WorldWideScience

Sample records for indicating multiple modes

  1. Multiple tectonic mode switches indicate short-duration heat pulses in a Mio-Pliocene metamorphic core complex, West Papua, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, L. T.; Hall, R.; Gunawan, I.

    2017-12-01

    The Wandaman Peninsula is a narrow (2 km) promontory in remote western New Guinea. The peninsula is almost entirely composed of medium- to high-grade metamorphic rocks considered to be associated with a Mio-Pliocene metamorphic core complex. Previous work has shown that the uplift and exhumation of the core complex has potentially brought some extremely young eclogite to the surface. These might be comparable to the world's youngest (4.3 Ma) eclogites found in the D'Entrecasteaux Islands at the opposite end of New Guinea. We show that tectonic history of this region is complex. This is because the metamorphic sequences in the Wandaman Peninsula record multiple phases of deformation, all within the last few million years. This is demonstrated through methodical collation of cross-cutting relations from field and microstructural studies across the peninsula. The first phase of deformation and metamorphism is associated with crustal extension and partial melting that took place at 5-7 Ma according to new U-Pb data from metamorphic zircons. This extensional phase ceased after a tectonic mode switch and the region was shortened. This is demonstrated by two phases of folding (1. recumbent and 2. open) that overprint the earlier extensional fabrics. All previous structures were later overprinted by brittle extensional faults and uplift. This extensional phase is still taking place today, as is indicated by submerged forests exposed along the coastline associated with recent earthquakes and hot springs. The sequence of metamorphic rocks that are exposed in the Wandaman Peninsula show that stress and thermal conditions can change rapidly. If we consider that the present is a key to the past, then such results can identify the duration of deformation and metamorphic events more accurately than in much older orogenic systems.

  2. Active control of multiple resistive wall modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunsell, P. R.; Yadikin, D.; Gregoratto, D.; Paccagnella, R.; Liu, Y. Q.; Bolzonella, T.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.; Kuldkepp, M.; Manduchi, G.; Marchiori, G.; Marrelli, L.; Partin, P.; Menmuir, S.; Ortolani, S.; Rachlew, E.; Spizzo, S.; Zanca, P.

    2005-01-01

    Active magnetic feedback suppression of resistive wall modes is of common interest for several fusion concepts relying on close conducting walls for stabilization of ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. In the advanced tokamak without plasma rotation the kink mode is not completely stabilized, but rather converted into an unstable resistive wall mode (RWM) with a growth time comparable to the wall magnetic flux penetration time. The reversed field pinch (RFP) is similar to the advanced tokamak in the sense that it uses a conducting wall for kink mode stabilization. Also both configurations are susceptible to resonant field error amplification of marginally stable modes. However, the RFP has a different RWM spectrum and, in general, a range of modes is unstable. Hence, the requirement for simultaneous feedback stabilization of multiple independent RWMs arises for the RFP configuration. Recent experiments on RWM feedback stabilization, performed in the RFP device EXTRAP T2R [1], are presented. The experimental results obtained are the first demonstration of simultaneous feedback control of multiple independent RWMs [2]. Using an array of active magnetic coils, a reproducible suppression of several RWMs is achieved for the duration of the discharge, 3-5 wall times, through feedback action. An array with 64 active saddle coils at 4 poloidal times 16 toroidal positions is used. The important issues of side band generation by the active coil array and the accompanying coupling of different unstable modes through the feedback action are addressed in this study. Open loop control experiments have been carried out to quantitatively study resonant field error amplification. (Author)

  3. Multiple Indicator Stationary Time Series Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivo, Stephen A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the propriety and practical advantages of specifying multivariate time series models in the context of structural equation modeling for time series and longitudinal panel data. For time series data, the multiple indicator model specification improves on classical time series analysis. For panel data, the multiple indicator model…

  4. Mode Shape Analysis of Multiple Cracked Functionally Graded Timoshenko Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Van Lien

    Full Text Available Abstract The present paper addresses free vibration of multiple cracked Timoshenko beams made of Functionally Graded Material (FGM. Cracks are modeled by rotational spring of stiffness calculated from the crack depth and material properties vary according to the power law throughout the beam thickness. Governing equations for free vibration of the beam are formulated with taking into account actual position of the neutral plane. The obtained frequency equation and mode shapes are used for analysis of the beam mode shapes in dependence on the material and crack parameters. Numerical results validate usefulness of the proposed herein theory and show that mode shapes are good indication for detecting multiple cracks in Timoshenko FGM beams.

  5. Should researchers use single indicators, best indicators, or multiple indicators in structural equation models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayduk Leslie A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural equation modeling developed as a statistical melding of path analysis and factor analysis that obscured a fundamental tension between a factor preference for multiple indicators and path modeling’s openness to fewer indicators. Discussion Multiple indicators hamper theory by unnecessarily restricting the number of modeled latents. Using the few best indicators – possibly even the single best indicator of each latent – encourages development of theoretically sophisticated models. Additional latent variables permit stronger statistical control of potential confounders, and encourage detailed investigation of mediating causal mechanisms. Summary We recommend the use of the few best indicators. One or two indicators are often sufficient, but three indicators may occasionally be helpful. More than three indicators are rarely warranted because additional redundant indicators provide less research benefit than single indicators of additional latent variables. Scales created from multiple indicators can introduce additional problems, and are prone to being less desirable than either single or multiple indicators.

  6. Multiple Modes of Inquiry in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastens, Kim A.; Rivet, Ann

    2008-01-01

    To help teachers enrich their students' understanding of inquiry in Earth science, this article describes six modes of inquiry used by practicing geoscientists (Earth scientists). Each mode of inquiry is illustrated by using examples of seminal or pioneering research and provides pointers to investigations that enable students to experience these…

  7. Accelerated Testing with Multiple Failure Modes under Several Temperature Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Zongyue Yu; Zhiqian Ren; Junyong Tao; Xun Chen

    2014-01-01

    A complicated device may have multiple failure modes, and some of the failure modes are sensitive to low temperatures. To assess the reliability of a product with multiple failure modes, this paper presents an accelerated testing in which both of the high temperatures and the low temperatures are applied. Firstly, an acceleration model based on the Arrhenius model but accounting for the influence of both the high temperatures and low temperatures is proposed. Accordingly, an accelerated testi...

  8. Effects of multiple modes interaction on the resistive wall mode instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Longxi; Lei, Wenqing; Ma, Zhiwei; Wu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    The effects of multiple modes interaction on the resistive wall mode (RWM) are studied in a slab geometry with and without plasma flow. The modes interaction can have a large effect on both the linear growth rate and the nonlinear saturation level of the RWM. We found that modes interaction can suppress the linear growth rate for the most unstable mode. The plasma flow can also help to control the growth of the RWM. The RWM can be stabilized completely by a plasma flow when considering the modes interaction. The effect of modes interaction on the RWM is stronger for the mode rational surface in the vacuum than that in the plasma. The modes interaction results in a substantially lowered saturation level for the most unstable RWM. (paper)

  9. Collective modes in multiband superfluids and superconductors: Multiple dynamical classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Yukihiro; Machida, Masahiko; Koyama, Tomio; Aoki, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    One important way to characterize the states having a gauge symmetry spontaneously broken over multibands is to look at their collective excitation modes. We find that a three-band system has multiple Leggett modes with significantly different masses, which can be classified into different dynamical classes according to whether multiple interband Josephson currents add or cancel. This provides a way to dynamically characterize multiband superconductivity while the pairing symmetry is a static property.

  10. Accelerated Testing with Multiple Failure Modes under Several Temperature Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyue Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A complicated device may have multiple failure modes, and some of the failure modes are sensitive to low temperatures. To assess the reliability of a product with multiple failure modes, this paper presents an accelerated testing in which both of the high temperatures and the low temperatures are applied. Firstly, an acceleration model based on the Arrhenius model but accounting for the influence of both the high temperatures and low temperatures is proposed. Accordingly, an accelerated testing plan including both the high temperatures and low temperatures is designed, and a statistical analysis method is developed. The reliability function of the product with multiple failure modes under variable working conditions is given by the proposed statistical analysis method. Finally, a numerical example is studied to illustrate the proposed accelerated testing. The results show that the proposed accelerated testing is rather efficient.

  11. Mechanisms for multiple activity modes of VTA dopamine neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eOster

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Midbrain ventral segmental area (VTA dopaminergic neurons send numerous projections to cortical and sub-cortical areas, and diffusely release dopamine (DA to their targets. DA neurons display a range of activity modes that vary in frequency and degree of burst firing. Importantly, DA neuronal bursting is associated with a significantly greater degree of DA release than an equivalent tonic activity pattern. Here, we introduce a single compartmental, conductance-based computational model for DA cell activity that captures the behavior of DA neuronal dynamics and examine the multiple factors that underlie DA firing modes: the strength of the SK conductance, the amount of drive, and GABA inhibition. Our results suggest that neurons with low SK conductance fire in a fast firing mode, are correlated with burst firing, and require higher levels of applied current before undergoing depolarization block. We go on to consider the role of GABAergic inhibition on an ensemble of dynamical classes of DA neurons and find that strong GABA inhibition suppresses burst firing. Our studies suggest differences in the distribution of the SK conductance and GABA inhibition levels may indicate subclasses of DA neurons within the VTA. We further identify, that by considering alternate potassium dynamics, the dynamics display burst patterns that terminate via depolarization block, akin to those observed in vivo in VTA DA neurons and in substantia nigra pars compacta DA cell preparations under apamin application. In addition, we consider the generation of transient burst firing events that are NMDA-initiated or elicited by a sudden decrease of GABA inhibition, that is, disinhibition.

  12. Ordinal Welfare Comparisons with Multiple Discrete Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Distante, Roberta; Hussain, M. Azhar

    We develop an ordinal method for making welfare comparisons between populations with multidimensional discrete well-being indicators observed at the micro level. The approach assumes that, for each well-being indicator, the levels can be ranked from worse to better; however, no assumptions are made...

  13. Multiprocessor system with multiple concurrent modes of execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Daniel; Ceze, Luis H; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin

    2013-12-31

    A multiprocessor system supports multiple concurrent modes of speculative execution. Speculation identification numbers (IDs) are allocated to speculative threads from a pool of available numbers. The pool is divided into domains, with each domain being assigned to a mode of speculation. Modes of speculation include TM, TLS, and rollback. Allocation of the IDs is carried out with respect to a central state table and using hardware pointers. The IDs are used for writing different versions of speculative results in different ways of a set in a cache memory.

  14. Charging system with galvanic isolation and multiple operating modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajouke, Lateef A.; Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M.

    2013-01-08

    Systems and methods are provided for operating a charging system with galvanic isolation adapted for multiple operating modes. A vehicle charging system comprises a DC interface, an AC interface, a first conversion module coupled to the DC interface, and a second conversion module coupled to the AC interface. An isolation module is coupled between the first conversion module and the second conversion module. The isolation module comprises a transformer and a switching element coupled between the transformer and the second conversion module. The transformer and the switching element are cooperatively configured for a plurality of operating modes, wherein each operating mode of the plurality of operating modes corresponds to a respective turns ratio of the transformer.

  15. Multiplicity counting from fission chamber signals in the current mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pázsit, I. [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Physics, Division of Subatomic and Plasma Physics, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Pál, L. [Centre for Energy Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 114, POB 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Nagy, L. [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Physics, Division of Subatomic and Plasma Physics, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Institute of Nuclear Techniques, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-12-11

    In nuclear safeguards, estimation of sample parameters using neutron-based non-destructive assay methods is traditionally based on multiplicity counting with thermal neutron detectors in the pulse mode. These methods in general require multi-channel analysers and various dead time correction methods. This paper proposes and elaborates on an alternative method, which is based on fast neutron measurements with fission chambers in the current mode. A theory of “multiplicity counting” with fission chambers is developed by incorporating Böhnel's concept of superfission [1] into a master equation formalism, developed recently by the present authors for the statistical theory of fission chamber signals [2,3]. Explicit expressions are derived for the first three central auto- and cross moments (cumulants) of the signals of up to three detectors. These constitute the generalisation of the traditional Campbell relationships for the case when the incoming events represent a compound Poisson distribution. Because now the expressions contain the factorial moments of the compound source, they contain the same information as the singles, doubles and triples rates of traditional multiplicity counting. The results show that in addition to the detector efficiency, the detector pulse shape also enters the formulas; hence, the method requires a more involved calibration than the traditional method of multiplicity counting. However, the method has some advantages by not needing dead time corrections, as well as having a simpler and more efficient data processing procedure, in particular for cross-correlations between different detectors, than the traditional multiplicity counting methods.

  16. Complex mode indication function and its applications to spatial domain parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, C. Y.; Tsuei, Y. G.; Allemang, R. J.; Brown, D. L.

    1988-10-01

    This paper introduces the concept of the Complex Mode Indication Function (CMIF) and its application in spatial domain parameter estimation. The concept of CMIF is developed by performing singular value decomposition (SVD) of the Frequency Response Function (FRF) matrix at each spectral line. The CMIF is defined as the eigenvalues, which are the square of the singular values, solved from the normal matrix formed from the FRF matrix, [ H( jω)] H[ H( jω)], at each spectral line. The CMIF appears to be a simple and efficient method for identifying the modes of the complex system. The CMIF identifies modes by showing the physical magnitude of each mode and the damped natural frequency for each root. Since multiple reference data is applied in CMIF, repeated roots can be detected. The CMIF also gives global modal parameters, such as damped natural frequencies, mode shapes and modal participation vectors. Since CMIF works in the spatial domain, uneven frequency spacing data such as data from spatial sine testing can be used. A second-stage procedure for accurate damped natural frequency and damping estimation as well as mode shape scaling is also discussed in this paper.

  17. Generalised Multiplicative Indices of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Benzenoid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulli, V. R.; Stone, Branden; Wang, Shaohui; Wei, Bing

    2017-05-01

    Many types of topological indices such as degree-based topological indices, distance-based topological indices, and counting-related topological indices are explored during past recent years. Among degree-based topological indices, Zagreb indices are the oldest one and studied well. In the paper, we define a generalised multiplicative version of these indices and compute exact formulas for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and jagged-rectangle Benzenoid systems.

  18. Small Area Indices of Multiple Deprivation in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Michael; Barnes, Helen; Wright, Gemma; Roberts, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the Provincial Indices of Multiple Deprivation that were constructed by the authors at ward level using 2001 Census data for each of South Africa's nine provinces. The principles adopted in conceptualising the indices are described and multiple deprivation is defined as a weighted combination of discrete dimensions of…

  19. Programmable Input Mode Instrumentation Amplifier Using Multiple Output Current Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankiewicz Bogdan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a programmable input mode instrumentation amplifier (IA utilising second generation, multiple output current conveyors and transmission gates is presented. Its main advantage is the ability to choose a voltage or current mode of inputs by setting the voltage of two configuration nodes. The presented IA is prepared as an integrated circuit block to be used alone or as a sub-block in a microcontroller or in a field programmable gate array (FPGA, which shall condition analogue signals to be next converted by an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC. IA is designed in AMS 0.35 µm CMOS technology and the power supply is 3.3 V; the power consumption is approximately 9.1 mW. A linear input range in the voltage mode reaches ± 1.68 V or ± 250 µA in current mode. A passband of the IA is above 11 MHz. The amplifier works in class A, so its current supply is almost constant and does not cause noise disturbing nearby working precision analogue circuits.

  20. Identification of multiple modes of axisymmetric or circularly repetitive structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopff, P.

    1983-01-01

    The axisymmetric structures, or those composed with circularly repetitive elements, often display multiple modes, which are not easy to separate by modal identification of experimental responses. To be able to solve in situ some problems related to the vibrational behaviour of reactor vessels or other such huge structures, ELECTRICITY DE FRANCE developed a few years ago, experimental capabilities providing heavy harmonic driving forces, and elaborate data acquisition, signal processing and modal identification software, self-contained in an integrated mobile test facility. The modal analysis techniques we have developed with the LABORATOIRE DE MECANIQUE Appliquee of University of BESANCON (FRANCE) were especially suited for identification of multiple or separation of quasi-multiple modes, i.e. very close and strongly coupled resonances. Besides, the curve fitting methods involved, compute the same complex eigen-frequencies for all the vibration pick-ups, for better accuracy of the related eigen-vector components. Moreover, the latest extensions of these algorithms give us the means to deal with non-linear behaviour. The performances of these programs are drawn from some experimental results on axisymmetric or circularly repetitive structure, we tested in our laboratory to validate the computational hypothesis used in models for seismic responses of breeder reactor vessels. (orig.)

  1. Piezoelectric transducer parameter selection for exciting a single mode from multiple modes of Lamb waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hai-Yan; Yu Jian-Bo

    2011-01-01

    Excitation and propagation of Lamb waves by using rectangular and circular piezoelectric transducers surface-bonded to an isotropic plate are investigated in this work. Analytical stain wave solutions are derived for the two transducer shapes, giving the responses of these transducers in Lamb wave fields. The analytical study is supported by a numerical simulation using the finite element method. Symmetric and antisymmetric components in the wave propagation responses are inspected in detail with respect to test parameters such as the transducer geometry, the length and the excitation frequency. By placing only one piezoelectric transducer on the top or the bottom surface of the plate and weakening the strength of one mode while enhancing the strength of the other modes to find the centre frequency, with which the peak wave amplitude ratio between the S0 and A0 modes is maximum, a single mode excitation from the multiple modes of the Lamb waves can be achieved approximately. Experimental data are presented to show the validity of the analyses. The results are used to optimize the Lamb wave detection system. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  2. On Multiple Zagreb Indices of TiO2 Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Mehar Ali; Imran, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The First and Second Zagreb indices were first introduced by I. Gutman and N. Trinajstic in 1972. It is reported that these indices are useful in the study of anti-inflammatory activities of certain chemical instances, and in elsewhere. Recently, the first and second multiple Zagreb indices of a graph were introduced by Ghorbani and Azimi in 2012. In this paper, we calculate the Zagreb indices and the multiplicative versions of the Zagreb indices of an infinite class of Titania nanotubes TiO(2)[m,n].

  3. Comparison of Ordinary Kriging and Multiple Indicator Kriging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael O. Mensah

    Multiple Indicator Kriging (MIK) is one of the popular non-linear methods that can handle skewed distribution such as that for gold ... historical deposits: Nkran, Adubia, Abore, and a ... information from the mine on the geology of the deposit.

  4. Mode of conception of triplets and high order multiple pregnancies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Basit, I

    2012-03-01

    A retrospective audit was performed of all high order multiple pregnancies (HOMPs) delivered in three maternity hospitals in Dublin between 1999 and 2008. The mode of conception for each pregnancy was established with a view to determining means of reducing their incidence. A total of 101 HOMPs occurred, 93 triplet, 7 quadruplet and 1 quintuplet. Information regarding the mode of conception was available for 78 (81%) pregnancies. Twenty eight (27.7%) were spontaneous, 34 (33.7%) followedlVF\\/ICSI\\/FET treatment (in-vitro fertilisation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, frozen embryo transfer), 16 (15.8%) resulted from Clomiphene Citrate treatment and 6 (6%) followed ovulation induction with gonadotrophins. Triplet and HOMPs are a major cause of maternal, feta land neonatal morbidity. Many are iatrogenic, arising from fertility treatments including Clomiphene. Reducing the numbers of embryos transferred will address IVF\\/ICSI\\/FET-related multiple pregnancy rates and this is currently happening in Ireland. Clomiphene and gonadotrophins should only be prescribed when appropriate resources are available to monitor patients adequately.

  5. Mode-coupling in photonic crystal fibers with multiple cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. We have fabricated a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with multiple cores by drawing a fiber preform from stacked glass tubes. Transmission is high through each core despite many unintentional defects in the cladding indicating that the guidance is determined by the holes near...

  6. Testing for Nonuniform Differential Item Functioning with Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carol M.; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    In extant literature, multiple indicator multiple cause (MIMIC) models have been presented for identifying items that display uniform differential item functioning (DIF) only, not nonuniform DIF. This article addresses, for apparently the first time, the use of MIMIC models for testing both uniform and nonuniform DIF with categorical indicators. A…

  7. Propagation of Finite Amplitude Sound in Multiple Waveguide Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doren, Thomas Walter

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation describes a theoretical and experimental investigation of the propagation of finite amplitude sound in multiple waveguide modes. Quasilinear analytical solutions of the full second order nonlinear wave equation, the Westervelt equation, and the KZK parabolic wave equation are obtained for the fundamental and second harmonic sound fields in a rectangular rigid-wall waveguide. It is shown that the Westervelt equation is an acceptable approximation of the full nonlinear wave equation for describing guided sound waves of finite amplitude. A system of first order equations based on both a modal and harmonic expansion of the Westervelt equation is developed for waveguides with locally reactive wall impedances. Fully nonlinear numerical solutions of the system of coupled equations are presented for waveguides formed by two parallel planes which are either both rigid, or one rigid and one pressure release. These numerical solutions are compared to finite -difference solutions of the KZK equation, and it is shown that solutions of the KZK equation are valid only at frequencies which are high compared to the cutoff frequencies of the most important modes of propagation (i.e., for which sound propagates at small grazing angles). Numerical solutions of both the Westervelt and KZK equations are compared to experiments performed in an air-filled, rigid-wall, rectangular waveguide. Solutions of the Westervelt equation are in good agreement with experiment for low source frequencies, at which sound propagates at large grazing angles, whereas solutions of the KZK equation are not valid for these cases. At higher frequencies, at which sound propagates at small grazing angles, agreement between numerical solutions of the Westervelt and KZK equations and experiment is only fair, because of problems in specifying the experimental source condition with sufficient accuracy.

  8. The Dynamics and Sliding Mode Control of Multiple Cooperative Welding Robot Manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design, dynamic modelling and sliding mode control of multiple cooperative welding robot manipulators (MWRMs. The MWRMs can handle complex tasks that are difficult or even impossible for a single manipulator. The kinematics and dynamics of the MWRMs are studied on the basis of the Denavit-Hartenberg and Lagrange method. Following that, considering the MWRM system with nonlinear and unknown disturbances, a non-singular terminal sliding mode control strategy is designed. By means of the Lyapunov function, the stability of the controller is proved. Simulation results indicate that the good control performance of the MWRMs is achieved by the non-singular terminal sliding mode controller, which also illustrates the correctness of the dynamic modelling and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  9. The impact of embedding multiple modes of representation on student construction of chemistry knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Mark Andrew

    2009-12-01

    This study was designed to examine the impact of embedding multiple modes of representing science information on student conceptual understanding in science. Multiple representations refer to utilizing charts, graphs, diagrams, and other types of representations to communicate scientific information. This study investigated the impact of encouraging students to embed or integrate the multiple modes with text in end of unit writing-to-learn activities. A quasi-experimental design with four separate sites consisting of intact chemistry classes taught by different teachers at each site was utilized. At each site, approximately half of the classes were designated treatment classes and students in these classes participated in activities designed to encourage strategies to embed multiple modes within text in student writing. The control classes did not participate in these activities. All classes participated in identical end of unit writing tasks in which they were required to use at least one mode other than text, followed by identical end of unit assessments. This progression was then repeated for a second consecutive unit of study. Analysis of quantitative data indicated that in several cases, treatment classes significantly outperformed control classes both on measures of embeddedness in writing and on end of unit assessment measures. In addition, analysis at the level of individual students indicated significant positive correlations in many cases between measures of student embeddedness in writing and student performance on end of unit assessments. Three factors emerged as critical in increasing the likelihood of benefit for students from these types of activities. First, the level of teacher implementation and emphasis on the embeddedness lessons was linked to the possibility of conceptual benefit. Secondly, students participating in two consecutive lessons appeared to receive greater benefit during the second unit, inferring a cumulative benefit. Finally

  10. Influences of multiple low-n modes on n=1 resistive wall mode identification and feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In, Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, J. S.; Garofalo, A. M.; Jackson, G. L.; La Haye, R. J.; Strait, E. J.; Okabayashi, M.; Reimerdes, H.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known in theory that even after the n=1 resistive wall mode (RWM) is suppressed, the other low-n modes, such as n=2 or 3, can appear sequentially, as β increases. In recent DIII-D experiments [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)], we found such an example that supports the theoretical prediction: while the n=1 mode was suppressed, an n=3 mode grew dominant, leading to a β collapse. The n=1 RWM suppression was likely due to a combination of rotational stabilization and n=1 RWM feedback. The multiple RWM identification was performed using an expanded matched filter, where n=1 and n=3 RWM basis vectors are simultaneously considered. Taking advantage of the expanded matched filter, we found that an n=3 mode following an edge-localized-mode burst grew almost linearly for several milliseconds without being hindered. This n=3 mode appeared responsible for the β collapse (down to the n=3 no-wall limit), as well as for a drop in toroidal rotation. A preliminary analysis suggests that the identity of the n=3 mode could be related to the n=3 RWM (possibly the first observation in tokamak experiments), while the impact of the n=3 mode was not as destructive as that of n=1 RWM. A numerical postprocessing of Mirnov probes showed that the n=2 mode was also unstable, consistent with the theoretical prediction. In practice, since the presence of an n=3 mode can interfere with the existing n=1 RWM identification, multiple low-n mode identification is deemed essential not only to detect n>1 mode, but also to provide accurate n=1 RWM identification and feedback control.

  11. Multiple Citation Indicators and Their Composite across Scientific Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, John P A; Klavans, Richard; Boyack, Kevin W

    2016-07-01

    Many fields face an increasing prevalence of multi-authorship, and this poses challenges in assessing citation metrics. Here, we explore multiple citation indicators that address total impact (number of citations, Hirsch H index [H]), co-authorship adjustment (Schreiber Hm index [Hm]), and author order (total citations to papers as single; single or first; or single, first, or last author). We demonstrate the correlation patterns between these indicators across 84,116 scientists (those among the top 30,000 for impact in a single year [2013] in at least one of these indicators) and separately across 12 scientific fields. Correlation patterns vary across these 12 fields. In physics, total citations are highly negatively correlated with indicators of co-authorship adjustment and of author order, while in other sciences the negative correlation is seen only for total citation impact and citations to papers as single author. We propose a composite score that sums standardized values of these six log-transformed indicators. Of the 1,000 top-ranked scientists with the composite score, only 322 are in the top 1,000 based on total citations. Many Nobel laureates and other extremely influential scientists rank among the top-1,000 with the composite indicator, but would rank much lower based on total citations. Conversely, many of the top 1,000 authors on total citations have had no single/first/last-authored cited paper. More Nobel laureates of 2011-2015 are among the top authors when authors are ranked by the composite score than by total citations, H index, or Hm index; 40/47 of these laureates are among the top 30,000 by at least one of the six indicators. We also explore the sensitivity of indicators to self-citation and alphabetic ordering of authors in papers across different scientific fields. Multiple indicators and their composite may give a more comprehensive picture of impact, although no citation indicator, single or composite, can be expected to select all the

  12. Multiple Citation Indicators and Their Composite across Scientific Disciplines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P A Ioannidis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many fields face an increasing prevalence of multi-authorship, and this poses challenges in assessing citation metrics. Here, we explore multiple citation indicators that address total impact (number of citations, Hirsch H index [H], co-authorship adjustment (Schreiber Hm index [Hm], and author order (total citations to papers as single; single or first; or single, first, or last author. We demonstrate the correlation patterns between these indicators across 84,116 scientists (those among the top 30,000 for impact in a single year [2013] in at least one of these indicators and separately across 12 scientific fields. Correlation patterns vary across these 12 fields. In physics, total citations are highly negatively correlated with indicators of co-authorship adjustment and of author order, while in other sciences the negative correlation is seen only for total citation impact and citations to papers as single author. We propose a composite score that sums standardized values of these six log-transformed indicators. Of the 1,000 top-ranked scientists with the composite score, only 322 are in the top 1,000 based on total citations. Many Nobel laureates and other extremely influential scientists rank among the top-1,000 with the composite indicator, but would rank much lower based on total citations. Conversely, many of the top 1,000 authors on total citations have had no single/first/last-authored cited paper. More Nobel laureates of 2011-2015 are among the top authors when authors are ranked by the composite score than by total citations, H index, or Hm index; 40/47 of these laureates are among the top 30,000 by at least one of the six indicators. We also explore the sensitivity of indicators to self-citation and alphabetic ordering of authors in papers across different scientific fields. Multiple indicators and their composite may give a more comprehensive picture of impact, although no citation indicator, single or composite, can be expected to

  13. EFFECTIVE INDICES FOR MONITORING MENTAL WORKLOAD WHILE PERFORMING MULTIPLE TASKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Bin-Wei; Wang, Mao-Jiun J; Chen, Chi-Yuan; Chen, Fang

    2015-08-01

    This study identified several physiological indices that can accurately monitor mental workload while participants performed multiple tasks with the strategy of maintaining stable performance and maximizing accuracy. Thirty male participants completed three 10-min. simulated multitasks: MATB (Multi-Attribute Task Battery) with three workload levels. Twenty-five commonly used mental workload measures were collected, including heart rate, 12 HRV (heart rate variability), 10 EEG (electroencephalography) indices (α, β, θ, α/θ, θ/β from O1-O2 and F4-C4), and two subjective measures. Analyses of index sensitivity showed that two EEG indices, θ and α/θ (F4-C4), one time-domain HRV-SDNN (standard deviation of inter-beat intervals), and four frequency-domain HRV: VLF (very low frequency), LF (low frequency), %HF (percentage of high frequency), and LF/HF were sensitive to differentiate high workload. EEG α/θ (F4-C4) and LF/HF were most effective for monitoring high mental workload. LF/HF showed the highest correlations with other physiological indices. EEG α/θ (F4-C4) showed strong correlations with subjective measures across different mental workload levels. Operation strategy would affect the sensitivity of EEG α (F4-C4) and HF.

  14. Mode Equivalence of Health Indicators Between Data Collection Modes and Mixed-Mode Survey Designs in Population-Based Health Interview Surveys for Children and Adolescents: Methodological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Robert; Houben, Robin; Krause, Laura; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Gößwald, Antje

    2018-01-01

    Background The implementation of an Internet option in an existing public health interview survey using a mixed-mode design is attractive because of lower costs and faster data availability. Additionally, mixed-mode surveys can increase response rates and improve sample composition. However, mixed-mode designs can increase the risk of measurement error (mode effects). Objective This study aimed to determine whether the prevalence rates or mean values of self- and parent-reported health indicators for children and adolescents aged 0-17 years differ between self-administered paper-based questionnaires (SAQ-paper) and self-administered Web-based questionnaires (SAQ-Web), as well as between a single-mode control group and different mixed-mode groups. Methods Data were collected for a methodological pilot of the third wave of the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents". Questionnaires were completed by parents or adolescents. A population-based sample of 11,140 children and adolescents aged 0-17 years was randomly allocated to 4 survey designs—a single-mode control group with paper-and-pencil questionnaires only (n=970 parents, n=343 adolescents)—and 3 mixed-mode designs, all of which offered Web-based questionnaire options. In the concurrent mixed-mode design, both questionnaires were offered at the same time (n=946 parents, n=290 adolescents); in the sequential mixed-mode design, the SAQ-Web was sent first, followed by the paper questionnaire along with a reminder (n=854 parents, n=269 adolescents); and in the preselect mixed-mode design, both options were offered and the respondents were asked to request the desired type of questionnaire (n=698 parents, n=292 adolescents). In total, 3468 questionnaires of parents of children aged 0-17 years (SAQ-Web: n=708; SAQ-paper: n=2760) and 1194 questionnaires of adolescents aged 11-17 years (SAQ-Web: n=299; SAQ-paper: n=895) were analyzed. Sociodemographic characteristics and a broad

  15. Properties of a novel linear sulfur response mode in a multiple flame photometric detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Adrian G; Thurbide, Kevin B

    2014-01-24

    A new linear sulfur response mode was established in the multiple flame photometric detector (mFPD) by monitoring HSO* emission in the red spectral region above 600nm. Optimal conditions for this mode were found by using a 750nm interference filter and oxygen flows to the worker flames of this device that were about 10mL/min larger than those used for monitoring quadratic S2* emission. By employing these parameters, this mode provided a linear response over about 4 orders of magnitude, with a detection limit near 5.8×10(-11)gS/s and a selectivity of sulfur over carbon of about 3.5×10(3). Specifically, the minimum detectable masses for 10 different sulfur analytes investigated ranged from 0.4 to 3.6ng for peak half-widths spanning 4-6s. The response toward ten different sulfur compounds was examined and produced an average reproducibility of 1.7% RSD (n=10) and an average equimolarity value of 1.0±0.1. In contrast to this, a conventional single flame S2* mode comparatively yielded respective values of 6.7% RSD (n=10) and 1.1±0.4. HSO* emission in the mFPD was also found to be relatively much less affected by response quenching due to hydrocarbons compared to a conventional single flame S2* emission mode. Results indicate that this new alternative linear mFPD response mode could be beneficial for sulfur monitoring applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiple soft-mode vibrations of lead zirconate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlinka, Jiří; Ostapchuk, Tetyana; Buixaderas, Elena; Kadlec, Christelle; Kužel, Petr; Gregora, Ivan; Kroupa, Jan; Savinov, Maxim; Klíč, Antonín; Drahokoupil, Jan; Etxebarria, I.; Dec, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 19 (2014), "197601-1"-"197601-5" ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15110S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : antiferroelectric * soft mode * polarized spectra Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.512, year: 2014

  17. Mode Equivalence of Health Indicators Between Data Collection Modes and Mixed-Mode Survey Designs in Population-Based Health Interview Surveys for Children and Adolescents: Methodological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauz, Elvira; Hoffmann, Robert; Houben, Robin; Krause, Laura; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Gößwald, Antje

    2018-03-05

    The implementation of an Internet option in an existing public health interview survey using a mixed-mode design is attractive because of lower costs and faster data availability. Additionally, mixed-mode surveys can increase response rates and improve sample composition. However, mixed-mode designs can increase the risk of measurement error (mode effects). This study aimed to determine whether the prevalence rates or mean values of self- and parent-reported health indicators for children and adolescents aged 0-17 years differ between self-administered paper-based questionnaires (SAQ-paper) and self-administered Web-based questionnaires (SAQ-Web), as well as between a single-mode control group and different mixed-mode groups. Data were collected for a methodological pilot of the third wave of the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents". Questionnaires were completed by parents or adolescents. A population-based sample of 11,140 children and adolescents aged 0-17 years was randomly allocated to 4 survey designs-a single-mode control group with paper-and-pencil questionnaires only (n=970 parents, n=343 adolescents)-and 3 mixed-mode designs, all of which offered Web-based questionnaire options. In the concurrent mixed-mode design, both questionnaires were offered at the same time (n=946 parents, n=290 adolescents); in the sequential mixed-mode design, the SAQ-Web was sent first, followed by the paper questionnaire along with a reminder (n=854 parents, n=269 adolescents); and in the preselect mixed-mode design, both options were offered and the respondents were asked to request the desired type of questionnaire (n=698 parents, n=292 adolescents). In total, 3468 questionnaires of parents of children aged 0-17 years (SAQ-Web: n=708; SAQ-paper: n=2760) and 1194 questionnaires of adolescents aged 11-17 years (SAQ-Web: n=299; SAQ-paper: n=895) were analyzed. Sociodemographic characteristics and a broad range of health indicators for

  18. Nonlinear behavior of multiple-helicity resistive interchange modes near marginally stable states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugama, Hideo; Nakajima, Noriyoshi; Wakatani, Masahiro.

    1991-05-01

    Nonlinear behavior of resistive interchange modes near marginally stable states is theoretically studied under the multiple-helicity condition. Reduced fluid equations in the sheared slab configuration are used in order to treat a local transport problem. With the use of the invariance property of local reduced fluid model equations under a transformation between the modes with different rational surfaces, weakly nonlinear theories for single-helicity modes by Hamaguchi and Nakajima are extended to the multiple-helicity case and applied to the resistive interchange modes. We derive the nonlinear amplitude equations of the multiple-helicity modes, from which the convective transport in the saturated state is obtained. It is shown how the convective transport is enhanced by nonlinear interaction between modes with different rational surfaces compared with the single-helicity case. We confirm that theoretical results are in good agreement with direct numerical simulations. (author)

  19. Multiple Modes of Communication between Neurons and Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Paloma P; Angulo, María Cecilia

    2015-06-01

    The surprising discovery of bona fide synapses between neurons and oligodendrocytes precursor cells (OPCs) 15 years ago placed these progenitors as real partners of neurons in the CNS. The role of these synapses has not been established yet, but a main hypothesis is that neuron-OPC synaptic activity is a signaling pathway controlling OPC proliferation/differentiation, influencing the myelination process. However, new evidences describing non-synaptic mechanisms of communication between neurons and OPCs have revealed that neuron-OPC interactions are more complex than expected. The activation of extrasynaptic receptors by ambient neurotransmitter or local spillover and the ability of OPCs to sense neuronal activity through a potassium channel suggest that distinct modes of communication mediate different functions of OPCs in the CNS. This review discusses different mechanisms used by OPCs to interact with neurons and their potential roles during postnatal development and in brain disorders. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Sampling plans in attribute mode with multiple levels of precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a method for deriving sampling plans for nuclear material inventory verification. The method presented is different from the classical approach which envisages two levels of measurement precision corresponding to NDA and DA. In the classical approach the precisions of the two measurement methods are taken as fixed parameters. The new approach is based on multiple levels of measurement precision. The design of the sampling plan consists of choosing the number of measurement levels, the measurement precision to be used at each level and the sample size to be used at each level

  1. Default mode network links to visual hallucinations: A comparison between Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciotti, Raffaella; Delli Pizzi, Stefano; Perfetti, Bernardo; Tartaro, Armando; Bonanni, Laura; Thomas, Astrid; Weis, Luca; Biundo, Roberta; Antonini, Angelo; Onofrj, Marco

    2015-08-01

    Studying default mode network activity or connectivity in different parkinsonisms, with or without visual hallucinations, could highlight its roles in clinical phenotypes' expression. Multiple system atrophy is the archetype of parkinsonism without visual hallucinations, variably appearing instead in Parkinson's disease (PD). We aimed to evaluate default mode network functions in multiple system atrophy in comparison with PD. Functional magnetic resonance imaging evaluated default mode network activity and connectivity in 15 multiple system atrophy patients, 15 healthy controls, 15 early PD patients matched for disease duration, 30 severe PD patients (15 with and 15 without visual hallucinations), matched with multiple system atrophy for disease severity. Cortical thickness and neuropsychological evaluations were also performed. Multiple system atrophy had reduced default mode network activity compared with controls and PD with hallucinations, and no differences with PD (early or severe) without hallucinations. In PD with visual hallucinations, activity and connectivity was preserved compared with controls and higher than in other groups. In early PD, connectivity was lower than in controls but higher than in multiple system atrophy and severe PD without hallucinations. Cortical thickness was reduced in severe PD, with and without hallucinations, and correlated only with disease duration. Higher anxiety scores were found in patients without hallucinations. Default mode network activity and connectivity was higher in PD with visual hallucinations and reduced in multiple system atrophy and PD without visual hallucinations. Cortical thickness comparisons suggest that functional, rather than structural, changes underlie the activity and connectivity differences. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  2. Ocean Acidification Has Multiple Modes of Action on Bivalve Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbusser, George G; Hales, Burke; Langdon, Chris J; Haley, Brian A; Schrader, Paul; Brunner, Elizabeth L; Gray, Matthew W; Miller, Cale A; Gimenez, Iria; Hutchinson, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is altering the chemistry of the world's oceans at rates unparalleled in the past roughly 1 million years. Understanding the impacts of this rapid change in baseline carbonate chemistry on marine organisms needs a precise, mechanistic understanding of physiological responses to carbonate chemistry. Recent experimental work has shown shell development and growth in some bivalve larvae, have direct sensitivities to calcium carbonate saturation state that is not modulated through organismal acid-base chemistry. To understand different modes of action of OA on bivalve larvae, we experimentally tested how pH, PCO2, and saturation state independently affect shell growth and development, respiration rate, and initiation of feeding in Mytilus californianus embryos and larvae. We found, as documented in other bivalve larvae, that shell development and growth were affected by aragonite saturation state, and not by pH or PCO2. Respiration rate was elevated under very low pH (~7.4) with no change between pH of ~ 8.3 to ~7.8. Initiation of feeding appeared to be most sensitive to PCO2, and possibly minor response to pH under elevated PCO2. Although different components of physiology responded to different carbonate system variables, the inability to normally develop a shell due to lower saturation state precludes pH or PCO2 effects later in the life history. However, saturation state effects during early shell development will carry-over to later stages, where pH or PCO2 effects can compound OA effects on bivalve larvae. Our findings suggest OA may be a multi-stressor unto itself. Shell development and growth of the native mussel, M. californianus, was indistinguishable from the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, collected from the southern U.S. Pacific coast, an area not subjected to seasonal upwelling. The concordance in responses suggests a fundamental OA bottleneck during development of the first shell material affected only by

  3. Ocean Acidification Has Multiple Modes of Action on Bivalve Larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George G Waldbusser

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification (OA is altering the chemistry of the world's oceans at rates unparalleled in the past roughly 1 million years. Understanding the impacts of this rapid change in baseline carbonate chemistry on marine organisms needs a precise, mechanistic understanding of physiological responses to carbonate chemistry. Recent experimental work has shown shell development and growth in some bivalve larvae, have direct sensitivities to calcium carbonate saturation state that is not modulated through organismal acid-base chemistry. To understand different modes of action of OA on bivalve larvae, we experimentally tested how pH, PCO2, and saturation state independently affect shell growth and development, respiration rate, and initiation of feeding in Mytilus californianus embryos and larvae. We found, as documented in other bivalve larvae, that shell development and growth were affected by aragonite saturation state, and not by pH or PCO2. Respiration rate was elevated under very low pH (~7.4 with no change between pH of ~ 8.3 to ~7.8. Initiation of feeding appeared to be most sensitive to PCO2, and possibly minor response to pH under elevated PCO2. Although different components of physiology responded to different carbonate system variables, the inability to normally develop a shell due to lower saturation state precludes pH or PCO2 effects later in the life history. However, saturation state effects during early shell development will carry-over to later stages, where pH or PCO2 effects can compound OA effects on bivalve larvae. Our findings suggest OA may be a multi-stressor unto itself. Shell development and growth of the native mussel, M. californianus, was indistinguishable from the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, collected from the southern U.S. Pacific coast, an area not subjected to seasonal upwelling. The concordance in responses suggests a fundamental OA bottleneck during development of the first shell material

  4. Identification of Multiple-Mode Linear Models Based on Particle Swarm Optimizer with Cyclic Network Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyoung Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the metaheuristic optimizer-based direct identification of a multiple-mode system consisting of a finite set of linear regression representations of subsystems. To this end, the concept of a multiple-mode linear regression model is first introduced, and its identification issues are established. A method for reducing the identification problem for multiple-mode models to an optimization problem is also described in detail. Then, to overcome the difficulties that arise because the formulated optimization problem is inherently ill-conditioned and nonconvex, the cyclic-network-topology-based constrained particle swarm optimizer (CNT-CPSO is introduced, and a concrete procedure for the CNT-CPSO-based identification methodology is developed. This scheme requires no prior knowledge of the mode transitions between subsystems and, unlike some conventional methods, can handle a large amount of data without difficulty during the identification process. This is one of the distinguishing features of the proposed method. The paper also considers an extension of the CNT-CPSO-based identification scheme that makes it possible to simultaneously obtain both the optimal parameters of the multiple submodels and a certain decision parameter involved in the mode transition criteria. Finally, an experimental setup using a DC motor system is established to demonstrate the practical usability of the proposed metaheuristic optimizer-based identification scheme for developing a multiple-mode linear regression model.

  5. The evolution of female preferences for multiple indicators of quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doorn, G.S.; Weissing, F.J.

    In a variety of species, females exhibit preferences for multiple male ornaments. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. Which, if any, of these hypotheses is the most plausible in general remains largely unresolved based on the available empirical data. Yet theoretical

  6. Indicators of Multiple Personality Disorder for the Clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Thomas W.

    Multiple personality disorder (MPD) is now recognized as a valid diagnostic category. Occurrence may be higher than previously suspected. While physiological testing of MPD has shown significant differences between the various personalities of individuals in terms of galvanic skin response, electroencephalogram recordings, electrodermal response…

  7. Multiple modes of proepicardial cell migration require heartbeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavicki, Jessica S; Hofsteen, Peter; Yue, Monica S; Lanham, Kevin A; Peterson, Richard E; Heideman, Warren

    2014-05-15

    The outermost layer of the vertebrate heart, the epicardium, forms from a cluster of progenitor cells termed the proepicardium (PE). PE cells migrate onto the myocardium to give rise to the epicardium. Impaired epicardial development has been associated with defects in valve development, cardiomyocyte proliferation and alignment, cardiac conduction system maturation and adult heart regeneration. Zebrafish are an excellent model for studying cardiac development and regeneration; however, little is known about how the zebrafish epicardium forms. We report that PE migration occurs through multiple mechanisms and that the zebrafish epicardium is composed of a heterogeneous population of cells. Heterogeneity is first observed within the PE and persists through epicardium formation. Using in vivo imaging, histology and confocal microscopy, we show that PE cells migrate through a cellular bridge that forms between the pericardial mesothelium and the heart. We also observed the formation of PE aggregates on the pericardial surface, which were released into the pericardial cavity. It was previously reported that heartbeat-induced pericardiac fluid advections are necessary for PE cluster formation and subsequent epicardium development. We manipulated heartbeat genetically and pharmacologically and found that PE clusters clearly form in the absence of heartbeat. However, when heartbeat was inhibited the PE failed to migrate to the myocardium and the epicardium did not form. We isolated and cultured hearts with only a few epicardial progenitor cells and found a complete epicardial layer formed. However, pharmacologically inhibiting contraction in culture prevented epicardium formation. Furthermore, we isolated control and silent heart (sih) morpholino (MO) injected hearts prior to epicardium formation (60 hpf) and co-cultured these hearts with "donor" hearts that had an epicardium forming (108 hpf). Epicardial cells from donor hearts migrated on to control but not sih MO

  8. Multiple binding modes of ibuprofen in human serum albumin identified by absolute binding free energy calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Evoli, Stefania

    2016-11-10

    Human serum albumin possesses multiple binding sites and transports a wide range of ligands that include the anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen. A complete map of the binding sites of ibuprofen in albumin is difficult to obtain in traditional experiments, because of the structural adaptability of this protein in accommodating small ligands. In this work, we provide a set of predictions covering the geometry, affinity of binding and protonation state for the pharmaceutically most active form (S-isomer) of ibuprofen to albumin, by using absolute binding free energy calculations in combination with classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and molecular docking. The most favorable binding modes correctly reproduce several experimentally identified binding locations, which include the two Sudlow\\'s drug sites (DS2 and DS1) and the fatty acid binding sites 6 and 2 (FA6 and FA2). Previously unknown details of the binding conformations were revealed for some of them, and formerly undetected binding modes were found in other protein sites. The calculated binding affinities exhibit trends which seem to agree with the available experimental data, and drastically degrade when the ligand is modeled in a protonated (neutral) state, indicating that ibuprofen associates with albumin preferentially in its charged form. These findings provide a detailed description of the binding of ibuprofen, help to explain a wide range of results reported in the literature in the last decades, and demonstrate the possibility of using simulation methods to predict ligand binding to albumin.

  9. Information Management Processes for Extraction of Student Dropout Indicators in Courses in Distance Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Maria Abrantes Baracho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research addresses the use of information management processes in order to extract student dropout indicators in distance mode courses. Distance education in Brazil aims to facilitate access to information. The MEC (Ministry of Education announced, in the second semester of 2013, that the main obstacles faced by institutions offering courses in this mode were students dropping out and the resistance of both educators and students to this mode. The research used a mixed methodology, qualitative and quantitative, to obtain student dropout indicators. The factors found and validated in this research were: the lack of interest from students, insufficient training in the use of the virtual learning environment for students, structural problems in the schools that were chosen to offer the course, students without e-mail, incoherent answers to activities to the course, lack of knowledge on the part of the student when using the computer tool. The scenario considered was a course offered in distance mode called Aluno Integrado (Integrated Student

  10. Wavelength-selectable and steady single-mode erbium-doped fiber multiple ring laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Yang, Zi-Qing; Huang, Tzu-Jung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Chen, Jing-Heng; Chen, Kun-Huang

    2017-11-01

    To achieve a stable and selectable C-band erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser with single-longitudinal-mode output, a multiple ring architecture is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. In this work, we design a passively quadruple-ring structure in the cavity of an EDF laser to produce a Vernier effect with a mode filter for suppressing the multimode spikes significantly. In addition, the output performance and stability of the proposed EDF ring laser are discussed.

  11. Identification of relationships between climate indices and long-term precipitation in South Korea using ensemble empirical mode decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taereem; Shin, Ju-Young; Kim, Sunghun; Heo, Jun-Haeng

    2018-02-01

    Climate indices characterize climate systems and may identify important indicators for long-term precipitation, which are driven by climate interactions in atmosphere-ocean circulation. In this study, we investigated the climate indices that are effective indicators of long-term precipitation in South Korea, and examined their relationships based on statistical methods. Monthly total precipitation was collected from a total of 60 meteorological stations, and they were decomposed by ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) to identify the inherent oscillating patterns or cycles. Cross-correlation analysis and stepwise variable selection were employed to select the significant climate indices at each station. The climate indices that affect the monthly precipitation in South Korea were identified based on the selection frequencies of the selected indices at all stations. The NINO12 indices with four- and ten-month lags and AMO index with no lag were identified as indicators of monthly precipitation in South Korea. Moreover, they indicate meaningful physical information (e.g. periodic oscillations and long-term trend) inherent in the monthly precipitation. The NINO12 indices with four- and ten- month lags was a strong indicator representing periodic oscillations in monthly precipitation. In addition, the long-term trend of the monthly precipitation could be explained by the AMO index. A multiple linear regression model was constructed to investigate the influences of the identified climate indices on the prediction of monthly precipitation. Three identified climate indices successfully explained the monthly precipitation in the winter dry season. Compared to the monthly precipitation in coastal areas, the monthly precipitation in inland areas showed stronger correlation to the identified climate indices.

  12. Measuring mode indices of a partially coherent vortex beam with Hanbury Brown and Twiss type experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ruifeng; Wang, Feiran; Chen, Dongxu; Wang, Yunlong; Zhou, Yu; Gao, Hong; Zhang, Pei, E-mail: zhangpei@mail.ustc.edu.cn; Li, Fuli [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information and Quantum Optoelectronic Devices, Shaanxi Province, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2016-02-01

    It is known that the cross-correlation function (CCF) of a partially coherent vortex (PCV) beam shows a robust link with the radial and azimuthal mode indices. However, the previous proposals are difficult to measure the CCF in practical systems, especially in the case of astronomical objects. In this letter, we demonstrate experimentally that the Hanbury Brown and Twiss effect can be used to measure the mode indices of the original vortex beam and investigate the relationship between the spatial coherent width and the characterization of CCF of the PCV beam. The technique we exploit is quite efficient and robust, and it may be useful in the field of free space communication and astronomy which are related to the photon's orbital angular momentum.

  13. Measuring mode indices of a partially coherent vortex beam with Hanbury Brown and Twiss type experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ruifeng; Wang, Feiran; Chen, Dongxu; Wang, Yunlong; Zhou, Yu; Gao, Hong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Fuli

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the cross-correlation function (CCF) of a partially coherent vortex (PCV) beam shows a robust link with the radial and azimuthal mode indices. However, the previous proposals are difficult to measure the CCF in practical systems, especially in the case of astronomical objects. In this letter, we demonstrate experimentally that the Hanbury Brown and Twiss effect can be used to measure the mode indices of the original vortex beam and investigate the relationship between the spatial coherent width and the characterization of CCF of the PCV beam. The technique we exploit is quite efficient and robust, and it may be useful in the field of free space communication and astronomy which are related to the photon's orbital angular momentum

  14. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model of internal barriers to drug treatment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chang; Kelly, Brian C; Liao, Yanhui; He, Haoyu; Luo, Tao; Deng, Huiqiong; Liu, Tieqiao; Hao, Wei; Wang, Jichuan

    2015-03-01

    Although evidence exists for distinct barriers to drug abuse treatment (BDATs), investigations of their inter-relationships and the effect of individual characteristics on the barrier factors have been sparse, especially in China. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model is applied for this target. A sample of 262 drug users were recruited from three drug rehabilitation centers in Hunan Province, China. We applied a MIMIC approach to investigate the effect of gender, age, marital status, education, primary substance use, duration of primary drug use, and drug treatment experience on the internal barrier factors: absence of problem (AP), negative social support (NSS), fear of treatment (FT), and privacy concerns (PC). Drug users of various characteristics were found to report different internal barrier factors. Younger participants were more likely to report NSS (-0.19, p=0.038) and PC (-0.31, p<0.001). Compared to other drug users, ice users were more likely to report AP (0.44, p<0.001) and NSS (0.25, p=0.010). Drug treatment experiences related to AP (0.20, p=0.012). In addition, differential item functioning (DIF) occurred in three items when participant from groups with different duration of drug use, ice use, or marital status. Individual characteristics had significant effects on internal barriers to drug treatment. On this basis, BDAT perceived by different individuals could be assessed before tactics were utilized to successfully remove perceived barriers to drug treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the Performance of Multiple Drought Indices for Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geli, H. M. E.; Jedd, T.; Svoboda, M.; Wardlow, B.; Hayes, M. J.; Neale, C. M. U.; Hain, C.; Anderson, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    The recent and frequent drought events in the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) create an urgent need for scientists, stakeholders, and decision makers to improve the understanding of drought in order to mitigate its effects. It is well documented that drought is not caused by meteorological or hydrological conditions alone; social, economic, and political governance factors play a large part in whether the components in a water supply system are balanced. In the MENA region, for example, agricultural production can place a significant burden on water supply systems. Understanding the connection between drought and agricultural production is an important first step in developing a sound drought monitoring and mitigation system that links physical indicators with on-the-ground impacts. Drought affect crop yield, livestock health, and water resources availability, among others. A clear depiction of drought onset, duration and severity is essential to provide valuable information to adapt and mitigate drought impact. Therefore, it is important that to be able to connect and evaluate scientific drought data and informational products with societal impact data to more effectively initiate mitigation actions. This approach will further the development of drought maps that are tailored and responsive to immediate and specific societal needs for a region or country. Within the context of developing and evaluating drought impacts maps for the MENA region, this analysis investigates the use of different drought indices and indicators including the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) anomaly, land surface temperature (LST), and Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) for their ability to characterize historic drought events in Tunisia. Evaluation of a "drought map" product is conducted using data at the county level including crop yield, precipitation, in-country interviews with drought monitoring experts and agricultural

  16. [Virological and immunological indices in patients with multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonov, A P; Kameneva, S N; Agafonova, O A; Neverov, A A; Ignat'ev, G M

    2004-01-01

    The level of specific antibodies to viruses of measles, parotitis, type-6 herpes, Epstein-Barr, tick-borne encephalitis and Borrelia burgdorferi as well as presence of genetic samples and antigens of the above infectious antigens were studied in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The cytokines Th1 and Th2 parameters were investigated in blood serum of patients at different MS stages. The titer of antibodies to measles virus was noted to be increasing in MS patients with age and disease aggravation. The level of antibodies to any of the studied infectious agents, except for the type-6 herpes virus, was not dynamically changing for as long as 9 months. The viral genetic samples (measles RNA) were detected just once in 2 patients; the detection time coincided in both cases with MS aggravation. The cytokines dynamics failed to correlate with MS aggravation or exacerbation while the total index of all studied cytokines was decreased. A high MMPw 9 content in blood serum correlated with MS exacerbation in 1 patient.

  17. Non-linear self-reinforced growth of tearing modes with multiple rational surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschke, E.K.; Persson, M.; Dewar, R.L.; Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT

    1993-06-01

    The non-linear evolution of tearing modes with multiple rational surfaces is discussed. It is demonstrated that, in the presence of small differential rotation, the non-linear growth might be faster than exponential. This growth occurs as the rotation frequencies of the plasma at the different rational surfaces go into equilibrium

  18. A Novel Approach to Beam Steering Using Arrays Composed of Multiple Unique Radiating Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadie, Nathan Richard

    Phased array antennas have found wide application in both radar and wireless communications systems particularly as implementation costs continue to decrease. The primary advantages of electronically scanned arrays are speed of beam scan and versatility of beamforming compared to mechanically scanned fixed beam antennas. These benefits come at the cost of a few well known design issues including element pattern rolloff and mutual coupling between elements. Our primary contribution to the field of research is the demonstration of significant improvement in phased array scan performance using multiple unique radiating modes. In short, orthogonal radiating modes have minimal coupling by definition and can also be generated with reduced rolloff at wide scan angles. In this dissertation, we present a combination of analysis, full-wave electromagnetic simulation and measured data to support our claims. The novel folded ring resonator (FRR) antenna is introduced as a wideband and multi-band element embedded in a grounded dielectric substrate. Multiple radiating modes of a small ground plane excited by a four element FRR array were also investigated. A novel hemispherical null steering antenna composed of two collocated radiating elements, each supporting a unique radiating mode, is presented in the context of an anti-jam GPS receiver application. Both the antenna aperture and active feed network were fabricated and measured showing excellent agreement with analytical and simulated data. The concept of using an antenna supporting multiple radiating modes for beam steering is also explored. A 16 element hybrid linear phased array was fabricated and measured demonstrating significantly improved scan range and scanned gain compared to a conventional phased array. This idea is expanded to 2 dimensional scanning arrays by analysis and simulation of a hybrid phased array composed of novel multiple mode monopole on patch antenna sub-arrays. Finally, we fabricated and

  19. Exploring Multiple Motivations on Urban Residents’ Travel Mode Choices: An Empirical Study from Jiangsu Province in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jichao Geng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available People’s actions are always accompanied with multiple motives. How to estimate the role of the pro-environment motivation under the interference of other motivations will help us to better interpret human environmental behaviors. On the basis of classical motivation theories and travel mode choice research backgrounds, the concepts of pro-environmental and self-interested motivation were defined. Then based on survey data on 1244 urban residents in the Jiangsu Province in China, the multinomial logistic regression model was constructed to examine the effects of multiple motivations, government measures, and demographic characteristics on residents’ travel mode choice behaviors. The result indicates that compared to car use, pro-environmental motivation certainly has a significant and positive role in promoting green travel mode choices (walking, bicycling, and using public transport, but this unstable green behavior is always dominated by self-interested motivations rather than the pro-environmental motivation. In addition, the effects of gender, age, income, vehicle ownership, travel distance, and government instruments show significant differences among travel mode choices. The findings suggest that pro-environmental motivation needs to be stressed and highlighted to ensure sustainable urban transportation. However, policies aimed to only increase the public awareness of environment protection are not enough; tailored policy interventions should be targeted to specific groups having different main motivations.

  20. Entanglement indicators for quantum optical fields: three-mode multiport beamsplitters EPR interference experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Junghee; Marciniak, Marcin; Wieśniak, Marcin; Żukowski, Marek

    2018-04-01

    We generalize a new approach to entanglement conditions for light of undefined photons numbers given in Żukowski et al (2017 Phys. Rev. A 95 042113) for polarization correlations to a broader family of interferometric phenomena. Integrated optics allows one to perform experiments based upon multiport beamsplitters. To observe entanglement effects one can use multi-mode parametric down-conversion emissions. When the structure of the Hamiltonian governing the emissions has (infinitely) many equivalent Schmidt decompositions into modes (beams), one can have perfect EPR-like correlations of numbers of photons emitted into ‘conjugate modes’ which can be monitored at spatially separated detection stations. We provide entanglement conditions for experiments involving three modes on each side, and three-input-three-output multiport beamsplitters, and show their violations by bright squeezed vacuum states. We show that a condition expressed in terms of averages of observed rates is a much better entanglement indicator than a related one for the usual intensity variables. Thus, the rates seem to emerge as a powerful concept in quantum optics, especially for fields of undefined intensities.

  1. Margins Associated with Loss of Assured Safety for Systems with Multiple Time-Dependent Failure Modes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, Jon C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Brooks, Dusty Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie. [Engineering Mechanics Corp. of Columbus, OH (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Representations for margins associated with loss of assured safety (LOAS) for weak link (WL)/strong link (SL) systems involving multiple time-dependent failure modes are developed. The following topics are described: (i) defining properties for WLs and SLs, (ii) background on cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) for link failure time, link property value at link failure, and time at which LOAS occurs, (iii) CDFs for failure time margins defined by (time at which SL system fails) – (time at which WL system fails), (iv) CDFs for SL system property values at LOAS, (v) CDFs for WL/SL property value margins defined by (property value at which SL system fails) – (property value at which WL system fails), and (vi) CDFs for SL property value margins defined by (property value of failing SL at time of SL system failure) – (property value of this SL at time of WL system failure). Included in this presentation is a demonstration of a verification strategy based on defining and approximating the indicated margin results with (i) procedures based on formal integral representations and associated quadrature approximations and (ii) procedures based on algorithms for sampling-based approximations.

  2. Multiple modes of water quality impairment by fecal contamination in a rapidly developing coastal area: southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, Lawrence B; Hales, Jason C; Carey, Erin S; Loucaides, Socratis; Rowland, Kevin R; Toothman, Byron R

    2016-02-01

    Fecal contamination of surface waters is a significant problem, particularly in rapidly developing coastal watersheds. Data from a water quality monitoring program in southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina, gathered in support of a regional wastewater and stormwater management program were used to examine likely modes and sources of fecal contamination. Sampling was conducted at 42 locations at 3-4-week intervals between 1996 and 2003, including streams, ponds, and estuarine waters in a variety of land use settings. Expected fecal sources included human wastewater systems (on-site and central), stormwater runoff, and direct deposition by animals. Fecal coliform levels were positively associated with rainfall measures, but frequent high fecal coliform concentrations at times of no rain indicated other modes of contamination as well. Fecal coliform levels were also positively associated with silicate levels, a groundwater source signal, indicating that flux of fecal-contaminated groundwater was a mode of contamination, potentially elevating FC levels in impacted waters independent of stormwater runoff. Fecal contamination by failing septic or sewer systems at many locations was significant and in addition to effects of stormwater runoff. Rainfall was also linked to fecal contamination by central sewage treatment system failures. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple modes of water pollution and different ways in which human activities cause water quality degradation. Management of water quality in coastal regions must therefore recognize diverse drivers of fecal contamination to surface waters.

  3. On decentralized adaptive full-order sliding mode control of multiple UAVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xianbo; Liu, Chao; Su, Housheng; Zhang, Qin

    2017-11-01

    In this study, a novel decentralized adaptive full-order sliding mode control framework is proposed for the robust synchronized formation motion of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) subject to system uncertainty. First, a full-order sliding mode surface in a decentralized manner is designed to incorporate both the individual position tracking error and the synchronized formation error while the UAV group is engaged in building a certain desired geometric pattern in three dimensional space. Second, a decentralized virtual plant controller is constructed which allows the embedded low-pass filter to attain the chattering free property of the sliding mode controller. In addition, robust adaptive technique is integrated in the decentralized chattering free sliding control design in order to handle unknown bounded uncertainties, without requirements for assuming a priori knowledge of bounds on the system uncertainties as stated in conventional chattering free control methods. Subsequently, system robustness as well as stability of the decentralized full-order sliding mode control of multiple UAVs is synthesized. Numerical simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control framework to achieve robust 3D formation flight of the multi-UAV system. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Probabilistic evaluation of multiple failures for steam generators tubes by common mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, M.; Pierrey, J.L.; Dussarte, D.

    1987-11-01

    The reactor safety can be affected when systems or components are subject to phenomena conducting at a wear nontake in account in the conception. This paper presents a methodology which takes in account the non simultaneous failures resulting of this situation. To illustrate this purpose, we give an evaluation of risk of multiple failures for steam generators tubes by common mode (stress corrosion) when the reactor is in normal operation [fr

  5. Excitation of surface plasmon polariton modes with multiple nitrogen vacancy centers in single nanodiamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shailesh; Lausen, Jens L; Andersen, Sebastian K H; Roberts, Alexander S; Radko, Ilya P; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I; Garcia-Ortiz, Cesar E; Smith, Cameron L C; Kristensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamonds are interesting due to their remarkable characteristics that are well suited to applications in quantum-information processing and magnetic field sensing, as well as representing stable fluorescent sources. Multiple NV centers in nanodiamonds (NDs) are especially useful as biological fluorophores due to their chemical neutrality, brightness and room-temperature photostability. Furthermore, NDs containing multiple NV centers also have potential in high-precision magnetic field and temperature sensing. Coupling NV centers to propagating surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes gives a base for lab-on-a-chip sensing devices, allows enhanced fluorescence emission and collection which can further enhance the precision of NV-based sensors. Here, we investigate coupling of multiple NV centers in individual NDs to the SPP modes supported by silver surfaces protected by thin dielectric layers and by gold V-grooves (VGs) produced via the self-terminated silicon etching. In the first case, we concentrate on monitoring differences in fluorescence spectra obtained from a source ND, which is illuminated by a pump laser, and from a scattering ND illuminated only by the fluorescence-excited SPP radiation. In the second case, we observe changes in the average NV lifetime when the same ND is characterized outside and inside a VG. Fluorescence emission from the VG terminations is also observed, which confirms the NV coupling to the VG-supported SPP modes. (paper)

  6. Excitation of surface plasmon polariton modes with multiple nitrogen vacancy centers in single nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shailesh; Lausen, Jens L.; Garcia-Ortiz, Cesar E.; Andersen, Sebastian K. H.; Roberts, Alexander S.; Radko, Ilya P.; Smith, Cameron L. C.; Kristensen, Anders; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamonds are interesting due to their remarkable characteristics that are well suited to applications in quantum-information processing and magnetic field sensing, as well as representing stable fluorescent sources. Multiple NV centers in nanodiamonds (NDs) are especially useful as biological fluorophores due to their chemical neutrality, brightness and room-temperature photostability. Furthermore, NDs containing multiple NV centers also have potential in high-precision magnetic field and temperature sensing. Coupling NV centers to propagating surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes gives a base for lab-on-a-chip sensing devices, allows enhanced fluorescence emission and collection which can further enhance the precision of NV-based sensors. Here, we investigate coupling of multiple NV centers in individual NDs to the SPP modes supported by silver surfaces protected by thin dielectric layers and by gold V-grooves (VGs) produced via the self-terminated silicon etching. In the first case, we concentrate on monitoring differences in fluorescence spectra obtained from a source ND, which is illuminated by a pump laser, and from a scattering ND illuminated only by the fluorescence-excited SPP radiation. In the second case, we observe changes in the average NV lifetime when the same ND is characterized outside and inside a VG. Fluorescence emission from the VG terminations is also observed, which confirms the NV coupling to the VG-supported SPP modes.

  7. Dynamic modeling and hierarchical compound control of a novel 2-DOF flexible parallel manipulator with multiple actuation modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dong; Song, Yimin; Sun, Tao; Jin, Xueying

    2018-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of rigid-flexible coupling dynamic modeling and active control of a novel flexible parallel manipulator (PM) with multiple actuation modes. Firstly, based on the flexible multi-body dynamics theory, the rigid-flexible coupling dynamic model (RFDM) of system is developed by virtue of the augmented Lagrangian multipliers approach. For completeness, the mathematical models of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and piezoelectric transducer (PZT) are further established and integrated with the RFDM of mechanical system to formulate the electromechanical coupling dynamic model (ECDM). To achieve the trajectory tracking and vibration suppression, a hierarchical compound control strategy is presented. Within this control strategy, the proportional-differential (PD) feedback controller is employed to realize the trajectory tracking of end-effector, while the strain and strain rate feedback (SSRF) controller is developed to restrain the vibration of the flexible links using PZT. Furthermore, the stability of the control algorithm is demonstrated based on the Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, two simulation case studies are performed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The results indicate that, under the redundant actuation mode, the hierarchical compound control strategy can guarantee the flexible PM achieves singularity-free motion and vibration attenuation within task workspace simultaneously. The systematic methodology proposed in this study can be conveniently extended for the dynamic modeling and efficient controller design of other flexible PMs, especially the emerging ones with multiple actuation modes.

  8. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-like separability indicators for two-mode Gaussian states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marian, Paulina; Marian, Tudor A.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the separability of the two-mode Gaussian states (TMGSs) by using the variances of a pair of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR)-like observables. Our starting point is inspired by the general necessary condition of separability introduced by Duan et al (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 2722). We evaluate the minima of the normalized forms of both the product and sum of such variances, as well as that of a regularized sum. Making use of Simon’s separability criterion, which is based on the condition of positivity of the partial transpose (PPT) of the density matrix (Simon 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 2726), we prove that these minima are separability indicators in their own right. They appear to quantify the greatest amount of EPR-like correlations that can be created in a TMGS by means of local operations. Furthermore, we reconsider the EPR-like approach to the separability of TMGSs which was developed by Duan et al with no reference to the PPT condition. By optimizing the regularized form of their EPR-like uncertainty sum, we derive a separability indicator for any TMGS. We prove that the corresponding EPR-like condition of separability is manifestly equivalent to Simon’s PPT one. The consistency of these two distinct approaches (EPR-like and PPT) affords a better understanding of the examined separability problem, whose explicit solution found long ago by Simon covers all situations of interest.

  9. Multiple Modes of Cell Death Discovered in a Prokaryotic (Cyanobacterial Endosymbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwen Zheng

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death (PCD is a genetically-based cell death mechanism with vital roles in eukaryotes. Although there is limited consensus on similar death mode programs in prokaryotes, emerging evidence suggest that PCD events are operative. Here we present cell death events in a cyanobacterium living endophytically in the fern Azolla microphylla, suggestive of PCD. This symbiosis is characterized by some unique traits such as a synchronized development, a vertical transfer of the cyanobacterium between plant generations, and a highly eroding cyanobacterial genome. A combination of methods was used to identify cell death modes in the cyanobacterium. Light- and electron microscopy analyses showed that the proportion of cells undergoing cell death peaked at 53.6% (average 20% of the total cell population, depending on the cell type and host developmental stage. Biochemical markers used for early and late programmed cell death events related to apoptosis (Annexin V-EGFP and TUNEL staining assays, together with visualization of cytoskeleton alterations (FITC-phalloidin staining, showed that all cyanobacterial cell categories were affected by cell death. Transmission electron microscopy revealed four modes of cell death: apoptotic-like, autophagic-like, necrotic-like and autolytic-like. Abiotic stresses further enhanced cell death in a dose and time dependent manner. The data also suggest that dynamic changes in the peptidoglycan cell wall layer and in the cytoskeleton distribution patterns may act as markers for the various cell death modes. The presence of a metacaspase homolog (domain p20 further suggests that the death modes are genetically programmed. It is therefore concluded that multiple, likely genetically programmed, cell death modes exist in cyanobacteria, a finding that may be connected with the evolution of cell death in the plant kingdom.

  10. Multiple Modes of Cell Death Discovered in a Prokaryotic (Cyanobacterial) Endosymbiont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weiwen; Rasmussen, Ulla; Zheng, Siping; Bao, Xiaodong; Chen, Bin; Gao, Yuan; Guan, Xiong; Larsson, John; Bergman, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a genetically-based cell death mechanism with vital roles in eukaryotes. Although there is limited consensus on similar death mode programs in prokaryotes, emerging evidence suggest that PCD events are operative. Here we present cell death events in a cyanobacterium living endophytically in the fern Azolla microphylla, suggestive of PCD. This symbiosis is characterized by some unique traits such as a synchronized development, a vertical transfer of the cyanobacterium between plant generations, and a highly eroding cyanobacterial genome. A combination of methods was used to identify cell death modes in the cyanobacterium. Light- and electron microscopy analyses showed that the proportion of cells undergoing cell death peaked at 53.6% (average 20%) of the total cell population, depending on the cell type and host developmental stage. Biochemical markers used for early and late programmed cell death events related to apoptosis (Annexin V-EGFP and TUNEL staining assays), together with visualization of cytoskeleton alterations (FITC-phalloidin staining), showed that all cyanobacterial cell categories were affected by cell death. Transmission electron microscopy revealed four modes of cell death: apoptotic-like, autophagic-like, necrotic-like and autolytic-like. Abiotic stresses further enhanced cell death in a dose and time dependent manner. The data also suggest that dynamic changes in the peptidoglycan cell wall layer and in the cytoskeleton distribution patterns may act as markers for the various cell death modes. The presence of a metacaspase homolog (domain p20) further suggests that the death modes are genetically programmed. It is therefore concluded that multiple, likely genetically programmed, cell death modes exist in cyanobacteria, a finding that may be connected with the evolution of cell death in the plant kingdom. PMID:23822984

  11. Efficient surrogate models for reliability analysis of systems with multiple failure modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bichon, Barron J.; McFarland, John M.; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2011-01-01

    Despite many advances in the field of computational reliability analysis, the efficient estimation of the reliability of a system with multiple failure modes remains a persistent challenge. Various sampling and analytical methods are available, but they typically require accepting a tradeoff between accuracy and computational efficiency. In this work, a surrogate-based approach is presented that simultaneously addresses the issues of accuracy, efficiency, and unimportant failure modes. The method is based on the creation of Gaussian process surrogate models that are required to be locally accurate only in the regions of the component limit states that contribute to system failure. This approach to constructing surrogate models is demonstrated to be both an efficient and accurate method for system-level reliability analysis. - Highlights: → Extends efficient global reliability analysis to systems with multiple failure modes. → Constructs locally accurate Gaussian process models of each response. → Highly efficient and accurate method for assessing system reliability. → Effectiveness is demonstrated on several test problems from the literature.

  12. Stokes-space analysis of modal dispersion in fibers with multiple mode transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Cristian; Mecozzi, Antonio; Shtaif, Mark; Winzer, Peter J

    2012-05-21

    Modal dispersion (MD) in a multimode fiber may be considered as a generalized form of polarization mode dispersion (PMD) in single mode fibers. Using this analogy, we extend the formalism developed for PMD to characterize MD in fibers with multiple spatial modes. We introduce a MD vector defined in a D-dimensional extended Stokes space whose square length is the sum of the square group delays of the generalized principal states. For strong mode coupling, the MD vector undertakes a D-dimensional isotropic random walk, so that the distribution of its length is a chi distribution with D degrees of freedom. We also characterize the largest differential group delay, that is the difference between the delays of the fastest and the slowest principal states, and show that it too is very well approximated by a chi distribution, although in general with a smaller number of degrees of freedom. Finally, we study the spectral properties of MD in terms of the frequency autocorrelation functions of the MD vector, of the square modulus of the MD vector, and of the largest differential group delay. The analytical results are supported by extensive numerical simulations.

  13. How teams use indicators for quality improvement - a multiple-case study on the use of multiple indicators in multidisciplinary breast cancer teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gort, Marjan; Broekhuis, Manda; Regts, Gerdien

    2013-11-01

    A crucial issue in healthcare is how multidisciplinary teams can use indicators for quality improvement. Such teams have increasingly become the core component in both care delivery and in many quality improvement methods. This study aims to investigate the relationships between (1) team factors and the way multidisciplinary teams use indicators for quality improvement, and (2) both team and process factors and the intended results. An in-depth, multiple-case study was conducted in the Netherlands in 2008 involving four breast cancer teams using six structure, process and outcome indicators. The results indicated that the process of using indicators involves several stages and activities. Two teams applied a more intensive, active and interactive approach as they passed through these stages. These teams were perceived to have achieved good results through indicator use compared to the other two teams who applied a simple control approach. All teams experienced some difficulty in integrating the new formal control structure, i.e. measuring and managing performance, in their operational task, and in using their 'new' managerial task to decide as a team what and how to improve. Our findings indicate the presence of a network of relationships between team factors, the controllability and actionability of indicators, the indicator-use process, and the intended results. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Multiple vulnerabilities and maternal healthcare in Vietnam: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000, 2006, and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang Van Minh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge of the aggregate effects of multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities is important for shedding light on the determinants of growing health inequalities and inequities in maternal healthcare. Objective: This paper describes patterns of inequity in maternal healthcare utilization and analyzes associations between inequity and multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities among women in Vietnam. Design: This is a repeated cross-sectional study using data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys 2000, 2006, and 2011. Two maternal healthcare indicators were selected: (1 skilled antenatal care and (2 skilled delivery care. Four types of socioeconomic vulnerabilities – low education, ethnic minority, poverty, and rural location – were assessed both as separate explanatory variables and as composite indicators (combinations of three and four vulnerabilities. Pairwise comparisons and adjusted odds ratios were used to assess socioeconomic inequities in maternal healthcare. Results: In all three surveys, there were increases across the survey years in both the proportions of women who received antenatal care by skilled staff (68.6% in 2000, 90.8% in 2006, and 93.7% in 2011 and the proportions of women who gave birth with assistance from skilled staff (69.9% in 2000, 87.7% in 2006, and 92.9% in 2011. The receipt of antenatal care by skilled staff and birth assistance from skilled health personnel were less common among vulnerable women, especially those with multiple vulnerabilities. Conclusions: Even though Vietnam has improved its coverage of maternal healthcare on average, policies should target maternal healthcare utilization among women with multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities. Both multisectoral social policies and health policies are needed to tackle multiple vulnerabilities more effectively by identifying those who are poor, less educated, live in rural areas, and belong to ethnic minority groups.

  15. A Replication to Increase Happiness Indices among Some People with Profound Multiple Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, Martin T.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The happiness indices in a Fun Time activity were systematically increased for three of four people with profound multiple disabilities by providing their preferred stimuli. The fourth showed decreased unhappiness. However, three people with profound disabilities and minimal movement failed to show any indices of happiness or unhappiness.…

  16. Single and Multiple Indicators of Physical Attractiveness and Psychosocial Behaviors among Young Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Daniel F.; Lerner, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    Examined relations among several indicators of physical attractiveness (PA): height, weight, and triceps skinfold thickness. Appraised whether multiple PA indicators accounted for more variation in measures of psychosocial functioning than did single PA indexes. Facial attractiveness was the most frequent statistically significant predictor of…

  17. Application of Multiple Imputation for Missing Values in Three-Way Three-Mode Multi-Environment Trial Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ting; McLachlan, Geoffrey J; Dieters, Mark J; Basford, Kaye E

    2015-01-01

    It is a common occurrence in plant breeding programs to observe missing values in three-way three-mode multi-environment trial (MET) data. We proposed modifications of models for estimating missing observations for these data arrays, and developed a novel approach in terms of hierarchical clustering. Multiple imputation (MI) was used in four ways, multiple agglomerative hierarchical clustering, normal distribution model, normal regression model, and predictive mean match. The later three models used both Bayesian analysis and non-Bayesian analysis, while the first approach used a clustering procedure with randomly selected attributes and assigned real values from the nearest neighbour to the one with missing observations. Different proportions of data entries in six complete datasets were randomly selected to be missing and the MI methods were compared based on the efficiency and accuracy of estimating those values. The results indicated that the models using Bayesian analysis had slightly higher accuracy of estimation performance than those using non-Bayesian analysis but they were more time-consuming. However, the novel approach of multiple agglomerative hierarchical clustering demonstrated the overall best performances.

  18. Osteological postcranial traits in hylid anurans indicate a morphological continuum between swimming and jumping locomotor modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliz, Mónica; Tulli, Maria J; Abdala, Virginia

    2017-03-01

    Anurans exhibit a particularly wide range of locomotor modes that result in wide variations in their skeletal structure. This article investigates the possible correlation between morphological aspects of the hylid postcranial skeleton and their different locomotor modes and habitat use. To do so, we analyzed 18 morphometric postcranial variables in 19 different anuran species representative of a variety of locomotor modes (jumper, hopper, walker, and swimmer) and habitat uses (arboreal, bush, terrestrial, and aquatic). Our results show that the evolution of the postcranial hylid skeleton cannot be explained by one single model, as for example, the girdles suggest modular evolution while the vertebral column suggests other evolutionary modules. In conjunction with data from several other studies, we were able to show a relationship between hylid morphology and habitat use; offering further evidence that the jumper/swimmer and walker/hopper locomotor modes exhibit quite similar morphological architecture. This allowed us to infer that new locomotor modalities are, in fact, generated along a morphological continuum. J. Morphol. 278:403-417, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. On the nonlinear dynamics of trolling-mode AFM: Analytical solution using multiple time scales method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, Mohammadreza; Pishkenari, Hossein Nejat; Vossoughi, Gholamreza

    2018-06-01

    Trolling mode atomic force microscopy (TR-AFM) has resolved many imaging problems by a considerable reduction of the liquid-resonator interaction forces in liquid environments. The present study develops a nonlinear model of the meniscus force exerted to the nanoneedle of TR-AFM and presents an analytical solution to the distributed-parameter model of TR-AFM resonator utilizing multiple time scales (MTS) method. Based on the developed analytical solution, the frequency-response curves of the resonator operation in air and liquid (for different penetration length of the nanoneedle) are obtained. The closed-form analytical solution and the frequency-response curves are validated by the comparison with both the finite element solution of the main partial differential equations and the experimental observations. The effect of excitation angle of the resonator on horizontal oscillation of the probe tip and the effect of different parameters on the frequency-response of the system are investigated.

  20. Probiotics as beneficial microbes in aquaculture: an update on their multiple modes of action: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zorriehzahra, Mohammad Jalil; Delshad, Somayeh Torabi; Adel, Milad

    2016-01-01

    Wide and discriminate use of antibiotics has resulted in serious biological and ecological concerns, especially the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Probiotics, known as beneficial microbes, are being proposed as an effective and eco-friendly alternative to antibiotics. They were first applied...... in aquaculture species more than three decades ago, but considerable attention had been given only in the early 2000s. Probiotics are defined as live or dead, or even a component of the microorganisms that act under different modes of action in conferring beneficial effects to the host or to its environment....... Several probiotics have been characterized and applied in fish and a number of them are of host origin. Unlike some disease control alternatives being adapted and proposed in aquaculture where actions are unilateral, the immense potential of probiotics lies on their multiple mechanisms in conferring...

  1. Sliding-mode control of single input multiple output DC-DC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Libo; Sun, Yihan; Luo, Tiejian; Wan, Qiyang

    2016-10-01

    Various voltage levels are required in the vehicle mounted power system. A conventional solution is to utilize an independent multiple output DC-DC converter whose cost is high and control scheme is complicated. In this paper, we design a novel SIMO DC-DC converter with sliding mode controller. The proposed converter can boost the voltage of a low-voltage input power source to a controllable high-voltage DC bus and middle-voltage output terminals, which endow the converter with characteristics of simple structure, low cost, and convenient control. In addition, the sliding mode control (SMC) technique applied in our converter can enhance the performances of a certain SIMO DC-DC converter topology. The high-voltage DC bus can be regarded as the main power source to the high-voltage facility of the vehicle mounted power system, and the middle-voltage output terminals can supply power to the low-voltage equipment on an automobile. In the respect of control algorithm, it is the first time to propose the SMC-PID (Proportion Integration Differentiation) control algorithm, in which the SMC algorithm is utilized and the PID control is attended to the conventional SMC algorithm. The PID control increases the dynamic ability of the SMC algorithm by establishing the corresponding SMC surface and introducing the attached integral of voltage error, which endow the sliding-control system with excellent dynamic performance. At last, we established the MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation model, tested performance of the system, and built the hardware prototype based on Digital Signal Processor (DSP). Results show that the sliding mode control is able to track a required trajectory, which has robustness against the uncertainties and disturbances.

  2. Adjustment modes in the trajectory of progressive multiple sclerosis: a qualitative study and conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogosian, Angeliki; Morgan, Myfanwy; Bishop, Felicity L; Day, Fern; Moss-Morris, Rona

    2017-03-01

    We examined cognitive and behavioural challenges and adaptations for people with progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) and developed a preliminary conceptual model of changes in adjustment over time. Using theoretical sampling, 34 semi-structured interviews were conducted with people with MS. Participants were between 41 and 77 years of age. Thirteen were diagnosed with primary progressive MS and 21 with secondary progressive MS. Data were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Participants described initially bracketing the illness off and carrying on their usual activities but this became problematic as the condition progressed and they employed different adjustment modes to cope with increased disabilities. Some scaled back their activities to live a more comfortable life, others identified new activities or adapted old ones, whereas at times, people disengaged from the adjustment process altogether and resigned to their condition. Relationships with partners, emotional reactions, environment and perception of the environment influenced adjustment, while people were often flexible and shifted among modes. Adjusting to a progressive condition is a fluid process. Future interventions can be tailored to address modifiable factors at different stages of the condition and may involve addressing emotional reactions concealing/revealing the condition and perceptions of the environment.

  3. An under-actuated origami gripper with adjustable stiffness joints for multiple grasp modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzeh, Amir; Paik, Jamie

    2017-05-01

    Under-actuated robots offer multiple degrees of freedom without much added complexity to the actuation and control. Utilizing adjustable stiffness joints in these robots allows us to control their stable configurations and their mode of interaction with the environment. In this paper, we present the design of tendon-driven robotic origami (robogami) joints with adjustable stiffness. The proposed designs allow us to place joints along any direction in the plane of the robot and in the normal direction to the plane. The layer-by-layer manufacturing of robogamis facilitates the design and manufacturing of robots with different arrangement of joints for different applications. We use thermally activated shape memory polymer to control the joint stiffness. The manufacturing of the polymer layer is compatible with the layer-by-layer manufacturing process of the robogamis which results in scalable and customizable robots. To demonstrate, we prototyped an under-actuated gripper with three fingers and only one input actuation. The grasp mode of the gripper is set by adjusting the configuration of the locked joints and modulating the stiffness of the active joints. We present a model to estimate the configuration and the contact forces of the gripper at different settings that will assist us in design and control of future generation of under-actuated robogamis.

  4. Multiple-Pulse Operation and Bound States of Solitons in Passive Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Komarov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present results of our research on a multiple-pulse operation of passive mode-locked fiber lasers. The research has been performed on basis of numerical simulation. Multihysteresis dependence of both an intracavity energy and peak intensities of intracavity ultrashort pulses on pump power is found. It is shown that the change of a number of ultrashort pulses in a laser cavity can be realized by hard as well as soft regimes of an excitation and an annihilation of new solitons. Bound steady states of interacting solitons are studied for various mechanisms of nonlinear losses shaping ultrashort pulses. Possibility of coding of information on basis of soliton trains with various bonds between neighboring pulses is discussed. The role of dispersive wave emitted by solitons because of lumped intracavity elements in a formation of powerful soliton wings is analyzed. It is found that such powerful wings result in large bounding energies of interacting solitons in steady states. Various problems of a soliton interaction in passive mode-locked fiber lasers are discussed.

  5. Probiotics as beneficial microbes in aquaculture: an update on their multiple modes of action: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorriehzahra, Mohammad Jalil; Delshad, Somayeh Torabi; Adel, Milad; Tiwari, Ruchi; Karthik, K; Dhama, Kuldeep; Lazado, Carlo C

    2016-12-01

    Wide and discriminate use of antibiotics has resulted in serious biological and ecological concerns, especially the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Probiotics, known as beneficial microbes, are being proposed as an effective and eco-friendly alternative to antibiotics. They were first applied in aquaculture species more than three decades ago, but considerable attention had been given only in the early 2000s. Probiotics are defined as live or dead, or even a component of the microorganisms that act under different modes of action in conferring beneficial effects to the host or to its environment. Several probiotics have been characterized and applied in fish and a number of them are of host origin. Unlike some disease control alternatives being adapted and proposed in aquaculture where actions are unilateral, the immense potential of probiotics lies on their multiple mechanisms in conferring benefits to the host fish and the rearing environment. The staggering number of probiotics papers in aquaculture highlights the multitude of advantages from these microorganisms and conspicuously position them in the dynamic search for health-promoting alternatives for cultured fish. This paper provides an update on the use of probiotics in finfish aquaculture, particularly focusing on their modes of action. It explores the contemporary understanding of their spatial and nutritional competitiveness, inhibitory metabolites, environmental modification capability, immunomodulatory potential and stress-alleviating mechanism. This timely update affirms the importance of probiotics in fostering sustainable approaches in aquaculture and provides avenues in furthering its research and development.

  6. Structural health monitoring and damage assessment using measured FRFs from multiple sensors. Part I. The indicator of correlation criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zang, C.; Friswell, M.I. [Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Univ. of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Imregun, M. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial Coll., London (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents two criteria for correlating measured frequency responses from multiple sensors and proposes to use them as indicators for structural damage detection. The first criterion is a global shape correlation (GSC) function that is sensitive to mode shape differences but not to relative scales. The second criterion, a global amplitude correlation (GAC) function, is based on actual response amplitudes. Both correlation criteria are a function of frequency and uniquely map a set of complex responses to a real scalar between zero and unity. The averaged integrations of GSC and GAC functions along the frequency points over the measurement range, also called damage indicators, are used to describe the correlation between two sets of vibration data. When a structure state remains unchanged, both correlation criteria are as close to unity simultaneously. Otherwise, the correlation with the reference data will be decreased with changes of structure states. Using GSC and GAC functions has the advantage of being able to deal with incomplete measurements. Also, all available response data are used and hence there is no critical selection of frequency points for damage detection. The above correlation criteria were applied to a bookshelf structure and various cases such as undamaged states, damage locations (single and multiple), damage levels, as well as environmental variability are discussed. As expected, it was found that indicators of correlation criteria were able to identify all various cases correctly. (orig.)

  7. Vascular Multiplicity Should Not Be a Contra-Indication for Live Kidney Donation and Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Lafranca

    Full Text Available Whether vascular multiplicity should be considered as contraindication and therefore 'extended donor criterion' is still under debate.Data from all live kidney donors from 2006-2013 (n = 951 was retrospectively reviewed. Vascular anatomy as imaged by MRA, CTA or other modalities was compared with intraoperative findings. Furthermore, the influence of vascular multiplicity on outcome of donors and recipients was studied.In 237 out of 951 donors (25%, vascular multiplicity was present. CTA had the highest accuracy levels regarding vascular anatomy assessment. Regarding outcome of donors with vascular multiplicity, warm ischemia time (WIT and skin-to-skin time were significantly longer if arterial multiplicity (AM was present (5.1 vs. 4.0 mins and 202 vs. 178 mins. Skin-to-skin time was significantly longer, and complication rates were higher in donors with venous multiplicity (203 vs. 180 mins and 17.2% vs. 8.4%. Outcome of renal transplant recipients showed a significantly increased WIT (30 vs. 26.7 minutes, higher rate of DGF (13.9% vs. 6.9% and lower rate of BPAR (6.9% vs. 13.9% in patients receiving a kidney with AM compared to kidneys with singular anatomy.We conclude that vascular multiplicity should not be a contra-indication, since it has little impact on clinical outcome in the donor as well as in renal transplant recipients.

  8. Vascular Multiplicity Should Not Be a Contra-Indication for Live Kidney Donation and Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafranca, Jeffrey A; van Bruggen, Mark; Kimenai, Hendrikus J A N; Tran, Thi C K; Terkivatan, Türkan; Betjes, Michiel G H; IJzermans, Jan N M; Dor, Frank J M F

    2016-01-01

    Whether vascular multiplicity should be considered as contraindication and therefore 'extended donor criterion' is still under debate. Data from all live kidney donors from 2006-2013 (n = 951) was retrospectively reviewed. Vascular anatomy as imaged by MRA, CTA or other modalities was compared with intraoperative findings. Furthermore, the influence of vascular multiplicity on outcome of donors and recipients was studied. In 237 out of 951 donors (25%), vascular multiplicity was present. CTA had the highest accuracy levels regarding vascular anatomy assessment. Regarding outcome of donors with vascular multiplicity, warm ischemia time (WIT) and skin-to-skin time were significantly longer if arterial multiplicity (AM) was present (5.1 vs. 4.0 mins and 202 vs. 178 mins). Skin-to-skin time was significantly longer, and complication rates were higher in donors with venous multiplicity (203 vs. 180 mins and 17.2% vs. 8.4%). Outcome of renal transplant recipients showed a significantly increased WIT (30 vs. 26.7 minutes), higher rate of DGF (13.9% vs. 6.9%) and lower rate of BPAR (6.9% vs. 13.9%) in patients receiving a kidney with AM compared to kidneys with singular anatomy. We conclude that vascular multiplicity should not be a contra-indication, since it has little impact on clinical outcome in the donor as well as in renal transplant recipients.

  9. Joint analysis of time-to-event and multiple binary indicators of latent classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    Multiple categorical variables are commonly used in medical and epidemiological research to measure specific aspects of human health and functioning. To analyze such data, models have been developed considering these categorical variables as imperfect indicators of an individual's "true" status o...

  10. Child Sexual Abuse and Adult Romantic Adjustment: Comparison of Single- and Multiple-Indicator Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbout, Natacha; Sabourin, Stephane; Lussier, Yvan

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the usefulness of single- and multiple-indicator strategies in a model examining the role of child sexual abuse (CSA) to predict later marital satisfaction through attachment and psychological distress. The sample included 1,092 women and men from a nonclinical population in cohabiting or marital relationships. The single-item…

  11. Error Analysis of Fast Moving Target Geo-location in Wide Area Surveillance Ground Moving Target Indication Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Shi-chao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As an important mode in airborne radar systems, Wide Area Surveillance Ground Moving Target Indication (WAS-GMTI mode has the ability of monitoring a large area in a short time, and then the detected moving targets can be located quickly. However, in real environment, many factors introduce considerable errors into the location of moving targets. In this paper, a fast location method based on the characteristics of the moving targets in WAS-GMTI mode is utilized. And in order to improve the location performance, those factors that introduce location errors are analyzed and moving targets are relocated. Finally, the analysis of those factors is proved to be reasonable by simulation and real data experiments.

  12. Multiple surface plasmon polaritons modes on thin silver film controlled by a two-dimensional lattice of silver nanodimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ying; Jiang, Yongyuan, E-mail: jiangyy@hit.edu.cn [Harbin Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (China)

    2015-01-15

    We study the optical resonant spectrum of a two-dimensional periodic array of silver nanodimers on a thin silver film using multiple scattering formalism. The excited multiple plasmonic modes on two interfaces of the silver film reveal that the dispersion relationships of surface plasmon polaritons on metallic film are modified by doubly periodic lattice due to the fact that wave vectors matching conditions are satisfied. Moreover, we demonstrate that the plasmonic modes are directly controlled by the thickness of silver film, as well as the gap between nanodimer array and silver film. These effects provide novel high-efficient and steady way for excitation in future plasmonic nanodevices.

  13. Enhancement of Fracture Resistance by Multiple Cracks in Layered Structures under Mode I and Mix Mode Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutianos, Stergios; Sørensen, Bent F.

    beams bonded together with a thermoset adhesive, more delamination cracks could be developed next to the main/primary adhesive/laminate crack. An analytical model, based on the J integral, was developed for multiple delaminations [3]. It is shown that the maximum possible increase (upper limit...

  14. Obtaining appropriate interval estimates for age when multiple indicators are used

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fieuws, Steffen; Willems, Guy; Larsen, Sara Tangmose

    2016-01-01

    When an estimate of age is needed, typically multiple indicators are present as found in skeletal or dental information. There exists a vast literature on approaches to estimate age from such multivariate data. Application of Bayes' rule has been proposed to overcome drawbacks of classical regres...... the need for interval estimation. To illustrate and evaluate the method, Köhler et al. (1995) third molar scores are used to estimate the age in a dataset of 3200 male subjects in the juvenile age range.......When an estimate of age is needed, typically multiple indicators are present as found in skeletal or dental information. There exists a vast literature on approaches to estimate age from such multivariate data. Application of Bayes' rule has been proposed to overcome drawbacks of classical...... regression models but becomes less trivial as soon as the number of indicators increases. Each of the age indicators can lead to a different point estimate ("the most plausible value for age") and a prediction interval ("the range of possible values"). The major challenge in the combination of multiple...

  15. Journey of a Package: Category 1 Source (Co-60) Shipment with Several Border Crossings, Multiple Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive materials (RAM) are used extensively in a vast array of industries and in an even wider breadth of applications on a truly global basis each and every day. Over the past 50 years, these applications and the quantity (activity) of RAM shipped has grown significantly, with the next 50 years expected to show a continuing trend. The movement of these goods occurs in all regions of the world, and must therefore be conducted in a manner which will not adversely impact people or the environment. Industry and regulators have jointly met this challenge, so much so that RAM shipments are amongst the safest of any product. How has this level of performance been achieved? What is involved in shipping RAM from one corner of the world to another, often via a number of in-transit locations and often utilizing multiple modes of transport in any single shipment? This paper reviews one such journey, of Category 1 Cobalt-60 sources, as they move from point of manufacture through to point of use including the detailed and multi-approval process, the stringent regulatory requirements in place, the extensive communications required throughout, and the practical aspects needed to simply offer such a product for sale and transport. Upon completion, the rationale for such an exemplary safety and security record will be readily apparent. (author)

  16. Monolithic mode locked DBR laser with multiple-bandgap MQW structure realized by selective area growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, M.; Bouayad-Amine, J.; Feeser, T.; Haisch, H.; Kuehn, E.; Lach, E.; Satzke, K.; Weber, J.; Zielinski, E. [Alcatel Telecom, Stuttgart (Germany). Research Div.

    1996-12-31

    The realization of novel monolithically integrated multiple-segment pulse laser sources in InGaAsP MQW technology is reported. The MQW layers for all functional sections of these devices, the modulator, the active (gain) and the passive waveguide, as well as the Bragg section were grown in a single selective area growth (SAG) step by LP-MOVPE on SiO{sub 2} patterned 2 inch InP substrates. Due to a properly selected pattern geometry 3 different bandgap regions with smooth interfaces are thereby formed along the laser cavity. The more than 4 mm long DBR lasers which exhibit a threshold current as low as 30 mA were mode locked by an intra-cavity electroabsorption modulator applying a sinusoidal voltage at around 10 GHz. In this way an optical pulse train with pulse widths < 13 ps (measured with a streak camera) and high extinction ratio was generated. A time-bandwidth product of 0.5 close to the Fourier limit is obtained. This device is very attractive for signal generation in 40 Gb/s OTDM transmission systems at 1.55 {micro}m wavelength.

  17. Occupational stress and psychopathology in health professionals: an explorative study with the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliceto, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio; Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Ferracuti, Stefano; Erbuto, Denise; Lester, David; Candilera, Gabriella; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-03-01

    Occupational stress is a multivariate process involving sources of pressure, psycho-physiological distress, locus of control, work dissatisfaction, depression, anxiety, mental health disorders, hopelessness, and suicide ideation. Healthcare professionals are known for higher rates of occupational-related distress (burnout and compassion fatigue) and higher rates of suicide. The purpose of this study was to explain the relationships between occupational stress and some psychopathological dimensions in a sample of health professionals. We investigated 156 nurses and physicians, 62 males and 94 females, who were administered self-report questionnaires to assess occupational stress [occupational stress inventory (OSI)], temperament (temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego autoquestionnaire), and hopelessness (Beck hopelessness scale). The best Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes model with five OSI predictors yielded the following results: χ2(9) = 14.47 (p = 0.11); χ2/df = 1.60; comparative fit index = 0.99; root mean square error of approximation = 0.05. This model provided a good fit to the empirical data, showing a strong direct influence of casual variables such as work dissatisfaction, absence of type A behavior, and especially external locus of control, psychological and physiological distress on latent variable psychopathology. Occupational stress is in a complex relationship with temperament and hopelessness and also common among healthcare professionals.

  18. Modeling freedom from progression for standard-risk medulloblastoma: a mathematical tumor control model with multiple modes of failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Nils Patrik; Vogelius, Ivan R.; Bjørk-Eriksson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    As pediatric medulloblastoma (MB) is a relatively rare disease, it is important to extract the maximum information from trials and cohort studies. Here, a framework was developed for modeling tumor control with multiple modes of failure and time-to-progression for standard-risk MB, using published...

  19. Multiple-bunch-length operating mode design for a storage ring using hybrid low alpha and harmonic cavity method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Weiwei, E-mail: gaomqr@mail.ustc.edu.cn [College of Mathematics and Physics, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou 350118 (China); Wang, Lin; Li, Heting [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029 (China)

    2017-03-11

    In this paper we design a simultaneous three bunch length operating mode at the HLS-II (Hefei Light Source II) storage ring by installing two harmonic cavities and minimizing the momentum compaction factor. The short bunches (2.6 mm) presented in this work will meet the requirement of coherent millimeter-wave and sub-THz radiation experiments, while the long bunches (20 mm) will efficiently increase the total beam current. Therefore, this multiple-bunch-length operating mode allows present synchrotron users and coherent millimeter-wave users (or sub THz users) to carry out their experiments simultaneously. Since the relatively low energy characteristic of HLS-II we achieve the multiple-bunch-length operating mode without multicell superconducting RF cavities, which is technically feasible.

  20. Intravenous Immunoglobulins: Mode of Action and Indications in Autoimmune and Inflammatory Dermatoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubomir A. Dourmishev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs, a mixture of variable amounts of proteins (albumin, IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE antibodies, as well as salt, sugar, solvents, and detergents, are successfully used to treat a variety of dermatological disorders. For decades, IVIGs have been administered for treatment of infectious diseases and immune deficiencies, since they contain natural antibodies that represent a first-line defense against pathogens. Today their indication has expanded, including the off-label therapy for a variety of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In dermatology, IVIGs are administered for treatment of different disorders at different therapeutic regimens, mostly with higher doses then those administered for treatment of infectious diseases. The aim of this prospective review is to highlight the indications, effectiveness, side effects, and perspectives of the systemic treatment with IVIGs for patients with severe, life-threatening, and resistant to conventional therapies autoimmune or inflammatory dermatoses.

  1. Multiple dual mode counter-current chromatography with variable duration of alternating phase elution steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanyan, Artak E; Erastov, Andrey A; Shishilov, Oleg N

    2014-06-20

    The multiple dual mode (MDM) counter-current chromatography separation processes consist of a succession of two isocratic counter-current steps and are characterized by the shuttle (forward and back) transport of the sample in chromatographic columns. In this paper, the improved MDM method based on variable duration of alternating phase elution steps has been developed and validated. The MDM separation processes with variable duration of phase elution steps are analyzed. Basing on the cell model, analytical solutions are developed for impulse and non-impulse sample loading at the beginning of the column. Using the analytical solutions, a calculation program is presented to facilitate the simulation of MDM with variable duration of phase elution steps, which can be used to select optimal process conditions for the separation of a given feed mixture. Two options of the MDM separation are analyzed: 1 - with one-step solute elution: the separation is conducted so, that the sample is transferred forward and back with upper and lower phases inside the column until the desired separation of the components is reached, and then each individual component elutes entirely within one step; 2 - with multi-step solute elution, when the fractions of individual components are collected in over several steps. It is demonstrated that proper selection of the duration of individual cycles (phase flow times) can greatly increase the separation efficiency of CCC columns. Experiments were carried out using model mixtures of compounds from the GUESSmix with solvent systems hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water. The experimental results are compared to the predictions of the theory. A good agreement between theory and experiment has been demonstrated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Multiple ligand-binding modes in bacterial R67 dihydrofolate reductase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Hernán; Gillies, Malcolm B.; Cummins, Peter L.; Bliznyuk, Andrey A.; Gready, Jill E.

    2005-03-01

    R67 dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), a bacterial plasmid-encoded enzyme associated with resistance to the drug trimethoprim, shows neither sequence nor structural homology with the chromosomal DHFR. It presents a highly symmetrical toroidal structure, where four identical monomers contribute to the unique central active-site pore. Two reactants (dihydrofolate, DHF), two cofactors (NADPH) or one of each (R67•DHF•NADPH) can be found simultaneously within the active site, the last one being the reactive ternary complex. As the positioning of the ligands has proven elusive to empirical determination, we addressed the problem from a theoretical perspective. Several potential structures of the ternary complex were generated using the docking programs AutoDock and FlexX. The variability among the final poses, many of which conformed to experimental data, prompted us to perform a comparative scoring analysis and molecular dynamics simulations to assess the stability of the complexes. Analysis of ligand-ligand and ligand-protein interactions along the 4 ns trajectories of eight different structures allowed us to identify important inter-ligand contacts and key protein residues. Our results, combined with published empirical data, clearly suggest that multipe binding modes of the ligands are possible within R67 DHFR. While the pterin ring of DHF and the nicotinamide ring of NADPH assume a stacked endo-conformation at the centre of the pore, probably assisted by V66, Q67 and I68, the tails of the molecules extend towards opposite ends of the cavity, adopting multiple configurations in a solvent rich-environment where hydrogen-bond interactions with K32 and Y69 may play important roles.

  3. Intertwined and vestigial order with ultracold atoms in multiple cavity modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Shchadilova, Yulia E.; Demler, Eugene

    2017-12-01

    Atoms in transversely pumped optical cavities "self-organize" by forming a density wave and emitting superradiantly into the cavity mode(s). For a single-mode cavity, the properties of this self-organization transition are well characterized both theoretically and experimentally. Here, we explore the self-organization of a Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of two cavity modes—a system that recently was realized experimentally [Léonard et al., Nature (London) 543, 87 (2017), 10.1038/nature21067]. We argue that this system can exhibit a "vestigially ordered" phase in which neither cavity mode exhibits superradiance but the cavity modes are mutually phase locked by the atoms. We argue that this vestigially ordered phase should generically be present in multimode cavity geometries.

  4. Large-scale diversity of slope fishes: pattern inconsistency between multiple diversity indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Jean-Claude; Maiorano, Porzia; Mérigot, Bastien; Colloca, Francesco; Politou, Chrissi-Yianna; Gil De Sola, Luis; Bertrand, Jacques A; Murenu, Matteo; Durbec, Jean-Pierre; Kallianiotis, Argyris; Mannini, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale studies focused on the diversity of continental slope ecosystems are still rare, usually restricted to a limited number of diversity indices and mainly based on the empirical comparison of heterogeneous local data sets. In contrast, we investigate large-scale fish diversity on the basis of multiple diversity indices and using 1454 standardized trawl hauls collected throughout the upper and middle slope of the whole northern Mediterranean Sea (36°3'- 45°7' N; 5°3'W - 28°E). We have analyzed (1) the empirical relationships between a set of 11 diversity indices in order to assess their degree of complementarity/redundancy and (2) the consistency of spatial patterns exhibited by each of the complementary groups of indices. Regarding species richness, our results contrasted both the traditional view based on the hump-shaped theory for bathymetric pattern and the commonly-admitted hypothesis of a large-scale decreasing trend correlated with a similar gradient of primary production in the Mediterranean Sea. More generally, we found that the components of slope fish diversity we analyzed did not always show a consistent pattern of distribution according either to depth or to spatial areas, suggesting that they are not driven by the same factors. These results, which stress the need to extend the number of indices traditionally considered in diversity monitoring networks, could provide a basis for rethinking not only the methodological approach used in monitoring systems, but also the definition of priority zones for protection. Finally, our results call into question the feasibility of properly investigating large-scale diversity patterns using a widespread approach in ecology, which is based on the compilation of pre-existing heterogeneous and disparate data sets, in particular when focusing on indices that are very sensitive to sampling design standardization, such as species richness.

  5. Discovery of multiple, ionization-created CS2 anions and a new mode of operation for drift chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snowden-Ifft, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the surprising discovery of multiple species of ionization-created CS 2 anions in gas mixtures containing electronegative CS 2 and O 2 , identified by their slightly different drift velocities. Data are presented to understand the formation mechanism and identity of these new anions. Regardless of the micro-physics, however, this discovery offers a new, trigger-less mode of operation for the drift chambers. A demonstration of trigger-less operation is presented

  6. Evaluation of multiple water quality indices for drinking and irrigation purposes for the Karoon river, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminiyan, Milad Mirzaei; Aitkenhead-Peterson, Jacqueline; Aminiyan, Farzad Mirzaei

    2018-06-16

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the water quality of the Karoon river, which is a main river in Iran country. For this purpose, hydrochemical analyses of a database that maintained by the Water Resources Authority of Khuzestan Province, Iran's Ministry of Energy, were carried out. These data were compared with the maximum permissible limit values recommended by World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization water standards for drinking and agricultural purposes, respectively. Also in this regard, multiple indices of water quality were utilized. However, not all indices gave similar rankings for water quality. According to the USSL diagram and Kelly ratio, Karoon's water quality is not suitable for irrigation purposes due to high salinity and moderate alkalinity. However, the results of the magnesium hazard analysis suggested that water quality for irrigation is acceptable. A Piper diagram illustrated that the most dominant water types during the 15 years of the study were Na-Cl and Na-SO 4 . The mineral saturation index also indicated that Na-Cl is the dominant water type. The water quality for drinking purpose was evaluated using a Schoeller diagram and water quality index (WQI). According to the computed WQI ranging from 111.9 to 194.0, the Karoon's water in the Khuzestan plain can be categorized as "poor water" for drinking purposes. Based on hydrochemical characteristics, years 2000-2007 and 2008-2014 were categorized into two clusters illustrating a decline in water quality between the two time periods.

  7. Measurement of multiple α-modes at the Delphi subcritical assembly by neutron noise techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szieberth, Máté; Klujber, Gergely; Kloosterman, Jan Leen; Haas, Dick de

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Neutron noise measurements were performed at the Delphi subcritical assembly. • Bias in the fitted prompt decay constant was observed due to higher modes. • Spatial dependence of the higher mode was surveyed. • Effect of two different source distributions was investigated. • An estimation of the prompt decay constant is given for the Delphi. - Abstract: The paper presents the results and evaluations of a comprehensive set of neutron noise measurements on the Delphi subcritical assembly of the Delft University of Technology. The measurements investigated the effect of different source distributions (inherent spontaneous fission and 252 Cf) and the position of the detectors applied (both radially and vertically). The evaluation of the measured data has been performed by the variance-to-mean (VTM, Feynman-α), the autocorrelation (ACF, Rossi-α) and the cross-correlation (CCF) methods. The values obtained for the prompt decay constant show a strong bias, which depends both on the detector position and on the source distribution. This is due to the presence of higher modes in the system. It has been observed that the α value fitted is higher when the detector is close to the boundary of the core or to the 252 Cf point-source. The higher alpha-modes have also been observed by fitting functions describing two alpha-modes. The successful set of measurements also provides a good basis for further theoretical investigations including the Monte Carlo simulation of the noise measurements and the calculation of the alpha-modes in the Delphi subcritical assembly

  8. On the effectiveness of single and multiple base station sleep modes in cellular networks

    OpenAIRE

    Marsan, Marco Ajmone; Chiaraviglio, Luca; Ciullo, Delia; Meo, Michela

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study base station sleep modes that, by reducing power consumption in periods of low traffic, improve the energy efficiency of cellular access networks. We assume that when some base stations enter sleep mode, radio coverage and service provisioning are provided by the base stations that remain active, so as to guarantee that service is available over the whole area at all times. This may be an optimistic assumption in the case of the sparse base station layouts typical of ru...

  9. Comparison of Multiple Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Indices in Chinese COPD Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinsong; Miller, Anastasia; Li, Yongxia; Lan, Qinqin; Zhang, Ning; Chai, Yanling; Hai, Bing

    2018-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious chronic condition with a global impact. Symptoms of COPD include progressive dyspnea, breathlessness, cough, and sputum production, which have a considerable impact on the lives of patients. In addition to the human cost of living with COPD and the resulting death, COPD entails a huge economic burden on the Chinese population, with patients spending up to one-third of the average family income on COPD management in some regions is clinically beneficial to adopt preventable measures via prudent COPD care utilization, monetary costs, and hospitalizations. Toward this end, this study compared the relative effectiveness of six indices in predicting patient healthcare utilization, cost of care, and patient health outcome. The six assessment systems evaluated included the three multidimensional Body mass index, Obstruction, Dyspnea, Exercise capacity index, Dyspnea, Obstruction, Smoking, Exacerbation (DOSE) index, and COPD Assessment Test index, or the unidimensional measures that best predict the future of patient healthcare utilization, cost of care, and patient health outcome among Chinese COPD patients. Multiple linear regression models were created for each healthcare utilization, cost, and outcome including a single COPD index and the same group of demographic variables for each of the outcomes. We conclude that the DOSE index facilitates the prediction of patient healthcare utilization, disease expenditure, and negative clinical outcomes. Our study indicates that the DOSE index has a potential role beyond clinical predictions. Copyright©2018. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases.

  10. Failure mode and effect analysis in asset maintenance : a multiple case study in the process industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaksma, Jan; Klingenberg, W.; Veldman, J.

    2013-01-01

    Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is an important method for designing and prioritising preventive maintenance activities and is often used as the basis for preventive maintenance planning. Although FMEA was studied extensively, most of the published work so far covers FMEA concept design.

  11. Failure mode and effect analysis in asset maintenance: a multiple case study in the process industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaksma, Anne Johannes Jan; Klingenberg, W.; Veldman, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is an important method for designing and prioritising preventive maintenance activities and is often used as the basis for preventive maintenance planning. Although FMEA was studied extensively, most of the published work so far covers FMEA concept design.

  12. Modelling public transport route choice with multiple access and egress modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, Ties; de Romph, E.; Veitch, T.; Cook, J.

    2013-01-01

    The current traffic system faces well known problems like congestion, environmental impact and use of public space. Public transport (PT) is an important mode to alleviate these problems. To be able to assess the effects of policy measures properly, it is important to model the behaviour of the

  13. Neonatal outcomes among multiple births ≤ 32 weeks gestational age: Does mode of conception have an impact? A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Woojin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies comparing perinatal outcomes in multiples conceived following the use of artificial reproductive technologies (ART vs. spontaneous conception (SC have reported conflicting results in terms of mortality and morbidity. Therefore, the objective of our study was to compare composite outcome of mortality and severe neonatal morbidities amongst preterm multiple births ≤ 32 weeks gestation infant born following ART vs. SC. Methods We conducted a single center cohort study at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Data on all preterm multiple births (≤ 32 weeks GA discharged between July 2005 and June 2008 were retrospectively collected from a prospective database at our centre. Details regarding mode of conception were collected retrospectively from maternal health records. Preterm multiple births were categorized into those born following ART vs. SC. Composite outcome was defined as combination of death or any of the three neonatal morbidities (grade 3/4 intraventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia; retinopathy of prematurity > stage 2 or chronic lung disease. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were preformed after adjustment of confounders (maternal age, parity, triplets, gestational age, sex, and small for gestational age. Results One hundred and thirty seven neonates were born following use of ART and 233 following SC. The unadjusted composite outcome rate was significantly higher in preterm multiples born following ART vs. SC [43.1% vs. 26.6%, p = 0.001; OR 1.98 (95% CI 1.13, 3.45]; however, when adjusted for confounders the difference between groups was not statistically significant [OR 1.39, 95% CI 0.67, 2.89]. Conclusion In our population of preterm multiple births, the mode of conception had no detectable effect on the adjusted composite neonatal outcome of mortality and/or three neonatal morbidities.

  14. Multi-Generational Kinship, Multiple Mating, and Flexible Modes of Parental Care in a Breeding Population of the Veery (Catharus fuscescens, a Trans-Hemispheric Migratory Songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Halley

    Full Text Available We discovered variable modes of parental care in a breeding population of color-banded Veeries (Catharus fuscescens, a Nearctic-Neotropical migratory songbird, long thought to be socially monogamous, and performed a multi-locus DNA microsatellite analysis to estimate parentage and kinship in a sample of 37 adults and 21 offspring. We detected multiple mating in both sexes, and four modes of parental care that varied in frequency within and between years including multiple male feeders at some nests, and males attending multiple nests in the same season, each with a different female. Unlike other polygynandrous systems, genetic evidence indicates that multi-generational patterns of kinship occur among adult Veeries at our study site, and this was corroborated by the capture of an adult male in 2013 that had been banded as a nestling in 2011 at a nest attended by multiple male feeders. All genotyped adults (n = 37 were related to at least one other bird in the sample at the cousin level or greater (r ≥ 0.125, and 81% were related to at least one other bird at the half-sibling level or greater (r ≥ 0.25, range 0.25-0.60. Although our sample size is small, it appears that the kin structure is maintained by natal philopatry in both sexes, and that Veeries avoid mating with close genetic kin. At nests where all adult feeders were genotyped (n = 9, the male(s were unrelated to the female (mean r = -0.11 ± 0.15, whereas genetic data suggest close kinship (r = 0.254 between two male co-feeders at the nests of two females in 2011, and among three of four females that were mated to the same polygynous male in 2012. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of polygynandry occurring among multiple generations of close genetic kin on the breeding ground of a Nearctic-Neotropical migratory songbird.

  15. Thrust Vector Control of an Upper-Stage Rocket with Multiple Propellant Slosh Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Rubio Hervas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The thrust vector control problem for an upper-stage rocket with propellant slosh dynamics is considered. The control inputs are defined by the gimbal deflection angle of a main engine and a pitching moment about the center of mass of the spacecraft. The rocket acceleration due to the main engine thrust is assumed to be large enough so that surface tension forces do not significantly affect the propellant motion during main engine burns. A multi-mass-spring model of the sloshing fuel is introduced to represent the prominent sloshing modes. A nonlinear feedback controller is designed to control the translational velocity vector and the attitude of the spacecraft, while suppressing the sloshing modes. The effectiveness of the controller is illustrated through a simulation example.

  16. Integral sliding mode-based formation control of multiple unertain robots via nonlinear disturbane observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianwei Qian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a control scheme for formation of maneuvers of a team of mobile robots. The control scheme integrates the integral sliding mode control method with the nonlinear disturbance observer technique. The leader–follower formation dynamics suffer from uncertainties originated from the individual robots. The uncertainties challenge the formation control of such robots. Assuming that the uncertainties are unknown but bounded, an nonlinear disturbance observer-based observer is utilized to approximate them. The observer outputs feed on an integral sliding mode control-based controller. The controller and observer are integrated into the control scheme to realize formation maneuvers despite uncertainties. The formation stability is analyzed by means of the Lyapunov’s theorem. In the sense of Lyapunov, not only the convergence of the approximation errors is guaranteed but also such a control scheme can asymptotically stabilize the formation system. Compared to the results by the sole integral sliding mode control, some simulations are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of the control scheme.

  17. Development of multiple linear regression models as predictive tools for fecal indicator concentrations in a stretch of the lower Lahn River, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrig, Ilona M; Böer, Simone I; Brennholt, Nicole; Manz, Werner

    2015-11-15

    Since rivers are typically subject to rapid changes in microbiological water quality, tools are needed to allow timely water quality assessment. A promising approach is the application of predictive models. In our study, we developed multiple linear regression (MLR) models in order to predict the abundance of the fecal indicator organisms Escherichia coli (EC), intestinal enterococci (IE) and somatic coliphages (SC) in the Lahn River, Germany. The models were developed on the basis of an extensive set of environmental parameters collected during a 12-months monitoring period. Two models were developed for each type of indicator: 1) an extended model including the maximum number of variables significantly explaining variations in indicator abundance and 2) a simplified model reduced to the three most influential explanatory variables, thus obtaining a model which is less resource-intensive with regard to required data. Both approaches have the ability to model multiple sites within one river stretch. The three most important predictive variables in the optimized models for the bacterial indicators were NH4-N, turbidity and global solar irradiance, whereas chlorophyll a content, discharge and NH4-N were reliable model variables for somatic coliphages. Depending on indicator type, the extended mode models also included the additional variables rainfall, O2 content, pH and chlorophyll a. The extended mode models could explain 69% (EC), 74% (IE) and 72% (SC) of the observed variance in fecal indicator concentrations. The optimized models explained the observed variance in fecal indicator concentrations to 65% (EC), 70% (IE) and 68% (SC). Site-specific efficiencies ranged up to 82% (EC) and 81% (IE, SC). Our results suggest that MLR models are a promising tool for a timely water quality assessment in the Lahn area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Multiple mode x-ray ptychography using a lens and a fixed diffuser optic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Peng; Batey, Darren J; Rodenburg, John M; Edo, Tega B; Parsons, Aaron D; Rau, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    We employ a novel combination of a Fresnel lens and a diffuser for x-ray ptychography. The setup uses increased flux by enlarging the width of the coherence-defining slits upstream of the experimental station. In the reconstruction algorithm, modal decomposition is used to account for the resulting partial coherence in the beam. We show that if the object has sparse feactures and large areas of flat contrast, the diffuser facilitates a better reconstruction and the extra diversity in the data also allows cleaner separation of the constituent modes in the illumination. The setup also allows a quick, real-time measure of the beam coherence. (paper)

  19. On functional determinants of matrix differential operators with multiple zero modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falco, G.M.; Fedorenko, Andrey A; Gruzberg, Ilya A

    2017-01-01

    We generalize the method of computing functional determinants with a single excluded zero eigenvalue developed by McKane and Tarlie to differential operators with multiple zero eigenvalues. We derive general formulas for such functional determinants of $r\\times r$ matrix second order differential

  20. Excitation of surface plasmon polariton modes with multiple nitrogen vacancy centers in single nanodiamonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Shailesh; Lausen, Jens L.; Garcia-Ortiz, Cesar E.

    2016-01-01

    ) are especially useful as biological fluorophores due to their chemical neutrality, brightness and room-temperature photostability. Furthermore, NDs containing multiple NV centers also have potential in high-precision magnetic field and temperature sensing. Coupling NV centers to propagating surface plasmon...

  1. Excitation of surface plasmon polariton modes with multiple nitrogen vacancy centers in single nanodiamonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Shailesh; Larsen Lausen, Jens; García Ortíz, César Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamonds are interesting due to their remarkable characteristics that are well suited to applications in quantum-information processing and magnetic field sensing, as well as representing stable fluorescent sources. Multiple NV centers in nanodiamonds (NDs) are es...

  2. Influence of Number Size, Problem Structure and Response Mode on Children's Solutions of Multiplication Word Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Corte, E.; And Others

    One important finding from recent research on multiplication word problems is that children's performances are strongly affected by the nature of the multiplier (whether it is an integer, decimal larger than 1 or a decimal smaller than 1). On the other hand, the size of the multiplicand has little or no effect on problem difficulty. The aim of the…

  3. Using Indicators of Multiple Deprivation to Demonstrate the Spatial Legacy of Apartheid in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Michael; Wright, Gemma

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a spatial analysis of multiple deprivation in South Africa and demonstrates that the most deprived areas in the country are located in the rural former homeland areas. The analysis is undertaken using the datazone level South African Index of Multiple Deprivation which was constructed from the 2001 Census. Datazones are a new…

  4. Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who receive multiple electroconvulsive therapy sessions: characteristics, indications, and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Iulian; Pick, Nimrod; Seener-Lorsh, Orit; Dannon, Pinhas

    2015-01-01

    While electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been used for many years, there is insufficient research regarding the indications for continuation/maintenance (C/M)-ECT, its safety and efficacy, and the characteristics of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who receive multiple ECT sessions. The aims of this study were to characterize a series of patients who received 30 ECT sessions or more, to describe treatment regimens in actual practice, and to examine the results of C/M-ECT in terms of safety and efficacy, especially the effect on aggression and functioning. We performed a retrospective chart review of 20 consecutive patients (mean age 64.6 years) with schizophrenia (n=16) or schizoaffective disorder (n=4) who received at least 30 ECT sessions at our ECT unit, and also interviewed the treating physician and filled out the Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Global Assessment of Functioning, and the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised. Patients received a mean of 91.3 ECT sessions at a mean interval of 2.6 weeks. All had been hospitalized for most or all of the previous 3 years. There were no major adverse effects, and cognitive side effects were relatively minimal (cognitive deficit present for several hours after treatment). We found that ECT significantly reduced scores on the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised subscales for verbal aggression and self-harm, and improved Global Assessment of Functioning scores. There were reductions in total aggression scores, subscale scores for harm to objects and to others, and Clinical Global Impression-Severity scores, these were not statistically significant. C/M-ECT is safe and effective for chronically hospitalized patients. It improves general functioning and reduces verbal aggression and self-harm. More research using other aggression tools is needed to determine its effects and to reproduce our findings in prospective and controlled studies.

  5. Choosing of mode and calculation of multiple regression equation parameters in X-ray radiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamikonyan, S.V.; Berezkin, V.V.; Lyubimova, S.V.; Svetajlo, Yu.N.; Shchekin, K.I.

    1978-01-01

    A method to derive multiple regression equations for X-ray radiometric analysis is described. Te method is realized in the form of the REGRA program in an algorithmic language. The subprograms included in the program are describe. In analyzing cement for Mg, Al, Si, Ca and Fe contents as an example, the obtainment of working equations in the course of calculations by the program is shown to simpliy the realization of computing devices in instruments for X-ray radiometric analysis

  6. A multiple gap plasma cathode electron gun and its electron beam analysis in self and trigger breakdown modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Niraj; Pal, Dharmendra Kumar; Jadon, Arvind Singh; Pal, Udit Narayan; Rahaman, Hasibur; Prakash, Ram

    2016-03-01

    In the present paper, a pseudospark discharge based multiple gap plasma cathode electron gun is reported which has been operated separately in self and trigger breakdown modes using two different gases, namely, argon and hydrogen. The beam current and beam energy have been analyzed using a concentric ring diagnostic arrangement. Two distinct electron beams are clearly seen with hollow cathode and conductive phases. The hollow cathode phase has been observed for ∼50 ns where the obtained electron beam is having low beam current density and high energy. While in conductive phase it is high current density and low energy electron beam. It is inferred that in the hollow cathode phase the beam energy is more for the self breakdown case whereas the current density is more for the trigger breakdown case. The tailor made operation of the hollow cathode phase electron beam can play an important role in microwave generation. Up to 30% variation in the electron beam energy has been achieved keeping the same gas and by varying the breakdown mode operations. Also, up to 32% variation in the beam current density has been achieved for the trigger breakdown mode at optimized trigger position by varying the gas type.

  7. A multiple gap plasma cathode electron gun and its electron beam analysis in self and trigger breakdown modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Niraj; Pal, Udit Narayan; Prakash, Ram [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-CEERI), Pilani, Rajasthan 333031 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-CEERI Campus, Pilani (India); Pal, Dharmendra Kumar; Jadon, Arvind Singh; Rahaman, Hasibur [CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CSIR-CEERI), Pilani, Rajasthan 333031 (India)

    2016-03-15

    In the present paper, a pseudospark discharge based multiple gap plasma cathode electron gun is reported which has been operated separately in self and trigger breakdown modes using two different gases, namely, argon and hydrogen. The beam current and beam energy have been analyzed using a concentric ring diagnostic arrangement. Two distinct electron beams are clearly seen with hollow cathode and conductive phases. The hollow cathode phase has been observed for ∼50 ns where the obtained electron beam is having low beam current density and high energy. While in conductive phase it is high current density and low energy electron beam. It is inferred that in the hollow cathode phase the beam energy is more for the self breakdown case whereas the current density is more for the trigger breakdown case. The tailor made operation of the hollow cathode phase electron beam can play an important role in microwave generation. Up to 30% variation in the electron beam energy has been achieved keeping the same gas and by varying the breakdown mode operations. Also, up to 32% variation in the beam current density has been achieved for the trigger breakdown mode at optimized trigger position by varying the gas type.

  8. A multiple gap plasma cathode electron gun and its electron beam analysis in self and trigger breakdown modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Niraj; Pal, Udit Narayan; Prakash, Ram; Pal, Dharmendra Kumar; Jadon, Arvind Singh; Rahaman, Hasibur

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, a pseudospark discharge based multiple gap plasma cathode electron gun is reported which has been operated separately in self and trigger breakdown modes using two different gases, namely, argon and hydrogen. The beam current and beam energy have been analyzed using a concentric ring diagnostic arrangement. Two distinct electron beams are clearly seen with hollow cathode and conductive phases. The hollow cathode phase has been observed for ∼50 ns where the obtained electron beam is having low beam current density and high energy. While in conductive phase it is high current density and low energy electron beam. It is inferred that in the hollow cathode phase the beam energy is more for the self breakdown case whereas the current density is more for the trigger breakdown case. The tailor made operation of the hollow cathode phase electron beam can play an important role in microwave generation. Up to 30% variation in the electron beam energy has been achieved keeping the same gas and by varying the breakdown mode operations. Also, up to 32% variation in the beam current density has been achieved for the trigger breakdown mode at optimized trigger position by varying the gas type.

  9. Improved localisation of neoclassical tearing modes by combining multiple diagnostic estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapson, C. J.; Fischer, R.; Giannone, L.; Maraschek, M.; Reich, M.; Treutterer, W.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2017-07-01

    Neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) strongly degrade confinement in tokamaks, and are a leading cause of disruptions. They can be stabilised by targeted electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD), however the effectiveness of ECCD depends strongly on the accuracy or misalignment between ECCD and the NTM. The first step to ensure minimal misalignment is a good estimate of the NTM location. In previous NTM control experiments, three methods have been used independently to estimate the NTM location: the magnetic equilibrium, correlation between magnetic and spatially-resolved temperature fluctuations, and the amplitude response of the NTM to nearby ECCD. This submission describes an algorithm which has been designed to fuse these three estimates into one, taking into account many of the characteristics of each diagnostic. Although the method diverges from standard data fusion methods, results from simulation and experiment confirm that the algorithm achieves its stated goal of providing an estimate that is more reliable and accurate than any of the individual estimates.

  10. Ultra-broadband and high-efficiency polarization conversion metasurface with multiple plasmon resonance modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Guo-Xiang; Xia Song; Li Wei; Zhang An-Xue; Xu Zhuo; Wei Xiao-Yong; Shi Hong-Yu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel metasurface design that achieves a high-efficiency ultra-broadband cross polarization conversion. The metasurface is composed of an array of unit resonators, each of which combines an H-shaped structure and two rectangular metallic patches. Different plasmon resonance modes are excited in unit resonators and allow the polarization states to be manipulated. The bandwidth of the cross polarization converter is 82% of the central frequency, covering the range from 15.7 GHz to 37.5 GHz. The conversion efficiency of the innovative new design is higher than 90%. At 14.43 GHz and 40.95 GHz, the linearly polarized incident wave is converted into a circularly polarized wave. (paper)

  11. Near-Field Coupling and Mode Competition in Multiple Anapole Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Mazzone, Valerio

    2017-05-24

    All-dielectric metamaterials are a promising platform for the development of integrated photonics applications. In this work, we investigate the mutual coupling and interaction of an ensemble of anapole states in silicon nanoparticles. Anapoles are intriguing non-radiating states originated by the superposition of internal multipole components which cancel each other in the far-field. While the properties of anapole states in single nanoparticles have been extensively studied, the mutual interaction and coupling of several anapole states have not been characterized. By combining first-principles simulations and analytical results, we demonstrate the transferring of anapole states across an ensemble of nanoparticles, opening to the development of advanced integrated devices and robust waveguides relying on non-radiating modes.

  12. Effects of multiple resistive shells and transient electromagnetic torque on the dynamics of mode locking in reversed field pinch plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, S.C.; Chu, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of multiple resistive shells and transient electromagnetic torque on the dynamics of mode locking in the reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas are studied. Most RFP machines are equipped with one or more metal shells outside of the vacuum vessel. These shells have finite resistivities. The eddy currents induced in each of the shells contribute to the braking electromagnetic (EM) torque which slows down the plasma rotation. In this work we study the electromagnetic torque acting on the plasma (tearing) modes produced by a system of resistive shells. These shells may consist of several nested thin shells or several thin shells enclosed within a thick shell. The dynamics of the plasma mode is investigated by balancing the EM torque from the resistive shells with the plasma viscous torque. Both the steady state theory and the time-dependent theory are developed. The steady state theory is shown to provide an accurate account of the resultant EM torque if (dω/dt)ω -2 <<1 and the time scale of interest is much longer than the response (L/R) time of the shell. Otherwise, the transient theory should be adopted. As applications, the steady state theory is used to evaluate the changes of the EM torque response from the resistive shells in two variants of two RFP machines: (1) modification from Reversed Field Experiment (RFX) [Gnesotto et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 25, 335 (1995)] to the modified RFX: both of them are equipped with one thin shell plus one thick shell; (2) modification from Extrap T2 to Extrap T2R [Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)]: both of them are equipped with two thin shells. The transient theory has been applied numerically to study the time evolution of the EM torque during the unlocking of a locked tearing mode in the modified RFX

  13. Random multiple key streams for encryption with added CBC mode of operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Penchalaiah

    2016-09-01

    For the first time, in this paper, we present a construction method to generate multiple random keys from a core-key with highest possible immunity to crack. We are with a particular emphasis on novel technique to secure user data, we have designed a secure and cost effective new cryptosystem called Rbits (Random bits cypher. In different directions we identify that Rbits having highest immunity to crack and presenting various analysis tests in support from this viewpoint and the analyzed results are reported.

  14. Tempo and mode of performance evolution across multiple independent origins of adhesive toe pads in lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagey, Travis J; Uyeda, Josef C; Crandell, Kristen E; Cheney, Jorn A; Autumn, Kellar; Harmon, Luke J

    2017-10-01

    Understanding macroevolutionary dynamics of trait evolution is an important endeavor in evolutionary biology. Ecological opportunity can liberate a trait as it diversifies through trait space, while genetic and selective constraints can limit diversification. While many studies have examined the dynamics of morphological traits, diverse morphological traits may yield the same or similar performance and as performance is often more proximately the target of selection, examining only morphology may give an incomplete understanding of evolutionary dynamics. Here, we ask whether convergent evolution of pad-bearing lizards has followed similar evolutionary dynamics, or whether independent origins are accompanied by unique constraints and selective pressures over macroevolutionary time. We hypothesized that geckos and anoles each have unique evolutionary tempos and modes. Using performance data from 59 species, we modified Brownian motion (BM) and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) models to account for repeated origins estimated using Bayesian ancestral state reconstructions. We discovered that adhesive performance in geckos evolved in a fashion consistent with Brownian motion with a trend, whereas anoles evolved in bounded performance space consistent with more constrained evolution (an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model). Our results suggest that convergent phenotypes can have quite distinctive evolutionary patterns, likely as a result of idiosyncratic constraints or ecological opportunities. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. SWITCH MODE PULSE WIDTH MODULATED DC-DC CONVERTER WITH MULTIPLE POWER TRANSFORMERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A switch mode pulse width modulated DC-DC power converter comprises at least one first electronic circuit on a input side (1) and a second electronic circuit on a output side (2). The input side (1) and the output side (2) are coupled via at least two power transformers (T1, T2). Each power...... transformer (T1, T2) comprises a first winding (T1a, T2a) arranged in a input side converter stage (3, 4) on the input side (1) and a second winding (T1 b, T2b) arranged in a output side converter stage (5) on the output side (2), and each of the windings (T1a, T1 b, T2a, T2b) has a first end and a second end....... The first electronic circuit comprises terminals (AO, A1) for connecting a source or a load, at least one energy storage inductor (L) coupled in series with at least one of the first windings (T1a, T2a) of the power transformers (T1, T2), and for each power transformer (T1, T2), an arrangement of switches...

  16. Ultra-broadband and high-efficiency polarization conversion metasurface with multiple plasmon resonance modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guo-Xiang; Shi, Hong-Yu; Xia, Song; Li, Wei; Zhang, An-Xue; Xu, Zhuo; Wei, Xiao-Yong

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present a novel metasurface design that achieves a high-efficiency ultra-broadband cross polarization conversion. The metasurface is composed of an array of unit resonators, each of which combines an H-shaped structure and two rectangular metallic patches. Different plasmon resonance modes are excited in unit resonators and allow the polarization states to be manipulated. The bandwidth of the cross polarization converter is 82% of the central frequency, covering the range from 15.7 GHz to 37.5 GHz. The conversion efficiency of the innovative new design is higher than 90%. At 14.43 GHz and 40.95 GHz, the linearly polarized incident wave is converted into a circularly polarized wave. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61471292, 61331005, 61471388, 51277012, 41404095, and 61501365), the 111 Project, China (Grant No. B14040), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB654602), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation ( Grant No. 2015M580849).

  17. Multiple player tracking in sports video: a dual-mode two-way bayesian inference approach with progressive observation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Junliang; Ai, Haizhou; Liu, Liwei; Lao, Shihong

    2011-06-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is a very challenging task yet of fundamental importance for many practical applications. In this paper, we focus on the problem of tracking multiple players in sports video which is even more difficult due to the abrupt movements of players and their complex interactions. To handle the difficulties in this problem, we present a new MOT algorithm which contributes both in the observation modeling level and in the tracking strategy level. For the observation modeling, we develop a progressive observation modeling process that is able to provide strong tracking observations and greatly facilitate the tracking task. For the tracking strategy, we propose a dual-mode two-way Bayesian inference approach which dynamically switches between an offline general model and an online dedicated model to deal with single isolated object tracking and multiple occluded object tracking integrally by forward filtering and backward smoothing. Extensive experiments on different kinds of sports videos, including football, basketball, as well as hockey, demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  18. Symmetric caging formation for convex polygonal object transportation by multiple mobile robots based on fuzzy sliding mode control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yanyan; Kim, YoonGu; Wee, SungGil; Lee, DongHa; Lee, SukGyu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of object caging and transporting is considered for multiple mobile robots. With the consideration of minimizing the number of robots and decreasing the rotation of the object, the proper points are calculated and assigned to the multiple mobile robots to allow them to form a symmetric caging formation. The caging formation guarantees that all of the Euclidean distances between any two adjacent robots are smaller than the minimal width of the polygonal object so that the object cannot escape. In order to avoid collision among robots, the parameter of the robots radius is utilized to design the caging formation, and the A⁎ algorithm is used so that mobile robots can move to the proper points. In order to avoid obstacles, the robots and the object are regarded as a rigid body to apply artificial potential field method. The fuzzy sliding mode control method is applied for tracking control of the nonholonomic mobile robots. Finally, the simulation and experimental results show that multiple mobile robots are able to cage and transport the polygonal object to the goal position, avoiding obstacles. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiple modes of action potential initiation and propagation in mitral cell primary dendrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Wei R; Shen, Gongyu Y; Shepherd, Gordon M

    2002-01-01

    recordings with computational modeling to analyze action-potential initiation and propagation in the primary dendrite. In response to depolarizing current injection or distal olfactory nerve input, fast Na(+) action potentials were recorded along the entire length of the primary dendritic trunk. With weak......-to-moderate olfactory nerve input, an action potential was initiated near the soma and then back-propagated into the primary dendrite. As olfactory nerve input increased, the initiation site suddenly shifted to the distal primary dendrite. Multi-compartmental modeling indicated that this abrupt shift of the spike......-initiation site reflected an independent thresholding mechanism in the distal dendrite. When strong olfactory nerve excitation was paired with strong inhibition to the mitral cell basal secondary dendrites, a small fast prepotential was recorded at the soma, which indicated that an action potential was initiated...

  20. Vascular multiplicity should not be a contra-Indication for live kidney donation and transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Lafranca (Jeffrey); M.V. Bruggen (Mark Van); H.J.A.N. Kimenai (Hendrikus); T.C.K. Tran (Thi C. K.); T. Terkivatan (Türkan); M.G.H. Betjes (Michiel); J.N.M.I. Jzermans (Jan N. M.I.); F.J.M.F. Dor (Frank)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Whether vascular multiplicity should be considered as contraindication and therefore 'extended donor criterion' is still under debate. Methods: Data from all live kidney donors from 2006-2013 (n=951) was retrospectively reviewed. Vascular anatomy as imaged by MRA, CTA or

  1. Detection of geodesic acoustic mode oscillations, using multiple signal classification analysis of Doppler backscattering signal on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermare, L.; Hennequin, P.; Gürcan, Ö.D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the first observation of geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) on Tore Supra plasmas. Using the Doppler backscattering system, the oscillations of the plasma flow velocity, localized between r/a = 0.85 and r/a = 0.95, and with a frequency, typically around 10 kHz, have been observed at the plasma edge in numerous discharges. When the additional heating power is varied, the frequency is found to scale with C s /R. The MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm is employed to access the temporal evolution of the perpendicular velocity of density fluctuations. The method is presented in some detail, and is validated and compared against standard methods, such as the conventional fast Fourier transform method, using a synthetic signal. It stands out as a powerful data analysis method to follow the Doppler frequency with a high temporal resolution, which is important in order to extract the dynamics of GAMs. (paper)

  2. Development of multiple performance indices and system parameter study for the design of a MEMS accelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Il; Choi, Chan Kyu; Yoo, Hong Hee

    2012-01-01

    For the design of a MEMS accelerometer, proper performance indices should be defined and employed. Performance indices are obtained using either an experimental method or a numerical method. In the present study, a vibration analysis model of a MEMS accelerometer is introduced to calculate three performance indices: sensitivity, measurable acceleration range, and measurable frequency range. The accuracy of the vibration analysis model is first validated by comparing its modal and transient results with those of a commercial finite element code. Measurable acceleration and frequency ranges versus allowable errors for electrical and mechanical sensitivities are obtained and the effects of system parameter variations on the three performance indices are investigated

  3. Capturing pan-Canadian Primary Health Care indicator data using multiple approaches for data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Vicky; Sullivan-Taylor, Patricia; Webster, Greg; Macphail, Judith

    2009-01-01

    The Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI), in collaboration with diverse stakeholders, led the development of pan-Canadian indicators to measure primary health care. In 2006, CIHI released a set of 105 pan-Canadian Primary Health Care (PHC) indicators that were developed with the assistance of national, provincial and territorial representatives, clinicians and researchers. Additionally, data gaps were identified in a series of reports. In 2006 and 2007, CIHI assessed options for closing the data gaps so that the indicators could be measured and reported. CIHI then began a program to build the data infrastructure needed for the PHC indicators. The program included the development of content standards for electronic medical records, a prototype of a voluntary reporting system, enhancements to surveys, and the development of reports. In 2006, fewer than 10% of the 105 indicators could be calculated with existing data sources. Now, four projects have begun and over 50% of the indicators are being captured. Important relationships have been established with key collaborators. These relationships will lead to the development of a reporting system prototype and to the refinement of PHC indicators and electronic medical record (EMR) content standards. The project for pan-Canadian PHC indicators has encouraged consultation and synergy. It has motivated CIHI to establish an information program to fill data gaps and to make PHC indicators available.

  4. APPLICATION OF FAILURE MODE & EFFECT ANALYSIS (FMEA FOR CONTINUOUS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT - MULTIPLE CASE STUDIES IN AUTOMOBILE SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigar Doshi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA is a quality tool used to identify potential failures and related effects on processes and products, so continuous improvement in quality can be achieved by reducing them. The purpose of this research paper is to showcase the contribution of FMEA to achieve Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI by multiple case study research. The outcome research conducted by implementing FMEA; one of the Auto Core Tools (ACTs, in the automobile Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs in Gujarat, India is presented in this paper which depict various means of Continuous Quality Improvements. The case study based research was carried out in four automobile SMEs; all of them are supplied to automotive Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM. The FMEA was implemented with the help of Cross Functional Team (CFT to identify the potential failure modes and effects, in overall effect on Continuous Quality Improvement. The outcome of FMEA at four companies' reveals the scope of improvement exists in the manufacturing process. Implementation of those improvement points shows the definite signs of continuous improvement of the quality of process and product as well. The FMEA and subsequent implementations had reduced the quality rejections around 3% to 4% in case companies.

  5. Unidirectional, dual-comb lasing under multiple pulse formation mechanisms in a passively mode-locked fiber ring laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya; Zhao, Xin; Hu, Guoqing; Li, Cui; Zhao, Bofeng; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-09-01

    Dual-comb lasers from which asynchronous ultrashort pulses can be simultaneously generated have recently become an interesting research subject. They could be an intriguing alternative to the current dual-laser optical-frequency-comb source with highly sophisticated electronic control systems. If generated through a common light path traveled by all pulses, the common-mode noises between the spectral lines of different pulse trains could be significantly reduced. Therefore, coherent dual-comb generation from a completely common-path, unidirectional lasing cavity would be an interesting territory to explore. In this paper, we demonstrate such a dual-comb lasing scheme based on a nanomaterial saturable absorber with additional pulse narrowing and broadening mechanisms concurrently introduced into a mode-locked fiber laser. The interactions between multiple soliton formation mechanisms result in unusual bifurcation into two-pulse states with quite different characteristics. Simultaneous oscillation of pulses with four-fold difference in pulsewidths and tens of Hz repetition rate difference is observed. The coherence between these spectral-overlapped, picosecond and femtosecond pulses is further verified by the corresponding asynchronous cross-sampling and dual-comb spectroscopy measurements.

  6. Genetic diversity and population structure of Lantana camara in India indicates multiple introductions and gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, A; Quader, S

    2014-05-01

    Lantana camara is a highly invasive plant, which has spread over 60 countries and island groups of Asia, Africa and Australia. In India, it was introduced in the early nineteenth century, since when it has expanded and gradually established itself in almost every available ecosystem. We investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of this plant in India in order to understand its introduction, subsequent range expansion and gene flow. A total of 179 individuals were sequenced at three chloroplast loci and 218 individuals were genotyped for six nuclear microsatellites. Both chloroplasts (nine haplotypes) and microsatellites (83 alleles) showed high genetic diversity. Besides, each type of marker confirmed the presence of private polymorphism. We uncovered low to medium population structure in both markers, and found a faint signal of isolation by distance with microsatellites. Bayesian clustering analyses revealed multiple divergent genetic clusters. Taken together, these findings (i.e. high genetic diversity with private alleles and multiple genetic clusters) suggest that Lantana was introduced multiple times and gradually underwent spatial expansion with recurrent gene flow. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Evaluation of genotoxic effects of surface waters using a battery of bioassays indicating different mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingnan; Li, Na; Oda, Yoshimitsu; Ma, Mei; Rao, Kaifeng; Wang, Zijian; Jin, Wei; Hong, Gang; Li, Zhiguo; Luo, Yi

    2016-11-01

    With the burgeoning contamination of surface waters threatening human health, the genotoxic effects of surface waters have received much attention. Because mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds in water cause tumors by different mechanisms, a battery of bioassays that each indicate a different mode of action (MOA) is required to evaluate the genotoxic effects of contaminants in water samples. In this study, 15 water samples from two source water reservoirs and surrounding rivers in Shijiazhuang city of China were evaluated for genotoxic effects. Target chemical analyses of 14 genotoxic pollutants were performed according to the Environmental quality standards for surface water of China. Then, the in vitro cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay, based on a high-content screening technique, was used to detect the effect of chromosome damage. The SOS/umu test using strain TA1535/pSK1002 was used to detect effects on SOS repair of gene expression. Additionally, two other strains, NM2009 and NM3009, which are highly sensitive to aromatic amines and nitroarenes, respectively, were used in the SOS/umu test to avoid false negative results. In the water samples, only two of the genotoxic chemicals listed in the water standards were detected in a few samples, with concentrations that were below water quality standards. However, positive results for the CBMN assay were observed in two river samples, and positive results for the induction of umuC gene expression in TA1535/pSK1002 were observed in seven river samples. Moreover, positive results were observed for NM2009 with S9 and NM3009 without S9 in some samples that had negative results using the strain TA1535/pSK1002. Based on the results with NM2009 and NM3009, some unknown or undetected aromatic amines and nitroarenes were likely in the source water reservoirs and the surrounding rivers. Furthermore, these compounds were most likely the causative pollutants for the genotoxic effect of these water samples. Therefore

  8. Evidence for Multiple Modes of Uranium Immobilization by an Anaerobic Bacterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Allison; Bargar, John R.; Sivaswamy, Vaideeswaran; Dohnalkova, Alice; Fujita, Yoshiko; Peyton, Brent M.; Magnuson, Timothy S.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial reduction of hexavalent uranium has been studied widely for its potential role in bioremediation and immobilization of soluble U(VI) in contaminated groundwater. More recently, some microorganisms have been examined for their role in immobilization of U(VI) via precipitation of uranyl phosphate minerals mediated by microbial phosphate release, alleviating the requirement for long-term redox control. Here, we investigated the mechanism of U(VI) removal mediated by an environmental isolate, strain UFO1, that is indigenous to the Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge, TN and has been detected in U(VI)-contaminated sediments. Changes in U(VI) speciation were examined in the presence and absence of the electron-shuttling moiety, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS). Cell suspensions were capable of nearly complete removal of 100 (micro)M U(VI) from solution within 48 hours; U(VI) removal was not dependent on the presence of an exogenous electron donor or AQDS, although AQDS increased the rate of U(VI) removal. X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopic measurements indicated that U(IV) was the predominant oxidation state of uranium in cell suspensions in both the absence and presence of 100 (micro)M AQDS. However, extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) measurements indicated that 17% of the cell-associated precipitates in a U(VI)-treated suspension that lacked AQDS had spectral characteristics consistent with a uranyl phosphate solid phase. The potential involvement of phosphate was consistent with observed increases in soluble phosphate concentrations over time in UFO1 cell suspensions, which suggested phosphate liberation from the cells. TEM-EDS confirmed the presence of uranyl phosphate with a U:P ratio consistent with autunite (1:1). EXAFS analyses further showed that U(IV) was present predominantly as a monomeric complex sorbed to carboxylate functional groups on biomass and also suggested that a fraction of the U

  9. Support vector data description for fusion of multiple health indicators for enhancing gearbox fault diagnosis and prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dong; Tse, Peter W; Guo, Wei; Miao, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for enhancing gearbox fault diagnosis and prognosis is developed by fusion of multiple health indicators through support vector data description. First, the Comblet transform is used to identify gear residual error signals from the raw signal. Second, based on the observation of gear residual error signals, a total of 11 gear health indicators are identified, and are categorized into two types of indicators. The first and second types of indicators are for fault diagnosis and prognosis, respectively. The first type has six indicators, which are sensitive to impulsive signals triggered by anomalous impacts. The second type has five indicators, which are suitable for tracking degradation of faults. Third, through the support vector data description, the first six health indicators are fused into type one indicators for fault diagnosis. The remaining five indicators are fused into type two indicators for fault prognosis. Finally, a Gaussian kernel is designed to enhance the performance of type one and two indicators by optimal range of width size. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated through experiments. The new method has been proven to be superior to methods that use unfused indicators individually

  10. Incorporating Environmental Justice into Second Generation Indices of Multiple Deprivation: Lessons from the UK and Progress Internationally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Fairburn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Second generation area-based indices of multiple deprivation have been extensively used in the UK over the last 15 years. They resulted from significant developments in political, technical, and conceptual spheres for deprivation data. We review the parallel development of environmental justice research and how and when environmental data was incorporated into these indices. We explain the transfer of these methods from the UK to Germany and assess the progress internationally in developing such indices. Finally, we illustrate how billions of pounds in the UK was allocated by using these tools to tackle neighbourhood deprivation and environmental justice to address the determinants of health.

  11. Extreme Value Theory Approach to Simultaneous Monitoring and Thresholding of Multiple Risk Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, J.H.J.; Li, J.; Liu, R.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Risk assessments often encounter extreme settings with very few or no occurrences in reality.Inferences about risk indicators in such settings face the problem of insufficient data.Extreme value theory is particularly well suited for handling this type of problems.This paper uses a multivariate

  12. Gamma ray multiplicities in deep inelastic collisions for the Cu+Au 400 MeV system. Interpretation based on collective modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlanger, M.; Borderie, B.; Chapoulard, D.

    1981-01-01

    For the Cu + Au 400 MeV system γ ray multiplicities have been measured. The mean value of the transferred angular momentum, the variances, the repartition of angular momentum between the fragments have been deduced. It is shown that, early in the reaction the building of angular momentum is a very fast process. For longer times, additional angular momentum is induced in the fragments due to the excitation of collective modes. The properties of such modes have been analysed

  13. The measurement of multiple chronic diseases--a systematic review on existing multimorbidity indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Claudia; Berger, Klaus; Bartels, Dorothee B

    2011-03-01

    Multimorbidity, defined as the coexistence of 2 or more chronic diseases, is a common phenomenon especially in older people. Numerous efforts to establish a standardized instrument to assess the level of multimorbidity have failed until now, and indices are primarily characterized by their high heterogeneity. Thus, the objective is to provide a comprehensive overview on existing instruments on the basis of a systematic literature review. The review was performed in MedLine. All articles published between January 1, 1960 and August 31, 2009 in German or English language, with the primary focus either on the development of a weighted index or on the effect of multimorbidity on different outcomes, were identified. A total of 39 articles met the inclusion criteria. In the majority of studies (59.0%), the list of included diseases was presented without any selection criteria. Only the high prevalence of diseases (17.9%), their impact on mortality, function, and health status served as a point of reference. Information on the prevalence of chronic conditions mostly rely on self-reports. On average, the 39 indices included 18.5 diseases, ranging between 4 and 102 different conditions. Most frequently mentioned diseases were diabetes mellitus (in 97.5% of indices), followed by stroke (89.7%), hypertension, and cancer (each 84.6%). Overall, three different weighting methods could be distinguished. The systematic literature further emphasis the heterogeneity of existing multimorbidity indices. However, one important similarity is that the focus is on diseases with a high prevalence and a severe impact on affected individuals.

  14. Analysis of mode-hopping effect in Fabry–Pérot multiple-quantum well laser diodes via low frequency noise investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pralgauskaitė, Sandra; Palenskis, Vilius; Matukas, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive investigation of noise characteristics and radiation spectrum with special attention to the mode-hopping effect of Fabry–Pérot (FP) multiple quantum well laser diodes (LDs) have been carried out: laser radiation spectra, optical and electrical fluctuations and cross-correlation factor...... between them have been measured under stable and mode-hopping operation. At the mode-hopping that occurs at particular operation conditions (injection current and temperature) LD radiation spectrum is unstable in time, very intensive and highly correlated Lorentzian-type optical and electrical...

  15. Evaluating multiple indices of agricultural water use efficiency and productivity to improve comparisons between sites and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Approximately 70% of global available freshwater supplies are used in the agricultural sector. Increased demands for water to meet growing population food requirements, and expected changes in the reliability of freshwater supplies due to climate change, threaten the sustainability of water supplies worldwide - not only on farms, but in connected cities and industries. Researchers concerned with agricultural water use sustainability use a variety of theoretical and empirical measures of efficiency and productivity to gain insight into the sustainability of agricultural water use. However, definitions of measures, or indices, vary between different natural and political boundaries, across regions, states and nations and between their respective research, industry, and environmental groups. Index development responds to local data availability and local agendas, and there is debate about the validity of various indices. However, real differences in empirical index measures are not well-understood across the multiple disciplines that study agricultural water use, including engineering and hydrology, agronomy, climate and soil sciences, and economics. Nevertheless reliable, accessible, and generalizable indices are required for planners and policymakers to promote sustainable water use systems. This study synthesizes a set of water use efficiency and productivity indices based on academic, industry and government literature in California and Australia, two locations with similarly water-stressed and valuable agricultural industries under pressure to achieve optimal water use efficiency and productivity. Empirical data at the irrigation district level from the California San Joaquin Valley and Murray Darling Basin states of Victoria and New South Wales in Australia are used to compute indices that estimate efficiency, yield productivity, and economic productivity of agricultural water use. Multiple index estimates of same time-series data demonstrate historical spread

  16. Gender as a differential indicator of the employment discrimination experiences of Americans with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumrill, Phillip D; Roessler, Richard T; McMahon, Brian T; Hennessey, Mary L; Neath, Jeanne

    2007-01-01

    Information from the Integrated Mission System of the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) was used to investigate the employment discrimination experiences of women and men with multiple sclerosis (MS). Spanning the years 1992 to 2003, the EEOC database included 3,663 allegations of discrimination filed by 2,167 adults with MS. With respect to women and men with MS, the researchers examined the comparability of a) demographic characteristics; b) industry designations, locations, and size of employers; c) the nature of discrimination alleged; and d) the legal outcome or resolution of those allegations. On average, women and men with MS were in their early forties, with the majority of both groups being Caucasian. Both women and men were most likely to allege discrimination related to discharge and reasonable accommodations, although women were more likely to file harassment charges than men. Men with MS were more likely to allege discrimination regarding hiring and reinstatement. Women with MS were more likely to file allegations against employers in the service industries, and men were more likely to file allegations against employers in the construction, manufacturing, and wholesale industries. No gender differences were found in the geographic distribution of allegations. Both groups had comparable rates of merit closures (23% vs. 27%) as a result of the EEOC's investigatory process. Implications for rehabilitation counseling and employer-oriented interventions are discussed.

  17. Evaluation of the Impact of Alveolar Nitrogen Excretion on Indices Derived from Multiple Breath Nitrogen Washout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Niklas; Nielsen, Jorgen G.; Horsley, Alex R.

    2013-01-01

    Background A large body of evidence has now accumulated describing the advantages of multiple breath washout tests over conventional spirometry in cystic fibrosis (CF). Although the majority of studies have used exogenous sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) as the tracer gas this has also led to an increased interest in nitrogen washout tests, despite the differences between these methods. The impact of body nitrogen excreted across the alveoli has previously been ignored. Methods A two-compartment lung model was developed that included ventilation heterogeneity and dead space (DS) effects, but also incorporated experimental data on nitrogen excretion. The model was used to assess the impact of nitrogen excretion on washout progress and accuracy of functional residual capacity (FRC) and lung clearance index (LCI) measurements. Results Excreted nitrogen had a small effect on accuracy of FRC (1.8%) in the healthy adult model. The error in LCI calculated with true FRC was greater (6.3%), and excreted nitrogen contributed 21% of the total nitrogen concentration at the end of the washout. Increasing DS and ventilation heterogeneity both caused further increase in measurement error. LCI was increased by 6–13% in a CF child model, and excreted nitrogen increased the end of washout nitrogen concentration by 24–49%. Conclusions Excreted nitrogen appears to have complex but clinically significant effects on washout progress, particularly in the presence of abnormal gas mixing. This may explain much of the previously described differences in washout outcomes between SF6 and nitrogen. PMID:24039916

  18. The A1g mode in the Hg-1201 phonon spectrum as an indicator of N→S transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovgij, Ya.

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing the structure of and the temperature changes in HgBa 2 CuO 4+y phonon spectra, the electron-phonon coupling constant g has been determined for the first time. It is shown that this compound is a superconductor with strong coupling. A frequency interval around 60.4 MeV in the HgBa 2 CuO 4+y phonon spectrum, which may be classed as a 'soft mode', is revealed. The dominant partial contribution to the density of phonon states in that spectral range is found to be given by O(2) atomic vibrations.

  19. The New Zealand Indices of Multiple Deprivation (IMD): A new suite of indicators for social and health research in Aotearoa, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exeter, Daniel John; Zhao, Jinfeng; Crengle, Sue; Lee, Arier; Browne, Michael

    2017-01-01

    For the past 20 years, the New Zealand Deprivation Index (NZDep) has been the universal measure of area-based social circumstances for New Zealand (NZ) and often the key social determinant used in population health and social research. This paper presents the first theoretical and methodological shift in the measurement of area deprivation in New Zealand since the 1990s and describes the development of the New Zealand Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD). We briefly describe the development of Data Zones, an intermediary geographical scale, before outlining the development of the New Zealand Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), which uses routine datasets and methods comparable to current international deprivation indices. We identified 28 indicators of deprivation from national health, social development, taxation, education, police databases, geospatial data providers and the 2013 Census, all of which represented seven Domains of deprivation: Employment; Income; Crime; Housing; Health; Education; and Geographical Access. The IMD is the combination of these seven Domains. The Domains may be used individually or in combination, to explore the geography of deprivation and its association with a given health or social outcome. Geographic variations in the distribution of the IMD and its Domains were found among the District Health Boards in NZ, suggesting that factors underpinning overall deprivation are inconsistent across the country. With the exception of the Access Domain, the IMD and its Domains were statistically and moderately-to-strongly associated with both smoking rates and household poverty. The IMD provides a more nuanced view of area deprivation circumstances in Aotearoa NZ. Our vision is for the IMD and the Data Zones to be widely used to inform research, policy and resource allocation projects, providing a better measurement of area deprivation in NZ, improved outcomes for Māori, and a more consistent approach to reporting and monitoring the social

  20. Evaluation of ecological instream flow using multiple ecological indicators with consideration of hydrological alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Xihui; Singh, Vijay P.; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-10-01

    Dam-induced hydrological alterations and related ecological problems have been arousing considerable concern from hydrologists, ecologists, and policy-makers. The East River basin in China is the major provider of water resources for mega-cities within the Pearl River Delta and meets 80% of annual water demand of Hong Kong. In this study, ecodeficit and ecosurplus were analyzed to determine the ecological impact of water impoundments. Also, Do and DHRAM were employed to evaluate the degree of alteration of hydrological regimes, and ERHIs were analyzed to evaluate the influence of hydrological alterations on ecological diversity. Results indicate that: (1) the magnitude and frequency of high flows decrease and those of low flows increase due to the regulation of reservoirs; (2) variations of annual ecosurplus are mainly the result of precipitation changes and the annual ecodeficit is significantly influenced by reservoirs. However, ecodeficit and ecosurplus in other seasons, particularly autumn and winter, are more influenced by reservoir regulation; (3) impacts of reservoirs on hydrological regimes and eco-flow regimes are different from one station to another due to different degrees of influence of reservoirs on hydrological processes at different stations. The longer the distance between a reservoir and a hydrological station is, the weaker the influence the water reservoir has on the hydrological processes; (4) ecodeficit and ecosurplus can be accepted in the evaluation of alterations of hydrological processes at annual and seasonal time scales. Results of Shannon Index indicate decreasing biological diversity after the construction of water reservoirs, implying negative impacts of water reservoirs on biological diversity of a river basin and this should arouse considerable human concerns. This study provides a theoretical background for water resources management with consideration of eco-flow variations due to reservoir regulation in other highly

  1. Suicidality and divalproex sodium: analysis of controlled studies in multiple indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacs Xenia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent analyses of antiepileptic drugs have indicated an increase in the risk of suicidality. The objective of this report was to provide clinical information and an independent meta-analysis of divalproex sodium and suicidality events by analyzing data from 13 placebo-controlled studies and 1 low-dose controlled study. Methods Adverse events considered to be possibly suicide related were identified using the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment (C-CASA methodology. Indications included epilepsy, bipolar disorder, migraine prophylaxis, impulsive aggression, and dementia. Narratives were produced for every event, and suicidality event ratings were performed by a third party blinded to treatment assignment. Statistical analyses were conducted using methodology similar to that reported by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Results Suicidality events were identified in 5 of the 13 placebo-controlled studies. Of the 1,327 (0.83% subjects taking divalproex sodium, 11 had suicidality events: 2 suicide attempts and 9 suicidal ideation. Of 992 (0.91% subjects taking placebo, 9 had suicidality events: 1 preparatory act toward suicide, 2 suicide attempts, and 6 suicidal ideation. Across placebo-controlled studies, the overall estimated odds ratio (OR of suicidal behavior or ideation was 0.72 (95% CI 0.29 to 1.84. The OR for suicidal behavior was 0.37 (95% CI 0.04 to 2.58, and the OR for suicidal ideation was 0.90 (95% CI 0.31 to 2.79. Conclusions In this meta-analysis, divalproex sodium does not appear to increase the risk of suicide-related adverse events relative to placebo in the populations studied. Clinicians should nonetheless remain vigilant in assessing suicidality, not only in patients treated for mental disorders with inherently high suicide risk, but also in patients taking antiepileptic medications.

  2. Genetic structure of Phytophthora infestans populations in China indicates multiple migration events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liyun; Zhu, Xiao-Qiong; Hu, Chia-Hui; Ristaino, Jean Beagle

    2010-10-01

    One hundred isolates of Phytophthora infestans collected from 10 provinces in China between 1998 and 2004 were analyzed for mating type, metalaxyl resistance, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype, allozyme genotype, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with the RG-57 probe. In addition, herbarium samples collected in China, Russia, Australia, and other Asian countries were also typed for mtDNA haplotype. The Ia haplotype was found during the first outbreaks of the disease in China (1938 and 1940), Japan (1901, 1930, and 1931), India (1913), Peninsular Malaysia (1950), Nepal (1954), The Philippines (1910), Australia (1917), Russia (1917), and Latvia (1935). In contrast, the Ib haplotype was found after 1950 in China on both potato and tomato (1952, 1954, 1956, and 1982) and in India (1968 and 1974). Another migration of a genotype found in Siberia called SIB-1 (Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase [Gpi] 100/100, Peptidase [Pep] 100/100, IIa mtDNA haplotype) was identified using RFLP fingerprints among 72% of the isolates and was widely distributed in the north and south of China and has also been reported in Japan. A new genotype named CN-11 (Gpi 100/111, Pep 100/100, IIb mtDNA haplotype), found only in the south of China, and two additional genotypes (Gpi 100/100, Pep 100/100, Ia mtDNA haplotype) named CN-9 and CN-10 were identified. There were more diverse genotypes among isolates from Yunnan province than elsewhere. The SIB-1 (IIa) genotype is identical to those from Siberia, suggesting later migration of this genotype from either Russia or Japan into China. The widespread predominance of SIB-1 suggests that this genotype has enhanced fitness compared with other genotypes found. Movement of the pathogen into China via infected seed from several sources most likely accounts for the distribution of pathogen genotypes observed. MtDNA haplotype evidence and RFLP data suggest multiple migrations of the pathogen into China after the initial introduction of the

  3. Accelerating early anti-tuberculosis drug discovery by creating mycobacterial indicator strains that predict mode of action

    KAUST Repository

    Boot, Maikel

    2018-04-13

    Due to the rise of drug resistant forms of tuberculosis there is an urgent need for novel antibiotics to effectively combat these cases and shorten treatment regimens. Recently, drug screens using whole cell analyses have been shown to be successful. However, current high-throughput screens focus mostly on stricto sensu life-death screening that give little qualitative information. In doing so, promising compound scaffolds or non-optimized compounds that fail to reach inhibitory concentrations are missed. To accelerate early TB drug discovery, we performed RNA sequencing on Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium marinum to map the stress responses that follow upon exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics with known targets: ciprofloxacin, ethambutol, isoniazid, streptomycin and rifampicin. The resulting dataset comprises the first overview of transcriptional stress responses of mycobacteria to different antibiotics. We show that antibiotics can be distinguished based on their specific transcriptional stress fingerprint. Notably, this fingerprint was more distinctive in M. marinum. We decided to use this to our advantage and continue with this model organism. A selection of diverse antibiotic stress genes was used to construct stress reporters. In total, three functional reporters were constructed to respond to DNA damage, cell wall damage and ribosomal inhibition. Subsequently, these reporter strains were used to screen a small anti-TB compound library to predict the mode of action. In doing so, we could identify the putative mode of action for three novel compounds, which confirms our approach.

  4. Parametric study of the damage ring pattern in fused silica induced by multiple longitudinal modes laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambonneau, M., E-mail: maxime.chambonneau@hotmail.fr; Grua, P.; Rullier, J.-L.; Lamaignère, L. [CEA CESTA, 15 Avenue des Sablières, CS 60001, 33116 Le Barp Cedex (France); Natoli, J.-Y. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, Centrale Marseille, Institut Fresnel, UMR 7249, 13013 Marseille (France)

    2015-03-14

    With the use of multiple longitudinal modes nanosecond laser pulses at 1064 nm, laser damage sites at the exit surface of fused silica clearly and systematically exhibit ring patterns. It has been shown in our previous works that the apparent chronology of rings was closely related to the temporal shape of the laser pulses. This particular correspondence had suggested an explanation of the ring morphology formation based on the displacement of an ionization front in the surrounding air. To provide a former basis for this hypothesis and deeper understanding of ring pattern formation, additional experiments have been performed. First, the impact of fluence has been investigated, revealing that a wide variety of damage sites are produced within a very narrow fluence range; this fact involves the chronology of appearance of a surface plasma during the laser pulse. The sizes of the damage sites are proportional to the fluence of their expansion occurring between the beginning of the plasma and the end of the laser pulse. Second, specific experiments have been carried out at different angles of incidence, resulting in egg-shaped patterns rather than circular ones. This behavior can be explained by our previous hypothesis of creation of a plasma in air, its expansion being tightly conditioned by the illumination angle. This series of experiments, in which the angle of incidence is varied up to 80°, permits us to link quantitatively the working hypothesis of ionization front propagation with theoretical hydrodynamics modeling.

  5. 99M-TC MIBI-an indicator of active disease in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raluca Mititelu; Serban Ghita; Catalin Mazilu; George Marinescu

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: to evaluate the role of 99mTc-MIBI in the assessment of bone marrow involvement in patients with multiple myeloma and to demonstrate how different patterns of 99mTc-MIBI uptake are reflecting the activity of the disease. Material and method: 27 patients with documented MM were studied, 14M, 13 F, median age 62 years, range 31 - 78. 7 MPI (myocardial perfusion imaging) patients served as controle. Diagnosis and staging of the disease were based on standard criteria: 5 patients in stage I, 7 in stage II, 15 in stage III. The disease activity was determined by clinical and biological assessment and the aspect of bone marrow biopsy. 17 patients had active disease (2 patients in stage I, 4 in stage II, 11 in stage III), 10 patients had not' clinical and biological criteria of active disease. All patients included in the group of active disease underwent radiological examination, 99mTc-MDP whole-body scan and 99mTc-MIBI whole-body scan. MRI was performed in 5 patients with active disease (2 in stage I, 1 in stage II, 2 in stage lib - for evaluation of spine involvement. In the other group (patients with clinical and biological criteria of non-active disease), due to high cost of investigations, we performed whole-body 99mTc-MIBI scan, as the oncologist referred us the patient for monitoring therapeutic response. Whole-body 99mTc-MIBI scans were obtained 20 rain after iv injection of 740 MBq 99mTc-MIBI, in anterior and posterior views, with a dual-head gamma camera Philips -Axis. Results: In the group of patients with active disease (17 patients) we found three different patterns of pathologic 99mTc-MIBI uptake: focal uptake in different sites in 9 patients, diffuse uptake in 4, both focal and diffuse uptake in 3; no pathologic uptake was seen in 1 patient (probably due to overexpression of Pglycoprotein). In the other group, with non-active disease criteria (10 patients), we found normal aspect of 99mTc-MIBI uptake in 8 patients; 2 patients had diffuse increased

  6. Determination of Cost-Effective Energy Efficiency Measures in Buildings with the Aid of Multiple Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros Zachariadis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy refurbishments of buildings can substantially contribute to economy-wide energy efficiency improvements, leading to decarbonisation and additional sustainability benefits. Prioritising the most economically promising investments is not straightforward because apart from cost-effectiveness calculations, several real-world constraints have to be taken into account. This paper describes an approach to assess the economically viable energy efficiency potential in the building sector of the Mediterranean island of Cyprus, with a combination of detailed engineering modelling, cost-effectiveness calculations and real-world considerations of budgetary, technical, behavioural and market constraints. We examine diverse cost-effectiveness indices and come up with a proposal for prioritising specific energy investments such as the installation of heat pumps, insulation of roofs, and replacement of lighting and electronic equipment—without however ignoring other measures that may be economically less favourable but can realistically be implemented in a limited number of buildings. Finally we address the governance of energy efficiency policies, focusing on weaknesses of the current regulatory environment in Cyprus, which can be generalised for many other countries facing similar dilemmas.

  7. Minimising farm crop protection pressure supported by the multiple functionalities of the DISCUSS indicator set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wustenberghs, Hilde; Fevery, Davina; Lauwers, Ludwig; Marchand, Fleur; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2018-03-15

    Sustainable crop protection (SCP) has many facets. Farmers may therefore perceive transition to SCP as very complex. The Dual Indicator Set for Crop Protection Sustainability (DISCUSS) can handle this complexity. To provide targeted support throughout the transition to SCP, complexity capture must be synchronised with the time course of on-farm decision-making. Tool use must be tuned to farmer awareness and appropriate level of data in consecutive stages. This paper thus explores the potential functionalities of DISCUSS in relation to both complexity and time. Results from apple and potato crop protection show three potential functions: DISCUSS can be used as (1) a simulation tool for communication and decision support, (2) an assessment and monitoring tool, and (3) a discussion support tool for farmer groups. Analysis of these functionalities using a framework for guiding on-farm sustainability assessment and strategic decision-making shows how each functionality can support the consecutive steps of transition to SCP, i.e. using the right tool functionality at the right time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of performance-emission indices of a diesel engine using ANFIS operating in dual-fuel mode with LPG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Amitav; Roy, Sumit; Banerjee, Rahul

    2018-03-01

    This experimental work highlights the inherent capability of an adaptive-neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based model to act as a robust system identification tool (SIT) in prognosticating the performance and emission parameters of an existing diesel engine running of diesel-LPG dual fuel mode. The developed model proved its adeptness by successfully harnessing the effects of the input parameters of load, injection duration and LPG energy share on output parameters of BSFCEQ, BTE, NOX, SOOT, CO and HC. Successive evaluation of the ANFIS model, revealed high levels of resemblance with the already forecasted ANN results for the same input parameters and it was evident that similar to ANN, ANFIS also has the innate ability to act as a robust SIT. The ANFIS predicted data harmonized the experimental data with high overall accuracy. The correlation coefficient (R) values are stretched in between 0.99207 to 0.999988. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) tallies were recorded in the range of 0.02-0.173% with the root mean square errors (RMSE) in acceptable margins. Hence the developed model is capable of emulating the actual engine parameters with commendable ranges of accuracy, which in turn would act as a robust prediction platform in the future domains of optimization.

  9. Multiple Modes of Nematode Control by Volatiles of Pseudomonas putida 1A00316 from Antarctic Soil against Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yile Zhai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas putida 1A00316 isolated from Antarctic soil showed nematicidal potential for biological control of Meloidogyne incognita; however, little was known about whether strain 1A00316 could produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs, and if they had potential for use in biological control against M. incognita. In this study, VOCs produced by a culture filtrate of P. putida 1A00316 were evaluated by in vitro experiments in three-compartment Petri dishes and 96-well culture plates. Our results showed that M. incognita juveniles gradually reduced their movement within 24–48 h of incubation with mortality ranging from 6.49 to 86.19%, and mostly stopped action after 72 h. Moreover, egg hatching in culture filtrates of strain 1A00316 was much reduced compared to that in sterile distilled water or culture medium. Volatiles from P. putida 1A00316 analysis carried out by solid-phase micro-extraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS included dimethyl-disulfide, 1-undecene, 2-nonanone, 2-octanone, (Z-hexen-1-ol acetate, 2-undecanone, and 1-(ethenyloxy-octadecane. Of these, dimethyl-disulfide, 2-nonanone, 2-octanone, (Z-hexen-1-ol acetate, and 2-undecanone had strong nematicidal activity against M. incognita J2 larvae by direct-contact in 96-well culture plates, and only 2-undecanone acted as a fumigant. In addition, the seven VOCs inhibited egg hatching of M. incognita both by direct-contact and by fumigation. All of the seven VOCs repelled M. incognita J2 juveniles in 2% water agar Petri plates. These results show that VOCs from strain 1A00316 act on different stages in the development of M. incognita via nematicidal, fumigant, and repellent activities and have potential for development as agents with multiple modes of control of root-knot nematodes.

  10. Modeling Freedom From Progression for Standard-Risk Medulloblastoma: A Mathematical Tumor Control Model With Multiple Modes of Failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodin, N. Patrik; Vogelius, Ivan R.; Björk-Eriksson, Thomas; Munck af Rosenschöld, Per; Bentzen, Søren M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: As pediatric medulloblastoma (MB) is a relatively rare disease, it is important to extract the maximum information from trials and cohort studies. Here, a framework was developed for modeling tumor control with multiple modes of failure and time-to-progression for standard-risk MB, using published pattern of failure data. Methods and Materials: Outcome data for standard-risk MB published after 1990 with pattern of relapse information were used to fit a tumor control dose-response model addressing failures in both the high-dose boost volume and the elective craniospinal volume. Estimates of 5-year event-free survival from 2 large randomized MB trials were used to model the time-to-progression distribution. Uncertainty in freedom from progression (FFP) was estimated by Monte Carlo sampling over the statistical uncertainty in input data. Results: The estimated 5-year FFP (95% confidence intervals [CI]) for craniospinal doses of 15, 18, 24, and 36 Gy while maintaining 54 Gy to the posterior fossa was 77% (95% CI, 70%-81%), 78% (95% CI, 73%-81%), 79% (95% CI, 76%-82%), and 80% (95% CI, 77%-84%) respectively. The uncertainty in FFP was considerably larger for craniospinal doses below 18 Gy, reflecting the lack of data in the lower dose range. Conclusions: Estimates of tumor control and time-to-progression for standard-risk MB provides a data-driven setting for hypothesis generation or power calculations for prospective trials, taking the uncertainties into account. The presented methods can also be applied to incorporate further risk-stratification for example based on molecular biomarkers, when the necessary data become available

  11. Quantification of carotid artery plaque stability with multiple region of interest based ultrasound strain indices and relationship with cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, N. H.; Varghese, T.; Mitchell, C. C.; Jackson, D. C.; Wilbrand, S. M.; Hermann, B. P.; Dempsey, R. J.

    2017-08-01

    Vulnerability and instability in carotid artery plaque has been assessed based on strain variations using noninvasive ultrasound imaging. We previously demonstrated that carotid plaques with higher strain indices in a region of interest (ROI) correlated to patients with lower cognition, probably due to cerebrovascular emboli arising from these unstable plaques. This work attempts to characterize the strain distribution throughout the entire plaque region instead of being restricted to a single localized ROI. Multiple ROIs are selected within the entire plaque region, based on thresholds determined by the maximum and average strains in the entire plaque, enabling generation of additional relevant strain indices. Ultrasound strain imaging of carotid plaques, was performed on 60 human patients using an 18L6 transducer coupled to a Siemens Acuson S2000 system to acquire radiofrequency data over several cardiac cycles. Patients also underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests under a protocol based on National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Canadian Stroke Network guidelines. Correlation of strain indices with composite cognitive index of executive function revealed a negative association relating high strain to poor cognition. Patients grouped into high and low cognition groups were then classified using these additional strain indices. One of our newer indices, namely the average L  -  1 norm with plaque (AL1NWP) presented with significantly improved correlation with executive function when compared to our previously reported maximum accumulated strain indices. An optimal combination of three of the new indices generated classifiers of patient cognition with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.880, 0.921 and 0.905 for all (n  =  60), symptomatic (n  =  33) and asymptomatic patients (n  =  27) whereas classifiers using maximum accumulated strain indices alone provided AUC values of 0.817, 0.815 and 0

  12. Knee-clicks and visual traits indicate fighting ability in eland antelopes: multiple messages and back-up signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    frequency of the knee-clicking sound honestly indicated body size, a main determinant of fighting ability. In contrast, the dewlap size increased with estimated age rather than body size, suggesting that, by magnifying the silhouette of older bulls disproportionately, the dewlap acts as an indicator of age......Background: Given the costs of signalling, why do males often advertise their fighting ability to rivals using several signals rather than just one? Multiple signalling theories have developed largely in studies of sexual signals, and less is known about their applicability to intra-sexual...... agonistic signals in eland reflect three separate components of fighting ability: (1) body size, (2) age and (3) presumably androgen-related aggression, which is reflected in three backup signals. The study highlights how complex agonistic signalling systems can evolve through the simultaneous action...

  13. Is the Urban Child Health Advantage Declining in Malawi?: Evidence from Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Edgar Arnold; Biesma, Regien; Chirwa, Maureen; Darker, Catherine

    2018-06-01

    In many developing countries including Malawi, health indicators are on average better in urban than in rural areas. This phenomenon has largely prompted Governments to prioritize rural areas in programs to improve access to health services. However, considerable evidence has emerged that some population groups in urban areas may be facing worse health than rural areas and that the urban advantage may be waning in some contexts. We used a descriptive study undertaking a comparative analysis of 13 child health indicators between urban and rural areas using seven data points provided by nationally representative population based surveys-the Malawi Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Rate differences between urban and rural values for selected child health indicators were calculated to denote whether urban-rural differentials showed a trend of declining urban advantage in Malawi. The results show that all forms of child mortality have significantly declined between 1992 and 2015/2016 reflecting successes in child health interventions. Rural-urban comparisons, using rate differences, largely indicate a picture of the narrowing gap between urban and rural areas albeit the extent and pattern vary among child health indicators. Of the 13 child health indicators, eight (neonatal mortality, infant mortality, under-five mortality rates, stunting rate, proportion of children treated for diarrhea and fever, proportion of children sleeping under insecticide-treated nets, and children fully immunized at 12 months) show clear patterns of a declining urban advantage particularly up to 2014. However, U-5MR shows reversal to a significant urban advantage in 2015/2016, and slight increases in urban advantage are noted for infant mortality rate, underweight, full childhood immunization, and stunting rate in 2015/2016. Our findings suggest the need to rethink the policy viewpoint of a disadvantaged rural and much better-off urban in child health

  14. Knee-clicks and visual traits indicate fighting ability in eland antelopes: multiple messages and back-up signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabelsteen Torben

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the costs of signalling, why do males often advertise their fighting ability to rivals using several signals rather than just one? Multiple signalling theories have developed largely in studies of sexual signals, and less is known about their applicability to intra-sexual communication. We here investigate the evolutionary basis for the intricate agonistic signalling system in eland antelopes, paying particular attention to the evolutionary phenomenon of loud knee-clicking. Results A principal components analysis separated seven male traits into three groups. The dominant frequency of the knee-clicking sound honestly indicated body size, a main determinant of fighting ability. In contrast, the dewlap size increased with estimated age rather than body size, suggesting that, by magnifying the silhouette of older bulls disproportionately, the dewlap acts as an indicator of age-related traits such as fighting experience. Facemask darkness, frontal hairbrush size and body greyness aligned with a third underlying variable, presumed to be androgen-related aggression. A longitudinal study provided independent support of these findings. Conclusion The results show that the multiple agonistic signals in eland reflect three separate components of fighting ability: (1 body size, (2 age and (3 presumably androgen-related aggression, which is reflected in three backup signals. The study highlights how complex agonistic signalling systems can evolve through the simultaneous action of several selective forces, each of which favours multiple signals. Specifically, loud knee-clicking is discovered to be an honest signal of body size, providing an exceptional example of the potential for non-vocal acoustic communication in mammals.

  15. Evaluation of crack growth behavior and probabilistic S–N characteristics of carburized Cr–Mn–Si steel with multiple failure modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wei; Sun, Zhenduo; Zhang, Zhenyu; Deng, Hailong; Sakai, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The stepwise S–N characteristics only for interior induced failure was observed. • The interior crack growth behavior with threshold conditions in different stages was clarified. • The distribution characteristics of test data in transition failure region was evaluated. • A model for evaluating the probabilistic S–N curve with multiple failure modes was developed. - Abstract: The unexpected failures of case-hardened steels in long life regime have been a critical issue in modern engineering design. In this study, the failure behavior of a carburized Cr–Mn–Si steel under very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) was investigated, and a model for evaluating the probabilistic S–N curve associated with multiple failure modes was developed. Results show that the carburized Cr–Mn–Si steel exhibits three failure modes including the surface flaw-induced failure, the interior inclusion-induced failure without the fine granular area (FGA) and the interior inclusion-induced failure with the FGA. As the predominant failure mode in the VHCF regime, the interior failure process can be divided into four stages: (i) the small crack growth around the inclusion, (ii) the stable macroscopic crack growth outside the FGA, (iii) the unstable crack growth outside the fish-eye and (iv) the momentary fracture outside the final crack growth zone. The threshold values are successively evaluated to be 2.33 MPa m 1/2 , 4.13 MPa m 1/2 , 18.51 MPa m 1/2 and 29.26 MPa m 1/2 . The distribution characteristics of the test data in transition failure region can be well characterized by the mixed two-parameter Weibull distribution function. The developed probabilistic S–N curve model is in good agreement with the test data with multiple failure modes. Although the result is somewhat conservative in the VHCF regime, it is acceptable for safety considerations

  16. Temporal variation (seasonal and interannual) of vegetation indices of maize and soybeans across multiple years in central Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prueger, J. H.; Hatfield, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    Remotely sensed reflectance parameters from corn and soybean surfaces can be correlated to crop production. Surface reflectance of a typical Upper Midwest corn /soybean region in central Iowa across multiple years reveal subtle dynamics in vegetative surface response to a continually varying climate. From 2006 through 2014 remotely sensed data have been acquired over production fields of corn and soybeans in central IA, U.S.A. with the fields alternating between corn and soybeans. The data have been acquired using ground-based radiometers with 16 wavebands covering the visible, near infrared, shortwave infrared wavebands and combined into a series of vegetative indices. These data were collected on clear days with the goal of collecting data at a minimum of once per week from prior to planting until after fall tillage operations. Within each field, five sites were established and sampled during the year to reduce spatial variation and allow for an assessment of changes in the vegetative indices throughout the growing season. Ancillary data collected for each crop included the phenological stage at each sampling date along with biomass sampled at the onset of the reproductive stage and at physiological maturity. Evaluation of the vegetative indices for the different years revealed that patterns were related to weather effects on corn and soybean growth. Remote sensing provides a method to evaluate changes within and among growing seasons to assess crop growth and development as affected by differences in weather variability.

  17. Improving Healthcare in Pediatric Oncology: Development and Testing of Multiple Indicators to Evaluate a Hub-And-Spoke Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchetti, Giulia; Bertorello, Nicoletta; Angelastro, Angela; Gianino, Paola; Bona, Gianni; Barbara, Affif; Besenzon, Luigi; Brach Del Prever, Adalberto; Pesce, Fernando; Nangeroni, Marco; Fagioli, Franca

    2017-06-01

    Purpose The hub-and-spoke is a new innovation model in healthcare that has been adopted in some countries to manage rare pathologies. We developed a set of indicators to assess current quality practices of the hub-and-spoke model adopted in the Interregional Pediatric Oncology Network in Northwest Italy and to promote patient, family, and professional healthcare empowerment. Methods Literature and evidence-based clinical guidelines were reviewed and multiprofessional team workshops were carried out to highlight some important issues on healthcare in pediatric oncology and to translate them into a set of multiple indicators. For each indicator, specific questions were formulated and tested through a series of questionnaires completed by 80 healthcare professionals and 50 pediatric patients and their parents. Results The results highlighted a positive perception of healthcare delivered by the hub-and-spoke model (M HP = 156, M Pat = 93, M Par = 104). Based on the participants' suggestions, some quality improvements have been implemented. Conclusions This study represents the first attempt to examine this new model of pediatric oncology care through the active involvement of patients, families, and healthcare professionals. Suggestions for adopting a hub-and-spoke model in pediatric oncology in other regions and countries are also highlighted.

  18. Evaluation of efficacy and indications of surgical fixation for multiple rib fractures: a propensity-score matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, K; Nishimura, T; Takesada, H; Morioka, T; Hagawa, N; Yamamoto, T; Kaga, S; Terada, T; Shinyama, N; Yamamoto, H; Mizobata, Y

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of recent surgical rib fixation and establish its indications not only for flail chest but also for multiple rib fractures. Between 2007 and 2015, 187 patients were diagnosed as having multiple rib fractures in our institution. After the propensity score matching was performed, ten patients who had performed surgical rib fixation and ten patients who had treated with non-operative management were included. Categorical variables were analyzed with Fischer's exact test and non-parametric numerical data were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed for comparison of pre- and postoperative variables. All statistical data are presented as median (25-75 % interquartile range [IQR]) or number. The surgically treated patients extubated significantly earlier than non-operative management patients (5.5 [1-8] vs 9 [7-12] days: p = 0.019). The duration of continuous intravenous narcotic agents infusion days (4.5 [3-6] vs 12 [9-14] days: p = 0.002) and the duration of intensive care unit stay (6.5 [3-9] vs 12 [8-14] days: p = 0.008) were also significantly shorter in surgically treated patients. Under the same ventilating conditions, the postoperative values of tidal volume and respiratory rate improved significantly compared to those values measured just before the surgery. The incidence of pneumonia as a complication was significantly higher in non-operative management group (p = 0.05). From the viewpoints of early respiratory stabilization and intensive care unit disposition without any complications, surgical rib fixation is a sufficiently acceptable procedure not only for flail chest but also for repair of severe multiple rib fractures.

  19. Robust heart rate estimation from multiple asynchronous noisy sources using signal quality indices and a Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Q; Mark, R G; Clifford, G D

    2008-01-01

    Physiological signals such as the electrocardiogram (ECG) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) in the intensive care unit (ICU) are often severely corrupted by noise, artifact and missing data, which lead to large errors in the estimation of the heart rate (HR) and ABP. A robust HR estimation method is described that compensates for these problems. The method is based upon the concept of fusing multiple signal quality indices (SQIs) and HR estimates derived from multiple electrocardiogram (ECG) leads and an invasive ABP waveform recorded from ICU patients. Physiological SQIs were obtained by analyzing the statistical characteristics of each waveform and their relationships to each other. HR estimates from the ECG and ABP are tracked with separate Kalman filters, using a modified update sequence based upon the individual SQIs. Data fusion of each HR estimate was then performed by weighting each estimate by the Kalman filters' SQI-modified innovations. This method was evaluated on over 6000 h of simultaneously acquired ECG and ABP from a 437 patient subset of ICU data by adding real ECG and realistic artificial ABP noise. The method provides an accurate HR estimate even in the presence of high levels of persistent noise and artifact, and during episodes of extreme bradycardia and tachycardia

  20. Mode of primary cancer detection as an indicator of screening practice for second primary cancer in cancer survivors: a nationwide survey in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh Beomseok

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While knowledge and risk perception have been associated with screening for second primary cancer (SPC, there are no clinically useful indicators to identify who is at risk of not being properly screened for SPC. We investigated whether the mode of primary cancer detection (i.e. screen-detected vs. non-screen-detected is associated with subsequent completion of all appropriate SPC screening in cancer survivors. Methods Data were collected from cancer patients treated at the National Cancer Center and nine regional cancer centers across Korea. A total of 512 cancer survivors older than 40, time since diagnosis more than 2 years, and whose first primary cancer was not advanced or metastasized were selected. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine factors, including mode of primary cancer detection, associated with completion of all appropriate SPC screening according to national cancer screening guidelines. Results Being screen-detected for their first primary cancer was found to be significantly associated with completion of all appropriate SPC screening (adjusted odds ratio, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–3.33, after controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Screen-detected cancer survivors were significantly more likely to have higher household income, have other comorbidities, and be within 5 years since diagnosis. Conclusions The mode of primary cancer detection, a readily available clinical information, can be used as an indicator for screening practice for SPC in cancer survivors. Education about the importance of SPC screening will be helpful particularly for cancer survivors whose primary cancer was not screen-detected.

  1. Quantifying and modeling long-range cross correlations in multiple time series with applications to world stock indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Duan; Podobnik, Boris; Horvatić, Davor; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-04-01

    We propose a modified time lag random matrix theory in order to study time-lag cross correlations in multiple time series. We apply the method to 48 world indices, one for each of 48 different countries. We find long-range power-law cross correlations in the absolute values of returns that quantify risk, and find that they decay much more slowly than cross correlations between the returns. The magnitude of the cross correlations constitutes "bad news" for international investment managers who may believe that risk is reduced by diversifying across countries. We find that when a market shock is transmitted around the world, the risk decays very slowly. We explain these time-lag cross correlations by introducing a global factor model (GFM) in which all index returns fluctuate in response to a single global factor. For each pair of individual time series of returns, the cross correlations between returns (or magnitudes) can be modeled with the autocorrelations of the global factor returns (or magnitudes). We estimate the global factor using principal component analysis, which minimizes the variance of the residuals after removing the global trend. Using random matrix theory, a significant fraction of the world index cross correlations can be explained by the global factor, which supports the utility of the GFM. We demonstrate applications of the GFM in forecasting risks at the world level, and in finding uncorrelated individual indices. We find ten indices that are practically uncorrelated with the global factor and with the remainder of the world indices, which is relevant information for world managers in reducing their portfolio risk. Finally, we argue that this general method can be applied to a wide range of phenomena in which time series are measured, ranging from seismology and physiology to atmospheric geophysics.

  2. Quantifying and modeling long-range cross correlations in multiple time series with applications to world stock indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Duan; Podobnik, Boris; Horvatić, Davor; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-04-01

    We propose a modified time lag random matrix theory in order to study time-lag cross correlations in multiple time series. We apply the method to 48 world indices, one for each of 48 different countries. We find long-range power-law cross correlations in the absolute values of returns that quantify risk, and find that they decay much more slowly than cross correlations between the returns. The magnitude of the cross correlations constitutes “bad news” for international investment managers who may believe that risk is reduced by diversifying across countries. We find that when a market shock is transmitted around the world, the risk decays very slowly. We explain these time-lag cross correlations by introducing a global factor model (GFM) in which all index returns fluctuate in response to a single global factor. For each pair of individual time series of returns, the cross correlations between returns (or magnitudes) can be modeled with the autocorrelations of the global factor returns (or magnitudes). We estimate the global factor using principal component analysis, which minimizes the variance of the residuals after removing the global trend. Using random matrix theory, a significant fraction of the world index cross correlations can be explained by the global factor, which supports the utility of the GFM. We demonstrate applications of the GFM in forecasting risks at the world level, and in finding uncorrelated individual indices. We find ten indices that are practically uncorrelated with the global factor and with the remainder of the world indices, which is relevant information for world managers in reducing their portfolio risk. Finally, we argue that this general method can be applied to a wide range of phenomena in which time series are measured, ranging from seismology and physiology to atmospheric geophysics.

  3. [Final clinical indications and etiology in 1,023 enucleations. Descriptive databank evaluation with SPSS software in variable response mode with dummy variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, H; Bialasiewicz, A A; Schaudig, U; Schäfer, H; von Domarus, D

    2002-05-01

    A new data bank developed for ophthalmopathology using a computer-generated, multidigital data code is expected to be able to accomplish complex clinicopathologic correlations of diagnoses and signs, as provided by (multiple) clinical events and histopathologically proven etiologies, and to facilitate the documentation of new data. In the ophthalmopathology laboratory 2890 eyes were examined between January 20, 1975 and December 12, 1996. The main diagnoses and patient data from this 22-year period were recorded. To facilitate the presentation of data, a 10-year period with eyes of 976 patients enucleated from December, 1986 to December, 1996 was chosen. Principal and secondary diagnoses served for establishing the data bank. The frequencies of successive histologic and clinical diagnoses were evaluated by a descriptive computing program using an SPSS-multi-response mode with dummy variables and a categorical variable listing of the software (SPSS version 10.0) classified as (a) non-filtered random, (b) filtered by multiple etiologies, and (c) filtered by multiple events. The principal groups (e.g., histologic diagnoses concerning etiology) and subgroups (e.g., trauma, neoplasia, surgery, systemic diseases, and inflammations) were defined and correlated with 798 separate diagnoses. From 11 diagnoses/events ascribed to the clinical cases, 11,198 namings resulted. Thus, a comparative study of complex etiologies and events leading to enucleation in different hospitals of a specific area may be performed using this electronic ophthalmopathologic data bank system. The complexity of rare disease and integration into a superimposed structure can be managed with this custom-made data bank. A chronologically and demographically oriented consideration of reasons for enucleation is thus feasible.

  4. Electrochemical AC impedance model of a solid oxide fuel cell and its application to diagnosis of multiple degradation modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzarri, J.I.; Kesler, O. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2054-6250 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2007-05-01

    A finite element model of the impact of diverse degradation mechanisms on the impedance spectrum of a solid oxide fuel cell is presented as a tool for degradation mode identification. Among the degradation mechanisms that cause electrode active area loss, the attention is focused on electrode delamination and uniformly distributed surface area loss, which were found to cause distinct and specific changes in the impedance spectrum. Degradation mechanisms resulting in uniformly distributed reactive surface area loss include sintering, sulphur poisoning, and possibly incipient coke formation at the anode, and chromium deposition at the cathode. Parametric studies reveal the extent and limits of applicability of the model and detectability of the different degradation modes, as well as the influence of different cell geometries on the change in impedance behaviour resulting from the loss of active area. It is expected that this technique could form the basis of a useful diagnostic tool for both solid oxide fuel cell developers and users. (author)

  5. Determinants of child maltreatment in Nepal: Results from the 2014 Nepal multiple indicator cluster survey (the 2014 NMICS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteraya, Madhu Sudhan; Ebrahim, Nasser B; Gnawali, Shreejana

    2018-02-01

    We examined the prevalence of child maltreatment as measured by the level of physical (moderate to severe) and emotional abuse and child labor, and the associated household level determinants of child maltreatment in Nepal. We used a nationally representative data set from the fifth round of the Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (the 2014 NMICS). The main independent variables were household level characteristics. Dependent variables included child experience of moderate to severe physical abuse, emotional abuse, and child labor (domestic work and economic activities). Bivariate analyses and logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between independent and dependent variables. The results showed that nearly half of the children (49.8%) had experienced moderate physical abuse, 21.5% experienced severe physical abuse, and 77.3% experienced emotional abuse. About 27% of the children had engaged in domestic work and 46.7% in various economic activities. At bivariate level, educational level of household's head and household wealth status had shown significant statistical association with child maltreatment (pchild labor. In general, child maltreatment is a neglected social issue in Nepal and the high rates of child maltreatment calls for mass awareness programs focusing on parents, and involving all stakeholders including governments, local, and international organizations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Unidirectional, dual-comb lasing under multiple pulse formation mechanisms in a passively mode-locked fiber ring laser

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ya; Zhao, Xin; Hu, Guoqing; Li, Cui; Zhao, Bofeng; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Dual-comb lasers from which asynchronous ultrashort pulses can be simultaneously generated have recently become an interesting research subject. They could be an intriguing alternative to the current dual-laser optical-frequency-comb source with highly sophisticated electronic control systems. If generated through a common light path traveled by all pulses, the common-mode noises between the spectral lines of different pulse trains could be significantly reduced. Therefore, coherent dual-comb...

  7. Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who receive multiple electroconvulsive therapy sessions: characteristics, indications, and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iancu I

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iulian Iancu,* Nimrod Pick,* Orit Seener-Lorsh, Pinhas Dannon Be’er Ya’akov Mental Health Center, affiliated with the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel *These authors share first authorship of this paper Background: While electroconvulsive therapy (ECT has been used for many years, there is insufficient research regarding the indications for continuation/maintenance (C/M-ECT, its safety and efficacy, and the characteristics of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who receive multiple ECT sessions. The aims of this study were to characterize a series of patients who received 30 ECT sessions or more, to describe treatment regimens in actual practice, and to examine the results of C/M-ECT in terms of safety and efficacy, especially the effect on aggression and functioning.Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of 20 consecutive patients (mean age 64.6 years with schizophrenia (n=16 or schizoaffective disorder (n=4 who received at least 30 ECT sessions at our ECT unit, and also interviewed the treating physician and filled out the Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Global Assessment of Functioning, and the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised.Results: Patients received a mean of 91.3 ECT sessions at a mean interval of 2.6 weeks. All had been hospitalized for most or all of the previous 3 years. There were no major adverse effects, and cognitive side effects were relatively minimal (cognitive deficit present for several hours after treatment. We found that ECT significantly reduced scores on the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised subscales for verbal aggression and self-harm, and improved Global Assessment of Functioning scores. There were reductions in total aggression scores, subscale scores for harm to objects and to others, and Clinical Global Impression-Severity scores, these were not statistically significant.Conclusion: C/M-ECT is safe and effective for

  8. Nonlinear coupled mode approach for modeling counterpropagating solitons in the presence of disorder-induced multiple scattering in photonic crystal waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Nishan; Hughes, Stephen

    2018-02-01

    We present the analytical and numerical details behind our recently published article [Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 253901 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.253901], describing the impact of disorder-induced multiple scattering on counterpropagating solitons in photonic crystal waveguides. Unlike current nonlinear approaches using the coupled mode formalism, we account for the effects of intraunit cell multiple scattering. To solve the resulting system of coupled semilinear partial differential equations, we introduce a modified Crank-Nicolson-type norm-preserving implicit finite difference scheme inspired by the transfer matrix method. We provide estimates of the numerical dispersion characteristics of our scheme so that optimal step sizes can be chosen to either minimize numerical dispersion or to mimic the exact dispersion. We then show numerical results of a fundamental soliton propagating in the presence of multiple scattering to demonstrate that choosing a subunit cell spatial step size is critical in accurately capturing the effects of multiple scattering, and illustrate the stochastic nature of disorder by simulating soliton propagation in various instances of disordered photonic crystal waveguides. Our approach is easily extended to include a wide range of optical nonlinearities and is applicable to various photonic nanostructures where power propagation is bidirectional, either by choice, or as a result of multiple scattering.

  9. Allocating city space to multiple transportation modes: A new modeling approach consistent with the physics of transport

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Eric J.; Geroliminis, Nikolas; Cassidy, Michael J.; Daganzo, Carlos F.

    2008-01-01

    A macroscopic modeling approach is proposed for allocating a city’s road space among competing transport modes. In this approach, a city or neighborhood street network is viewed as a reservoir with aggregated traffic. Taking the number of vehicles (accumulation) in a reservoir as input, we show how one can reliably predict system performance in terms of person and vehicle hours spent in the system and person and vehicle kilometers traveled. The approach is used here to unveil two important ...

  10. Socioeconomic Inequality in Malnutrition in Under-5 Children in Iran: Evidence From the Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasian Kia, Abdollah; Rezapour, Aziz; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Afzali Abarghouei, Vajiheh

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the socioeconomic inequality in malnutrition in under-5 children in Iran in order to help policymakers reduce such inequality. Data on 8443 under-5 children were extracted from the Iran Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey. The wealth index was used as proxy for socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic inequality in stunting, underweight, and wasting was calculated using the concentration index. The concentration index was calculated for the whole sample, as well as for subcategories defined in terms of categories such as area of residence (urban and rural) and the sex of children. Stunting was observed to be more prevalent than underweight or wasting. The results of the concentration index at the national level, as well as in rural and urban areas and in terms of children's sex, showed that inequality in stunting and underweight was statistically significant and that children in the lower quintiles were more malnourished. The wasting index was not sensitive to socioeconomic status, and its concentration index value was not statistically significant. This study showed that it can be misleading to assess the mean levels of malnutrition at the national level without knowledge of the distribution of malnutrition among socioeconomic groups. Significant socioeconomic inequalities in stunting and underweight were observed at the national level and in both urban and rural areas. Regarding the influence of nutrition on the health and economic well-being of preschool-aged children, it is necessary for the government to focus on taking targeted measures to reduce malnutrition and to focus on poorer groups within society who bear a greater burden of malnutrition.

  11. Socioeconomic Inequality in Malnutrition in Under-5 Children in Iran: Evidence From the Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Almasian Kia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the socioeconomic inequality in malnutrition in under-5 children in Iran in order to help policymakers reduce such inequality. Methods Data on 8443 under-5 children were extracted from the Iran Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey. The wealth index was used as proxy for socioeconomic status. Socioeconomic inequality in stunting, underweight, and wasting was calculated using the concentration index. The concentration index was calculated for the whole sample, as well as for subcategories defined in terms of categories such as area of residence (urban and rural and the sex of children. Results Stunting was observed to be more prevalent than underweight or wasting. The results of the concentration index at the national level, as well as in rural and urban areas and in terms of children’s sex, showed that inequality in stunting and underweight was statistically significant and that children in the lower quintiles were more malnourished. The wasting index was not sensitive to socioeconomic status, and its concentration index value was not statistically significant. Conclusions This study showed that it can be misleading to assess the mean levels of malnutrition at the national level without knowledge of the distribution of malnutrition among socioeconomic groups. Significant socioeconomic inequalities in stunting and underweight were observed at the national level and in both urban and rural areas. Regarding the influence of nutrition on the health and economic well-being of preschool-aged children, it is necessary for the government to focus on taking targeted measures to reduce malnutrition and to focus on poorer groups within society who bear a greater burden of malnutrition.

  12. Multiple-indicator dilution technique for characterization of normal and retrograde flow in once-through rat liver perfusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St-Pierre, M.V.; Schwab, A.J.; Goresky, C.A.; Lee, W.F.; Pang, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    The technique of normal and retrograde rat liver perfusion has been widely used to probe zonal differences in drug-metabolizing activities. The validity of this approach mandates the same tissue spaces being accessed by substrates during both normal and retrograde perfusions. Using the multiple-indicator dilution technique, we presently examine the extent to which retrograde perfusion alters the spaces accessible to noneliminated references. A bolus dose of 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, 125I-albumin, 14C-sucrose and 3H2O was injected into the portal (normal) or hepatic (retrograde) vein of rat livers perfused at 10 ml per min per liver. The outflow perfusate was serially collected over 220 sec to characterize the transit times and the distribution spaces of the labels. During retrograde perfusion, red blood cells, albumin and sucrose profiles peaked later and lower than during normal perfusion, whereas the water curves were similar. The transit times of red blood cells, albumin and sucrose were longer (p less than 0.005), whereas those for water did not change. Consequently, retrograde flow resulted in significantly larger sinusoidal blood volumes (45%), albumin Disse space (42%) and sucrose Disse space (25%) than during normal flow, whereas the distribution spaces for total and intracellular water remained unaltered. The distension of the vascular tree was confirmed by electron microscopy, by which occasional isolated foci of widened intercellular recesses and spaces of Disse were observed. Cellular ultrastructure was otherwise unchanged, and there was no difference found between normal and retrograde perfusion for bile flow rates, AST release, perfusion pressure, oxygen consumption and metabolic removal of ethanol, a substrate with flow-limited distribution, which equilibrates rapidly with cell water (hepatic extraction ratios were virtually identical: normal vs. retrograde, 0.50 vs. 0.48 at 6 to 7.4 mM input concentration)

  13. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in child malnutrition in Vietnam: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kien, Vu Duy; Lee, Hwa-Young; Nam, You-Seon; Oh, Juhwan; Giang, Kim Bao; Van Minh, Hoang

    2016-01-01

    Background Child malnutrition is not only a major contributor to child mortality and morbidity, but it can also determine socioeconomic status in adult life. The rate of under-five child malnutrition in Vietnam has significantly decreased, but associated inequality issues still need attention. Objective This study aims to explore trends, contributing factors, and changes in inequalities for under-five child malnutrition in Vietnam between 2000 and 2011. Design Data were drawn from the Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey for the years 2000 and 2011. The dependent variables used for the study were stunting, underweight, and wasting of under-five children. The concentration index was calculated to see the magnitude of child malnutrition, and the inequality was decomposed to understand the contributions of determinants to child malnutrition. The total differential decomposition was used to identify and explore factors contributing to changes in child malnutrition inequalities. Results Inequality in child malnutrition increased between 2000 and 2011, even though the overall rate declined. Most of the inequality in malnutrition was due to ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The total differential decomposition showed that the biggest and second biggest contributors to the changes in underweight inequalities were age and socioeconomic status, respectively. Socioeconomic status was the largest contributor to inequalities in stunting. Conclusions Although the overall level of child malnutrition was improved in Vietnam, there were significant differences in under-five child malnutrition that favored those who were more advantaged in socioeconomic terms. The impact of socioeconomic inequalities in child malnutrition has increased over time. Multifaceted approaches, connecting several relevant ministries and sectors, may be necessary to reduce inequalities in childhood malnutrition. PMID:26950558

  14. Effect of child marriage on girls' school dropout in Nepal: Analysis of data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Sekine

    Full Text Available School dropout and child marriage are interrelated outcomes that have an enormous impact on adolescent girls. However, the literature reveals gaps in the empirical evidence on the link between child marriage and the dropout of girls from school. This study identifies the 'tipping point' school grades in Nepal when the risk of dropout due to marriage is highest, measures the effect of child marriage on girls' school dropout rates, and assesses associated risk factors. Weighted percentages were calculated to examine the grades at highest risk and the distribution of reasons for discontinuing school. Using the Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS 2014 data, we estimated the effect of marriage on school attendance and dropout among girls aged 15-17 by constructing logistic regression models. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess risk factors of school dropout due to child marriage. It was found that early marriage is the most common reason given for leaving school. Overall, the risk of school dropout due to marriage heightens after girls complete the fifth or sixth grade. The risk of girls' dropping out peaks in the seventh and eighth grades and remains noteworthy in the ninth and tenth grades. Married girls in Nepal are 10 times more likely to drop out than their unmarried peers. Little or no education of the household head, belonging to the Kirat religion, and membership of a traditionally disadvantaged social class each elevate the risk of school dropout due to early marriage. The findings underscore the need to delay girl's marriage so as to reduce girls' school dropout in Nepal. School-based programmes aimed at preventing child marriage should target girls from the fifth grade because they are at increased risk of dropping out, as well as prioritizing girls from disadvantaged groups.

  15. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in child malnutrition in Vietnam: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kien, Vu Duy; Lee, Hwa-Young; Nam, You-Seon; Oh, Juhwan; Giang, Kim Bao; Van Minh, Hoang

    2016-01-01

    Child malnutrition is not only a major contributor to child mortality and morbidity, but it can also determine socioeconomic status in adult life. The rate of under-five child malnutrition in Vietnam has significantly decreased, but associated inequality issues still need attention. This study aims to explore trends, contributing factors, and changes in inequalities for under-five child malnutrition in Vietnam between 2000 and 2011. Data were drawn from the Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey for the years 2000 and 2011. The dependent variables used for the study were stunting, underweight, and wasting of under-five children. The concentration index was calculated to see the magnitude of child malnutrition, and the inequality was decomposed to understand the contributions of determinants to child malnutrition. The total differential decomposition was used to identify and explore factors contributing to changes in child malnutrition inequalities. Inequality in child malnutrition increased between 2000 and 2011, even though the overall rate declined. Most of the inequality in malnutrition was due to ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The total differential decomposition showed that the biggest and second biggest contributors to the changes in underweight inequalities were age and socioeconomic status, respectively. Socioeconomic status was the largest contributor to inequalities in stunting. Although the overall level of child malnutrition was improved in Vietnam, there were significant differences in under-five child malnutrition that favored those who were more advantaged in socioeconomic terms. The impact of socioeconomic inequalities in child malnutrition has increased over time. Multifaceted approaches, connecting several relevant ministries and sectors, may be necessary to reduce inequalities in childhood malnutrition.

  16. Effects of a web-based tailored multiple-lifestyle intervention for adults: a two-year randomized controlled trial comparing sequential and simultaneous delivery modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Daniela N; Kremers, Stef P J; Vandelanotte, Corneel; van Adrichem, Mathieu J G; Schneider, Francine; Candel, Math J J M; de Vries, Hein

    2014-01-27

    Web-based computer-tailored interventions for multiple health behaviors can have a significant public health impact. Yet, few randomized controlled trials have tested this assumption. The objective of this paper was to test the effects of a sequential and simultaneous Web-based tailored intervention on multiple lifestyle behaviors. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 3 tailoring conditions (ie, sequential, simultaneous, and control conditions) in the Netherlands in 2009-2012. Follow-up measurements took place after 12 and 24 months. The intervention content was based on the I-Change model. In a health risk appraisal, all respondents (N=5055) received feedback on their lifestyle behaviors that indicated whether they complied with the Dutch guidelines for physical activity, vegetable consumption, fruit consumption, alcohol intake, and smoking. Participants in the sequential (n=1736) and simultaneous (n=1638) conditions received tailored motivational feedback to change unhealthy behaviors one at a time (sequential) or all at the same time (simultaneous). Mixed model analyses were performed as primary analyses; regression analyses were done as sensitivity analyses. An overall risk score was used as outcome measure, then effects on the 5 individual lifestyle behaviors were assessed and a process evaluation was performed regarding exposure to and appreciation of the intervention. Both tailoring strategies were associated with small self-reported behavioral changes. The sequential condition had the most significant effects compared to the control condition after 12 months (T1, effect size=0.28). After 24 months (T2), the simultaneous condition was most effective (effect size=0.18). All 5 individual lifestyle behaviors changed over time, but few effects differed significantly between the conditions. At both follow-ups, the sequential condition had significant changes in smoking abstinence compared to the simultaneous condition (T1 effect size=0.31; T2 effect

  17. Multiple imaging mode X-ray computed tomography for distinguishing active and inactive phases in lithium-ion battery cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komini Babu, Siddharth; Mohamed, Alexander I.; Whitacre, Jay F.; Litster, Shawn

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the use of nanometer scale resolution X-ray computed tomography (nano-CT) in the three-dimensional (3D) imaging of a Li-ion battery cathode, including the separate volumes of active material, binder plus conductive additive, and pore. The different high and low atomic number (Z) materials are distinguished by sequentially imaging the lithium cobalt oxide electrode in absorption and then Zernike phase contrast modes. Morphological parameters of the active material and the additives are extracted from the 3D reconstructions, including the distribution of contact areas between the additives and the active material. This method could provide a better understanding of the electric current distribution and structural integrity of battery electrodes, as well as provide detailed geometries for computational models.

  18. Metabolic gene expression changes in astrocytes in Multiple Sclerosis cerebral cortex are indicative of immune-mediated signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Zeis, T.; Allaman, I.; Gentner, M.; Schroder, K.; Tschopp, J.; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Schaeren-Wiemers, N.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging as an important correlate of neurological dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), extended focal and diffuse gray matter abnormalities have been found and linked to clinical manifestations such as seizures, fatigue and cognitive dysfunction

  19. A validated stability-indicating LC method for the separation of enantiomer and potential impurities of Linezolid using polar organic mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Satyanarayana Raju

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Although a number of methods are available for evaluating Linezolid and its possible impurities, a common method for separation if its potential impurities, degradants and enantiomer in a single method with good efficiency remain unavailable. With the objective of developing an advanced method with shorter runtimes, a simple, precise, accurate stability-indicating LC method was developed for the determination of purity of Linezolid drug substance and drug products in bulk samples and pharmaceutical dosage forms in the presence of its impurities and degradation products. This method is capable of separating all the related substances of Linezolid along with the chiral impurity. This method can also be used for the estimation of assay of Linezolid in drug substance as well as in drug product. The method was developed using Chiralpak IA (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm column. A mixture of acetonitrile, ethanol, n-butyl amine and trifluoro acetic acid in 96:4:0.10:0.16 (v/v/v/v ratio was used as a mobile phase. The eluted compounds were monitored at 254 nm. Linezolid was subjected to the stress conditions of oxidative, acid, base, hydrolytic, thermal and photolytic degradation. The degradation products were well resolved from main peak and its impurities, proving the stability-indicating power of the method. The developed method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision, linearity, accuracy, robustness and system suitability. Keywords: HPLC, Linezolid, Validation, Polar organic mode, Stability-indicating

  20. Metabolic gene expression changes in astrocytes in Multiple Sclerosis cerebral cortex are indicative of immune-mediated signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Zeis, T.

    2015-04-01

    Emerging as an important correlate of neurological dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), extended focal and diffuse gray matter abnormalities have been found and linked to clinical manifestations such as seizures, fatigue and cognitive dysfunction. To investigate possible underlying mechanisms we analyzed the molecular alterations in histopathological normal appearing cortical gray matter (NAGM) in MS. By performing a differential gene expression analysis of NAGM of control and MS cases we identified reduced transcription of astrocyte specific genes involved in the astrocyte–neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS) and the glutamate–glutamine cycle (GGC). Additional quantitative immunohistochemical analysis demonstrating a CX43 loss in MS NAGM confirmed a crucial involvement of astrocytes and emphasizes their importance in MS pathogenesis. Concurrently, a Toll-like/IL-1β signaling expression signature was detected in MS NAGM, indicating that immune-related signaling might be responsible for the downregulation of ANLS and GGC gene expression in MS NAGM. Indeed, challenging astrocytes with immune stimuli such as IL-1β and LPS reduced their ANLS and GGC gene expression in vitro. The detected upregulation of IL1B in MS NAGM suggests inflammasome priming. For this reason, astrocyte cultures were treated with ATP and ATP/LPS as for inflammasome activation. This treatment led to a reduction of ANLS and GGC gene expression in a comparable manner. To investigate potential sources for ANLS and GGC downregulation in MS NAGM, we first performed an adjuvant-driven stimulation of the peripheral immune system in C57Bl/6 mice in vivo. This led to similar gene expression changes in spinal cord demonstrating that peripheral immune signals might be one source for astrocytic gene expression changes in the brain. IL1B upregulation in MS NAGM itself points to a possible endogenous signaling process leading to ANLS and GGC downregulation. This is supported by our findings that, among others

  1. Evidence for multiple modes of neutrophil serine protease recognition by the EAP family of Staphylococcal innate immune evasion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapels, Daphne A C; Woehl, Jordan L; Milder, Fin J; Tromp, Angelino T; van Batenburg, Aernoud A; de Graaf, Wilco C; Broll, Samuel C; White, Natalie M; Rooijakkers, Suzan H M; Geisbrecht, Brian V

    2018-02-01

    Neutrophils contain high levels of chymotrypsin-like serine proteases (NSPs) within their azurophilic granules that have a multitude of functions within the immune system. In response, the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus has evolved three potent inhibitors (Eap, EapH1, and EapH2) that protect the bacterium as well as several of its secreted virulence factors from the degradative action of NSPs. We previously showed that these so-called EAP domain proteins represent a novel class of NSP inhibitors characterized by a non-covalent inhibitory mechanism and a distinct target specificity profile. Based upon high levels of structural homology amongst the EAP proteins and the NSPs, as well as supporting biochemical data, we predicted that the inhibited complex would be similar for all EAP/NSP pairs. However, we present here evidence that EapH1 and EapH2 bind the canonical NSP, Neutrophil Elastase (NE), in distinct orientations. We discovered that alteration of EapH1 residues at the EapH1/NE interface caused a dramatic loss of affinity and inhibition of NE, while mutation of equivalent positions in EapH2 had no effect on NE binding or inhibition. Surprisingly, mutation of residues in an altogether different region of EapH2 severely impacted both the NE binding and inhibitory properties of EapH2. Even though EapH1 and EapH2 bind and inhibit NE and a second NSP, Cathepsin G, equally well, neither of these proteins interacts with the structurally related, but non-proteolytic granule protein, azurocidin. These studies expand our understanding of EAP/NSP interactions and suggest that members of this immune evasion protein family are capable of diverse target recognition modes. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  2. Measurement with multiple indicators and psychophysical scaling in the context of Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Putte, B.; Saris, W.E.; Hoogstraten, J.

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to test the theory of reasoned action of Fishbein and Ajzen. The measurements were done using two category scales and two psychophysical scales. No consistent difference in results was found between the four modalities. However, if the latter were used as multiple

  3. Constructing and Validating a Multiple-Indicator Construct of Economic Hardship in a National Sample of Adolescents with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christopher; Doren, Bonnie; Gau, Jeff M.; Zvoch, Keith; Seeley, John R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop a multi-indicator construct of economic hardship among adolescents with disabilities (N = 9,230) participating in the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, the largest, most comprehensive investigation of adolescents with disabilities ever conducted. Five theoretically relevant indicators (i.e.,…

  4. Enhancement mode GaN-based multiple-submicron channel array gate-recessed fin metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Ting; Wang, Chun-Chi

    2018-04-01

    To study the function of channel width in multiple-submicron channel array, we fabricated the enhancement mode GaN-based gate-recessed fin metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron mobility transistors (MOS-HEMTs) with a channel width of 450 nm and 195 nm, respectively. In view of the enhanced gate controllability in a narrower fin-channel structure, the transconductance was improved from 115 mS/mm to 151 mS/mm, the unit gain cutoff frequency was improved from 6.2 GHz to 6.8 GHz, and the maximum oscillation frequency was improved from 12.1 GHz to 13.1 GHz of the devices with a channel width of 195 nm, compared with the devices with a channel width of 450 nm.

  5. Sequential hemi-body radiotherapy in advanced multiple myeloma. [Side effects of indicated x-ray therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, J.P.; Bosch, A.; Raich, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    Eleven patients with advanced multiple myeloma refractory to standard chemotherapy were treated with a regimen of sequential hemi-body radiotherapy consisting of 800 rad midplane in a single dose to each half. 9/10 patients experienced significant relief of skeletal pain and there were 5/11 objective tumor responses with one complete remission. Treatment-related morbidity was significant and consisted primarily of nausea and emesis, bone marrow suppression, and pneumonitis. This therapy is helpful in the management of advanced myeloma, and should be studied earlier in the course of the disease.

  6. Comparison of heavy metal contamination during the last decade along the coastal sediment of Pakistan: Multiple pollution indices approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Noor Us; Siddiqui, Asmat Saleem

    2016-04-15

    Heavy metals concentrations (Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Co, Pb, and Cd) were scrutinized during two monitoring years (2001 and 2011) in the coastal sediment of Pakistan. The status of metal contamination in coastal sediment was interpreted using sediment quality guidelines, and single and combined metal pollution indices. Ni, Cr, and Cd were recognized for their significant (p<0.05) intensification in the sediment during the last decade. Sediment quality guidelines recognized the frequent adverse biological effect of Ni and the occasional adverse biological effect of Cu, Cr, Pb and Cd. Single metal pollution indices (Igeo, EF, CF, and ER) revealed that sediment pollution is predominantly caused by Pb and Cd. Low to moderate contamination was appraised along the coast by multi-metal pollution indices (CD and PERI). Correlation study specifies that heavy metals were presented diverse affiliations and carriers for distribution in the sediment during the last decade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The importance of determining surgical indications in cases of lung cancer and interstitial pneumonia with multiple intrapulmonary lymph nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Nakajima

    2016-01-01

    Discussion and conclusions: The greatest problem in treating pulmonary cancer complicated with interstitial pneumonia is acute exacerbation, wherein, in the absence of any surgical indications, alternative treatment is limited. Thus, contra-indicating surgery for a patient due to a diagnosis of metastasis within the lungs, based only on nodule images, should be avoided. If nodules are noted in the area of the pleura, the possibility exists that these could be intrapulmonary lymph nodes, along with metastasis within the lung, and thoracoscopic surgery should be implemented proactively while keeping these in mind.

  8. Multiple Determinations of Sperm DNA Fragmentation Show That Varicocelectomy Is Not Indicated for Infertile Patients with Subclinical Varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín García-Peiró

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele is one of the most common causes of low semen quality, which is reflected in high percentages of sperm cells with fragmented DNA. While varicocelectomy is usually performed to ameliorate a patient’s fertility, its impact on sperm DNA integrity in the case of subclinical varicocele is poorly documented. In this study, multiple DNA fragmentation analyses (TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA were performed on semen samples from sixty infertile patients with varicocele (15 clinical varicoceles, 19 clinical varicoceles after surgical treatment, 16 subclinical varicoceles, and 10 subclinical varicoceles after surgical treatment. TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA assays all showed substantial sperm DNA fragmentation levels that were comparable between subclinical and clinical varicocele patients. Importantly, varicocelectomy did improve sperm quality in patients with clinical varicocele; however, this was not the case in patients with subclinical varicocele. In summary, although infertile patients with clinical and subclinical varicocele have similar sperm DNA quality, varicocelectomy should only be advised for patients with clinical varicocele.

  9. Comparison of the Multiple-sample means with composite sample results for fecal indicator bacteria by quantitative PCR and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT: Few studies have addressed the efficacy of composite sampling for measurement of indicator bacteria by QPCR. In this study, composite results were compared to single sample results for culture- and QPCR-based water quality monitoring. Composite results for both methods ...

  10. Base Rates, Multiple Indicators, and Comprehensive Forensic Evaluations: Why Sexualized Behavior Still Counts in Assessments of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…

  11. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but human and other animal gut microbiota contain an array of other taxonomic groups that might serve as indicators for sources of fecal pollution. High thr...

  12. Comparison of multiple obesity indices for cardiovascular disease risk classification in South Asian adults: The CARRS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani A Patel

    Full Text Available We comparatively assessed the performance of six simple obesity indices to identify adults with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in a diverse and contemporary South Asian population.8,892 participants aged 20-60 years in 2010-2011 were analyzed. Six obesity indices were examined: body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-height ratio (WHtR, waist-hip ratio (WHR, log of the sum of triceps and subscapular skin fold thickness (LTS, and percent body fat derived from bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA. We estimated models with obesity indices specified as deciles and as continuous linear variables to predict prevalent hypertension, diabetes, and high cholesterol and report associations (prevalence ratios, PRs, discrimination (area-under-the-curve, AUCs, and calibration (index χ2. We also examined a composite unhealthy cardiovascular profile score summarizing glucose, lipids, and blood pressure.No single obesity index consistently performed statistically significantly better than the others across the outcome models. Based on point estimates, WHtR trended towards best performance in classifying diabetes (PR = 1.58 [1.45-1.72], AUC = 0.77, men; PR = 1.59 [1.47-1.71], AUC = 0.80, women and hypertension (PR = 1.34 [1.26,1.42], AUC = 0.70, men; PR = 1.41 [1.33,1.50], AUC = 0.78, women. WC (mean difference = 0.24 SD [0.21-0.27] and WHtR (mean difference = 0.24 SD [0.21,0.28] had the strongest associations with the composite unhealthy cardiovascular profile score in women but not in men.WC and WHtR were the most useful indices for identifying South Asian adults with prevalent diabetes and hypertension. Collection of waist circumference data in South Asian health surveys will be informative for population-based CVD surveillance efforts.

  13. Progression of a fracture site impaction as a prognostic indicator of impacted femoral neck fracture treated with multiple pinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Pil Whan; Shin, Young Ho; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Yoon, Kang Sup; Kim, Hee Joong

    2012-03-01

    We evaluated the clinical and radiologic results of impacted femoral neck fractures treated with multiple pinning and determined the influence of the progression of impaction at the fracture site on clinical outcome. There were 34 patients with a mean age of 65.5 years. The mean follow-up period was 3.4 years. Progression of fracture site impaction was measured using an articulo-trochanteric distance index and the percentage decrease in the articulo-trochanteric distance index between follow-up intervals. The failure of treatment was clarified as non-union and avascular necrosis. Other characteristics of the patients, including mean waiting time for surgery, preoperative Singh index score, and body mass index, were also measured to evaluate the influence on the clinical outcome of surgery. There were 6 fractures which were not treated successfully (3 non-union, 8.8% and 3 avascular necrosis, 8.8%). The mean percentage decrease of the articulo-trochanteric distance index within the first 6 weeks after surgery was 4.5% in the successful group and 25.1% in the failure group (p articulo-trochanteric distance index between 6 weeks and 3 months (p articulo-trochanteric distance index between the successful group and the failure group, we could not verify it as a risk factor for failure of treatment because the odds ratio was not statistically significant.

  14. Optical coherence tomography angiography indicates associations of the retinal vascular network and disease activity in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feucht, Nikolaus; Maier, Mathias; Lepennetier, Gildas; Pettenkofer, Moritz; Wetzlmair, Carmen; Daltrozzo, Tanja; Scherm, Pauline; Zimmer, Claus; Hoshi, Muna-Miriam; Hemmer, Bernhard; Korn, Thomas; Knier, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) may show alterations of retinal layer architecture as measured by optical coherence tomography. Little is known about changes in the retinal vascular network during MS. To characterize retinal vessel structures in patients with MS and CIS and to test for associations with MS disease activity. In all, 42 patients with MS or CIS and 50 healthy controls underwent retinal optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) with analysis of the superficial and deep vascular plexuses and the choriocapillaries. We tested OCT-A parameters for associations with retinal layer volumes, history of optic neuritis (ON), and the retrospective disease activity. Inner retinal layer volumes correlated positively with the density of both the superficial and deep vascular plexuses. Eyes of MS/CIS patients with a history of ON revealed reduced vessel densities of the superficial and deep vascular plexuses as compared to healthy controls. Higher choriocapillary vessel densities were associated with ongoing inflammatory disease activity during 24 months prior to OCT-A examination in MS and CIS patients. Optic neuritis is associated with rarefaction of the superficial and deep retinal vessels. Alterations of the choriocapillaries might be linked to disease activity in MS.

  15. Whole-genome sequencing of monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia indicates multiple genetic risk factors for schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinsong Tang; Fan He; Fengyu Zhang; Yin Yao Shugart; Chunyu Liu; Yanqing Tang; Raymond C.K.Chan; Chuan-Yue Wang; Yong-Gang Yao; Xiaogang Chen; Yu Fan; Hong Li; Qun Xiang; Deng-Feng Zhang; Zongchang Li; Ying He; Yanhui Liao; Ya Wang

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a common disorder with a high heritability,but its genetic architecture is still elusive.We implemented whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis of 8 families with monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia to assess potential association of de novo mutations (DNMs) or inherited variants with susceptibility to schizophrenia.Eight non-synonymous DNMs (including one splicing site) were identified and shared by twins,which were either located in previously reported schizophrenia risk genes (p.V24689I mutation in TTN,p.S2506T mutation in GCN1L1,IVS3+1G > T in DOCK1) or had a benign to damaging effect according to in silico prediction analysis.By searching the inherited rare damaging or loss-of-function (LOF) variants and common susceptible alleles from three classes of schizophrenia candidate genes,we were able to distill genetic alterations in several schizophrenia risk genes,including GAD1,PLXNA2,RELN and FEZ1.Four inherited copy number variations (CNVs;including a large deletion at 16p13.11) implicated for schizophrenia were identified in four families,respectively.Most of families carried both missense DNMs and inherited risk variants,which might suggest that DNMs,inherited rare damaging variants and common risk alleles together conferred to schizophrenia susceptibility.Our results support that schizophrenia is caused by a combination of multiple genetic factors,with each DNM/variant showing a relatively small effect size.

  16. OBSERVATIONS OF SAUSAGE MODES IN MAGNETIC PORES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, R. J.; Erdelyi, R.; Jess, D. B.; Mathioudakis, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present here evidence for the observation of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) sausage modes in magnetic pores in the solar photosphere. Further evidence for the omnipresent nature of acoustic global modes is also found. The empirical decomposition method of wave analysis is used to identify the oscillations detected through a 4170 A 'blue continuum' filter observed with the Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere (ROSA) instrument. Out of phase, periodic behavior in pore size and intensity is used as an indicator of the presence of magnetoacoustic sausage oscillations. Multiple signatures of the magnetoacoustic sausage mode are found in a number of pores. The periods range from as short as 30 s up to 450 s. A number of the magnetoacoustic sausage mode oscillations found have periods of 3 and 5 minutes, similar to the acoustic global modes of the solar interior. It is proposed that these global oscillations could be the driver of the sausage-type magnetoacoustic MHD wave modes in pores.

  17. Whole-genome sequencing of monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia indicates multiple genetic risk factors for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinsong; Fan, Yu; Li, Hong; Xiang, Qun; Zhang, Deng-Feng; Li, Zongchang; He, Ying; Liao, Yanhui; Wang, Ya; He, Fan; Zhang, Fengyu; Shugart, Yin Yao; Liu, Chunyu; Tang, Yanqing; Chan, Raymond C K; Wang, Chuan-Yue; Yao, Yong-Gang; Chen, Xiaogang

    2017-06-20

    Schizophrenia is a common disorder with a high heritability, but its genetic architecture is still elusive. We implemented whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis of 8 families with monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia to assess potential association of de novo mutations (DNMs) or inherited variants with susceptibility to schizophrenia. Eight non-synonymous DNMs (including one splicing site) were identified and shared by twins, which were either located in previously reported schizophrenia risk genes (p.V24689I mutation in TTN, p.S2506T mutation in GCN1L1, IVS3+1G > T in DOCK1) or had a benign to damaging effect according to in silico prediction analysis. By searching the inherited rare damaging or loss-of-function (LOF) variants and common susceptible alleles from three classes of schizophrenia candidate genes, we were able to distill genetic alterations in several schizophrenia risk genes, including GAD1, PLXNA2, RELN and FEZ1. Four inherited copy number variations (CNVs; including a large deletion at 16p13.11) implicated for schizophrenia were identified in four families, respectively. Most of families carried both missense DNMs and inherited risk variants, which might suggest that DNMs, inherited rare damaging variants and common risk alleles together conferred to schizophrenia susceptibility. Our results support that schizophrenia is caused by a combination of multiple genetic factors, with each DNM/variant showing a relatively small effect size. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. All rights reserved.

  18. Phylogeographical analysis of mtDNA data indicates postglacial expansion from multiple glacial refugia in woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelya F C Klütsch

    Full Text Available Glacial refugia considerably shaped the phylogeographical structure of species and may influence intra-specific morphological, genetic, and adaptive differentiation. However, the impact of the Quaternary ice ages on the phylogeographical structure of North American temperate mammalian species is not well-studied. Here, we surveyed ~1600 individuals of the widely distributed woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou using mtDNA control region sequences to investigate if glacial refugia contributed to the phylogeographical structure in this subspecies. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction, a median-joining network, and mismatch distributions supported postglacial expansions of woodland caribou from three glacial refugia dating back to 13544-22005 years. These three lineages consisted almost exclusively of woodland caribou mtDNA haplotypes, indicating that phylogeographical structure was mainly shaped by postglacial expansions. The putative centres of these lineages are geographically separated; indicating disconnected glacial refugia in the Rocky Mountains, east of the Mississippi, and the Appalachian Mountains. This is in congruence with the fossil record that caribou were distributed in these areas during the Pleistocene. Our results suggest that the last glacial maximum substantially shaped the phylogeographical structure of this large mammalian North American species that will be affected by climatic change. Therefore, the presented results will be essential for future conservation planning in woodland caribou.

  19. Evaluating the Spatial Distribution of Toxic Air Contaminants in Multiple Ecosystem Indicators in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, L.; Simonich, S. L.; Rocchio, J.; Flanagan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Toxic air contaminants originating from agricultural areas of the Central Valley in California threaten vulnerable sensitive receptors including surface water, vegetation, snow, sediments, fish, and amphibians in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region. The spatial distribution of toxic air contaminants in different ecosystem indicators depends on variation in atmospheric concentrations and deposition, and variation in air toxics accumulation in ecosystems. The spatial distribution of organic air toxics and mercury at over 330 unique sampling locations and sample types over two decades (1990-2009) in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region were compiled and maps were developed to further understand spatial patterns and linkages between air toxics deposition and ecological effects. Potential ecosystem impacts in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region include bioaccumulation of air toxics in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, reproductive disruption, and immune suppression. The most sensitive ecological end points in the region that are affected by bioaccumulation of toxic air contaminants are fish. Mercury was detected in all fish and approximately 6% exceeded human consumption thresholds. Organic air toxics were also detected in fish yielding variable spatial patterns. For amphibians, which are sensitive to pesticide exposure and potential immune suppression, increasing trends in current and historic use pesticides are observed from north to south across the region. In other indicators, such as vegetation, pesticide concentrations in lichen increase with increasing elevation. Current and historic use pesticides and mercury were also observed in snowpack at high elevations in the study area. This study shows spatial patterns in toxic air contaminants, evaluates associated risks to sensitive receptors, and identifies data gaps. Future research on atmospheric modeling and information on sources is needed in order to predict which ecosystems are the

  20. Dynamic determination of kinetic parameters for the interaction between polypeptide hormones and cell-surface receptors in the perfused rat liver by the multiple-indicator dilution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, H.; Sugiyama, Y.; Sawada, Y.; Iga, T.; Sakamoto, S.; Fuwa, T.; Hanano, M.

    1988-01-01

    Hepatic elimination of epidermal growth factor (EGF) via receptor-mediated endocytosis was studied by a multiple-indicator dilution method in the isolated perfused rat liver, in which cell polarity and spatial organization are maintained. In this method EGF was given with inulin, an extracellular reference, as a bolus into the portal vein, and dilution curves of both compounds in the hepatic vein effluent were analyzed. Analysis of the dilution curve for EGF, compared with that for somatostatin, which showed no specific binding to isolated liver plasma membranes, resulted as follows: (i) both extraction ratio and distribution volume of 125 I-labeled EGF decreased as the injected amount of unlabeled EGF increased; (ii) the ratio plot of the dilution curve for EGF exhibited an upward straight line initially for a short period of time, whereas the ratio plot of somatostatin gradually decreased. The multiple-indicator dilution method was used for other peptides also. Insulin and glucagon, known to have hepatocyte receptors, behaved similarly to EGF in shape of their ratio plots. The kinetic parameters calculated by this analysis were comparable with reported values obtained by in vitro direct binding measurements at equilibrium using liver homogenates. They conclude that the multiple-indicator dilution method is a good tool for analyzing the dynamics of peptide hormones-cell-surface receptor interaction under a condition in which spatial architecture of the liver is maintained

  1. Ecological water quality assessment in the Guapiaçu-Macacu hydrographic complex (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil using multiple indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla S. Pereira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A quick diagnosis of the ecological quality of five sections of the Macacu-Guapiaçu hydrographic complex was performed using visual assessment protocol (VAP, conventional analysis, composition and structure of ciliates and the occurrence of benthic macro invertebrates. Water samples were collected from five sampling stations (A-E in July of 2010. Protists were sampled with aid of artificial substrates, and macro invertebrates were sampled using the multi-habitat method. A total of 22 taxa of protozoa and 51 taxa of macro invertebrates was registered at the five stations. Reference station (A showed greater protist diversity and higher values of BMWP-CETEC and IBE-IOC indices relating to macro invertebrates. The impacted stations (B and E presented lower diversity and higher abundance of protozoa, as well as the lowest values for the rates. The four methods used were convergent to diagnose reference station (A, the impacted stations (B and E and those in intermediate conditions (C and D. Thus, the methods were complementary, as the conventional parameters and ciliate assembly were more sensitive to detecting the increase in organic pollution and VAP and macro invertebrate assembly detected changes in geomorphology and habitat degradation.

  2. Development and validation of LC-MS/MS method with multiple reactions monitoring mode for quantification of vanillin and syringaldehyde in plum brandies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tešević Vele

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS method with multiple reactions monitoring mode (MRM has been developed and validated for quantification of vanillin and syringaldehyde in plum brandy. The method showed good linearity (0.05 to 10 mgL−1 and low limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ were 11.6 µgL−1 and 38.2 µgL−1 for vanillin, and 12.7 µgL−1 and 42.0 µgL−1 for syringaldehyde, respectively. The overall intra-day and inter-day variations were less than 4.21%, and the overall recovery over 93.0%. The correlation coefficients (R2 of the calibration curves were higher than 0.9999. In order to evaluate if the method is suitable for use as a routine analytical tool, in 31 Serbian plum brandy samples vanillin and syringaldehide were determined. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172053

  3. Non-ergodicity transition and multiple glasses in binary mixtures: on the accuracy of the input static structure in the mode coupling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchangnwa Nya, F; Ayadim, A; Germain, Ph; Amokrane, S

    2012-01-01

    We examine the question of the accuracy of the static correlation functions used as input in the mode coupling theory (MCT) of non-ergodic states in binary mixtures. We first consider hard-sphere mixtures and compute the static pair structure from the Ornstein-Zernike equations with the Percus-Yevick closure and more accurate ones that use bridge functions deduced from Rosenfeld’s fundamental measures functional. The corresponding MCT predictions for the non-ergodicity lines and the transitions between multiple glassy states are determined from the long-time limit of the density autocorrelation functions. We find that while the non-ergodicity transition line is not very sensitive to the input static structure, up to diameter ratios D 2 /D 1 = 10, quantitative differences exist for the transitions between different glasses. The discrepancies with the more accurate closures become even qualitative for sufficiently asymmetric mixtures. They are correlated with the incorrect behavior of the PY structure at high size asymmetry. From the example of ultra-soft potential it is argued that this issue is of general relevance beyond the hard-sphere model. (paper)

  4. A comparison of multiple indicator kriging and area-to-point Poisson kriging for mapping patterns of herbivore species abundance in Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, Ruth; Goovaerts, Pierre; Smit, Izak P J; Ingram, Ben R

    Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, provides protected habitats for the unique animals of the African savannah. For the past 40 years, annual aerial surveys of herbivores have been conducted to aid management decisions based on (1) the spatial distribution of species throughout the park and (2) total species populations in a year. The surveys are extremely time consuming and costly. For many years, the whole park was surveyed, but in 1998 a transect survey approach was adopted. This is cheaper and less time consuming but leaves gaps in the data spatially. Also the distance method currently employed by the park only gives estimates of total species populations but not their spatial distribution. We compare the ability of multiple indicator kriging and area-to-point Poisson kriging to accurately map species distribution in the park. A leave-one-out cross-validation approach indicates that multiple indicator kriging makes poor estimates of the number of animals, particularly the few large counts, as the indicator variograms for such high thresholds are pure nugget. Poisson kriging was applied to the prediction of two types of abundance data: spatial density and proportion of a given species. Both Poisson approaches had standardized mean absolute errors (St. MAEs) of animal counts at least an order of magnitude lower than multiple indicator kriging. The spatial density, Poisson approach (1), gave the lowest St. MAEs for the most abundant species and the proportion, Poisson approach (2), did for the least abundant species. Incorporating environmental data into Poisson approach (2) further reduced St. MAEs.

  5. The effect of flow modes and electrode combinations on the performance of a multiple module microbial fuel cell installed at wastewater treatment plant

    KAUST Repository

    He, Weihua

    2016-09-13

    A larger (6.1 L) MFC stack made in a scalable configuration was constructed with four anode modules and three (two-sided) cathode modules, and tested at a wastewater treatment plant for performance in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and power generation. Domestic wastewater was fed either in parallel (raw wastewater to each individual anode module) or series (sequentially through the chambers), with the flow direction either alternated every one or two days or kept fixed in a single direction over time. The largest impact on performance was the wastewater COD concentration, which greatly impacted power production, but did not affect the percentage of COD removal. With higher COD concentrations (∼500 mg L−1) and alternating flow conditions, power generation was primarily limited by the cathode specific area. In alternating flow operation, anode modules connected to two cathodes produced an average maximum power density of 6.0 ± 0.4 W m−3, which was 1.9 ± 0.2 times that obtained for anodes connected to a single cathode. In fixed flow operation, a large subsequent decrease in COD influent concentration greatly reduced power production independent of reactor operation in parallel or serial flow modes. Anode modules connected to two cathodes did not consistently produce more power than the anodes connected to a single cathode, indicating power production became limited by restricted anode performance at low CODs. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data supported restricted anode performance with low COD. These results demonstrate that maintaining power production of MFC stack requires higher influent and effluent COD concentrations. However, overall performance of the MFC in terms of COD removal was not affected by operational modes.

  6. Single and multiple in-season measurements as indicators of at-harvest cotton boll damage caused by verde plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Michael J; Armstrong, J Scott; Parker, Roy D

    2013-06-01

    The ability to monitor verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), and the progression of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., boll responses to feeding and associated cotton boll rot provided opportunity to assess if single in-season measurements had value in evaluating at-harvest damage to bolls and if multiple in-season measurements enhanced their combined use. One in-season verde plant bug density measurement, three in-season plant injury measurements, and two at-harvest damage measurements were taken in 15 cotton fields in South Texas, 2010. Linear regression selected two measurements as potentially useful indicators of at-harvest damage: verde plant bug density (adjusted r2 = 0.68; P = 0.0004) and internal boll injury of the carpel wall (adjusted r2 = 0.72; P = 0.004). Considering use of multiple measurements, a stepwise multiple regression of the four in-season measurements selected a univariate model (verde plant bug density) using a 0.15 selection criterion (adjusted r2 = 0.74; P = 0.0002) and a bivariate model (verde plant bug density-internal boll injury) using a 0.25 selection criterion (adjusted r2 = 0.76; P = 0.0007) as indicators of at-harvest damage. In a validation using cultivar and water regime treatments experiencing low verde plant bug pressure in 2011 and 2012, the bivariate model performed better than models using verde plant bug density or internal boll injury separately. Overall, verde plant bug damaging cotton bolls exemplified the benefits of using multiple in-season measurements in pest monitoring programs, under the challenging situation when at-harvest damage results from a sequence of plant responses initiated by in-season insect feeding.

  7. Integrating multiple vegetation indices via an artificial neural network model for estimating the leaf chlorophyll content of Spartina alterniflora under interspecies competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pudong; Shi, Runhe; Zhang, Chao; Zeng, Yuyan; Wang, Jiapeng; Tao, Zhu; Gao, Wei

    2017-10-31

    The invasive species Spartina alterniflora and native species Phragmites australis display a significant co-occurrence zonation pattern and this co-exist region exerts most competitive situations between these two species, competing for the limited space, directly influencing the co-exist distribution in the future. However, these two species have different growth ratios in this area, which increase the difficulty to detect the distribution situation directly by remote sensing. As chlorophyll content is a key indicator of plant growth and physiological status, the objective of this study was to reduce the effect of interspecies competition when estimating Cab content; we evaluated 79 published representative indices to determine the optimal indices for estimating the chlorophyll a and b (Cab) content. After performing a sensitivity analysis for all 79 spectral indices, five spectral indices were selected and integrated using an artificial neural network (ANN) to estimate the Cab content of different competition ratios: the Gitelson ratio green index, the transformed chlorophyll absorption ratio index/optimized soil-adjusted vegetation index, the modified normalized difference vegetation index, the chlorophyll fluorescence index, and the Vogelmann chlorophyll index. The ANN method yielded better results (R 2  = 0.7110 and RMSE = 8.3829 μg cm -2 ) on average than the best single spectral index (R 2  = 0.6319 and RMSE = 9.3535 μg cm -2 ), representing an increase of 10.78% in R 2 and a decrease of 10.38% in RMSE. Our results indicated that integrating multiple vegetation indices with an ANN can alleviate the impact of interspecies competition and achieve higher estimation accuracy than the traditional approach using a single index.

  8. Use of modern contraceptives among married women in Vietnam: a multilevel analysis using the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (2011) and the Vietnam Population and Housing Census (2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lan Thi Hoang; Oh, Juhwan; Bui, Quyen Thi-Tu; Le, Anh Thi-Kim

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of modern contraceptive use is an important indicator that reflects accessibility to reproductive health services. Satisfying unmet needs for family planning alone could reduce the number of maternal deaths by almost a third. This study uses multiple data sources to examine multilevel factors associated with the use of modern contraceptives among married women in Vietnam aged 15-49 years. Data from different national surveys (Vietnam Population and Housing Census, Vietnam Living Standard Survey, and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey) were linked to create a dataset including individual and contextual (provincial) variables (N=8,341). Multilevel modeling was undertaken to examine the impact of both individual and provincial characteristics on modern contraceptive use. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. Individual factors significantly associated with the use of modern contraceptives were age 30-34 years (reference 15-19 years) (OR=1.63); high socioeconomic status (SES) (OR=0.8); having two living children (OR=2.4); and having a son (OR=1.4). The provincial poverty rate mediated the association between the individual's SES and the likelihood of using modern contraceptives. The proportion of women in Vietnam using modern contraceptive methods has remained relatively high in recent years with significant variation across Vietnam's 63 provinces. Women of lower SES are more likely to use modern contraceptive methods, especially in the poorer provinces. Achieving access to universal reproductive health is one of the Millennium Development Goals. Vietnam must continue to make progress in this area.

  9. Handwashing in 51 Countries: Analysis of Proxy Measures of Handwashing Behavior in Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys, 2010–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Swapna; Loughnan, Libbet; Luyendijk, Rolf; Hernandez, Orlando; Weinger, Merri; Arnold, Fred; Ram, Pavani K.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. In 2009, a common set of questions addressing handwashing behavior was introduced into nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), providing large amounts of comparable data from numerous countries worldwide. The objective of this analysis is to describe global handwashing patterns using two proxy indicators for handwashing behavior from 51 DHS and MICS surveys conducted in 2010–2013: availability of soap anywhere in the dwelling and access to a handwashing place with soap and water. Data were also examined across geographic regions, wealth quintiles, and rural versus urban settings. We found large disparities for both indicators across regions, and even among countries within the same World Health Organization region. Within countries, households in lower wealth quintiles and in rural areas were less likely to have soap anywhere in the dwelling and at designated handwashing locations than households in higher wealth quintiles and urban areas. In addition, disparities existed among various geographic regions within countries. This analysis demonstrates the need to promote access to handwashing materials and placement at handwashing locations in the dwelling, particularly in poorer, rural areas where children are more vulnerable to handwashing-preventable syndromes such as pneumonia and diarrhea. PMID:28722572

  10. Handwashing in 51 Countries: Analysis of Proxy Measures of Handwashing Behavior in Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Swapna; Loughnan, Libbet; Luyendijk, Rolf; Hernandez, Orlando; Weinger, Merri; Arnold, Fred; Ram, Pavani K

    2017-08-01

    In 2009, a common set of questions addressing handwashing behavior was introduced into nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), providing large amounts of comparable data from numerous countries worldwide. The objective of this analysis is to describe global handwashing patterns using two proxy indicators for handwashing behavior from 51 DHS and MICS surveys conducted in 2010-2013: availability of soap anywhere in the dwelling and access to a handwashing place with soap and water. Data were also examined across geographic regions, wealth quintiles, and rural versus urban settings. We found large disparities for both indicators across regions, and even among countries within the same World Health Organization region. Within countries, households in lower wealth quintiles and in rural areas were less likely to have soap anywhere in the dwelling and at designated handwashing locations than households in higher wealth quintiles and urban areas. In addition, disparities existed among various geographic regions within countries. This analysis demonstrates the need to promote access to handwashing materials and placement at handwashing locations in the dwelling, particularly in poorer, rural areas where children are more vulnerable to handwashing-preventable syndromes such as pneumonia and diarrhea.

  11. Development of the policy indicator checklist: a tool to identify and measure policies for calorie-dense foods and sugar-sweetened beverages across multiple settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca E; Hallett, Allen M; Parker, Nathan; Kudia, Ousswa; Kao, Dennis; Modelska, Maria; Rifai, Hanadi; O'Connor, Daniel P

    2015-05-01

    We developed the policy indicator checklist (PIC) to identify and measure policies for calorie-dense foods and sugar-sweetened beverages to determine how policies are clustered across multiple settings. In 2012 and 2013 we used existing literature, policy documents, government recommendations, and instruments to identify key policies. We then developed the PIC to examine the policy environments across 3 settings (communities, schools, and early care and education centers) in 8 communities participating in the Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Project. Principal components analysis revealed 5 components related to calorie-dense food policies and 4 components related to sugar-sweetened beverage policies. Communities with higher youth and racial/ethnic minority populations tended to have fewer and weaker policy environments concerning calorie-dense foods and healthy foods and beverages. The PIC was a helpful tool to identify policies that promote healthy food environments across multiple settings and to measure and compare the overall policy environments across communities. There is need for improved coordination across settings, particularly in areas with greater concentration of youths and racial/ethnic minority populations. Policies to support healthy eating are not equally distributed across communities, and disparities continue to exist in nutrition policies.

  12. Aging influences multiple indices of oxidative stress in the heart of the Fischer 344/NNia x Brown Norway/BiNia rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Shinichi; Rice, Kevin M; Kakarla, Sunil; Katta, Anjaiah; Desai, Devashish H; Walker, Ernest M; Wehner, Paulette; Blough, Eric R

    2007-01-01

    We report the influence of aging on multiple markers of oxidative-nitrosative stress in the heart of adult (6-month), aged (30-month) and very aged (36-month) Fischer 344/NNiaHSd x Brown Norway/BiNia (F344/NXBN) rats. Compared to adult (6-month) hearts, indices of oxidative (superoxide anion [O2*-], 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal [4-HNE]) and nitrosative (protein nitrotyrosylation) stress were 34.1 +/- 28.1%, 186 +/- 28.1% and 94 +/- 5.8% higher, respectively, in 36-month hearts and these findings were highly correlated with increases in left ventricular wall thickness (r > 0.669; r > 0.710 and P lead to age-associated alterations in cardiac oxidative stress.

  13. A validated stability-indicating LC method for the separation of enantiomer and potential impurities of Linezolid using polar organic mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana Raju, T; Vishweshwari Kutty, O; Ganesh, V; Yadagiri Swamy, P

    2012-08-01

    Although a number of methods are available for evaluating Linezolid and its possible impurities, a common method for separation if its potential impurities, degradants and enantiomer in a single method with good efficiency remain unavailable. With the objective of developing an advanced method with shorter runtimes, a simple, precise, accurate stability-indicating LC method was developed for the determination of purity of Linezolid drug substance and drug products in bulk samples and pharmaceutical dosage forms in the presence of its impurities and degradation products. This method is capable of separating all the related substances of Linezolid along with the chiral impurity. This method can also be used for the estimation of assay of Linezolid in drug substance as well as in drug product. The method was developed using Chiralpak IA (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm) column. A mixture of acetonitrile, ethanol, n-butyl amine and trifluoro acetic acid in 96:4:0.10:0.16 (v/v/v/v) ratio was used as a mobile phase. The eluted compounds were monitored at 254 nm. Linezolid was subjected to the stress conditions of oxidative, acid, base, hydrolytic, thermal and photolytic degradation. The degradation products were well resolved from main peak and its impurities, proving the stability-indicating power of the method. The developed method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines with respect to specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision, linearity, accuracy, robustness and system suitability.

  14. Linking bedrock exhumation, fluvial terraces, and geomorphic indices to constrain deformation rates at multiple timescales across the Himalayan deformation front in the Kashmir Himalaya, northwest India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavillot, Y. G.

    2017-12-01

    In Kashmir, the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT) is blind, characterized by a broad fold, the Suruin-Mastargh anticline, and displays no major emergent faults cutting either limb. A lack of knowledge of the rate of shortening and structural framework of the Suruin-Mastargh anticline hampers quantifying the earthquake potential for the deformation front. Our study combines bedrock exhumation, folded fluvial terraces, long-river profiles and river incision (specific stream power) analyses across the deformation front. At the core of the frontal fold, Apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) cooling ages of detrital grains from the Siwalik foreland sediments indicate significant resetting. AHe data and thermal modeling reveal rapid cooling and exhumation initiated ca. 4 Ma for the deformation front, at least 3 Ma earlier than is indicated from previously available data. Exhumation rates over the last 1 m.y. and 4 m.y. range from 0.5 - 2.4 mm/yr, and 0.5 - 1 mm/yr, respectively. Four fluvial terraces yield multiple OSL and depth profiles Be10 TCN ages between 53 ka and 0.4 ka. Vector fold restoration of long terrace profiles, calculated specific stream power values, bedrock dip data, and stratigraphic thickness indicate a deformation pattern controlled by a duplex structure emplaced at depth along the basal décollement, folding the overlying roof thrust and foreland strata into a detachment-like fold. Dated terraces across the frontal fold yield rock uplift and shortening rates that range between 1.8-2.5 mm/yr, and 3.8-5.4 mm/yr, respectively, since 53 ka. Similarly, a balanced cross section yields a long-term shortening rate of 5mm mm/yr since 4 Ma. Geodetic data indicate that an 11-12 mm/yr arc-normal shortening rate characterizes the interseismic strain accumulation across the plate boundary due to India-Tibet convergence. These data combined with rates of other active internal faults in the Kashmir Himalaya indicate that shortening occurs roughly at an equal rate between folding at

  15. Characterization of IGH locus breakpoints in multiple myeloma indicates a subset of translocations appear to occur in pregerminal center B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Brian A; Wardell, Christopher P; Johnson, David C; Kaiser, Martin F; Begum, Dil B; Dahir, Nasrin B; Ross, Fiona M; Davies, Faith E; Gonzalez, David; Morgan, Gareth J

    2013-04-25

    Translocations in myeloma are thought to occur solely in mature B cells in the germinal center through class switch recombination (CSR). We used a targeted captured technique followed by massively parallel sequencing to determine the exact breakpoints in both the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus and the partner chromosome in 61 presentation multiple myeloma samples. The majority of samples (62%) have a breakpoint within the switch regions upstream of the IGH constant genes and are generated through CSR in a mature B cell. However, the proportion of CSR translocations is not consistent between cytogenetic subgroups. We find that 100% of t(4;14) are CSR-mediated; however, 21% of t(11;14) and 25% of t(14;20) are generated through DH-JH recombination activation gene-mediated mechanisms, indicating they occur earlier in B-cell development at the pro-B-cell stage in the bone marrow. These 2 groups also generate translocations through receptor revision, as determined by the breakpoints and mutation status of the segments used in 10% and 50% of t(11;14) and t(14;20) samples, respectively. The study indicates that in a significant number of cases the translocation-based etiological events underlying myeloma may arise at the pro-B-cell hematological progenitor cell level, much earlier in B-cell development than was previously thought.

  16. Managing serious clinical deterioration in a tertiary hospital in Hong Kong: from indicators development to multiple measures in reducing the rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jasperine Ka Yee; Lee, Quinnie; Lam, Jaden Chun Ho; Tang, Kam Shing

    2017-06-01

    Timely detection and management of acutely deteriorating patients can save lives. Tuen Mun Hospital (TMH), a 1800-bed acute tertiary hospital serving more than 1.06 million populations in Hong Kong, is exploring to quantitatively monitor serious clinical deterioration (SCD) and uses it to guide patient care improvement initiatives. Literature review on definition and measurement of SCD was conducted. Monthly SCD rates of TMH were first calculated according to the published methodology and benchmarked against those of international centres. A refined composite clinical indicator good for local use was compiled. In the second phase, p-control charts of SCD have been plotted based on cumulative data. TMH's performance was comparable with that of international centres. SCD on p-control charts has been plotting since January 2013. There were peaks in all 4 SCD rates during the winter surge period in 2013-2014. In the third phase, multiple measures have been taking to reduce the SCD rates including targeting the 3 main factors of winter surge situation. We are delighted to observe that the pattern did not repeat in the rate of cardiac arrest without do not attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DNACPR) and rate of death without DNACPR in the same period in 2014-2015. SCD becomes a clinical governance tool to monitor the performance of clinical teams in treating acutely deteriorating patients in TMH. Any abnormal patterns or indications of special cause variations in the control charts would alert leaders to look for root causes of special cause variations and manage accordingly. We hope that this project will extend to corporate level and become a sustainable clinical indicator to guide audits, quality improvement initiatives and strategic planning. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Heavy metals in soils of Hechuan County in the upper Yangtze (SW China): Comparative pollution assessment using multiple indices with high-spatial-resolution sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Maofei; Mao, Rong; Jia, Zhongmin; Dong, Ruozhu; Li, Siyue

    2018-02-01

    In order to assess heavy metals (HMs) in soils of the upper Yangtze Basin, a very high-spatial-resolution sampling (582 soil samples) was conducted from Hechuan County, an important agricultural practice area in the Southwest China. Multiple indices including geoaccumulation index (I geo ), enrichment factor (EF), sediment pollution index (SPI) and risk index (RI), as well as multivariate statistics were employed for pollution assessment and source identification of HMs in soils. Our results demonstrated that the averages of eight HMs decreased in the following order: Zn (82.8 ± 15.9) > Cr (71.6 ± 12.2) > Ni (32.1 ± 9.89) > Pb (27.6 ± 13.8) > Cu (25.9 ± 11.8) > As (5.48 ± 3.42) > Cd (0.30 ± 0.077) > Hg (0.082 ± 0.092). Averages of HMs except Cd were lower than threshold value of Environmental Quality Standard for Soils, while 43% of total samples had Cd concentration exceeding the national standard, 1% of samples for Hg and 5% samples for Ni, moreover, Cd and Hg averages were much higher than their background levels. I geo and EF indicated that their levels decreased as follows: Cd > Hg > Zn > Pb > Ni > Cu > Cr > As, with moderate enrichments of Cd and Hg. RI indicated that 61.7% of all samples showed moderate risk, while 6.5% of samples with greater than considerable risk due to human activities should be paid more attention. Multivariate analysis showed lithogenic source of Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn, while Cd and Hg were largely contributed by anthropogenic activities such as agricultural practices. Our study would be helpful for improving soil environmental quality in SW, China, as well as supplying modern approaches for other areas with soil HM pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Spearfishing regulation benefits artisanal fisheries: the ReGS indicator and its application to a multiple-use Mediterranean marine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocklin, Delphine; Tomasini, Jean-Antoine; Culioli, Jean-Michel; Pelletier, Dominique; Mouillot, David

    2011-01-01

    The development of fishing efficiency coupled with an increase of fishing effort led to the overexploitation of numerous natural marine resources. In addition to this commercial pressure, the impact of recreational activities on fish assemblages remains barely known. Here we examined the impact of spearfishing limitation on resources in a marine protected area (MPA) and the benefit it provides for the local artisanal fishery through the use of a novel indicator. We analysed trends in the fish assemblage composition using artisanal fisheries data collected in the Bonifacio Strait Natural Reserve (BSNR), a Mediterranean MPA where the spearfishing activity has been forbidden over 15% of its area. Fish species were pooled into three response groups according to their target level by spearfishing. We developed the new flexible ReGS indicator reflecting shifts in species assemblages according to the relative abundance of each response group facing external pressure. The catch per unit effort (CPUE) increased by ca. 60% in the BSNR between 2000 and 2007, while the MPA was established in 1999. The gain of CPUE strongly depended on the considered response group: for the highly targeted group, the CPUE doubled while the CPUE of the untargeted group increased by only 15.5%. The ReGS value significantly increased from 0.31 to 0.45 (on a scale between 0 and 1) in the general perimeter of this MPA while it has reached a threshold of 0.43, considered as a reference point, in the area protected from spearfishing since 1982. Our results demonstrated that limiting recreational fishing by appropriate zoning in multiple-use MPAs represents a real benefit for artisanal fisheries. More generally we showed how our new indicator may reveal a wide range of impacts on coastal ecosystems such as global change or habitat degradation.

  19. Spearfishing regulation benefits artisanal fisheries: the ReGS indicator and its application to a multiple-use Mediterranean marine protected area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Rocklin

    Full Text Available The development of fishing efficiency coupled with an increase of fishing effort led to the overexploitation of numerous natural marine resources. In addition to this commercial pressure, the impact of recreational activities on fish assemblages remains barely known. Here we examined the impact of spearfishing limitation on resources in a marine protected area (MPA and the benefit it provides for the local artisanal fishery through the use of a novel indicator. We analysed trends in the fish assemblage composition using artisanal fisheries data collected in the Bonifacio Strait Natural Reserve (BSNR, a Mediterranean MPA where the spearfishing activity has been forbidden over 15% of its area. Fish species were pooled into three response groups according to their target level by spearfishing. We developed the new flexible ReGS indicator reflecting shifts in species assemblages according to the relative abundance of each response group facing external pressure. The catch per unit effort (CPUE increased by ca. 60% in the BSNR between 2000 and 2007, while the MPA was established in 1999. The gain of CPUE strongly depended on the considered response group: for the highly targeted group, the CPUE doubled while the CPUE of the untargeted group increased by only 15.5%. The ReGS value significantly increased from 0.31 to 0.45 (on a scale between 0 and 1 in the general perimeter of this MPA while it has reached a threshold of 0.43, considered as a reference point, in the area protected from spearfishing since 1982. Our results demonstrated that limiting recreational fishing by appropriate zoning in multiple-use MPAs represents a real benefit for artisanal fisheries. More generally we showed how our new indicator may reveal a wide range of impacts on coastal ecosystems such as global change or habitat degradation.

  20. Increased dependence of leucine in posttraumatic sepsis: leucine/tyrosine clearance ratio as an indicator of hepatic impairment in septic multiple organ failure syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittiruti, M; Siegel, J H; Sganga, G; Coleman, B; Wiles, C E; Belzberg, H; Wedel, S; Placko, R

    1985-09-01

    The body clearance of 10 plasma amino acids (AA) was determined from the rate of compared muscle-released AA and AA administered by infusion of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) compared to their estimated extracellular (ECW) pool in patients with multiple trauma with (n = 10) or without (n = 16) sepsis at 8-hour intervals. In both nonseptic and septic trauma, increasing TPN increased the mean clearance rate of all infused AA. When the individual AA clearance rates were normalized by the total AA infusion rate, regression-covariance analysis revealed that patients with sepsis had relatively impaired clearances of alanine (p less than 0.01) and methionine, proline, phenylalanine, and tyrosine p less than 0.05 for all). In contrast, the clearances of branched-chain AA (BCAA) valine and isoleucine were maintained, and the clearance of leucine was higher (p less than 0.05) in trauma patients with sepsis than in those without. At any AA infusion rate, compared with surviving patients with sepsis (p less than 0.05), patients who developed fatal multiple organ failure syndrome (MOFS) showed increased clearances of all BCAA with further impaired clearance of tyrosine. The clearance ratio of leucine/tyrosine was increased in MOFS at any AA infusion rate (p less than 0.0001), was an indicator of severity, and, if persistent, was a manifestation of a fatal outcome. Because tyrosine metabolism occurs almost entirely in the liver while leucine can be utilized by viscera and muscle, these data suggest early and progressive septic impairment of the pattern of hepatic uptake and oxidation of AA with a greater body dependence on BCAA, especially leucine, as septic MOFS develops.

  1. Spatial-mode switchable ring fiber laser based on low mode-crosstalk all-fiber mode MUX/DEMUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fang; Yu, Jinyi; Wang, Jianping

    2018-05-01

    We report an all-fiber ring laser that emits linearly polarized (LP) modes based on the intracavity all-fiber mode multiplexer/demultiplexer (MUX/DEMUX). Multiple LP modes in ring fiber laser are generated by taking advantage of mode MUX/DEMUX. The all-fiber mode MUX/DEMUX are composed of cascaded mode-selective couplers (MSCs). The output lasing mode of the ring fiber laser can be switched among the three lowest-order LP modes by employing combination of a mode MUX and a simple N × 1 optical switch. The slope efficiencies, optical spectra and mode profiles are measured.

  2. Streaming tearing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  3. Applying Least Absolute Shrinkage Selection Operator and Akaike Information Criterion Analysis to Find the Best Multiple Linear Regression Models between Climate Indices and Components of Cow's Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marami Milani, Mohammad Reza; Hense, Andreas; Rahmani, Elham; Ploeger, Angelika

    2016-07-23

    This study focuses on multiple linear regression models relating six climate indices (temperature humidity THI, environmental stress ESI, equivalent temperature index ETI, heat load HLI, modified HLI (HLI new ), and respiratory rate predictor RRP) with three main components of cow's milk (yield, fat, and protein) for cows in Iran. The least absolute shrinkage selection operator (LASSO) and the Akaike information criterion (AIC) techniques are applied to select the best model for milk predictands with the smallest number of climate predictors. Uncertainty estimation is employed by applying bootstrapping through resampling. Cross validation is used to avoid over-fitting. Climatic parameters are calculated from the NASA-MERRA global atmospheric reanalysis. Milk data for the months from April to September, 2002 to 2010 are used. The best linear regression models are found in spring between milk yield as the predictand and THI, ESI, ETI, HLI, and RRP as predictors with p -value < 0.001 and R ² (0.50, 0.49) respectively. In summer, milk yield with independent variables of THI, ETI, and ESI show the highest relation ( p -value < 0.001) with R ² (0.69). For fat and protein the results are only marginal. This method is suggested for the impact studies of climate variability/change on agriculture and food science fields when short-time series or data with large uncertainty are available.

  4. Changes and socioeconomic factors associated with attitudes towards domestic violence among Vietnamese women aged 15-49: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2006-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Oanh Thi Hoang; Oh, Juhwan; Choi, Sugy; To, Kien Gia; Van Do, Dung

    2016-01-01

    Understanding factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women is important for designing effective policies to prevent this behavior. Previous studies have largely overlooked risk factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes by women in Vietnam. This paper explores and identifies socioeconomic factors that contribute to domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Secondary data from two cross-sectional studies (MICS 3, 2006, and MICS 4, 2011) with representative samples (9,471 and 11,663 women, respectively) in Vietnam were analyzed. The prevalence of supportive attitudes toward domestic violence and associations with age, residence region, area, education level, household wealth index, ethnicity, and marital status were estimated using descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson models, giving estimates of relative risk. Overall, the prevalence of acceptance of domestic violence declined between 2006 and 2011 in Vietnam (65.1% vs. 36.1%). Socioeconomic factors associated with women's condoning of domestic violence were age, wealth, education level, and living area. In particular, younger age and low educational attainment were key factors associated with violence-supportive attitudes, and these associations have become stronger over time. Higher educational attainment in women is an important predictor of women's attitudes toward domestic violence. To date, Doi Moi and the Vietnamese government's commitment to the Millennium Development Goals may have positively contributed to lowering the acceptance of domestic violence. Tailored interventions that focus on education will be important in further changing attitudes toward domestic violence.

  5. Comparison of detectability in step-and-shoot mode and continuous mode digital tomosynthesis systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changwoo; Han, Minah; Baek, Jongduk

    2017-03-01

    Digital tomosynthesis system has been widely used in chest, dental, and breast imaging. Since the digital tomosynthesis system provides volumetric images from multiple projection data, structural noise inherent in X-ray radiograph can be reduced, and thus signal detection performance is improved. Currently, tomosynthesis system uses two data acquisition modes: step-and-shoot mode and continuous mode. Several studies have been conducted to compare the system performance of two acquisition modes with respect to spatial resolution and contrast. In this work, we focus on signal detectability in step-and-shoot mode and continuous mode. For evaluation, uniform background is considered, and eight spherical objects with diameters of 0.5, 0.8, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 10 mm are used as signals. Projection data with and without spherical objects are acquired in step-and-shoot mode and continuous mode, respectively, and quantum noise are added. Then, noisy projection data are reconstructed by FDK algorithm. To compare the detection performance of two acquisition modes, we calculate task signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of channelized Hotelling observer with Laguerre-Gauss channels for each spherical object. While the task-SNR values of two acquisition modes are similar for spherical objects larger than 1 mm diameter, step-and-shoot mode yields higher detectability for small signal sizes. The main reason of this behavior is that small signal is more affected by X-ray tube motion blur than large signal. Our results indicate that it is beneficial to use step-and-shoot data acquisition mode to improve the detectability of small signals (i.e., less than 1 mm diameter) in digital tomosynthesis systems.

  6. Changes and socioeconomic factors associated with attitudes towards domestic violence among Vietnamese women aged 15–49: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2006–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oanh Thi Hoang Trinh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women is important for designing effective policies to prevent this behavior. Previous studies have largely overlooked risk factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes by women in Vietnam. Objective: This paper explores and identifies socioeconomic factors that contribute to domestic violence–supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS. Design: Secondary data from two cross-sectional studies (MICS 3, 2006, and MICS 4, 2011 with representative samples (9,471 and 11,663 women, respectively in Vietnam were analyzed. The prevalence of supportive attitudes toward domestic violence and associations with age, residence region, area, education level, household wealth index, ethnicity, and marital status were estimated using descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson models, giving estimates of relative risk. Results: Overall, the prevalence of acceptance of domestic violence declined between 2006 and 2011 in Vietnam (65.1% vs. 36.1%. Socioeconomic factors associated with women's condoning of domestic violence were age, wealth, education level, and living area. In particular, younger age and low educational attainment were key factors associated with violence-supportive attitudes, and these associations have become stronger over time. Conclusion: Higher educational attainment in women is an important predictor of women's attitudes toward domestic violence. To date, Doi Moi and the Vietnamese government's commitment to the Millennium Development Goals may have positively contributed to lowering the acceptance of domestic violence. Tailored interventions that focus on education will be important in further changing attitudes toward domestic violence.

  7. A Distinct Class of Antibodies May Be an Indicator of Gray Matter Autoimmunity in Early and Established Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann J. Ligocki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available * These authors contributed equally to the work in this manuscript.We have previously identified a distinct class of antibodies expressed by B cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of early and established relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS patients that is not observed in healthy donors. These antibodies contain a unique pattern of mutations in six codons along VH4 antibody genes that we termed the antibody gene signature (AGS. In fact, patients who have such B cells in their CSF are identified as either having RRMS or developing RRMS in the future. As mutations in antibody genes increase antibody affinity for particular antigens, the goal for this study was to investigate whether AGS+ antibodies bind to brain tissue antigens. Single B cells were isolated from the CSF of 10 patients with early or established RRMS. We chose 32 of these B cells that expressed antibodies enriched for the AGS for further study. We generated monoclonal full-length recombinant human antibodies (rhAbs and used both immunological assays and immunohistochemistry to investigate the capacity of these AGS+ rhAbs to bind brain tissue antigens. AGS+ rhAbs did not recognize myelin tracts in the corpus callosum. Instead, AGS+ rhAbs recognized neuronal nuclei and/or astrocytes, which are prevalent in the cortical gray matter. This pattern was unique to the AGS+ antibodies from early and established RRMS patients, as AGS+ antibodies from an early neuromyelitis optica patient did not display the same reactivity. Prevalence of CSF-derived B cells expressing AGS+ antibodies that bind to these cell types may be an indicator of gray matter-directed autoimmunity in early and established RRMS patients.

  8. A method to synchronize signals from multiple patient monitoring devices through a single input channel for inclusion in list-mode acquisitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Connor, J. Michael; Pretorius, P. Hendrik; Johnson, Karen; King, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This technical note documents a method that the authors developed for combining a signal to synchronize a patient-monitoring device with a second physiological signal for inclusion into list-mode acquisition. Our specific application requires synchronizing an external patient motion-tracking system with a medical imaging system by multiplexing the tracking input with the ECG input. The authors believe that their methodology can be adapted for use in a variety of medical imaging modalities including single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: The authors insert a unique pulse sequence into a single physiological input channel. This sequence is then recorded in the list-mode acquisition along with the R-wave pulse used for ECG gating. The specific form of our pulse sequence allows for recognition of the time point being synchronized even when portions of the pulse sequence are lost due to collisions with R-wave pulses. This was achieved by altering our software used in binning the list-mode data to recognize even a portion of our pulse sequence. Limitations on heart rates at which our pulse sequence could be reliably detected were investigated by simulating the mixing of the two signals as a function of heart rate and time point during the cardiac cycle at which our pulse sequence is mixed with the cardiac signal. Results: The authors have successfully achieved accurate temporal synchronization of our motion-tracking system with acquisition of SPECT projections used in 17 recent clinical research cases. In our simulation analysis the authors determined that synchronization to enable compensation for body and respiratory motion could be achieved for heart rates up to 125 beats-per-minute (bpm). Conclusions: Synchronization of list-mode acquisition with external patient monitoring devices such as those employed in motion-tracking can reliably be achieved using a simple method that can be implemented using

  9. A method to synchronize signals from multiple patient monitoring devices through a single input channel for inclusion in list-mode acquisitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Connor, J. Michael; Pretorius, P. Hendrik; Johnson, Karen; King, Michael A., E-mail: Michael.King@umassmed.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: This technical note documents a method that the authors developed for combining a signal to synchronize a patient-monitoring device with a second physiological signal for inclusion into list-mode acquisition. Our specific application requires synchronizing an external patient motion-tracking system with a medical imaging system by multiplexing the tracking input with the ECG input. The authors believe that their methodology can be adapted for use in a variety of medical imaging modalities including single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: The authors insert a unique pulse sequence into a single physiological input channel. This sequence is then recorded in the list-mode acquisition along with the R-wave pulse used for ECG gating. The specific form of our pulse sequence allows for recognition of the time point being synchronized even when portions of the pulse sequence are lost due to collisions with R-wave pulses. This was achieved by altering our software used in binning the list-mode data to recognize even a portion of our pulse sequence. Limitations on heart rates at which our pulse sequence could be reliably detected were investigated by simulating the mixing of the two signals as a function of heart rate and time point during the cardiac cycle at which our pulse sequence is mixed with the cardiac signal. Results: The authors have successfully achieved accurate temporal synchronization of our motion-tracking system with acquisition of SPECT projections used in 17 recent clinical research cases. In our simulation analysis the authors determined that synchronization to enable compensation for body and respiratory motion could be achieved for heart rates up to 125 beats-per-minute (bpm). Conclusions: Synchronization of list-mode acquisition with external patient monitoring devices such as those employed in motion-tracking can reliably be achieved using a simple method that can be implemented using

  10. No-touch radiofrequency ablation using multiple electrodes: An in vivo comparison study of switching monopolar versus switching bipolar modes in porcine livers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Chang

    Full Text Available To evaluate the in vivo technical feasibility, efficiency, and safety of switching bipolar (SB and switching monopolar (SM radiofrequency ablation (RFA as a no-touch ablation technique in the porcine liver.The animal care and use committee approved this animal study and 16 pigs were used in two independent experiments. In the first experiment, RFA was performed on 2-cm tumor mimickers in the liver using a no-touch technique in the SM mode (2 groups, SM1: 10 minutes, n = 10; SM2: 15 minutes, n = 10 and SB-mode (1 group, SB: 10 minutes, n = 10. The technical success with sufficient safety margins, creation of confluent necrosis, ablation size, and distance between the electrode and ablation zone margin (DEM, were compared between groups. In the second experiment, thermal injury to the adjacent anatomic organs was compared between SM-RFA (15 minutes, n = 13 and SB-RFA modes (10 minutes, n = 13.The rates of the technical success and the creation of confluent necrosis were higher in the SB group than in the SM1 groups (100% vs. 60% and 90% vs. 40%, both p < 0.05. The ablation volume in the SM2 group was significantly larger than that in the SB group (59.2±18.7 cm3 vs. 39.8±9.7 cm3, p < 0.05, and the DEM in the SM2 group was also larger than that in the SB group (1.39±0.21 cm vs. 1.07±0.10 cm, p < 0.05. In the second experiment, the incidence of thermal injury to the adjacent organs and tissues in the SB group (23.1%, 3/13 was significantly lower than that in the SM group (69.2%, 8/13 (p = 0.021.SB-RFA was more advantageous for a no-touch technique for liver tumors, showing the potential of a better safety profile than SM-RFA.

  11. A study of the modes of advancement of multiple drilling rigs and the influence of the inertial effects on the efficiency of the towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karapetyan, K.V.

    1979-01-01

    Studied in a mathematical model with the use of experimental data obtained through a method of measurement filming is the process of advancement of a drilling rig and the inertial actions on the drilling equipment are determined. It is shown that the tower type rigs, the VM-41 may be safely advanced along with the package of drilling stands. For mast rigs, suitable for conditions of multiple drilling, the creation of special drive mechanisms with high travel smoothness is recommended.

  12. Household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in Vietnam and associated factors: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Lee, Jong-Koo; Oh, Juhwan; Van Minh, Hoang; Ou Lee, Chul; Hoan, Le Thi; Nam, You-Seon; Long, Tran Khanh

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite progress made by the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) number 7.C, Vietnam still faces challenges with regard to the provision of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Objective This paper describes household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities separately, and analyses factors associated with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in combination. Design Secondary data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and tests of significance describe trends over time in access to water and sanitation by location, demographic and socio-economic factors. Binary logistic regressions (2000, 2006, and 2011) describe associations between access to water and sanitation, and geographic, demographic, and socio-economic factors. Results There have been some outstanding developments in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities from 2000 to 2011. In 2011, the proportion of households with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities reached 90% and 77%, respectively, meeting the 2015 MDG targets for safe drinking water and basic sanitation set at 88% and 75%, respectively. However, despite these achievements, in 2011, only 74% of households overall had access to combined improved drinking water and sanitation facilities. There were also stark differences between regions. In 2011, only 47% of households had access to both improved water and sanitation facilities in the Mekong River Delta compared with 94% in the Red River Delta. In 2011, households in urban compared to rural areas were more than twice as likely (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9–2.5) to have access to improved water and sanitation facilities in combination, and households in the highest compared with the lowest wealth quintile were over 40 times more likely (OR: 42.3; 95% CI: 29.8–60.0). Conclusions More

  13. Household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in Vietnam and associated factors: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thi Tuyet-Hanh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite progress made by the Millennium Development Goal (MDG number 7.C, Vietnam still faces challenges with regard to the provision of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Objective: This paper describes household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities separately, and analyses factors associated with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in combination. Design: Secondary data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and tests of significance describe trends over time in access to water and sanitation by location, demographic and socio-economic factors. Binary logistic regressions (2000, 2006, and 2011 describe associations between access to water and sanitation, and geographic, demographic, and socio-economic factors. Results: There have been some outstanding developments in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities from 2000 to 2011. In 2011, the proportion of households with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities reached 90% and 77%, respectively, meeting the 2015 MDG targets for safe drinking water and basic sanitation set at 88% and 75%, respectively. However, despite these achievements, in 2011, only 74% of households overall had access to combined improved drinking water and sanitation facilities. There were also stark differences between regions. In 2011, only 47% of households had access to both improved water and sanitation facilities in the Mekong River Delta compared with 94% in the Red River Delta. In 2011, households in urban compared to rural areas were more than twice as likely (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9–2.5 to have access to improved water and sanitation facilities in combination, and households in the highest compared with the lowest wealth quintile were over 40 times more likely (OR: 42.3; 95% CI: 29.8–60

  14. Household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in Vietnam and associated factors: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Lee, Jong-Koo; Oh, Juhwan; Van Minh, Hoang; Ou Lee, Chul; Hoan, Le Thi; Nam, You-Seon; Long, Tran Khanh

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress made by the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) number 7.C, Vietnam still faces challenges with regard to the provision of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. This paper describes household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities separately, and analyses factors associated with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in combination. Secondary data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and tests of significance describe trends over time in access to water and sanitation by location, demographic and socio-economic factors. Binary logistic regressions (2000, 2006, and 2011) describe associations between access to water and sanitation, and geographic, demographic, and socio-economic factors. There have been some outstanding developments in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities from 2000 to 2011. In 2011, the proportion of households with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities reached 90% and 77%, respectively, meeting the 2015 MDG targets for safe drinking water and basic sanitation set at 88% and 75%, respectively. However, despite these achievements, in 2011, only 74% of households overall had access to combined improved drinking water and sanitation facilities. There were also stark differences between regions. In 2011, only 47% of households had access to both improved water and sanitation facilities in the Mekong River Delta compared with 94% in the Red River Delta. In 2011, households in urban compared to rural areas were more than twice as likely (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9-2.5) to have access to improved water and sanitation facilities in combination, and households in the highest compared with the lowest wealth quintile were over 40 times more likely (OR: 42.3; 95% CI: 29.8-60.0). More efforts are required to increase household access to

  15. Assessment of environmental injustice in Korea using synthetic air quality index and multiple indicators of socioeconomic status: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Giehae; Heo, Seulkee; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Despite the existence of the universal right to a healthy environment, the right is being violated in some populations. The objective of the current study is to verify environmental discrimination associated with socioeconomic status in Korea, using synthetic air quality index and multiple indicators of socioeconomic status. The concentrations of NO₂(nitrogen dioxide), CO (carbon monoxide), SO₂(sulfur dioxide), PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter Socioeconomic status was measured at individual level (income, education, number of household members, occupation, and National Basic Livelihood status) and area level (neighborhood index). The neighborhood index was calculated in the finest administrative unit (municipality) by performing standardization and integration of municipality-level data of the following: number of families receiving National Basic Livelihood, proportion of people engaged in an elementary occupation, population density, and number of service industries. Each study participant was assigned a neighborhood index value of the municipality in which they reside. Six regression models were generated to analyze the relationship between socioeconomic status and overall air pollution. All models were adjusted with sex, age, and smoking status. Stratification was conducted by residency (urban/rural). Moran's I was calculated to identify spatial clusters, and adjusted regression analysis was conducted to account for spatial autocorrelation. Results showed that people with higher neighborhood index, people living with smaller number of family members, and people with no education lived in municipalities with better overall air quality. The association differed by residency in some cases, and consideration of spatial autocorrelation altered the association. This study gives strength to the idea that environmental discrimination exists in some socioeconomic groups in Korea, and that residency and spatial autocorrelation must be considered

  16. Hemispherical breathing mode speaker using a dielectric elastomer actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Naoki; Baba, Shun; Maeda, Shingo

    2015-10-01

    Although indoor acoustic characteristics should ideally be assessed by measuring the reverberation time using a point sound source, a regular polyhedron loudspeaker, which has multiple loudspeakers on a chassis, is typically used. However, such a configuration is not a point sound source if the size of the loudspeaker is large relative to the target sound field. This study investigates a small lightweight loudspeaker using a dielectric elastomer actuator vibrating in the breathing mode (the pulsating mode such as the expansion and contraction of a balloon). Acoustic testing with regard to repeatability, sound pressure, vibration mode profiles, and acoustic radiation patterns indicate that dielectric elastomer loudspeakers may be feasible.

  17. Nonlinear MHD and energetic particle modes in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, H.R.; Fu, G.Y.; Park, W.; Breslau, J.; Sugiyama, L.E.

    2003-01-01

    The M3D (Multi-level 3D) project carries out simulation studies of plasmas using multiple levels of physics, geometry and grid models. The M3D code has been applied to ideal, resistive, two fluid, and hybrid simulations of compact quasi axisymmetric stellarators. When β exceeds a threshold, moderate toroidal mode number (n ∼ 10) modes grow exponentially, clearly distinguishable from the equilibrium evolution. The β limits are significantly higher than the infinite mode number ballooning limits. In the presence of resistivity, these modes occur well below the ideal limit. Their growth rate scaling with resistivity is similar to tearing modes. At low resistivity, the modes couple to resistive interchanges, which are unstable in most stellarators. Two fluid simulations with M3D show that resistive modes can be stabilized by diamagnetic drift. The two fluid computations are done with a realistic value of the Hall parameter, the ratio of ion skin depth to major radius. Hybrid gyrokinetic simulations with energetic particles indicate that global shear Alfven TAE - like modes can be destabilized in stellarators. Computations in a two-period compact stellarator obtained a predominantly n=1 toroidal mode with the expected TAE frequency. It is found that TAE modes are more stable in the two-period compact stellarator that in a tokamak with the same q and pressure profiles. M3D combines a two dimensional unstructured mesh with finite element discretization in poloidal planes, and fourth order finite differencing in the toroidal direction. (author)

  18. Plasma Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, D. H. E.

    This chapter explores several aspects of the linear electrostatic normal modes of oscillation for a single-species non-neutral plasma in a Penning trap. Linearized fluid equations of motion are developed, assuming the plasma is cold but collisionless, which allow derivation of the cold plasma dielectric tensor and the electrostatic wave equation. Upper hybrid and magnetized plasma waves in an infinite uniform plasma are described. The effect of the plasma surface in a bounded plasma system is considered, and the properties of surface plasma waves are characterized. The normal modes of a cylindrical plasma column are discussed, and finally, modes of spheroidal plasmas, and finite temperature effects on the modes, are briefly described.

  19. Using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to understand adherence to multiple evidence-based indicators in primary care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Rebecca; Heyhoe, Jane; Louch, Gemma; Ingleson, Emma; Glidewell, Liz; Willis, Thomas A; McEachan, Rosemary R C; Foy, Robbie

    2016-08-08

    There are recognised gaps between evidence and practice in general practice, a setting posing particular implementation challenges. We earlier screened clinical guideline recommendations to derive a set of 'high-impact' indicators based upon criteria including potential for significant patient benefit, scope for improved practice and amenability to measurement using routinely collected data. Here, we explore health professionals' perceived determinants of adherence to these indicators, examining the degree to which determinants were indicator-specific or potentially generalisable across indicators. We interviewed 60 general practitioners, practice nurses and practice managers in West Yorkshire, the UK, about adherence to four indicators: avoidance of risky prescribing; treatment targets in type 2 diabetes; blood pressure targets in treated hypertension; and anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation. Interview questions drew upon the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Data were analysed using framework analysis. Professional role and identity and environmental context and resources featured prominently across all indicators whilst the importance of other domains, for example, beliefs about consequences, social influences and knowledge varied across indicators. We identified five meta-themes representing more general organisational and contextual factors common to all indicators. The TDF helped elicit a wide range of reported determinants of adherence to 'high-impact' indicators in primary care. It was more difficult to pinpoint which determinants, if targeted by an implementation strategy, would maximise change. The meta-themes broadly underline the need to align the design of interventions targeting general practices with higher level supports and broader contextual considerations. However, our findings suggest that it is feasible to develop interventions to promote the uptake of different evidence-based indicators which share common features whilst also including

  20. Multiple antidepressant potential modes of action of curcumin: a review of its anti-inflammatory, monoaminergic, antioxidant, immune-modulating and neuroprotective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopresti, Adrian L; Hood, Sean D; Drummond, Peter D

    2012-12-01

    Curcumin is the principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric and has attracted increasing attention for the treatment of a range of conditions. Research into its potential as a treatment for depression is still in its infancy, although several potential antidepressant mechanisms of action have been identified. Research completed to date on the multiple effects of curcumin is reviewed in this paper, with a specific emphasis on the biological systems that are compromised in depression. The antidepressant effects of curcumin in animal models of depression are summarised, and its influence on neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine is detailed. The effects of curcumin in moderating hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal disturbances, lowering inflammation and protecting against oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, neuroprogression and intestinal hyperpermeability, all of which are compromised in major depressive disorder, are also summarised. With increasing interest in natural treatments for depression, and efforts to enhance current treatment outcomes, curcumin is presented as a promising novel, adjunctive or stand-alone natural antidepressant.

  1. Multiple embryos in the Lepidocyclina pustulosa group as possible indicators of palaeoenvironmental conditions: The case of the Late Eocene Toluviejo Formation (Sinú Domain, Caribbean, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner-Mora, Claudia; Baumgartner, Peter O.; Rincón Martínez, Daniel; Salazar Ortiz, Edward A.

    2016-04-01

    The Middle-Late Eocene Toluviejo Formation of the Sinú-San Jacinto folded belt (Caribbean, Colombia) contains 15-75 m thick, grey, massive limestone sequences that are interbedded with terrigenous nearshore to offshore mudstones to quartzose sandstones and conglomerates. The formation accumulated in a transitional continent-ocean setting, probably on oceanic crust. We studied over 80 polished thin sections under light microscopy and cathodoluminescence (CL) to analyse carbonate microfacies and Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF). The overall facies distribution is 3-fold: (1) Facies close to the shoreline are dominated by low diversity operculinid assemblages, rich in detrital elements. (2) Shallow offshore facies are characterized by round lepidocyclinids, associated with, and often encrusted by, corallinacean algae, Sporolithon and structureless microbial crusts. The matrix is rich in carbonate/detrital mud and sand-sized detritals. (3) Distal offshore facies on structural highs show abundance of flat, current-sorted lepidoclinids without a noticeable detrital component. Facies 1 and 2 are clearly under the influence of suspension- and dissolved-nutrient input, probably carried offshore by freshwater lids of river plumes. Facies (2) contains abundant specimens of the Lepidocyclina pustulosa group of which the macrospheric forms show complicated embryonic apparatuses, which suppose double or multiple embryos. Detailed observation under CL allows to count up to 6-8 embryos, often seen aligned in the equatorial plane. The embryonic apparatus occupies often more than half of the diameter of specimens. The tendency towards large, very flat embryonic apparatuses (diameter measured in axial cuts up to 2,5 mm for a thickness of 0.2-0.3 mm) is closely correlated with abundant coralgal and microbial encrustations, oxide-stained carbonate/detrital mud and probably some preserved organic matter. The presence of multiple embryos has been reported by several authors and has

  2. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Multiple Cropping Indices in the North China Plain Using a Long Remote Sensing Data Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiple cropping provides China with a very important system of intensive cultivation, and can effectively enhance the efficiency of farmland use while improving regional food production and security. A multiple cropping index (MCI, which represents the intensity of multiple cropping and reflects the effects of climate change on agricultural production and cropping systems, often serves as a useful parameter. Therefore, monitoring the dynamic changes in the MCI of farmland over a large area using remote sensing data is essential. For this purpose, nearly 30 years of MCIs related to dry land in the North China Plain (NCP were efficiently extracted from remotely sensed leaf area index (LAI data from the Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS. Next, the characteristics of the spatial-temporal change in MCI were analyzed. First, 2162 typical arable sample sites were selected based on a gridded spatial sampling strategy, and then the LAI information was extracted from the samples. Second, the Savizky-Golay filter was used to smooth the LAI time-series data of the samples, and then the MCIs of the samples were obtained using a second-order difference algorithm. Finally, the geo-statistical Kriging method was employed to map the spatial distribution of the MCIs and to obtain a time-series dataset of the MCIs of dry land over the NCP. The results showed that all of the MCIs in the NCP showed an increasing trend over the entire study period and increased most rapidly from 1982 to 2002. Spatially, MCIs decreased from south to north; also, high MCIs were mainly concentrated in the relatively flat areas. In addition, the partial spatial changes of MCIs had clear geographical characteristics, with the largest change in Henan Province.

  3. Divergence of the bZIP Gene Family in Strawberry, Peach, and Apple Suggests Multiple Modes of Gene Evolution after Duplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Long Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic leucine zipper (bZIP transcription factors are the most diverse members of dimerizing transcription factors. In the present study, 50, 116, and 47 bZIP genes were identified in Malus domestica (apple, Prunus persica (peach, and Fragaria vesca (strawberry, respectively. Species-specific duplication was the main contributor to the large number of bZIPs observed in apple. After WGD in apple genome, orthologous bZIP genes corresponding to strawberry on duplicated regions in apple genome were retained. However, in peach ancestor, these syntenic regions were quickly lost or deleted. Maybe the positive selection contributed to the expansion of clade S to adapt to the development and environment stresses. In addition, purifying selection was mainly responsible for bZIP sequence-specific DNA binding. The analysis of orthologous pairs between chromosomes indicates that these orthologs derived from one gene duplication located on one of the nine ancient chromosomes in the Rosaceae. The comparative analysis of bZIP genes in three species provides information on the evolutionary fate of bZIP genes in apple and peach after they diverged from strawberry.

  4. Probability of Loss of Assured Safety in Systems with Multiple Time-Dependent Failure Modes: Incorporation of Delayed Link Failure in the Presence of Aleatory Uncertainty.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, Jon C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Brooks, Dusty Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie. [Engineering Mechanics Corp. of Columbus, OH (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Probability of loss of assured safety (PLOAS) is modeled for weak link (WL)/strong link (SL) systems in which one or more WLs or SLs could potentially degrade into a precursor condition to link failure that will be followed by an actual failure after some amount of elapsed time. The following topics are considered: (i) Definition of precursor occurrence time cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) for individual WLs and SLs, (ii) Formal representation of PLOAS with constant delay times, (iii) Approximation and illustration of PLOAS with constant delay times, (iv) Formal representation of PLOAS with aleatory uncertainty in delay times, (v) Approximation and illustration of PLOAS with aleatory uncertainty in delay times, (vi) Formal representation of PLOAS with delay times defined by functions of link properties at occurrence times for failure precursors, (vii) Approximation and illustration of PLOAS with delay times defined by functions of link properties at occurrence times for failure precursors, and (viii) Procedures for the verification of PLOAS calculations for the three indicated definitions of delayed link failure.

  5. Tacoma mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.; Wang, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The name Tacoma refers to the Tacoma Narrows Bridge which collapsed on November 8, 1940 due to massive oscillations caused by high winds. One of the destructive modes was a torsion mode which was excited by transverse wind, a dipole force, and continued until the bridge collapsed. The name is used to refer to a coherent mode of oscillation of a spectrum of oscillators in which the amplitude vs frequency graph contains one node, where the node occurs near the driving frequency and a ω is not symmetric about zero. When this result is applied to vertical instabilities in coasting beams, it implies the existence of a coherent skew quadrupole moment, Q/sub xy/, whenever a coherent dipole oscillation exists

  6. Tacoma mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.; Wang, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The name Tacoma refers to the Tacoma Narrows Bridge which collapsed on November 8, 1940 due to massive oscillations caused by high winds. One of the destructive modes was a torsion mode which was excited by transverse wind, a dipole force, and continued until the bridge collapsed. The name is used to refer to a coherent mode of oscillation of a spectrum of oscillators in which the amplitude vs frequency graph contains one node, where the node occurs near the driving frequency and a(ω) is not symmetric about zero. When this result is applied to vertical instabilities in coasting beams, it implies the existence of a coherent skew quadrupole moment, whenever a coherent dipole oscillation exists

  7. Toward Customer-Centric Organizational Science: A Common Language Effect Size Indicator for Multiple Linear Regressions and Regressions With Higher-Order Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasikova, Dina V; Le, Huy; Bachura, Eric

    2018-01-22

    To address a long-standing concern regarding a gap between organizational science and practice, scholars called for more intuitive and meaningful ways of communicating research results to users of academic research. In this article, we develop a common language effect size index (CLβ) that can help translate research results to practice. We demonstrate how CLβ can be computed and used to interpret the effects of continuous and categorical predictors in multiple linear regression models. We also elaborate on how the proposed CLβ index is computed and used to interpret interactions and nonlinear effects in regression models. In addition, we test the robustness of the proposed index to violations of normality and provide means for computing standard errors and constructing confidence intervals around its estimates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Soaking suggests "alternative facts": Only co-crystallization discloses major ligand-induced interface rearrangements of a homodimeric tRNA-binding protein indicating a novel mode-of-inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Rainer Ehrmann

    Full Text Available For the efficient pathogenesis of Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, full functionality of tRNA-guanine transglycosylase (TGT is mandatory. TGT performs post-transcriptional modifications of tRNAs in the anticodon loop taking impact on virulence development. This suggests TGT as a putative target for selective anti-shigellosis drug therapy. Since bacterial TGT is only functional as homodimer, its activity can be inhibited either by blocking its active site or by preventing dimerization. Recently, we discovered that in some crystal structures obtained by soaking the full conformational adaptation most likely induced in solution upon ligand binding is not displayed. Thus, soaked structures may be misleading and suggest irrelevant binding modes. Accordingly, we re-investigated these complexes by co-crystallization. The obtained structures revealed large conformational rearrangements not visible in the soaked complexes. They result from spatial perturbations in the ribose-34/phosphate-35 recognition pocket and, consequently, an extended loop-helix motif required to prevent access of water molecules into the dimer interface loses its geometric integrity. Thermodynamic profiles of ligand binding in solution indicate favorable entropic contributions to complex formation when large conformational adaptations in the dimer interface are involved. Native MS titration experiments reveal the extent to which the homodimer is destabilized in the presence of each inhibitor. Unexpectedly, one ligand causes a complete rearrangement of subunit packing within the homodimer, never observed in any other TGT crystal structure before. Likely, this novel twisted dimer is catalytically inactive and, therefore, suggests that stabilizing this non-productive subunit arrangement may be used as a further strategy for TGT inhibition.

  9. Legendre polynomial modeling for vibrations of guided Lamb waves modes in [001]c, [011]c and [111]c polarized (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (x = 0.29 and 0.33) piezoelectric plates: Physical phenomenon of multiple intertwining of An and Sn modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmani, Cherif; Takali, Farid; Njeh, Anouar

    2017-12-01

    Guided wave devices have recently become one of the most important applications in the industry because such waves are directly related to applications in sensor technology, chemical sensing, agricultural science, fields of bio-sensing and surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices that are used in electronic filters and signal processing. On that account, this numerical investigation aims to study the propagation behavior of guided Lamb waves in a (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3- x PbTiO3 [PMN- x PT] ( x=0.29 or 0.33) piezoelectric single crystal plate. In fact, the PMN- xPT ( x=0.29 or 0.33) piezoelectric crystals are being polarized along [001]c, [011]c and [111]c of the cubic reference directions so that the macroscopic symmetries are tetragonal 4 mm, orthogonal mm2 and rhombohedral 3 m, respectively. Both open- and short-circuit conditions are considered. Here, the Legendre polynomial method is proposed to solve the guided Lamb waves equations. The validity of the proposed method is illustrated by comparison with the ordinary differential equation (ODE). The convergence of this method is discussed. Consequently, the converged results are obtained with very low truncation order M . This constitutes a major advantage of the present method when compared with the other matrix methods. There is cross-crossings among multiple modes for both symmetric ( Sn) and the anti-symmetric ( An) guided Lamb waves propagation. A displacement field has been illustrated to judge whether Sn and An modes cross with each other. Moreover, electric displacement, stress field and electric potential for the open-circuit case were presented for both S0 and A0 Lamb modes.

  10. Scaling Fiber Lasers to Large Mode Area: An Investigation of Passive Mode-Locking Using a Multi-Mode Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Edwin; Lefrancois, Simon; Kutz, Jose Nathan; Wise, Frank W

    2011-01-01

    The mode-locking of dissipative soliton fiber lasers using large mode area fiber supporting multiple transverse modes is studied experimentally and theoretically. The averaged mode-locking dynamics in a multi-mode fiber are studied using a distributed model. The co-propagation of multiple transverse modes is governed by a system of coupled Ginzburg-Landau equations. Simulations show that stable and robust mode-locked pulses can be produced. However, the mode-locking can be destabilized by excessive higher-order mode content. Experiments using large core step-index fiber, photonic crystal fiber, and chirally-coupled core fiber show that mode-locking can be significantly disturbed in the presence of higher-order modes, resulting in lower maximum single-pulse energies. In practice, spatial mode content must be carefully controlled to achieve full pulse energy scaling. This paper demonstrates that mode-locking performance is very sensitive to the presence of multiple waveguide modes when compared to systems such as amplifiers and continuous-wave lasers.

  11. Accurate mode characterization of two-mode optical fibers by in-fiber acousto-optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcusa-Sáez, E; Díez, A; Andrés, M V

    2016-03-07

    Acousto-optic interaction in optical fibers is exploited for the accurate and broadband characterization of two-mode optical fibers. Coupling between LP 01 and LP 1m modes is produced in a broadband wavelength range. Difference in effective indices, group indices, and chromatic dispersions between the guided modes, are obtained from experimental measurements. Additionally, we show that the technique is suitable to investigate the fine modes structure of LP modes, and some other intriguing features related with modes' cut-off.

  12. Failure Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, K. P.; Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1999-01-01

    The present appendix contains the derivation of ten different limit state equations divided on three different failure modes. Five of the limit state equations can be used independently of the characteristics of the subsoil, whereas the remaining five can be used for either drained or undrained s...

  13. Multiple Linear Regression Analysis Indicates Association of P-Glycoprotein Substrate or Inhibitor Character with Bitterness Intensity, Measured with a Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Kentaro; Mita, Suzune; Morimoto, Kaori; Haraguchi, Tamami; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Miyako; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Uchida, Takahiro; Ogihara, Takuo

    2015-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) regulates absorption of many drugs in the gastrointestinal tract and their accumulation in tumor tissues, but the basis of substrate recognition by P-gp remains unclear. Bitter-tasting phenylthiocarbamide, which stimulates taste receptor 2 member 38 (T2R38), increases P-gp activity and is a substrate of P-gp. This led us to hypothesize that bitterness intensity might be a predictor of P-gp-inhibitor/substrate status. Here, we measured the bitterness intensity of a panel of P-gp substrates and nonsubstrates with various taste sensors, and used multiple linear regression analysis to examine the relationship between P-gp-inhibitor/substrate status and various physical properties, including intensity of bitter taste measured with the taste sensor. We calculated the first principal component analysis score (PC1) as the representative value of bitterness, as all taste sensor's outputs shared significant correlation. The P-gp substrates showed remarkably greater mean bitterness intensity than non-P-gp substrates. We found that Km value of P-gp substrates were correlated with molecular weight, log P, and PC1 value, and the coefficient of determination (R(2) ) of the linear regression equation was 0.63. This relationship might be useful as an aid to predict P-gp substrate status at an early stage of drug discovery. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  14. Clustering of multiple energy balance related behaviors is associated with body fat composition indicators in adolescents: Results from the HELENA and ELANA studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Naiara Ferraz; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba María; Androutsos, Odysseas; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; de Oliveira, Alessandra Silva Dias; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; de Moraes, Anelise Bezerra de Vasconcelos; Van den Bussche, Karen; Censi, Laura; González-Gross, Marcela; Cañada, David; Gottrand, Frederic; Kafatos, Anthony; Marcos, Ascensión; Widhalm, Kurt; Mólnar, Dénes; Moreno, Luis Alberto

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify clustering patterns of four energy balance-related behaviors (EBRB): television (TV) watching, moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V), and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), among European and Brazilian adolescents. EBRB associations with different body fat composition indicators were then evaluated. Participants included adolescents from eight European countries in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescents) study (n = 2,057, 53.8% female; age: 12.5-17.5 years) and from the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil in the ELANA study (the Adolescent Nutritional Assessment Longitudinal Study) (n = 968, 53.2% female; age: 13.5-19 years). EBRB data allowed for sex- and study-specific clusters. Associations were estimated by ANOVA and odds ratios. Five clustering patterns were identified. Four similar clusters were identified for each sex and study. Among boys, different cluster identified was characterized by high F&V consumption in the HELENA study and high TV watching and high MVPA time in the ELANA study. Among girls, the different clusters identified was characterized by high F&V consumption in both studies and, additionally, high SSB consumption in the ELANA study. Regression analysis showed that clusters characterized by high SSB consumption in European boys; high TV watching, and high TV watching plus high MVPA in Brazilian boys; and high MVPA, and high SSB and F&V consumption in Brazilian girls, were positively associated with different body fat composition indicators. Common clusters were observed in adolescents from Europe and Brazil, however, no cluster was identified as being completely healthy or unhealthy. Each cluster seems to impact on body composition indicators, depending on the group. Public health actions should aim to promote adequate practices of EBRB. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Effects of Creatine and Sodium Bicarbonate Coingestion on Multiple Indices of Mechanical Power Output During Repeated Wingate Tests in Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffen, Corbin; Rogerson, David; Ranchordas, Mayur; Ruddock, Alan

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of creatine and sodium bicarbonate coingestion on mechanical power during repeated sprints. Nine well-trained men (age = 21.6 ± 0.9 yr, stature = 1.82 ± 0.05 m, body mass = 80.1 ±12.8 kg) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced, crossover study using six 10-s repeated Wingate tests. Participants ingested either a placebo (0.5 g·kg(-1) of maltodextrin), 20 g·d(-1) of creatine monohydrate + placebo, 0.3 g·kg(-1) of sodium bicarbonate + placebo, or coingestion + placebo for 7 days, with a 7-day washout between conditions. Participants were randomized into two groups with a differential counterbalanced order. Creatine conditions were ordered first and last. Indices of mechanical power output (W), total work (J) and fatigue index (W·s(-1)) were measured during each test and analyzed using the magnitude of differences between groups in relation to the smallest worthwhile change in performance. Compared with placebo, both creatine (effect size (ES) = 0.37-0.83) and sodium bicarbonate (ES = 0.22-0.46) reported meaningful improvements on indices of mechanical power output. Coingestion provided small meaningful improvements on indices of mechanical power output (W) compared with sodium bicarbonate (ES = 0.28-0.41), but not when compared with creatine (ES = -0.21-0.14). Coingestion provided a small meaningful improvement in total work (J; ES = 0.24) compared with creatine. Fatigue index (W·s(-1)) was impaired in all conditions compared with placebo. In conclusion, there was no meaningful additive effect of creatine and sodium bicarbonate coingestion on mechanical power during repeated sprints.

  16. Using multiple chemical indicators to characterize and determine the age of groundwater from selected vents of the Silver Springs Group, central Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Leel; Katz, Brian G.; Toth, David J.

    2010-12-01

    The Silver Springs Group, Florida (USA), forms the headwaters of the Silver River and supports a diverse ecosystem. The 30 headwater springs divide into five subgroups based on chemistry. Five selected spring vents were sampled in 2007 to better understand the contaminant sources and groundwater flow system. Elevated nitrate-N concentrations (>0.8 mg/L) in the five spring vents likely originate from inorganic (fertilizers) and organic sources, based on nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate. Evidence for denitrification in the Lost River Boil spring includes enriched δ15N and δ18O, excess N2 gas, and low dissolved O2 concentrations (data (SF6, 3H, tritiogenic 3He) for the two uppermost springs (Mammoth East and Mammoth West) indicate a binary mixture dominated by recent recharge water (mean age 6-7 years, and 87-97% young water). Tracer data for the three downstream spring vents (Lost River Boil, Catfish Hotel-1, and Catfish Conventional Hall-1) indicate exponential mixtures with mean ages of 26-35 years. Contamination from non-atmospheric sources of CFCs and SF5CF3 precluded their use as age tracers here. Variations in chemistry were consistent with mean groundwater age, as nitrate-N and dissolved O2 concentrations were higher in younger waters, and the Ca/Mg ratio decreased with increasing mean age.

  17. The nebular spectra of the transitional Type Ia Supernovae 2007on and 2011iv: broad, multiple components indicate aspherical explosion cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzali, P. A.; Ashall, C.; Pian, E.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Gall, C.; Phillips, M. M.; Höflich, P.; Hsiao, E.

    2018-05-01

    The nebular-epoch spectrum of the rapidly declining, `transitional' Type Ia supernova (SN) 2007on showed double emission peaks, which have been interpreted as indicating that the SN was the result of the direct collision of two white dwarfs. The spectrum can be reproduced using two distinct emission components, one redshifted and one blueshifted. These components are similar in mass but have slightly different degrees of ionization. They recede from one another at a line-of-sight speed larger than the sum of the combined expansion velocities of their emitting cores, thereby acting as two independent nebulae. While this configuration appears to be consistent with the scenario of two white dwarfs colliding, it may also indicate an off-centre delayed detonation explosion of a near-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf. In either case, broad emission line widths and a rapidly evolving light curve can be expected for the bolometric luminosity of the SN. This is the case for both SNe 2007on and 2011iv, also a transitional SN Ia that exploded in the same elliptical galaxy, NGC 1404. Although SN 2011iv does not show double-peaked emission line profiles, the width of its emission lines is such that a two-component model yields somewhat better results than a single-component model. Most of the mass ejected is in one component, however, which suggests that SN 2011iv was the result of the off-centre ignition of a Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf.

  18. Integrating multiple fish biomarkers and risk assessment as indicators of metal pollution along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Wael A; Saleh, Yousef S; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2014-12-01

    The marine environment of the Red Sea coast of Yemen Republic is subjected to increasing anthropogenic activities. The present field study assesses the impacts of metal pollutants on two common marine fish species; Pomadasys hasta and Lutjanus russellii collected from a reference site in comparison to two polluted sites along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic. Concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in fish vital organs, metal pollution index (MPI), indicative biochemical parameters of liver functions (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) and kidney functions (urea and creatinine) as well as histopathological changes in gills, liver and kidney of both fish species are integrated as biomarkers of metal pollution. These biomarkers showed species-specific and/or site-specific response. The hazard index (HI) was used as an indicator of human health risks associated with fish consumption. The detected low HI values in most cases doesn't neglect the fact that the cumulative risk effects for metals together give an alarming sign and that the health of fish consumers is endangered around polluted sites. The levels of ALT, AST and urea in plasma of both fish species collected from the polluted sites showed significant increase in comparison to those of reference site. Histopathological alterations and evident damage were observed in tissues of fish collected from the polluted sites. The investigated set of biomarkers proved to be efficient and reliable in biomonitoring the pollution status along different pollution gradients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiple modes of impulsivity in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Nombela

    Full Text Available Cognitive problems are a major factor determining quality of life of patients with Parkinson's disease. These include deficits in inhibitory control, ranging from subclinical alterations in decision-making to severe impulse control disorders. Based on preclinical studies, we proposed that Parkinson's disease does not cause a unified disorder of inhibitory control, but rather a set of impulsivity factors with distinct psychological profiles, anatomy and pharmacology. We assessed a broad set of measures of the cognitive, behavioural and temperamental/trait aspects of impulsivity. Sixty adults, including 30 idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients (Hoehn and Yahr stage I-III and 30 healthy controls, completed a neuropsychological battery, objective behavioural measures and self-report questionnaires. Univariate analyses of variance confirmed group differences in nine out of eleven metrics. We then used factor analysis (principal components method to identify the structure of impulsivity in Parkinson's disease. Four principal factors were identified, consistent with four different mechanisms of impulsivity, explaining 60% of variance. The factors were related to (1 tests of response conflict, interference and self assessment of impulsive behaviours on the Barrett Impulsivity Scale, (2 tests of motor inhibitory control, and the self-report behavioural approach system, (3 time estimation and delay aversion, and (4 reflection in hypothetical scenarios including temporal discounting. The different test profiles of these four factors were consistent with human and comparative studies of the pharmacology and functional anatomy of impulsivity. Relationships between each factor and clinical and demographic features were examined by regression against factor loadings. Levodopa dose equivalent was associated only with factors (2 and (3. The results confirm that impulsivity is common in Parkinson's disease, even in the absence of impulse control disorders, and that it is not a unitary phenomenon. A better understanding of the structure of impulsivity in Parkinson's disease will support more evidence-based and effective strategies to treat impulsivity.

  20. Multiple helical modes of vortex breakdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Naumov, I. V.; Okulov, Valery

    2011-01-01

    Experimental observations of vortex breakdown in a rotating lid-driven cavity are presented. The results show that vortex breakdown for cavities with high aspect ratios is associated with the appearance of stable helical vortex multiplets. By using results from stability theory generalizing Kelvi......’s problem on vortex polygon stability, and systematically exploring the cavity flow, we succeeded in identifying two new stable vortex breakdown states consisting of triple and quadruple helical multiplets....

  1. Prediction of retention indices for frequently reported compounds of plant essential oils using multiple linear regression, partial least squares, and support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Huang, Jian-Hua; He, Min; Lu, Hong-Bing; Yang, Rui; Kong, Bo; Xu, Qing-Song; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2013-08-01

    Retention indices for frequently reported compounds of plant essential oils on three different stationary phases were investigated. Multivariate linear regression, partial least squares, and support vector machine combined with a new variable selection approach called random-frog recently proposed by our group, were employed to model quantitative structure-retention relationships. Internal and external validations were performed to ensure the stability and predictive ability. All the three methods could obtain an acceptable model, and the optimal results by support vector machine based on a small number of informative descriptors with the square of correlation coefficient for cross validation, values of 0.9726, 0.9759, and 0.9331 on the dimethylsilicone stationary phase, the dimethylsilicone phase with 5% phenyl groups, and the PEG stationary phase, respectively. The performances of two variable selection approaches, random-frog and genetic algorithm, are compared. The importance of the variables was found to be consistent when estimated from correlation coefficients in multivariate linear regression equations and selection probability in model spaces. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Proteomics-based investigation of multiple stages of OSCC development indicates that the inhibition of Trx-1 delays oral malignant transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xijuan; Hu, Qinchao; Wu, Tong; Wang, Chunyang; Xia, Juan; Yang, Linglan; Cheng, Bin; Chen, Xiaobing

    2018-03-01

    The majority of cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) develop from oral potentially malignant disorders, which have been confirmed to be involved in chronic oxidative stimulation. However, no effective treatment approaches have been used to prevent the development of dysplasia into cancerous lesions thus far. In the present study, a well-established OSCC model was used to detect proteomics profiles at different stages during oral malignant transformation. Of the 15 proteins that were found to be upregulated in both the dysplasia and carcinoma stages, the oxidative stress-associated proteins, thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1), glutaredoxin-1 and peroxiredoxin-2 were note as the proteins with significant changes in expression Trx-1 was identified to be the most significantly upregulated protein in the precancerous stage. Validation experiments confirmed that Trx-1 was overexpressed both in dysplasia and cancerous tissue samples, and the inhibition of Trx-1 was able to promote the apoptosis of OSCC cells under hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, the experimental application of a Trx-1-specific inhibitory agent in an animal model led to a lower cancerization rate and a delay in tumor formation. The possible mechanisms were associated with the increased apoptosis via a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent pathway. Taken together, our findings indicate that Trx-1 may be an important target for delaying oral malignant transformation, which provides a novel therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of OSCC.

  3. Evaluation of Multiple Diagnostic Indicators in Comparison to the Intestinal Biopsy as the Golden Standard in Diagnosing Celiac Disease in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Hollén

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is a chronic small intestinal enteropathy triggered by gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. The susceptibility is strongly associated with certain human leukocyte antigen (HLA-genes, but efforts are being made in trying to find non-HLA genes that are predictive for the disease. The criteria for diagnosing CD were previously based primarily on histologic evaluation of small intestinal biopsies, but nowadays are often based only on blood tests and symptoms. In this context, we elucidated the accuracy of three diagnostic indicators for CD, alone or in combination. Genetic analyses of HLA-type and nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs known to be associated with CD were performed in 177 children previously investigated for the suspicion of CD. CD was confirmed in 109 children, while 68 were considered non-celiacs. The antibodies and urinary nitrite/nitrate concentrations of all of them were measured. The combinations of all the variables used in the study would classify 93% of the study population in the correct diagnostic group. The single best predictors were antibodies (i.e., anti-endomysium immunoglobulin A (IgA (EMA and transglutaminase IgA (TGA, followed by HLA-type and nitric oxide (NO-metabolites. The nine SNPs used did not contribute to the right diagnoses. Although our control group consisted of children with mostly gastrointestinal symptoms, the presented methodology predicted a correct classification in more than 90% of the cases.

  4. Comparison of pharmacokinetic behavior of two iridoid glycosides in rat plasma after oral administration of crude Cornus officinals and its jiuzhipin by high performance liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry combined with multiple reactions monitoring mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaocheng; Cao, Gang; Jiang, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the pharmacokinetic profiles of two iridoid glycosides named morroniside and loganin in rat plasma after oral administration of crude and processed Cornus officinals. Materials and Methods: A rapid, selective and specific high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reactions monitoring mode was developed to simultaneously investigate the pharmacokinetic profiles of morroniside and loganin in rat plasma after oral administration of crude C. officinals and its jiuzhipin. Results: The morroniside and loganin in crude and processed C. officinals could be simultaneously determined within 7.4 min. Linear calibration curves were obtained over the concentration ranges of 45.45-4800 ng/mL for all the analytes. The intra-and inter-day precisions relative standard deviation was lesser than 2.84% and 4.12%, respectively. Conclusion: The pharmacokinetic parameters of two iridoid glucosides were also compared systematically between crude and processed C. officinals. This paper provides the theoretical proofs for further explaining the processing mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicines. PMID:24914290

  5. Spin modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaarde, C.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of spectra of (p,n) reactions showed that they were very selective in exciting spin modes. Charge exchange reactions at intermediate energies give important new understanding of the M1-type of excitations and of the spin structure of continuum p spectra in general. In this paper, the author discusses three charge exchange reactions: (p,n); ( 3 H,t); and (d,2p) at several targets. Low-lying states and the Δ region are discussed separately. Finally, the charge exchange reaction with heavy ion beams is briefly discussed. (G.J.P./Auth.)

  6. Two-mode PLC-based mode multi/demultiplexer for mode and wavelength division multiplexed transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzawa, Nobutomo; Saitoh, Kuimasa; Sakamoto, Taiji; Matsui, Takashi; Tsujikawa, Kyozo; Koshiba, Masanori; Yamamoto, Fumihiko

    2013-11-04

    We proposed a PLC-based mode multi/demultiplexer (MUX/DEMUX) with an asymmetric parallel waveguide for mode division multiplexed (MDM) transmission. The mode MUX/DEMUX including a mode conversion function with an asymmetric parallel waveguide can be realized by matching the effective indices of the LP(01) and LP(11) modes of two waveguides. We report the design of a mode MUX/DEMUX that can support C-band WDM-MDM transmission. The fabricated mode MUX/DEMUX realized a low insertion loss of less than 1.3 dB and high a mode extinction ratio that exceeded 15 dB. We used the fabricated mode MUX/DEMUX to achieve a successful 2 mode x 4 wavelength x 10 Gbps transmission over a 9 km two-mode fiber with a penalty of less than 1 dB.

  7. Predicting the Diversity of Foreign Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashai, Niron; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Benito, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    diversity across value chain activities and host markets. Analyzing a sample of Israeli based firms we show that larger firms exhibit a higher degree of entry mode diversity both across value chain activities and across host markets. Higher levels of knowledge intensity are also associated with more......This paper expands entry mode literature by referring to multiple modes exerted in different value chain activities within and across host markets, rather than to a single entry mode at the host market level. Scale of operations and knowledge intensity are argued to affect firms' entry mode...... diversity in firms' entry modes across both dimensions....

  8. Microtearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.; Zou, X.

    1990-01-01

    A serious degradation of confinement with additional heating is commonly observed on most tokamaks. The microtearing modes could provide an explanation for this experimental fact. They are driven linearly unstable by diamagnetism in collisional regimes, but it may be shown that the collisions in non linear regimes provide a small diffusion coefficient which can be only significant at the plasme edge. In the bulk of the plasma, the microtearing turbulence could play a basic role if it is unstable in the collisionless regime. While it is linearly stable without collisions, it could be driven unstable in realistic regimes by the radial diffusion it induces. To study this effect, we have used a model where the non linear action of the modes on a given helicity component is represented by a diffusion operator. They are found unstable for reasonable β p =2μ o nT/B 2 p , with a special radial profile of the potential vector A. The problem arises the validity of this model where non linearities in the trajectories behaviour are replaced by the diffusion which broadens resonances. To test this procedure, we calculate the actual electron distribution function when it is determined by the ergodicity of the field lines. We compute the correlations of the distribution function with the magnetic perturbation and compare them with the analytical expressions derived from the resonance broadening model. (author) 3 refs., 2 figs

  9. Bioautography indicates the multiplicity of antifungal compounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-09-18

    Sep 18, 2006 ... 199 active compounds, followed by methanol (189) and hexane (73). This difference is apparently not related to the sectional division of the species (Carr, 1988). Comparison of eluent systems. Lastly we determined which TLC solvent system separa- ted the highest number of active compounds (Table 27).

  10. The logarithmic hypervolume indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Tobias; Bringmann, Karl; Voß, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    It was recently proven that sets of points maximizing the hypervolume indicator do not give a good multiplicative approximation of the Pareto front. We introduce a new “logarithmic hypervolume indicator” and prove that it achieves a close-to-optimal multiplicative approximation ratio. This is exp...

  11. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1990-01-01

    An investigation on the correlation between ability to read TV subtitles and the duration of visual evoked potential (VEP) latency in 14 patients with definite multiple sclerosis (MS), indicated that VEP latency in patients unable to read the TV subtitles was significantly delayed in comparison...

  12. Discrimination of orbital angular momentum modes of the terahertz vortex beam using a diffractive mode transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changming; Wei, Xuli; Niu, Liting; Wang, Kejia; Yang, Zhengang; Liu, Jinsong

    2016-06-13

    We present an efficient method to discriminate orbital angular momentum (OAM) of the terahertz (THz) vortex beam using a diffractive mode transformer. The mode transformer performs a log-polar coordinate transformation of the input THz vortex beam, which consists of two 3D-printed diffractive elements. A following lens separates each transformed OAM mode to a different lateral position in its focal plane. This method enables a simultaneous measurement over multiple OAM modes of the THz vortex beam. We experimentally demonstrate the measurement of seven individual OAM modes and two multiplexed OAM modes, which is in good agreement with simulations.

  13. Empirical Productivity Indices and Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Balk (Bert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe empirical measurement of productivity change (or difference) by means of indices and indicators starts with the ex post profit/loss accounts of a production unit. Key concepts are profit, leading to indicators, and profitability, leading to indices. The main task for the productivity

  14. Scenario analysis of false indication in computer-control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, Wan-Hui; Fan, Chin-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new failure mode and effect for safety-critical systems is proposed. ► False indication is the most dreadful kind of partial failures. ► A model-based simulation approach to generate failure scenarios is proposed. ► Simulation results showed that multiple errors may cause undesired consequences. ► An assertion-based method to detect false indication problems is provided. -- Abstract: Computer control may cause additional failure modes and effects that are new to analogue systems. False indication is one such failure mode that may bring unknown risks to a system. False indication refers to the problem when part of a system fails while other processes still work, and the failure is not revealed to operators. This paper presents a model-based simulation approach to systematically generate potential false indication and unintended consequences. Experiments showed that once a false indication occurs, it may have drastic effects on system safety. False indication can mislead the operator to perform adverse actions or no action. Therefore, we propose an assertion-based detection method to alleviate such failures. Our assertions contain process/device dependencies, timing relations and physical conservation rules. With these assertions, the operator may be alerted at run time. The proposed technique can reduce false indication problem. Moreover, it can also be used to assist the system design.

  15. Thermal Operating Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel SAIC Company

    2002-01-01

    Higher and lower temperature operating modes (e.g., above and below the boiling point of water) are alternative approaches to managing the heat produced by the radioactive decay of spent nuclear fuel. Current analyses indicate that a repository at the Yucca Mountain site is likely to comply with applicable safety standards regardless of the particular thermal operating mode. Both modes have potential advantages and disadvantages. With a higher temperature operating mode (HTOM), waste packages (WPs) can be placed closer together. This reduces the number of drifts, the required emplacement area, construction costs, and occupational risks to construction workers. In addition, the HTOM would minimize the amount of water that might contact the waste for hundreds of years after closure. On the other hand, higher temperatures introduce uncertainties in the understanding of the long-term performance of the repository because of uncertainties in the thermal effects on WP lifetime and the near-field environment around the drifts. A lower temperature operating mode (LTOM) has the potential to reduce uncertainties in long-term performance of the repository by limiting the effects of temperature on WP lifetime and on the near-field environment around the drifts. Depending on the combination of operating parameters, a LTOM could require construction of additional drifts, a larger emplacement area, increased construction costs, increased occupational risks to construction works, and a longer period of ventilation than a HTOM. The repository design for the potential Yucca Mountain site is flexible and can be constructed and operated in various operating modes to achieve specific technical objectives, accommodate future policy decisions, and use of new information. For example, the flexible design can be operated across a range of temperatures and can be tailored to achieve specific thermal requirements in the future. To accommodate future policy decisions, the repository can be

  16. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  17. Waste indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  18. Quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth-Andersen, Christian

    1991-01-01

    In recent literature it has been suggested that consumers need have no knowledge of product quality as a number of quality indicators (or signals) may be used as substitutes. Very little attention has been paid to the empirical verification of these studies. The present paper is devoted...... to the issue of how well these indicators perform, using market data provided by consumer magazines from 3 countries. The results strongly indicate that price is a poor quality indicator. The paper also presents some evidence which suggests that seller reputation and easily observable characteristics are also...

  19. General indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document summarizes the main 2002 energy indicators for France. A first table lists the evolution of general indicators between 1973 and 2002: energy bill, price of imported crude oil, energy independence, primary and final energy consumption. The main 2002 results are detailed separately for natural gas, petroleum and coal (consumption, imports, exports, production, stocks, prices). (J.S.)

  20. Chemical composition of the essential oils of Citrus sinensis cv. valencia and a quantitative structure-retention relationship study for the prediction of retention indices by multiple linear regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larijani Kambiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the volatile fraction obtained by head-space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME, single drop microextraction (SDME and the essential oil obtained by cold-press from the peels of C. sinensis cv. valencia were analyzed employing gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The main components were limonene (61.34 %, 68.27 %, 90.50 %, myrcene (17.55 %, 12.35 %, 2.50 %, sabinene (6.50 %, 7.62 %, 0.5 % and α-pinene (0 %, 6.65 %, 1.4 % respectively obtained by HS-SPME, SDME and cold-press. Then a quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR study for the prediction of retention indices (RI of the compounds was developed by application of structural descriptors and the multiple linear regression (MLR method. Principal components analysis was used to select the training set. A simple model with low standard errors and high correlation coefficients was obtained. The results illustrated that linear techniques such as MLR combined with a successful variable selection procedure are capable of generating an efficient QSRR model for prediction of the retention indices of different compounds. This model, with high statistical significance (R2 train = 0.983, R2 test = 0.970, Q2 LOO = 0.962, Q2 LGO = 0.936, REP(% = 3.00, could be used adequately for the prediction and description of the retention indices of the volatile compounds.

  1. Multiple relay selection for delay-limited applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.; Abediseid, Walid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2013-01-01

    A multiple relay selection system model that implements the decode-and-forward mode is investigated. All communication nodes are assumed to be equipped by multiple antennas. Furthermore, lattices space-time coded multiple-input multiple-output half

  2. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  3. The Effect of Answering in a Preferred Versus a Non-Preferred Survey Mode on Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolene Smyth

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that offering respondents their preferred mode can increase response rates, but the effect of doing so on how respondents process and answer survey questions (i.e., measurement is unclear. In this paper, we evaluate whether changes in question format have different effects on data quality for those responding in their preferred mode than for those responding in a non-preferred mode for three question types (multiple answer, open-ended, and grid. Respondents were asked about their preferred mode in a 2008 survey and were recontacted in 2009. In the recontact survey, respondents were randomly assigned to one of two modes such that some responded in their preferred mode and others did not. They were also randomly assigned to one of two questionnaire forms in which the format of individual questions was varied. On the multiple answer and open-ended items, those who answered in a non-preferred mode seemed to take advantage of opportunities to satisfice when the question format allowed or encouraged it (e.g., selecting fewer items in the check-all than the forced-choice format and being more likely to skip the open-ended item when it had a larger answer box, while those who answered in a preferred mode did not. There was no difference on a grid formatted item across those who did and did not respond by their preferred mode, but results indicate that a fully labeled grid reduced item missing rates vis-à-vis a grid with only column heading labels. Results provide insight into the effect of tailoring to mode preference on commonly used questionnaire design features.

  4. Operational indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The chapter presents the operational indicators related to budget, travel costs and tickets, the evolution of the annual program for regulatory inspection, the scientific production, requested patents and the numbers related to the production of the services offered by the Institution

  5. Prediction of the GC-MS Retention Indices for a Diverse Set of Terpenes as Constituent Components of Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (HBK Mc Vaugh Volatile Oil, Using Particle Swarm Optimization-Multiple Linear Regression (PSO-MLR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mohammadhosseini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A reliable quantitative structure retention relationship (QSRR study has been evaluated to predict the retention indices (RIs of a broad spectrum of compounds, namely 118 non-linear, cyclic and heterocyclic terpenoids (both saturated and unsaturated, on an HP-5MS fused silica column. A principal component analysis showed that seven compounds lay outside of the main cluster. After elimination of the outliers, the data set was divided into training and test sets involving 80 and 28 compounds. The method was tested by application of the particle swarm optimization (PSO method to find the most effective molecular descriptors, followed by multiple linear regressions (MLR. The PSO-MLR model was further confirmed through “leave one out cross validation” (LOO-CV and “leave group out cross validation” (LGO-CV, as well as external validations. The promising statistical figures of merit associated with the proposed model (R2train=0.936, Q2LOO=0.928, Q2LGO=0.921, F=376.4 confirm its high ability to predict RIs with negligible relative errors of predictions (REP train=4.8%, REP test=6.0%.

  6. H-mode physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Sanae.

    1991-06-01

    After the discovery of the H-mode in ASDEX ( a tokamak in Germany ) the transition between the L-mode ( Low confinement mode ) and H-mode ( High confinement mode ) has been observed in many tokamaks in the world. The H-mode has made a breakthrough in improving the plasma parameters and has been recognized to be a universal phenomena. Since its discovery, the extensive studies both in experiments and in theory have been made. The research on H-mode has been casting new problems of an anomalous transport across the magnetic surface. This series of lectures will provide a brief review of experiments for explaining H-mode and a model theory of H-mode transition based on the electric field bifurcation. If the time is available, a new theoretical model of the temporal evolution of the H-mode will be given. (author)

  7. Adaptive variational mode decomposition method for signal processing based on mode characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jijian; Liu, Zhuo; Wang, Haijun; Dong, Xiaofeng

    2018-07-01

    Variational mode decomposition is a completely non-recursive decomposition model, where all the modes are extracted concurrently. However, the model requires a preset mode number, which limits the adaptability of the method since a large deviation in the number of mode set will cause the discard or mixing of the mode. Hence, a method called Adaptive Variational Mode Decomposition (AVMD) was proposed to automatically determine the mode number based on the characteristic of intrinsic mode function. The method was used to analyze the simulation signals and the measured signals in the hydropower plant. Comparisons have also been conducted to evaluate the performance by using VMD, EMD and EWT. It is indicated that the proposed method has strong adaptability and is robust to noise. It can determine the mode number appropriately without modulation even when the signal frequencies are relatively close.

  8. Interferometric characterization of few-mode fibers (FMF) for mode-division multiplexing (MDM)

    OpenAIRE

    Muliar, Olena; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.; Rottwitt, Karsten; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth of global data traffic demands the continuous search for new technologies and systems that could increase transmission capacity in optical links and recent experiments show that to do so, it is advantageous to explore new degrees of freedom such as polarization, wavelength or optical modes. Mode division multiplexing (MDM) appears in this context as a promising and viable solution for such capacity increase, since it utilizes multiple spatial modes of an optical fiber as indi...

  9. Multiple preequilibrium decay processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blann, M.

    1987-11-01

    Several treatments of multiple preequilibrium decay are reviewed with emphasis on the exciton and hybrid models. We show the expected behavior of this decay mode as a function of incident nucleon energy. The algorithms used in the hybrid model treatment are reviewed, and comparisons are made between predictions of the hybrid model and a broad range of experimental results. 24 refs., 20 figs

  10. Mode-hopping mechanism generating colored noise in a magnetic tunnel junction based spin torque oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Raghav; Dürrenfeld, P.; Iacocca, E.; Heinonen, O. G.; Åkerman, J.; Muduli, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    The frequency noise spectrum of a magnetic tunnel junction based spin torque oscillator is examined where multiple modes and mode-hopping events are observed. The frequency noise spectrum is found to consist of both white noise and 1/f frequency noise. We find a systematic and similar dependence of both white noise and 1/f frequency noise on bias current and the relative angle between the reference and free layers, which changes the effective damping and hence the mode-hopping behavior in this system. The frequency at which the 1/f frequency noise changes to white noise increases as the free layer is aligned away from the anti-parallel orientation w.r.t the reference layer. These results indicate that the origin of 1/f frequency noise is related to mode-hopping, which produces both white noise as well as 1/f frequency noise similar to the case of ring lasers.

  11. Secular trends in HIV knowledge and attitudes among Vietnamese women based on the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000, 2006, and 2011: what do we know and what should we do to protect them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Van Huy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Vietnam, women are at risk of HIV infection due to many factors. However, there is limited evidence about what women know and how they behave to protect themselves from HIV. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the trends in comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude, and associated factors among Vietnamese women from 2000 to 2011. Design: Data from three waves of the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (years 2000, 2006, and 2011 were used. Logistic regression methods examined factors associated with each of two dependent variables, HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitude toward HIV/AIDS. Results: Although there was an increasing trend in basic HIV/AIDS knowledge and positive attitude toward the disease, in Vietnamese women in the general population over the survey years, the prevalence of women with basic HIV/AIDS knowledge and positive attitude toward HIV/AIDS was low. Multivariable models indicated that women who had higher levels of education, lived in urban areas, had higher economic status, and knew about places of HIV-related services were more likely to have good HIV/AIDS knowledge (e.g. in 2011, AOR's=3.01; 1.27; 1.88; 2.03, respectively. Women with higher educational attainment, knew about HIV services, and had better HIV knowledge were more likely to report positive attitude toward HIV/AIDS (e.g. in 2011, AOR's=2.50; 1.72; 2.23, respectively. Conclusions: This study recommends that public health programs for the control of HIV, such as behavioral change communication campaigns or social policies for women, should focus not only in improving the quality of existing HIV/AIDS counseling and testing services but also on expanding coverage to increase accessibility to these services for women in rural areas. In addition, efforts to raise the level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and improve attitude toward the disease should be undertaken simultaneously. The results of this study can help inform HIV control

  12. High power blue LED development using different growth modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong S.; Florescu, Doru I.; Ramer, Jeff C.; Merai, Vinod; Parekh, Aniruddh; Begarney, Michael J.; Armour, Eric A. [Veeco TurboDisc Operations, 394 Elizabeth Avenue, Somerset, NJ 08873 (United States); Lu Dong [Veeco TurboDisc Operations, 394 Elizabeth Avenue, Somerset, NJ 08873 (United States); School of Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Blue high brightness light emitting diodes (HB-LEDs) have been developed using different growth modes in the active layers. Piezoelectric field engineering improves the optical output power in multiple quantum well (MQW) LEDs by inserting an optimized transitional superlattice (TSL) before the active MQW layers. Within single quantum well (SQW) LEDs, quasi-Quantum Dot (QD) growth for Indium localization has been realized. The SQW LED output power exceeds the strain engineered MQW LEDs. The experimental data indicates that Indium localization enhances overall quantum efficiency and results in increased output power for HB-LEDs. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Design considerations for a transparent mode group diversity multiplexing link

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsekrekos, C.; Martinez, A.; Huijskens, Frans; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Mode group diversity multiplexing (MGDM) is an optical multiple-input-multiple-output technique that aims at creating independent communication channels over a multimode fiber, using subsets of propagating modes. This letter deals with the analysis of an MGDM point-to-point link, transparent to the

  14. Low-bending loss and single-mode operation in few-mode optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ping; Wang, Hua; Chen, Ming-Yang; Wei, Jin; Cai, Zhi-Min; Li, Lu-Ming; Yang, Ji-Hai; Zhu, Yuan-Feng

    2016-10-01

    The technique of eliminating the higher-order modes in a few-mode optical fiber is proposed. The fiber is designed with a group of defect modes in the cladding. The higher-order modes in the fiber can be eliminated by bending the fiber to induce strong coupling between the defect modes and the higher-order modes. Numerical simulation shows the bending losses of the LP01 mode are lower than 1.5×10-4 dB/turn for the wavelength shorter than 1.625 μm. The proposed fiber can be bent multiple turns at small bending radius which are preferable for FTTH related applications.

  15. Mixed-mode fracture of ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The mixed-mode fracture behavior of ceramic materials is of importance for monolithic ceramics in order to predict the onset of fracture under generalized loading conditions and for ceramic composites to describe crack deflection toughening mechanisms. Experimental data on surface flaw mixed-mode fracture in various ceramics indicate that the flaw-plane normal stress at fracture decreases with increasing in-flaw-plane shear stress, although present data exhibit a fairly wide range in details of this sigma - tau relationship. Fracture from large cracks suggests that Mode II has a greater effect on Mode I fracture than Mode III. A comparison of surface flaw and large crack mixed-mode I-II fracture responses indicated that surface flaw behavior is influenced by shear resistance effects.

  16. Interaction of tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satya, Y.; Schmidt, G.

    1979-01-01

    A fully developed tearing mode modifies the magnetic field profile. The effect of this profile modification on the linear growth rate of a different tearing mode in a slab and cylindrical geometry is investigated

  17. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in multiple frequency bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hong-xiang, E-mail: jsdxshx@ujs.edu.cn [Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yuan, Shou-qi, E-mail: Shouqiy@ujs.edu.cn [Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhang, Shu-yi [Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-11-23

    We report both experimentally and numerically that the multi-band device of the asymmetric acoustic transmission is realized by placing two periodic gratings with different periods on both sides of two brass plates immersed in water. The asymmetric acoustic transmission can exist in four frequency bands below 1500 kHz, which arises from the interaction between various diffractions from the two gratings and Lamb modes in the brass plates immersed in water. The results indicate that the device has the advantages of multiple band, broader bandwidth, and simpler structure. Our finding should have great potential applications in ultrasonic devices.

  18. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in multiple frequency bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hong-xiang; Yuan, Shou-qi; Zhang, Shu-yi

    2015-01-01

    We report both experimentally and numerically that the multi-band device of the asymmetric acoustic transmission is realized by placing two periodic gratings with different periods on both sides of two brass plates immersed in water. The asymmetric acoustic transmission can exist in four frequency bands below 1500 kHz, which arises from the interaction between various diffractions from the two gratings and Lamb modes in the brass plates immersed in water. The results indicate that the device has the advantages of multiple band, broader bandwidth, and simpler structure. Our finding should have great potential applications in ultrasonic devices

  19. A reconstruction of sexual modes throughout animal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Daniel A; Ryan, Joseph F

    2017-12-06

    Although most extant animals have separate sexes, simultaneous hermaphrodites can be found in lineages throughout the animal kingdom. However, the sexual modes of key ancestral nodes including the last common ancestor (LCA) of all animals remain unclear. Without these data, it is difficult to infer the reproductive-state transitions that occurred early in animal evolution, and thus a broad understanding of the evolution of animal reproduction remains elusive. In this study, we use a composite phylogeny from four previously published studies, two alternative topologies (ctenophores or sponges as sister to the rest of animals), and multiple phylogenetic approaches to conduct the most extensive analysis to date of the evolution of animal sexual modes. Our analyses clarify the sexual mode of many ancestral animal nodes and allow for sound inferences of modal transitions that have occurred in animal history. Our results also indicate that the transition from separate sexes to hermaphroditism has been more common in animal history than the reverse. These results provide the most complete view of the evolution of animal sexual modes to date and provide a framework for future inquiries into the correlation of these transitions with genes, behaviors, and physiology. These results also suggest that mutations promoting hermaphroditism have historically been more likely to invade gonochoristic populations than vice versa.

  20. Habit modification of nearly perfect single crystals of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) by trivalent manganese ions studied using synchrotron radiation X-ray multiple diffraction in Renninger scanning mode

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, X; Roberts, KJ; Avanci, LH; Cardoso, LP; Sasaki, JM

    2003-01-01

    The X-ray multiple diffraction technique using synchrotron radiation is applied in the preliminary study of the habit modification of KDP samples as induced by incorporation of the trivalent transition metal cation Mn3+. High-resolution Renninger scans of pure and doped KDP were carried out using 400 as the primary reflection, echoing the fact that these impurity species were segregated in the {100} growth sector. The analysis of the Renninger scans of the doped KDP crystals is consistent wit...

  1. Mode-selective symmetry control for indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion hohlraums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesey, R. A.; Slutz, S. A.; Herrmann, M. C.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Campbell, R. B.

    2008-01-01

    Achieving a high degree of radiation symmetry is a critical feature of target designs for indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion. Typically, the radiation flux incident on the capsule is required to be uniform to 1% or better. It is generally possible to design a hohlraum that provides low values of higher-order asymmetry (Legendre mode P 10 and above) due to geometric averaging effects. Because low-order intrinsic asymmetry (e.g., Legendre modes P 2 and P 4 ) are less strongly reduced by geometric averaging alone, the development of innovative control techniques has been an active area of research in the inertial fusion community over the years. Shields placed inside the hohlraum are one example of a technique that has often been proposed and incorporated into hohlraum target designs. Simple mathematical considerations are presented indicating that radiation shields may be designed to specifically tune lower-order modes (e.g., P 4 ) without deleterious effects on the higher order modes. Two-dimensional view factor and radiation-hydrodynamics simulations confirm these results and support such a path to achieving a highly symmetric x-ray flux. The term ''mode-selective'' is used because these shields, essentially ring structures offset from the capsule, are designed to affect only a specific Legendre mode (or multiple modes) of interest

  2. Mutational analysis of the extracellular disulphide bridges of the atypical chemokine receptor ACKR3/CXCR7 uncovers multiple binding and activation modes for its chemokine and endogenous non-chemokine agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpakowska, Martyna; Meyrath, Max; Reynders, Nathan; Counson, Manuel; Hanson, Julien; Steyaert, Jan; Chevigné, Andy

    2018-07-01

    The atypical chemokine receptor ACKR3/CXCR7 plays crucial roles in numerous physiological processes but also in viral infection and cancer. ACKR3 shows strong propensity for activation and, unlike classical chemokine receptors, can respond to chemokines from both the CXC and CC families as well as to the endogenous peptides BAM22 and adrenomedullin. Moreover, despite belonging to the G protein coupled receptor family, its function appears to be mainly dependent on β-arrestin. ACKR3 has also been shown to continuously cycle between the plasma membrane and the endosomal compartments, suggesting a possible role as a scavenging receptor. So far, the molecular basis accounting for these atypical binding and signalling properties remains elusive. Noteworthy, ACKR3 extracellular domains bear three disulphide bridges. Two of them lie on top of the two main binding subpockets and are conserved among chemokine receptors, and one, specific to ACKR3, forms an intra-N terminus four-residue-loop of so far unknown function. Here, by mutational and functional studies, we examined the impact of the different disulphide bridges for ACKR3 folding, ligand binding and activation. We showed that, in contrast to most classical chemokine receptors, none of the extracellular disulphide bridges was essential for ACKR3 function. However, the disruption of the unique ACKR3 N-terminal loop drastically reduced the binding of CC chemokines whereas it only had a mild impact on CXC chemokine binding. Mutagenesis also uncovered that chemokine and endogenous non-chemokine ligands interact and activate ACKR3 according to distinct binding modes characterized by different transmembrane domain subpocket occupancy and N-terminal loop contribution, with BAM22 mimicking the binding mode of CC chemokine N terminus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Audit mode change, corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Cao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates changes in audit strategy in China following the introduction of risk-based auditing standards rather than an internal control-based audit mode. Specifically, we examine whether auditors are implementing the risk-based audit mode to evaluate corporate governance before distributing audit resources. The results show that under the internal control-based audit mode, the relationship between audit effort and corporate governance was weak. However, implementation of the risk-based mode required by the new auditing standards has significantly enhanced the relationship between audit effort and corporate governance. Since the change in audit mode, the Big Ten have demonstrated a significantly better grasp of governance risk and allocated their audit effort accordingly, relative to smaller firms. The empirical evidence indicates that auditors have adjusted their audit strategy to meet the regulations, risk-based auditing is being achieved to a degree, reasonable and effective corporate governance helps to optimize audit resource allocation, and smaller auditing firms in particular should urgently strengthen their risk-based auditing capability. Overall, our findings imply that the mandatory switch to risk-based auditing has optimized audit effort in China.

  4. Black Hole Spectroscopy with Coherent Mode Stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Yagi, Kent; Blackman, Jonathan; Lehner, Luis; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Pretorius, Frans; Yunes, Nicolás

    2017-04-21

    The measurement of multiple ringdown modes in gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers will allow for testing the fundamental properties of black holes in general relativity and to constrain modified theories of gravity. To enhance the ability of Advanced LIGO/Virgo to perform such tasks, we propose a coherent mode stacking method to search for a chosen target mode within a collection of multiple merger events. We first rescale each signal so that the target mode in each of them has the same frequency and then sum the waveforms constructively. A crucial element to realize this coherent superposition is to make use of a priori information extracted from the inspiral-merger phase of each event. To illustrate the method, we perform a study with simulated events targeting the ℓ=m=3 ringdown mode of the remnant black holes. We show that this method can significantly boost the signal-to-noise ratio of the collective target mode compared to that of the single loudest event. Using current estimates of merger rates, we show that it is likely that advanced-era detectors can measure this collective ringdown mode with one year of coincident data gathered at design sensitivity.

  5. Energy of auroral electrons and Z mode generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss-Varban, D.; Wong, H. K.

    1990-01-01

    The present consideration of Z-mode radiation generation, in light of observational results indicating that the O mode and second-harmonic X-mode emissions can prevail over the X-mode fundamental radiation when suprathermal electron energy is low, gives attention to whether the thermal effect on the Z-mode dispersion can be equally important, and whether the Z-mode can compete for the available free-energy source. It is found that, under suitable circumstances, the growth rate of the Z-mode can be substantial even for low suprathermal auroral electron energies. Growth is generally maximized for propagation perpendicular to the magnetic field.

  6. Laser Covariance Vibrometry for Unsymmetrical Mode Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kobold, Michael C

    2006-01-01

    Simulated cross - spectral covariance (CSC) from optical return from simulated surface vibration indicates CW phase modulation may be an appropriate phenomenology for adequate classification of vehicles by structural mode...

  7. Single-Mode VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anders; Gustavsson, Johan S.

    The only active transverse mode in a truly single-mode VCSEL is the fundamental mode with a near Gaussian field distribution. A single-mode VCSEL produces a light beam of higher spectral purity, higher degree of coherence and lower divergence than a multimode VCSEL and the beam can be more precisely shaped and focused to a smaller spot. Such beam properties are required in many applications. In this chapter, after discussing applications of single-mode VCSELs, we introduce the basics of fields and modes in VCSELs and review designs implemented for single-mode emission from VCSELs in different materials and at different wavelengths. This includes VCSELs that are inherently single-mode as well as inherently multimode VCSELs where higher-order modes are suppressed by mode selective gain or loss. In each case we present the current state-of-the-art and discuss pros and cons. At the end, a specific example with experimental results is provided and, as a summary, the most promising designs based on current technologies are identified.

  8. Multiple Perspectives / Multiple Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Biggs

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available People experience things from their own physical point of view. What they see is usually a function of where they are and what physical attitude they adopt relative to the subject. With augmented vision (periscopes, mirrors, remote cameras, etc we are able to see things from places where we are not present. With time-shifting technologies, such as the video recorder, we can also see things from the past; a time and a place we may never have visited.In recent artistic work I have been exploring the implications of digital technology, interactivity and internet connectivity that allow people to not so much space/time-shift their visual experience of things but rather see what happens when everybody is simultaneously able to see what everybody else can see. This is extrapolated through the remote networking of sites that are actual installation spaces; where the physical movements of viewers in the space generate multiple perspectives, linked to other similar sites at remote locations or to other viewers entering the shared data-space through a web based version of the work.This text explores the processes involved in such a practice and reflects on related questions regarding the non-singularity of being and the sense of self as linked to time and place.

  9. Impulse Response of a 36-Core Few-Mode Photonic Lantern Hybrid Spatial-Multiplexer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Mendinueta, José Manuel Delgado; Klaus, Werner

    2017-01-01

    multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) equalization, provided mode-dependent loss (MDL) is small [3]. Furthermore, mode scrambling at the transmitter improves tolerance to MDL and maximizes system capacity if all supported modes are used to transmit information [3]. Thus, the MDL and mode mixing properties...... significant mode mixing to take place at the multicore few-mode fiber splice. Furthermore, insertion loss and MDL of the system are further analyzed.......Space division multiplexing (SDM) using fibers with multiple cores and/or supporting multiple modes has become an essential technology to support Pbit/s transmissions in a single fiber [1,2]. Despite significant mode-mixing in few-mode fibers (FMF), the original signals can be recovered through...

  10. Double-mode pulsation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    Double mode pulsation is a very pervasive phenomenon in stars all over the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. In order of increasing radius, examples are: ZZ Ceti stars, the sun, the delta Scuti stars, RR Lyrae variables, the β Cephei variables and those related to them, Cepheids, and maybe even the Mira stars. These many modes have been interpreted as both radial and nonradial modes, but in many cases the actual mode has not been clearly identified. Yellow giants seem to be the most simple pulsators with a large majority of the RR Lyrae variables and Cepheids showing only one pulsation period. We limit this review to those very few cases for classical Cepheids and RR Lyrae variables which display two modes. For these we know many facts about these stars, but the actual cause of the pulsation in two modes simultaneously remains unknown

  11. Resonant MHD modes with toroidal coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.W.; Hastie, R.J.; Taylor, J.B.

    1990-07-01

    This is part 2 of a study of resonant perturbations, such as resistive tearing and ballooning modes, in a torus. These are described by marginal ideal mhd equations in the regions between resonant surfaces; matching across these surfaces provides the dispersion relation. In part 1 we described how all the necessary information from the ideal mhd calculations could be represented by a so-called E-matrix. We also described the calculation of this E-matrix for tearing modes (even parity in perturbed magnetic field) in a large aspect ratio torus. There the toroidal modes comprise coupled cylinder tearing modes and the E-matrix is a generalization of the familiar Δ' quantity in a cylinder. In the present paper we discuss resistive ballooning, or twisting-modes, which have odd-parity in perturbed magnetic field. We show that, unlike the tearing modes, these odd-parity modes are instrinsically toroidal and are not directly related to the odd-parity modes in a cylinder. This is evident from the analysis of the high-n limit in ballooning-space, where a transition from a stable Δ' to an unstable Δ' occurs for the twisting mode when the ballooning effect exceeds the interchange effect, which can occur even at large aspect ratio (as in a tokamak). Analysis of the high-n limit in coordinate space, rather than ballooning space, clarifies this singular behaviour and indicates how one may define twisting-mode Δ'. It also yields a prescription for treating low-n twisting modes and a method for calculating an E-matrix for resistive ballooning modes in a large aspect ratio tokamak. The elements of this matrix are given in terms of cylindrical tearing mode solutions

  12. Streaming gravity mode instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shui.

    1989-05-01

    In this paper, we study the stability of a current sheet with a sheared flow in a gravitational field which is perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. This mixing mode caused by a combined role of the sheared flow and gravity is named the streaming gravity mode instability. The conditions of this mode instability are discussed for an ideal four-layer model in the incompressible limit. (author). 5 refs

  13. Dual-Mode Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefny, Charles J (Inventor); Dippold, Vance F (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-mode ramjet combustor used for operation over a wide flight Mach number range is described. Subsonic combustion mode is usable to lower flight Mach numbers than current dual-mode scramjets. High speed mode is characterized by supersonic combustion in a free-jet that traverses the subsonic combustion chamber to a variable nozzle throat. Although a variable combustor exit aperture is required, the need for fuel staging to accommodate the combustion process is eliminated. Local heating from shock-boundary-layer interactions on combustor walls is also eliminated.

  14. Antipastorialism : Resistant Georgic Mode

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmerman, Donald

    2000-01-01

    .... Abolitionists, women, Afro-British slaves, and those who protested land enclosure developed a multivalent, resistant mode of writing, which I name 'antipastoralism', that countered orthodox, poetical...

  15. Nonlinear drift tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenyj, L.M.; Kuznetsova, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Nonlinear study of magnetic perturbation development under single-mode conditions in collision-free plasma in configurations with the magnetic field shear is investigated. Results are obtained with regard of transverse component of electrical field and its effect on ion dynamics within wide range of ion Larmor radius value and values of magnetic field shear. Increments of nonlinear drift tearing mode are obtained and it is shown that excitation drastic conditions of even linearly stable modes are possible. Mechanism of instability nonlinear stabilization is considered and the value of magnetic island at the saturation threshold is estimeted. Energy of nonlinear drift tearing mode is discussed

  16. Prenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation impact on biochemical indicators during pregnancy and postpartum Efecto de la suplementación prenatal con micronutrimentos múltiples en indicadores bioquímicos durante el embarazo y el posparto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando García-Guerra

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this analysis was to test the impact of daily supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MM during pregnancy on Zn, vitamin A and folate status compared to iron only (Fe. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out during 1997-2000 in a semi-urban community in Morelos state, Mexico. Women were randomly assigned to MM (n= 249 or Fe (n= 258 and received supplements daily (6 d/wk under supervision by the field team from recruitment (approximately 9 weeks pregnancy until delivery. Blood samples were collected on a sub-sample of women at baseline, 32 weeks pregnancy and one month postpartum (1PP and assessed for serum zinc, retinol and whole blood folate (baseline and 1PP only. A breast milk sample was extracted at 1PP and assessed for retinol content. RESULT: At baseline there was no significant difference between supplementation groups in mean Zn, retinol or folate concentrations or the prevalence of deficiencies (Zn 12.2%, vitamin A 2.8%, folate 5.3%. Mean change in Zn and retinol concentrations from baseline to 32 weeks pregnancy did not differ between groups or between baseline and 1PP for Zn, retinol or folate. At 1PP, there was a tendency (p= 0.09 towards a lower prevalence of folate deficiency/depletion in the MM group (10.0% than the Fe group (18.5%. CONCLUSIONS: MM supplementation during pregnancy did not improve zinc or vitamin A status compared to Fe only. There is some indication that folate status may have improved with MM supplementation despite low prevalence of deficiency. While lack of response in serum retinol may be explained by generally adequate status, the lack of impact on zinc status requires further exploration.OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de la suplementación diaria con múltiples micronutrimentos (MM durante el embarazo en el estado de zinc, vitamina A y folato comparado con la suplementación sólo con hierro (Fe. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El estudio se realizó en una comunidad semiurbana en

  17. Mode coupling in spin torque oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Steven S.-L.; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Heinonen, Olle

    2016-01-01

    A number of recent experimental works have shown that the dynamics of a single spin torque oscillator can exhibit complex behavior that stems from interactions between two or more modes of the oscillator, such as observed mode-hopping or mode coexistence. There has been some initial work indicating how the theory for a single-mode (macro-spin) spin torque oscillator should be generalized to include several modes and the interactions between them. In the present work, we rigorously derive such a theory starting with the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation for magnetization dynamics by expanding up to third-order terms in deviation from equilibrium. Our results show how a linear mode coupling, which is necessary for observed mode-hopping to occur, arises through coupling to a magnon bath. The acquired temperature dependence of this coupling implies that the manifold of orbits and fixed points may shift with temperature. - Highlights: • Deriving equations for coupled modes in spin torque oscillators. • Including Hamiltonian formalism and elimination of three–magnon processes. • Thermal bath of magnons central to mode coupling. • Numerical examples of circular and elliptical devices.

  18. Mode coupling in spin torque oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Steven S.-L., E-mail: ZhangShule@missouri.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Zhou, Yan, E-mail: yanzhou@hku.hk [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Center of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Li, Dong, E-mail: geodesic.ld@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Centre for Nonlinear Studies, and Beijing-Hong Kong-Singapore Joint Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Systems, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Heinonen, Olle, E-mail: heinonen@anl.gov [Material Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Northwestern-Argonne Institute of Science and Technology, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Computation Institute, The Unversity of Chicago, 5735 S Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    A number of recent experimental works have shown that the dynamics of a single spin torque oscillator can exhibit complex behavior that stems from interactions between two or more modes of the oscillator, such as observed mode-hopping or mode coexistence. There has been some initial work indicating how the theory for a single-mode (macro-spin) spin torque oscillator should be generalized to include several modes and the interactions between them. In the present work, we rigorously derive such a theory starting with the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation for magnetization dynamics by expanding up to third-order terms in deviation from equilibrium. Our results show how a linear mode coupling, which is necessary for observed mode-hopping to occur, arises through coupling to a magnon bath. The acquired temperature dependence of this coupling implies that the manifold of orbits and fixed points may shift with temperature. - Highlights: • Deriving equations for coupled modes in spin torque oscillators. • Including Hamiltonian formalism and elimination of three–magnon processes. • Thermal bath of magnons central to mode coupling. • Numerical examples of circular and elliptical devices.

  19. Redo of Coil Spring Considering Transversal Direction Mode Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Min; Jang, Junyong; Lee, Tae Hee

    2013-01-01

    When the values of design variables change, mode switching can often occur. If the mode of interest is not tracked, the frequencies and modes for design optimization may be miscalculated owing to modes that differ from the intended ones. Thus, mode tracking must be employed to identify the frequencies and modes of interest whenever the values of design variables change during optimization. Furthermore, reliability-based design optimization (Redo) must be performed for design problems with design variables containing uncertainty. In this research, we perform Redo considering the mode tracking of a compressive coil spring, i.e., a component of the joint spring that supports a compressor, with design variables containing uncertainty by using only kriging meta models based on multiple responses approach (MR A) without existing mode tracking methods. The reliability analyses for Redo are employed using kriging meta model-based Monte Carlo simulation

  20. Microwave plasma mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, H.S.; Sakanaka, P.H.; Villarroel, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of hot electrons during the process of laser-produced plasma is studied. The basic equations of mode conversion from electromagnetic waves to electrostatic waves are presented. It is shown by mode conversion, that, the resonant absorption and parametric instabilities appear simultaneously, but in different plasma regions. (M.C.K.) [pt

  1. Multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... indwelling catheter Osteoporosis or thinning of the bones Pressure sores Side effects of medicines used to treat the ... Daily bowel care program Multiple sclerosis - discharge Preventing pressure ulcers Swallowing problems Images Multiple sclerosis MRI of the ...

  2. Low-Frequency Interlayer Raman Modes to Probe Interface of Twisted Bilayer MoS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengxi; Liang, Liangbo; Ling, Xi; Puretzky, Alexander A; Geohegan, David B; Sumpter, Bobby G; Kong, Jing; Meunier, Vincent; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2016-02-10

    van der Waals homo- and heterostructures assembled by stamping monolayers together present optoelectronic properties suitable for diverse applications. Understanding the details of the interlayer stacking and resulting coupling is crucial for tuning these properties. We investigated the low-frequency interlayer shear and breathing Raman modes (frequency and intensity changes of low-frequency modes. The frequency variation can be up to 8 cm(-1) and the intensity can vary by a factor of ∼5 for twisting angles near 0° and 60°, where the stacking is a mixture of high-symmetry stacking patterns and is thus sensitive to twisting. For twisting angles between 20° and 40°, the interlayer coupling is nearly constant because the stacking results in mismatched lattices over the entire sample. It follows that the Raman signature is relatively uniform. Note that for some samples, multiple breathing mode peaks appear, indicating nonuniform coupling across the interface. In contrast to the low-frequency interlayer modes, high-frequency intralayer Raman modes are much less sensitive to interlayer stacking and coupling. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of low-frequency Raman modes for probing the interfacial coupling and environment of twisted bilayer MoS2 and potentially other two-dimensional materials and heterostructures.

  3. Excursions through KK modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki [Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Manipal University,Manipal, Karnataka 576104 (India)

    2016-07-07

    In this article we study Kaluza-Klein (KK) dimensional reduction of massive Abelian gauge theories with charged matter fields on a circle. Since local gauge transformations change position dependence of the charged fields, the decomposition of the charged matter fields into KK modes is gauge dependent. While whole KK mass spectrum is independent of the gauge choice, the mode number depends on the gauge. The masses of the KK modes also depend on the field value of the zero-mode of the extra dimensional component of the gauge field. In particular, one of the KK modes in the KK tower of each massless 5D charged field becomes massless at particular values of the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field. When the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field is identified with the inflaton, this structure leads to recursive cosmological particle productions.

  4. Excursions through KK modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    In this article we study Kaluza-Klein (KK) dimensional reduction of massive Abelian gauge theories with charged matter fields on a circle. Since local gauge transformations change position dependence of the charged fields, the decomposition of the charged matter fields into KK modes is gauge dependent. While whole KK mass spectrum is independent of the gauge choice, the mode number depends on the gauge. The masses of the KK modes also depend on the field value of the zero-mode of the extra dimensional component of the gauge field. In particular, one of the KK modes in the KK tower of each massless 5D charged field becomes massless at particular values of the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field. When the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field is identified with the inflaton, this structure leads to recursive cosmological particle productions.

  5. Indicators for energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruyt, Bert; Van Vuuren, D.P.; De Vries, H.J.M.; Groenenberg, H.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of energy security is widely used, yet there is no consensus on its precise interpretation. In this research, we have provided an overview of available indicators for long-term security of supply (SOS). We distinguished four dimensions of energy security that relate to the availability, accessibility, affordability and acceptability of energy and classified indicators for energy security according to this taxonomy. There is no one ideal indicator, as the notion of energy security is highly context dependent. Rather, applying multiple indicators leads to a broader understanding. Incorporating these indicators in model-based scenario analysis showed accelerated depletion of currently known fossil resources due to increasing global demand. Coupled with increasing spatial discrepancy between consumption and production, international trade in energy carriers is projected to have increased by 142% in 2050 compared to 2008. Oil production is projected to become increasingly concentrated in a few countries up to 2030, after which production from other regions diversifies the market. Under stringent climate policies, this diversification may not occur due to reduced demand for oil. Possible benefits of climate policy include increased fuel diversity and slower depletion of fossil resources. (author)

  6. Asymmetric modes in gyrotron tubes and their experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garin, P.; Jedar, E.; Jendrzejczak, G.; mourier, G.; Payen, F.; Teyssier, L.

    1989-01-01

    High power gyrotron tubes suffer from the competition between oscillations on different modes of the resonant cavity. Different techniques for mode selection are outlined and the advantages of non symmetric modes are indicated. Their experimental study is described on a 100 GHz-200 kW - 100 ms - TE34 gyrotron. Some possible extrapolations are briefly presented. (author). 6 refs.; 4 figs

  7. New formulae for Zagreb indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangul, Ismail Naci; Yurttas, Aysun; Togan, Muge; Cevik, Ahmet Sinan

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we study with some graph descriptors also called topological indices. These descriptors are useful in determination of some properties of chemical structures and preferred to some earlier descriptors as they are more practical. Especially the first and second Zagreb indices together with the first and second multiplicative Zagreb indices are considered and they are calculated in terms of the smallest and largest vertex degrees and vertex number for some well-known classes of graphs.

  8. Higher order mode damping in Kaon factory RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enegren, T.; Poirier, R.; Griffin, J.; Walling, L.; Thiessen, H.A.; Smythe, W.R.

    1989-05-01

    Proposed designs for Kaon factory accelerators require that the rf cavities support beam currents on the order of several amperes. The beam current has Fourier components at all multiples of the rf frequency. Empty rf buckets produce additional components at all multiples of the revolution frequency. If a Fourier component of the beam coincides with the resonant frequency of a higher order mode of the cavity, which is inevitable if the cavity has a large frequency swing, significant excitation of this mode can occur. The induced voltage may then excite coupled bunch mode instabilities. Effective means are required to damp higher order modes without significantly affecting the fundamental mode. A mode damping scheme based on coupled transmission lines has been investigated and is report

  9. Effect of modes interaction on the resistive wall mode stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Longxi; Wu Bin

    2013-01-01

    Effects of modes interaction on the resistive wall mode (RWM) stability are studied. When considering the modes interaction effects, the linear growth rate of the most unstable (3, 1) mode decreases. After linear evolution, the RWM saturates at the nonlinear phase. The saturation can be attributed to flux piling up on the resistive wall. When some modes exist, the (3, 1) mode saturates at lower level compared with single mode evolution. Meanwhile, the magnetic energy of the (5, 2) mode increases correspondingly, but the magnetic energy saturation level of the (2, 1) mode changes weakly. (authors)

  10. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  11. Surface modes in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sernelius, Bo E

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic surface modes are present at all surfaces and interfaces between material of different dielectric properties. These modes have very important effects on numerous physical quantities: adhesion, capillary force, step formation and crystal growth, the Casimir effect etc. They cause surface tension and wetting and they give rise to forces which are important e.g. for the stability of colloids.This book is a useful and elegant approach to the topic, showing how the concept of electromagnetic modes can be developed as a unifying theme for a range of condensed matter physics. The

  12. Study of complex modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastrnak, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This eighteen-month study has been successful in providing the designer and analyst with qualitative guidelines on the occurrence of complex modes in the dynamics of linear structures, and also in developing computer codes for determining quantitatively which vibration modes are complex and to what degree. The presence of complex modes in a test structure has been verified. Finite element analysis of a structure with non-proportional dumping has been performed. A partial differential equation has been formed to eliminate possible modeling errors

  13. Switch mode power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hui Jun

    1993-06-01

    This book concentrates on switch mode power supply. It has four parts, which are introduction of switch mode power supply with DC-DC converter such as Buck converter boost converter, Buck-boost converter and PWM control circuit, explanation for SMPS with DC-DC converter modeling and power mode control, resonance converter like resonance switch, converter, multi resonance converter and series resonance and parallel resonance converters, basic test of SMPS with PWM control circuit, Buck converter, Boost converter, flyback converter, forward converter and IC for control circuit.

  14. Burst Mode Composite Photography for Dynamic Physics Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2018-01-01

    I am writing this article to raise awareness of burst mode photography as a fun and engaging way for teachers and students to experience physics demonstration activities. In the context of digital photography, "burst mode" means taking multiple photographs per second, and this is a feature that now comes standard on most digital…

  15. Higher Order Mode Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller

    This PhD thesis considers higher order modes (HOMs) in optical fibers. That includes their excitation and characteristics. Within the last decades, HOMs have been applied both for space multiplexing in optical communications, group velocity dispersion management and sensing among others......-radial polarization as opposed to the linear polarization of the LP0X modes. The effect is investigated numerically in a double cladding fiber with an outer aircladding using a full vectorial modesolver. Experimentally, the bowtie modes are excited using a long period grating and their free space characteristics...... and polarization state are investigated. For this fiber, the onset of the bowtie effect is shown numerically to be LP011. The characteristics usually associated with Bessel-likes modes such as long diffraction free length and selfhealing are shown to be conserved despite the lack of azimuthal symmetry...

  16. Lung microvascular transport properties measured by multiple indicator dilution methods in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome. A comparison between patients reversing respiratory failure and those failing to reverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, T.R.; Bernard, G.R.; Brigham, K.L.; Higgins, S.B.; Rinaldo, J.E.; Borovetz, H.S.; Sibbald, W.J.; Kariman, K.; Sprung, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    We conducted indicator dilution studies on the lungs of patients in the early phases of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) to test the hypothesis that capillary permeability was increased in patients with respiratory failure. Indicator dilution studies were performed using 51Cr-erythrocytes, 125I-albumin, 14C-urea, and 3H-water as tracers. The injectate was infused as a bolus into a central venous line. Peripheral arterial blood was collected and counted for radioactivity. Mathematical analysis of the indicator curves yielded cardiac output, measures of the product of capillary permeability and surface area for urea (PS and D1/2S), the intravascular lung volume (Vv), and the extravascular lung water volume (Ve). Permeability was separated from surface area by normalizing PS and D1/2S to Vv. Patients could be divided into 16 in whom blood gas determinations and radiologic criteria for ARDS were reversed and 23 in whom they were not. We examined indicator dilution and other measures of lung function in the two groups to determine whether significant differences in microvascular function existed. PS and PS/Vv were significantly higher in the nonreversal patients. Ve was above normal, but not different between groups. Linear regression analysis showed significant correlations for all of the following in the nonreversal group: Ve and all measures of permeability, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), and the inverse of permeability-surface area measures and AaDO2 and PVR. Only measures of Ve and PS correlated in the reversal group. These results support the hypothesis that capillary permeability is increased in patients with early ARDS and continuing respiratory failure

  17. Multiple pathways to gender-sensitive budget support in the education sector: Analysing the effectiveness of sex-disaggregated indicators in performance assessment frameworks and gender working groups in (education) budget support to Sub-Saharan Africa countries

    OpenAIRE

    Holvoet, Nathalie; Inberg, Liesbeth

    2013-01-01

    In order to correct for the initial gender blindness of the Paris Declaration and related aid modalities as general and sector budget support, it has been proposed to integrate a gender dimension into budget support entry points. This paper studies the effectiveness of (joint) gender working groups and the integration of sex-disaggregated indicators and targets in performance assessment frameworks in the context of education sector budget support delivered to a sample of 17 Sub-Saharan Africa...

  18. Local-mode vibrations of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, R.T.; Child, M.S. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Chemistry)

    1981-05-11

    Quantum-mechanical eigenvalues for the stretching vibrations of H/sub 2/O on the Sorbie-Murrell potential surface are shown to contain a series of local-mode doublets, with splittings which vary as the energy increases from 100 cm/sup -1/ at v=1 to 0.001 cm/sup -1/ at v=8. Preliminary calculations indicate that this pattern is largely unaffected by inclusion of the bending vibrational mode.

  19. Local-mode vibrations of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, R.T.; Child, M.S. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Chemistry)

    1981-05-11

    Quantum-mechanical eigenvalues for the stretching vibrations of H/sub 2/O on the Sorbie-Murrell potential surface are shown to contain a series of local-mode doublets, with splittings which vary as the energy increases from 100 cm/sup -1/ at theta=1 to 0.001 cm/sup -1/ at theta=8. Preliminary calculations indicate that this pattern is largely unaffected by inclusion of the bending vibrational mode.

  20. Local-mode vibrations of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, R.T.; Child, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    Quantum-mechanical eigenvalues for the stretching vibrations of H 2 O on the Sorbie-Murrell potential surface are shown to contain a series of local-mode doublets, with splittings which vary as the energy increases from 100 cm - 1 at v=1 to 0.001 cm - 1 at v=8. Preliminary calculations indicate that this pattern is largely unaffected by inclusion of the bending vibrational mode. (author)

  1. Mode-locked silicon evanescent lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Brian R; Fang, Alexander W; Cohen, Oded; Bowers, John E

    2007-09-03

    We demonstrate electrically pumped lasers on silicon that produce pulses at repetition rates up to 40 GHz. The mode locked lasers generate 4 ps pulses with low jitter and extinction ratios above 18 dB, making them suitable for data and telecommunication transmitters and for clock generation and distribution. Results of both passive and hybrid mode locking are discussed. This type of device could enable new silicon based integrated technologies, such as optical time division multiplexing (OTDM), wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), and optical code division multiple access (OCDMA).

  2. Propagating annular modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshadri, A.; Plumb, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The leading "annular mode", defined as the dominant EOF of surface pressure or of zonal mean zonal wind variability, appears as a dipolar structure straddling the mean midlatitude jet and thus seems to describe north-south wobbling of the jet latitude. However, extratropical zonal wind anomalies frequently tend to migrate poleward. This behavior can be described by the first two EOFs, the first (AM1) being the dipolar structure, and the second (AM2) having a tripolar structure centered on the mean jet. Taken in isolation, AM1 thus describes a north-south wobbling of the jet position, while AM2 describes a strengthening and narrowing of the jet. However, despite the fact that they are spatially orthogonal, and their corresponding time series temporally orthogonal, AM1 and AM2 are not independent, but show significant lag-correlations which reveal the propagation. The EOFs are not modes of the underlying dynamical system governing the zonal flow evolution. The true modes can be estimated using principal oscillation pattern (POP) analysis. In the troposphere, the leading POPs manifest themselves as a pair of complex conjugate structures with conjugate eigenvalues thus, in reality, constituting a single, complex, mode that describes propagating anomalies. Even though the principal components associated with the two leading EOFs decay at different rates, each decays faster than the true mode. These facts have implications for eddy feedback and the susceptibility of the mode to external perturbations. If one interprets the annular modes as the modes of the system, then simple theory predicts that the response to steady forcing will usually be dominated by AM1 (with the longest time scale). However, such arguments should really be applied to the true modes. Experiments with a simplified GCM show that climate response to perturbations do not necessarily have AM1 structures. Implications of these results for stratosphere-troposphere interactions are explored. The POP

  3. Application of multiple geochemical indicators, including the stable isotopes of water, to differentiate water quality evolution in a region influenced by various agricultural practices and domestic wastewater treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, Thomas W.

    2007-01-01

    Spatial and temporal variations in groundwater chemistry indicate that the use of low TDS lake water for irrigation, on land located just south of the City of Dixon, Solano County, California, is primarily responsible for improving groundwater quality with regards to salts. The stable isotopes of water further support this finding and suggest that TDS concentrations decrease as groundwater evolves to a more highly evaporated state. This seemingly contradictory finding was primarily attributed to infiltration of low TDS Lake Berryessa surface water, which has an isotopic signature indicative of an evaporated source and is used extensively for irrigation in the area, mixing with poorer quality locally recharged shallow groundwater. Geochemical modeling using the program PHREEQC further supports the anthropogenic aquifer freshening hypotheses through computed reductions in the saturation state of carbonate minerals in the vicinity of land irrigated by lake derived water, which is undersaturated with regards to modeled carbonates. Additionally, δ 18 O and δ 2 H were found to be useful in estimating climatic variables such as temperature and humidity, illustrating the potential for applying these models in hydrologic investigations within the area. It was however found that USDA NRCS soils data and measured water chemistry were not well correlated and thus the use of soils classifications to assess potential groundwater quality impacts was of limited utility

  4. Structural resonance and mode of flutter of hummingbird tail feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christopher J; Elias, Damian O; Girard, Madeline B; Prum, Richard O

    2013-09-15

    Feathers can produce sound by fluttering in airflow. This flutter is hypothesized to be aeroelastic, arising from the coupling of aerodynamic forces to one or more of the feather's intrinsic structural resonance frequencies. We investigated how mode of flutter varied among a sample of hummingbird tail feathers tested in a wind tunnel. Feather vibration was measured directly at ~100 points across the surface of the feather with a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV), as a function of airspeed, Uair. Most feathers exhibited multiple discrete modes of flutter, which we classified into types including tip, trailing vane and torsional modes. Vibratory behavior within a given mode was usually stable, but changes in independent variables such as airspeed or orientation sometimes caused feathers to abruptly 'jump' from one mode to another. We measured structural resonance frequencies and mode shapes directly by measuring the free response of 64 feathers stimulated with a shaker and recorded with the SLDV. As predicted by the aeroelastic flutter hypothesis, the mode shape (spatial distribution) of flutter corresponded to a bending or torsional structural resonance frequency of the feather. However, the match between structural resonance mode and flutter mode was better for tip or torsional mode shapes, and poorer for trailing vane modes. Often, the 3rd bending structural harmonic matched the expressed mode of flutter, rather than the fundamental. We conclude that flutter occurs when airflow excites one or more structural resonance frequencies of a feather, most akin to a vibrating violin string.

  5. Particle Distribution Modification by Low Amplitude Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Van Zeeland, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Modification of a high energy particle distribution by a spectrum of low amplitude modes is investigated using a guiding center code. Only through resonance are modes effective in modifying the distribution. Diagnostics are used to illustrate the mode-particle interaction and to find which effects are relevant in producing significant resonance, including kinetic Poincare plots and plots showing those orbits with time averaged mode-particle energy transfer. Effects of pitch angle scattering and drag are studied, as well as plasma rotation and time dependence of the equilibrium and mode frequencies. A specific example of changes observed in a DIII-D deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude experimentally validated Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes is examined in detail. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam profile modification, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold.

  6. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Kuehn, A.L.; Backens, M.; Papanagiotou, P.; Shariat, K.; Kostopoulos, P.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of myelin with interspersed lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnosis and monitoring of white matter diseases. This article focuses on key findings in multiple sclerosis as detected by MRI. (orig.) [de

  7. High degree modes and instrumental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzennik, S G [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Rabello-Soares, M C; Schou, J [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)], E-mail: skorzennik@cfa.harvard.edu

    2008-10-15

    frequencies resulting from solar activity over most of solar cycle 23. We present the correlation of medium and high degree modes with different solar indices. Our results confirm that the frequency shift scaled by the relative mode inertia is a function of frequency alone and follows a simple power law.

  8. Couple specialization in multiple equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esping-Andersen, G.; Boertien, D.; Bonke, J.; Gracia, P.

    2013-01-01

    We address the issue of men’s lagged adaptation to the ongoing revolution of women’s roles. This article proposes a multiple equilibrium approach and shows how modes of couple specialization cluster around qualitatively distinct logics. We identify a traditional, egalitarian, and ‘unstable’

  9. Study of Dendrimers by Topological Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleimani Najmeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, five degree based topological indices, the first Zagreb (M1, second Zagreb (M2, first multiple Zagreb (PM1, second multiple Zagreb (PM2, and the hyper Zagreb (HM indices of two types of dendrimers are studied. In addition, two distance based topological indices, the total eccentricity (θ and eccentric connectivity (ξc indices of these dendrimers are computed.

  10. Laser Covariance Vibrometry for Unsymmetrical Mode Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    2 CMIF Complex Modal Indicator Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 FDAC Frequency Domain Acceptance Criterion . . . . . . . . . . 2 OEM’s Original...complex modal indicator function ( CMIF ) [23] a set of singular value decomposition response functions and the frequency domain acceptance criterion...AFITGEENP03-02. 59. Phillips, Allyn W., Randall J. Allemang, and William A. Fladung. “The Complex Mode Indicator Function ( CMIF ) as a Parameter

  11. Damage classification of pipelines under water flow operation using multi-mode actuated sensing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Changgil; Park, Seunghee

    2011-01-01

    In a structure, several types of damage can occur, ranging from micro-cracking to corrosion or loose bolts. This makes identifying the damage difficult with a single mode of sensing. Therefore, a multi-mode actuated sensing system is proposed based on a self-sensing circuit using a piezoelectric sensor. In self-sensing-based multi-mode actuated sensing, one mode provides a wide frequency-band structural response from the self-sensed impedance measurement and the other mode provides a specific frequency-induced structural wavelet response from the self-sensed guided wave measurement. In this experimental study, a pipeline system under water flow operation was examined to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed structural health monitoring approach. Different types of structural damage were inflicted artificially on the pipeline system. To classify the multiple types of structural damage, supervised learning-based statistical pattern recognition was implemented by composing a three-dimensional space using the damage indices extracted from the impedance and guided wave features as well as temperature variations. For a more systematic damage classification, several control parameters were optimized to determine an optimal decision boundary for the supervised learning-based pattern recognition. Further research issues are also discussed for real-world implementations of the proposed approach

  12. Relationship between locked modes and thermal quenches in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, R.; Choi, W.; Austin, M.; Brookman, M.; Izzo, V.; Knolker, M.; La Haye, R. J.; Leonard, A.; Strait, E.; Volpe, F. A.; The DIII-D Team

    2018-05-01

    Locked modes are known to be one of the major causes of disruptions, but the physical mechanisms by which locking leads to disruptions are not well understood. Here we analyze the evolution of the temperature profile in the presence of multiple coexisting locked modes during partial and full thermal quenches. Partial quenches are often observed to be an initial, distinct stage in the full thermal quench. Near the onset of partial quenches, locked island O-points are observed to align with each other on the midplane, and their widths are sufficient to overlap each other, as indicated by the Chirikov parameter. Energy conservation analysis of one partial thermal quench shows that the energy lost is both radiated in the divertor region, and conducted or convected to the divertor. Nonlinear resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations support the interpretation of stochastic fields causing a partial axisymmetric collapse, though the simulated temperature profile exhibits less degradation than the experimental profiles. In discharges with minimum values of the safety factor above  ∼1.2, locked modes are observed to self-stabilize by inducing, possibly via double tearing modes, a minor disruption that removes their neoclassical drive. These high q min discharges often exhibit relatively low ratios of the plasma internal inductance to the safety factor at 95% of the poloidal flux, which might imply classical stability, in agreement with the decay of the mode when the neoclassical drive is removed.

  13. Mode switching control of dual-evaporator air-conditioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.-L.; Yeh, T.-J.

    2009-01-01

    Modern air-conditioners incorporate variable-speed compressors and variable-opening expansion valves as the actuators for improving cooling performance and energy efficiency. These actuators have to be properly feedback-controlled; otherwise the systems may exhibit even poorer performance than the conventional machines which use fixed-speed compressors and mechanical expansion valves. Particularly for an air-conditioner with multiple evaporators, there are occasions that the machine is operated in a mode that only selected evaporator(s) is(are) turned on, and switching(s) between modes occurs(occur) during the control process. In this case, one needs to have more carefully designed control and switching strategies to ensure the system performance. In this paper, a framework for mode switching control of the dual-evaporator air-conditioning (DEAC) system is proposed. The framework is basically an integration of a controller and a dynamic compensator. The controller, which possesses the flow-distribution capability and assumes both evaporators are on throughout the control process, is intended to provide nominal performance. While mode switching is achieved by varying the reference settings in the controller, the dynamic compensator is used to improve the transient responses immediately after the switching. Experiments indicate that the proposed framework can achieve satisfactory indoor temperature regulation and provide bumpless switching between different modes of operation.

  14. Collective Lyapunov modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Kazumasa A; Chaté, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    We show, using covariant Lyapunov vectors in addition to standard Lyapunov analysis, that there exists a set of collective Lyapunov modes in large chaotic systems exhibiting collective dynamics. Associated with delocalized Lyapunov vectors, they act collectively on the trajectory and hence characterize the instability of its collective dynamics. We further develop, for globally coupled systems, a connection between these collective modes and the Lyapunov modes in the corresponding Perron–Frobenius equation. We thereby address the fundamental question of the effective dimension of collective dynamics and discuss the extensivity of chaos in the presence of collective dynamics. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’. (paper)

  15. OSCILLATING MODE OF TOPINAMBUR TUBERS DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Golubkivich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Specifics of a chemical composition of tubers and green material of a topinambur (Helianthus tuberosus, high efficiency and ecological plasticity, profitability of growing, biotechnological potential of use enable to identify a topinambur as a of high-energy cultures of the future. High moisture of various topinambur parts, features of the mechanism of a heat and mass transfer set a problem of search of the new drying methods promoting to increase dehydration efficiency and produce a quality product. A method of calculation of duration of the oscillating mode of topinambur tubers drying in a dense layer is worked out. The topinambur tubers cut on cubes with the side of 6 mm were taken as object of researches. Researches were conducted in the setting of various drying modes: two experiences at the oscillating mode with height of a material layer of 0.07 m and 0.17 m; and also as a check experiment was material drying at a constant temperature of the drying agent. Duration of the oscillating mode of topinambur tubers drying was calculated on their basis of received curves of changes of moisture content at various modes of drying. Estimate indicators were confirmed with experimental data. Results of determination of duration of the oscillating modes of topinambur tubers drying proved that efficiency of the oscillating modes is 18 percent higher, than at control experiment.

  16. Nonlinear MHD and energetic particle modes in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, H.R.

    2002-01-01

    The M3D code has been applied to ideal, resistive, two fluid, and hybrid simulations of compact quasi axisymmetric stellarators. When beta exceeds a threshold, low poloidal mode number (m=6∼18) modes grow exponentially, clearly distinguishable from the equilibrium evolution. Simulations of NCSX have beta limits are significantly higher than the infinite mode number ballooning limits. In the presence of resistivity, these modes occur well below the ideal limit. Their growth rate scaling with resistivity is similar to tearing modes. With sufficient viscosity, the growth rate becomes slow enough to allow calculations of magnetic island evolution. Hybrid gyrokinetic simulations with energetic particles indicate that global shear Alfven TAE - like modes can be destabilized in stellarators. Computations in a two - period compact stellarator obtained a predominantly n=1 toroidal mode with about the expected TAE frequency. Work is in progress to study fast ion-driven Alfven modes in NCSX. (author)

  17. Multiple Modes of Communication between Neurons and Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maldonado, Paloma P; Angulo, María Cecilia

    The surprising discovery of bona fide synapses between neurons and oligodendrocytes precursor cells (OPCs) 15 years ago placed these progenitors as real partners of neurons in the CNS. The role of these synapses has not been established yet, but a main hypothesis is that neuron-OPC synaptic activity

  18. Multiple excitation modes in 163Hf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yadav, Rachita; Ma, J.C.; Marsh, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Excited states of Hf163 were populated using the Zr94(Ge74,5n) reaction and the decay γ rays were measured with the Gammasphere spectrometer. Two previously known bands were extended to higher spins, and nine new bands were identified. In addition to bands associated with three- and five-quasiparticle...

  19. Sliding mode control and observation

    CERN Document Server

    Shtessel, Yuri; Fridman, Leonid; Levant, Arie

    2014-01-01

    The sliding mode control methodology has proven effective in dealing with complex dynamical systems affected by disturbances, uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics. Robust control technology based on this methodology has been applied to many real-world problems, especially in the areas of aerospace control, electric power systems, electromechanical systems, and robotics. Sliding Mode Control and Observation represents the first textbook that starts with classical sliding mode control techniques and progresses toward newly developed higher-order sliding mode control and observation algorithms and their applications. The present volume addresses a range of sliding mode control issues, including: *Conventional sliding mode controller and observer design *Second-order sliding mode controllers and differentiators *Frequency domain analysis of conventional and second-order sliding mode controllers *Higher-order sliding mode controllers and differentiators *Higher-order sliding mode observers *Sliding mode disturbanc...

  20. Multiple homicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, A R

    1989-09-01

    A study of multiple homicides or multiple deaths involving a solitary incident of violence by another individual was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade County in Miami, Florida, during 1983-1987. A total of 107 multiple homicides were studied: 88 double, 17 triple, one quadruple, and one quintuple. The 236 victims were analyzed regarding age, race, sex, cause of death, toxicologic data, perpetrator, locale of the incident, and reason for the incident. This article compares this type of slaying with other types of homicide including those perpetrated by serial killers. Suggestions for future research in this field are offered.

  1. Mode selection laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    spatial reflector variations, may be combined to generate a laser beam containing a plurality of orthogonal modes. The laser beam may be injected into a few- mode optical fiber, e.g. for the purpose of optical communication. The VCSEL may have intra-cavity contacts (31,37) and a Tunnel junction (33......) for current confinement into the active layer (34). An air-gap layer (102) may be provided between the upper reflector (15) and the SOI wafer (50) acting as a substrate. The lower reflector may be designed as a high-contrast grating (51) by etching....

  2. Mode I and mixed mode crack-tip fields in strain gradient plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutianos, Stergios

    2011-01-01

    Strain gradients develop near the crack-tip of Mode I or mixed mode cracks. A finite strain version of the phenomenological strain gradient plasticity theory of Fleck–Hutchinson (2001) is used here to quantify the effect of the material length scales on the crack-tip stress field for a sharp...... stationary crack under Mode I and mixed mode loading. It is found that for material length scales much smaller than the scale of the deformation gradients, the predictions converge to conventional elastic–plastic solutions. For length scales sufficiently large, the predictions converge to elastic solutions....... Thus, the range of length scales over which a strain gradient plasticity model is necessary is identified. The role of each of the three material length scales, incorporated in the multiple length scale theory, in altering the near-tip stress field is systematically studied in order to quantify...

  3. Effect of survey mode on response patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Ekholm, Ola; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    .7%). Marital status, ethnic background and highest completed education were associated with non-response in both modes. Furthermore, sex and age were associated with non-response in the self-administered mode. No significant mode effects were observed for indicators related to use of health services......BACKGROUND: While face-to-face interviews are considered the gold standard of survey modes, self-administered questionnaires are often preferred for cost and convenience. This article examines response patterns in two general population health surveys carried out by face-to-face interview and self......-administered questionnaire, respectively. METHOD: Data derives from a health interview survey in the Region of Southern Denmark (face-to-face interview) and The Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2010 (self-administered questionnaire). Identical questions were used in both surveys. Data on all individuals were obtained from...

  4. Index-antiguided planar waveguide lasers with large mode area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanye

    the guidance of the fundamental transverse mode along two orthogonal directions in a transverse plane is different. Along the bounded direction, index antiguiding prevails with negligible thermal refractive focusing while along the unbounded direction, the lasing mode is guided by thermal refractive focusing with negligible quadratic gain focusing. It is also founded that the quadratic thermal focusing will dominate the mode guidance in 220 microm chip with the help of additional pump. All these discovery calls for an active thermal control. The modal discriminative loss, though beneficial for transverse mode control, yet reduces the lasing efficiency. To model it, a 3-D lasing output power calculation model is developed based on spatial rate equations. The simulation results show good agreement with experiment data where slope efficiency curve are measured using multiple output couplers. The 10% slope efficiency with respect to incident pump power is the highest slope efficiency recorded in index-antiguided waveguide continuous-wave lasers. The model indicates more efficient pump absorption can facilitate further power scaling. The role of the modal discriminative loss in transverse mode competition is discussed. A theoretical model based on Rigrod analysis and spatial hole-burning is developed. The simulation shows reasonable agreement with experiment results in both chips. The single fundamental mode operation up to 10 times above the lasing threshold for 220 microm chip is achieved, which is limited by the incident pump power. However, as the core size increases, the modal distributed loss due to the index antiguiding is found to be less effective in transverse mode control. Other modal loss is needed to facilitate the suppression of higher-order modes. Based on the model, a strategy is proposed aiming to maximize the single mode output. It is also noted that the transverse mode competition model is also suitable for other lasers system with well-defined modal

  5. Saturated tearing modes in tokamaks with divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, G.

    1982-12-01

    We have developed a self-consistent theory of saturated tearing modes capable of predicting multiple magnetic island widths in tokamaks with no assumptions on the cross-sectional shape, aspect ratio, or plasma pressure. We are in the process of implementing this algorithm in the form of a computer code. We propose: (1) to complete, refine, document and publish this computer code; (2) to carry out a survey in which we vary the current profile, aspect ratio, cross-sectional shape, and pressure profile in order to determine their effect on saturated tearing mode magnetic island widths; and (3) to determine the effect of some externally applied magnetic perturbation harmonics on these magnetic island widths. Particular attention will be paid to the coupling between different helical harmonics, the effect of multiple magnetic islands on the profiles of temperature, pressure and current, and the potential of magnetic island overlap leading to a disruptive instability

  6. Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the myelin sheath, the material that surrounds and protects your nerve cells. This damage slows down ...

  7. Multiple myeloma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Conor D

    2012-02-01

    Advances in the imaging and treatment of multiple myeloma have occurred over the past decade. This article summarises the current status and highlights how an understanding of both is necessary for optimum management.

  8. Multiple mononeuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with multiple mononeuropathy are prone to new nerve injuries at pressure points such as the knees and elbows. They should avoid putting pressure on these areas, for example, by not leaning on the elbows, crossing the knees, ...

  9. Magnetic modes in superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, F.A.

    1990-04-01

    A first discussion of reciprocal propagation of magnetic modes in a superlattice is presented. In the absence of an applied external magnetic field a superllatice made of alternate layers of the type antiferromagnetic-non-magnetic materials presents effects similar to those of phonons in a dielectric superlattice. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  10. Thermodynamics of Radiation Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Eduardo; de la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the…

  11. An Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) Mode Reconfigurable Antenna for Channel Capacity Improvement and Digital Data Encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baiyang; Lin, Guoying; Cui, Yuehui; Li, RongLin

    2017-08-29

    For purpose of utilizing orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode diversity, multiple OAM beams should be generated preferably by a single antenna. In this paper, an OAM mode reconfigurable antenna is proposed. Different from the existed OAM antennas with multiple ports for multiple OAM modes transmitting, the proposed antenna with only a single port, but it can be used to transmit mode 1 or mode -1 OAM beams arbitrary by controlling the PIN diodes on the feeding network through a programmable microcontroller which control by a remote controller. Simulation and measurement results such as return loss, near-field and far-field radiation patterns of two operating states for mode 1 and mode -1, and OAM mode orthogonality are given. The proposed antenna can serve as a candidate for utilizing OAM diversity, namely phase diversity to increase channel capacity at 2.4 GHz. Moreover, an OAM-mode based encoding method is experimentally carried out by the proposed OAM mode reconfigurable antenna, the digital data are encoded and decoded by different OAM modes. At the transmitter, the proposed OAM mode reconfigurable antenna is used to encode the digital data, data symbol 0 and 1 are mapped to OAM mode 1 and mode -1, respectively. At the receiver, the data symbols are decoded by phase gradient method.

  12. Probabilistic analysis of ''common mode failures''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterling, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Common mode failure is a topic of considerable interest in reliability and safety analyses of nuclear reactors. Common mode failures are often discussed in terms of examples: two systems fail simultaneously due to an external event such as an earthquake; two components in redundant channels fail because of a common manufacturing defect; two systems fail because a component common to both fails; the failure of one system increases the stress on other systems and they fail. The common thread running through these is a dependence of some sort--statistical or physical--among multiple failure events. However, the nature of the dependence is not the same in all these examples. An attempt is made to model situations, such as the above examples, which have been termed ''common mode failures.'' In doing so, it is found that standard probability concepts and terms, such as statistically dependent and independent events, and conditional and unconditional probabilities, suffice. Thus, it is proposed that the term ''common mode failures'' be dropped, at least from technical discussions of these problems. A corollary is that the complementary term, ''random failures,'' should also be dropped. The mathematical model presented may not cover all situations which have been termed ''common mode failures,'' but provides insight into the difficulty of obtaining estimates of the probabilities of these events

  13. Multi-mode vibration control of piping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minowa, Takeshi; Seto, Kazuto; Iiyama, Fumiya; Sodeyama, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, dual dynamic absorbers are applied to the piping system in order to control the multiple vibration modes. ANSYS, which is one of the software based on FEM(finite element method), is used for the design of dual dynamic absorbers as well as for the determination of their optimum installing positions. The dual dynamic absorbers designed optimally for controlling the first three vibration modes perform just like a houde damper in higher frequency and have an effect on controlling higher modes. To use this advantage, three dual dynamic absorbers are installed in positions where they influence higher modes, and not only the first three modes of the piping system but also the extensive modes are controlled. Practical experimental study has also been carried out and it is shown that a dual dynamic absorber is suitable for controlling the vibration of the piping system. (author)

  14. [Multiple meningiomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, L-M; François, P

    2016-06-01

    Multiple meningiomas (MMs) or meningiomatosis are defined by the presence of at least 2 lesions that appear simultaneously or not, at different intracranial locations, without the association of neurofibromatosis. They present 1-9 % of meningiomas with a female predominance. The occurrence of multiple meningiomas is not clear. There are 2 main hypotheses for their development, one that supports the independent evolution of these tumors and the other, completely opposite, that suggests the propagation of tumor cells of a unique clone transformation, through cerebrospinal fluid. NF2 gene mutation is an important intrinsic risk factor in the etiology of multiple meningiomas and some exogenous risk factors have been suspected but only ionizing radiation exposure has been proven. These tumors can grow anywhere in the skull but they are more frequently observed in supratentorial locations. Their histologic types are similar to unique meningiomas of psammomatous, fibroblastic, meningothelial or transitional type and in most cases are benign tumors. The prognosis of these tumors is eventually good and does not differ from the unique tumors except for the cases of radiation-induced multiple meningiomas, in the context of NF2 or when diagnosed in children where the outcome is less favorable. Each meningioma lesion should be dealt with individually and their multiple character should not justify their resection at all costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. From the doctor's workshop to the iron cage? Evolving modes of physician control in US health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, Martin; Caronna, Carol A; Shortell, Stephen M

    2005-03-01

    As national health systems pursue the common goals of containing expenditure growth and improving quality, many have sought to replace autonomous modes (systems) of physician control that rely on initial professional training and subsequent peer review. A common approach has involved extending bureaucratic modes of physician control that employ techniques such as hierarchical coordination and salaried positions. This paper applies concepts from studies of professional work to frame an empirical analysis of emergent bureaucratic modes of physician control in US hospital-based systems. Conceptually, we draw from recent studies to update Scott's (Health Services Res. 17(3) (1982) 213) typology to specify three bureaucratic modes of physician control: heteronomous, conjoint, and custodial. Empirically, we use case study evidence from eight US hospital-based systems to illustrate the heterogeneity of bureaucratic modes of physician control that span each of the ideal types. The findings indicate that some influential analysts perpetuate a caricature of bureaucratic organization which underplays its capacity to provide multiple modes of physician control that maintain professional autonomy over the content of work, and present opportunities for aligning practice with social goals.

  16. Observations on resistive wall modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerwin, R.A.; Finn, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Several results on resistive wall modes and their application to tokamaks are presented. First, it is observed that in the presence of collisional parallel dynamics there is an exact cancellation to lowest order of the dissipative and sound wave effects for an ideal Ohm's law. This is easily traced to the fact that the parallel dynamics occurs along the perturbed magnetic field lines for such electromagnetic modes. Such a cancellation does not occur in the resistive layer of a tearing-like mode. The relevance to models for resistive wall modes using an electrostatic Hammett-Perkins type operator to model Landau damping will be discussed. Second, we observe that with an ideal Ohm's law, resistive wall modes can be destabilized by rotation in that part of parameter space in which the ideal MHD modes are stable with the wall at infinity. This effect can easily be explained by interpreting the resistive wall instability in terms of mode coupling between the backward stable MHD mode and a stable mode locked into the wall. Such an effect can occur for very small rotation for tearing-resistive wall modes in which inertia dominates viscosity in the layer, but the mode is stabilized by further rotation. For modes for which viscosity dominates in the layer, rotation is purely stabilizing. For both tearing models, a somewhat higher rotation frequency gives stability essentially whenever the tearing mode is stable with a perfectly conducting wall. These tearing/resistive wall results axe also simply explained in terms of mode coupling. It has been shown that resonant external ideal modes can be stabilized in the presence of resistive wall and resistive plasma with rotation of order the nominal tearing mode growth rate. We show that these modes behave as resistive wall tearing modes in the sense above. This strengthens the suggestion that rotational stabilization of the external kink with a resistive wall is due to the presence of resistive layers, even for ideal modes

  17. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Egon; Stenager, E N; Knudsen, Lone

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 117 randomly selected patients (52 men, 65 women) with definite multiple sclerosis, it was found that 76 percent were married or cohabitant, 8 percent divorced. Social contacts remained unchanged for 70 percent, but outgoing social contacts were reduced for 45 percent......, need for structural changes in home and need for pension became greater with increasing physical handicap. No significant differences between gender were found. It is concluded that patients and relatives are under increased social strain, when multiple sclerosis progresses to a moderate handicap...

  18. The Influence of Dosing Modes of Coagulate on Arsenic Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three different dosing modes, including one single dosing mode and two sequential dosing modes, were applied in high-arsenic contaminated water treatment. The results illustrated that the As (V soluble and the As (V nonspecifically sorbed were the insignificant species from Fe-As (V samples in the sequential dosing mode, while they were higher in the single dosing mode. However, it could be further concluded that the mobility of the Fe-As (V in sequential dosing mode was greater than that in single dosing mode. Besides, the main arsenic speciation governing the arsenic-borne coagulates was the As (V associated with poorly crystalline hydrous oxides of Fe in sequential or single dosing mode. Moreover, the particle size distribution analysis indicated that the sequential dosing mode was more prevalent in neutralizing and adsorbing the As (V compared with the single dosing mode. In the FT-IR spectra, the presence of arsenic was highlighted by a well resolved band at 825–829 cm−1. The positions of the As–O stretching vibration bands were shifted gradually as the dosing mode changed from the single to the sequential. This result could be related to the distribution of arsenic speciation in different dosing modes.

  19. Excitation mechanisms for Jovian seismic modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Steve; Stevenson, Dave

    2018-05-01

    Recent (2011) results from the Nice Observatory indicate the existence of global seismic modes on Jupiter in the frequency range between 0.7 and 1.5 mHz with amplitudes of tens of cm/s. Currently, the driving force behind these modes is a mystery; the measured amplitudes are many orders of magnitude larger than anticipated based on theory analogous to helioseismology (that is, turbulent convection as a source of stochastic excitation). One of the most promising hypotheses is that these modes are driven by Jovian storms. This work constructs a framework to analytically model the expected equilibrium normal mode amplitudes arising from convective columns in storms. We also place rough constraints on Jupiter's seismic modal quality factor. Using this model, neither meteor strikes, turbulent convection, nor water storms can feasibly excite the order of magnitude of observed amplitudes. Next we speculate about the potential role of rock storms deeper in Jupiter's atmosphere, because the rock storms' expected energy scales make them promising candidates to be the chief source of excitation for Jovian seismic modes, based on simple scaling arguments. We also suggest some general trends in the expected partition of energy between different frequency modes. Finally we supply some commentary on potential applications to gravity, Juno, Cassini and Saturn, and future missions to Uranus and Neptune.

  20. Population of collective modes in light scattering by many atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, William; Kaiser, Robin

    2017-05-01

    The interaction of light with an atomic sample containing a large number of particles gives rise to many collective (or cooperative) effects, such as multiple scattering, superradiance, and subradiance, even if the atomic density is low and the incident optical intensity weak (linear optics regime). Tracing over the degrees of freedom of the light field, the system can be well described by an effective atomic Hamiltonian, which contains the light-mediated dipole-dipole interaction between atoms. This long-range interaction is at the origin of the various collective effects, or of collective excitation modes of the system. Even though an analysis of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of these collective modes does allow distinguishing superradiant modes, for instance, from other collective modes, this is not sufficient to understand the dynamics of a driven system, as not all collective modes are significantly populated. Here, we study how the excitation parameters, i.e., the driving field, determines the population of the collective modes. We investigate in particular the role of the laser detuning from the atomic transition, and demonstrate a simple relation between the detuning and the steady-state population of the modes. This relation allows understanding several properties of cooperative scattering, such as why superradiance and subradiance become independent of the detuning at large enough detuning without vanishing, and why superradiance, but not subradiance, is suppressed near resonance. We also show that the spatial properties of the collective modes allow distinguishing diffusive modes, responsible for radiation trapping, from subradiant modes.

  1. Boosting Majorana Zero Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Karzig

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional topological superconductors are known to host Majorana zero modes at domain walls terminating the topological phase. Their non-Abelian nature allows for processing quantum information by braiding operations that are insensitive to local perturbations, making Majorana zero modes a promising platform for topological quantum computation. Motivated by the ultimate goal of executing quantum-information processing on a finite time scale, we study domain walls moving at a constant velocity. We exploit an effective Lorentz invariance of the Hamiltonian to obtain an exact solution of the associated quasiparticle spectrum and wave functions for arbitrary velocities. Essential features of the solution have a natural interpretation in terms of the familiar relativistic effects of Lorentz contraction and time dilation. We find that the Majorana zero modes remain stable as long as the domain wall moves at subluminal velocities with respect to the effective speed of light of the system. However, the Majorana bound state dissolves into a continuous quasiparticle spectrum after the domain wall propagates at luminal or even superluminal velocities. This relativistic catastrophe implies that there is an upper limit for possible braiding frequencies even in a perfectly clean system with an arbitrarily large topological gap. We also exploit our exact solution to consider domain walls moving past static impurities present in the system.

  2. Overview of long pulse H-mode operation on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, X.; Garofalo, A. M.; Wan, B.; Li, J.; Qian, J.; Li, E.; Liu, F.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, M.; Xu, H.; EAST Team

    2017-10-01

    The EAST research program aims to demonstrate steady-state long-pulse high-performance H-mode operations with ITER-like poloidal configuration and RF-dominated heating schemes. In the recent experimental campaign, a long pulse fully non-inductive H-mode discharge lasting over 100 seconds using the upper ITER-like tungsten divertor has been achieved in EAST. This scenario used only RF heating and current drive, but also benefitted from an integrated control of the wall conditioning, plasma configuration, divertor heat flux, particle exhaust, impurity management and superconducting coils safety. Maintaining effective coupling of multiple RF heating and current drive sources on EAST is a critical ingredient. This long pulse discharge had good energy confinement, H98,y2 1.1-1.2, and all of the plasma parameters reach a true steady-state. Power balance indicates that the confinement improvement is due partly to a significantly reduced core electron transport inside minor radius rho<0.4. This work was supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China Contract No. 2015GB10200 and the US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-SC0010685.

  3. Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) indices of Pseudomonas and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · Journal Quality.

  4. Transition of lasing modes in polymeric opal photonic crystal resonating cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lan-Ting; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Jin, Feng; Dong, Xian-Zi; Chen, Wei-Qiang; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng; Duan, Xuan-Ming

    2016-06-10

    We demonstrate the transition of lasing modes in the resonating cavity constructed by polystyrene opal photonic crystals and 7 wt. % tert-butyl Rhodamine B doped polymer film. Both single mode and multiple mode lasing emission are observed from the resonating cavity. The lasing threshold is determined to be 0.81  μJ/pulse for single mode lasing emission and 2.25  μJ/pulse for multiple mode lasing emission. The single mode lasing emission is attributed to photonic lasing resulting from the photonic bandgap effect of the opal photonic crystals, while the multiple mode lasing emission is assigned to random lasing due to the defects in the photonic crystals. The result would benefit the development of low threshold polymeric solid state photonic crystal lasers.

  5. Multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jeong Ick; Ha, Choon Ho; Choi, Karp Shik

    1994-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant plasma cell tumor that is thought to originate proliferation of a single clone of abnormal plasma cell resulting production of a whole monoclonal paraprotein. The authors experienced a case of multiple myeloma with severe mandibular osteolytic lesions in 46-year-old female. As a result of careful analysis of clinical, radiological, histopathological features, and laboratory findings, we diagnosed it as multiple myeloma, and the following results were obtained. 1. Main clinical symptoms were intermittent dull pain on the mandibular body area, abnormal sensation of lip and pain due to the fracture on the right clavicle. 2. Laboratory findings revealed M-spike, reversed serum albumin-globulin ratio, markedly elevated ESR and hypercalcemia. 3. Radiographically, multiple osteolytic punched-out radiolucencies were evident on the skull, zygoma, jaw bones, ribs, clavicle and upper extremities. Enlarged liver and increased uptakes on the lesional sites in RN scan were also observed. 4. Histopathologically, markedly hypercellular marrow with sheets of plasmoblasts and megakaryocytes were also observed.

  6. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1988-01-01

    Forty-two (12%) of a total of 366 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) had psychiatric admissions. Of these, 34 (81%) had their first psychiatric admission in conjunction with or after the onset of MS. Classification by psychiatric diagnosis showed that there was a significant positive correlation...

  7. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1991-01-01

    In a cross-sectional investigation of 116 patients with multiple sclerosis, the social and sparetime activities of the patient were assessed by both patient and his/her family. The assessments were correlated to physical disability which showed that particularly those who were moderately disabled...

  8. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 94 patients (42 males, 52 females) with definite multiple sclerosis (MS) in the age range 25-55 years, the correlation of neuropsychological tests with the ability to read TV-subtitles and with the use of sedatives is examined. A logistic regression analysis reveals...

  9. Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  10. Parenting Multiples

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when your babies do. Though it can be hard to let go of the thousand other things you need to do, remember that your well-being is key to your ability to take care of your babies. What Problems Can Happen? It may be hard to tell multiple babies apart when they first ...

  11. Modes of winter precipitation variability in the North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorita, E. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik; Saenz, J.; Fernandez, J.; Zubillaga, J. [Bilbao Univ. (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    The modes of variability of winter precipitation in the North Atlantic sector are identified by Empirical Orthogonal Functions Analysis in the NCEP/NCAR global reanalysis data sets. These modes are also present in a gridded precipitation data set over the Western Europe. The large-scale fields of atmospheric seasonal mean circulation, baroclinic activity, evaporation and humidity transport that are connected to the rainfall modes have been also analyzed in order to investigate the physical mechanisms that are causally linked to the rainfall modes. The results indicate that the leading rainfall mode is associated to the North Atlantic oscillation and represents a meridional redistribution of precipitation in the North Atlantic through displacements of the storm tracks. The second mode is related to evaporation anomalies in the Eastern Atlantic that precipitate almost entirely in the Western Atlantic. The third mode seems to be associated to meridional transport of water vapor from the Tropical Atlantic. (orig.)

  12. Combined Cycle Engine Large-Scale Inlet for Mode Transition Experiments: System Identification Rack Hardware Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Randy; Stueber, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The System Identification (SysID) Rack is a real-time hardware-in-the-loop data acquisition (DAQ) and control instrument rack that was designed and built to support inlet testing in the NASA Glenn Research Center 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel. This instrument rack is used to support experiments on the Combined-Cycle Engine Large-Scale Inlet for Mode Transition Experiment (CCE? LIMX). The CCE?LIMX is a testbed for an integrated dual flow-path inlet configuration with the two flow paths in an over-and-under arrangement such that the high-speed flow path is located below the lowspeed flow path. The CCE?LIMX includes multiple actuators that are designed to redirect airflow from one flow path to the other; this action is referred to as "inlet mode transition." Multiple phases of experiments have been planned to support research that investigates inlet mode transition: inlet characterization (Phase-1) and system identification (Phase-2). The SysID Rack hardware design met the following requirements to support Phase-1 and Phase-2 experiments: safely and effectively move multiple actuators individually or synchronously; sample and save effector control and position sensor feedback signals; automate control of actuator positioning based on a mode transition schedule; sample and save pressure sensor signals; and perform DAQ and control processes operating at 2.5 KHz. This document describes the hardware components used to build the SysID Rack including their function, specifications, and system interface. Furthermore, provided in this document are a SysID Rack effectors signal list (signal flow); system identification experiment setup; illustrations indicating a typical SysID Rack experiment; and a SysID Rack performance overview for Phase-1 and Phase-2 experiments. The SysID Rack described in this document was a useful tool to meet the project objectives.

  13. Guaranteed performance in reaching mode of sliding mode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    addresses the design of constant plus proportional rate reaching law-based SMC for second-order ... Reaching mode; sliding mode controlled systems; output tracking ... The uncertainty in the input distribution function g is expressed as.

  14. Edge-localized mode avoidance and pedestal structure in I-mode plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walk, J. R., E-mail: jrwalk@psfc.mit.edu; Hughes, J. W.; Hubbard, A. E.; Terry, J. L.; Whyte, D. G.; White, A. E.; Baek, S. G.; Reinke, M. L.; Theiler, C.; Churchill, R. M.; Rice, J. E. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Snyder, P. B.; Osborne, T. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Dominguez, A [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States); Cziegler, I. [UCSD Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    I-mode is a high-performance tokamak regime characterized by the formation of a temperature pedestal and enhanced energy confinement, without an accompanying density pedestal or drop in particle and impurity transport. I-mode operation appears to have naturally occurring suppression of large Edge-Localized Modes (ELMs) in addition to its highly favorable scalings of pedestal structure and overall performance. Extensive study of the ELMy H-mode has led to the development of the EPED model, which utilizes calculations of coupled peeling-ballooning MHD modes and kinetic-ballooning mode (KBM) stability limits to predict the pedestal structure preceding an ELM crash. We apply similar tools to the structure and ELM stability of I-mode pedestals. Analysis of I-mode discharges prepared with high-resolution pedestal data from the most recent C-Mod campaign reveals favorable pedestal scalings for extrapolation to large machines—pedestal temperature scales strongly with power per particle P{sub net}/n{sup ¯}{sub e}, and likewise pedestal pressure scales as the net heating power (consistent with weak degradation of confinement with heating power). Matched discharges in current, field, and shaping demonstrate the decoupling of energy and particle transport in I-mode, increasing fueling to span nearly a factor of two in density while maintaining matched temperature pedestals with consistent levels of P{sub net}/n{sup ¯}{sub e}. This is consistent with targets for increased performance in I-mode, elevating pedestal β{sub p} and global performance with matched increases in density and heating power. MHD calculations using the ELITE code indicate that I-mode pedestals are strongly stable to edge peeling-ballooning instabilities. Likewise, numerical modeling of the KBM turbulence onset, as well as scalings of the pedestal width with poloidal beta, indicates that I-mode pedestals are not limited by KBM turbulence—both features identified with the trigger for large ELMs

  15. Mode-to-mode energy transfers in convective patterns

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We investigate the energy transfer between various Fourier modes in a low- dimensional model for thermal convection. We have used the formalism of mode-to-mode energy transfer rate in our calculation. The evolution equations derived using this scheme is the same as those derived using the hydrodynamical ...

  16. Equilibrium radionuclide assessment of left ventricular ejection and filling. Comparison of list mode-and multigated frame-mode measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugrue, D.D.; McKenna, W.J.; Dickie, S.; Oakley, C.M.; Myers, M.J.; Lavender, J.P. (Royal Postgraduate Medical School, London (UK))

    1983-10-01

    The relationship as studied between radionuclide indices of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function acquired in conventional multigated frame-mode compared to list-mode in patients with sinus rhythm. The study showed that frame-mode and list-mode measurements of ejection and filling indices are not significantly different in these patients but that backward reformatting of data acquired in list-mode is necessary to measure the atrial contribution to LV stroke counts. It was concluded that valid measurements of left ventricular systolic ejection and diastolic filling can be made in patients in sinus rhythm using frame-mode acquisition with the exception of measurements of the contribution from atrial systole to stroke volume.

  17. Design project management mode as the introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    This article consider nuclear power plant's current design schedule management mode as the introduction, analysis of current management in-depth, summed up the advantage and disadvantage of the existing management mode. It makes use of mature closed loop cycle project management, and submits progress tracking model assumptions. It also introduces the purpose and background of the progress automation model, the theoretical assumptions of the model, the design criteria and evaluation system of indicators of progress. Based on the achievement process model, this article mainly discusses the specific processes and key points of the project closed loop cycle, and the improvement of the process of project management. (author)

  18. Azimuthal decomposition of optical modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation analyses the azimuthal decomposition of optical modes. Decomposition of azimuthal modes need two steps, namely generation and decomposition. An azimuthally-varying phase (bounded by a ring-slit) placed in the spatial frequency...

  19. Localized Acoustic Surface Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-08-04

    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes (ASMs). We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  20. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadashima, Hiromichi; Kusaka, Hirofumi; Imai, Terukuni; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi

    1986-01-01

    Eleven patients with a definite diagnosis of multiple sclerosis were examined in terms of correlations between the clinical features and the results of cranial computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: In 5 of the 11 patients, both CT and MRI demonstrated lesions consistent with a finding of multiple sclerosis. In 3 patients, only MRI demonstrated lesions. In the remaining 3 patients, neither CT nor MRI revealed any lesion in the brain. All 5 patients who showed abnormal findings on both CT and MRI had clinical signs either of cerebral or brainstem - cerebellar lesions. On the other hand, two of the 3 patients with normal CT and MRI findings had optic-nerve and spinal-cord signs. Therefore, our results suggested relatively good correlations between the clinical features, CT, and MRI. MRI revealed cerebral lesions in two of the four patients with clinical signs of only optic-nerve and spinal-cord lesions. MRI demonstrated sclerotic lesions in 3 of the 6 patients whose plaques were not detected by CT. In conclusion, MRI proved to be more helpful in the demonstration of lesions attributable to chronic multiple sclerosis. (author)

  1. Tunable orbital angular momentum mode filter based on optical geometric transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Ren, Yongxiong; Xie, Guodong; Yan, Yan; Yue, Yang; Ahmed, Nisar; Lavery, Martin P J; Padgett, Miles J; Dolinar, Sam; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E

    2014-03-15

    We present a tunable mode filter for spatially multiplexed laser beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). The filter comprises an optical geometric transformation-based OAM mode sorter and a spatial light modulator (SLM). The programmable SLM can selectively control the passing/blocking of each input OAM beam. We experimentally demonstrate tunable filtering of one or multiple OAM modes from four multiplexed input OAM modes with vortex charge of ℓ=-9, -4, +4, and +9. The measured output power suppression ratio of the propagated modes to the blocked modes exceeds 14.5 dB.

  2. Three distinct modes of intron dynamics in the evolution of eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Liran; Wolf, Yuri I; Rogozin, Igor B; Koonin, Eugene V

    2007-07-01

    Several contrasting scenarios have been proposed for the origin and evolution of spliceosomal introns, a hallmark of eukaryotic genes. A comprehensive probabilistic model to obtain a definitive reconstruction of intron evolution was developed and applied to 391 sets of conserved genes from 19 eukaryotic species. It is inferred that a relatively high intron density was reached early, i.e., the last common ancestor of eukaryotes contained >2.15 introns/kilobase, and the last common ancestor of multicellular life forms harbored approximately 3.4 introns/kilobase, a greater intron density than in most of the extant fungi and in some animals. The rates of intron gain and intron loss appear to have been dropping during the last approximately 1.3 billion years, with the decline in the gain rate being much steeper. Eukaryotic lineages exhibit three distinct modes of evolution of the intron-exon structure. The primary, balanced mode, apparently, operates in all lineages. In this mode, intron gain and loss are strongly and positively correlated, in contrast to previous reports on inverse correlation between these processes. The second mode involves an elevated rate of intron loss and is prevalent in several lineages, such as fungi and insects. The third mode, characterized by elevated rate of intron gain, is seen only in deep branches of the tree, indicating that bursts of intron invasion occurred at key points in eukaryotic evolution, such as the origin of animals. Intron dynamics could depend on multiple mechanisms, and in the balanced mode, gain and loss of introns might share common mechanistic features.

  3. Raman amplification of OAM modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Kasper; Gregg, Patrick; Galili, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The set of fibre modes carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) is a possible basis for mode division multiplexing. In this regard, fibres supporting OAM modes have been fabricated [1], and optical communication using these fibres, has been demonstrated [2]. A vital part of any long range...

  4. ACCA College English Teaching Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Renlun

    2008-01-01

    This paper elucidates a new college English teaching mode--"ACCA" (Autonomous Cooperative Class-teaching All-round College English Teaching Mode). Integrated theories such as autonomous learning and cooperative learning into one teaching mode, "ACCA", which is being developed and advanced in practice as well, is the achievement…

  5. Fluxon modes in superconducting multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Madsen, Søren Peder

    2004-01-01

    We show how to construct fluxon modes from plasma modes in the inductively coupled stacked Josephson junctions, and consider some special cases of these fluxon modes analytically. In some cases we can find exact analytical solutions when we choose the bias current in a special way. We also consid...

  6. Standardization of Keyword Search Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Di

    2010-01-01

    In spite of its popularity, keyword search mode has not been standardized. Though information professionals are quick to adapt to various presentations of keyword search mode, novice end-users may find keyword search confusing. This article compares keyword search mode in some major reference databases and calls for standardization. (Contains 3…

  7. Interferometric characterization of few-mode fibers (FMF) for mode-division multiplexing (MDM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muliar, Olena; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    ), commonly used in a MDM scenario. This experimental technique requires the use of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, where the reference's path length is controlled by an optical delay line. The interference between the output beams of reference and fiber under test (FUT) is recorded on a CCD camera......The rapid growth of global data traffic demands the continuous search for new technologies and systems that could increase transmission capacity in optical links and recent experiments show that to do so, it is advantageous to explore new degrees of freedom such as polarization, wavelength...... or optical modes. Mode division multiplexing (MDM) appears in this context as a promising and viable solution for such capacity increase, since it utilizes multiple spatial modes of an optical fiber as individual communication channels for data transmission. In order to evaluate its performance, a MDM system...

  8. Multiple Parton Interactions in ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    We will present in detail the measurement of the charged particle multiplicity dependence of per-trigger pair yields in azimuthal direction induced by low-energetic di-jets produced in proton-proton collisions. Using two-particle angular correlations with low transverse momentum thresholds, jet properties are measured on a statistical basis down to the lowest possible jet energies. The analysis can give information about the contribution from multiple parton interactions to particle production. Moreover, the results allow to optimize the parametrization of the jet fragmentation in phenomenological mode...

  9. Default mode contributions to automated information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, Deniz; Menon, David K; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A

    2017-11-28

    Concurrent with mental processes that require rigorous computation and control, a series of automated decisions and actions govern our daily lives, providing efficient and adaptive responses to environmental demands. Using a cognitive flexibility task, we show that a set of brain regions collectively known as the default mode network plays a crucial role in such "autopilot" behavior, i.e., when rapidly selecting appropriate responses under predictable behavioral contexts. While applying learned rules, the default mode network shows both greater activity and connectivity. Furthermore, functional interactions between this network and hippocampal and parahippocampal areas as well as primary visual cortex correlate with the speed of accurate responses. These findings indicate a memory-based "autopilot role" for the default mode network, which may have important implications for our current understanding of healthy and adaptive brain processing.

  10. Spin and isospin modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Sagawa, H.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Spin and isospin modes in nuclei are investigated. We discuss some of the following topics. 1. Spin-dipole excitations in 12 C and 16 O are studied (1). Effects of tensor and spin-orbit interactions on the distribution of the strengths are investigated, and neutral current neutrino scattering cross sections in 16 O are obtained for heavy-flavor neutrinos from the supernovae. 2. Gamow-Teller (GT) and spin-dipole (SD) modes in 208 Bi are investigated. Quenching and fragmentation of the GT strength are discussed (2). SD excitations and electric dipole (E1) transitions between the GT and SD states are studied (3). Calculated E1 strengths are compared with the sum rule values obtained within the 1p-1h and 1p-1h + 2p-2h configuration spaces. 3. Coulomb displacement energy (CDE) of the IAS of 14 Be is calculated, and the effects of the halo on the CDE and the configuration of the halo state are investigated. 4. Spreading width of IAS and isospin dependence of the width are investigated (4). Our formula for the width explains very well the observed isospin dependence (5). (author)

  11. Modes of fossil preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  12. Normal modes of weak colloidal gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Zsigmond; Swan, James W.

    2018-01-01

    The normal modes and relaxation rates of weak colloidal gels are investigated in calculations using different models of the hydrodynamic interactions between suspended particles. The relaxation spectrum is computed for freely draining, Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa, and accelerated Stokesian dynamics approximations of the hydrodynamic mobility in a normal mode analysis of a harmonic network representing several colloidal gels. We find that the density of states and spatial structure of the normal modes are fundamentally altered by long-ranged hydrodynamic coupling among the particles. Short-ranged coupling due to hydrodynamic lubrication affects only the relaxation rates of short-wavelength modes. Hydrodynamic models accounting for long-ranged coupling exhibit a microscopic relaxation rate for each normal mode, λ that scales as l-2, where l is the spatial correlation length of the normal mode. For the freely draining approximation, which neglects long-ranged coupling, the microscopic relaxation rate scales as l-γ, where γ varies between three and two with increasing particle volume fraction. A simple phenomenological model of the internal elastic response to normal mode fluctuations is developed, which shows that long-ranged hydrodynamic interactions play a central role in the viscoelasticity of the gel network. Dynamic simulations of hard spheres that gel in response to short-ranged depletion attractions are used to test the applicability of the density of states predictions. For particle concentrations up to 30% by volume, the power law decay of the relaxation modulus in simulations accounting for long-ranged hydrodynamic interactions agrees with predictions generated by the density of states of the corresponding harmonic networks as well as experimental measurements. For higher volume fractions, excluded volume interactions dominate the stress response, and the prediction from the harmonic network density of states fails. Analogous to the Zimm model in polymer

  13. Analysis of high-quality modes in open chaotic microcavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, W.; Yamilov, A.; Cao, H.

    2005-01-01

    We present a numerical study of the high-quality modes in two-dimensional dielectric stadium microcavities. Although the classical ray mechanics is fully chaotic in a stadium billiard, all of the high-quality modes show a 'strong scar' around unstable periodic orbits. When the deformation (ratio of the length of the straight segments over the diameter of the half circles) is small, the high-quality modes correspond to whispering-gallery-type trajectories and their quality factors decrease monotonically with increasing deformation. At large deformation, each high-quality mode is associated with multiple unstable periodic orbits. Its quality factor changes nonmonotonically with the deformation, and there exists an optimal deformation for each mode at which its quality factor reaches a local maximum. This unusual behavior is attributed to the interference of waves propagating along different constituent orbits that could minimize light leakage out of the cavity

  14. Fundamental uncertainty in the BAO scale from isocurvature modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunckel, C., E-mail: caroline.zunckel@gmail.co [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Astrophysics Department, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, 4 Ivy Lane, NJ 08544 (United States); Okouma, P. [Department of Maths and Applied Maths, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); Centre for High Performance Computing, CSIR Campus, 15 Lower Hope St., Rosebank, Cape Town (South Africa); South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa); African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 6-8 Melrose Road, Muizenberg, Cape Town (South Africa); Muya Kasanda, S.; Moodley, K. [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Centre for High Performance Computing, CSIR Campus, 15 Lower Hope St., Rosebank, Cape Town (South Africa); Bassett, B.A. [Department of Maths and Applied Maths, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); Centre for High Performance Computing, CSIR Campus, 15 Lower Hope St., Rosebank, Cape Town (South Africa); South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa); African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 6-8 Melrose Road, Muizenberg, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2011-02-14

    Small fractions of isocurvature perturbations correlated with the dominant adiabatic mode are shown to be a significant primordial systematic for Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) surveys which must be accounted for in future surveys. Isocurvature modes distort the standard ruler distance by broadening and shifting the peak in the galaxy correlation function. While a single isocurvature mode does not significantly degrade dark energy constraints, the general case with multiple isocurvature modes leads to biases that exceed 7{sigma} on average in the dark energy parameters even for isocurvature amplitudes undetectable by PLANCK. Accounting for all isocurvature modes corrects for this bias but degrades the dark energy figure of merit by at least 50% in the case of the BOSS experiment. However the BAO data in turn provides significantly stronger constraints on the nature of the primordial perturbations. Future large galaxy surveys will thus be powerful probes of exotic physics in the early Universe in addition to helping pin down the nature of dark energy.

  15. Evolution of transverse modes in FELIX macropulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weits, H.H.; Lin, L.; Werkhoven, G.H.C. van

    1995-01-01

    We present ringdown measurements of both the intracavity beam, using a low reflection beamsplitter, as well as the hole-outcoupled beam of FELIX, the intracavity measurements being taken at various sets of transverse coordinates. Recent measurements show a significant difference in the decay of the signals at different radial positions, suggesting the presence of higher order transverse modes. The formation of transverse modes depends on the properties of the cold cavity and its losses (i.e. resonator parameters, diffraction and outcoupling at the hole, absorption and edge losses on the mirrors, waveguide clipping), as well as on the gain mechanism. Both simulations with the axisymmetric ELIXER code and previous hole-outcoupled measurements indicated a substantial energy content of the 2nd or 4th Gauss-Laguerre (GL) mode for the 20-30 μm regime of FELIX. Moreover, as FELIX has a phase degenerate cavity, the fundamental and higher order transverse modes can interplay to create a reduced outcoupling efficiency at the hole. For example, in contrast to the decay rate of 13% per roundtrip that we would expect for a pure gaussian beam when we include a loss of 6% for the reflection at the intracavity beamsplitter, recent simulations indicate a decay rate as high as 23% of the hole-outcoupled signal. In this case the 2nd order GL mode contains 30% of the total intracavity power. The effect of transverse modes on subpulses in the limit cycle regime is an interesting aspect. As soon as a subpulse is losing contact with the electrons, its transverse pattern will exhibit an on-axis hole after a few roundtrips, according to the simulations. This process could mean that the subpulses are less pronounced in the hole-outcoupled signal of FELIX 1

  16. Surface tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizuka, Tomonori; Kurita, Gen-ichi; Azumi, Masafumi; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1985-10-01

    Surface tearing modes in tokamaks are studied numerically and analytically. The eigenvalue problem is solved to obtain the growth rate and the mode structure. We investigate in detail dependences of the growth rate of the m/n = 2/1 resistive MHD modes on the safety factor at the plasma surface, current profile, wall position, and resistivity. The surface tearing mode moves the plasma surface even when the wall is close to the surface. The stability diagram for these modes is presented. (author)

  17. Default mode network connectivity during task execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, D; Menon, D K; Manktelow, A E; Sahakian, B J; Stamatakis, E A

    2015-11-15

    Initially described as task-induced deactivations during goal-directed paradigms of high attentional load, the unresolved functionality of default mode regions has long been assumed to interfere with task performance. However, recent evidence suggests a potential default mode network involvement in fulfilling cognitive demands. We tested this hypothesis in a finger opposition paradigm with task and fixation periods which we compared with an independent resting state scan using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a comprehensive analysis pipeline including activation, functional connectivity, behavioural and graph theoretical assessments. The results indicate task specific changes in the default mode network topography. Behaviourally, we show that increased connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex with the left superior frontal gyrus predicts faster reaction times. Moreover, interactive and dynamic reconfiguration of the default mode network regions' functional connections illustrates their involvement with the task at hand with higher-level global parallel processing power, yet preserved small-world architecture in comparison with rest. These findings demonstrate that the default mode network does not disengage during this paradigm, but instead may be involved in task relevant processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Robust modal curvature features for identifying multiple damage in beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostachowicz, Wiesław; Xu, Wei; Bai, Runbo; Radzieński, Maciej; Cao, Maosen

    2014-03-01

    Curvature mode shape is an effective feature for damage detection in beams. However, it is susceptible to measurement noise, easily impairing its advantage of sensitivity to damage. To deal with this deficiency, this study formulates an improved curvature mode shape for multiple damage detection in beams based on integrating a wavelet transform (WT) and a Teager energy operator (TEO). The improved curvature mode shape, termed the WT - TEO curvature mode shape, has inherent capabilities of immunity to noise and sensitivity to damage. The proposed method is experimentally validated by identifying multiple cracks in cantilever steel beams with the mode shapes acquired using a scanning laser vibrometer. The results demonstrate that the improved curvature mode shape can identify multiple damage accurately and reliably, and it is fairly robust to measurement noise.

  19. Pad-mode-induced instantaneous mode instability for simple models of brake systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2015-10-01

    Automotive disc brake squeal is fugitive, transient and remains difficult to predict. In particular, instantaneous mode squeal observed experimentally does not seem to be associated with mode coupling and its mechanism is not clear. The effects of contact pressures, friction coefficients as well as material properties (pressure and temperature dependency and anisotropy) for brake squeal propensity have not been systematically explored. By analysing a finite element model of an isotropic pad sliding on a plate similar to that of a previously reported experimental study, pad modes have been identified and found to be stable using conventional complex eigenvalue analysis. However, by subjecting the model to contact pressure harmonic excitation for a range of pressures and friction coefficients, a forced response analysis reveals that the dissipated energy for pad modes is negative and becomes more negative with increasing contact pressures and friction coefficients, indicating the potential for instabilities. The frequency of the pad mode in the sliding direction is within the range of squeal frequencies observed experimentally. Nonlinear time series analysis of the vibration velocity also confirms the evolution of instabilities induced by pad modes as the friction coefficient increases. By extending this analysis to a more realistic but simple brake model in the form of a pad-on-disc system, in-plane pad-modes, which a complex eigenvalue analysis predicts to be stable, have also been identified by negative dissipated energy for both isotropic and anisotropic pad material properties. The influence of contact pressures on potential instabilities has been found to be more dominant than changes in material properties owing to changes in pressure or temperature. Results here suggest that instantaneous mode squeal is likely caused by in-plane pad-mode instabilities.

  20. Stability of short wavelength tearing and twisting modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waelbroeck, F.L.

    1998-01-01

    The stability and mutual interaction of tearing and twisting modes in a torus is governed by matrices that generalize the well-known Δ' stability index. The diagonal elements of these matrices determine the intrinsic stability of modes that reconnect the magnetic field at a single resonant surface. The off-diagonal elements indicate the strength of the coupling between the different modes. The author shows how the elements of these matrices can be evaluated, in the limit of short wavelength, from the free energy driving radially extended ballooning modes. The author applies the results by calculating the tearing and twisting Δ' for a model high-beta equilibrium with circular flux surfaces

  1. Automated multiple failure FMEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, C.J.; Taylor, N.S.

    2002-01-01

    Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is typically performed by a team of engineers working together. In general, they will only consider single point failures in a system. Consideration of all possible combinations of failures is impractical for all but the simplest example systems. Even if the task of producing the FMEA report for the full multiple failure scenario were automated, it would still be impractical for the engineers to read, understand and act on all of the results. This paper shows how approximate failure rates for components can be used to select the most likely combinations of failures for automated investigation using simulation. The important information can be automatically identified from the resulting report, making it practical for engineers to study and act on the results. The strategy described in the paper has been applied to a range of electrical subsystems, and the results have confirmed that the strategy described here works well for realistically complex systems

  2. Multiple inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Theory of Inflation, namely, that at some point the entropy content of the universe was greatly increased, has much promise. It may solve the puzzles of homogeneity and the creation of structure. However, no particle physics model has yet been found that can successfully drive inflation. The difficulty in satisfying the constraint that the isotropy of the microwave background places on the effective potential of prospective models is immense. In this work we have codified the requirements of such models in a most general form. We have carefully calculated the amounts of inflation the various problems of the Standard Model need for their solution. We have derived a completely model independent upper bond on the inflationary Hubble parameter. We have developed a general notation with which to probe the possibilities of Multiple Inflation. We have shown that only in very unlikely circumstances will any evidence of an earlier inflation, survive the de Sitter period of its successor. In particular, it is demonstrated that it is most unlikely that two bouts of inflation will yield high amplitudes of density perturbations on small scales and low amplitudes on large. We conclude that, while multiple inflation will be of great theoretical interest, it is unlikely to have any observational impact

  3. Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin (GIB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin is a one page sheet containing the magnetic indices Kp, Ap, Cp, An, As, Am and the provisional aa indices. The bulletin is published...

  4. Ordinary mode auroral kilometric radiation fine structure observed by DE 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, R.F.; Mellott, M.M.; Huff, R.L.; Gurnett, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The fine structure observed with intense right-hand extraordinary (R-X) mode auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) has received major theoretical attention. Data from the Dynamics Explorer 1 plasma wave instrument indicate that left-hand ordinary (L-O) mode AKR posses similar fine structure. Several theories have been proposed to explain the fine structure of the R-X mode AKR. In order to account for the L-O mode fine structure, these theories will have to be modified to produce the L-O mode directly or will have to rely on mode conversion processes from the R-X to the L-O mode

  5. Decision making with environmental indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoag, Dana L.; Ascough, James C.; Keske-Handley, C.; Koontz, Lynne; Burk, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    Since Ott's seminal book on environmental indices (1978), the use of indices has expanded into several natural resource disciplines, including ecological studies, environmental policymaking, and agricultural economics. However, despite their increasing use in natural resource disciplines, researchers and public decision makers continue to express concern about validity of these instruments to capture and communicate multidimensional, and sometimes disparate, characteristics of research data and stakeholder interests. Our purpose is to demonstrate how useful indices can be for communicating environmental information to decision makers. We discuss how environmental indices have evolved over four stages: 1) simple; 2) compound multicriteria; 3) the impact matrix and 4) disparate stakeholder management. We provide examples of simple and compound indices that were used by policy decision makers. We then build a framework, called an Impact Matrix (IM), that comprehensively accounts for multiple indices but lets the user decide how to integrate them. The IM was shaped from the concept of a financial risk payoff matrix and applied to ecosystem risk. While the IM offers flexibility, it does not address stakeholder preferences about which index to use. Therefore, the last phase in our evolutionary ladder includes stakeholder indices to specifically address disparate stakeholder preferences. Finally, we assert that an environmental index has the potential to increase resource efficiency, since the number of decision making resources may be reduced, and hence improve upon resource productivity

  6. The Integrated Mode Management Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    1996-01-01

    Mode management is the processes of understanding the character and consequences of autoflight modes, planning and selecting the engagement, disengagement and transitions between modes, and anticipating automatic mode transitions made by the autoflight system itself. The state of the art is represented by the latest designs produced by each of the major airframe manufacturers, the Boeing 747-400, the Boeing 777, the McDonnell Douglas MD-11, and the Airbus A320/A340 family of airplanes. In these airplanes autoflight modes are selected by manipulating switches on the control panel. The state of the autoflight system is displayed on the flight mode annunciators. The integrated mode management interface (IMMI) is a graphical interface to autoflight mode management systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The interface consists of a vertical mode manager and a lateral mode manager. Autoflight modes are depicted by icons on a graphical display. Mode selection is accomplished by touching (or mousing) the appropriate icon. The IMMI provides flight crews with an integrated interface to autoflight systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The current version is modeled on the Boeing glass-cockpit airplanes (747-400, 757/767). It runs on the SGI Indigo workstation. A working prototype of this graphics-based crew interface to the autoflight mode management tasks of glass cockpit airplanes has been installed in the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator of the CSSRF of NASA Ames Research Center. This IMMI replaces the devices in FMCS equipped airplanes currently known as mode control panel (Boeing), flight guidance control panel (McDonnell Douglas), and flight control unit (Airbus). It also augments the functions of the flight mode annunciators. All glass cockpit airplanes are sufficiently similar that the IMMI could be tailored to the mode management system of any modern cockpit. The IMMI does not replace the

  7. [Current therapy of multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio García Merino, J

    2014-12-01

    Since the introduction of interferon beta 1 b for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, there has been a progressive increase in the number of drugs available for this disease. Currently, 11 drugs have been approved in Spain, and their indications depend on specific clinical characteristics. The present article reviews these indications and also discusses other medications without official approval that have also been used in multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. H-modes studies in PDX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonck, R.J.; Beirsdorfer, P.; Bell, M.

    1984-07-01

    A regime of enhanced energy confinement during neutral beam heating has been obtained routinely in the PDX tokamak after modifications to form a closed divertor geometry. Plasma density profiles were broad and the electron temperature at the plasma edge reached values of approx. 400 eV in the H-mode phase of a discharge. A comparison of closed divertor discharges with moderate and intense gas puffing indicates that a requirement for obtaining high confinement times is the localization of the plasma fueling source in the divertor throat region. While high confinement was attained at moderate injected powers (P/sub INJ/ less than or equal to 3 MW), confinement was degraded at higher powers due to both increased edge instabilities and, especially, the intense gas puffing needed to prevent disruptions. Initial results with a particle scoop limiter indicate high particle confinement times and energy confinement times approaching those of diverted H-mode plasmas

  9. Real-Time Transportation Mode Identification Using Artificial Neural Networks Enhanced with Mode Availability Layers: A Case Study in Dubai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ji Byon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, departments of transportation (DOTs have dispatched probe vehicles with dedicated vehicles and drivers for monitoring traffic conditions. Emerging assisted GPS (AGPS and accelerometer-equipped smartphones offer new sources of raw data that arise from voluntarily-traveling smartphone users provided that their modes of transportation can correctly be identified. By introducing additional raster map layers that indicate the availability of each mode, it is possible to enhance the accuracy of mode detection results. Even in its simplest form, an artificial neural network (ANN excels at pattern recognition with a relatively short processing timeframe once it is properly trained, which is suitable for real-time mode identification purposes. Dubai is one of the major cities in the Middle East and offers unique environments, such as a high density of extremely high-rise buildings that may introduce multi-path errors with GPS signals. This paper develops real-time mode identification ANNs enhanced with proposed mode availability geographic information system (GIS layers, firstly for a universal mode detection and, secondly for an auto mode detection for the particular intelligent transportation system (ITS application of traffic monitoring, and compares the results with existing approaches. It is found that ANN-based real-time mode identification, enhanced by mode availability GIS layers, significantly outperforms the existing methods.

  10. Bernstein modes in a non-neutral plasma column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Daniel; Dubin, Daniel H. E.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents theory and numerical calculations of electrostatic Bernstein modes in an inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma column. These modes rely on finite Larmor radius effects to propagate radially across the column until they are reflected when their frequency matches the upper hybrid frequency. This reflection sets up an internal normal mode on the column and also mode-couples to the electrostatic surface cyclotron wave (which allows the normal mode to be excited and observed using external electrodes). Numerical results predicting the mode spectra, using a novel linear Vlasov code on a cylindrical grid, are presented and compared to an analytical Wentzel Kramers Brillouin (WKB) theory. A previous version of the theory [D. H. E. Dubin, Phys. Plasmas 20(4), 042120 (2013)] expanded the plasma response in powers of 1/B, approximating the local upper hybrid frequency, and consequently, its frequency predictions are spuriously shifted with respect to the numerical results presented here. A new version of the WKB theory avoids this approximation using the exact cold fluid plasma response and does a better job of reproducing the numerical frequency spectrum. The effect of multiple ion species on the mode spectrum is also considered, to make contact with experiments that observe cyclotron modes in a multi-species pure ion plasma [M. Affolter et al., Phys. Plasmas 22(5), 055701 (2015)].

  11. Linear stability of tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, S.C.; Kulsrud, R.M.; Hahm, T.S.

    1986-05-01

    This paper examines the stability of tearing modes in a sheared slab when the width of the tearing layer is much smaller than the ion Larmor radius. The ion response is nonlocal, and the quasineutrality retains its full integal form. An expansion procedure is introduced to solve the quasineutrality equation in powers of the width of the tearing layer over the ion Larmor radius. The expansion procedure is applied to the collisionless and semi-collisional tearing modes. The first order terms in the expansion we find to be strongly stabilizing. The physics of the mode and of the stabilization is discussed. Tearing modes are observed in experiments even though the slab theory predicts stability. It is proposed that these modes grow from an equilibrium with islands at the rational surfaces. If the equilibrium islands are wider than the ion Larmor radius, the mode is unstable when Δ' is positive

  12. Audit mode change, corporate governance

    OpenAIRE

    Limei Cao; Wanfu Li; Limin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates changes in audit strategy in China following the introduction of risk-based auditing standards rather than an internal control-based audit mode. Specifically, we examine whether auditors are implementing the risk-based audit mode to evaluate corporate governance before distributing audit resources. The results show that under the internal control-based audit mode, the relationship between audit effort and corporate governance was weak. However, implementation of the ri...

  13. Zero modes and entanglement entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdi, Yasaman K. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St. N., Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo,200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2017-04-26

    Ultraviolet divergences are widely discussed in studies of entanglement entropy. Also present, but much less understood, are infrared divergences due to zero modes in the field theory. In this note, we discuss the importance of carefully handling zero modes in entanglement entropy. We give an explicit example for a chain of harmonic oscillators in 1D, where a mass regulator is necessary to avoid an infrared divergence due to a zero mode. We also comment on a surprising contribution of the zero mode to the UV-scaling of the entanglement entropy.

  14. Normal modes of Bardeen discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdaguer, E.

    1983-01-01

    The short wavelength normal modes of self-gravitating rotating polytropic discs in the Bardeen approximation are studied. The discs' oscillations can be seen in terms of two types of modes: the p-modes whose driving forces are pressure forces and the r-modes driven by Coriolis forces. As a consequence of differential rotation coupling between the two takes place and some mixed modes appear, their properties can be studied under the assumption of weak coupling and it is seen that they avoid the crossing of the p- and r-modes. The short wavelength analysis provides a basis for the classification of the modes, which can be made by using the properties of their phase diagrams. The classification is applied to the large wavelength modes of differentially rotating discs with strong coupling and to a uniformly rotating sequence with no coupling, which have been calculated in previous papers. Many of the physical properties and qualitative features of these modes are revealed by the analysis. (author)

  15. Magnetorheological dampers in shear mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wereley, N M; Cho, J U; Choi, Y T; Choi, S B

    2008-01-01

    In this study, three types of shear mode damper using magnetorheological (MR) fluids are theoretically analyzed: linear, rotary drum, and rotary disk dampers. The damping performance of these shear mode MR dampers is characterized in terms of the damping coefficient, which is the ratio of the equivalent viscous damping at field-on status to the damping at field-off status. For these three types of shear mode MR damper, the damping coefficient or dynamic range is derived using three different constitutive models: the Bingham–plastic, biviscous, and Herschel–Bulkley models. The impact of constitutive behavior on shear mode MR dampers is theoretically presented and compared

  16. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time – providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. Our data...... key markets (China, UK and USA) as the basis for an exploration of the extent to which, and how and why, companies combine clearly different foreign operation modes. We examine their use of foreign operation mode combinations within given value activities as well as within given countries. The study...

  17. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time—providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. The data show...... markets (China, UK and USA) is used as the basis for an exploration of the extent to which, and how and why, companies combine clearly different foreign operation modes. We examine their use of foreign operation mode combinations within given value activities as well as within given countries. The study...

  18. Multiple representations in physics education

    CERN Document Server

    Duit, Reinders; Fischer, Hans E

    2017-01-01

    This volume is important because despite various external representations, such as analogies, metaphors, and visualizations being commonly used by physics teachers, educators and researchers, the notion of using the pedagogical functions of multiple representations to support teaching and learning is still a gap in physics education. The research presented in the three sections of the book is introduced by descriptions of various psychological theories that are applied in different ways for designing physics teaching and learning in classroom settings. The following chapters of the book illustrate teaching and learning with respect to applying specific physics multiple representations in different levels of the education system and in different physics topics using analogies and models, different modes, and in reasoning and representational competence. When multiple representations are used in physics for teaching, the expectation is that they should be successful. To ensure this is the case, the implementati...

  19. Fused-fiber-based 3-dB mode insensitive power splitters for few-mode optical fiber networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fang; Huang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Jianping

    2017-11-01

    We propose a 3-dB mode insensitive power splitter (MIPS) capable of broadcasting and combining optical signals. It is fabricated with two identical few-mode fibers (FMFs) by a heating and pulling technique. The mode-dependent power transfer characteristic as a function of pulling length is investigated. For exploiting its application, we experimentally demonstrate both FMF-based transmissive and reflective star couplers consisting of multiple 3-dB mode insensitive power splitters, which perform broadcasting and routing signals in few-mode optical fiber networks such as mode-division multiplexing (MDM) local area networks using star topology. For experimental demonstration, optical on-off keying signals at 10 Gb/s carried on three spatial modes are successfully processed with open and clear eye diagrams. Measured bit error ratio results show reasonable power penalties. It is found that a reflective star coupler in MDM networks can reduce half of the total amount of required fibers comparing to that of a transmissive star coupler. This MIPS is more efficient, more reliable, more flexible, and more cost-effective for future expansion and application in few-mode optical fiber networks.

  20. Ballooning modes or Fourier modes in a toroidal plasma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.W.; Taylor, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between two different descriptions of eigenmodes in a torus is investigated. In one the eigenmodes are similar to Fourier modes in a cylinder and are highly localized near a particular rational surface. In the other they are the so-called ballooning modes that extend over many rational surfaces. Using a model that represents both drift waves and resistive interchanges the transition from one of these structures to the other is investigated. In this simplified model the transition depends on a single parameter which embodies the competition between toroidal coupling of Fourier modes (which enhances ballooning) and variation in frequency of Fourier modes from one rational surface to another (which diminishes ballooning). As the coupling is increased each Fourier mode acquires a sideband on an adjacent rational surface and these sidebands then expand across the radius to form the extended mode described by the conventional ballooning mode approximation. This analysis shows that the ballooning approximation is appropriate for drift waves in a tokamak but not for resistive interchanges in a pinch. In the latter the conventional ballooning effect is negligible but they may nevertheless show a ballooning feature. This is localized near the same rational surface as the primary Fourier mode and so does not lead to a radially extended structure

  1. Zero modes in discretized light-front quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinovic, E.

    1997-01-01

    The current understanding of the role of bosonic zero modes in field-theoretical models quantized at the equal light-front time is reviewed. After a brief discussion of the main features of the light-front field theories - in particular the simplicity of the physical vacuum - the light-front canonical formalism for the quantum electrodynamics and the Yukawa model is sketched. The zero mode of Maskawa and Yamawaki is reviewed. Reasons for the appearance of the constrained and/or dynamical zero modes are explained along with the subtleties of the gauge fixing in presence of boundary conditions. Perturbative treatment of the corresponding constraint equations in the Yukawa model and quantum electrodynamics (3+1) is outlined. The next topic is the manifestation of the symmetry breaking in the light-front field theory. A pattern of multiple solutions to the zero-mode constraint equations replacing physical picture of multiple vacua of the conventionally quantized field theories is illustrated on an example of 2-dimensional theory. The importance of a (regularized) constrained zero mode of the pion field for the consistency of the Nambu-Goldstone phase of the discretized light-front linear a/model is demonstrated. Finally, a non-trivial physical vacuum based on the dynamical zero mode is constructed for the two-dimensional light-front quantum electrodynamics. (authors)

  2. Indicators and their functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Joumard, Robert; Aschemann, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    indicators? How can several indicators be jointly considered? And how can indicators be used in planning and decision making? Firstly we provide definition of 'indicator of environmental sustainability in transport'. The functions, strengths and weaknesses of indicators as measurement tools, and as decision...... for indicators and assessments. As the decision making context influences the perceived and actual needs for indicators and methods, we also analysed the dimensions and context of decision making. We derived criteria and methods for the assessment and selection of indicators of environmental sustainability......This report is the final report of the action COST 356 'EST - Towards the definition of a measurable environmentally sustainable transport'. It tries to answer the following questions: How can environmental impacts of transport be measured? How can measurements be transformed into operational...

  3. Geomagnetic aa Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa indices are the continuation of the series beginning in the year 1868. A full description of these indices is given in the International...

  4. Fast Generation of Ensembles of Cosmological N-Body Simulations via Mode-Resampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M D; Cole, S; Frenk, C S; Szapudi, I

    2011-02-14

    We present an algorithm for quickly generating multiple realizations of N-body simulations to be used, for example, for cosmological parameter estimation from surveys of large-scale structure. Our algorithm uses a new method to resample the large-scale (Gaussian-distributed) Fourier modes in a periodic N-body simulation box in a manner that properly accounts for the nonlinear mode-coupling between large and small scales. We find that our method for adding new large-scale mode realizations recovers the nonlinear power spectrum to sub-percent accuracy on scales larger than about half the Nyquist frequency of the simulation box. Using 20 N-body simulations, we obtain a power spectrum covariance matrix estimate that matches the estimator from Takahashi et al. (from 5000 simulations) with < 20% errors in all matrix elements. Comparing the rates of convergence, we determine that our algorithm requires {approx}8 times fewer simulations to achieve a given error tolerance in estimates of the power spectrum covariance matrix. The degree of success of our algorithm indicates that we understand the main physical processes that give rise to the correlations in the matter power spectrum. Namely, the large-scale Fourier modes modulate both the degree of structure growth through the variation in the effective local matter density and also the spatial frequency of small-scale perturbations through large-scale displacements. We expect our algorithm to be useful for noise modeling when constraining cosmological parameters from weak lensing (cosmic shear) and galaxy surveys, rescaling summary statistics of N-body simulations for new cosmological parameter values, and any applications where the influence of Fourier modes larger than the simulation size must be accounted for.

  5. Measuring, calculating and estimating PEP's parasitic mode loss parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    This note discusses various ways the parasitic mode losses from a bunched beam to a vacuum chamber can be measured, calculated or estimated. A listing of the parameter, k, for the various PEP ring components is included. A number of formulas for calculating multiple and single pass losses are discussed and evaluated for several cases. 25 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Multiple-mirror plasma confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenberg, A.J.; Lieberman, M.A.; Logan, B.G.

    1975-01-01

    A large enhancement of the confinement time can be achieved in a straight system of multiple mirrors over an equal length uniform magnetic field. The scaling is diffusive rather than that of flow, thereby scaling the square of the system length rather than linear with system length. Probably the most economic mode of operation for a reactor occurs when lambda/M is approximately l/sub c/, where lambda is the mean free path, M the mirror ratio, and l/sub c/ the length between mirrors; but where the scale length of the mirror field l/sub m/ is much less than lambda. The axial confinement time has been calculated theoretically and numerically for all important parameter regimes, and confirmed experimentally. A typical reactor calculation gives Q/sub E/ = 2 for a 400 meter system with 3000 MW(e) output. The main concern of a multiple-mirror system is stability. Linked quadrupoles can achieve average minimum-B stabilization of flute modes, and experiments have demonstrated this stabilization. Localized instabilities at finite β and enhanced diffusion resulting from the distorted flux surfaces and possibly from turbulent higher order modes still remain to be investigated

  7. Generation of high order modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available with the location of the Laguerre polynomial zeros. The Diffractive optical element is used to shape the TEM00 Gassian beam and force the laser to operate on a higher order TEMp0 Laguerre-Gaussian modes or high order superposition of Laguerre-Gaussian modes...

  8. Homogeneous modes of cosmological instantons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratton, Steven; Turok, Neil

    2001-06-15

    We discuss the O(4) invariant perturbation modes of cosmological instantons. These modes are spatially homogeneous in Lorentzian spacetime and thus not relevant to density perturbations. But their properties are important in establishing the meaning of the Euclidean path integral. If negative modes are present, the Euclidean path integral is not well defined, but may nevertheless be useful in an approximate description of the decay of an unstable state. When gravitational dynamics is included, counting negative modes requires a careful treatment of the conformal factor problem. We demonstrate that for an appropriate choice of coordinate on phase space, the second order Euclidean action is bounded below for normalized perturbations and has a finite number of negative modes. We prove that there is a negative mode for many gravitational instantons of the Hawking-Moss or Coleman{endash}De Luccia type, and discuss the associated spectral flow. We also investigate Hawking-Turok constrained instantons, which occur in a generic inflationary model. Implementing the regularization and constraint proposed by Kirklin, Turok and Wiseman, we find that those instantons leading to substantial inflation do not possess negative modes. Using an alternate regularization and constraint motivated by reduction from five dimensions, we find a negative mode is present. These investigations shed new light on the suitability of Euclidean quantum gravity as a potential description of our universe.

  9. Homogeneous modes of cosmological instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratton, Steven; Turok, Neil

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the O(4) invariant perturbation modes of cosmological instantons. These modes are spatially homogeneous in Lorentzian spacetime and thus not relevant to density perturbations. But their properties are important in establishing the meaning of the Euclidean path integral. If negative modes are present, the Euclidean path integral is not well defined, but may nevertheless be useful in an approximate description of the decay of an unstable state. When gravitational dynamics is included, counting negative modes requires a careful treatment of the conformal factor problem. We demonstrate that for an appropriate choice of coordinate on phase space, the second order Euclidean action is bounded below for normalized perturbations and has a finite number of negative modes. We prove that there is a negative mode for many gravitational instantons of the Hawking-Moss or ColemanendashDe Luccia type, and discuss the associated spectral flow. We also investigate Hawking-Turok constrained instantons, which occur in a generic inflationary model. Implementing the regularization and constraint proposed by Kirklin, Turok and Wiseman, we find that those instantons leading to substantial inflation do not possess negative modes. Using an alternate regularization and constraint motivated by reduction from five dimensions, we find a negative mode is present. These investigations shed new light on the suitability of Euclidean quantum gravity as a potential description of our universe

  10. Intelligence and musical mode preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonetti, Leonardo; Costa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between fluid intelligence and preference for major–minor musical mode was investigated in a sample of 80 university students. Intelligence was assessed by the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices. Musical mode preference was assessed by presenting 14 pairs of musical stimuli...... differences at the cognitive and personality level related to the enjoyment of sad music....

  11. NRC performance indicator program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    The performance indicator development work of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) interoffice task group involved several major activities that included selection of candidate indicators for a trial program, data collection and review, validation of the trial indicators, display method development, interactions with the industry, and selection of an optimum set of indicators for the program. After evaluating 27 potential indicators against certain ideal attributes, the task group selected 17 for the trial program. The pertinent data for these indicators were then collected from 50 plants at 30 sites. The validation of the indicators consisted of two primary processes: logical validity and statistical analysis. The six indicators currently in the program are scrams, safety system actuations, significant events, safety system failures, forced outage rate, and equipment forced outages per 100 critical hours. A report containing data on the six performance indicators and some supplemental information is issued on a quarterly basis. The NRC staff is also working on refinements of existing indicators and development of additional indicators as directed by the commission

  12. Fundamental-mode sources in approach to critical experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goda, J.; Busch, R.

    2000-01-01

    An equivalent fundamental-mode source is an imaginary source that is distributed identically in space, energy, and angle to the fundamental-mode fission source. Therefore, it produces the same neutron multiplication as the fundamental-mode fission source. Even if two source distributions produce the same number of spontaneous fission neutrons, they will not necessarily contribute equally toward the multiplication of a given system. A method of comparing the relative importance of source distributions is needed. A factor, denoted as g* and defined as the ratio of the fixed-source multiplication to the fundamental-mode multiplication, is used to convert a given source strength to its equivalent fundamental-mode source strength. This factor is of interest to criticality safety as it relates to the 1/M method of approach to critical. Ideally, a plot of 1/M versus κ eff is linear. However, since 1/M = (1 minus κ eff )/g*, the plot will be linear only if g* is constant with κ eff . When g* increases with κ eff , the 1/M plot is said to be conservative because the critical mass is underestimated. However, it is possible for g* to decrease with κ eff yielding a nonconservative 1/M plot. A better understanding of g* would help predict whether a given approach to critical will be conservative or nonconservative. The equivalent fundamental-mode source strength g*S can be predicted by experiment. The experimental method was tested on the XIX-1 core on the Fast Critical Assembly at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The results showed a 30% difference between measured and calculated values. However, the XIX-1 reactor had significant intermediate-energy neutrons. The presence of intermediate-energy neutrons may have made the cross-section set used for predicted values less than ideal for the system

  13. Nonsymmorphic symmetry-protected topological modes in plasmonic nanoribbon lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Liang; Wu, Raymond P. H.; Kumar, Anshuman; Si, Tieyan; Fung, Kin Hung

    2018-04-01

    Using a dynamic eigenresponse theory, we study the topological edge plasmon modes in dispersive plasmonic lattices constructed by unit cells of multiple nanoribbons. In dipole approximation, the bulk-edge correspondence in the lattices made of dimerized unit cell and one of its square-root daughter with nonsymmorphic symmetry are demonstrated. Calculations with consideration of dynamic long-range effects and retardation are compared to those given by nearest-neighbor approximations. It is shown that nonsymmorphic symmetry opens up two symmetric gaps where versatile topological edge plasmon modes are found. Unprecedented spectral shifts of the edge states with respect to the zero modes due to long-range coupling are found. The proposed ribbon structure is favorable to electrical gating and thus could serve as an on-chip platform for electrically controllable subwavelength edge states at optical wavelengths. Our eigenresponse approach provides a powerful tool for the radiative topological mode analysis in strongly coupled plasmonic lattices.

  14. Burst mode trigger of STEREO in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, L. K.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Curtis, D.; Schroeder, P.

    2013-06-01

    Since the launch of the STEREO spacecraft, the in situ instrument suites have continued to modify their burst mode trigger in order to optimize the collection of high-cadence magnetic field, solar wind, and suprathermal electron data. This report reviews the criteria used for the burst mode trigger and their evolution with time. From 2007 to 2011, the twin STEREO spacecraft observed 236 interplanetary shocks, and 54% of them were captured by the burst mode trigger. The capture rate increased remarkably with time, from 30% in 2007 to 69% in 2011. We evaluate the performance of multiple trigger criteria and investigate why some of the shocks were missed by the trigger. Lessons learned from STEREO are useful for future missions, because the telemetry bandwidth needed to capture the waveforms of high frequency but infrequent events would be unaffordable without an effective burst mode trigger.

  15. High-Power Microwave Transmission and Mode Conversion Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernon, Ronald J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-08-14

    This is a final technical report for a long term project to develop improved designs and design tools for the microwave hardware and components associated with the DOE Plasma Fusion Program. We have developed basic theory, software, fabrication techniques, and low-power measurement techniques for the design of microwave hardware associated gyrotrons, microwave mode converters and high-power microwave transmission lines. Specifically, in this report we discuss our work on designing quasi-optical mode converters for single and multiple frequencies, a new method for the analysis of perturbed-wall waveguide mode converters, perturbed-wall launcher design for TE0n mode gyrotrons, quasi-optical traveling-wave resonator design for high-power testing of microwave components, and possible improvements to the HSX microwave transmission line.

  16. Quasinormal-Mode Expansion of the Scattering Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Alpeggiani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the quasinormal modes (or resonant states of photonic structures can be associated with the poles of the scattering matrix of the system in the complex-frequency plane. In this work, the inverse problem, i.e., the reconstruction of the scattering matrix from the knowledge of the quasinormal modes, is addressed. We develop a general and scalable quasinormal-mode expansion of the scattering matrix, requiring only the complex eigenfrequencies and the far-field properties of the eigenmodes. The theory is validated by applying it to illustrative nanophotonic systems with multiple overlapping electromagnetic modes. The examples demonstrate that our theory provides an accurate first-principles prediction of the scattering properties, without the need for postulating ad hoc nonresonant channels.

  17. Heterogeneous Silicon III-V Mode-Locked Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Michael Loehrlein

    Mode-locked lasers are useful for a variety of applications, such as sensing, telecommunication, and surgical instruments. This work focuses on integrated-circuit mode-locked lasers: those that combine multiple optical and electronic functions and are manufactured together on a single chip. While this allows production at high volume and lower cost, the true potential of integration is to open applications for mode-locked laser diodes where solid state lasers cannot fit, either due to size and power consumption constraints, or where small optical or electrical paths are needed for high bandwidth. Unfortunately, most high power and highly stable mode-locked laser diode demonstrations in scientific literature are based on the Fabry-Perot resonator design, with cleaved mirrors, and are unsuitable for use in integrated circuits because of the difficulty of producing integrated Fabry-Perot cavities. We use silicon photonics and heterogeneous integration with III-V gain material to produce the most powerful and lowest noise fully integrated mode-locked laser diode in the 20 GHz frequency range. If low noise and high peak power are required, it is arguably the best performing fully integrated mode-locked laser ever demonstrated. We present the design methodology and experimental pathway to realize a fully integrated mode-locked laser diode. The construction of the device, beginning with the selection of an integration platform, and proceeding through the fabrication process to final optimization, is presented in detail. The dependence of mode-locked laser performance on a wide variety of design parameters is presented. Applications for integrated circuit mode-locked lasers are also discussed, as well as proposed methods for using integration to improve mode-locking performance to beyond the current state of the art.

  18. Direct detection of the optical field beyond single polarization mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Di; Sun, Chuanbowen; Shieh, William

    2018-02-05

    Direct detection is traditionally regarded as a detection method that recovers only the optical intensity. Compared with coherent detection, it owns a natural advantage-the simplicity-but lacks a crucial capability of field recovery that enables not only the multi-dimensional modulation, but also the digital compensation of the fiber impairments linear with the optical field. Full-field detection is crucial to increase the capacity-distance product of optical transmission systems. A variety of methods have been investigated to directly detect the optical field of the single polarization mode, which normally sends a carrier traveling with the signal for self-coherent detection. The crux, however, is that any optical transmission medium supports at least two propagating modes (e.g. single mode fiber supports two polarization modes), and until now there is no direct detection that can recover the complete set of optical fields beyond one polarization, due to the well-known carrier fading issue after mode demultiplexing induced by the random mode coupling. To avoid the fading, direct detection receivers should recover the signal in an intensity space isomorphic to the optical field without loss of any degrees of freedom, and a bridge should be built between the field and its isomorphic space for the multi-mode field recovery. Based on this thinking, we propose, for the first time, the direct detection of dual polarization modes by a novel receiver concept, the Stokes-space field receiver (SSFR) and its extension, the generalized SSFR for multiple spatial modes. The idea is verified by a dual-polarization field recovery of a polarization-multiplexed complex signal over an 80-km single mode fiber transmission. SSFR can be applied to a much wider range of fields beyond optical communications such as coherent sensing and imaging, where simple field recovery without an extra local laser is desired for enhanced system performance.

  19. CW EPR parameters reveal cytochrome P450 ligand binding modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockart, Molly M; Rodriguez, Carlo A; Atkins, William M; Bowman, Michael K

    2018-06-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monoxygenses utilize heme cofactors to catalyze oxidation reactions. They play a critical role in metabolism of many classes of drugs, are an attractive target for drug development, and mediate several prominent drug interactions. Many substrates and inhibitors alter the spin state of the ferric heme by displacing the heme's axial water ligand in the resting enzyme to yield a five-coordinate iron complex, or they replace the axial water to yield a nitrogen-ligated six-coordinate iron complex, which are traditionally assigned by UV-vis spectroscopy. However, crystal structures and recent pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies find a few cases where molecules hydrogen bond to the axial water. The water-bridged drug-H 2 O-heme has UV-vis spectra similar to nitrogen-ligated, six-coordinate complexes, but are closer to "reverse type I" complexes described in older liteature. Here, pulsed and continuous wave (CW) EPR demonstrate that water-bridged complexes are remarkably common among a range of nitrogenous drugs or drug fragments that bind to CYP3A4 or CYP2C9. Principal component analysis reveals a distinct clustering of CW EPR spectral parameters for water-bridged complexes. CW EPR reveals heterogeneous mixtures of ligated states, including multiple directly-coordinated complexes and water-bridged complexes. These results suggest that water-bridged complexes are under-represented in CYP structural databases and can have energies similar to other ligation modes. The data indicates that water-bridged binding modes can be identified and distinguished from directly-coordinated binding by CW EPR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhancement of mode-converted electron Bernstein wave emission during National Spherical Torus Experiment H-mode plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P.C.; Jones, B.; Le Blanc, B.P.; Maingi, R.

    2002-01-01

    A sudden, threefold increase in emission from fundamental electrostatic electron Bernstein waves (EBW) which mode convert and tunnel to the electromagnetic X-mode has been observed during high energy and particle confinement (H-mode) transitions in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) plasma [M. Ono, S. Kaye, M. Peng et al., in Proceedings of the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 1999), Vol. 3, p. 1135]. The mode-converted EBW emission viewed normal to the magnetic field on the plasma midplane increases when the density profile steepens in the vicinity of the mode conversion layer, which is located in the plasma scrape off. The measured conversion efficiency during the H-mode is consistent with the calculated EBW to X-mode conversion efficiency derived using edge density data. Calculations indicate that there may also be a small residual contribution to the measured X-mode electromagnetic radiation from polarization-scrambled, O-mode emission, converted from EBWs

  1. Mode coupling trigger of neoclassical magnetohydrodynamic tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianakon, T.A.; Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.

    1997-05-01

    Numerical studies of the nonlinear evolution of coupled magnetohydrodynamic - type tearing modes in three-dimensional toroidal geometry with neoclassical effects are presented. The inclusion of neoclassical physics introduces an additional free-energy source for the nonlinear formation of magnetic islands through the effects of a bootstrap current in Ohm's law. The neoclassical tearing mode is demonstrated to be destabilized in plasmas which are otherwise Δ' stable, albeit once a threshold island width is exceeded. A possible mechanism for exceeding or eliminating this threshold condition is demonstrated based on mode coupling due to toroidicity with a pre-existing instability at the q = 1 surface

  2. Inter-comb synchronization by mode-to-mode locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Byung Jae; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Two combs of fiber femtosecond lasers are synchronized through the optical frequency reference created by injection-locking of a diode laser to a single comb mode. Maintaining a mHz-level narrow linewidth, the optical frequency reference permits two combs to be stabilized by mode-to-mode locking with a relative stability of 1.52  ×  10-16 at 10 s with a frequency slip of 2.46 mHz. This inter-comb synchronization can be utilized for applications such as dual-comb spectroscopy or ultra-short pulse synthesis without extra narrow-linewidth lasers.

  3. Time-Frequency Analysis of the Dispersion of Lamb Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, W. H.; Seale, Michael D.; Smith, Barry T.

    1999-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the velocity dispersion of Lamb modes is important for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods used in detecting and locating flaws in thin plates and in determining their elastic stiffness coefficients. Lamb mode dispersion is also important in the acoustic emission technique for accurately triangulating the location of emissions in thin plates. In this research, the ability to characterize Lamb mode dispersion through a time-frequency analysis (the pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution) was demonstrated. A major advantage of time-frequency methods is the ability to analyze acoustic signals containing multiple propagation modes, which overlap and superimpose in the time domain signal. By combining time-frequency analysis with a broadband acoustic excitation source, the dispersion of multiple Lamb modes over a wide frequency range can be determined from as little as a single measurement. In addition, the technique provides a direct measurement of the group velocity dispersion. The technique was first demonstrated in the analysis of a simulated waveform in an aluminum plate in which the Lamb mode dispersion was well known. Portions of the dispersion curves of the A(sub 0), A(sub 1), S(sub 0), and S(sub 2)Lamb modes were obtained from this one waveform. The technique was also applied for the analysis of experimental waveforms from a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite plate. Measurements were made both along, and perpendicular to the fiber direction. In this case, the signals contained only the lowest order symmetric and antisymmetric modes. A least squares fit of the results from several source to detector distances was used. Theoretical dispersion curves were calculated and are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results.

  4. eHealth indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HYPPÖNEN, Hannele; AMMENWERTH, Elske; Nøhr, Christian

    2012-01-01

    eHealth indicators are needed to measure defined aspects of national eHealth implementations. However, until now, eHealth indicators are ambiguous or unclear. Therefore, an expert workshop "Towards an International Minimum Dataset for Monitoring National Health Information System Implementations......" was organized. The objective was to develop ideas for a minimum eHealth indicator set. The proposed ideas for indicators were classified based on EUnetHTA and De-Lone & McClean, and classification was compared with health IT evaluation criteria classification by Ammenwerth & Keizer. Analysis of the workshop...... results emphasized the need for a common methodological framework for defining and classifying eHealth indicators. It also showed the importance of setting the indicators into context. The results will benefit policy makers, developers and researchers in pursuit of provision and use of evidence...

  5. Float level indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishchuk, M.Kh.; Laptev, A.G.; Pashkov, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    Specially developed level indicator is suggested with differential to-transformer converter of the float motion, operating in line with a movable electronic block, intended for indicating the level of the dissociating nitrogen tetroxide liquid phase. On the basis of the indicator elements the device is realized to measure the time of calibrated volume fillino. in by liquid nitrogen tetroxide in steady state operation of the experimental bench-marks [ru

  6. Climate Change Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presents information, charts and graphs showing measured climate changes across 40 indicators related to greenhouse gases, weather and climate, oceans, snow and ice, heath and society, and ecosystems.

  7. VP Ellipsis without Indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardt, Daniel; Asher, Nicholas; Hunter, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares two views on the status of indices in syntactic and logical representations. On a structural view, indices are syntactic formants on a par with node labels and phrase bracketings, and are thus a part of the logical forms that are derived from syntactic representations. On the ......This paper compares two views on the status of indices in syntactic and logical representations. On a structural view, indices are syntactic formants on a par with node labels and phrase bracketings, and are thus a part of the logical forms that are derived from syntactic representations...

  8. Vibrational lifetimes of protein amide modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, K.A.; Rella, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Measurement of the lifetimes of vibrational modes in proteins has been achieved with a single frequency infrared pump-probe technique using the Stanford Picosecond Free-electron Laser, These are the first direct measurements of vibrational dynamics in the polyamide structure of proteins. In this study, modes associated with the protein backbone are investigated. Results for the amide I band, which consists mainly of the stretching motion of the carbonyl unit of the amide linkage, show that relaxation from the first vibrational excited level (v=1) to the vibrational ground state (v=0) occurs within 1.5 picoseconds with apparent first order kinetics. Comparison of lifetimes for myoglobin and azurin, which have differing secondary structures, show a small but significant difference. The lifetime for the amide I band of myoglobin is 300 femtoseconds shorter than for azurin. Further measurements are in progress on other backbone vibrational modes and on the temperature dependence of the lifetimes. Comparison of vibrational dynamics for proteins with differing secondary structure and for different vibrational modes within a protein will lead to a greater understanding of energy transfer and dissipation in biological systems. In addition, these results have relevance to tissue ablation studies which have been conducted with pulsed infrared lasers. Vibrational lifetimes are necessary for calculating the rate at which the energy from absorbed infrared photons is converted to equilibrium thermal energy within the irradiated volume. The very fast vibrational lifetimes measured here indicate that mechanisms which involve direct vibrational up-pumping of the amide modes with consecutive laser pulses, leading to bond breakage or weakening, are not valid

  9. Chronic progressive multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffoli, A.; Micheletti, E.; Capra, R.; Mattioli, F.; Marciano', N.

    1991-01-01

    A long-lasting immunological suppression action seems to be produced by total lymphoid irradiation; some authors emphasize the favorable effect of this treatment on chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. In order to evaluate the actual role of TLI, 6 patients affected with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis were submitted to TLI with shaped and personalized fields at the Istituto del Radio, University of Brescia, Italy. The total dose delivered was 19.8 Gy in 4 weeks, 1.8 Gy/day, 5d/w; a week elapsed between the first and the second irradiation course. Disability according to Kurtzke scale was evaluated, together with blood lymphocyte count and irradiation side-effects, over a mean follow-up period of 20.8 months (range: 13-24). Our findings indicate that: a) disease progression was not markedly reduced by TLI; b) steroid hormones responsivity was restored after irradiation, and c) side-effects were mild and tolerable

  10. Damping Measurements of Plasma Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, F.; Affolter, M.; Driscoll, C. F.

    2010-11-01

    For azimuthally symmetric plasma modes in a magnesium ion plasma, confined in a 3 Tesla Penning-Malmberg trap with a density of n ˜10^7cm-3, we measure a damping rate of 2s-1plasma column, alters the frequency of the mode from 16 KHz to 192 KHz. The oscillatory fluid displacement is small compared to the wavelength of the mode; in contrast, the fluid velocity, δvf, can be large compared to v. The real part of the frequency satisfies a linear dispersion relation. In long thin plasmas (α> 10) these modes are Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) modes, and for smaller values of α they are Dubin spheroidal modes. However the damping appears to be non-linear; initially large waves have weaker exponential damping, which is not yet understood. Recent theoryootnotetextM.W. Anderson and T.M. O'Neil, Phys. Plasmas 14, 112110 (2007). calculates the damping of TG modes expected from viscosity due to ion-ion collisions; but the measured damping, while having a similar temperature and density dependence, is about 40 times larger than calculated. This discrepancy might be due to an external damping mechanism.

  11. Ray tracing of auroral Z mode radiation, AKR and auroral hiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, R.B.; Jones, D.; Kimura, I.; Sawada, A.

    1990-01-01

    While observed frequency bandwidths of auroral Z mode radiation cannot be directly accounted for in terms of direct cyclotron maser instability generation, ray tracing in a hot plasma indicates that if the radiation near a plasma frequency lower than the gyrofrequency, the observed bandwidths are explainable in terms of upward propagation away from the earth. An auroral Z-mode generation mechanism is proposed involving mode conversion from O-mode auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) at the plasma frequency, as well as mode conversion from upgoing auroral hiss. Ray tracings in the O mode identify a possible AKR source region along L = 8.55. 11 refs

  12. Update on Linear Mode Photon Counting with the HgCdTe Linear Mode Avalanche Photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jeffrey D.; Kinch, Mike; Sun, Xiaoli

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of the gain-voltage characteristic of the mid-wavelength infrared cutoff HgCdTe linear mode avalanche photodiode (e-APD) is discussed both experimentally and theoretically as a function of the width of the multiplication region. Data are shown that demonstrate a strong dependence of the gain at a given bias voltage on the width of the n- gain region. Geometrical and fundamental theoretical models are examined to explain this behavior. The geometrical model takes into account the gain-dependent optical fill factor of the cylindrical APD. The theoretical model is based on the ballistic ionization model being developed for the HgCdTe APD. It is concluded that the fundamental theoretical explanation is the dominant effect. A model is developed that combines both the geometrical and fundamental effects. The model also takes into account the effect of the varying multiplication width in the low bias region of the gain-voltage curve. It is concluded that the lower than expected gain seen in the first 2 × 8 HgCdTe linear mode photon counting APD arrays, and higher excess noise factor, was very likely due to the larger than typical multiplication region length in the photon counting APD pixel design. The implications of these effects on device photon counting performance are discussed.

  13. Mode synthesizing atomic force microscopy and mode-synthesizing sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passian, Ali; Thundat, Thomas George; Tetard, Laurene

    2013-05-17

    A method of analyzing a sample that includes applying a first set of energies at a first set of frequencies to a sample and applying, simultaneously with the applying the first set of energies, a second set of energies at a second set of frequencies, wherein the first set of energies and the second set of energies form a multi-mode coupling. The method further includes detecting an effect of the multi-mode coupling.

  14. Dual-cavity mode converter for a fundamental mode output in an over-moded relativistic backward-wave oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jiawei; Huang, Wenhua; Xiao, Renzhen; Bai, Xianchen; Zhang, Yuchuan; Zhang, Xiaowei; Shao, Hao; Chen, Changhua; Zhu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    A dual-cavity TM 02 –TM 01 mode converter is designed for a dual-mode operation over-moded relativistic backward-wave oscillator. With the converter, the fundamental mode output is achieved. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that the efficiency of beam-wave conversion was over 46% and a pureTM 01 mode output was obtained. Effects of end reflection provided by the mode converter were studied. Adequate TM 01 mode feedback provided by the converter enhances conversion efficiency. The distance between the mode converter and extraction cavity critically affect the generation of microwaves depending on the reflection phase of TM 01 mode feedback

  15. Quality indicators in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cionini, Luca; Gardani, Gianstefano; Gabriele, Pietro; Magri, Secondo; Morosini, Pier Luigi; Rosi, Antonella; Viti, Vincenza

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: There is a widespread and increasing tendency to develop hospital performance indicators in the field of accreditation/certification systems and quality benchmarking. A study has been undertaken to develop a set of performance indicators for a typical radiotherapy Centre and to evaluate their ability to provide a continuous quality improvement. Materials and methods: A working group consisting of radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiation technologists under the coordination of experts in health technology assessment has elaborated a set of general indicators able to monitor performances and the quality level of a typical radiotherapy Centre. The work has been carried out through four steps: a preliminary set of indicators was selected; data on these indicators were collected in a number of Italian radiotherapy Centres and medical physics Services; problems in collection and analysis of data were discussed; a final set of indicators was developed. Results: A final set of 13 indicators is here presented. They concern general structural and/or operational features, health physics activities and accuracy and technical complexity of the treatment. Conclusions: The indicators tested in a few Italian Centres of radiotherapy and medical physics Services are now ready to be utilized by a larger community

  16. Indicators of sustainable tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dobrica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The indicators, precisely describing the linkages between tourism and the environment, social and cultural base, are not easily available. How ever, some relevant organizations (WTO, EU, OECD, etc., institutions and experts, have been hardly working to create the indicators of sustainable tourism. Whereas the economic objectives are easily defined by the use of the traditional indicators used in national and business economics, it is very difficult to identify widely applicable environmental, social and cultural indicators. In order to stimulate and alleviate the process of sustainable tourism development, EU created the list of comparative indicators of sustainable tourism. In preparing this list, special attention is paid to identification of valid indicators of real tourism impacts on the social and cultural environment (the entire set of traditions, customs, history, hospitality and culture that characterize a given area, that is a very complex task. Assuming the fact that the related indicators have been analyzed in many European countries, this paper is focused on applying the related indicators in research of tourism development in villages of the Kosjerić community. .

  17. Key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without

  18. Indicators for environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    . In this study, we reviewed indicators applied in life cycle assessment (LCA), planetary boundary framework (PB), and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) developed under United Nation. The aim is to 1) identify their applications and relevant decision context; 2) Review their indicators and categorize them...

  19. A quantum-classical simulation of a multi-surface multi-mode ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Multi surface multi mode quantum dynamics; parallelized quantum classical approach; TDDVR method. 1. ... cal simulation on molecular system is a great cha- llenge for ..... on a multiple core cluster with shared memory using. OpenMP based ...

  20. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birčiaková Naďa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determine what factors influence each indicator and what factors affect living standards. We have chosen regression analysis as our main method. From the study of factors, we can deduce their impact on living standards, and thus the value of indicators of living standards. Indicators with a high degree of reliability include the following factors: size and density of population, health care and spending on education. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also have a certain lower degree of reliability.