan W.; Whitesell, Carolyn; Somers, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife tourism can provide economic incentives for conservation. Due to the abundance of wildlife and the presence of charismatic species some areas are better suited to wildlife tourism. Our first objective was to develop criteria based on wildlife abundance and diversity to evaluate tourism potential in the Northern Conservation Zone of Botswana. Secondly we wanted to quantify and compare tourism experiences in areas with high and low tourism potential. We used aerial survey data to estimate wildlife biomass and diversity to determine tourism potential, while data from ground surveys quantified the tourist experience. Areas used for High Paying Low Volume tourism had significantly higher mean wildlife biomass and wildlife diversity than the areas avoided for this type of tourism. Only 22% of the Northern Conservation Zone has intermediate to high tourism potential. The areas with high tourism potential, as determined from the aerial survey data, provided tourists with significantly better wildlife sightings (ground surveys) than the low tourism potential areas. Even Low Paying tourism may not be economically viable in concessions that lack areas with intermediate to high tourism potential. The largest part of the Northern Conservation Zone has low tourism potential, but low tourism potential is not equal to low conservation value. Alternative conservation strategies should be developed to complement the economic incentive provided by wildlife-based tourism in Botswana. PMID:26308859

  19. Potential renal toxicity bio-markers indicating radiation injury after 177Lu-octreotate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmo, J.; Forssell-Aronsson, E.; Westberg, E.; Toernqvist, M.; Svedborn, L.; Barregaerd, L.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. The kidneys are one of the most exposed non-tumor tissues and regarded as one of the main dose-limiting organs in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). [ 177 Lu-DOTA0, Tyr3]-octreotate ( 177 Lu-octreotate) has shown promising results in the treatment of somatostatin receptor over-expressing neuroendocrine tumors, but optimization is still needed. The ability to give each patient as much 177 Lu-octreotate as possible without inducing nephrotoxicity is necessary for an efficient treatment. However, due to large inter-individual differences in uptake and retention in the kidneys, there is a need for efficient methods that can indicate renal injury early. A possible way is to identify bio-markers for high risk of radiation nephrotoxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of using urinary retinol binding protein (RBP), and blood valinhydantoin (VH) as bio-markers of nephrotoxicity on adult mice after 177 Lu-octreotate treatment. BALB/c nude mice (n=6/group) were i.v. injected with 60 MBq or 120 MBq of 177 Lu-octreotate. The control group was mock treated with saline. Spot urine samples were collected before injection, and 14, 30, 60 and 90 days after injection. Analysis of RBP4 and creatinine was performed using Mouse RBP4 ELISA kit and Creatinine kit from R/D Systems, respectively. Erythrocytes were separated from whole blood samples collected 90 days after injection, and analysed for VH by LC-MS/MS. The ratio between VH and a volumetric standard was calculated. The RBP/creatinine level increased with time in both groups given 177 Lu-octreotate, with earlier and higher response for the 120 MBq group. No clear change in VH level between the different groups was observed. The results show that RBP may be a promising new bio-marker for radiation induced kidney toxicity. The presently used method based on VH was not sensitive enough to be used as kidney toxicity marker. Further studies on mice are ongoing to

  20. Tunable resistive pulse sensing: potential applications in nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumaran, Muttuswamy; Platt, Mark

    2016-08-01

    An accurate characterization of nanomaterials used in clinical diagnosis and therapeutics is of paramount importance to realize the full potential of nanotechnology in medicine and to avoid unexpected and potentially harmful toxic effects due to these materials. A number of technical modalities are currently in use to study the physical, chemical and biological properties of nanomaterials but they all have advantages and disadvantages. In this review, we discuss the potential of a relative newcomer, tunable resistive pulse sensing, for the characterization of nanomaterials and its applications in nanodiagnostics.

  1. Profiling application potential for alkali treated sisal fiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of alkali treatment on sisal fiber from the plant agave sisalana in appropriation for composite material application is presented. Effectiveness of the fiber's reinforcement potential within polypropylene (PP) matrix is evaluated through morphological analysis, crystallinity levels, and tensile, where ultimate tensile ...

  2. Potential applications of electron emission membranes in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilevych, Yevgen [Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration (IZM), Berlin (Germany); University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Brunner, Stefan E. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Chan, Hong Wah; Charbon, Edoardo [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Graaf, Harry van der, E-mail: vdgraaf@nikhef.nl [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hagen, Cornelis W. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Nützel, Gert; Pinto, Serge D. [Photonis, Roden (Netherlands); Prodanović, Violeta [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Rotman, Daan [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Santagata, Fabio [State Key Lab for Solid State Lighti Changzhou base, F7 R& D HUB 1, Science and Education Town, Changzhou 213161, Jangsu Province (China); Sarro, Lina; Schaart, Dennis R. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Sinsheimer, John; Smedley, John [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Tao, Shuxia; Theulings, Anne M.M.G. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-02-11

    With a miniaturised stack of transmission dynodes, a noise free amplifier is being developed for the detection of single free electrons, with excellent time- and 2D spatial resolution and efficiency. With this generic technology, a new family of detectors for individual elementary particles may become possible. Potential applications of such electron emission membranes in medicine are discussed.

  3. Highly stressed carbon film coatings on silicon potential applications

    CERN Multimedia

    Sharda, T

    2002-01-01

    The fabrication of highly stressed and strongly adhered nanocrystalline diamond films on Si substrates is presented. A microwave plasma CVD method with controlled and continuous bias current density was used to grow the films. The stress/curvature of the films can be varied and controlled by altering the BCD. Potential applications for these films include particle physics and x-ray optics.

  4. Synthesis, Properties and Potential Applications of Porous Graphene: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paola Russo; Anming Hu; Giuseppe Compagnini

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of graphene, many efforts have been done to modify the graphene structure for integrating this novel material to nanoelectronics, fuel cells, energy storage devices and in many other applications. This leads to the production of different types of graphene-based materials, which possess properties different from those of pure graphene. Porous graphene is an example of this type of materials. It can be considered as a graphene sheet with some holes/pores within the atomic plane. Due to its spongy structure, porous graphene can have potential applications as membranes for molecular sieving, energy storage components and in nanoelectronics. In this review, we present the recent progress in the synthesis of porous graphene. The properties and the potential applications of this new material are also discussed.

  5. Global to local genetic diversity indicators of evolutionary potential in tree species within and outside forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Lars; Aravanopoulos, Filippos; Bennadji, Zohra

    2014-01-01

    -monitoring schemes. Here, we provide a review and an assessment of the different attempts made to provide such indicators for tree genetic diversity from the global level down to the level of the management unit. So far, no generally accepted indicators have been provided as international standards, nor tested...... for their possible use in practice. We suggest that indicators for monitoring genetic diversity and dynamics should be based on ecological and demographic surrogates of adaptive diversity as well as genetic markers capable of identifying genetic erosion and gene flow. A comparison of past and present genecological...... distributions (patterns of genetic variation of key adaptive traits in the ecological space) of selected species is a realistic way of assessing the trend of intra-specific variation, and thus provides a state indicator of tree genetic diversity also able to reflect possible pressures threatening genetic...

  6. The TC-PSI indicator for forecasting the potential for market power in wholesale electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesamzadeh, Mohammad R.; Biggar, Darryl R.; Hosseinzadeh, Nasser

    2011-01-01

    Wholesale electricity market regulators have long sought a simple, reliable, transparent indicator of the likely impact of wholesale market developments on the exercise of market power. Conventional indicators, such as the Pivotal Supplier Indicator (PSI) and the Residual Supply Index (RSI) cannot be extended to apply to meshed transmission networks, especially when generating companies hold a portfolio of generating units at different locations on the network. This paper proposes a generalisation of these standard measures termed the 'Transmission-Constrained Pivotal Supplier Indicator (TC-PSI)'. The TC-PSI of a generating company is defined as the maximum must-run generation for any subset of generating plant while allowing for strategic operation of other plant in the portfolio. We illustrate the use of the TC-PSI using a five-node model of the Australian NEM. - Highlights: → An indicator for assessing the pivotality of generating portfolios is proposed. → Transmission constraints are modelled explicitly in the proposed indicator. → Strategic behaviours of a generating portfolio in using its units are modelled. → This approach was illustrated using a 5-node model of the Australian NEM.

  7. An empirical comparison of key statistical attributes among potential ICU quality indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sydney E S; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Halpern, Scott D

    2014-08-01

    Good quality indicators should have face validity, relevance to patients, and be able to be measured reliably. Beyond these general requirements, good quality indicators should also have certain statistical properties, including sufficient variability to identify poor performers, relative insensitivity to severity adjustment, and the ability to capture what providers do rather than patients' characteristics. We assessed the performance of candidate indicators of ICU quality on these criteria. Indicators included ICU readmission, mortality, several length of stay outcomes, and the processes of venous-thromboembolism and stress ulcer prophylaxis provision. Retrospective cohort study. One hundred thirty-eight U.S. ICUs from 2001-2008 in the Project IMPACT database. Two hundred sixty-eight thousand eight hundred twenty-four patients discharged from U.S. ICUs. None. We assessed indicators' (1) variability across ICU-years; (2) degree of influence by patient vs. ICU and hospital characteristics using the Omega statistic; (3) sensitivity to severity adjustment by comparing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) between models including vs. excluding patient variables, and (4) correlation between risk adjusted quality indicators using a Spearman correlation. Large ranges of among-ICU variability were noted for all quality indicators, particularly for prolonged length of stay (4.7-71.3%) and the proportion of patients discharged home (30.6-82.0%), and ICU and hospital characteristics outweighed patient characteristics for stress ulcer prophylaxis (ω, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.34-0.54), venous thromboembolism prophylaxis (ω, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.53-0.61), and ICU readmissions (ω, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.52-0.90). Mortality measures were the most sensitive to severity adjustment (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve % difference, 29.6%); process measures were the least sensitive (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve % differences

  8. A direct indication of plasma potential diagnostic with fast time response and high accuracy based on a differential emissive probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, W.E.; Hershkowitz; Intrator, T.

    1985-01-01

    The floating potential of the emissive probe has been used to directly measure the plasma potential. The authors have recently presented another method for directly indicating the plasma potential with a differential emissive probe. In this paper they describe the effects of probe size, plasma density and plasma potential fluctuation on plasma potential measurements and give methods for reducing errors. A control system with fast time response (α 20 μs) and high accuracy (the order of the probe temperature T/sub w//e) for maintaining a differential emissive probe at plasma potential has been developed. It can be operated in pulsed discharge plasma to measure plasma potential dynamic characteristics. A solid state optical coupler is employed to improve circuit performance. This system was tested experimentally by measuring the plasma potential in an argon plasma device an on the Phaedrus tandem mirror

  9. A direct indication of plasma potential diagnostic with fast time response and high accuracy based on a differential emissive probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, W.E.; Hershkowitz, N.; Intrator, T.

    1985-01-01

    The floating potential of the emissive probe has been used to directly measure the plasma potential. The authors have recently presented another method for directly indicating the plasma potential with a differential emissive probe. In this paper they describe the effects of probe size, plasma density and plasma potential fluctuation on plasma potential measurements and give methods for reducing errors. A control system with fast time response (≅ 20 μs) and high accuracy (the order of the probe temperature T/sub w//e) for maintaining a differential emissive probe at plasma potential has been developed. It can be operated in pulsed discharge plasma to measure plasma potential dynamic characteristics. A solid state optical coupler is employed to improve circuit performance. This system was tested experimentally by measuring the plasma potential in an argon plasma device and on the Phaedrus tandem mirror

  10. Application of patient safety indicators internationally: a pilot study among seven countries

    OpenAIRE

    Drösler, Saskia E.; Klazinga, Niek S.; Romano, Patrick S.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Gogorcena Aoiz, Maria A.; Hewitt, Moira C.; Scobie, Sarah; Soop, Michael; Wen, Eugene; Quan, Hude; Ghali, William A.; Mattke, Soeren; Kelley, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore the potential for international comparison of patient safety as part of the Health Care Quality Indicators project of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) by evaluating patient safety indicators originally published by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Design A retrospective cross-sectional study. Setting Acute care hospitals in the USA, UK, Sweden, Spain, Germany, Canada and Australia in 2004 and 2005/2006. Data source...

  11. Molluscan indicator species and their potential use in ecological status assessment using species distribution modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraitis, Manos L; Tsikopoulou, Irini; Geropoulos, Antonios; Dimitriou, Panagiotis D; Papageorgiou, Nafsika; Giannoulaki, Marianna; Valavanis, Vasilis D; Karakassis, Ioannis

    2018-05-24

    Marine habitat assessment using indicator species through Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) was investigated. The bivalves: Corbula gibba and Flexopecten hyalinus were the indicator species characterizing disturbed and undisturbed areas respectively in terms of chlorophyll a concentration in Greece. The habitat suitability maps of these species reflected the overall ecological status of the area. The C. gibba model successfully predicted the occurrence of this species in areas with increased physical disturbance driven by chlorophyll a concentration, whereas the habitat map for F. hyalinus showed an increased probability of occurrence in chlorophyll-poor areas, affected mainly by salinity. We advocate the use of C. gibba as a proxy for eutrophication and the incorporation of this species in monitoring studies through SDM methods. For the Mediterranean Sea we suggest the use of F. hyalinus in SDM as an indicator of environmental stability and a possible forecasting tool for salinity fluctuations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Potential National Security Applications of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Glen A.; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Caggiano, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to document the initial investigation into the possible research issues related to the development of NRF-based national security applications. The report discusses several potential applications ranging from measuring uranium enrichment in UF6 canisters to characterization of gas samples. While these applications are varied, there are only a few research issues that need to be addressed to understand the limitation of NRF in solving these problems. These research issues range from source and detector development to measuring small samples. The next effort is to determine how best to answer the research issues, followed by a prioritization of those questions to ensure that the most important are addressed. These issues will be addressed through either analytical calculations, computer simulations, analysis of previous data or collection of new measurements. It will also be beneficial to conduct a thorough examination of a couple of the more promising applications in order to develop concrete examples of how NRF may be applied in specific situations. The goals are to develop an understanding of whether the application of NRF is limited by technology or physics in addressing national security applications, to gain a motivation to explore those possible applications, and to develop a research roadmap so that those possibilities may be made reality.

  13. Application of balanced score card in the development of performance indicator system in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Shuguang; Huang Fang; Fang Zhaoxia

    2013-01-01

    Performance indicator, which is one of ten performance monitoring tools recommended by WANO performance improvement model, has become an effective tool for performance improvement of nuclear power plant. At present, performance indicator system has been built in nuclear power plant. However, how to establish the performance indicator system that is reasonable and applicable for plant is still a question to be discussed. Performance indictor is closely tied to the strategic direction of a corporation by a balanced score card, and the performance indicator system is established from the point of performance management and strategic development. The performance indicator system of nuclear power plant is developed by introducing the balanced score card, and can be as a reference for other domestic nuclear power plants. (authors)

  14. Behavioural Resistance in Insects: Its Potential Use as Bio Indicator of Organic Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Guzmán, J. A.; García-Marín, F. J.; Sáinz-Pérez, M.; González-Ruiz, R.

    2017-12-01

    Most of the investigations carried out on the resistance of insects to pesticides have been focused on the physiological and biochemical mechanisms. However, the behavioural answers that pesticide induces in the insects have received very little attention. The symptoms from getting pesticides on the cuticular surface of insects, as neurotoxical pre mortem effects, include spasmodic activity, hyperactivity and leak of the surfaces impregnated by the pesticides. These reactions provides a first barrier of defense, named behavioural resistance. Previous experiments carried out on olive groves usually subjected to pesticide application have allowed to visualize a reaction of leak of the natural enemies from treated areas, which is reflected as an increase of its rate of capture in sticky chromatic traps, in relation to the free of pesticides areas, on olive groves, usually subjected to pesticide application. The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the reaction of these insects’ species under different agricultural pest management: i- A conventional olive grove, where pesticides are usually applied; and ii- An organic olive grove, where pest management depends exclusively on the role of the natural enemies. During the spring of 2016, experimental applications have been carried out in two olive groves of the province of Jaén (south of Spain) by means of a commercial pesticide application, in order to evaluate the reactions induced in the main species of olive predators. Six pairs of plots were randomly selected in both conventional and organic olive groves, three of these were pesticide sprayed, whereas a second series of three plots were free of pesticide application. Sticky yellow traps were installed in both treated and control plots just after application of pesticide. The results allow to determine the existence of two different reactions of the predators in both types of olive groves. In the plots of the conventional management, a significant increase of

  15. Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC) Brain Potential Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Trimmel, Karin; Schätzer, Julia; Trimmel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information) versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental ...

  16. Sorghum bioenergy cropping systems: production potential and early indications of soil benefits under limited water

    Science.gov (United States)

    A two year field study was conducted to evaluate biofuel production potential of two forage sorghum cultivars differing in brown midrib trait under non-irrigated and deficit irrigation conditions in the semiarid Southern High Plains of the U.S. Cultivar SP1990 (non-bmr = conventional cell wall comp...

  17. Comparison of arabidopsis stomatal density mutants indicates variation in water stress responses and potential epistatic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaneka S. Lawson; Paula M. Pijut; Charles H. Michler

    2014-01-01

    Recent physiological analysis of Arabidopsis stomatal density (SD) mutants indicated that SD was not the major factor controlling aboveground biomass accumulation. Despite the general theory that plants with fewer stomata have limited biomass acquisition capabilities, epf1 and several other Arabidopsis mutants varied significantly in leaf fresh...

  18. Gyrineum natator: A potential indicator of imposex along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vishwakiran, Y.; Anil, A.C.; Venkat, K.; Sawant, S.S.

    .E., Bryan, G.W., Pascoe, P.L., Burt, G.R., 1987. The use of the dog-whelk, Nucella lapillus, as an indicator of tributyltin (TBT) contamination. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 67, 507–523. Gibbs, P.E., Bryan, G.W., Pascoe, P.L., Burt, G.R., 1990. Reproductive...

  19. Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC Brain Potential Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Trimmel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes. This study investigated brain direct current (DC potential shifts—which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation—of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest—besides some limitations—that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested “attention shift”. Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed.

  20. Acoustic noise alters selective attention processes as indicated by direct current (DC) brain potential changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmel, Karin; Schätzer, Julia; Trimmel, Michael

    2014-09-26

    Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information) versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes). This study investigated brain direct current (DC) potential shifts-which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation-of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest-besides some limitations-that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested "attention shift". Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed.

  1. Hydrologic indicators of hot spots and hot moments of mercury methylation potential along river corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Michael B.; Harrison, Lee R.; Donovan, Patrick M.; Blum, Joel D.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of metals and other contaminants in river-floodplain corridors is controlled by microbial activity responding to dynamic redox conditions. Riverine flooding thus has the potential to affect speciation of redox-sensitive metals such as mercury (Hg). Therefore, inundation history over a period of decades potentially holds information on past production of bioavailable Hg. We investigate this within a Northern California river system with a legacy of landscape-scale 19th century hydraulic gold mining. We combine hydraulic modeling, Hg measurements in sediment and biota, and first-order calculations of mercury transformation to assess the potential role of river floodplains in producing monomethylmercury (MMHg), a neurotoxin which accumulates in local and migratory food webs. We identify frequently inundated floodplain areas, as well as floodplain areas inundated for long periods. We quantify the probability of MMHg production potential (MPP) associated with hydrology in each sector of the river system as a function of the spatial patterns of overbank inundation and drainage, which affect long-term redox history of contaminated sediments. Our findings identify river floodplains as periodic, temporary, yet potentially important, loci of biogeochemical transformation in which contaminants may undergo change during limited periods of the hydrologic record. We suggest that inundation is an important driver of MPP in river corridors and that the entire flow history must be analyzed retrospectively in terms of inundation magnitude and frequency in order to accurately assess biogeochemical risks, rather than merely highlighting the largest floods or low-flow periods. MMHg bioaccumulation within the aquatic food web in this system may pose a major risk to humans and waterfowl that eat migratory salmonids, which are being encouraged to come up these rivers to spawn. There is a long-term pattern of MPP under the current flow regime that is likely to be

  2. Thermophilic and alkaliphilic Actinobacteria: Biology and potential applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L eShivlata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbes belonging to the phylum Actinobacteria are prolific sources of antibiotics, clinically useful bioactive compounds and industrially important enzymes. The focus of the current review is on the diversity and potential applications of thermophilic and alkaliphilic actinobacteria, which are highly diverse in their taxonomy and morphology with a variety of adaptations for surviving and thriving in hostile environments. The specific metabolic pathways in these actinobacteria are activated for elaborating pharmaceutically, agriculturally and biotechnologically relevant biomolecules/bioactive compounds, which find multifarious applications.

  3. High-power CO laser and its potential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shunichi; Takahashi, Kunimitsu; Shimamoto, Kojiro; Takashima, Yoichi; Matsuda, Keiichi; Kuribayashi, Shizuma; Noda, Osamu; Imatake, Shigenori; Kondo, Motoe.

    1995-01-01

    The R and D program for the development of a high-power CO laser and its application technologies is described. Based on a self-sustained discharge excitation scheme, the available laser output has been successfully scaled to over 20 kW. The CO laser cutting experiments for thick metals have been performed in association with the decommissioning technologies development. Other potential applications, which include those based on photo chemical process, are reviewed. Recently demonstrated high-power tunable operation and room-temperature operation are also reported. (author)

  4. The principle of vulnerability and its potential applications in bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demény Enikő

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The principle of vulnerability is a specific principle within European Bioethics. On the one hand, vulnerability expresses human limits and frailty on the other hand it represents moral and ethical action principles. In this paper a discussion on the relationship between the concepts of autonomy, vulnerability and responsibility is proposed and presentation of some possible applications of the principle of vulnerability within bioethics. In conclusion, some potential benefits of applying the principle of vulnerability as well as possible difficulties in its application are highlighted.

  5. Thermophilic and alkaliphilic Actinobacteria: biology and potential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivlata, L.; Satyanarayana, Tulasi

    2015-01-01

    Microbes belonging to the phylum Actinobacteria are prolific sources of antibiotics, clinically useful bioactive compounds and industrially important enzymes. The focus of the current review is on the diversity and potential applications of thermophilic and alkaliphilic actinobacteria, which are highly diverse in their taxonomy and morphology with a variety of adaptations for surviving and thriving in hostile environments. The specific metabolic pathways in these actinobacteria are activated for elaborating pharmaceutically, agriculturally, and biotechnologically relevant biomolecules/bioactive compounds, which find multifarious applications. PMID:26441937

  6. On the Potential of Surfers to Monitor Environmental Indicators in the Coastal Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Robert J W; de Mora, Lee; Jackson, Thomas; Brewin, Thomas G; Shutler, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    The social and economic benefits of the coastal zone make it one of the most treasured environments on our planet. Yet it is vulnerable to increasing anthropogenic pressure and climate change. Coastal management aims to mitigate these pressures while augmenting the socio-economic benefits the coastal region has to offer. However, coastal management is challenged by inadequate sampling of key environmental indicators, partly due to issues relating to cost of data collection. Here, we investigate the use of recreational surfers as platforms to improve sampling coverage of environmental indicators in the coastal zone. We equipped a recreational surfer, based in the south west United Kingdom (UK), with a temperature sensor and Global Positioning System (GPS) device that they used when surfing for a period of one year (85 surfing sessions). The temperature sensor was used to derive estimates of sea-surface temperature (SST), an important environmental indicator, and the GPS device used to provide sample location and to extract information on surfer performance. SST data acquired by the surfer were compared with data from an oceanographic station in the south west UK and with satellite observations. Our results demonstrate: (i) high-quality SST data can be acquired by surfers using low cost sensors; and (ii) GPS data can provide information on surfing performance that may help motivate data collection by surfers. Using recent estimates of the UK surfing population, and frequency of surfer participation, we speculate around 40 million measurements on environmental indicators per year could be acquired at the UK coastline by surfers. This quantity of data is likely to enhance coastal monitoring and aid UK coastal management. Considering surfing is a world-wide sport, our results have global implications and the approach could be expanded to other popular marine recreational activities for coastal monitoring of environmental indicators.

  7. On the Potential of Surfers to Monitor Environmental Indicators in the Coastal Zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J W Brewin

    Full Text Available The social and economic benefits of the coastal zone make it one of the most treasured environments on our planet. Yet it is vulnerable to increasing anthropogenic pressure and climate change. Coastal management aims to mitigate these pressures while augmenting the socio-economic benefits the coastal region has to offer. However, coastal management is challenged by inadequate sampling of key environmental indicators, partly due to issues relating to cost of data collection. Here, we investigate the use of recreational surfers as platforms to improve sampling coverage of environmental indicators in the coastal zone. We equipped a recreational surfer, based in the south west United Kingdom (UK, with a temperature sensor and Global Positioning System (GPS device that they used when surfing for a period of one year (85 surfing sessions. The temperature sensor was used to derive estimates of sea-surface temperature (SST, an important environmental indicator, and the GPS device used to provide sample location and to extract information on surfer performance. SST data acquired by the surfer were compared with data from an oceanographic station in the south west UK and with satellite observations. Our results demonstrate: (i high-quality SST data can be acquired by surfers using low cost sensors; and (ii GPS data can provide information on surfing performance that may help motivate data collection by surfers. Using recent estimates of the UK surfing population, and frequency of surfer participation, we speculate around 40 million measurements on environmental indicators per year could be acquired at the UK coastline by surfers. This quantity of data is likely to enhance coastal monitoring and aid UK coastal management. Considering surfing is a world-wide sport, our results have global implications and the approach could be expanded to other popular marine recreational activities for coastal monitoring of environmental indicators.

  8. The potential application of stem cell in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Suardita

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are generally defined as cells that have the capacity to self-renewal and differentiate to specialize cell. There are two kinds of stem cell, embryonic stem cell and adult stem cells. Stem cell therapy has been used to treat diseases including Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, spinal cord injury, stroke, burns, heart diseases, diabetes, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Stem cells were found in dental pulp, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone marrow. Because of their potential in medical therapy, stem cells were used to regenerate lost or damage teeth and periodontal structures. This article discusses the potential application of stem cells for dental field.

  9. Potential Coir Fibre Composite for Small Wind Turbine Blade Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakri Bakri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers have been developed as reinforcement of composite to shift synthetic fibers. One of potential natural fibers developed is coir fiber. This paper aims to describe potential coir fiber as reinforcement of composite for small wind turbine blade application. The research shows that mechanical properties ( tensile, impact, shear, flexural and compression strengths of coir fiber composite have really similar to wood properties for small wind turbine blade material, but inferior to glass fiber composite properties. The effect of weathering was also evaluated to coir fiber composite in this paper.

  10. Proton therapy for head and neck cancer: Rationale, potential indications, practical considerations, and current clinical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendenhall, Nancy P.; Malyapa, Robert S.; Su, Zhong; Yeung, Daniel; Mendenhall, William M.; Li, Zuofeng

    2011-01-01

    There is a strong rationale for potential benefits from proton therapy (PT) for selected cancers of the head and neck because of the opportunity to improve the therapeutic ratio by improving radiation dose distributions and because of the significant differences in radiation dose distribution achievable with x-ray-based radiation therapy (RT) and PT. Comparisons of dose distributions between x-ray-based and PT plans in selected cases show specific benefits in dose distribution likely to translate into improved clinical outcomes. However, the use of PT in head and neck cancers requires special considerations in the simulation and treatment planning process, and currently available PT technology may not permit realization of the maximum potential benefits of PT. To date, few clinical data are available, but early clinical experiences in sinonasal tumors in particular suggest significant improvements in both disease control and radiation-related toxicity

  11. Proton therapy for head and neck cancer: Rationale, potential indications, practical considerations, and current clinical evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendenhall, Nancy P.; Malyapa, Robert S.; Su, Zhong; Yeung, Daniel; Mendenhall, William M.; Li, Zuofeng (Univ. of Florida Proton Therapy Inst., Jacksonville, Florida (United States)), e-mail: menden@shands.ufl.edu

    2011-08-15

    There is a strong rationale for potential benefits from proton therapy (PT) for selected cancers of the head and neck because of the opportunity to improve the therapeutic ratio by improving radiation dose distributions and because of the significant differences in radiation dose distribution achievable with x-ray-based radiation therapy (RT) and PT. Comparisons of dose distributions between x-ray-based and PT plans in selected cases show specific benefits in dose distribution likely to translate into improved clinical outcomes. However, the use of PT in head and neck cancers requires special considerations in the simulation and treatment planning process, and currently available PT technology may not permit realization of the maximum potential benefits of PT. To date, few clinical data are available, but early clinical experiences in sinonasal tumors in particular suggest significant improvements in both disease control and radiation-related toxicity

  12. Growth Indicators of a 48-Clone Sugar Cane Population (Saccharum spp. with Forage Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoslen Fernández Gálvez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to determine growth indicators in a 48-clone sugar cane population, with promising phenotypical features for forage production. The following indicators were assessed: leaf area (A, leaf area index (LA1; leaf area ratio (LAR; specific leaf area (SLA; leaf weight ratio (LWR; crop growth rate (CGR; net assimilation rate (NAR; relative growth rate in weight (RGR; biomass production speed (G; leaf area duration (LAD; and biomass duration (Z, monthly (187 - 370 days. The minimum, the mean, the maximum values, and the population variance were determined for all cutting ages and the variables assessed. The results achieved have provided quantitative values that can be used as reference for selection and assessment of forage genotypes for ruminant nutrition.

  13. World Cities of Scientific Knowledge: Systems, Networks and Potential Dynamics. An Analysis Based on Bibliometric Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann; Schwarz, Annette Winkel; Find, Søren

    2010-01-01

    This paper is based on identification of the pattern of the upper level of the world city network of knowledge as published in a series of papers.It is our aim to update the findings and relate to the general world city discussion. The structure of the world cities of knowledge network has changed...... over the last decade in favour of south east Asian and south European cities and in disfavour of the traditional centres of North America and north-western Europe. The analysis is based on bibliometric data on the world’s 100 largest cities measured in terms of research output. Then level of co......-authorships between researchers in different cities is an indicators of links and respect, and the number of citations to papers produced by researchers located in each city is an indicator of respect. Finally, one research discipline is selected for an experiment in forecasting future hot spots of research....

  14. A potential to monitor nutrients as an indicator of rangeland quality using space borne remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramoelo, A; Madonsela, S; Mathieu, R; Van der Korchove, R; Kaszta, Z; Wolf, E; Cho, M A

    2014-01-01

    Global change consisting of land use and climate change could have huge impacts on food security and the health of various ecosystems. Leaf nitrogen (N) is one of the key factors limiting agricultural production and ecosystem functioning. Leaf N can be used as an indicator of rangeland quality which could provide information for the farmers, decision makers, land planners and managers. Leaf N plays a crucial role in understanding the feeding patterns and distribution of wildlife and livestock. Assessment of this vegetation parameter using conventional methods at landscape scale level is time consuming and tedious. Remote sensing provides a synoptic view of the landscape, which engenders an opportunity to assess leaf N over wider rangeland areas from protected to communal areas. Estimation of leaf N has been successful during peak productivity or high biomass and limited studies estimated leaf N in dry season. The objective of this study is to monitor leaf N as an indicator of rangeland quality using WorldView 2 satellite images in the north-eastern part of South Africa. Series of field work to collect samples for leaf N were undertaken in the beginning of May (end of wet season) and July (dry season). Several conventional and red edge based vegetation indices were computed. Simple regression was used to develop prediction model for leaf N. Using bootstrapping, indicator of precision and accuracy were analyzed to select a best model for the combined data sets (May and July). The may model for red edge based simple ratio explained over 90% of leaf N variations. The model developed from the combined data sets with normalized difference vegetation index explained 62% of leaf N variation, and this is a model used to estimate and map leaf N for two seasons. The study demonstrated that leaf N could be monitored using high spatial resolution with the red edge band capability

  15. Faecal nitrogen: a potential indicator of red and roe deer diet quality in forest habitats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamler, Jiří; Homolka, Miloslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, 1-2 (2005), s. 89-98 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/99/D053; GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS6093003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : free-living ungulates * faecal indicators * diet quality Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.585, year: 2005 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/54/1-2/89-98.pdf

  16. On the Potential of Surfers to Monitor Environmental Indicators in the Coastal Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Brewin, Robert J. W.; de Mora, Lee; Jackson, Thomas; Brewin, Thomas G.; Shutler, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    The social and economic benefits of the coastal zone make it one of the most treasured environments on our planet. Yet it is vulnerable to increasing anthropogenic pressure and climate change. Coastal management aims to mitigate these pressures while augmenting the socio-economic benefits the coastal region has to offer. However, coastal management is challenged by inadequate sampling of key environmental indicators, partly due to issues relating to cost of data collection. Here, we investiga...

  17. Assessing plant protection practices using pressure indicator and toxicity risk indicators: analysis of therelationship between these indicators for improved risk management, application in viticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oussama, Mghirbi; Kamel, Ellefi; Philippe, Le Grusse; Elisabeth, Mandart; Jacques, Fabre; Habiba, Ayadi; Jean-Paul, Bord

    2015-06-01

    The excessive use of plant protection products (PPPs) has given rise to issues of public and environmental health because of their toxicity. Reducing the use of toxic PPPs and replacing them with products that are less toxic for human health and the environment have become socially, environmentally and economically indispensable. In this article, we assess the plant protection practices of a small group of winegrowers practicing "integrated agriculture" in the south of France, in order to measure the benefit of using toxicity risk indicators as a decision-support tool for different players in land management. An analysis of plant protection practices using indicators of the risk to operator health and the environment (IRSA, IRTE), together with a frequency-of-treatment indicator (TFI), enabled us to (i) show the variability of these indicators depending on the production system and farmers' pesticide use strategies and (ii) calculate correlations between these indicators. This analysis of plant protection practices at different scales (farm, field), carried out in collaboration with the growers, enabled us to perform an initial validation of decision-support tools for determining risk management strategies regarding the use of pesticides.

  18. The Semaphore crab, Heloecius cordiformis: bio-indication potential for heavy metals in estuarine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane; Booth; Brown

    2000-09-01

    Although alterations at the organism level in decapod crustaceans on exposure to heavy metals have been evidenced in the laboratory, little examination of metal effects on morphology and population parameters have been explored in a field-based situation. Relationships between morphological parameters, population demography and heavy metal sediment loadings were examined in conjunction with the accumulation of metals in the Semaphore crab, Heloecius cordiformis, in the Port Jackson and Hawkesbury River estuaries, Sydney, Australia. H. cordiformis exhibited sexual dimorphism, with males having larger carapace width, carapace length, chelae length and total mass than females. Sexes were subsequently treated separately to assess morphological differences among locations. Locations that had greater proportions of females with purple chelae and less females in the population tended to have higher sediment metal levels. These relationships were maintained over time, and could be employed as population-level biological indicators of heavy metal stress. Copper and zinc were regulated in the hepatopancreas of H. cordiformis. Lead was accumulated in the hepatopancreas of H. cordiformis in proportion to sediment lead levels, suggesting the species is both an appropriate candidate for bio-indication of lead pollution, and Pb is the main metal linked with population level differences. Accumulation of lead varied between sexes, indicating that sexes must be monitored separately. Smaller males accumulated more lead than larger males, suggesting size is an important consideration for lead accumulation.

  19. Market potential for non-electric applications of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this report is to assess the market potential for the non-electric applications of nuclear energy in the near (before 2020) and long (2020-2050) terms. The main non-electric applications are defined here as district heating, desalination (of sea, brackish and waste water), industrial heat supply, ship propulsion and the energy supply for spacecraft. This report is principally devoted to these applications, although a less detailed assessment of some innovative applications (e.g. hydrogen production and coal gasification) is also provided. While the technical details of these applications are covered briefly, emphasis is placed on the economic and other factors that may promote or hinder the penetration of the nuclear option into the market for non-electric energy services. The report is intentionally targeted towards expected demands. It is for this reason that its sections are structured by demand categories and not according to possible reactor types. At the same time, the orientation on the demand side can result in overlaps at the supply side, because the same nuclear reactor can often serve more than one type of demand. Such cases are noted as appropriate. Each section characterizes a specific non-electric application in terms of its market size, its prospects for nuclear technologies and the economic competitiveness of the technologies

  20. Potential applications of immunoassays in studies of flatfish recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Robert J.

    The fisheries recruitment-stock problem, a lack of correlation between measures of reproductive output of the parent stock and recruitment to the fishery, has several potential biotic and abiotic causes. Immunoassays may be useful in examining several aspects of this and several other problems in flatfish ecology: stock identification, parasitism and disease, and trophic interactions. Given stage-specific antisera capable of recognozing antigenic moieties of, for instance, eggs, larvae, or newly-settled juveniles, it is possible to screen stomach contents of many putative predators ( e.g., shrimp or crabs) rapidly for the presence and amounts of platfish prey. This trophic application of immunological methods has great promise for measuring loss of potential recruits to predation. All immunoassays are limited by the quality of antisera used and the researcher's ability to interpret quantitative data in an ecologically meaningful way. Key references for applications of immunoassays in fish-related questions are provided with recommendations for their utilization.

  1. Potential applications of biosurfactant rhamnolipids in agriculture and biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwei; Wu, Qihao; Hua, Yi; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Huawei; Wang, Hong

    2017-12-01

    Rhamnolipids have recently emerged as promising bioactive molecules due to their novel structures, diverse and versatile biological functions, lower toxicity, higher biodegradability, as well as production from renewable resources. The advantages of rhamnolipids make them attractive targets for research in a wide variety of applications. Especially rhamnolipids are likely to possess potential applications of the future in areas such as biomedicine, therapeutics, and agriculture. The purpose of this mini review is to provide a comprehensive prospective of biosurfactant rhamnolipids as potential antimicrobials, immune modulators, and virulence factors, and anticancer agents in the field of biomedicine and agriculture that may meet the ever-increasing future pharmacological treatment and food safety needs in human health.

  2. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) and potential system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David L.; Balombin, Joseph R.; Sohn, Philip Y.

    1990-01-01

    A description of the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) system is given with special emphasis on the communication characteristics. Potential satellite communications scenarios, including future operational ACTS-like satellite systems, are discussed. The description of the ACTS system updates previously published ACTS system references. Detailed information on items such as experimental ground stations is presented. The potential services can be generically described as voice, video, and data services. The implementation of these services on future operational ACTS-like systems can lead to unique quality, flexibility, and capacity characteristics at lower service costs. The specific service applications that could be supported range from low to high data rates and include both domestic and international applications.

  3. Digital projection radiography. Technical principles, image properties and potential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, H.P.

    1999-01-01

    The history of development of digital projection radiography as a diagnostic method is presented in a comprehensive survey. The various technical principles are explained in detail and illustrated by means of graphic figures and digital X-ray pictures. A comparative assessment of currently applied radiographic systems is given and the potential clinical applications of the method of digital projection radiography are discussed. (orig./CB) [de

  4. Application of non-bijective transformations to various potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibler, M.

    1987-11-01

    Some results about non-bijective quadratic transformations generalizing the Kustaanheimo-Stiefel and Levi-Civita transformations are reviewed in Chapter 1. The three remaining sections are devoted to new results: Chapter 2 deals with the Lie algebras under constraints associated to some Hurwitz transformations; Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 are concerned with several applications of some Hurwitz transformations to wave equations for various potentials in R 3 and R 5

  5. Potential applications of nanostructured materials in nuclear waste management.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braterman, Paul S. (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Phol, Phillip Isabio; Xu, Zhi-Ping (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Yang, Yi (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Charles R.; Yu, Kui; Xu, Huifang (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen

    2003-09-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Investigation of Potential Applications of Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials in Nuclear Waste Management'. The objectives of this project are to (1) provide a mechanistic understanding of the control of nanometer-scale structures on the ion sorption capability of materials and (2) develop appropriate engineering approaches to improving material properties based on such an understanding.

  6. Beyond Bitcoin: Potential Applications of Blockchain Technology in Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, J K; Nambudiri, V E

    2018-06-26

    Since its initial popularization in 2008 as the underpinnings of the digital currency Bitcoin, blockchain has seen its implications spread beyond the financial industry. 1 The field of dermatology presents promising potential applications for this burgeoning technology. Blockchain facilitates communication on a peer-to-peer platform with users sharing data directly with each other (Figure). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Vulnerability curves vs. vulnerability indicators: application of an indicator-based methodology for debris-flow hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathoma-Köhle, Maria

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of the physical vulnerability of elements at risk as part of the risk analysis is an essential aspect for the development of strategies and structural measures for risk reduction. Understanding, analysing and, if possible, quantifying physical vulnerability is a prerequisite for designing strategies and adopting tools for its reduction. The most common methods for assessing physical vulnerability are vulnerability matrices, vulnerability curves and vulnerability indicators; however, in most of the cases, these methods are used in a conflicting way rather than in combination. The article focuses on two of these methods: vulnerability curves and vulnerability indicators. Vulnerability curves express physical vulnerability as a function of the intensity of the process and the degree of loss, considering, in individual cases only, some structural characteristics of the affected buildings. However, a considerable amount of studies argue that vulnerability assessment should focus on the identification of these variables that influence the vulnerability of an element at risk (vulnerability indicators). In this study, an indicator-based methodology (IBM) for mountain hazards including debris flow (Kappes et al., 2012) is applied to a case study for debris flows in South Tyrol, where in the past a vulnerability curve has been developed. The relatively "new" indicator-based method is being scrutinised and recommendations for its improvement are outlined. The comparison of the two methodological approaches and their results is challenging since both methodological approaches deal with vulnerability in a different way. However, it is still possible to highlight their weaknesses and strengths, show clearly that both methodologies are necessary for the assessment of physical vulnerability and provide a preliminary "holistic methodological framework" for physical vulnerability assessment showing how the two approaches may be used in combination in the future.

  8. Applications of Diatoms as Potential Microalgae in Nanobiotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Yari Khosroushahi; Miguel de la Guardia; Mohamad Moradi Ghorakhlu; Ali Akbar Jamali; Fariba Akbari

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Diatoms are single cell eukaryotic microalgae, which present in nearly every water habitat make them ideal tools for a wide range of applications such as oil explora­tion, forensic examination, environmental indication, biosilica pattern generation, toxicity testing and eutrophication of aqueous ecosystems. Methods: Essential information on diatoms were reviewed and discussed towards impacts of diatoms on biosynthesis and bioremediation. Results: In this review, we present the ...

  9. Potential impacts of nanotechnology on energy transmission applications and needs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-30

    The application of nanotechnologies to energy transmission has the potential to significantly impact both the deployed transmission technologies and the need for additional development. This could be a factor in assessing environmental impacts of right-of-way (ROW) development and use. For example, some nanotechnology applications may produce materials (e.g., cables) that are much stronger per unit volume than existing materials, enabling reduced footprints for construction and maintenance of electricity transmission lines. Other applications, such as more efficient lighting, lighter-weight materials for vehicle construction, and smaller batteries having greater storage capacities may reduce the need for long-distance transport of energy, and possibly reduce the need for extensive future ROW development and many attendant environmental impacts. This report introduces the field of nanotechnology, describes some of the ways in which processes and products developed with or incorporating nanomaterials differ from traditional processes and products, and identifies some examples of how nanotechnology may be used to reduce potential ROW impacts. Potential environmental, safety, and health impacts are also discussed.

  10. Potential Applications of Zeolite Membranes in Reaction Coupling Separation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunde V. Ojumu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Future production of chemicals (e.g., fine and specialty chemicals in industry is faced with the challenge of limited material and energy resources. However, process intensification might play a significant role in alleviating this problem. A vision of process intensification through multifunctional reactors has stimulated research on membrane-based reactive separation processes, in which membrane separation and catalytic reaction occur simultaneously in one unit. These processes are rather attractive applications because they are potentially compact, less capital intensive, and have lower processing costs than traditional processes. Therefore this review discusses the progress and potential applications that have occurred in the field of zeolite membrane reactors during the last few years. The aim of this article is to update researchers in the field of process intensification and also provoke their thoughts on further research efforts to explore and exploit the potential applications of zeolite membrane reactors in industry. Further evaluation of this technology for industrial acceptability is essential in this regard. Therefore, studies such as techno-economical feasibility, optimization and scale-up are of the utmost importance.

  11. THE METHODOLOGY OF DEVELOPING VALUE INDICATORS TO INTEGRALLY ASSESS RESOURCE POTENTIAL IN AGRICULTURAL UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena TIMOFTI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of increasing the economic efficiency of resource use in agricultural production is very important. Its solution directly depends on the economic security of the country and its constant supply with agricultural products.There are three basic factors in agricultural production: nature (land, labour and capital, which have differentmeasure units. Comparability is necessary to express the value of the integral potential that gives the possibility totake into account the main resources involved in producing and obtaining results from the agricultural sector.

  12. Tradescantia micronucleus test indicates genotoxic potential of traffic emissions in European cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele; Calatayud, Vicent; Garrec, Jean Pierre; He Shang; Penuelas, Josep; Ribas, Angela; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Rasmussen, Stine; Sanz, Maria Jose; Vergne, Phillippe

    2006-01-01

    Urban atmospheres contain complex mixtures of air pollutants including mutagenic and carcinogenic substances such as benzene, diesel soot, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the frame of a European network for the assessment of air quality by the use of bioindicator plants, the Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) test was applied to examine the genotoxicity of urban air pollution. Cuttings of Tradescantia clone no. 4430 were exposed to ambient air at 65 monitoring sites in 10 conurbations employing a standardised methodology. The tests revealed an elevated genotoxic potential mainly at those urban sites which were exposed to severe car traffic emissions. This bioassay proved to be a suitable tool to detect local 'hot spots' of mutagenic air pollution in urban areas. For its use in routine monitoring programmes, however, further standardisation of cultivation and exposure techniques is recommended in order to reduce the variability of results due to varying environmental conditions. - The Tradescantia micronucleus test can be used to assess genotoxic potential at urban sites

  13. Tradescantia micronucleus test indicates genotoxic potential of traffic emissions in European cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, Andreas [Institute for Landscape and Plant Ecology (320), University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail: aklumpp@uni-hohenheim.de; Ansel, Wolfgang [Institute for Landscape and Plant Ecology (320), University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Klumpp, Gabriele [Institute for Landscape and Plant Ecology (320), University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany); Calatayud, Vicent [Fundacion CEAM, Parque Tecnologico, c/Charles Darwin 14, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Garrec, Jean Pierre [INRA Nancy, Laboratoire Pollution Atmospherique, 54280 Champenoux (France); He Shang [INRA Nancy, Laboratoire Pollution Atmospherique, 54280 Champenoux (France); Penuelas, Josep [Unitat Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Ed. C, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Ribas, Angela [Unitat Ecofisiologia CSIC-CEAB-CREAF, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Ed. C, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Ro-Poulsen, Helge [Botanical Institute, University of Copenhagen, Oster Farimagsgade 2D, 1353 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Rasmussen, Stine [Botanical Institute, University of Copenhagen, Oster Farimagsgade 2D, 1353 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Sanz, Maria Jose [Fundacion CEAM, Parque Tecnologico, c/Charles Darwin 14, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Vergne, Phillippe [ENS Lyon and Lyon Botanical Garden, 46 Allee d' Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2006-02-15

    Urban atmospheres contain complex mixtures of air pollutants including mutagenic and carcinogenic substances such as benzene, diesel soot, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the frame of a European network for the assessment of air quality by the use of bioindicator plants, the Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) test was applied to examine the genotoxicity of urban air pollution. Cuttings of Tradescantia clone no. 4430 were exposed to ambient air at 65 monitoring sites in 10 conurbations employing a standardised methodology. The tests revealed an elevated genotoxic potential mainly at those urban sites which were exposed to severe car traffic emissions. This bioassay proved to be a suitable tool to detect local 'hot spots' of mutagenic air pollution in urban areas. For its use in routine monitoring programmes, however, further standardisation of cultivation and exposure techniques is recommended in order to reduce the variability of results due to varying environmental conditions. - The Tradescantia micronucleus test can be used to assess genotoxic potential at urban sites.

  14. Long-term characterization of residential runoff and assessing potential surrogates of fecal indicator organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reano, Dane C; Haver, Darren L; Oki, Lorence R; Yates, Marylynn V

    2015-05-01

    Investigations into the microbiological impacts of urban runoff on receiving water bodies, especially during storm conditions, have yielded general paradigms that influence runoff abatement and control management strategies. To determine whether these trends are present in other runoff sources, the physical, chemical, and microbiological components of residential runoff from eight neighborhoods in Northern and Southern California were characterized over the course of five years. Sampling occurred regularly and during storm events, resulting in 833 data sets. Analysis of runoff data assisted in characterizing residential runoff, elucidating differences between dry and storm conditions, and identifying surrogates capable of assessing microbiological quality. Results indicate that although microbial loading increases during storm events similar to urban runoff, annual microbial loading in these study sites principally occurs during dry conditions (24% storm, 76% dry). Generated artificial neural network and multiple linear regression models assessed surrogate performance by accurately predicting Escherichia coli concentrations from validation data sets (R(2) = 0.74 and 0.77, respectively), but required input from other fecal indicator organism (FIO) variables to maintain performance (R(2) = 0.27 and 0.18, respectively, without FIO). This long-term analysis of residential runoff highlights characteristics distinct from urban runoff and establishes necessary variables for determining microbiological quality, thus better informing future management strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Recreational potential as an indicator of accessibility control in protected mountain forest areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomasz DUDEK

    2017-01-01

    The article presents research findings related to recreational use of forests located in protected mountainous areas with forestage of over 80%.The study was designed to identify recreational potential of the Carpathian national parks (Bieszczady National Park,Babia Góra National Park,Gorce National Park and Magura National Park;southern Poland) and to compare these findings with the actual number of visitors.The information received on the recreational potential of parks is important from the point of view of protection of natural resources and the financial situation of the parks.The calculated ratio may be an effective tool of management for park administration,that allows to reconcile statutory social and protective functions of national parks.The study determined the recreational potential of the forests with the use of recreational valorisation method designed for areas with varied terrain,and the evaluated factors included the stands of trees with their habitat and land relief.The permissible number of national park visitors,expressed as manhour/ha/year ranges from 19.31 in Bieszczady National Park (BG:19° 35′ E,49° 35′ N) to 32.06 in in Bieszczady National Park (B:22° 40′ E,49° 10′ N).In 3 out of 4 investigated parks,Magnra National Park (M:21°25′ E,49° 30′ N),Gorce National Park (G:20° 10′ E,49° 35′ N),B) recreation carrying capacity was not exceeded,whether or not the strictly protected area is taken into account.Only in BG was the recreation carrying capacity exceeded by nearly 24%,or by 85% if the strictly protected area is excluded from tourism-related exploitation.The presented procedure for monitoring access to mountain forests in national parks,from the viewpoint of natural resources conservation,can be applied in other mountainous areas covered with forests and exposed to tourist and recreational traffic,and in forests facing particular risk of recreational damage,e.g.in urban and suburban forests growing in areas

  16. Variations in Environmental Signals in Tree-Ring Indices in Trees with Different Growth Potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Hafner

    Full Text Available We analysed two groups of Quercus robur trees, growing at nearby plots with different micro-location condition (W-wet and D-dry in the floodplain Krakovo forest, Slovenia. In the study we compared the growth response of two different tree groups to environmental variables, the potential signal stored in earlywood (EW structure and the potential difference of the information stored in carbon isotope discrimination of EW and latewood (LW. For that purpose EW and LW widths and carbon isotope discrimination for the period 1970-2008 AD were measured. EW and LW widths were measured on stained microscopic slides and chronologies were standardised using the ARSTAN program. α-cellulose was extracted from pooled EW and LW samples and homogenized samples were further analysed using an elemental analyser and IRMS. We discovered that W oaks grew significantly better over the whole analysed period. The difference between D and W oaks was significant in all analysed variables with the exception of stable carbon isotope discrimination in latewood. In W oaks, latewood widths correlated with summer (June to August climatic variables, while carbon isotope discrimination was more connected to River Krka flow during the summer. EW discrimination correlated with summer and autumn River Krka flow of the previous year, while latewood discrimination correlated with flow during the current year. In the case of D oaks, the environmental signal appears to be vague, probably due to less favourable growth conditions resulting in markedly reduced increments. Our study revealed important differences in responses to environmental factors between the two oak groups of different physiological conditions that are preconditioned by environmental stress. Environmental information stored in tree-ring features may vary, even within the same forest stand, and largely depends on the micro-environment. Our analysis confirmed our assumptions that separate EW and LW analysis of widths and

  17. Seasonally and regionally determined indication potential of bioassays in contaminated river sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilscherová, Klára; Dusek, Ladislav; Sídlová, Tereza; Jálová, Veronika; Cupr, Pavel; Giesy, John P; Nehyba, Slavomír; Jarkovský, Jirí; Klánová, Jana; Holoubek, Ivan

    2010-03-01

    River sediments are a dynamic system, especially in areas where floods occur frequently. In the present study, an integrative approach is used to investigate the seasonal and spatial dynamics of contamination of sediments from a regularly flooded industrial area in the Czech Republic, which presents a suitable model ecosystem for pollutant distribution research at a regional level. Surface sediments were sampled repeatedly to represent two different hydrological situations: spring (after the peak of high flow) and autumn (after longer period of low flow). Samples were characterized for abiotic parameters and concentrations of priority organic pollutants. Toxicity was assessed by Microtox test; genotoxicity by SOS-chromotest and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-yeast test; and the presence of compounds with specific mode of action by in vitro bioassays for dioxin-like activity, anti-/androgenicity, and anti-/estrogenicity. Distribution of organic contaminants varied among regions and seasonally. Although the results of Microtox and genotoxicity tests were relatively inconclusive, all other specific bioassays led to statistically significant regional and seasonal differences in profiles and allowed clear separation of upstream and downstream regions. The outcomes of these bioassays indicated an association with concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as master variables. There were significant interrelations among dioxin-like activity, antiandrogenicity and content of organic carbon, clay, and concentration of PAHs and PCBs, which documents the significance of abiotic factors in accumulation of pollutants. The study demonstrates the strength of the specific bioassays in indicating the changes in contamination and emphasizes the crucial role of a well-designed sampling plan, in which both spatial and temporal dynamics should be taken into account, for the correct interpretations of information in risk assessments.

  18. Model-Based Analysis of the Potential of Macroinvertebrates as Indicators for Microbial Pathogens in Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Jerves-Cobo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of water prior to its use for drinking, farming or recreational purposes must comply with several physicochemical and microbiological standards to safeguard society and the environment. In order to satisfy these standards, expensive analyses and highly trained personnel in laboratories are required. Whereas macroinvertebrates have been used as ecological indicators to review the health of aquatic ecosystems. In this research, the relationship between microbial pathogens and macrobenthic invertebrate taxa was examined in the Machangara River located in the southern Andes of Ecuador, in which 33 sites, according to their land use, were chosen to collect physicochemical, microbiological and biological parameters. Decision tree models (DTMs were used to generate rules that link the presence and abundance of some benthic families to microbial pathogen standards. The aforementioned DTMs provide an indirect, approximate, and quick way of checking the fulfillment of Ecuadorian regulations for water use related to microbial pathogens. The models built and optimized with the WEKA package, were evaluated based on both statistical and ecological criteria to make them as clear and simple as possible. As a result, two different and reliable models were obtained, which could be used as proxy indicators in a preliminary assessment of pollution of microbial pathogens in rivers. The DTMs can be easily applied by staff with minimal training in the identification of the sensitive taxa selected by the models. The presence of selected macroinvertebrate taxa in conjunction with the decision trees can be used as a screening tool to evaluate sites that require additional follow up analyses to confirm whether microbial water quality standards are met.

  19. Developing alternative indices of reproductive potential for use in fisheries management : Case studies for stocks spanning an information gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marshall, C.T.; O'Brien, L.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2003-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence to suggest that spawning stock biomass (SSB) may not bedirectly proportional to reproductive potential. The wide-ranging implications of this conclu-sion necessitate that it be tested for as many stocks as possible. Undertaking such tests iscomplicated by the fact...... that fish stocks vary in the amount and type of information that isavailable to estimate reproductive potential. In this review, nine stocks illustrate the range of approaches that are being taken to developing alternative indices of reproductive potential fromexisting data resources. Three stocks had...... sufficient data to reconstruct a time series of total eggproduction (TEP), whereas, the remaining stocks were limited to estimating proxies for stockreproductive potential. For some of the case studies the alternative indices explained a higheramount of recruitment variation than did SSB. Other case studies...

  20. Potential Applications of Smart Multifunctional Wearable Materials to Gerontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David G; Najafi, Bijan; Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Smart multifunctional materials can play a constructive role in addressing some very important aging-related issues. Aging affects the ability of older adults to continue to live safely and economically in their own residences for as long as possible. Thus, there will be a greater need for preventive, acute, rehabilitative, and long-term health care services for older adults as well as a need for tools to enable them to function independently during daily activities. The objective of this paper is, thus, to present a comprehensive review of some potential smart materials and their areas of applications to gerontology. Thus, brief descriptions of various currently available multifunctional smart materials and their possible applications to aging-related problems are presented. It is concluded that some of the most important applications to geriatrics may be in various sensing scenarios to collect health-related feedback or information and provide personalized care. Further described are the applications of wearable technologies to aging-related needs, including devices for home rehabilitation, remote monitoring, social well-being, frailty monitoring, monitoring of diabetes and wound healing and fall detection or prediction. It is also concluded that wearable technologies, when combined with an appropriate application and with appropriate feedback, may help improve activities and functions of older patients with chronic diseases. Finally, it is noted that methods developed to measure what one collectively manages in this population may provide a foundation to establish new definitions of quality of life. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Application of hair as an indicator for trace element exposure in man. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The report presents a comprehensive summary of what is known from the literature on the use of hair as a bioindicator for trace elements. It is split into two parts: The use of hair as a biopsy tissue for trace elements in the human body and the contribution of studies in animals to the application of hair as an indicator for metals and trace elements in man. A separate abstract is prepared for each part. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. P300 event-related potential as an indicator of inattentional deafness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Giraudet

    Full Text Available An analysis of airplane accidents reveals that pilots sometimes purely fail to react to critical auditory alerts. This inability of an auditory stimulus to reach consciousness has been coined under the term of inattentional deafness. Recent data from literature tends to show that tasks involving high cognitive load consume most of the attentional capacities, leaving little or none remaining for processing any unexpected information. In addition, there is a growing body of evidence for a shared attentional capacity between vision and hearing. In this context, the abundant information in modern cockpits is likely to produce inattentional deafness. We investigated this hypothesis by combining electroencephalographic (EEG measurements with an ecological aviation task performed under contextual variation of the cognitive load (high or low, including an alarm detection task. Two different audio tones were played: standard tones and deviant tones. Participants were instructed to ignore standard tones and to report deviant tones using a response pad. More than 31% of the deviant tones were not detected in the high load condition. Analysis of the EEG measurements showed a drastic diminution of the auditory P300 amplitude concomitant with this behavioral effect, whereas the N100 component was not affected. We suggest that these behavioral and electrophysiological results provide new insights on explaining the trend of pilots' failure to react to critical auditory information. Relevant applications concern prevention of alarms omission, mental workload measurements and enhanced warning designs.

  3. Measurement of Health Care Quality in Atopic Dermatitis - Development and Application of a Set of Quality Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, S; Beikert, F C; Langenbruch, A; Fölster-Holst, R; Ring, J; Schmitt, J; Werfel, T; Hintzen, S; Franzke, N; Augustin, M

    2018-05-15

    Quality indicators are essential tools for the assessment of health care, in particular for guideline-based procedures. 1) Development of a set of indicators for the evaluation of process and outcomes quality in atopic dermatitis (AD) care. 2) Application of the indicators to a cross-sectional study and creation of a global process quality index. An expert committee consisting of 10 members of the German guideline group on atopic dermatitis condensed potential quality indicators to a final set of 5 outcomes quality and 12 process quality indicators using a Delphi panel. The outcomes quality and 7 resp. 8 process quality indicators were retrospectively applied to a nationwide study on 1,678 patients with atopic dermatitis (AtopicHealth). Each individual process quality indicator score was then summed up to a global index (ranges from 0 (no quality achieved) to 100 (full quality achieved)) displaying the quality of health care. In total, the global process quality index revealed a median value of 62.5 and did not or only slightly correlate to outcome indicators as the median SCORAD (SCORing Atopic Dermatitis; rp =0.08), Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI; rp = 0.256), and Patient Benefit Index (PBI; rp = -0.151). Process quality of AD care is moderate to good. The health care process quality index does not substantially correlate to the health status of AD patients measured by 5 different outcomes quality indicators. Further research should include the investigation of reliability, responsiveness, and feasibility of the proposed quality indicators for AD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Conserved B-cell epitopes among human bocavirus species indicate potential diagnostic targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human bocavirus species 1-4 (HBoV1-4 have been associated with respiratory and enteric infections in children. However, the immunological mechanisms in response to HBoV infections are not fully understood. Though previous studies have shown cross-reactivities between HBoV species, the epitopes responsible for this phenomenon remain unknown. In this study, we used genomic and immunologic approaches to identify the reactive epitopes conserved across multiple HBoV species and explored their potential as the basis of a novel diagnostic test for HBoVs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated HBoV1-3 VP2 gene fragment phage display libraries (GFPDLs and used these libraries to analyze mouse antisera against VP2 protein of HBoV1, 2, and 3, and human sera positive for HBoVs. Using this approach, we mapped four epitope clusters of HBoVs and identified two immunodominant peptides--P1 (¹MSDTDIQDQQPDTVDAPQNT²⁰, and P2 (¹⁶²EHAYPNASHPWDEDVMPDL¹⁸⁰--that are conserved among HBoV1-4. To confirm epitope immunogenicity, we immunized mice with the immunodominant P1 and P2 peptides identified in our screen and found that they elicited high titer antibodies in mice. These two antibodies could only recognize the VP2 of HBoV 1-4 in Western blot assays, rather than those of the two other parvoviruses human parvovirus B19 and human parvovirus 4 (PARV4. Based on our findings, we evaluated epitope-based peptide-IgM ELISAs as potential diagnostic tools for HBoVs IgM antibodies. We found that the P1+P2-IgM ELISA showed a higher sensitivity and specificity in HBoVs IgM detection than the assays using a single peptide. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The identification of the conserved B-cell epitopes among human bocavirus species contributes to our understanding of immunological cross-reactivities of HBoVs, and provides important insights for the development of HBoV diagnostic tools.

  5. Multi-Analytical Approach Reveals Potential Microbial Indicators in Soil for Sugarcane Model Systems.

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    Acacio Aparecido Navarrete

    Full Text Available This study focused on the effects of organic and inorganic amendments and straw retention on the microbial biomass (MB and taxonomic groups of bacteria in sugarcane-cultivated soils in a greenhouse mesocosm experiment monitored for gas emissions and chemical factors. The experiment consisted of combinations of synthetic nitrogen (N, vinasse (V; a liquid waste from ethanol production, and sugarcane-straw blankets. Increases in CO2-C and N2O-N emissions were identified shortly after the addition of both N and V to the soils, thus increasing MB nitrogen (MB-N and decreasing MB carbon (MB-C in the N+V-amended soils and altering soil chemical factors that were correlated with the MB. Across 57 soil metagenomic datasets, Actinobacteria (31.5%, Planctomycetes (12.3%, Deltaproteobacteria (12.3%, Alphaproteobacteria (12.0% and Betaproteobacteria (11.1% were the most dominant bacterial groups during the experiment. Differences in relative abundance of metagenomic sequences were mainly revealed for Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia with regard to N+V fertilization and straw retention. Differential abundances in bacterial groups were confirmed using 16S rRNA gene-targeted phylum-specific primers for real-time PCR analysis in all soil samples, whose results were in accordance with sequence data, except for Gammaproteobacteria. Actinobacteria were more responsive to straw retention with Rubrobacterales, Bifidobacteriales and Actinomycetales related to the chemical factors of N+V-amended soils. Acidobacteria subgroup 7 and Opitutae, a verrucomicrobial class, were related to the chemical factors of soils without straw retention as a surface blanket. Taken together, the results showed that MB-C and MB-N responded to changes in soil chemical factors and CO2-C and N2O-N emissions, especially for N+V-amended soils. The results also indicated that several taxonomic groups of bacteria, such as Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and

  6. Multi-Analytical Approach Reveals Potential Microbial Indicators in Soil for Sugarcane Model Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Diniz, Tatiana Rosa; Braga, Lucas Palma Perez; Silva, Genivaldo Gueiros Zacarias; Franchini, Julio Cezar; Rossetto, Raffaella; Edwards, Robert Alan; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the effects of organic and inorganic amendments and straw retention on the microbial biomass (MB) and taxonomic groups of bacteria in sugarcane-cultivated soils in a greenhouse mesocosm experiment monitored for gas emissions and chemical factors. The experiment consisted of combinations of synthetic nitrogen (N), vinasse (V; a liquid waste from ethanol production), and sugarcane-straw blankets. Increases in CO2-C and N2O-N emissions were identified shortly after the addition of both N and V to the soils, thus increasing MB nitrogen (MB-N) and decreasing MB carbon (MB-C) in the N+V-amended soils and altering soil chemical factors that were correlated with the MB. Across 57 soil metagenomic datasets, Actinobacteria (31.5%), Planctomycetes (12.3%), Deltaproteobacteria (12.3%), Alphaproteobacteria (12.0%) and Betaproteobacteria (11.1%) were the most dominant bacterial groups during the experiment. Differences in relative abundance of metagenomic sequences were mainly revealed for Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia with regard to N+V fertilization and straw retention. Differential abundances in bacterial groups were confirmed using 16S rRNA gene-targeted phylum-specific primers for real-time PCR analysis in all soil samples, whose results were in accordance with sequence data, except for Gammaproteobacteria. Actinobacteria were more responsive to straw retention with Rubrobacterales, Bifidobacteriales and Actinomycetales related to the chemical factors of N+V-amended soils. Acidobacteria subgroup 7 and Opitutae, a verrucomicrobial class, were related to the chemical factors of soils without straw retention as a surface blanket. Taken together, the results showed that MB-C and MB-N responded to changes in soil chemical factors and CO2-C and N2O-N emissions, especially for N+V-amended soils. The results also indicated that several taxonomic groups of bacteria, such as Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and

  7. Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs): developing survey items to measure awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogen, Karen; Biener, Lois; Garrett, Catherine A; Allen, Jane; Cummings, K Michael; Hartman, Anne; Marcus, Stephen; McNeill, Ann; O'Connor, Richard J; Parascandola, Mark; Pederson, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs) with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1) the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2) the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented. PMID:19840394

  8. Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs: developing survey items to measure awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNeill Ann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1 the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2 the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented.

  9. Discovering potential Streptomyces hormone producers by using disruptants of essential biosynthetic genes as indicator strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Nguyen B; Kitani, Shigeru; Nitta, Hiroko; Tomioka, Toshiya; Nihira, Takuya

    2017-10-01

    Autoregulators are low-molecular-weight signaling compounds that control the production of many secondary metabolites in actinomycetes and have been referred to as 'Streptomyces hormones'. Here, potential producers of Streptomyces hormones were investigated in 40 Streptomyces and 11 endophytic actinomycetes. Production of γ-butyrolactone-type (IM-2, VB) and butenolide-type (avenolide) Streptomyces hormones was screened using Streptomyces lavendulae FRI-5 (ΔfarX), Streptomyces virginiae (ΔbarX) and Streptomyces avermitilis (Δaco), respectively. In these strains, essential biosynthetic genes for Streptomyces hormones were disrupted, enabling them to respond solely to the externally added hormones. The results showed that 20% of each of the investigated strains produced IM-2 and VB, confirming that γ-butyrolactone-type Streptomyces hormones are the most common in actinomycetes. Unlike the γ-butyrolactone type, butenolide-type Streptomyces hormones have been discovered in recent years, but their distribution has been unclear. Our finding that 24% of actinomycetes (12 of 51 strains) showed avenolide activity revealed for the first time that the butenolide-type Streptomyces hormone is also common in actinomycetes.

  10. Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of dioxopyrrolopyrroles as potential low-affinity fluorescent Ca2+ indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesibe Avcıbaşi

    2004-01-01

    1,4-dihydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione (DPP3 have been synthesized and evaluated for their Ca2+ binding properties via fluorimetric titrations. The in vitro dissociation constant Kd measured at 21 ∘C in 100 mM KCl buffered solution, pH 7.05, for the Ca2+ –DPP1 complex is 10 μM; for Ca2+ –DPP2 and Ca2+ –DPP3 a Kd value of 20 μM is found. All three indicators form 1 : 1 complexes with Ca2+. The fluorescence quantum yields of the uncomplexed forms of DPP1, DPP2 and DPP3 are 1.2×10−2, 3.4×10−2 and 3.6×10−2, respectively. After binding to Ca2+ these values increase to 4.8×10−2, 5.0×10−2 and 5.1×10−2, respectively.

  11. Complex forest dynamics indicate potential for slowing carbon accumulation in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulston, John W; Wear, David N; Vose, James M

    2015-01-23

    Over the past century forest regrowth in Europe and North America expanded forest carbon (C) sinks and offset C emissions but future C accumulation is uncertain. Policy makers need insights into forest C dynamics as they anticipate emissions futures and goals. We used land use and forest inventory data to estimate how forest C dynamics have changed in the southeastern United States and attribute changes to land use, management, and disturbance causes. From 2007-2012, forests yielded a net sink of C because of net land use change (+6.48 Tg C yr(-1)) and net biomass accumulation (+75.4 Tg C yr(-1)). Forests disturbed by weather, insect/disease, and fire show dampened yet positive forest C changes (+1.56, +1.4, +5.48 Tg C yr(-1), respectively). Forest cutting caused net decreases in C (-76.7 Tg C yr(-1)) but was offset by forest growth (+143.77 Tg C yr(-1)). Forest growth rates depend on age or stage of development and projected C stock changes indicate a gradual slowing of carbon accumulation with anticipated forest aging (a reduction of 9.5% over the next five years). Additionally, small shifts in land use transitions consistent with economic futures resulted in a 40.6% decrease in C accumulation.

  12. Nitrogen species in drinking water indicate potential exposure pathway for Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niagolova, Nedialka; McElmurry, Shawn P.; Voice, Thomas C.; Long, David T.; Petropoulos, Evangelos A.; Havezov, Ivan; Chou, Karen; Ganev, Varban

    2005-01-01

    This study explored two hypotheses relating elevated concentrations of nitrogen species in drinking water and the disease Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN). Drinking water samples were collected from a variety of water supplies in both endemic and non-endemic villages in the Vratza and Montana districts of Bulgaria. The majority of well water samples exceeded US drinking water standards for nitrate + nitrite. No statistically significant difference was observed for any of the nitrogen species between villages classified as endemic and non-endemic. Other constituents (sodium, potassium and chloride) known to be indicators of anthropogenic pollution were also found at elevated concentrations and all followed the order wells > springs > taps. This ordering coincides with the proximity of human influences to the water sources. Our results clearly establish an exposure pathway between anthropogenic activity and drinking water supplies, suggesting that the causative agent for BEN could result from surface contamination. - Water in villages affected and unaffected by Balkan Endemic Nephropathy had no significant differences in nitrogen compounds

  13. Indications for potential parent-of-origin effects within the FTO gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanshi Liu

    Full Text Available Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS were successfully applied to discover associations with obesity. However, the GWAS design is usually based on unrelated individuals and inheritance information on the parental origin of the alleles is missing. Taking into account parent-of-origin may provide further insights into the genetic mechanisms contributing to obesity. We hypothesized that there may be variants within the robustly replicated fat mass and obesity associated (FTO gene that may confer different risk for obesity depending on transmission from mother or father. Genome-wide genotypes and pedigree information from the Sorbs population were used. Phased genotypes among 525 individuals were generated by AlphaImpute. Subsequently, 22 SNPs within FTO introns 1 to 3 were selected and parent-of-origin specific association analyses were performed using PLINK. Interestingly, we identified several SNPs conferring different genetic effects (P≤0.05 depending on parental origin--among them, rs1861868, rs1121980 and rs9939973 (all in intron 1. To confirm our findings, we investigated the selected variants in 705 German trios comprising an (extremely obese child or adolescent and both parents. Again, we observed evidence for POE effects in intron 2 and 3 (P≤0.05 as indicated by the parental asymmetry test. Our results suggest that the obesity risk transmitted by several FTO variants may depend on the parental origin of the allele. Larger family-based studies are warranted to replicate our findings.

  14. Application of patient safety indicators internationally: a pilot study among seven countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drösler, Saskia E; Klazinga, Niek S; Romano, Patrick S; Tancredi, Daniel J; Gogorcena Aoiz, Maria A; Hewitt, Moira C; Scobie, Sarah; Soop, Michael; Wen, Eugene; Quan, Hude; Ghali, William A; Mattke, Soeren; Kelley, Edward

    2009-08-01

    To explore the potential for international comparison of patient safety as part of the Health Care Quality Indicators project of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) by evaluating patient safety indicators originally published by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). A retrospective cross-sectional study. Acute care hospitals in the USA, UK, Sweden, Spain, Germany, Canada and Australia in 2004 and 2005/2006. Routine hospitalization-related administrative data from seven countries were analyzed. Using algorithms adapted to the diagnosis and procedure coding systems in place in each country, authorities in each of the participating countries reported summaries of the distribution of hospital-level and overall (national) rates for each AHRQ Patient Safety Indicator to the OECD project secretariat. Each country's vector of national indicator rates and the vector of American patient safety indicators rates published by AHRQ (and re-estimated as part of this study) were highly correlated (0.821-0.966). However, there was substantial systematic variation in rates across countries. This pilot study reveals that AHRQ Patient Safety Indicators can be applied to international hospital data. However, the analyses suggest that certain indicators (e.g. 'birth trauma', 'complications of anesthesia') may be too unreliable for international comparisons. Data quality varies across countries; undercoding may be a systematic problem in some countries. Efforts at international harmonization of hospital discharge data sets as well as improved accuracy of documentation should facilitate future comparative analyses of routine databases.

  15. Minor snake venom proteins: Structure, function and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrini-França, Johara; Cologna, Camila Takeno; Pucca, Manuela Berto; Bordon, Karla de Castro Figueiredo; Amorim, Fernanda Gobbi; Anjolette, Fernando Antonio Pino; Cordeiro, Francielle Almeida; Wiezel, Gisele Adriano; Cerni, Felipe Augusto; Pinheiro-Junior, Ernesto Lopes; Shibao, Priscila Yumi Tanaka; Ferreira, Isabela Gobbo; de Oliveira, Isadora Sousa; Cardoso, Iara Aimê; Arantes, Eliane Candiani

    2017-04-01

    Snake venoms present a great diversity of pharmacologically active compounds that may be applied as research and biotechnological tools, as well as in drug development and diagnostic tests for certain diseases. The most abundant toxins have been extensively studied in the last decades and some of them have already been used for different purposes. Nevertheless, most of the minor snake venom protein classes remain poorly explored, even presenting potential application in diverse areas. The main difficulty in studying these proteins lies on the impossibility of obtaining sufficient amounts of them for a comprehensive investigation. The advent of more sensitive techniques in the last few years allowed the discovery of new venom components and the in-depth study of some already known minor proteins. This review summarizes information regarding some structural and functional aspects of low abundant snake venom proteins classes, such as growth factors, hyaluronidases, cysteine-rich secretory proteins, nucleases and nucleotidases, cobra venom factors, vespryns, protease inhibitors, antimicrobial peptides, among others. Some potential applications of these molecules are discussed herein in order to encourage researchers to explore the full venom repertoire and to discover new molecules or applications for the already known venom components. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Market Potential for Non-electric Applications of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, T.; Kononov, S.; Kupitz, J.; McDonald, A.; Rogner, H.H.; Nisan, S.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents results of a recent IAEA study to assess the market potential for non-electric applications of nuclear energy in the near (before 2020) and long term (2020-2050). The applications covered are district heating, desalination, industrial heat supply, ship propulsion, energy supply for spacecraft, and, to a lesser extent, 'innovative' applications such as hydrogen production, coal gasification, etc. While technical details are covered only briefly, emphasis is placed on economics and other factors that may promote or hinder the penetration of nuclear options in the markets for non-electric energy services. The study makes a distinction between the market size (demand for a given service) and the market potential for nuclear penetration (which may be smaller because of technical or non-technical constraints). Near-term nuclear prospects are assessed on the basis of on-going projects in the final stages of design or under construction. For the long term, use has been made of a qualitative scale ranging from 0 to 2 for five critical areas: market structure, demand pressure, technical basis, economic competitiveness, and public acceptance. The paper presents the resulting evaluation of long-term prospects for nuclear energy entering into non-electric markets. (authors)

  17. Nanotechnology in meat processing and packaging: potential applications - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandraiah, Karna; Han, Sung Gu; Chin, Koo Bok

    2015-02-01

    Growing demand for sustainable production, increasing competition and consideration of health concerns have led the meat industries on a path to innovation. Meat industries across the world are focusing on the development of novel meat products and processes to meet consumer demand. Hence, a process innovation, like nanotechnology, can have a significant impact on the meat processing industry through the development of not only novel functional meat products, but also novel packaging for the products. The potential benefits of utilizing nanomaterials in food are improved bioavailability, antimicrobial effects, enhanced sensory acceptance and targeted delivery of bioactive compounds. However, challenges exist in the application of nanomaterials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients such as nanopowders, stability of delivery systems in meat products and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. For the success of nanotechnology in meat products, challenges in public acceptance, economics and the regulation of food processed with nanomaterials which may have the potential to persist, accumulate and lead to toxicity need to be addressed. So far, the most promising area for nanotechnology application seems to be in meat packaging, but the long term effects on human health and environment due to migration of the nanomaterials from the packaging needs to be studied further. The future of nanotechnology in meat products depends on the roles played by governments, regulatory agencies and manufacturers in addressing the challenges related to the application of nanomaterials in food.

  18. SYNTHESIS OF AZO COMPOUNDS DERIVATIVE FROM EUGENOL AND ITS APPLICATION AS A TITRATION INDICATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Purwono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of azo compounds from eugenol has been carried out by diazotation reaction. The diazonium salt was produced by reaction of aniline and sodium nitrite in acid condition at 0-5 °C temperature to yield benzenediazonium chloride salt. The salt was then reacted with eugenol to produce the azo derivatives. The azo product was analyzed by IR, 1H-NMR, dan GC-MS spectrometer. The results showed that the reaction of benzenediazonium chloride with eugenol gave 4-allyl-2-methoxy-6-hydroxyazobenzene in 34.27% yield for 30 minutes reaction. The derivative of azo compound was dissolved in ethanol and then the color changing was observed in range of pH 9.8-11.1 from yellow to red. Application for titration indicator for acetic acid titrated with sodium hydroxide showed error less than 3.20% compared with phenol phtaline indicator.   Keywords: Eugenol, Azo compound, titration indicator

  19. Applications of NTNU/SINTEF Drillability Indices in Hard Rock Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, S.; Bruland, A.

    2013-01-01

    Drillability indices, i.e., the Drilling Rate Index™ (DRI), Bit Wear Index™ (BWI), Cutter Life Index™ (CLI), and Vickers Hardness Number Rock (VHNR), are indirect measures of rock drillability. These indices are recognized as providing practical characterization of rock properties used in the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) time and cost prediction models available for hard rock tunneling and surface excavation. The tests form the foundation of various hard rock equipment capacity and performance prediction methods. In this paper, application of the tests for tunnel boring machine (TBM) and drill and blast (D&B) tunneling is investigated and the impact of the indices on excavation time and costs is presented.

  20. Perceived Accessibility of Public Transport as a Potential Indicator of Social Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Lättman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Perceived accessibility has been acknowledged as an important aspect of transport policy since the 70s. Nevertheless, very few empirical studies have been conducted in this field. When aiming to improve social inclusion, by making sustainable transport modes accessible to all, it is important to understand the factors driving perceived accessibility. Unlike conventional accessibility measures, perceived accessibility focuses on the perceived possibilities and ease of engaging in preferred activities using different transport modes. We define perceived accessibility in terms of how easy it is to live a satisfactory life with the help of the transport system, which is not necessarily the same thing as the objective standard of the system. According to previous research, perceived accessibility varies with the subjectively-rated quality of the mode of transport. Thus, improvements in quality (e.g. trip planning, comfort, or safety increase the perceived accessibility and make life easier to live using the chosen mode of transport. This study (n=750 focuses on the perceived accessibility of public transport, captured using the Perceived Accessibility Scale PAC (Lättman, Olsson, & Friman, 2015. More specifically, this study aims to determine how level of quality affects the perceived accessibility in public transport. A Conditional Process Model shows that, in addition to quality, feeling safe and frequency of travel are important predictors of perceived accessibility. Furthermore, elderly and those in their thirties report a lower level of perceived accessibility to their day-to-day activities using public transport. The basic premise of this study is that subjective experiences may be as important as objective indicators when planning and designing for socially inclusive transport systems.

  1. Callousness and affective face processing in adults: Behavioral and brain-potential indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brislin, Sarah J; Yancey, James R; Perkins, Emily R; Palumbo, Isabella M; Drislane, Laura E; Salekin, Randall T; Fanti, Kostas A; Kimonis, Eva R; Frick, Paul J; Blair, R James R; Patrick, Christopher J

    2018-03-01

    The investigation of callous-unemotional (CU) traits has been central to contemporary research on child behavior problems, and served as the impetus for inclusion of a specifier for conduct disorder in the latest edition of the official psychiatric diagnostic system. Here, we report results from 2 studies that evaluated the construct validity of callousness as assessed in adults, by testing for affiliated deficits in behavioral and neural processing of fearful faces, as have been shown in youthful samples. We hypothesized that scores on an established measure of callousness would predict reduced recognition accuracy and diminished electocortical reactivity for fearful faces in adult participants. In Study 1, 66 undergraduate participants performed an emotion recognition task in which they viewed affective faces of different types and indicated the emotion expressed by each. In Study 2, electrocortical data were collected from 254 adult twins during viewing of fearful and neutral face stimuli, and scored for event-related response components. Analyses of Study 1 data revealed that higher callousness was associated with decreased recognition accuracy for fearful faces specifically. In Study 2, callousness was associated with reduced amplitude of both N170 and P200 responses to fearful faces. Current findings demonstrate for the first time that callousness in adults is associated with both behavioral and physiological deficits in the processing of fearful faces. These findings support the validity of the CU construct with adults and highlight the possibility of a multidomain measurement framework for continued study of this important clinical construct. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Transcriptome profiling indicating canine parvovirus type 2a as a potential immune activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xu-Xu; Gao, Yuan; Shu, Long; Wei, Yan-Quan; Yao, Xue-Ping; Cao, Sui-Zhong; Peng, Guang-Neng; Liu, Xiang-Tao; Sun, Shi-Qi

    2016-12-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2a (CPV-2a) is a variant of CPV-2, which is a highly contagious pathogen causing severe gastroenteritis and death in young dogs. However, how CPV-2 participates in cell regulation and immune response remains unknown. In this study, persistently infected MDCK cells were generated through culture passage of the CPV-2a-infected cells for ten generations. Our study showed that CPV-2a induces cell proliferation arrest and cell morphology alternation before the fourth generation, whereas, the cell morphology returns to normal after five times of passages. PCR detection of viral VP2 gene demonstrated that CPV-2a proliferate with cell passage. An immunofluorescence assay revealed that CPV-2a particles were mainly located in the cell nuclei of MDCK cell. Then transcriptome microarray revealed that gene expression pattern of MDCK with CPV-2a persistent infection is distinct compared with normal cells. Gene ontology annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathway analysis demonstrated that CPV-2a infection induces a series of membrane-associated genes expression, including many MHC protein or MHC-related complexes. These genes are closely related to signaling pathways of virus-host interaction, including antigen processing and presentation pathway, intestinal immune network, graft-versus-host disease, and RIG-I-like helicases signaling pathway. In contrast, the suppressed genes mediated by CPV-2a showed low enrichment in any category, and were only involved in pathways linking to synthesis and metabolism of amino acids, which was confirmed by qPCR analysis. Our studies indicated that CPV-2a is a natural immune activator and has the capacity to activate host immune responses, which could be used for the development of antiviral strategy and biomaterial for medicine.

  3. Evaluating stakeholder participation in water management: intermediary outcomes as potential indicators for future resource management outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Gemma; Bloeschl, Guenter; Loucks, Daniel Pete

    2013-04-01

    . Furthermore, failure to achieve intermediary outcomes correlates to failure to achieve resource management outcomes. Evaluating intermediary outcomes leads to both a broader assessment of a programme's achievements at the time of evaluation, and can indicate whether a programme will go on to achieve resource management objectives in the future.

  4. Tourist Potential in a Sustainable Approach. An Application Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Soria-Leyva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research is proposed a methodology to evaluate the tourist potential with a sustainable approach and it is validated through an application in the municipality of the Tercer Frente, Santiago de Cuba. With this aim, some instruments of measure and mathematical formulas are submitted in order to obtain discriminating information about tourist resources, taking into account the delimitation of zones for the tourist development and the classification of determining factors of the tourist potential according to the capability of attraction and reception of the tourist demand, becoming adapted to the historic concrete conditions of the territory. Therefore, its application will determine a solid base for the future planning of tourist local development of this municipality. Among the main conclusions, it is deduced that Tercer Frente is a secondary semi-specialized destination which has medium tourist potential and possibilities to increase the spatial correlation among the tourist plant and the distribution of attractions in five zones.

  5. Potential biodefense model applications for portable chlorine dioxide gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, Jeannie M; Newsome, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    Development of decontamination methods and strategies to address potential infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorism events are pertinent to this nation's biodefense strategies and general biosecurity. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas has a history of use as a decontamination agent in response to an act of bioterrorism. However, the more widespread use of ClO2 gas to meet current and unforeseen decontamination needs has been hampered because the gas is too unstable for shipment and must be prepared at the application site. Newer technology allows for easy, onsite gas generation without the need for dedicated equipment, electricity, water, or personnel with advanced training. In a laboratory model system, 2 unique applications (personal protective equipment [PPE] and animal skin) were investigated in the context of potential development of decontamination protocols. Such protocols could serve to reduce human exposure to bacteria in a decontamination response effort. Chlorine dioxide gas was capable of reducing (2-7 logs of vegetative and spore-forming bacteria), and in some instances eliminating, culturable bacteria from difficult to clean areas on PPE facepieces. The gas was effective in eliminating naturally occurring bacteria on animal skin and also on skin inoculated with Bacillus spores. The culturable bacteria, including Bacillus spores, were eliminated in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Results of these studies suggested portable, easily used ClO2 gas generation systems have excellent potential for protocol development to contribute to biodefense strategies and decontamination responses to infectious disease outbreaks or other biothreat events.

  6. The potential of diffraction grating for spatial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourlin, Y.; Parriaux, O.; Pigeon, F.; Tischenko, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Diffraction gratings are know, and have been fabricated for more than one century. They are now making a come back for two reasons: first, because they are now better understood which leads to the efficient exploitation of what was then called their "anomalies"; secondly, because they are now fabricable by means of the modern manufacturing potential of planar technologies. Novel grating can now perform better than conventional gratings, and address new application fields which were not expected to be theirs. This is the case of spatial applications where they can offer multiple optical functions, low size, low weight and mechanical robustness. The proposed contribution will briefly discuss the use of gratings for spatial applications. One of the most important applications is in the measurement of displacement. Usual translation and rotation sensors are bulky devices, which impose a system breakdown leading to cumbersome and heavy assemblies. We are proposing a miniaturized version of the traditional moving grating technique using submicron gratings and a specific OptoASIC which enables the measurement function to be non-obtrusively inserted into light and compact electro-mechanical systems. Nanometer resolution is possible with no compromise on the length of the measurement range. Another family of spatial application is in the field of spectrometers where new grating types allow a more flexible processing of the optical spectrum. Another family of applications addresses the question of inter-satellite communications: the introduction of gratings in laser cavities or in the laser mirrors enables the stabilization of the emitted polarization, the stabilization of the frequency as well as wide range frequency sweeping without mobile parts.

  7. Risk indicators and potential risk factors for caries in 5-year-olds of different ethnic groups in Amsterdam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrips, G.H.; Frencken, J.E.; Kalsbeek, H.; Horst, G. ter; Filedt Kok-Weimar, T.L.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was threefold: first, to assess the oral health of Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, Dutch and "other" 5-yr-old children living in Amsterdam; second, to identify risk indicators for caries, in addition to ethnicity; and third, to identify potential risk factors related to

  8. Bacterial and Fungal Proteolytic Enzymes: Production, Catalysis and Potential Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ronivaldo Rodrigues

    2017-09-01

    Submerged and solid-state bioprocesses have been extensively explored worldwide and employed in a number of important studies dealing with microbial cultivation for the production of enzymes. The development of these production technologies has facilitated the generation of new enzyme-based products with applications in pharmaceuticals, food, bioactive peptides, and basic research studies, among others. The applicability of microorganisms in biotechnology is potentiated because of their various advantages, including large-scale production, short time of cultivation, and ease of handling. Currently, several studies are being conducted to search for new microbial peptidases with peculiar biochemical properties for industrial applications. Bioprospecting, being an important prerequisite for research and biotechnological development, is based on exploring the microbial diversity for enzyme production. Limited information is available on the production of specific proteolytic enzymes from bacterial and fungal species, especially on the subgroups threonine and glutamic peptidases, and the seventh catalytic type, nonhydrolytic asparagine peptide lyase. This gap in information motivated the present study about these unique biocatalysts. In this study, the biochemical and biotechnological aspects of the seven catalytic types of proteolytic enzymes, namely aspartyl, cysteine, serine, metallo, glutamic, and threonine peptidase, and asparagine peptide lyase, are summarized, with an emphasis on new studies, production, catalysis, and application of these enzymes.

  9. Expert system characteristics and potential applications in safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    The general growth of expert, knowledge-based (KB) or rule based systems will significantly increase in the next three to five years. Improvements in computer hardware (speed, reduced size, power) and software (rule based, data based, user interfaces) in recent years are providing the foundations for the growth of expert systems. A byproduct of this growth will undoubtedly be the application of expert systems to various safeguards problems. Characteristics of these expert systems will involve 1) multiple rules governing an outcome, 2) confidence factors on individual variables and rule sets, 3) priority, cost, and risk based rule sets, and 4) the reasoning behind the advice or decision given by the expert system. This paper presents characteristics, structures, and examples of simple rule based systems. Potential application areas for these expert systems may include training, operations, management, designs, evaluations, and specific hardware operation

  10. Neural networks and their potential application in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    A neural network is a data processing system consisting of a number of simple, highly interconnected processing elements in an architecture inspired by the structure of the cerebral cortex portion of the brain. Hence, neural networks are often capable of doing things which humans or animals do well but which conventional computers often do poorly. Neural networks have emerged in the past few years as an area of unusual opportunity for research, development and application to a variety of real world problems. Indeed, neural networks exhibit characteristics and capabilities not provided by any other technology. Examples include reading Japanese Kanji characters and human handwriting, reading a typewritten manuscript aloud, compensating for alignment errors in robots, interpreting very noise signals (e.g., electroencephalograms), modeling complex systems that cannot be modeled mathematically, and predicting whether proposed loans will be good or fail. This paper presents a brief tutorial on neural networks and describes research on the potential applications to nuclear power plants

  11. Nanotechnology and stem cell therapy for cardiovascular diseases: potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Francesca, Saverio

    2012-01-01

    The use of stem cell therapy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases has generated significant interest in recent years. Limitations to the clinical application of this therapy center on issues of stem cell delivery, engraftment, and fate. Nanotechnology-based cell labeling and imaging techniques facilitate stem cell tracking and engraftment studies. Nanotechnology also brings exciting new opportunities to translational stem cell research as it enables the controlled engineering of nanoparticles and nanomaterials that can properly relate to the physical scale of cell-cell and cell-niche interactions. This review summarizes the most relevant potential applications of nanoscale technologies to the field of stem cell therapy for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Applications of Diatoms as Potential Microalgae in Nanobiotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Yari Khosroushahi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diatoms are single cell eukaryotic microalgae, which present in nearly every water habitat make them ideal tools for a wide range of applications such as oil explora­tion, forensic examination, environmental indication, biosilica pattern generation, toxicity testing and eutrophication of aqueous ecosystems. Methods: Essential information on diatoms were reviewed and discussed towards impacts of diatoms on biosynthesis and bioremediation. Results: In this review, we present the recent progress in this century on the application of diatoms in waste degradation, synthesis of biomaterial, biomineraliza­tion, toxicity and toxic effects of mineral elements evaluations. Conclusion: Diatoms can be considered as metal toxicity bioindicators and they can be applied for biomineralization, synthesis of biomaterials, and degradation of wastes.

  13. Potential application of lipid organogels for food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Kamila Ferreira; Barrera-Arellano, Daniel; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Badan

    2018-03-01

    Controversial issues regarding the role of trans fatty acids in food have led to progressive changes in the legislation of several countries to include more information for consumers. In response, the industries decided to gradually replace trans fat in various products with the development of fatty bases of equivalent functionality and economic viability to partially hydrogenated fats, causing, however, a substantial increase in the content of saturated fatty acids in foods. Today, the lipid science aims to define alternatives to a problem that is widely discussed by health organizations worldwide: limit the saturated fat content in food available to the population. In this context, organogels have been indicated as a viable alternative to obtain semi-solid fats with reduced content of saturated fatty acids and compatible properties for food application. The objective of this review was to present the studies that address the lipid organogels as an alternative for food application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Electric Potential and Electric Field Imaging with Dynamic Applications & Extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Ed

    2017-01-01

    The technology and methods for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields, or an externally generated electrostatic field made be used for volumes to be inspected with EFI. The baseline sensor technology (e-Sensor) and its construction, optional electric field generation (quasi-static generator), and current e- Sensor enhancements (ephemeral e-Sensor) are discussed. Critical design elements of current linear and real-time two-dimensional (2D) measurement systems are highlighted, and the development of a three dimensional (3D) EFI system is presented. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications are shown. Recent work demonstrates that phonons may be used to create and annihilate electric dipoles within structures. Phonon induced dipoles are ephemeral and their polarization, strength, and location may be quantitatively characterized by EFI providing a new subsurface Phonon-EFI imaging technology. Results from real-time imaging of combustion and ion flow, and their measurement complications, will be discussed. Extensions to environment, Space and subterranean applications will be presented, and initial results for quantitative characterizing material properties are shown. A wearable EFI system has been developed by using fundamental EFI concepts. These new EFI capabilities are demonstrated to characterize electric charge distribution creating a new field of study embracing areas of interest including electrostatic discharge (ESD) mitigation, manufacturing quality control, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors, combustion science, on-orbit space potential, container inspection, remote characterization of electronic circuits and level of activation, dielectric morphology of

  15. Assessment of students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and bio-energetic reserves of organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Martyniuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and express-assessment. Material: in the research 47 first and second year girl students participated, who belonged to main health group. Results: we distributed the girl students into three groups: 14.89% of them were included in group with “safe” health condition; 34.04% - in group of “third state”; 51.06% were related to group with “ dangerous” health condition. We established that dangerous level was characterized by energy potential of below middle and low level. It is accompanied by accelerated processes of organism’s age destructions and tension of regulation mechanisms. Conclusions: the received results permit to further develop and generalize the data of students’ health’s assessment by indicators of adaptation potentials, biological age and physical health’s condition.

  16. HTR process heat applications, status of technology and economical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnet, H.

    1997-01-01

    The technical and industrial feasibility of the production of high temperature heat from nuclear fuel is presented. The technical feasibility of high temperature heat consuming processes is reviewed and assessed. The conclusion is drawn that the next technological step for pilot plant scale demonstration is the nuclear heated steam reforming process. The economical potential of HTR process heat applications is reviewed: It is directly coupled to the economical competitiveness of HTR electricity production. Recently made statements and pre-conditions on the economic competitiveness in comparison to world market coal are reported. (author). 8 figs

  17. Assessment of potential solder candidates for high temperature applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    pressure to eliminate lead containing materials despite the fact that materials for high Pb containing alloys are currently not affected by any legislations. A tentative assessment was carried out to determine the potential solder candidates for high temperature applications based on the solidification...... criterion, phases predicted in the bulk solder and the thermodynamic stability of chlorides. These promising solder candidates were precisely produced using the hot stage microscope and its respective anodic and cathodic polarization curves were investigated using a micro-electrochemical set up...

  18. [Ecological memory and its potential applications in ecology: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhong-yu; Ren, Hai

    2011-03-01

    Ecological memory (EM) is defined as the capability of the past states or experiences of a community to influence the present or future ecological responses of the community. As a relatively new concept, EM has received considerable attention in the study of ecosystem structure and function, such as community succession, ecological restoration, biological invasion, and natural resource management. This review summarized the definition, components, and categories of EM, and discussed the possible mechanisms and affecting factors of EM. Also, the potential applications of EM were proposed, in order to further understand the mechanisms of community succession and to guide ecological restoration.

  19. Higher order statistical moment application for solar PV potential analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Mohd Juhari Mat; Abdullah, Samizee; Azrulhisham, Engku Ahmad; Harun, Khairulezuan

    2016-10-01

    Solar photovoltaic energy could be as alternative energy to fossil fuel, which is depleting and posing a global warming problem. However, this renewable energy is so variable and intermittent to be relied on. Therefore the knowledge of energy potential is very important for any site to build this solar photovoltaic power generation system. Here, the application of higher order statistical moment model is being analyzed using data collected from 5MW grid-connected photovoltaic system. Due to the dynamic changes of skewness and kurtosis of AC power and solar irradiance distributions of the solar farm, Pearson system where the probability distribution is calculated by matching their theoretical moments with that of the empirical moments of a distribution could be suitable for this purpose. On the advantage of the Pearson system in MATLAB, a software programming has been developed to help in data processing for distribution fitting and potential analysis for future projection of amount of AC power and solar irradiance availability.

  20. DNA Source Selection for Downstream Applications Based on DNA Quality Indicators Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena-Aguilar, Gema; Sánchez-López, Ana María; Barberán-Aceituno, Cristina; Carrillo-Ávila, José Antonio; López-Guerrero, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    High-quality human DNA samples and associated information of individuals are necessary for biomedical research. Biobanks act as a support infrastructure for the scientific community by providing a large number of high-quality biological samples for specific downstream applications. For this purpose, biobank methods for sample preparation must ensure the usefulness and long-term functionality of the products obtained. Quality indicators are the tool to measure these parameters, the purity and integrity determination being those specifically used for DNA. This study analyzes the quality indicators in DNA samples derived from 118 frozen human tissues in optimal cutting temperature (OCT) reactive, 68 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, 119 frozen blood samples, and 26 saliva samples. The results obtained for DNA quality are discussed in association with the usefulness for downstream applications and availability of the DNA source in the target study. In brief, if any material is valid, blood is the most approachable option of prospective collection of samples providing high-quality DNA. However, if diseased tissue is a requisite or samples are available, the recommended source of DNA would be frozen tissue. These conclusions will determine the best source of DNA, according to the planned downstream application. Furthermore our results support the conclusion that a complete procedure of DNA quantification and qualification is necessary to guarantee the appropriate management of the samples, avoiding low confidence results, high costs, and a waste of samples. PMID:27158753

  1. Potential non-oncological applications of histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors have emerged as a new class of anticancer therapeutic drugs. Their clinical utility in oncology stems from their intrinsic cytotoxic properties and combinatorial effects with other conventional cancer therapies. To date, the histone deacetylase inhibitors suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (Vorinostat, Zolinza®) and depsipeptide (Romidepsin, Istodax®) have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Further, there are currently over 100 clinical trials involving the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors in a wide range of solid and hematological malignancies. The therapeutic potential of histone deacetylase inhibitors has also been investigated for numerous other diseases. For example, the cytotoxic properties of histone deacetylase inhibitors are currently being harnessed as a potential treatment for malaria, whereas the efficacy of these compounds for HIV relies on de-silencing latent virus. The anti-inflammatory properties of histone deacetylase inhibitors are the predominant mechanisms for other diseases, such as hepatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus and a wide range of neurodegenerative conditions. Additionally, histone deacetylase inhibitors have been shown to be efficacious in animal models of cardiac hypertrophy and asthma. Broad-spectrum histone deacetylase inhibitors are clinically available and have been used almost exclusively in preclinical systems to date. However, it is emerging that class- or isoform-specific compounds, which are becoming more readily available, may be more efficacious particularly for non-oncological applications. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the effects and clinical potential of histone deacetylase inhibitors in various diseases. Apart from applications in oncology, the discussion is focused on the potential efficacy of histone deacetylase inhibitors for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, cardiac

  2. Electric Potential and Electric Field Imaging with Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Ed

    2016-01-01

    The technology and techniques for remote quantitative imaging of electrostatic potentials and electrostatic fields in and around objects and in free space is presented. Electric field imaging (EFI) technology may be applied to characterize intrinsic or existing electric potentials and electric fields, or an externally generated electrostatic field may be used for (illuminating) volumes to be inspected with EFI. The baseline sensor technology, electric field sensor (e-sensor), and its construction, optional electric field generation (quasistatic generator), and current e-sensor enhancements (ephemeral e-sensor) are discussed. Demonstrations for structural, electronic, human, and memory applications are shown. This new EFI capability is demonstrated to reveal characterization of electric charge distribution, creating a new field of study that embraces areas of interest including electrostatic discharge mitigation, crime scene forensics, design and materials selection for advanced sensors, dielectric morphology of structures, inspection of containers, inspection for hidden objects, tether integrity, organic molecular memory, and medical diagnostic and treatment efficacy applications such as cardiac polarization wave propagation and electromyography imaging.

  3. Soil physical indicators of management systems in traditional agricultural areas under manure application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Paulo Rauber

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies of the successive application of manure as fertilizer and its combined effect with long-term soil management systems are important to the identification of the interdependence of physical attributes. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the physical properties of a Rhodic Kandiudox under management systems employing successive applications of pig slurry and poultry litter, and select physical indicators that distinguish these systems using canonical discriminant analysis (CDA. The systems consisting of treatments including land use, management and the application time of organic fertilizers are described as follows: silage maize under no-tillage (NT-M7 years; silage maize under conventional tillage (CT-M20 years; annual pasture with chisel plowing (CP-P3 years; annual pasture with chisel plowing (CP-P15 years; perennial pasture without tillage (NT-PP20 years; and no-tillage yerba mate (NT-YM20 years and were compared with native forest (NF and native pasture (NP. Soil samples were collected from the layers at the following depths: 0.0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, and 0.10-0.20 m, and were analyzed for bulk density, porosity, aggregation, flocculation, penetration resistance, water availability and total clay content. Canonical discriminant analysis was an important tool in the study of physical indicators of soil quality. Organic fertilization, along with soil management, influences soil structure and its porosity. Total porosity was the most important physical property in the distinction of areas with management systems and application times of manure for the 0.0-0.05 and 0.10-0.20 m layers. Soil aeration and micropores differentiated areas in the 0.05-0.10 m layer. Animal trampling and machinery traffic were the main factors inducing compaction of this clayey soil.

  4. Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Adipose Tissue in Clinical Applications for Dermatological Indications and Skin Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Gaur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Operating at multiple levels of control, mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue (ADSCs communicate with organ systems to adjust immune response, provide signals for differentiation, migration, enzymatic reactions, and to equilibrate the regenerative demands of balanced tissue homeostasis. The identification of the mechanisms by which ADSCs accomplish these functions for dermatological rejuvenation and wound healing has great potential to identify novel targets for the treatment of disorders and combat aging. Herein, we review new insights into the role of adipose-derived stem cells in the maintenance of dermal and epidermal homeostasis, and recent advances in clinical applications of ADSCs related to dermatology.

  5. Potential Applications of PET/MR Imaging in Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratib, Osman; Nkoulou, René

    2014-06-01

    Recent advances in hybrid PET/MR imaging have opened new perspectives for cardiovascular applications. Although cardiac MR imaging has gained wider adoption for routine clinical applications, PET images remain the reference in many applications for which objective analysis of metabolic and physiologic parameters is needed. In particular, in cardiovascular diseases-more specifically, coronary artery disease-the use of quantitative and measurable parameters in a reproducible way is essential for the management of therapeutic decisions and patient follow-up. Functional MR images and dynamic assessment of myocardial perfusion from transit of intravascular contrast medium can provide useful criteria for identifying areas of decreased myocardial perfusion or for assessing tissue viability from late contrast enhancement of scar tissue. PET images, however, will provide more quantitative data on true tissue perfusion and metabolism. Quantitative myocardial flow can also lead to accurate assessment of coronary flow reserve. The combination of both modalities will therefore provide complementary data that can be expected to improve the accuracy and reproducibility of diagnostic procedures. But the true potential of hybrid PET/MR imaging may reside in applications beyond the domain of coronary artery disease. The combination of both modalities in assessment of other cardiac diseases such as inflammation and of other systemic diseases can also be envisioned. It is also predicted that the 2 modalities combined could help characterize atherosclerotic plaques and differentiate plaques with a high risk of rupture from stable plaques. In the future, the development of new tracers will also open new perspectives in evaluating myocardial remodeling and in assessing the kinetics of stem cell therapy in myocardial infarction. New tracers will also provide new means for evaluating alterations in cardiac innervation, angiogenesis, and even the assessment of reporter gene technologies

  6. Potential Applications of Carbohydrases Immobilization in the Food Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contesini, Fabiano Jares; de Alencar Figueira, Joelise; Kawaguti, Haroldo Yukio; de Barros Fernandes, Pedro Carlos; de Oliveira Carvalho, Patrícia; Nascimento, Maria da Graça; Sato, Hélia Harumi

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrases find a wide application in industrial processes and products, mainly in the food industry. With these enzymes, it is possible to obtain different types of sugar syrups (viz. glucose, fructose and inverted sugar syrups), prebiotics (viz. galactooligossacharides and fructooligossacharides) and isomaltulose, which is an interesting sweetener substitute for sucrose to improve the sensory properties of juices and wines and to reduce lactose in milk. The most important carbohydrases to accomplish these goals are of microbial origin and include amylases (α-amylases and glucoamylases), invertases, inulinases, galactosidases, glucosidases, fructosyltransferases, pectinases and glucosyltransferases. Yet, for all these processes to be cost-effective for industrial application, a very efficient, simple and cheap immobilization technique is required. Immobilization techniques can involve adsorption, entrapment or covalent bonding of the enzyme into an insoluble support, or carrier-free methods, usually based on the formation of cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs). They include a broad variety of supports, such as magnetic materials, gums, gels, synthetic polymers and ionic resins. All these techniques present advantages and disadvantages and several parameters must be considered. In this work, the most recent and important studies on the immobilization of carbohydrases with potential application in the food industry are reviewed. PMID:23344046

  7. ICTs for rural development: potential applications and barriers involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Stratigea

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rural policy nowadays is at the heart of the policy discussion in many countries all over the world, in the effort to address and effectively support the specific needs and opportunities of rural places and their population in the new era. Along these lines, the focus of the present paper is twofold: on the one hand it attempts to shed light on the role of ICTs and their applications as enabling tools empowering rural development; while on the other hand it explores the barriers appearing towards the adoption and use of ICTs in rural regions. In such a context, it firstly places emphasis on the evolving new rural development paradigm. Then, the range and potential of ICTs applications is explored, that can serve the implementation of the new policy paradigm in rural regions. It follows a discussion on the steps that are needed in order to develop value-added ICTs applications in rural regions and the barriers appearing in the adoption and use of ICTs in these regions. Finally, are presented some issues of policy concern in respect to the adoption and use of ICTs in a rural development perspective.

  8. 7T: Physics, safety, and potential clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraff, Oliver; Quick, Harald H

    2017-12-01

    With more than 60 installed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems worldwide operating at a magnetic field strength of 7T or higher, ultrahigh-field (UHF) MRI has been established as a platform for clinically oriented research in recent years. Profound technical and methodological developments have helped overcome the inherent physical challenges of UHF radiofrequency (RF) signal homogenization in the human body. The ongoing development of dedicated RF coil arrays was pivotal in realizing UHF body MRI, beyond mere brain imaging applications. Another precondition to clinical application of 7T MRI is the safety testing of implants and the establishment of safety concepts. Against this backdrop, 7T MRI and MR spectroscopy (MRS) recently have demonstrated capabilities and potentials for clinical diagnostics in a variety of studies. This article provides an overview of the immanent physical challenges of 7T UHF MRI and discusses recent technical solutions and safety concepts. Furthermore, recent clinically oriented studies are highlighted that span a broad application spectrum from 7T UHF brain to body MRI. 4 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1573-1589. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Neural networks and their potential application to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    A network of artificial neurons, usually called an artificial neural network is a data processing system consisting of a number of highly interconnected processing elements in an architecture inspired by the structure of the cerebral cortex portion of the brain. Hence, neural networks are often capable of doing things which humans or animals do well but which conventional computers often do poorly. Neural networks exhibit characteristics and capabilities not provided by any other technology. Neural networks may be designed so as to classify an input pattern as one of several predefined types or to create, as needed, categories or classes of system states which can be interpreted by a human operator. Neural networks have the ability to recognize patterns, even when the information comprising these patterns is noisy, sparse, or incomplete. Thus, systems of artificial neural networks show great promise for use in environments in which robust, fault-tolerant pattern recognition is necessary in a real-time mode, and in which the incoming data may be distorted or noisy. The application of neural networks, a rapidly evolving technology used extensively in defense applications, alone or in conjunction with other advanced technologies, to some of the problems of operating nuclear power plants has the potential to enhance the safety, reliability and operability of nuclear power plants. The potential applications of neural networking include, but are not limited to diagnosing specific abnormal conditions, identification of nonlinear dynamics and transients, detection of the change of mode of operation, control of temperature and pressure during start-up, signal validation, plant-wide monitoring using autoassociative neural networks, monitoring of check valves, modeling of the plant thermodynamics, emulation of core reload calculations, analysis of temporal sequences in NRC's ''licensee event reports,'' and monitoring of plant parameters

  10. Thermal plasma spraying for SOFCs: Applications, potential advantages, and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Rob; Wang, Zhenwei; Jankovic, Jasna; Yick, Sing; Maric, Radenka; Ghosh, Dave [National Research Council Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1W5 (Canada); Kesler, Olivera [National Research Council Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1W5 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2054-6250 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Rose, Lars [National Research Council Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1W5 (Canada); Department of Materials Engineering, University of British Columbia, 309-6350 Stores Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2007-07-10

    In this article, the applications, potential advantages, and challenges of thermal plasma spray (PS) processing for nanopowder production and cell fabrication of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are reviewed. PS processing creates sufficiently high temperatures to melt all materials fed into the plasma. The heated material can either be quenched into oxide powders or deposited as coatings. This technique has been applied to directly deposit functional layers as well as nanopowder for SOFCs application. In particularly, low melting point and highly active electrodes can be directly fabricated on zirconia-based electrolytes. This is a simple processing technique that does not require the use of organic solvents, offering the opportunity for flexible adjustment of process parameters, and significant time saving in production of the cell and cost reduction compared with tape casting, screen printing and sintering processing steps. Most importantly, PS processing shows strong potential to enable the deposition of metal-supported SOFCs through the integrated fabrication of membrane-electrode assemblies (MEA) on porous metallic substrates with consecutive deposition steps. On the other hand, the application of PS processing to produce SOFCs faces some challenges, such as insufficient porosity of the electrodes, the difficulty of obtaining a thin (<10 {mu}m) and dense electrolyte layer. Fed with H{sub 2} as the fuel gas and oxygen as the oxidant gas, the plasma sprayed cell reached high power densities of 770 mW cm{sup -2} at 900 C and 430 mW cm{sup -2} at 800 C at a cell voltage of 0.7 V. (author)

  11. Microbial siderophores and their potential applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Maumita; Sarkar, Subhasis; Sarkar, Biplab; Sharma, Bipin Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Tribedi, Prosun

    2016-03-01

    Siderophores are small organic molecules produced by microorganisms under iron-limiting conditions which enhance the uptake of iron to the microorganisms. In environment, the ferric form of iron is insoluble and inaccessible at physiological pH (7.35-7.40). Under this condition, microorganisms synthesize siderophores which have high affinity for ferric iron. These ferric iron-siderophore complexes are then transported to cytosol. In cytosol, the ferric iron gets reduced into ferrous iron and becomes accessible to microorganism. In recent times, siderophores have drawn much attention due to its potential roles in different fields. Siderophores have application in microbial ecology to enhance the growth of several unculturable microorganisms and can alter the microbial communities. In the field of agriculture, different types of siderophores promote the growth of several plant species and increase their yield by enhancing the Fe uptake to plants. Siderophores acts as a potential biocontrol agent against harmful phyto-pathogens and holds the ability to substitute hazardous pesticides. Heavy-metal-contaminated samples can be detoxified by applying siderophores, which explicate its role in bioremediation. Siderophores can detect the iron content in different environments, exhibiting its role as a biosensor. In the medical field, siderophore uses the "Trojan horse strategy" to form complexes with antibiotics and helps in the selective delivery of antibiotics to the antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Certain iron overload diseases for example sickle cell anemia can be treated with the help of siderophores. Other medical applications of siderophores include antimalarial activity, removal of transuranic elements from the body, and anticancer activity. The aim of this review is to discuss the important roles and applications of siderophores in different sectors including ecology, agriculture, bioremediation, biosensor, and medicine.

  12. Calcium aluminates potential for endodontics and orthopedics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G.L. dos; Andrade, T.L.; Oliveira, I.R.; Pandolfelli, V.C.

    2011-01-01

    The mostly used material in the areas of endodontics (MTA, mineral trioxide aggregate) and bone reconstruction (PMMA, polymethyl methacrylate) present some limiting properties requiring thus changes in their compositions as well as the development of alternative materials. In this context, a novel biomaterial-based calcium aluminate cement (CAC) has been studied in order to keep the positive properties and clinical applications of MTA and PMMA, overcoming some their disadvantages. Recent studies involving the use of CAC are based on commercial products consisting of a mixture of phases. Improvements can be attained by searching the synthesis routes of CAC aiming the proper balance between the phases and the control of impurities that may impair its performance in applications in the areas of health. By the optimization of the CAC phases production, this article aims to present their characterization based on hydration temperature; working time and setting time; pH, ions solubilization and dissolution in contact with water and different solutions of simulated body fluid. The results indicated the CA phase as the most suitable for application in the areas of health. (author)

  13. Liquid crystals: high technology materials for potential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, M.A.; Badaruddin; Rizvi, T.Z.

    1993-01-01

    Liquid crystals have very rapidly emerged as a basis of many high technology fields within the last few decades. These materials because of their intriguing physical properties are regarded as the fourth state of matter. At present the applications of liquid crystals are established in digital display devices, electro-optical switches, optical computing, acousto-optics, thermo-indicators, laser thermo-recording, photo-chemical image recording and optical communication networks. More recently due to the concept of molecularly based electronics (MBE): the logical extreme for miniaturization of electronic device, liquid crystals are foreseen to play a vital role in the future optics based technologies. This paper gives a brief introduction to liquid crystals, the types of meso phases found in these materials together with their applications in research and industry. Some technical details of the construction liquid crystal cells for some typical applications in digital displays and other electro optical devices have also been discussed with special emphasis on relevant physical processes occurring at molecular level. (author)

  14. Indicator electrodes from d-elements for application in different types of potentiometric analytical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kunasheva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the use of metal electrodes from titanium, tungsten, molybdenum as indicator electrodes at potentiometric method of analysis. The condition of measuring operation in dependence on pH, ionic strength of solutions is described in the article. Electrode potential of testing electrodes are measured in the interval of concentration of salts from 0,1∙10-1 mole/l till 0,1∙10-6 mole/l. The results of testing of electrical-analytical description of metal electrodes made of d-elements, in particular, titanium, tungsten, molybdenum in solutions of cations of some metals and anions were mentioned. As ions of metal cations Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Pb2+ and anions Cl-, I-, F- were chosen.It is identified that titanic electrode has different response to ions of copper (II, zinc and cadmium. However, dependence of electrode potential on concentration of ions of metal is rectilinear, that is vequired of indicator electrodes in the direct potential metrics.  

  15. Evanescent field: A potential light-tool for theranostics application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polley, Nabarun; Singh, Soumendra; Giri, Anupam; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2014-03-01

    A noninvasive or minimally invasive optical approach for theranostics, which would reinforce diagnosis, treatment, and preferably guidance simultaneously, is considered to be major challenge in biomedical instrument design. In the present work, we have developed an evanescent field-based fiber optic strategy for the potential theranostics application in hyperbilirubinemia, an increased concentration of bilirubin in the blood and is a potential cause of permanent brain damage or even death in newborn babies. Potential problem of bilirubin deposition on the hydroxylated fiber surface at physiological pH (7.4), that masks the sensing efficacy and extraction of information of the pigment level, has also been addressed. Removal of bilirubin in a blood-phantom (hemoglobin and human serum albumin) solution from an enhanced level of 77 μM/l (human jaundice >50 μM/l) to ˜30 μM/l (normal level ˜25 μM/l in human) using our strategy has been successfully demonstrated. In a model experiment using chromatography paper as a mimic of biological membrane, we have shown efficient degradation of the bilirubin under continuous monitoring for guidance of immediate/future course of action.

  16. Lantibiotics produced by Actinobacteria and their potential applications (a review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Karen Machado; Duarte, Rafael Silva; de Freire Bastos, Maria do Carmo

    2017-02-01

    The phylum Actinobacteria, which comprises a great variety of Gram-positive bacteria with a high G+C content in their genomes, is known for its large production of bioactive compounds, including those with antimicrobial activity. Among the antimicrobials, bacteriocins, ribosomally synthesized peptides, represent an important arsenal of potential new drugs to face the increasing prevalence of resistance to antibiotics among microbial pathogens. The actinobacterial bacteriocins form a heterogeneous group of substances that is difficult to adapt to most proposed classification schemes. However, recent updates have accommodated efficiently the diversity of bacteriocins produced by this phylum. Among the bacteriocins, the lantibiotics represent a source of new antimicrobials to control infections caused mainly by Gram-positive bacteria and with a low propensity for resistance development. Moreover, some of these compounds have additional biological properties, exhibiting activity against viruses and tumour cells and having also potential to be used in blood pressure or inflammation control and in pain relief. Thus, lantibiotics already described in Actinobacteria exhibit potential practical applications in medical settings, food industry and agriculture, with examples at different stages of pre-clinical and clinical trials.

  17. In situ vitrification: Demonstrated capabilities and potential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luey, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    A large-scale demonstration of the in situ vitrification (ISV) process was performed in April 1990 on the 116-B-6A Crib in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. The 116-B-6A Crib is a radioactive mixed waste site and was selected to demonstrate the applicability of ISV to soils contaminated with mixed wastes common to many US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Results from the demonstration show that the ISV process is a viable remediation technology for contaminated soils. The demonstration of the ISV process on an actual contaminated soil site followed research and development efforts by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) over the last 10 years. PNL's research has led to the development of the ISV process as a viable remediation technology for contaminated soils and the creation of a commercial supplier of ISV services, Geosafe Corporation. Development efforts for ISV applications other than treatment of contaminated soils, by PNL and in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), show the ISV process has potential applicability for remediating buried waste sites, remediating underground storage tanks, and enabling the placement of subsurface vitrified barriers and engineered structures. This paper discusses the results from the April 1990 large-scale demonstration and provides a general overview of the current capabilities of the ISV process for contaminated soils. In addition, this paper outlines some of the technical issues associated with other ISV applications and provides a qualitative discussion of the level of effort needed to resolve these technical issues

  18. RBC micromotors carrying multiple cargos towards potential theranostic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiguang; Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Berta; Martín, Aída; Christianson, Caleb; Gao, Weiwei; Thamphiwatana, Soracha Kun; Escarpa, Alberto; He, Qiang; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Red blood cell (RBC)-based micromotors containing both therapeutic and diagnostic modalities are described as a means for potential theranostic applications. In this natural RBC-based multicargo-loaded micromotor system, quantum dots (QDs), anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), were co-encapsulated into RBC micromotors. The fluorescent emission of both QDs and DOX provides direct visualization of their loading inside the RBC motors at two distinct wavelengths. The presence of MNPs within the RBCs allows for efficient magnetic guidance under ultrasound propulsion along with providing the potential for magnetic resonance imaging. The simultaneous encapsulation of the imaging nanoparticles and therapeutic payloads within the same RBC micromotor has a minimal effect upon its propulsion behavior. The ability of the RBC micromotors to transport imaging and therapeutic agents at high speed and spatial precision through a complex microchannel network is also demonstrated. Such ability to load and transport diagnostic imaging agents and therapeutic drugs within a single cell-based motor, in addition to a lower toxicity observed once the drug is encapsulated within the multicargo RBC motor, opens the door to the development of theranostic micromotors that may simultaneously treat and monitor diseases.Red blood cell (RBC)-based micromotors containing both therapeutic and diagnostic modalities are described as a means for potential theranostic applications. In this natural RBC-based multicargo-loaded micromotor system, quantum dots (QDs), anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), were co-encapsulated into RBC micromotors. The fluorescent emission of both QDs and DOX provides direct visualization of their loading inside the RBC motors at two distinct wavelengths. The presence of MNPs within the RBCs allows for efficient magnetic guidance under ultrasound propulsion along with providing the potential for magnetic

  19. SAR China Land Mapping Project: Development, Production and Potential Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lu; Guo, Huadong; Liu, Guang; Fu, Wenxue; Yan, Shiyong; Song, Rui; Ji, Peng; Wang, Xinyuan

    2014-01-01

    Large-area, seamless synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mosaics can reflect overall environmental conditions and highlight general trends in observed areas from a macroscopic standpoint, and effectively support research at the global scale, which is in high demand now across scientific fields. The SAR China Land Mapping Project (SCLM), supported by the Digital Earth Science Platform Project initiated and managed by the Center for Earth Observation and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CEODE), is introduced in this paper. This project produced a large-area SAR mosaic dataset and generated the first complete seamless SAR map covering the entire land area of China using EnviSat-ASAR images. The value of the mosaic map is demonstrated by some potential applications in studies of urban distribution, rivers and lakes, geologic structures, geomorphology and paleoenvironmental change

  20. Fenugreek: Potential Applications as a Functional Food and Nutraceutical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Khorshidian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fenugreek (Trigonella  foenum graecum, native to southern Europe and Asia, is an annual herb with white flowers and hard, yellowish brown and angular seeds, known from ancient times, for nutritional value beside of its medicinal effects. Fenugreek seeds are rich source of gum, fiber, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and volatile content. Due to its high content of fiber, fenugreek could be used as food stabilizer, adhesive and emulsifying agent to change food texture for some special purposes. Some evidence suggests that fenugreek may also be regarded as antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial agent, antianorexia agent, and gastric stimulant, as well as remedy for hypocholesterolemia and hypoglycemia. The present article is aimed to review the potential applications of fenugreek as a functional food and nutraceutical agent.

  1. Potential applications of optical coherence tomography angiography in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastiridou, Anna; Chopra, Vikas

    2018-05-01

    Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a novel, noninvasive imaging modality that allows assessment of the retinal and choroidal vasculature. The scope of this review is to summarize recent studies using OCTA in glaucoma and highlight potential applications of this new technology in the field of glaucoma. OCTA studies have shown that retinal vascular changes may not develop solely as a result of advanced glaucoma damage. OCTA-derived measurements have provided evidence for lower retinal vascular densities at the optic nerve head, peripapillary and macula in preperimetric-glaucoma and early-glaucoma, as well as, in more advanced glaucoma, in comparison to with normal eyes. OCTA is a novel imaging modality that has already started to expand our knowledge base regarding the role of ocular blood flow in glaucoma. Future studies will better elucidate the role of OCTA-derived measurements in clinical practice, research, and clinical trials in glaucoma.

  2. Bee venom therapy: Potential mechanisms and therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Yi; Ye, Yang; Wang, Xue-Rui; Lin, Li-Ting; Xiao, Ling-Yong; Zhou, Ping; Shi, Guang-Xia; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2018-04-11

    Bee venom is a very complex mixture of natural products extracted from honey bee which contains various pharmaceutical properties such as peptides, enzymes, biologically active amines and nonpeptide components. The use of bee venom into the specific points is so called bee venom therapy, which is widely used as a complementary and alternative therapy for 3000 years. A growing number of evidence has demonstrated the anti-inflammation, the anti-apoptosis, the anti-fibrosis and the anti-arthrosclerosis effects of bee venom therapy. With these pharmaceutical characteristics, bee venom therapy has also been used as the therapeutic method in treating rheumatoid arthritis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, liver fibrosis, atherosclerosis, pain and others. Although widely used, several cases still reported that bee venom therapy might cause some adverse effects, such as local itching or swelling. In this review, we summarize its potential mechanisms, therapeutic applications, and discuss its existing problems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Recombinant Protein Production of Earthworm Lumbrokinase for Potential Antithrombotic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Yueju Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms have been used as a traditional medicine in China, Japan, and other Far East countries for thousands of years. Oral administration of dry earthworm powder is considered as a potent and effective supplement for supporting healthy blood circulation. Lumbrokinases are a group of enzymes that were isolated and purified from different species of earthworms. These enzymes are recognized as fibrinolytic agents that can be used to treat various conditions associated with thrombosis. Many lumbrokinase (LK genes have been cloned and characterized. Advances in genetic technology have provided the ability to produce recombinant LK and have made it feasible to purify a single lumbrokinase enzyme for potential antithrombotic application. In this review, we focus on expression systems that can be used for lumbrokinase production. In particular, the advantages of using a transgenic plant system to produce edible lumbrokinase are described.

  4. β-pyrophosphate: A potential biomaterial for dental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasiou, A.D., E-mail: a.anastasiou@leeds.ac.uk [School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Strafford, S. [Leeds Dental School, Worsley Building, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Posada-Estefan, O. [Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Thomson, C.L. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Hussain, S.A. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Cambridge Graphene Centre, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, 9, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Edwards, T.J. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Malinowski, M. [Leeds Dental School, Worsley Building, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Hondow, N. [School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Metzger, N.K.; Brown, C.T.A. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Routledge, M.N. [Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Brown, A.P. [School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Duggal, M.S. [Leeds Dental School, Worsley Building, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Jha, A. [School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-01

    Tooth hypersensitivity is a growing problem affecting both the young and ageing population worldwide. Since an effective and permanent solution is not yet available, we propose a new methodology for the restoration of dental enamel using femtosecond lasers and novel calcium phosphate biomaterials. During this procedure the irradiated mineral transforms into a densified layer of acid resistant iron doped β-pyrophosphate, bonded with the surface of eroded enamel. Our aim therefore is to evaluate this densified mineral as a potential replacement material for dental hard tissue. To this end, we have tested the hardness of β-pyrophosphate pellets (sintered at 1000 °C) and its mineral precursor (brushite), the wear rate during simulated tooth-brushing trials and the cytocompatibility of these minerals in powder form. It was found that the hardness of the β-pyrophosphate pellets is comparable with that of dental enamel and significantly higher than dentine while, the brushing trials prove that the wear rate of β-pyrophosphate is much slower than that of natural enamel. Finally, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests suggest that iron doped β-pyrophosphate is cytocompatible and therefore could be used in dental applications. Taken together and with the previously reported results on laser irradiation of these materials we conclude that iron doped β-pyrophosphate may be a promising material for restoring acid eroded and worn enamel. - Highlights: • A novel procedure for the restoration of dental enamel is introduced. • Fe-doped ß-pyrophosphate is evaluated as potential biomaterial for enamel restoration. • Fe-doped ß-pyrophosphate found to have the same hardness as natural enamel and dramatically lower wear rate. • Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests suggest that Fe-doped ß-pyrophosphate is safe for dental applications.

  5. Probabilistic empirical prediction of seasonal climate: evaluation and potential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieppois, B.; Eden, J.; van Oldenborgh, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    Preparing for episodes with risks of anomalous weather a month to a year ahead is an important challenge for governments, non-governmental organisations, and private companies and is dependent on the availability of reliable forecasts. The majority of operational seasonal forecasts are made using process-based dynamical models, which are complex, computationally challenging and prone to biases. Empirical forecast approaches built on statistical models to represent physical processes offer an alternative to dynamical systems and can provide either a benchmark for comparison or independent supplementary forecasts. Here, we present a new evaluation of an established empirical system used to predict seasonal climate across the globe. Forecasts for surface air temperature, precipitation and sea level pressure are produced by the KNMI Probabilistic Empirical Prediction (K-PREP) system every month and disseminated via the KNMI Climate Explorer (climexp.knmi.nl). K-PREP is based on multiple linear regression and built on physical principles to the fullest extent with predictive information taken from the global CO2-equivalent concentration, large-scale modes of variability in the climate system and regional-scale information. K-PREP seasonal forecasts for the period 1981-2016 will be compared with corresponding dynamically generated forecasts produced by operational forecast systems. While there are many regions of the world where empirical forecast skill is extremely limited, several areas are identified where K-PREP offers comparable skill to dynamical systems. We discuss two key points in the future development and application of the K-PREP system: (a) the potential for K-PREP to provide a more useful basis for reference forecasts than those based on persistence or climatology, and (b) the added value of including K-PREP forecast information in multi-model forecast products, at least for known regions of good skill. We also discuss the potential development of

  6. β-pyrophosphate: A potential biomaterial for dental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasiou, A.D.; Strafford, S.; Posada-Estefan, O.; Thomson, C.L.; Hussain, S.A.; Edwards, T.J.; Malinowski, M.; Hondow, N.; Metzger, N.K.; Brown, C.T.A.; Routledge, M.N.; Brown, A.P.; Duggal, M.S.; Jha, A.

    2017-01-01

    Tooth hypersensitivity is a growing problem affecting both the young and ageing population worldwide. Since an effective and permanent solution is not yet available, we propose a new methodology for the restoration of dental enamel using femtosecond lasers and novel calcium phosphate biomaterials. During this procedure the irradiated mineral transforms into a densified layer of acid resistant iron doped β-pyrophosphate, bonded with the surface of eroded enamel. Our aim therefore is to evaluate this densified mineral as a potential replacement material for dental hard tissue. To this end, we have tested the hardness of β-pyrophosphate pellets (sintered at 1000 °C) and its mineral precursor (brushite), the wear rate during simulated tooth-brushing trials and the cytocompatibility of these minerals in powder form. It was found that the hardness of the β-pyrophosphate pellets is comparable with that of dental enamel and significantly higher than dentine while, the brushing trials prove that the wear rate of β-pyrophosphate is much slower than that of natural enamel. Finally, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests suggest that iron doped β-pyrophosphate is cytocompatible and therefore could be used in dental applications. Taken together and with the previously reported results on laser irradiation of these materials we conclude that iron doped β-pyrophosphate may be a promising material for restoring acid eroded and worn enamel. - Highlights: • A novel procedure for the restoration of dental enamel is introduced. • Fe-doped ß-pyrophosphate is evaluated as potential biomaterial for enamel restoration. • Fe-doped ß-pyrophosphate found to have the same hardness as natural enamel and dramatically lower wear rate. • Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests suggest that Fe-doped ß-pyrophosphate is safe for dental applications.

  7. The use and potential application of electron accelerator in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danu, Sugiarto

    2003-01-01

    The use of electron accelerator in Indonesia for research and development, radiation services, commercial purposes and potential application in the future is described. A pilot plant for radiation curing technology particularly for wood surface coating using low energy electron accelerator (300 keV, 50 mA; installed in 1984) and a EBM GJ 2 (2 MeV, 10 mA, installed in 1994) for R and D of crosslinking process such as wire and cable and heat shrinkable tube and sheets in Center for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, Jakarta, and also a low energy electron accelerator (installed in 1998) in a private company, PT Gajah Tunggai, are being mainly used. Their performances are presented with activities achieved in the fields of wood surface coating, vulcanization of natural rubber latex, grafting of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), radiation sterilization, degradation of cellulose and, as promising applications, radiation curing for composite production and uses for environmental preservation are introduced. (S. Ohno)

  8. The use and potential application of electron accelerator in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danu, Sugiarto [National Nuclear Energy Agency, Center for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2003-02-01

    The use of electron accelerator in Indonesia for research and development, radiation services, commercial purposes and potential application in the future is described. A pilot plant for radiation curing technology particularly for wood surface coating using low energy electron accelerator (300 keV, 50 mA; installed in 1984) and a EBM GJ 2 (2 MeV, 10 mA, installed in 1994) for R and D of crosslinking process such as wire and cable and heat shrinkable tube and sheets in Center for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology, Jakarta, and also a low energy electron accelerator (installed in 1998) in a private company, PT Gajah Tunggai, are being mainly used. Their performances are presented with activities achieved in the fields of wood surface coating, vulcanization of natural rubber latex, grafting of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), radiation sterilization, degradation of cellulose and, as promising applications, radiation curing for composite production and uses for environmental preservation are introduced. (S. Ohno)

  9. Potential of low-temperature nuclear heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    At present, more than one third of the fossil fuel currently used is being consumed to produce space heating and to meet industrial needs in many countries of the world. Imported oil still represents a large portion of this fossil fuel and despite its present relatively low price future market evolutions with consequent upward cost revisions cannot be excluded. Thus the displacement of the fossil fuel by cheaper low-temperature heat produced in nuclear power plants is a matter which deserves careful consideration. Technico-economic studies in many countries have shown that the use of nuclear heat is fully competitive with most of fossil-fuelled plants, the higher investment costs being offset by lower production cost. Another point in favour of heat generation by nuclear source is its indisputable advantage in terms of benefits to the environment. The IAEA activity plans for 1985-86 concentrate on information exchange with specific emphasis on the design criteria, operating experience, safety requirements and specifications of heat-only reactors, co-generation plants and existing power plants backfitted for additional heat applications. The information gained up to 1985 was discussed during the Advisory Group Meeting on the Potential of Low-Temperature Nuclear Heat Applications held in the Federal Institute for Reactor Research, Wuerenlingen, Switzerland in September 1985 and, is included in the present Technical Document

  10. New Functions and Potential Applications of Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneyama, Hisayuki; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Tonouchi, Naoto

    Currently, several types of amino acids are being produced and used worldwide. Nevertheless, several new functions of amino acids have been recently discovered that could result in other applications. For example, oral stimulation by glutamate triggers the cephalic phase response to prepare for food digestion. Further, the stomach and intestines have specific glutamate-recognizing systems in their epithelial mucosa. Regarding clinical applications, addition of monosodium glutamate to the medicinal diet has been shown to markedly enhance gastric secretion in a vagus-dependent manner. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are the major components of muscles, and ingestion of BCAAs has been found to be effective for decreasing muscle pain. BCAAs are expected to be a solution for the serious issue of aging. Further, ingestion of specific amino acids could be beneficial. Glycine can be ingested for good night's sleep: glycine ingestion before bedtime significantly improved subjective sleep quality. Ingestion of alanine and glutamine effectively accelerates alcohol metabolism, and ingestion of cystine and theanine effectively prevents colds. Finally, amino acids could be used in a novel clinical diagnostic method: the balance of amino acids in the blood could be an indicator of the risk of diseases such as cancer. These newly discovered functions of amino acids are expected to contribute to the resolution of various issues.

  11. Potential application of biodrying to treat solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Badrus; Oktiawan, Wiharyanto; Hadiwidodo, Mochtar; Sutrisno, Endro; Purwono; Wardana, Irawan Wisnu

    2018-02-01

    The generation of solid waste around the world creates problems if not properly managed. The method of processing solid waste by burning or landfill is currently not optimal. The availability of land where the final processing (TPA) is critical, looking for a new TPA alternative will be difficult and expensive, especially in big cities. The processing of solid waste using bio drying technology has the potential to produce renewable energy and prevention of climate change. Solid waste processing products can serve as Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), reduce water content of solid waste, meningkatkan kualitas lindi and increase the amount of recycled solid waste that is not completely separated from home. Biodrying technology is capable of enhancing the partial disintegration and hydrolysis of macromolecule organic compounds (such as C-Organic, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, total nitrogen). The application of biodrying has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and dinitrooksida (N2O). These gases cause global warming.

  12. RBC micromotors carrying multiple cargos towards potential theranostic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiguang; Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Berta; Martín, Aída; Christianson, Caleb; Gao, Weiwei; Thamphiwatana, Soracha Kun; Escarpa, Alberto; He, Qiang; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Joseph

    2015-08-28

    Red blood cell (RBC)-based micromotors containing both therapeutic and diagnostic modalities are described as a means for potential theranostic applications. In this natural RBC-based multicargo-loaded micromotor system, quantum dots (QDs), anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), were co-encapsulated into RBC micromotors. The fluorescent emission of both QDs and DOX provides direct visualization of their loading inside the RBC motors at two distinct wavelengths. The presence of MNPs within the RBCs allows for efficient magnetic guidance under ultrasound propulsion along with providing the potential for magnetic resonance imaging. The simultaneous encapsulation of the imaging nanoparticles and therapeutic payloads within the same RBC micromotor has a minimal effect upon its propulsion behavior. The ability of the RBC micromotors to transport imaging and therapeutic agents at high speed and spatial precision through a complex microchannel network is also demonstrated. Such ability to load and transport diagnostic imaging agents and therapeutic drugs within a single cell-based motor, in addition to a lower toxicity observed once the drug is encapsulated within the multicargo RBC motor, opens the door to the development of theranostic micromotors that may simultaneously treat and monitor diseases.

  13. Biochemical leaf traits as indicators of tolerance potential in tree species from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest against oxidative environmental stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Solange E; Bulbovas, Patricia; Lima, Marcos E L; Domingos, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    The tolerance potential against the oxidative injury in native plants from forest ecosystems affected by environmental stressors depends on how efficiently they keep their pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance. Great variations in plant tolerance are expected, highlighting the higher relevance of measuring biochemical leaf trait indicators of oxidative injury in species with similar functions in the forest than in single species. The use of this functional approach seems very useful in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest because it still holds high plant diversity and was the focus of this study. We aimed at determining the tolerance potential of tree species from the Atlantic Forest remnants in SE Brazil against multiple oxidative environmental stressors. We assumed that pioneer tree species are more tolerant against oxidative stress than non-pioneer tree species and that their tolerance potential vary spatially in response to distinct combined effects of oxidative environmental stressors. The study was carried out in three Atlantic Forest remnants, which differ in physiognomy, species composition, climatic characteristics and air pollution exposure. Leaves of three pioneer and three non-pioneer species were collected from each forest remnant during wet (January 2015) and dry periods (June 2015), for analyses of non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants and oxidative injury indicators. Both hypotheses were confirmed. The pioneer tree species displayed biochemical leaf traits (e.g. high levels of ascorbic acid, glutathione and carotenoids and lower lipid peroxidation) that indicate their higher potential tolerance against oxidative environmental stressors than non-pioneer species. The biochemical leaf traits of both successional groups of species varied between the forest remnants, in response to a linear combination of oxidative environmental stressors, from natural (relative humidity and temperature) and anthropogenic sources (ozone and nitrogen dioxide). Copyright © 2016

  14. Novel and potential application of cryopreservation to plant genetic transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Biao; Zhang, Zhibo; Yin, Zhenfang; Feng, Chaohong; Wang, Qiaochun

    2012-01-01

    The world population now is 6.7 billion and is predicted to reach 9 billion by 2050. Such a rapid growing population has tremendously increased the challenge for food security. Obviously, it is impossible for traditional agriculture to ensure the food security, while plant biotechnology offers considerable potential to realize this goal. Over the last 15 years, great benefits have been brought to sustainable agriculture by commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops. Further development of new GM crops will with no doubt contribute to meeting the requirements for food by the increasing population. The present article provides updated comprehensive information on novel and potential application of cryopreservation to genetic transformation. The major progresses that have been achieved in this subject include (1), long-term storage of a large number of valuable plant genes, which offers a good potential for further development of novel cultivars by genetic transformation; (2), retention of regenerative capacity of embryogenic tissues and protoplasts, which ensures efficient plant regeneration system for genetic transformation; (3), improvement of transformation efficiency and plant regeneration of transformed cells; (4), long-term preservation of transgenic materials with stable expression of transgenes and productive ability of recombinant proteins, which allows transgenic materials to be stored in a safe manner before being analyzed and evaluated, and allows establishment of stable seed stocks for commercial production of homologous proteins. Data provided in this article clearly demonstrate that cryo-technique has an important role to play in the whole chain of genetic transformation. Further studies coupling cryotechnique and genetic transformation are expected to significantly improve development of new GM crops. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Data on corrosion and scaling potential of drinking water resources using stability indices in Jolfa, East Azerbaijan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Yousefi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was conducted on the drinking water resources of the city of Jolfa (East Azerbaijan province, Iran from samples taken from 30 wells. Calcium hardness, pH, total alkalinity, TDS, temperature and other chemical parameters were measured using standard methods. The Langelier, Rayzner, Puckhorius and aggressive indices were calculated. The results showed that the Langelier, Reynar, Puckorius, Larson-skold and aggressive indices were 1.15 (± 0.43, 6.92 (± 0.54, 6.42 (± 0.9, 0.85 (± 0.72 and 12.79 (± 0.47, respectively. In terms of water classification, 30% of samples fell into the NaCl category and 26.6% in the NaHCO3 category and 43.4% samples in the CaHCO3, MgHCO3 and MgCl category. The sedimentation indices indicated that the water of the wells could be considered as corrosive. Keywords: Corrosion and scaling potential, Stability indices, Ground water, Jolfa

  16. Insights into lignin degradation and its potential industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hamid, Ahmed M; Solbiati, Jose O; Cann, Isaac K O

    2013-01-01

    Lignocellulose is an abundant biomass that provides an alternative source for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. The depolymerization of the carbohydrate polymers in lignocellulosic biomass is hindered by lignin, which is recalcitrant to chemical and biological degradation due to its complex chemical structure and linkage heterogeneity. The role of fungi in delignification due to the production of extracellular oxidative enzymes has been studied more extensively than that of bacteria. The two major groups of enzymes that are involved in lignin degradation are heme peroxidases and laccases. Lignin-degrading peroxidases include lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP), versatile peroxidase (VP), and dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP). LiP, MnP, and VP are class II extracellular fungal peroxidases that belong to the plant and microbial peroxidases superfamily. LiPs are strong oxidants with high-redox potential that oxidize the major non-phenolic structures of lignin. MnP is an Mn-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of various phenolic substrates but is not capable of oxidizing the more recalcitrant non-phenolic lignin. VP enzymes combine the catalytic activities of both MnP and LiP and are able to oxidize Mn(2+) like MnP, and non-phenolic compounds like LiP. DyPs occur in both fungi and bacteria and are members of a new superfamily of heme peroxidases called DyPs. DyP enzymes oxidize high-redox potential anthraquinone dyes and were recently reported to oxidize lignin model compounds. The second major group of lignin-degrading enzymes, laccases, are found in plants, fungi, and bacteria and belong to the multicopper oxidase superfamily. They catalyze a one-electron oxidation with the concomitant four-electron reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Fungal laccases can oxidize phenolic lignin model compounds and have higher redox potential than bacterial laccases. In the presence of redox mediators, fungal laccases can oxidize non

  17. Indications and applications of arterial stents for stroke prevention in atherosclerotic intracranial stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Jeremy D; Liu, Kenneth C; Barnwell, Stanley L; Clark, Wayne M; Lutsep, Helmi L

    2010-01-01

    Intracranial stenosis accounts for 8-10% of all ischemic strokes in North America, a frequency slightly less than that of extracranial carotid stenosis. Among patients presenting with transient ischemic attack or stroke due to intracranial stenosis, the risk of recurrent stroke in the first year after initial symptoms is about 14%. Those with high-risk features (recent stroke and severe stenosis) have up to a 23% rate of recurrent stroke in the year after their initial event. Angioplasty with stenting has emerged as a potential treatment strategy, particularly in high-risk patients, although evidence is currently limited to uncontrolled prospective trials and retrospective case series. In this article, we critically review the clinical results supporting the use of stenting and highlight some key considerations in the application of this technology, including patient selection, procedural management, technical issues, and risk factors for complications and in-stent restenosis.

  18. Bibliographic review, indication guidelines of colonoscopy and its application in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas Perez, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    A review of the available evidence is realized at around the appropriate indications and quality criteria in colonoscopy. This review has served as instrument to programs of early detection, diagnostic and treatment of colonic diseases in endoscopy units and endoscopists that have effected colonoscopy. Colorectal cancer (CRC) has been a preventable disease based on the effects of manipulable risk factors and screening for early detection of the same. Family history, older age, male sex, the number of size of adenomas, the presence of a villous component, high grade dysplasia and proximal location are associated with a significantly increased of the risk for CRC. Inappropriate/unnecessary indication of the procedure and lack of criteria uniformity, ignoring the international clinical guidelines of colonoscopy indication, has caused a collapse of endoscopy units in the world to the prejudice of the quality. Applicable quality indicators are defined to establish locally based on the available evidence, the minimum requirements that must meet endoscopy units and endoscopists that have participated in CRC screening programs. A preferred strategy or protocol of indication and monitoring is proposed to contemplate the evaluable quality criteria. Quality indicators of colonoscopy have allowed to optimize resources and determine the variability of the compliance between hospitals, endoscopy units or endoscopists and to identify deficiencies to plan improvement strategies. The medical criteria adequately base and individualized has prevailed in the diagnostic strategy decision. A constant evaluation of the performance in endoscopy units should be developed according to criteria of international quality. The protocolization and uniformity of criteria and concepts of the reference system for colonoscopy and post realization report, have been the key to adequate communication between health professionals and the patient. Alternative and complementary studies have been part of

  19. Incremental value of thoracic ultrasound in intensive care units: Indications, uses, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liccardo, Biagio; Martone, Francesca; Trambaiolo, Paolo; Severino, Sergio; Cibinel, Gian Alfonso; D'Andrea, Antonello

    2016-05-28

    Emergency physicians are required to care for unstable patients with life-threatening conditions, and thus must make decisions that are both quick and precise about unclear clinical situations. There is increasing consensus in favor of using ultrasound as a real-time bedside clinical tool for clinicians in emergency settings alongside the irreplaceable use of historical and physical examinations. B-mode sonography is an old technology that was first proposed for medical applications more than 50 years ago. Its application in the diagnosis of thoracic diseases has always been considered limited, due to the presence of air in the lung and the presence of the bones of the thoracic cage, which prevent the progression of the ultrasound beam. However, the close relationship between air and water in the lungs causes a variety of artifacts on ultrasounds. At the bedside, thoracic ultrasound is based primarily on the analysis of these artifacts, with the aim of improving accuracy and safety in the diagnosis and therapy of the various varieties of pulmonary pathologic diseases which are predominantly "water-rich" or "air-rich". The indications, contraindications, advantages, disadvantages, and techniques of thoracic ultrasound and its related procedures are analyzed in the present review.

  20. Application of capability indices and control charts in the analytical method control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Alexis; Llabres Martinez, Matías

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we assessed the usefulness of control charts in combination with the process capability indices, C pm and C pk , in the control strategy of an analytical method. The traditional X-chart and moving range chart were used to monitor the analytical method over a 2-year period. The results confirmed that the analytical method is in-control and stable. Different criteria were used to establish the specifications limits (i.e. analyst requirements) for fixed method performance (i.e. method requirements). If the specification limits and control limits are equal in breadth, the method can be considered "capable" (C pm  = 1), but it does not satisfy the minimum method capability requirements proposed by Pearn and Shu (2003). Similar results were obtained using the C pk index. The method capability was also assessed as a function of method performance for fixed analyst requirements. The results indicate that the method does not meet the requirements of the analytical target approach. A real-example data of a SEC with light-scattering detection method was used as a model whereas previously published data were used to illustrate the applicability of the proposed approach. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Choosing scientific-technological priorities with a potential for creating new industries: a system of measurable indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kurakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of building a robust technological base to ensure an advancing growth of the economy and global competitiveness of domestic companies can be achieved only by target-focused channeling of state funds and private resources into a limited number of priority areas. The purpose of the research is to develop a system with measurable indicators of scientific-technological areas, which will allow one to compare, range, and insightfully validate scientific-technological areas, which have a maximum potential for creating new industries in Russia with minimal risks and barriers. The article shares results of this system’s approbation. It is expected that using a system of such measurable indicators will help to rationalize management decisions, leading to the concentration of intellectual, financial, organizational and infrastructure resources on priority areas, which need to be developed for Russia it to meet its challenges.

  2. Dehalogenases: From Improved Performance to Potential Microbial Dehalogenation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiau-Fu Ang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The variety of halogenated substances and their derivatives widely used as pesticides, herbicides and other industrial products is of great concern due to the hazardous nature of these compounds owing to their toxicity, and persistent environmental pollution. Therefore, from the viewpoint of environmental technology, the need for environmentally relevant enzymes involved in biodegradation of these pollutants has received a great boost. One result of this great deal of attention has been the identification of environmentally relevant bacteria that produce hydrolytic dehalogenases—key enzymes which are considered cost-effective and eco-friendly in the removal and detoxification of these pollutants. These group of enzymes catalyzing the cleavage of the carbon-halogen bond of organohalogen compounds have potential applications in the chemical industry and bioremediation. The dehalogenases make use of fundamentally different strategies with a common mechanism to cleave carbon-halogen bonds whereby, an active-site carboxylate group attacks the substrate C atom bound to the halogen atom to form an ester intermediate and a halide ion with subsequent hydrolysis of the intermediate. Structurally, these dehalogenases have been characterized and shown to use substitution mechanisms that proceed via a covalent aspartyl intermediate. More so, the widest dehalogenation spectrum of electron acceptors tested with bacterial strains which could dehalogenate recalcitrant organohalides has further proven the versatility of bacterial dehalogenators to be considered when determining the fate of halogenated organics at contaminated sites. In this review, the general features of most widely studied bacterial dehalogenases, their structural properties, basis of the degradation of organohalides and their derivatives and how they have been improved for various applications is discussed.

  3. Dehalogenases: From Improved Performance to Potential Microbial Dehalogenation Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Thiau-Fu; Maiangwa, Jonathan; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Normi, Yahaya M; Leow, Thean Chor

    2018-05-07

    The variety of halogenated substances and their derivatives widely used as pesticides, herbicides and other industrial products is of great concern due to the hazardous nature of these compounds owing to their toxicity, and persistent environmental pollution. Therefore, from the viewpoint of environmental technology, the need for environmentally relevant enzymes involved in biodegradation of these pollutants has received a great boost. One result of this great deal of attention has been the identification of environmentally relevant bacteria that produce hydrolytic dehalogenases—key enzymes which are considered cost-effective and eco-friendly in the removal and detoxification of these pollutants. These group of enzymes catalyzing the cleavage of the carbon-halogen bond of organohalogen compounds have potential applications in the chemical industry and bioremediation. The dehalogenases make use of fundamentally different strategies with a common mechanism to cleave carbon-halogen bonds whereby, an active-site carboxylate group attacks the substrate C atom bound to the halogen atom to form an ester intermediate and a halide ion with subsequent hydrolysis of the intermediate. Structurally, these dehalogenases have been characterized and shown to use substitution mechanisms that proceed via a covalent aspartyl intermediate. More so, the widest dehalogenation spectrum of electron acceptors tested with bacterial strains which could dehalogenate recalcitrant organohalides has further proven the versatility of bacterial dehalogenators to be considered when determining the fate of halogenated organics at contaminated sites. In this review, the general features of most widely studied bacterial dehalogenases, their structural properties, basis of the degradation of organohalides and their derivatives and how they have been improved for various applications is discussed.

  4. Preparation of Laponite Bioceramics for Potential Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Ju, Yaping; Li, Jipeng; Zhang, Yongxing; Li, Jinhua; Liu, Xuanyong; Shi, Xiangyang; Zhao, Qinghua

    2014-01-01

    We report a facile approach to preparing laponite (LAP) bioceramics via sintering LAP powder compacts for bone tissue engineering applications. The sintering behavior and mechanical properties of LAP compacts under different temperatures, heating rates, and soaking times were investigated. We show that LAP bioceramic with a smooth and porous surface can be formed at 800°C with a heating rate of 5°C/h for 6 h under air. The formed LAP bioceramic was systematically characterized via different methods. Our results reveal that the LAP bioceramic possesses an excellent surface hydrophilicity and serum absorption capacity, and good cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility as demonstrated by resazurin reduction assay of rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) and hemolytic assay of pig red blood cells, respectively. The potential bone tissue engineering applicability of LAP bioceramic was explored by studying the surface mineralization behavior via soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF), as well as the surface cellular response of rMSCs. Our results suggest that LAP bioceramic is able to induce hydroxyapatite deposition on its surface when soaked in SBF and rMSCs can proliferate well on the LAP bioceramic surface. Most strikingly, alkaline phosphatase activity together with alizarin red staining results reveal that the produced LAP bioceramic is able to induce osteoblast differentiation of rMSCs in growth medium without any inducing factors. Finally, in vivo animal implantation, acute systemic toxicity test and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-staining data demonstrate that the prepared LAP bioceramic displays an excellent biosafety and is able to heal the bone defect. Findings from this study suggest that the developed LAP bioceramic holds a great promise for treating bone defects in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24955961

  5. The pectinases from Sphenophorus levis: Potential for biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habrylo, Olivier; Evangelista, Danilo Elton; Castilho, Priscila Vasques; Pelloux, Jérôme; Henrique-Silva, Flávio

    2018-06-01

    Pectinases represent about one fifth of the enzyme worldwide market due their wide range of biotechnological applications. Current commercial pectinases are exclusively obtained from microbial sources, but here we report a pectin methylesterase (Sl-PME) and an endo-polygalacturonase (Sl-EPG) bioprospected from the sugarcane weevil, Sphenophorus levis, which revealed good potential for industrial applications. Sl-PME and Sl-EPG were overexpressed in Pichia pastoris, purified and enzymatically characterized. Sl-EPG presents optimal activity at pH 4-5 and 50 °C, showing that it can be used for juice extraction and clarification. On the other hand, Sl-PME presents optimal activity at pH 6-8 and 40 °C, and thus, suitable for both acidic and alkaline processing, such as coffee and tea fermentation. Sl-EPG shows V max  = 3.23 mM/min, K M  = 2.4 g/L and k cat  = 418.6 s -1 . While Sl-PME shows V max  = 0.14 mM/min, K M  = 4.1 g/L and k cat  = 1.7 s -1 . A PG inhibitor (PGIP2) weakly interfered in the Sl-EPG activity and Sl-PME was not affected by a usual PME inhibitor. Moreover, these enzymes manifested synergistic action towards methylesterified pectin. Here, we propose these enzymes as novel alternative tools for the current commercial pectinases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of potential sources and transport mechanisms of fecal indicator bacteria to beach water, Murphy Park Beach, Door County, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckem, Paul F.; Corsi, Steven R.; McDermott, Colleen; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) concentrations in beach water have been used for many years as a criterion for closing beaches due to potential health concerns. Yet, current understanding of sources and transport mechanisms that drive FIB occurrence remains insufficient for accurate prediction of closures at many beaches. Murphy Park Beach, a relatively pristine beach on Green Bay in Door County, Wis., was selected for a study to evaluate FIB sources and transport mechanisms. Although the relatively pristine nature of the beach yielded no detection of pathogenic bacterial genes and relatively low FIB concentrations during the study period compared with other Great Lakes Beaches, its selection limited the number of confounding FIB sources and associated transport mechanisms. The primary sources of FIB appear to be internal to the beach rather than external sources such as rivers, storm sewer outfalls, and industrial discharges. Three potential FIB sources were identified: sand, swash-zone groundwater, and Cladophora mats. Modest correlations between FIB concentrations in these potential source reservoirs and FIB concentrations at the beach from the same day illustrate the importance of understanding transport mechanisms between FIB sources and the water column. One likely mechanism for transport and dispersion of FIB from sand and Cladophora sources appears to be agitation of Cladophora mats and erosion of beach sand due to storm activity, as inferred from storm indicators including turbidity, wave height, current speed, wind speed, sky visibility, 24-hour precipitation, and suspended particulate concentration. FIB concentrations in beach water had a statistically significant relation (p-value ‹0.05) with the magnitude of these storm indicators. In addition, transport of FIB in swash-zone groundwater into beach water appears to be driven by groundwater recharge associated with multiday precipitation and corresponding increased swash-zone groundwater discharge at

  7. Corrosion and Scaling Potential in Drinking Water Distribution of Babol, Northern Iran Based on the Scaling and Corrosion Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoliman Amouei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Corrosion and scaling play undesirable effects on transmission and distribution system of drinking water. The aim of this study was to assess the corrosion and scaling potential of drinking water resources in Babol city, Iran. Materials and Methods: Totally, 54 water samples were collected from 27 wells in spring and autumn. Calcium hardness, pH, total alkalinity, total dissolved solids, and temperature were measured, using standard methods. The Langelier, Rayzner, Puckhorius, Larson and aggressive indices were calculated and data were analyzed by SPSS 19. To compare the mean values of each index, the results were analyzed using t-test. Results: The range of temperature, pH, TDS, total alkalinity and calcium hardness were 16-24°c; 6.8-7.89; 445-1331 mg/l; 322.9-396 mg/l and 250.50-490 mg/l, respectively. The mean of Langelier and Ryznar indices in drinking water samples in spring and autumn was 0.14, 0.15; 7.28 and 7.35, respectively. The mean of Puckhorius and Larson indices in these seasons was 11.9, 11.95 and 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. The mean of aggressive index was 6.17 and 6.27, respectively. Overall, 82.2%, 100%, 94.6%, 100% and 85.7% of water samples were corrosive based on the Langelier, Ryznar, Puckhorius, Larson and aggressive indices, respectively. Conclusion: According to these results, drinking water of Babol city has corrosion potential. Therefore, the water quality should be controlled based on pH, alkalinity and hardness parameters, along with the use of corrosion resisting materials and pipes in drinking water distribution systems.

  8. Potential applications for halloysite nanotubes based drug delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lin

    could be released in a sustained manner; (2) cytotoxicity test confirmed the biocompatibility of HNTs and methotrexate coated HNTs; (3) proliferation test confirmed the growth inhibition of released methotrexate on osteosarcoma cells; and (4) nylon-6 could prolong the sustained release of methotrexate from polyelectrolytes coated HNTs. Another application comes from the prevention of surgical site infection. It is a common complication in surgery, which may prolong hospital stay, increase mortality rate, and cause additional financial burden for patients. By directly releasing antibiotics at the surgical site, it is supposed to enhance the drug efficacy and improve the treatment outcome. Therefore, the same HNTs based system was tested with E. coli in vitro to show the potential of delivering antibiotics to enhance the prevention of surgical site infection. Nitrofurantoin was incorporated within HNTs using the layer-by-layer coating technique, and the drug coated HNTs were filled into nylon-6 again. Results showed that (1) nitrofurantoin could be incorporated with this HNTs based drug delivery system, and released in a sustained manner; (2) nylon-6 could prolong the sustained release of nitrofurantoin from polyelectrolytes coated HNTs; and (3) released nitrofurantoin could severely inhibit E. coil growth. Therefore, a tunable drug delivery system based on HNTs was developed, and a great potential of medical application in drug delivery was shown.

  9. Configuration and technology implications of potential nuclear hydrogen system applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conzelmann, G.; Petri, M.; Forsberg, C.; Yildiz, B.; ORNL

    2005-11-05

    Nuclear technologies have important distinctions and potential advantages for large-scale generation of hydrogen for U.S. energy services. Nuclear hydrogen requires no imported fossil fuels, results in lower greenhouse-gas emissions and other pollutants, lends itself to large-scale production, and is sustainable. The technical uncertainties in nuclear hydrogen processes and the reactor technologies needed to enable these processes, as well waste, proliferation, and economic issues must be successfully addressed before nuclear energy can be a major contributor to the nation's energy future. In order to address technical issues in the time frame needed to provide optimized hydrogen production choices, the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) must examine a wide range of new technologies, make the best use of research funding, and make early decisions on which technology options to pursue. For these reasons, it is important that system integration studies be performed to help guide the decisions made in the NHI. In framing the scope of system integration analyses, there is a hierarchy of questions that should be addressed: What hydrogen markets will exist and what are their characteristics? Which markets are most consistent with nuclear hydrogen? What nuclear power and production process configurations are optimal? What requirements are placed on the nuclear hydrogen system? The intent of the NHI system studies is to gain a better understanding of nuclear power's potential role in a hydrogen economy and what hydrogen production technologies show the most promise. This work couples with system studies sponsored by DOE-EE and other agencies that provide a basis for evaluating and selecting future hydrogen production technologies. This assessment includes identifying commercial hydrogen applications and their requirements, comparing the characteristics of nuclear hydrogen systems to those market requirements, evaluating nuclear hydrogen configuration options

  10. Application of indicator kriging to the complementary use of bioindicators at three trophic levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueira, Rui; Tavares, Paula C.; Palma, Luis; Beja, Pedro; Sergio, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    The use of biological indicators is widespread in environmental monitoring, although it has long been recognised that each bioindicator is generally associated with a range of potential limitations and shortcomings. To circumvent this problem, this study adopted the complementary use of bioindicators representing different trophic levels and providing different type of information, in an innovative approach to integrate knowledge and to estimate the overall health state of ecosystems. The approach is illustrated using mercury contamination in primary producers (mosses), primary consumers (domestic pigeons and red-legged partridges) and top predators (Bonelli's eagles) in southern Portugal. Indicator kriging geostatistics was used to identify the areas where mercury concentration was higher than the median for each species, and to produce an index that combines mercury contamination across trophic levels. Spatial patterns of mercury contamination were consistent across species. The combined index provided a new level of information useful in incorporating measures of overall environmental contamination into pollution studies. - Mercury levels in bioindicators at three trophic levels were combined using geostatistics to build an integrated environmental contamination index.

  11. Application of indicator kriging to the complementary use of bioindicators at three trophic levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueira, Rui, E-mail: rui.figueira@iict.p [Jardim Botanico Tropical, Instituto de Investigacao Cientifica Tropical, Trav. Conde da Ribeira, 9, 1300-142 Lisboa (Portugal); CERENA, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Tavares, Paula C. [CVRM-Geo-Systems Centre, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Palma, Luis [CCMAR, Universidade do Algarve, FCMA, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Beja, Pedro [ERENA, Ordenamento e Gestao de Recursos Naturais, Rua Robalo Gouveia, 1-1A, 1900-392 Lisboa (Portugal); CIBIO, Centro de Investigacao em Biodiversidade e Recursos Geneticos, Campus Agrario de Vairao, Universidade do Porto, Vairao (Portugal); Sergio, Cecilia [Jardim Botanico, Museu Nacional de Historia Natural, Universidade de Lisboa, R. Escola Politecnica, 58, 1250-102 Lisboa (Portugal); CBA, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Edificio C2, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-10-15

    The use of biological indicators is widespread in environmental monitoring, although it has long been recognised that each bioindicator is generally associated with a range of potential limitations and shortcomings. To circumvent this problem, this study adopted the complementary use of bioindicators representing different trophic levels and providing different type of information, in an innovative approach to integrate knowledge and to estimate the overall health state of ecosystems. The approach is illustrated using mercury contamination in primary producers (mosses), primary consumers (domestic pigeons and red-legged partridges) and top predators (Bonelli's eagles) in southern Portugal. Indicator kriging geostatistics was used to identify the areas where mercury concentration was higher than the median for each species, and to produce an index that combines mercury contamination across trophic levels. Spatial patterns of mercury contamination were consistent across species. The combined index provided a new level of information useful in incorporating measures of overall environmental contamination into pollution studies. - Mercury levels in bioindicators at three trophic levels were combined using geostatistics to build an integrated environmental contamination index.

  12. Potential application of combisystem for an Australian climatic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halawa, E.; Bruno, F.; Saman, W. [Sustainable Energy Centre, Univ. of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, Adelaide (Australia)

    2008-07-01

    Australian climate is characterised by its more sunny days with mild winter condition compared to Europe. Solar water heating systems have been in the market for many years to provide domestic hot water to main cities in Australia. The market for these systems have been constantly growing and relevant Australian Standards have been developed. This trend is expected to remain in the near future. The paper reports on the results of a recent numerical study on the potential application of a solar combisystem to provide both space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) for a two storey house in Adelaide, Australia. The house space heating requirement was estimated using AccuRate, a building energy rating software developed in Australia, whilst the domestic hot water requirement is based on the Australian Standard AS 4234. The system modelling was carried out using the TRNSYS simulation package. In the study, the thermal performance of flat plate and evacuated type collectors are compared. A number of factors such as effects of tank size, collector slopes and system configuration are investigated. (orig.)

  13. Fungal Ribotoxins: A Review of Potential Biotechnological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Olombrada

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungi establish a complex network of biological interactions with other organisms in nature. In many cases, these involve the production of toxins for survival or colonization purposes. Among these toxins, ribotoxins stand out as promising candidates for their use in biotechnological applications. They constitute a group of highly specific extracellular ribonucleases that target a universally conserved sequence of RNA in the ribosome, the sarcin-ricin loop. The detailed molecular study of this family of toxic proteins over the past decades has highlighted their potential in applied research. Remarkable examples would be the recent studies in the field of cancer research with promising results involving ribotoxin-based immunotoxins. On the other hand, some ribotoxin-producer fungi have already been studied in the control of insect pests. The recent role of ribotoxins as insecticides could allow their employment in formulas and even as baculovirus-based biopesticides. Moreover, considering the important role of their target in the ribosome, they can be used as tools to study how ribosome biogenesis is regulated and, eventually, may contribute to a better understanding of some ribosomopathies.

  14. Current use and potential of additive manufacturing for optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle, Matthew; Ferralli, Ian; Whitsitt, Rebecca; Medicus, Kate

    2017-10-01

    Additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, has become widely used in recent years for the creation of both prototype and end-use parts. Because the parts are created in a layer-by-layer manner, the flexibility of additive manufacturing is unparalleled and has opened the design space to enable features like undercuts and internal channels which cannot exist on traditional, subtractively manufactured parts. This flexibility can also be leveraged for optical applications. This paper outlines some of the current uses of 3D printing in the optical manufacturing process at Optimax. Several materials and additive technologies are utilized, including polymer printing through fused deposition modeling, which creates parts by depositing a softened thermoplastic filament in a layerwise fashion. Stereolithography, which uses light to cure layers of a photopolymer resin, will also be discussed. These technologies are used to manufacture functional prototypes, fixtures, sealed housings, and other components. Additionally, metal printing through selective laser melting, which uses a laser to melt metal powder layers into a dense solid, will be discussed due to the potential to manufacture thermally stable opticalmechanical assembly frameworks and functional optics. Examples of several additively manufactured optical components will be shown.

  15. Industrial potential for application of radiation curing in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.

    1991-01-01

    Potential applications of radiation curing of coating are in the field of wood and wood products, drying of printing inks, ceramics (roof and floor tiles) and textiles. Pakistan a 'timber deficit' country needs to improve her wood, plywood, hardboard and particle board to make for shortage of quality wood. Imports of wood and wood products are in excess of 3000 million rupees. Radiation curing can be applied and itexcels over heat treatment. Whereas costs of high energy units (500 KeV) with scanning type are rather high, low energy (100-175 KeV) flat beam self-shielded units costing 200,000 US$ are available. For developing countries ultraviolet (UV) curing is ideally suited because of its low price, flexibility and simplicity in handling. Alternately, multipurpose bunker type facility such as 500 KeV current mA can be utilized in carrying out heat-shrinkables production, irradiation of cable and wire and curing of coatings on wood and wood products. (author)

  16. The ATLAS multi-user upgrade and potential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustapha, B.; Nolen, J. A.; Savard, G.; Ostroumov, P. N.

    2017-12-01

    With the recent integration of the CARIBU-EBIS charge breeder into the ATLAS accelerator system to provide for more pure and efficient charge breeding of radioactive beams, a multi-user upgrade of the ATLAS facility is being proposed to serve multiple users simultaneously. ATLAS was the first superconducting ion linac in the world and is the US DOE low-energy Nuclear Physics National User Facility. The proposed upgrade will take advantage of the continuous-wave nature of ATLAS and the pulsed nature of the EBIS charge breeder in order to simultaneously accelerate two beams with very close mass-to-charge ratios; one stable from the existing ECR ion source and one radioactive from the newly commissioned EBIS charge breeder. In addition to enhancing the nuclear physics program, beam extraction at different points along the linac will open up the opportunity for other potential applications; for instance, material irradiation studies at ~ 1 MeV/u and isotope production at ~ 6 MeV/u or at the full ATLAS energy of ~ 15 MeV/u. The concept and proposed implementation of the ATLAS multi-user upgrade will be presented. Future plans to enhance the flexibility of this upgrade will also be presented.

  17. Potential applications of advanced information technology in emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, H.; Holmstrom, C.

    1987-01-01

    Within nuclear-, offshore- and petrochemical industries there is always a potential risk for severe incidents and accidents. It is a commonly shared belief that timely and correct decisions in these situations could either prevent an incident to develop into a severe accident or to mitigate the negative consequences of an accident. It is also a common belief that in those cases where poor decisions have been taken it has been because of insufficient access to information and expert knowledge when the decisions were taken. These are the background experiences for the joint Nordic research program on the use of advanced information technology in emergency preparedness organizations. Important initial research tasks in the program have been to identify and specify the needs for advanced information technology applications in emergency preparedness organizations. So far a couple of studies aiming for a needs assessment of advanced information technologies in nuclear power emergency preparedness organizations in Sweden and Finland have been completed. The conclusions from these studies are presented in this paper

  18. Applications of electron linacs to ADS: one potential path forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, D.P.; Harmon, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    The application of electron linac accelerators to ADS systems offers a number of advantages for ADS applications. We propose a path forward with electron linac-driven ADS that takes advantage of those important ADS applications that are most easily achieved at relatively low cost, and then building on those successes to enable the more difficult applications with larger impact. We argue that the applications that are most easily achieved are medical isotope production, materials irradiation and environmental applications. The accelerator and target demands for each of these applications are essentially the same as for the ADS needs in energy production and the transmutation of waste. The successful demonstration of these important and highly-visible applications will, in turn, lead to greater visibility and funding to further major advances of ADS systems in energy production, nuclear waste transmutation, and applications to the thorium fuel cycle. (author)

  19. The application of bioassays as indicators of petroleum-contaminated soil remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaza, Grazyna; Nałecz-Jawecki, Grzegorz; Ulfig, Krzysztof; Brigmon, Robin L

    2005-04-01

    Bioremediation has proven successful in numerous applications to petroleum contaminated soils. However, questions remain as to the efficiency of bioremediation in lowering long-term soil toxicity. In the present study, the bioassays Spirotox, Microtox, Ostracodtoxkit F, umu-test with S-9 activation, and plant assays were applied, and compared to evaluate bioremediation processes in heavily petroleum contaminated soils. Six higher plant species (Secale cereale L., Lactuca sativa L., Zea mays L., Lepidium sativum L., Triticum vulgare L., Brassica oleracea L.) were used for bioassay tests based on seed germination and root elongation. The ecotoxicological analyses were made in DMSO/H2O and DCM/DMSO soil extracts. Soils were tested from two biopiles at the Czechowice oil refinery, Poland, that have been subjected to different bioremediation applications. In biopile 1 the active or engineered bioremediation process lasted four years, while biopile 2 was treated passively or non-engineered for eight months. The test species demonstrated varying sensitivity to soils from both biopiles. The effects on test organisms exposed to biopile 2 soils were several times higher compared to those in biopile 1 soils, which correlated with the soil contaminants concentration. Soil hydrocarbon concentrations indeed decreased an average of 81% in biopile 1, whereas in biopile 2 TPH/TPOC concentrations only decreased by 30% after eight months of bioremediation. The bioassays were presented to be sensitive indicators of soil quality and can be used to evaluate the quality of bioremediated soil. The study encourages the need to combine the bioassays with chemical monitoring for evaluation of the bioremediation effectiveness and assessing of the contaminated/remediated soils.

  20. A risk modelling approach for setting microbiological limits using enterococci as indicator for growth potential of Salmonella in pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollerslev, Anne Mette; Nauta, Maarten; Hansen, Tina Beck; Aabo, Søren

    2017-01-02

    Microbiological limits are widely used in food processing as an aid to reduce the exposure to hazardous microorganisms for the consumers. However, in pork, the prevalence and concentrations of Salmonella are generally low and microbiological limits are not considered an efficient tool to support hygiene interventions. The objective of the present study was to develop an approach which could make it possible to define potential risk-based microbiological limits for an indicator, enterococci, in order to evaluate the risk from potential growth of Salmonella. A positive correlation between the concentration of enterococci and the prevalence and concentration of Salmonella was shown for 6640 pork samples taken at Danish cutting plants and retail butchers. The samples were collected in five different studies in 2001, 2002, 2010, 2011 and 2013. The observations that both Salmonella and enterococci are carried in the intestinal tract, contaminate pork by the same mechanisms and share similar growth characteristics (lag phase and maximum specific growth rate) at temperatures around 5-10°C, suggest a potential of enterococci to be used as an indicator of potential growth of Salmonella in pork. Elevated temperatures during processing will lead to growth of both enterococci and, if present, also Salmonella. By combining the correlation between enterococci and Salmonella with risk modelling, it is possible to predict the risk of salmonellosis based on the level of enterococci. The risk model used for this purpose includes the dose-response relationship for Salmonella and a reduction factor to account for preparation of the fresh pork. By use of the risk model, it was estimated that the majority of salmonellosis cases, caused by the consumption of pork in Denmark, is caused by the small fraction of pork products that has enterococci concentrations above 5logCFU/g. This illustrates that our approach can be used to evaluate the potential effect of different microbiological

  1. The applications of nanotechnology in cosmetic products – growth potential or potential hazard?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. N. Polova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating atoms and molecules in the nanoscale. Applications of nanotechnology are widely used in electronics and medicine and now are founded in the field of cosmetics (nanocosmetics. Nowadays cosmetology became science. Progress in the study of the physiology of the skin, the mechanisms of aging and skin diseases pathogenesis, allowed developers to create cosmetic products consciously based on the needs of the skin and the mechanisms of action of active components. However, there are debates over their toxicity. The aim. The aim of our study was to analyze scientific literature about types of nanomaterials used in cosmetics and the potential risks of nanoparticles. Materials and methods. Informational search about: different types of nanomaterials in cosmetics including nanosomes, liposomes, fullerenes, solid lipid nanoparticles and also toxicity and safety; in scientific editions, medical and pharmaceutical databases, and other web-resources was carried out. Results. There are currently exist two main uses for nanotechnology in cosmetics. First of all - use of nanoparticles as UV filters. Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are the main compounds used in these applications. The second use is nanotechnology for delivery. Liposomes and nanosomes are used in the cosmetic industry as delivery vehicles. Scientists currently believe that these nanomaterials are unlikely to have a toxic effect on humans or ecosystems that differ them from the effect of the larger particles of other substances. However, these carrier systems can change the bioavailability and the toxicological behaviour of the agents that they transport. For several years, many studies assess the health risks of the nanomaterials. Toxicologists’ thoughts about approach to the safety assessment of nanomaterials vary greatly: some scientists suggest that nanomaterials should be considered as new substances and therefore careful study of

  2. Flavonoid engineering of flax potentiate its biotechnological application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prescha Anna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flavonoids are a group of secondary plant metabolites important for plant growth and development. They show also a protective effect against colon and breast cancer, diabetes, hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis, lupus nephritis, and immune and inflammatory reactions. Thus, overproduction of these compounds in flax by genetic engineering method might potentiate biotechnological application of these plant products. Results Flax plants of third generation overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field were used as plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts and fibre from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. The data obtained suggests that the introduced genes were stably inherited and expressed through plant generations. Overproduction of flavonoid compounds resulted in increase of fatty acids accumulation in oil from transgenic seeds due to protection from oxidation offered during synthesis and seed maturation. The biochemical analysis of seedcake extracts from seeds of transgenic flax revealed significant increase in flavonoids (kaempferol, phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic, synapic acids and lignan content. Fibres, another product of flax plant showed increase in the level of catechine and acetylvanillone and decrease in phenolic acids upon flax modification. Biochemical analysis results were confirmed using IR spectroscopy. The integral intensities of IR bands have been used for identification of the component of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil, seedcake extract and fibre from control and transgenic flax. It was shown that levels of flavonoids, phenolic acids and lignans in oil and seedcake extract was higher in transgenic flax products compared to control. An FT-IR study of fibres confirmed the biochemical data and revealed that the arrangement of the cellulose polymer in the transgenic fibres differs from the control; in particular a

  3. Thermodynamic Performance Indicators for Offshore Oil and Gas Processing: Application to Four North Sea Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldsund, Mari; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Well-defined performance indicators can motivate optimal operation of offshore oil and gas platforms. We evaluate several thermodynamic performance indicators presented in the literature according to three criteria: Thermodynamic performance indicators should evaluate the use of technically...

  4. Complex mode indication function and its applications to spatial domain parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, C. Y.; Tsuei, Y. G.; Allemang, R. J.; Brown, D. L.

    1988-10-01

    This paper introduces the concept of the Complex Mode Indication Function (CMIF) and its application in spatial domain parameter estimation. The concept of CMIF is developed by performing singular value decomposition (SVD) of the Frequency Response Function (FRF) matrix at each spectral line. The CMIF is defined as the eigenvalues, which are the square of the singular values, solved from the normal matrix formed from the FRF matrix, [ H( jω)] H[ H( jω)], at each spectral line. The CMIF appears to be a simple and efficient method for identifying the modes of the complex system. The CMIF identifies modes by showing the physical magnitude of each mode and the damped natural frequency for each root. Since multiple reference data is applied in CMIF, repeated roots can be detected. The CMIF also gives global modal parameters, such as damped natural frequencies, mode shapes and modal participation vectors. Since CMIF works in the spatial domain, uneven frequency spacing data such as data from spatial sine testing can be used. A second-stage procedure for accurate damped natural frequency and damping estimation as well as mode shape scaling is also discussed in this paper.

  5. Higher cell stiffness indicating lower metastatic potential in B16 melanoma cell variants and in (-)-epigallocatechin gallate-treated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tatsuro; Kuramochi, Hiromi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Imai, Kazue; Katsuta, Naoko; Nakayama, Tomonobu; Fujiki, Hirota; Suganuma, Masami

    2012-05-01

    To understand how nanomechanical stiffness affects metastatic potential, we studied the relationship between cell migration, a characteristic of metastasis, and cell stiffness using atomic force microscopy (AFM), which can measure stiffness (elasticity) of individual living cells. Migration and cell stiffness of three metastatic B16 melanoma variants (B16-F10, B16-BL6, and B16-F1 cells), and also effects of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), were studied using Transwell assay and AFM. Migration of B16-F10 and B16-BL6 cells was 3 and 2 times higher than that of B16-F1 cells in Transwell assay, and cell stiffness determined by AFM was also different among the three variants, although they have similar morphologies and the same growth rates: Means of Young's modulus were 350.8 ± 4.8 Pa for B16-F10 cells, 661.9 ± 16.5 Pa for B16-BL6 cells, and 727.2 ± 13.0 Pa for B16-F1 cells. AFM measurements revealed that highly motile B16-F10 cells have low cell stiffness, and low motile and metastatic B16-F1 cells have high cell stiffness: Nanomechanical stiffness is inversely correlated with migration potential. Treatment of highly motile B16-F10 cells with EGCG increased cell stiffness 2-fold and inhibited migration of the cells. Our study with AFM clearly demonstrates that cell stiffness is a reliable quantitative indicator of migration potential, and very likely metastatic potential, even in morphologically similar cells. And increased cell stiffness may be a key nanomechanical feature in inhibition of metastasis.

  6. Potential applications of skip SMV with thrust engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weilin; Savvaris, Al

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates the potential applications of Space Maneuver Vehicles (SMV) with skip trajectory. Due to soaring space operations over the past decades, the risk of space debris has considerably increased such as collision risks with space asset, human property on ground and even aviation. Many active debris removal methods have been investigated and in this paper, a debris remediation method is first proposed based on skip SMV. The key point is to perform controlled re-entry. These vehicles are expected to achieve a trans-atmospheric maneuver with thrust engine. If debris is released at altitude below 80 km, debris could be captured by the atmosphere drag force and re-entry interface prediction accuracy is improved. Moreover if the debris is released in a cargo at a much lower altitude, this technique protects high value space asset from break up by the atmosphere and improves landing accuracy. To demonstrate the feasibility of this concept, the present paper presents the simulation results for two specific mission profiles: (1) descent to predetermined altitude; (2) descent to predetermined point (altitude, longitude and latitude). The evolutionary collocation method is adopted for skip trajectory optimization due to its global optimality and high-accuracy. This method is actually a two-step optimization approach based on the heuristic algorithm and the collocation method. The optimal-control problem is transformed into a nonlinear programming problem (NLP) which can be efficiently and accurately solved by the sequential quadratic programming (SQP) procedure. However, such a method is sensitive to initial values. To reduce the sensitivity problem, genetic algorithm (GA) is adopted to refine the grids and provide near optimum initial values. By comparing the simulation data from different scenarios, it is found that skip SMV is feasible in active debris removal and the evolutionary collocation method gives a truthful re-entry trajectory that satisfies the

  7. Potential Application of Environmental Noise Recordings in Geoarchaeological Site Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Luzio, E.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental noise recordings are commonly applied in seismic microzonation studies. By calculating the H/V spectral ratio, the fundamental frequency of soft terrains overlying a rigid bedrock can be determined (Nakamura (1989). In such a simple two-layer system, equation f = n Vs/4H (1) links the resonance frequency "f" to the thickness "H" and shear waves velocity "Vs "of the resonating layer. In recent years, this methodology has been applied generally to obtain information on the seismostratigraphy of an investigated site in different environmental context. In this work, its potential application in the characterization of archaeological features hosted in shallow geological levels is discussed. Field cases are identified in the Appia Antica archaeological site which is placed in central Italy. Here, acknowledged targets correspond to: i) empty tanks carved by the Romans into Cretaceous limestone in the IV-III cen. BC and ii): the basaltic stone paving of the ancient road track which is locally buried beneath colluvial deposits. Narrowly-spaced recordings of environmental noise were carried using a portable digital seismograph equipped with three electrodynamic orthogonal sensors (velocimeters) responding in the band 0.1 ÷1024 Hz and adopting a sampling frequency of 256 Hz.. Results are discussed in terms of absolute H/V values and related distribution maps in the very high-frequency interval of 10-40Hz. In the tanks hosting area, interpolation of H/V maximum values around 13Hz matches caves location and alignment, which is also evidenced by clear inversions (H/V<1) at lower frequencies (10-1Hz). Correlation between H/V peaks and the top surface of the buried stone paving along the prosecution of the road track is even more straightforward. Finally, the depth variations of the tank roofs and the basaltic paving were reconstructed combining in equation (1) results of noise recordings with borehole data and geophysical surveys (SASW analysis).

  8. Fully depleted CMOS pixel sensor development and potential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudot, J.; Kachel, M. [Universite de Strasbourg, IPHC, 23 rue du Loess 67037 Strasbourg (France); CNRS, UMR7178, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2015-07-01

    CMOS pixel sensors are often opposed to hybrid pixel sensors due to their very different sensitive layer. In standard CMOS imaging processes, a thin (about 20 μm) low resistivity epitaxial layer acts as the sensitive volume and charge collection is mostly driven by thermal agitation. In contrast, the so-called hybrid pixel technology exploits a thick (typically 300 μm) silicon sensor with high resistivity allowing for the depletion of this volume, hence charges drift toward collecting electrodes. But this difference is fading away with the recent availability of some CMOS imaging processes based on a relatively thick (about 50 μm) high resistivity epitaxial layer which allows for full depletion. This evolution extents the range of applications for CMOS pixel sensors where their known assets, high sensitivity and granularity combined with embedded signal treatment, could potentially foster breakthrough in detection performances for specific scientific instruments. One such domain is the Xray detection for soft energies, typically below 10 keV, where the thin sensitive layer was previously severely impeding CMOS sensor usage. Another application becoming realistic for CMOS sensors, is the detection in environment with a high fluence of non-ionizing radiation, such as hadron colliders. However, when considering highly demanding applications, it is still to be proven that micro-circuits required to uniformly deplete the sensor at the pixel level, do not mitigate the sensitivity and efficiency required. Prototype sensors in two different technologies with resistivity higher than 1 kΩ, sensitive layer between 40 and 50 μm and featuring pixel pitch in the range 25 to 50 μm, have been designed and fabricated. Various biasing architectures were adopted to reach full depletion with only a few volts. Laboratory investigations with three types of sources (X-rays, β-rays and infrared light) demonstrated the validity of the approach with respect to depletion, keeping a

  9. SARAL/Altika for inland water: current and potential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpanelli, Angelica; Brocca, Luca; Barbetta, Silvia; Moramarco, Tommaso; Santos da Silva, Joécila; Calmant, Stephane

    2015-04-01

    Although representing less than 1% of the total amount of water on Earth the freshwater is essential for terrestrial life and human needs. Over one third of the world's population is not served by adequate supplies of clean water and for this reason freshwater wars are becoming one of the most pressing environmental issues exacerbating the already difficult tensions between the riparian nations. Notwithstanding the foregoing, we have surprisingly poor knowledge of the spatial and temporal dynamics of surface discharge. In-situ gauging networks quantify the instantaneous water volume in the main river channels but provide few information about the spatial dynamics of surface water extent, such as floodplain flows and the dynamics of wetlands. The growing reduction of hydrometric monitoring networks over the world, along with the inaccessibility of many remote areas and the difficulties for data sharing among developing countries feed the need to develop new procedures for river discharge estimation based on remote sensing technology. The major challenge in this case is the possibility of using Earth Observation data without ground measurements. Radar altimeters are a valuable tool to retrieve hydrological information from space such as water level of inland water. More than a decade of research on the application of radar altimetry has demonstrated its advantages also for monitoring continental water, providing global coverage and regular temporal sampling. The high accuracy of altimetry data provided by the latest spatial missions and the convincing results obtained in the previous applications suggest that these data may be employed for hydraulic/hydrological applications as well. If used in synergy with the modeling, the potential benefits of the altimetry measurements can grow significantly. The new SARAL French-Indian mission, providing improvements in terms of vertical accuracy and spatial resolution of the onboard altimeter Altika, can offer a great

  10. The application of bacteriophages as novel indicators of viral pathogens in wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Edgard; Ebdon, James; Taylor, Huw

    2018-02-01

    Many wastewater treatment technologies have been shown to remove bacterial pathogens more effectively than viral pathogens and, in aquatic environments, levels of traditional faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) do not appear to correlate consistently with levels of human viral pathogens. There is, therefore, a need for novel viral indicators of faecal pollution and surrogates of viral pathogens, especially given the increasing importance of indirect and direct wastewater reuse. Potential candidates include bacteriophages (phages) and the study described here sought to elucidate the relationship between three groups of phages (somatic coliphages (SOMPH), F-RNA coliphages (F-RNAPH) and human-specific phages infecting B. fragilis (Bf124PH) - enumeration using double layer agar technique) and viral pathogens (human adenovirus (HuAdV) and norovirus (NoV) - enumeration using molecular methods) through full-scale municipal wastewater treatment processes. FIB (faecal coliforms (FC) and intestinal enterococci (ENT) - enumeration using membrane filtration) were also monitored. Samples were collected every fortnight, during a twelve-month period, at each stage of four full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in southern England (two activated sludge (AS) and two trickling filter (TF) plants) (n = 360 samples). FIB and SOMPH were consistently found in all samples tested, whereas F-RNAPH, Bf124PH and HuAdV were less frequently detected, especially following AS treatment. The detection rate of NoV was low and consequently discussion of this group of viruses is limited. Concentrations of SOMPH and FIB were statistically higher (p value F-RNAPH, Bf124PH and HuAdV in raw wastewater. FIB were more effectively removed than phages in both systems. Removal rates of HuAdV were similar to those of phages at the secondary treatment stage of both systems. In TF systems, HuAdV were removed at the same rate as F-RNAPH, but at lower rates than SOMPH and Bf124PH. The findings suggest that

  11. ICT Impact on Competencies and Innovations: Regional Applicability of Global Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antanas Buracas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Paper deals with the multiple criteria assessment methodology applied for global evaluations of ICT impact on competency, talent potential and innovation, and aims to conclude how suitable it is for the regional assessment of education quality a/o processes determining skills in knowledge economy. Below the attention is given to interdependencies of education and knowledge components with the factors characterizing the ICT impact within multiple criteria evaluations for regional cases (Baltic States, also the factors used for international ratings of academic institutions in Lithuania. The task is to evaluate how much some indicators used by experts for global evaluations and popular ratings of universities could be applied for evaluations of the competencies determining competitive innovativeness of the social activity of countries under review. Also for detailing the intersectorial distributing of limited resources for more rational development of labour & vocational skills. Most of the conclusions emphasize that substantial part of ICT determinants applied for evaluations of global competitiveness help to rank the countries or academic institutions for investment solutions but do not detail the mechanisms determining the professional competencies and innovativeness of business at necessary level.

  12. Analyzing indicator microorganisms, antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli, and regrowth potential of foodborne pathogens in various organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cortney; Heringa, Spencer; Kim, Jinkyung; Jiang, Xiuping

    2013-06-01

    This study analyzed various organic fertilizers for indicator microorganisms, pathogens, and antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli, and evaluated the growth potential of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in fertilizers. A microbiological survey was conducted on 103 organic fertilizers from across the United States. Moisture content ranged from approximately 1% to 86.4%, and the average pH was 7.77. The total aerobic mesophiles ranged from approximately 3 to 9 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g. Enterobacteriaceae populations were in the range of fertilizer, respectively, whereas E. coli O157:H7 grew approximately 4.6, 4.0, 4.0, and 4.8 log CFU/g, respectively. Our results revealed that the microbiological quality of organic fertilizers varies greatly, with some fertilizers containing antibiotic resistant E. coli and a few supporting the growth of foodborne pathogens after reintroduction into the fertilizer.

  13. Application of potential harmonic expansion method to BEC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We adopt the potential harmonics expansion method for an ab initio solu- ... commonly adopted mean-field theories, our method is capable of handling ..... potentials in self-consistent mean-field calculation [7] gives wrong results as the.

  14. Changes in vegetation types and Ellenberg indicator values after 65 years of fertilizer application in the Rengen Grassland Experiment, Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytry, M.; Hejcman, M.; Hennekens, S.M.; Schellberg, J.

    2009-01-01

    Question: How does semi-natural grassland diversify after 65 years of differential application of Ca, N, P, and K fertilizers? Is fertilizer application adequately reflected by the Ellenberg indicator values (EIVs)? Location: Eifel Mountains, West Germany. Methods: The Rengen Grassland Experiment

  15. Parasites of the flounder Platichthys flesus (L.) from the German Bight, North Sea, and their potential use in ecosystem monitoring. A. Infection characteristics of potential indicator species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, V.; Zander, S.; Körting, W.; Steinhagen, D.

    2003-10-01

    As part of integrated biological-effect monitoring, the parasite fauna of the flounder Platichthys flesus (L.) was investigated at five locations in the German Bight, with a view to using parasite species as bio-indicators. Over a period of 6 years, parasites from 30 different taxa were identified, but only 7 taxa of the parasite community occurred regularly at all locations and in sufficient abundance that they could be considered as potential indicator species. These species were the ciliophoran Trichodina spp., the copepods Acanthochondria cornuta, Lepeophtheirus pectoralis and Lernaeocera branchialis, the helminths Zoogonoides viviparus and Cucullanus heterochrous and metacercaria of an unidentified digenean species. Infection characteristics of these parasites are presented, with a comparison of the results from individual sampling periods and those of the long-term data set. Natural influences on the infection levels, such as temporal variations, habitat conditions and host-related factors, were evaluated. All of these parasite species showed significant differences in their infection levels between the Elbe estuary, as the most polluted site, and the less polluted coastal and marine locations: Helgoland, Outer Eider estuary and Spiekeroog, especially in the long-term data set. Gradual differences between the Elbe, the Outer Eider and Helgoland, which were not detected in individual sampling periods, also became evident in the pooled-data set. These were found in the prevalence of Trichodina spp., A. cornuta, Z. viviparus and C. heterochrous. Although salinity is considered as the most important natural factor, influencing the distribution pattern of the majority of the potential indicator species, infection levels of most of these species differed between locations with similar salinity conditions. Infection levels corresponded to a contamination gradient (Elbe > Inner Eider, Outer Eider > Helgoland) established across the locations. Seasonal variation in

  16. Chitosan: An Update on Potential Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Chi Fai Cheung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a natural polycationic linear polysaccharide derived from chitin. The low solubility of chitosan in neutral and alkaline solution limits its application. Nevertheless, chemical modification into composites or hydrogels brings to it new functional properties for different applications. Chitosans are recognized as versatile biomaterials because of their non-toxicity, low allergenicity, biocompatibility and biodegradability. This review presents the recent research, trends and prospects in chitosan. Some special pharmaceutical and biomedical applications are also highlighted.

  17. A new water-based liquid scintillator and potential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, M., E-mail: yeh@bnl.gov [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Hans, S.; Beriguete, W.; Rosero, R.; Hu, L.; Hahn, R.L. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Diwan, M.V.; Jaffe, D.E.; Kettell, S.H.; Littenberg, L. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2011-12-21

    In this paper we describe a new type of scintillating liquid based on water. We describe the concept, preparation, and properties of this liquid, and how it could be used for a very large, but economical detector. The applications of such a detector range from fundamental physics such as nucleon decay and neutrino physics to physics with broader application such as neutron detection. We briefly describe the scientific requirements of these applications, and how they can be satisfied by the new material.

  18. Chitosan: An Update on Potential Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Ng, Tzi Bun; Wong, Jack Ho; Chan, Wai Yee

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a natural polycationic linear polysaccharide derived from chitin. The low solubility of chitosan in neutral and alkaline solution limits its application. Nevertheless, chemical modification into composites or hydrogels brings to it new functional properties for different applications. Chitosans are recognized as versatile biomaterials because of their non-toxicity, low allergenicity, biocompatibility and biodegradability. This review presents the recent research, trends and prospects in chitosan. Some special pharmaceutical and biomedical applications are also highlighted. PMID:26287217

  19. Presowing treatments to breaking seed dormancy of Pterocarya stenoptera C. DC. as an indicator of potential invasiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić Mihailo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Small-winged wingnut is a 12 to 20 metres tall, deciduous and fast growing tree with large substantial branches that spread as wide as the tree is tall. The 15 to 30 cm long winged fruit catkins, which turn brown in the autumn, are suspended below the branches. The species is not described by domestic authors in Serbia. The seed was introduced from Sofia (from the Arboretum of the Forestry University of Sofia, Bulgaria - Lesotehničeski universitet, Sofija, and subjected to classical stratification and naked stratification during the period of 1 and 2 months. Germination capacity varied among the treatments. The largest number of germinated seeds was observed in the shorter stratifications, (1 month the classical (56.5% and the naked (51.0% with no significant difference. The values of real germination of all treatments were between 69-88%. High value of RG, compared to GC, indicated that more than 40% of the seeds were empty. However, the results of the control as well as other parameters of seed germination clearly point to the fact that practically no deep embryo dormancy was observed, but the seed is recalcitrant and microbiotic. The results indicate a non-invasive character of the species in terms of reproductive potential.

  20. Processing of visual semantic information to concrete words: temporal dynamics and neural mechanisms indicated by event-related brain potentials( ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schie, Hein T; Wijers, Albertus A; Mars, Rogier B; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Stowe, Laurie A

    2005-05-01

    Event-related brain potentials were used to study the retrieval of visual semantic information to concrete words, and to investigate possible structural overlap between visual object working memory and concreteness effects in word processing. Subjects performed an object working memory task that involved 5 s retention of simple 4-angled polygons (load 1), complex 10-angled polygons (load 2), and a no-load baseline condition. During the polygon retention interval subjects were presented with a lexical decision task to auditory presented concrete (imageable) and abstract (nonimageable) words, and pseudowords. ERP results are consistent with the use of object working memory for the visualisation of concrete words. Our data indicate a two-step processing model of visual semantics in which visual descriptive information of concrete words is first encoded in semantic memory (indicated by an anterior N400 and posterior occipital positivity), and is subsequently visualised via the network for object working memory (reflected by a left frontal positive slow wave and a bilateral occipital slow wave negativity). Results are discussed in the light of contemporary models of semantic memory.

  1. Potential applications of radiation formed PVA/PVP hydrogel patches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zein, Z.; Hill, D.J.T.; Whittaker, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    It has been shown that radiation induced-polymerization and crosslinking is a very convenient method to produce hydrogels. The process is free of catalyst or initiator, which are mostly toxic, easy to control and allows sterilization simultaneously. In this sense, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) hydrogel patches have been prepared by subjecting the polymer aqueous solutions to γ -irradiation. Under the action of ionizing radiation, the mechanism of hydrogel formation may be simplified into two main stages; formation of free radicals and their intermolecular combination. The five-line ESR spectra found following irradiation of PVP (powder) at 77 K and annealing up to 250 K suggests that free-radicals are mainly localized at tertiary carbon atoms. While for PVA, as the major component of the four-line ESR spectra at 77 K was a triplet and this was the only species observed at 298 K, so most radicals were formed through hydrogen abstraction from tertiary carbon atoms. If radicals localized on different molecular chains combine, new covalent bonds are formed. When a sufficiently high number of crosslinks form, an insoluble network (gel) appears. It was observed that the gel fraction for PVA/PVP hydrogels increased with increasing irradiation dose and it seems that the gel fraction never reaches 100%. This implies that upon irradiation of PVA/PVP aqueous solutions, chain scission also accompanies crosslinking. Based on a toxicity test, it was found that none of this chain scission products produce detectable toxicity. The physico-chemical and mechanical properties of the PVA/PVP hydrogel obtained by irradiation of PVA/PVP (8.0 %wt / 4.8 %wt) solution with a crosslinking dose of 25 kGy were shown to yield properties most suitable for ideal wound covering. Additionally, as the hydrogel has a high water content and a relatively moderate water diffusion coefficient, it offers potential for transdermal drug delivery systems as well as for cosmetic

  2. Effect of Foliar Application of Micro Nutrients on Physiological Growth Indices and Total Dry Matter Yield of Forage Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Soleymani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of foliar application of micro nutrients on physiological growth indices and total dry matter yield of forage corn. Field experiment was conducted in 2006 at Bersian village Isfahan. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Plant treated with 8 foliar application treatments (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe + Mn, Cu + Zn, Fe + Mn + Cu + Zn and control. The responses to foliar application in total dry weight, LAI and CGR appeared to differ between the treatments, but there is no significant difference in NAR between the treatments. Maximum leaf area index gained in foliar application of Fe but there is significant difference between this treatment and other treatments except foliar application of Zn and Fe + Mn. Foliar application of Fe and Fe + Mn result to maximum total dry weight, but there is no significant difference between these treatments and foliar application of Zn, Mn, Mn + Cu and Fe + Zn + Cu +Mn. Maximum and minimum NAR gained in foliar application of Mn and control treatments respectively. Maximum CGR gained in foliar application of Zn, there is significant difference between this treatment and others. Control treatment in comparison with others shows minimum value in all measured factors. The results indicate that foliar application of micro nutrients particularly Fe and Fe+Mn may be suitable to product maximum total dry matter yield under similar condition.

  3. The Potential of Forest Biomass Inversion Based on Vegetation Indices Using Multi-Angle CHRIS/PROBA Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Multi-angle remote sensing can either be regarded as an added source of uncertainty for variable retrieval, or as a source of additional information, which enhances variable retrieval compared to traditional single-angle observation. However, the magnitude of these angular and band effects for forest structure parameters is difficult to quantify. We used the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART model and the Zelig model to simulate the forest canopy Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Factor (BRDF in order to build a look-up table, and eight vegetation indices were used to assess the relationship between BRDF and forest biomass in order to find the sensitive angles and bands. Further, the European Space Agency (ESA mission, Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer onboard the Project for On-board Autonomy (CHRIS-PROBA and field sample measurements, were selected to test the angular and band effects on forest biomass retrieval. The results showed that the off-nadir vegetation indices could predict the forest biomass more accurately than the nadir. Additionally, we found that the viewing angle effect is more important, but the band effect could not be ignored, and the sensitive angles for extracting forest biomass are greater viewing angles, especially around the hot and dark spot directions. This work highlighted the combination of angles and bands, and found a new index based on the traditional vegetation index, Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index (ARVI, which is calculated by combining sensitive angles and sensitive bands, such as blue band 490 nm/−55°, green band 530 nm/55°, and the red band 697 nm/55°, and the new index was tested to improve the accuracy of forest biomass retrieval. This is a step forward in multi-angle remote sensing applications for mining the hidden relationship between BRDF and forest structure information, in order to increase the utilization efficiency of remote sensing data.

  4. Potential refractory alloy requirements for space nuclear power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    In reviewing design requirements for refractory alloys for space nuclear applications, several key points are identified. First, the successful utilization of refractory alloys is considered an enabling requirement for the successful deployment of high efficiency, lightweight, and small space nuclear systems. Second, the recapture of refractory alloy nuclear technology developed in the 1960s and early 1970s appears to be a pacing activity in the successful utilization of refractory alloys. Third, the successful application of refractory alloys for space nuclear applications will present a significant challenge to both the materials and the systems design communities

  5. Multipurpose Electric Potential Sensor for Spacecraft Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The original goal of Phase I was to study the feasibility of developing an electric sensor that can be used for as many NASA sensing applications as possible. During...

  6. Potential Nano-Enabled Environmental Applications for Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides information about nanotechnology materials and processes that may be applicable when cleaning up radioactively contaminated sites or materials, and presents a snapshot of lessons learned in nano-science and engineering.

  7. Predicting Customer Potential Value: an application in the insurance industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Verhoef (Peter); A.C.D. Donkers (Bas)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractFor effective Customer Relationship Management (CRM), it is essential to have information on the potential value of customers. Based on the interplay between potential value and realized value, managers can devise customer specific strategies. In this article we introduce a model for

  8. Controlled-potential coulometry. Application to U determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, R.; Audouin, P.

    The controlled-potential coulometric titration of U is investigated. The reduction reaction of U(VI), the electrode potential, the electrolysis time-duration and the residual electricity quantity are studied. The device developed for this study is described [fr

  9. Laser colouring on titanium alloys: characterisation and potential applications

    OpenAIRE

    Franceschini, Federica; Demir, Ali Gökhan; Dowding, Colin; Previtali, Barbara; Griffiths, Jonathan David

    2014-01-01

    Oxides of titanium exhibit vivid colours that can be generated naturally or manipulated through controlled oxidation processes. The application of a laser beam for colouring titanium permits flexible manipulation of the oxidized geometry with high spatial resolution. The laser-based procedure can be applied in an ambient atmosphere to generate long-lasting coloured marks. Today, these properties are largely exploited in artistic applications such as jewellery, eyewear frames, watch components...

  10. Evaluating Potential of MODIS-based Indices in Determining “Snow Gone” Stage over Forest-dominant Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navdeep S. Sekhon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available “Snow gone” (SGN stage is one of the critical variables that describe the start of the official forest fire season in the Canadian Province of Alberta. In this paper, our objective is to evaluate the potential of MODIS-based indices for determining the SGN stage. Those included: (i enhanced vegetation index (EVI, (ii normalized difference water index (NDWI using the shortwave infrared (SWIR spectral bands centered at 1.64 µm (NDWI1.64µm and at 2.13 µm (NDWI2.13µm, and (iii normalized difference snow index (NDSI. These were calculated using the 500 m 8-day gridded MODIS-based composites of surface reflectance data (i.e., MOD09A1 v.005 for the period 2006–08. We performed a qualitative evaluation of these indices over two forest fire prone natural subregions in Alberta (i.e., central mixedwood and lower boreal highlands. In the process, we generated and compared the natural subregion-specific lookout tower sites average: (i temporal trends for each of the indices, and (ii SGN stage using the ground-based observations available from Alberta Sustainable Resource Development. The EVI-values were found to have large uncertainty at the onset of the spring and unable to predict the SGN stages precisely. In terms of NDSI, it showed earlier prediction capabilities. On the contrary, both of the NDWI’s showed distinct pattern (i.e., reached a minimum value before started to increase again during the spring in relation to observed SGN stages. Thus further analysis was carried out to determine the best predictor by comparing the NDWI’s predicted SGN stages with the ground-based observations at all of the individual lookout tower sites (approximately 120 in total across the study area. It revealed that NDWI2.13µm demonstrated better prediction capabilities (i.e., on an average approximately 90% of the observations fell within ±2 periods or ±16 days of deviation in comparison to NDWI1.64µm (i.e., on an average approximately 73% of the

  11. Effects of Neuropeptide Y on Stem Cells and Their Potential Applications in Disease Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide Y (NPY, a 36-amino acid peptide, is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and other peripheral tissues. It takes part in regulating various biological processes including food intake, circadian rhythm, energy metabolism, and neuroendocrine secretion. Increasing evidence indicates that NPY exerts multiple regulatory effects on stem cells. As a kind of primitive and undifferentiated cells, stem cells have the therapeutic potential to replace damaged cells, secret paracrine molecules, promote angiogenesis, and modulate immunity. Stem cell-based therapy has been demonstrated effective and considered as one of the most promising treatments for specific diseases. However, several limitations still hamper its application, such as poor survival and low differentiation and integration rates of transplanted stem cells. The regulatory effects of NPY on stem cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation may be helpful to overcome these limitations and facilitate the application of stem cell-based therapy. In this review, we summarized the regulatory effects of NPY on stem cells and discussed their potential applications in disease therapy.

  12. Potential Dermal Exposure to Flonicamid and Risk Assessment of Applicators During Treatment in Apple Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mei-Ai; Yu, Aili; Zhu, Yong-Zhe; Kim, Jeong-Han

    2015-01-01

    Exposure and risk assessments of flonicamid for applicators were performed in apple orchards in Korea. Fifteen experiments were done with two experienced applicators under typical field conditions using a speed sprayer. In this study, cotton gloves, socks, masks, and dermal patches were used to monitor potential dermal exposure to flonicamid, and personal air samplers with XAD-2 resin and glass fiber filter were used to monitor potential inhalation exposure. The analytical methods were validated for the limit of detection, limit of quantitation, reproducibility, linearity of the calibration curve, and recovery of flonicamid from various exposure matrices. The results were encouraging and acceptable for an exposure study. The applicability of XAD-2 resin was evaluated via a trapping efficiency and breakthrough test. During the mixing/loading, the average total dermal exposure was 22.6 μg of flonicamid, corresponding to 4.5×10(-5)% of the prepared amount. For the spraying, the potential dermal exposure was 9.32 mg, and the ratio to applied amount was 1.9 × 10(-2%). The primary exposed body parts were the thigh (2.90 mg), upper arm (1.75 mg), and lower leg (1.66 mg). By comparison, absorbable quantity of exposure was small, only 1.62 μg (3.2×10(-6)%). The margin of safety (MOS) were calculated for risk assessment, in all sets of trials, MOS > 1, indicating the exposure level of flonicamid was considered to be safe in apple orchards. Although this was a limited study, it provided a good estimate of flonicamid exposure for orchard applicators.

  13. Colorimetric Detection of Caspase 3 Activity and Reactive Oxygen Derivatives: Potential Early Indicators of Thermal Stress in Corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickael Ros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to develop and implement rapid assessments of coral health to allow effective adaptive management in response to coastal development and global change. There is now increasing evidence that activation of caspase-dependent apoptosis plays a key role during coral bleaching and subsequent mortality. In this study, a “clinical” approach was used to assess coral health by measuring the activity of caspase 3 using a commercial kit. This method was first applied while inducing thermal bleaching in two coral species, Acropora millepora and Pocillopora damicornis. The latter species was then chosen to undergo further studies combining the detection of oxidative stress-related compounds (catalase activity and glutathione concentrations as well as caspase activity during both stress and recovery phases. Zooxanthellae photosystem II (PSII efficiency and cell density were measured in parallel to assess symbiont health. Our results demonstrate that the increased caspase 3 activity in the coral host could be detected before observing any significant decrease in the photochemical efficiency of PSII in the algal symbionts and/or their expulsion from the host. This study highlights the potential of host caspase 3 and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities as early indicators of stress in individual coral colonies.

  14. Marsh soils as potential sinks for Bacteroides fecal indicator bacteria, Waccamaw National Wildlife Refuge, Georgetown, SC, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Judith Z.; Johnson, Heather E.; Duris, Joseph W.; Krauss, Ken W.

    2014-01-01

    A soil core collected in a tidal freshwater marsh in the Waccamaw National Wildlife Refuge (Georgetown, SC) exuded a particularly strong odor of cow manure upon extrusion. In order to test for manure and determine its provenance, we carried out microbial source tracking using DNA markers for Bacteroides, a noncoliform, anaerobic bacterial group that represents a broad group of the fecal population. Three core sections from 0-3 cm, 9-12 cm and 30-33 were analyzed for the presence of Bacteroides. The ages of core sediments were estimated using 210Pb and 137Cs dating. All three core sections tested positive for Bacteroides DNA markers related to cow or deer feces. Because cow manure is stockpiled, used as fertilizer, and a source of direct contamination in the Great Pee Dee River/Winyah Bay watershed, it is very likely the source of the Bacteroides that was deposited on the marsh. The mid-points of the core sections were dated as follows: 0-3 cm: 2009; 9-12 cm: 1999, and 30-33 cm: 1961. The presence of Bacteroides at different depths/ages in the soil profile indicates that soils in tidal freshwater marshes are, at the least, capable of being short-term sinks for Bacteroides and, may have the potential to be long-term sinks of stable, naturalized populations.

  15. After-effects of human-computer interaction indicated by P300 of the event-related brain potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmel, M; Huber, R

    1998-05-01

    After-effects of human-computer interaction (HCI) were investigated by using the P300 component of the event-related brain potential (ERP). Forty-nine subjects (naive non-users, beginners, experienced users, programmers) completed three paper/pencil tasks (text editing, solving intelligence test items, filling out a questionnaire on sensation seeking) and three HCI tasks (text editing, executing a tutor program or programming, playing Tetris). The sequence of 7-min tasks was randomized between subjects and balanced between groups. After each experimental condition ERPs were recorded during an acoustic discrimination task at F3, F4, Cz, P3 and P4. Data indicate that: (1) mental after-effects of HCI can be detected by P300 of the ERP; (2) HCI showed in general a reduced amplitude; (3) P300 amplitude varied also with type of task, mainly at F4 where it was smaller after cognitive tasks (intelligence test/programming) and larger after emotion-based tasks (sensation seeking/Tetris); (4) cognitive tasks showed shorter latencies; (5) latencies were widely location-independent (within the range of 356-358 ms at F3, F4, P3 and P4) after executing the tutor program or programming; and (6) all observed after-effects were independent of the user's experience in operating computers and may therefore reflect short-term after-effects only and no structural changes of information processing caused by HCI.

  16. Which indicators for measuring the daily physical activity? An overview on the challenges and technology limits for Telehealth applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliente, Irene; Solvoll, Terje; Trieste, Leopoldo; De Cecco, Carlo N; Murgia, Fabrizio; Bella, Sergio

    2016-09-14

    Obesity is one of the biggest drivers of preventable chronic diseases and healthcare costs in Worldwide. Different prevention activities are suggested. By monitoring daily energy expenditure (EE) could be possible make personalized diets and programming physical activity. In this, physical inactivity is one of the most important public health problems. Some studies refer the effort of the international community in promoting physical activities. Physical activity can be promoted only by increasing citizens' empowerment on taking care of their health, and it passes from the improving of individual information. Technology can offer solutions and metrics for monitoring and measuring daily activity by interacting with individuals, sharing information and feedbacks. In this study we review indicators of total energy expenditure and weaknesses of available devices in assessing these parameters. Literature review and technology testing EuNetHta core model. For the clinical aspects, it is fundamental to take into account all the factor that can influence the personal energy expenditure as: heart rate, blood pressure and thermoregulation (influenced by the body temperature). In this study we focused the attention on the importance of tools to encourage the physical activity. We made an analysis of the factor that can influence the right analysis of energy expenditure and at the same time the energy regime. A punctual monitoring of the exercise regime could be helpful in Telemedicine application as Telemonitorig. More study are needed to value the impact of physical activity tracker in Telemonitorig protocols. On the assessment of the energy expenditure, critical issues are related to the physiological data acquisition. Sensors connected with mobile devices could be important tools for disease prevention and interventions affecting health behaviors. New devices applications are potential useful for telemedicine assistance, but security of data and the related communication

  17. Potential applications of the Internet of Things in sustainable rural development in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Conference of Information Science and Computer Applications (ICISCA), Bali, Indonesia, 19-20 November 2012 Potential applications of the Internet of Things in sustainable rural development in South Africa Nomusa Dlodlo and Mofolo Mofolo CSIR...

  18. BASINs and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, BASINs and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications. This report supports application of two recently developed water modeling tools, the Better Assessment Science Integrating point & ...

  19. On the Potential of MAX phases for Nuclear Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, Darin Joseph

    appeared more prone to microcracking that Ti3SiC2. Additionally, exceptionally large denuded zones, up to 1 mum in width after 9 dpa irradiations at 500°C, were observed in Ti3SiC2, indicating that point defects readily diffuse to the grain boundaries. Denuded zones of this width, to our knowledge, have never been observed. In comparison, TiC impurity particles were highly damaged with various dislocation loops and defect clusters after irradiation. It is thus apparent that the A-layer, interleaved between MX blocks in the MAX phase nanolayered structure, readily accommodates and/or annihilates point defects, providing significant irradiation damage tolerance. Comparison of defect densities, post-irradiation microstructure, and electrical resistivity showed Ti3SiC2 to have the highest irradiation tolerance. Diffusion bonding of MAX phases to Zircaloy-4 was studied in the 1100 to 1300°C temperature range. The out diffusion of the A-group element into Zircaloy-4 formed Zr-intermetallic compounds that were roughly an order of magnitude thicker in Ti2AlC than Ti3SiC 2. Helium permeability results suggest that the MAX phases behave similarly to other sintered ceramics. Based on the totality of our results, Ti 3SiC2 remains a promising candidate for high temperature nuclear applications, and warrants future exploration. This work provides the foundation for understanding the response of the MAX phases to neutron irradiation, and can now be used to finely tune ion irradiation studies to accurately simulate reactor conditions.

  20. Worldwide wind/diesel hybrid power system study: Potential applications and technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W.R.; Johnson, B.L. III (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (USA))

    1991-04-01

    The world market potential for wind/diesel hybrid technology is a function of the need for electric power, the availability of sufficient wind resource to support wind/diesel power, and the existence of buyers with the financial means to invest in the technology. This study includes data related to each of these three factors. This study does not address market penetration, which would require analysis of application specific wind/diesel economics. Buyer purchase criteria, which are vital to assessing market penetration, are discussed only generally. Countries were screened for a country-specific market analysis based on indicators of need and wind resource. Both developed countries and less developed countries'' (LDCs) were screened for wind/diesel market potential. Based on the results of the screening, ten countries showing high market potential were selected for more extensive market analyses. These analyses provide country-specific market data to guide wind/diesel technology developers in making design decisions that will lead to a competitive product. Section 4 presents the country-specific data developed for these analyses, including more extensive wind resource characterization, application-specific market opportunities, business conditions, and energy market characterizations. An attempt was made to identify the potential buyers with ability to pay for wind/diesel technology required to meet the application-specific market opportunities identified for each country. Additionally, the country-specific data are extended to corollary opportunities in countries not covered by the study. Section 2 gives recommendations for wind/diesel research based on the findings of the study. 86 refs.

  1. Worldwide wind/diesel hybrid power system study: Potential applications and technical issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, W. R.; Johnson, B. L., III

    1991-04-01

    The world market potential for wind/diesel hybrid technology is a function of the need for electric power, the availability of sufficient wind resource to support wind/diesel power, and the existence of buyers with the financial means to invest in the technology. This study includes data related to each of these three factors. This study does not address market penetration, which would require analysis of application specific wind/diesel economics. Buyer purchase criteria, which are vital to assessing market penetration, are discussed only generally. Countries were screened for a country-specific market analysis based on indicators of need and wind resource. Both developed countries and less developed countries (LDCs) were screened for wind/diesel market potential. Based on the results of the screening, ten countries showing high market potential were selected for more extensive market analyses. These analyses provide country-specific market data to guide wind/diesel technology developers in making design decisions that will lead to a competitive product. Section 4 presents the country-specific data developed for these analyses, including more extensive wind resource characterization, application-specific market opportunities, business conditions, and energy market characterizations. An attempt was made to identify the potential buyers with ability to pay for wind/diesel technology required to meet the application-specific market opportunities identified for each country. Additionally, the country-specific data are extended to corollary opportunities in countries not covered by the study. Section 2 gives recommendations for wind/diesel research based on the findings of the study.

  2. Virtual Reality and Its Potential Application in Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milheim, William D.

    1995-01-01

    An overview is provided of current trends in virtual reality research and development, including discussion of hardware, types of virtual reality, and potential problems with virtual reality. Implications for education and training are explored. (Author/JKP)

  3. Application of Tietz potential to study optical properties of spherical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    c Indian Academy of Sciences. Vol. 85, No. 4. — journal of. October 2015 ... The physical properties of semiconductors such as optical, electronic, and thermodynamic .... can be used to reproduce the interaction potential energy curve of the A1.

  4. Application of Statistical Potential Techniques to Runaway Transport Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguilior, S.; Castejon, F.; Parrondo, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    A method is presented for computing runaway production rate based on techniques of noise-activated escape in a potential is presented in this work. A generalised potential in 2D momentum space is obtained from the deterministic or drift terms of Langevin equations. The diffusive or stochastic terms that arise directly from the stochastic nature of collisions, play the role of the noise that activates barrier crossings. The runaway electron source is given by the escape rate in such a potential which is obtained from an Arrenius-like relation. Runaway electrons are those skip the potential barrier due to the effect of stochastic collisions. In terms of computation time, this method allows one to quickly obtain the source term for a runway electron transport code.(Author) 11 refs

  5. Multipurpose Electric Potential Sensor for Spacecraft Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is based on a new, compact, solid-state electric potential sensor that has over an order of magnitude lower voltage noise than the prior...

  6. Profiling application potential for alkali treated sisal fiber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ATHARVA

    research and development efforts in the composites fields as they offer properties superior in ... advantages of both the fiber and matrix (Carvallo et al, 2010). ..... et al., 2008, who indicated spiral fractures in coir fibers following decortication.

  7. Biomarkers and asthma management: analysis and potential applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, Levi B.; Neerincx, Anne H.; van Bragt, Job J. M. H.; Sterk, Peter J.; Bel, Elisabeth H. D.; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.

    2018-01-01

    Asthma features a high degree of heterogeneity in both pathophysiology and therapeutic response, resulting in many asthma patients being treated inadequately. Biomarkers indicative of underlying pathological processes could be used to identify disease subtypes, determine prognosis and to predict or

  8. Potential high efficiency solar cells: Applications from space photovoltaic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    NASA involvement in photovoltaic energy conversion research development and applications spans over two decades of continuous progress. Solar cell research and development programs conducted by the Lewis Research Center's Photovoltaic Branch have produced a sound technology base not only for the space program, but for terrestrial applications as well. The fundamental goals which have guided the NASA photovoltaic program are to improve the efficiency and lifetime, and to reduce the mass and cost of photovoltaic energy conversion devices and arrays for use in space. The major efforts in the current Lewis program are on high efficiency, single crystal GaAs planar and concentrator cells, radiation hard InP cells, and superlattice solar cells. A brief historical perspective of accomplishments in high efficiency space solar cells will be given, and current work in all of the above categories will be described. The applicability of space cell research and technology to terrestrial photovoltaics will be discussed.

  9. Choosing and using diversity indices: insights for ecological applications from the German Biodiversity Exploratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, E Kathryn; Caruso, Tancredi; Buscot, François; Fischer, Markus; Hancock, Christine; Maier, Tanja S; Meiners, Torsten; Müller, Caroline; Obermaier, Elisabeth; Prati, Daniel; Socher, Stephanie A; Sonnemann, Ilja; Wäschke, Nicole; Wubet, Tesfaye; Wurst, Susanne; Rillig, Matthias C

    2014-09-01

    Biodiversity, a multidimensional property of natural systems, is difficult to quantify partly because of the multitude of indices proposed for this purpose. Indices aim to describe general properties of communities that allow us to compare different regions, taxa, and trophic levels. Therefore, they are of fundamental importance for environmental monitoring and conservation, although there is no consensus about which indices are more appropriate and informative. We tested several common diversity indices in a range of simple to complex statistical analyses in order to determine whether some were better suited for certain analyses than others. We used data collected around the focal plant Plantago lanceolata on 60 temperate grassland plots embedded in an agricultural landscape to explore relationships between the common diversity indices of species richness (S), Shannon's diversity (H'), Simpson's diversity (D1), Simpson's dominance (D2), Simpson's evenness (E), and Berger-Parker dominance (BP). We calculated each of these indices for herbaceous plants, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, aboveground arthropods, belowground insect larvae, and P. lanceolata molecular and chemical diversity. Including these trait-based measures of diversity allowed us to test whether or not they behaved similarly to the better studied species diversity. We used path analysis to determine whether compound indices detected more relationships between diversities of different organisms and traits than more basic indices. In the path models, more paths were significant when using H', even though all models except that with E were equally reliable. This demonstrates that while common diversity indices may appear interchangeable in simple analyses, when considering complex interactions, the choice of index can profoundly alter the interpretation of results. Data mining in order to identify the index producing the most significant results should be avoided, but simultaneously considering analyses

  10. Potential applications of helium-cooled high-temperature reactors to process heat use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambill, W.R.; Kasten, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTRs) permit nuclear energy to be applied to a number of processes presently utilizing fossil fuels. Promising applications of HTRs involve cogeneration, thermal energy transport using molten salt systems, steam reforming of methane for production of chemicals, coal and oil shale liquefaction or gasification, and - in the longer term - energy transport using a chemical heat pipe. Further, HTRs might be used in the more distant future as the energy source for thermochemical hydrogen production from water. Preliminary results of ongoing studies indicate that the potential market for Process Heat HTRs by the year 2020 is about 150 to 250 GW(t) for process heat/cogeneration application, plus approximately 150 to 300 GW(t) for application to fossil conversion processes. HTR cogeneration plants appear attractive in the near term for new industrial plants using large amounts of process heat, possibly for present industrial plants in conjunction with molten-salt energy distribution systems, and also for some fossil conversion processes. HTR reformer systems will take longer to develop, but are applicable to chemicals production, a larger number of fossil conversion processes, and to chemical heat pipes

  11. An assessment of potential applications with pulsed electric field in wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drosou Foteini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed electric fields (PEF is a non-thermal processing technology that uses instantaneous, pulses of high voltage for a short period in the range of milliseconds to microseconds; the application of high intensity electric field on toasted wood chips leads to a quick diffusion of extractable molecules. Currently most PEF studies, in the field of oenology, have been focusing on the application of PEF as a pretreatment of grape musts by examining the microbial inactivation and the enhancement of polyphenol extraction. In this study a post-treatment of wine is introduced as method to enhance the wood flavor in the wine with a green noninvasive technology. Major phenolic aldehydes that have been identified as the characteristic compounds of oak volatile compounds were selected as markers and were analyzed instrumentally to compare the influence of PEF processing to non-treated samples. PEF treated samples brought about higher concentrations of the examined oak compounds in the samples treated with PEF, which may explain the advantages of its application. The modulation of the intensity of the electric field and the period of pulses influenced the concentrations of the volatile phenols that were leached out. Differences found between the assayed treatments indicate that PEF application could be a potential practice for a rapid extraction of volatile compounds from oak.

  12. Plant metabolomics and its potential application for human nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.; Brouwer, I.D.; Fitzgerald, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    With the growing interest in the use of metabolomic technologies for a wide range of biological targets, food applications related to nutrition and quality are rapidly emerging. Metabolomics offers us the opportunity to gain deeper insights into, and have better control of, the fundamental

  13. Potential energy savings by using direct current for residential applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    improvement in the power converter units. However, for residential applications, the efficiency is not always improved. A grid connected residential microgrid, with renewable energy sources (RES), energy storage systems (ESS) and local loads, is presented in this work. The microgrid has been modelled...

  14. Electromagnetic Lead Screw for Potential Wave Energy Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Wu, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new type electromagnetic lead screw (EMLS) intended for wave energy application. Similar to the mechanical lead screw, this electromagnetic version can transfer slow linear motion to high-rotational motion, offering gearing effects. Compared with the existing pure magnetic...

  15. Application of Volta potential mapping to determine metal surface defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, A.; Thierry, D.

    2007-01-01

    As a rule, stress or fatigue cracks originate from various surface imperfections, such as pits, inclusions or locations showing a residual stress. It would be very helpful for material selection to be able to predict the likelihood of environment-assisted cracking or pitting corrosion. By using Scanning Kelvin Probe (the vibrating capacitor with a spatial resolution of 80 μm) the profiling of metal electron work function (Volta potential) in air is applied to the metal surfaces showing residual stress, MnS inclusions and wearing. The Volta potential is influenced by the energy of electrons at the Fermi level and drops generally across the metal/oxide/air interfaces. Inclusions (e.g. MnS) impair continuity of the passive film that locally decreases Volta potential. The stress applied gives rise to dislocations, microcracks and vacancies in the metal and the surface oxide. The defects decrease Volta and corrosion potentials; reduce the overvoltage for processes of passivity breakdown and anodic metal dissolution. These 'anodic' defects can be visualized in potential mapping that can help us to predict locations with higher risk of pitting corrosion or cracking

  16. Application of the control variate technique to estimation of total sensitivity indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucherenko, S.; Delpuech, B.; Iooss, B.; Tarantola, S.

    2015-01-01

    Global sensitivity analysis is widely used in many areas of science, biology, sociology and policy planning. The variance-based methods also known as Sobol' sensitivity indices has become the method of choice among practitioners due to its efficiency and ease of interpretation. For complex practical problems, estimation of Sobol' sensitivity indices generally requires a large number of function evaluations to achieve reasonable convergence. To improve the efficiency of the Monte Carlo estimates for the Sobol' total sensitivity indices we apply the control variate reduction technique and develop a new formula for evaluation of total sensitivity indices. Presented results using well known test functions show the efficiency of the developed technique. - Highlights: • We analyse the efficiency of the Monte Carlo estimates of Sobol' sensitivity indices. • The control variate technique is applied for estimation of total sensitivity indices. • We develop a new formula for evaluation of Sobol' total sensitivity indices. • We present test results demonstrating the high efficiency of the developed formula

  17. Bioavailability and soil-to-plant transfer factors as indicators of potentially toxic element contamination in agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, Paola; Iavazzo, Pietro; Albanese, Stefano; Agrelli, Diana; De Vivo, Benedetto; Lima, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Soil pollution in agricultural lands poses a serious threat to food safety, and suggests the need for consolidated methods providing advisory indications for soil management and crop production. In this work, the three-step extraction procedure developed by the EU Measurement and Testing Programme and two soil-to-plant transfer factors (relative to total and bioavailable concentration of elements in soil) were applied on polluted agricultural soils from southern Italy to obtain information on the retention mechanisms of metals in soils and on their level of translocation to edible vegetables. The study was carried out in the Sarno river plain of Campania, an area affected by severe environmental degradation potentially impacting the health of those consuming locally produced vegetables. Soil samples were collected in 36 locations along the two main rivers flowing into the plain. In 11 sites, lettuce plants were collected at the normal stage of consumption. According to Italian environmental law governing residential soils, and on the basis of soil background reference values for the study area, we found diffuse pollution by Be, Sn and Tl, of geogenic origin, Cr and Cu from anthropogenic sources such as tanneries and intensive agriculture, and more limited pollution by Pb, Zn and V. It was found that metals polluting soils as a result of human activities were mainly associated to residual, oxidizable and reducible phases, relatively immobile and only potentially bioavailable to plants. By contrast, the essential elements Zn and Cu showed a tendency to become more readily mobile and bioavailable as their total content in soil increased and were more easily transported to the edible parts of lettuce than other pollutants. According to our results, current soil pollution in the studied area does not affect the proportion of metals taken up by lettuce plants and there is a limited health risk incurred. - Highlights: • Soil pollution in an intensively farmed area of

  18. Bioavailability and soil-to-plant transfer factors as indicators of potentially toxic element contamination in agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamo, Paola, E-mail: paola.adamo@unina.it [Dipartimento di Agraria, Università di Napoli Federico II, via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Iavazzo, Pietro [Dipartimento di Agraria, Università di Napoli Federico II, via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); Albanese, Stefano [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell' Ambiente e delle Risorse, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Napoli (Italy); Agrelli, Diana [Dipartimento di Agraria, Università di Napoli Federico II, via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); De Vivo, Benedetto; Lima, Annamaria [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell' Ambiente e delle Risorse, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Napoli (Italy)

    2014-12-01

    Soil pollution in agricultural lands poses a serious threat to food safety, and suggests the need for consolidated methods providing advisory indications for soil management and crop production. In this work, the three-step extraction procedure developed by the EU Measurement and Testing Programme and two soil-to-plant transfer factors (relative to total and bioavailable concentration of elements in soil) were applied on polluted agricultural soils from southern Italy to obtain information on the retention mechanisms of metals in soils and on their level of translocation to edible vegetables. The study was carried out in the Sarno river plain of Campania, an area affected by severe environmental degradation potentially impacting the health of those consuming locally produced vegetables. Soil samples were collected in 36 locations along the two main rivers flowing into the plain. In 11 sites, lettuce plants were collected at the normal stage of consumption. According to Italian environmental law governing residential soils, and on the basis of soil background reference values for the study area, we found diffuse pollution by Be, Sn and Tl, of geogenic origin, Cr and Cu from anthropogenic sources such as tanneries and intensive agriculture, and more limited pollution by Pb, Zn and V. It was found that metals polluting soils as a result of human activities were mainly associated to residual, oxidizable and reducible phases, relatively immobile and only potentially bioavailable to plants. By contrast, the essential elements Zn and Cu showed a tendency to become more readily mobile and bioavailable as their total content in soil increased and were more easily transported to the edible parts of lettuce than other pollutants. According to our results, current soil pollution in the studied area does not affect the proportion of metals taken up by lettuce plants and there is a limited health risk incurred. - Highlights: • Soil pollution in an intensively farmed area of

  19. Measurability of Social Development. Reflections on the Applicability of Social Progress Indices with Reference to Brexit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanyos János

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The question is how the global and local economic actors’ innovation-based local social and environmental objectives and results can modify the social cohesion strategies, how the disparities in economic and social development can be measured and evaluated at regional level in addition to a comparison across countries. We have seen that any one indicator in itself is not enough since it does not provide sufficient explanation for either the development disparities or their reasons. Anyway, in addition to GDP per capita, it is worth applying - and it is important to apply - such indicators as SPI and Well-Being, and various indices of social progress.

  20. Applications of potential theory computations to transonic aeroelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    Unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic stability calculations based upon transonic small disturbance (TSD) potential theory are presented. Results from the two-dimensional XTRAN2L code and the three-dimensional XTRAN3S code are compared with experiment to demonstrate the ability of TSD codes to treat transonic effects. The necessity of nonisentropic corrections to transonic potential theory is demonstrated. Dynamic computational effects resulting from the choice of grid and boundary conditions are illustrated. Unsteady airloads for a number of parameter variations including airfoil shape and thickness, Mach number, frequency, and amplitude are given. Finally, samples of transonic aeroelastic calculations are given. A key observation is the extent to which unsteady transonic airloads calculated by inviscid potential theory may be treated in a locally linear manner.

  1. Stratospheric changes caused by geoengineering applications: potential repercussions and uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenzelmann, P.; Weisenstein, D.; Peter, T.; Luo, B. P.; Rozanov, E.; Fueglistaler, S.; Thomason, L. W.

    2009-04-01

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions tend to warm the global climate, calling for significant rapid emission reductions. As potential support measures various ideas for geoengineering are currently being discussed. The assessment of the possible manifold and as yet substantially unexplored repercussions of implementing geoengineering ideas to ameliorate climate change poses enormous challenges not least in the realm of aerosol-cloud-climate interactions. Sulphur aerosols cool the Earth's surface by reflecting short wave radiation. By increasing the amount of sulphur aerosols in the stratosphere, for example by sulphur dioxide injections, part of the anthropogenic climate warming might be compensated due to enhanced albedo. However, we are only at the beginning of understanding possible side effects. One such effect that such aerosol might have is the warming of the tropical tropopause and consequently the increase of the amount of stratospheric water vapour. Using the 2D AER Aerosol Model we calculated the aerosol distributions for yearly injections of 1, 2, 5 and 10 Mt sulphur into the lower tropical stratosphere. The results serve as input for the 3D chemistry-climate model SOCOL, which allows calculating the aerosol effect on stratospheric temperatures and chemistry. In the injection region the continuously formed sulphuric acid condensates rapidly on sulphate aerosol, which eventually grow to such extent that they sediment down to the tropical tropopause region. The growth of the aerosol particles depends on non-linear processes: the more sulphur is emitted the faster the particles grow. As a consequence for the scenario with continuous sulphur injection of totally 10 Mt per year, only 6 Mt sulphur are in the stratosphere if equilibrium is reached. According to our model calculations this amount of sulphate aerosols leads to a net surface forcing of -3.4 W/m2, which is less then expected radiative forcing by doubling of carbon dioxide concentration. Hence

  2. Dual Optical Recordings for Action Potentials and Calcium Handling in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Models of Cardiac Arrhythmias Using Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, LouJin; Awari, Daniel W.; Han, Elizabeth Y.; Uche-Anya, Eugenia; Park, Seon-Hye E.; Yabe, Yoko A.; Chung, Wendy K.

    2015-01-01

    Reprogramming of human somatic cells to pluripotency has been used to investigate disease mechanisms and to identify potential therapeutics. However, the methods used for reprogramming, in vitro differentiation, and phenotyping are still complicated, expensive, and time-consuming. To address the limitations, we first optimized a protocol for reprogramming of human fibroblasts and keratinocytes into pluripotency using single lipofection and the episomal vectors in a 24-well plate format. This method allowed us to generate multiple lines of integration-free and feeder-free induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from seven patients with cardiac diseases and three controls. Second, we differentiated human iPSCs derived from patients with Timothy syndrome into cardiomyocytes using a monolayer differentiation method. We found that Timothy syndrome cardiomyocytes showed slower, irregular contractions and abnormal calcium handling compared with the controls. The results are consistent with previous reports using a retroviral method for reprogramming and an embryoid body-based method for cardiac differentiation. Third, we developed an efficient approach for recording the action potentials and calcium transients simultaneously in control and patient cardiomyocytes using genetically encoded fluorescent indicators, ArcLight and R-GECO1. The dual optical recordings enabled us to observe prolonged action potentials and abnormal calcium handling in Timothy syndrome cardiomyocytes. We confirmed that roscovitine rescued the phenotypes in Timothy syndrome cardiomyocytes and that these findings were consistent with previous studies using conventional electrophysiological recordings and calcium imaging with dyes. The approaches using our optimized methods and dual optical recordings will improve iPSC applicability for disease modeling to investigate mechanisms underlying cardiac arrhythmias and to test potential therapeutics. PMID:25769651

  3. The Microbial Fecal Indicator Paradigm: Tools in the Toolbox Applications in Recreational Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of ORD’s recent research to develop tools for assessing microbial water quality in recreational waters. Methods discussed include the development of health associations between microbial fecal indicators and the development of culture, and molecular methods for fec...

  4. West Nile Virus: High Transmission Rate in North-Western European Mosquitoes Indicates Its Epidemic Potential and Warrants Increased Surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelke J Fros

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a highly pathogenic flavivirus transmitted by Culex spp. mosquitoes. In North America (NA, lineage 1 WNV caused the largest outbreak of neuroinvasive disease to date, while a novel pathogenic lineage 2 strain circulates in southern Europe. To estimate WNV lineage 2 epidemic potential it is paramount to know if mosquitoes from currently WNV-free areas can support further spread of this epidemic.We assessed WNV vector competence of Culex pipiens mosquitoes originating from north-western Europe (NWE in direct comparison with those from NA. We exposed mosquitoes to infectious blood meals of lineage 1 or 2 WNV and determined the infection and transmission rates. We explored reasons for vector competence differences by comparing intrathoracic injection versus blood meal infection, and we investigated the influence of temperature. We found that NWE mosquitoes are highly competent for both WNV lineages, with transmission rates up to 25%. Compared to NA mosquitoes, transmission rates for lineage 2 WNV were significantly elevated in NWE mosquitoes due to better virus dissemination from the midgut and a shorter extrinsic incubation time. WNV infection rates further increased with temperature increase.Our study provides experimental evidence to indicate markedly different risk levels between both continents for lineage 2 WNV transmission and suggests a degree of genotype-genotype specificity in the interaction between virus and vector. Our experiments with varying temperatures explain the current localized WNV activity in southern Europe, yet imply further epidemic spread throughout NWE during periods with favourable climatic conditions. This emphasizes the need for intensified surveillance of virus activity in current WNV disease-free regions and warrants increased awareness in clinics throughout Europe.

  5. Air Quality Assessment of Faisalabad and Gujranwala Cities of Pakistan: Application of Pollution Indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiz, Y.; Waheed, S.; Siddique, N.

    2015-01-01

    Urban air quality of industrial cities of Pakistan, namely Gujranwala and Faisalabad was assessed in terms of pollution level indicators such as pollution load index (PLI), geo-accumulation index (I/sub geo/), pollution index (PI) and integrated pollution index (IPI). It was found that both cities have elevated metal concentration indicating heavy to extreme contamination for most of the sites. Local anthropogenic activities and elevated geo-accumulation indices for different suite of elements were used to indicate possible pollutant sources in these two industrial cities to be traffic derived emissions, suspended soil, road dust, construction materials, fossil fuel and industrial emissions, tanneries, chrome plating units and metal smelters. Comparison of the pollution indices shows that Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Na, Pb, Sb and Zn have mean PLI, I/sub geo/, PI and IPI for both cities which are in the highly polluted category. Cu, La, Sc, V and Zr have pollution indices corresponding to high or extreme levels in Faisalabad only while Cr and Ti are highly polluting only in Gujranwala. In Faisalabad and Gujranwala it was found that 91.43% and 85.29% respectively of the PI data occurs in high level of pollution implying that to some extent Faisalabad is more polluted as compared to Gujranwala. (author)

  6. Metabonomics approaches and the potential application in foodsafety evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Hua; Li, Zhe; Peng, Chifang; Liu, Liqiang; Xu, Liguang; Zhu, Yingyue; Wang, Libing; Xu, Chuanlai

    2012-01-01

    It is essential that the novel biomarkers discovered by means of advanced detection tools based on metabonomics could be used for long-term monitoring in food safety. By summarizing the common biomarkers discovery flowsheet based on metabonomics, this review evaluates the possible application of metabonomics in new biomarker discovery, especially in relation to food safety issues. Metabonomics have the advantages of decreasing detection limits and constant monitoring. Although metabonomics is still in the developmental stage, we believe that, based on its properties, such as noninvasiveness, sensitivity, and persistence, together with rigorous experimental designs, new and novel technologies, as well as increasingly accurate chemometrics and a relational database, metabonomics can demonstrate extensive application in food safety in the postgenome period.

  7. Basic Potential of Carbon Nanotubes in Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Haniu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are attracting interest in various fields of science because they possess a high surface area-to-volume ratio and excellent electronic, mechanical, and thermal properties. Various medical applications of CNTs are expected, and the properties of CNTs have been greatly improved for use in biomaterials. However, the safety of CNTs remains unclear, which impedes their medical application. Our group is evaluating the biological responses of multiwall CNTs (MWCNTs in vivo and in vitro for the promotion of tissue regeneration as safe scaffold materials. We recently showed that intracellular accumulation is important for the cytotoxicity of CNTs, and we reported the active physiological functions CNTs in cells. In this review, we describe the effects of CNTs in vivo and in vitro observed by our group from the standpoint of tissue engineering, and we introduce the findings of other research groups.

  8. TOWARDS PHASE TRANSFERABLE POTENTIAL FUNCTIONS - METHODOLOGY AND APPLICATION TO NITROGEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JORDAN, PC; VAN MAAREN, PJ; MAVRI, J; VAN DER SPOEL, D; BERENDSEN, HJC

    1995-01-01

    We describe a generalizable approach to the development of phase transferable effective intermolecular potentials and apply the method to the study of N-2 The method is based on a polarizable shell model description of the isolated molecule and uses experimental data to establish the parameters.

  9. Antibacterial activity of essential oils: potential applications in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Due to its antibacterial activity, oregano oil has lately become interesting as a potential 'natural' food preservative. Oregano oil was found to be a fast acting and effective inhibitor of a strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7, the causative agent of a serious gastro-enteritis, and was lethal to

  10. Application of potential harmonic expansion method to BEC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We adopt the potential harmonics expansion method for an ab initio solution of the many-body system in a Bose condensate containing interacting bosons. Unlike commonly adopted mean-field theories, our method is capable of handling two-body correlation properly. We disregard three- and higher-body correlations.

  11. Preliminary investigations of potential light weight metallic armour applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorde, M.J. van de; Diederen, A.M.; Herlaar, K.

    2005-01-01

    Now that an industrial-scale low-cost production route for ballistic-grade titanium is within reach, the potential use of titanium armour could depend on a solution for the spalling of high strength titanium. This paper addresses a titanium based metal laminate as being a possible solution for the

  12. Potential application of urea-derived herbicides as cytokinins in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the frequency of regeneration was 90% with a mean number of 6 shoots. Diuron with two chloride groups in the phenyl ring showed significantly higher cytokinin-like activity than single chloride substitution monuron. This study demonstrates the potential use of monuron and diuron as cytokinins in plant tissue culture.

  13. Pyrolytic indices of diagenetic transformation of lignin as biogeochemical proxies for soil organic matter quality and C storage potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-González, Marco A.; Almendros, Gonzalo; Álvarez, Ana M.; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Vila, Francisco J.

    2017-04-01

    The environmental factors involved in soil organic carbon sequestration remain unclear. The functional relationships between the macromolecular structure of the soil organic matter (SOM) and its resilience has been a constant in classical biogeochemical models. Other more recent hypotheses have postulated that preservation by soil minerals may play a chief role in the accumulation of stable SOM forms. However, additional experimental data are required to demonstrate a cause-to-effect relationship between preservation and stabilization. Some authors might consider that models neglecting the role of macromolecular structure are swapping cause and effect i.e., that SOM structurally flexible, weakly condensed and having 'open' structures is the one with high potential to interact with the soil mineral matrix, leading to stable microaggregates. In this study up to 35 topsoil samples (0-5 cm) were collected from different Spanish soils with contrasted values of organic C (the dependent variable), geological substrate and vegetation type. A wide array of uni- and multivariate chemometric models were applied to independent variables consisting of total abundances of the major aromatic compounds, i.e., alkylbenzenes and methoxyphenols released from whole soil samples using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). These two families of compounds were selected since they are classically considered to inform on the degree of microbial reworking of lignins, which is an important precursor of the aromatic moiety of the SOM. A series of pyrolytic surrogate indices (aiming to express SOM diagenetic transformation in relation to the original biogenic molecular composition) were especially successful in forecasting SOC, viz: a) ratio between alkylbenzenes and methoxyphenols, b) ratio between short-chain (C0-C4) and long-chain (>C4) alkylbenzenes, c) ratio between methoxyphenols and short-chain alkylbenzenes, and d) ratios between methoxyphenols with different side

  14. Thermal properties and application of potential lithium silicate breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokan, A.; Wedemeyer, H.; Vollath, D.; Gunther, E.

    1987-01-01

    Phase relations, thermal stability and preparation methods of the Li 2 O-rich silicates Li 8 SiO 6 and ''Li 6 SiO 5 '' have been investigated experimentally, the application of these compounds as solid breeder materials is discussed. In the second part of this contribution, the results of thermal expansion measurements on the silicates Li 2 SiO 3 , Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 8 SiO 6 are presented

  15. Thermal properties and application of potential lithium silicate breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokan, A.; Wedemeyer, H.; Vollath, D.; Guenther, E.

    1986-01-01

    Phase relations, thermal stability and preparation methods of the Li 2 O-rich silicates Li 8 SiO 6 and 'Li 6 SiO 5 ' have been investigated experimentally, the application of these compounds as solid breeder materials is discussed. In the second part of this contribution, the results of thermal expansion measurements on the silicates Li 2 SiO 3 , Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 8 SiO 6 are presented. (author)

  16. Radiation Synthesis of Some Copolymers and their Potential Industrial Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, N.R.

    2015-01-01

    The field of biomaterials has advanced rapidly in the recent years. Much attention has been focused on the research and developments of polymer for biomedical applications. One of the most promising classes of materials for biomedical applications seems to be the hydrogels. In this connection, the first part concern with preparation of various types of hydrogels by using gamma irradiation for possible Industrial uses. Novel super absorbent hydrogels were prepared successfully from carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC) and acrylamide (AAm) due to their good biocompatibility. The structure of the hydrogels was characterized by FT-IR and thermogravimetric analysis. Scanning electron microscopy was also carried out to study the surface morphology of the hydrogel and it verifies that the synthesized hydrogels have a porous structure then the synthesis of silver (AAm/CMC) nano composite hydrogel from the prepared (AAm/CMC) hydrogel has done and characterized using UV-visible, XRD, EDX, SEM and TEM which confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles and determined its particle size. Their equilibrium swelling ratio in distilled water and different physiological fluids were evaluated. Moreover, the hydrogels exhibited smart swelling and shrinking in different aqueous solutions that could be controlled by changing CMC content. The second part concern with the synthesis of grafting polymers using γ-rays and the factors affect on the grafting process onto LDPE, HDPE and PP films by binary comonomer GMA:NVIm such as solvent, concentration, composition and dose were investigated. The grafted films were characterized by enough number of techniques. Afterwards, the grafted films were treated by many chemical reagents such as Isonicotinamide, 4(6) Aminouracil, Sulpha methoxy di azine and Guanidine hydrochloride at different interval times, respectively. The prepared hydrogels are promising for the applications in the biomaterials area and the applicability of grafted films to be

  17. Strain Engineering for Phosphorene: The Potential Application as a Photocatalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Sa, Baisheng; Li, Yan-Ling; Qi, Jingshan; Ahuja, Rajeev; Sun, Zhimei

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorene has been attracted intense interest due to its unexpected high carrier mobility and distinguished anisotropic optoelectronic and electronic properties. In this work, we unraveled strain engineered phosphorene as a photocatalyst in the application of water splitting hydrogen production based on density functional theory calculations. Lattice dynamic calculations demonstrated the stability for such kind of artificial materials under different strains. The phosphorene lattice is unst...

  18. Nanotechnology: the scope and potential applications in orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaskar, Ashok; Rojas, D; Videla, F

    2018-03-30

    Nanotechnology involves manipulation of matter measuring 1-100 nm in at least one of its dimensions at the molecular level. Engineering and manipulation of matter at the molecular level has several advantages in the field of medicine (nanomedicine) since most of the biological molecules exist and function at a nanoscale. Though promising, questions still remain on how much of this will ultimately translate into achieving better patient care. Concerns of cost-effectiveness and nanotechnology safety still remain unclear. Orthopedics is an attractive area for the application of nanotechnology since the bone, and its constituents such as hydroxyapatite, Haversian systems, and the collagen fibrils are nanocompounds. The major orthopedic applications of nanotechnology involve around (i) effective drug delivery systems for antibiotics and chemotherapeutic agents, (ii) surface preparation of implants and prosthesis to improve osteointegration and reduce biofilm formation, (iii) controlled drug eluting systems to combat implant-related infections, (iv) tissue engineering for scaffolds preparation to deal with bone and cartilage defects, and (v) diagnostic applications in the field of oncology and musculoskeletal infections.

  19. Health behavior-related indicator of lifestyle: application in the ELSA-Brasil study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrão, Ana Luísa; Almeida, Maria-da-Conceição C; Alvim, Sheila; Chor, Dora; Aquino, Estela M L

    2018-05-01

    Various behaviors are considered health enhancing. Nevertheless, according to the current scientific literature, four health behaviors are considered particularly risky in view of their association with a group of chronic diseases: 1) smoking; 2) excessive alcohol consumption; 3) poor diet; and 4) lack of physical activity. Theoretically, it should be possible to make improvements to one's health by maximizing the number of healthy behaviors and minimizing the unhealthy ones. However, in reality, the different behaviors interconnect to create more complex lifestyles. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present the construction of a lifestyle indicator based on health behaviors selected in the ELSA-Brazil study. This indicator revealed two lifestyles: less healthy and healthier lifestyles. The model proved adequate and was confirmed using latent class analysis (LCA). Agreement was 83.2 between the indicator and the LCA results, with a kappa coefficient of 0.65. Women were more likely to have a healthier lifestyle than men, reinforcing the scientific consistency of the indicator, since this finding is in agreement with data from the scientific literature. The indicator created to define lifestyle was found to have scientific consistency and validity; therefore, its use can be recommended for future population-based studies concerning the promotion of health and healthy lifestyles.

  20. Application of Biosphere Compatibility Indicator for Assessment of the Effectiveness of Environmental Protection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaeva, N. V.; Vorobyov, S. A.; Chernyaeva, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    The article is devoted to the issue of using the biosphere compatibility indicator to assess the effectiveness of environmental protection methods. The indicator biosphere compatibility was proposed by the vice-president of RAASN (Russian Academy of Architecture and Building Sciences), Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor V.I. Ilyichev. This indicator allows one to assess not only qualitatively but also quantitatively the degree of urban areas development from the standpoint of preserving the biosphere in urban ecosystems while performing the city’s main functions. The integral biosphere compatibility indicator allows us to assess not only the current ecological situation in the territory under consideration but also to plan the forecast of its changes for the new construction projects implementation or for the reconstruction of the existing ones. The biosphere compatibility indicator, which is a mathematical expression of the tripartite balance (technosphere, biosphere and population of this area), allows us to quantify the effectiveness degree of different methods for environment protection to choose the most effective one under these conditions.

  1. Nanotechnology and HIV: potential applications for treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Peter S; Read, Sarah W

    2010-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is a global pandemic and is the leading infectious cause of death among adults. Although antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has dramatically improved the quality of life and increased the life expectancy of those infected with HIV, life-long suppressive treatment is required and a cure for HIV infection remains elusive; frequency of dosing and drug toxicity as well as the development of viral resistance pose additional limitations. Furthermore, preventative measures such as a vaccine or microbicide are urgently needed to curb the rate of new infections. The capabilities inherent to nanotechnology hold much potential for impact in the field of HIV treatment and prevention. This article reviews the potential for the multidisciplinary field of nanotechnology to advance the fields of HIV treatment and prevention. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Empirical applications of an environmental stress indicator and the environmental efficiency revolution in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Shen Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, the first aim is to apply the structure of material flow analysis (MFA and ecological footprint model to construct an environmental stress indicator. Secondly, an impact, population, affluence and technology (IPAT analysis is used to resolve indicators related to MFA and resource yield productivity. The research indicates following results: (1 The 2007 per capita ecological deficit in Taiwan is 6.3441 square hm.The figures reflect that productivity and life intensity of residents have exceeded the carrying capacity of Taiwan's ecological economic system. (2 Wealth becomes the most important factor in material needs and pollution discharge. (3 Environmental efficiency and ecological efficiency slowed down dramatically, demonstrating that use of resources and total amount of environmental stress stay at a developmental stage. Therefore, if proper measures are not adopted, the current weak sustainability will lead into the vicious circle which departs from sustainable development.

  3. Potential Applications of Peroxidases in the Fine Chemical Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Luigi; Monzani, Enrico; Nicolis, Stefania

    A description of selected types of reactions catalyzed by heme peroxidases is given. In particular, the discussion is focused mainly on those of potential interest for fine chemical synthesis. The division into subsections has been done fromthe point of view of the enzyme action, i.e., giving emphasis to themechanismof the enzymatic reaction, and from that of the substrate, i.e., analyzing the type of transformation promoted by the enzyme. These two approaches have several points in common.

  4. TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY AND TECHNICAL LEVEL INDICATORS APPLICATION FOR CIVIL AIRCRAFT FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim V. Efimov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties characterize the purpose of the aircraft and are described by its flight performance characteristics such as range and cruising speed, payload, runway characteristics, etc. Functional properties also characterize the aircraft efficiency that determines the objective need for their analysis by both aircraft designers and operators in conditions of permanent and systematic efficiency increase necessity. When choosing the aircraft, it is important for the operator to make sure that a selected aircraft type has a high level of functional properties, which will allow it to provide high operational efficiency without obsolescence in the long term. However, when choosing from several aircraft types the operator has to face the fact that some characteristics of considered aircraft variants are better and the others are worse that does not allow to definitely determine what aircraft type has a higher level of functional properties.The possibility of applying technical efficiency indicators and a generalized technical level indicator for analyzing the functional properties of civil aviation aircraft is explored in this article. Fuel, weight and target efficiency values as well as the previously improved technical level indicator value were calculated for the different generations and modifications of Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 families of medium-range airplanes, which was followed by the results interpretation within one airplane generation and when moving historically from one airplane generation to another. According to analysis results it is concluded that it is impossible to define the change of the aircraft functional properties level by the change in the values of separate technical efficiency indicators. Thus, it is proposed to use a generalized technical level indicator that determines the level of aircraft technical perfection for purpose and to use efficiency indicators to analyze the cost of providing this level of

  5. Potential ceramics processing applications with high-energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struve, K.W.; Turman, B.N.

    1993-01-01

    High-energy, high-current electron beams may offer unique features for processing of ceramics that are not available with any other heat source. These include the capability to instantaneously heat to several centimeters in depth, to preferentially deposit energy in dense, high-z materials, to process at atmospheric pressures in air or other gases, to have large control over heating volume and heating rate, and to have efficient energy conversion. At a recent workshop organized by the authors to explore opportunities for electron beam processing of ceramics, several applications were identified for further development. These were ceramic joining, fabrication of ceramic powders, and surface processing of ceramics. It may be possible to join ceramics by either electron-beam brazing or welding. Brazing with refractory metals might also be feasible. The primary concern for brazing is whether the braze material can wet to the ceramic when rapidly heated by an electron beam. Raw ceramic powders, such as silicon nitride and aluminum nitride, which are difficult to produce by conventional techniques, could possibly be produced by vaporizing metals in a nitrogen atmosphere. Experiments need to be done to verify that the vaporized metal can fully react with the nitrogen. By adjusting beam parameters, high-energy beams can be used to remove surface flaws which are often sites of fracture initiation. They can also be used for surface cleaning. The advantage of electron beams rather than ion beams for this application is that the heat deposition can be graded into the material. The authors will discuss the capabilities of beams from existing machines for these applications and discuss planned experiments

  6. Energy Savings Potential of SSL in Horticultural Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stober, Kelsey [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Washington DC (United States); Lee, Kyung [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Washington DC (United States); Yamada, Mary [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Washington DC (United States); Pattison, Morgan [Solid State Lighting Services, Inc. (SSLS), Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2017-12-29

    Report that presents the findings for horticultural lighting applications where light-emitting diode (LED) products are now competing with traditional light sources. The three main categories of indoor horticulture were investigated: supplemented greenhouses, which use electric lighting to extend the hours of daylight, supplement low levels of sunlight on cloudy days, or disrupt periods of darkness to alter plant growth; non-stacked indoor farms, where plants are grown in a single layer on the floor under ceiling-mounted lighting; and vertical farms, where plants are stacked along vertical shelving to maximize grow space, and the lighting is typically mounted within the shelving units.

  7. Light-emitting diodes - Their potential in biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Naichia Gary; Wu, Chia-Hao [College of Applied Sciences, MingDao University, 369 Wen-Hua Road, Peetou, Changhua 52345 (China); Cheng, Ta Chih [Department of Tropical Agriculture and International Cooperation, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1 Hseuh-Fu Rd., Nei-Pu Hsiang, Pingtung 91201 (China)

    2010-10-15

    The rapid development of high brightness light-emitting diodes (LEDs) makes feasible the use of LEDs, among other light sources (such as laser, intense pulse light and other incoherent light systems), for medical treatment and light therapy. This paper provides a general review on red, green, blue, ultraviolet LED applications in photo rejuvenation and medical treatments of a variety of physical abnormalities, as well as the relief of stress, circadian rhythm disorders, and seasonal affective disorder. The review, concentrated in the papers published after 1990, intends to show that LEDs are well qualified to succeed its more energy demanding counterparts in the named areas and beyond. (author)

  8. Nano technologies, technologies converging and potential biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capuano, V.

    2005-01-01

    The applications of nano technology to biology and medicine appear really promising for diagnostics, for various therapeutic approaches and in medical instrumentations. The growing synergism among nano technology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive sciences, their convergence (NBIC) from the nano scale, could involve on next decades great changes in medicine, from a reactive to a predictive and preventive approach. It is expected that NBIC converging technologies could achieve tremendous improvements in human abilities and enhance societal achievement of related social and ethical implications, in the framework of a constant dialogue between science and society [it

  9. Dendrimer-based fluorescent indicators: in vitro and in vivo applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Albertazzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of fluorescent proteins and synthetic molecules whose fluorescence properties are controlled by the environment makes it possible to monitor physiological and pathological events in living systems with minimal perturbation. A large number of small organic dyes are available and routinely used to measure biologically relevant parameters. Unfortunately their application is hindered by a number of limitations stemming from the use of these small molecules in the biological environment. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a novel dendrimer-based architecture leading to multifunctional sensing elements that can overcome many of these problems. Applications in vitro, in living cells and in vivo are reported. In particular, we image for the first time extracellular pH in the brain in a mouse epilepsy model. CONCLUSION: We believe that the proposed architecture can represent a useful and novel tool in fluorescence imaging that can be widely applied in conjunction with a broad range of sensing dyes and experimental setups.

  10. Tuned apatitic materials: Synthesis, characterization and potential antimicrobial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierascu, Irina; Fierascu, Radu Claudiu; Somoghi, Raluca; Ion, Rodica Mariana; Moanta, Adriana; Avramescu, Sorin Marius; Damian, Celina Maria; Ditu, Lia Mara

    2018-04-01

    Inorganic antimicrobial materials can be viable for multiple applications (related to its use for new buildings with special requirements related to microbiological loading, such as hospital buildings and for consolidation of cultural heritage constructions); also the use of substituted hydroxyapatites for protection of stone artefacts against environmental factors (acidic rain) and biodeterioration it's an option to no longer use of toxic substances. This paper presents methods of synthesis and characterization of the material from the point of view of the obtained structures and final applications. The materials were characterized in terms of composition and morphology (using X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Fluorescence, Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Surface area and pore size determination). Antimicrobial activity was tested against filamentous fungi strains and pathogenic bacteria strains, using both spot on lawn qualitative method (on agar medium) and serial microdilution quantitative method (in broth medium). Further, it was evaluated the anti-biofilm activity of the tested samples toward the most important microbial strains implicated in biofilm development, using crystal violet stained biofilms microtiter assay, followed by spectrophotometric quantitative evaluation.

  11. Potential applications of robotics in advanced liquid-metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, D.G.; Thompson, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    The advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR) design includes a range of robots and automation devices. They extend from stationary robots that are a part of the current design to more exotic concepts with mobile, autonomous units, which may become part of the design. Development of robotic application requirements is enhanced by using computer models of work spaces in three dimensions. The primary goals of the more autonomous machines are to: (1) extent and/or enhance one's capabilities in a hazardous environment; some tasks could encounter high temperatures (up to 800 degree F), high radiation (fields up to several hundred thousand roentgens per hour), rooms filled with inert gas and/or sodium aerosol, or combinations of these; (2) reduce operating and maintenance cost through inservice inspection (ISI) of various parts of the reactor, through consideration of as-low-as-reasonably achievable radiation levels, and through automation of some maintenance/processing operations. This paper discusses some applications in the fuel cycle, in refueling operations, and in inspection

  12. Laccase: microbial sources, production, purification, and potential biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shraddha; Shekher, Ravi; Sehgal, Simran; Kamthania, Mohit; Kumar, Ajay

    2011-01-01

    Laccase belongs to the blue multicopper oxidases and participates in cross-linking of monomers, degradation of polymers, and ring cleavage of aromatic compounds. It is widely distributed in higher plants and fungi. It is present in Ascomycetes, Deuteromycetes and Basidiomycetes and abundant in lignin-degrading white-rot fungi. It is also used in the synthesis of organic substance, where typical substrates are amines and phenols, the reaction products are dimers and oligomers derived from the coupling of reactive radical intermediates. In the recent years, these enzymes have gained application in the field of textile, pulp and paper, and food industry. Recently, it is also used in the design of biosensors, biofuel cells, as a medical diagnostics tool and bioremediation agent to clean up herbicides, pesticides and certain explosives in soil. Laccases have received attention of researchers in the last few decades due to their ability to oxidize both phenolic and nonphenolic lignin-related compounds as well as highly recalcitrant environmental pollutants. It has been identified as the principal enzyme associated with cuticular hardening in insects. Two main forms have been found: laccase-1 and laccase-2. This paper reviews the occurrence, mode of action, general properties, production, applications, and immobilization of laccases within different industrial fields.

  13. Centipede Venoms and Their Components: Resources for Potential Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abdul Hakim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Venomous animals have evolved with sophisticated bio-chemical strategies to arrest prey and defend themselves from natural predators. In recent years, peptide toxins from venomous animals have drawn considerable attention from researchers due to their surprising chemical, biochemical, and pharmacological diversity. Similar to other venomous animals, centipedes are one of the crucial venomous arthropods that have been used in traditional medicine for hundreds of years in China. Despite signifying pharmacological importance, very little is known about the active components of centipede venoms. More than 500 peptide sequences have been reported in centipede venomous glands by transcriptome analysis, but only a small number of peptide toxins from centipede has been functionally described. Like other venomous animals such as snakes, scorpions, and spiders, the venom of centipedes could be an excellent source of peptides for developing drugs for treatments as well as bio-insecticides for agrochemical applications. Although centipede venoms are yet to be adequately studied, the venom of centipedes as well as their components described to date, should be compiled to help further research. Therefore, based on previous reports, this review focusses on findings and possible therapeutic applications of centipede venoms as well as their components.

  14. Stigma and intellectual disability: potential application of mental illness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchman, Nicole; Werner, Shirli; Kosyluk, Kristin; Jones, Nev; Elg, Brianna; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2013-05-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) and individuals with mental illness are consistently found to be among the most socially excluded populations and continue to face substantial health, housing, and employment disparities due to stigma. Although this has spurred extensive research efforts and theoretical advancements in the study of stigma toward mental illness, the stigma of ID has received only limited attention. In this article we explore the application of mental illness stigma research for ID. We carefully reviewed the existing research on mental illness stigma as a foundation for a parallel summary of the empirical literature on attitudes and stigma related to ID. Based on our review, there has not been a systematic approach to the study of stigma toward ID. However, multilevel conceptual models of stigma have received much attention in the mental illness literature. These models have been used to inform targeted interventions and have application to the study of the stigma process for individuals with ID. Nonetheless, there are indeed key differences between-as well as substantial variability within-the ID and mental illness populations that must be considered. Stigma is an issue of social justice impacting the lives of individuals with ID, yet there remains virtually no systematic framework applied to the understanding of the stigma process for this group. Future research can draw on the stigma models developed in the mental illness literature to guide more rigorous research efforts and ultimately the development of effective, multilevel stigma-change strategies for ID.

  15. Schumann Resonances and Their Potential Applications: a Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Fathi Alrais

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Schumann resonances is an important topic gains great interest in research areas which has extensive use of Schumann resonances in a variety of desplines such as biological evolutionary processes, the optimal functioning of the human brain waves and lightning-related studies. Materials and Methods: This dictates the major emphasis on economic, environmental, and engineering applications and hazard assessments in the form of earthquake and volcano monitoring. Results: This review is aimed at the reader generally unfamiliar with the Schumann Resonances. It is our hope that this review will increase the interest in SR among researchers previously unfamiliar with this phenomenon. Discussion and Conclusions: In this review paper, a brief introduction about Schumann resonances is presented. A general description of Earth’s ionosphere is outlined. The electromagnetic waves spectrum from lightning is discussed. The history of Schumann resonances is briefly presented. The connection of man with nature through Schumann resonances is introduced. Present Schumann resonances researches are briefly outlined. Schumann (global electromagnetic resonances in the cavity Earth – ionosphere play a critical role in all biological evolutionary processes. However, there is a great need for independent research into the bio-compatibility between natural and manmade signals. Serious attention must now be paid to the possible biological role of standing waves in the atmosphere. Being a global phenomenon, Schumann resonances have numerous applications in lightning research.

  16. Laccase: Microbial Sources, Production, Purification, and Potential Biotechnological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laccase belongs to the blue multicopper oxidases and participates in cross-linking of monomers, degradation of polymers, and ring cleavage of aromatic compounds. It is widely distributed in higher plants and fungi. It is present in Ascomycetes, Deuteromycetes and Basidiomycetes and abundant in lignin-degrading white-rot fungi. It is also used in the synthesis of organic substance, where typical substrates are amines and phenols, the reaction products are dimers and oligomers derived from the coupling of reactive radical intermediates. In the recent years, these enzymes have gained application in the field of textile, pulp and paper, and food industry. Recently, it is also used in the design of biosensors, biofuel cells, as a medical diagnostics tool and bioremediation agent to clean up herbicides, pesticides and certain explosives in soil. Laccases have received attention of researchers in the last few decades due to their ability to oxidize both phenolic and nonphenolic lignin-related compounds as well as highly recalcitrant environmental pollutants. It has been identified as the principal enzyme associated with cuticular hardening in insects. Two main forms have been found: laccase-1 and laccase-2. This paper reviews the occurrence, mode of action, general properties, production, applications, and immobilization of laccases within different industrial fields.

  17. 76 FR 71341 - BASINS and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools: Case Study Guide to Potential Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... Climate Assessment Tools: Case Study Guide to Potential Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (EPA/600/R-11/123A). EPA also is announcing that... report presents a series of short case studies designed to illustrate the capabilities of these tools for...

  18. Grouping of Cities In Terms Of Primary Health Indicators in Turkey: An Application of Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan TEKİN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is thought that to determine the differences between cities that locate in Turkey is important in the context of primary health care indicators. The subject of this study is the classification of cities in Turkey in terms of health indicators. The cluster analysis method which is the one of the data mining and multivariate statistical methods is used for classification method. The main objective of the study is to examine the point of results of movement transformation in health in terms of basic health indicators on the basis of cities.. In this context, 81 cities, in Turkey are grouped with sixteen health indicators which is assumed to demonstrate the effectiveness of health care services, by the years of 2013. And also compared with the health and socio-economic development ranking in the previous studies. Providences are gathered in 21, 13, 11, 7 and 5 clusters. 11’s, 7’s and 5’s clusters are determined as the most significant clusters. As a result of the study the development gap between eastern and western provinces emerges in terms of the health variables.

  19. Identifying and quantifying heterogeneity in high content analysis: application of heterogeneity indices to drug discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert H Gough

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges in biomedical research, drug discovery and diagnostics is understanding how seemingly identical cells can respond differently to perturbagens including drugs for disease treatment. Although heterogeneity has become an accepted characteristic of a population of cells, in drug discovery it is not routinely evaluated or reported. The standard practice for cell-based, high content assays has been to assume a normal distribution and to report a well-to-well average value with a standard deviation. To address this important issue we sought to define a method that could be readily implemented to identify, quantify and characterize heterogeneity in cellular and small organism assays to guide decisions during drug discovery and experimental cell/tissue profiling. Our study revealed that heterogeneity can be effectively identified and quantified with three indices that indicate diversity, non-normality and percent outliers. The indices were evaluated using the induction and inhibition of STAT3 activation in five cell lines where the systems response including sample preparation and instrument performance were well characterized and controlled. These heterogeneity indices provide a standardized method that can easily be integrated into small and large scale screening or profiling projects to guide interpretation of the biology, as well as the development of therapeutics and diagnostics. Understanding the heterogeneity in the response to perturbagens will become a critical factor in designing strategies for the development of therapeutics including targeted polypharmacology.

  20. Distribution and Potential Indicators of Hospitalized Cases of Neurocysticercosis and Epilepsy in Ecuador from 1996 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron-Garrido, Lenin; Coral-Almeida, Marco; Gabriël, Sarah; Benitez-Ortiz, Washington; Saegerman, Claude; Dorny, Pierre; Berkvens, Dirk; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji

    2015-11-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common signs of Neurocysticercosis (NCC). In this study, spatial and temporal variations in the incidence of hospitalized cases (IHC) of epilepsy and NCC in Ecuadorian municipalities were analyzed. Additionally, potential socio-economic and landscape indicators were evaluated in order to understand in part the macro-epidemiology of the Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis complex. Data on the number of hospitalized epilepsy and NCC cases by municipality of residence were obtained from morbidity-hospital systems in Ecuador. SatScan software was used to determine whether variations in the IHC of epilepsy and NCC in space and time. In addition, several socio-economic and landscape variables at municipality level were used to study factors intervening in the macro-epidemiology of these diseases. Negative Binomial regression models through stepwise selection and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) were used to explain the variations in the IHC of epilepsy and NCC. Different clusters were identified through space and time. Traditional endemic zones for NCC and epilepsy, recognized in other studies were confirmed in our study. However, for both disorders more recent clusters were identified. Among municipalities, an increasing tendency for IHC of epilepsy, and a decreasing tendency for the IHC of NCC were observed over time. In contrast, within municipalities a positive linear relationship between both disorders was found. An increase in the implementation of systems for eliminating excrements would help to reduce the IHC of epilepsy by 1.00% (IC95%; 0.2%-1.8%) and by 5.12% (IC95%; 3.63%-6.59%) for the IHC of NCC. The presence of pig production was related to IHC of NCC. Both disorders were related to the lack of an efficient system for eliminating excrements. Given the appearance of recent epilepsy clusters, these locations should be studied in depth to discriminate epilepsies due to NCC from epilepsies due to other causes. Field studies are

  1. Distribution and Potential Indicators of Hospitalized Cases of Neurocysticercosis and Epilepsy in Ecuador from 1996 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriël, Sarah; Benitez-Ortiz, Washington; Saegerman, Claude; Dorny, Pierre; Berkvens, Dirk; Abatih, Emmanuel Nji

    2015-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is one of the most common signs of Neurocysticercosis (NCC). In this study, spatial and temporal variations in the incidence of hospitalized cases (IHC) of epilepsy and NCC in Ecuadorian municipalities were analyzed. Additionally, potential socio-economic and landscape indicators were evaluated in order to understand in part the macro-epidemiology of the Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis complex. Methodology Data on the number of hospitalized epilepsy and NCC cases by municipality of residence were obtained from morbidity-hospital systems in Ecuador. SatScan software was used to determine whether variations in the IHC of epilepsy and NCC in space and time. In addition, several socio-economic and landscape variables at municipality level were used to study factors intervening in the macro-epidemiology of these diseases. Negative Binomial regression models through stepwise selection and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) were used to explain the variations in the IHC of epilepsy and NCC. Principal findings Different clusters were identified through space and time. Traditional endemic zones for NCC and epilepsy, recognized in other studies were confirmed in our study. However, for both disorders more recent clusters were identified. Among municipalities, an increasing tendency for IHC of epilepsy, and a decreasing tendency for the IHC of NCC were observed over time. In contrast, within municipalities a positive linear relationship between both disorders was found. An increase in the implementation of systems for eliminating excrements would help to reduce the IHC of epilepsy by 1.00% (IC95%; 0.2%–1.8%) and by 5.12% (IC95%; 3.63%-6.59%) for the IHC of NCC. The presence of pig production was related to IHC of NCC. Conclusion/Significance Both disorders were related to the lack of an efficient system for eliminating excrements. Given the appearance of recent epilepsy clusters, these locations should be studied in depth to discriminate epilepsies due

  2. Distribution and Potential Indicators of Hospitalized Cases of Neurocysticercosis and Epilepsy in Ecuador from 1996 to 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin Ron-Garrido

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common signs of Neurocysticercosis (NCC. In this study, spatial and temporal variations in the incidence of hospitalized cases (IHC of epilepsy and NCC in Ecuadorian municipalities were analyzed. Additionally, potential socio-economic and landscape indicators were evaluated in order to understand in part the macro-epidemiology of the Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis complex.Data on the number of hospitalized epilepsy and NCC cases by municipality of residence were obtained from morbidity-hospital systems in Ecuador. SatScan software was used to determine whether variations in the IHC of epilepsy and NCC in space and time. In addition, several socio-economic and landscape variables at municipality level were used to study factors intervening in the macro-epidemiology of these diseases. Negative Binomial regression models through stepwise selection and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA were used to explain the variations in the IHC of epilepsy and NCC.Different clusters were identified through space and time. Traditional endemic zones for NCC and epilepsy, recognized in other studies were confirmed in our study. However, for both disorders more recent clusters were identified. Among municipalities, an increasing tendency for IHC of epilepsy, and a decreasing tendency for the IHC of NCC were observed over time. In contrast, within municipalities a positive linear relationship between both disorders was found. An increase in the implementation of systems for eliminating excrements would help to reduce the IHC of epilepsy by 1.00% (IC95%; 0.2%-1.8% and by 5.12% (IC95%; 3.63%-6.59% for the IHC of NCC. The presence of pig production was related to IHC of NCC.Both disorders were related to the lack of an efficient system for eliminating excrements. Given the appearance of recent epilepsy clusters, these locations should be studied in depth to discriminate epilepsies due to NCC from epilepsies due to other causes. Field

  3. The identification of potential applications for robotics and remote control systems in Canadian mining. 2 Volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary overview of potential applications for robotics and remote control in the Canadian mining industry. The first of two volumes, summarizes the industry awareness and interest in using these technologies. Also included is a look at factors playing a major role in the development of the mining robotics industry, such as safety, productivity, labour and the economic climate. The role of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada (EMR)/CANMET is also discussed. Finally, recommendations are made as to how Canada, through EMR, can ensure Canada's participation in the development of robotics in the mining industry. Volume two is comprised of the contact records. These are abbreviated notes of conversations which took place between the interviewers and their contacts in a number of Canadian and US mines and associated government and private agencies. (The interviews represent the opinions of the respondents, not necessarily that of their companies). The survey indicated that the industry is essentially negative to the idea of robotics in mining, but they were able to suggest many potential areas of application, especially at the short term level.

  4. Biomineralization of Fucoidan-Peptide Blends and Their Potential Applications in Bone Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison T. Pajovich

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fucoidan (Fuc, a natural polysaccharide derived from brown seaweed algae, and gelatin (Gel were conjugated to form a template for preparation of biomimetic scaffolds for potential applications in bone tissue regeneration. To the Fuc–Gel we then incorporated the peptide sequence MTNYDEAAMAIASLN (MTN derived from the E-F hand domain, known for its calcium binding properties. To mimic the components of the extracellular matrix of bone tissue, the Fuc–Gel–MTN assemblies were incubated in simulated body fluid (SBF to induce biomineralization, resulting in the formation of β-tricalcium phosphate, and hydroxyapatite (HAp. The formed Fuc–Gel–MTN–beta–TCP/HAP scaffolds were found to display an average Young’s Modulus value of 0.32 GPa (n = 5 with an average surface roughness of 91 nm. Rheological studies show that the biomineralized scaffold exhibited higher storage and loss modulus compared to the composites formed before biomineralization. Thermal phase changes were studied through DSC and TGA analysis. XRD and EDS analyses indicated a biphasic mixture of β-tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite and the composition of the scaffold. The scaffold promoted cell proliferation, differentiation and displayed actin stress fibers indicating the formation of cell-scaffold matrices in the presence of MT3C3-E1 mouse preosteoblasts. Osteogenesis and mineralization were found to increase with Fuc–Gel–MTN–beta–TCP/HAP scaffolds. Thus, we have developed a novel scaffold for possible applications in bone tissue engineering.

  5. Potential application of garlic on heavy ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shuai; Zhang Hong; Liu Yang

    2012-01-01

    Garlic has beneficial effects to protect against many diseases. It can not only protect normal cells from lesion, but also prevent tumorigenesis, proliferation, adhesion, invasion and metastasis. In this paper, the mechanisms of these functions of garlic were summarized and compared with radioprotector and radiosensitizer. We presented that garlic has both radioprotective effect on normal cells and radiosensitive effect on tumor cells. By right of its superiority, garlic can improve biological effect in the therapy of heavy ion. Therefore, it has potential value in clinical practice. That is worth for us to explore whether garlic has radioprotective and radiosensitive effect or not. (authors)

  6. Potential applications of process irradiation in Irish industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, Mary

    1985-01-01

    Dr. Mary Upton draws attention to the U.S.A. Food and Drugs Administration agreement to allow irradiation for fresh fruit and vegetables of up to one kilogray and of spices up to 30 kilograys. There is also the likelihood of favourable legislation in the U.K. later this year. The potential for Irish industry may well lie in the extension of shelf-life of poultry, fish, fruit and vegetables; salmonella eradication; control of sprouting in potatoes and onions; treatment of food additives such as spices and enzymes; the replacement of ethylene oxide or of ethylene dibromide as preservatives, residues of which are currently considered somewhat suspect for health reasons

  7. Magnetic materials in Japan research, applications and potential

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. This, the third report in Elsevier's Materials Technology in Japan series, concentrates on magnetic materials as a topic gaining worldwide attention, and each chapter looks not only at current research, but also describes the technology as it is being applied and its future potential. Magnetic-related research is the second largest field of research in Japan after semiconductors, with the estimated number of researchers and engineers engaged in magnetics-related activities currently at 20,000. This research report serves as both a review of

  8. The objected oriented programming: application to potential well system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco Garcia, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Objected Oriented Programming is a new methodology which allows us to organize the code in a different way than the structured languages. This article describes the main characteristics of the Language C++, and advantages in physics computing and in building a graphic user interface. The solution of a classical exercise in one-dimensional Quantum Mechanics: to find out the energy levels and the wave functions of a potential well system, allows us to set a class hierarchy, use the concepts of overloading and polymorphism, and read or write data to disk through the input/output streams. (Author) 4 refs

  9. Application of the Asymptotic Taylor Expansion Method to Bistable Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Ozer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent method called asymptotic Taylor expansion (ATEM is applied to determine the analytical expression for eigenfunctions and numerical results for eigenvalues of the Schrödinger equation for the bistable potentials. Optimal truncation of the Taylor series gives a best possible analytical expression for eigenfunctions and numerical results for eigenvalues. It is shown that the results are obtained by a simple algorithm constructed for a computer system using symbolic or numerical calculation. It is observed that ATEM produces excellent results consistent with the existing literature.

  10. Monoterpenol Oxidative Metabolism: Role in Plant Adaptation and Potential Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilc, Tina; Parage, Claire; Boachon, Benoît; Navrot, Nicolas; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle

    2016-01-01

    Plants use monoterpenols as precursors for the production of functionally and structurally diverse molecules, which are key players in interactions with other organisms such as pollinators, flower visitors, herbivores, fungal, or microbial pathogens. For humans, many of these monoterpenol derivatives are economically important because of their pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, flavor, or fragrance applications. The biosynthesis of these derivatives is to a large extent catalyzed by enzymes from the cytochrome P450 superfamily. Here we review the knowledge on monoterpenol oxidative metabolism in plants with special focus on recent elucidations of oxidation steps leading to diverse linalool and geraniol derivatives. We evaluate the common features between oxidation pathways of these two monoterpenols, such as involvement of the CYP76 family, and highlight the differences. Finally, we discuss the missing steps and other open questions in the biosynthesis of oxygenated monoterpenol derivatives. PMID:27200002

  11. Recombinant Spider Silks—Biopolymers with Potential for Future Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Scheibel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nature has evolved a range of materials that compete with man-made materials in physical properties; one of these is spider silk. Silk is a fibrous material that exhibits extremely high strength and toughness with regard to its low density. In this review we discuss the molecular structure of spider silk and how this understanding has allowed the development of recombinant silk proteins that mimic the properties of natural spider silks. Additionally, we will explore the material morphologies and the applications of these proteins. Finally, we will look at attempts to combine the silk structure with chemical polymers and how the structure of silk has inspired the engineering of novel polymers.

  12. Potential application of palladium nanoparticles as selective recyclable hydrogenation catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, DebKumar

    2008-01-01

    The search for more efficient catalytic systems that might combine the advantages of both homogeneous (catalyst modulation) and heterogeneous (catalyst recycling) catalysis is one of the most exciting challenges of modern chemistry. More recently with the advances of nanochemistry, it has been possible to prepare soluble analogues of heterogeneous catalysts. These nanoparticles are generally stabilized against aggregation into larger particles by electrostatic or steric protection. Herein we demonstrate the use of room temperature ionic liquid for the stabilization of palladium nanoparticles that are recyclable catalysts for the hydrogenation of carbon-carbon double bonds and application of these catalysts to the selective hydrogenation of internal or terminal C=C bonds in unsaturated primary alcohols. The particles suspended in room temperature ionic liquid show no metal aggregation or loss of catalytic activity even on prolonged use

  13. Potential applications of neural networks to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Application of neural networks to the operation of nuclear power plants is being investigated under a US Department of Energy sponsored program at the University of Tennessee. Projects include the feasibility of using neural networks for the following tasks: diagnosing specific abnormal conditions, detection of the change of mode of operation, signal validation, monitoring of check valves, plant-wide monitoring using autoassociative neural networks, modeling of the plant thermodynamics, emulation of core reload calculations, monitoring of plant parameters, and analysis of plant vibrations. Each of these projects and its status are described briefly in this article. The objective of each of these projects is to enhance the safety and performance of nuclear plants through the use of neural networks

  14. Superplastic ceramics and intermetallics and their potential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadsworth, J.; Nieh, T.G.

    1994-11-01

    Recent advances in the basic understanding of superplasticity and superplastic forming of ceramics and intermetallics are reviewed. Fine-grained superplastic ceramics, including yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal, Y- or MgO-doped Al 2 O 3 Hydroxyapatite, β-spodumene glass ceramics, Al 2 0 3 -YTZP two-phase composites, SiC-Si 3 N 4 and Fe-Fe 3 C composites, are discussed. Superplasticity in the nickel-base (e.g., Ni 3 Al and Ni 3 Si) and titanium-base intermetallics (TiAl and T1 3 Al), is described. Deformation mechanisms as well as microstructural requirements and effects such as grain size, grain growth, and grain-boundary phases, on the superplastic deformation behavior am addressed. Factors that control the superplastic tensile elongation of ceramics are discussed. Superplastic forming, and particularly biaxial gas-pressure forming, of several ceramics and intermetallics are presented with comments on the likelihood of commercial application

  15. A novel plasmonic interferometry and the potential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, J.; Pornsuwancharoen, N.; Youplao, P.; Aziz, M. S.; Chiangga, S.; Jaglan, J.; Amiri, I. S.; Yupapin, P.

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we have proposed the plasmonic interferometry concept and analytical details given. By using the conventional optical interferometry, which can be simply calculated by using the relationship between the electric field and electron mobility, the interference mobility visibility (fringe visibility) can be observed. The surface plasmons in the sensing arm of the Michelson interferometer is constructed by the stacked layers of the silicon-graphene-gold, allows to characterize the spatial resolution of light beams in terms of the electron mobility down to 100-nm scales, with measured coherence lengths as low as ∼100 nm for an incident wavelength of 1550 nm. We have demonstrated a compact plasmonic interferometer that can apply to the electron mean free paths measurement, from which the precise determination can be used for the high-resolution mean free path measurement and sensing applications. This system provides the practical simulation device parameters that can be fabricated and tested by the experimental platform.

  16. Extremozymes from metagenome: Potential applications in food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mahejibin; Sathya, T A

    2017-06-12

    The long-established use of enzymes for food processing and product formulation has resulted in an increased enzyme market compounding to 7.0% annual growth rate. Advancements in molecular biology and recognition that enzymes with specific properties have application for industrial production of infant, baby and functional foods boosted research toward sourcing the genes of microorganisms for enzymes with distinctive properties. In this regard, functional metagenomics for extremozymes has gained attention on the premise that such enzymes can catalyze specific reactions. Hence, metagenomics that can isolate functional genes of unculturable extremophilic microorganisms has expanded attention as a promising tool. Developments in this field of research in relation to food sector are reviewed.

  17. Application of differential evolution algorithm on self-potential data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangtao; Yin, Minghao

    2012-01-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is a population based evolutionary algorithm widely used for solving multidimensional global optimization problems over continuous spaces, and has been successfully used to solve several kinds of problems. In this paper, differential evolution is used for quantitative interpretation of self-potential data in geophysics. Six parameters are estimated including the electrical dipole moment, the depth of the source, the distance from the origin, the polarization angle and the regional coefficients. This study considers three kinds of data from Turkey: noise-free data, contaminated synthetic data, and Field example. The differential evolution and the corresponding model parameters are constructed as regards the number of the generations. Then, we show the vibration of the parameters at the vicinity of the low misfit area. Moreover, we show how the frequency distribution of each parameter is related to the number of the DE iteration. Experimental results show the DE can be used for solving the quantitative interpretation of self-potential data efficiently compared with previous methods.

  18. Application of differential evolution algorithm on self-potential data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangtao Li

    Full Text Available Differential evolution (DE is a population based evolutionary algorithm widely used for solving multidimensional global optimization problems over continuous spaces, and has been successfully used to solve several kinds of problems. In this paper, differential evolution is used for quantitative interpretation of self-potential data in geophysics. Six parameters are estimated including the electrical dipole moment, the depth of the source, the distance from the origin, the polarization angle and the regional coefficients. This study considers three kinds of data from Turkey: noise-free data, contaminated synthetic data, and Field example. The differential evolution and the corresponding model parameters are constructed as regards the number of the generations. Then, we show the vibration of the parameters at the vicinity of the low misfit area. Moreover, we show how the frequency distribution of each parameter is related to the number of the DE iteration. Experimental results show the DE can be used for solving the quantitative interpretation of self-potential data efficiently compared with previous methods.

  19. Fish trypsins: potential applications in biomedicine and prospects for production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesús-de la Cruz, Kristal; Álvarez-González, Carlos Alfonso; Peña, Emyr; Morales-Contreras, José Antonio; Ávila-Fernández, Ángela

    2018-04-01

    In fishes, trypsins are adapted to different environmental conditions, and the biochemical and kinetic properties of a broad variety of native isoforms have been studied. Proteolytic enzymes remain in high demand in the detergent, food, and feed industries; however, our analysis of the literature showed that, in the last decade, some fish trypsins have been studied for the synthesis of industrial peptides and for specific biomedical uses as antipathogenic agents against viruses and bacteria, which have been recently patented. In addition, innovative strategies of trypsin administration have been studied to ensure that trypsins retain their properties until they exert their action. Biomedical uses require the production of high-quality enzymes. In this context, the production of recombinant trypsins is an alternative. For this purpose, E. coli -based systems have been tested for the production of fish trypsins; however, P. pastoris -based systems also seem to show great potential in the production of fish trypsins with higher production quality. On the other hand, there is a lack of information regarding the specific structures, biochemical and kinetic properties, and characteristics of trypsins produced using heterologous systems. This review describes the potential uses of fish trypsins in biomedicine and the enzymatic and structural properties of native and recombinant fish trypsins obtained to date, outlining some prospects for their study.

  20. Distillery spent wash: Treatment technologies and potential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohana, Sarayu; Acharya, Bhavik K.; Madamwar, Datta

    2009-01-01

    Distillery spent wash is the unwanted residual liquid waste generated during alcohol production and pollution caused by it is one of the most critical environmental issue. Despite standards imposed on effluent quality, untreated or partially treated effluent very often finds access to watercourses. The distillery wastewater with its characteristic unpleasant odor poses a serious threat to the water quality in several regions around the globe. The ever-increasing generation of distillery spent wash on the one hand and stringent legislative regulations of its disposal on the other has stimulated the need for developing new technologies to process this effluent efficiently and economically. A number of clean up technologies have been put into practice and novel bioremediation approaches for treatment of distillery spent wash are being worked out. Potential microbial (anaerobic and aerobic) as well as physicochemical processes as feasible remediation technologies to combat environmental pollution are being explored. An emerging field in distillery waste management is exploiting its nutritive potential for production of various high value compounds. This review presents an overview of the pollution problems caused by distillery spent wash, the technologies employed globally for its treatment and its alternative use in various biotechnological sectors

  1. Potential applications of plant probiotic microorganisms in agriculture and forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Porto de Souza Vandenberghe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture producers, pushed by the need for high productivity, have stimulated the intensive use of pesticides and fertilizers. Unfortunately, negative effects on water, soil, and human and animal health have appeared as a consequence of this indiscriminate practice. Plant probiotic microorganisms (PPM, also known as bioprotectants, biocontrollers, biofertilizers, or biostimulants, are beneficial microorganisms that offer a promising alternative and reduce health and environmental problems. These microorganisms are involved in either a symbiotic or free-living association with plants and act in different ways, sometimes with specific functions, to achieve satisfactory plant development. This review deals with PPM presentation and their description and function in different applications. PPM includes the plant growth promoters (PGP group, which contain bacteria and fungi that stimulate plant growth through different mechanisms. Soil microflora mediate many biogeochemical processes. The use of plant probiotics as an alternative soil fertilization source has been the focus of several studies; their use in agriculture improves nutrient supply and conserves field management and causes no adverse effects. The species related to organic matter and pollutant biodegradation in soil and abiotic stress tolerance are then presented. As an important way to understand not only the ecological role of PPM and their interaction with plants but also the biotechnological application of these cultures to crop management, two main approaches are elucidated: the culture-dependent approach where the microorganisms contained in the plant material are isolated by culturing and are identified by a combination of phenotypic and molecular methods; and the culture-independent approach where microorganisms are detected without cultivating them, based on extraction and analyses of DNA. These methods combine to give a thorough knowledge of the microbiology of the studied

  2. Potential application of the consistency approach for vaccine potency testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega, J; Sirota, L A

    2012-01-01

    The Consistency Approach offers the possibility of reducing the number of animals used for a potency test. However, it is critical to assess the effect that such reduction may have on assay performance. Consistency of production, sometimes referred to as consistency of manufacture or manufacturing, is an old concept implicit in regulation, which aims to ensure the uninterrupted release of safe and effective products. Consistency of manufacture can be described in terms of process capability, or the ability of a process to produce output within specification limits. For example, the standard method for potency testing of inactivated rabies vaccines is a multiple-dilution vaccination challenge test in mice that gives a quantitative, although highly variable estimate. On the other hand, a single-dilution test that does not give a quantitative estimate, but rather shows if the vaccine meets the specification has been proposed. This simplified test can lead to a considerable reduction in the number of animals used. However, traditional indices of process capability assume that the output population (potency values) is normally distributed, which clearly is not the case for the simplified approach. Appropriate computation of capability indices for the latter case will require special statistical considerations.

  3. Design and surface modification of potential luminomagnetic nanocarriers for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Ranu K.; Sharma, Prashant K.; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2010-01-01

    Targeted delivery of therapeutics possesses the potential to localize therapeutic agents to a specific tissue as a mechanism to enhance treatment efficacy and mitigate side effects. Moeities that combine imaging and therapeutic modalities in a single macromolecular construct may confer advantages in the development and applications of nanomedicine. Here is an insight into the synthesis of luminomagnetic (luminescent and magnetic, simultaneously) nanocarriers of ZnO:Fe, synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method and surface modified by the ligand folate. This functionalized luminomagnetic nanocarrier system is a bioconjugation approach which combines the specificity of folate receptors on cancer cells with the excellent optical and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles so as to develop biocompatible molecular imaging agents, drug delivery systems, and hyperthermia agents. The vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) studies showed clear hysteresis loops having coercivity 5.1 mT with corresponding magnetization of remanence 7.6 x 10 -3 emu/g, indicating strong magnetic character of the samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements show that these nanoparticles are spherical with 6-9 nm size and hence are quite appropriate for in vivo applications as well. The immobilization of folic acid was confirmed by fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. All these properties make these luminomagnetic nanocarriers one of the most feasible candidates for folate receptor-mediated biomedical applications.

  4. Spatial correlation structure of the ionosphere predicted by geomagnetic indices and application to global field modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holschneider, M.; Ferrat, K.; Lesur, V.; Stolle, C.

    2017-12-01

    Ionospheric fields are modelled in terms of random structures taking into account a mean behaviour as well as random fluctuations which are described through two point correlation kernels. These kernels are estimated from long time series of numerical simulations from various models. These correlations are best expressed in SM system of coordinates. For the moment we limit ourselves to spatial correlations only in this coordinate system. We study the influence of various indices as possible predictor parameters for these correlations as well as seasonal effects. The various time series of ionospheric fields are stored in a HDF5 database which is accessible via a web interface. The obtained correlation structures serve as prior information to separate external and internal field components from observatory based measurements. We present a model that predicts the correlations as a function of time and some geomagnetic indices. First results of the inversion from observatory data are presented.

  5. Trade Facilitation Indicators and their Potential Impact on Trade Between the Countries of South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toševska-Trpčevska Katerina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we base our analysis on previous OECD findings and analysis of trade facilitation indicators for assessing relative economic and trade impact of specific trade facilitation measures for the countries of South-Eastern Europe. In the analysis we plan to include all CEFTA-2006 members, except Moldova, and other countries which are part of this region: Bulgaria, Romania and Greece. We plan to construct twelve trade facilitation indicators (TFIs that correspond to the main policy areas under negotiations at the WTO. The indicators are composed from seventy-eight variables, whose values are drawn from publicly available data. We plan to use these indicators in gravity model in order to estimate the impact of those policy areas on trade volumes between the countries of the region. The use of individual trade facilitation indicators should also enable countries to better assess which trade facilitation measures deserve priority.

  6. Key Performance Indicators and Analysts' Earnings Forecast Accuracy: An Application of Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Dorestani; Zabihollah Rezaee

    2011-01-01

    We examine the association between the extent of change in key performance indicator (KPI) disclosures and the accuracy of forecasts made by analysts. KPIs are regarded as improving both the transparency and relevancy of public financial information. The results of using linear regression models show that contrary to our prediction and the hypothesis of this paper, there is no significant association between the change in non- financial KPI disclosures and the accuracy of analysts' forecasts....

  7. Application and comparison of scoring indices to predict outcomes in patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Wen-Feng; Yang, Kuang-Yao; Wu, Chieh-Liang; Yu, Chong-Jen; Chen, Chang-Wen; Tu, Chih-Yen; Lin, Meng-Chih

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is a relatively new category of pneumonia. It refers to infections that occur prior to hospital admission in patients with specific risk factors following contact or exposure to a healthcare environment. There is currently no scoring index to predict the outcomes of HCAP patients. We applied and compared different community acquired pneumonia (CAP) scoring indices to predict 30-day mortality and 3-day and 14-day intensive care unit (ICU) adm...

  8. Fluorescent ratiometric pH indicator SypHer2: applications in neuroscience and regenerative biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlashov, Mikhail E.; Bogdanova, Yulia A.; Ermakova, Galina V.; Mishina, Natalia M.; Ermakova, Yulia G.; Nikitin, Evgeny S.; Balaban, Pavel M.; Okabe, Shigeo; Lukyanov, Sergey; Enikolopov, Grigori; Zaraisky, Andrey G.; Belousov, Vsevolod V.

    2015-01-01

    Background SypHer is a genetically encoded fluorescent pH-indicator with a ratiometric readout, suitable for measuring fast intracellular pH shifts. However, a relatively low brightness of the indicator limits its use. Methods Here we designed a new version of pH-sensor - SypHer-2, that has up to three times brighter fluorescence signal in cultured mammalian cells compared to the SypHer. Results Using the new indicator we registered activity-associated pH oscillations in neuronal cell culture. We observed prominent temporal neuronal cytoplasm acidification that occurs in parallel with calcium entry. Furthermore, we monitored pH in presynaptic and postsynaptic termini by targeting SypHer-2 directly to these compartments and revealed marked differences in pH dynamics between synaptic boutons and dendritic spines. Finally, we were able to reveal for the first time the intracellular pH drop which occurs within an extended region of the amputated tail of the Xenopus laevis tadpole before it begins to regenerate. Conclusions SypHer2 is suitable for quantitative monitoring of pH in biological systems of different scales, from small cellular subcompartments to animal tissues in vivo. General significance The new pH-sensor will help to investigate pH-dependent processes in both in vitro and in vivo studies. PMID:26259819

  9. Fluorescent ratiometric pH indicator SypHer2: Applications in neuroscience and regenerative biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlashov, Mikhail E; Bogdanova, Yulia A; Ermakova, Galina V; Mishina, Natalia M; Ermakova, Yulia G; Nikitin, Evgeny S; Balaban, Pavel M; Okabe, Shigeo; Lukyanov, Sergey; Enikolopov, Grigori; Zaraisky, Andrey G; Belousov, Vsevolod V

    2015-11-01

    SypHer is a genetically encoded fluorescent pH-indicator with a ratiometric readout, suitable for measuring fast intracellular pH shifts. However, the relatively low brightness of the indicator limits its use. Here we designed a new version of pH-sensor called SypHer-2, which has up to three times brighter fluorescence in cultured mammalian cells compared to the SypHer. Using the new indicator we registered activity-associated pH oscillations in neuronal cell culture. We observed prominent transient neuronal cytoplasm acidification that occurs in parallel with calcium entry. Furthermore, we monitored pH in presynaptic and postsynaptic termini by targeting SypHer-2 directly to these compartments and revealed marked differences in pH dynamics between synaptic boutons and dendritic spines. Finally, we were able to reveal for the first time the intracellular pH drop that occurs within an extended region of the amputated tail of the Xenopus laevis tadpole before it begins to regenerate. SypHer2 is suitable for quantitative monitoring of pH in biological systems of different scales, from small cellular subcompartments to animal tissues in vivo. The new pH-sensor will help to investigate pH-dependent processes in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of two way indicator species analysis in lowland plant types classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooch, Yahya; Jalilvand, Hamid; Bahmanyar, Mohammad Ali; Pormajidian, Mohammad Reza

    2008-03-01

    A TWINSPAN classification of 60 sample plots from the Khanikan forest (North of Iran) is presented. Plant types were determined from field observations and sample plot data arranged and analyzed in association tables. The types were defined on the basis of species patterns of presence, absence and coverage values. Vegetation was sampled with randomized-systematic method. Vegetation data including density and cover percentage were estimated quantitatively within each quadrate and using the two-way indicator species analysis. The objectives of the study were to plant type's classification for Khanikan lowland forest in North of Iran, Identification of indicator species in plant types and increase our understanding in regarding to one of Multivariate analysis methods (TWINSPAN). Five plant types were produced for the study area by TWINSPAN, i.e., Menta aquatica, Oplismenus undulatifolius, Carex grioletia, Viola odarata and Rubus caesius. Therefore, at each step of the process, the program identifies indicator species that show strongly differential distributions between groups and so can severe to distinguish the groups. The final result, incorporating elements of classification can provide a compact and powerful summary of pattern in the data set.

  11. Simple climatic indices for the tropical Atlantic Ocean and some applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servain, Jacques

    1991-08-01

    Two indices related to the sea surface temperature (SST) variability in the tropical Atlantic are proposed. One index describes the SST averaged over the whole basin (30°N to 20°S, 60°W to 15°E), and the other illustrates a meridional dipole between the northern and southern hemispheres. The computational method for obtaining these indices is intentionally kept simple, the objective being to reproduce the signature of the main results previously provided from more complicated statistical analyses. Monthly time series for both indices are produced from 1964 up to the present time. The whole basin index exhibits principally a sustained warming which has intensified since about 1975, and it has a significant periodicity close to that of the quasi-biennial oscillation. The dipole index exhibits a decadal-scale variation, and its building up seems to be related to other worldwide climatic changes, as for instance El Niño / Southern Oscillation extreme episodes, rainfall variabilities over the Brazilian Nordeste and African Sahel.

  12. Analysis of risk indicators and issues associated with applications of screening model for hazardous and radioactive waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.W.; Strenge, D.L.; Droppo, J.G. Jr.

    1990-12-01

    Risk indicators, such as population risk, maximum individual risk, time of arrival of contamination, and maximum water concentrations, were analyzed to determine their effect on results from a screening model for hazardous and radioactive waste sites. The analysis of risk indicators is based on calculations resulting from exposure to air and waterborne contamination predicted with Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) model. The different risk indicators were analyzed, based on constituent type and transport and exposure pathways. Three of the specific comparisons that were made are (1) population-based versus maximum individual-based risk indicators, (2) time of arrival of contamination, and (3) comparison of different threshold assumptions for noncarcinogenic impacts. Comparison of indicators for population- and maximum individual-based human health risk suggests that these two parameters are highly correlated, but for a given problem, one may be more important than the other. The results indicate that the arrival distribution for different levels of contamination reaching a receptor can also be helpful in decisions regarding the use of resources for remediating short- and long-term environmental problems. The addition of information from a linear model for noncarcinogenic impacts allows interpretation of results below the reference dose (RfD) levels that might help in decisions for certain applications. The analysis of risk indicators suggests that important information may be lost by the use of a single indicator to represent public health risk and that multiple indicators should be considered. 15 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  13. Effects of Wood Ash Biomass Application on Growth Indices and Chlorophyll Content of Maize and Lima bean Intercrop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheedat Ajala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wood ash generated from wood industries have enormous potential which can be utilized due to its properties which influences soil chemistry and fertility status of tropical acidic soils. Field experiments were conducted on an acidic sandy loam alfisol to investigate the effects of wood ash on the growth indices and chlorophyll content of maize and lima beans intercrop during the late and early seasons of 2014 and 2015 at Akure in the rainforest zone of southwestern Nigeria. The treatments were 100% sole maize with ash, 100% sole maize without ash, 75% maize + 25% lima beans with ash, 75% + 25% lima beans without ash, 50% maize + 50% lima beans with ash, 50% maize + 50% lima beans without ash, 25% maize + 75% lima beans with ash and 25% maize + 75% lima beans without ash. Wood ash was applied at 2.4kg/plot. Wood ash increased chlorophyll content in all amended treatments except in amended 25:75% maize-lima beans intercrop and 25:75% maize –lima beans intercrop without ash, however 75:25% maize-lima beans amended with wood ash significantly (P≥0.05 recorded the highest chlorophyll content. Growth parameters such as plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, leaf area index, leaf length, stem diameter, number of flowers, number of pods, weight of plant and total biomass of amended maize-lima beans intercrop were significantly (P≥0.05 increased by wood ash application. Based on experimental findings, 25:75% maize-lima beans intercrop and 75%:25% maize-lima beans intercrop amended with wood ash was concluded to be more recommendable in the study area.

  14. The flashing right turn signal with pedestrian indication : human factors studies to understand the potential of a new signal to increase awareness of and attention to crossing pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The flashing pedestrian indicator (FPI) is intended to alert turning drivers to the potential presence of : pedestrians in the roadway, facilitate scanning in the likely direction of pedestrians, and encourage caution and : yielding behavior in respo...

  15. Synthetic Biology and Human Health: Potential Applications for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Carr, Christopher; Cai, Yizhi; Chen, Y.; Grenon, Marlene; Larios-Sanz, Maia; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Santos, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. Spaceflight-related changes have been reported in the musculo-skeletal, cardiovascular, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems. The spacecraft environment further subjects the traveler to noise and gravitational forces, as well as airborne chemical, microbiological contaminants, and radiation exposure. As humans prepare for longer duration missions effective countermeasures must be developed, verified, and implemented to ensure mission success. Over the past ten years, synthetic biology has opened new avenues for research and development in areas such as biological control, biomaterials, sustainable energy production, bioremediation, and biomedical therapies. The latter in particular is of great interest to the implementation of long-duration human spaceflight capabilities. This article discusses the effects of spaceflight on humans, and reviews current capabilities and potential needs associated with the health of the astronauts where synthetic biology could play an important role in the pursuit of space exploration.

  16. Potential Applications of Scanning Probe Microscopy in Forensic Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, G S [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, School of Science, Griffith University, Kessels Rd, Nathan, QLD, 4111 (Australia); Watson, J A [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, School of Science, Griffith University, Kessels Rd, Nathan, QLD, 4111 (Australia)

    2007-04-15

    The forensic community utilises a myriad of techniques to investigate a wide range of materials, from paint flakes to DNA. The various microscopic techniques have provided some of the greatest contributions, e.g., FT-IR (Fourier-transform infrared) microspectroscopy utilised in copy toner discrimination, multi-layer automobile paint fragment examination, etc, SEM-EDA (scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis) used to investigate glass fragments, fibers, and explosives, and SEM in microsampling for elemental analysis, just to name a few. This study demonstrates the ability of the Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM) to analyse human fingerprints on surfaces utilising a step-and-scan feature, enabling analysis of a larger field-of-view. We also extend a line crossings study by incorporating height analysis and surface roughness measurements. The study demonstrates the potential for SPM techniques to be utilised for forensic analysis which could complement the more traditional methodologies used in such investigations.

  17. Mesenchymal stem cells: biological characteristics and potential clinical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha

    2004-01-01

    are among the first stem cell types to be introduced in the clinic. Several studies have demonstrated the possible use of MSC in systemic transplantation for systemic diseases, local implantation for local tissue defects, as a vehicle for genes in gene therapy protocols or to generate transplantable tissues...... and organs in tissue engineering protocols. Before their widespread use in therapy, methods allowing the generation of large number of cells without affecting their differentiation potential as well as technologies that overcome immunological rejection (in case allogenic transplantation) must be developed.......Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are clonogenic, non-hematpoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow and are able to differentiate into multiple mesoderm-type cell lineages, for example, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, endothelial-cells and also non-mesoderm-type lineages, for example, neuronal...

  18. Potential Applications of Scanning Probe Microscopy in Forensic Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, G S; Watson, J A

    2007-01-01

    The forensic community utilises a myriad of techniques to investigate a wide range of materials, from paint flakes to DNA. The various microscopic techniques have provided some of the greatest contributions, e.g., FT-IR (Fourier-transform infrared) microspectroscopy utilised in copy toner discrimination, multi-layer automobile paint fragment examination, etc, SEM-EDA (scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis) used to investigate glass fragments, fibers, and explosives, and SEM in microsampling for elemental analysis, just to name a few. This study demonstrates the ability of the Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM) to analyse human fingerprints on surfaces utilising a step-and-scan feature, enabling analysis of a larger field-of-view. We also extend a line crossings study by incorporating height analysis and surface roughness measurements. The study demonstrates the potential for SPM techniques to be utilised for forensic analysis which could complement the more traditional methodologies used in such investigations

  19. Potential application of SERS for arsenic speciation in biological matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingwei; Matulis, Shannon; Boise, Lawrence H; McGoron, Anthony J; Cai, Yong

    2017-08-01

    Speciation of arsenic is usually carried out using chromatography-based methods coupled with spectroscopic determination; however, the inevitable procedures involving sample preparation and separation could potentially alter the integrity of the arsenic metabolites present in biological samples. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) could be a promising alternative for providing a reliable arsenic analysis under the influence of a cellular matrix. A method for arsenic speciation using SERS in cellular matrix was developed in this study and four arsenicals were selected, including arsenite (As III ), arsenate (As V ), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA V ) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA V ). Silver nanoparticles in the form of colliodal suspension with different surface charges, i.e., coated with citrate (AgNPs-Citrate) and spermine (AgNPs-Spermine) were employed as SERS substrates. Adsorption of arsenicals on nanoparticles in colloidal suspensions and the cellular matrix and the pH, size, and zeta potential of the colloidal suspensions were investigated for a better understanding of the SERS signal response of arsenicals in the colloidal suspensions or under the influence of cellular matrix. Arsenicals showed substantially different SERS responses in the two colloidal suspensions, mainly because of the distinct difference in the interaction between the arsenicals and the nanoparticles. Arsenic speciation in cell lysate could be successfully carried out in AgNPs-Spermine suspension, while AgNPs-Citrate could not yield significant SERS signals under the experimental conditions. This study proved that AgNPs-Spermine colloidal suspension could be a promising SERS substrate for studying arsenic metabolism in a biological matrix, reducing the bias caused by traditional techniques that involve sample extraction and pretreatment.

  20. Biogenic methane potential of marine sediments. Application of chemical thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arning, E.T.; Schulz, H.M. [Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ, Potsdam (Germany); Berk, W. van [Technical Univ. of Clausthal (Germany). Dept. of Hydrogeology

    2013-08-01

    Accumulations of biogenic methane-dominated gas are widespread and occur in a variety of depositional settings and rock types. However, the potential of biogenic methane remains underexplored. This is mainly due to the fact that quantitative assessments applying numerical modeling techniques for exploration purposes are generally lacking to date. Biogenic methane formation starts in relatively shallow marine sediments below the sulfate reduction zone. When sulfate is exhausted, methanogenesis via the CO{sub 2} reduction pathway is often the dominant biogenic methane formation process in marine sediments (Claypool and Kaplan, 1974). The process can be simplified by the reaction: 2CH{sub 2}O + Ca{sup 2+} + H{sub 2}O {yields} CH{sub 4} + CaCO{sub 3} + 2H{sup +}. The products of early diagenetic reactions initiate coupled equilibrium reactions that induce a new state of chemical equilibrium among minerals, pore water and gas. The driving force of the complex biogeochemical reactions in sedimentary environments during early diagenesis is the irreversible redox-conversion of organic matter. Early diagenetic formation of biogenic methane shortly after deposition ('early diagenesis') was retraced using PHREEQC computer code that is applied to calculate homogenous and heterogeneous mass-action equations in combination with one-dimensional diffusion driven transport (Parkhurst and Appelo, 1999). Our modeling approach incorporates interdependent diagenetic reactions evolving into a diffusive multi-component and multiphase system by means of thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of species distribution (Arning et al., 2011, 2012, 2013). Reaction kinetics of organic carbon conversion is integrated into the set of equilibrium reactions by defining type and amount of converted organic matter in a certain time step. It is the aim (1) to calculate quantitatively thermodynamic equilibrium conditions (composition of pore water, mineral phase and gas phase assemblage) in

  1. Anodal sensory nerve action potentials: From physiological understanding to potential clinical applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leote, Joao; Pereira, Pedro; Cabib, Christopher; Cipullo, Federica; Valls-Sole, Josep

    2016-06-01

    Low-intensity electrical stimuli of digital nerves may generate a double peak potential (DPp), composed of a cathodal (caAP) and an anodal (anAP) potential in orthodromic recordings. We studied the effects on caAP and anAP of stimuli of variable intensity, duration, and frequency. We also applied a conditioning stimulus to study potential differences in recovery time. The anAP was obtained in 33 of 40 healthy subjects (82.5%) and 4 of 20 patients with various types of sensory neuropathies (20%). Changes in stimulus duration and intensity had reciprocal effects on the amplitude of the anAP and the caAP. There were significant differences in recovery time between caAP and anAP after a conditioning stimulus. The caAP and anAP are 2 interdependent waveforms generated by different effects of the same stimulus over axons at the verge of depolarization. Muscle Nerve 53: 897-905, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Potential Applications for Nuclear Energy besides Electricity Generation: AREVA Global Perspective of HTR Potential Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soutworth, Finis; Gauthier, Jean-Claude; Lecomte, Michel; Carre, Franck

    2007-01-01

    Energy supply is increasingly showing up as a major issue for electricity supply, transportation, settlement, and process heat industrial supply including hydrogen production. Nuclear power is part of the solution. For electricity supply, as exemplified in Finland and France, the EPR brings an immediate answer; HTR could bring another solution in some specific cases. For other supply, mostly heat, the HTR brings a solution inaccessible to conventional nuclear power plants for very high or even high temperature. As fossil fuels costs increase and efforts to avoid generation of Greenhouse gases are implemented, a market for nuclear generated process heat will develop. Following active developments in the 80's, HTR have been put on the back burner up to 5 years ago. Light water reactors are widely dominating the nuclear production field today. However, interest in the HTR technology was renewed in the past few years. Several commercial projects are actively promoted, most of them aiming at electricity production. ANTARES is today AREVA's response to the cogeneration market. It distinguishes itself from other concepts with its indirect cycle design powering a combined cycle power plant. Several reasons support this design choice, one of the most important of which is the design flexibility to adapt readily to combined heat and power applications. From the start, AREVA made the choice of such flexibility with the belief that the HTR market is not so much in competition with LWR in the sole electricity market but in the specific added value market of cogeneration and process heat. In view of the volatility of the costs of fossil fuels, AREVA's choice brings to the large industrial heat applications the fuel cost predictability of nuclear fuel with the efficiency of a high temperature heat source free of greenhouse gases emissions. The ANTARES module produces 600 MWth which can be split into the required process heat, the remaining power drives an adapted prorated

  3. Urban liveability: emerging lessons from Australia for exploring the potential for indicators to measure the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badland, Hannah; Whitzman, Carolyn; Lowe, Melanie; Davern, Melanie; Aye, Lu; Butterworth, Iain; Hes, Dominique; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2014-06-01

    It has long been recognised that urban form impacts on health outcomes and their determinants. There is growing interest in creating indicators of liveability to measure progress towards achieving a wide range of policy outcomes, including enhanced health and wellbeing, and reduced inequalities. This review aimed to: 1) bring together the concepts of urban 'liveability' and social determinants of health; 2) synthesise the various liveability indicators developed to date; and 3) assess their quality using a health and wellbeing lens. Between 2011 and 2013, the research team reviewed 114 international academic and policy documents, as well as reports related to urban liveability. Overall, 233 indicators were found. Of these, 61 indicators were regarded as promising, 57 indicators needed further development, and 115 indicators were not useful for our purposes. Eleven domains of liveability were identified that likely contribute to health and wellbeing through the social determinants of health. These were: crime and safety; education; employment and income; health and social services; housing; leisure and culture; local food and other goods; natural environment; public open space; transport; and social cohesion and local democracy. Many of the indicators came from Australian sources; however most remain relevant from a 'global north' perspective. Although many indicators were identified, there was inconsistency in how these domains were measured. Few have been validated to assess their association with health and wellbeing outcomes, and little information was provided for how they should be applied to guide urban policy and practice. There is a substantial opportunity to further develop these measures to create a series of robust and evidence-based liveability indices, which could be linked with existing health and wellbeing data to better inform urban planning policies within Australia and beyond. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. New technology innovations with potential for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishen, Kumar

    2008-07-01

    Human exploration and development of space is being pursued by spacefaring nations to explore, use, and enable the development of space and expand the human experience there. The goals include: increasing human knowledge of nature's processes using the space environment; exploring and settling the solar system; achieving routine space travel; and enriching life on Earth through living and working in space. A crucial aspect of future space missions is the development of infrastructure to optimize safety, productivity, and costs. A major component of mission execution is operations management. NASA's International Space Station is providing extensive experience in both infrastructure and operations. In view of this, a vigorously organized approach is needed to implement successful space-, planet-, and ground-based research and operations that entails wise and efficient use of technical and human resources. Many revolutionary technologies being pursued by researchers and technologists may be vital in making space missions safe, reliable, cost-effective, and productive. These include: ionic polymer-metal composite technology; solid-state lasers; time-domain sensors and communication systems; high-temperature superconductivity; nanotechnology; variable specific impulse magneto plasma rocket; fuzzy logic; wavelet technology; and neural networks. An overview of some of these will be presented, along with their application to space missions.

  5. An innovative liquid metal design with worldwide application potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, J.E.; Berglund, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that the United States nuclear program has been faced with major political, economic and technical challenges in recent years. One US program element, the Liquid Metal Reactor, has addressed these challenges in a systematic, focused manner. The result is an innovative modular design incorporating safety features that utilize inherent characteristics. This Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) is based on the PRISM concept, originated by the General Electric Company in 1981. This design should also be attractive in other developed countries that have deployed, and/or are deploying, nuclear power. The design's safety features can achieve neutronic shutdown and decay heat removal without relying on operator action or engineered active safety features. The ALMR utilizes many innovations including: a passive reactor vessel air cooling system for decay heat removal; the use of a sealed reactor assembly; seismic isolation; electromagnetic primary pumps; and an in-vessel fuel transfer machine. The US ALMR design incorporates a metal fuel core as its reference, however, the required safety performance can also be achieved with an oxide core having similar safety features. This flexibility is particularly important when addressing world wide ALMR applications. The reference ALMR reactor module, of which there are nine in a typical 1395 MW e plant, has a -6 meter by -20 meter vessel and a 471 MW thermal output, with a reactor outlet temperature of 485 degrees C and an overall conversion efficiency of 33%. This plant uses a saturated steam cycle and a non-safety grade secondary sodium system

  6. MAGNETIC BACTERIA AND THEIR POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS: A REVIEW ARTICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rajab Eljmeli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This outline explores the scientific discovery concerning the magnetotactic bacteria (MTB. The results of the discovery are used in microbiology, mineralogy, limnology, physics, biophysics, chemistry, biochemistry, geology, crystallography, and astrobiology. Magnetosomes of the MTB are organized in linear chains and orient the cell body along geomagnetic field lines while flagella actively propel the cells, resulting in so-called magnetotaxis. Materials and Methods: The review article about the magnetotactic bacteria is a collection of many research papers from different institutes. The emerging important points about this review lie in: (1 any biological system is capable of producing magnetic biomaterials such as magnetite (Fe3O4 and gregite (Fe3S4; (2 the navigation of these nano-crystals in the biological system is interconnected with the Earth’s magnetic field. Results: The researchers involved in the study have shown that the magnetotactic bacteria do respond to a magnetic field. This makes them attractive for biomedical and industrial applications because of the availability of superior electromagnets, superconducting magnets and permanent magnet. Magnetic bacteria can also be used as a diagnostic tool in the detection of imperfections even at the nanoscale. Discussion and Conclusions: Although the importance of this issue is still limitedly used in medical area, more performance is necessary to explore the world of these bacteria that are candidate for new industry and new therapy strategies in biotechnology and medical fields.

  7. Potential Positive Effects of Pesticides Application on (Walker (Lepidoptera: Insecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qing Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, the pink stem borer (PSB Sesamia inferens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae has become a rice pest in some rice-producing regions. The cause of this shift from secondary to major pest is unknown. The major purpose of this study was to examine the effect of five commonly used pesticides in rice fields on reproduction of PSB and on biochemical substances of rice plants. The results showed that the weight of pupae developed from 1st instar larvae treated with 2 mg/L triazophos and the number of eggs laid by emerged females from the treatment were significantly greater than those of the control, increasing by 26.2% and 47%, respectively. In addition, a nontarget insecticide, pymetrozine 100 mg/L, and a target insecticide, chlorantraniliprole 2 mg/L, stimulated reproduction of PSB. Biochemical measurement showed that foliar sprays of these pesticides resulted in significant reductions of contents of resistant substances, flavonoids and phenolic acids, in rice plants. For example, flavonoids and phenolic acids of rice plants treated with triazophos reduced by 48.5% and 22.4%, respectively, compared to the control. Therefore, we predicted that the application of some pesticides, eg triazophos and chlorantraniliprole, may be the cause of the increase in the population numbers of PSB in rice fields.

  8. A novel plasmonic interferometry and the potential applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we have proposed the plasmonic interferometry concept and analytical details given. By using the conventional optical interferometry, which can be simply calculated by using the relationship between the electric field and electron mobility, the interference mobility visibility (fringe visibility can be observed. The surface plasmons in the sensing arm of the Michelson interferometer is constructed by the stacked layers of the silicon-graphene-gold, allows to characterize the spatial resolution of light beams in terms of the electron mobility down to 100-nm scales, with measured coherence lengths as low as ∼100 nm for an incident wavelength of 1550 nm. We have demonstrated a compact plasmonic interferometer that can apply to the electron mean free paths measurement, from which the precise determination can be used for the high-resolution mean free path measurement and sensing applications. This system provides the practical simulation device parameters that can be fabricated and tested by the experimental platform.

  9. Potential application of Candida melibiosica in biofuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubenova, Yolina; Mitov, Mario

    2010-04-01

    Various prokaryote species have been widely studied for microbial fuel cell (MFC) application. However, the information about yeast utilization into biofuel cells is still scanty. The aim of this investigation is to verify if Candida melibiosica 2491, a yeast strain, possessing high phytase activity, could be applied as a biocatalyst in a yeast biofuel cell. The microbiological requirements were coupled with the electrochemical ones tracing main biochemical pathway metabolites such as different carbohydrate and inorganic phosphates and their assimilation with time. The obtained results show that from the three carbohydrates investigated - glucose, fructose and sucrose, fructose is the most suitable for the yeast cultivation. The presence of yeast extract and peptone improves the performance into the biofuel cell. The relationship between the yeast cell amount and the biofuel cell characteristics was determined. Analyses showed that electricity was generated by the yeast culture even in the absence of an artificial mediator. The addition of methylene blue at concentrations higher than 0.1 mM improves the current and power density output. The obtained experimental results proved that C. melibiosica 2491 belongs to the electrogenic strains. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Luminescence imaging using radionuclides: a potential application in molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Chan; Il An, Gwang; Park, Se-Il; Oh, Jungmin; Kim, Hong Joo; Su Ha, Yeong; Wang, Eun Kyung; Min Kim, Kyeong; Kim, Jung Young; Lee, Jaetae; Welch, Michael J.; Yoo, Jeongsoo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Nuclear and optical imaging are complementary in many aspects and there would be many advantages when optical imaging probes are prepared using radionuclides rather than classic fluorophores, and when nuclear and optical dual images are obtained using single imaging probe. Methods: The luminescence intensities of various radionuclides having different decay modes have been assayed using luminescence imaging and in vitro luminometer. Radioiodinated Herceptin was injected into a tumor-bearing mouse, and luminescence and microPET images were obtained. The plant dipped in [ 32 P]phosphate solution was scanned in luminescence mode. Radio-TLC plate was also imaged in the same imaging mode. Results: Radionuclides emitting high energy β + /β - particles showed higher luminescence signals. NIH3T6.7 tumors were detected in both optical and nuclear imaging. The uptake of [ 32 P]phosphate in plant was easily followed by luminescence imaging. Radio-TLC plate was visualized and radiochemical purity was quantified using luminescence imaging. Conclusion: Many radionuclides with high energetic β + or β - particles during decay were found to be imaged in luminescence mode due mainly to Cerenkov radiation. 'Cerenkov imaging' provides a new optical imaging platform and an invaluable bridge between optical and nuclear imaging. New optical imaging probes could be easily prepared using well-established radioiodination methods. Cerenkov imaging will have more applications in the research field of plant science and autoradiography.

  11. Development and application of Danish Key Performance Indicators for Railway Timetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schittenhelm, Bernd; Landex, Alex

    ) by requiring improved products with reduced costs at the same time. Introducing Key Performance Indicators (KPI) can help achieve a higher efficiency. Creation of a feasible and attractive railway timetable is the most important process for both TOC and IM. When measuring the quality of the produced timetables......, one also measures the success of the applied timetabling process. KPI for railway timetables most be based on a common accepted set of timetabling criteria. This paper begins with a brief description of the process that lead to the creation of a common Danish list of prioritized timetabling evaluation...

  12. Biochemical Properties and Potential Applications of Recombinant Leucine Aminopeptidase from Bacillus kaustophilus CCRC 11223

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Wang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of various factors on the activity and conformation of recombinant leucine aminopeptidase of Bacillus kaustophilus CCRC 11223 (BkLAP and potential utilization of BkLAP in the hydrolysis of anchovy protein. Optimal temperature and pH of BkLAP were 70 °C and 8.0 in potassium-phosphate buffer, respectively, and the activity was strongly stimulated by Ni2+, followed by Mn2+ and Co2+. Conformational studies via circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that various factors could influence the secondary structure of BkLAP to different extents and further induce the changes in enzymatic activity. The secondary structure of BkLAP was slightly modified by Ni2+ at the concentration of 1×10−4 M, however, significant changes on the secondary structures of the enzyme were observed when Hg2+ was added to the concentration of 1×10−4 M. The potential application of BkLAP was evaluated through combination with the commercial or endogenous enzyme to hydrolysis the anchovy protein. Results showed that combining the BkLAP with other enzymes could significantly increase the degree of hydrolysis and amino acid component of hydrolysate. In this regard, BkLAP is a potential enzyme that can be used in the protein hydrolysate industry.

  13. The use of simple indicators for detecting potential coronary heart disease susceptibility in the air traffic controller population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-05-01

    An analysis was made of an eight-year interval change in several indicators of coronary heart disease (CHD) susceptibility as measured on 475 male air traffic control (ATC) personnel. The initial measurements were obtained from these personnel as ATC...

  14. The use of simple indicators for detecting potential coronary heart disease susceptibility in the third-class airman population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-07-01

    An analysis was made of an eight-year interval change in several Framingham Heart Study (FHS) indicators of coronary heart disease (CHD) susceptibility as measured on 475 male air traffic control (ATC) personnel. The initial measurements were obtaine...

  15. Diatom Communities and Metrics as Indicators of Urbanization Effects on Streams and Potential Moderation by Landscape Green Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diatoms are very useful and important indicators of anthropogenic impacts on streams because they are the foundation of primary production and are responsive to nutrients, conductivity, and habitat conditions. We characterized relationships of diatom assemblages with water chemis...

  16. Salivary testosterone as a potential indicator for risky behaviour associated with smoking-related peer pressure in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Adi; Ghazali, Nur B; Said, Nadzirah M; Steele, Michael; Koh, David; Tuah, Nik A

    2016-04-09

    Early smoking is considered an indicator for risky behaviour in adolescents. Although social indicators predicting adolescent smoking are known, biological indicators have not been defined. This study aimed to establish whether salivary testosterone could be used as a "predictive biomarker" for smoking-associated peer pressure. Saliva samples were collected from Bruneian adolescents (aged 13-17 years) by the passive drool method. Salivary testosterone concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Salivary testosterone concentration and smoking-associated peer pressure indicators were compared between adolescent males and females and statistical significance was determined by an independent samples t-test. A significant positive relationship between smoking-associated peer pressure and salivary testosterone levels in adolescents was found. However, this relationship was not significant when males and females were considered separately. Our data suggest that students who have tried cigarette smoking and have friends who are cigarette smokers have higher salivary testosterone levels.

  17. The long-run effects of economic, demographic, and political indices on actual and potential CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adom, Philip Kofi; Kwakwa, Paul Adjei; Amankwaa, Afua

    2018-07-15

    This study examines the long-run drivers of potential and actual CO 2 emissions in Ghana, a sub-Saharan Africa country. The use of the former helps address the reverse causality problem and capture the true long-run effects. The Stock-Watson dynamic OLS is used with data from 1970 to 2014. The result shows that potential CO 2 emissions improve model efficiency. Income (except in "other sector") and financial development (except in manufacturing and construction sector) have compelling positive and negative effects on actual and potential CO 2 emissions, respectively. A higher price (oil and electricity) reduces actual and potential CO 2 emissions, but electricity price is more vital in residential, buildings and commercial and public services sector, while oil price is crucial in the transport sector. Democracy lowers actual and potential CO 2 emissions in the aggregate (insignificant) and transport sectors but raises it in the manufacturing and construction sector. The effect is, however, inconsistent for the remaining sectors. Urbanization raises aggregate actual and potential CO 2 emissions, but the effect is inconsistent for the transport sector. The findings have important implications for policy formulation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of water quality indices NSF, DINIUS and BMWP to Ayura Creek, Antioquia, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Melendez, Viky; Caicedo Quintero, Orlando; Aguirre Ramirez, Nestor

    2013-01-01

    This investigation evaluates the quality of water in the creek The Ayura (municipality of Envigado, Antioquia, Colombia), through application of the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) and Dinius quality indexes, and the biotic index BMWP/Col. the estimate of these indexes was conducted with data collected in three sites and three moments. Physicochemical and microbiological variables were determinate; we also performed a qualitative and quantitative sampling of aquatic macroinvertebrates. Using this methodology the behavior of physical-chemical and biological community in the different sites was studied. The physicochemical and aquatic macroinvertebrate indexes results showed that site 1 provides a good quality of water and the sites 2 and 3 a middle deteriorated water quality.

  19. Studies on the application of tryptophan metabolites as indicators of acute radiation damage and their modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.

    1979-01-01

    It has been the aim of the investigations to continue earlier studies on the amplication of tryptophan metabolites as biochemical indicators after irradiation. These metabolites are of interest as they apparently indicate radiation effects in contrast to other metabolites like taurine and deoxycytidine in a dose range which leads to acute radiation sickness with the consequence of death. This assumption has been confirmed by the results of these studies. Measurements in the urine of rats demonstrate that the excretion of kynurenic acid and of xanthurenic acid as well as especially the ratio of kynurenic acid/anthranilic acid increases considerably in those animals which die some days later. The excretion of the surviving anilic acid increases considerably in those animals which die some days later. The excretion of the surviving animals is characteristical different. This abnormal excretion is induced by changes of specific, hepatic enzyme activities. The investigations have shown that the effects on the enzyme activities apppear not only after X-rays irradiation but also after neutrons. The studies, which have been performed with human material on the NAD-metabolism, demonstrate that with respect to the enzyme activities in the spleen as well as to the urinary excretion the same or similar effects, which have been found with animal experiments, can be expected. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 CKA [de

  20. Application of Social Vulnerability Indicators to Climate Change for the Southwest Coastal Areas of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Cheng Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change on the coastal zones of Taiwan not only affects the marine environment, ecology, and human communities whose economies rely heavily on marine activities, but also the sustainable development of national economics. The southwest coast is known as the area most vulnerable to climate change; therefore, this study aims to develop indicators to assess social vulnerability in this area of Taiwan using the three dimensions of susceptibility, resistance, and resilience. The modified Delphi method was used to develop nine criteria and 26 indexes in the evaluation, and the analytic hierarchy process method was employed to evaluate the weight of each indicator based on the perspectives of experts collected through questionnaire surveys. The results provide important information pertaining to the vulnerability of the most susceptive regions, the lowest-resistance areas, and the least resilient townships on the southwest coast. The most socially vulnerable areas are plotted based on the present analysis. Experts can consider the vulnerability map provided here when developing adaptation policies. It should be kept in mind that improving the capacities of resistance and resilience is more important than reducing susceptibility in Taiwan.

  1. A High Redox Potential Laccase from Pycnoporus sanguineus RP15: Potential Application for Dye Decolorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. R. L. Zimbardi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Laccase production by Pycnoporus sanguineus RP15 grown in wheat bran and corncob under solid-state fermentation was optimized by response surface methodology using a Central Composite Rotational Design. A laccase (Lacps1 was purified and characterized and the potential of the pure Lacps1 and the crude culture extract for synthetic dye decolorization was evaluated. At optimal conditions (eight days, 26 °C, 18% (w/w milled corncob, 0.8% (w/w NH4Cl and 50 mmol·L−1 CuSO4, initial moisture 4.1 mL·g−1, the laccase activity reached 138.6 ± 13.2 U·g−1. Lacps1 was a monomeric glycoprotein (67 kDa, 24% carbohydrate. Optimum pH and temperature for the oxidation of 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS were 4.4 and 74.4 °C, respectively. Lacps1 was stable at pH 3.0–8.0, and after two hours at 55–60 °C, presenting high redox potential (0.747 V vs. NHE. ABTS was oxidized with an apparent affinity constant of 147.0 ± 6.4 μmol·L−1, maximum velocity of 413.4 ± 21.2 U·mg−1 and catalytic efficiency of 3140.1 ± 149.6 L·mmol−1·s−1. The maximum decolorization percentages of bromophenol blue (BPB, remazol brilliant blue R and reactive blue 4 (RB4, at 25 or 40 °C without redox mediators, reached 90%, 80% and 60%, respectively, using either pure Lacps1 or the crude extract. This is the first study of the decolorization of BPB and RB4 by a P. sanguineus laccase. The data suggested good potential for treatment of industrial dye-containing effluents.

  2. Radiation Modification of Some Natural Polymers and Their Potential Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refaee, A.M.E.A.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, antioxidants received remarkable attention due to the ability to preserve foodstuffs by retarding deterioration, rancidity and/or discoloration caused by oxidation of fats and oils in foods. In addition, they have the ability to protect against detrimental change of oxidizable nutrients and extend shelf life of foods. Nowadays, polysaccharides have been demonstrated to scavenge free radicals in vitro and to be used as antioxidants for the prevention of oxidative damage in foods. The antioxidant activity of polysaccharides depends upon several structural parameters, such as the molecular weight, amount, type and position of functional groups. For these applications, specific molecular weights are required. Thus, modification and preparation of low molecular weight fractions or oligosaccharides from chitosan, Na-alginate and carrageenan using ionizing radiation will be carried out and their antioxidant properties will be determined. The molecular weights and structure changes upon the radiation degradation process of these natural polymers in solid and solution form will be investigated using GPC, FT-IR, UV-Vis spectrophotometers. In an attempt to improve the functionality and water solubility of chitosan, chemical modifications will be done to introduce hydrophilic groups and enhance its antioxidant activity. Radical mediated lipid peroxidation inhibition, scavenging effect on DPPH radicals, reducing power and the ferrous ion chelating activity assays will be used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of oligosaccharides. Effectiveness of irradiated chitosan derivatives in reducing the lipid peroxidation in minced chicken will be investigated for improving the oxidative deterioration of minced chicken during refrigerated storage. On the other hand, there is a strong need for new plant growth media with increased water and nutrient holding capacity. Hydrogels have the ability to absorb large quantities of water. Among of these hydrogels polyacrylamide

  3. Zirconium Phosphate Nanoplatelet Potential for Anticancer Drug Delivery Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Millie L; Ortiz, Mayra; Hernández, Carmen; Cabán, Jennifer; Rodríguez, Axel; Colón, Jorge L; Báez, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Zirconium phosphate (ZrP) nanoplatelets can intercalate anticancer agents via an ion exchange reaction creating an inorganic delivery system with potential for cancer treatment. ZrP delivery of anticancer agents inside tumor cells was explored in vitro. Internalization and cytotoxicity of ZrP nanoplatelets were studied in MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells. DOX-loaded ZrP nanoplatelets (DOX@ZrP) uptake was assessed by confocal (CLSM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cytotoxicity to MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells was determined by the MTT assay. Reactive Oxy- gen Species (ROS) production was analyzed by fluorometric assay, and cell cycle alterations and induction of apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. ZrP nanoplatelets were localized in the endosomes of MCF-7 cells. DOX and ZrP nanoplatelets were co-internalized into MCF-7 cells as detected by CLSM. While ZrP showed limited toxicity to MCF-7 cells, DOX@ZrP was cytotoxic at an IC₅₀ similar to that of free DOX. Meanwhile, DOX lC₅₀ was significantly lower than the equivalent concentration of DOX@ZrP in MCF-10A cells. ZrP did not induce apoptosis in both cell lines. DOX and DOX@ZrP induced significant oxidative stress in both cell models. Results suggest that ZrP nanoplatelets are promising as carriers of anticancer agents into cancer cells.

  4. Evaluation of alkali bromide salts for potential pyrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, P.K.; Gutknecht, T.Y.; Herrmann, S.D.; Fredrickson, G.L.; Lister, T.E.

    2013-01-01

    Transient techniques were employed to study the electrochemical behavior, reduction mechanism and transport properties of REBr 3 (RE - La, Nd and Gd) in pure LiBr, LiBr-KBr (eutectic) and LiBr-KBr-CsBr (eutectic) melts. Gd(III) showed a reversible single step soluble-insoluble exchange phenomenon in LiBr melt at 973 K. Although La (III), Nd(III) and Gd(III) ions showed reversible behavior in eutectic LiBr-KBr melts, these ions showed a combination of temperature dependent reversible and pseudo-reversible behavior. While both La(III) and Gd(III) showed one step reduction, the reduction of Nd(III) was observed to be a two step process. La metal could be electrodeposited from the ternary electrolyte at a temperature of 673 K. Various electrochemical measurements suggest that both binary and ternary bromide melts can potentially be used to electro-deposit high purity RE metals at comparatively lower operating temperatures. (authors)

  5. [Mesenchymal stem cells: definitions, culture and potential applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceron, Willy; Lozada-Requena, Iván; Ventocilla, Kiomi; Jara, Sandra; Pinto, Milagros; Cabello, Marco; Aguilar, José L

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have become very important due to their high plasticity and their ability to release paracrine factors able to interact with various cell types, tissues and organs. The use of MSC in regenerative medicine became of vital importance, since they do not express histocompatibility MHC molecules class II nor costimulant molecules, and low expression of MHC class I, will not be rejected by individuals of same species, they could be used in an autologous, and eventually, allogeneic manner. However, it is important to scientifically demonstrate many properties, including immunomodulatory ones. Having several sources of obtaining, it should be standardized the best one to ensure the purity and quality of these cells. Finally, it is important when working with these cells, that characteristics of cell culture, immunophenotyping and differentiation capacity are fully demonstrated. MSC have been applied in several clinical uses. Among them, their ability to improve, and even heal chronic ulcers, as diabetic, has attracted attention for its potential therapeutic impact.

  6. Evaluation of Alkali Bromide Salts for Potential Pyrochemical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhat K. Tripathy; Steven D. Herrmann; Guy L. Fredrickson; Tedd E. Lister; Toni Y. Gutknecht

    2013-10-01

    Transient techniques were employed to study the electrochemical behavior, reduction mechanism and transport properties of REBr3 (RE - La, Nd and Gd) in pure LiBr, LiBr-KBr (eutectic) and LiBr-KBr-CsBr (eutectic) melts. Gd(III) showed a reversible single step soluble-insoluble exchange phenomenon in LiBr melt at 973K. Although La (III), Nd(III) and Gd(III) ions showed reversible behavior in eutectic LiBr-KBr melts, these ions showed a combination of temperature dependent reversible and pseudo-reversible behavior. While both La(III) and Gd(III) showed one step reduction, the reduction of Nd(III) was observed to be a two step process. La metal could be electrodeposited from the ternary electrolyte at a temperature of 673K. Various electrochemical measurements suggest that both binary and ternary bromide melts can potentially be used to electrodeposit high purity RE metals at comparatively lower operating temperatures.

  7. Building better optical model potentials for nuclear astrophysics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauge, Eric; Dupuis, Marc

    2004-01-01

    In nuclear astrophysics, optical model potentials play an important role, both in the nucleosynthesis models, and in the interpretation of astrophysics related nuclear physics measurements. The challenge of nuclear astrophysics resides in the fact that it involves many nuclei far from the stability line, implying than very few (if any) experimental results are available for these nuclei. The answer to this challenge is a heavy reliance on microscopic optical models with solid microscopic physics foundations that can predict the relevant physical quantities with good accuracy. This use of microscopic information limits the likelihood of the model failing spectacularly (except if some essential physics was omitted in the modeling) when extrapolating away from the stability line, in opposition to phenomenological models which are only suited for interpolation between measured data points and not for extrapolating towards unexplored areas of the chart of the nuclides.We will show how these microscopic optical models are built, how they link to our present knowledge of nuclear structure, and how they affect predictions of nuclear astrophysics models and the interpretation of some key nuclear physics measurements for astrophysics

  8. Potential applications of plasma science techniques for water treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlik, D.

    1994-01-01

    The historical evolution of water treatment techniques and their impact on man and his environment are presented. Ancient man recognized the relationship between good water and good health. However, it was not until the late 1800's that man's own contribution to the pollution of water via biological and chemical contamination of the water stream was recognized as having adverse affects on water quality. Since that time virtually every nation has adopted laws and regulations to ensure that safe sources of unpolluted water are available to its citizens. In the United States, water quality is governed by the Clean Water Act of 1972 administered at the federal level by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Further, each state has established its equivalent agency which administers its own laws and regulations. Different biological and chemical biohazards present in the water system are discussed. Biological contaminants include various types of viruses, bacteria, fungii, molds, yeasts, algae, amoebas, and parasites. Chemical contaminates include elemental heavy metals and other organic and inorganic compounds which interfere with normal biological functions. Conventional water treatments for both consumption and sewage effluent commonly employ four different principals: mechanical filtration, quiescent gravity settling, biological oxidation, and chemical treatment. Although these techniques have greatly reduced the incidence of water-borne disease recent studies suggest that more effective means of eliminating biohazards are needed. Regulatory requirements for more aggressive treatment and elimination of residual contaminants present a significant opportunity for the application of various forms of electromagnetic radiation techniques. A comparison between conventional techniques and more advanced methods using various forms of electromagnetic radiation is discussed

  9. Collagen: A review on its sources and potential cosmetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Rodríguez, María Isabela; Rodríguez Barroso, Laura G; Sánchez, Mirna Lorena

    2018-02-01

    Collagen is a fibrillar protein that conforms the conjunctive and connective tissues in the human body, essentially skin, joints, and bones. This molecule is one of the most abundant in many of the living organisms due to its connective role in biological structures. Due to its abundance, strength and its directly proportional relation with skin aging, collagen has gained great interest in the cosmetic industry. It has been established that the collagen fibers are damaged with the pass of time, losing thickness and strength which has been strongly related with skin aging phenomena [Colágeno para todo. 60 y más. 2016. http://www.revista60ymas.es/InterPresent1/groups/revistas/documents/binario/ses330informe.pdf.]. As a solution, the cosmetic industry incorporated collagen as an ingredient of different treatments to enhance the user youth and well-being, and some common presentations are creams, nutritional supplement for bone and cartilage regeneration, vascular and cardiac reconstruction, skin replacement, and augmentation of soft skin among others [J App Pharm Sci. 2015;5:123-127]. Nowadays, the biomolecule can be obtained by extraction from natural sources such as plants and animals or by recombinant protein production systems including yeast, bacteria, mammalian cells, insects or plants, or artificial fibrils that mimic collagen characteristics like the artificial polymer commercially named as KOD. Because of its increased use, its market size is valued over USD 6.63 billion by 2025 [Collagen Market By Source (Bovine, Porcine, Poultry, Marine), Product (Gelatin, Hydrolyzed Collagen), Application (Food & Beverages, Healthcare, Cosmetics), By Region, And Segment Forecasts, 2014 - 2025. Grand View Research. http://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/collagen-market. Published 2017.]. Nevertheless, there has been little effort on identifying which collagen types are the most suitable for cosmetic purposes, for which the present review will try to enlighten

  10. Music Games: Potential Application and Considerations for Rhythmic Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégel, Valentin; Di Loreto, Ines; Seilles, Antoine; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Rhythmic skills are natural and widespread in the general population. The majority can track the beat of music and move along with it. These abilities are meaningful from a cognitive standpoint given their tight links with prominent motor and cognitive functions such as language and memory. When rhythmic skills are challenged by brain damage or neurodevelopmental disorders, remediation strategies based on rhythm can be considered. For example, rhythmic training can be used to improve motor performance (e.g., gait) as well as cognitive and language skills. Here, we review the games readily available in the market and assess whether they are well-suited for rhythmic training. Games that train rhythm skills may serve as useful tools for retraining motor and cognitive functions in patients with motor or neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g., Parkinson's disease, dyslexia, or ADHD). Our criteria were the peripheral used to capture and record the response, the type of response and the output measure. None of the existing games provides sufficient temporal precision in stimulus presentation and/or data acquisition. In addition, games do not train selectively rhythmic skills. Hence, the available music games, in their present form, are not satisfying for training rhythmic skills. Yet, some features such as the device used, the interface or the game scenario provide good indications for devising efficient training protocols. Guidelines are provided for devising serious music games targeting rhythmic training in the future.

  11. Music Games: Potential Application and Considerations for Rhythmic Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Bégel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhythmic skills are natural and widespread in the general population. The majority can track the beat of music and move along with it. These abilities are meaningful from a cognitive standpoint given their tight links with prominent motor and cognitive functions such as language and memory. When rhythmic skills are challenged by brain damage or neurodevelopmental disorders, remediation strategies based on rhythm can be considered. For example, rhythmic training can be used to improve motor performance (e.g., gait as well as cognitive and language skills. Here, we review the games readily available in the market and assess whether they are well-suited for rhythmic training. Games that train rhythm skills may serve as useful tools for retraining motor and cognitive functions in patients with motor or neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g., Parkinson’s disease, dyslexia, or ADHD. Our criteria were the peripheral used to capture and record the response, the type of response and the output measure. None of the existing games provides sufficient temporal precision in stimulus presentation and/or data acquisition. In addition, games do not train selectively rhythmic skills. Hence, the available music games, in their present form, are not satisfying for training rhythmic skills. Yet, some features such as the device used, the interface or the game scenario provide good indications for devising efficient training protocols. Guidelines are provided for devising serious music games targeting rhythmic training in the future.

  12. Molecular biology of breast cancer stem cells: potential clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nam P; Almeida, Fabio S; Chi, Alex; Nguyen, Ly M; Cohen, Deirdre; Karlsson, Ulf; Vinh-Hung, Vincent

    2010-10-01

    Breast cancer stem cells (CSC) have been postulated recently as responsible for failure of breast cancer treatment. The purpose of this study is to review breast CSCs molecular biology with respect to their mechanism of resistance to conventional therapy, and to develop treatment strategies that may improve survival of breast cancer patients. A literature search has identified in vitro and in vivo studies of breast CSCs. Breast CSCs overexpress breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) which allows cancer cells to transport actively chemotherapy agents out of the cells. Radioresistance is modulated through activation of Wnt signaling pathway and overexpression of genes coding for glutathione. Lapatinib can selectively target HER-2 positive breast CSCs and improves disease-free survival in these patients. Metformin may target basal type breast CSCs. Parthenolide and oncolytic viruses are promising targeting agents for breast CSCs. Future clinical trials for breast cancer should include anti-cancer stem cells targeting agents in addition to conventional chemotherapy. Hypofractionation radiotherapy may be indicated for residual disease post chemotherapy. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Application of Statistical Method of Path Analysis to Describe Soil Biological Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kooch

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among the collection of natural resources in the world, soil is considered as one of the most important components of the environment. Protect and improve the properties of this precious resource, requires a comprehensive and coordinated action that only through a deep understanding of quantitative (not only recognition of the quality the origin, distribution and functionality in a natural ecosystem is possible. Many researchers believe that due to the quick reactions of soil organisms to environmental changes, soil biological survey to estimate soil quality is more important than the chemical and physical properties. For this reason, in many studies the nitrogen mineralization and microbial respiration indices are regarded. The aim of the present study were to study the direct and indirect effects of soil physicochemical characteristics on the most important biological indicators (nitrogen mineralization and microbial respiration, which has not been carefully considered up to now. This research is the first study to provide evidence to the future planning and management of soil sciences. Materials and Methods: For this, a limitation of 20 ha area of Experimental Forest Station of Tarbiat Modares University was considered. Fifty five soil samples, from the top 15 cm of soil, were taken, from which bulk density, texture, organic C, total N, cation exchange capacity (CEC, nitrogen mineralization and microbial respiration were determined at the laboratory. The data stored in Excel as a database. To determine the relationship between biological indices and soil physicochemical characteristics, correlation analysis and factor analysis using principal component analysis (PCA were employed. To investigate all direct and indirect relationships between biological indices and different soil characteristics, path analysis (path analysis was used. Results and Discussion: Results showed significant positive relations between biological indices

  14. Accurate atmospheric parameters at moderate resolution using spectral indices: Preliminary application to the marvels survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghezzi, Luan; Da Costa, Luiz N.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Dutra-Ferreira, Letícia; Lorenzo-Oliveira, Diego; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Santiago, Basílio X.; De Lee, Nathan; Lee, Brian L.; Ge, Jian; Wisniewski, John P.; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Cargile, Phillip; Pepper, Joshua; Fleming, Scott W.; Schneider, Donald P.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Wang, Ji

    2014-01-01

    Studies of Galactic chemical, and dynamical evolution in the solar neighborhood depend on the availability of precise atmospheric parameters (effective temperature T eff , metallicity [Fe/H], and surface gravity log g) for solar-type stars. Many large-scale spectroscopic surveys operate at low to moderate spectral resolution for efficiency in observing large samples, which makes the stellar characterization difficult due to the high degree of blending of spectral features. Therefore, most surveys employ spectral synthesis, which is a powerful technique, but relies heavily on the completeness and accuracy of atomic line databases and can yield possibly correlated atmospheric parameters. In this work, we use an alternative method based on spectral indices to determine the atmospheric parameters of a sample of nearby FGK dwarfs and subgiants observed by the MARVELS survey at moderate resolving power (R ∼ 12,000). To avoid a time-consuming manual analysis, we have developed three codes to automatically normalize the observed spectra, measure the equivalent widths of the indices, and, through a comparison of those with values calculated with predetermined calibrations, estimate the atmospheric parameters of the stars. The calibrations were derived using a sample of 309 stars with precise stellar parameters obtained from the analysis of high-resolution FEROS spectra, permitting the low-resolution equivalent widths to be directly related to the stellar parameters. A validation test of the method was conducted with a sample of 30 MARVELS targets that also have reliable atmospheric parameters derived from the high-resolution spectra and spectroscopic analysis based on the excitation and ionization equilibria method. Our approach was able to recover the parameters within 80 K for T eff , 0.05 dex for [Fe/H], and 0.15 dex for log g, values that are lower than or equal to the typical external uncertainties found between different high-resolution analyses. An additional test

  15. Accurate Atmospheric Parameters at Moderate Resolution Using Spectral Indices: Preliminary Application to the MARVELS Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzi, Luan; Dutra-Ferreira, Letícia; Lorenzo-Oliveira, Diego; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; Santiago, Basílio X.; De Lee, Nathan; Lee, Brian L.; da Costa, Luiz N.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Wisniewski, John P.; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Fleming, Scott W.; Schneider, Donald P.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Cargile, Phillip; Ge, Jian; Pepper, Joshua; Wang, Ji; Paegert, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Studies of Galactic chemical, and dynamical evolution in the solar neighborhood depend on the availability of precise atmospheric parameters (effective temperature T eff, metallicity [Fe/H], and surface gravity log g) for solar-type stars. Many large-scale spectroscopic surveys operate at low to moderate spectral resolution for efficiency in observing large samples, which makes the stellar characterization difficult due to the high degree of blending of spectral features. Therefore, most surveys employ spectral synthesis, which is a powerful technique, but relies heavily on the completeness and accuracy of atomic line databases and can yield possibly correlated atmospheric parameters. In this work, we use an alternative method based on spectral indices to determine the atmospheric parameters of a sample of nearby FGK dwarfs and subgiants observed by the MARVELS survey at moderate resolving power (R ~ 12,000). To avoid a time-consuming manual analysis, we have developed three codes to automatically normalize the observed spectra, measure the equivalent widths of the indices, and, through a comparison of those with values calculated with predetermined calibrations, estimate the atmospheric parameters of the stars. The calibrations were derived using a sample of 309 stars with precise stellar parameters obtained from the analysis of high-resolution FEROS spectra, permitting the low-resolution equivalent widths to be directly related to the stellar parameters. A validation test of the method was conducted with a sample of 30 MARVELS targets that also have reliable atmospheric parameters derived from the high-resolution spectra and spectroscopic analysis based on the excitation and ionization equilibria method. Our approach was able to recover the parameters within 80 K for T eff, 0.05 dex for [Fe/H], and 0.15 dex for log g, values that are lower than or equal to the typical external uncertainties found between different high-resolution analyses. An additional test was

  16. The Establishment and Application of Environment Sustainability Evaluation Indicators for Ecotourism Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Shen Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kinmen National Park is the only battle memorial-themed natural resource conservation park in Taiwan. With the rapid growth in tourism, Kinmen National Park faces the challenge of managing with the resulting environmental impact. For this study, we adopted the tourism ecological footprint (TEF and tourism ecological capacity (TEC to evaluate the ecological conditions of Kinmen National Park from 2002 to 2011. The empirical results indicated the following findings: (a TEF increased by 8.03% over 10 years; (b Regarding the environmental sustainability index (ESI, per capita tourism ecological deficit (PTED yielded a deficit growth rate of 45.37%. In 2011, the ecological footprint index (EFI was at Level 4 with 1.16, and the ESI was at Level 3 with 0.495. According to the aforementioned results, with the increased scale of tourism to Kinmen National Park, the pressure that ecological occupancy exerted on the national ecosystem exceeded its ecological capacity.

  17. Application of a binomial cusum control chart to monitor one drinking water indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Henning

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the use of a binomial cumulative sum chart (CUSUM to monitor the presence of total coliforms, biological indicators of quality of water supplies in water treatment processes. The sample series were monthly taken from a water treatment plant and were analyzed from 2007 to 2009. The statistical treatment of the data was performed using GNU R, and routines were created for the approximation of the upper limit of the binomial CUSUM chart. Furthermore, a comparative study was conducted to investigate whether there is a significant difference in sensitivity between the use of CUSUM and the traditional Shewhart chart, the most commonly used chart in process monitoring. The results obtained demonstrate that this study was essential for making the right choice in selecting a chart for the statistical analysis of this process.

  18. Accuracy Potential and Applications of MIDAS Aerial Oblique Camera System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, M.

    2012-07-01

    Airborne oblique cameras such as Fairchild T-3A were initially used for military reconnaissance in 30s. A modern professional digital oblique camera such as MIDAS (Multi-camera Integrated Digital Acquisition System) is used to generate lifelike three dimensional to the users for visualizations, GIS applications, architectural modeling, city modeling, games, simulators, etc. Oblique imagery provide the best vantage for accessing and reviewing changes to the local government tax base, property valuation assessment, buying & selling of residential/commercial for better decisions in a more timely manner. Oblique imagery is also used for infrastructure monitoring making sure safe operations of transportation, utilities, and facilities. Sanborn Mapping Company acquired one MIDAS from TrackAir in 2011. This system consists of four tilted (45 degrees) cameras and one vertical camera connected to a dedicated data acquisition computer system. The 5 digital cameras are based on the Canon EOS 1DS Mark3 with Zeiss lenses. The CCD size is 5,616 by 3,744 (21 MPixels) with the pixel size of 6.4 microns. Multiple flights using different camera configurations (nadir/oblique (28 mm/50 mm) and (50 mm/50 mm)) were flown over downtown Colorado Springs, Colorado. Boresight fights for 28 mm nadir camera were flown at 600 m and 1,200 m and for 50 mm nadir camera at 750 m and 1500 m. Cameras were calibrated by using a 3D cage and multiple convergent images utilizing Australis model. In this paper, the MIDAS system is described, a number of real data sets collected during the aforementioned flights are presented together with their associated flight configurations, data processing workflow, system calibration and quality control workflows are highlighted and the achievable accuracy is presented in some detail. This study revealed that the expected accuracy of about 1 to 1.5 GSD (Ground Sample Distance) for planimetry and about 2 to 2.5 GSD for vertical can be achieved. Remaining systematic

  19. ACCURACY POTENTIAL AND APPLICATIONS OF MIDAS AERIAL OBLIQUE CAMERA SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Madani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Airborne oblique cameras such as Fairchild T-3A were initially used for military reconnaissance in 30s. A modern professional digital oblique camera such as MIDAS (Multi-camera Integrated Digital Acquisition System is used to generate lifelike three dimensional to the users for visualizations, GIS applications, architectural modeling, city modeling, games, simulators, etc. Oblique imagery provide the best vantage for accessing and reviewing changes to the local government tax base, property valuation assessment, buying & selling of residential/commercial for better decisions in a more timely manner. Oblique imagery is also used for infrastructure monitoring making sure safe operations of transportation, utilities, and facilities. Sanborn Mapping Company acquired one MIDAS from TrackAir in 2011. This system consists of four tilted (45 degrees cameras and one vertical camera connected to a dedicated data acquisition computer system. The 5 digital cameras are based on the Canon EOS 1DS Mark3 with Zeiss lenses. The CCD size is 5,616 by 3,744 (21 MPixels with the pixel size of 6.4 microns. Multiple flights using different camera configurations (nadir/oblique (28 mm/50 mm and (50 mm/50 mm were flown over downtown Colorado Springs, Colorado. Boresight fights for 28 mm nadir camera were flown at 600 m and 1,200 m and for 50 mm nadir camera at 750 m and 1500 m. Cameras were calibrated by using a 3D cage and multiple convergent images utilizing Australis model. In this paper, the MIDAS system is described, a number of real data sets collected during the aforementioned flights are presented together with their associated flight configurations, data processing workflow, system calibration and quality control workflows are highlighted and the achievable accuracy is presented in some detail. This study revealed that the expected accuracy of about 1 to 1.5 GSD (Ground Sample Distance for planimetry and about 2 to 2.5 GSD for vertical can be achieved. Remaining

  20. Entropy generation as an environmental impact indicator and a sample application to freshwater ecosystems eutrophication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Mendez, S.E.; Sierra-Grajeda, J.M.T.; Hernandez-Guerrero, A.; Rodriguez-Lelis, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Generally speaking, an ecosystem is seen as a complex set, it is composed by different biotic and abiotic parts. Naturally, each part has specifics functions related with mass and energy, those functions have influence between the parts directly and indirectly, and these functions are subjected to the basic laws of thermodynamics. If each part of the ecosystem is taken as thermodynamics system its entropy generation could be evaluated, then the total entropy generation of the ecosystem must be sum of the entropy generation in each part, to be in accordance with the Gouy-Stodola theorem. With this in mind, in this work an environmental indicator, for any kind of ecosystems, can be determined as a function of the ratio of total entropy generation for reference state, for instance a healthy forest; and the entropy generation of new different state of the same ecosystem can take, for instance a deforestation. Thus, thermodynamics concepts are applied to study the eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems; the strategy is based on techniques that integrate assumptions of the methodology of entropy generation inside ecosystems. The results show that if the amount of entropy generation is small respect a reference state; the sustainability of the ecosystem will be greater. - Highlights: • We estimate an environmental impact indicator using the concept of entropy generation. • It can be a useful tool for assessing the environmental impacts of the society over the environment. • It can be a useful tool to compare new technologies and improve their efficiencies even more. • It can help for a better understanding of the concept of entropy and its role among various classes of processes. • It can help to reduce environmental concerns and increase the sustainability of the planet

  1. Initial validation of a proxy indicator of functioning as a potential tool for establishing a clinically meaningful cocaine use outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiluk, Brian D; Babuscio, Theresa A; Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2017-10-01

    Establishing a non-abstinence cocaine use outcome as clinically meaningful has been elusive, in part due to the lack of association between cocaine use outcomes and meaningful indicators of long-term functioning. Using data pooled across 7 clinical trials evaluating treatments for cocaine (N=718), a dichotomous indicator of functioning was created to represent a meaningful outcome ('problem-free functioning' - PFF), defined as the absence of problems across non-substance-related domains on the Addiction Severity Index. Its validity was evaluated at multiple time points (baseline, end-of-treatment, terminal follow-up) and used to explore associations with cocaine use. The percentage of participants meeting PFF criteria increased over time (baseline=18%; end-of-treatment=32%; terminal follow-up=37%). At each time point, ANOVAs indicated those who met PFF criteria reported significantly less distress on the Brief Symptom Inventory and less perceived stress on the Perceived Stress Scale. Generalized linear models indicated categorical indices of self-reported cocaine use at the end of treatment were predictive of the probability of meeting PFF criteria during follow-up (β=-0.01, pcocaine use in the final month of treatment was associated with PFF during follow-up, with strongest associations between PFF and abstinence or 'occasional' use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemically treated carbon black waste and its potential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Pengwei; Maneerung, Thawatchai; Ng, Wei Cheng; Zhen, Xu [NUS Environmental Research Institute, National University of Singapore, 1 Create Way, Create Tower #15-02, 138602 (Singapore); Dai, Yanjun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Tong, Yen Wah [NUS Environmental Research Institute, National University of Singapore, 1 Create Way, Create Tower #15-02, 138602 (Singapore); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117585 (Singapore); Ting, Yen-Peng [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117585 (Singapore); Koh, Shin Nuo [Sembcorp Industries Ltd., 30 Hill Street #05-04, 179360 (Singapore); Wang, Chi-Hwa, E-mail: chewch@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117585 (Singapore); Neoh, Koon Gee, E-mail: chenkg@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117585 (Singapore)

    2017-01-05

    /cm), making it a potentially valuable source of conductive material.

  3. A new application of passive samplers as indicators of in-situ biodegradation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belles, Angel; Alary, Claire; Criquet, Justine; Billon, Gabriel

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a method for evaluating the in-situ degradation of nitro polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAH) in sediments is presented. The methodology is adapted from the passive sampler technique, which commonly uses the dissipation rate of labeled compounds loaded in passive sampler devices to sense the environmental conditions of exposure. In the present study, polymeric passive samplers (made of polyethylene strips) loaded with a set of labeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-PAH were immersed in sediments (in field and laboratory conditions) to track the degradation processes. This approach is theoretically based on the fact that a degradation process induces a steeper concentration gradient of the labeled compounds in the surrounding sediment, thereby increasing their compound dissipation rates compared with their dissipation in abiotic conditions. Postulating that the degradation magnitude is the same for the labeled compounds loaded in polyethylene strips and for their native homologs that are potentially present in the sediment, the field degradation of 3 nitro-PAH (2-nitro-fluorene, 1-nitro-pyrene, 6-nitro-chrysene) was semi-quantitatively analyzed using the developed method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of a tetrazolium dye as an indicator of viability in anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhupathiraju, V K; Hernandez, M; Landfear, D; Alvarez-Cohen, L

    1999-09-01

    The use of the redox dye 5-cyano-2,3,-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) for evaluating the metabolic activity of aerobic bacteria has gained wide application in recent years. In this study, we examined the utility of CTC in capturing the metabolic activity of anaerobic bacteria. In addition, the factors contributing to abiotic reduction of CTC were also examined. CTC was used in conjunction with the fluorochrome 5-(4,6-dichlorotriazinyl) aminofluorescein (DTAF), that targets bacterial cell wall proteins, to quantitate the active fraction of total bacterial numbers. Facultative anaerobic bacteria, including Escherichia coli grown fermentatively, and Pseudomonas chlorophis, P. fluorescens, P. stutzeri, and P. pseudoalcalegenes subsp. pseudoalcalegenes grown under nitrate-reducing conditions, actively reduced CTC during all phases of growth. Greater than 95% of these cells accumulated intracellular CTC-formazan crystals during the exponential phase. Obligate anaerobic bacteria, including Syntrophus aciditrophicus grown fermentatively, Geobacter sulfurreducens grown with fumarate as the electron acceptor, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans subsp. desulfuricans and D. halophilus grown under sulfate-reducing conditions, Methanobacterium formicicum grown on formate, H2 and CO2, and Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum grown autotrophically on H2 and CO2 all reduced CTC to intracellular CTC-formazan crystals. The optimal CTC concentration for all organisms examined was 5 mM. Anaerobic CTC incubations were not required for quantification of anaerobically grown cells. CTC-formazan production by all cultures examined was proportional to biomass production, and CTC reduction was observed even in the absence of added nutrients. CTC was reduced by culture fluids containing ferric citrate as electron acceptor following growth of either G. metallireducens or G. sulfurreducens. Abiotic reduction of CTC was observed in the presence of ascorbic acid, cysteine hydrochloride, dithiothreitol

  5. Indicators to determine winning renewable energy technologies with an application to photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Wolf D; Grossmann, Iris; Steininger, Karl

    2010-07-01

    Several forms of renewable energy compete for supremacy or for an appropriate role in global energy supply. A form of renewable energy can only play an important role in global energy supply if it fulfills several basic requirements. Its capacity must allow supplying a considerable fraction of present and future energy demand, all materials for its production must be readily available, land demand must not be prohibitive, and prices must reach grid parity in the nearer future. Moreover, a renewable energy technology can only be acceptable if it is politically safe. We supply a collection of indicators which allow assessing competing forms of renewable energy and elucidate why surprise is still a major factor in this field, calling for adaptive management. Photovoltaics (PV) are used as an example of a renewable energy source that looks highly promising, possibly supplemented by solar thermal electricity production (ST). We also show why energy use will contribute to land use problems and discuss ways in which the right choice of renewables may be indispensible in solving these problems.

  6. Application of indices Cp and Cpk to improve quality control capability in clinical biochemistry laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Shu; Wu, Ming-Hsun; Lin, Chih-Ming

    2014-04-30

    The traditional criteria for acceptability of analytic quality may not be objective in clinical laboratories. To establish quality control procedures intended to enhance Westgard multi-rules for improving the quality of clinical biochemistry tests, we applied the Cp and Cpk quality-control indices to monitor tolerance fitting and systematic variation of clinical biochemistry test results. Daily quality-control data of a large Taiwanese hospital in 2009 were analyzed. The test items were selected based on an Olympus biochemistry machine and included serum albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol, glucose and potassium levels. Cp and Cpk values were calculated for normal and abnormal levels, respectively. The tolerance range was estimated with data from 50 laboratories using the same instruments and reagents. The results showed a monthly trend of variation for the five items under investigation. The index values of glucose were lower than those of the other items, and their values were usually quality control, but also for revealing inter-laboratory qualitycontrol capability differences.

  7. Application of Serum Hepatic Fibrosis Indices in the Diagnosis of Hepatic Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yanting; Wang Taisong; Gu Xin

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the significance of combined detection of laminin (LN), collagen type IV (CIV), hyaluronic acid (HA) and precollagen type III (PCIII) in the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis. The serum levels of LN, CIV, HA and PCIII in 143 patients with hepatic disease and 41 healthy controls were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The results showed that the serum levels of LN, CIV, HA and PCIII in patients with hepatic disease were significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.01), and the serum levels of those markers were related to the severity of the chronic hepatic disease. The highest serum levels were found in serious chronic hepatitis group and hepatic fibrosis group,and the increase of serum HA and PCIII was most remarkable. Combined detection of LN, CIV, HA and PCIII is a sensitive and reliable method in the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis, but the four serum indices can not be used in differentiating serious chronic hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis. (authors)

  8. Considering the Marketing of Higher Education: The Role of Student Learning Gain as a Potential Indicator of Teaching Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkinghorne, Martyn; Roushan, Gelareh; Taylor, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The marketization of higher education has ensured that students have become consumers. As a result, students are demanding increased levels of information regarding potential university courses so that they can make informed decisions regarding how best to invest their money, time and opportunity. A comparison of the teaching quality delivered on…

  9. Processing of visual semantic information to concrete words : temporal dynamics and neural mechanisms indicated by event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, Hein T.; Wijers, Albertus A.; Mars, Rogier B.; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Stowe, Laurie A.

    2005-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials were used to study the retrieval of visual semantic information to concrete words, and to investigate possible structural overlap between visual object working memory and concreteness effects in word processing. Subjects performed an object working memory task that

  10. Processing of visual semantic information to concrete words: temporal dynamics and neural mechanisms indicated by event-related brain potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schie, H.T. van; Wijers, A.A.; Mars, R.B.; Benjamins, J.S.; Stowe, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials were used to study the retrieval of visual semantic information to concrete words, and to investigate possible structural overlap between visual object working memory and concreteness effects in word processing. Subjects performed an object working memory task that

  11. Accurate Computation of Reduction Potentials of 4Fe−4S Clusters Indicates a Carboxylate Shift in Pyrococcus furiosus Ferredoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta; Ooi, Bee Lean; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager

    2007-01-01

    This work describes the computation and accurate reproduction of subtle shifts in reduction potentials for two mutants of the iron-sulfur protein Pyrococcus furiosus ferredoxin. The computational models involved only first-sphere ligands and differed with respect to one ligand, either acetate (as...

  12. Correlations between dioxin-like and indicators PCBs: Potential consequences for environmental studies involving fish or sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babut, M.; Miege, C.; Villeneuve, B.; Abarnou, A.; Duchemin, J.; Marchand, P.; Narbonne, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Among the numerous PCB congeners, most of the dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) need to be characterized by hyphenated techniques. It has been shown in several instances that these congeners are well related to the total PCB content in fish. We examined datasets collected mainly in France, on freshwater and marine fish and sediments. A statistical model linking DL- and indicator PCBs was developed for a dataset composed of freshwater fishes, and proved to predict well DL-PCBs from indicator PCBs in all other fish sets, including marine ones. Type II error rates remained low in almost all fish sets. A similar correlation was observed in sediments. Non-dioxin-like PCBs elicit various adverse effects and represent 95% of the total PCBs. A European guideline for them is needed; the correlation between DL- and indicator PCBs could help develop this standard in the future. - Dioxin-like PCBs in fish and maybe sediments are rather well predicted by indicator PCBs.

  13. Data on corrosion and scaling potential of drinking water resources using stability indices in Jolfa, East Azerbaijan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Mahmood; Saleh, Hossein Najafi; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Mohammadi, Ali Akbar

    2018-02-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted on the drinking water resources of the city of Jolfa (East Azerbaijan province, Iran) from samples taken from 30 wells. Calcium hardness, pH, total alkalinity, TDS, temperature and other chemical parameters were measured using standard methods. The Langelier, Rayzner, Puckhorius and aggressive indices were calculated. The results showed that the Langelier, Reynar, Puckorius, Larson-skold and aggressive indices were 1.15 (± 0.43), 6.92 (± 0.54), 6.42 (± 0.9), 0.85 (± 0.72) and 12.79 (± 0.47), respectively. In terms of water classification, 30% of samples fell into the NaCl category and 26.6% in the NaHCO 3 category and 43.4% samples in the CaHCO 3 , MgHCO 3 and MgCl category. The sedimentation indices indicated that the water of the wells could be considered as corrosive.

  14. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but human and other animal gut microbiota contain an array of other taxonomic groups that might serve as indicators for sources of fecal pollution. High thr...

  15. Potential for the Use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Provide Energy and Cost Savings in Non-Building Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Charles; Green, Andrew S.; Dahle, Douglas; Barnett, John; Butler, Pat; Kerner, David

    2013-08-01

    The findings of this study indicate that potential exists in non-building applications to save energy and costs. This potential could save billions of federal dollars, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, increase energy independence and security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Federal Government has nearly twenty years of experience with achieving similar energy cost reductions, and letting the energy costs savings pay for themselves, by applying energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) inits buildings. Currently, the application of ESPCs is limited by statute to federal buildings. This study indicates that ESPCs can be a compatible and effective contracting tool for achieving savings in non-building applications.

  16. Quality indicators for enteral and parenteral nutrition therapy: application in critically ill patients "at nutritional risk".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Filho, Ronaldo Sousa; Ribeiro, Lia Mara Kauchi; Caruso, Lucia; Lima, Patricia Azevedo; Damasceno, Náglia Raquel Teixeira; García Soriano, Francisco

    2016-09-20

    Quality Indicators for Nutritional Therapy (QINT) allow a practical assessment of nutritional therapy (NT) quality. To apply and monitor QINT for critically ill patients at nutritional risk. Cross sectional study including critically ill patients > 18 years old, at nutritional risk, on exclusive enteral (ENT) or parenteral nutritional therapy (PNT) for > 72 hours. After three consecutive years, 9 QINT were applied and monitored. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 17.0. A total of 145 patients were included, 93 patients were receiving ENT, among then 65% were male and the mean age was 55.7 years (± 17.4); 52 patients were receiving PNT, 67% were male and the mean age was 58.1 years (± 17.4). All patients (ENT and PNT) were nutritionally screened at admission and their energy and protein needs were individually estimated. Only ENT was early initiated, more than 70% of the prescribed ENT volume was infused and there was a reduced withdrawal of enteral feeding tube. The frequency of diarrhea episodes and digestive fasting were not adequate in ENT patients. The proper supply of energy was contemplated only for PNT patients and there was an expressive rate of oral intake recovery in ENT patients. After three years of research, the percentage of QINT adequacy varied between 55%-77% for ENT and 60%-80% for PNT. The results were only made possible by the efforts of a multidisciplinary team and the continuous re-evaluation of the procedures in order to maintain the nutritional assistance for patients at nutritional risk.

  17. [Application of laboratory information system in the management of the key indicators of quality inspection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ye; Chen, Qian; Wu, Wei; Cui, Wei

    2015-03-31

    To establish a system of monitoring the key indicator of quality for inspection (KIQI) on a laboratory information system (LIS), and to have a better management of KIQI. Clinical sample made in PUMCH were collected during the whole of 2014. Next, interactive input program were designed to accomplish data collecting of the disqualification rate of samples, the mistake rate of samples and the occasions of losing samples, etc. Then, a series moment of sample collection, laboratory sample arrived, sample test, sample check, response to critical value, namely, trajectory information left on LIS were recorded and the qualification rate of TAT, the notification rate of endangering result were calculated. Finally, the information about quality control were collected to build an internal quality control database and the KIQI, such as the out-of-control rate of quality control and the total error of test items were monitored. The inspection of the sample management shows the disqualification rates in 2014 were all below the target, but the rates in January and February were a little high and the rates of four wards were above 2%. The mistake rates of samples was 0.47 cases/10 000 cases, attaining the target (laboratory reports shows the qualification rates of TAT was within the acceptable range (> 95%), however the rates of blood routine in November (94.75%) was out of range. We have solved the problem by optimizing the processes. The notification rate of endangering result attained the target (≥ 98%), while the rate of timely notification is needed to improve. Quality inspection shows the CV of APTT in August (5.02%) was rising significantly, beyond the accepted CV (5.0%). We have solved the problem by changing the reagent. The CV of TT in 2014 were all below the allowable CV, thus the allowable CV of the next year lower to 10%. It is an objective and effective method to manage KIQI with the powerful management mode of database and information process capability on LIS.

  18. Disciplinary style and child abuse potential: association with indicators of positive functioning in children with behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M; Eden, Ann M

    2008-06-01

    Reduction of ineffective parenting is promoted in parent training components of mental health treatment for children with externalizing behavior disorders, but minimal research has considered whether disciplinary style and lower abuse risk could also be associated with positive functioning in such children. The present study examined whether lower dysfunctional disciplinary style and child abuse risk was associated with children's positive self-concept, adaptive attributional style, and hopefulness. Recruited from children undergoing treatment for disruptive behavior disorders, 69 mother-child dyads participated, with maternal caregivers reporting on their disciplinary style and abuse potential and children reporting independently on their positive functioning (adaptive attributional style, overall self-concept, and hopelessness). Findings supported the hypothesized association, with lower scores on mothers' dysfunctional discipline style and abuse potential significantly predicting children's reported positive functioning. Future research directions pertaining to more adaptive functioning in children with behavior problems are discussed.

  19. Chemical composition of the thermomineral waters of Josanicka Banja spa as an origin indicator, balneological valorization and geothermal potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenić Dejan R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the groundwater is directly dependent on the geological structure, hydrogeological and hydrochemical characteristics and as such it represents an output result of all the factors and processes which take place in the environment within which they were formed. The chemical composition of thermomineral waters often represents a crucial factor in determining the origin, balneological valorization and geothermal potential of the resources. This work presents the analysis of origin, belneological valorization and geothermal potential of Josanicka Banja spa, on the basis of the results gained through making the analyisis of chemical contents of the thermomineral waters which occur in the area. The ratio of concentrations of specific chemical components in the thermomineral waters of Josanicka Banja has served as the basic tool for ascertaining the origin of these waters. On the basis of the analysis of the main anion-cation and gas compositions as well as the contents of specific micro-components, a balneological valorization of these resources has been carried out. Apart from that this work also presents the calculation of the expected temperatures in the primary geothermal reservoir, which was carried out on the basis of the results of chemical analysis of thermomineral waters that occur in the area. Geothermal potential of about 4 MWt and significant contents of balneologically active components of the chemical composition of these waters, open up a possibility for their multi-purpose use, which is also presented in the work. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33053

  20. Male cerebral palsy hospitalization as a potential indicator of neurological effects of methylmercury exposure in Great Lakes communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbertson, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to methylmercury is known to result in severe neurological effects on the developing fetus and infant, including cerebral palsy, mental retardation, and seizures. Males are more susceptible than females to neurological damage from perinatal methylmercury exposures. Preliminary analyses of data and statistics for the hospitalization rates of males for cerebral palsy in the 17 Canadian Areas of Concern in the Great Lakes basin indicate a possible geographic association with locations with elevated mercury from natural or industrial sources