WorldWideScience

Sample records for indiana dunes national

  1. Mayflies, stoneflies, and caddisflies of streams and marshes of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWalt, R. Edward; South, Eric J.; Robertson, Desiree R.; Marburger, Joy E.; Smith, Wendy W.; Brinson, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract United States National Parks have protected natural communities for one hundred years. Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (INDU) is a park unit along the southern boundary of Lake Michigan in Indiana, USA. An inventory of 19 sites, consisting of a seep, 12 streams, four marshes, a bog, and a fen were examined for mayflies (Ephemeroptera), stoneflies (Plecoptera), and caddisflies (Trichoptera) (EPT taxa). Volunteers and authors collect 35 ultraviolet light traps during summer 2013 and supplementary benthic and adult sampling added species not attracted by lights or that were only present in colder months. Seventy-eight EPT species were recovered: 12 mayflies, two stoneflies, and 64 caddisflies. The EPT richness found at INDU was a low proportion of the number of species known from Indiana: caddisflies contributed only 32.7% of known state fauna, mayflies and stoneflies contributed 8.4% and 2.3%, respectively. Site EPT richness ranged from one for a seep to 34 for an 8 m-wide stream. Richness in streams generally increased with stream size. Seven new state records and rare species are reported. The number of EPT species at INDU is slightly larger than that found at Isle Royale National Park in 2013, and the community composition and evenness between orders were different. PMID:26877693

  2. Ecosystem level assessment of the Grand Calumet Lagoons, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, P.M. [National Biological Service, Porter, IN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Grand Calumet Lagoons make up the eastern section of the Grand Calumet River (GCR), Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal and nearshore Lake Michigan Area of Concern (AOC). The GCR AOC is the only one of the 42 Great Lakes Areas of Concern identified by the International Joint Commission with all 14 designated uses classified as impaired. Included within the boundaries of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (INDU), is the central section of the Grand Calumet Lagoons. A number of biotic and abiotic factors were tested to determine the effects of an industrial landfill that borders the lagoons to assess the potential impact on park resources. Analysis included water quality testing, assessments of macroinvertebrate, fish, algae and aquatic plant communities and contaminant concentrations in water, sediment and plant and fish tissue. Surface water testing found very few contaminants, but significantly higher nutrient levels were found in the water column closest to the landfill. Macroinvertebrate, aquatic plant and fish communities all showed significant impairment in relationship to their proximity to the landfill. Aquatic plant growth habit became limited next to the landfill with certain growth habits disappearing entirely. Aquatic plants collected close to the landfill had high concentrations of several heavy metals in their stems and shoots. Using the index of biotic integrity (IBI), fish community assessment indicated impairment in the areas adjacent to the landfill. Sediments tested at one site had over 12% polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected from this site had whole fish tissue concentrations over 1 mg/kg PAH.

  3. Movement patterns and population characteristics of the Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Randy L.; Kwilosz, John R.; Grundel, Ralph

    1999-01-01

    We conducted a three-year mark-release-recapture study of the endangered Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis Nabokov) at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore to describe the butterfly's movement patterns and to assess seasonal changes in the Karner blue's population structure. Estimated mean Karner blue adult life span was less than 3.5 days. Populations exhibited protandry and about a 2:1 male:female sex ratio at population peak within a brood. Ranges, or maximum distances moved by individual butterflies, were typically less than 100 m. Maximum ranges were less than 1 km. These distances are similar to those reported for other lycaenid butterflies and from other studies of the Karner blue in the midwestern United States. At two sites, fewer than 2% of adults had ranges greater than 300 m, while at a third site 4.3% of adults had ranges greater than 300 m. Given typical subpopulation sizes these movement percentages suggest that few adults per generation will move between subpopulations separated by more than 300 m. Movement of individuals between subpopulation sites is important for maintaining genetic diversity within a metapopulation and for recolonizing areas following local extinctions. Therefore, prudent conservation planning should aim for a landscape with habitat patches suitable for Karner blue butterfly occupancy separated by less than 300 m.

  4. Nectar plant selection by the Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundel, Ralph; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Sulzman, Christina L.

    2000-01-01

    The Karner blue butterfly, Lycaeides melissa samuelis, is an endangered species residing in savanna and barrens habitats in the Midwest and Northeast United States. To improve our understanding of nectar plant selection patterns by the Karner blue, we examined nectar plant choices made by 146 butterflies. Within observation areas of 2-m radius butterflies usually chose the nectar species with the greatest total number of flowers or flowering heads. This suggests that the Karner blue is opportunistic in selecting nectar plants. However, certain nectar species, including Arabis lyrata, Coreopsis lanceolata, Melilotus alba and Rubus flagellaris, were selected in a significant majority of cases when other nectar species were available nearby. At least in the case of R. flagellaris, this preference was not directly related to the species' local flower abundance. In a significant majority of cases (77.5%) adult Karner blues selected nectar plant species with yellow or white flowers over species with other-colored flowers. Comparison of nectar plant selections at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore to selections from Michigan and Wisconsin suggests that the Karner blue most frequently chooses a suite of nectar plant species that includes A. lyrata, C. lanceolata, Euphorbia corollata, M. alba, Monarda punctata, Potentilla simplex, Rubus spp., Solidago speciosa and, perhaps, Asclepias tuberosa and Helianthus divaricatus. This suite includes plant species that readily flower in the sun and others that readily flower in the shade, an important consideration since Karner blues often move across the sun-shade interface.

  5. 77 FR 24734 - Final White-tailed Deer Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for Indiana Dunes National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... National Lakeshore, 1100 North Mineral Springs Road, Porter, Indiana 46304; telephone 219-395- 1550. A copy... time to ensure that the local deer population does not become a dominant force that negatively... populations that provides multi-year (three to five years) efficacy for does. Alternative C would include all...

  6. 77 FR 56671 - Draft Shoreline Restoration Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement for Indiana Dunes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... writing or picked up in person at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, 1100 N. Mineral Springs Road, Porter... for public inspection in their entirety. Dated: July 27, 2012. Michael T. Reynolds, Regional Director...

  7. A survey of bees (hymenoptera: Apoidea) of the Indiana dunes and Northwest Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundel, R.; Jean, R.P.; Frohnapple, K.J.; Gibbs, J.; Glowacki, G.A.; Pavlovic, N.B.

    2011-01-01

    The Indiana Dunes, and nearby natural areas in northwest Indiana, are floristically rich Midwest U.S. locales with many habitat types. We surveyed bees along a habitat gradient ranging from grasslands to forests in these locales, collecting at least 175 bee species along this gradient plus 29 additional species in other nearby habitats. About 25% of all species were from the genus Lasioglossum and 12% of the species were associated with sandy soils. Several bumblebee (Bombus) species of conservation concern that should occur in this region were not collected during our surveys. Similarity of the northwest Indiana bee fauna to other published U.S. faunas decreased about 1.3% per 100 km distance from northwest Indiana. Thirty percent of bees netted from flowers were males. Males and females differed significantly in their frequency of occurrence on different plant species. For bees collected in bowl traps, the percentage captured in fluorescent yellow traps declined and in fluorescent blue traps increased from spring to late summer. Capture rates for different bee genera varied temporally, with about a quarter of the genera being captured most frequently in late spring and a quarter in late summer. Capture rates for most genera were higher in more open than in more closed canopy habitats. The maximum number of plant species on which a single bee species was captured plateaued at 24, on average. Forty-nine percent of bee species known to occur in Indiana were found at these northwest Indiana sites. Having this relatively high proportion of the total Indiana bee fauna is consistent with Indiana Dunes existing at a biogeographic crossroads where grassland and forest biomes meet in a landscape whose climate and soils are affected by proximity to Lake Michigan. The resulting habitat, plant, edaphic, and climatic diversity likely produces the diverse bee community documented.

  8. A comparison of seed banks across a sand dune successional gradient at Lake Michigan dunes (Indiana, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht-Young, S. A.; Pavlovic, N.B.; Grundel, R.; Frohnapple, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    In habitats where disturbance is frequent, seed banks are important for the regeneration of vegetation. Sand dune systems are dynamic habitats in which sand movement provides intermittent disturbance. As succession proceeds from bare sand to forest, the disturbance decreases. At Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, we examined the seed banks of three habitat types across a successional gradient: foredunes, secondary dunes, and oak savanna. There were differences among the types of species that germinated from each of the habitats. The mean seed bank density increased across the successional gradient by habitat, from 376 to 433 to 968 seeds m-2, but with foredune and secondary dune seed bank densities being significantly lower than the savanna seed bank density. The number of seeds germinated was significantly correlated with soil organic carbon, demonstrating for this primary successional sequence that seed density increases with stage and age. The seed bank had much lower species richness than that of the aboveground vegetation across all habitats. Among sites within a habitat type, the similarity of species germinated from the seed banks was very low, illustrating the variability of the seed bank even in similar habitat types. These results suggest that restoration of these habitats cannot rely on seed banks alone. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  9. Seasonal geomorphic processes and rates of sand movement at Mount Baldy dune in Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilibarda, Zoran; Kilibarda, Vesna

    2016-12-01

    Winds are very strong, frequent, and have high energy (annual DP ∼800 VU) along the southern shores of Lake Michigan, allowing the coexistence of fixed and active dunes. Six years (2007-13) of monitoring Mount Baldy in the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore reveals that this is the most active coastal dune in the Great Lakes region. This paper documents aeolian processes and changes in the dune's morphology that occur temporarily, following storms, or seasonally, due to weather (climate) variations. Most of the sand transport in this area takes place during strong storms with gale force (>17.5 m/s) winds, which occur in the autumn and winter months. A single storm, such as the October 28-31, 2013 event, can contribute 25% of the annual sand transport and dune movement inland. In its most active year (June 1, 2011 through May 31, 2012), Mount Baldy moved inland on average 4.34 m, with a maximum of 6.52 m along the blowout's axis (155° azimuth). During this particularly active season, there were six storms with sustained gale force winds, winter air temperatures were warmer than average, and shelf ice on Lake Michigan lasted only one day. The dune is least active during the summer season, when the winds are weakest. The late fall and winter winds are the strongest. But in a typical year, most of the dune's advance inland takes place during the spring thaw when sand is released from over-steepened and lumpy slip face, allowing it to avalanche to the toe of the slip face. However, with a warming air temperatures, a reduction in the duration of winter shelf ice, and rising Lake Michigan levels, the annual rates of sand transport and dune movement may increase. The recent Mount Baldy management strategy, which includes planting vegetation and installing wind barriers on the dune's stoss side in an effort to fix the dune and stop its further movement inland, may potentially cause the destruction of the mobile sand, open dune habitat, resulting in the extinction of rare

  10. 36 CFR 7.80 - Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore. 7.80 Section 7.80 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.80 Sleeping Bear Dunes National...

  11. Episodic Late Holocene dune movements on the sand-sheet area, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, San Luis Valley, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, S. L.; Spaeth, M.; Marín, L.; Pierson, J.; Gómez, J.; Bunch, F.; Valdez, A.

    2006-07-01

    The Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve (GSDNPP) in the San Luis Valley, Colorado, contains a variety of eolian landforms that reflect Holocene drought variability. The most spectacular is a dune mass banked against the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, which is fronted by an extensive sand sheet with stabilized parabolic dunes. Stratigraphic exposures of parabolic dunes and associated luminescence dating of quartz grains by single-aliquot regeneration (SAR) protocols indicate eolian deposition of unknown magnitude occurred ca. 1290-940, 715 ± 80, 320 ± 30, and 200-120 yr ago and in the 20th century. There are 11 drought intervals inferred from the tree-ring record in the past 1300 yr at GSDNPP potentially associated with dune movement, though only five eolian depositional events are currently recognized in the stratigraphic record. There is evidence for eolian transport associated with dune movement in the 13th century, which may coincide with the "Great Drought", a 26-yr-long dry interval identified in the tree ring record, and associated with migration of Anasazi people from the Four Corners areas to wetter areas in southern New Mexico. This nascent chronology indicates that the transport of eolian sand across San Luis Valley was episodic in the late Holocene with appreciable dune migration in the 8th, 10-13th, and 19th centuries, which ultimately nourished the dune mass against the Sangre de Cristo Mountains.

  12. 78 FR 73557 - Guadalupe-Nipomo Dunes National Wildlife Refuge, San Luis Obispo County, CA: Intent To Prepare a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ...-FF08R00000] Guadalupe-Nipomo Dunes National Wildlife Refuge, San Luis Obispo County, CA: Intent To Prepare a...) for the Guadalupe-Nipomo Dunes National Wildlife Refuge located in San Luis Obispo County of... (Refuge) in San Luis Obispo County, California. This notice complies with our CCP policy to (1) advise...

  13. Toxicity of contaminants in lagoons and pannes of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, R.; Speelman, J.; Stewart, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Contaminants in water and sediments of lagoons and pannes were 2--90 times greater at sites adjacent to slag and coal piles than those at reference sites. One site (Lagoon-US5) had sediments with very high concentrations of toxic organics (e.g. naphthalene, phenanthrene, dibenzofuran). Although analyses indicated a gradient of contaminant concentration with distance from their sources, toxicity assays were somewhat equivocal. With the exception of less reproduction in Ceriodaphnia at one lagoon site (US3 = 0.55 of reference), survival of fathead minnows and reproduction in Ceriodaphnia in lagoon and panne waters varied independently of the contaminant concentration. In fact, there was better Ceriodaphnia reproduction in water from two contaminated sites (Lagoon-US5, Panne-WP1) than in water from reference sites. Fathead minnow survival, Ceriodaphnia survival, Ceriodaphnia reproduction, amphipod survival, and amphipod growth varied among sites in toxicity assays with sediments, 100% mortality of fatheads at Lagoon-US5, 100% mortality of Ceriodaphnia at Lagoon-US3, and less survival of fathead minnows at Lagoon-US3 indicate possible toxicity from contaminants in sediments at these sites. Of all organisms and end-points tested, Ceriodaphnia survival seemed to be most closely associated with concentrations of contaminants in lagoon water and sediments. Amphipod survival also varied with contaminants in sediments, however, survival in sediments of contaminated sites ranged only from 0.90--0.93 of reference sites. Although the results are not consistent among organisms, toxicity assays indicate that sediments from the lagoon site with the highest contaminants (Lagoon-US5) and possibly those from another contaminated lagoon site (Lagoon-US3) could be toxic to aquatic organisms. Water and sediments from contaminated panne sites do not appear to be toxic to aquatic test organisms

  14. 78 FR 11981 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Lakeshore (SLBE or Lakeshore) was established in 1970 ``for the benefit, inspiration, education, recreation... home destination. SLBE offers visitors recreational activities such as hiking, backpacking, kayaking...-Benefit and Regulatory Flexibility Analyses Leelanau Scenic Heritage Route Trailway, Sleeping Bear Dunes...

  15. Architectural evidence of dune collapse in the Navajo Sandstone, Zion National Park, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Colby; Bryant, Gerald; Nick, Kevin E.

    2016-10-01

    The Canyon Overlook Trail of Zion National Park follows an outcrop of Navajo Sandstone, which displays a uniquely well-exposed assemblage of features associated with failure of the lee face of a large eolian dune, and run-out over an expanse of interdune sediments downwind of that bedform. Exposed features include dramatic folds in the interdune succession and a stacked series of thrust sheets incorporating both interdune and overlying dune deposits. Thrust surfaces display consistent strikes, parallel to those of undeformed foresets, and incorporate zones of brittle failure and fluid deformation, including folds overturned in the direction of foreset dip. These features correspond to predictions made by a previous researcher's model of dune collapse, formulated from less fortuitously exposed architectures in the Navajo Sandstone. Unlike the previous model, however, this site preserves distinct indications that the bulk of deformed material accumulated above the level of the contemporary interdune surface, in an aggradational succession. Paleotopographic reconstruction, based on preserved facies relationships at this site, indicates the presence of a large dune, partially encroached upon a well-developed wet interdune succession, made up of two half-meter carbonate mud layers, separated by a meter of medium-grained sand. Trapping of pore water pressure between these mud layers during liquefaction reduced shear strength in this interval, facilitating the collapse of the lee face of the upwind dune into the interdune area, and transmitted resultant shear forces to distal portions of the interdune expanse, in the shallow subsurface. Shear failure developed along bedding planes in the horizontally laminated carbonate muds, which provided both lubrication of the shear surfaces and structural support for the preservation of coherent thrust sheets during production of an imbricated succession of shear zones in the toe portion of the slump. Individual shear surfaces

  16. Coastal dune facies, Permian Cutler Formation (White Rim Sandstone), Capitol Reef National Park area, southern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamola, Diane L.; Chan, Marjorie A.

    1988-04-01

    The Permian Cutler Formation (White Rim Sandstone) in the Capitol Reef National Park area in southern Utah is an excellent example of a coastal dune complex subjected to periodic flooding by marine waters. Wind-ripple, grainfall and grainflow laminae compose the cross-sets deposited by eolian dunes. However, wave-reworked structures such as oscillation ripples, the occurrence of the characteristically marine trace fossils Thalassinoides and Chondrites, and interfingering marine carbonate beds of the Kaibab Formation collectively indicate marine interaction with the eolian environment. Four facies are distinguished: cross-stratified sandstone, burrowed to bioturbated sandstone, brecciated and deformed sandstone, and ripple-laminated sandstone and thin carbonate beds. One unusual aspect of the cross-stratified sandstone facies is the abundance of coarse-grained sand. Coarse-grained sand is atypical in many ancient eolian slipface deposits, but occurs here in large slipface foresets as both grainflow and wind-ripple deposits. No water-laid structures are found in these slipface deposits. Coarse-grained sand was probably transported to the Cutler shoreline by fluvial systems draining the Uncompahgre Uplift to the east, and then concentrated as coarse-grained ripples in interdune areas. Some of these coarse-grained ripples migrated up the stoss side of the dunes and accumulations of coarse-grained sand avalanched down the crest to form grainflow deposits. An extensive amount of soft-sediment deformation is indicated by the presence of convolute bedding and brecciation. These features occur near the zone of interfingering with marine carbonate beds of the Kaibab Formation. The water-saturated and moist conditions required for extensive deformation may have been controlled by the proximity of these sandstones to the shoreline, and fluctuations in the associated groundwater table.

  17. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This report focuses on the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore (SLBE) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  18. 76 FR 37059 - Siuslaw National Forest; Oregon; Oregon Dunes NRA Management Area 10 (C) Route and Area Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Siuslaw National Forest; Oregon; Oregon Dunes NRA Management Area 10 (C) Route and Area Designation AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to... (C) today are not designated routes. This has in turn led to greater and unnecessary impacts to...

  19. Field measurement and analysis of climatic factors affecting dune mobility near Grand Falls on the Navajo Nation, southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogle, Rian; Redsteer, Margaret Hiza; Vogel, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Aeolian sand covers extensive areas of the Navajo Nation in the southwestern United States. Much of this sand is currently stabilized by vegetation, although many drier parts of these Native lands also have active and partly active dunes. Current prolonged drought conditions that started in the mid-1990s are producing significant changes in dune mobility. Reactivation of regional aeolian deposits due to drought or increasing aridity from rising temperatures resulting from climate change could have serious consequences for human and animal populations, agriculture, grazing, and infrastructure. To understand and document the current and future potential for mobility, seasonally repeated surveys were used to track the location of multiple active barchan dunes. By utilizing Real-Time Kinematic GPS field surveys and simultaneously collecting in-situ meteorological data, it is possible to examine climatic parameters and seasonal variations that affect dune mobility and their relative influences. Through analysis of the recorded data, we examined the fit of various climate parameters, and demonstrate that under the current prolonged drought, wind power is the dominant factor controlling dune mobility.

  20. Transient Electromagnetic Soundings Near Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, San Luis Valley, Colorado (2006 Field Season)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, David V.; de Sozua Filho, Oderson A.

    2009-01-01

    Time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) soundings were made near Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve in the San Luis Valley of southern Colorado to obtain subsurface information of use to hydrologic modeling. Seventeen soundings were made to the east and north of the sand dunes. Using a small loop TEM system, maximum exploration depths of about 75 to 150 m were obtained. In general, layered earth interpretations of the data found that resistivity decreases with depth. Comparison of soundings with geologic logs from nearby wells found that zones logged as having increased clay content usually corresponded with a significant resistivity decrease in the TEM determined model. This result supports the use of TEM soundings to map the location of the top of the clay unit deposited at the bottom of the ancient Lake Alamosa that filled the San Luis Valley from Pliocene to middle Pleistocene time.

  1. Data report: Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, K.A.; Cook, J.R.; Fay, W.M.

    1982-02-01

    This report presents the results of ground water, stream water, and stream sediment reconnaissance in Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio. The following sample types were collected in each state: Illinois - 716 stream sediment, 1046 ground water, 337 stream water; Indiana - 126 stream sediment, 443 ground water, 111 stream water; Kentucky - 4901 stream sediment, 6408 ground water, 3966 stream water; Tennessee - 3309 stream sediment, 3574 ground water, 1584 stream water; Ohio - 1214 stream sediment, 2049 ground water, 1205 stream water. Neutron activation analyses are given for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, and Dy in ground water and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in sediments. Supplementary analyses by other techniques are reported for U (extractable), Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn. These analyses were made on 248 sediment samples from Tennessee. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Oak Ridge National Laboratory analyzed sediment samples which were not analyzed by Savannah River Laboratory neutron activation

  2. Indiana University receives grant from National Science Foundation to help build global grid network

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The NSF awarded a consortium of 15 universities $13.65 million to build the International Virtual Data Grid Laboratory, or iVDGL. The iVDGL will consist of a seamless network of thousands of computers at 40 locations in the US, Europe and Asia. These computers will work together as a powerful grid capable of handling petabytes of data. Indiana University will make significant contributions to this project by providing a prototype Tier-2 Data Center for the ATLAS high energy physics experiment and the International Grid Operations Center.

  3. Cost-Effective Pavement Performance Management of Indiana's Enhanced National Highway System through Strategic Modification of the Pavement Rehabilitation Treatment Trigger Values

    OpenAIRE

    Noureldin, Menna; Fricker, Jon D.; Sinha, Kumares C.

    2015-01-01

    Cost-Effective Pavement Performance Management of Indiana's Enhanced National Highway System through Strategic Modification of the Pavement Rehabilitation Treatment Trigger Values Presented during Session 3: Policy and Funding, moderated by Magdy Mikhail, at the 9th International Conference on Managing Pavement Assets (ICMPA9) in Alexandria, VA. Includes conference paper and PowerPoint slides.

  4. Indiana Studies: Hoosier History, Government, and People. Unit III: From Sectional Division to Political Unity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Harry D.; And Others

    Unit 3 of a six-unit series on Indiana state history designed to be taught in Indiana secondary schools tells the story of Indiana from 1829 to 1908. Chapter 1 discusses national issues in an Indiana context. The effects of social movements such as Abolition, the underground railroad, and the Fugitive Slave Law on Indiana politics are examined.…

  5. Biological Diversity, Ecological Health and Condition of Aquatic Assemblages at National Wildlife Refuges in Southern Indiana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Simon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Wildlife Refuge system is a vital resource for the protection and conservation of biodiversity and biological integrity in the United States. Surveys were conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of fish, macroinvertebrate, and crayfish populations in two watersheds that encompass three refuges in southern Indiana. The Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge had the highest number of aquatic species with 355 macroinvertebrate taxa, six crayfish species, and 82 fish species, while the Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge had 163 macroinvertebrate taxa, seven crayfish species, and 37 fish species. The Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest diversity of macroinvertebrates with 96 taxa and six crayfish species, while possessing the second highest fish species richness with 51 species. Habitat quality was highest in the Muscatatuck River drainage with increased amounts of forested habitats compared to the Patoka River drainage. Biological integrity of the three refuges ranked the Patoka NWR as the lowest biological integrity (mean IBI reach scores = 35 IBI points, while Big Oaks had the highest biological integrity (mean IBI reach score = 41 IBI points. The Muscatatuck NWR had a mean IBI reach score of 31 during June, which seasonally increased to a mean of 40 IBI points during summer. Watershed IBI scores and habitat condition were highest in the Big Oaks NWR.

  6. Biological Diversity, Ecological Health and Condition of Aquatic Assemblages at National Wildlife Refuges in Southern Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Charles C.; Robb, Joseph R.; McCoy, William

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The National Wildlife Refuge system is a vital resource for the protection and conservation of biodiversity and biological integrity in the United States. Surveys were conducted to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of fish, macroinvertebrate, and crayfish populations in two watersheds that encompass three refuges in southern Indiana. The Patoka River National Wildlife Refuge had the highest number of aquatic species with 355 macroinvertebrate taxa, six crayfish species, and 82 fish species, while the Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge had 163 macroinvertebrate taxa, seven crayfish species, and 37 fish species. The Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest diversity of macroinvertebrates with 96 taxa and six crayfish species, while possessing the second highest fish species richness with 51 species. Habitat quality was highest in the Muscatatuck River drainage with increased amounts of forested habitats compared to the Patoka River drainage. Biological integrity of the three refuges ranked the Patoka NWR as the lowest biological integrity (mean IBI reach scores = 35 IBI points), while Big Oaks had the highest biological integrity (mean IBI reach score = 41 IBI points). The Muscatatuck NWR had a mean IBI reach score of 31 during June, which seasonally increased to a mean of 40 IBI points during summer. Watershed IBI scores and habitat condition were highest in the Big Oaks NWR. PMID:25632261

  7. Modeling elk and bison carrying capacity for Great Sand Dunes National Park, Baca National Wildlife Refuge, and The Nature Conservancy's Medano Ranch, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wockner, Gary; Boone, Randall; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.

    2015-01-01

    Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve and the neighboring Baca National Wildlife Refuge constitute an extraordinary setting that offers a variety of opportunities for outdoor recreation and natural resource preservation in the San Luis Valley of Colorado. Adjacent to these federal lands, the Nature Conservancy (TNC) manages the historic Medano Ranch. The total land area of these three conservation properties is roughly 121,500 hectares (ha). It is a remote and rugged area in which resource managers must balance the protection of natural resources with recreation and neighboring land uses. The management of wild ungulates in this setting presents challenges, as wild ungulates move freely across public and private landscapes.

  8. Booming Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Nathalie

    "Booming" sand dunes are able to produce low-frequency sound that resembles a pure note from a music instrument. The sound has a dominant audible frequency (70-105 Hz) and several higher harmonics and may be heard from far distances away. A natural or induced avalanche from a slip face of the booming dune triggers the emission that may last for several minutes. There are various references in travel literature to the phenomenon, but to date no scientific explanation covered all field observations. This thesis introduces a new physical model that describes the phenomenon of booming dunes. The waveguide model explains the selection of the booming frequency and the amplification of the sound in terms of constructive interference in a confined geometry. The frequency of the booming is a direct function of the dimensions and velocities in the waveguide. The higher harmonics are related to the higher modes of propagation in the waveguide. The experimental validation includes quantitative field research at the booming dunes of the Mojave Desert and Death Valley National Park. Microphone and geophone recordings of the acoustic and seismic emission show a variation of booming frequency in space and time. The analysis of the sensor data quantifies wave propagation characteristics such as speed, dispersion, and nonlinear effects and allows the distinction between the source mechanism of the booming and the booming itself. The migration of sand dunes results from a complicated interplay between dune building, wind regime, and precipitation. The morphological and morphodynamical characteristics of two field locations are analyzed with various geophysical techniques. Ground-penetrating radar images the subsurface structure of the dunes and reveal a natural, internal layering that is directly related to the history of dune migration. The seismic velocity increases abruptly with depth and gradually increases with downhill position due to compaction. Sand sampling shows local

  9. Program Contacts for Northwest Indiana Area (Indiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Indiana Area (Indiana) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  10. Ground-Water Flow Direction, Water Quality, Recharge Sources, and Age, Great Sand Dunes National Monument, South-Central Colorado, 2000-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, Niel

    2004-01-01

    Great Sand Dunes National Monument is located in south-central Colorado along the eastern edge of the San Luis Valley. The Great Sand Dunes National Monument contains the tallest sand dunes in North America; some rise up to750 feet. Important ecological features of the Great Sand Dunes National Monument are palustrine wetlands associated with interdunal ponds and depressions along the western edge of the dune field. The existence and natural maintenance of the dune field and the interdunal ponds are dependent on maintaining ground-water levels at historic elevations. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study, in collaboration with the National Park Service, of ground-water flow direction, water quality, recharge sources, and age at the Great Sand Dunes National Monument. A shallow unconfined aquifer and a deeper confined aquifer are the two principal aquifers at the Great Sand Dunes National Monument. Ground water in the unconfined aquifer is recharged from Medano and Sand Creeks near the Sangre de Cristo Mountain front, flows underneath the main dune field, and discharges to Big and Little Spring Creeks. The percentage of calcium in ground water in the unconfined aquifer decreases and the percentage of sodium increases because of ionic exchange with clay minerals as the ground water flows underneath the dune field. It takes more than 60 years for the ground water to flow from Medano and Sand Creeks to Big and Little Spring Creeks. During this time, ground water in the upper part of the unconfined aquifer is recharged by numerous precipitation events. Evaporation of precipitation during recharge prior to reaching the water table causes enrichment in deuterium (2H) and oxygen-18 (18O) relative to waters that are not evaporated. This recharge from precipitation events causes the apparent ages determined using chlorofluorocarbons and tritium to become younger, because relatively young precipitation water is mixing with older waters

  11. Compromised Futures: Indiana's Children in Poverty. Occasional Paper No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Judith B.

    The number of poor children in the United States is high, and estimates suggest that poverty among Indiana's children is increasing at twice the national rate. Presently, Indiana does not have readily available, comprehensive information about the state's children and adolescents. There are few ways to link Indiana's poverty data to other…

  12. Exploring Indiana's Private Education Sector. School Survey Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catt, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    Indiana is at the national forefront on private school choice. With the broadest eligibility guidelines among the country's 22 other school voucher programs, Indiana's Choice Scholarship Program has seen enrollment more than double each year since being enacted in 2011. Today, when compared with voucher programs in 12 other states, Indiana has the…

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Indiana Transportation Data for Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    (nameplate, MW) 1,430 Source: BioFuels Atlas from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Case Studies Video Alternative Fuels Save Money in Indy April 1, 2012 More Case Studies Videos Text Version More Indiana Videos on YouTube Video thumbnail for Indiana Beverage Company Invests in Alternative Fuels Indiana Beverage

  14. Coal resources of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Frank Darwyn

    1953-01-01

    The Indiana coal field forms the eastern edge of the eastern interior coal basin, which is near some of the most densely populated and highly productive manufacturing areas of the United States. (See fig. 1. ) For this reason Indiana coal reserves are an important State and National asset. In dollar value the coal mining industry is the largest of Indiana's natural-resource-producing industries. The total value of coil production for the year 1950 was more than 100 million dollars, or more than that of all other natural-resource industries in the State combined. As estimated herein, the original coal reserves of Indiana total 37,293 million tons, of which 27,320 million tons is contained in beds more than 42 inches thick; 7,632 million tons in beds 28 to 49. inches thick; and 2,341 million tons in beds 14 to 28 inches thick. The remaining reserves as of January 1951, total 35,806 million tons, of which 18,779 million tons is believed to be recoverable. The distribution of the reserves in these several categories is summarized by counties in table 1. Of the total original reserves of 37,293 million tons, 6,355 million tons can be classified as measured; 8,657 million tons as indicated; and 22,281 million tons as inferred. Strippable reserves constitute 3,524 million tons, or 9.5 percent of the total original reserves. The distribution of the strippable and nonstrippable original reserves is summarized in tables 2 and 3 by counties and by several categories, according to the thickness of the beds and the relative abundance and reliability of the information available for preparing the estimates. The distribution of the estimated 18,779 million tons of recoverable strippable and nonstrippable reserves in Indiana is further summarized by counties in table 4, and the information is presented graphically in figures 2 and 3. The tables i to 4 and figures 2 and 3 include beds in the 14- to 28-inch category, because thin beds have been mined in many places. However, many

  15. Grapevine dynamics after manual tending of juvenile stands on the Hoosier National Forest, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Morrissey; Martin-Michel Gauthier; John A., Jr. Kershaw; Douglass F. Jacobs; Burnell C. Fischer; John R. Siefert

    2008-01-01

    Large woody vines, most notably grapevines, are a source of great concern for forest and wildlife managers in many parts of the Central Hardwood Forest Region of the United States. We examined grapevine dynamics in stands aged 21 - 35 years. The plots, located in regenerated clearcuts in the Hoosier National Forest (HNF), were evaluated for vine control, site, and tree...

  16. Geology along Mosca Pass Trail, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, David A.; Klein, Terry L.; Valdez, Andrew; Webster, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Mosca Pass Trail takes the hiker on a journey into the Earth's crust. Here you can see the results of tremendous tectonic forces that bend and tear rocks apart and raise mountain ranges. The trail begins near the Sangre de Cristo fault, which separates the Sangre de Cristo Range from the San Luis Valley. The valley is part of the Rio Grande rift, a series of fault basins extending from southern New Mexico to central Colorado, wherein the Earth's crust has been pulled apart during the last 30 million years. Thousands of feet of sediment, brought by streams mostly from the Sangre de Cristo Range, fill the San Luis Valley beneath the Great Sand Dunes. The trail ends at Mosca Pass overlooking Huerfano Park. The park is part of the larger Raton Basin, formed by compression of the Earth's crust during the Laramide orogeny, which occurred 70–40 million years ago. Massive highlands, the remnants of which are preserved in the Sangre de Cristo Range, were uplifted and pushed over the western side of the Raton Basin. Streams eroded the highland as it rose and filled the Raton Basin with sediment. After the sediment was compacted and cemented to form sedimentary rock, the Huerfano River and other streams began to excavate the basin. Over an unknown but long timespan that probably lasted millions of years, relatively soft sedimentary rocks were removed by the river to form the valley we call "Huerfano Park." Between the ends of the trail, the hiker walks through an erosional "window," or opening, into red sedimentary rocks overridden by gneiss, a metamorphic rock, during the Laramide orogeny. This window gives the hiker a glimpse into the Laramide highland of 70–40 million years ago that preceded the present-day Sangre de Cristo Range. The window is the focus of this trail guide. At the east end of the trail, near Mosca Pass, another trail follows the ridgeline south to Carbonate Mountain. Immediately after reaching the first summit above tree line, this trail crosses a

  17. Fuel alcohol opportunities for Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenglass, Bert

    1980-08-01

    Prepared at the request of US Senator Birch Bayh, Chairman of the National Alcohol Fuels Commission, this study may be best utilized as a guidebook and resource manual to foster the development of a statewide fuel alcohol plan. It examines sectors in Indiana which will impact or be impacted upon by the fuel alcohol industry. The study describes fuel alcohol technologies that could be pertinent to Indiana and also looks closely at how such a fuel alcohol industry may affect the economic and policy development of the State. Finally, the study presents options for Indiana, taking into account the national context of the developing fuel alcohol industry which, unlike many others, will be highly decentralized and more under the control of the lifeblood of our society - the agricultural community.

  18. Modeling aeolian dune and dune field evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniega, Serina

    Aeolian sand dune morphologies and sizes are strongly connected to the environmental context and physical processes active since dune formation. As such, the patterns and measurable features found within dunes and dune fields can be interpreted as records of environmental conditions. Using mathematical models of dune and dune field evolution, it should be possible to quantitatively predict dune field dynamics from current conditions or to determine past field conditions based on present-day observations. In this dissertation, we focus on the construction and quantitative analysis of a continuum dune evolution model. We then apply this model towards interpretation of the formative history of terrestrial and martian dunes and dune fields. Our first aim is to identify the controls for the characteristic lengthscales seen in patterned dune fields. Variations in sand flux, binary dune interactions, and topography are evaluated with respect to evolution of individual dunes. Through the use of both quantitative and qualitative multiscale models, these results are then extended to determine the role such processes may play in (de)stabilization of the dune field. We find that sand flux variations and topography generally destabilize dune fields, while dune collisions can yield more similarly-sized dunes. We construct and apply a phenomenological macroscale dune evolution model to then quantitatively demonstrate how dune collisions cause a dune field to evolve into a set of uniformly-sized dunes. Our second goal is to investigate the influence of reversing winds and polar processes in relation to dune slope and morphology. Using numerical experiments, we investigate possible causes of distinctive morphologies seen in Antarctic and martian polar dunes. Finally, we discuss possible model extensions and needed observations that will enable the inclusion of more realistic physical environments in the dune and dune field evolution models. By elucidating the qualitative and

  19. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Evansville National Topographic Map, Indiana and Kentucky, southeast US Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Evansville National Topographic Map NJ16-8 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  20. Detection of microcystin and other cyanotoxins in lakes at Isle Royale National Park, Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, and Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, northern Michigan, 2012–13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Lori M.; Brennan, Angela K.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Loftin, Keith A.; Johnson, Heather E.; VanderMeulen, David D.; Lafrancois, Brenda Moraska

    2017-12-05

    Although cyanotoxins released during algal blooms have become an increasing concern in surface waters across the United States, the presence of cyanotoxins in northern Michigan lakes had not been evaluated in detail. The U.S. Geological Survey and National Park Service (NPS) led a 2-year study (2012 and 2013) to determine the presence of microcystin and other algal toxins in several inland lakes at Isle Royale National Park (hereafter referred to as ISRO, Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore (hereafter referred to as PIRO), and Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore (hereafter referred to as SLBE). Samples also were collected at four sites in Lake Michigan within the SLBE. The two analytical techniques used in the study were enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for microcystin, cylindrospermopsin, and saxitoxin; and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) for a larger suite of algal toxins. Neither cylindrospermopsin nor saxitoxin were detected in the 211 samples. Microcystin was detected in 31 percent of samples (65 of 211 samples) analyzed by the ELISA method, but no sample results exceeded the World Health Organization recreational health advisory standard for microcystin (10 micrograms per liter [µg/L]). However, about 10 percent of the samples (21 of 211 samples) that were collected from PIRO and SLBE and were analyzed by ELISA for microcystin had concentrations greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water 10-day health advisory of 0.3 µg/L for children preschool age and younger (less than 6-years old). One sample collected in 2012 from SLBE exceeded the EPA drinking water 10-day health advisory of 1.6 µg/L for school-age children through adults (6-years old and older). In 2012, the highest concentration of 2.7 µg/L was detected in Florence Lake within SLBE. Many visitors enjoy recreation in or on the water and camp in the backcountry at these national parks where the most common source of drinking water

  1. Historic Sites and National Register of Historic Places - BRIDGES_HISTORIC_IDNR_IN: Historic Bridge Locations in Indiana (Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology, 1:5,000, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — IDNR documentation states - “This dataset contains point locations of historic bridges in Indiana. It includes buildings, districts, sites, structures and objects...

  2. Indiana Health Information Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indiana Health Information Exchange is comprised of various Indiana health care institutions, established to help improve patient safety and is recognized as a best practice for health information exchange.

  3. What is a Dune: Developing AN Automated Approach to Extracting Dunes from Digital Elevation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H.; DeCuir, C.; Wernette, P. A.; Taube, C.; Eyler, R.; Thopson, S.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal dunes can absorb storm surge and mitigate inland erosion caused by elevated water levels during a storm. In order to understand how a dune responds to and recovers from a storm, it is important that we can first identify and differentiate the beach and dune from the rest of the landscape. Current literature does not provide a consistent definition of what the dune features (e.g. dune toe, dune crest) are or how they can be extracted. The purpose of this research is to develop enhanced approaches to extracting dunes from a digital elevation model (DEM). Manual delineation, convergence index, least-cost path, relative relief, and vegetation abundance were compared and contrasted on a small area of Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS), Preliminary results indicate that the method used to extract the dune greatly affects our interpretation of how the dune changes. The manual delineation method was time intensive and subjective, while the convergence index approach was useful to easily identify the dune crest through maximum and minimum values. The least-cost path method proved to be time intensive due to data clipping; however, this approach resulted in continuous geomorphic landscape features (e.g. dune toe, dune crest). While the relative relief approach shows the most features in multi resolution, it is difficult to assess the accuracy of the extracted features because extracted features appear as points that can vary widely in their location from one meter to the next. The vegetation approach was greatly impacted by the seasonal and annual fluctuations of growth but is advantageous in historical change studies because it can be used to extract consistent dune formation from historical aerial imagery. Improving our ability to more accurately assess dune response and recovery to a storm will enable coastal managers to more accurately predict how dunes may respond to future climate change scenarios.

  4. A Jurassic Shock-Aftershock Earthquake Sequence Recorded by Small Clastic Pipes and Dikes within Dune Cross-Strata, Zion National Park, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loope, D. B.; Zlotnik, V. A.; Kettler, R. M.; Pederson, D. T.

    2012-12-01

    Eolian sandstones of south-central and southeast Utah contain large volumes of contorted cross-strata that have long been recognized as products of liquefaction caused by seismic shaking. Unlike most sites where Navajo Sandstone is exposed, in Zion National Park (southwestern Utah), the Navajo contains very, very few contorted strata. We have, however, mapped the distribution of more than 1,000 small-scale, vertical pipes and dikes in uncontorted cross-strata of the Navajo at two small study sites in Zion. Pipes are 2-5 cm in diameter and up to 3 m long; dikes are ~6 cm wide. Clusters of the water-escape structures lie directly above and below numerous, near-horizontal bounding surfaces. Dikes are restricted to the wind-ripple strata that lie above the bounding surfaces. Pipes are common both above and below the bounding surfaces. In map view, most pipes are arranged in lines. Near the bounding surfaces, pipes merge upward with shallow dikes trending parallel to the lines of pipes. Pipes formed in grainflows—homogeneous, well-sorted sand lacking cohesion. Dikes formed above the bounding surface, in more-cohesive, poorly sorted, wind-ripple strata. As liquefaction began, expansion of subsurface sand caused spreading within the unliquified (capping) beds near the land surface. Dikes intruded cracks in the wind-ripple strata, and pipes rose from the better-sorted sand to interdune surfaces, following trends of cracks. Because the wind-ripple strata had low cohesive strength, a depression formed around each rupture, and ejected sand built upward to a flat-topped surface rather than forming the cone of a classic sand volcano. In one 3 m2 portion of the map area, a cluster of about 20 pipes and dikes, many with truncated tops, record eight stratigraphically distinct seismic events. The large dunes that deposited the Navajo cross-strata likely moved ~1m/yr. When, in response to seismic shaking, a few liters of fluidized sand erupted onto the lowermost portion of the

  5. Koltunud Indiana Jones / Kutt Kommel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kommel, Kutt

    2008-01-01

    Steven Spielbergi neljas Indiana Jones'i film Harrison Fordiga nimiosas "Indiana Jones ja kristallpealuu kuningriik" ("Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull") : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2008

  6. Indiana Dzhons vozvrashtshajetsja / Melor Sturua

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sturua, Melor

    2008-01-01

    22 mail esilinastub Steven Spielbergi järjekordne Indiana Jones'i film, kaasstsenaristiks ja produtsendiks George Lucas ja Harrison Fordiga nimiosas "Indiana Jones ja kristallpealuu kuningriik" ("Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull")

  7. Chicago, Indiana set for "world's largest scientific experiment"

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    "The mission of The Hoosier Coefficient, which appears on MidestBusiness.com eveery Thursday, is to profile the often-overlooked rich technology development and commercialization in Indiana. The Hoosier state is home to four of the top technology research and engineering universities in the nation and tech pros ignore Indiana at their own peril." (1 page)

  8. Dune erosion above revetments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Thiel de Vries, J.S.M.

    2012-01-01

    In a situation with a narrow dune, the dune base can be protected with a revetment to reduce dune erosion during extreme events. To quantify the effects of a revetment on storm impact, the functionality of the numerical storm impact model XBeach (Roelvink et al., 2009) is extended to account for the

  9. Assessing the Importance of Cross-Stream Transport in Bedload Flux Estimates from Migrating Dunes: Colorado River, Grand Canyon National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, K. P.; Buscombe, D.; Schmeeckle, M.; Kaplinski, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Bedforms are ubiquitous in sand-bedded rivers, and understanding their morphodynamics is key to quantifying bedload transport. As such, mechanistic understanding of the spatiotemporal details of sand transport through and over bedforms is paramount to quantifying total sediment flux in sand-bedded river systems. However, due to the complexity of bedform field geometries and migration in natural settings, our ability to relate migration to bedload flux, and to quantify the relative role of tractive and suspended processes in their dynamics, is incomplete. Recent flume and numerical investigations indicate the potential importance of cross-stream transport, a process previously regarded as secondary and diffusive, to the three-dimensionality of bedforms and spatially variable translation and deformation rates. This research seeks to understand and quantify the importance of cross-stream transport in bedform three-dimensionality in a field setting. This work utilizes a high-resolution (0.25 m grid) data set of bedforms migrating in the channel of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. This data set comprises multi-beam sonar surveys collected at 3 different flow discharges ( 283, 566, and 1076 m3/s) along a reach of the Colorado River just upstream of the Diamond Creek USGS gage. Data were collected every 6 minutes almost continuously for 12 hours. Using bed elevation profiles (BEPs), we extract detailed bedform geometrical data (i.e. bedform height, wavelength) and spatial sediment flux data over a suite of bedforms at each flow. Coupling this spatially extensive data with a generalized Exner equation, we conduct mass balance calculations that evaluate the possibility, and potential importance, of cross-stream transport in the spatial variability of translation and deformation rates. Preliminary results suggest that intra-dune cross-stream transport can partially account for changes in the planform shape of dunes and may play an important role in spatially

  10. Indiana Bat (Towns)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset includes towns that contain documented hibernacula or summer range occupied by federally endangered Indiana bats. Survey data used to create this...

  11. Sample descriptions and geophysical logs for cored well BP-3-USGS, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Alamosa County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Skipp, Gary L.; Thomas, Jonathan V.; Davis, Joshua K.; Benson, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The BP-3-USGS well was drilled at the southwestern corner of Great Sand Dunes National Park in the San Luis Valley, south-central Colorado, 68 feet (ft, 20.7 meters [m]) southwest of the National Park Service’s boundary-piezometer (BP) well 3. BP-3-USGS is located at latitude 37°43ʹ18.06ʺN. and longitude 105°43ʹ39.30ʺW., at an elevation of 7,549 ft (2,301 m). The well was drilled through poorly consolidated sediments to a depth of 326 ft (99.4 m) in September 2009. Water began flowing from the well after penetrating a clay-rich layer that was first intercepted at a depth of 119 ft (36.3 m). The base of this layer, at an elevation of 7,415 ft (2,260 m) above sea level, likely marks the top of a regional confined aquifer recognized throughout much of the San Luis Valley. Approximately 69 ft (21 m) of core was recovered (about 21 percent), almost exclusively from clay-rich zones. Coarser grained fractions were collected from mud extruded from the core barrel or captured from upwelling drilling fluids. Natural gamma-ray, full waveform sonic, density, neutron, resistivity, spontaneous potential, and induction logs were acquired. The well is now plugged and abandoned.

  12. Coastal dunes of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tinley, KL

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available . The descriptive section is divided into geographic setting, physical features, ecological features and dune dynamics. Emphasis is placed on the factors affecting dune formation and erosion and the biogeography and dynamics of dune vegetation. Current use...

  13. Recommendations for a barrier island breach management plan for Fire Island National Seashore, including the Otis Pike High Dune Wilderness Area, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Foley, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S Army Corps of Engineers, New York District is developing engineering plans, including economic costs and benefits, for storm damage reduction along an 83 mile stretch of the coastal barrier islands and beaches on the south shore of Long Island, NY from Fire Island Inlet east to the Montauk Point headland. The plan, expected to include various alternatives for storm protection and erosion mitigation, is referred to as the Fire Island to Montauk Point Reformulation Plan (FIMP). These plans are expected to follow the Corps of Engineers’ Environmental Operating Principles striving for long term environmental sustainability and balance between environmental protection and protection of human health and property. Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS), a 19,579 acre unit of the National Park System includes a 32 mile long coastal barrier island located within the FIMP project area. A seven-mile section of the park, Otis Pike Fire Island High Dune Wilderness Area, is also a designated Federal Wilderness Area. The FIIS includes not only the barrier island and sand dunes, but also several islands, sand flats and wetlands landward of the barrier, submerged parts of Great South Bay shoreface, extending approximately 4,000 feet into the bay with the inner shelf region extending approximately 1,000 feet seaward of the Fire Island shoreline. The Fire Island barrier islands, a sand-starved system dominated by highly dynamic processes, are struggling to maintain their integrity in the face of sea-level rise and storms. Adding to the dilemma is that development on the barriers and the mainland has increased greatly during the past 50 years. As such, managers and decision makers in federal agencies, state agencies and local governments are challenged to balance tradeoffs between protection of lives and property, public access and long term conservation of natural habitats and processes and the plants and animals that depend on these habitats. National Park Service (NPS

  14. INDIANA: Beam dynamics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Beam dynamics experiments at the Indiana University Cooler Facility (IUCF) are helping to trace complicated non-linear effects in proton machines and could go on to pay important dividends in the detailed design of big new high energy proton storage rings

  15. Changes in vegetation and biological soil crust communities on sand dunes stabilizing after a century of grazing on San Miguel Island, Channel Island National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellman, Kristine L.

    2014-01-01

    San Miguel Island is the westernmost of the California Channel Islands and one of the windiest areas on the west coast of North America. The majority of the island is covered by coastal sand dunes, which were stripped of vegetation and subsequently mobilized due to droughts and sheep ranching during the late 19th century and early 20th century. Since the removal of grazing animals, vegetation and biological soil crusts have once again stabilized many of the island's dunes. In this study, historical aerial photographs and field surveys were used to develop a chronosequence of the pattern of change in vegetation communities and biological soil crust levels of development (LOD) along a gradient of dune stabilization. Historical aerial photographs from 1929, 1954, 1977, and 2009 were georeferenced and used to delineate changes in vegetation canopy cover and active (unvegetated) dune extent among 5 historical periods (pre-1929, 1929–1954, 1954–1977, 1977–2009, and 2009–2011). During fieldwork, vegetation and biological soil crust communities were mapped along transects distributed throughout San Miguel Island's central dune field on land forms that had stabilized during the 5 time periods of interest. Analyses in a geographic information system (GIS) quantified the pattern of changes that vegetation and biological soil crust communities have exhibited on the San Miguel Island dunes over the past 80 years. Results revealed that a continuing increase in total vegetation cover and a complex pattern of change in vegetation communities have taken place on the San Miguel Island dunes since the removal of grazing animals. The highly specialized native vascular vegetation (sea rocket, dunedelion, beach-bur, and locoweed) are the pioneer stabilizers of the dunes. This pioneer community is replaced in later stages by communities that are dominated by native shrubs (coastal goldenbush, silver lupine, coyote-brush, and giant coreopsis), with apparently overlapping or

  16. Inside ProtoDune

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2017-01-01

    The protoDUNE experimental program is designed to test and validate the technologies and design that will be applied to the construction of the DUNE Far Detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF). The protoDUNE detectors will be run in a dedicated beam line at the CERN SPS accelerator complex. The rate and volume of data produced by these detectors will be substantial and will require extensive system design and integration effort. As of Fall 2015, "protoDUNE" is the official name for the two apparatuses to be used in CERN beam test: single-phase and dual-phase LArTPC detectors. Each received a formal CERN experiment designation: NP02 for the dual-phase detector. NP04 for single-phase detector.

  17. Frost on Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    18 March 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark dunes on a crater floor during the southern spring. Some of the dunes have frost on their south-facing slopes. Location near: 52.3oS, 326.7oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  18. Indiana protiv KGB / Anna Fedina, Pjotr Obraztsov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fedina, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Steven Spielbergi neljas Indiana Jones'i film Harrison Fordiga nimiosas "Indiana Jones ja kristallpealuu kuningriik" ("Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull") : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2008

  19. Indiana Jones ja kristallpealuu kuningriik / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2008-01-01

    Steven Spielbergi neljas Indiana Jones'i film Harrison Fordiga nimiosas "Indiana Jones ja kristallpealuu kuningriik" ("Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull") : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2008

  20. Indiana's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Mark N. Webb; Barry T. Wilson; Jeff Settle; Ron J. Piva; Charles H. Perry; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Susan J. Crocker; Brett J. Butler; Mark Hansen; Mark Hatfield; Gary Brand; Charles. Barnett

    2011-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Indiana's forests reports more than 4.75 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,000 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the white oak/red oak/hickory forest type, which occupies nearly a third of the total forest land area. Seventy-six percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 16...

  1. Dunes with Frost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    31 May 2004 Springtime for the martian northern hemisphere brings defrosting spots and patterns to the north polar dune fields. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example located near 76.7oN, 250.4oW. In summer, these dunes would be darker than their surroundings. However, while they are still covered by frost, they are not any darker than the substrate across which the sand is slowly traveling. Dune movement in this case is dominated by winds that blow from the southwest (lower left) toward the northeast (upper right). The picure covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  2. Sand Dunes with Frost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    9 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a suite of frost-covered sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars in early spring, 2004. The dunes indicate wind transport of sand from left to right (west to east). These landforms are located near 78.1oN, 220.8oW. This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  3. Transient electromagnetic soundings in the San Luis Valley, Colorado, near the Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve and the Alamosa National Wildlife Refuge (field seasons 2007, 2009, and 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, David V.

    2017-06-13

    Transient electromagnetic (TEM) soundings were made in the San Luis Valley, Colorado, to map the location of a blue clay unit as well as to investigate the presence of suspected faults. A total of 147 soundings were made near and in Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, and an additional 6 soundings were made near Hansen Bluff on the eastern edge of the Alamosa National Wildlife Refuge. The blue clay is a significant hydrologic feature in the area that separates an unconfined surface aquifer from a deeper confined aquifer. Knowledge of its location is important to regional hydrological models. Previous analysis of well logs has shown that the blue clay has a resistivity of 10 ohm-meters or less, which is in contrast to the higher resistivity of sand, gravel, and other clay units found in the area, making it a very good target for TEM soundings. The top of the blue clay was found to have considerable relief, suggesting the possibility of deformation of the clay during or after deposition. Because of rift activity, deformation is to be expected. Of the TEM profiles made across faults identified by aeromagnetic data, some showed resistivity variations and (or) subsurface elevation relief of resistivity units, suggestive of faulting. Such patterns were not associated with all suspected faults. The Hansen Bluff profile showed variations in resistivity and depth to conductor that coincide with a scarp between the highlands to the east and the floodplain of the Rio Grande to the west.

  4. 2011-2013 Indiana Statewide Imagery and LiDAR Program: Lake Michigan Watershed Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Indiana's Statewide LiDAR data is produced at 1.5-meter average post spacing for all 92 Indiana Counties covering more than 36,420 square miles. New LiDAR data was...

  5. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY... Indiana State Implementation Plan (SIP) for lead (Pb) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Pb promulgated by EPA in 2008. DATES...

  6. Frost-covered dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    MOC image of dunes in Chasma Boreale, a giant trough in the north polar cap. This September 1998 view shows dark sand emergent from beneath a veneer of bright frost left over from the northern winter that ended in July 1998.

  7. Singing Sand Dunes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ble low-frequency (s. 75–105 Hz), that can some- times be heard up to 10 km away. Scientific in- vestigations suggest that the sustained low fre- quency sound of sand dunes that resembles a pure note from a musical instrument, is due to the synchronized motion of well-sorted dry sand grains when they spontaneously ...

  8. Dynamics of a cliff top dune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, K. R.

    2012-12-01

    Morphological changes during more than 100 years have been investigated for a cliff-top dune complex at Rubjerg at the Danish North Sea coast. Here the lower 50 m of the cliff front is composed of Pleistocene steeply inclined floes of silt and clay with coarse sand in between which gives it a saw-tooth appearance. On top of this the dunes are found for several kilometres along the coastline. Due to erosion by the North Sea the cliff has retreated about 120 m between approximately 1880 and 1970 as indicated from two national surveys, and recent GPS-surveys indicate that erosion is continuing at a similar rate. Nevertheless the cliff top dune complex has survived, but its morphology has undergone some changed. The old maps indicate that around 1880 the dune complex was composed of several up to about 20 m high dunes streamlined in the East-West direction which is parallel to the prevailing wind direction. When protective planting started during the first half of the 20th Century the cliff top dunes gradually merged together forming a narrow, tall ridge parallel to the shore line with the highest part reaching about 90 m near 1970. In 1993 the highest points along the ridge was almost 95 m high, but then the protective planting was considerably reduced and recent annual GPS-surveys indicate that the dunes respond quickly to this by changing their morphology towards the original appearance. It is remarkable that despite the mass wasting caused by the constant erosion of the cliff front the dunes have remained more or less intact. Theoretical studies of hill flow indicate given the proper geometry of the cliff then suspension of even coarse grains can be a very effective agent for carrying sand from the exposed parts of the cliff front to and beyond the cliff-top. Mostly the sand grains are deposited within some hundred meters downwind of the cliff dune while silt is often carried more than 10 km inland. Field observations indicate that where the dislodged floes and

  9. Sensitivity Analysis of Dune Height Measurements Along Cross-shore Profiles Using a Novel Method for Dune Ridge Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, E.; Mitasova, H.; Overton, M.

    2010-12-01

    In barrier islands where communities are subjected to hazards including storm surge and high wave height, coastal dunes offer the first line of defense to property and vital infrastructure. When dunes are over-washed, substantial damage, including complete destruction of buildings and roads can occur. For this reason, dunes are an integral aspect of coastal hazard management. As new, more efficient mapping and analysis technologies evolve, currently used methodologies should be regularly be reexamined in order to ensure the development of the most effective coastal management strategies. Currently, topographical parameters, such as dune height, are usually measured along evenly spaced, shore-perpendicular beach profiles. In previous studies, profile spacing has varied from 20m to over 500m, however, it has been shown that dune height can vary substantially over tens of meters. Profile spacing is a compromise between the resources needed to perform high-resolution measurements and ensuring the capture of meaningful dune features. While it is often clear how the choice of profile spacing will affect the resources needed to perform the analysis, it is often unclear how spacing affects the ability to capture significant dune variation and prevent omission of a narrow dune breach that can open the way for significant flooding. In this study, the structure of alongshore variation in dune height is investigated. The studied dune ridge is located in the Outer Banks, North Carolina, USA and stretches 18km from south of Oregon Inlet (75:31:19W, 35:46:03N) to Rodanthe (75:27:56W, 35:36:31N). The dune ridge is extracted from a 0.5m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) that was interpolated from airborne lidar data using regularized spline with tension. The lidar data was collected in March 2008 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. A dune ridge is usually identified as the highest elevation along a shore-perpendicular profile or where ocean-facing slope

  10. Frost-free Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03291 Frost-free Dunes These dark dunes are frost covered for most of the year. As southern summer draws to a close, the dunes have been completely defrosted. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -66.6N, Longitude 37.0E. 34 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  12. Changes of Bulgarian Coastal Dune Landscape under Anthropogenic Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, A.; Young, R.; Stancheva, M.; Stanchev, H.

    2012-04-01

    national reserves they have been exposed to large anthropogenic pressure in particular over the last decade. There is an increased demand now of proper management and urgent conservation activities. Such measures first require an accurate understanding of dune properties/behaviour, assessment of anthropogenic factors affecting dune persistence and identification of coastal areas most sensitive to risk of destruction. This research has been undertaken with the support of National Science Fund - Ministry of Education, Youth and Science, (Republic of Bulgaria); Contract No: DNTS 02/11 from 29.09.2010 in the frame of a Joint Research Project between Bulgaria and Romania (2010-2012). The Ministry of Agriculture and Food (Republic of Bulgaria) is deeply acknowledged for providing the modern orthophoto and satellite image data needed and useful also for implementation of the project activities.

  13. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of Indiana. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  14. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Indiana based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Indiana census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  15. Analyzing the attributes of Indiana's STEM schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltz, Jeremy

    "Primary and secondary schools do not seem able to produce enough students with the interest, motivation, knowledge, and skills they will need to compete and prosper in the emerging world" (National Academy of Sciences [NAS], 2007a, p. 94). This quote indicated that there are changing expectations for today's students which have ultimately led to new models of education, such as charters, online and blended programs, career and technical centers, and for the purposes of this research, STEM schools. STEM education as defined in this study is a non-traditional model of teaching and learning intended to "equip them [students] with critical thinking, problem solving, creative and collaborative skills, and ultimately establishes connections between the school, work place, community and the global economy" (Science Foundation Arizona, 2014, p. 1). Focusing on science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education is believed by many educational stakeholders to be the solution for the deficits many students hold as they move on to college and careers. The National Governors Association (NGA; 2011) believes that building STEM skills in the nation's students will lead to the ability to compete globally with a new workforce that has the capacity to innovate and will in turn spur economic growth. In order to accomplish the STEM model of education, a group of educators and business leaders from Indiana developed a comprehensive plan for STEM education as an option for schools to use in order to close this gap. This plan has been promoted by the Indiana Department of Education (IDOE, 2014a) with the goal of increasing STEM schools throughout Indiana. To determine what Indiana's elementary STEM schools are doing, this study analyzed two of the elementary schools that were certified STEM by the IDOE. This qualitative case study described the findings and themes from two elementary STEM schools. Specifically, the research looked at the vital components to accomplish STEM

  16. Examining Adult Basic Education in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Alishea

    2017-01-01

    While it is known that over 500,000 individuals in the State of Indiana have not obtained a High School Diploma or Equivalency (StatsIndiana, 2015), limited empirical information exists on Indiana students pursuing adult basic education along with implications for a state that has changed its adult basic education high stakes high school…

  17. Stability of isolated Barchan dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourrière, Antoine; Charru, François

    2010-11-01

    When sand grains are entrained by an air flow over a non-erodible ground, or with limited sediment supply from the bed, they form isolated dunes showing a remarkable crescentic shape with horns pointing downstream. These dunes, known as Barchan dunes, are commonly observed in deserts, with height of a few meters and velocity of a few meters per year (Bagnold 1941). These dunes also exist under water, at a much smaller, centimetric size (Franklin & Charru 2010). Their striking stability properties are not well understood yet. Two phenomena are likely to be involved in this stability: (i) relaxation effects of the sand flux which increases from the dune foot up to the crest, related to grain inertia or deposition, and (ii) a small transverse sand flux due to slope effects and the divergence of the streamlines of the fluid flow. We reproduced aqueous Barchan dunes in a channel, and studied their geometrical and dynamic properties (in particular their shape, velocity, minimum size, and rate of erosion). Using coloured glass beads (see the figure), we were then able to measure the particle flux over the whole dune surface. We will discuss the stability of these dunes in the light of our measurements.

  18. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Uncorrected - CROPS_2006_USDA_IN: Crops in Indiana for 2006, Derived from National Agricultural Statistics Service (United States Department of Agriculture, 1:100,000, 56-Meter TIFF Image)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — The following is excerpted from the metadata provided by NASS (USDA) for the source data set CDL_AWIFS_R_IN_2006.tif: "The USDA-NASS 2006 Indiana Cropland Data Layer...

  19. Surficial Geologic Map of the Evansville, Indiana, and Henderson, Kentucky, Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David W.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Counts, Ronald C.; Martin, Steven L.; Andrews, William M.; Newell, Wayne L.; Murphy, Michael L.; Thompson, Mark F.; Taylor, Emily M.; Kvale, Erik P.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2009-01-01

    The geologic map of the Evansville, Indiana, and Henderson, Kentucky, area depicts and describes surficial deposits according to their origin and age. Unconsolidated alluvium and outwash fill the Ohio River bedrock valley and attain maximum thickness of 33-39 m under Diamond Island, Kentucky, and Griffith Slough, south of Newburgh, Indiana. The fill is chiefly unconsolidated, fine- to medium-grained, lithic quartz sand, interbedded with clay, clayey silt, silt, coarse sand, granules, and gravel. Generally, the valley fill fines upward from the buried bedrock surface: a lower part being gravelly sand to sandy gravel, a middle part mostly of sand, and a surficial veneer of silt and clay interspersed with sandy, natural levee deposits at river's edge. Beneath the unconsolidated fill are buried and discontinuous, lesser amounts of consolidated fill unconformably overlying the buried bedrock surface. Most of the glaciofluvial valley fill accumulated during the Wisconsin Episode (late Pleistocene). Other units depicted on the map include creek alluvium, slackwater lake (lacustrine) deposits, colluvium, dune sand, loess, and sparse bedrock outcrops. Creek alluvium underlies creek floodplains and consists of silt, clayey silt, and subordinate interbedded fine sand, granules, and pebbles. Lenses and beds of clay are present locally. Silty and clayey slackwater lake (lacustrine) deposits extensively underlie broad flats northeast of Evansville and around Henderson and are as thick as 28 m. Fossil wood collected from an auger hole in the lake and alluvial deposits of Little Creek, at depths of 10.6 m and 6.4 m, are dated 16,650+-50 and 11,120+-40 radiocarbon years, respectively. Fossil wood collected from lake sediment 16 m below the surface in lake sediment was dated 33,100+-590 radiocarbon years. Covering the hilly bedrock upland is loess (Qel), 3-7.5 m thick in Indiana and 9-15 m thick in Kentucky, deposited about 22,000-12,000 years before present. Most mapped surficial

  20. The Northwest Indiana Robotic Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Shawn D.; Rengstorf, A. W.; Aros, J. C.; Segally, W. B.

    2011-01-01

    The Northwest Indiana Robotic (NIRo) Telescope is a remote, automated observing facility recently built by Purdue University Calumet (PUC) at a site in Lowell, IN, approximately 30 miles from the PUC campus. The recently dedicated observatory will be used for broadband and narrowband optical observations by PUC students and faculty, as well as pre-college students through the implementation of standards-based, middle-school modules developed by PUC astronomers and education faculty. The NIRo observatory and its web portal are the central technical elements of a project to improve astronomy education at Purdue Calumet and, more broadly, to improve science education in middle schools of the surrounding region. The NIRo Telescope is a 0.5-meter (20-inch) Ritchey-Chrétien design on a Paramount ME robotic mount, featuring a seven-position filter wheel (UBVRI, Hα, Clear), Peltier (thermoelectrically) cooled CCD camera with 3056 x 3056, square, 12 μm pixels, and off-axis guiding. It provides a coma-free imaging field of 0.5 degrees square, with a plate scale of 0.6 arcseconds per pixel. The observatory has a wireless internet connection, local weather station which publishes data to an internet weather site, and a suite of CCTV security cameras on an IP-based, networked video server. Control of power to every piece of instrumentation is maintained via internet-accessible power distribution units. The telescope can be controlled on-site, or off-site in an attended fashion via an internet connection, but will be used primarily in an unattended mode of automated observation, where queued observations will be scheduled daily from a database of requests. Completed observational data from queued operation will be stored on a campus-based server, which also runs the web portal and observation database. Partial support for this work was provided by the National Science Foundation's Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) program under Award No. 0736592.

  1. Environmental Assessment of the Muscatatuck Urban Training Center near Butlerville, Indiana, October and November 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Martin R.; Ulberg, Amanda L.; Robinson, Bret A.

    2007-01-01

    An environmental assessment of the Muscatatuck Urban Training Center near Butlerville in Jennings County, Indiana, was completed during October and November 2005. As part of the Department of Defense Earth Science Program, the U.S. Geological Survey collected information about environmental conditions at the 825-acre former State of Indiana mental health facility prior to its conversion by the Indiana National Guard into an urban training center. The assessment was designed to investigate the type and extent of potential contamination associated with historical activities in selected areas of the facility.

  2. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Indiana single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  3. Economic Impacts from Indiana's First 1,000 Megawatts of Wind Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.; Keyser, D.; Flores-Espino, F.; Hauser, R.

    2014-08-01

    The magnitude of Indiana's available wind resource indicates that the development of wind power infrastructure has the potential to support millions of dollars of economic activity in the state. The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, are tools used to estimate some of the economic impacts of energy projects at the state level. JEDI calculates results in the form of jobs, earnings, and economic output in three categories: project development and onsite labor, local revenue and supply chain, and induced impacts. According to this analysis, the first 1,000 MW of wind power development in Indiana (projects built between 2008 and 2011): supported employment totaling more than 4,400 full-time-equivalent jobs in Indiana during the construction periods; supports approximately 260 ongoing Indiana jobs; supported nearly $570 million in economic activity for Indiana during the construction periods; supported and continues to support nearly $40 million in annual Indiana economic activity during the operating periods; generates more than $8 million in annual property taxes; generates nearly $4 million annually in income for Indiana landowners who lease their land for wind energy projects.

  4. "Salatoimikud" Indiana Jonesi moodi / Inna-Katrin Hein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hein, Inna-Katrin

    2008-01-01

    Steven Spielbergi neljas Indiana Jones'i film Harrison Fordiga nimiosas "Indiana Jones ja kristallpealuu kuningriik" ("Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull") : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2008

  5. Flood-inundation maps for White River at Petersburg, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2015-08-20

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 7.7-mile reach of the White River at Petersburg, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at White River at Petersburg, Ind. (03374000). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site (PTRI3).

  6. State Geodatabase for Indiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 TIGER Geodatabases are extracts of selected nation based and state based geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  7. Indiana: Siberian Snake saves spin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-01-15

    A team working at the Indiana University Cooler Ring has used a 'Siberian Snake' system to accelerate a spin-polarized proton beam through two depolarizing resonances with no loss of spin. The Michigan/lndiana/Brookhaven team under Alan Krisch overcame their first imperfection resonance hurdle at 108 MeV, and in a subsequent run vanquished a further resonance at 177 MeV.

  8. Indiana: Siberian Snake saves spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    A team working at the Indiana University Cooler Ring has used a 'Siberian Snake' system to accelerate a spin-polarized proton beam through two depolarizing resonances with no loss of spin. The Michigan/lndiana/Brookhaven team under Alan Krisch overcame their first imperfection resonance hurdle at 108 MeV, and in a subsequent run vanquished a further resonance at 177 MeV

  9. Travel Time Reliability in Indiana

    OpenAIRE

    Martchouk, Maria; Mannering, Fred L.; Singh, Lakhwinder

    2010-01-01

    Travel time and travel time reliability are important performance measures for assessing traffic condition and extent of congestion on a roadway. This study first uses a floating car technique to assess travel time and travel time reliability on a number of Indiana highways. Then the study goes on to describe the use of Bluetooth technology to collect real travel time data on a freeway and applies it to obtain two weeks of data on Interstate 69 in Indianapolis. An autoregressive model, estima...

  10. Large-eddy simulation of sand dune morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosronejad, Ali; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, University of Minnesota Team

    2015-11-01

    Sand dunes are natural features that form under complex interaction between turbulent flow and bed morphodynamics. We employ a fully-coupled 3D numerical model (Khosronejad and Sotiropoulos, 2014, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 753:150-216) to perform high-resolution large-eddy simulations of turbulence and bed morphodynamics in a laboratory scale mobile-bed channel to investigate initiation, evolution and quasi-equilibrium of sand dunes (Venditti and Church, 2005, J. Geophysical Research, 110:F01009). We employ a curvilinear immersed boundary method along with convection-diffusion and bed-morphodynamics modules to simulate the suspended sediment and the bed-load transports respectively. The coupled simulation were carried out on a grid with more than 100 million grid nodes and simulated about 3 hours of physical time of dune evolution. The simulations provide the first complete description of sand dune formation and long-term evolution. The geometric characteristics of the simulated dunes are shown to be in excellent agreement with observed data obtained across a broad range of scales. This work was supported by NSF Grants EAR-0120914 (as part of the National Center for Earth-Surface Dynamics). Computational resources were provided by the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  11. 76 FR 40649 - Indiana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... improve operational efficiency. This document provides the times and locations that the Indiana program... hours at the following location: Division of Reclamation, Indiana Department of Natural Resources, R.R... read at the locations listed above under ADDRESSES or at http://www.regulations.gov . A. 312 IAC 25-1...

  12. Sources of the Indiana hardwood industry's competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silas Tora; Eva Haviarova

    2008-01-01

    The estimated 1,600 forest products-related firms in Indiana employ more than 56,000 workers. Hardwood manufacturers are the largest segment, adding approximately $2 billion per year of raw product value. A recent report by BioCrossroads ranked the hardwood industry as the most important in the agricultural sector in Indiana. Like most of the other forest products...

  13. Forests of Indiana: Their Economic Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Bratkovich; Joey Gallion; Earl Leatherberry; William Hoover; William Reading; Glenn Durham

    2007-01-01

    Mental images of Indiana often range from corn, soybeans, and hogs, to high school basketball. The average Hoosier has little knowledge, however, of the scope, productivity, and economic impact of Indiana's forestland. The State's best-kept secret is that its beautiful forests that draw many visitors are also economically vital to the State's economy....

  14. Future DUNE constraints on EFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowski, Adam; Grilli di Cortona, Giovanni; Tabrizi, Zahra

    2018-04-01

    In the near future, fundamental interactions at high-energy scales may be most efficiently studied via precision measurements at low energies. A universal language to assemble and interpret precision measurements is the so-called SMEFT, which is an effective field theory (EFT) where the Standard Model (SM) Lagrangian is extended by higher-dimensional operators. In this paper we investigate the possible impact of the DUNE neutrino experiment on constraining the SMEFT. The unprecedented neutrino flux offers an opportunity to greatly improve the current limits via precision measurements of the trident production and neutrino scattering off electrons and nuclei in the DUNE near detector. We quantify the DUNE sensitivity to dimension-6 operators in the SMEFT Lagrangian, and find that in some cases operators suppressed by an O(30) TeV scale can be probed. We also compare the DUNE reach to that of future experiments involving atomic parity violation and polarization asymmetry in electron scattering, which are sensitive to an overlapping set of SMEFT parameters.

  15. 77 FR 12482 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY... incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Pb promulgated by EPA in 2008. DATES: This... FR 66964) and codified at 40 CFR 50.16, ``National primary and secondary ambient air quality...

  16. Hydrochemistry and isotopic composition (δ"1"3C, δ"1"5N) in six dunes lagoons in the National Park of Lencois Maranhenses, Maranhao, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Junior, Jayme Teixeira; Suzuki, Marina Satika; Meirelles, Brunele de Araujo; Rangel, Thiago Pessanha; Oliveira, Braulio Cherene Vaz de

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the physicochemical parameters, nutrients and isotopic composition (δ"1"3C, δ"1"5N) of dissolved organic matter and MPS in six lakes located in the Maranhenses National Park, Maranhao State, under varying degrees of anthropic impact and distance from the sea. The physical and chemical parameters were measured in the field with portable devices; for total alkalinity, nutrients and photosynthetic pigments, samples were collected and analysed in the laboratory; the isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen was determined from the particulate material retained on the filter and in the extract generated in the PPL filtration resin column. The limnological variables were assessed in both the dry and rainy seasons. The high rainfall caused a dilution effect for most of the elements studied in the rainy season. The elemental composition of the particulate fraction was 58% lower than the fraction dissolved. The carbon isotopic composition was lighter in the rainy season as a result of dilution and loading of allochthonous impoverished organic matter. (author)

  17. Experiment Simulation Configurations Used in DUNE CDR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alion, T. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Black, J. J. [Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Bashyal, A. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Bass, M. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Bishai, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Cherdack, D. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Diwan, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Djurcic, Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Evans, J. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Fernandez-Martinez, E. [Madrid Autonama Univ. (Spain); Fields, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Fleming, B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Gran, R. [Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN (United States); Guenette, R. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Hewes, J. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Hogan, M. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Hylen, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Junk, T. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kohn, S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); LeBrun, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lundberg, B. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Marchionni, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Morris, C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Papadimitriou, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Rameika, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Rucinski, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Soldner-Rembold, S. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Sorel, M. [Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Valencia (Spain). Univ. of Valencia (UV), Inst. de Fisica Corpuscular; Urheim, J. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Viren, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Whitehead, L. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Wilson, R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Worcester, E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zeller, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-06-30

    The LBNF/DUNE CDR describes the proposed physics program and experimental design at the conceptual design phase. Volume 2, entitled The Physics Program for DUNE at LBNF, outlines the scientific objectives and describes the physics studies that the DUNE collaboration will perform to address these objectives. The long-baseline physics sensitivity calculations presented in the DUNE CDR rely upon simulation of the neutrino beam line, simulation of neutrino interactions in the far detector, and a parameterized analysis of detector performance and systematic uncertainty. The purpose of this posting is to provide the results of these simulations to the community to facilitate phenomenological studies of long-baseline oscillation at LBNF/DUNE. Additionally, this posting includes GDML of the DUNE single-phase far detector for use in simulations. DUNE welcomes those interested in performing this work as members of the collaboration, but also recognizes the benefit of making these configurations readily available to the wider community.

  18. Dunes across the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Alexander G.

    2018-06-01

    Before NASA's New Horizons mission, the surface of Pluto was shrouded in mystery. No one knew what to expect from its surface and most scientists shied away from detailed speculation, except to say that the one thing we should expect is to be surprised (1). On page 992 of this issue, Telfer et al. (2) present such a surprise by describing features interpreted as dunes on Pluto's surface.

  19. Modeling Megacusps and Dune Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzech, M.; Reniers, A. J.; Thornton, E. B.

    2009-12-01

    Megacusps are large, concave, erosional features of beaches, of O(200m) alongshore wavelength, which sometimes occur when rip channel bathymetry is present. It is commonly hypothesized that erosion of the dune and back beach will be greater at the alongshore locations of the megacusp embayments, principally because the beach width is narrower there and larger waves can more easily reach the dune toe (e.g., Short, J. Geol., 1979, Thornton, et al., Mar. Geol., 2007). At present, available field data in southern Monterey Bay provide some support for this hypothesis, but not enough to fully confirm or refute it. This analysis utilizes XBeach, a 2DH nearshore sediment transport model, to test the above hypothesis under a range of wave conditions over several idealized rip-megacusp bathymetries backed by dunes. Model results suggest that while specific wave conditions may result in erosional hot spots at megacusp embayments, other factors such as tides, wave direction, and surf zone bathymetry can often play an equal or stronger role.

  20. Vegetated dune morphodynamics during recent stabilization of the Mu Us dune field, north-central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Mason, Joseph A.; Lu, Huayu

    2015-01-01

    The response of dune fields to changing environmental conditions can be better understood by investigating how changing vegetation cover affects dune morphodynamics. Significant increases in vegetation and widespread dune stabilization over the years 2000-2012 are evident in high-resolution satellite imagery of the Mu Us dune field in north-central China, possibly a lagged response to changing wind strength and temperature since the 1970s. These trends provide an opportunity to study how dune morphology changes with increasing vegetation stabilization. Vegetation expansion occurs mainly by expansion of pre-existing patches in interdunes. As vegetation spreads from interdunes onto surrounding dunes, it modifies their shapes in competition with wind-driven sand movement, primarily in three ways: 1) vegetation anchoring horns of barchans transforms them to parabolic dunes; 2) vegetation colonizes stoss faces of barchan and transverse dunes, resulting in lower dune height and an elongated stoss face, with shortening of barchan horns; and 3) on transverse dunes, the lee face is fixed by plants that survive sand burial. Along each of these pathways of stabilization, dune morphology tends to change from more barchanoid to more parabolic forms, but that transformation is not always completed before full stabilization. Artificial stabilization leads to an extreme case of "frozen" barchans or transverse dunes with original shapes preserved by rapid establishment of vegetation. Observations in the Mu Us dune field emphasize the point that vegetation growth and aeolian sand transport not only respond to external factors such as climate but also interact with each other. For example, some barchans lose sand mass during vegetation fixation, and actually migrate faster as they become smaller, and vegetation growth on a barchan's lower stoss face may alter sand transport over the dune in a way that favors more rapid stabilization. Conceptual models were generalized for the

  1. Size distribution and structure of Barchan dune fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Durán

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Barchans are isolated mobile dunes often organized in large dune fields. Dune fields seem to present a characteristic dune size and spacing, which suggests a cooperative behavior based on dune interaction. In Duran et al. (2009, we propose that the redistribution of sand by collisions between dunes is a key element for the stability and size selection of barchan dune fields. This approach was based on a mean-field model ignoring the spatial distribution of dune fields. Here, we present a simplified dune field model that includes the spatial evolution of individual dunes as well as their interaction through sand exchange and binary collisions. As a result, the dune field evolves towards a steady state that depends on the boundary conditions. Comparing our results with measurements of Moroccan dune fields, we find that the simulated fields have the same dune size distribution as in real fields but fail to reproduce their homogeneity along the wind direction.

  2. Nourishment of perched sand dunes and the issue of erosion control in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, William M.

    1990-09-01

    Although limited in coverage, perched sand dunes situated on high coastal bluffs are considered the most prized of Great Lakes dunes. Grand Sable Dunes on Lake Superior and Sleeping Bear Dunes on Lake Michigan are featured attractions of national lakeshores under National Park Service management. The source of sand for perched dunes is the high bluff along their lakeward edge. As onshore wind crosses the bluff, flow is accelerated upslope, resulting in greatly elevated levels of wind stress over the slope brow. On barren, sandy bluffs, wind erosion is concentrated in the brow zone, and for the Grand Sable Bluff, it averaged 1 m3/yr per linear meter along the highest sections for the period 1973 1983. This mechanism accounts for about 6,500 m3 of sand nourishment to the dunefield annually and clearly has been the predominant mechanism for the long-term development of the dunefield. However, wind erosion and dune nourishment are possible only where the bluff is denuded of plant cover by mass movements and related processes induced by wave erosion. In the Great Lakes, wave erosion and bluff retreat vary with lake levels; the nourishment of perched dunes is favored by high levels. Lake levels have been relatively high for the past 50 years, and shore erosion has become a major environmental issue leading property owners and politicians to support lake-level regulation. Trimming high water levels could reduce geomorphic activity on high bluffs and affect dune nourishment rates. Locally, nourishment also may be influenced by sediment accumulation associated with harbor protection facilities and by planting programs aimed at stabilizing dunes.

  3. Quantifying wind blown landscapes using time-series airborne LiDAR at White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R. C.

    2011-12-01

    national monument as control points. Rapid dune migration rates, particularly at the upwind margin of the field ~6m/yr, result in significant decorrelation between data sets over longer time ranges, which limits the effectiveness of comparing these data sets.

  4. Dune growth under multidirectional wind regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadal, C.; Rozier, O.; Claudin, P.; Courrech Du Pont, S.; Narteau, C.

    2017-12-01

    Under unidirectional wind regimes, flat sand beds become unstable to produce periodic linear dunes, commonly called transverse dunes because their main ridges are oriented perpendicular to the air flow. In areas of low sediment availability, the same interactions between flow, transport and topography produce barchan dunes, isolated sand-pile migrating over long distances with a characteristic crescentic shape. For the last fifteen years, barchan dunes and the instability at the origin of transverse dunes have been the subject of numerous studies that have identified a set of characteristic length and time scales with respect to the physical properties of both grains and fluid. This is not the case for dunes developing under multidirectional wind regimes. Under these conditions, dune orientation is measured with respect to the direction of the resultant sand flux. Depending on the wind regime, dunes do not always line up perpendicularly to the resultant sand flux, but can also be at an oblique angle or even parallel to it. These oblique and longitudinal dunes are ubiquitous in all deserts on Earth and planetary bodies because of the seasonal variability of wind orientation. They are however poorly constrained by observations and there is still no complete theoretical framework providing a description of their orientation and initial wavelength. Here, we extend the linear stability analysis of a flat sand of bed done in two dimensions for a unidirectional flow to three dimensions and multidirectional flow regimes. We are able to recover transitions from transverse to oblique or longitudinal dune patterns according to changes in wind regimes. We besides give a prediction for the initial dune wavelength. Our results compare well to previous theory of dune orientation and to field, experimental and numerical data.

  5. Early Learning Foundations. Indiana's Early Learning Development Framework Aligned to the Indiana Academic Standards, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The "Foundations" (English/language arts, mathematics, social emotional skills, approaches to play and learning, science, social studies, creative arts, and physical health and growth) are Indiana's early learning development framework and are aligned to the 2014 Indiana Academic Standards. This framework provides core elements that…

  6. Status of the low energy neutron source at Indiana University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, D.V.; Cameron, J.M.; Derenchuk, V.P.; Lavelle, C.M.; Leuschner, M.B.; Lone, M.A.; Meyer, H.O.; Rinckel, T.; Snow, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The National Science Foundation has recently approved funding for LENS (the low energy neutron source) at Indiana University and construction of this facility has begun. LENS represents a new paradigm for economically introducing neutron scattering into a university or industrial setting. In this design, neutrons are produced in a long-pulse (1 ms) mode through (p,n) reactions on a water-cooled Be target and the target is tightly coupled to a cryogenic moderator with a water reflector. This design gives a facility suitable for materials research, the development of new neutron instrumentation, and the education of new neutron scientists

  7. Modeling river dune development and dune transition to upper stage plane bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naqshband, Suleyman; van Duin, Olav; Ribberink, Jan S.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Large asymmetric bedforms known as dunes commonly dominate the bed of sand rivers. Due to the turbulence generation over their stoss and lee sides, dunes are of central importance in predicting hydraulic roughness and water levels. During floods in steep alluvial rivers, dunes are observed to grow

  8. protoDUNE-Single Phase and protDUNE-DualPhase

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2016-01-01

    At the EHN1 two big 8m x 8m x8m detector prototypes (protoDUNE-Single Phase and protDUNE-DualPhase) are being constructed. The aim is to test technologies and detector performances for DUNE, a new generation of LBN neutr

  9. Understanding river dune splitting through flume experiments and analysis of a dune evolution model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmink, Jord Jurriaan; Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Lansink, Jord; Naqshband, Suleyman; van Duin, Olav; Paarlberg, Andries; Termes, A.P.P.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Forecasts of water level during river floods require accurate predictions of the evolution of river dune dimensions, because the hydraulic roughness of the main channel is largely determined by the bed morphology. River dune dimensions are controlled by processes like merging and splitting of dunes.

  10. Predicting stump sprouting and competitive success of five oak species in southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale R. Weigel; Chao-Ying Joanne Peng

    2002-01-01

    We measured 2188 oak trees (Quercus spp.) on the Hoosier National Forest in southern Indiana before and 1, 5, and 10 years after clear-cutting to determine the influence of parent tree age, diameter breast height, and site index on the probability that there was one or more living sprouts per stump: (i) 1 year after clear-cutting (sprouting...

  11. Dominant height-based height-diameter equations for trees in southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A., Jr. Kershaw; Robert C. Morrissey; Douglass F. Jacobs; John R. Seifert; James B. McCarter

    2008-01-01

    Height-diameter equations are developed based on dominant tree data collected in 1986 in 8- to 17-year-old clearcuts and the phase 2 Forest Inventory and Analysis plots on the Hoosier National Forest in south central Indiana. Two equation forms are explored: the basic, three-parameter Chapman-Richards function, and a modification of the three-parameter equation...

  12. Coastal dune dynamics in response to excavated foredune notches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruessink, B. G.; Arens, S. M.; Kuipers, M.; Donker, J. J. A.

    2018-04-01

    Dune management along developed coasts has traditionally focussed on the suppression of the geomorphic dynamics of the foredune to improve its role in sea defence. Because a stabilized foredune acts as an almost total barrier to aeolian transport from the beach, the habitat diversity in the more landward dunes has degraded. With the overarching objective to mitigate this undesirable loss in biodiversity, dune management projects nowadays increasingly intend to restore aeolian dynamics by reconnecting the beach-dune system with notches excavated through the foredune. Here, we use repeat topographic survey data to examine the geomorphic response of a coastal dune system in the Dutch National Park Zuid-Kennemerland to five notches excavated in 2012-2013 within an 850-m stretch of the 20-m high established foredune. The notches were dug in a V-shape (viewed onshore), with a width between approximately 50 and 100 m at the top, a (cross-dune) length between 100 and 200 m, and excavation depths between 9 and 12.5 m. The 1 × 1 m digital terrain models, acquired with airborne Lidar and UAV photogrammetry, illustrate that during the 3-year survey period the notches developed into a U-shape because of wall deflation, and that up to 8-m thick and 150-m long depositional lobes formed landward of the notches. Sand budget computations showed that the sand volume of the entire study area increased by about 22,750 m3/year, which, given the 850-m width of the study area, corresponds to an aeolian input from the beach of approximately 26.5 m3/m/year. Between 2006 and 2012 all wind-blown beach sand deposited on the seaward side of the foredune; since 2013, the notches have caused 75% of the sand to be deposited landward of the foredune. This highlights that the notches are highly effective conduits for aeolian transport into the back dunes. Future monitoring is required to determine for how long the notches will stimulate aeolian dynamics and if (and when) vegetation eventually

  13. A case study on dune response to infragravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenshan; Wang, Hui; Li, Huan; Wu, Shuangquan; Li, Cheng

    2017-08-01

    A series of numerical simulations were conducted using the process-based model XBeach to investigate dune response under normal and getting rid of infragravity wave conditions with different slopes. Erosion volume upside the dune toe and dune top recession are set as indicators for dune vulnerability as well as defence capacity for its front-beach. Results show that both dune erosion volume and dune top recession decrease with gentler dune slopes. Of all the simulation cases, dune with a face slope of 1/1 lost most sand and supplied most sand for lower-bed. The presence of infragravity waves is validated to be crucial to dune vulnerability. The dune erosion volume is shown to decrease by 44.5%∼61.5% and the dune top recession decreased by 0%∼45.5% correspondingly, in the case that infragravity motion is not taken into account during simulation for different dune slopes.

  14. Composition And Geometry Of Titan'S Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Alice; Janssen, M. A.; Wye, L. C.; Lorenz, R. D.; Radebaugh, J.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2009-09-01

    Fields of linear dunes cover a large portion of Titan's equatorial regions. As the Cassini mission continues, more of them are unveiled and examined by the microwave Titan RADAR Mapper both in the active and passive modes of operation of the instrument and with an increasing variety of observational geometries. In this presentation, we will show that the joint analysis of the SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) and radiometry observations of the dunes at closest approach supports the idea of different composition between the dunes and the interdunes. It suggests that the icy bedrock of Titan may be exposed, or partially exposed, in the interdunes. We also see regional differences among dune fields. Dunes are highly directional features; their visibility is controlled by the look direction and the incidence angle. We have developed a backscatter and emissivity model that takes into account the topography of the dunes relative to the geometry of observation as well as the composition of the dunes and interdunes. Compared to observations and, in particular, to multiple observations of areas at the overlap of several swaths, we argue the need for a diffuse scattering mechanism. The presence of ripples in the dunes and/or interdunes might account for the recorded backscatter. In this presentation we will also report the results of the T61 experiment. The T61 HiSAR sequence (on August 25, 2009) was designed to examine a small region of the Shangri-La dune field with a substantial sampling of incidence angles around the direction perpendicular to the dunes long axis. The spot in question was already observed during the T55 SAR swath and the T61 experiment should allow us to determine the slope of the dunes.

  15. Exploring the contributions of vegetation and dune size to early dune development using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Puijenbroek, Marinka E. B.; Nolet, Corjan; de Groot, Alma V.; Suomalainen, Juha M.; Riksen, Michel J. P. M.; Berendse, Frank; Limpens, Juul

    2017-12-01

    Dune development along highly dynamic land-sea boundaries is the result of interaction between vegetation and dune size with sedimentation and erosion processes. Disentangling the contribution of vegetation characteristics from that of dune size would improve predictions of nebkha dune development under a changing climate, but has proven difficult due to the scarcity of spatially continuous monitoring data. This study explored the contributions of vegetation and dune size to dune development for locations differing in shelter from the sea. We monitored a natural nebkha dune field of 8 ha, along the coast of the island Texel, the Netherlands, for 1 year using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with camera. After constructing a digital surface model and orthomosaic we derived for each dune (1) vegetation characteristics (species composition, vegetation density, and maximum vegetation height), (2) dune size (dune volume, area, and maximum height), (3) degree of shelter (proximity to other nebkha dunes and the sheltering by the foredune). Changes in dune volume over summer and winter were related to vegetation, dune size and degree of shelter. We found that a positive change in dune volume (dune growth) was linearly related to initial dune volume over summer but not over winter. Big dunes accumulated more sand than small dunes due to their larger surface area. Exposed dunes increased more in volume (0.81 % per dune per week) than sheltered dunes (0.2 % per dune per week) over summer, while the opposite occurred over winter. Vegetation characteristics did not significantly affect dune growth in summer, but did significantly affect dune growth in winter. Over winter, dunes dominated by Ammophila arenaria, a grass species with high vegetation density throughout the year, increased more in volume than dunes dominated by Elytrigia juncea, a grass species with lower vegetation density (0.43 vs. 0.42 (m3 m-3) week-1). The effect of species was irrespective of dune size or

  16. Ecogeomorphology of Sand Dunes Shaped by Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoar, H.

    2014-12-01

    Two dune types associated with vegetation are known: Parabolic and Vegetated Linear Dunes (VLDs), the latters are the dominant dune type in the world deserts. Parabolic dunes are formed in humid, sub-humid and semi-arid environments (rather than arid) where vegetation is nearby. VLDs are known today in semiarid and arid lands where the average yearly rainfall is ≥100 mm, enough to support sparse cover of vegetation. These two dune types are formed by unidirectional winds although they demonstrate a different form and have a distinct dynamics. Conceptual and mathematical models of dunes mobility and stability, based on three control parameters: wind power (DP), average annual precipitation (p), and the human impact parameter (μ) show that where human impact is negligible the effect of wind power (DP) on vegetative cover is substantial. The average yearly rainfall of 60-80 mm is the threshold of annual average rainfall for vegetation growth on dune sand. The model is shown to follow a hysteresis path, which explains the bistability of active and stabilized dunes under the same climatic conditions with respect to wind power. We have discerned formation of parabolic dunes from barchans and transverse dunes in the coastal plain of Israel where a decrease in human activity during the second half of the 20th century caused establishment of vegetation on the crest of the dunes, a process that changed the dynamics of these barchans and transverse dunes and led to a change in the shape of the windward slope from convex to concave. These dunes gradually became parabolic. It seems that VLDs in Australia or the Kalahari have always been vegetated to some degree, though the shrubs were sparser in colder periods when the aeolian erosion was sizeable. Those ancient conditions are characterized by higher wind power and lower rainfall that can reduce, but not completely destroy, the vegetation cover, leading to the formation of lee (shadow) dunes behind each shrub. Formation of

  17. Impact of invasive Rosa rugosa on the arthropod fauna of Danish yellow dunes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleriis, Pernille; Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Toft, Søren

    2015-01-01

    monospecific shrubbery rich in large flowers. We predicted faunal responses according to the changes in resource availability and environmental conditions promoted by this particular invasive plant: increased populations of flower-visiting insects and species of the phytophagous and detritivorous guilds...... and diversity and increased dominance in the rose patches, due to reductions among xerotherm species. The results indicate that considerable faunistic impoverishment of thermophilic dune specialist species can be expected in the future if R. rugosa is allowed to continue its invasion across the dune habitat.......We compared the arthropod fauna of Rosa rugosa patches to the adjacent native yellow dune vegetation by pitfall trapping in the National Park Thy at the Danish North Sea coast. R. rugosa changes the vegetation from a dune grassland (dominated by Ammophila arenaria) poor in flowering plants to a low...

  18. Sand dune tracking from satellite laser altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabboor, Mohammed

    Substantial problems arise from sand movement in arid and semi-arid countries. Sand poses a threat to infrastructure, agricultural and urban areas. These issues are caused by the encroachment of sand on roads and railway tracks, farmland, towns and villages, and airports, to name a few. Sand movement highly depends on geomorphology including vegetation cover, shape and height of the terrain, and grain size of the sand. However, wind direction and speed are the most important factors that affect efficient sand movement. The direction of the movement depends on the main direction of the wind, but it has been shown that a minimum wind speed is required, e.g. wind gusts, to initiate sand transport. This fact prevents a simple calculation of sand transport from conventional wind data as wind records rarely contain sub-minute intervals masking out any wind gusts. An alternative of predicting sand transport is the direct observation of sand advance by in situ measurements or via satellite. Until recently, satellite imagery was the only means to compare dune shape and position for predicting dune migration over several years. In 2003, the NASA laser altimetry mission ICESat became operational and monitors elevations over all surface types including sand dunes with an accuracy of about 10-20 cm. In this study, ICESat observations from repeat tracks (tracks overlapping eachother within 50 m) are used to derive sand dune advance and direction. The method employs a correlation of the elevation profiles over several dunes and was sucessfully validated with synthetic data. The accuracy of this method is 5 meters of dune advance. One of the most active areas exhibiting sand and dune movement is the area of the Arabian Peninsula. Approximately one-third of the Arabian Peninsula is covered by sand dunes. Different wind regimes (Shamal, Kaus) cause sand dune movement in the selected study area in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula between 20-25 degrees North and 45-55 degrees

  19. Looking Back at 'Purgatory Dune'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The wheels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity dug more than 10 centimeters (4 inches) deep into the soft, sandy material of a wind-shaped ripple in Mars' Meridiani Planum region during the rover's 446th martian day, or sol (April 26, 2005). Getting the rover out of the ripple, dubbed 'Purgatory Dune,' required more than five weeks of planning, testing, and carefully monitored driving. Opportunity used its navigation camera to capture this look back at the ripple during sol 491 (June 11, 2005), a week after the rover drove safely onto firmer ground. The ripple that became a sand trap is about one-third meter (one foot) tall and 2.5 meters (8 feet) wide.

  20. Mars Global Digital Dune Database; MC-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, R.K.; Fenton, L.K.; Tanaka, K.L.; Titus, T.N.; Colaprete, A.; Christensen, P.R.

    2010-01-01

    The Mars Global Digital Dune Database presents data and describes the methodology used in creating the global database of moderate- to large-size dune fields on Mars. The database is being released in a series of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Reports. The first release (Hayward and others, 2007) included dune fields from 65 degrees N to 65 degrees S (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1158/). The current release encompasses ~ 845,000 km2 of mapped dune fields from 65 degrees N to 90 degrees N latitude. Dune fields between 65 degrees S and 90 degrees S will be released in a future USGS Open-File Report. Although we have attempted to include all dune fields, some have likely been excluded for two reasons: (1) incomplete THEMIS IR (daytime) coverage may have caused us to exclude some moderate- to large-size dune fields or (2) resolution of THEMIS IR coverage (100m/pixel) certainly caused us to exclude smaller dune fields. The smallest dune fields in the database are ~ 1 km2 in area. While the moderate to large dune fields are likely to constitute the largest compilation of sediment on the planet, smaller stores of sediment of dunes are likely to be found elsewhere via higher resolution data. Thus, it should be noted that our database excludes all small dune fields and some moderate to large dune fields as well. Therefore, the absence of mapped dune fields does not mean that such dune fields do not exist and is not intended to imply a lack of saltating sand in other areas. Where availability and quality of THEMIS visible (VIS), Mars Orbiter Camera narrow angle (MOC NA), or Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) images allowed, we classified dunes and included some dune slipface measurements, which were derived from gross dune morphology and represent the prevailing wind direction at the last time of significant dune modification. It was beyond the scope of this report to look at the detail needed to discern subtle dune modification. It was also

  1. Minimal size of a barchan dune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parteli, E. J. R.; Durán, O.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2007-01-01

    Barchans are dunes of high mobility which have a crescent shape and propagate under conditions of unidirectional wind. However, sand dunes only appear above a critical size, which scales with the saturation distance of the sand flux [P. Hersen, S. Douady, and B. Andreotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 264301 (2002); B. Andreotti, P. Claudin, and S. Douady, Eur. Phys. J. B 28, 321 (2002); G. Sauermann, K. Kroy, and H. J. Herrmann, Phys. Rev. E 64, 31305 (2001)]. It has been suggested by P. Hersen, S. Douady, and B. Andreotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 264301 (2002)] that this flux fetch distance is itself constant. Indeed, this could not explain the protosize of barchan dunes, which often occur in coastal areas of high litoral drift, and the scale of dunes on Mars. In the present work, we show from three-dimensional calculations of sand transport that the size and the shape of the minimal barchan dune depend on the wind friction speed and the sand flux on the area between dunes in a field. Our results explain the common appearance of barchans a few tens of centimeter high which are observed along coasts. Furthermore, we find that the rate at which grains enter saltation on Mars is one order of magnitude higher than on Earth, and is relevant to correctly obtain the minimal dune size on Mars.

  2. Microbial Characterization of Qatari Barchan Sand Dunes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Abdul Majid

    Full Text Available This study represents the first characterization of sand microbiota in migrating barchan sand dunes. Bacterial communities were studied through direct counts and cultivation, as well as 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequence analysis to gain an understanding of microbial abundance, diversity, and potential metabolic capabilities. Direct on-grain cell counts gave an average of 5.3 ± 0.4 x 105 cells g-1 of sand. Cultured isolates (N = 64 selected for 16S rRNA gene sequencing belonged to the phyla Actinobacteria (58%, Firmicutes (27% and Proteobacteria (15%. Deep-sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from 18 dunes demonstrated a high relative abundance of Proteobacteria, particularly enteric bacteria, and a dune-specific-pattern of bacterial community composition that correlated with dune size. Shotgun metagenome sequences of two representative dunes were analyzed and found to have similar relative bacterial abundance, though the relative abundances of eukaryotic, viral and enterobacterial sequences were greater in sand from the dune closer to a camel-pen. Functional analysis revealed patterns similar to those observed in desert soils; however, the increased relative abundance of genes encoding sporulation and dormancy are consistent with the dune microbiome being well-adapted to the exceptionally hyper-arid Qatari desert.

  3. Interdisciplinary Research Produces Results in the Understanding of Planetary Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Hayward, Rosalyn Kay; Bourke, Mary C.

    2010-08-01

    Second International Planetary Dunes Workshop: Planetary Analogs—Integrating Models, Remote Sensing, and Field Data; Alamosa, Colorado, 18-21 May 2010; Dunes and other eolian bed forms are prominent on several planetary bodies in our solar system. Despite 4 decades of study, many questions remain regarding the composition, age, and origins of these features, as well as the climatic conditions under which they formed. Recently acquired data from orbiters and rovers, together with terrestrial analogs and numerical models, are providing new insights into Martian sand dunes, as well as eolian bed forms on other terrestrial planetary bodies (e.g., Titan). As a means of bringing together terrestrial and planetary researchers from diverse backgrounds with the goal of fostering collaborative interdisciplinary research, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Carl Sagan Center for the Study of Life in the Universe, the Desert Research Institute, and the U.S. National Park Service held a workshop in Colorado. The small group setting facilitated intensive discussion of problems and issues associated with eolian processes on Earth, Mars, and Titan.

  4. Rural Indiana Profile: Alcohol, Tobacco & Other Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug Strategies, Washington, DC.

    This report examines alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use in rural parts of Indiana, as well as public and private initiatives to reduce these problems. The report is based on epidemiological, health, and criminal justice indicators; focus groups; and in-depth interviews with local officials, researchers, service providers, and civic leaders.…

  5. Libraries in Indiana: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3600 http://www.ecommunity.com/library Indiana University School of Dentistry Library 1121 West Michigan St. Indianapolis, IN 46202-5186 ... 502-4010 http://www.franciscanhealth.org St Elizabeth School of Nursing Sister Florianne Library 1501 Hartford Street Lafayette, IN 47904 765-423- ...

  6. Fire and the endangered Indiana bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Dickinson; Michael J. Lacki; Daniel R. Cox

    2009-01-01

    Fire and Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) have coexisted for millennia in the central hardwoods region, yet past declines in populations of this endangered species, and the imperative of fire use in oak silviculture and ecosystem conservation, call for an analysis of both the risks and opportunities associated with using fires on landscapes in...

  7. Summer ecology of Indiana bats in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) is a tree roosting species found throughout the eastern United States that is federally listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. A more detailed understanding of summer roosting and foraging habitat...

  8. Zooming in on neutrino oscillations with DUNE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rahul; Ternes, Christoph A.; Tórtola, Mariam; Valle, José W. F.

    2018-05-01

    We examine the capabilities of the DUNE experiment as a probe of the neutrino mixing paradigm. Taking the current status of neutrino oscillations and the design specifications of DUNE, we determine the experiment's potential to probe the structure of neutrino mixing and C P violation. We focus on the poorly determined parameters θ23 and δC P and consider both two and seven years of run. We take various benchmarks as our true values, such as the current preferred values of θ23 and δC P, as well as several theory-motivated choices. We determine quantitatively DUNE's potential to perform a precision measurement of θ23, as well as to test the C P violation hypothesis in a model-independent way. We find that, after running for seven years, DUNE will make a substantial step in the precise determination of these parameters, bringing to quantitative test the predictions of various theories of neutrino mixing.

  9. Matter Density Profile Shape Effects at DUNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kevin J. [Northwestern U.; Parke, Stephen J. [Fermilab

    2018-02-19

    Quantum mechanical interactions between neutrinos and matter along the path of propagation, the Wolfenstein matter effect, are of particular importance for the upcoming long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, specifically the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). Here, we explore specifically what about the matter density profile can be measured by DUNE, considering both the shape and normalization of the profile between the neutrinos' origin and detection. Additionally, we explore the capability of a perturbative method for calculating neutrino oscillation probabilities and whether this method is suitable for DUNE. We also briefly quantitatively explore the ability of DUNE to measure the Earth's matter density, and the impact of performing this measurement on measuring standard neutrino oscillation parameters.

  10. Invasive plants on disturbed Korean sand dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kee Dae

    2005-01-01

    The sand dunes in coastal regions of South Korea are important ecosystems because of their small size, the rare species found in this habitat, and the beautiful landscapes they create. This study investigated the current vegetative status of sand dunes on three representative coasts of the Korean peninsula, and on the coasts of Cheju Island, and assessed the conditions caused by invasive plants. The relationships between the degree of invasion and 14 environmental variables were studied. Plots of sand dunes along line transects perpendicular to the coastal lines were established to estimate vegetative species coverage. TWINSPAN (Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis), CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), and DCCA (Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis) were performed to classify communities on sand dunes and assess species composition variation. Carex kobomugi, Elymus mollis, and Vitex rotundifolia were found to be the dominant species plotted on the east, the west, and the peripheral coasts of Cheju Island, respectively. Vegetation on the south coast was totally extinct. The 19 communities, including representative C. kobomugi, C. kobomugi- Ixeris repens, C. kobomugi- Oenothera biennis, E. mollis, Lolium multiflorum- Calystegia soldanella, and V. rotundifolia- C. kobomugi, were all classified according to TWINSPAN. Oenothera biennis and L. multiflorum were exotics observed within these native communities. CCA showed that invasive native and exotic species distribution was segregated significantly, according to disturbance level, exotic species number, gravel, sand and silt contents, as well as vegetation size. It further revealed that human disturbance can strongly favor the settlement of invasive and exotic species. Restoration options to reduce exotic plants in the South Korean sand dune areas were found to be the introduction of native plant species from one sand dune into other sand dune areas, prohibition of building and the introduction of exotic

  11. Dune field pattern formation and recent transporting winds in the Olympia Undae Dune Field, north polar region of Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Ewing, Ryan C.; Peyret, Aymeric-Pierre B.; Kocurek, Gary; Bourke, Mary

    2010-01-01

    High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) imagery of the central Olympia Undae Dune Field in the north polar region of Mars shows a reticulate dune pattern consisting of two sets of nearly orthogonal dune crestlines, with apparent slipfaces on the primary crests, ubiquitous wind ripples, areas of coarse-grained wind ripples, and deflated interdune areas. Geomorphic evidence and dune field pattern analysis of dune crest length, spacing, defect density, and orientation indicates that ...

  12. Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3): Global dune distribution and wind pattern observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Rosalyn K.; Fenton, Lori; Titus, Timothy N.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Global Digital Dune Database (MGD3) is complete and now extends from 90°N to 90°S latitude. The recently released south pole (SP) portion (MC-30) of MGD3 adds ∼60,000 km2 of medium to large-size dark dune fields and ∼15,000 km2 of sand deposits and smaller dune fields to the previously released equatorial (EQ, ∼70,000 km2), and north pole (NP, ∼845,000 km2) portions of the database, bringing the global total to ∼975,000 km2. Nearly all NP dunes are part of large sand seas, while the majority of EQ and SP dune fields are individual dune fields located in craters. Despite the differences between Mars and Earth, their dune and dune field morphologies are strikingly similar. Bullseye dune fields, named for their concentric ring pattern, are the exception, possibly owing their distinctive appearance to winds that are unique to the crater environment. Ground-based wind directions are derived from slipface (SF) orientation and dune centroid azimuth (DCA), a measure of the relative location of a dune field inside a crater. SF and DCA often preserve evidence of different wind directions, suggesting the importance of local, topographically influenced winds. In general however, ground-based wind directions are broadly consistent with expected global patterns, such as polar easterlies. Intriguingly, between 40°S and 80°S latitude both SF and DCA preserve their strongest, though different, dominant wind direction, with transport toward the west and east for SF-derived winds and toward the north and west for DCA-derived winds.

  13. Grain-size variations on a longitudinal dune and a barchan dune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew

    1986-01-01

    The grain-size characteristics of the sand upon two dunes—a 40 m high longitudinal dune in the central Namib Desert and a 6.0 m high barchan in the Jafurah sand sea of Saudi Arabia—vary with position on the dunes. On the longitudinal dune, median grain size decreases, sorting improves and the grain-size distributions are less skewed and more normalized toward the crest. Though sand at the windward toe is distinct, elsewhere on the dune the changes in grain-size characteristics are gradual. An abrupt change in grain size and sorting near the crest—as described by Bagnold (1941, pp. 226-229)—is not well represented on this dune. Coarse grains remain as a lag on concave slope units and small particles are winnowed from the sand on the steepest windward slopes near the crest. Avalanching down slipfaces at the crest acts only as a supplementary grading mechanism. On the barchan dune median grain size also decreases near the crest, but sorting becomes poorer, though the grain-size distributions are more symmetric and more normalized. The dune profile is a Gaussian curve with a broad convex zone at the apex upon which topset beds had accreted prior to sampling. Grain size increases and sorting improves down the dune's slipface. However, this grading mechanism does not influence sand on the whole dune because variations in wind regime bring about different modes of dune accretion. On both dunes, height and morphology appear to influence significantly the grain-size characteristics.

  14. Väike psühhoanalüüs Indiana Jonesile / Aarne Ruben

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruben, Aarne, 1971-

    2008-01-01

    Steven Spielbergi neljas Indiana Jones'i film Harrison Fordiga nimiosas "Indiana Jones ja kristallpealuu kuningriik" ("Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull") : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2008

  15. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of Indiana, elevation data are critical for flood risk management, agriculture and precision farming, natural resources conservation, infrastructure and construction management, aviation navigation and safety, and other business uses. Today, high-density light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the primary sources for deriving elevation models and other datasets. Federal, State, Tribal, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data that are older and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data.

  16. Level IV Ecoregions of Indiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  17. Level III Ecoregions of Indiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  18. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Wind Turbine Generators at the Newport Indiana Chemical Depot Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Joseph Owen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, Gail [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Newport Indiana Chemical Depot site in Newport, Indiana, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the sitefor possible wind turbine electrical generator installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different wind energy options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a wind system at the site.

  19. Residual CO2 trapping in Indiana limestone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Maghraby, Rehab M; Blunt, Martin J

    2013-01-02

    We performed core flooding experiments on Indiana limestone using the porous plate method to measure the amount of trapped CO(2) at a temperature of 50 °C and two pressures: 4.2 and 9 MPa. Brine was mixed with CO(2) for equilibration, then the mixture was circulated through a sacrificial core. Porosity and permeability tests conducted before and after 884 h of continuous core flooding confirmed negligible dissolution. A trapping curve for supercritical (sc)CO(2) in Indiana showing the relationship between the initial and residual CO(2) saturations was measured and compared with that of gaseous CO(2). The results were also compared with scCO(2) trapping in Berea sandstone at the same conditions. A scCO(2) residual trapping end point of 23.7% was observed, indicating slightly less trapping of scCO(2) in Indiana carbonates than in Berea sandstone. There is less trapping for gaseous CO(2) (end point of 18.8%). The system appears to be more water-wet under scCO(2) conditions, which is different from the trend observed in Berea; we hypothesize that this is due to the greater concentration of Ca(2+) in brine at higher pressure. Our work indicates that capillary trapping could contribute to the immobilization of CO(2) in carbonate aquifers.

  20. Dunes Around Khnifiss Lagoon (Tarfaya, SW of Morocco): Composition, Itinerary In Dune Fields, Effects on Dunes' Colours and Morphodynamic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnani, M.; Azzaoui, M. A.; Elbelrhiti, H.; Ahmamou, M.; Masmoudi, L.

    2015-12-01

    Dunes around Khnifiss lagoon (28° 3'N, 12°13'W) show different colors ranging from black at the beach, whitish yellow in transverse dunes near the beach to reddish at the mega barchans situated few kilometers in the SW. The scientific question is about the abundance of different dunes in the same environmental conditions. The present work aims to investigate the factors that influence dunes color change, and then at which degree these factors could control dunes stability. To highlight the difference in color observed at the dune fields then to characterize dunes mineralogy, Landsat TM images were used in addition to mineralogical analysis that was carried out for the black grains samples originated from megabarchans. Optic Microscope and SEM- EDS data was adopted, in addition to physico-chemical analysis provided by Electronic Microprobe. Grain size and shape analysis were conducted to characterize the different types of grains of sand. 3/1 Landsat image band ratio allowed iron oxide distinction, the results revealed the importance of iron oxide concentration. Furthermore, mineralogical and physico-chemical analysis revealed (i) a high grade of oxides (Rutile, Ilmenite, Magnetite, Ulvöspinel) in samples, (ii) silicates (Quartz, Clinopyroxene, feldspar, Zircon), (iii) phosphate (apatite) and (iv) carbonate (calcite). The grain size analysis of the sand originated from the megabarchans reveals that there are three populations of sand. Black grains with a diameter less than 100μm and dominated by the magnetite, red ones composed mainly by the quartz with diameter between 100 and 180 μm and grains with diameter more than 180 μm are white and composed by carbonates. The threshold of motion of these different grains was calculated. It shows that these different grains have the same threshold of motion, which means that the grain size compensates the density. This explains the abundance of different populations of sand in the same environment. The dominance of iron

  1. Linking restoration ecology with coastal dune restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithgow, D.; Martínez, M. L.; Gallego-Fernández, J. B.; Hesp, P. A.; Flores, P.; Gachuz, S.; Rodríguez-Revelo, N.; Jiménez-Orocio, O.; Mendoza-González, G.; Álvarez-Molina, L. L.

    2013-10-01

    Restoration and preservation of coastal dunes is urgently needed because of the increasingly rapid loss and degradation of these ecosystems because of many human activities. These activities alter natural processes and coastal dynamics, eliminate topographic variability, fragment, degrade or eliminate habitats, reduce diversity and threaten endemic species. The actions of coastal dune restoration that are already taking place span contrasting activities that range from revegetating and stabilizing the mobile substrate, to removing plant cover and increasing substrate mobility. Our goal was to review how the relative progress of the actions of coastal dune restoration has been assessed, according to the ecosystem attributes outlined by the Society of Ecological Restoration: namely, integrity, health and sustainability and that are derived from the ecological theory of succession. We reviewed the peer reviewed literature published since 1988 that is listed in the ISI Web of Science journals as well as additional references, such as key books. We exclusively focused on large coastal dune systems (such as transgressive and parabolic dunefields) located on natural or seminatural coasts. We found 150 articles that included "coastal dune", "restoration" and "revegetation" in areas such as title, keywords and abstract. From these, 67 dealt specifically with coastal dune restoration. Most of the studies were performed in the USA, The Netherlands and South Africa, during the last two decades. Restoration success has been assessed directly and indirectly by measuring one or a few ecosystem variables. Some ecosystem attributes have been monitored more frequently (ecosystem integrity) than others (ecosystem health and sustainability). Finally, it is important to consider that ecological succession is a desirable approach in restoration actions. Natural dynamics and disturbances should be considered as part of the restored system, to improve ecosystem integrity, health and

  2. Dune management challenges on developed coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elko, Nicole A.; Brodie, Kate; Stockdon, Hilary F.; Nordstrom, Karl F.; Houser, Chris; McKenna, Kim; Moore, Laura; Rosati, Julie D.; Ruggiero, Peter; Thuman, Roberta; Walker, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    From October 26-28, 2015, nearly 100 members of the coastal management and research communities met in Kitty Hawk, NC, USA to bridge the apparent gap between the coastal dune research of scientists and engineers and the needs of coastal management practitioners. The workshop aimed to identify the challenges involved in building and managing dunes on developed coasts, assess the extent to which scientific knowledge can be applied to the management community, and identify approaches to provide means to bridge the gap between needs and potential solutions.

  3. Optical Dating of Holocene Dune Sands in the Ferris Dune Field, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Stephen; Gaylord, David R.

    1993-05-01

    Optical dating of late Quaternary quartz dune sands from the Clear Creek portion of Ferris dune field, Wyoming, demonstrates the considerable potential of the technique as a chronostratigraphic tool. A sequence of radiocarbon-dated Holocene interdune strata permit optical dating of the intercalated dune sand to be tested; the concordance is good. The optical dates for the aeolian deposits not datable by radiocarbon suggest that aeolian sedimentation at Clear Creek peaked during two relatively short phases at ca. 8500 and 4000 yr B.P. The dates indicate that aeolian accumulation maxima (at least in the Clear Creek area) may not be synchronous with previously defined phases of marked aridity.

  4. Flood-inundation maps for the East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.4-mile reach of the East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana, from where the Flatrock and Driftwood Rivers combine to make up East Fork White River to just upstream of the confluence of Clifty Creek with the East Fork White River, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation, depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at USGS streamgage 03364000, East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana. Current conditions at the USGS streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/in/nwis/uv/?site_no=03364000&agency_cd=USGS&). The National Weather Service (NWS) forecasts flood hydrographs for the East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana at their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system Website (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/), that may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation at USGS streamgage 03364000, East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to determine 15 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to approximately the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data), having a 0.37-ft vertical accuracy and a 1.02 ft

  5. Sand dune movement in the Victoria Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Mary C.; Ewing, Ryan C.; Finnegan, David; McGowan, Hamish A.

    2009-08-01

    We use vertical aerial photographs and LiDAR topographic survey data to estimate dune migration rates in the Victoria Valley dunefield, Antarctica, between 1961 and 2001. Results confirm that the dunes migrated an average of 1.5 m/year. These values are consistent with other estimates of dune migration from cold climate deserts and are significantly lower than estimates from warm deserts. Dune migration rates are retarded by the presence of entrained ice, soil moisture and a reversing wind regime. Dune absorption, merging and limb extension are apparent from the time-series images and account for significant changes in dune form and the field-scale dune pattern. Dune-field pattern analysis shows an overall increase in dune-field organization with an increase in mean dune spacing and a reduction in total crest length and defect density. These data suggest that dunes in other cold desert environments on Earth, Mars or Titan, that may also have inter-bedded frozen laminae, still have the potential to migrate and organize, albeit at lower rates than dunes in warm deserts.

  6. Indiana Underground Railroad Folklore: Western Route and Daviess County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Lois G.

    Materials for teaching a unit about the Underground Railroad (the system set up to assist fleeing, runaway slaves heading north) in Indiana are presented. Specifically, the Western Route that passed through Daviess County in Indiana is examined. The materials provide background on the Underground Railroad and the Western Route, plans for teaching…

  7. Resource selection by Indiana bats during the maternity season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn M. Womack; Sybill K. Amelon; Frank R. Thompson

    2013-01-01

    Little information exists on resource selection by foraging Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) during the maternity season. Existing studies are based on modest sample sizes because of the rarity of this endangered species and the difficulty of radio-tracking bats. Our objectives were to determine resource selection by foraging Indiana bats during the maternity season and...

  8. Indiana Education: English Learner Instruction at the Primary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    The number of students enrolled in United States public schools speaking a language other than English in their homes doubled over the last decade. In Indiana more than 60% of all public school districts reported having at least one English Learner student enrolled. It is projected that Indiana EL enrollment will increase 21% by the year 2021…

  9. Exploring inner structure of Titan's dunes from Cassini Radar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P.; Heggy, E.; Farr, T. G.

    2013-12-01

    Linear dunes discovered in the equatorial regions of Titan by the Cassini-Huygens mission are morphologically very similar to many terrestrial linear dune fields. These features have been compared with terrestrial longitudinal dune fields like the ones in Namib desert in western Africa. This comparison is based on the overall parallel orientation of Titan's dunes to the predominant wind direction on Titan, their superposition on other geomorphological features and the way they wrap around topographic obstacles. Studying the internal layering of dunes has strong implications in understanding the hypothesis for their origin and evolution. In Titan's case, although the morphology of the dunes has been studied from Cassini Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, it has not been possible to investigate their internal structure in detail as of yet. Since no radar sounding data is available for studying Titan's subsurface yet, we have developed another technique to examine the inner layering of the dunes. In this study, we utilize multiple complementary radar datasets, including radar imaging data for Titan's and Earth's dunes and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)/radar sounding data for terrestrial dunes. Based on dielectric mixing models, we suggest that the Cassini Ku-band microwaves should be able to penetrate up to ~ 3 m through Titan's dunes, indicating that the returned radar backscatter signal would include contributions from both surface and shallow subsurface echoes. This implies that the shallow subsurface properties can be retrieved from the observed radar backscatter (σ0). In our analysis, the variation of the radar backscatter as a function of dune height is used to provide an insight into the layering in Titan's dunes. We compare the variation of radar backscatter with elevation over individual dunes on Titan and analogous terrestrial dunes in three sites (Great Sand Sea, Siwa dunes and Qattaniya dunes) in the Egyptian Sahara. We observe a strong, positive

  10. Groundwater variables and vegetation in dune slacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts, E.J.; Maas, C.; Grootjans, A.P.

    Basiphilous pioneer plant communities, influenced by phreatic groundwater, are endangered in The Netherlands. In dune slacks of the Dutch Wadden Sea islands, their area has also declined, though they still occur fairly frequently. For purposes of nature conservancy it is important to know how to

  11. Wet dune slacks : decline and new opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, H.W.J. van; Grootjans, A.P.

    1993-01-01

    For a number of infiltrated coastal dune areas it is discussed to what extent artificial infiltration for the public water supply affects the quality of soil, groundwater and vegetation around pools and ponds, and what its effect is on the vegetation. Further, the results of investigations into the

  12. Development of spatially diverse and complex dune-field patterns: Gran Desierto Dune Field, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, C.; Kocurek, G.; Ewing, R.C.; Lancaster, N.; Morthekai, P.; Singhvi, A.K.; Mahan, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    The pattern of dunes within the Gran Desierto of Sonora, Mexico, is both spatially diverse and complex. Identification of the pattern components from remote-sensing images, combined with statistical analysis of their measured parameters demonstrate that the composite pattern consists of separate populations of simple dune patterns. Age-bracketing by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) indicates that the simple patterns represent relatively short-lived aeolian constructional events since ???25 ka. The simple dune patterns consist of: (i) late Pleistocene relict linear dunes; (ii) degraded crescentic dunes formed at ???12 ka; (iii) early Holocene western crescentic dunes; (iv) eastern crescentic dunes emplaced at ???7 ka; and (v) star dunes formed during the last 3 ka. Recognition of the simple patterns and their ages allows for the geomorphic backstripping of the composite pattern. Palaeowind reconstructions, based upon the rule of gross bedform-normal transport, are largely in agreement with regional proxy data. The sediment state over time for the Gran Desierto is one in which the sediment supply for aeolian constructional events is derived from previously stored sediment (Ancestral Colorado River sediment), and contemporaneous influx from the lower Colorado River valley and coastal influx from the Bahia del Adair inlet. Aeolian constructional events are triggered by climatic shifts to greater aridity, changes in the wind regime, and the development of a sediment supply. The rate of geomorphic change within the Gran Desierto is significantly greater than the rate of subsidence and burial of the accumulation surface upon which it rests. ?? 2006 The Authors. Journal compilation 2006 International Association of Sedimentologists.

  13. 78 FR 65590 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Indiana PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Indiana's state implementation plan as requested by the Indiana Department of Environmental Management....5 ) by establishing definitions related to PM 2.5 , defining PM 2.5 increment levels, and setting PM... changes define ``direct PM 2.5 ,'' addresses precursors to ozone and PM 2.5 , and revises existing...

  14. 40 CFR 81.216 - Northeast Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Indiana Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.216 Northeast Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Indiana) consists of the territorial area...

  15. 78 FR 9409 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Indiana Bat Summer Survey Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ...-FF03E00000] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Indiana Bat Summer Survey Guidelines... documents related to the draft revised summer survey guidelines for the Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) for an... U.S. mail address; Email: indiana_bat@fws.gov ; or Fax: 812-334-4273. Include ``Indiana Bat Summer...

  16. The Single-Phase ProtoDUNE Technical Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abi, B. [Univ. of Padova (Italy); et al.

    2017-06-21

    ProtoDUNE-SP is the single-phase DUNE Far Detector prototype that is under construction and will be operated at the CERN Neutrino Platform (NP) starting in 2018. ProtoDUNE-SP, a crucial part of the DUNE effort towards the construction of the first DUNE 10-kt fiducial mass far detector module (17 kt total LAr mass), is a significant experiment in its own right. With a total liquid argon (LAr) mass of 0.77 kt, it represents the largest monolithic single-phase LArTPC detector to be built to date. It's technical design is given in this report.

  17. Rip Currents, Mega-Cusps, and Eroding Dunes

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, E.B.; MacMahan, J.; Sallenger, A.H.

    2006-01-01

    Submitted to Marine Geology 1 November 2006 Dune erosion is shown to occur at the embayment of beach mega-cusps O(200m alongshore) that are associated with rip currents. The beach is the narrowest at the embayment of the mega-cusps allowing the swash of large storm waves coincident with high tides to reach the toe of the dune, to undercut the dune and to cause dune erosion. Field measurements of dune, beach, and rip current morphology are acquired along an 18 km shoreline in southern Mont...

  18. Coastal Dunes of the Baltic Sea Shores: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łabuz Tomasz Arkadiusz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article summarises results of studies conducted along the Baltic Sea sandy coasts by scientists involved in coastal dune research, and presents an attempt to describe the types and distribution of dune coasts. The Baltic Sea coasts feature lower and higher foredunes. The lowland behind the coastal dune belt is covered by wandering or stabilised inland dunes – transgressive forms, mainly parabolic or barchans. The source of sediment for dune development includes fluvioglacial sands from eroded coasts, river-discharged sand, and older eroded dunes. Due to the ongoing erosion and coastal retreat, many dunes have been eroded, and some are withdrawing onto the adjacent land. There are visible differences between the south-eastern, western, and northern parts of the Baltic Sea coast with respect to dune development. The entire southern and eastern coast abounds in sand, so the coastal dunes are large, formerly or currently wandering formations. The only shifting dunes are found at the Polish and the Russian–Lithuanian coasts on the Łebsko Lake Sandbar as well as on the Vistula and Curonian Spits. The very diverse shoreline of the south-western coast experiences a scarcity of larger sandy formations. Substantial parts of the Baltic Sea sandy coasts have been eroded or transformed by humans. The northern part of the Baltic Sea coast features mainly narrow and low sandy coasts (e.g. in Estonia. Further north, sandy dunes are virtually absent.

  19. Exploring the Link Between Streamflow Trends and Climate Change in Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Kam, J.; Thurner, K.; Merwade, V.

    2007-12-01

    Streamflow trends in Indiana are evaluated for 85 USGS streamflow gaging stations that have continuous unregulated streamflow records varying from 10 to 80 years. The trends are analyzed by using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test with prior trend-free pre-whitening to remove serial correlation in the data. Bootstrap method is used to establish field significance of the results. Trends are computed for 12 streamflow statistics to include low-, medium- (median and mean flow), and high-flow conditions on annual and seasonal time step. The analysis is done for six study periods, ranging from 10 years to more than 65 years, all ending in 2003. The trends in annual average streamflow, for 50 years study period, are compared with annual average precipitation trends from 14 National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) stations in Indiana, that have 50 years of continuous daily record. The results show field significant positive trends in annual low and medium streamflow statistics at majority of gaging stations for study periods that include 40 or more years of records. In seasonal analysis, all flow statistics in summer and fall (low flow seasons), and only low flow statistics in winter and spring (high flow seasons) are showing positive trends. No field significant trends in annual and seasonal flow statistics are observed for study periods that include 25 or fewer years of records, except for northern Indiana where localized negative trends are observed in 10 and 15 years study periods. Further, stream flow trends are found to be highly correlated with precipitation trends on annual time step. No apparent climate change signal is observed in Indiana stream flow records.

  20. On the Internal Structure of Mobile Barchan Sand Dunes due to Granular Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, N. M.; Arran, M.; Louge, M. Y.; Hay, A. G.; Valance, A.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we visualize the internal structure of mobile barchan desert dunes at the avalanche scale. We reveal an intriguing history of dune building using a novel combination of local sand sampling and advanced geophysical techniques resulting in high resolution measurements of individual avalanche events. Due to progressive rebuilding, granular avalanching, erosional and depositional processes, these marching barchan dunes are reworked every few years and a characteristic zebra-pattern (figure 1a), orientated parallel to the slipface at the angle of repose, appears at regular intervals. We present scientific data on the structure obtained from several mobile barchan dunes of different sizes during recent desert field campaigns (2014, 2015, 2017) in a mobile barchan dune field in Qatar (25.01°N, 51.34°E in the AlWakrah municipality). The site has been equipped with a weather station and has been regularly visited by a multidisciplinary research team in recent years (e.g. [1]). By applying high-frequency (1200 MHz) ground penetrating radar (GPR) transects across the midline (figure 1b) we map the continuous evolution of this cross-bedding at high resolution deep within the dune. The GPR reveals a slope reduction of the slipface near the base of the dune; evidence of irregular wind reversals; and the presence of a harder aeolian cap around the crest and extending to the brink. The data is supplemented with granulometry from layers stabilized by dyed water injection and uncovered by excavating vertical walls perpendicular to old buried avalanches. We attribute visible differences in water penetration between adjacent layers to fine particle segregation processes in granular avalanches. This work was made possible by the support of NPRP grant 6-059-2-023 from the Qatar National Research Fund to MYL and AGH, and a Royal Society Dorothy Hodgkin Research Fellowship to NMV. We thank Jean-Luc Métayer for performing detailed particle size distribution measurements

  1. Road and Street Centerlines - COUNTY_STREET_CENTERLINES_IDHS_IN: Street Centerlines Maintained by County Agencies in Indiana (Indiana Department of Homeland Security, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — COUNTY_STREET_CENTERLINES_IDHS_IN is a line feature class that contains street centerlines maintained by county agencies in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana...

  2. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites - INSTITUTIONAL_CONTROLS_IDEM_IN.SHP: Institutional Control Sites in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — INSTITUTIONAL_CONTROLS_IDEM_IN is a polygon shapefile that contains Institutional Control (IC) site locations in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department...

  3. Flood-Inundation Maps for Sugar Creek at Crawfordsville, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Zachary W.

    2016-06-06

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.5-mile reach of Sugar Creek at Crawfordsville, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage 03339500, Sugar Creek at Crawfordsville, Ind. Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site (NWS site CRWI3).Flood profiles were computed for the USGS streamgage 03339500, Sugar Creek at Crawfordsville, Ind., reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater hydraulic modeling software developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated using the current stage-discharge rating at the USGS streamgage 03339500, Sugar Creek at Crawfordsville, Ind., and high-water marks from the flood of April 19, 2013, which reached a stage of 15.3 feet. The hydraulic model was then used to compute 13 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum ranging from 4.0 ft (the NWS “action stage”) to 16.0 ft, which is the highest stage interval of the current USGS stage-discharge rating curve and 2 ft higher than the NWS “major flood stage.” The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a Geographic Information System digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging [lidar]) data having a 0.49-ft root mean squared error and 4.9-ft horizontal resolution) to delineate the area flooded at each stage.The availability

  4. 75 FR 41881 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Shoreline Restoration and Management Plan/Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... lakeshore; and improved water quality. DATES: Any comments on the scope of issues to be addressed in the EIS... Restoration and Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore... impact statement (EIS) for a Shoreline Restoration and Management Plan (SRMP) for Indiana Dunes National...

  5. Controls on desert dune activity - a geospatial approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, N.; Hesse, P. P.

    2017-12-01

    Desert and other inland dunes occur on a wide spectrum of activity (defined loosely as the proportion of the surface area subject to sand movement) from unvegetated to sparsely vegetated "active" dunes through discontinuously vegetated inactive dunes to completely vegetated and degraded dunes. Many of the latter are relicts of past climatic conditions. Although field studies and modeling of the interactions between winds, vegetation cover, and dune activity can provide valuable insights, the response of dune systems to climate change and variability past, present, and future has until now been hampered by the lack of pertinent observational data on geomorphic and climatic boundary conditions and dune activity status for most dune areas. We have developed GIS-based approach that permits analysis of boundary conditions and controls on dune activity at a range of spatial scales from dunefield to global. In this approach, the digital mapping of dune field and sand sea extent has been combined with systematic observations of dune activity at 0.2° intervals from high resolution satellite image data, resulting in four classes of activity. 1 km resolution global gridded datasets for the aridity index (AI); precipitation, satellite-derived percent vegetation cover; and estimates of sand transport potential (DP) were re-sampled for each 0.2° grid cell, and dune activity was compared to vegetation cover, sand transport potential, precipitation, and the aridity index. Results so far indicate that there are broad-scale relationships between dunefield mean activity, climate, and vegetation cover. However, the scatter in the data suggest that other local factors may be at work. Intra-dune field patterns are complex in many cases. Overall, much more work needs to be done to gain a full understanding of controls at different spatial and temporal scales, which can be faciliated by this spatial database.

  6. Extraction of lidar-based dune-crest elevations for use in examining the vulnerability of beaches to inundation during hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdon, H.F.; Doran, K.S.; Sallenger, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    The morphology of coastal sand dunes plays an important role in determining how a beach will respond to a hurricane. Accurate measurements of dune height and position are essential for assessing the vulnerability of beaches to extreme coastal change during future landfalls. Lidar topographic surveys provide rapid, accurate, high-resolution datasets for identifying the location, position, and morphology of coastal sand dunes over large stretches of coast. An algorithm has been developed for identification of the crest of the most seaward sand dune that defines the landward limit of the beach system. Based on changes in beach slope along cross-shore transects of lidar data, dune elevation and location can automatically be extracted every few meters along the coastline. Dune elevations in conjunction with storm-induced water levels can be used to predict the type of coastal response (e.g., beach erosion, dune erosion, overwash, or inundation) that may be expected during hurricane landfall. The vulnerability of the beach system at Fire Island National Seashore in New York to the most extreme of these changes, inundation, is assessed by comparing lidar-derived dune elevations to modeled wave setup and storm surge height. The vulnerability of the beach system to inundation during landfall of a Category 3 hurricane is shown to be spatially variable because of longshore variations in dune height (mean elevation 5.44 m, standard deviation 1.32 m). Hurricane-induced mean water levels exceed dune elevations along 70 of the coastal park, making these locations more vulnerable to inundation during a Category 3 storm. ?? 2009 Coastal Education and Research Foundation.

  7. INLAND DUNE VEGETATION OF THE NETHERLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. HAVEMAN

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Drifting sands in the Netherlands are the result of human over-exploitation (sod-cutting, over-grazing of woodlands and heathlands. The most important association of inland sand dune areas is the Spergulo-Corynephoretum (Corynephorion canescentis, which is poor in vascular plants, but in it older stager rich in mosses and especially lichens. In the Netherlands, the area of drifting sand is reduced dramatically in the last 70 years. mainly by afforestation and spontaneous succession.

  8. Annual monsoon rains recorded by Jurassic dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loope, D B; Rowe, C M; Joeckel, R M

    2001-07-05

    Pangaea, the largest landmass in the Earth's history, was nearly bisected by the Equator during the late Palaeozoic and early Mesozoic eras. Modelling experiments and stratigraphic studies have suggested that the supercontinent generated a monsoonal atmospheric circulation that led to extreme seasonality, but direct evidence for annual rainfall periodicity has been lacking. In the Mesozoic era, about 190 million years ago, thick deposits of wind-blown sand accumulated in dunes of a vast, low-latitude desert at Pangaea's western margin. These deposits are now situated in the southwestern USA. Here we analyse slump masses in the annual depositional cycles within these deposits, which have been described for some outcrops of the Navajo Sandstone. Twenty-four slumps, which were generated by heavy rainfall, appear within one interval representing 36 years of dune migration. We interpret the positions of 20 of these masses to indicate slumping during summer monsoon rains, with the other four having been the result of winter storms. The slumped lee faces of these Jurassic dunes therefore represent a prehistoric record of yearly rain events.

  9. Kolm tundi päevas jõusaalis ja dieet : nii voolis Harrison Ford end taas Indiana Jonesiks / Triin Tael

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tael, Triin

    2008-01-01

    Steven Spielbergi neljas Indiana Jones'i film Harrison Fordiga nimiosas "Indiana Jones ja kristallpealuu kuningriik" ("Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull") : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2008. Indiana Jonesi tähestik

  10. Summer ecology of Indiana bats in Ohio : executive summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) is a small, tree roosting species found throughout the eastern United States that is federally listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Although their major hibernacula are protected, information on...

  11. Isochronization calculations for the Indiana University cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.P.

    1975-01-01

    A series of calculations using measured magnetic fields was performed to determine the optimal gradient coil currents for the wide range of operating conditions to be experienced by the Indiana University main stage cyclotron. Depending on the particle type to be accelerated and final energy desired, the required radial field increase varies from 0.5 percent to 22 percent. An iterative least squares fitting technique is used to minimize orbit time variations. For the acceleration of 200 MeV protons (330 revolutions, fourth harmonic), the maximum phase excursion is predicted to be less than two rf degrees. The technique used can be adapted to using measured phase histories to predict corrections to gradient coil currents. (auth)

  12. DETECTION OF BARCHAN DUNES IN HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Azzaoui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Barchan dunes are the fastest moving sand dunes in the desert. We developed a process to detect barchans dunes on High resolution satellite images. It consisted of three steps, we first enhanced the image using histogram equalization and noise reduction filters. Then, the second step proceeds to eliminate the parts of the image having a texture different from that of the barchans dunes. Using supervised learning, we tested a coarse to fine textural analysis based on Kolomogorov Smirnov test and Youden’s J-statistic on co-occurrence matrix. As an output we obtained a mask that we used in the next step to reduce the search area. In the third step we used a gliding window on the mask and check SURF features with SVM to get barchans dunes candidates. Detected barchans dunes were considered as the fusion of overlapping candidates. The results of this approach were very satisfying in processing time and precision.

  13. Impact d'une modulation duale sur les performances d'une liaison ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le présent document présente la technique de modulation duale Fréquence - Amplitude dans le cas d'une liaison optique du type IM-DD. Ce travail révèle que la modulation duale Fréquence - Amplitude permet de générer un signal à bande latérale unique. Les performances d'une liaison optique IM-DD basée sur cette ...

  14. Center for Applied Optics Studies: an investment in Indiana's future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Delbert J., II; Khorana, Brij M.

    1992-05-01

    To understand the involvement of the State of Indiana with the Center for Applied Optics at Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, it is best to start with an explanation of the Indiana Corporation for Science and Technology (CST), its basic charter and its programs. Established in 1982 as a private not-for-profit corporation, CST was formed to promote economic development within the State of Indiana. Two programs that were initially a part of CST's charter and supported with state dollars were a seed capital investment program, aimed at developing new products and processes, and the establishment of university centers of technology development. The former was conceived to create jobs and new, technologically advanced industries in Indiana. The latter was an attempt to encourage technology transfer from the research laboratories of the state universities to the production lines of Indiana industry. Recently, CST has undergone a name change to the Indiana Business Modernization and Technology Corporation (BMT) and adopted an added responsibility of proactive assistance to small- and medium-sized businesses in order to enhance the state's industrial competitiveness.

  15. Landfills - LANDFILL_BOUNDARIES_IDEM_IN: Waste Site Boundaries in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — LANDFILL_BOUNDARIES_IDEM_IN.SHP is a polygon shapefile that contains boundaries for open dump sites, approved landfills, and permitted landfills in Indiana, provided...

  16. Fuel Processing Plants - ETHANOL_PRODUCTION_FACILITIES_IN: Ethanol Production Facilities in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This GIS layer shows the locations of ethanol production facilities in the state of Indiana. Attributes include the name and address of the facility, and information...

  17. Hydrogeology - HYDROGEOL_SETTINGS_IN: Hydrogeologic Terrains and Settings of Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:100,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — HYDROGEOL_SETTINGS_IN is a polygon shapefile that shows hydrogeologic terrains and settings of Indiana. The methodology of the investigation and definitions of terms...

  18. Multi-spatial analysis of aeolian dune-field patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Ryan C.; McDonald, George D.; Hayes, Alex G.

    2015-07-01

    Aeolian dune-fields are composed of different spatial scales of bedform patterns that respond to changes in environmental boundary conditions over a wide range of time scales. This study examines how variations in spatial scales of dune and ripple patterns found within dune fields are used in environmental reconstructions on Earth, Mars and Titan. Within a single bedform type, different spatial scales of bedforms emerge as a pattern evolves from an initial state into a well-organized pattern, such as with the transition from protodunes to dunes. Additionally, different types of bedforms, such as ripples, coarse-grained ripples and dunes, coexist at different spatial scales within a dune-field. Analysis of dune-field patterns at the intersection of different scales and types of bedforms at different stages of development provides a more comprehensive record of sediment supply and wind regime than analysis of a single scale and type of bedform. Interpretations of environmental conditions from any scale of bedform, however, are limited to environmental signals associated with the response time of that bedform. Large-scale dune-field patterns integrate signals over long-term climate cycles and reveal little about short-term variations in wind or sediment supply. Wind ripples respond instantly to changing conditions, but reveal little about longer-term variations in wind or sediment supply. Recognizing the response time scales across different spatial scales of bedforms maximizes environmental interpretations from dune-field patterns.

  19. Formation of aeolian dunes on Anholt, Denmark since AD 1560

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B; Bjørnsen, Mette; Murray, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Sand dunes on the island of Anholt (Denmark) in the middle of Kattegat form a relatively barren, temperate climate Aeolian system, locally termed the "Desert". The dunes have developed on top of a raised beach ridge system under the influence of dominant winds from westerly directions. They are r......Sand dunes on the island of Anholt (Denmark) in the middle of Kattegat form a relatively barren, temperate climate Aeolian system, locally termed the "Desert". The dunes have developed on top of a raised beach ridge system under the influence of dominant winds from westerly directions....... They are relatively coarse-grained with an average mean grain size of 480 µm. The last phase of aeolian activity and dune formation on Anholt started after AD 1560, when the local pine forest was removed. Historical sources report intense sand mobilization in the 17th century, and new optically stimulated...... in the beginning of the 20th century probably records a temporary decrease in storminess. Ground-penetrating radar mapping of the internal structures in two dunes in the western part of the Desert (a parabolic dune and a linear dune) indicates the importance of north-westerly (storm) winds during dune formation...

  20. Origin of the late quaternary dune fields of northeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Stafford, T.W.; Cowherd, S.D.; Mahan, S.A.; Kihl, R.; Maat, P.B.; Bush, C.A.; Nehring, J.

    1996-01-01

    Stabilized eolian deposits, mostly parabolic dunes and sand sheets, cover much of the landscape of northeastern Colorado and adjacent parts of southwestern Nebraska in four geographically distinct dune fields. Stratigraphic and soil-geomorphic relations and accelerator radiocarbon dating indicate that at least three episodes of eolian sand movement occurred between 27 ka and 11 ka, possibly between 11 ka and 4 ka, and within the past 1.5 ka. Thus, eolian sand deposition took place under both glacial and interglacial climatic conditions. In the youngest episodes of eolian sand movement, Holocene parabolic dunes partially buried Pleistocene sand sheet deposits. Late Holocene sands in the Fort Morgan and Wray dune fields, to the south of the South Platte River, have trace element ratios that are indistinguishable from modern South Platte River sands, but different from Ogallala Formation bedrock, which has previously been cited as the main source of dune sand on the Great Plains. Sands in the Greeley dune field, to the north of the South Platte River, have trace element concentrations that indicate a probable Laramie Formation source. Measurements of parabolic dunes indicate paleowinds from the northwest in all dune fields, in good agreement with resultant drift directions calculated for nearby weather stations. Thus, paleowinds were probably not significantly different from present-day winds, and are consistent with a South Platte River source for the Fort Morgan and Wray dune fields, and a Laramie Formation source for the Greeley dune field. Sand accumulated downwind of the South Platte River to form the Fort Morgan dune field. In addition, sand was also transported farther downwind over the upland formed by the calcrete caprock of the Ogallala Formation, and deposited in die lee of the upland on the southeast side. Because of high wind energy, the upland itself served as a zone of sand transport, but little or no sand accumulation took place on this surface. These

  1. Corridors of barchan dunes: Stability and size selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersen, P.; Andersen, Ken Haste; Elbelrhiti, H.

    2004-01-01

    state. Second, the propagation speed of dunes decreases with the size of the dune: this leads, through the collision process, to a coarsening of barchan fields. We show that these phenomena are not specific to the model, but result from general and robust mechanisms. The length scales needed...... for these instabilities to develop are derived and discussed. They turn out to be much smaller than the dune field length. As a conclusion, there should exist further, yet unknown, mechanisms regulating and selecting the size of dunes....

  2. Low-flow characteristics for selected streams in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathleen K.; Wilson, John T.

    2015-01-01

    The management and availability of Indiana’s water resources increase in importance every year. Specifically, information on low-flow characteristics of streams is essential to State water-management agencies. These agencies need low-flow information when working with issues related to irrigation, municipal and industrial water supplies, fish and wildlife protection, and the dilution of waste. Industrial, municipal, and other facilities must obtain National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits if their discharges go directly to surface waters. The Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) requires low-flow statistics in order to administer the NPDES permit program. Low-flow-frequency characteristics were computed for 272 continuous-record stations. The information includes low-flow-frequency analysis, flow-duration analysis, and harmonic mean for the continuous-record stations. For those stations affected by some form of regulation, low-flow frequency curves are based on the longest period of homogeneous record under current conditions. Low-flow-frequency values and harmonic mean flow (if sufficient data were available) were estimated for the 166 partial-record stations. Partial-record stations are ungaged sites where streamflow measurements were made at base flow.

  3. 3D visualization of liquefaction-induced dune collapse in the Navajo Sandstone, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Colby; Nick, Kevin; Bryant, Gerald

    2015-04-01

    The eolian Navajo Sandstone outcrop on the Canyon Overlook Trail in Zion National Park in Southern Utah is dissected by modern erosion in a way which reveals a great deal of the three-dimensional architecture of a major soft-sediment deformation event. The feature is bounded below by a well-developed interdune complex made up of two superimposed carbonate lenses, above by an irregular truncational surface, and incorporates 3 - 10 m of sandstone over an approximately 2 km area. The material above the deformed interval is undeformed cross-bedded sandstone, with crossbeds downlapping onto the surface of truncation. The stratigraphic confinement of deformation and the irregularity of the upper bounding surface suggests a deformation process which created topography, which was in turn covered by the next upwind dune before it could be eroded flat. The deformed material itself is laterally segmented by a stacked succession of shear surfaces, which all strike approximately perpendicular to the paleo-wind direction and dip at decreasing angles in the down paleo-wind direction. These factors point to the collapse of a major dune into the downwind interdune area, likely initiated by liquefaction in the interdune complex. The foundering of the dune's toe into the liquefied area created a powerful lateral stress field which did not extend significantly into the subsurface. The dune collapse process has been used in the past to describe other soft-sediment deformation features in the Navajo Sandstone, but this site provides a wealth of physical details which were not previously associated with dune collapse. Shear surfaces originate in the interdune deposit as slip between laminae, then the cohesive muds provided support as they were thrust upward to angles of up to 50 degrees. The margins of the site also contain important paleoenvironmental indicators. Dinosaur tracks are exposed both at the extreme upwind and downwind margins of the interdune deposit in and slightly above

  4. Dune field pattern formation and recent transporting winds in the Olympia Undae Dune Field, north polar region of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Ryan C.; Peyret, Aymeric-Pierre B.; Kocurek, Gary; Bourke, Mary

    2010-08-01

    High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) imagery of the central Olympia Undae Dune Field in the north polar region of Mars shows a reticulate dune pattern consisting of two sets of nearly orthogonal dune crestlines, with apparent slipfaces on the primary crests, ubiquitous wind ripples, areas of coarse-grained wind ripples, and deflated interdune areas. Geomorphic evidence and dune field pattern analysis of dune crest length, spacing, defect density, and orientation indicates that the pattern is complex, representing two constructional generations of dunes. The oldest and best-organized generation forms the primary crestlines and is transverse to circumpolar easterly winds. Gross bed form-normal analysis of the younger pattern of crestlines indicates that it emerged with both circumpolar easterly winds and NE winds and is reworking the older pattern. Mapping of secondary flow fields over the dunes indicates that the most recent transporting winds were from the NE. The younger pattern appears to represent an influx of sediment to the dune field associated with the development of the Olympia Cavi reentrant, with NE katabatic winds channeling through the reentrant. A model of the pattern reformation based upon the reconstructed primary winds and resulting secondary flow fields shows that the development of the secondary pattern is controlled by the boundary condition of the older dune topography.

  5. Environmental setting and natural factors and human influences affecting water quality in the White River Basin, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Fenelon, Joseph M.; Baker, Nancy T.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Bayless, E. Randall; Jacques, David V.; Crawford, Charles G.

    1999-01-01

    The White River Basin drains 11,349 square miles of central and southern Indiana and is one of 59 Study Units selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National WaterQuality Assessment Program. Defining the environmental setting of the basin and identifying the natural factors and human influences that affect water quality are important parts of the assessment.

  6. Sand Dunes in Steady Flow at Low Froude Numbers: Dune Height Evolution and Flow Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, S. L.; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl

    2011-01-01

    equilibrium shape. The flow modeling is based on a k-ω turbulence closure. The sediment transport is assumed to be bed-load only, with an avalanche-like movement on the steep dune front. The model is also found capable of predicting the growth in wavelength if the initially prescribed wavelength...

  7. Aeolian dune sediment flux heterogeneity in Meridiani Planum, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Matthew; Urso, Anna; Fenton, Lori K; Michaels, Timothy I

    2017-06-01

    It is now known unambiguously that wind-driven bedform activity is occurring on the surface of Mars today, including early detections of active sand dunes in Meridiani Planum's Endeavour crater. Many of these reports are only based on a few sets of observations of relatively isolated bedforms and lack regional context. Here, we investigate aeolian activity across central Meridiani Planum and test the hypothesis that dune sites surrounding Endeavour crater are also active and part of region-wide sediment migration driven by northwesterly winds. All 13 dune fields investigated clearly showed evidence for activity and the majority exhibited dune migration (average rates of 0.6 m/Earth-year). Observations indicate substantial geographic and temporal heterogeneity of dune crest fluxes across the area and per site. Locations with multiple time steps indicate dune sand fluxes can vary by a factor of five, providing evidence for short periods of rapid migration followed by near-stagnation. In contrast, measurements at other sites are nearly identical, indicating that some dunes are in a steady-state as they migrate. The observed sediment transport direction was consistent with a regional northeasterly-to-northwesterly wind regime, revealing more variations than were appreciated from earlier, more localized studies. Craters containing shallow, degraded, flat-floored interiors tended to have dunes with high sediment fluxes/activity, whereas local kilometer-scale topographic obstructions (e.g., central peaks, yardangs) were found to be inversely correlated with dune mobility. Finally, the previous, more limited detections of dune activity in Endeavour crater have been shown to be representative of a broader, region-wide pattern of dune motion.

  8. MICHIGAN/INDIANA: Siberian Snakes strike again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Siberian snakes are showing themselves to be even more deadly than expected in killing their prey, the depolarizing resonances which would make it very difficult to accelerate polarized protons to TeV energies at accelerators such as the Tevatron, UNK, LHC, and SSC. The snake concept was proposed in the mid-1970s by Siberians Yaroslav Derbenev and Anatoly Kondratenko at Novosibirsk, but the snakes lay almost dormant until Owen Chamberlain, Ernest Courant, Alan Krisch, and the late Kent Terwilliger organized the 1985 Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) polarized beam workshop in Ann Arbor, which highlighted the need to test the concept. The idea is to rotate the spin through 180° on each turn in the ring. With such successive spin flips, the depolarizing effects seen in one turn should be cancelled by an equal and opposite perturbation on the subsequent turn. The new Cooler Ring at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility then seemed an excellent test site for these eager but untested serpents. The Michigan/lndiana/Brookhaven team led by Krisch constructed the world's first snake and found that it could easily overcome its initial enemy, the imperfection depolarizing resonances caused by ring magnet imperfections (January/February 1990, page 20). In the next few years the growing team of ''herpetologists'' showed that Siberian snakes could overcome all kinds of depolarizing resonances, including the intrinsic kind (caused by the vertical betatron oscillations which keep the beam focused) and the synchrotron resonances (caused by synchrotron oscillations in energy). The team also discovered a new type of snake that was inadvertently built into the cooling section. This socalled type-3 snake rotates the spin around the vertical direction. A full type-1 snake (such as the team's superconducting solenoid magnet) rotates the spin by 180° around the beam direction; a type-2 snake rotates the spin around the radial direction

  9. The role of vegetation in shaping dune morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran Vinent, O.; Moore, L. J.; Young, D.

    2012-12-01

    Aeolian dunes naturally emerge under strong winds and sufficient sand supply. They represent the most dynamical feature of the arid and/or coastal landscape and their evolution has the potential to either increase desertification or reduce coastal vulnerability to storms. Although large-scale dune morphology mainly depends on the wind regime and sand availability, vegetation plays an important role in semiarid and/or coastal areas. It is well known that under certain conditions vegetation is able to stabilize dunes, driving a morphological transformation from un-vegetated mobile crescent dunes to static vegetated "parabolic" dunes, de facto paralyzing desertification and initiating land recovery. Furthermore, vegetation is also the primary ingredient in the formation of coastal foredunes, which determine vulnerability to storms, as low dunes are prone to storm-induced erosion and overwash. In both cases, the coupling of biological and geomorphic (physical) processes, in particular vegetation growth and sand transport, governs the evolution of morphology. These processes were implemented in a computational model as part of a previous effort. It was shown that, for a migrating dune, this coupling leads to a negative feedback for dune motion, where an ever denser vegetation implies ever lesser sand transport. The model also predicted the existence of a "mobility index", defined by the vegetation growth rate to sand erosion rate ratio, that fully characterizes the morphological outcome: for indices above a certain threshold biological processes are dominant and dune motion slows after being covered by plants; for lower indices, the physical processes are the dominant ones and the dune remains mobile while vegetation is buried or rooted out. Here, we extend this model to better understand the formation of coastal dunes. We include new physical elements such as the shoreline and water table, as well as different grass species and potential competition among them

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Indiana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Indiana.

  11. Provenance of Coastal dune sands along Red Sea, Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    26

    accumulation of sands behind vegetation or any other obstacles. ... The study areas Safaga (SF) and Quseir (QS) field dunes (Fig. 1) ..... coastal dune sands were deposited in a passive margin of a synrift .... Sed Petrol 63(6), 1110-1117.

  12. Estimation of sand dune thickness using a vertical velocity profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shuhail, Abdullatif A.

    2004-01-01

    Previous field and mathematical studies have shown that sand dunes may have vertical velocity profiles (i.e. continuous increase of velocity with depth). Therefore, computing the dunes thickness using conventional seismic refraction methods that assume a vertically homogeneous layer will likely produce some errors. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect of the vertical velocity profile in a sand dune on the process of thickness estimation using seismic refraction data. First, the time distance (T-X) data of the direct wave in the dune is calculated using a vertical velocity profile, V (z), derived from Hertz-Mindlin contact theory. Then the thickness is estimated from the calculated T-X data, intercept time and velocity of the refractor at the dune's base assuming a constant velocity in the dune. The error in the estimated thickness due to the constant-velocity assumption increases with increasing thickness and decreasing porosity of the dune. For sand dunes with porosities greater than 0.2 and thickness less than 200 meter, the error is less than 15%. (author)

  13. Planetary dune workshop expands to include subaqueous processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Bryant, Gerald; Rubin, David M.

    2018-01-01

    Dune-like structures appear in the depths of Earth’s oceans, across its landscapes, and in the extremities of the solar system beyond. Dunes rise up under the thick dense atmosphere of Venus, and they have been found under the almost unimaginably ephemeral atmosphere of a comet.

  14. Holocene eolian activity in the Minot dune field, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Been, J.; Mahan, S.A.; Burdett, J.; Skipp, G.; Rowland, Z.M.

    1997-01-01

    Stabilized eolian sand is common over much of the Great Plains region of the United States and Canada, including a subhumid area of ??? 1500 km2 near Minot, North Dakota. Eolian landforms consist of sand sheets and northwest-trending parabolic dunes. Dunes and sand sheets in the Minot field are presently stabilized by a cover of prairie grasses or oak woodland. Stratigraphic studies and accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of paleosols indicate at least two periods of eolian sand movement in the late Holocene. Pedologic data suggest that all of the dune field has experienced late Holocene dune activity, though not all parts of the dune field may have been active simultaneously. Similar immobile element (Ti, Zr, La, Ce) concentrations support the interpretation that eolian sands are derived from local glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine sediments. However, glaciolacustrine and glaciofluvial source sediments have high Ca concentrations from carbonate minerals, whereas dune sands are depleted in Ca. Because noneolian-derived soils in the area are calcareous, these data indicate that the Minot dune field may have had extended periods of activity in the Holocene, such that eolian abrasion removed soft carbonate minerals. The southwest-facing parts of some presently stabilized dunes were active during the 1930s drought, but were revegetated during the wetter years of the 1940s. These observations indicate that severe droughts accompanied by high temperatures are the most likely cause of Holocene eolian activity.

  15. Modelling dune evolution and dynamic roughness in rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paarlberg, Andries

    2008-01-01

    Accurate river flow models are essential tools for water managers, but these hydraulic simulation models often lack a proper description of dynamic roughness due to hysteresis effects in dune evolution. To incorporate the effects of dune evolution directly into the resistance coefficients of

  16. Hydro-geochemical analysis of a degraded dune slack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootjans, AP; Sival, FP; Stuyfzand, PJ

    A hydrochemical analysis of the groundwater composition was carried out in a degraded dune slack complex in order to assess the prospects for regeneration of low productivity, basiphilous vegetation types, typical of natural dune slacks. Two hundred and fifty water samples, most of them obtained

  17. The Indiana University proton radiation therapy project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, C.; Derenchuk, V.; Cameron, J.; Fasano, M.; Gilmore, J.; Hashemian, R.; Hornback, N.; Low, D.A.; Morphis, J.; Peterson, C.; Rosselot, D.; Sandison, G.; Shen, R.N.; Shidnia, H.

    1993-01-01

    A fixed horizontal beam line at the Indiana University cyclotron facility (IUCF) has been equipped for proton radiation therapy treatment of head, neck, and brain tumors. The complete system will be commissioned and ready to treat patients early in 1993. IUCF can produce external proton beams from 45 to 200 MeV in energy, which corresponds to a maximum range in water of 26 cm. Beam currents over 100 nA are easily attained, allowing dose rates in excess of 200 cGy/min, even for large fields. Beam spreading systems have been tested which provide uniform fields up to 20 cm in diameter. Range modulation is accomplished with a rotating acrylic device, which provides uniform depth dose distributions from 3 to 18 cm in extent. Tests have been conducted on detectors which monitor the beam position and current, and the dose symmetry. This report discusses those devices, as well as the cyclotron characteristics, measured beam properties, safety interlocks, computerized dose delivery/monitoring system, and future plans. (orig.)

  18. Mercury and methylmercury in reservoirs in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Martin R.; Fredericksen, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is an element that occurs naturally, but evidence suggests that human activities have resulted in increased amounts being released to the atmosphere and land surface. When Hg is converted to methylmercury (MeHg) in aquatic ecosystems, MeHg accumulates and increases in the food web so that some fish contain levels which pose a health risk to humans and wildlife that consume these fish. Reservoirs unlike natural lakes, are a part of river systems that are managed for flood control. Data compiled and interpreted for six flood-control reservoirs in Indiana showed a relation between Hg transport, MeHg formation in water, and MeHg in fish that was influenced by physical, chemical, and biological differences among the reservoirs. Existing information precludes a uniform comparison of Hg and MeHg in all reservoirs in the State, but factors and conditions were identified that can indicate where and when Hg and MeHg levels in reservoirs could be highest.

  19. Coexistence of Dunes and Humid Conditions at Titan's Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radebaugh, Jani; Lorenz, R. D.; Lunine, J. I.; Kirk, R. L.; Ori, G. G.; Farr, T. G.; Malaska, M.; Le Gall, A.; Liu, Z. Y. C.; Encrenaz, P. J.; Paillou, P.; Hayes, A.; Lopes, R. M. C.; Turtle, E. P.; Wall, S. D.; Stofan, E. R.; Wood, C. A.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2012-10-01

    At Titan's equatorial latitudes there are tens of thousands of dunes, a landform typical of desert environments where sand does not become anchored by vegetation or fluids. Model climate simulations predict generally dry conditions at the equator and humid conditions near the poles of Titan, where lakes of methane/ethane are found. However, moderate relative methane humidity was observed at the Huygens landing site, recent rainfall was seen by Cassini ISS near the Belet Sand Sea, and a putative transient lake in Shangri-La was observed by Cassini VIMS, all of which indicate abundant fluids may be present, at least periodically, at Titan's equatorial latitudes. Terrestrial observations and studies demonstrate dunes can exist and migrate in conditions of high humidity. Active dunes are found in humid climates, indicating the movement of sand is not always prohibited by the presence of fluids. Sand mobility is related to precipitation, evaporation and wind speed and direction. If dune surfaces become wetted by rainfall or rising subsurface fluids, they can become immobilized. However, winds can act to dry the uppermost layers, freeing sands for saltation and enabling dune migration in wet conditions. Active dunes are found in tropical NE Brazil and NE Australia, where there are alternating dry and wet periods, a condition possible for Titan's tropics. Rising and falling water levels lead to the alteration of dune forms, mainly from being anchored by vegetation, but also from cementation by carbonates or clays. Studies of Titan's dunes, which could undergo anchoring of organic sediments by hydrocarbon fluids, could inform the relative strength of vegetation vs. cementation at humid dune regions on Earth. Furthermore, a comprehensive survey of dune morphologies near regions deemed low by SARTopo and stereo, where liquids may collect in wet conditions, could reveal if bodies of liquid have recently existed at Titan's tropics.

  20. Dune mobility in the St. Anthony Dune Field, Idaho, USA: Effects of meteorological variables and lag time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, R. H.; Gaylord, D. R.; Cooper, C. M.

    2018-05-01

    The St. Anthony Dune Field (SADF) is a 300 km2 expanse of active to stabilized transverse, barchan, barchanoid, and parabolic sand dunes located in a semi-arid climate in southeastern Idaho. The northeastern portion of the SADF, 16 km2, was investigated to examine meteorological influences on dune mobility. Understanding meteorological predictors of sand-dune migration for the SADF informs landscape evolution and impacts assessment of eolian activity on sensitive agricultural lands in the western United States, with implications for semi-arid environments globally. Archival aerial photos from 1954 to 2011 were used to calculate dune migration rates which were subsequently compared to regional meteorological data, including temperature, precipitation and wind speed. Observational analyses based on aerial photo imagery and meteorological data indicate that dune migration is influenced by weather for up to 5-10 years and therefore decadal weather patterns should be taken into account when using dune migration rates as proxies from climate fluctuation. Statistical examination of meteorological variables in this study indicates that 24% of the variation of sand dune migration rates is attributed to temperature, precipitation and wind speed, which is increased to 45% when incorporating lag time.

  1. 76 FR 43372 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... RPBO primarily based on the discovery of the disease White Nose Syndrome in the State of Indiana, including the action area (which is within the Indiana bat Midwest Recovery Unit). Additionally, one new... continued existence of the Indiana bat and was not likely to adversely modify the bat's designated Critical...

  2. Indiana Jones on tagasi ja näitab, kuidas käituda / Kristiina Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidjants, Kristiina, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    22 mail esilinastub Steven Spielbergi järjekordne Indiana Jones'i film, kaasstsenaristiks ja produtsendiks George Lucas ja Harrison Fordiga nimiosas "Indiana Jones ja kristallpealuu kuningriik" ("Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull"). Saaga varasemast kolmest filmist

  3. 78 FR 28503 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lake and Porter Counties...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ...: FRL-9812-4] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lake and Porter...). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is approving Indiana's request to revise the Lake and Porter... approving new MOVES2010a-based budgets for the Lake and Porter County, Indiana 1997 8-hour ozone maintenance...

  4. Indiana 2006 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Lake Michigan coastline in the summer of 2006....

  5. Indiana 2008 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along Lake Michigan in the summer of 2008. The data types...

  6. Development of index of biotic integrity expectations for the ecoregions of Indiana. I. Central corn belt plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    The Clean Water Act Amendments of 1987 mandate the development of biological criteria for evaluating the nation's surface waters. The requirements of Section 304(a) was implemented in Indiana to determine water resource degradation. A total of 197 headwater and wading stream sites were sampled in the Central Corn Belt Plain ecoregion in order to develop and calibrate an Index of Biotic Integrity for use in Indiana. Based on inherent variance within the ecoregion, sub-basins were established based on the concept of natural areas as recognized by Homoya et al. (1985). Site specific data; locality information; and species specific scoring criteria for tolerance classification, trophic guilds, and reproductive guilds are included in the appendix

  7. Testing model parameters for wave‐induced dune erosion using observations from Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeck, Jacquelyn R.; Long, Joseph W.; Stockdon, Hilary F.

    2017-01-01

    Models of dune erosion depend on a set of assumptions that dictate the predicted evolution of dunes throughout the duration of a storm. Lidar observations made before and after Hurricane Sandy at over 800 profiles with diverse dune elevations, widths, and volumes are used to quantify specific dune erosion model parameters including the dune face slope, which controls dune avalanching, and the trajectory of the dune toe, which controls dune migration. Wave‐impact models of dune erosion assume a vertical dune face and erosion of the dune toe along the foreshore beach slope. Observations presented here show that these assumptions are not always valid and require additional testing if these models are to be used to predict coastal vulnerability for decision‐making purposes. Observed dune face slopes steepened by 43% yet did not become vertical faces, and only 50% of the dunes evolved along a trajectory similar to the foreshore beach slope. Observations also indicate that dune crests were lowered during dune erosion. Moreover, analysis showed a correspondence between dune lowering and narrower beaches, smaller dune volumes, and/or longer wave impact.

  8. Testing model parameters for wave-induced dune erosion using observations from Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeck, J. R.; Long, J. W.; Stockdon, H. F.

    2017-01-01

    Models of dune erosion depend on a set of assumptions that dictate the predicted evolution of dunes throughout the duration of a storm. Lidar observations made before and after Hurricane Sandy at over 800 profiles with diverse dune elevations, widths, and volumes are used to quantify specific dune erosion model parameters including the dune face slope, which controls dune avalanching, and the trajectory of the dune toe, which controls dune migration. Wave-impact models of dune erosion assume a vertical dune face and erosion of the dune toe along the foreshore beach slope. Observations presented here show that these assumptions are not always valid and require additional testing if these models are to be used to predict coastal vulnerability for decision-making purposes. Observed dune face slopes steepened by 43% yet did not become vertical faces, and only 50% of the dunes evolved along a trajectory similar to the foreshore beach slope. Observations also indicate that dune crests were lowered during dune erosion. Moreover, analysis showed a correspondence between dune lowering and narrower beaches, smaller dune volumes, and/or longer wave impact.

  9. Flood-inundation maps for the White River at Indianapolis, Indiana, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.4-mile reach of the White River in Indianapolis, Indiana, from 0.3 miles upstream of Michigan Street to the Harding Street Generating Station dam (at the confluence with Lick Creek), were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the White River at Indianapolis, Ind. (station number 03353000). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service athttp://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site.

  10. Late Pleistocene dune activity in the central Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J.A.; Swinehart, J.B.; Hanson, P.R.; Loope, D.B.; Goble, R.J.; Miao, X.; Schmeisser, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    Stabilized dunes of the central Great Plains, especially the megabarchans and large barchanoid ridges of the Nebraska Sand Hills, provide dramatic evidence of late Quaternary environmental change. Episodic Holocene dune activity in this region is now well-documented, but Late Pleistocene dune mobility has remained poorly documented, despite early interpretations of the Sand Hills dunes as Pleistocene relicts. New optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from drill cores and outcrops provide evidence of Late Pleistocene dune activity at sites distributed across the central Great Plains. In addition, Late Pleistocene eolian sands deposited at 20-25 ka are interbedded with loess south of the Sand Hills. Several of the large dunes sampled in the Sand Hills clearly contain a substantial core of Late Pleistocene sand; thus, they had developed by the Late Pleistocene and were fully mobile at that time, although substantial sand deposition and extensive longitudinal dune construction occurred during the Holocene. Many of the Late Pleistocene OSL ages fall between 17 and 14 ka, but it is likely that these ages represent only the later part of a longer period of dune construction and migration. At several sites, significant Late Pleistocene or Holocene large-dune migration also probably occurred after the time represented by the Pleistocene OSL ages. Sedimentary structures in Late Pleistocene eolian sand and the forms of large dunes potentially constructed in the Late Pleistocene both indicate sand transport dominated by northerly to westerly winds, consistent with Late Pleistocene loess transport directions. Numerical modeling of the climate of the Last Glacial Maximum has often yielded mean monthly surface winds southwest of the Laurentide Ice Sheet that are consistent with this geologic evidence, despite strengthened anticyclonic circulation over the ice sheet. Mobility of large dunes during the Late Pleistocene on the central Great Plains may have been the result of

  11. Large-eddy simulation of unidirectional turbulent flow over dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidyeganeh, Mohammad

    We performed large eddy simulation of the flow over a series of two- and three-dimensional dune geometries at laboratory scale using the Lagrangian dynamic eddy-viscosity subgrid-scale model. First, we studied the flow over a standard 2D transverse dune geometry, then bedform three-dimensionality was imposed. Finally, we investigated the turbulent flow over barchan dunes. The results are validated by comparison with simulations and experiments for the 2D dune case, while the results of the 3D dunes are validated qualitatively against experiments. The flow over transverse dunes separates at the dune crest, generating a shear layer that plays a crucial role in the transport of momentum and energy, as well as the generation of coherent structures. Spanwise vortices are generated in the separated shear; as they are advected, they undergo lateral instabilities and develop into horseshoe-like structures and finally reach the surface. The ejection that occurs between the legs of the vortex creates the upwelling and downdrafting events on the free surface known as "boils". The three-dimensional separation of flow at the crestline alters the distribution of wall pressure, which may cause secondary flow across the stream. The mean flow is characterized by a pair of counter-rotating streamwise vortices, with core radii of the order of the flow depth. Staggering the crestlines alters the secondary motion; two pairs of streamwise vortices appear (a strong one, centred about the lobe, and a weaker one, coming from the previous dune, centred around the saddle). The flow over barchan dunes presents significant differences to that over transverse dunes. The flow near the bed, upstream of the dune, diverges from the centerline plane; the flow close to the centerline plane separates at the crest and reattaches on the bed. Away from the centerline plane and along the horns, flow separation occurs intermittently. The flow in the separation bubble is routed towards the horns and leaves

  12. Summary of the Third International Planetary Dunes Workshop: remote sensing and image analysis of planetary dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Lori K.; Hayward, Rosalyn K.; Horgan, Briony H.N.; Rubin, David M.; Titus, Timothy N.; Bishop, Mark A.; Burr, Devon M.; Chojnacki, Matthew; Dinwiddie, Cynthia L.; Kerber, Laura; Gall, Alice Le; Michaels, Timothy I.; Neakrase, Lynn D.V.; Newman, Claire E.; Tirsch, Daniela; Yizhaq, Hezi; Zimbelman, James R.

    2013-01-01

    The Third International Planetary Dunes Workshop took place in Flagstaff, AZ, USA during June 12–15, 2012. This meeting brought together a diverse group of researchers to discuss recent advances in terrestrial and planetary research on aeolian bedforms. The workshop included two and a half days of oral and poster presentations, as well as one formal (and one informal) full-day field trip. Similar to its predecessors, the presented work provided new insight on the morphology, dynamics, composition, and origin of aeolian bedforms on Venus, Earth, Mars, and Titan, with some intriguing speculation about potential aeolian processes on Triton (a satellite of Neptune) and Pluto. Major advancements since the previous International Planetary Dunes Workshop include the introduction of several new data analysis and numerical tools and utilization of low-cost field instruments (most notably the time-lapse camera). Most presentations represented advancement towards research priorities identified in both of the prior two workshops, although some previously recommended research approaches were not discussed. In addition, this workshop provided a forum for participants to discuss the uncertain future of the Planetary Aeolian Laboratory; subsequent actions taken as a result of the decisions made during the workshop may lead to an expansion of funding opportunities to use the facilities, as well as other improvements. The interactions during this workshop contributed to the success of the Third International Planetary Dunes Workshop, further developing our understanding of aeolian processes on the aeolian worlds of the Solar System.

  13. 77 FR 3325 - Emergency Temporary Closure of the I-64 Sherman-Minton Bridge Over the Ohio River Between Indiana...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... Temporary Closure of the I-64 Sherman-Minton Bridge Over the Ohio River Between Indiana and Kentucky AGENCY... temporary closure of the I-64 Sherman-Minton Bridge over the Ohio River between Indiana and Kentucky for an... Bridge over the Ohio River between Indiana and Kentucky which the Indiana Governor closed on September 9...

  14. Sediment Source Fingerprinting of the Lake Urmia Sand Dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmady-Birgani, Hesam; Agahi, Edris; Ahmadi, Seyed Javad; Erfanian, Mahdi

    2018-01-09

    Aeolian sand dunes are continuously being discovered in inner dry lands and coastal areas, most of which have been formed over the Last Glacial Maximum. Presently, due to some natural and anthropogenic implications on earth, newly-born sand dunes are quickly emerging. Lake Urmia, the world's second largest permanent hypersaline lake, has started shrinking, vast lands comprising sand dunes over the western shore of the lake have appeared and one question has been playing on the minds of nearby dwellers: where are these sand dunes coming from, What there was not 15 years ago!! In the present study, the determination of the source of the Lake Urmia sand dunes in terms of the quantifying relative contribution of each upstream geomorphological/lithological unit has been performed using geochemical fingerprinting techniques. The findings demonstrate that the alluvial and the fluvial sediments of the western upstream catchment have been transported by water erosion and they accumulated in the lower reaches of the Kahriz River. Wind erosion, as a secondary agent, have carried the aeolian sand-sized sediments to the sand dune area. Hence, the Lake Urmia sand dunes have been originating from simultaneous and joint actions of alluvial, fluvial and aeolian processes.

  15. Effects of sand fences on coastal dune vegetation distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafals-Soto, Rosana

    2012-04-01

    Sand fences are important human adjustments modifying the morphology of developed shores. The effects of sand fences on sediment transport and deposition in their initial stages have been well studied, but little is known about the effect of deteriorated sand fences that have become partially buried low scale barriers within the dune, potentially benefiting vegetation growth by protecting it from onshore stress. Data on vegetation, topography and fence characteristics were gathered at three dune sites in Ocean City, New Jersey on September 2007 and March 2008 to evaluate the effect of fences within the dune on vegetation distribution. Variables include: distance landward of dune toe, degree of sheltering from onshore stressors, net change in surface elevation (deposition or erosion), vegetation diversity and density, presence of remnant fence, and distance landward of fence. Results for the studied environment reveal that 1) vegetation diversity or density does not increase near remnant fences because most remnants are lower than average vegetation height and can not provide shelter; but 2) vegetation distribution is related to topographic variables, such as degree of sheltering, that are most likely the result of sand accretion caused by fence deployment. Fence deployment that prioritizes the creation of topographically diverse dunes within a restricted space may increase the diversity and density of the vegetation, and the resilience and value of developed dunes. Managers should consider the benefits of using sand fences on appropriately wide beaches to create a protective dune that is also diverse, functional and better able to adapt to change.

  16. Probabilistic estimation of dune retreat on the Gold Coast, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmsten, Margaret L.; Splinter, Kristen D.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stockdon, Hilary F.

    2014-01-01

    Sand dunes are an important natural buffer between storm impacts and development backing the beach on the Gold Coast of Queensland, Australia. The ability to forecast dune erosion at a prediction horizon of days to a week would allow efficient and timely response to dune erosion in this highly populated area. Towards this goal, we modified an existing probabilistic dune erosion model for use on the Gold Coast. The original model was trained using observations of dune response from Hurricane Ivan on Santa Rosa Island, Florida, USA (Plant and Stockdon 2012. Probabilistic prediction of barrier-island response to hurricanes, Journal of Geophysical Research, 117(F3), F03015). The model relates dune position change to pre-storm dune elevations, dune widths, and beach widths, along with storm surge and run-up using a Bayesian network. The Bayesian approach captures the uncertainty of inputs and predictions through the conditional probabilities between variables. Three versions of the barrier island response Bayesian network were tested for use on the Gold Coast. One network has the same structure as the original and was trained with the Santa Rosa Island data. The second network has a modified design and was trained using only pre- and post-storm data from 1988-2009 for the Gold Coast. The third version of the network has the same design as the second version of the network and was trained with the combined data from the Gold Coast and Santa Rosa Island. The two networks modified for use on the Gold Coast hindcast dune retreat with equal accuracy. Both networks explained 60% of the observed dune retreat variance, which is comparable to the skill observed by Plant and Stockdon (2012) in the initial Bayesian network application at Santa Rosa Island. The new networks improved predictions relative to application of the original network on the Gold Coast. Dune width was the most important morphologic variable in hindcasting dune retreat, while hydrodynamic variables, surge and

  17. Dating pleistocene fossil coastal sand dunes by thermoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupeau, G.; Souza, J.H.; Soliani Junior, E.; Loss, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    It was shown recently that sunlight exposure is able to bleach most of the geological thermoluminescence (TL) of wind transported sediments. This property has been used in an attempt to date dunes from the well developed recent quaternary coastal dunes system of Rio Grande do Sul. Preliminary results presented here, show that TL dating on fossil sand dunes from Rio Grande do Sul should be possible in a time range from present to at least 50.000 yr and possibly more than 100.000 yr. (Author) [pt

  18. The role of bathymetry, wave obliquity and coastal curvature in dune erosion prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Heijer, C.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at reducing uncertainty in dune erosion predictions, in particular at complex dune coasts, in order to improve the assessment method for dune safety against flooding. To that end, state-of-the-art process-based dune erosion models are employed to further investigate issues

  19. Reconstruction and Analysis for the DUNE 35-ton Liquid Argon Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallbank, Michael James [Sheffield U.

    2018-01-01

    Neutrino physics is approaching the precision era, with current and future experiments aiming to perform highly accurate measurements of the parameters which govern the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations. The ultimate ambition with these results is to search for evidence of CP-violation in the lepton sector, currently hinted at in the world-leading analyses from present experiments, which may explain the dominance of matter over antimatter in the Universe. The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a future long-baseline experiment based at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), with a far detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) and a baseline of 1300 km. In order to make the required precision measurements, the far detector will consist of 40 kton liquid argon and an embedded time projection chamber. This promising technology is still in development and, since each detector module is around a factor 15 larger than any previous experiment employing this design, prototyping the detector and design choices is critical to the success of the experiment. The 35-ton experiment was constructed for this purpose and will be described in detail in this thesis. The outcomes of the 35-ton prototype are already influencing DUNE and, following the successes and lessons learned from the experiment, confidence can be taken forward to the next stage of the DUNE programme. The main oscillation signal at DUNE will be electron neutrino appearance from the muon neutrino beam. High-precision studies of these νe interactions requires advanced processing and event reconstruction techniques, particularly in the handling of showering particles such as electrons and photons. Novel methods developed for the purposes of shower reconstruction in liquid argon are presented with an aim to successfully develop a selection to use in a νe charged-current analysis, and a first-generation selection using the new techniques is presented.

  20. Determination of erosion thresholds and aeolian dune stabilization mechanisms via robotic shear strength measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, F.; Lee, D. B.; Bodek, S.; Roberts, S.; Topping, T. T.; Robele, Y.; Koditschek, D. E.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the parameters that control the spatial variation in aeolian soil erodibility is crucial to the development of sediment transport models. Currently, in-situ measurements of erodibility are time consuming and lack robustness. In an attempt to remedy this issue, we perform field and laboratory tests to determine the suitability of a novel mechanical shear strength method to assess soil erodibility. These tests can be performed quickly ( 1 minute) by a semi-autonomous robot using its direct-drive leg, while environmental controls such as soil moisture and grain size are simultaneously characterized. The robot was deployed at White Sands National Monument to delineate and understand erodibility gradients at two different scales: (1) from dry dune crest to moist interdune (distance 10s m), where we determined that shear strength increases by a factor of three with increasing soil moisture; and (2) from barren barchan dunes to vegetated and crusted parabolics downwind (distance 5 km), where we found that shear strength was enhanced by a factor of two relative to loose sand. Interestingly, shear strength varied little from carbonate-crusted dune surfaces to bio-crust covered interdunes in the downwind parabolic region, indicating that varied surface crusts contribute similarly to erosion resistance. To isolate the control of soil moisture on erodibility, we performed laboratory experiments in a sandbox. These results verify that the observed increase in soil erodibility from barchan crest to interdune at White Sands is dominated by soil moisture, and the variation in parabolic dune and barchan interdune areas results from a combination of soil moisture, bio-activity, and crust development. This study highlights that spatial variation of soil erodibility in arid environments is large enough to significantly affect sediment transport, and that probing soil erodibility with a robot has the potential to improve our understanding of this multifaceted problem.

  1. Vulnerable transportation and utility assets near actively migrating streams in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperl, Benjamin J.

    2017-11-02

    An investigation was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs that found 1,132 transportation and utility assets in Indiana are vulnerable to fluvial erosion hazards due to close proximity to actively migrating streams. Locations of transportation assets (bridges, roadways, and railroad lines) and selected utility assets (high-capacity overhead power-transmission lines, underground pipelines, water treatment facilities, and in-channel dams) were determined using aerial imagery hosted by the Google Earth platform. Identified assets were aggregated by stream reach, county, and class. Accompanying the report is a polyline shapefile of the stream reaches documented by Robinson. The shapefile, derived from line work in the National Hydrography Dataset and attributed with channel migration rates, is released with complete Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata. The data presented in this report are intended to help stakeholders and others identify high-risk areas where transportation and utility assets may be threatened by fluvial erosion hazards thus warranting consideration for mitigation strategies.

  2. Flood-inundation maps for the St. Marys River at Decatur, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Kellan R.

    2015-08-24

    Digital flood-inundation maps for an 8.9-mile reach of the St. Marys River at Decatur, Indiana, were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site (http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/), depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) of the St. Marys River at Decatur (USGS station number 04181500). The maps are useful for estimating near-real-time areas of inundation by referencing concurrent USGS streamgage information at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/. In addition, the streamgage information was provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service flood warning system (http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/). NWS-forecasted peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed during this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation.

  3. Geophysical investigations of the Western Ohio-Indiana region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, L.; LaForge, R.; Thorson, R.; Wagner, T.; Goudaen, F.

    1994-01-01

    Earthquake activity in the Western Ohio-Indiana region has been monitored with a seismograph network consisting of nine stations located in west-central Ohio and four stations located in Indiana. Six local and regional earthquakes have been recorded from October 1990 to September 1992 with magnitudes ranging from 0.6 to 5.0. A total of 36 local and regional earthquakes have been recorded in the past 6-year period (October 1986 to September 1992). Overall a total of 78 local and regional earthquakes have been recorded since the network went into operation in 1977. There was a peak in seismicity in 1986, including the July 12, 1986 St. Marys' event (mb=4.5), followed by an anomalously low level of seismicity for about 2 years. The most unusual feature of the seismicity in the past.year is the occurrence of three earthquakes in Indiana. The locations of the felt earthquakes are scattered across central Indiana; an area that had been aseismic. Analysis of arrival time data accumulated over the past 14 years shows that the Anna region crustal structure is ''slower'' than the average mid-continent crustal structure. This implies that the proposed Keewenawan rift in the Anna region has a different structure than that of other Keewenawan rifts in the mid-continent

  4. Education Technology Services at Indiana University: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichelmeyer, B. A.; Hara, Noriko; Yi, Jessi; Dennen, Vanessa; Avers, Dale; Tzeng, Jeng-Yi

    1998-01-01

    This paper, based on a qualitative research study, describes the technology resources available in the Indiana University School of Education, explains the range of services provided by Education Technology Services (ETS), documents the organizational structure of ETS, and describes the key processes and culture of ETS. (Author/AEF)

  5. Indiana and the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medland, William J.; Rosenberg, Morton M.

    1984-01-01

    The Kansas-Nebraska Act, which repealed the ban against slavery in the North, served as a catalyst to activate numerous groups which were unhappy with the Indiana Democratic Party. From this period emerged the new Republican party and also a revitalized Democratic party with new leadership. (IS)

  6. Indiana intelligent transportation systems commercial vehicle operations business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This business plan was developed by the Motor Carrier Services (MCS) division of the Indiana Department of Revenue. It is the result of a nine month study of the various state departments and agencies that directly and indirectly support the intersta...

  7. Environmental Setting of the Sugar Creek and Leary Weber Ditch Basins, Indiana, 2002-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Timothy R.

    2006-01-01

    The Leary Weber Ditch Basin is nested within the Sugar Creek Basin in central Indiana. These basins make up one of the five study sites in the Nation selected for the Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport, and Fate topical study, a part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water-Quality Assessment Program. In this topical study, identifying the natural factors and human influences affecting water quality in the Leary Weber Ditch and Sugar Creek Basins are the focus of the assessment. A detailed comparison between the environmental settings of these basins is presented. Specifics of the topical study design as implemented in the Leary Weber Ditch and Sugar Creek Basins are described.

  8. Flood-inundation maps for the White River near Edwardsport, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2014-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 3.3-mile reach of the White River near Edwardsport, (Ind.), were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at USGS streamgage 03360730, White River near Edwardsport, Ind. Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site (site EDWI3.)

  9. Latitudinal and altitudinal controls of Titan's dune field morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, A.; Hayes, A. G.; Ewing, R.; Janssen, M. A.; Radebaugh, J.; Savage, C.; Encrenaz, P.; the Cassini Radar Team

    2012-01-01

    Dune fields dominate ˜13% of Titan's surface and represent an important sink of carbon in the methane cycle. Herein, we discuss correlations in dune morphometry with altitude and latitude. These correlations, which have important implications in terms of geological processes and climate on Titan, are investigated through the microwave electromagnetic signatures of dune fields using Cassini radar and radiometry observations. The backscatter and emissivity from Titan's dune terrains are primarily controlled by the amount of interdune area within the radar footprint and are also expected to vary with the degree of the interdunal sand cover. Using SAR-derived topography, we find that Titan's main dune fields (Shangri-La, Fensal, Belet and Aztlan) tend to occupy the lowest elevation areas in Equatorial regions occurring at mean elevations between ˜-400 and ˜0 m (relative to the geoid). In elevated dune terrains, we show a definite trend towards a smaller dune to interdune ratio and possibly a thinner sand cover in the interdune areas. A similar correlation is observed with latitude, suggesting that the quantity of windblown sand in the dune fields tends to decrease as one moves farther north. The altitudinal trend among Titan's sand seas is consistent with the idea that sediment source zones most probably occur in lowlands, which would reduce the sand supply toward elevated regions. The latitudinal preference could result from a gradual increase in dampness with latitude due to the asymmetric seasonal forcing associated with Titan's current orbital configuration unless it is indicative of a latitudinal preference in the sand source distribution or wind transport capacity.

  10. TUMEUR ORBITAIRE: MANIFESTATION INITIALE D'UNE MALADIE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'hétérogénéité et la rareté des formes multicentriques de la maladie de Castleman font que leurs traitements soient très disparates. La maladie de Castleman doit être considérée comme un diagnostic possible d'une adénopathie cervicale particulièrement chez les patients souffrant d'une maladie inflammatoire chronique.

  11. Rip currents, mega-cusps, and eroding dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, E.B.; MacMahan, J.; Sallenger, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    Dune erosion is shown to occur at the embayment of beach mega-cusps O(200 m alongshore) that are associated with rip currents. The beach is the narrowest at the embayment of the mega-cusps allowing the swash of large storm waves coincident with high tides to reach the toe of the dune, to undercut the dune and to cause dune erosion. Field measurements of dune, beach, and rip current morphology are acquired along an 18 km shoreline in southern Monterey Bay, California. This section of the bay consists of a sandy shoreline backed by extensive dunes, rising to heights exceeding 40 m. There is a large increase in wave height going from small wave heights in the shadow of a headland, to the center of the bay where convergence of waves owing to refraction over the Monterey Bay submarine canyon results in larger wave heights. The large alongshore gradient in wave height results in a concomitant alongshore gradient in morphodynamic scale. The strongly refracted waves and narrow bay aperture result in near normal wave incidence, resulting in well-developed, persistent rip currents along the entire shoreline. The alongshore variations of the cuspate shoreline are found significantly correlated with the alongshore variations in rip spacing at 95% confidence. The alongshore variations of the volume of dune erosion are found significantly correlated with alongshore variations of the cuspate shoreline at 95% confidence. Therefore, it is concluded the mega-cusps are associated with rip currents and that the location of dune erosion is associated with the embayment of the mega-cusp.

  12. Method of Relating Grain Size Distribution to Hydraulic Conductivity in Dune Sands to Assist in Assessing Managed Aquifer Recharge Projects: Wadi Khulays Dune Field, Western Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel; Jadoon, Khan; Missimer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Planning for use of a dune field aquifer for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) requires that hydraulic properties need to be estimated over a large geographic area. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of dune sands is commonly estimated from grain size

  13. Commande adaptive d'une machine asynchrone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama-Belkhodja, I.; de Fornel, B.

    1996-06-01

    The paper deals with an indirect self-tuning speed control for an induction motor supplied by a chopper-filter-inverter system. Input/Output models are identified with the recursive least squares algorithm and the controller adaptation is based on a pole assignement strategy. Emphasis is put on the evaluation of the parameter identification in order to avoid instabilities because of disturbances or insufficient excitations. This is especially of importance when the adaptive control is carried out in closed loop systems and without additional test signals. Simulation results show the improvement of the dynamic responses and the robustness against load variations or parameters variations (rotor resistance, inertia). Cat article décrit une stratégie de commande adaptive indirecte à Placement de Pôles (PP), appliquée à la commande en vitesse d'une machine asynchrone alimentée par un ensemble hacheur-filtre-onduleur de tension. L'algorithme des Moindres Carrés Récursifs (MCR) est utilisé pour l'identification des modèles de comportement type entrées/sorties. Un intérêt particulier est porté à la mise en oeuvre de cet algorithme et à la discussion de ses résultats, tenant compte des erreurs de modélisation et de la nature peu riche en excitations des entrées du processus. Différents régimes transitoires ont été simulés pour apprécier l'apport de cette association (MCR-PP) : démarrages et inversion des sens de rotation, à vide et en charges, applications d'échelons de couple résistant, variations paramétriques. Les résultats permettent d'illustrer, tant au niveau des performances que de la robustesse, l'apport d'une telle commande adaptive pour des entraînements électriques avec une machine asynchrone.

  14. Large-eddy simulations of unidirectional water flow over dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriadis, D. G. E.; Balaras, E.; Dimas, A. A.

    2009-06-01

    The unidirectional, subcritical flow over fixed dunes is studied numerically using large-eddy simulation, while the immersed boundary method is implemented to incorporate the bed geometry. Results are presented for a typical dune shape and two Reynolds numbers, Re = 17,500 and Re = 93,500, on the basis of bulk velocity and water depth. The numerical predictions of velocity statistics at the low Reynolds number are in very good agreement with available experimental data. A primary recirculation region develops downstream of the dune crest at both Reynolds numbers, while a secondary region develops at the toe of the dune crest only for the low Reynolds number. Downstream of the reattachment point, on the dune stoss, the turbulence intensity in the developing boundary layer is weaker than in comparable equilibrium boundary layers. Coherent vortical structures are identified using the fluctuating pressure field and the second invariant of the velocity gradient tensor. Vorticity is primarily generated at the dune crest in the form of spanwise "roller" structures. Roller structures dominate the flow dynamics near the crest, and are responsible for perturbing the boundary layer downstream of the reattachment point, which leads to the formation of "horseshoe" structures. Horseshoe structures dominate the near-wall dynamics after the reattachment point, do not rise to the free surface, and are distorted by the shear layer of the next crest. The occasional interaction between roller and horseshoe structures generates tube-like "kolk" structures, which rise to the free surface and persist for a long time before attenuating.

  15. Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) and Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE): Conceptual Design Report. Volume 3: Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility for DUNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strait, James [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); McCluskey, Elaine [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lundin, Tracy [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Willhite, Joshua [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Hamernik, Thomas [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Papadimitriou, Vaia [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Marchionni, Alberto [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kim, Min Jeong [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Frascati (Italy). National Lab. of Frascati (INFN-LNF); Nessi, Marzio [Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland); Montanari, David [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Heavey, Anne [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-01-21

    This volume of the LBNF/DUNE Conceptual Design Report covers the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility for DUNE and describes the LBNF Project, which includes design and construction of the beamline at Fermilab, the conventional facilities at both Fermilab and SURF, and the cryostat and cryogenics infrastructure required for the DUNE far detector.

  16. A regional assessment of chemicals of concern in surface waters of four Midwestern United States national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah M.; VanderMeulen, David

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic chemicals and their potential for adverse biological effects raise concern for aquatic ecosystem health in protected areas. During 2013–15, surface waters of four Midwestern United States national parks were sampled and analyzed for wastewater indicators, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and pesticides. More chemicals and higher concentrations were detected at the two parks with greater urban influences (Mississippi National River and Recreation Area and Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore) than at the two more remote parks (Apostle Islands National Lakeshore and Isle Royale National Park). Atrazine (10–15 ng/L) and N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (16–120 ng/L) were the only chemicals detected in inland lakes of a remote island national park (Isle Royale National Park). Bisphenol A and organophosphate flame retardants were commonly detected at the other sampled parks. Gabapentin and simazine had the highest observed concentrations (> 1000 ng/L) in three and two samples, respectively. At the two parks with urban influences, metolachlor and simazine concentrations were similar to those reported for other major urban rivers in the United States. Environmental concentrations of detected chemicals were often orders of magnitude less than standards or reference values with three exceptions: (1) hydrochlorothiazide exceeded a human health-based screening value in seven samples, (2) estrone exceeded a predicted critical environmental concentration for fish pharmacological effects in one sample, and (3) simazine was approaching the 4000 ng/L Maximum Contaminant Level in one sample even though this concentration is not expected to reflect peak pesticide use. Although few environmental concentrations were approaching or exceeded standards or reference values, concentrations were often in ranges reported to elicit effects in aquatic biota. Data from this study will assist in establishing a baseline for chemicals of concern in Midwestern national parks and

  17. Localisation d'une source sonore par un réseau de microphones

    OpenAIRE

    Thaljaoui , Adel; Brulin , Damien; Val , Thierry; Nasri , Nejah

    2014-01-01

    National audience; L'assistance à domicile d'une personne âgée, notamment la connaissance de sa position géographique en tout instant, est devenue actuellement l'une des problématiques les plus urgentes. L'exploitation de l'information audio captée par un réseau de capteurs munis de microphones constitue un axe de recherche prometteur qui pourrait contribuer à une meilleure localisation dans le cadre des maisons intelligentes. Nous introduisons, dans cet article, nos premiers travaux sur la l...

  18. An evaluation of flora from coastal sand dunes of India: Rationale for conservation and management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rodrigues, R.S.; Mascarenhas, A.; Jagtap, T.G.

    stream_size 37100 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Ocean_Coast_Manage_54_181a.pdf.txt stream_source_info Ocean_Coast_Manage_54_181a.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1... Author version: Ocean & Coastal Management, vol.54(2); 2011; 181-188 An evaluation of flora from coastal sand dunes of India: Rationale for conservation and management Rouchelle S. Rodrigues, Antonio Mascarenhas, Tanaji G. Jagtap * National...

  19. Martian Dune Ripples as Indicators of Recent Surface Wind Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M.; Zimbelman, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Sand dunes have been shown to preserve the most recent wind patterns in their ripple formations. This investigation continues the manual documentation of ripples on Martian dunes in order to assess surface wind flow. Study sites investigated must have clear HiRISE frames and be able to represent diverse locations across the surface, decided primarily by their spread of latitude and longitude values. Additionally, frames with stereo pairs are preferred because of their ability to create digital terrain models. This will assist in efforts to relate dune slopes and obstacles to ripple patterns. The search and analysis period resulted in 40 study sites with mapped ripples. Lines were drawn perpendicular to ripple crests across three adjacent ripples in order to document both ripple wavelength from line length and inferred wind direction from azimuth. It is not possible to infer a unique wind direction from ripple orientation alone and therefore these inferred directions have a 180 degree ambiguity. Initial results from all study sites support previous observations that the Martian surface has many dune types in areas with adequate sand supply. The complexity of ripple patterns varies greatly across sites as well as within individual sites. Some areas of uniform directionality for hundreds of kilometers suggest a unimodal wind regime while overlapping patterns suggest multiple dominant winds or seasonally varying winds. In most areas, form flow related to dune shape seems to have a large effect on orientation and must be considered along with the dune type. As long as the few steep slip faces on these small dunes are avoided, form flow can be considered the dominant cause of deviation from the regional wind direction. Regional results, wind roses, and comparisons to previous work will be presented for individual sites.

  20. Dune-Yardang Interactions in Becquerel Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urso, Anna; Chojnacki, Matthew; Vaz, David A.

    2018-02-01

    Isolated landscapes largely shaped by aeolian processes can occur on Earth, while the majority of Mars' recent history has been dominated by wind-driven activity. Resultantly, Martian landscapes often exhibit large-scale aeolian features, including yardang landforms carved from sedimentary-layered deposits. High-resolution orbital monitoring has revealed that persistent bedform activity is occurring with dune and ripple migration implying ongoing abrasion of the surface. However, little is known about the interaction between dunes and the topography surrounding them. Here we explore dune-yardang interactions in Becquerel crater in an effort to better understand local landscape evolution. Dunes there occur on the north and south sides of a 700 m tall sedimentary deposit, which displays numerous superposed yardangs. Dune and yardang orientations are congruent, suggesting that they both were formed under a predominantly northerly wind regime. Migration rates and sediment fluxes decrease as dunes approach the deposit and begin to increase again downwind of the deposit where the effect of topographic sheltering decreases. Estimated sand abrasion rates (16-40 μm yr-1) would yield a formation time of 1.8-4.5 Myr for the 70 m deep yardangs. This evidence for local aeolian abrasion also helps explain the young exposure ages of deposit surfaces, as estimated by the crater size-frequency distribution. Comparisons to terrestrial dune activity and yardang development begin to place constraints on yardang formation times for both Earth and Mars. These results provide insight into the complexities of sediment transport on uneven terrain and are compelling examples of contemporary aeolian-driven landscape evolution on Mars.

  1. Dune-Yardang Interactions in Becquerel Crater, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urso, Anna; Chojnacki, Matthew; Vaz, David A

    2018-01-01

    Isolated landscapes largely shaped by aeolian processes can occur on Earth, while the majority of Mars' recent history has been dominated by wind-driven activity. Resultantly, Martian landscapes often exhibit large-scale aeolian features, including yardang landforms carved from sedimentary-layered deposits. High-resolution orbital monitoring has revealed that persistent bedform activity is occurring with dune and ripple migration implying ongoing abrasion of the surface. However, little is known about the interaction between dunes and the topography surrounding them. Here we explore dune-yardang interactions in Becquerel crater in an effort to better understand local landscape evolution. Dunes there occur on the north and south sides of a 700 m tall sedimentary deposit, which displays numerous superposed yardangs. Dune and yardang orientations are congruent, suggesting that they both were formed under a predominantly northerly wind regime. Migration rates and sediment fluxes decrease as dunes approach the deposit and begin to increase again downwind of the deposit where the effect of topographic sheltering decreases. Estimated sand abrasion rates (16-40 μm yr -1 ) would yield a formation time of 1.8-4.5 Myr for the 70 m deep yardangs. This evidence for local aeolian abrasion also helps explain the young exposure ages of deposit surfaces, as estimated by the crater size-frequency distribution. Comparisons to terrestrial dune activity and yardang development begin to place constraints on yardang formation times for both Earth and Mars. These results provide insight into the complexities of sediment transport on uneven terrain and are compelling examples of contemporary aeolian-driven landscape evolution on Mars.

  2. Flood-inundation maps for the Mississinewa River at Marion, Indiana, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, William F.

    2014-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 9-mile (mi) reach of the Mississinewa River from 0.75 mi upstream from the Pennsylvania Street bridge in Marion, Indiana, to 0.2 mi downstream from State Route 15 were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The flood inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the Mississinewa River at Marion (station number 03326500). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site. Flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated by using the current stage-discharge relation at the Mississinewa River streamgage, in combination with water-surface profiles from historic floods and from the current (2002) flood-insurance study for Grant County, Indiana. The hydraulic model was then used to compute seven water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-fo (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 10 ft, which is near bankfull, to 16 ft, which is between the water levels associated with the estimated 10- and 2-percent annual exceedance probability floods (floods with recurrence interval between 10 and 50 years) and equals the “major flood stage” as defined by the NWS. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a Geographic Information System digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) data having a 0.98 ft vertical accuracy and 4.9 ft

  3. Monitoring of desert dune topography by multi angle sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, J.; Kim, J.; Choi, Y.; Yun, H.

    2011-12-01

    Nowadays, the sandy desert is rapidly expanding world widely and results in a lot of risks in the socio-econimical aspects as well as the anthropogenic activities. For example, the increasing occurrences of mineral dust storm which presumably originated from the sandy deserts in northwest China become a serious threat in human activities as well as public health over Far East Asian area as the interpretation by the MODIS analysis (Zhang et al., 2007) and the particle trajectory simulation with HYSPLYT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) (Kim et al., 2011) identified. Since the sand dune activity has been recognized as an essential indicator of the progressive desertification, it is important to establish the monitoring method for the variations of topographic properties by the dune activities such as local roughness. Thus it will provide the crucial data about the extent and the transition of sandy desert. For example, it is well known the aerodynamic roughness lengths Zo which can be driven from the specialized sensor such as POLDER (POLarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances) is essential to understand desert dune characteristics. However, for the multi temporal observation of dune fields, the availability of data set to extract Zo is limited. Therefore, we employed MISR (Multi angle imaging Spectro Radiometer) image sequence to extract multi angle topographic parameters such as NDAI (Normalized Difference Angular Index) or the variation of radiance with the viewing geometry which are representing the characteristics of target desert topography instead of Zo. In our approach, NDAI were expanded to the all viewing angles and then compared over the target sandy desert and the surrounding land covers. It showed very strong consistencies according to the land cover type and especially over the dynamic dune fields. On the other hands, the variation of NDAIs of sandy desert combining with the metrological observations were

  4. The Mediterranean Coastal Dunes in Egypt: An Endangered Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batanouny, K. H.

    1999-08-01

    The Mediterranean coast in Egypt extends almost 900 km, the major part of which is bordered by sand dunes of different natures and types. Along the coastline between Alexandria and El-Alamein, a distance of some 100 km, the sand dunes represent a particular landscape with special characteristics and features, and consequently plants with particular attributes. In this area, the belt of sand dunes has developed immediately south of the shore and these dunes may rise up to 10 m in height and extend about 0·5-1·5 km inland from the shore. These dunes are famous as a habitat for the fig (Ficus carica L.) cultivation depending on the irregular rainfall. They also represent a landing station and a cross-road for birds such as quail migrating from Europe in the north. In the past, summer resort areas were confined to limited areas with few people, these same areas support the growth of some important plant species, for example, sand binders, medicinal and range plants. For more than two decades, there has been considerable socio-economic change and an open-door policy in the economy of the country has been adopted. One of the consequences of this change is that a great part of the coastal dune belt west of Alexandria till El-Alamein, has been subjected to destruction, due to the continuous construction of summer resort villages. These were built at a distance of about 100 m of the shoreline, extending 400-600 m inland and a breadth of 400 m or more along the shoreline. The area already covered by the dunes is now almost occupied by new buildings, gardens and other infrastructure. The consequences of these human activities are numerous and include impacts on the soil, water resources, the flora and the fauna, migrating birds, trends of the indigenous people, and the cultural environment. The present paper gives a concise environmental setting of the dune belt before the advent of the new activities, and the socio-economic and political attitudes which threaten the dunes

  5. Gravity Data for Indiana (300 records compiled)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity data (300 records) were compiled by Purdue University. This data base was received in February 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air...

  6. Insect biodiversity of the Algodones Dunes of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Kimsey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Over a nine year period beginning in 2007 we surveyed the insects of the Algodones Dunes, Imperial Count, California, as part of a study undertaken for the U.S. Bureau of Land Management. In a series of 22 collecting trips ranging in duration from 2 to 8 days we thus far have accumulated records of 1,840 species, 21 orders and 244 families from the dunes. Hymenoptera constituted the most diverse order, comprising about 45% of all the species recovered. Insect diversity and abundance peaked during the hottest part of the year between the months of May and September. Life history traits of the insects sampled included herbivores (29.6%, parasitoids (28.7%, predators (18.1%, pollen/nectar feeders (10.9%, detritivores (6.2% and scavengers (2.4%. Seventy-nine or 4% of the insect species collected in the dunes have been solely recorded from there, and 3% of the species almost certainly derive from adjacent aquatic habitats or agricultural ecosystems, as their life histories could not be completed in Algodones Dunes habitat. The insect fauna of the Algodones Dunes is unexpectedly rich and diverse.

  7. Floods of June-July 1957 in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppenhorst, Charles E.

    1958-01-01

    The floods of June-July 1957 exceeded those previously known on some of the tributaries of the Wabash and White Rivers in central Indiana. Six lives were lost, 1,282 dwellings were damaged, and 125 business places were flooded. Heavy rains of June 27 and 28 resulted from remnants of Hurricane Audrey meeting a front that lay across central Indiana. Heaviest rainfall reported for the storm period at a U.S. Weather Bureau station was 10.15 inches at Rockville. Previous maximum stages during the period of record were exceeded at 12 gaging stations. The peak stage on Raccoon Creek at Mansfield exceeded the previous maximum known stage, which occurred in 1875. One of the notable rates of discharge recorded was 245 cfs per square mile from a drainage area of 440 square miles on Raccoon Creek at Coxville.

  8. Hurricane Irma's Effects on Dune and Beach Morphology at Matanzas Inlet, Atlantic Coast of North Florida: Impacts and Inhibited Recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P. N.; Conlin, M. P.; Johnson, H. A.; Paniagua-Arroyave, J. F.; Woo, H. B.; Kelly, B. P.

    2017-12-01

    During energetic coastal storms, surge from low atmospheric pressure, high wave set-up, and increased wave activity contribute to significant morphologic change within the dune and upper beach environments of barrier island systems. Hurricane Irma made landfall on the southwestern portion of the Florida peninsula, as a category 4 storm on Sept 10th, 2017 and tracked northward along the axis of the Florida peninsula for two days before dissipating over the North American continent. Observations along the North Florida Atlantic coast recorded significant wave heights of nearly 7 m and water levels that exceeded predictions by 2 meters on the early morning of Sept. 11th. At Fort Matanzas National Monument, the dune and upper beach adjacent to Matanzas Inlet experienced landward retreat during the storm, diminishing the acreage of dune and scrub habitat for federally-listed endangered and threatened animal species, including the Anastasia beach mouse, gopher tortoises, and several protected shore birds. Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS surveys, conducted prior to the passage of the storm (Sept. 8) and immediately after the storm (Sept. 13) document dune scarp retreat >10 m in places and an average retreat of 7.8 m (+/- 5.2 m) of the 2-m beach contour, attributable to the event, within the study region. Although it is typical to see sedimentary recovery at the base of dunes within weeks following an erosive event of this magnitude, our follow up RTK surveys, two weeks (Sept. 26) and five weeks (Oct. 19) after the storm, document continued dune retreat and upper beach lowering. Subsequent local buoy observations during the offshore passage of Hurricanes Jose, Maria (Sept. 17 and 23, respectively) and several early-season Nor'easters recorded wave heights well above normal (2-3 meters) from the northeast. The lack of recovery may reveal a threshold vulnerability of the system, in which the timing of multiple moderate-to-high wave events, in the aftermath of a land falling

  9. The physician assistant workforce in Indiana: preparing to meet future health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jennifer; Zorn, Jennifer; Gjerde, Tom; Burkhart, Jennifer; Rosebrock, Lori

    2011-12-01

    This study identifies baseline demographic and descriptive statistics for physician assistants (PAs) in Indiana from 1978 to 2010. Data were obtained from Indiana Professional Licensing Agency applications, the Indiana State Department of Health, and PA educational programs. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the PA workforce as well as their supervising physicians. Most PAs working in Indiana were born and educated outside the state. Of those educated in Indiana, 77% obtained an initial license in Indiana; as of May 2010, 62% were still licensed in the state. In the past 8 years, Indiana had a 97% increase in active licensed PAs. Only 24% of PAs work in primary care; 92% work in metropolitan areas. For 40 years, PAs have increasingly worked in areas that are medically underserved or experiencing a shortage of health professionals. However, the overall numbers of PAs working in those areas remain low. More PAs in Indiana are practicing in medical specialties than in primary care. As health care policy and regulatory changes evolve, future studies will be needed to understand the impact on the health care workforce of Indiana PAs. This study will serve as a baseline for those studies.

  10. 76 FR 27973 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... makes a minor revision to the definition of ``Nonphotochemically reactive hydrocarbons'' or ``negligibly... submission revises the Indiana Administrative Code (IAC) by amending and updating the definition of...

  11. Issues in third party attacks on SMCRA permits. [USA - Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, G.D. Jr. (Ice Miller Donadio Ryan, Indianapolis, IN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Legal issues which have occurred in third party attacks on SMCRA (Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act) permit, mainly in Indiana, are discussed. Problems that can occur with the interrelationship of common law nuisance/injunction actions, the permit process, enforcement proceedings and collateral estoppel from administrative agency action, as well as finality issues in the permit process as related to other provisions of SMCRA. 37 refs.

  12. Parabolic dune reactivation and migration at Napeague, NY, USA: Insights from aerial and GPR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, James D.; Davis, Dan M.

    2010-02-01

    Observations from mapping since the 19th century and aerial imagery since 1930 have been used to study changes in the aeolian geomorphology of coastal parabolic dunes over the last ~ 170 years in the Walking Dune Field, Napeague, NY. The five large parabolic dunes of the Walking Dune Field have all migrated across, or are presently interacting with, a variably forested area that has affected their migration, stabilization and morphology. This study has concentrated on a dune with a particularly complex history of stabilization, reactivation and migration. We have correlated that dune's surface evolution, as revealed by aerial imagery, with its internal structures imaged using 200 MHz and 500 MHz Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys. Both 2D (transect) and high-resolution 3D GPR imagery image downwind dipping bedding planes which can be grouped by apparent dip angle into several discrete packages of beds that reflect distinct decadal-scale episodes of dune reactivation and growth. From aerial and high resolution GPR imagery, we document a unique mode of reactivation and migration linked to upwind dune formation and parabolic dune interactions with forest trees. This study documents how dune-dune and dune-vegetation interactions have influenced a unique mode of blowout deposition that has alternated on a decadal scale between opposite sides of a parabolic dune during reactivation and migration. The pattern of recent parabolic dune reactivation and migration in the Walking Dune Field appears to be somewhat more complex, and perhaps more sensitive to subtle environmental pressures, than an idealized growth model with uniform deposition and purely on-axis migration. This pattern, believed to be prevalent among other parabolic dunes in the Walking Dune Field, may occur also in many other places where similar observational constraints are unavailable.

  13. Penalizing recidivist drunk drivers in Indiana: impediments to implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, J P; Fricker, J D

    1987-12-01

    In 1983, Indiana enacted a law mandating that anyone convicted a second or subsequent time of Operating While Intoxicated (OWI) receive a minimum of 48 consecutive hours in jail or 10 days of community service. A representative random sample of Indiana counties was used to determine the extent of implementation of this law by the courts in 1984 and 1985. Analysis of the 1984 data concluded that nearly 70% of the cases did comply with the law in its first year of implementation. However, 13.8% of the recidivists received neither jail nor community service. Another 17.6% served some jail time and/or community service, but not of a sufficient length to comply with the law. Overall compliance increased to 75% in 1985, while the proportion who received neither jail nor community service increased to 17%. Several specific causes for noncompliance are identified and recommendations for their correction are offered. It is felt that the Indiana experience described in this paper will prove instructive to other states with newly-strengthened OWI laws.

  14. Advanced InSAR imaging for dune mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havivi, Shiran; August, Yitzhak; Blumberg, Dan G.; Rotman, Stanley R.

    2015-04-01

    Aeolian morphologies are formed in the presence of sufficient wind energy and available particles. These processes occur naturally or are further enhanced or reduced by human intervention. The dimensions of change are dependent primarily on the wind energy and surface properties. Since the 1970's, remote sensing imagery both optical and radar, are used for documentation and interpretation of the geomorphologic changes of sand dunes. Remote sensing studies of Aeolian morphologies is mostly useful to document major changes, yet, subtle changes, occurring in a period of days or months in scales of centimeters, are very difficult to detect in imagery. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is an imaging technique for measuring Earth's surface topography and deformation. InSAR images are produced by measuring the radar phase difference between two separated antennas that view the same surface area. Classical InSAR is based on high coherence between two images or more. The output (interferogram) can show subtle changes with an accuracy of several millimeters to centimeters. Very little work has been done on measuring or identifying the changes in dunes using InSAR. The reason is that dunes tend to be less coherent than firm, stable, surfaces. This research aims to demonstrate how interferometric decorrelation, or, coherence change detection, can be used for identifying dune instability. We hypothesize and demonstrate that the loss of radar coherence over time on dunes can be used as an indication of the dune's instability. When SAR images are acquired at sufficiently close intervals one can measure the time it takes to lose coherence and associate this time with geomorphic stability. To achieve our goals, the Nitzanim coastal dunes along the Mediterranean, 40 km south of Tel-Aviv, Israel, were chosen as a case study. The dunes in this area are of varying levels of stability and vegetation cover and have been monitored meteorologically, geomorphologically and

  15. Coal Fields - COAL_HOUCHIN_CREEK_ELEVATION_IN: Elevation Ranges of the Houchin Creek Coal Member (Petersburg Formation, Pennsylvanian) in West-Central Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:126,720, Polygon Coverage)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — From 1985 to 1994, a series of reports on coal resources of selected counties in Indiana was published as part of the Special Report series of the Indiana Geological...

  16. Coal Fields - COAL_HYMERA_ELEVATION_IN: Elevation Ranges of the Hymera Coal Member (Dugger Formation, Pennsylvanian) in West-Central Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:126,720, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — From 1985 to 1994, a series of reports on coal resources of selected counties in Indiana was published as part of the Special Report series of the Indiana Geological...

  17. Coal Fields - COAL_DANVILLE_THICKNESS_IN: Thickness Ranges of the Danville Coal Member (Dugger Formation, Pennsylvanian) in West-Central Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:126,720, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — From 1985 to 1994, a series of reports on coal resources of selected counties in Indiana was published as part of the Special Report series of the Indiana Geological...

  18. Coal Fields - COAL_DANVILLE_ELEVATION_IN: Elevation Ranges of the Danville Coal Member (Dugger Formation, Pennsylvanian) in West-Central Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:126,720, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — From 1985 to 1994, a series of reports on coal resources of selected counties in Indiana was published as part of the Special Report series of the Indiana Geological...

  19. Coal Fields - COAL_HYMERA_THICKNESS_IN: Thickness Ranges of the Hymera Coal Member (Dugger Formation, Pennsylvanian) in West-Central Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:126,720, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — From 1988 to 1994, a series of reports on coal resources of selected counties in Indiana was published as part of the Special Report series of the Indiana Geological...

  20. Effects of Trampling Limitation on Coastal Dune Plant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Riccardo; Jucker, Tommaso; Prisco, Irene; Carboni, Marta; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia T. R.

    2012-03-01

    Sandy coastlines are sensitive ecosystems where human activities can have considerable negative impacts. In particular, trampling by beach visitors is a disturbance that affects dune vegetation both at the species and community level. In this study we assess the effects of the limitation of human trampling on dune vegetation in a coastal protected area of Central Italy. We compare plant species diversity in two recently fenced sectors with that of an unfenced area (and therefore subject to human trampling) using rarefaction curves and a diversity/dominance approach during a two year study period. Our results indicate that limiting human trampling seems to be a key factor in driving changes in the plant diversity of dune systems. In 2007 the regression lines of species abundance as a function of rank showed steep slopes and high Y-intercept values in all sectors, indicating a comparable level of stress and dominance across the entire study site. On the contrary, in 2009 the regression lines of the two fenced sectors clearly diverge from that of the open sector, showing less steep slopes. This change in the slopes of the tendency lines, evidenced by the diversity/dominance diagrams and related to an increase in species diversity, suggests the recovery of plant communities in the two fences between 2007 and 2009. In general, plant communities subject to trampling tended to be poorer in species and less structured, since only dominant and tolerant plant species persisted. Furthermore, limiting trampling appears to have produced positive changes in the dune vegetation assemblage after a period of only two years. These results are encouraging for the management of coastal dune systems. They highlight how a simple and cost-effective management strategy, based on passive recovery conservation measures (i.e., fence building), can be a quick (1-2 years) and effective method for improving and safeguarding the diversity of dune plant communities.

  1. Characterization and Ecophysiological Observations on Coastal Sand Dune Vegetation from Goa, Central West Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rodrigues, R.S.

    Coastal Sand Dune flora (CSD) forms a specialized group of plants commonly referred as psammophytes. Goa has limited natural resources including beaches and sand dunes. The state is globally known for its tourism activities, which pressurize...

  2. Flood-inundation maps for the Elkhart River at Goshen, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Kellan R.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs, created digital flood-inundation maps for an 8.3-mile reach of the Elkhart River at Goshen, Indiana, extending from downstream of the Goshen Dam to downstream from County Road 17. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to nine selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Elkhart River at Goshen (station number 04100500). Current conditions for the USGS streamgages in Indiana may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/. In addition, stream stage data have been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often colocated with USGS streamgages. NWS-forecasted peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relation at the Elkhart River at Goshen streamgage. The hydraulic model was then used to compute nine water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from approximately bankfull (5 ft) to greater than the highest recorded water level (13 ft). The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system (GIS) digital-elevation model (DEM), derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data having a 0.37-ft vertical accuracy and 3.9-ft horizontal resolution in order to delineate the area flooded at each

  3. Flood-inundation maps for the Driftwood River and Sugar Creek near Edinburgh, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathleen K.; Kim, Moon H.; Menke, Chad D.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for an 11.2 mile reach of the Driftwood River and a 5.2 mile reach of Sugar Creek, both near Edinburgh, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Camp Atterbury Joint Maneuver Training Center, Edinburgh, Indiana. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage 03363000 Driftwood River near Edinburgh, Ind. Current conditions at the USGS streamgage in Indiana may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/in/nwis/current/?type=flow. In addition, the information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/. The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often collocated at USGS streamgages. That forecasted peak-stage information, also available on the Internet, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. For this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reaches by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relations at the USGS streamgage 03363000 Driftwood River near Edinburgh, Ind. The hydraulic model was then used to determine elevations throughout the study reaches for nine water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-ft intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to nearly the highest recorded water level at the USGS streamgage 03363000 Driftwood River near Edinburgh, Ind. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geospatial digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data) in order to

  4. Flood-inundation maps for the Tippecanoe River near Delphi, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Chad D.; Bunch, Aubrey R.; Kim, Moon H.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for an 11-mile reach of the Tippecanoe River that extends from County Road W725N to State Road 18 below Oakdale Dam, Indiana (Ind.), were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at USGS streamgage 03333050, Tippecanoe River near Delphi, Ind. Current conditions at the USGS streamgages in Indiana may be obtained online at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/in/nwis/current/?type=flow. In addition, the information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often co-located at USGS streamgages. That forecasted peak-stage information, also available on the Internet, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, water-surface profiles were simulated for the stream reach by means of a hydraulic one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation at USGS streamgage 03333050, Tippecanoe River near Delphi, Ind., and USGS streamgage 03332605, Tippecanoe River below Oakdale Dam, Ind. The hydraulic model was then used to simulate 13 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals reference to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to approximately the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data) in order to delineate the

  5. Single-phase ProtoDUNE, the Prototype of a Single-Phase Liquid Argon TPC for DUNE at the CERN Neutrino Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Cavanna, F; Touramanis, C

    2017-01-01

    ProtoDUNE-SP is the single-phase DUNE Far Detector prototype that is under construction and will be operated at the CERN Neutrino Platform (NP) starting in 2018. It was proposed to the CERN SPSC in June 2015 (SPSC-P-351) and was approved in December 2015 as experiment NP04 (ProtoDUNE). ProtoDUNE-SP, a crucial part of the DUNE effort towards the construction of the first DUNE 10-kt fiducial mass far detector module (17 kt total LAr mass), is a significant experiment in its own right. With a total liquid argon (LAr) mass of 0.77 kt, it represents the largest monolithic single phase LArTPC detector to be built to date. It is housed in an extension to the EHN1 hall in the North Area, where the CERN NP is providing a new dedicated charged-particle test beamline. ProtoDUNE-SP aims to take its first beam data before the LHC long shutdown (LS2) at the end of 2018. ProtoDUNE-SP prototypes the designs of most of the single-phase DUNE far detector module (DUNE-SP) components at a 1:1 scale, with an extrapolation of abo...

  6. Sedimentary processes of the Bagnold Dunes: Implications for the eolian rock record of Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Ewing, R. C.; Lapotre, M. G. A.; Lewis, K. W.; Day, M.; Stein, N.; Rubin, D. M.; Sullivan, R.; Banham, S.; Lamb, M. P.; Bridges, N. T.; Gupta, S.; Fischer, W. W.

    2017-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity visited two active wind-blown sand dunes within Gale crater, Mars, which provided the first ground-based opportunity to compare Martian and terrestrial eolian dune sedimentary processes and study a modern analog for the Martian eolian rock record. Orbital and rover images of these dunes reveal terrestrial-like and uniquely Martian processes. The presence of grainfall, grainflow, and impact ripples resembled terrestrial dunes. Impact ripples were pre...

  7. Sedimentary processes of the Bagnold Dunes: Implications for the eolian rock record of Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Ewing, R. C.; Lapotre, M. G. A.; Lewis, K. W.; Day, M.; Stein, N.; Rubin, D. M.; Sullivan, R.; Banham, S.; Lamb, M. P.; Bridges, N. T.; Gupta, S.; Fischer, W. W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity visited two active wind‐blown sand dunes within Gale crater, Mars, which provided the first ground‐based opportunity to compare Martian and terrestrial eolian dune sedimentary processes and study a modern analog for the Martian eolian rock record. Orbital and rover images of these dunes reveal terrestrial‐like and uniquely Martian processes. The presence of grainfall, grainflow, and impact ripples resembled terrestrial dunes. Impact ripples...

  8. Dune Erosion Models and Swash Zone Kinematics from Remote Video Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    system. Thus, successful prediction of dune erosion requires knowledge of the expected trajectory of the eroding dune toe . If we describe the... dune toe trajectory as following a slope, βT, two end member retreat trajectories exist. The first would be direct landward erosion so that zb never...changes     0 0   T bb ztz  (2.24) The second end member trajectory is that erosion moves the dune toe directly up the foreshore slope

  9. Aeolian sedimentary processes at the Bagnold Dunes, Mars: Implications for modern dune dynamics and sedimentary structures in the aeolian stratigraphic record of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Ryan C.; Bridges, Nathan T.; Sullivan, Rob; Lapotre, Mathieu G. A.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Lamb, Mike P.; Rubin, David M.; Lewis, Kevin W.; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2016-04-01

    Wind-blown sand dunes are ubiquitous on the surface of Mars and are a recognized component of the martian stratigraphic record. Our current knowledge of the aeolian sedimentary processes that determine dune morphology, drive dune dynamics, and create aeolian cross-stratification are based upon orbital studies of ripple and dune morphodynamics, rover observations of stratification on Mars, Earth analogs, and experimental and theoretical studies of sand movement under Martian conditions. In-situ observations of sand dunes (informally called the Bagnold Dunes) by Curiosity Rover in Gale Crater, Mars provide the first opportunity to make observations of dunes from the grain-to-dune scale thereby filling the gap in knowledge between theory and orbital observations and refining our understanding of the martian aeolian stratigraphic record. We use the suite of cameras on Curiosity, including Navigation Camera (Navcam), Mast Camera (Mastcam) and Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), to make observations of the Bagnold Dunes. Measurements of sedimentary structures are made where stereo images are available. Observations indicate that structures generated by gravity-driven processes on the dune lee slopes, such as grainflow and grainfall, are similar to the suite of aeolian sedimentary structures observed on Earth and should be present and recognizable in Mars' aeolian stratigraphic record. Structures formed by traction-driven processes deviate significantly from those found on Earth. The dune hosts centimeter-scale wind ripples and large, meter-scale ripples, which are not found on Earth. The large ripples migrate across the depositional, lee slopes of the dune, which implies that these structures should be present in Mars' stratigraphic record and may appear similar to compound-dune stratification.The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity Rover Team is acknowledged for their support of this work.

  10. Upstream sediment input effects on experimental dune trough scour in sediment mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding causes of dune irregularity, especially dune trough scour, is important for the modeling of vertical sorting of sediment mixtures in morphological models of rivers with sediment mixtures. Sediment in dunes is generally sorted in a fining-upward manner, which affects the sediment

  11. A Sharp View on River Dune Transition to Upper Stage Plane Bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naqshband, S.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Mcelroy, B.; Hurther, D.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.

    2017-01-01

    Sandy river beds are dominated by rhythmic features known as dunes. Experimental investigations of turbulent flow and sediment transport over dunes have predominantly focused on equilibrium flows that are rare in natural rivers. Using a novel acoustic instrument over migrating dunes in a laboratory

  12. A sharp view on river dune transition to upper stage plane bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naqshband, S.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Mcelroy, B.; Hurther, D.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.

    2017-01-01

    Sandy river beds are dominated by rhythmic features known as dunes. Experimental investigations of turbulent flow and sediment transport over dunes have predominantly focused on equilibrium flows that are rare in natural rivers. Using a novel acoustic instrument over migrating dunes in a laboratory

  13. Demography and monitoring of Welsh's milkweed (Asclepias welshii) at Coral Pink Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent C. Palmer; L. Armstrong

    2001-01-01

    Results are presented of a 12-year monitoring program on the Coral Pink Sand Dunes and Sand Hills populations of the threatened Welsh's milkweed, Asclepias welshii N & P Holmgren. The species is an early sera1 member of the dune flora, colonizing blowouts and advancing with shifting dunes. When an area stabilizes and other vegetation encroaches, A. welshii is...

  14. 76 FR 62087 - Draft Conservation Plan and Draft Environmental Assessment; Dunes Sagebrush Lizard, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ...] Draft Conservation Plan and Draft Environmental Assessment; Dunes Sagebrush Lizard, Texas AGENCY: Fish... draft Texas Conservation Plan for the Dunes Sagebrush Lizard (TCP). The draft TCP will function as a... the Applicant for the dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus) throughout its range in Texas...

  15. First quantification of relationship between dune orientation and sediment availability, Olympia Undae, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Cascales, Laura; Lucas, Antoine; Rodriguez, Sébastien; Gao, Xin; Spiga, Aymeric; Narteau, Clément

    2018-05-01

    Dunes provide unique information about wind regimes on planetary bodies where there is no direct meteorological data. At the eastern margin of Olympia Undae on Mars, dune orientation is measured from satellite imagery and sediment cover is estimated using the high contrast between the dune material and substrate. The analysis of these data provide the first quantification of relationship between sediment availability and dune orientation. Abrupt and smooth dune reorientations are associated with inward and outward dynamics of dunes approaching and ejecting from major sedimentary bodies, respectively. These reorientation patterns along sediment transport pathways are interpreted using a new generation dune model based on the coexistence of two dune growth mechanisms. This model also permits solving of the inverse problem of predicting the wind regime from dune orientation. For bidirectional wind regimes, solutions of this inverse problem show substantial differences in the distributions of sediment flux orientation, which can be attributed to atmospheric flow variations induced by changes in albedo at the boundaries of major dune fields. Then, we conclude that relationships between sediment cover and dune orientation can be used to constrain wind regime and dune field development on Mars and other planetary surfaces.

  16. 76 FR 19304 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Dunes Sagebrush Lizard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... for Dunes Sagebrush Lizard AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule... list the dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus) that was published in the Federal Register on December 14...

  17. Feasibility of a low-cost hearing screening in rural Indiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M. Khan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hearing loss remains a neglected public health issue in the rural and agricultural communities in the United States and therefore, promotion of a low-cost hearing screening may be important for these underserved populations. The major objectives of our study were to assess feasibility of a low-cost telephone-administered hearing test in rural Indiana and to identify the challenges, barriers and viable implementation strategies associated with this test. Also, we evaluated whether a focus group session could change the hearing health attitude of rural residents. Methods We recruited 126 adults from six rural Indiana counties who participated in study activities in the following order: 1 a pre-focus group demographic, knowledge and attitude survey, 2 a focus group for discussing the feasibility of a telephone-administered hearing screening, 3 a post focus group attitude survey and 4 hearing was screened using an audiometer and self-assessment scale. These activities generated both qualitative and quantitative data, which were subsequently analyzed. Results Hearing impairment was perceived as an important public health issue. Many participants expressed interests to try the low-cost National Hearing Test (NHT. However, participants recommended NHT to be facilitated by community organizations to provide access to landline phones. The focus group turned out to be an excellent awareness building activity producing significant improvement in hearing health attitudes. Comparison of self and audiometric evaluations indicated underestimation of hearing handicap in our rural study population. Conclusions The study results underscore the urgent need for an effective strategy to promote low-cost hearing screening in rural US communities.

  18. 75 FR 29575 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Indiana Bat; Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... hibernation, and possibly pesticides. An additional and emerging threat to Indiana bats is White-Nose Syndrome...] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Indiana Bat; Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental... Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis), a Federal endangered species, from activities associated with the...

  19. The High Cost of Failing to Reform Public Education in Indiana. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    This study documents the public costs of high school dropouts in Indiana, and examines how school choice would provide large public benefits by increasing the graduation rate in Indiana public schools. It calculates the annual cost of high school dropouts in Indiana due to lower state income tax payments, increased reliance on Medicaid, and…

  20. Environmental Controls and Eco-geomorphic Interactions of the Barchan-to-parabolic Dune Stabilisation and the Parabolic-to-barchan Dune Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Na; Baas, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Parabolic dunes are one of a few common aeolian landforms which are highly controlled by eco-geomorphic interactions. Parabolic dunes, on the one hand, can be developed from highly mobile dune landforms, barchans for instance, in an ameliorated vegetation condition; or on the other hand, they can be reactivated and transformed back into mobile dunes due to vegetation deterioration. The fundamental mechanisms and eco-geomorphic interactions controlling both dune transformations remain poorly understood. To bridge the gap between complex processes involved in dune transformations on a relatively long temporal scale and real world monitoring records on a very limited temporal scale, this research has extended the DECAL model to incorporate 'dynamic' growth functions and the different 'growth' of perennial shrubs between growing and non-growing seasons, informed by field measurements and remote sensing analysis, to explore environmental controls and eco-geomorphic interactions of both types of dune transformation. A non-dimensional 'dune stabilising index' is proposed to capture the interactions between environmental controls (i.e. the capabilities of vegetation to withstand wind erosion and sand burial, the sandy substratum thickness, the height of the initial dune, and the sand transport potential), and establish the linkage between these controls and the geometry of a stabilising dune. An example demonstrates how to use the power-law relationship between the dune stabilising index and the normalised migration distance to assist in extrapolating the historical trajectories of transforming dunes. The modelling results also show that a slight increase in vegetation cover of an initial parabolic dune can significantly increase the reactivation threshold of climatic impact (both drought stress and wind strength) required to reactivate a stabilising parabolic dune into a barchan. Four eco-geomorphic interaction zones that govern a barchan-to-parabolic dune transformation

  1. Indiana Teachers' Perspectives on Testing Accommodations for Limited English Proficient Students Taking the Graduation Qualifying Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetler, Angela Dawn

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative case study examines teachers' perspectives on testing accommodations for Limited English Proficient (LEP) students taking Indiana's Graduation Qualifying Exam (GQE). The Indiana Department of Education (IDOE) states that the purpose of testing accommodations is to "level the playing field" between LEP students and their…

  2. 78 FR 63093 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... section into the Indiana SIP. 326 IAC 3-6-2 Source Sampling Protocols This section requires the owner or... Indiana SIP. 326 IAC 3-7-4 Fuel Oil Sampling; Analysis Methods This section specifies the test protocol... monitoring rules to EPA as a revision to its state implementation plan (SIP). The monitoring rules will be...

  3. 76 FR 29695 - Approval, and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Redesignation of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... directly or formed secondarily through chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Sulfates are a type of..., Indiana submitted modeling intended to show that the Evansville area would attain and maintain the... particular, on December 7, 2009, Indiana submitted the results of modeling purporting to show PM 2.5...

  4. A Peek Into the Classrooms of Indiana's Best-Performing Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Marilynn; Conrad, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on how successful Indiana charter schools implemented their planned goals and how their instructional strategies supported sound, research-based practices for improving student achievement. After identifying the three charter schools that consistently earned Indiana's academic designation of "exemplary progress" over a…

  5. 78 FR 34973 - Proposal for Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 62 [EPA-R05-OAR-2013-0372; FRL-9820-9] Proposal for Sewage Sludge Incinerators State Plan for Designated Facilities and Pollutants; Indiana AGENCY... direct final rulemaking, Indiana's State Plan to control air pollutants from Sewage Sludge Incinerators...

  6. 76 FR 59600 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Redesignation of Lake and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ...] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Redesignation of Lake and Porter... redesignation of the Lake and Porter Counties, Indiana portion (Lake and Porter Counties) of the Chicago-Gary... or standard). EPA is proposing to approve the redesignation request for Lake and Porter Counties...

  7. 76 FR 8808 - Supplemental Final Environmental Impact Statement: Clark County, Indiana, and Jefferson County, KY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ..., financing, construction, operation and oversight of the Project, and an update to the major project finance... Indiana Ohio River Bridges (Project) in Clark County, Indiana and Jefferson County, Kentucky. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Duane Thomas, Project Manager, Federal Highway Administration, John C. Watts Federal...

  8. Modeling river dune evolution using a parameterization of flow separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paarlberg, Andries J.; Dohmen-Janssen, C. Marjolein; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Termes, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an idealized morphodynamic model to predict river dune evolution. The flow field is solved in a vertical plane assuming hydrostatic pressure conditions. The sediment transport is computed using a Meyer-Peter–Müller type of equation, including gravitational bed slope effects and a

  9. Nutrient limitation and vegetation changes in a coastal dune slack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts, EJ; Pegtel, DM; Grootjans, AP; van der Veen, A.

    Basiphilous pioneer species are among the most endangered plant species in The Netherlands. They find most of their refuges in young coastal dune slacks, especially on the Wadden Sea islands. For the purpose of nature management it is important to know which processes control the presence of

  10. Dew Measurements along a Longitudinal Sand Dune Transect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.F.G.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Berkowicz, S.

    2000-01-01

    In a desert environment dew can serve as an important source of moisture for plants, biological crusts, insects and small animals. A measurement programme was carried out within a sand dune belt situated in the northwestern Negev desert, Israel, to measure daily amounts of dew deposition as well as

  11. Probabilistic estimation of dune erosion and coastal zone risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, F.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal erosion has gained global attention and has been studied for many decades. As a soft sea defence structure, coastal sandy dunes protect coastal zones all over the world, which usually are densely populated areas with tremendous economic value. The coastal zone of the Netherlands, one of the

  12. Reliability of dune erosion assessment along curved coastlines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoonhout, B.M.; Den Heijer, C.

    2010-01-01

    The dune assessment methods used to ensure the safety of the lower areas in The Netherlands are based on simple empirical relations that are, strictly speaking, only valid for infinitely long, uniform and straight coasts. The wide application of these relations is mainly justified due to intentional

  13. Analyse cognitive d'une politique publique : justice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analyse cognitive d'une politique publique : justice environnementale et « marchés ruraux » de bois-énergie. ... energy sources to poor urban dwellers; and to reduce the poverty of rural households by promoting sustainable forest management including income generation through producing and marketing charcoal.

  14. Mycorrhizal status of Lycium europaeum in the coastal dunes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-11-30

    Nov 30, 2013 ... to fix the mobile dunes and to protect the reserve of Sidi Boughaba threatened by the progress of sand. Mycorrhization probably .... 90°C in the water bath until the roots became white. Roots were then rinsed, after this; ..... early in the vegetation succession on degraded soil and promote subsequently the ...

  15. County and Parish Boundaries - COUNTY_GOVERNMENT_BOUNDARIES_IDHS_IN: Governmental Boundaries Maintained by County Agencies in Indiana (Indiana Department of Homeland Security, Polygon feature class)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — COUNTY_GOVERNMENT_BOUNDARIES_IDHS_IN is a polygon feature class that contains governmental boundaries maintained by county agencies in Indiana, provided by personnel...

  16. Address Points - COUNTY_ADDRESS_POINTS_IDHS_IN: Address Points Maintained by County Agencies in Indiana (Indiana Department of Homeland Security, Point feature class)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — COUNTY_ADDRESS_POINTS_IDHS_IN is an ESRI Geodatabase point feature class that contains address points maintained by county agencies in Indiana, provided by personnel...

  17. Hydrogeology - AQUIFER_SYSTEMS_BEDROCK_IDNR_IN: Bedrock Aquifer Systems of Indiana (Indiana Department of Natural Resources, 1:500,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — AQUIFER_SYSTEMS_BEDROCK_IDNR_IN is a polygon shapefile that shows bedrock aquifer systems of the State of Indiana. The source scale of the map depicting the aquifers...

  18. Hydrogeology - AQUIFER_SYSTEMS_UNCONSOLIDATED_IDNR_IN: Unconsolidated Aquifer Systems of Indiana (Indiana Department of Natural Resources, 1:48,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — AQUIFER_SYSTEMS_UNCONSOLIDATED_IDNR_IN is a polygon shapefile that shows unconsolidated aquifer systems of the state of Indiana at a scale of 1:48,000. The following...

  19. Geophysical Features - SILURIAN_REEF_POLYGONS_MM54_IN: Silurian Reef Locations in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:500,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — SILURIAN_REEF_POLYGONS_MM54_IN is a polygon shapefile that shows the general locations of Silurian rock reef bank formations in Indiana. These data include two major...

  20. Geology, Bedrock - BEDROCK_TOPOGRAPHY_MM36_IN: Bedrock Topography Contours, Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:500,000, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Bedrock topography was converted from the original published map, Indiana Geological Survey Miscellaneous Map 36. The contours define the elevation/topography of the...

  1. Land Use and Land Cover - LAND_COVER_PRESETTLEMENT_IDNR_IN: Generalized Presettlement Vegetation Types of Indiana, Circa 1820 (Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — LAND_COVER_PRESETTLEMENT_IDNR_IN.SHP is a polygon shapefile showing generalized presettlement vegetation types of Indiana, circa 1820. The work was based on original...

  2. Southern high latitude dune fields on Mars: Morphology, aeolian inactivity, and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, L.K.; Hayward, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    In a study area spanning the martian surface poleward of 50?? S., 1190 dune fields have been identified, mapped, and categorized based on dune field morphology. Dune fields in the study area span ??? 116400km2, leading to a global dune field coverage estimate of ???904000km2, far less than that found on Earth. Based on distinct morphological features, the dune fields were grouped into six different classes that vary in interpreted aeolian activity level from potentially active to relatively inactive and eroding. The six dune field classes occur in specific latitude zones, with a sequence of reduced activity and degradation progressing poleward. In particular, the first signs of stabilization appear at ???60?? S., which broadly corresponds to the edge of high concentrations of water-equivalent hydrogen content (observed by the Neutron Spectrometer) that have been interpreted as ground ice. This near-surface ground ice likely acts to reduce sand availability in the present climate state on Mars, stabilizing high latitude dunes and allowing erosional processes to change their morphology. As a result, climatic changes in the content of near-surface ground ice are likely to influence the level of dune activity. Spatial variation of dune field classes with longitude is significant, suggesting that local conditions play a major role in determining dune field activity level. Dune fields on the south polar layered terrain, for example, appear either potentially active or inactive, indicating that at least two generations of dune building have occurred on this surface. Many dune fields show signs of degradation mixed with crisp-brinked dunes, also suggesting that more than one generation of dune building has occurred since they originally formed. Dune fields superposed on early and late Amazonian surfaces provide potential upper age limits of ???100My on the south polar layered deposits and ???3Ga elsewhere at high latitudes. No craters are present on any identifiable dune

  3. Information Summary, Area of Concern: Grand Calumet River, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    Page 179-183) 56 Waste Fill and Lagoon Sites Mapped Within the Grand Calumet Watershed (Source R13, Table 2-15) 57 Waste Fills of Greatest Concern...Percent Response for Single Species Sediment Bioassays from Indiana Harbor (Source RI, Table 18) 78 Aquatic Macroinvertebrates Collected from Stations 1, 2...3, 4, 5, and 12a, 3-4 May 88 (Source Rl, Table 22) 79 Aquatic Macroinvertebrates Collected from Stations 6, 7, 8, 9a, 10a, and 11, 3-4 and 19 May 88

  4. Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, C.; Heinz, R.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Indiana University Task C group is participating in the experiments GEM at the SSC and MACRO at the Gran Sasso. After an introduction to GEM in paragraph II, a detailed report is presented on the work done during the current contract period on the design of the outer region of the GEM Central Tracker. The Central Tracker Monte Carlo, which was the other significant GEM activity by the group, is included. In paragraph III is introduced MACRO and a brief status report is given. Muon Astronomy analysis done using MACRO data is also presented

  5. An overview of experiments at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    The research program of the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) is a product of many factors. Among these factors are the properties of the beams of charged particles available from the cyclotrons, the facilities and personnel available to support experiments, the guidance of the Program Advisory Committee, the decisions of the directors and the ideas and work of the users of the facility. It is the author's purpose, in this brief overview paper, to provide a summary of features and properties of accelerator operation, beams, experimental facilities and the user interaction of interest to a perspective experimental user and a discussion of recent results of measurements made at IUCF

  6. The effects of dune slopes and material heterogeneity on the thermal behavior of dune fields in Mars' Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, P. M.; Putzig, N. E.; Van Kooten, S.; Fenton, L. K.

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed the effects of slopes on the thermal properties of three dune fields in Mars' southern hemisphere. Although slope has important thermal effects, it is not the main driver of observed apparent thermal inertia (ATI) for these dunes. Comparing the ATI seasonal behavior as derived from Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data with that modeled for compositional heterogeneities, we found that TES results correlate best with models of duricrust overlying and/or horizontally mixing with fines. We measured slopes and aspects in digital terrain models created from High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images of dunes within Proctor, Kaiser, and Wirtz craters. Using the MARSTHERM web toolset, we incorporated the slopes and aspects together with TES albedo, TES thermal inertia, surface pressure, and TES dust opacity, into models of seasonal ATI. Models that incorporate sub-pixel slopes show seasonal day and night ATI values that differ from the TES results by 0-300 J m-2 K-1 s-½. In addition, the models' day-night differences are opposite in sign from those of the TES results, indicating that factors other than slope are involved. We therefore compared the TES data to model results for a broad range of horizontally mixed and two-layered surfaces to seek other possible controls on the observed data, finding that a surface layer of higher thermal inertia is a likely contributor. However, it is clear from this study that the overall composition and morphology of the dune fields are more complex than currently available models allow. Future work will combine slopes with other model parameters such as multi-layered surfaces and lateral changes in layer thickness. Coupling these improvements with broader seasonal coverage from the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) at more thermally favorable times of day would allow more accurate characterization of dune thermal behavior.

  7. Loss of an iridium-192 source and therapy misadministration at Indiana Regional Cancer Center, Indiana, Pennsylvania, on November 16, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    On December 1, 1992, the Indiana Regional Cancer Center reported to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Region I that they believed a 1.37 E + 11 becquerel (3.7-curie) iridium-192 source from their Omnitron 2000 high dose rate remote brachytherapy afterloader had been found at a biohazard waste transfer station in Carnegie, Pennsylvania. After notifying the NRC, this cancer center, one of several operated by the licensee, Oncology Services Corporation, retrieved the source, and Region I dispatched an inspector and a supervisor to investigate the event. The source was first detected when it triggered radiation alarms at a waste incinerator facility in. Warren, Ohio. The licensee informed the NRC that the source wire had apparently broken during treatment of a patient on November 16, 1992, leaving the source in the patient. On the basis of the seriousness of the incident, the NRC elevated its response to an Incident Investigation. The Incident Investigation Team initiated its investigation on December 3, 1992. The investigation team concluded that the patient received a serious misadministration and died on November 21, 1992, and that over 90 individuals were exposed to radiation from November 16 to December 1, 1992. In a press release dated January 26, 1993, the Indiana County Coroner stated that the cause of death listed in the official autopsy report was ''Acute Radiational Exposure and Consequences Thereof'' An almost identical source wire failure occurred with an afterloader in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on December 7, 1992, but with minimal radiological consequences. This incident was included in the investigation. This report discusses the Omnitron 2000 high dose rate afterloader source-wire failure, the reasons why the failure was not detected by Indiana Regional Cancer Center, the potential consequences to the patient, the estimated radiological doses to workers and the public, and regulatory aspects associated with this incident

  8. Relating sedimentary processes in the Bagnold Dunes to the development of crater basin aeolian stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R. C.; Lapotre, M. G. A.; Lewis, K. W.; Day, M. D.; Stein, N.; Rubin, D. M.; Sullivan, R. J., Jr.; Banham, S.; Thomas, N. M.; Lamb, M. P.; Gupta, S.; Fischer, W. W.

    2017-12-01

    Wind-blown sand dunes are ubiquitous on the surface of Mars and are a recognized component of the martian stratigraphic record. Our current knowledge of the aeolian sedimentary processes that determine dune morphology, drive dune dynamics, and create aeolian cross-stratification are based upon orbital studies of ripple and dune morphodynamics, rover observations of stratification on Mars, Earth analogs, and experimental and theoretical studies of sand movement under martian conditions. Exploration of the Bagnold Dunes by the Curiosity Rover in Gale Crater, Mars provided the first opportunity to make in situ observations of martian dunes from the grain-to-dune scale. We used the suite of cameras on Curiosity, including Navigation Camera, Mast Camera, and Mars Hand Lens Imager. We measured grainsize and identified sedimentary processes similar to processes on terrestrial dunes, such as grainfall, grainflow, and impact ripples. Impact ripple grainsize had a median of 0.103 mm. Measurements of grainflow slopes indicate a relaxation angle of 29° and grainfall slopes indicate critical angles of at least 32°. Dissimilar to terrestrial dunes, large, meter-scale ripples form on all slopes of the dunes. The ripples form both sinuous and linear crestlines, have symmetric and asymmetric profiles, range in height between 12cm and 28cm, and host grainfall, grainflow, and impact ripples. The largest ripples are interpreted to integrate the annual wind cycle within the crater, whereas smaller large ripples and impact ripples form or reorient to shorter term wind cycling. Assessment of sedimentary processes in combination with dune type across the Bagnold Dunes shows that dune-field pattern development in response to a complex crater-basin wind regime dictates the distribution of geomorphic processes. From a stratigraphic perspective, zones of highest potential accumulation correlate with zones of wind convergence, which produce complex winds and dune field patterns thereby

  9. Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    Nation er et gammelt begreb, som kommer af det latinske ord for fødsel, natio. Nationalisme bygger på forestillingen om, at mennesker har én og kun én national identitet og har ret til deres egen nationalstat. Ordet og forestillingen er kun godt 200 år gammel, og i 1900-tallet har ideologien bredt...

  10. Flood-inundation maps for Cedar Creek at 18th Street at Auburn, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2018-02-27

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 1.9-mile reach of Cedar Creek at Auburn, Indiana (Ind.), from the First Street bridge, downstream to the streamgage at 18th Street, then ending approximately 1,100 feet (ft) downstream of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science web site at https://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on Cedar Creek at 18th Street at Auburn, Ind. (station number 04179520). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at https://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, although forecasts of flood hydrographs are not available at this site (ABBI3).Flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation at the Cedar Creek at 18th Street at Auburn, Ind. streamgage and the documented high-water marks from the flood of March 11, 2009. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to compute seven water-surface profiles for flood stages referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 7 ft, or near bankfull, to 13 ft, in 1-foot increments. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging [lidar] data having a 0.98-ft vertical accuracy and 4.9-ft horizontal resolution) to delineate the area flooded at each water level.The availability of these maps, along with internet information regarding current stage from the USGS streamgage at Cedar Creek

  11. Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, R.M.; Mufson, S.L.; Musser, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C has been actively involved in the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso and the SSC experiment L during the current contract year. MACRO is a large US-Italian Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory being built under the Gran Sasso Mountain outside of Rome. Indiana University is in charge of organizing the United States software effort. We have built a state-of-the-art two-meter spectrophotometer for the MACRO liquid scintillator. We are in charge of ERP, the Event Reconstruction Processor online trigger processor for muons and stellar collapse. We are designing an air Cerenkov array to be placed on top of the Gran Sasso. Our other activity involves participation in the SSC experiment L. As long-standing members of L we have done proposal writing and have worked on important L planning and organization matters. We are now doing development work on the L Central Tracker straw drift tubes, including gas optimization, readout, and Monte Carlos. 12 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab

  12. Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, R.M.; Mufson, S.L.; Musser, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Indiana University High Energy Physics Group, Task C has been actively involved in the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso and the SSC experiment L during the current contract year. MACRO is a large US-Italian Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory being built under the Gran Sasso Mountain outside of Rome. Indiana University is in charge of organizing the United States software effort. We have built a state-of-the-art two-meter spectrophotometer for the MACRO liquid scintillator. We are in charge of ERP, the Event Reconstruction Processor online trigger processor for muons and stellar collapse. We are designing an air Cerenkov array to be placed on top of the Gran Sasso. Our other activity involves participation in the SSC experiment L. As long-standing members of L we have done proposal writing and have worked on important L planning and organization matters. We are now doing development work on the L Central Tracker straw drift tubes, including gas optimization, readout, and Monte Carlos. 12 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Photon detection system for ProtoDUNE dual phase

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, C. (on behalf of DUNE collaboration)

    2017-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a 40-kton underground liquid argon time-projection-chamber (LAr TPC) detector, for long-baseline neutrino oscillation studies and for neutrino astrophysics and nucleon decay searches. Photon detector systems embedded within the LAr TPC add precise timing capabilities for non-beam events. The ProtoDUNE dual phase detector will consist of a 6x6x6 m3 liquid argon time-projection chamber placed at CERN and the light readout will be formed by 8-inch cryogenic photomultipliers from Hamamatsu. The characterization of the 36 photomultipliers, the base design, and the light calibration system are described. In addition, preliminary results from a 3x1x1 m3 LAr double phase detector operating at CERN are presented.

  14. Optical dating of dune ridges on Rømø

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anni Tindahl; Murray, A. S.; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest

    2007-01-01

    The application of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) to the dating of recent aeolian sand ridges on Rømø, an island off the southwest coast of Denmark, is tested. These sand ridges began to form approximately 300 years ago, and estimates of the ages are available from historical records....... Samples for OSL dating were taken ~0.5 m below the crests of four different dune ridges; at least five samples were recovered from each ridge to test the internal consistency of the ages. Additional samples were recovered from the low lying areas in the swales and from the scattered dune formations......-defined building phases separated by inactive periods and the first major ridge formed ~235 years ago. This study demonstrates that optical dating can be successfully applied to these young aeolian sand deposits, and we conclude that OSL dating is a powerful chronological tool in studies of coastal change....

  15. Dynamics of Unusual Debris Flows on Martian Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Hideaki; Dohm, James M.; Baker, Victor R.; Beyer, Ross A.; Bourke, Mary

    2004-01-01

    Gullies that dissect sand dunes in Russell impact crater often display debris flow-like deposits in their distal reaches. The possible range of both the rheological properties and the flow rates are estimated using a numerical simulation code of a Bingham plastic flow to help explain the formation of these features. Our simulated results are best explained by a rapid debris flow. For example, a debris flow with the viscosity of 10(exp 2) Pa s and the yield strength of 10(exp 2) Pa can form the observed deposits with a flow rate of 0.5 cu m/s sustained over several minutes and total discharged water volume on the order of hundreds of cubic meters, which may be produced by melting a surface layer of interstitial ice within the dune deposits to several centimeters depth.

  16. Non-equilibrium flow and sediment transport distribution over mobile river dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoitink, T.; Naqshband, S.; McElroy, B. J.

    2017-12-01

    Flow and sediment transport are key processes in the morphodynamics of river dunes. During floods in several rivers (e.g., the Elkhorn, Missouri, Niobrara, and Rio Grande), dunes are observed to grow rapidly as flow strength increases, undergoing an unstable transition regime, after which they are washed out in what is called upper stage plane bed. This morphological evolution of dunes to upper stage plane bed is the strongest bed-form adjustment during non-equilibrium flows and is associated with a significant change in hydraulic roughness and water levels. Detailed experimental investigations, however, have mostly focused on fixed dunes limited to equilibrium flow and bed conditions that are rare in natural channels. Our understanding of the underlying sedimentary processes that result into the washing out of dunes is therefore very limited. In the present study, using the Acoustic Concentration and Velocity Profiler (ACVP), we were able to quantify flow structure and sediment transport distribution over mobile non-equilibrium dunes. Under these non-equilibrium flow conditions average dune heights were decreasing while dune lengths were increasing. Preliminary results suggest that this morphological behaviour is due to a positive phase lag between sediment transport maximum and topographic maximum leading to a larger erosion on the dune stoss side compared to deposition on dune lee side.

  17. Tubular Adenoma in the Indiana Pouch of a Patient With a History of Bladder Exstrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine G. Manka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An increased risk of neoplasm has been noted when bowel segments are used for urinary diversion. Particularly true for ureterosigmoidostomy, colonic adenocarcinoma has rarely been reported following Indiana Pouch diversion. This report describes a 42-year-old woman with a history of bladder exstrophy who developed a polyp in her Indiana Pouch 24 years after its creation. The polyp, found incidentally, was a tubular adenoma with high-grade dysplasia. Due to its malignant potential, the polyp was resected with preservation of the Indiana Pouch. This case highlights the need for lifetime surveillance in urinary reservoir patients who received diversions at a young age.

  18. La neurotoxoplasmose congenitale du nourrisson : a propos d'une ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les auteurs rapportent un cas isolé d'une Toxoplasmose cérébrale congénitale chez un enfant de 02 ans hospitalisé dans le service de neurologie du centre hospitalouniversitaire (C.H.U) Campus de Lomé. La revue de la littérature permet d'insister sur les formes cliniques, l'imagerie médicale, la biologie ainsi que les ...

  19. TERATOME MATURE DE LA PAROTIDE : A PROPOS D'UNE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le tératome de la parotide est une malformation tumorale vestigiale rare contenant des dérivés plus ou moins différenciés, des trois feuillets embryonnaires. A la lumière d'une nouvelle observation et des données de la littérature, on se propose de mettre l'accent sur les aspects cliniques, histologiques et thérapeutiques de ...

  20. Turbulence and sediment transport over sand dunes and ripples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, A.; Le Bot, S.; lafite, R.; Bonneton, P.; Ardhuin, F.

    2013-12-01

    Several bedforms are present near to the surfzone of natural beaches. Dunes and ripples are frequently observed. Understanding the turbulence over these forms is essential for the sediment transport. The turbulent flow and the suspended sand particles interact with each other. At the moment, the modelling strategy for turbulence is still a challenge. According to the spatial scales, some different methods to model the turbulence are employed, in particular the RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) and the LES (Large Eddy Simulation). A hybrid method combining both RANS and LES is set up here. We have adapted this method, initially developed for atmospheric flow, to the oceanic flow. This new method is implemented inside the 3D hydrodynamic model, MARS 3D, which is forced by waves. LES is currently the best way to simulate turbulent flow but its higher cost prevents it from being used for large scale applications. So, here we use RANS near the bottom while LES is set elsewhere. It allows us minimize the computational cost and ensure a better accuracy of the results than with a fully RANS model. In the case of megaripples, the validation step was performed with two sets of field data (Sandy Duck'97 and Forsoms'13) but also with the data from Dune2D model which uses only RANS for turbulence. The main findings are: a) the vertical profiles of the velocity are similar throughout the data b) the turbulent kinetic energy, which was underestimated by Dune2D, is in line with the observations c) the concentration of the suspended sediment is simulated with a better accuracy than with Dune2D but this remains lower than the observations.

  1. Cas d'une loi exponentielle Bayesian predict

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DK

    Avec des données groupées : Cas d'une loi exponentielle. Bayesian predictions of order statistics with grouped data: The case of an exponential law. Assia Chadli* & Asma Meradji. Laboratoire LaPS, Département de Mathématiques, Faculté des Sciences. Université Badji Mokhtar Annaba, BP 12, 23000, Annaba, Algérie.

  2. Managing the risks: An analysis of bird strike reporting at Part 139 Airports in Indiana 2001-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Mendonca

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the current study was fourfold: to identify bird strike reporting trends at Part 139 airports in Indiana (2001-2014 for comparison to national data; to determine which quarter of the year yields the most bird strike data; to gain a clearer understanding of the relationship between altitude and bird strikes, and to develop information based upon the data analyzed that can be used for the safety management of birds including comparisons to national data.  Design/methodology: The researchers in this study answered the research questions by reviewing, sorting, and analyzing existing data.  The data collection took place from March 01 to May 02, 2016. Two data sets were utilized for data collection. The National Wildlife Strike Database (NWSD and the FAA Air Traffic Activity System (ATADS. Findings: When compared to national data, Indiana Part 139 airports have seen a faster increase in bird strike reporting during 2012 and 2014. Aggregate data indicated June through September (Quarter 3 had a significantly higher frequency of bird strikes reported.  When examining bird strikes and altitude of occurrences, the exponential equation explained 95 % of the variation in number of strikes by 1,000-foot intervals from 1000 to 10,000 feet. Not surprisingly, the risk of bird strikes appears to decrease as altitude increases. Originality/value: This study adds to the body of knowledge by addressing the lack of published bird strike report analyses at a regional level.  It also connects data analyses to safety management system (SMS concepts and Wildlife Hazards Management Programs (WHMP. The aviation community can use regional bird strike data and information to develop or enhance existing wildlife hazard management programs, increase pilot awareness, and offers airport managerial implications.

  3. Properties of dune sand concrete containing coffee waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Guendouz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, an increase of coffee beverages consumption has been observed all over the world; and its consumption increases the waste coffee grounds which will become an environmental problems. Recycling of this waste to produce new materials like sand concrete appears as one of the best solutions for reduces the problem of pollution. This work aims to study the possibility of recycling waste coffee grounds (Spent Coffee Grounds (SCG as a fine aggregate by replacing the sand in the manufacturing of dune sand concrete. For this; sand concrete mixes were prepared with substitution of sand with the spent coffee grounds waste at different percentage (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by volume of the sand in order to study the influence of this wastes on physical (Workability, bulk density and porosity, mechanical (compressive and flexural strength and Thermal (Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity properties of dune sand concrete. The results showed that the use of spent coffee grounds waste as partial replacement of natural sand contributes to reduce workability, bulk density and mechanical strength of sand concrete mixes with an increase on its porosity. However, the thermal characteristics are improved and especially for a level of 15% and 20% of substitution. So, it is possible to obtain an insulating material which can be used in the various types of structural components. This study ensures that reusing of waste coffee grounds in dune sand concrete gives a positive approach to reduce the cost of materials and solve some environmental problems.

  4. Uavs to Assess the Evolution of Embryo Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddia, Y.; Corbau, C.; Zambello, E.; Russo, V.; Simeoni, U.; Russo, P.; Pellegrinelli, A.

    2017-08-01

    The balance of a coastal environment is particularly complex: the continuous formation of dunes, their destruction as a result of violent storms, the growth of vegetation and the consequent growth of the dunes themselves are phenomena that significantly affect this balance. This work presents an approach to the long-term monitoring of a complex dune system by means of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Four different surveys were carried out between November 2015 and November 2016. Aerial photogrammetric data were acquired during flights by a DJI Phantom 2 and a DJI Phantom 3 with cameras in a nadiral arrangement. GNSS receivers in Network Real Time Kinematic (NRTK) mode were used to frame models in the European Terrestrial Reference System. Processing of the captured images consisted in reconstruction of a three-dimensional model using the principles of Structure from Motion (SfM). Particular care was necessary due to the vegetation: filtering of the dense cloud, mainly based on slope detection, was performed to minimize this issue. Final products of the SfM approach were represented by Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of the sandy coastal environment. Each model was validated by comparison through specially surveyed points. Other analyses were also performed, such as cross sections and computing elevation variations over time. The use of digital photogrammetry by UAVs is particularly reliable: fast acquisition of the images, reconstruction of high-density point clouds, high resolution of final elevation models, as well as flexibility, low cost and accuracy comparable with other available techniques.

  5. UAVS TO ASSESS THE EVOLUTION OF EMBRYO DUNES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Taddia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The balance of a coastal environment is particularly complex: the continuous formation of dunes, their destruction as a result of violent storms, the growth of vegetation and the consequent growth of the dunes themselves are phenomena that significantly affect this balance. This work presents an approach to the long-term monitoring of a complex dune system by means of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs. Four different surveys were carried out between November 2015 and November 2016. Aerial photogrammetric data were acquired during flights by a DJI Phantom 2 and a DJI Phantom 3 with cameras in a nadiral arrangement. GNSS receivers in Network Real Time Kinematic (NRTK mode were used to frame models in the European Terrestrial Reference System. Processing of the captured images consisted in reconstruction of a three-dimensional model using the principles of Structure from Motion (SfM. Particular care was necessary due to the vegetation: filtering of the dense cloud, mainly based on slope detection, was performed to minimize this issue. Final products of the SfM approach were represented by Digital Elevation Models (DEMs of the sandy coastal environment. Each model was validated by comparison through specially surveyed points. Other analyses were also performed, such as cross sections and computing elevation variations over time. The use of digital photogrammetry by UAVs is particularly reliable: fast acquisition of the images, reconstruction of high-density point clouds, high resolution of final elevation models, as well as flexibility, low cost and accuracy comparable with other available techniques.

  6. Can nonstandard interactions jeopardize the hierarchy sensitivity of DUNE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepthi, K. N.; Goswami, Srubabati; Nath, Newton

    2017-10-01

    We study the effect of nonstandard interactions (NSIs) on the propagation of neutrinos through the Earth's matter and how it affects the hierarchy sensitivity of the DUNE experiment. We emphasize the special case when the diagonal NSI parameter ɛe e=-1 , nullifying the standard matter effect. We show that if, in addition, C P violation is maximal then this gives rise to an exact intrinsic hierarchy degeneracy in the appearance channel, irrespective of the baseline and energy. Introduction of the off diagonal NSI parameter, ɛe τ, shifts the position of this degeneracy to a different ɛe e. Moreover the unknown magnitude and phases of the off diagonal NSI parameters can give rise to additional degeneracies. Overall, given the current model independent limits on NSI parameters, the hierarchy sensitivity of DUNE can get seriously impacted. However, a more precise knowledge of the NSI parameters, especially ɛe e, can give rise to an improved sensitivity. Alternatively, if a NSI exists in nature, and still DUNE shows hierarchy sensitivity, certain ranges of the NSI parameters can be excluded. Additionally, we briefly discuss the implications of ɛe e=-1 (in the Earth) on the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect in the Sun.

  7. Possibility of star (pyramid) dune development in the area of bimodal wind regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biejat, K.

    2012-04-01

    Star (pyramid) dunes are the largest aeolian landforms. They can occur in three types - simple, complex and compound. Development of this type of dunes is usually connected with multidirectional or complex wind regimes. The aim of this study was to verify a hypothesis that the star dunes can also develop by a bimodal wind regime and by local modifications of nearsurface wind flow directions. Field study was performed on Erg Chebbi, in southern Morocco. Several star and transverse dunes were selected for the study of their shape. The star dunes were analysed concerning their type and position in the dune field. This erg contains all of three types of star dunes together with transverse dunes. The regional wind data show that there are two dominant wind directions - NE (Chergui) and SW (Saheli). To determine the difference in shape of star dunes, we performed topographic surveying by GPS RTK. The results allowed to create 3D models of star dunes. The models were used to determine metric characteristics of star dunes, including area of dune basis, volume, and slope angles. On the basis of 3D models, primary, secondary and, on the compound dunes, tertiary arms were determined. Primary arms on each type of star dunes, as well as crestlines of transverse dunes, have dominant orientation NW-SE, perpendicular to two dominant wind directions. This clearly confirms that star dunes of Erg Chebbi develop by a bimodal wind regime In contrast to primary arms, subsidiary (secondary and tertiary) arms are not connected to general wind regime. The secondary arms of star dunes occur to be differentially developer. There are more subsidiary arms on SW sides in comparison to the E sides of the dunes where inclination of slopes is constant. It can be therefore inferred that sand has been supplied predominantly from SW direction. This is supported by distribution of the dunes on the erg. Most compound star dunes compose a chain along the E margin of the erg. Comparison of compound star

  8. Flood-inundation maps for the Wabash River at Memorial Bridge at Vincennes, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathleen K.; Menke, Chad D.

    2017-08-23

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 10.2-mile reach of the Wabash River from Sevenmile Island to 3.7 mile downstream of Memorial Bridge (officially known as Lincoln Memorial Bridge) at Vincennes, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at USGS streamgage 03343010, Wabash River at Memorial Bridge at Vincennes, Ind. Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site.For this study, flood profiles were computed for the Wabash River reach by means of a one-dimensional stepbackwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relations at USGS streamgage 03343010, Wabash River at Memorial Bridge at Vincennes, Ind., and preliminary high-water marks from a high-water event on April 27, 2013. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to determine 19 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 10 feet (ft) or near bankfull to 28 ft, the highest stage of the current stage-discharge rating curve. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a Geographic Information System (GIS) digital elevation model (DEM, derived from Light Detection and Ranging [lidar] data having a 0.98-ft vertical accuracy and 4.9-ft horizontal resolution) in order to delineate the area flooded at each water level.The availability of these maps—along with Internet information

  9. Flood-inundation maps for the White River at Noblesville, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Zachary W.

    2017-11-02

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 7.5-mile reach of the White River at Noblesville, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science website at https://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the White River at Noblesville, Ind., streamgage (USGS station number 03349000). Real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at https://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at the same site as the USGS streamgage (NWS site NBLI3).Flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional, step-backwater hydraulic modeling software developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated using the current (2016) stage-discharge rating at the USGS streamgage 03349000, White River at Noblesville, Ind., and documented high-water marks from the floods of September 4, 2003, and May 6, 2017. The hydraulic model was then used to compute 15 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum ranging from 10.0 ft (the NWS “action stage”) to 24.0 ft, which is the highest stage interval of the current (2016) USGS stage-discharge rating curve and 2 ft higher than the NWS “major flood stage.” The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging data having a 0.98-ft vertical accuracy and 4.9-ft horizontal resolution) to delineate the area flooded at each stage.The availability of these maps, along with internet

  10. Flood-inundation maps for the Patoka River in and near Jasper, southwestern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2018-01-23

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 9.5-mile reach of the Patoka River in and near the city of Jasper, southwestern Indiana (Ind.), from the streamgage near County Road North 175 East, downstream to State Road 162, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science web site at https://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage Patoka River at Jasper, Ind. (station number 03375500). The Patoka streamgage is located at the upstream end of the 9.5-mile river reach. Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at https://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, although flood forecasts and stages for action and minor, moderate, and major flood stages are not currently (2017) available at this site (JPRI3).Flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation at the Patoka River at Jasper, Ind., streamgage and the documented high-water marks from the flood of April 30, 2017. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to compute five water-surface profiles for flood stages referenced to the streamgage datum ranging from 15 feet (ft), or near bankfull, to 19 ft. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging [lidar] data having a 0.98 ft vertical accuracy and 4.9 ft horizontal resolution) to delineate the area flooded at each water level.The availability of these flood-inundation maps, along with real

  11. Flood-inundation maps for the Wabash River at Terre Haute, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.3-mi reach of the Wabash River from 0.1 mi downstream of the Interstate 70 bridge to 1.1 miles upstream of the Route 63 bridge, Terre Haute, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to select water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage Wabash River at Terre Haute (station number 03341500). Current conditions at the USGS streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/in/nwis/uv/?site_no=03341500&agency_cd=USGS&p"). In addition, the same data are provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps//). Within this system, the NWS forecasts flood hydrographs for the Wabash River at Terre Haute that may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relation at the Wabash River at the Terre Haute streamgage. The hydraulic model was then used to compute 22 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-ft interval referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bank-full to approximately the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data having a 0.37-ft vertical accuracy and a 1.02-ft horizontal accuracy) to delineate the area flooded at each water

  12. Flood-inundation maps for the Flatrock River at Columbus, Indiana, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5-mile reach of the Flatrock River on the western side of Columbus, Indiana, from County Road 400N to the river mouth at the confluence with Driftwood River, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ and the Federal Flood Inundation Mapper Web site at http://wim.usgs.gov/FIMI/FloodInundationMapper.html, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the Flatrock River at Columbus (station number 03363900). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service, which also presents the USGS data, at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/. Flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation at the Flatrock River streamgage, high-water marks that were surveyed following the flood of June 7, 2008, and water-surface profiles from the current flood-insurance study for the City of Columbus. The hydraulic model was then used to compute 12 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 9 ft or near bankfull to 20 ft, which exceeds the stages that correspond to both the estimated 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability flood (500-year recurrence interval flood) and the maximum recorded peak flow. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a Geographic Information System digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data having a 0.37 ft

  13. Flood-inundation maps for the St. Marys River at Fort Wayne, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Chad D.; Kim, Moon H.; Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 9-mile reach of the St. Marys River that extends from South Anthony Boulevard to Main Street at Fort Wayne, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Fort Wayne. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site, depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage 04182000 St. Marys River near Fort Wayne, Ind. Current conditions at the USGS streamgages in Indiana may be obtained from the National Water Information System: Web Interface. In addition, the information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system. The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often collocated at USGS streamgages. That forecasted peak-stage information, also available on the Internet, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, water-surface profiles were simulated for the stream reach by means of a hydraulic one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relation at the USGS streamgage 04182000 St. Marys River near Fort Wayne, Ind. The hydraulic model was then used to simulate 11 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-ft intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to approximately the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data) in order to delineate the area flooded at each water level. A flood inundation map was generated for each water-surface profile stage (11 maps in all) so that for any given flood stage users will be

  14. Flood-inundation maps for North Fork Salt Creek at Nashville, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Zachary W.

    2017-11-13

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 3.2-mile reach of North Fork Salt Creek at Nashville, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science website at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding that correspond to selected water levels (stages) at the North Fork Salt Creek at Nashville, Ind., streamgage (USGS station number 03371650). Real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also shows observed USGS stages at the same site as the USGS streamgage (NWS site NFSI3).Flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional, step-backwater hydraulic modeling software developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated using the current (2015) stage-discharge rating at the USGS streamgage 03371650, North Fork Salt Creek at Nashville, Ind. The hydraulic model was then used to compute 12 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals, except for the highest profile of 22.9 ft, referenced to the streamgage datum ranging from 12.0 ft (the NWS “action stage”) to 22.9 ft, which is the highest stage of the current (2015) USGS stage-discharge rating curve and 1.9 ft higher than the NWS “major flood stage.” The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging data having a 0.98-ft vertical accuracy and 4.9-ft horizontal resolution) to delineate the area flooded at each stage.The availability of these maps, along with information regarding current stage from the USGS

  15. Variations in Withdrawal, Return Flow, and Consumptive Use of Water in Ohio and Indiana, with Selected Data from Wisconsin, 1999-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Kimberly H.

    2009-01-01

    , colleges, correctional institutions, and national security facilities. Monthly livestock withdrawals were constant for Ohio but were more variable in Indiana and depended on whether the livestock facility operated on a seasonal schedule. Aquaculture withdrawals appeared to correlate with growing seasons and with aeration of ponds during the winter months. Mining withdrawals - specifically, those for nonmetallic mining - tended to be highest in April and may be related to dewatering. Consumptive use and consumptive-use coefficients were computed by two principal methods in this study: the return-flow and withdrawal method (RW; Ohio only) and the winter-base-rate method (WBR; Ohio, Indiana and Wisconsin). The WBR method was not suitable for the thermoelectric, industrial, irrigation, livestock, aquaculture, and mining water-use categories. The RW method was not used for public-supply facilities. A third method, the Standard Industrial Classification code method (SIC), was used only for certain industrial facilities. The public-supply annual average consumptive-use coefficient derived by use of the WBR methods ranged from 6 to 8 percent among Ohio, Indiana, and Wisconsin; the summer average consumptive-use coefficient was considerably higher, ranging from 16 to 20 percent. The commercial annual consumptive-use coefficient for both Ohio and Indiana was 30 percent by the WBR method, which fell within the Ohio annual median (17 percent) and annual average (42 percent) by the RW method. Thermoelectric consumptive use differs greatly by the type of cooling the facility uses; the Ohio annual median consumptive-use coefficient (RW method) was 2 percent for all thermoelectric facilities and facilities with multiple types of cooling, but exclusively once-through-cooling facilities had a median of 0 percent and exclusively closed-loop-cooling facilities had a median of 25 percent. Industrial consumptive-use coefficients varied by type of industry, as reflected by SIC code

  16. The Sources of Moisture in the Sand Dunes – The Example of the Western Sahara Dune Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żmudzka Elwira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climatic and meteorological conditions may limit the aeolian transport within barchans. An explanation of that issue was the main goal of the investigation held in Western Sahara dune fields located around Tarfaya and Laâyoune. Particular attention was paid to the factors causing the moisture content rising of the sand dune surface layer, which could influence the wind threshold shear velocity in the aeolian transport. The wetted surface layer of sand, when receiving moisture from precipitation or suspensions, reduces the aeolian transport, even in case of wind velocity above 4-5 m s-1. Fog and dew condensation does not affect the moisture of deeper sand layers, what occurs after rainfall.

  17. Indiana State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitter, E.L.; Hume, R.D.; Briggs, H.R.; Feigenbaum, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Indiana State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Indiana. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Indiana. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Indiana

  18. 78 FR 29657 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Definition of Vanderburgh County, Indiana, to a Nonappropriated Fund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ...-AM82 Prevailing Rate Systems; Definition of Vanderburgh County, Indiana, to a Nonappropriated Fund... County, IN; and Jefferson and Pulaski Counties, MO. The Federal Prevailing Rate Advisory Committee, the... as follows: [[Page 29658

  19. New Chicago-Indiana computer network will handle dataflow from world's largest scientific experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Massive quantities of data will soon begin flowing from the largest scientific instrument ever built into an international netword of computer centers, including one operated jointly by the University of Chicago and Indiana University." (1,5 page)

  20. 75 FR 50730 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Transportation Conformity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Transportation Conformity Consultation Requirement... consists of transportation conformity criteria and procedures related to interagency consultation and... meet a requirement of the Clean Air Act and Transportation Conformity regulations. DATES: Comments must...

  1. Radiological Final Status Survey of the Hammond Depot, Hammond, Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitkus, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    ORISE conducted extensive scoping, characterization, and final status surveys of land areas and structures at the DNSC's Hammond Depot located in Hammond, Indiana in multiple phases during 2005, 2006 and 2007. This report provides a detailed discussion of the radiological survey planning, survey implementation, remediation, and the results for these activities supporting the conclusion that radioactive contamination previously identified at the Hammond Depot (HD) has been reduced to levels such that the site may be released without radiological restrictions. The objective of the radiological final status survey (FSS) was to obtain the data necessary to demonstrate compliance with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-approved site-specific derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) for both structural surfaces and outdoor areas (ORISE 2006a and NRC 2007). The DCGLs were modeled such that any residual licensed material would not exceed the NRC's basic dose limit for license termination of 25 millirem per year (mrem/y)

  2. Paleozoic stratigraphy of two areas in southwestern Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droste, J.B.

    1976-09-01

    Two areas recommended for evaluation as solid waste disposal sites lie along the strike of Paleozoic rocks in southwestern Indiana. Thin Pennsylvanian rocks and rocks of the upper Mississippian are at the bedrock surface in maturely dissected uplands in both areas. The gross subsurface stratigraphy beneath both areas is the same, but facies and thickness variation in some of the subsurface Paleozoic units provide for some minor differences between the areas. Thick middle Mississippi carbonates grade downward into clastics of lower Mississippian (Borden Group) and upper Devonian (New Albany Shale) rocks. Middle Devonian and Silurian rocks are dominated by carbonate lithologies. Upper Ordovician (Maquoketa Group) overly carbonates of middle Ordovician age. Thick siltstone and shale of the Borden Group-New Albany Shale zone and Maquoketa Group rocks should be suitable for repository development

  3. Source-to-Sink: An Earth/Mars Comparison of Boundary Conditions for Eolian Dune Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kocurek, Gary; Ewing, Ryan C.

    2012-01-01

    Eolian dune fields on Earth and Mars evolve as complex systems within a set of boundary conditions. A source-to-sink comparison indicates that although differences exist in sediment production and transport, the systems largely converge at the dune-flow and pattern-development levels, but again differ in modes of accumulation and preservation. On Earth, where winds frequently exceed threshold speeds, dune fields are sourced primarily through deflation of subaqueous deposits as these sediments...

  4. Measurements of Dune Parameters on Titan Suggest Differences in Sand Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Brigitte W.; Radebaugh, Jani

    2014-11-01

    The equatorial region of Saturn’s moon Titan has five large sand seas with dunes similar to large linear dunes on Earth. Cassini Radar SAR swaths have high enough resolution (300 m) to measure dune parameters such as width and spacing, which helps inform us about formation conditions and long-term evolution of the sand dunes. Previous measurements in locations scattered across Titan have revealed an average width of 1.3 km and spacing of 2.7 km, with variations by location. We have taken over 1200 new measurements of dune width and spacing in the T8 swath, a region on the leading hemisphere of Titan in the Belet Sand Sea, between -5 and -9 degrees latitude. We have also taken over 500 measurements in the T44 swath, located on the anti-Saturn hemisphere in the Shangri-La Sand Sea, between 0 and 20 degrees latitude. We correlated each group of 50 measurements with the average distance from the edge of the dune field to obtain an estimate of how position within a dune field affects dune parameters. We found that in general, the width and spacing of dunes decreases with distance from the edge of the dune field, consistent with similar measurements in sand seas on Earth. We suggest that this correlation is due to the lesser availability of sand at the edges of dune fields. These measurements and correlations could be helpful in determining differences in sand availability across different dune fields, and along the entire equatorial region of Titan.

  5. Erosion of Coastal Foredunes: A Review on the Effect of Dune Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    inhabited by vegetation (Figure 2).The collision regime occurs when the total storm water level exceeds the elevation of the dune toe but is lower than the...of Dune Vegetation by Duncan B. Bryant, Mary A. Bryant, and Alison S. Grzegorzewski PURPOSE: The purpose of this Coastal and Hydraulics...Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) is to identify the potential roles of vegetation in mitigating coastal dune erosion during storm events by presenting a

  6. Mineralogy and Genesis of Heavy Minerals in Coastal Dune Sands, South Eastern Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir, Sobhi J. [صبحي جابر نصر; El-Kassas, Ibrahim A.; Sadiq, A. Ali M.

    1999-01-01

    Large amounts of aeolian sand occur in the southeastern coastal zone of Qatar Peninsula as sand dunes accumulated in a vast sand field locally called " Niqyan Qatar ". The present work, carried out on a sand dune belt of this field near Mesaied Industrial City, revealed the distribution of heavy minerals shows a regional variability induced by provenance and local variability reflecting genetic differences. The studied dune sands are rich in shells of pelecypods, with the light mineral assemb...

  7. Control parameters of the martian dune field positions at planetary scale: tests by the MCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    allemand, pascal

    2016-04-01

    The surface of Mars is occupied by more than 500 dunes fields mainly located inside impact craters of the south hemisphere and near the north polar cap. The questions of the activity of martian dunes and of the localization of the martian dune fields are not completely solved. It has been demonstrated recently by image observation and image correlation that some of these dune fields are clearly active. The sand flux of one of them has been even estimated. But there is no global view of the degree of activity of each the dune fields. (2)The topography of impact craters in which dune fields are localized is an important factor of their position. But there is no consensus of the effect of global atmospheric circulation on dune field localization. These two questions are addressed using the results of Mars Climate Database 5.2 (MCD) (Millour, 2015; Forget et al., 1999). The wind fields of the MCD have been first validated against the observations made on active dune fields. Using a classical transport law, the Drift Potential (DP) and the Relative Drift Potential (RDP) have been computed for each dune fields. A good correlation exists between the position of dune fields and specific values of these two parameters. The activity of each dune field is estimated from these parameters and tested on some examples by image observations. Finally a map of sand flow has been computed at the scale of the planet. This map shows that sand and dust is trapped in specific regions. These regions correspond to the area of dune field concentration.

  8. Editorial - Special Issue on the Ninth International Conference on Aeolian Research - ICAR IX (Coastal Dune Processes and Aeolian Transport)

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Graziela Miot

    2018-04-01

    This special issue combines some of the papers related to coastal dune processes and aeolian sediment transport that were presented at the Ninth International Conference on Aeolian Research - ICAR IX. The conference was held between 4 and 8 of July 2016 in Mildura, Australia, organized by the International Society for Aeolian Research (ISAR) and convened by Adrian Chappell (Cardiff University), Craig Strong (Australian National University), Stephen Cattle (University of Sydney), Patrick Hesp (Flinders University), John Leys (New South Wales Office of Environment and Heritage), Lynda Petherick (University of Wellington) and Nick Webb (USDA-ARS Jornada Experimental Range).

  9. Economic and policy analysis for solar PV systems in Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jinho; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the energy market in the US and globally is expanding the production of renewable energy. Solar energy for electricity is also expanding in the US. Indiana is one of the states expanding solar energy with solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Therefore, we conduct benefit cost analysis with several uncertain input variables to determine the economics of adopting solar PV systems in Indiana based on policy instruments that could increase adoption of solar PV systems. The specific objectives are analyses of the cost distribution of solar PV systems compared with grid electricity in homes and estimating the probability that solar can be cheaper than electricity from grids under different policy combinations. We first do the analysis under current policy and then the analysis under potential policy options for a variety of scenarios. Also, the results inform government policy makers on how effective the alternative policies for encouraging solar PV systems are. The results show that current policies are important in reducing the cost of solar PV systems. However, with current policies, there is only 50–50 chance of solar being cheaper than electricity from grids. If potential policies are implemented, solar PV systems can be more economical than grid electricity. - Highlights: • We investigate the economics of solar PV systems based on policy instruments. • We do scenario analyses under different combinations of policies. • We examine the probability of solar being cheaper than grid electricity for each scenario. • With current policies, there is 50–50 chance of solar being cheaper than the grid. • With depreciation and carbon tax, solar is much more economical than the grid

  10. The remarkable endemism of moths at White Sands National Monument in New Mexico, USA, with special emphasis on Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H. Metzler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The white sands formation, a snow-white gypsum dunes system, is the world's largest gypsum dune field. White Sands National Monument protects about 40% of the dunes; the dunes formation as it is known today was formed ca. 8,000 years BP. Prior to 8,000 years BP, the area covered by the dunes was a wet cool forest of the last glacial maximum in North America. The dunes were formed as a result of the hypsithermal, a warming and drying period which followed the most recent glacial maximum. The white sands formation is located in south central New Mexico in the Tularosa Basin of southwestern United States. A 10-year study of moths at the dunes was commissioned by the U. S. National Park Service in 2006. Almost immediately species new to science were detected. In the period of 6 years, 30 new species were discovered in the dunes. Several of the new species are white or very pale in color, and are endemic to the dunes. The focus of the 10 year project was modified to emphasize naming the undescribed species which helps the National Park Service catalog and manage the habitats. The data should encourage other researchers to explore the interactions of the animals with the plants and the harsh desert environment, to study DNA and evolution, and to study the rapid adaptation which seems to be occurring.

  11. Mineralogy of an active eolian sediment from the Namib dune, Gale crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, C. N.; Downs, R. T.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; Morris, R. V.; Treiman, A. H.; Morrison, S. M.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Ewing, R. C.; Chipera, S. J.; Yen, A. S.; Bristow, T. F.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Gellert, R.; Hazen, R. M.; Fendrich, K. V.; Craig, P. I.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Des Marais, D. J.; Farmer, J. D.; Sarrazin, P. C.; Morookian, J. M.

    2017-11-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, is using a comprehensive scientific payload to explore rocks and soils in Gale crater, Mars. Recent investigations of the Bagnold Dune Field provided the first in situ assessment of an active dune on Mars. The Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) X-ray diffraction instrument on Curiosity performed quantitative mineralogical analyses of the history of the dune material and offers an important opportunity for ground truth of orbital observations. CheMin's analysis of the mineralogy and phase chemistry of modern and ancient Gale crater dune fields, together with other measurements by Curiosity's science payload, provides new insights into present and past eolian processes on Mars.

  12. Flood-inundation maps for the Wabash River at Lafayette, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon H.

    2018-05-10

    Digital flood-inundation maps for an approximately 4.8-mile reach of the Wabash River at Lafayette, Indiana (Ind.) were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science web site at https://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at USGS streamgage 03335500, Wabash River at Lafayette, Ind. Current streamflow conditions for estimating near-real-time areas of inundation using USGS streamgage information may be obtained on the internet at https://waterdata.usgs.gov/in/nwis/uv?site_no=03335500. In addition, information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood-warning system (https://water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS AHPS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often colocated with USGS streamgages, including the Wabash River at Lafayette, Ind. NWS AHPS-forecast peak-stage information may be used with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation.For this study, flood profiles were computed for the Wabash River reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relations at USGS streamgage 03335500, Wabash River at Lafayette, Ind., and high-water marks from the flood of July 2003 (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [USACE], 2007). The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to determine 23 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to the highest stage of the current stage-discharge rating curve. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model derived

  13. Flood-inundation maps for the East Fork White River near Bedford, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2014-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for an 1.8-mile reach of the East Fork White River near Bedford, Indiana (Ind.) were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selectedwater levels (stages) at USGS streamgage 03371500, East Fork White River near Bedford, Ind. Current conditions for estimating near-real-time areas of inundation using USGS streamgage information may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/in/nwis/uv?site_no=03371500. In addition, information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often colocated with USGS streamgages, including the East Fork White River near Bedford, Ind. NWS-forecasted peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. For this study, flood profiles were computed for the East Fork White River reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relations at USGS streamgage 03371500, East Fork White River near Bedford, Ind., and documented high-water marks from the flood of June 2008. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to determine 20 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to the highest stage of the current stage-discharge rating curve. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system (GIS) digital elevation model (DEM, derived from

  14. Health-hazard evaluation report GHETA 83-309-1405, Chrysler Corporation Foundry, Indianapolis, Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, A.

    1984-01-01

    In response to a request arising out of employee concerns over the medical surveillance program at the Chrysler Corporation Foundry located in Indianapolis, Indiana, an evaluation was made of chest radiographs evaluated by the program with specific concern directed to disagreement on the radiographic diagnosis of pneumoconiosis. The request was made by the Chrysler Corporation and the United Auto Workers National Joint Committee on Health and Safety. Three NIOSH certified B-readers independently interpreted a set of 78 systematically sampled posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs from the system files. These interpretations were compared among themselves and with company interpretations. While none of the radiographs was deemed unreadable, 35% were classified as having poor technical quality. Only one film was found which had a profusion of small opacities, and the company had interpreted the film as positive. Overall, agreement on proportion of positive readings and agreement on individual films was as good between the company and B-readers as it was between any two of the individual B-readers. The author recommends, however, that in order to avoid future complaints of the nature, the company should use standard radiographic equipment and techniques, NIOSH certified B-readers, and current international classifications of radiographs for pneumoconioses in their medical surveillance program

  15. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Indiana. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  16. Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) and Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE): Conceptual Design Report. Volume 1: The LBNF and DUNE Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciarri, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); et al.

    2016-01-22

    This document presents the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) put forward by an international neutrino community to pursue the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment at the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF/DUNE), a groundbreaking science experiment for long-baseline neutrino oscillation studies and for neutrino astrophysics and nucleon decay searches. The DUNE far detector will be a very large modular liquid argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC) located deep underground, coupled to the LBNF multi-megawatt wide-band neutrino beam. DUNE will also have a high-resolution and high-precision near detector.

  17. Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) and Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) Conceptual Design Report Volume 1: The LBNF and DUNE Projects

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, R.; Adamowski, M.; Adams, C.; Adamson, P.; Adhikari, S.; Ahmad, Z.; Albright, C.H.; Alion, T.; Amador, E.; Anderson, J.; Anderson, K.; Andreopoulos, C.; Andrews, M.; Andrews, R.; Anghel, I.; Anjos, J. d.; Ankowski, A.; Antonello, M.; Aranda Fernandez, A.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Aristizabal, D.; Arrieta-Diaz, E.; Aryal, K.; Asaadi, J.; Asner, D.; Athar, M.S.; Auger, M.; Aurisano, A.; Aushev, V.; Autiero, D.; Avila, M.; Back, J.J.; Bai, X.; Baibussinov, B.; Baird, M.; Balantekin, B.; Baller, B.; Ballett, P.; Bambah, B.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Barker, G.J.; Barletta, W.A.; Barr, G.; Barros, N.; Bartosz, B.; Bartoszek, L.; Bashyal, A.; Bass, M.; Bay, F.; Beacom, J.; Behera, B.R.; Bellettini, G.; Bellini, V.; Beltramello, O.; Benekos, N.; Benetti, P.A.; Bercellie, A.; Bergevin, M.; Berman, E.; Berns, H.; Bernstein, R.; Bertolucci, S.; Bhandari, B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Bian, J.; Biery, K.; Bishai, M.; Blackburn, T.; Blake, A.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Blaufuss, E.; Bleakley, B.; Blucher, E.; Bocean, V.; Boffelli, F.; Boissevain, J.; Bolognesi, S.; Bolton, T.; Bonesini, M.; Boone, T.; Booth, C.; Bordoni, S.; Borysova, M.; Bourguille, B.; Boyd, S.B.; Brailsford, D.; Brandt, A.; Bremer, J.; Brice, S.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brown, G.; Brown, R.; Brunetti, G.; Bu, X.; Buchanan, N.; Budd, H.; Bugg, B.; Calafiura, P.; Calligarich, E.; Calvo, E.; Camilleri, L.; Campanelli, M.; Cantini, C.; Carls, B.; Carr, R.; Cascella, M.; Castromonte, C.; Mur, E.Catano; Cavanna, F.; Centro, S.; Cervera Villanueva, A.; Chalifour, M.; Chandratre, V.B.; Chatterjee, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chaussard, L.; Chembra, S.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, M.; Cherdack, D.; Chi, C.; Childress, S.; Choubey, S.; Choudhary, B.C.; Christodoulou, G.; Christofferson, C.; Church, E.; Cianci, D.; Cline, D.; Coan, T.; Cocco, A.; Coelho, J.; Cole, P.; Collin, G.; Conrad, J.M.; Convery, M.; Corey, R.; Corwin, L.; Cranshaw, J.; Crivelli, P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Curioni, A.; Cushing, J.; Adams, D.L.; Dale, D.; Das, S.R.; Davenne, T.; Davies, G.S.; Davies, J.; Dawson, J.; De, K.; de Gouvea, A.; de Jong, J.K.; de Jong, P.; De Lurgio, P.; Decowski, M.; Delbart, A.; Densham, C.; Dharmapalan, R.; Dhingra, N.; Di Luise, S.; Diamantopoulou, M.; Diaz, J.S.; Diaz Bautista, G.; Diwan, M.; Djurcic, Z.; Dolph, J.; Drake, G.; Duchesneau, D.; Duvernois, M.; Duyang, H.; Dwyer, D.A.; Dye, S.; Dytman, S.; Eberly, B.; Edgecock, R.; Edmunds, D.; Elliott, S.; Elnimr, M.; Emery, S.; Endress, E.; Eno, S.; Ereditato, A.; Escobar, C.O.; Evans, J.; Falcone, A.; Falk, L.; Farbin, A.; Farnese, C.; Farzan, Y.; Fava, A.; Favilli, L.; Felde, J.; Felix, J.; Fernandes, S.; Fields, L.; Finch, A.; Fitton, M.; Fleming, B.; Forest, T.; Fowler, J.; Fox, W.; Fried, J.; Friedland, A.; Fuess, S.; Fujikawa, B.; Gago, A.; Gallagher, H.; Galymov, S.; Gamble, T.; Gandhi, R.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Gardiner, S.; Garvey, G.; Gehman, V.M.; Gendotti, A.; Geronimo, G. d.; Ghag, C.; Ghoshal, P.; Gibin, D.; Gil-Botella, I.; Gill, R.; Girardelli, D.; Giri, A.; Glavin, S.; Goeldi, D.; Golapinni, S.; Gold, M.; Gomes, R.A.; Gomez Cadenas, J.J.; Goodman, M.C.; Gorbunov, D.; Goswami, S.; Graf, N.; Graf, N.; Graham, M.; Gramelini, E.; Gran, R.; Grant, C.; Grant, N.; Greco, V.; Greenlee, H.; Greenler, L.; Greenley, C.; Groh, M.; Grullon, S.; Grundy, T.; Grzelak, K.; Guardincerri, E.; Guarino, V.; Guarnaccia, E.; Guedes, G.P.; Guenette, R.; Guglielmi, A.; Habig, A.T.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Hackenburg, A.; Hadavand, H.; Haenni, R.; Hahn, A.; Haigh, M.D.; Haines, T.; Hamernik, T.; Handler, T.; Hans, S.; Harris, D.; Hartnell, J.; Hasegawa, T.; Hatcher, R.; Hatzikoutelis, A.; Hays, S.; Hazen, E.; Headley, M.; Heavey, A.; Heeger, K.; Heise, J.; Hennessy, K.; Hewes, J.; Higuera, A.; Hill, T.; Himmel, A.; Hogan, M.; Holanda, P.; Holin, A.; Honey, W.; Horikawa, S.; Horton-Smith, G.; Howard, B.; Howell, J.; Hurh, P.; Huston, J.; Hylen, J.; Imlay, R.; Insler, J.; Introzzi, G.; Ioanisyan, D.; Ioannisian, A.; Iwamoto, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jackson, C.; Jaffe, D.E.; James, C.; James, E.; Jediny, F.; Jen, C.; Jhingan, A.; Jimenez, S.; Jo, J.H.; Johnson, M.; Johnson, R.; Johnstone, J.; Jones, B.J.; Joshi, J.; Jostlein, H.; Jung, C.K.; Junk, T.; Kaboth, A.; Kadel, R.; Kafka, T.; Kalousis, L.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Karagiorgi, G.; Karasavvas, D.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, P.; Kayser, B.; Kazaryan, N.; Kearns, E.; Keener, P.; Kemboi, S.; Kemp, E.; Kettell, S.H.; Khabibullin, M.; Khandaker, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kirby, B.; Kirby, M.; Klein, J.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kohn, S.; Koizumi, G.; Kopylov, A.; Kordosky, M.; Kormos, L.; Kose, U.; Kostelecky, A.; Kramer, M.; Kreslo, I.; Kriske, R.; Kropp, W.; Kudenko, Y.; Kudryavtsev, V.A.; Kulagin, S.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, G.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kutter, T.; Laminack, A.; Lande, K.; Lane, C.; Lang, K.; Lanni, F.; Learned, J.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, D.; Lee, H.; Lee, K.; Lee, W.M.; Leigui de Oliveira, M.A.; Li, Q.; Li, S.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z.; Libo, J.; Lin, C.S.; Lin, S.; Ling, J.; Link, J.; Liptak, Z.; Lissauer, D.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Lockyer, N.; Loew, T.; Lokajicek, M.; Long, K.; Lopes, M.D.L.; Lopez, J.P.; Losecco, J.; Louis, W.; Lowery, J.; Luethi, M.; Luk, K.; Lundberg, B.; Lundin, T.; Luo, X.; Lux, T.; Lykken, J.; Machado, A.A.; Macier, J.R.; Magill, S.; Mahler, G.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Malhotra, S.; Malon, D.; Mammoliti, F.; Mancina, S.; Mandal, S.K.; Mandodi, S.; Manly, S.L.; Mann, A.; Marchionni, A.; Marciano, W.; Mariani, C.; Maricic, J.; Marino, A.; Marshak, M.; Marshall, C.; Marshall, J.; Marteau, J.; Martin-Albo, J.; Martinez, D.; Matsuno, S.; Matthews, J.; Mauger, C.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Mayilyan, D.; Mazzucato, E.; McCauley, N.; McCluskey, E.; McConkey, N.; McDonald, K.; McFarland, K.S.; McGowan, A.M.; McGrew, C.; McKeown, R.; McNulty, D.; McTaggart, R.; Mefodiev, A.; Mehrian, M.; Mehta, P.; Mei, D.; Mena, O.; Menary, S.; Mendez, H.; Menegolli, A.; Meng, G.; Meng, Y.; Mertins, D.; Merritt, H.; Messier, M.; Metcalf, W.; Mewes, M.; Meyer, H.; Miao, T.; Milincic, R.; Miller, W.; Mills, G.; Mineev, O.; Miranda, O.; Mishra, C.S.; Mishra, S.R.; Mitrica, B.; Mladenov, D.; Mocioiu, I.; Mohanta, R.; Mokhov, N.; Montanari, C.; Montanari, D.; Moon, J.; Mooney, M.; Moore, C.; Morfin, J.; Morgan, B.; Morris, C.; Morse, W.; Moss, Z.; Mossey, C.; Moura, C.A.; Mousseau, J.; Mualem, L.; Muether, M.; Mufson, S.; Murphy, S.; Musser, J.; Musser, R.; Nakajima, Y.; Naples, D.; Napolitano, J.; Navarro, J.; Navas, D.; Nelson, J.; Nessi, M.; Newcomer, M.; Ng, Y.; Nichol, R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Nikolics, K.; Niner, E.; Norris, B.; Noto, F.; Novakova, P.; Novella, P.; Nowak, J.; Nunes, M.S.; O'Keeffe, H.; Oldeman, R.; Oliveira, R.; Olson, T.; Onishchuk, Y.; Osta, J.; Ovsjannikova, T.; Page, B.; Pakvasa, S.; Pal, S.; Palamara, O.; Palazzo, A.; Paley, J.; Palomares, C.; Pantic, E.; Paolone, V.; Papadimitriou, V.; Park, J.; Parke, S.; Parsa, Z.; Pascoli, S.; Patterson, R.; Patton, S.; Patzak, T.; Paulos, B.; Paulucci, L.; Pavlovic, Z.; Pawloski, G.; Peeters, S.; Pennacchio, E.; Perch, A.; Perdue, G.N.; Periale, L.; Perkin, J.D.; Pessard, H.; Petrillo, G.; Petti, R.; Petukhov, A.; Pietropaolo, F.; Plunkett, R.; Pordes, S.; Potekhin, M.; Potenza, R.; Potukuchi, B.; Poudyal, N.; Prokofiev, O.; Pruthi, N.; Przewlocki, P.; Pushka, D.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J.L.; Raboanary, R.; Radeka, V.; Radovic, A.; Raffelt, G.; Rakhno, I.; Rakotondramanana, H.T.; Rakotondravohitra, L.; Ramachers, Y.A.; Rameika, R.; Ramsey, J.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G.; Ratoff, P.; Rebel, B.; Regenfus, C.; Reichenbacher, J.; Reitzner, D.; Remoto, A.; Renshaw, A.; Rescia, S.; Richardson, M.; Rielage, K.; Riesselmann, K.; Robinson, M.; Rochester, L.; Rodrigues, O.B.; Rodrigues, P.; Roe, B.; Rosen, M.; Roser, R.M.; Ross-Lonergan, M.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, A.; Rubbia, C.; Rucinski, R.; von Rohr, C.Rudolph; Russell, B.; Ruterbories, D.; Saakyan, R.; Sahu, N.; Sala, P.; Samios, N.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez, M.; Sands, B.; Santana, S.; Santorelli, R.; Santucci, G.; Saoulidou, N.; Scaramelli, A.; Schellman, H.; Schlabach, P.; Schmitt, R.; Schmitz, D.; Schneps, J.; Scholberg, K.; Schukraft, A.; Schwehr, J.; Segreto, E.; Seibert, S.; Sepulveda-Quiroz, J.A.; Sergiampietri, F.; Sexton-Kennedy, L.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shaevitz, M.; Shahi, J.; Shahsavarani, S.; Shanahan, P.; Shankar, S.U.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, R.K.; Shaw, T.; Shrock, R.; Shyrma, I.; Simos, N.; Sinev, G.; Singh, I.; Singh, J.; Singh, J.; Singh, V.; Sinnis, G.; Sippach, W.; Smargianaki, D.; Smy, M.; Snider, E.; Snopok, P.; Sobczyk, J.; Sobel, H.; Soderberg, M.; Solomey, N.; Sondheim, W.; Sorel, M.; Sousa, A.; Soustruznik, K.; Spitz, J.; Spooner, N.J.; Stancari, M.; Stancu, I.; Stefan, D.; Steiner, H.M.; Stewart, J.; Stock, J.; Stoica, S.; Stone, J.; Strait, J.; Strait, M.; Strauss, T.; Striganov, S.; Sulej, R.; Sullivan, G.; Sun, Y.; Suter, L.; Sutera, C.M.; Svoboda, R.; Szczerbinska, B.; Szelc, A.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Talaga, R.; Tamsett, M.; Tariq, S.; Tatar, E.; Tayloe, R.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, D.; Terao, K.; Thiesse, M.; Thomas, J.; Thompson, L.F.; Thomson, M.; Thorn, C.; Thorpe, M.; Tian, X.; Tiedt, D.; Timm, S.C.; Tonazzo, A.; Tope, T.; Topkar, A.; Torres, F.R.; Torti, M.; Tortola, M.; Tortorici, F.; Toups, M.; Touramanis, C.; Tripathi, M.; Tropin, I.; Tsai, Y.; Tsang, K.V.; Tsenov, R.; Tufanli, S.; Tull, C.; Turner, J.; Tzanov, M.; Tziaferi, E.; Uchida, Y.; Urheim, J.; Usher, T.; Vagins, M.; Vahle, P.; Valdiviesso, G.A.; Valerio, L.; Vallari, Z.; Valle, J.; Van Berg, R.; Van de Water, R.; Van Gemmeren, P.; Varanini, F.; Varner, G.; Vasseur, G.; Vaziri, K.; Velev, G.; Ventura, S.; Verdugo, A.; Viant, T.; Vieira, T.V.; Vignoli, C.; Vilela, C.; Viren, B.; Vrba, T.; Wachala, T.; Wahl, D.; Wallbank, M.; Walsh, N.; Wang, B.; Wang, H.; Wang, L.; Wang, T.; Warburton, T.K.; Warner, D.; Wascko, M.; Waters, D.; Watson, T.B.; Weber, A.; Weber, M.; Wei, W.; Weinstein, A.; Wells, D.; Wenman, D.; Wetstein, M.; White, A.; Whitehead, L.; Whittington, D.; Wilking, M.; Willhite, J.; Wilson, P.; Wilson, R.J.; Winslow, L.; Wittich, P.; Wojcicki, S.; Wong, H.H.; Wood, K.; Worcester, E.; Worcester, M.; Wu, S.; Xin, T.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yang, S.; Yang, T.; Yarritu, K.; Ye, J.; Yeh, M.; Yershov, N.; Yonehara, K.; Yu, B.; Yu, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zalewska, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zang, L.; Zani, A.; Zani, A.; Zavala, G.; Zeller, G.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C.; Zimmerman, E.D.; Zito, M.; Zwaska, R.

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) put forward by an international neutrino community to pursue the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment at the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF/DUNE), a groundbreaking science experiment for long-baseline neutrino oscillation studies and for neutrino astrophysics and nucleon decay searches. The DUNE far detector will be a very large modular liquid argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC) located deep underground, coupled to the LBNF multi-megawatt wide-band neutrino beam. DUNE will also have a high-resolution and high-precision near detector.

  18. Natural versus Urban dunes along the Emilia-Romagna coast, Northern Adriatic (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbau, Corinne; Simeoni, Umberto

    2014-05-01

    Beach-dune interaction models can be precious tools for land managers and policymakers. However, if the models are inaccurate, land use policies may be designed based on false pretences or assumptions leading to poor land management, long-term erosion and sustainability issues, and increased difficulties in maintaining the dynamic coastal systems. From the literature, it appears that even the most reliable beach-dunes interactions models are not applicable to all coastal systems (Short and Hesp, 1982; Psuty, 1988; Sherman and Bauer, 1993). The study aims to identify the morphological evolution of the Emilia-Romagna coastal dunes according to its natural and "human" characteristics and to classify groups of dunes with similar evolutionary patterns. The coastal area consists essentially of 130 km of low sandy coast, interrupted by vast lagoon areas, harbor jetties and numerous hard coastal defense structures that were built during the first half of the 20th century to protect the Emilia-Romagna coast against erosion. Today about 57% of the littoral is protected by hard defenses, which have modified the morphodynamic characteristics of the beach without inverting the negative coastal evolution's trend. From recent aerial photographs (2011), 62 coastal dunes have been identified and mapped. Furthermore, the dune analysis shows a variability of the "physical characteristics" of coastal-dune systems along the Emilia-Romagna coast. The dune height varies from 1 to 7 meters, the width of the beach and of the active dunes range respectively from 10 to 150 m and from 10 to 65 m. Three main factors may explain the variability of the "physical characteristics": 1- Firstly the frontal dunes may be of different states according to the classification of Hesp (2002) since they correspond to incipient foredunes, well-developed foredunes, blowouts, residual foredunes as well as reactivated relict foredunes, 2- This could also be related to a different orientation of the coastline

  19. Neutrinos, DUNE and the world best bound on CPT invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenboim, G.; Ternes, C. A.; Tórtola, M.

    2018-05-01

    CPT symmetry, the combination of Charge Conjugation, Parity and Time reversal, is a cornerstone of our model building strategy and therefore the repercussions of its potential violation will severely threaten the most extended tool we currently use to describe physics, i.e. local relativistic quantum fields. However, limits on its conservation from the Kaon system look indeed imposing. In this work we will show that neutrino oscillation experiments can improve this limit by several orders of magnitude and therefore are an ideal tool to explore the foundations of our approach to Nature. Strictly speaking testing CPT violation would require an explicit model for how CPT is broken and its effects on physics. Instead, what is presented in this paper is a test of one of the predictions of CPT conservation, i.e., the same mass and mixing parameters in neutrinos and antineutrinos. In order to do that we calculate the current CPT bound on all the neutrino mixing parameters and study the sensitivity of the DUNE experiment to such an observable. After deriving the most updated bound on CPT from neutrino oscillation data, we show that, if the recent T2K results turn out to be the true values of neutrino and antineutrino oscillations, DUNE would measure the fallout of CPT conservation at more than 3σ. Then, we study the sensitivity of the experiment to measure CPT invariance in general, finding that DUNE will be able to improve the current bounds on Δ (Δ m312) by at least one order of magnitude. We also study the sensitivity to the other oscillation parameters. Finally we show that, if CPT is violated in nature, combining neutrino with antineutrino data in oscillation analysis will produce imposter solutions.

  20. Dune recovery after storm erosion on a high-energy beach: Vougot Beach, Brittany (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suanez, Serge; Cariolet, Jean-Marie; Cancouët, Romain; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Delacourt, Christophe

    2012-02-01

    On 10th March 2008, the high energy storm Johanna hit the French Atlantic coast, generating severe dune erosion on Vougot Beach (Brittany, France). In this paper, the recovery of the dune of Vougot Beach is analysed through a survey of morphological changes and hydrodynamic conditions. Data collection focused on the period immediately following storm Johanna until July 2010, i.e. over two and a half years. Results showed that the dune retreated by a maximum of almost 6 m where storm surge and wave attack were the most energetic. Dune retreat led to the creation of accommodation space for the storage of sediment by widening and elevating space between the pre- and post-storm dune toe, and reducing impacts of the storm surge. Dune recovery started in the month following the storm event and is still ongoing. It is characterised by the construction of "secondary" embryo dunes, which recovered at an average rate of 4-4.5 cm per month, although average monthly volume changes varied from - 1 to 2 m 3.m - 1 . These embryo dunes accreted due to a large aeolian sand supply from the upper tidal beach to the existing foredune. These dune-construction processes were facilitated by growth of vegetation on low-profile embryo dunes promoting backshore accretion. After more than two years of survey, the sediment budget of the beach/dune system showed that more than 10,000 m 3 has been lost by the upper tidal beach. We suggest that seaward return currents generated during the storm of 10th March 2008 are responsible for offshore sediment transport. Reconstitution of the equilibrium beach profile following the storm event may therefore have generated cross-shore sediment redistribution inducing net erosion in the tidal zone.

  1. The morphodynamics and internal structure of intertidal fine-gravel dunes: Hills Flats, Severn Estuary, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, P. A.; Radecki-Pawlik, A.; Williams, J. J.; Rumble, B.; Meshkova, L.; Bell, P.; Breakspear, R.

    2006-01-01

    In the macrotidal Severn estuary, UK, the dynamics of intertidal fine-gravel dunes were investigated. These dunes are migrating across a bedrock platform. Systematic observations were made of hydraulic climate, geometry, migration rates and internal sedimentary structures of the dunes. During spring tides, the ebb flow is dominant, dunes grow in height and have ebb orientated geometry with bedrock floors in the troughs. During neap tides, a weak flood flow may dominate. Dunes then are flood orientated or symmetrical. Neap dune heights decrease and the eroded sediment is stored in the dune troughs where the bedrock becomes blanketed by muddy gravel. During spring tides, instantaneous bed shear stresses reach 8 N m - 2 , sufficient to disrupt a 9 mm-gravel armour layer. However, a sustained bed shear stress of 4 N m - 2 is required to initiate dune migration at which time the critical depth-mean velocity is 1 m s - 1 . Ebb and flood inequalities in the bed shear stress explain the changes in dune asymmetry and internal structures. During flood tides, the crests of the dunes reverse such that very mobile sedimentary 'caps' overlie a more stable dune 'core'. Because ebb tides dominate, internal structures of the caps often are characterised by ebb orientated steep open-work foresets developed by strong tidal currents and some lower angle crossbeds deposited as weaker currents degrade foresets. The foresets forming the caps may be grouped into cosets (tidal bundles) and are separated from mud-infused cores of crossbeds that lie below, by reactivation and erosion surfaces blanketed by discontinuous mud drapes. The cores often exhibit distinctive muddy toe sets that define the spacing of tidal cosets.

  2. Numerical modelling of flow structures over idealized transverse aeolian dunes of varying geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Daniel R.; Walker, Ian J.; Wiggs, Giles F. S.

    2004-04-01

    A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model (PHOENICS™ 3.5) previously validated for wind tunnel measurements is used to simulate the streamwise and vertical velocity flow fields over idealized transverse dunes of varying height ( h) and stoss slope basal length ( L). The model accurately reproduced patterns of: flow deceleration at the dune toe; stoss flow acceleration; vertical lift in the crest region; lee-side flow separation, re-attachment and reversal; and flow recovery distance. Results indicate that the flow field over transverse dunes is particularly sensitive to changes in dune height, with an increase in height resulting in flow deceleration at the toe, streamwise acceleration and vertical lift at the crest, and an increase in the extent of, and strength of reversed flows within, the lee-side separation cell. In general, the length of the separation zone varied from 3 to 15 h from the crest and increased over taller, steeper dunes. Similarly, the flow recovery distance ranged from 45 to >75 h and was more sensitive to changes in dune height. For the range of dune shapes investigated in this study, the differing effects of height and stoss slope length raise questions regarding the applicability of dune aspect ratio as a parameter for explaining airflow over transverse dunes. Evidence is also provided to support existing research on: streamline curvature and the maintenance of sand transport in the toe region; vertical lift in the crest region and its effect on grainfall delivery; relations between the turbulent shear layer and downward forcing of flow re-attachment; and extended flow recovery distances beyond the separation cell. Field validation is required to test these findings in natural settings. Future applications of the model will characterize turbulence and shear stress fields, examine the effects of more complex isolated dune forms and investigate flow over multiple dunes.

  3. 77 FR 62476 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... in 1970 ``for the benefit, inspiration, education, recreation, and enjoyment of the public.'' (16 U.S... destination. SLBE offers visitors recreational activities such as hiking, backpacking, kayaking, cross-country... report entitled ``Cost-Benefit and Regulatory Flexibility Analyses Leelanau Scenic Heritage Route...

  4. The primary opinion on the formation mechanisms of mega dunes and lakes in the Badain jaran desert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Li Yawei

    2010-01-01

    Badain Jaran Desert is famous in distribution of many lakes and mega dunes in the world. Up to now, there are several different opinions about formation problems of lakes and mega dunes. Actually, these problems are directly correlated to the groundwater circulation and alternation in the area. Refering to the prevenient research results and combining with the current hydrogeological investigation in the desert, the paper discussed the problems about the formation mechanisms of lakes and mega dunes. The Primary cognition is that: the lakes in the desert were formed mainly by the lateral recharge of groundwaters both from Yabulai mountain and mega dunes. The formation of the mega dunes was related nearly to the rainfall and groundwater in the area. The formation and coexistence relationship between lakes and mega dunes is that: the mega dunes were formed firstly, and then the lakes. That is to say the mega dunes are the basic conditions for the lake formation. (authors)

  5. RIGED-RA project - Restoration and management of Coastal Dunes in the Northern Adriatic Coast, Ravenna Area - Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambastiani, Beatrice M. S.; Greggio, Nicolas; Sistilli, Flavia; Fabbri, Stefano; Scarelli, Frederico; Candiago, Sebastian; Anfossi, Giulia; Lipparini, Carlo A.; Cantelli, Luigi; Antonellini, Marco; Gabbianelli, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    Coastal dunes play an important role in protecting the coastline. Unfortunately, in the last decades dunes have been removed or damaged by human activities. In the Emilia- Romagna region significant residual dune systems are found only along Ravenna and Ferrara coasts. In this context, the RIGED-RA project “Restoration and management of coastal dunes along the Ravenna coast” (2013-2016) has been launched with the aims to identify dynamics, erosion and vulnerability of Northern Adriatic coast and associated residual dunes, and to define intervention strategies for dune protection and restoration. The methodology is based on a multidisciplinary approach that integrates the expertise of several researchers and investigates all aspects (biotic and abiotic), which drive the dune-beach system. All datasets were integrated to identify test sites for applying dune restoration. The intervention finished in April 2016; evolution and restoration efficiency will be assessed.

  6. Even low to medium nitrogen deposition impacts vegetation of dry, coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remke, E.; Brouwer, E.; Kooijman, A.; Blindow, I.; Esselink, H.; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea have received small amounts of atmospheric nitrogen and are rather pristine ecosystems in this respect. In 19 investigated dune sites the atmospheric wet nitrogen deposition is 3-8 kg N ha−1 yr−1. The nitrogen content of Cladonia portentosa appeared to be a

  7. Dune and ripple migration along Curiosity's traverse in Gale Crater on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestro, S.; Vaz, D.; Ewing, R. C.; Fenton, L. K.; Michaels, T. I.; Ayoub, F.; Bridges, N. T.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, has safely landed near a 35-km-long dark dune field in Gale Crater on Mars. This dune field lies along Curiosity's traverse to Aeolis Mons (Mt. Sharp). Here we present new evidence of aeolian activity and further estimate wind directions within the dune field through analysis of ripple migration with the COSI-Corr technique, which provides precise measurements of ripple displacement at the sub-pixel scale.The area analyzed is located ~10 km southwest of rover Curiosity's current position and ~4 km SW of its selected path through Aeolis Mons (Mt. Sharp) (Fig. 1a). Here barchan dunes with elongated horns and seif dunes coexist with more typical barchan and dome dunes (Fig. 1a, b), with slopes sculpted by two intersecting ripple crestline orientations trending at 45° and 330°. The range of dune types and ripple orientations indicate the dune field morphology is influenced by at least two winds from the NW and the NE. The direction of migration is toward the SW, suggesting the most recent sand transporting winds were from the NE (Fig. 1c). These results match previous predictions and can be used to forecast the wind conditions close to the entry point to Mt. Sharp. Fig. 1: a-b) Study area c) Ripple migration direction computed using the COSI-Corr technique

  8. Mineralogy of an Active Eolian Sediment from the Namib Dune, Gale Crater, Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Achilles, C. N.; Downs, R. T.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; Morris, R. V.; Treiman, A. H.; Morrison, S. M.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Ewing, R. C.; Chipera, S. J.; Yen, A. S.; Bristow, T. F.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Gellert, R.

    2017-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, is using a comprehensive scientific payload to explore rocks and soils in Gale crater, Mars. Recent investigations of the Bagnold Dune Field provided the first in situ assessment of an active dune on Mars. The Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) X-ray diffraction instrument on Curiosity performed quantitative mineralogical analyses of the

  9. Is succession in wet calcareous dune slacks affected by free sulfide?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, EB; van Gemerden, H; Grootjans, AP; Adema, Erwin B.; Grootjans, Ab P.; Rapson, G.

    Consequences of sulfide toxicity on succession in wet calcareous dune slacks were investigated. Sulfide may exert an inhibitory effect on dune slack plants, but several pioneer species exhibit ROL (Radial Oxygen Loss) and thereby protect themselves against free sulfide. Under oxic conditions free

  10. SPINIFICI-SCAEVOLETEA SERICEAE, A NEW VEGETATION CLASS FOR PSAMMOPHYTIC DUNE VEGETATION IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. PIGNATII

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a short account on the coastal dune vegetation of the Gulf of Siam in Thailand. Vegetation is mainly composed by succulent creeping plants with herbaceous habit as to Canavalia maritima (Papilionaceae and Iponwea pes-caprae (Convolvulaceae and the robust stoloniferous grass Spinijex littoreus, the last having an important function for the fonnation of coastal dunes.

  11. SPINIFICI-SCAEVOLETEA SERICEAE, A NEW VEGETATION CLASS FOR PSAMMOPHYTIC DUNE VEGETATION IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. PIGNATII

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a short account on the coastal dune vegetation of the Gulf of Siam in Thailand. Vegetation is mainly composed by succulent creeping plants with herbaceous habit as to Canavalia maritima (Papilionaceae and Iponwea pes-caprae (Convolvulaceae and the robust stoloniferous grass Spinijex littoreus, the last having an important function for the fonnation of coastal dunes.

  12. Restoration of Dune Habitats in Østerild Klitplantage - Baseline Monitoring 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Bettina; Wind, Peter; Ejrnæs, Rasmus

    will lead to clear-felling of up to 266 ha coniferous dune plantations. The agreement parties decided that the vegetation development from coniferous forest to open dune habitats should be monitored. The monitoring programme includes a recording of soil conditions and plant species composition pr...

  13. Dune-slope activity due to frost and wind throughout the north polar erg, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniega, Serina; Hansen, Candice J; Allen, Amanda; Grigsby, Nathan; Li, Zheyu; Perez, Tyler; Chojnacki, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Repeat, high-resolution imaging of dunes within the Martian north polar erg have shown that these dune slopes are very active, with alcoves forming along the dune brink each Mars year. In some areas, a few hundred cubic metres of downslope sand movement have been observed, sometimes moving the dune brink 'backwards'. Based on morphological and activity-timing similarities of these north polar features to southern dune gullies, identifying the processes forming these features is likely to have relevance for understanding the general evolution/modification of dune gullies. To determine alcove-formation model constraints, we have surveyed seven dune fields, each over 1-4 Mars winters. Consistent with earlier reports, we found that alcove-formation activity occurs during the autumn-winter seasons, before or while the stable seasonal frost layer is deposited. We propose a new model in which alcove formation occurs during the autumn, and springtime sublimation activity then enhances the feature. Summertime winds blow sand into the new alcoves, erasing small alcoves over a few Mars years. Based on the observed rate of alcove erasure, we estimated the effective aeolian sand transport flux. From this, we proposed that alcove formation may account for 2-20% of the total sand movement within these dune fields.

  14. Performances d'une nouvelle approche dans l'estimation au champ

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Elle possède cependant des limitations, dues à l'organisation temporaire d'une .... Performances d'une nouvelle approche dans l'estimation au champ utilisant le principe de la ... différents types de résidus (soja, luzerne, haricot et maïs) et ...

  15. Mapping gullies, dunes, lava fields, and landslides via surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska, Karolina; Pfeifer, Norbert; Landtwing, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Gully erosion is a widespread and significant process involved in soil and land degradation. Mapping gullies helps to quantify past, and anticipate future, soil losses. Digital terrain models offer promising data for automatically detecting and mapping gullies especially in vegetated areas, although methods vary widely measures of local terrain roughness are the most varied and debated among these methods. Rarely do studies test the performance of roughness metrics for mapping gullies, limiting their applicability to small training areas. To this end, we systematically explored how local terrain roughness derived from high-resolution Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data can aid in the unsupervised detection of gullies over a large area. We also tested expanding this method for other landforms diagnostic of similarly abrupt land-surface changes, including lava fields, dunes, and landslides, as well as investigating the influence of different roughness thresholds, resolutions of kernels, and input data resolution, and comparing our method with previously published roughness algorithms. Our results show that total curvature is a suitable metric for recognising analysed gullies and lava fields from LiDAR data, with comparable success to that of more sophisticated roughness metrics. Tested dunes or landslides remain difficult to distinguish from the surrounding landscape, partly because they are not easily defined in terms of their topographic signature.

  16. Quelques noddees sur l’ecologie de la vedetation des dunes et sur la fonction de l’enraciment dans l’edification de dunes a la Cote Mediterraneenne de la France. I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boterenbrood, A.J.; Donsellaar-Ten Bokkel Huinink, van W.A.E.; Donselaar, van J.

    1956-01-01

    Dans la végétation des dunes du Languedoc J. BRAUN-BLANQUET (1952) distingue trois associations, à savoir; 1) l’Agropyretum mediterraneum parmi et sur les premières dunes basses; 2) l’Ammophiletum arundinaceae sur les dunes plus hautes; et 3) le Crucianelletum maritimae dans les dépressions et en

  17. Sediment flux and airflow on the stoss slope of a barchan dune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, N.; Nickling, W. G.; Neuman, C. K. McKenna; Wyatt, V. E.

    1996-09-01

    Measurements of sediment flux on the windward slope of an isolated barchan using an array of 30 sand traps provide new data that can constrain models of dune dynamics. The data show that at low wind incident speeds, flux increases up the dune exponentially, whereas at higher wind speeds the increase with distance approaches linearity. Wind profile measurements, conducted at the same time as the flux measurements, indicate that, although wind speed at a given height increases by 1.2 times from dune toe to brinkline, wind shear velocity derived from the profile data decreases up the dune and is in many cases below transport threshold values. This demonstrates that conventional wind profiles, derived from anemometry on dunes, do not measure the part of the boundary layer that is significant for sediment transport.

  18. Modelling the impact of the climatic changes on the dune erosion. The case of the Camargue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatier, F.

    2008-01-01

    Three climatic changes scenarios were investigated by an increase of energy and by the duration of an extreme storm. The wave characteristics properties and the sea level time series of the referenced storm were increased of about 5, 10 and 20 % in order to define the dune erosion. We evidenced that the wave height displays more influence on the dune erosion than the sea level. Moreover, the storm duration, over 4 days, does not play an important role on the dune erosion. However, there is no proportional relationships between a weak storm energy increase and/or duration, and dune erosion. A small increase of storm will have a large impact on dune erosion in the future. (author)

  19. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Armstrong and Indiana Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, Terry E.; Milheim, Lesley E.; Roig-Silva, Coral M.; Malizia, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in this area of Pennsylvania. Conventional natural gas wells are commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and are frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Armstrong County and Indiana County in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics is also used to quantify these changes and is included in this publication.

  20. Sedimentary processes of the Bagnold Dunes: Implications for the eolian rock record of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R. C.; Lapotre, M. G. A.; Lewis, K. W.; Day, M.; Stein, N.; Rubin, D. M.; Sullivan, R.; Banham, S.; Lamb, M. P.; Bridges, N. T.; Gupta, S.; Fischer, W. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity visited two active wind-blown sand dunes within Gale crater, Mars, which provided the first ground-based opportunity to compare Martian and terrestrial eolian dune sedimentary processes and study a modern analog for the Martian eolian rock record. Orbital and rover images of these dunes reveal terrestrial-like and uniquely Martian processes. The presence of grainfall, grainflow, and impact ripples resembled terrestrial dunes. Impact ripples were present on all dune slopes and had a size and shape similar to their terrestrial counterpart. Grainfall and grainflow occurred on dune and large-ripple lee slopes. Lee slopes were 29° where grainflows were present and 33° where grainfall was present. These slopes are interpreted as the dynamic and static angles of repose, respectively. Grain size measured on an undisturbed impact ripple ranges between 50 μm and 350 μm with an intermediate axis mean size of 113 μm (median: 103 μm). Dissimilar to dune eolian processes on Earth, large, meter-scale ripples were present on all dune slopes. Large ripples had nearly symmetric to strongly asymmetric topographic profiles and heights ranging between 12 cm and 28 cm. The composite observations of the modern sedimentary processes highlight that the Martian eolian rock record is likely different from its terrestrial counterpart because of the large ripples, which are expected to engender a unique scale of cross stratification. More broadly, however, in the Bagnold Dune Field as on Earth, dune-field pattern dynamics and basin-scale boundary conditions will dictate the style and distribution of sedimentary processes.

  1. Characteristics of dune-paleosol-sequences in Fuerteventura. - What should be questioned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Dominik; Willkommen, Tobias; Yanes, Yurena; Richter, David; Zöller, Ludwig

    2013-04-01

    Characteristics of dune-paleosol-sequences in Fuerteventura. - What should be questioned? Dominik Faust, TU Dresden, Germany Tobias Willkommen, TU Dresden, Germany Yurena Yanes, CSIC Granada/Cincinatti, Spain/USA David Richter, TU Dresden, Germany Ludwig Zöller, Uni Bayreuth, Germany The northern part of Fuerteventura is characterized by large dune fields. We investigated dune-paleosol-sequences in four pits to establish a robust stratigraphy and to propose a standard section. An interaction of processes like dune formation, soil formation and redeposition of soils and sand are most important to understand the principles of landscape development in the study area. To our mind a process cycle seem to be important: First climbing-dunes are formed by sand of shelf origin. Then soil formation could have taken place. Soil and/or sand were then eroded and deposited at toe slope position. This material in turn is the source of new sand supply and dune formation. The described cycle may be repeated several times and this ping-pong-process holds on. The results are sections composed of dune layers, paleosols and colluvial material interbedded. Fundamental questions still remain unanswered: Is climate change responsable for changes in process combination (e.g. from dune formation to soil formation)? Or are these features due to divergence phenomenon, where different effects/results (dune and soils) may be linked to similar causes (here: climate)? Assuming that different features (soils and dunes) were formed under one climate, increasing soil forming intensity could be mainly a function of decreasing sand supply. This in turn could be caused by reduced sand production (s. ZECH et al. accepted). However geochemical data and mollusc assemblages point to changing environments in space and even climate modifications in time.

  2. Sedimentary processes of the Bagnold Dunes: Implications for the eolian rock record of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R C; Lapotre, M G A; Lewis, K W; Day, M; Stein, N; Rubin, D M; Sullivan, R; Banham, S; Lamb, M P; Bridges, N T; Gupta, S; Fischer, W W

    2017-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity visited two active wind-blown sand dunes within Gale crater, Mars, which provided the first ground-based opportunity to compare Martian and terrestrial eolian dune sedimentary processes and study a modern analog for the Martian eolian rock record. Orbital and rover images of these dunes reveal terrestrial-like and uniquely Martian processes. The presence of grainfall, grainflow, and impact ripples resembled terrestrial dunes. Impact ripples were present on all dune slopes and had a size and shape similar to their terrestrial counterpart. Grainfall and grainflow occurred on dune and large-ripple lee slopes. Lee slopes were ~29° where grainflows were present and ~33° where grainfall was present. These slopes are interpreted as the dynamic and static angles of repose, respectively. Grain size measured on an undisturbed impact ripple ranges between 50 μm and 350 μm with an intermediate axis mean size of 113 μm (median: 103 μm). Dissimilar to dune eolian processes on Earth, large, meter-scale ripples were present on all dune slopes. Large ripples had nearly symmetric to strongly asymmetric topographic profiles and heights ranging between 12 cm and 28 cm. The composite observations of the modern sedimentary processes highlight that the Martian eolian rock record is likely different from its terrestrial counterpart because of the large ripples, which are expected to engender a unique scale of cross stratification. More broadly, however, in the Bagnold Dune Field as on Earth, dune-field pattern dynamics and basin-scale boundary conditions will dictate the style and distribution of sedimentary processes.

  3. Sand dune of Ruby, Arizona, an anthropogenically created biodiversity hotspot for wasps and their velvet ant parasitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin O. Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    A large artificial sand dune composed of finely crushed mine tailings was produced by deep mining operations at Ruby, Arizona. Today, the ghost town of Ruby is an important historical location and biodiversity refuge, with the newly formed dune forming the core of the refuge. The dune provides ideal nesting habitat for at least 13 species of sand-loving wasps,...

  4. Temporal development of vegetation and geomorphology in a man-made beach-dune system by natural processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    with F. rubra and the invasive alien Rosa rugosa. It was concluded, that the main trends in the geomorphological and vegetational development of the man-made beach-dune system is similar to the development in natural dunes. In the future, further accretion and seaward dune formation may be expected...

  5. Restoration of wet dune slacks on the Dutch Wadden Sea islands : Recolonization after large-scale sod cutting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootjans, AP; Everts, H; Bruin, K; Fresco, L; Grootjans, Ab P.

    The effects of sod cutting were studied in a dune area on the Dutch Wadden Sea Island of Texel. Sod cutting was carried out in a range of different dune slacks in order to restore dune slack vegetation with many endangered Red List species. Sod cutting removed approximately 96% of the soil seed

  6. Restoration of Wet Dune Slacks on the Dutch Wadden Sea Islands: Recolonization After Large-Scale Sod Cutting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootjans, A.P.; Everts, H.; Bruin, K.; Fresco, L.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of sod cutting were studied in a dune area on the Dutch Wadden Sea Island of Texel. Sod cutting was carried out in a range of different dune slacks in order to restore dune slack vegetation with many endangered Red List species. Sod cutting removed approximately 96% of the soil seed

  7. Does salt stress constrain spatial distribution of dune building grasses Ammophila arenaria and Elytrichia juncea on the beach?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puijenbroek, van M.E.B.; Teichmann, C.; Meijdam, Noortje; Oliveras Menor, I.; Berendse, F.; Limpens, J.

    2017-01-01

    Rising sea levels threaten coastal safety by increasing the risk of flooding. Coastal dunes provide a natural form of coastal protection. Understanding drivers that constrain early development of dunes is necessary to assess whether dune development may keep pace with sea-level rise. In this study,

  8. Microbial ecology of acid strip mine lakes in southern Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyure, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    In this study, the author examined the limnology and microbial ecology of two acid strip mine lakes in the Greene-Sullivan State Forest near Dugger, Indiana. Reservoir 29 is a larger lake (225 ha) with water column pH of 2.7 and sediment pH of 3.8. Lake B, a smaller (20 ha) lake to the south of Reservoir 29, also has an acidic water column (pH 3.4) but more neutral sediments (pH 6.2). Both have very high sulfate concentrations: 20-30 mM in the water column and as high as 100 mM in the hypolimnion of Lake B. Low allochthonous carbon and nutrient input characterize these lakes as oligotrophic, although algal biomass is higher than would be expected for this trophic status. In both lakes, algal populations are not diverse, with a few species of single-celled Chlorophyta and euglenoids dominating. Algal biomass is concentrated in a thin 10 cm layer at the hypolimnion/metalimnion interface, although light intensity at this depth is low and severely limits productivity. Bacterial activity based on 14 C-glucose incorporation is highest in the hypolimnion of both lakes, and sulfate-reduction is a dominant process in the sediments. Rates of sulfate-reduction compare with those in other freshwater environments, but are not as high as rates measured in high sulfate systems like saltmarsh and marine sediments

  9. 36Cl in shallow, perched aquifers from central Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, S.; Elmore, D.; Fritz, S. J.

    1994-06-01

    36Cl/Cl ratios and chloride concentrations were measured in several shallow, perched aquifers situated within glacial till in west-central Indiana (USA). Most of these aquifers show 36Cl/Cl ratios which have to be attributed to admixed 36Cl from nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s. Two wells from Purdue's Horticultural Farm tap perched aquifers uninfluenced by anthropogenic sources of chloride, and their 36Cl/Cl ratios are comparable with ratios measured in modern, local precipitation. As such, the chloride contents of these wells (1 to 3 ppm) reflect evaporative concentration of the precipitation's chloride contents (averaging 0.17 ppm) in the vadose zone. Since one of these two wells (HA-2a) does not contain any detectable tritium, we conclude that recent pre-bomb 36Cl/Cl ratios and 36Cl deposition in precipitation are quite similar to those in modern precipitation. We attribute the slight 36Cl excess of about 20% in both of these wells largely to 36Cl deposition associated with dry fall-out. As much as 2 × 10 4 at. 36Cl/cm 2 might reach the surface via dry fall-out annually.

  10. Physiological ecology of heterotrophic bacteria in two Indiana lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovell, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Rates of bacterial production of particulate organic carbon in two hardwater Indiana lakes were studied. Primary production rates were calculated from rates of photosynthetic H 14 CO 3 - incorporation and bacterial (secondary) production from rates of 3 H-(methyl)-thymidine incorporation by natural samples. The relationship of thymidine incorporation to rates of bacterial growth in diluted natural samples was used to calculate the conversion factor 2.2 x 10 18 cells produced (mole thymidine incorporated) -1 . Bacteria in Little Crooked Lake were found to be growing at suboptimal temperatures throughout most of the water column, even during the summer months. Even rapidly growing metalimnetic populations displayed no noticable adaptation to low environmental temperatures. This indicates that temperature could have limited the growth of bacteria in this lake throughout the period of thermal stratification. The extracellular release of photosynthetically fixed organic carbon by healthy phytoplankton was not found to be an important carbon source for planktonic bacteria. Slow carbon release mechanisms, such as algal decomposition, seem to have been more important

  11. The Impacts of Budget Reductions on Indiana's Public Schools: The Impact of Budget Changes on Student Achievement, Personnel, and Class Size for Public School Corporations in the State of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Del W.; Boyland, Lori G.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, economic downturn and changes to Indiana's school funding have resulted in significant financial reductions in General Fund allocations for many of Indiana's public school corporations. The main purpose of this statewide study is to examine the possible impacts of these budget reductions on class size and student achievement. This…

  12. Space use and resource selection by foraging Indiana bats at the northern edge of their distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachowski, David S.; Johnson, Joshua B.; Dobony, Christopher A.; Edwards, John W.; Ford, W. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite 4 decades of conservation concern, managing endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) populations remains a difficult wildlife resource issue facing natural resource managers in the eastern United States. After small signs of population recovery, the recent emergence of white-nose syndrome has led to concerns of local and/or regional extirpation of the species. Where Indiana bats persist, retaining high-quality foraging areas will be critical to meet physiological needs and ensure successful recruitment and overwinter survival. However, insight into foraging behavior has been lacking in the Northeast of the USA. We radio-tracked 12 Indiana bats over 2 summers at Fort Drum, New York, to evaluate factors influencing Indiana bat resource selection during night-time foraging. We found that foraging space use decreased 2% for every 100 m increase in distance to water and 6% for every 100 m away from the forest edge. This suggests high use of riparian areas in close proximity to forest and is somewhat consistent with the species’ foraging ecology in the Midwest and upper South. Given the importance of providing access to high-quality foraging areas during the summer maternity season, Indiana bat conservation at the northern extent of the species’ range will be linked to retention of forested habitat in close proximity to riparian zones. 

  13. Parabolic dune development modes according to shape at the southern fringes of the Hobq Desert, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Chao; Hasi, Eerdun; Zhang, Ping; Tao, Binbin; Liu, Dan; Zhou, Yanguang

    2017-10-01

    Since the 1970s, parabolic dunes at the southern fringe of the Hobq Desert, Inner Mongolia, China have exhibited many different shapes (V-shaped, U-shaped, and palmate) each with a unique mode of development. In the study area, parabolic dunes are mainly distributed in Regions A, B, and C with an intermittent river running from the south to the north. We used high-resolution remote-sensing images from 1970 to 2014 and RTK-GPS measurements to study the development modes of different dune shapes; the modes are characterized by the relationship between the intermittent river and dunes, formation of the incipient dune patterns, the predominant source supply of dunes, and the primary formation of different shapes (V-shaped, U-shaped, and palmate). Most parabolic dunes in Region A are V-shaped and closer to the bank of the river. The original barchans in this region exhibit "disconnected arms" behavior. With the sand blown out of the riverbed through gullies, the nebkhas on the disconnected arms acquire the external sand source through the "fertile island effect", thereby developing into triangular sand patches and further developing into V-shaped parabolic dunes. Most parabolic dunes in Regions B and C are palmate. The residual dunes cut by the re-channelization of river from transverse dune fields on the west bank are the main sand source of Region B. The parabolic dunes in Region C are the original barchans having then been transformed. The stoss slopes of V-shaped parabolic dunes along the riverbank are gradual and the dunes are flat in shape. The dune crest of V-shaped parabolic dune is the deposition area, which forms the "arc-shaped sand ridge". Their two arms are non-parallel; the lateral airflow of the arms jointly transport sand to the middle part of dunes, resulting in a narrower triangle that gradually becomes V-shaped. Palmate parabolic dunes have a steeper stoss slope and height. The dune crest of the palmate parabolic dune is the erosion area, which forms

  14. Laboratory studies of dune sand for the use of construction industry in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva Jayawardena, Upali; Wijesuriya, Roshan; Abayaweera, Gayan; Viduranga, Tharaka

    2015-04-01

    With the increase of the annual sand demand for the construction industry the excessive excavation of river sand is becoming a serious environmental problem in Sri Lanka. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the possibility for an alternative to stop or at least to minimize river sand mining activities. Dune sand is one of the available alternative materials to be considered instead of river sand in the country. Large quantities of sand dunes occur mainly along the NW and SE coastal belt which belong to very low rainfall Dry Zone coasts. The height of dune deposits, vary from 1m to about 30 meters above sea level. The objective of this paper is to indicate some studies and facts on the dune sand deposits of Sri Lanka. Laboratory studies were carried out for visual observations and physical properties at the initial stage and then a number of tests were carried out according to ASTM standards to obtain the compressive strength of concrete cylinders and mortar cubes mixing dune sand and river sand in different percentages keeping a constant water cement ratio. Next the water cement ratio was changed for constant dune sand and river sand proportion. Microscopic analysis shows that the dune sand consist of 95 % of quartz and 5 % of garnet, feldspar, illmenite and other heavy minerals with clay, fine dust, fine shell fragments and organic matters. Grains are sub-rounded to angular and tabular shapes. The grain sizes vary from fine to medium size of sand with silt. The degree of sorting and particle size observed with dune sands are more suited with the requirement of fine aggregates in the construction industry. The test result indicates that dune sand could be effectively used in construction work without sieving and it is ideal for wall plastering due to its'-uniformity. It could also be effectively used in concrete and in mortars mixing with river sand. The best mixing ratio is 75% dune sand and 25% river sand as the fine aggregate of concrete. For mortar the mixing

  15. 77 FR 41980 - Uniontown Hydro, LLC, Project No. 12958-001-Kentucky and Indiana, Uniontown Hydroelectric Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ...-001-Kentucky and Indiana, Uniontown Hydroelectric Project; Newburgh Hydro, LLC, Project No. 12962-001-Kentucky and Indiana, Newburgh Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Revised Restricted Service List for a... licenses for the proposed Uniontown Hydroelectric Project and Newburgh Hydroelectric Project. The...

  16. 40 CFR 81.73 - South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.73 Section 81.73 Protection of Environment... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.73 South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton...

  17. Attendance and Chronic Absenteeism in Indiana: The Impact on Student Achievement. Education Policy Brief, Volume 10, Number 3, Summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradlin, Terry; Cierniak, Katherine; Shi, Dingjing; Chen, Minge

    2012-01-01

    This Education Policy Brief summarizes the research and data analysis completed by the Center for Evaluation and Education Policy (CEEP) on Indiana's student attendance and absenteeism data. The study was initiated by The Indiana Partnerships Center and conducted by CEEP with funding from USA Funds and State Farm. Additional partners in the study…

  18. USA valimiste võitja võib selguda varakult - kui Obama võtab Indiana / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2008-01-01

    USA presidendivalimistel suletakse valimisjaoskonnad esimesena Indianas. Demokraatide kampaania konsultandi Doug Schoeni hinnangul viitab isegi tasavägine tulemus Indianas ilmselt Barack Obama suurele üleriigilisele võidule. Reutersi vaatlejate hinnanguid. Vt. samas: Kas populaarsusküsitlused ikka ennustavad valimistulemuse õigesti? Kaart, tabelid, graafikud: Barack Obama läheb võitma

  19. Annexe 3. Constitution d'une exploitation à Homs

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    ‘Abd al-Laṭīf, né en 1925, est jardinier à Horns. Il exploite avec son fils aîné et l'aide de deux de ses petits-fils un jardin de quelques 35 dunum (3,5 hectares) situé dans le zūr al-Ǧdīdeh, secteur central de la zone agricole. Cette grande exploitation, constituée de plusieurs parcelles ayant différents statuts, est en partie le produit d'une histoire familiale dont je voudrais présenter ici brièvement les principaux aspects. Figure 50 – Alliances matrimoniales entre la lignée de ‘Abbās e...

  20. Thermoluminescence dating of sand dunes at Roonka, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Thermoluminescence has been used to date sediments associated with the archaeological excavations at Roonka. An age of 65,000 +- 12,000 years has been found for the terra rossa soil immediately underlying the oldest 14 C dated feature at the main site (18,000 years). At the East Bank site, an age of 2700 +- 300 years is found for the top of the dune at a depth of 30 cm. An age of 14,500 +- 2000 years is found for a stratigraphically distinct and sealed layer at a depth of 1 m. A similar (or possibly older) date is found at 1.7 m. These ages are consistent with the archaeological and geomorphological evidence. There is some evidence that bleaching of sediments by daylight may not be complete in the field. If this is confirmed the ages will need to be revised downwards. (author)

  1. Eolian deposition cycles since AD 500 in Playa San Bartolo lunette dune, Sonora, Mexico: Paleoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Beatriz; Schaaf, Peter; Murray, Andrew; Caballero, Margarita; Lozano, Socorro; Ramirez, Angel

    2013-12-01

    Records of past climatic changes in desert environments are scarce due to the poor preservation of biological proxies. To overcome this lack we consider the paleoenvironmental significance and age of a lunette dune at the eastern rim of Playa San Bartolo (PSB) in the Sonoran Desert (Mexico). Thermoluminescence and optical stimulated luminescence (TL and OSL) provide the chronology of lunette dune development. Mineralogical, geochemical (major, trace and REE element concentrations) and rock magnetic analyses allow for the assessment of sediment provenance and changes in the composition of the PSB dune over time. The upper 6 m of dune accumulation occurred over the past 1.5 ka, largely during AD 500-1200, a period that correlates with the Medieval climatic anomaly (AD 300-1300). Variability in composition of dune sediments is attributed to changes in sediment sources. Sand sized deposits are mainly eroded from granitoids from nearby outcrops. Sandy silt deposits, rich in evaporative minerals, resulted after the flooding of PSB, later deflation and accumulation of both detritic and authigenic components in the dune. These findings suggest that main dune accretion occurred during regionally extended drought conditions, disrupted by sporadic heavy rainfall.

  2. The influence of groundwater depth on coastal dune development at sand flats close to inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Filipe Galiforni; Wijnberg, Kathelijne M.; de Groot, Alma V.; Hulscher, Suzanne J. M. H.

    2018-05-01

    A cellular automata model is used to analyze the effects of groundwater levels and sediment supply on aeolian dune development occurring on sand flats close to inlets. The model considers, in a schematized and probabilistic way, aeolian transport processes, groundwater influence, vegetation development, and combined effects of waves and tides that can both erode and accrete the sand flat. Next to three idealized cases, a sand flat adjoining the barrier island of Texel, the Netherlands, was chosen as a case study. Elevation data from 18 annual LIDAR surveys was used to characterize sand flat and dune development. Additionally, a field survey was carried out to map the spatial variation in capillary fringe depth across the sand flat. Results show that for high groundwater situations, sediment supply became limited inducing formation of Coppice-like dunes, even though aeolian losses were regularly replenished by marine import during sand flat flooding. Long dune rows developed for high sediment supply scenarios which occurred for deep groundwater levels. Furthermore, a threshold depth appears to exist at which the groundwater level starts to affect dune development on the inlet sand flat. The threshold can vary spatially depending on external conditions such as topography. On sand flats close to inlets, groundwater is capable of introducing spatial variability in dune growth, which is consistent with dune development patterns found on the Texel sand flat.

  3. Cause rare d'une perforation de la cloison nasale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahidi, Ali; Hemmaoui, Bouchaïb; Itoua, Wulfran Rosaire; Errami, Noureddine; Benariba, Fouad

    2014-01-01

    Les perforations de la cloison nasale constituent une pathologie fréquente en ORL. Leurs causes sont multiples et restent dominées par les traumatismes chirurgicaux. Les étiologies infectieuses et notamment la tuberculose sont rares. Nous présentons le cas d'une patiente ayant bénéficié d'une méatotomie bilatérale et chez laquelle une perforation de la cloison nasale a été découverte lors d'un examen systématique à un an de son intervention. D'abord considérée comme une complication de la chirurgie, la biopsie des berges de la perforation a permis de déterminer son origine tuberculeuse. La présentation clinique des perforations de la cloison nasale n'est pas spécifique. Elles sont souvent asymptomatiques et de découverte fortuite. Les traumatismes notamment chirurgicaux sont le plus siuvent en cause. L′orogine tuberculeuse resta très rare. Le diagnostic de certitude de tuberculose repose sur la biopsie des berges de cette perforation. Le but de ce travail est de mettre en avant l'intérêt de la biopsie dans le diagnostic de la tuberculose de la cloison nasale. Cette biopsie doit être systématique même en cas d'antécédents de chirurgie endonasale qui est le plus souvent en cause dans les perforations de la cloison nasale. PMID:24932334

  4. A field study of the geomorphic effects of sublimating CO2 blocks on dune slopes at Coral Pink Dunes, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Mary; Nield, Jo; Diniega, Serina; Hansen, Candy; McElwaine, Jim

    2016-04-01

    The seasonal sublimation of CO2 ice is an active driver of present-day surface change on Mars. Diniega et al (2013) proposed that a discrete type of Martian gully, found on southern hemisphere dunes, were formed by the movement of CO2 seasonal ice blocks. These 'Linear Gullies' consist primarily of long (100 m - 2.5 km) grooves with near-uniform width (few-10 m wide), and typical depth of nudge it moved downslope. The dynamics of the block movement were recorded using a pair of high resolution video cameras. Geomorphological observations were noted and topographic change was quantified using a Leica P20 terrestrial laser scanner with a resolution of 0.8 mm at 10 m, and change detection limits less than 3 mm. The block run was repeated a total of 10 times and launched from the same location at the dune brink. The experiment ran for 45 minutes. The block size was reduced to (45 x 190 x 195 mm) by the end of the run series. The resultant geomorphology shows that the separate block runs occupied different tracks leading to a triangular plan form shape with a maximum width of 3.5 m. This is different from the findings in Arizona where a narrower track span was recorded (1.7m) (Bourke et al, 2016). Similar block dynamics were observed at both sites (as blocks moved straight, swiveled and bounced downslope). Distinctive pits with arcuate rims on their downslope edge were formed where blocks bounced on the surface. These pits are at an almost equidistant spacing. Despite a longer slope (16 m as opposed to 8m at Grand Falls), no depositional apron was formed. Levee development was less consistent compared to the Arizona site, but a pronounced unpaired-levee formed towards the base of the lee slope. These data show that sublimating blocks of CO2 ice leave signatures of transport paths and are capable of eroding and transporting sediment. Diniega,S. et al (2013) A new dry hypothesis for the formation of Martian linear gullies. Icarus. Vol. 225, 1, p. 526-537. Bourke, M.C. et

  5. Organic geochemistry in Pennsylvanian tidally influenced sediments from SW Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Kvale, E.P.; Stankiewicz, B.A.; Portle, K.

    1999-01-01

    Tidal rhythmites are vertically stacked small-scale sedimentary structures that record daily variations in tidal current energy and are known to overlie some low-sulfur coals in the Illinois Basin. Tidal rhythmites from the Pennsylvanian Brazil Formation in Indiana have been analyzed sedimentologically, petrographically, and geochemically in order to understand the character and distribution of organic matter (OM) preserved in an environment of daily interactions between marine and fresh waters. The concentration of organic matter (TOC) ranges from traces to 6.9% and sulfur rarely exceeds 0.1% in individual laminae. Angular vitrinite is the major organic matter type, accounting for 50-90% of total OM. The C/S ratio decreases as the verfical distance from the underlying coal increases. A decreasing C/S ratio coupled with decreases in Pr/Ph, Pr/n-C17, Ph/n-C18 ratios and a shift of carbon isotopic composition towards less negative values suggest an increase in salinity from freshwater in the mudflat tidal rhythmite facies close to the coal to brackish/marine in the sandflat tidal rhythmite facies further above from the coal. Within an interval spanning one year of deposition, TOC and S values show monthly variability. On a daily scale, TOC and S oscillations are still detectable but they are of lower magnitude than on a monthly scale. These small-scale variations are believed to reflect oscillations in water salinity related to tidal cycles.Tidal rhythmites are vertically stacked small-scale sedimentary structures that record daily variations in tidal current energy and are known to overlie some low-sulfur coals in the Illinois Basin. Tidal rhythmites from the Pennsylvanian Brazil Formation in Indiana have been analyzed sedimentologically, petrographically, and geochemically in order to understand the character and distribution of organic matter (OM) preserved in an environment of daily interactions between marine and fresh waters. The concentration of organic matter

  6. Cancer Research Center Indiana University School of Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to authorize the Indiana School of Medicine to proceed with the detailed design, construction and equipping of the proposed Cancer Research Center (CRC). A grant was executed with the University on April 21, 1992. A four-story building with basement would be constructed on the proposed site over a 24-month period. The proposed project would bring together, in one building, three existing hematology/oncology basic research programs, with improved cost-effectiveness through the sharing of common resources. The proposed site is currently covered with asphaltic pavement and is used as a campus parking lot. The surrounding area is developed campus, characterized by buildings, walkways, with minimal lawns and plantings. The proposed site has no history of prior structures and no evidence of potential sources of prior contamination of the soil. Environmental impacts of construction would be limited to minor increases in traffic, and the typical noises associated with standard building construction. The proposed CRC project operation would involve the use radionuclides and various hazardous materials in conducting clinical studies. Storage, removal and disposal of hazardous wastes would be managed under existing University programs that comply with federal and state requirements. Radiological safety programs would be governed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license and applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations. There are no other NEPA reviews currently active which are in relationship to this proposed site. The proposed project is part of a Medical Campus master plan and is consistent with applicable local zoning and land use requirements.

  7. Cancer Research Center Indiana University School of Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to authorize the Indiana School of Medicine to proceed with the detailed design, construction and equipping of the proposed Cancer Research Center (CRC). A grant was executed with the University on April 21, 1992. A four-story building with basement would be constructed on the proposed site over a 24-month period. The proposed project would bring together, in one building, three existing hematology/oncology basic research programs, with improved cost-effectiveness through the sharing of common resources. The proposed site is currently covered with asphaltic pavement and is used as a campus parking lot. The surrounding area is developed campus, characterized by buildings, walkways, with minimal lawns and plantings. The proposed site has no history of prior structures and no evidence of potential sources of prior contamination of the soil. Environmental impacts of construction would be limited to minor increases in traffic, and the typical noises associated with standard building construction. The proposed CRC project operation would involve the use radionuclides and various hazardous materials in conducting clinical studies. Storage, removal and disposal of hazardous wastes would be managed under existing University programs that comply with federal and state requirements. Radiological safety programs would be governed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license and applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations. There are no other NEPA reviews currently active which are in relationship to this proposed site. The proposed project is part of a Medical Campus master plan and is consistent with applicable local zoning and land use requirements

  8. Development of Vehicle Platoon Distribution Models and Simulation of Platoon Movements on Indiana Rural Corridors

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yi; Li, Shou; Shamo, Daniel E.

    2003-01-01

    Since the 1980s, traffic volumes have experienced a rapid growth of approximately 30% in Indiana. Traffic data indicates that more than 70% of vehicles travel in platoons on Indiana highway corridors in the vicinity of urban areas. At a rural highway intersection consisting of a major road with high traffic volume and a minor road with low traffic volume, it is very common that the green time cannot be used efficiently, especially when the vehicle detectors on the major road are imbedded clos...

  9. Regional bankfull-channel dimensions of non-urban wadeable streams in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Bret A.

    2013-01-01

    During floods, damage to properties and community infrastructure may result from inundation and the processes of erosion. The damages imparted by erosion are collectively termed the fluvial erosion hazard (FEH), and the Indiana Silver Jackets Multi-agency Hazard Mitigation Taskforce is supporting a program to build tools that will assist Indiana property owners and communities with FEH-mitigation efforts. As part of that program, regional channel-dimension relations are identified for non-urban wadeable streams in Indiana. With a site-selection process that targeted the three largest physiographic regions of the state, field work was completed to measure channel-dimension and channel-geometry characteristics across Indiana. In total, 82 sites were identified for data collection; 25 in the Northern Moraine and Lake region, 31 in the Central Till Plain region, and 26 in the Southern Hills and Lowlands region. Following well established methods, for each data-collection site, effort was applied to identify bankfull stage, determine bankfull-channel dimensions, and document channel-geometry characteristics that allowed for determinations of channel classification. In this report, regional bankfull-channel dimension results are presented as a combination of plots and regression equations that identify the relations between drainage area and the bankfull-channel dimensions of width, mean depth, and cross-sectional area. This investigation found that the channel-dimension data support independent relations for each of the three physiographic regions noted above. Furthermore, these relations show that, for any given drainage area, northern Indiana channels have the smallest predicted dimensions, southern Indiana channels have the largest predicted dimensions, and central Indiana channels are intermediate in their predicted dimensions. When considering the suite of variables that influence bankfull-channel dimensions, it appears that contrasting runoff characteristics

  10. Stratigraphy and landsnail faunas of Late Holocene coastal dunes, Tokerau Beach, northern New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    At least four depositional episodes, each involving cycles of dune instability and sand accumulation followed by stabilisation and soil formation, are represented in a Holocene dune sequence at Tokerau Beach. The first depositional episode followed the maximum post-glacial sea level rise at 6500 years BP, probably with formation of a narrow dune belt landward of the present coastline. The second depositional episode resulted in extensive progradation of the dune belt to about the present coastline from c. 3000-2000 years BP, followed by dune stabilisation and soil formation from c. 2000-900 years BP. The third depositional episode involved vertical dune accretion at c. 900-600 years BP, followed by stabilisation and soil formation after c. 600 years BP. The fourth depositional episode, after 240 years BP, resulted in further vertical dune accretion and localised extensive erosion and reworking of pre-existing dune deposits. Fossil landsnail faunas indicate that there was patchy sandfield and shrubland vegetation of the dune belt from c. 3000-2000 years BP, followed by a mosaic of shrubland and forest from c. 2000-900 years BP. After 900 years BP there was a progressive reversion to patchy shrubland vegetation, but an extensive shrubland cover again became established at c. 600 years BP and persisted until c. 450 years BP, when it was replaced by patchy shrubland and sandfield vegetation. Dune progradational phases in the first two depositional episodes correlate with and probably developed primarily in response to changes in sea level, whereas subsequent alternating phases of dune stabilisation and build-up are inferred to have resulted in part from the influence of long term cyclical variation in prevailing local wind and wave regimes in Doubtless Bay. Two stratigraphically distinct, exotic, sea-rafted pumice units are represented in the Tokerau dune sequence: Tokerau pumice (new), which has a primary depositional age of c. 3000 years BP, and Loisels pumice, which

  11. Reattachment Zone Characterisation Under Offshore Winds With Flow Separation On The Lee Side Of Coastal Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Fernandez, I.; Jackson, D.; Cooper, J. A.; Baas, A. C.; Lynch, K.; Beyers, M.

    2010-12-01

    Airflow separation, lee-side eddies and secondary flows play an essential role on the formation and maintenance of sand dunes. Downstream from dune crests the flow surface layer detaches from the ground and generates an area characterised by turbulent eddies in the dune lee slope (the wake). At some distance downstream from the dune crest, flow separates into a reversed component directed toward the dune toe and an offshore “re-attached” component. This reattachment zone (RZ) has been documented in fluvial and desert environments, wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations, but not yet characterised in coastal dunes. This study examines the extent and temporal evolution of the RZ and its implications for beach-dune interaction at Magilligan, Northern Ireland. Wind parameters were measured over a profile extending from an 11 m height dune crest towards the beach, covering a total distance of 65 m cross-shore. Data was collected using an array of nine ultrasonic anemometers (UAs) deployed in April-May 2010, as part of a larger experiment to capture airflow data under a range of incident wind velocities and offshore directions. UAs were located along the profile (5 m tower spacing) over the beach, which allowed a detailed examination of the RZ with empirical data. Numerical modelling using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software was also conducted with input data from anemometer field measurements, running over a surface mesh generated from LiDAR and DGPS surveys. Results demonstrate that there is a wind threshold of approximately 5-6 ms-1 under which no flow separation exists with offshore winds. As wind speed increases over the threshold, a flow reversal area is quickly formed, with the maximum extent of the RZ at approximately 3.5 dune heights (h). The maximum extent of the RZ increases up to 4.5h with stronger wind speeds of 8-10 ms-1 and remains relatively constant as wind speed further increases. This suggests that the spatial extent of the RZ is

  12. Variability and correlations of shoreline and dunes on the southern Baltic coast (CRS Lubiatowo, Poland)

    OpenAIRE

    Zbigniew Pruszak; Rafal Ostrowski; Jan Schönhofer

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyses the results of field investigations into the evolution of the shoreline and dune toe positions in a multi-bar,dissipative coastal zone. The correlations between the changes in the shoreline and the dune toe range from -0.4 to 0.8. It is most often the case that the dune toe is stable while the shoreline moves. Consistent cross-shore migration is slightly more likelyto happen than the divergent or convergent movements of both lines. Shoreline retreat and advance attain resp...

  13. The Geologic Exploration of the Bagnold Dune Field at Gale Crater by the Curiosity Rover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Matthew; Fenton, Lori K

    2017-11-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity engaged in a monthlong campaign investigating the Bagnold dune field in Gale crater. What represents the first in situ investigation of a dune field on another planet has resulted in a number of discoveries. Collectively, the Curiosity rover team has compiled the most comprehensive survey of any extraterrestrial aeolian system visited to date with results that yield important insights into a number of processes, including sediment transport, bed form morphology and structure, chemical and physical composition of aeolian sand, and wind regime characteristics. These findings and more are provided in detail by the JGR-Planets Special Issue Curiosity's Bagnold Dunes Campaign, Phase I.

  14. Deep learning for the detection of barchan dunes in satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzaoui, A. M.; Adnani, M.; Elbelrhiti, H.; Chaouki, B. E. K.; Masmoudi, L.

    2017-12-01

    Barchan dunes are known to be the fastest moving sand dunes in deserts as they form under unidirectional winds and limited sand supply over a firm coherent basement (Elbelrhiti and Hargitai,2015). They were studied in the context of natural hazard monitoring as they could be a threat to human activities and infrastructures. Also, they were studied as a natural phenomenon occurring in other planetary landforms such as Mars or Venus (Bourke et al., 2010). Our region of interest was located in a desert region in the south of Morocco, in a barchan dunes corridor next to the town of Tarfaya. This region which is part of the Sahara desert contained thousands of barchans; which limits the number of dunes that could be studied during field missions. Therefore, we chose to monitor barchan dunes with satellite imagery, which can be seen as a complementary approach to field missions. We collected data from the Sentinel platform (https://scihub.copernicus.eu/dhus/); we used a machine learning method as a basis for the detection of barchan dunes positions in the satellite image. We trained a deep learning model on a mid-sized dataset that contained blocks representing images of barchan dunes, and images of other desert features, that we collected by cropping and annotating the source image. During testing, we browsed the satellite image with a gliding window that evaluated each block, and then produced a probability map. Finally, a threshold on the latter map exposed the location of barchan dunes. We used a subsample of data to train the model and we gradually incremented the size of the training set to get finer results and avoid over fitting. The positions of barchan dunes were successfully detected and deep learning was an effective method for this application. Sentinel-2 images were chosen for their availability and good temporal resolution, which will allow the tracking of barchan dunes in future work. While Sentinel images had sufficient spatial resolution for the

  15. DIVERSITY OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ALONG A SAND DUNE STABILIZATION GRADIENT: A CASE STUDY AT PRAIA DE JOAQUINA, ILHA DE SANTA CATARINA, SOUTH BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species diversity of abuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was assessed along a dunes stabilization gradient (embyonic dune, foredune and fixed dune) at Praia da Joaquina (Joaquina Beach), Ilha de Santa Catarina. These dunes served as a case study to assess whether diversity and myc...

  16. Observed and forecast flood-inundation mapping application-A pilot study of an eleven-mile reach of the White River, Indianapolis, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon H.; Morlock, Scott E.; Arihood, Leslie D.; Kiesler, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Near-real-time and forecast flood-inundation mapping products resulted from a pilot study for an 11-mile reach of the White River in Indianapolis. The study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Indiana Silver Jackets hazard mitigation taskforce members, the National Weather Service (NWS), the Polis Center, and Indiana University, in cooperation with the City of Indianapolis, the Indianapolis Museum of Art, the Indiana Department of Homeland Security, and the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water. The pilot project showed that it is technically feasible to create a flood-inundation map library by means of a two-dimensional hydraulic model, use a map from the library to quickly complete a moderately detailed local flood-loss estimate, and automatically run the hydraulic model during a flood event to provide the maps and flood-damage information through a Web graphical user interface. A library of static digital flood-inundation maps was created by means of a calibrated two-dimensional hydraulic model. Estimated water-surface elevations were developed for a range of river stages referenced to a USGS streamgage and NWS flood forecast point colocated within the study reach. These maps were made available through the Internet in several formats, including geographic information system, Keyhole Markup Language, and Portable Document Format. A flood-loss estimate was completed for part of the study reach by using one of the flood-inundation maps from the static library. The Federal Emergency Management Agency natural disaster-loss estimation program HAZUS-MH, in conjunction with local building information, was used to complete a level 2 analysis of flood-loss estimation. A Service-Oriented Architecture-based dynamic flood-inundation application was developed and was designed to start automatically during a flood, obtain near real-time and forecast data (from the colocated USGS streamgage and NWS flood forecast point within the study reach

  17. Flood inundation maps for the Wabash and Eel Rivers at Logansport, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2014-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for an 8.3-mile reach of the Wabash River and a 7.6-mile reach of the Eel River at Logansport, Indiana (Ind.), were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at USGS streamgage Wabash River at Logansport, Ind. (sta. no. 03329000) and USGS streamgage Eel River near Logansport, Ind. (sta. no. 03328500). Current conditions for estimating near-real-time areas of inundation using USGS streamgage information may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/. In addition, information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often colocated with USGS streamgages. NWS-forecasted peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. For this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reaches by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relations at USGS streamgages 03329000, Wabash River at Logansport, Ind., and 03328500, Eel River near Logansport, Ind. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to determine five water-surface profiles for flood stage at 1-foot intervals referenced to the Wabash River streamgage datum, and four water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the Eel River streamgage datum. The stages range from bankfull to approximately the highest

  18. Creating dune landscapes for nature and housing - how to assess the designs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ancker, J.; Jungerius, P. D.; Hartman, J.

    2012-04-01

    Over the last decades landscape and nature organisations in The Netherlands initiated discussions about safeguarding characteristic historical landscapes, as well as improving nature and landscape quality. In these discussions they were supported by Dutch government agencies and newspapers. As a consequence, architects, landscape architects and building firms in the Netherlands try to upgrade the quality of houses and build-up areas by creating special landscape settings. Dunes are one of the landscapes that appeal to the designers, and several projects make use of dunes to create a quality living environment. Also nature manager construct dunes in what is called 'new nature'. This contribution evaluates several projects creating dune landscapes. Criteria for the evaluation are: - the subsequent geomorphology, - the materials used for construction, - the resulting internal structure, - the soil profile, - the relationship with the vegetation, - the historical integrity of the location. These examples indicate that engaging earth-scientific knowhow would substantially improve the authenticity of the designs.

  19. Boundary Conditions and the Aeolian Sediment State of the Olympia Undae Dune Field, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrook, W.; Ewing, R. C.; Ayoub, F.; Bridges, N. T.; Smith, I.; Spiga, A.

    2015-05-01

    We evaluate the boundary conditions in Olympia Undae. We map two and three dimensional dune parameters from two locations proximal and distal to Planum Boreum and constrain sediment fluxes. We compare our results with a mesoscale atmospheric model.

  20. Petrology of dune sand derived from basalt on the Ka'u Desert, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Dune sand from the Ka'u Desert, southwest flank of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, is moderately well-sorted (median = 1.60 Phi, deviation = 0.60, skewness = 0.25, kurtosis = 0.68) and composed mostly of frosted subangular particles of basalt glass ('unfractionated' olivine-normative tholeitte), olivine, lithic fragments (subophitic and intersertal basalts; magnetite-ilmenite-rich basalts), reticular basalt glass, magnetite, ilmenite, and plagioclase, in approximately that order of abundance. Quantitative lithological comparison of the dune sand with sand-sized ash from the Keanakakoi Formation supports suggestions that the dune sand was derived largely from Keanakakoi ash. The dune sand is too well sorted to have been emplaced in its present form by base-surge but could have evolved by post-eruption reworking of the ash.

  1. Dune associated calcretes, Rhizoliths and Paleosols from the western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Thamban, M.

    detrital/carbonate sands with thin heavy mineral laminations are found. Textural studies indicate that the detrital sands are derived from dunes. Drusy calcite and neomorphic calcite cements are associated with the sands. Sheet deposits contain coarse...

  2. Sports, genre et developpement durable : l'heritage d'une ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sports, genre et developpement durable : l'heritage d'une distribution ... to new populations in situation of confrontation with the difference that Goffman (1975) ... and women (gender), maintain the sports field and behind the appearance of a ...

  3. Snow Dunes: A Controlling Factor of Melt Pond Distribution on Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrich, Chris; Eicken, Hajo; Polashenski, Christopher M.; Sturm, Matthew; Harbeck, Jeremy P.; Perovich, Donald K.; Finnegan, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The location of snow dunes over the course of the ice-growth season 2007/08 was mapped on level landfast first-year sea ice near Barrow, Alaska. Landfast ice formed in mid-December and exhibited essentially homogeneous snow depths of 4-6 cm in mid-January; by early February distinct snow dunes were observed. Despite additional snowfall and wind redistribution throughout the season, the location of the dunes was fixed by March, and these locations were highly correlated with the distribution of meltwater ponds at the beginning of June. Our observations, including ground-based light detection and ranging system (lidar) measurements, show that melt ponds initially form in the interstices between snow dunes, and that the outline of the melt ponds is controlled by snow depth contours. The resulting preferential surface ablation of ponded ice creates the surface topography that later determines the melt pond evolution.

  4. Preliminary hydrogeologic evaluation of the Cincinnati Arch region for underground high-level radioactive waste disposal, Indiana, Kentucky , and Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, O.B.; Davis, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary interpretation of available hydrogeologic data suggests that some areas underlying eastern Indiana, north-central Kentucky, and western Ohio might be worthy of further study regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Precambrian crystalline rocks buried beneath Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the area. The data indicate that (1) largest areas of deepest potential burial and thickest sedimentary rock cover occur in eastern Indiana; (2) highest concentrations of dissolved solids in the basal sandstone aquifer, suggesting the most restricted circulation, are found in the southern part of the area near the Kentucky-Ohio State line and in southeastern Indiana; (3) largest areas of lowest porosity in the basal sandstone aquifer, low porosity taken as an indicator of the lowest groundwater flow velocity and contaminant migration, are found in northeastern Indiana and northwestern Ohio, central and southeastern Indiana, and central Kentucky; (4) the thickest confining units that directly overlie the basal sandstone aquifer are found in central Kentucky and eastern Indiana where their thickness exceeds 500 ft; (5) steeply dipping faults that form potential hydraulic connections between crystalline rock, the basal sandstone aquifer, and the freshwater circulation system occur on the boundaries of the study area mainly in central Kentucky and central Indiana. Collectively, these data indicate that the hydrogeology of the sedimentary rocks in the western part of the study area is more favorably suited than that in the remainder of the area for the application of the buried crystalline-rock concept. (USGS)

  5. Preliminary hydrogeologic evaluation of the Cincinnati arch region for underground high-level radioactive waste disposal, Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, O.B.; Davis, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary interpretation of available hydrogeologic data suggests that some areas underlying eastern Indiana, north-central Kentucky, and western Ohio might be worthy of further study regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Precambrian crystalline rocks buried beneath Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the area. The data indicate that (1) largest areas of deepest potential burial and thickest sedimentary rock cover occur in eastern Indiana; (2) highest concentrations of dissolved solids in the basal sandstone aquifer, suggesting the most restricted circulation, are found in the southern part of the area near the Kentucky-Ohio State line and in southeastern Indiana; (3) largest areas of lowest porosity in the basal sandstone aquifer, low porosity taken as an indicator of the lowest groundwater flow velocity and contaminant migration, are found in northeastern Indiana and northwestern Ohio, central and southeastern Indiana, and central Kentucky; (4) the thickest confining units that directly overlie the basal sandstone aquifer are found in central Kentucky and eastern Indiana where their thickness exceeds 500 ft; (5) steeply dipping faults that form potential hydraulic connections between crystalline rock, the basal sandstone aquifer, and the freshwater circulation system occur on the boundaries of the study area mainly in central Kentucky and central Indiana. Collectively, these data indicate that the hydrogeology of the sedimentary rocks in the western part of the study area is more favorably suited than that in the remainder of the area for the application of the buried crystalline-rock concept. 39 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Sand Dune Dynamics on Mars: Integration of Surface Imaging, Wind Measurements, and Orbital Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, N.; Sullivan, R. J., Jr.; Ewing, R. C.; Newman, C. E.; Ayoub, F.; Lapotre, M. G. A.; van Beek, J.

    2016-12-01

    In early 2016, the Mars Science Laboratory rover completed the first in situ investigation of an active dune field on another planetary body, the "Bagnold Dunes" in Gale Crater. During the campaign, a series of Mastcam and RMI time-series images of local sand patches, dump piles, ripples, and the lee face and margin of Namib Dune (a barchan in the Bagnold field) were acquired. These were at cadences of a sol or more that were generally at nearly the same local time, and intra-sol imaging bridged by continuous wind measurements from REMS. The dune field has also been imaged 16 times by HiRISE since 2008. By combining the two datasets, long term dune dynamics over the whole field can be compared to small-scale and short-term observations on the surface. From HiRISE, Namib Dune and other barchans and longitudinal dunes to the south and west migrate generally toward the south to southeast. The most active sand deposits are the longitudinal and barchans dunes, with the highest ripple migration rates found on the highest elevations. Rippled sand patches exhibit little of no motion. From MSL, the scrambling of grains on the surfaces of local rippled sand patches and Namib Dune is obvious over periods as short as a single sol, with light-toned grains showing the greatest tendency. On the lee face of Namib, images show grain scrambling, one case of modification to a secondary grainflow, and possibly ripple motion over 3-16 sols. At the dune margin, grain scrambling and one major slump on the lee face of a dune ripple are seen. The daytime REMS record shows wind speeds up to 20 m/s with confidence. As yet, we do not have a demonstrable correlation between measured wind speeds and changes, suggesting that short term gusts or non-aeolian processes acting as triggers may precede significant activity. The changes, occurring in a low flux season based on HiRISE analysis and global circulation models, indicate an active surface at all times of the year to some degree.

  7. Last Glacial Maximum Development of Parna Dunes in Panhandle Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. C.; Halfen, A. F.; McGowen, S.; Carter, B.; Fine, S.; Bement, L. C.; Simms, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    Though dunefields are a ubiquitous feature of the North American Great Plains, those studied to date have consisted primarily of sand grains. In Beaver County of the Oklahoma panhandle, however, upland dune forms consist of sand-sized aggregates of silt and clay. These aptly named parna dunes occur in two swarms, range in height from 10-15 m, and have asymmetrical dome morphologies with approximate north-south dune orientations. Despite their morphological similarities to sand dunes of the region, their origin and evolution is unknown. Documenting parna dune formation in the Oklahoma panhandle will help improve our understanding of prehistoric landscape instability and climate change, particularly in the central Great Plains where such records are limited. Panhandle parna dunes are typified by Blue Mound, our best documented parna dune thus far. Coring has documented a basal paleosol buried at a depth equivalent to the surrounding landscape—14C ages from this soil indicate its formation about 25-21 ka. The paleosol is a hydric Mollisol with a pronounced C3 isotopic signature reflecting hydric plant communities, rather than the regionally dominated C4 prairie vegetation. Hydric soils are associated with many of the playas on the surrounding landscape today, which suggests that they may have been more prevalent during the LGM. The overlying 8-10 m of parna is low in organic C and high in calcite, with indications of up to ten major episodes of sediment flux, which are documented with magnetic, isotope, soil-stratigraphic, particle-size, and color data. Near-surface luminescence (OSL) ages from Blue Mound are similar to the 14C ages from the basal paleosol, indicating rapid dune construction, with little or no Holocene accumulation of sediment. Marine isotope stage (MIS) 3 loess records indicate that upland areas of the region were relatively stable with attendant widespread pedogenesis prior to development of the parna dunes. At the onset of the LGM, however, the

  8. Topographically-controlled site conditions drive vegetation pattern on inland dunes in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewerniak, Piotr; Jankowski, Michał

    2017-07-01

    The inland dunes of Central Europe are commonly overplanted by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) monocultures in which the primary occurrence of the natural vegetation pattern is obliterated. We hypothesize that on naturally revegetated inland dunes the pattern is clear and driven by topographically-controlled site conditions. To test this hypothesis, we addressed the following research questions: (1) Does topography drive vegetation patterns on inland dunes and if so, what are main differences between vegetation in varying relief positions? (2) To what extent does topography involve the variability of microclimates and of soil properties, and how does the topographically-induced differentiation of these site conditions control vegetation patterns? We conducted interdisciplinary studies (applying floristic, pedological and microclimatic research techniques) on a naturally revegetated inland dune area situated on a military artillery training ground near Toruń, northern Poland. We investigated vegetation patterns with reference to three topographical position variants (north-facing slopes, south-facing slopes, and intra-dune depressions). We found distinct differences in vegetation characteristics covering the aforementioned topographical positions. This primarily concerned species composition of ground vegetation: Calluna vulgaris was dominant species on north-facing slopes, Corynephorus canescens on south-facing slopes, while Calamagrostis epigejos in intra-dune depressions. In comparison to dune slopes, the depressions were characterized by much higher biodiversity of vascular plant species. This followed the most favorable soil conditions for the existence of plants (higher moisture and nutrient pools) occurring in low topographical positions. However, tree succession was most advanced not in depressions, where the competitive impact of tall grasses on seedlings was recognized, but on north-facing slopes. Based on our results, we formulated some suggestions, which

  9. Airflow over Barchan dunes: field measurements, mathematical modelling and wind tunnel testing

    OpenAIRE

    Wiggs, G. F. S.

    1992-01-01

    There are few empirical measurements of velocity, shear velocity, sand transport, morphological change on the windward slopes of dunes.This thesis compares field measurements on a barchan dune in Oman with calculations using a mathematical model (FLOWSTAR) and measurements in a wind tunnel. All three techniques demonstrate similar patterns of velocity, confirming the acceleration of flow up the windward slope, deceleration between the crest and brink and significant flow decele...

  10. Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting freshwater lenses in coastal dunes of the Adriatic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Davide; Greggio, Nicolas; Antonellini, Marco; Giambastiani, Beatrice Maria Sole

    2017-08-01

    This study characterizes the near-shore portion of the shallow coastal aquifer included in the Ravenna area (Northern Italy) with special attention to the roles of coastal dunes as freshwater reservoirs and their buffer on groundwater salinity. The paper focuses on the presence and evolution of freshwater lenses below coastal dunes and highlights the existing differences between preserved natural dunes and dunes strongly affected by human intervention. The influence that multiple natural and anthropogenic factors, such as land cover, local drainage network, and beach erosion have on the presence, size and evolution of the freshwater lenses in the aquifer is quantified and discussed. The methodology includes multiple seasonal monitoring and sampling campaigns of physical (water level, salinity, and temperature) and chemical (major cations and anions) groundwater parameters. Results indicate that freshwater lenses, where existing, are limited in thickness (about 1-2 m). Proximity to drainage ditches as well as limited dune elevation and size do not allow the formation and permanent storage of large freshwater lenses in the aquifer below the dunes. The pine forest land cover, that replaced the typical bush or sand cover, intensifies evapotranspiration reducing net infiltration and freshwater storage. The cation species distribution in the water shows that a freshening process is ongoing in preserved natural sites with stable or advancing beaches, whereas a salinization process is ongoing in anthropogenic-impacted areas with strongly-fragmented dune systems. Currently, the thin freshwater lenses in the shallow Ravenna coastal aquifer are limited in space and have no relevance for irrigation or any other human activity. The dune-beach system, however, is the recharge zone of the coastal aquifer and its protection is important to reduce water and soil salinization, which in turn control the health of the whole coastal ecosystem.

  11. Le syndrome de Tunnel tarsien : à propos d'une observation au ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les auteurs présentent un fait clinique d'une douleur subaiguë de la face médiale du pied gauche, explorée par l'imagerie par résonance magnétique, en complément d'une échographie Doppler. Ces explorations ont permis de faire le diagnostic du syndrome de tunnel tarsien par aponévrosite plantaire secondaire à une ...

  12. Tree regeneration response to the group selection method in southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale R. Weigel; George R. Parker

    1997-01-01

    Tree regeneration response following the use of the group selection method was studied within 36 group openings on the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane Division in south central Indiana. Two different aspects and three time periods since cutting were examined. The objectives were to determine whether aspect, age, species group, location within the opening, or their...

  13. Elementary Lessons from Indiana's Underground Railroad Institute (July 22-27, 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana Univ.-Purdue Univ., Indianapolis. Geography Educators' Network of Indiana.

    The Geography Educators' Network of Indiana's 2001 Exploring and Teaching Institute led 23 educators from around the state on a six day traveling adventure. Participants explored art, literature/folklore, historical sites and archives, physical environments, architecture, economics, politics, and cultures associated with the Underground Railroad…

  14. Secondary Lessons from Indiana's Underground Railroad Institute (July 22-27, 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana Univ.-Purdue Univ., Indianapolis. Geography Educators' Network of Indiana.

    The Geography Educator's Network of Indiana's 2001 Exploring and Teaching Institute series led 23 educators from around the state on a six day traveling adventure. Participants explored art, literature/folklore, historical sites and archives, physical environments, architecture, economics, politics, and cultures associated with the Underground…

  15. Habitat use by bats in two Indiana forests prior to silvicultural treatments for oak regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy J. Sheets; Joseph E. Duchamp; Megan K. Caylor; Laura D' Acunto; John O. Whitaker; Virgil Jr. Brack; Dale W. Sparks

    2013-01-01

    As part of a study examining the effects of silvicultural treatments for oak regeneration on habitat use by bats, we surveyed forest stands prior to the implementation of treatments in two state forests in Indiana. Interior forest sites corresponding to areas designated for silvicultural treatments were surveyed for 2 nights each during the summers of 2007 and 2008....

  16. The Coping Strategies of Nontraditional Female Students in Southwest Michigan and Northern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Desiree

    2017-01-01

    Problem: The purpose of this research study was to examine the coping strategies of nontraditional female students in a private university in Southwest Michigan, and a public university in Northern Indiana. According to Carney-Compton & Tan (2002), nontraditional female students characterize the leading emergent set of students beginning…

  17. Priorities and Practices of Career and Technical Education Directors in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, Cory D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine the importance and priority of practices for directors of career and technical education in the state of Indiana. An analysis was prepared to determine the rankings and correlations of importance and priorities of 50 leadership practices as well as 11 categories of practices for the career…

  18. Neisseria meningitidis ST11 Complex Isolates Associated with Nongonococcal Urethritis, Indiana, USA, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Evelyn; Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Batteiger, Byron E; Williams, James A; Arno, Janet N; Tai, Albert; Batteiger, Teresa A; Nelson, David E

    2017-02-01

    At a clinic in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, we observed an increase in Neisseria gonorrhoeae-negative men with suspected gonococcal urethritis who had urethral cultures positive for N. meningitidis. We describe genomes of 2 of these N. meningitidis sequence type 11 complex urethritis isolates. Clinical evidence suggests these isolates may represent an emerging urethrotropic clade.

  19. Indiana bat summer maternity distribution: effects of current and future climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan C. Loeb; Eric A. Winters

    2013-01-01

    Temperate zone bats may be more sensitive to climate change than other groups of mammals because many aspects of their ecology are closely linked to temperature. However, few studies have tried to predict the responses of bats to climate change. The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) is a federally listed endangered species that is found in the eastern...

  20. 75 FR 50708 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Transportation Conformity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... during the Regional Office normal hours of operation, and special arrangements should be made for... Background for This Action? On August 10, 2005, the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation... Indiana portions of the Cincinnati area have combined motor vehicle emissions budgets and thus must work...

  1. 78 FR 50360 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Infrastructure SIP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... ensure that the structural components of each state's air quality management program are adequate to meet... SIP. The Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) has requested that EPA approve these... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R05-OAR-2011-0888; EPA-R05-OAR-2011-0969; EPA...

  2. Fire and human history of a barren-forest mosaic in Southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard P. Guyette; Daniel C. Dey; Michael C. Stambaugh

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide quantitative fire history information from a historically unique region, the oak barrens of the Interior Low Plateau Ecoregion. We sampled 27 post oak (Quercus stellata Wangenh.) trees from the Boone Creek watershed in southern Indiana. The period of tree-ring record ranged in calendar years from 1654 to 1999...

  3. The history of human disturbance in forest ecosystems of southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Jenkins

    2013-01-01

    The forests of southern Indiana have been shaped and defined by anthropogenic disturbance. Native Americans influenced composition and structure through land clearing and burning, but the scale and rate of human disturbance intensified with European settlement. Sustained settlement led to the loss of forest land to agriculture and livestock grazing. Forests were also...

  4. Dreams and Despair: The Early Years of the Great Depression in Gary, Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana Historian, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Based on official reports, newspapers, the memories of citizens, and historical studies, a description of Gary, Indiana during the Great Depression shows how many people in Gary were affected by the Depression. Gary began to grow rapidly beginning in 1906 with the organization of two steel companies. Black, European, and Mexican immigrants came to…

  5. Las remesas indianas en Gran Canaria en el primer cuarto del siglo XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa TORRES SANTANA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de las remesas indianas, del dinero que bien en efectivo o en joyas afluía a la isla de Gran Canaria procedente del continente americano, ha sido un problema que ha preocupado en gran medida a los historiadores canarios. Sin embargo, su análisis siempre ha resultado problemático, por varias razones.

  6. 75 FR 18757 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Alternate Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Station Unit 7. The scrubber adds moisture to the exhaust gas, which condenses as the gas stream cools. According to Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM), the condensation causes unreliable... impairment caused by particulate and light impairment caused by moisture. The scrubber also removes some PM...

  7. Death in Indiana: "The Massacre at Fall Creek" by Jessamyn West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    Interpreted is the novel, "The Massacre at Fall Creek," that dramatizes an event that occurred in Indiana in 1824 in which White men killed unarmed Seneca Indians. The Whites were brought to trial, convicted, and hanged. The novel demonstrates the moral ambiguity that often characterizes responses toward crime and punishment. (RM)

  8. Competencies in Entomology Needed by Agribusiness Teachers and Extension Agents in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, William H.; Walker, Leon

    1975-01-01

    The analysis of the data from an 84.2 percent questionnaire response by Indiana extension agents and agribusiness teachers provides 12 conclusions regarding their competency needs and five recommendations regarding inservice teacher training and courses needed in the areas of entomology. (BP)

  9. 75 FR 55725 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Kentucky; Louisville...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... addition to the sites listed in the table above, three sites, Barret Avenue, Cannons Lane, and Indiana... period. The first of these three sites, Barret Avenue (site number 21-111- 0048), ended operation at the... this period, the Barret Avenue site monitored an average annual concentration of 14.1 [micro]g/m\\3...

  10. Neisseria meningitidis ST11 Complex Isolates Associated with Nongonococcal Urethritis, Indiana, USA, 2015–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Evelyn; Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Batteiger, Byron E.; Williams, James A.; Arno, Janet N.; Tai, Albert; Batteiger, Teresa A.

    2017-01-01

    At a clinic in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, we observed an increase in Neisseria gonorrhoeae–negative men with suspected gonococcal urethritis who had urethral cultures positive for N. meningitidis. We describe genomes of 2 of these N. meningitidis sequence type 11 complex urethritis isolates. Clinical evidence suggests these isolates may represent an emerging urethrotropic clade. PMID:28098538

  11. Indiana bats, northern long-eared bats, and prescribed fire in the Appalachians: challenges and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Loeb; Joy O' Keefe

    2014-01-01

    The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalist) is an endangered species and the northern long-eared bat (M. septentrionalis) has been proposed for listing as endangered. Both species are found throughout the Appalachians, and they commonly inhabit fire-dependent ecosystems such as pine and pine-oak forests. Due to their legal status, prescribed burns in areas where these species...

  12. 78 FR 6035 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio and Indiana; Cincinnati...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... document that growth and control strategy assumptions for non-motor vehicle sources continue to be valid... the projections need to be made. Ohio and Indiana find that growth and control strategy assumptions... original submittal for the years 2005, 2015, and 2020. As a result, the growth and control strategy...

  13. Loads of nitrate, phosphorus, and total suspended solids from Indiana watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Aubrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Transport of excess nutrients and total suspended solids (TSS) such as sediment by freshwater systems has led to degradation of aquatic ecosystems around the world. Nutrient and TSS loads from Midwestern states to the Mississippi River are a major contributor to the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone, an area of very low dissolved oxygen concentration in the Gulf of Mexico. To better understand Indiana’s contribution of nutrients and TSS to the Mississippi River, annual loads of nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorus, and TSS were calculated for nine selected watersheds in Indiana using the load estimation model, S-LOADEST. Discrete water-quality samples collected monthly by the Indiana Department of Environmental Management’s Fixed Stations Monitoring Program from 2000–2010 and concurrent discharge data from the U. S. Geological Survey streamflow gages were used to create load models. Annual nutrient and TSS loads varied across Indiana by watershed and hydrologic condition. Understanding the loads from large river sites in Indiana is important for assessing contributions of nutrients and TSS to the Mississippi River Basin and in determining the effectiveness of best management practices in the state. Additionally, evaluation of loads from smaller upstream watersheds is important to characterize improvements at the local level and to identify priorities for reduction.

  14. Case: The Ethics and Economics of Expanding Interstate 69 in Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp-Itnyre, Alisa

    2000-01-01

    Presents and discusses a case used in a business communication class that centers on an interstate highway extension in southern Indiana. Describes the rationale for teaching the case, and student responses. Notes that, in confronting these issues, students learn to see that facts yield to different interpretations based on differing perspectives…

  15. 77 FR 3975 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Regional Haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... visibility for the worst days over the approximately 10-year period of the SIP and ensure no degradation in... Plastics (formerly GE Plastics), and Mittal Steel USA Inc.-Burns Harbor. Indiana did not consider EGUs in... (ESSROC Cement Corporation, SABIC Innovative Plastics, and Mittal Steel USA Inc.-- Burns Harbor) showed...

  16. 77 FR 65341 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Delaware County (Muncie...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... emissions model. Once this proposal is finalized, future transportation conformity determinations would use... Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulator (MOVES) 2010a emissions model. Indiana submitted this request to EPA... Regional Office official hours of business are Monday through Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., excluding...

  17. THE INDIANA ENTERPRISE ZONE PROGRAM: FISCAL IMPACT OF A JOB CREATION TAX CREDIT

    OpenAIRE

    Low, Sarah A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper estimated the fiscal impact of a job creation tax credit, a proposed incentive for establishments participating in the Indiana enterprise zone program. State unemployment insurance files were utilized with GIS to obtain enterprise zone data. Labor demand and labor supply were estimated. Job creation due to the credit was calculated from empirical results.

  18. Urban and community forests of the North Central East region: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends,...

  19. 77 FR 38725 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Volatile Organic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... compound (VOC) emissions limits and other restrictions on consumer products that are sold, supplied.... This supplementary information section is arranged as follows: I. Background II. Contents of Indiana's... approval is based on the model rule developed by the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) for consumer products...

  20. Spatial and Temporal Relationships of Old-Growth and Secondary Forests in Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; George R. Parker; Eric J. Gustafson

    1997-01-01

    We examined the spatial pattern of forests in Indiana to: (1) determine the extent, connectivity and percent edge of all forests, (2) examine the change in connectivity among these forests if all riparian zones were replanted to forest or other native vegetation, (3) determine the location, spatial dispersion and percent edge of current old-growth forest remnants, (4)...

  1. Mexican American Women's Activism at Indiana University in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Ebelia

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a historical analysis of documents and narratives from Mexican American women that reflect the tumultuous 1990s at Indiana University. Their recollections reveal how they became activists, the racist incidents that compelled them into activism, and the racial tensions and backlash towards identity politics felt by students of…

  2. 75 FR 8246 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Volatile Organic Compound...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... for Lake and Porter Counties in Indiana AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final... available control technology (RACT) requirements for the Lake and Porter County portion of the Chicago-Gary... subsequently submitted the required VOC RACT rules for the Lake and Porter County portion of that nonattainment...

  3. 78 FR 28550 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lake and Porter Counties...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R05-OAR-2013-0021;EPA-R05-OAR-2013-0022; FRL-9812-3] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lake and Porter... Porter State Implementation Plans (SIPs) for the 1997 8-hour ozone standard, and the 1997 annual fine...

  4. 75 FR 12087 - Determination of Attainment, Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... the Clean Air Act (CAA) affecting the Indiana portion (Lake and Porter Counties) of the Chicago-Gary... Oxides (NO X ) in Lake and Porter Counties from CAA Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT... Lake and Porter Counties, also published in today's Federal Register, the Chicago-Gary-Lake County, IL...

  5. 76 FR 76302 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Redesignation of Lake and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ...] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Redesignation of Lake and Porter...). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is taking several related actions affecting Lake and Porter Counties and... redesignation of Lake and Porter Counties to attainment of the 1997 annual PM 2.5 standard. EPA is approving, as...

  6. 78 FR 55234 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Indiana; Volatile Organic Compound Emission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... satisfy Indiana's VOC RACT requirements for the Lake and Porter County portion of the Chicago-Gary-Lake... revised its Industrial Solvent Cleaning rule, 326 IAC 8-17, for sources in Lake and Porter Counties as... emissions because there are no coating, ink, adhesive and resin manufacturers in Lake and Porter Counties...

  7. Indiana's New and (Somewhat) Improved K-12 School Finance System. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan L.

    2005-01-01

    Education finance policy has become an urgent concern in many state legislatures. Demands for greater equity and accountability have forced states to review, and in many cases to revise, the method by which schools are funded. This study sheds light on Indiana's financing of public K-12 education by providing a clear explanation of the components…

  8. 75 FR 34450 - Filing Dates for the Indiana Special Election in the 3rd Congressional District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... 3rd Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Indiana has scheduled a Special General Election on November 2, 2010, to fill.... Committees required to file reports in connection with the Special General Election on November 2, 2010...

  9. The Impact of Educational Policy on English Learners in a Rural Indiana School Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, April M.

    2015-01-01

    Indiana English learners (ELs) constitute a rapidly growing portion of the state's school-aged population, and those classified as limited English proficient are low performers on the state test. The purpose of this embedded mixed methods study was to understand how school personnel respond to accountability mandates, interpret test scores, and…

  10. Outbreak of cryptosporidiosis associated with a firefighting response - Indiana and Michigan, June 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    On June 20, 2011, the Indiana Department of Homeland Security notified the Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH) of an Indiana fire station that reported gastrointestinal illness among a substantial percentage of their workers, causing missed workdays and one hospitalization as a result of cryptosporidiosis. All ill firefighters had responded to a barn fire in Michigan, 15 miles from the Michigan-Indiana border on June 6; responding firefighters from Michigan also had become ill. ISDH immediately contacted the Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH) concerning this outbreak. The investigation was led by MDCH in partnership with ISDH and the Michigan local health department (LHD). Among 34 firefighters who responded to the fire, 33 were interviewed, and 20 (61%) reported gastrointestinal illness ≤12 days after the fire. Cryptosporidium parvum was identified in human stool specimens, calf fecal samples, and a swimming pond. Based on these findings, the following public health recommendations were issued: 1) discontinue swimming in the pond, 2) practice thorough hygiene to reduce fecal contamination and fecal-oral exposures, and 3) decontaminate firefighting equipment properly. No additional primary or secondary cases associated with this exposure have been reported. The findings highlight a novel work-related disease exposure for firefighters and the need for public education regarding cryptosporidiosis prevention.

  11. 78 FR 23492 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Particulate Matter Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... addressing the NAAQS for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), PM 10 and PM 2.5 . EPA will be... IDEM's requested removal of the annual PM 10 NAAQS is approvable. Indiana also requests in its... into the SIP, specifically at 326 IAC 1-4-1. These terms include ``SO 2 '', ``CO'' (carbon monoxide...

  12. Quantification of Dune Response over the Course of a 6-Day Nor'Easter, Outer Banks, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, K. L.; Spore, N.; Swann, C.

    2014-12-01

    The amount and type of foredune morphologic change during a storm event primarily scales with the level of inundation during that event. Specifically, external hydrodynamic forcing (total water level) can be compared with antecedent beach and foredune morphology to predict an impact regime that relates to the type of expected morphologic evolution of the system. For example, when total water levels are above the dune toe, but below the dune crest, the impact regime is classified as "collision" and the expected morphology response is slumping or scarping of the dune face. While the amount of dune retreat scales largely with the duration of wave attack to the dune face, characteristics of the dune other than its crest or toe elevation may also enhance or impede rates of morphologic change. The aftermath of Hurricane Sandy provided a unique opportunity to observe alongshore variations in dune response to a 6-day Nor'Easter (Hs >4 m in 6 m depth), as a variety of dunes were constructed (or not) by individual home owners in preparation for the winter storm season. Daily terrestrial lidar scans were conducted along 20 km of coastline in Duck, NC using Coastal Lidar And Radar Imaging System (CLARIS) during the first dune collision event following Sandy. Foredunes were grouped by their pre-storm form (e.g. vegetated, pushed, scarped, etc) using automated feature extraction tools based on surface curvature and slope, and daily rates of morphologic volume change were calculated. The highest dune retreat rates were focused along a 1.5 km region where cross-shore erosion of recently pushed, un-vegetated dunes reached 2 m/day. Variations in dune response were analyzed in relation to their pre-storm morphology, with care taken to normalize for alongshore variations in hydrodynamic forcing. Ongoing research is focused on identifying specific metrics that can be easily extracted from topographic DEMs to aid in dune retreat predictions.

  13. Sedimentary rhythms in coastal dunes as a record of intra-annual changes in wind climate (Łeba, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, J.; Lindhorst, S.; Betzler, C.; Bierstedt, S. E.; Borówka, R. K.

    2017-08-01

    It is shown that coastal dunes bear a so far unread archive of annual wind intensity. Active dunes at the Polish coast near Łeba consist of two genetic units: primary dunes with up to 18 m high eastward-dipping foresets, temporarily superimposed by smaller secondary dunes. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data reveal that the foresets of the primary dunes are bundled into alternating packages imaged as either low- or high-amplitude reflections. High-amplitude packages are composed of quartz sand with intercalated heavy-minerals layers. Low-amplitude packages lack these heavy-mineral concentrations. Dune net-progradation is towards the east, reflecting the prevalence of westerly winds. Winds blowing parallel to the dune crest winnow the lee slope, leaving layers enriched in heavy minerals. Sediment transport to the slip face of the dunes is enhanced during the winter months, whereas winnowing predominantly takes place during the spring to autumn months, when the wind field is bi-directional. As a consequence of this seasonal shift, the sedimentary record of one year comprises one low- and one high-amplitude GPR reflection interval. This sedimentary pattern is a persistent feature of the Łeba dunes and recognized to resemble a sedimentary "bar code". To overcome hiatuses in the bar code of individual dunes and dune-to-dune variations in bar-code quality, dendrochronological methods were adopted to compile a composite bar code from several dunes. The resulting data series shows annual variations in west-wind intensity at the southern Baltic coast for the time period 1987 to 2012. Proxy-based wind data are validated against instrumental based weather observations.

  14. CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF DUNES FIXATION IN THE SEMI-ARIDE ENVIRONMENT: ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saida Akkouche

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In our study,of dune fixation , spontaneous vegetation was installed inside the grid. Over the years, plant diversity has improved with74 species in 2009 (22 families and 61 genera, demonstrating a significant reduction of troubles, caused especially by the erosive action of winds and other microclimate factors. Indeed, in non-fixed dunes (mechanical and biological fixation vegetation is particularly present in the lower slopes of the dunes shelter where humidity is relatively high and the soil fertile. But in fixed environments, vegetation climbs to the top of dunes, improving: I The Microclimate; creating a gentle atmosphere under the effect of shade and transpiration; II Floor; increasing its humidity and improving its fertility through the provision of litter. On all of the fixed dunes and under the feet of planted species a surface layer of soil , sometimes reduced in a few centimeters, is formed by fine particles of clays and acting as a shield which reduces evaporation and therefore allows a relatively large water retention preserved for a longer period of the year. This layer is called "Self-mulching" is a colloidal material which sticks the sand after a biological dune fixation.

  15. Experimental Measurement of Diffusive Extinction Depth and Soil Moisture Gradients in Southwestern Saudi Arabian Dune Sand

    KAUST Repository

    Mughal, Iqra

    2013-05-01

    In arid lands, a major contribution to water loss is by soil water evaporation. Desert sand dunes in arid regions are devoid of runoff and have high rates of infiltration. Rainwater is commonly stored within them because of the low permeability soils in the underlying desert pavement. In such cases, moisture is confined in the sand dune below a depth, termed as the “extinction depth”, where it is protected from evaporation during long dry periods. Moreover, desert sand dunes have sparse vegetation, which results in low transpiration losses from the stored water. The water accumulated below the extinction depth of the sand dunes can be utilized for various purposes such as in irrigation to support desert agriculture. In this study, field experiments were conducted in Western Saudi Arabia to monitor the soil moisture gradients and determine the diffusive extinction depth of dune sand. The dune sand was saturated with water and was exposed to natural conditions (evaporation and precipitation). The decline of the water level in the sand column was continuously recorded using transducers and sensors installed at different depths monitored the temporal variation of temperature and moisture content within the sand. The hydrological simulator HYDRUS-1D was used to construct the vertical profiles of soil water content and temperature and the results obtained from HYDRUS-1D were compared to the gradients monitored by the sensors.

  16. Erosion reasons and rate on accumulative Polish dune coast caused by the January 2012 storm surge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz A. Łabuz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Polish coast is a non-tidal area; its shores are affected mainly by autumn-winter storm surges. Those of 6 and 14 January 2012 are representative of the forces driving the erosion of normally accumulative sections of coastal dunes, monitored by the author since 1997. The sea level maximum during these two storm surges reached 1.2 to 1.5 m amsl along the Polish coast. Land forms up to 3 m amsl were inundated. Beaches and low parts of the coast up to this height were rebuilt by sea waves attacking the coast for almost 12 days. Quantitative analyses of the morphological dynamics of the coastal dunes are presented for 57 profiles located along the coast. Only those accumulative sections of the Polish coast are analysed where sand accumulation did occur and led to new foredune development. The mean rate of dune erosion was 2.5 m3 per square metre with an average toe retreat of 1.4 m. Erosion understood as dune retreat was greater when a beach was lower (correlation coefficient 0.8. Dune erosion did not occur on coasts with beaches higher than 3.2 m or on lower ones covered by embryo dunes.

  17. Trickle-down boundary conditions in aeolian dune-field pattern formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R. C.; Kocurek, G.

    2015-12-01

    One the one hand, wind-blown dune-field patterns emerge within the overarching boundary conditions of climate, tectonics and eustasy implying the presence of these signals in the aeolian geomorphic and stratigraphic record. On the other hand, dune-field patterns are a poster-child of self-organization, in which autogenic processes give rise to patterned landscapes despite remarkable differences in the geologic setting (i.e., Earth, Mars and Titan). How important are climate, tectonics and eustasy in aeolian dune field pattern formation? Here we develop the hypothesis that, in terms of pattern development, dune fields evolve largely independent of the direct influence of 'system-scale' boundary conditions, such as climate, tectonics and eustasy. Rather, these boundary conditions set the stage for smaller-scale, faster-evolving 'event-scale' boundary conditions. This 'trickle-down' effect, in which system-scale boundary conditions indirectly influence the event scale boundary conditions provides the uniqueness and richness of dune-field patterned landscapes. The trickle-down effect means that the architecture of the stratigraphic record of dune-field pattern formation archives boundary conditions, which are spatially and temporally removed from the overarching geologic setting. In contrast, the presence of an aeolian stratigraphic record itself, reflects changes in system-scale boundary conditions that drive accumulation and preservation of aeolian strata.

  18. Mediterranean coastal dune systems: Which abiotic factors have the most influence on plant communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Matteo; Bertoni, Duccio; Sarti, Giovanni; Ciccarelli, Daniela

    2014-08-01

    Mediterranean coastal dunes are dynamic and heterogeneous ecosystems characterised by a strong interaction between abiotic and biotic factors. The present study aimed to adopt a multidisciplinary approach - integrating data on dune morphology, sediment texture and soil parameters as well as shoreline trend - in order to define which are the abiotic factors that most affect the distribution and composition of Mediterranean plant dune communities. The study was carried out in two protected areas, located in central Italy, subjected to different shoreline trends in recent years. 75 plots were identified along eleven randomly positioned cross-shore transects, starting from the beach continuing up to the plant communities of the backdunes. In each plot floristic and environmental data - such as distance to the coastline, plot altitude, inclination, shoreline trend, mean grain-size, sorting, pH, conductivity and organic matter concentration - were collected. The analyses revealed significant changes of vegetational cover, dune morphology and geopedological features along the coast-to-inland gradient. Relationships between vegetation composition and environmental factors were investigated through Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). Four factors - distance to the coastline, mean grain-size, shoreline trend and organic matter - were found to be closely correlated with the floristic composition of plant communities. Finally, soil properties were highlighted as the most determinant factors of community zonation in these Mediterranean coastal dune ecosystems. These results could be taken into account by local managers in conservation actions such as protecting the eroding foredunes as well as in artificial dune reconstructions.

  19. CFD evaluation of erosion rate around a bridge near a sand dune

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Huang, Ning; Dun, Hongchao; Wang, Wenbo

    2017-04-01

    This study performs a series of simulations through solving the Navier-Stokes equations and the RNG k-ε turbulence model to investigate the wind erosion rates around a bridge in a desert area with sand dunes. The digital elevation model of sand dunes and the bridge model are obtained respectively from hypsographic map and construction drawings. Through combining them into the CFD software of Fluent the simulation zone was formed. The data of wind speed obtained from field observation is fitted into a logarithm format, which was imported into Fluent model as a inlet wind speed condition. Then, the effect of Dun-Go railway on wind-blown sand movement of the neighbouring environment is simulated. The results exhibit that affected by both the sand dune and bridge, the flow field is in a complex condition. It is also shown that the bridge in upstream of the sand dune will not increase the sand transport rate intensively, but change both wind velocity gradient and turbulence kinetic energy over surface of sand dune. On the other hand, when the bridge is built downstream the sand dune, simulation results show that sand deposition rate would be decreased in reference region downstream the pier.

  20. Plant functional traits and diversity in sand dune ecosystems across different biogeographic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, P.; Bergmeier, E.

    2016-07-01

    Plant species of a functional group respond similarly to environmental pressures and may be expected to act similarly on ecosystem processes and habitat properties. However, feasibility and applicability of functional groups in ecosystems across very different climatic regions have not yet been studied. In our approach we specified the functional groups in sand dune ecosystems of the Mediterranean, Hyrcanian and Irano-Turanian phytogeographic regions. We examined whether functional groups are more influenced by region or rather by habitat characteristics, and identified trait syndromes associated with common habitat types in sand dunes (mobile dunes, stabilized dunes, salt marshes, semi-wet sands, disturbed habitats). A database of 14 traits, 309 species and 314 relevés was examined and trait-species, trait-plot and species-plot matrices were built. Cluster analysis revealed similar plant functional groups in sand dune ecosystems across regions of very different species composition and climate. Specifically, our study showed that plant traits in sand dune ecosystems are grouped reflecting habitat affiliation rather than region and species pool. Environmental factors and constraints such as sand mobility, soil salinity, water availability, nutrient status and disturbance are more important for the occurrence and distribution of plant functional groups than regional belonging. Each habitat is shown to be equipped with specific functional groups and can be described by specific sets of traits. In restoration ecology the completeness of functional groups and traits in a site may serve as a guideline for maintaining or restoring the habitat.

  1. Deformed barchans under alternating flows: Flume experiments and comparison with barchan dunes within Proctor Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Keisuke; Endo, Noritaka

    2007-10-01

    It is generally considered that barchans, isolated crescentic-shaped dunes, develop where wind is unidirectional and the available sand is insufficient to cover the entire dune field; however, Bishop [Bishop, M.A., 2001. Seasonal variation of crescentic dune morphology and morphometry, Strzelecki Simpson desert, Australia. Earth Surface Process and Landforms 26, 783 791.] observed barchans that developed in areas where winds blow seasonally in opposite directions and described a peculiar deformation feature, the “rear slipface,” that is not found in ordinary barchans. Barchans under such bidirectional flows are poorly understood, and it is necessary to study barchans that formed under many different flow conditions. We conducted flume experiments to investigate the deformation of barchans under alternating water flow, and observed new deformation features in addition to rear slipfaces. We conclude that the deformation of barchans can be categorized into four types, one of which shows morphologies similar to barchans within Proctor Crater, Mars. The deformation type depends on the strength of the reverse flow relative to the forward flow and the absolute velocity of the forward flow. Comparison of our results with barchan dunes within Proctor Crater enable us to qualitatively estimate the wind strength and direction related to dune formation on Mars. These results are in agreement with those of Fenton et al. [Fenton, L.K., Toigo, A.D., Richardson, M.I., 2005. Aeolian processes in Proctor Crater on Mars: Mesoscale modeling of dune-forming winds. Journal of Geophysical Research 110 (E6), E06005.].

  2. 77 FR 16858 - Meeting of the National Park System Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    .... Indiana The Republic, Columbus, IN. Kansas Black Jack Battlefield, Douglas County, KS. Massachusetts Central Congregational Church, Boston, MA. Nevada McKeen Motorcar 70 (Virginia & Truckee Railway Motor Car..., MA (updated and additional documentation). B. National Historic Trails Program Proposed National...

  3. Large-scale climate variation modifies the winter grouping behavior of endangered Indiana bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thogmartin, Wayne E.; McKann, Patrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Power laws describe the functional relationship between 2 quantities, such as the frequency of a group as the multiplicative power of group size. We examined whether the annual size of well-surveyed wintering populations of endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) followed a power law, and then leveraged this relationship to predict whether the aggregation of Indiana bats in winter was influenced by global climate processes. We determined that Indiana bat wintering populations were distributed according to a power law (mean scaling coefficient α = −0.44 [95% confidence interval {95% CI} = −0.61, −0.28). The antilog of these annual scaling coefficients ranged between 0.67 and 0.81, coincident with the three-fourths power found in many other biological phenomena. We associated temporal patterns in the annual (1983–2011) scaling coefficient with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index in August (βNAOAugust = −0.017 [90% CI = −0.032, −0.002]), when Indiana bats are deciding when and where to hibernate. After accounting for the strong effect of philopatry to habitual wintering locations, Indiana bats aggregated in larger wintering populations during periods of severe winter and in smaller populations in milder winters. The association with August values of the NAO indicates that bats anticipate future winter weather conditions when deciding where to roost, a heretofore unrecognized role for prehibernation swarming behavior. Future research is needed to understand whether the three-fourths–scaling patterns we observed are related to scaling in metabolism.

  4. Characterization of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovars Indiana and Enteritidis from chickens in Eastern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lu

    Full Text Available A total of 310 Salmonella isolates were isolated from 6 broiler farms in Eastern China, serotyped according to the Kauffmann-White classification. All isolates were examined for susceptibility to 17 commonly used antimicrobial agents, representative isolates were examined for resistance genes and class I integrons using PCR technology. Clonality was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. There were two serotypes detected in the 310 Salmonella strains, which included 133 Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana isolates and 177 Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates. Antimicrobial sensitivity results showed that the isolates were generally resistant to sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, tetracycline, doxycycline and trimethoprim, and 95% of the isolates sensitive to amikacin and polymyxin. Among all Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana isolates, 108 (81.2% possessed the blaTEM, floR, tetA, strA and aac (6'-Ib-cr resistance genes. The detected carriage rate of class 1 integrons was 66.5% (206/310, with 6 strains carrying gene integron cassette dfr17-aadA5. The increasing frequency of multidrug resistance rate in Salmonella was associated with increasing prevalence of int1 genes (rs = 0.938, P = 0.00039. The int1, blaTEM, floR, tetA, strA and aac (6'-Ib-cr positive Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana isolates showed five major patterns as determined by PFGE. Most isolates exhibited the common PFGE patterns found from the chicken farms, suggesting that many multidrug-resistant isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana prevailed in these sources. Some isolates with similar antimicrobial resistance patterns represented a variety of Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana genotypes, and were derived from a different clone.

  5. Feasibility Study of Residential Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltaic Systems in the State of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Odeh, Mahmoud

    This study aims to measure the financial viability of installing and using a residential grid-connected PV system in the State of Indiana while predicting its performance in eighteen geographical locations within the state over the system's expected lifetime. The null hypothesis of the study is that installing a PV system for a single family residence in the State of Indiana will not pay for itself within 25 years. Using a systematic approach consisting of six steps, data regarding the use of renewable energy in the State of Indiana was collected from the website of the US Department of Energy to perform feasibility analysis of the installation and use of a standard-sized residential PV system. The researcher was not able to reject the null hypothesis that installing a PV system for a single family residence in the State of Indiana will not pay for itself within 25 years. This study found that the standard PV system does not produce a positive project balance and does not pay for itself within 25 years (the life time of the system) assuming the average cost of a system. The government incentive programs are not enough to offset the cost of installing the system against the cost of the electricity that would not be purchased from the utility company. It can be concluded that the cost of solar PV is higher than the market valuation of the power it produces; thus, solar PV did not compete on the cost basis with the traditional competitive energy sources. Reducing the capital cost will make the standard PV system economically viable in Indiana. The study found that the capital cost for the system should be reduced by 15% - 56%.

  6. Formation and propagation of sand dunes: A nonlinear treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltayeb, I.A.; Hamza, E.A.; Hassan, M.H.A.

    1986-06-01

    The nonlinear evolutionary equations previously derived for a plane with a rigid lid are here generalized to the free surface model. It is shown that similar equations are obtainable but the coefficients are strongly dependent on the Froude number, F, of the flow. (F is defined as U/(gd) 1/2 , where U is the basic uniform flow, g the gravitational acceleration and d the mean depth of the layer.) When F vanishes, the evolutionary equations reduce to those derived previously for the rigid lid model. The equations possess a dunetrain solution. The stability of this solution is analyzed and found to depend crucially on F. It is found, however, that for all values of F a dunetrain can develop into a solitary dune. The above results apply only when the phase shift δ, originally introduced for the instability of the linear problem, vanishes. For other admissible values of δ, the analysis showed that the neutral solution of the linear theory prevails in the nonlinear regime. (author)

  7. Analysis of wind-blown sand movement over transverse dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Huang, Ning; Zhu, Yuanjian

    2014-12-01

    Wind-blown sand movement often occurs in a very complicated desert environment where sand dunes and ripples are the basic forms. However, most current studies on the theoretic and numerical models of wind-blown sand movement only consider ideal conditions such as steady wind velocity, flat sand surface, etc. In fact, the windward slope gradient plays a great role in the lift-off and sand particle saltation. In this paper, we propose a numerical model for the coupling effect between wind flow and saltating sand particles to simulate wind-blown sand movement over the slope surface and use the SIMPLE algorithm to calculate wind flow and simulate sands transport by tracking sand particle trajectories. We furthermore compare the result of numerical simulation with wind tunnel experiments. These results prove that sand particles have obvious effect on wind flow, especially that over the leeward slope. This study is a preliminary study on windblown sand movement in a complex terrain, and is of significance in the control of dust storms and land desertification.

  8. The investigation of active Martian dune fields using very high resolution photogrammetric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungrack; Kim, Younghwi; Park, Minseong

    2016-10-01

    At the present time, arguments continue regarding the migration speeds of Martian dune fields and their correlation with atmospheric circulation. However, precisely measuring the spatial translation of Martian dunes has succeeded only a very few times—for example, in the Nili Patera study (Bridges et al. 2012) using change-detection algorithms and orbital imagery. Therefore, in this study, we developed a generic procedure to precisely measure the migration of dune fields with recently introduced 25-cm resolution orbital imagery specifically using a high-accuracy photogrammetric processor. The processor was designed to trace estimated dune migration, albeit slight, over the Martian surface by 1) the introduction of very high resolution ortho images and stereo analysis based on hierarchical geodetic control for better initial point settings; 2) positioning error removal throughout the sensor model refinement with a non-rigorous bundle block adjustment, which makes possible the co-alignment of all images in a time series; and 3) improved sub-pixel co-registration algorithms using optical flow with a refinement stage conducted on a pyramidal grid processor and a blunder classifier. Moreover, volumetric changes of Martian dunes were additionally traced by means of stereo analysis and photoclinometry. The established algorithms have been tested using high-resolution HIRISE time-series images over several Martian dune fields. Dune migrations were iteratively processed both spatially and volumetrically, and the results were integrated to be compared to the Martian climate model. Migrations over well-known crater dune fields appeared to be almost static for the considerable temporal periods and were weakly correlated with wind directions estimated by the Mars Climate Database (Millour et al. 2015). As a result, a number of measurements over dune fields in the Mars Global Dune Database (Hayward et al. 2014) covering polar areas and mid-latitude will be demonstrated

  9. The investigation of Martian dune fields using very high resolution photogrammetric measurements and time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Park, M.; Baik, H. S.; Choi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    At the present time, arguments continue regarding the migration speeds of Martian dune fields and their correlation with atmospheric circulation. However, precisely measuring the spatial translation of Martian dunes has rarely conducted only a very few times Therefore, we developed a generic procedure to precisely measure the migration of dune fields with recently introduced 25-cm resolution High Resolution Imaging Science Experimen (HIRISE) employing a high-accuracy photogrammetric processor and sub-pixel image correlator. The processor was designed to trace estimated dune migration, albeit slight, over the Martian surface by 1) the introduction of very high resolution ortho images and stereo analysis based on hierarchical geodetic control for better initial point settings; 2) positioning error removal throughout the sensor model refinement with a non-rigorous bundle block adjustment, which makes possible the co-alignment of all images in a time series; and 3) improved sub-pixel co-registration algorithms using optical flow with a refinement stage conducted on a pyramidal grid processor and a blunder classifier. Moreover, volumetric changes of Martian dunes were additionally traced by means of stereo analysis and photoclinometry. The established algorithms have been tested using high-resolution HIRISE images over a large number of Martian dune fields covering whole Mars Global Dune Database. Migrations over well-known crater dune fields appeared to be almost static for the considerable temporal periods and were weakly correlated with wind directions estimated by the Mars Climate Database (Millour et al. 2015). Only over a few Martian dune fields, such as Kaiser crater, meaningful migration speeds (>1m/year) compared to phtotogrammetric error residual have been measured. Currently a technical improved processor to compensate error residual using time series observation is under developing and expected to produce the long term migration speed over Martian dune

  10. Dynamic dune management, integrating objectives of nature development and coastal safety: Examples from the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Sebastiaan M.; Mulder, Jan P. M.; Slings, Quirinus L.; Geelen, Luc H. W. T.; Damsma, Petra

    2013-10-01

    This paper discusses and compares results of management interventions to remobilise dunes and obtain more autonomous changes in foredunes resulting from a change in coastal defence policy. In recent decades, nature conservation managers tried to restore aeolian dynamics and dune mobility landward of foredunes to maintain threatened, rare pioneer species. Results indicate that destabilisation activities yielded an important increase of blowing sand and its effects on ecology but with a limited effect on the desired integral remobilization of dunes. Roots remaining in the sand after removal of vegetation and soil is one of the main problems. Follow up removal of roots for 3 to 5 years seems to be essential, but it is not clear whether the dunes will remain mobile in the long term. In 1990 the Dutch government decided to maintain the position of the coastline by artificial sand nourishment. An intensive management of the foredunes was no longer required. Consequently, natural processes in the foredunes revived, and the sediment budget of the beach-dune system changed. Two main types of responses are visible. In some areas, increased input of sand resulted in the development of embryonic dunes seaward of the former foredunes, leading to increased stabilisation of the former foredunes. In other areas, development of embryonic dunes was insignificant despite the increased sand input, but wind erosion features developed in the foredunes, and the environment was more dynamic. The reasons for the differences are not clear, and the interaction between shoreface, beach and dunes is still poorly understood. Until now, attempts to mobilise the inner dunes were independent of changes made to the foredunes. We argue that an integrated, dynamic approach to coastal management, taking account of all relevant functions (including safety and natural values) and the dune-beach system as a whole, may provide new and durable solutions. An integrated approach would ideally provide fresh

  11. Land Use and Land Cover - CEMETERY_AREAS_IDNR_IN: Cemetery Site Areas in Indiana (Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology, 1:5,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — IDNR documentation states - “This dataset contains locations of cemetery sites in Indiana, regardless of age, number of graves, or size of the cemetery. Is it not...

  12. Land Use and Land Cover - CEMETERY_SITES_IDNR_IN: Cemetery Site Locations in Indiana (Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Historic Preservation and Archaeology, 1:5,000, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — IDNR documentation states - “This dataset contains locations of cemetery sites in Indiana, regardless of age, number of graves, or size of the cemetery. Is it not...

  13. A contribution of gravity and seismic data in understanding the geometry of the Zouaraa - Ouchtata dune (NW Tunisia): Hydrogeological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djebbi, M.; Gabtni, H.

    2018-01-01

    As it is located in a very particular and complex domain within the Tellian fold and thrust belt zone in northwestern Tunisia, the Nefza area has always been challenging. Geological, hydrogeological and geophysical studies were conducted in the region. A multidisciplinary study was performed by combining geological and geophysical techniques. Gravity data processing revealed the continuity of the outcropping series of Argoub Er Romane and Jebel Hamra underneath the dune deposits building a high zone separating the dune of Zouaraa and Ouchtata into two asymmetric basins. It forms a threshold zone that controls the geometry of the dune reservoir in the area. The distribution of the gravity anomaly along the dune of Zouaraa proved the heterogeneity of this dune reservoir. Gravity data modeling for this area confirmed these results and showed a preferential tendency of subsidence to the northwest and thus the thickening of Zouaraa dune sequence as compared to that of Ouchtata.

  14. Method of Relating Grain Size Distribution to Hydraulic Conductivity in Dune Sands to Assist in Assessing Managed Aquifer Recharge Projects: Wadi Khulays Dune Field, Western Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver M. Lopez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Planning for use of a dune field aquifer for managed aquifer recharge (MAR requires that hydraulic properties need to be estimated over a large geographic area. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of dune sands is commonly estimated from grain size distribution data by employing some type of empirical equation. Over 50 samples from the Wadi Khulays dune field in Western Saudi Arabia were collected and the grain size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity were measured. An evaluation of 20 existing empirical equations showed a generally high degree of error in the predicted compared to the measured hydraulic conductivity values of these samples. Statistical analyses comparing estimated versus measured hydraulic conductivity demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between hydraulic conductivity and mud percentage (and skewness. The modified Beyer equation, which showed a generally low prediction error, was modified by adding a second term fitting parameter related to the mud concentration based on 25 of the 50 samples analyzed. An inverse optimization process was conducted to quantify the fitting parameter and a new empirical equation was developed. This equation was tested against the remaining 25 samples analyzed and produced an estimated saturated hydraulic conductivity with the lowest error of any empirical equation. This methodology can be used for large dune field hydraulic conductivity estimation and reduce planning costs for MAR systems.

  15. The role of sexual vs. asexual recruitment of Artemisia wudanica in transition zone habitats between inter-dune lowlands and active dunes in Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongcui; Alberto, Busso Carlos; Jiang, Deming; Ala, Musa; Li, Xuehua; Zhou, Quanlai; Lin, Jixiang; Ren, Guohua; Jia, Lian

    2016-04-01

    Artemisia wudanica is an endemic, perennial, pioneering psammophyte species in the sand dune ecosystems of western Horqin Sand Land in northern China. However, no studies have addressed how sexual and asexual reproduction modes of A. wudanica perform at the transitional zones between active dune inter-dune lowlands and active dunes. In early spring, quadrats were randomly set up in the study area to monitor surviving seedling and/or ramet density and frequency coming from sexual/asexual reproduction of A. wudanica. Iron sticks were inserted near each quadrat to determine wind erosion intensity (WE). Additionally, soil samples were collected nearby each quadrat to test for soil moisture (SM), organic matter (OM) and pH. Surviving seedlings of A. wudanica showed an inverse response in comparison with ramets to SM, OM and WE. Soil moisture showed the most positive effect, and WE the negative effect, on surviving, sexual reproduction seedlings. Contrarily, WE had the most positive effect, and SM the negative effect, on asexual reproduction ramets. This suggests that increases in SM and decreases in WE should benefit recruitment of A. wudanica seedlings. On the contrary, ramets coming from asexual reproduction showed a different response to environmental factors in transition zone habitats. While SM was not a key constraint for the survival of seedlings, they showed a better, positive response to wind erosion environments. Overall, various study environmental parameters could be improved to foster A. wudanica invasion and settlement in the plant community through different reproductive modes, thereby promoting vegetation restoration and rehabilitation.

  16. Method of Relating Grain Size Distribution to Hydraulic Conductivity in Dune Sands to Assist in Assessing Managed Aquifer Recharge Projects: Wadi Khulays Dune Field, Western Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel

    2015-11-12

    Planning for use of a dune field aquifer for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) requires that hydraulic properties need to be estimated over a large geographic area. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of dune sands is commonly estimated from grain size distribution data by employing some type of empirical equation. Over 50 samples from the Wadi Khulays dune field in Western Saudi Arabia were collected and the grain size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity were measured. An evaluation of 20 existing empirical equations showed a generally high degree of error in the predicted compared to the measured hydraulic conductivity values of these samples. Statistical analyses comparing estimated versus measured hydraulic conductivity demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between hydraulic conductivity and mud percentage (and skewness). The modified Beyer equation, which showed a generally low prediction error, was modified by adding a second term fitting parameter related to the mud concentration based on 25 of the 50 samples analyzed. An inverse optimization process was conducted to quantify the fitting parameter and a new empirical equation was developed. This equation was tested against the remaining 25 samples analyzed and produced an estimated saturated hydraulic conductivity with the lowest error of any empirical equation. This methodology can be used for large dune field hydraulic conductivity estimation and reduce planning costs for MAR systems.

  17. Advanced Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Imaging Radar (InSAR) for Dune Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havivi, Shiran; Amir, Doron; Schvartzman, Ilan; August, Yitzhak; Mamman, Shimrit; Rotman, Stanely R.; Blumberg, Dan G.

    2016-04-01

    Aeolian morphologies are formed in the presence of sufficient wind energy and available lose particles. These processes occur naturally or are further enhanced or reduced by human intervention. The dimensions of change are dependent primarily on the wind energy and surface properties. Since the 1970s, remote sensing imagery, both optical and radar, have been used for documentation and interpretation of the geomorphologic changes of sand dunes. Remote sensing studies of aeolian morphologies is mostly useful to document major changes, yet, subtle changes, occurring in a period of days or months in scales of centimeters, are very difficult to detect in imagery. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is an imaging technique for measuring Earth's surface topography and deformation. InSAR images are produced by measuring the radar phase difference between two separated antennas that view the same surface area. Classical InSAR is based on high coherence between two or more images. The output (interferogram) can show subtle changes with an accuracy of several millimeters to centimeters. Very little work has been done on measuring or identifying the changes in dunes using InSAR methods. The reason is that dunes tend to be less coherent than firm, stable, surfaces. This work aims to demonstrate how interferometric decorrelation can be used for identifying dune instability. We hypothesize and demonstrate that the loss of radar coherence over time on dunes can be used as an indication of the dune's instability. When SAR images are acquired at sufficiently close intervals one can measure the time it takes to lose coherence and associate this time with geomorphic stability. To achieve our goals, the coherence change detection method was used, in order to identify dune stability or instability and the dune activity level. The Nitzanim-Ashdod coastal dunes along the Mediterranean, 40 km south of Tel-Aviv, Israel, were chosen as a case study. The dunes in this area are of

  18. Bench-Scale Investigation of Composting for Remediation of Explosives-Contaminated Soils from Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane, Indiana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Preston, Kurt

    1998-01-01

    ...), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7- tetrazocine (HMX). The Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Crane, Indiana, provides material and logistic support to the Navy's weapon systems, including expendable and nonexpendable ordnance items...

  19. Hospitals - HOSPITALS_HAZUS_IN: Hospitals and Clinics in Indiana, Derived from HAZUS (Federal Emergency Management Agency, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — HOSPITALS_HAZUS_IN is a point shapefile that shows locations of hospitals and clinics in Indiana. HOSPITALS_HAZUS_IN was derived from the shapefile named "HOSPITAL."...

  20. 75 FR 8428 - The Indiana Rail Road Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Martin and Lawrence Counties, IN; CSX...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ...; Richard Wilson, on behalf of Radius Indiana; Citizens Against Rails-to-Trails; and several landowners..., Lawrence County Tourism Commission Executive Director; Gene McCracken, Lawrence County Economic Growth...