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Sample records for indian patient population

  1. Indian populations

    Spahni,J

    1974-01-01

    Le Prof. J.C. Spahni qui a parcouru les Andes, Vénezuela etc. parle de ses expériences et connaissances qu'il a vécu au cours des 14 ans parmi les populations indiennes de la Cordillière des Andes. Il a ramené des objets artisanals indiens lesquels l'auditoire peut acquérir. L'introduction-conférence est suivi d'un film, commenté par lui-même; après l'entracte il y un débat-dialogue avec le public.

  2. Gorlin–Goltz syndrome: A case series of 5 patients in North Indian population with comparative analysis of literature

    Lata, Jeevan; Verma, Nitin; Kaur, Amandeep

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In Indian scenario, Gorlin–Goltz syndrome (nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome [NBCCS]) has been rarely reported. The clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings and major and minor criteria in five cases of NBCCS in North Indian population have been presented along with a discussion of the role of gene mutation analysis in early diagnosis of syndrome. Materials and Methods: The diagnostic findings of Gorlin–Goltz syndrome in 5 patients were compared with other reports in Indian population and with reports of this syndrome in other parts of the world. Results: The most common features seen were keratocystic odontogenic tumors (100%), calcifications of falx cerebri (60%), palmar-plantar pits (80%), rib anomalies (80%), macroencephaly (60%), ocular hypertelorism (80%), and frontal bossing (60%) in our series. Retained deciduous teeth seen in 80% patients whose association has not been previously reported has been presented. None of our patients had basal cell carcinoma, syndactyly or polydactyly, pectus deformity, bridging of sella turcica, pigmented nevi, or family history of this syndrome in contrast to such findings in other Indian patients. Medulloblastoma has not been reported in any Indian patient so far compared to this finding in other studies conducted worldwide. Conclusions: Combining the features of 48 patients in 38 cases of NBCCS being published in Indian literature with five cases of our series and on comparison with other studies in the world, a wide disparity in different ethnic groups and a wide variation in presentation of syndrome within the same population is suggested. PMID:26604574

  3. Gorlin–Goltz syndrome: A case series of 5 patients in North Indian population with comparative analysis of literature

    Jeevan Lata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In Indian scenario, Gorlin–Goltz syndrome (nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome [NBCCS] has been rarely reported. The clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings and major and minor criteria in five cases of NBCCS in North Indian population have been presented along with a discussion of the role of gene mutation analysis in early diagnosis of syndrome. Materials and Methods: The diagnostic findings of Gorlin–Goltz syndrome in 5 patients were compared with other reports in Indian population and with reports of this syndrome in other parts of the world. Results: The most common features seen were keratocystic odontogenic tumors (100%, calcifications of falx cerebri (60%, palmar-plantar pits (80%, rib anomalies (80%, macroencephaly (60%, ocular hypertelorism (80%, and frontal bossing (60% in our series. Retained deciduous teeth seen in 80% patients whose association has not been previously reported has been presented. None of our patients had basal cell carcinoma, syndactyly or polydactyly, pectus deformity, bridging of sella turcica, pigmented nevi, or family history of this syndrome in contrast to such findings in other Indian patients. Medulloblastoma has not been reported in any Indian patient so far compared to this finding in other studies conducted worldwide. Conclusions: Combining the features of 48 patients in 38 cases of NBCCS being published in Indian literature with five cases of our series and on comparison with other studies in the world, a wide disparity in different ethnic groups and a wide variation in presentation of syndrome within the same population is suggested.

  4. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome: A case series of 5 patients in North Indian population with comparative analysis of literature.

    Lata, Jeevan; Verma, Nitin; Kaur, Amandeep

    2015-09-01

    In Indian scenario, Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome [NBCCS]) has been rarely reported. The clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings and major and minor criteria in five cases of NBCCS in North Indian population have been presented along with a discussion of the role of gene mutation analysis in early diagnosis of syndrome. The diagnostic findings of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome in 5 patients were compared with other reports in Indian population and with reports of this syndrome in other parts of the world. The most common features seen were keratocystic odontogenic tumors (100%), calcifications of falx cerebri (60%), palmar-plantar pits (80%), rib anomalies (80%), macroencephaly (60%), ocular hypertelorism (80%), and frontal bossing (60%) in our series. Retained deciduous teeth seen in 80% patients whose association has not been previously reported has been presented. None of our patients had basal cell carcinoma, syndactyly or polydactyly, pectus deformity, bridging of sella turcica, pigmented nevi, or family history of this syndrome in contrast to such findings in other Indian patients. Medulloblastoma has not been reported in any Indian patient so far compared to this finding in other studies conducted worldwide. Combining the features of 48 patients in 38 cases of NBCCS being published in Indian literature with five cases of our series and on comparison with other studies in the world, a wide disparity in different ethnic groups and a wide variation in presentation of syndrome within the same population is suggested.

  5. Are Indian patients with juvenile-onset ankylosing spondylitis taller than reference population ?

    Pulukool Sandhya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Paucity of growth retardation has been observed by us in patients with juvenile-onset ankylosing spondylitis (JAS in a tertiary care health centre in south India. We, therefore, undertook this pilot study to assess and compare anthropometry of patients with JAS who were 15 yr and older with that of adult onset ankylosing spondylitis (AAS and matching Indian reference population. Methods: Consecutive male patients (December 2009- October 2012 with JAS and AAS fulfilling Modified New York Criteria were selected after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Demography and anthropometry were noted. Height of both patient groups as well as their parents and siblings were compared with that of the reference population. Mid-parental height and delta height were derived. Those with delta height of >8.5 cm were compared with the remaining. Multivariate logistic regression was done for variables that were found to be significant by chi-square in bivariate analysis. Similar analysis was done for BMI also. Results: There was no significant difference in anthropometric variables between JAS and AAS groups. Twenty eight of the 30 (93.33% JAS patients were taller as compared to the reference population. Twenty six (86.67% AAS patients were taller than the reference population. The mean heights of JAS (170.67 ± 6.94 cm and AAS (168.2 ± 5.94 cm patients were significantly higher than the reference value of 163.11 cm; both p0 <0.001. Logistic regression revealed that tallness in JAS was associated positively with hypermobility (OR=23.46,95%CI 1.2-447.2, p0 =0.036. No significant association was detected for height in AAS and for BMI in both JAS and AAS groups. Interpretation & conclusions: No growth retardation was seen in patients with JAS in our study. Majority of patients with JAS and AAS were taller than reference population. The difference between mean height of JAS and AAS was not significant. Larger studies involving different

  6. Retrospective analysis of spinal trauma in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a descriptive study in Indian population.

    Mahajan, R; Chhabra, H S; Srivastava, A; Venkatesh, R; Kanagaraju, V; Kaul, R; Tandon, V; Nanda, A; Sangondimath, G; Patel, N

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to understand the demographics, mode of trauma, hospital stay, complications, neurological improvement, mortality and expenditure incurred by Indian patients with spinal trauma and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Retrospective analysis of the patient data admitted to a tertiary referral hospital from 2008 to 2013 with the diagnosis of AS and spinal trauma was carried out. The variables studied were demographics, mode of trauma, neurological status, neurological improvement, involved vertebral level, duration of hospital stay, comorbid factors, expenditure and complications during the stay. Forty-six patients with diagnosis of AS with spine trauma were admitted over the last 5 years with a total of 52 fractures. All were male patients; 58.6% had injury because of trivial trauma and 78.2% patients presented with neurological injury. C5 C6, C6 C7, C7 D1 and D12 were the most common injured level. Fractures through intervertebral disc were most common in cervical spine. Of the patients, 52.7% had shown neurological improvement of at least grade 1(AIS). Mean expenditure of patient admitted with spinal cord injury (SCI) with AS is 7957 USD (United States dollar), which is around five times the per capita income in India (as per year 2013). Males with AS are much more prone to spinal fractures than females and its incidence may be higher than previously reported. Domestic falls are the most common mechanism of spinal trauma in this population. High velocity injuries are associated with complete SCI. The study reinforces the need for development of subsidized spinal care services for SCI management.

  7. Population Pharmacokinetics of an Indian F(ab')2 Snake Antivenom in Patients with Russell's Viper (Daboia russelii) Bites

    Isbister, Geoffrey K.; Maduwage, Kalana; Saiao, Ana; Buckley, Nicholas A.; Jayamanne, Shaluka F.; Seyed, Shahmy; Mohamed, Fahim; Chathuranga, Umesh; Alexandre, Mendes; Abeysinghe, Chandana; Karunathilake, Harinda; Gawarammana, Indika; Lalloo, David; Janaka de Silva, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background\\ud \\ud There is limited information on antivenom pharmacokinetics. This study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of an Indian snake antivenom in humans with Russell’s viper bites.\\ud \\ud Methods/Principal Findings\\ud \\ud Patient data and serial blood samples were collected from patients with Russell’s viper (Daboia russelii) envenoming in Sri Lanka. All patients received Indian F(ab’)2 snake antivenom manufactured by VINS Bioproducts Ltd. Antivenom concentrations were measur...

  8. Prevalence of dental anomalies in Indian population

    Santosh, Patil; Bharati, Doni; Sumita, Kaswan; Farzan, Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Developmental anomalies of the dentition are not infrequently observed by the dental practitioner. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of dental anomalies in the Indian population. Study Design: A retrospective study of 4133 panoramic radiographs of patients, who attended the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Jodhpur Dental College General Hospital between September 2008 to December 2012 was done. The ages of the patients ranged from 13 to 38 year...

  9. Anthropometric parameters as indicators of metabolic derangements in schizophrenia patients stabilized on olanzapine in an Indian rural population

    Jayanta Kumar Rout

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: For any given body mass, Asian Indians have higher central obesity than Europeans. A periodic measurement of body mass index (BMI and waist hip ratio (WHR is practically more feasible than other parameters of metabolic syndrome by repeated blood collection. However, few studies are available on the relative importance of BMI and WHR as markers of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in schizophrenia patients stabilized on second generation antipsychotics in Indian population. Aim: We conducted the present study on such patients to examine whether BMI or WHR can better predict dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in these patients in a rural area. Settings and Design: The study was a hospital based case control study under rural settings on 38 schizophrenia patients stabilized on olanzapine and 30 matched controls. Materials and Methods: Fasting concentrations of blood glucose, lipid parameters and serum insulin were assessed. Data for Homeostatic model for assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, BMI, and WHR were obtained to assess the insulin resistance, overall body fat distribution and abdominal fat dispensation respectively. Statistical analysis used: ′t′ test was performed to assay any difference in corresponding mean values between cases and controls. Dependence of HOMA-IR on key parameters was assessed by analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA study. Results: Cases exhibited significantly higher values for HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc with a significantly lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc level. ANCOVA study reflected that irrespective of age and sex, HOMA-IR was dependent on serum triglyceride level and WHR (F=8.3 and 5.7 respectively, P<0.05, but not on BMI (F<0.001, P=0.997. Conclusions: Central obesity could be more closely associated with the pathogenesis of prediabetic state in our case group. So, WHR is a better anthropometric parameter than BMI for an early

  10. Clinical characteristics, angiographic profile and in hospital mortality in acute coronary syndrome patients in south indian population

    Rajni Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to study the clinical profile, risk factors prevalence, angiographic distribution, and severity of coronary artery stenosis in acute coronary syndrome (ACS patients of South Indian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 1562 patients of ACS were analyzed for various risk factors, angiographic pattern and severity of coronary heart disease, complications and in hospital mortality at Sri Jayadeva Institute of Cardiovascular Research and Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Results: Mean age of presentation was 54.71 ± 19.90 years. Majority were male 1242 (79.5% and rest were females. Most patients had ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI 995 (63.7% followed by unstable angina (UA 390 (25% and non-STEMI (NSTEMI 177 (11.3%. Risk factors; smoking was present in 770 (49.3%, hypertension in 628 (40.2%, diabetes in 578 (37%, and obesity in (29.64% patients. Angiography was done in 1443 (92.38% patients. left anterior descending was most commonly involved, left main (LM coronary artery was least common with near similar frequency of right coronary artery and left circumflex involvement among all three groups of ACS patients. Single-vessel disease was present in 168 (45.28% UA, 94 (56.29% NSTEMI and 468 (51.71% STEMI patients. Double-vessel disease was present in 67 (18.08% UA, 25 (14.97% NSTEMI and 172 (19.01% STEMI patients. Triple vessel disease was present in 28 (7.55% UA, 16 (9.58% NSTEMI, 72 (7.95% STEMI patients. LM disease was present in 12 (3.23% UA, 2 (1.19% NSTEMI and 9 (0.99% STEMI patients. Complications; ventricular septal rupture occurred in 3 (0.2%, free wall rupture in 2 (0.1%, cardiogenic shock in 45 (2.9%, severe mitral regurgitation in 3 (0.2%, complete heart block in 11 (0.7% patients. Total 124 (7.9% patients died in hospital after 2.1 ± 1.85 days of admission. Conclusion: STEMI was most common presentation. ACS occurred a decade earlier in comparison to Western population. Smoking was most prevalent

  11. Population Pharmacokinetics of an Indian F(ab'2 Snake Antivenom in Patients with Russell's Viper (Daboia russelii Bites.

    Geoffrey K Isbister

    Full Text Available There is limited information on antivenom pharmacokinetics. This study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of an Indian snake antivenom in humans with Russell's viper bites.Patient data and serial blood samples were collected from patients with Russell's viper (Daboia russelii envenoming in Sri Lanka. All patients received Indian F(ab'2 snake antivenom manufactured by VINS Bioproducts Ltd. Antivenom concentrations were measured with sandwich enzyme immunoassays. Timed antivenom concentrations were analysed using MONOLIXvs4.2. One, two and three compartment models with zero order input and first order elimination kinetics were assessed. Models were parameterized with clearance (CL, intercompartmental clearance (Q, central compartment volume (V and peripheral compartment volume (VP. Between-subject-variability (BSV on relative bioavailability (F was included to account for dose variations. Covariates effects (age, sex, weight, antivenom batch, pre-antivenom concentrations were explored by visual inspection and in model building. There were 75 patients, median age 57 years (40-70 y and 64 (85% were male. 411 antivenom concentration data points were analysed. A two compartment model with zero order input, linear elimination kinetics and a combined error model best described the data. Inclusion of BSV on F and weight as a covariate on V improved the model. Inclusion of pre-antivenom concentrations or different batches on BSV of F did not. Final model parameter estimates were CL,0.078 L h(-1, V,2.2L, Q,0.178 L h(-1 and VP,8.33L. The median half-life of distribution was 4.6 h (10-90%iles:2.6-7.1 h and half-life of elimination, 140 h (10th-90th percentilesx:95-223h.Indian F(ab'2 snake antivenom displayed biexponential disposition pharmacokinetics, with a rapid distribution half-life and more prolonged elimination half-life.

  12. Prevalence of dental anomalies in Indian population.

    Patil, Santosh; Doni, Bharati; Kaswan, Sumita; Rahman, Farzan

    2013-10-01

    Developmental anomalies of the dentition are not infrequently observed by the dental practitioner. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of dental anomalies in the Indian population. A retrospective study of 4133 panoramic radiographs of patients, who attended the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Jodhpur Dental College General Hospital between September 2008 to December 2012 was done. The ages of the patients ranged from 13 to 38 years with a mean age of 21.8 years. The orthopantomographs (OPGs) and dental records were examined for any unusual finding such as congenitally missing teeth, impactions, ectopic eruption, supernumerary teeth, odontoma, dilacerations, taurodontism, dens in dente, germination and fusion, among others. 1519 (36.7%) patients had at least one dental anomaly. The congenitally missing teeth 673 (16.3%) had the highest prevalence, followed by impacted teeth 641 (15.5%), supernumerary teeth 51 (1.2%) and microdontia 41 (1.0%). Other anomalies were found at lower prevalence ranging from transposition 7 (0.1%) to ectopic eruption 30 (0.7%). The most prevalent anomaly in the Indian population was congenitally missing teeth (16.3%), and the second frequent anomaly was impacted teeth (15.5%), whereas, macrodontia, odontoma and transposition were the least frequent anomalies, with a prevalence of 0.2%, 0.2% and 0.1% respectively. While the overall prevalence of these anomalies may be low, the early diagnosis is imperative for the patient management and treatment planning. Key words:Dental anomaly, prevalence, panoramic radiography.

  13. Prevalence of duodenal ulcer-promoting gene (dupA) of Helicobacter pylori in patients with duodenal ulcer in North Indian population.

    Arachchi, H S Jayasinghe; Kalra, Vijay; Lal, Banwari; Bhatia, Vikram; Baba, C S; Chakravarthy, S; Rohatgi, S; Sarma, Priyangshu M; Mishra, V; Das, Bimal; Ahuja, Vineet

    2007-12-01

    The duodenal ulcer (DU)-promoting gene (dupA) of Helicobacter pylori has been identified as a novel virulent marker associated with an increased risk for DU. The presence or absence of dupA gene of H. pylori present in patients with DU and functional dyspepsia in North Indian population was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and hybridization analysis. One hundred and sixty-six patients (96 DU and 70 functional dyspepsia) were included in this study. In addition, sequence diversity of dupA gene of H. pylori found in these patients was analyzed by sequencing the PCR products jhp0917 and jhp0918 on both strands with appropriate primers. PCR and hybridization analyses indicated that dupA gene was present in 37.5% (36/96) of H. pylori strains isolated from DU patients and 22.86% (16/70) of functional dyspepsia patients (p dupA was significantly associated with the cagA-positive genotype (p dupA gene with DU in this population. The dupA gene can be considered as a novel virulent marker for DU in this population.

  14. Nutritional status of the Indian population

    In addition, the Indian population is passing through a nutritional transition and is expected to witness higher prevalences of adult non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease according to the theory of `fetal origin of adult disease'. Clearly, there is a need for examining several ...

  15. Lobomycosis in Colombian Amer Indian patients.

    Rodríguez-Toro, G; Tellez, N

    1992-10-01

    Several foci of lobomycosis among Colombian Amer Indians population were described in the Casanare region of Colombia, near the Orinoco river on the Colombian-Venezuelan border. This paper reports 16 new patients. The prevalence of Lobo's disease was 8.5% in the Amoruas tribe. Nodular lesions were located on the elbow, scapular and lumbar regions, knees, feet and legs. Leg lesions were especially numerous, were confluent and tended to ulcerate. All cases were confirmed histologically. Two Negro patients were also described. The cases bring the total number of confirmed patients with lobomycosis in Colombia to 41. Twenty-five of these were Amer Indian patients from tribes living in the Orinoco and Amazon basins of the country.

  16. New modified english and hindi oswestry disability index in low back pain patients treated conservatively in Indian population.

    Nishant; Chhabra, Harvinder Singh; Kapoor, Kulwant Singh

    2014-10-01

    Prospective cohort study along with questionnaire. To measure the correlation of the visual analogue score (VAS), with (Oswestry disability Index [ODI], version 2.1a) in English, and modified ODI (English and Hindi version). To validate translated version of the modified ODI in English version to Hindi. Conflicting evidence in literature regarding the ability for existing ODI score to accurately measure the pain associated disability. One hundred and three patients conservatively treated for low back pain were enrolled in the study. The Pearson correlation coefficient for VAS and ODI along with the Cronbach α and test-retest reliability for Hindi version using the intraclass correlation coefficient was recorded. The new proposed translated Hindi version of ODI was carried out with established guidelines. The mean age in English and Hindi version of ODI was 53.5 years and 58.5 years, respectively. The gender ration was 21:24 in the English version and 35:23 in the Hindi version. The mean follow-up in English and Hindi version of ODI was 3.4 months and 50.27 months, respectively. The Cronbach coefficient α=0.7541 for English ODI and 0.9913 for Hindi ODI was recorded for the both modified versions. The new modified ODI is time saving and accurate, and it avoids the need to measure other scores and has stronger correlation with VAS score compared to the previous scores. We recommend this version for both English and Hindi speaking population as an assessment tool to measure the disability related to pain.

  17. Calcitonin receptor gene polymorphisms at codon 447 in patients with osteoporosis and chronic periodontitis in South Indian population – An observational study

    Anuradha Ankam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Chronic periodontitis and osteoporosis are multifactorial diseases which share common risk factors. Interactions between genetic and other factors determine the likely hood of osteoporotic fractures and chronic periodontitis. Calcitonin receptor (CTR gene polymorphism is one of the important factors which contribute to the development of osteoporosis and chronic periodontitis. Aims: This study highlights the association of CTR gene polymorphisms at codon 447 in patients with osteoporosis and chronic periodontitis and healthy controls in south Indian population. Settings and Design: The study was designed as a case–control retrospective, observational clinical trial which was conducted to assess the role of CTR gene polymorphism in patients with osteoporosis and periodontitis as well as in healthy controls. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 subjects were taken into the study comprising of 20 healthy and 30 osteoporotic subjects with chronic periodontitis between the age group of 30–55 years. Within the limitations of our study, only 50 subjects were taken in the study due to the strict sampling method (Patients who were just diagnosed with osteoporosis and periodontitis and hence not taking any medication. 2 ml of blood sample was collected in ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid containing vials, and polymerase chain reaction was run to identify CTR gene polymorphism. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done by student t-test. Pertaining to C > T allele pattern there was a significant difference between the test and control group. Results: A significant difference was observed between the test and control group in relation to the C > T allele pattern. Patients showing TT genotype distribution had greater periodontal destruction and lower bone-mineral density compared to CT genotype distribution followed by CC genotype distribution indicating TT homozygotes are more prone to the development of osteoporosis with

  18. Breast density in screening mammography in Indian population - Is it different from western population?

    Singh, Tulika; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Singla, Veenu; Kumar, Dileep; Gupta, Madhu; Singh, Gurpreet; Bal, Amanjit

    2018-05-01

    Mammography is the only method presently considered appropriate for mass screening of breast cancer. However, higher breast density was strongly associated with lower mammographic sensitivity. Breast density is also identified as independent and strongest risk factors for breast cancer. Studies have shown women with high breast density have four to six times increased risk of breast cancer as compare to women with fatty breast. It varies between different age group it generally decreases with increasing age in postmenopausal women and it can be different in different ethnic groups and people from different geographical areas. This study evaluates the breast density in Indian population and its relationship with the age. We reviewed of all screening mammography examinations performed from May 2012 to January 2015 at our institute PGIMER, Chandigarh, INDIA. Descriptive analyses were used to examine the association between age and breast density. A total of 6132 screening mammograms were performed. Each subgroup categorized by decade of age. There was a significant inverse relationship between age and breast density (P density in Indian and Western population with more Indians having ACR Grade 1 and 2 and Western population having 2 and 3. We found an inverse relationship between patient age and mammographic breast density. However, there were a large proportion of young women who had lower grades of mammographic density which could potentially benefit from the use of routine screening mammography in this subgroup of patients. Moreover, the breast density of Indian population is less when compared to the Western population. This might suggest that mammography is a good modality of choice for screening Indian population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Relationship between the Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer (RNFL parameters and Visual field loss in established glaucoma patients in South Indian population

    Elangovan Suma, Puri K Sanjeev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Optical coherence tomography (OCT and Scanning LASER polarimetry (GDX-VCC are newer techniques to analyse retinal nerve fibre loss in glaucoma. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between the Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer(RNFL parameters measured using Stratus-OCT and GDx-VCC and visual field loss by Octopus interzeag perimetry in established glaucoma patients in South Indian Population. Materials and methods: Prospectively planned cross sectional study of 67 eyes of 34 established glaucoma patients on medical management. The mean age of patients was 46.911 years (SD+13.531. A complete ophthalmic examination, automated perimetry with octopus interzeag 1-2-3 perimeter, retinal nerve fibre analysis with GDx VCC and Stratus OCT was done. The differences between the mean RNFL parameters in the presence or absence of field defects were evaluated. Results: The data analysed were mean deviation, loss variance, OCT total average nerve fibre thickness, GDX VCC- TSNIT average and Nerve fibre indicator (NFI.The data were split into two subgroups on the basis of presence or absence of visual field defect and analysed. The difference between the mean value of NFI between the subgroups was highly significant with a p value < 0.01.The OCT parameter Total average nerve fiber layer thickness differed significantly between the two subgroups (p value <0.05. The mean GDx TSNIT average did not differ significantly between the two subgroups. Conclusion: The total average nerve fibre thickness by OCT correlated better with visual field loss than the GDX TSNIT average .Among the GDx parameters, the NFI was found to be a better indicator of visual field damage than the average thickness.

  20. Spectrum of CREBBP mutations in Indian patients with Rubinstein ...

    Prakash

    Rubinstein–Taybi syndrome. NEETI SHARMA, AVINASH M MALI and SHARMILA A BAPAT ..... Supplementary table 4. Exon mutations in RSTS patients in the Indian population. S.No. Gene Position Sense /. Missense. Patient. Exon. Amino acid change. Novel/de novo/SNP. Domain. 1 g.3276G>C missense. RSTS13a. 32 p.

  1. Hippocampal volumetry: Normative data in the Indian population.

    Mohandas, Aravind Narayan; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Prathyusha, Parthipulli Vasuki; Gupta, Arun K

    2014-07-01

    Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is the most common cause of temporal lobe epilepsy. Quantitative analysis of the hippocampus using volumetry is commonly being used in the diagnosis of MTS and is being used as a marker in prognostication of seizure control. Although normative data for hippocampal volume (HV) is available for the western population, no such data is available for the Indian population. The aim of the study was to establish normative data for HV for the Indian population, which can aid in the accurate diagnosis of MTS. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 200 healthy volunteers were acquired using a 3 Tesla (3T) MRI scanner. Manual segmentation and volumetry was done using Siemens Syngo software. The data was analyzed using two tailed t-test to detect associations between HV and age, gender, and education. The data so obtained was also correlated with the data available from the rest of the world. A mean HV of 2.411 cm(3) (standard deviation -0.299) was found in the study, which was significantly smaller when compared to the data from the western population. The right hippocampus was larger than the left, with a mean volume of 2.424 cm(3) and 2.398 cm(3), respectively. HV was detected to be significantly higher in males. No association was found between HV and age and education. The values obtained in this study may be adopted as a standard in the evaluation of patients with intractable epilepsy.

  2. Complex genetic origin of Indian populations and its implications

    2012-10-15

    Oct 15, 2012 ... statistical analyses, we predicted that the present-day. Indian populations .... of type 2 diabetes only amongst Indians (Metspalu et al. 2011). Our other ... A new variety of spondyloepi(meta)physeal dysplasia of the autosomal ...

  3. Serum PSA levels in the Indian population: Is it different?

    Agrawal, Amit; Karan, Shailesh Chandra

    2017-04-01

    Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is an important tumour, marker which is widely used to trigger trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy. However, the PSA levels vary with race and ethnicity. Therefore, there is a need to have an Indian reference range. All adult male patients meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in this study. They were subjected to assessment of serum total PSA, digital rectal examination and trans-abdominal ultrasound. If any one or more of these were found abnormal, then a TRUS-guided 12-core prostate biopsy was done. Patients who were detected to have prostatic cancer were excluded from the final analysis. The data so obtained was grouped among the following three age groups: 40-49, 50-59 and 60-70 years, and the age-specific PSA values, prostatic volume and PSA density were found. A total of 1772 patients were analysed. The mean serum total PSA was 1.76 ng/ml with a standard deviation of 2.566 ng/ml. Group-wise age distribution of the mean serum total PSA was 1.22, 1.97 and 2.08 ng/ml in 40-49, 50-59 and 60-70 years age groups. The mean total PSA and the age-specific PSA range tend to be lower in the Indians than the Western population.

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms at interleukin (IL-1β + 3954 and vitamin D receptor (VDR TaqI in chronic periodontitis patients: A pilot study in North Indian population

    Anika Daing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing evidences support the role of genetic factors in susceptibility to chronic periodontitis. The aim of the present pilot study was to explore the association of two potential single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: Interleukin (IL-1β + 3954 (rs1143634, C > T and vitamin D receptor (VDR TaqI (rs731236, T > C with chronic periodontitis in a North Indian population. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight chronic periodontitis subjects and 47 periodontally healthy controls were recruited. Individual samples of venous blood were obtained from each subject. Genotyping was done by polymerase chain reaction, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. Logistic regression and chi square test were used for genetic association analysis and a P value less than 0.05 taken as statistical significance. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi square test and odds ratio (OR was used. Results: Genotypes and alleles of SNP IL-1β + 3954 did not show a significant association (P > 0.05 with chronic periodontitis. Genotype CC and allele C of VDR TaqI were significantly associated with a higher risk for chronic periodontitis as compared to subjects with TT genotype (CC/TT OR = 4.615; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17 to 18.078 P = 0.028 and allele T (C/T OR = 2.423; 95% CI: 1.179 to 4.980. Conclusion: In North Indian population, genotype CC and allele C of VDR TaqI were associated with risk of chronic periodontitis. No significant correlation was found for IL-1β + 3954 polymorphism and chronic periodontitis.

  5. Length of urethra in the Indian adult male population

    Venkatesh Krishnamoorthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The urethral length has not been measured in the Indian population. Even the international literature in this arena is very sparse. This paper is an attempt to develop a simple anatomical database for urethral length. Materials and Methods: Between January 2010 and April 2011, the urethral lengths of 422 adult male patients who required catheterization as part of regular treatment at our hospital, were recorded after obtaining consent from the patients and from the scientific and ethics review boards of the institution. Patients with history of prostatic or urethral abnormalities were excluded. The balloon of a sterile Foley′s catheter was inflated using 10 cc of saline. The length from the junction of the balloon to the ′Y′ junction of the Foley was measured. The catheter was then passed into the bladder and re-inflated to same volume. The penis was gently straightened and the length of the catheter outside the penis was measured till the premarked point at the ′Y′ junction. Subtracting this from the original length gave the length of the urethra. Results: The mean length of the urethra was 17.55 + 1.42 cm with a range between 14 and 22.5 cm. Conclusions: Literature in which the length of the normal adult male urethra is recorded for a significant sample size is very scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra specific to the Indian population. Statistical Methods: Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. The non-linear regression analysis was employed to find the normative values of urethral length according to age class.

  6. Exposure to Indian population from diagnostic radiology

    Supe, S.J.; Venkataraman, G.; Sasane, J.B.; Sawant, S.G.; Shirva, V.K.; Iyer, P.S.

    1993-01-01

    Many national and international agencies are actively engaged in taking stock of radiation safety status of radiation procedures which add to the population dose significantly. National survey is being conducted to collect data from various diagnostic X-ray institutions to assess radiation safety status and population dose arising from such practices in India. For this purpose 11 centres are collecting information on annual number of patients examined site wise and on their age and sex distribution. Patient doses are also measured for various diagnostic X-ray examinations in a few hospitals using CaSO 4 :Dy TLD dosimeters. Preliminary results of earlier study indicate that the country has about 50000 diagnostic X-ray units. The annual number of X-ray examinations is estimated to be 9x10 7 . Mean entrance skin dose for diagnostic X-rays are between 0.2 to 50 mGy depending on the type of examination. On the basis of experience gained in the earlier survey an exhaustive survey is undertaken for 1992-93 for improving the assessment of population dose. (author). 3 refs

  7. Anthropometric analysis of the hip joint in South Indian population using computed tomography

    Vetrivel Chezian Sengodan

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: This study indicates that there are significant differences in anthropometric parameters of proximal femur among the South Indian population compared with Western population. Even within the Indian population, the anthropometric parameters vary region to region.

  8. Prevalence of Weak D Antigen In Western Indian Population

    Tanvi Sadaria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discovery of Rh antigens in 1939 by Landsteiner and Weiner was the revolutionary stage in blood banking. Of these antigens, D, which decides Rh positivity or negativity, is the most antigenic. A problem is encountered when an individual has a weakened expression of D (Du, i.e., fewer numbers of D antigens on red cell membrane. Aims and Objectives: To know the prevalence of weak D in Indian population because incidence varies in different population. To determine the risk of alloimmunization among Rh D negative patients who receives the blood of weak D positive donors. Material and Methods: Rh grouping of 38,962 donors who came to The Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion of Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad from 1st January 2013 to 30th September 2014 was done using the DIAGAST (Automated Grouping. The samples that tested negative for D antigen were further analysed for weak D (Du by indirect antiglobulin test using blend of Ig G and Ig M Anti D. This was done using Column agglutination method in ID card (gel card. Results: The total number of donors studied was 38,962. Out of these 3360(8.6% were tested Rh D negative. All Rh D negative donors were tested for weak D (Du. 22 (0.056% of total donors and 0.65% of Rh negative donors turned out to be weak D (Du positive. Conclusion: The prevalence of weak D (Du in Western Indian population is 0.056 %, So the risk of alloimmunization in our setting due to weak D (Du antigen is marginal. But, testing of weak D antigen is necessary in blood bank because weak D antigen is immunogenic and can produce alloimmunization if transfused to Rh D negative subjects.

  9. Arnett′s soft-tissue cephalometric analysis norms for the North Indian population: A cephalometric study

    Tripti Tikku

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Statistically significant differences in certain parameters were found between North Indian population and Caucasian population and also between males and females of North Indian population.

  10. Population Genetic Status of the Western Indian Ocean

    Abstract—Population genetics offers a useful technique for studying the population structure of marine organisms and has relevance to both systematics and the conservation of biodiversity. The Western Indian Ocean (WIO) is faced with increasing evidence of degradation and effective management initiatives are needed to ...

  11. Use of the Internet as a resource of health information by patients: A clinic-based study in the Indian population

    Akerkar Shashank

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is abundant literature documenting that the Internet is fast changing the way patients access health-related information, learn about their illnesses, and make healthcare- related decisions. However, there is hardly any data regarding Indian patients accessing health-related information available on the Internet. Aims: To determine patients′ use of the Internet as a medical information resource and to determine their experience, their perceptions of the quality and reliability of the information available. Setting: The study was carried out in the outpatient clinic of an urban, tertiary care private sector hospital in November 2004. Material and Methods : Our survey instrument consisted of an anonymous single-page questionnaire. Eight hundred and eighty consecutive adults aged 18-70 years, attending the general outpatient clinic of a tertiary care private hospital completed the questionnaire. Results: Two hundred and eighty-one (32% patients acknowledged surfing the Internet, while 75% (212/281 of them acknowledged that they accessed health-related information. Amongst those who accessed the Internet, 130 (61% found the information on the net to be of average quality. Almost all patients (211/212 felt that the information served the purpose and 95% (201/212 also found also found it to be reliable. Only 7% (21/281 patients were aware of the presence of any quality standards pertaining to health information sites and none could name any accreditation standard. Conclusions: One in four patients attending the private set-up is using the Internet for health information. A majority of patients find the information on the net reliable and of good quality. Awareness about health information quality standards is a rarity.

  12. Evaluation of the nasolabial angle in the Indian population

    Dua, Vinay; Gupta, Shilpa; Singh, Chanjyot

    2010-01-01

    Nasolabial angle has become the angle depicting the esthetics so has attained the prime importance in the treatment planning. Dr Jay P. Fitzgerland and Dr. Ram S. Nanda. In 1992 gave norms for Caucasian population. A radiographic cephalometric study was undertaken with 45 subjects of Indian origin to evaluate and compare with their result. The method of evaluation was according to the criteria given by Dr. Jay P Fitzergerald in AJODO 1992; 102:328-34. Significant decrease in nasolabial angle values was found in case of Indian population as compared to white adults. PMID:22114388

  13. Evaluation of the nasolabial angle in the Indian population

    Vinay Dua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasolabial angle has become the angle depicting the esthetics so has attained the prime importance in the treatment planning. Dr Jay P. Fitzgerland and Dr. Ram S. Nanda. In 1992 gave norms for Caucasian population. A radiographic cephalometric study was undertaken with 45 subjects of Indian origin to evaluate and compare with their result. The method of evaluation was according to the criteria given by Dr. Jay P Fitzergerald in AJODO 1992; 102:328-34. Significant decrease in nasolabial angle values was found in case of Indian population as compared to white adults.

  14. Population and genomic lessons from genetic analysis of two Indian populations.

    Juyal, Garima; Mondal, Mayukh; Luisi, Pierre; Laayouni, Hafid; Sood, Ajit; Midha, Vandana; Heutink, Peter; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Thelma, B K; Casals, Ferran

    2014-10-01

    Indian demographic history includes special features such as founder effects, interpopulation segregation, complex social structure with a caste system and elevated frequency of consanguineous marriages. It also presents a higher frequency for some rare mendelian disorders and in the last two decades increased prevalence of some complex disorders. Despite the fact that India represents about one-sixth of the human population, deep genetic studies from this terrain have been scarce. In this study, we analyzed high-density genotyping and whole-exome sequencing data of a North and a South Indian population. Indian populations show higher differentiation levels than those reported between populations of other continents. In this work, we have analyzed its consequences, by specifically assessing the transferability of genetic markers from or to Indian populations. We show that there is limited genetic marker portability from available genetic resources such as HapMap or the 1,000 Genomes Project to Indian populations, which also present an excess of private rare variants. Conversely, tagSNPs show a high level of portability between the two Indian populations, in contrast to the common belief that North and South Indian populations are genetically very different. By estimating kinship from mates and consanguinity in our data from trios, we also describe different patterns of assortative mating and inbreeding in the two populations, in agreement with distinct mating preferences and social structures. In addition, this analysis has allowed us to describe genomic regions under recent adaptive selection, indicating differential adaptive histories for North and South Indian populations. Our findings highlight the importance of considering demography for design and analysis of genetic studies, as well as the need for extending human genetic variation catalogs to new populations and particularly to those with particular demographic histories.

  15. Frequency of developmental dental anomalies in the Indian population.

    Guttal, Kruthika S; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G; Bhargava, Puneet; Bathi, Renuka J

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the frequency of developmental dental anomalies in the Indian population. This prospective study was conducted over a period of 1 year and comprised both clinical and radiographic examinations in oral medicine and radiology outpatient department. Adult patients were screened for the presence of dental anomalies with appropriate radiographs. A comprehensive clinical examination was performed to detect hyperdontia, talon cusp, fused teeth, gemination, concrescence, hypodontia, dens invaginatus, dens evaginatus, macro- and microdontia and taurodontism. Patients with syndromes were not included in the study. Of the 20,182 patients screened, 350 had dental anomalies. Of these, 57.43% of anomalies occurred in male patients and 42.57% occurred in females. Hyperdontia, root dilaceration, peg-shaped laterals (microdontia), and hypodontia were more frequent compared to other dental anomalies of size and shape. Dental anomalies are clinically evident abnormalities. They may be the cause of various dental problems. Careful observation and appropriate investigations are required to diagnose the condition and institute treatment.

  16. A case series of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma among Indians, a low risk population, in Perak State, Malaysia.

    Anusha, B; Philip, R; Norain, K; Harvinder, S; Gurdeep, S M

    2012-12-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is rare among people of Indian ethnicity. A short retrospective case review of clinical records of Indian patients diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a period of 5 years was conducted. Their slides were further subjected to EBV encoded RNA (EBER) - In- situ Hybridization (ISH). The histologic subtype was nonkeratinizing carcinoma in all 4 patients. All were Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) positive. We believe that the crucial factor responsible for nasopharyngeal carcinoma is genetics; either a genetic susceptibility among high risk groups or genetic resistance/immunity in low risk groups. Further genetic studies are required to look for somatic or inherited chromosomal mutations among the various risk populations.

  17. Zidovudine-induced myopathy: A study in Indian patients.

    Sagar, Amitabh; Mohanty, Ambika P; Bahal, Ashish

    2010-07-01

    Literature is replete with studies on zidovudine-induced myopathy after prolonged use (use beyond 270 days on an average). However, all these studies have been done on patients of Caucasian, American and African ethnic origin. No such study has been carried out in Indian patients to our knowledge. To determine the correlation of zidovudine usage with serum creatine phosphokinase (CK) levels, clinical muscular weakness and muscle histology in Indian patients, we studied 147 physically active, Human Immunodeficiency Virus infected men on prolonged zidovudine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART). Cross-sectional study on hospital follow-up patients of HIV infection. All cases on ART who reported to our canter during a period of 18 months were evaluated for symptoms (muscle fatigue, myalgia), objective muscle strength (testing clinically) and serum CK levels, and a select group was evaluated by muscle biopsy. These patients were on zidovudine for 1 to 7 years. None of the patients studied had significant symptoms or objective muscle weakness and only a small fraction (10.8% of cases) had marginally raised serum CK levels. All muscle biopsies were normal on light microscopy. Zidovudine myopathy may be a constraint for use of the drug in the western population; however, it is a well-tolerated drug as regards myopathy in our study on Indian patients.

  18. Genetic spectrum of low density lipoprotein receptor gene variations in South Indian population.

    ArulJothi, K N; Suruthi Abirami, B; Devi, Arikketh

    2018-03-01

    Low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is a membrane bound receptor maintaining cholesterol homeostasis along with Apolipoprotein B (APOB), Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and other genes of lipid metabolism. Any pathogenic variation in these genes alters the function of the receptor and leads to Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) and other cardiovascular diseases. This study was aimed at screening the LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 genes in Hypercholesterolemic patients to define the genetic spectrum of FH in Indian population. Familial Hypercholesterolemia patients (n=78) of South Indian Tamil population with LDL cholesterol and Total cholesterol levels above 4.9mmol/l and 7.5mmol/l with family history of Myocardial infarction were involved. DNA was isolated by organic extraction method from blood samples and LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 gene exons were amplified using primers that cover exon-intron boundaries. The amplicons were screened using High Resolution Melt (HRM) Analysis and the screened samples were sequenced after purification. This study reports 20 variations in South Indian population for the first time. In this set of variations 9 are novel variations which are reported for the first time, 11 were reported in other studies also. The in silico analysis for all the variations detected in this study were done to predict the probabilistic effect in pathogenicity of FH. This study adds 9 novel variations and 11 recurrent variations to the spectrum of LDLR gene mutations in Indian population. All these variations are reported for the first time in Indian population. This spectrum of variations was different from the variations of previous Indian reports. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Probability of causation for radiogenic cancer in Indian population

    Bhatia, D.P.; Murthy, M.S.S.

    1992-01-01

    The National Institute of Health (NIH), USA has generated tables for probability of causation (PC) for various radiogenic cancers for the population of United States, (NIH 1985). These are based on cancer incidence rates derived from data on the Japanese survivors of atomic bomb, followed up to 1977 and T65D dosimetry system. In 1987, Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), a cooperative Japan-United States research organisation published radiation induced risk estimates (absolute and relative) using revised system of dosimetry DS86 and extended follow up of 35 years (Yukiko et al., 1988). In this paper PC has been calculated for the Indian population: i) using absolute risk estimates of RERF and NIH methodology, and ii) using the constant relative risk coefficients (CRR) of RERF. Calculations with new risk coefficients have been extended to the American population and results compared with Indian population. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs

  20. Clinical cavitation and radiographic lesion depth in proximal surfaces in an Indian population

    Sansare, Kaustubh; Raghav, Mamta; Sontakke, Subodeh

    2014-01-01

    the developing world. Materials and methods. Relationship between clinical cavitation and radiographic caries lesion depth in proximal surfaces in an Indian population was assessed. Proximal surfaces (n = 126) without restorations were examined on bitewing radiographs in patients with suspected caries and lesion......Abstract Objectives. To assess the relationship between clinical cavitation and radiographic caries lesion depth in proximal surfaces of permanent posterior teeth in an Indian population. This study also assessed the clinical feasibility of applying 'western guidelines' to this population from...... to the radiographic findings of lesion depth, 80-100% of the lesions observed in outer dentine would lead to a false (non-operative) treatment decision. Conclusions. Radiographic shallow carious lesions were often cavitated in this population. The threshold for cavitation in this study population is suggested...

  1. HLA-DRB1 shared epitope alleles in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: relation to autoantibodies and disease severity in a south Indian population.

    Konda Mohan, Vasanth; Ganesan, Nalini; Gopalakrishnan, Rajasekhar; Venkatesan, Vettriselvi

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the presence of the 'shared epitope' (SE) in the HLA-DRB1 alleles in patients with RA and to ascertain the frequency of the HLA-DRB1 alleles with autoantibodies (anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide [anti-CCP] rheumatoid factor [RF]) and disease severity. A total of 200 RA patients and 200 apparently healthy subjects participated in the study. HLA-DRB1 were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP). Anti-CCP and RF in serum were determined by in vitro quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was measured by Westergren method. Disease activity was assessed by using the disease activity score-28 (DAS-28). Chi-square test and Student's t-test were used in the statistical analysis. A significant increase in the frequency of HLA-DRB1*01, *04, *10 and *14 were identified in RA patients and showed a strong association with the disease susceptibility. While the frequencies of HLA-DRB1*03, *07, *11 and *13 were significantly lower in RA patients than in controls. The other HLA-DRB1 alleles *08, *09, *12, *15 and *16 showed no significant difference. The frequency of anti-CCP and RF antibodies did not showed significant difference in SE-positive patients compared with SE-negative patients. DAS-28 values of RA patients showed no significant difference between SE-positive and SE-negative groups. Our results indicate that HLA-DRB1*01, *04, *10 and *14 alleles are related with RA, while HLA-DRB1*03, *07, *11 and *13 protect against RA in our population. On the other hand, we failed to provide evidence for the association of the autoantibodies and DAS-28 with SE-positive RA patients. © 2016 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Patellar instability in Indian population: relevance of tibial tuberosity and trochlear groove distance

    Kulkarni Sourabh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The tibial tuberosity to trochlear groove (TTTG distance in the western population is extensively studied through various modalities such as X-rays, computerised tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. However, to our knowledge there is very little or no literature support to indicate that TTTG distance has been studied in the Indian population. Methods: We therefore undertook a study to measure the TTTG distance in 100 MRI scans of normal Indian knees. Patients with the following co-morbidities were excluded from the study; ligamentous laxity, patellofemoral instability, mal-alignment and osteoarthritis. We measured TTTG distance on the axial MRI slices using OsiriX software. Results: The mean value for females was found to be 14.07 mm and that for male was found to be 13.34 mm. Our study indicates that the TTTG distance, using MRI scans as measurement modality, in the Indian population is significantly different when compared to the published western data. Discussion: We believe that this study can form the basis for future studies on the relationship between TTTG distance and patellar instability in Indian population.

  3. Alu polymorphic insertions reveal genetic structure of north Indian populations.

    Tripathi, Manorama; Tripathi, Piyush; Chauhan, Ugam Kumari; Herrera, Rene J; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2008-10-01

    The Indian subcontinent is characterized by the ancestral and cultural diversity of its people. Genetic input from several unique source populations and from the unique social architecture provided by the caste system has shaped the current genetic landscape of India. In the present study 200 individuals each from three upper-caste and four middle-caste Hindu groups and from two Muslim populations in North India were examined for 10 polymorphic Alu insertions (PAIs). The investigated PAIs exhibit high levels of polymorphism and average heterozygosity. Limited interpopulation variance and genetic flow in the present study suggest admixture. The results of this study demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, the caste system has not provided an impermeable barrier to genetic exchange among Indian groups.

  4. Gastric carcinoma in Durban's Indian population

    1991-01-19

    Jan 19, 1991 ... The records of all patients with histologically proven malig- nant gastric tumours ... treatment, and a third underwent palliative bypass or laparo- tomy only. .... palliation or cure of 56%, the low rate of resectability and the associated poor ... lung and stomach cancers in South Africa, 1968-1972. S Afr Med] ...

  5. Prevalence rates of ADIPOQ polymorphisms in Indian population and a comparison with other populations

    Sandhya Kiran Pemmasani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The adiponectin gene, ADIPOQ, encodes an adipocytokine, known as adiponectin hormone. This hormone is known to be associated with insulin sensitization, fat metabolism, immunity, and inflammatory response. Polymorphisms in ADIPOQ gene lower the adiponectin levels, increasing the risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Aims: The study aimed to calculate the prevalence rates of ADIPOQ polymorphisms in Indian population and to compare those prevalence rates with that of other populations. Subjects and Methods: Microarray-based genotypic data of 14 ADIPOQ polymorphisms from 703 individuals of Indian origin were used. Statistical Analysis Used: Frequency estimation, identity-by-descent, Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, Chi-square test of significance were used for statistical analysis. Results: Allelic and genotypic frequencies of ADIPOQ polymorphisms, Chi-square tests of significance for allelic and genotypic frequencies across various populations. Conclusions: East Asians are very different from Indians in terms of allelic and genotypic frequencies of ADIPOQ polymorphisms. Europeans have similar genotypic and allelic patterns with Indians. Admixture Americans and Africans also showed significant differences with polymorphisms of the Indian population.

  6. Prevalence of radix entomolaris in mandibular permanent first molars: a study in a South Indian population.

    Chandra, Saurabh S; Chandra, Supriya; Shankar, Padmanabhan; Indira, Rajamani

    2011-09-01

    Anatomical racial variations are an acknowledged characteristic in permanent molars. Generally, mandibular first molars have 2 roots; however, the presence of a third root, radix entomolaris (RE), is a major anatomic variant among many population groups. This study evaluated the prevalence of permanent mandibular first molars featuring a distolingual root in a South Indian population. Five hundred patients of South Indian origin possessing bilateral mandibular first molars were selected. The radiographs of these patients were evaluated under optimal conditions. A total of 1000 mandibular first molars were screened and the incidence of 3-rooted mandibular first molars and the correlation between left and right side occurrence and between either gender was recorded. The prevalence of 3-rooted mandibular first molars was 18.6% of the patients examined and 13.3% of the teeth examined. There was no statistically significant difference between genders or side of occurrence (P > .05). The bilateral incidence of a symmetric distribution was 43.01%. RE is considered an Asiatic trait. The occurrence of this macrostructure in the South Indian population was 13.3%, which was lower than that of other patients of Mongoloid origin. The clinician must thoroughly examine the radiograph before initiation of endodontic therapy. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Golden proportion assessment between maxillary and mandibular teeth on Indian population

    Kumar, Vaikunth Vijay; Rangarajan, Vedantham

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE This study evaluated the existence of golden proportion between the widths of the maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth in Indian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS The clinical tooth width measurements were recorded with the digital vernier calipers on 576 patients of both sexes in the age group of 21 - 30 years. Flexible ruler was used to determine the width of maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth on the patients by the same operator. The data obtained was statistically analyzed using paired student t-test (α=.05). RESULTS The golden proportion was not found between the width of the right central and lateral incisors in 53% of women and 47% of men. The results revealed the golden percentage was rather inconstant in terms of relative tooth width. CONCLUSION The golden proportion is an inappropriate method to relate the successive widths of the maxillary anterior teeth in Indian population. PMID:22737310

  8. Deterministic Role of CEA and MSI Status in Predicting Outcome of CRC Patients: a Perspective Study Amongst Hospital Attending Eastern Indian Populations.

    Koyel, Banerjee; Priyabrata, Das; Rittwika, Bhattacharya; Swati, Dasgupta; Soma, Mukhopadhyay; Jayasri, Basak; Ashis, Mukhopadhyay

    2017-12-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is an important deterministic factor in predicting colorectal carcinoma (CRC) progression. It is also evident that microsatellite instability (MSI) which results in a hypermutable phenotype of genomic DNA is common in CRC. Owing to the scarcity of reports from India, our aim of this study was to understand the clinicopathological correlations of CEA status with surgery and chemotherapy, correlate the same with socio-demographic status of the patients, determine the MSI status amongst them and understand the prognostic implications of CEA and MSI as CRC progression marker amongst patients. The serum CEA level was estimated by chemiluminescence assay (CLIA). Serum liver enzyme assay was carried out following the manufacturer's instructions using auto-analysers (E. Merck and Sera mol. Health Care, India). MSI analysis was carried out by PCR-SSCP. From our study, most frequently detected colorectal cancer was in 40-49 years age group (25.26%) with 61.05% male and 38.95% females. CEA showed a significant association with higher TNM staging, tumour size, smoking habit and MSI status ( p   0.05). After surgery and chemotherapy, CEA and WBCs were decreased significantly ( p   0.05). Overall, microsatellite instability was observed in approximately 40% of the populations. From our study, it was also evident that for both, MSI and abnormal CEA level predicted poor prognosis for the patient (by using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis; p  = 0.04). Thus, CEA and initial MSI status can be used as prognostic markers of CRC.

  9. Smile characterization by U.S. white, U.S. Asian Indian, and Indian populations.

    Sharma, Neeru; Rosenstiel, Stephen F; Fields, Henry W; Beck, F Mike

    2012-05-01

    With growing demand for high esthetic standards, dentists must understand patient perception and incorporate their preferences into treatment. However, little is known about how cultural and ethnic differences influence esthetic perception. The purpose of this study was to determine whether differences in ethnic background, including the possibility of assimilation, affected a layperson's perception of esthetic and smile characteristics. A survey was developed containing images that were digitally manipulated into a series of barely perceptible steps, changing 1 smile parameter to form a strip of images that displayed that parameter over a wide range. Data were collected with a customized program which randomly displayed a single image and allowed the subject to use the mouse to adjust an on-screen slider according to displayed instructions, that is, "Please move the slider to select the image you find to be most ideal"; or "Please move the slider to select the first image that you find unattractive." A convenience sample (n=288) comprised of U.S. whites, U.S. Asian Indians, and Indians living in India was surveyed. This sample provided a power of .86 to detect a difference of ±1.5 mm. Subjects evaluated images showing the smile arc, buccal corridor, gingival display, vertical overlap, lateral incisal step, maxillary midline to midface, and maxillary to mandibular midline. Rater reliability was assessed with the Fleiss-Cohen weighted Kappa (Kw) statistic and corresponding 95% confidence interval after each question was repeated in a random sequence. Choice differences due to ethnicity were assessed with a multiple randomization test and the adjusted P value with the step-down Bonferrroni method of Holm (α=.05). The Kw for the 17 variables in all 3 groups ranged from 0.11 for ideal vertical overlap to 0.64 for ideal buccal corridor space. Overall reliability was fair to moderate. Differences attributed to ethnicity were demonstrated between the Asian Indians and U

  10. Spasmodic dysphonia: a seven-year audit of dose titration and demographics in the Indian population.

    Nerurkar, N K; Banu, T P

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the demographics of spasmodic dysphonia in the Indian population and to analyse the optimum dose titration of botulinum toxin type A in this group. A comparative analysis with international studies was also performed. The study involved a retrospective analysis and audit of botulinum toxin type A dose titration in spasmodic dysphonia patients who visited our voice clinic between January 2005 and January 2012. The average total therapeutic dose required for patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia was 4.2 U per patient per vocal fold (total 8.4 U per patient), and for patients with abductor spasmodic dysphonia, it was 4.6 U per patient. Our audit revealed that 80 per cent of the spasmodic dysphonia patients were male, which contrasts dramatically with international studies, wherein around 80 per cent of spasmodic dysphonia patients were female. Our study also revealed a higher dose titration of botulinum toxin for the Indian spasmodic dysphonia population in both adductor and abductor spasmodic dysphonia cases.

  11. Genetic evidence on the origins of Indian caste populations.

    Bamshad, M; Kivisild, T; Watkins, W S; Dixon, M E; Ricker, C E; Rao, B B; Naidu, J M; Prasad, B V; Reddy, P G; Rasanayagam, A; Papiha, S S; Villems, R; Redd, A J; Hammer, M F; Nguyen, S V; Carroll, M L; Batzer, M A; Jorde, L B

    2001-06-01

    The origins and affinities of the approximately 1 billion people living on the subcontinent of India have long been contested. This is owing, in part, to the many different waves of immigrants that have influenced the genetic structure of India. In the most recent of these waves, Indo-European-speaking people from West Eurasia entered India from the Northwest and diffused throughout the subcontinent. They purportedly admixed with or displaced indigenous Dravidic-speaking populations. Subsequently they may have established the Hindu caste system and placed themselves primarily in castes of higher rank. To explore the impact of West Eurasians on contemporary Indian caste populations, we compared mtDNA (400 bp of hypervariable region 1 and 14 restriction site polymorphisms) and Y-chromosome (20 biallelic polymorphisms and 5 short tandem repeats) variation in approximately 265 males from eight castes of different rank to approximately 750 Africans, Asians, Europeans, and other Indians. For maternally inherited mtDNA, each caste is most similar to Asians. However, 20%-30% of Indian mtDNA haplotypes belong to West Eurasian haplogroups, and the frequency of these haplotypes is proportional to caste rank, the highest frequency of West Eurasian haplotypes being found in the upper castes. In contrast, for paternally inherited Y-chromosome variation each caste is more similar to Europeans than to Asians. Moreover, the affinity to Europeans is proportionate to caste rank, the upper castes being most similar to Europeans, particularly East Europeans. These findings are consistent with greater West Eurasian male admixture with castes of higher rank. Nevertheless, the mitochondrial genome and the Y chromosome each represents only a single haploid locus and is more susceptible to large stochastic variation, bottlenecks, and selective sweeps. Thus, to increase the power of our analysis, we assayed 40 independent, biparentally inherited autosomal loci (1 LINE-1 and 39 Alu elements

  12. Prevalence of primary glaucoma in an urban South Indian population

    Jacob Aby

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is fast emerging as a major cause of blindness in India. In order to estimate the prevalence of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG in an urban South Indian population, we examined 972 individuals aged 30-60 years, chosen using a cluster sampling technique from 12 census blocks of Vellore town. They underwent a complete ocular examination, including applanation tonometry and gonioscopy, at the Medical College Hospital. Characteristic field defects on automated perimetry was a diagnostic requisite for POAG. Prevalence (95% CI of POAG, PACG, and ocular hypertension were 4.1 (0.08-8.1, 43.2 (30.14-56.3, and 30.8 (19.8-41.9 per 1,000, respectively. All the PACG cases detected were of the chronic type. Hitherto unavailable community-based information on primary glaucoma in our study population indicates that PACG is about five times as common as POAG.

  13. A study on the prevalence of depression and the severity of depression in patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a semi-urban Indian population.

    Agarwal, Abhishekl; Batra, Sakshi; Prasad, Rajendra; Verma, Anand; Jilani, Abdul Q; Kant, Surya

    2018-03-19

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the few respiratory diseases which is associated with a number of comorbidities. Psychiatric disease like depression is a very important comorbidity of COPD because it decreases the feeling of wellbeing in the patient and also interferes with the compliance with medication thereby increasing the risk of hospitalization in the COPD patient. A cross-sectional study was done for two years in the department of pulmonary medicine at Era's Lucknow medical college and hospital, Lucknow. A total of 150 patients were enrolled for the study after a clinico-radiological screening for the diagnosis confirmed on spirometry. After the confirmation of the diagnosis of COPD in these patients, they were screened for depression using the PHQ-9 scale in our department of pulmonary medicine. The confirmation of the diagnosis of depression was done according to the ICD-10 guidelines for depression and the severity of depression was graded using HAM-D scale in the department of psychiatry at our institute. The most common age group enrolled in the study was 51-60 years of age (40.67%). One hundred and fifteen patients (76.7%) of the enrolled patients were smokers while the remaining 35 patients (23.3%) were non-smokers. Depression was found to be present in 46 out of the total 150 patients in the study. Thus, the prevalence of depression in our study was 30.67%. Depression was seen in COPD groups B,C and D. Out of the 46 patients of COPD with depression,18 had mild depression (39.13%), 26 had moderate depression (56.52%) and 2 had severe depression (4.35%). Hence, depression of all grades (i.e., mild, moderate and severe depression) is seen in COPD groups B, C and D.

  14. Indian parliamentarians meet to discuss population and food security.

    1996-01-01

    96 parliamentarians and state legislators attended a seminar on November 8 on food security, population, and development. The one-day meeting was held at the Parliament House Annex in New Delhi and organized by the Indian Association of Parliamentarians on Population and Development as part of a regional campaign to highlight the relationship between population and food security. The first session of the day focused upon the impact of population on food security and nutrition, the second session was on the strategy for food security through poverty alleviation, and the third session discussed food security through trade and self-sufficiency. The participants believe that population size is growing faster than food production. Furthermore, it is important to view both food production and the capacity of people to buy food. Poverty is rooted in unemployment and unemployment is the result of overpopulation. As such, overpopulation causes unemployment which results in the inability of the poor to buy food. A declaration was adopted at the seminar.

  15. Anti-Inflammatory (IL-10 Levels and Affects the Survival of Prostate Carcinoma Patients: An Explorative Study in North Indian Population

    Shailendra Dwivedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Inflammation is an important hallmark of all cancers and net inflammatory response is determined by a delicate balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, which may be affected by tobacco exposure, so the present study was designed to explore the effect of various modes of tobacco exposure on interleukin-12 (IL-12 and interleukin-10 (IL-10 inflammatory cytokine levels and survival in prostate carcinoma (PCa patients. Methods. 285 cancer patients and equal controls with 94 BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia were recruited; baseline levels of serum IL-12 and IL-10 were measured and analyzed in various tobacco exposed groups by appropriate statistical tool. Five-year survivals of patients were analyzed by Log-rank (Mantel-Cox test (graph pad version 5. Results. The expression of serum proinflammatory (IL-12 and anti-inflammatory (IL-10 cytokines was correlated with tobacco exposed group as smokers, chewers, and alcohol users have shown significantly higher levels (P<0.001 with significantly lower median survivals (27.1 months, standard error = 2.86, and 95% CI: 21.4–32.62; than nonusers. Stages III and IV of tobacco addicted patients have also shown significantly increased levels of IL-12 and IL-10. Conclusions. IL-12 and IL-10 seem to be affected by various modes of tobacco exposure and inflammation also affects median survival of cancer patients.

  16. Clinical Characteristics of Tuberculosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in North Indian Population of HIV/AIDS Patients Receiving HAART

    Suman Karmakar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective. IRIS is an important complication that occurs during management of HIV-TB coinfection and it poses difficulty in diagnosis. Previous studies have reported variable incidence of IRIS. The present study was undertaken to describe the pattern of TB-associated IRIS using recently proposed consensus case-definitions for TB-IRIS for its use in resource-limited settings. Methods. A prospective analysis of ART-naïve adults started on HAART from November, 2008 to May, 2010 was done in a tertiary care hospital in north India. A total 224 patients divided into two groups, one with HIV-TB and the other with HIV alone, were followedup for a minimum period of 3 months. The diagnosis of TB was categorised as ‘‘definitive’’ and ‘‘probable’’. Results. Out of a total of 224 patients, 203 completed followup. Paradoxical TB-IRIS occurred in 5 of 123 (4% HIV-TB patients while 6 of 80 (7.5% HIV patients developed ART-associated TB. A reduction in plasma viral load was significantly (P=.016 associated with paradoxical TB-IRIS. No identifiable risk factors were associated with the development of ART-associated TB. Conclusion. The consensus case-definitions are useful tools in the diagnosis of TB-associated IRIS. High index of clinical suspicion is required for an early diagnosis.

  17. FastStats: Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population

    ... Home Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Source: Summary Health Statistics Tables for the U.S. Population: National Health Interview Survey, 2015, Table P-1c [ ...

  18. Skin hyperpigmentation in Indian population: Insights and best practice

    Stephanie Nouveau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin pigmentation is one of the most strikingly variable phenotypes in humans, therefore making cutaneous pigmentation disorders frequent symptoms manifesting in a multitude of forms. The most common among them include lentigines, postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, dark eye circles, and melasma. Variability of skin tones throughout the world is well-documented, some skin tones being reported as more susceptible to pigmentation disorders than others, especially in Asia and India. Furthermore, exposure to ultraviolet radiation is known to trigger or exacerbate pigmentation disorders. Preventive strategies for photoprotection and treatment modalities including topical and other medical approaches have been adopted by dermatologists to mitigate these disorders. This review article outlines the current knowledge on pigmentation disorders including pathophysiology, molecular profiling, and therapeutic options with a special focus on the Indian population.

  19. Validation of a modified Hindi version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale among a North Indian population

    Geetika Bajpai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since a majority of population in India does not drive automobiles, one item on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS requires modification and validation. In addition, data collected by us indicated that a majority of rural and urban Indians regularly spend time in prayer/spiritual activity. The main purpose of this study was to develop a cross-cultural adaptation of the ESS for a North Indian population, in Hindi language (ESS-I. The study also provides evidence of reliability and validity of the modified version. Methodology: The subjects included were normal volunteers aged 18-75 years (Group 1 (n = 70, compared with patients with complaints of excessive daytime sleepiness, who had undergone polysomnography (Group 2 (n = 22 and patients who had undergone multiple sleep latency test (Group 3 (n = 10. The study was carried out in four phases: Translation and retranslation of the original scale with modification of item 8 (mainly addition of option of question on "while offering prayers or in spiritual activity"; reliability (test-retest (n = 30; internal consistency (using Cronbach′s alpha index (n = 102; and sensitivity to change (n = 8. Results: Group 1 showed spiritual activity as a significantly more commonly practiced activity than driving. The Cronbach′s alpha for the modified version was 0.892 (excellent, and this was not improved by removing the modified item. The alpha value for Group 1 versus Groups 2 and 3 was 0.667 and 0.892, respectively. The scale was reliable over time (test-retest, and it was sensitive to sleepiness change in patients with obstructive sleep apnea during treatment. Conclusion: The ESS-I, is comparable to the original scale. It is reliable, valid, and change-sensitive. It is proposed that the modified version can be very useful for detecting sleepiness among Indian population, especially those who do not drive their own vehicles.

  20. Evaluation of arch width variations among different skeletal patterns in South Indian population.

    Prasad, Mandava; Kannampallil, Senny Thomas; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar; George, Suja Ani; Shetty, Sharath Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Anterior cranial base can be taken as a reference line (SN) to determine the steepness of mandibular plane. Subjects with high mandibular plane angle tend to have a long face and one with low MP-SN angle has a shorter face. This study was done to investigate if dental arch widths correlated with vertical facial types and if there are any differences in arch widths between untreated male and female adults in South Indian population. Lateral cephalogram and dental casts were obtained from 180 untreated South Indian adults (90 males and 90 females) above 18 year old with no cross bite, minimal crowding and spacing. The angle between the anterior cranial base and the mandibular plane was measured on lateral cephalogram of each patient. Dental casts were used to obtain comprehensive dental measurements including maxillary and mandibular inter canine, inter premolar and inter molar widths, as well as amount of crowding or spacing. The results showed that male arch widths were significantly larger than those of females (P population. The results obtained in our study when compared with studies done in other population groups showed that there is difference in inter arch widths according to ethnicity and race. It was concluded that the dental arch width is associated with gender, race and vertical facial morphology. Thus using individualized arch wires according to each patient's pre treatment arch form and width is suggested during orthodontic treatment.

  1. A prospective observational study of skin to subarachnoid space depth in the Indian population

    Smita Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: A pre-puncture estimate of skin to subarachnoid space depth (SSD may guide spinal needle placement and reduce complications associated with lumbar puncture. Our aim was to determine (1 The SSD in Indian males, females, parturients and the overall population; (2 To derive formulae for predicting SSD and (3 To determine which previously suggested formula best suited our population. Methods: In this prospective, observational study, 800 adult Indian patients undergoing surgery under spinal anaesthesia were divided into three groups: Males (Group M, females (Group F and parturients (Group PF. SSD was measured after lumbar puncture. The relationship between SSD and patient characteristics was studied and statistical models were used to derive formula for predicting SSD. Statistical analysis included One-way ANOVA with post hoc analysis, forward stepwise multivariate regression analysis and paired t-tests. Results: Mean SSD was 4.71 ± 0.70 cm in the overall population. SSD in adult males (4.81 ± 0.68 cm was significantly longer than that observed in females (4.55 ± 0.66 cm but was comparable with SSD in parturients (4.73 ± 0.73 cm. Formula for predicting SSD in the overall population was 2.71 + 0.09 × Body Mass Index (BMI. Stocker′s formula when applied correlated best with the observed SSD. Formulae were derived for the three groups. Conclusions: We found gender-based differences in SSD, with SSD in males being significantly greater than that observed in the female population. SSD correlated with BMI in the parturient and the overall population. Amongst the previously proposed formulae, Stocker′s formula was most accurate in predicting SSD in our population.

  2. Spectrum of neurocognitive dysfunction in Indian population on FDG PET/CT imaging

    Sharma, Rajnish; Tripathi, Madhavi; D’Souza, Maria M; Jaimini, Abhinav; Varshney, Raunak; Panwar, Puja; Kaushik, Aruna; Saw, Sanjeev; Seher, Romana; Pandey, Santosh; Singh, Dinesh; Solanki, Yachna; Mishra, Anil K; Mondal, Anupam; Tripathi, RP

    2011-01-01

    A variety of neurodegenerative disorders produce significant abnormal brain function which can be detected using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) scan even when structural changes are not detected on CT or MRI Scan. A study was undertaken at our institute to evaluate the FDG PET/CT findings in Indian population suffering from mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), dementia with lewy body disease (DLBD) and other miscellaneous causes of dementia. 117 subjects having neurocognitive deficits and 36 normals were included in our study. All patients underwent a detailed history and clinical examination. This was followed by a mini mental state examination. Subsequently an FDG brain PET scan and an MRI were done. In the patient population included in our study group 36 were normal, 39 had MCI, 40 had AD, 14 had FTD, and 13 had DLBD and 11 dementia due to other miscellaneous causes. MCI patients showed primarily reduced tracer uptake in the mesio-temporal cortex. AD patients showed reduced tracer concentration in temporo-parietal lobes, while patients with advanced diseases showed frontal lobe disease additionally. In subjects of FTD, reduced radiotracer uptake in the fronto-temporal lobes was noted. In addition, FTD patients also showed basal ganglia defects. In contrast the DLBD patients showed globally reduced FDG uptake including severely affecting the occipital cortices. In the current study the F18-FDG PET scans have been shown to be highly useful in the diagnosis of various neurocognitive disorders of the brain. AD was found to be the most common dementia in the Indian population followed by MCI. Diffuse Lewy body disease, FTD and other miscellaneous categories of dementia had a near similar incidence

  3. Access to Digital Communication Technology and Perceptions of Telemedicine for Patient Education among American Indian Patients with Diabetes.

    Mathieson, Kathleen; Leafman, Joan S; Horton, Mark B

    2017-01-01

    Health care access for medically underserved patients managing chronic conditions is challenging. While telemedicine can support patient education and engagement, the "digital divide" may be particularly problematic among the medically underserved. This study evaluated physical access to digital devices, use of e-mail and social media tools, and perceptions of telemedicine among American Indian (AI) patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Survey data were collected from AI patients with DM during teleophthalmology exams. Eighty-eight percent of patients had access to digital device(s), 70% used e-mail, and 56% used social media. Younger age and greater education were positively associated with e-mail and social media use (p < .05). Most (60%) considered telemedicine an excellent medium for health-related patient education. American Indian patients with DM had access enabling patient education via telemedicine. Future work should examine patient technology preferences and effectiveness of technology-based education in improving outcomes among medically underserved populations.

  4. Facial soft tissue thickness in North Indian adult population

    Tanushri Saxena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Forensic facial reconstruction is an attempt to reproduce a likeness of facial features of an individual, based on characteristics of the skull, for the purpose of individual identification - The aim of this study was to determine the soft tissue thickness values of individuals of Bareilly population, Uttar Pradesh, India and to evaluate whether these values can help in forensic identification. Study design: A total of 40 individuals (19 males, 21 females were evaluated using spiral computed tomographic (CT scan with 2 mm slice thickness in axial sections and soft tissue thicknesses were measured at seven midfacial anthropological facial landmarks. Results: It was found that facial soft tissue thickness values decreased with age. Soft tissue thickness values were less in females than in males, except at ramus region. Comparing the left and right values in individuals it was found to be not significant. Conclusion: Soft tissue thickness values are an important factor in facial reconstruction and also help in forensic identification of an individual. CT scan gives a good representation of these values and hence is considered an important tool in facial reconstruction- This study has been conducted in North Indian population and further studies with larger sample size can surely add to the data regarding soft tissue thicknesses.

  5. Demography, genetic diversity, and population relationships among Argentinean Mapuche Indians

    Alicia S. Goicoechea

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Fertility, mortality and migration data from four Mapuche Indian communities located along a 215-km NE-SW linear area in the Province of Río Negro, Argentina, were collated with genetic information furnished by nine blood group systems and by mtDNA haplogroups. The demographic and genetic data indicated a clear dichotomy, which split the four populations into two groups of two. Differing degrees of non-Indian exchanges was probably the main determining factor for this separation. Total genetic variability was very similar in all groups, and the interpopulational variability accounted for only 10% of the total variability. A low prevalence of the Diego(a antigen among the Mapuche was confirmed. The fact that significant genetic heterogeneity and population clusters were found in such a small territorial region attests to the sensitivity of demographic and genetic approaches in unraveling human history.Dados relativos a fertilidade, mortalidade e migração de quatro comunidades de índios Mapuche localizadas em uma área linear na direção nordeste-sudoeste com 215 km de extensão na Província de Rio Negro, Argentina, foram associados com a informação genética fornecida por nove sistemas de grupos sangüíneos e os haplogrupos do DNA mitocondrial. Ambos os tipos de informação apontam claramente para uma dicotomia, as quatro populações sendo divididas em grupos de duas. O principal fator responsável por esta separação é provavelmente graus diferentes de mistura com não-índios. A variabilidade genética total foi muito similar em todos os grupos, aquela entre populações sendo de apenas 10% deste valor. Foi confirmada a baixa prevalência do antígeno Diego(a entre os Mapuche. O fato de que heterogeneidade genética significativa e conjuntos populacionais diversos foram observados em uma região territorial tão pequena demonstra a sensibilidade dos enfoques demográfico e genético no esclarecimento da história humana.

  6. Cephalometric norms for the upper airway in a healthy North Indian population

    Dipti Shastri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim was to obtain normative data for cephalometric measurements of the upper airway in the North Indian population. Design: Observational study. Setting: University department and teaching hospital out-patient clinic. Subjects and Methods: A total of 180 healthy patients were included out of which 90 were males (age range, 8-16 years, and 90 were females (age range, 8-16 years, with normal skeletal facial profile, no history of snoring, sleep apnea, upper airway disease, tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy, obesity, or pathology in the pharynx. Twenty cephalometric airway measurements, including size of the tongue, soft palate, nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and relative position of the hyoid bone and valleculae were obtained. Landmarks on cephalometric radiographs were digitized and measurements were made using a specially designed computer program. Error analysis of measurements was performed and comparison of measurements according to sex was made. Results: Significant sex dimorphism was seen for the majority of measurements, with the exception of minimal depth of the airway, oropharyngeal depth of the airway, and the soft palate angle with the hard palate. Conclusion: A minimum sagittal dimension of the upper airway was evident despite differences in measurements between sexes. Findings from this study should be a useful reference for the assessment of sleep apnea in the North Indian population.

  7. Patient prosthesis mismatch after aortic valve replacement: An Indian perspective

    Shreedhar S Joshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Perioperative period. Aims: Occurrence of PPM after AVR, factors associated with PPM, impact on mortality. Settings and Design: Teritary Care Referral Cardiac Centre. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of AVR procedures at a single centre over 4 years was conducted. Demographic, echocardiographic and outcome data were collected from institute database. Rahimtoola criteria of indexed effective orifice area (iEOA were used to stratify patients into PPM categories. Patients with and without PPM were compared for associated factors. Statistical Analysis Used: Independent t-test, chi-square test, logistic regression analysis, ROC-AUC, Youden index. Results: 606 patients with complete data were analysed for PPM. The incidence of mild, moderate and severe PPM was 6.1% (37, 2.5% (15 and 0.5% (3 respectively. There was no impact of PPM on all-cause in-hospital mortality. PPM was observed more with Aortic Stenosis (AS compared to Aortic Regurgitation (AR as etiology. Aortic annulus indexed to BSA (iAA had a very good predictive ability for PPM at <16mm/m 2 BSA. Conclusions: PPM has lower incidence after AVR in this Indian population and does not increase early mortality. Patients with AS and iAA<16mm/m2BSA should be cautiously dealt with to prevent PPM.

  8. A Comparative Rugoscopic Study of the Dentate and Edentulous Individuals in the South Indian Population

    Jagdish Prasad Rajguru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the rugae pattern in dentulous and edentulous patients and also evaluates the association of rugae pattern between males and females. Aims and Objectives. This study aims to investigate rugae patterns in dentulous and edentulous patients of both sexes in South Indian population and to find whether palatoscopy is a useful tool in human identification. Materials and Methods. Four hundred outpatients from Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, were included in the study. The study group was equally divided between the sexes, which was further categorized into 100 dentulous and edentulous patients, respectively. Results. The edentulous male showed the highest mean of wavy pattern and total absence of circular pattern while the edentulous female group showed the highest mean of curved pattern and total absence of nonspecific pattern, while dentate population showed similar value as that of the overall population such as straight, wavy, and curved patterns. Conclusion. The present study concludes that there is similar rugae pattern of distribution between male and female dentate population while there is varied pattern between the sexes of edentulous population. However, the most predominant patterns were straight, wavy, and circular patterns.

  9. 77 FR 61780 - Preparation of the 2013 American Indian Population and Labor Force Report

    2012-10-11

    ... poverty line; and (5) the numbers employed in private sector positions and in public sector positions. The... population, by gender, eligible for the services which the Secretary provides to Indian people. The report...

  10. Population Differentiation of Southern Indian Male Lineages Correlates with Agricultural Expansions Predating the Caste System

    ArunKumar, GaneshPrasad; Soria-Hernanz, David F.; Pitchappan, Ramasamy

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies that pooled Indian populations from a wide variety of geographical locations, have obtained contradictory conclusions about the processes of the establishment of the Varna caste system and its genetic impact on the origins and demographic histories of Indian populations. To further investigate these questions we took advantage that both Y chromosome and caste designation are paternally inherited, and genotyped 1,680 Y chromosomes representing 12 tribal and 19 non-tribal (cast...

  11. Incidence of clinically suspected venous thromboembolism in British Indian patients.

    Siddiqui, B M; Patel, M S; Rudge, S; Best, A; Mangwani, J

    2018-05-01

    Introduction Venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains a major public health issue around the world. Ethnicity is known to alter the incidence of VTE. To our knowledge, there are no reports in the literature investigating the incidence of VTE in British Indians. The aim of this study was to investigate the rates of symptomatic VTE in British Indian patients in the UK. Methods Patients referred to our institution between January 2011 and August 2013 with clinically suspected VTE were eligible for inclusion in the study. Those not of British Indian or Caucasian ethnicity were excluded. A retrospective review of these two cohorts was conducted. Results Overall, 15,529 cases were referred to our institution for suspected VTE. This included 1,498 individuals of British Indian ethnicity. Of these, 182 (12%) had confirmed VTE episodes. A further 13,159 of the patients with suspected VTE were coded as Caucasian, including 2,412 (16%) who had confirmed VTE events. VTE rates were a third lower in British Indians with clinically suspected VTE than in the equivalent Caucasian group. The British Indian cohort presented with VTE at a much earlier age than Caucasians (mean 57.0 vs 68.0 years). Conclusions This study suggests that British Indian patients have a lower incidence of VTE and are more likely to present at an earlier age than Caucasians. There was no significant difference in VTE type (deep vein thrombosis vs pulmonary embolism) among the ethnic groups. Clinicians should be aware of variations within ethnicities but should continue to adhere to existing VTE prevention guidance.

  12. Novel HLA Class I Alleles Associated with Indian Leprosy Patients

    U. Shankarkumar

    2003-01-01

    A*0101, Cw*04011, and Cw*0602 leprosy patients was observed when compared to the controls. Further haplotype A*1102-B*4006-Cw*1502 was significantly increased among the lepromatous leprosy patients when compared to the controls. It seems that HLA class I alleles play vital roles in disease association/pathogenesis with leprosy among Indians.

  13. Influence of socio-economic status on access to different components of SCI management across Indian population.

    Chhabra, H S; Bhalla, A M

    2015-11-01

    To assess the influence of financial constraints on access to different components of spinal cord injury (SCI) management in various socio-economic strata of the Indian population. Indian Spinal Injuries Centre (ISIC). One hundred fifty SCI individuals who came for follow-up at ISIC between March 2009 and March 2013 with at least 1 year of community exposure after discharge were included in the study. Socio-economic classification was carried out according to the Kuppuswamy scale, a standard scale for the Indian population. A self-designed questionnaire was administered. No sample was available from the lower group. There was a statistically significant difference (PSCI management. Aided upper lower group was dependent on welfare schemes for in-hospital treatment but could not access other components of management once discharged. Unaided upper lower group either faced severe difficulty or could not access management. Majority of lower middle group faced severe difficulty. Upper middle group was equally divided into facing severe, moderate or no difficulty. Most patients in the upper group faced no difficulty, whereas some faced moderate and a small number of severe difficulty. Financial constraints affected all components of SCI management in all except the upper group. The results of the survey suggest that a very large percentage of the Indian population would find it difficult to access comprehensive SCI management and advocate extension of essential medical coverage to unaided upper lower, lower middle and upper middle groups.

  14. Inflatable Indian travel pillow as a pneumatic patient jack

    Gopalakrishna A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Indian travel pillow readily available in the market has been utilized as a patient jack in the operation theatre. This has been used to raise the shoulders of an anaesthetized patient for surgery in the head and neck region and a set of two pillows have been used to prop-up a prone anaesthetized patient. This allows smooth positioning of the patient after intubation without disturbance to the airway with minimal manpower.

  15. Knowledge and awareness about diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy in suburban population of a South Indian state and its practice among the patients with diabetes mellitus: A population-based study.

    Hussain, Rameez; Rajesh, Bindu; Giridhar, Anantharaman; Gopalakrishnan, Mahesh; Sadasivan, Sanjai; James, Justin; Vijayan, Pradeep Padickal; John, Nelson

    2016-04-01

    Ocular complications due to diabetes mellitus (DM) were on the rise despite good literacy levels in South India. To assess the knowledge and attitude toward DM and diabetic retinopathy of the general population in a suburban town of South India. Door-to-door population survey in suburban town of South India in May 2013. A 30-point questionnaire was prepared and the data were collected and analyzed to determine statistically the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) scores of the general and diabetic population and also to determine significant demographic associations. In this study, 6211 people (3528 [56.8%] women and 2683 [43.2%] men) with a mean age of 55.6 ± 11.7 years (range 21-98 years) were included. Good knowledge and positive attitude were observed in 3457 (55.6%) and 3280 (52.8%) people. Among 1538 (25.4%) people known to have DM, only 619 (40.7%) had good knowledge, 828 (53.8%) had a positive attitude, and 886 (57.6%) had good practice patterns. Although half of them followed general diabetic care, only 9.6% had undergone screening for retinopathy. Literacy showed a significant association with good KAP (P knowledge (P < 0.001). Better literacy, especially among women, is contributory to better public awareness; however, the trend for poor practice patterns needs to be radically changed with aggressive public motivation emphasizing on the necessity of retinopathy screening and periodic follow-ups.

  16. Post partum lymphocytic thyroiditis in North Indian population: a spectrum of thyroid dysfunction

    Sharma, Rajnish; Mondal, Anupam; Taneja, Vijay; Bansal, J.K.; Khanna, C.M.; Sharma, Manisha

    1999-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty one Indian women from Delhi and surrounding territory were prospectively evaluated to determine the frequency of post-partum thyroiditis upto 12 weeks of postpartum. Thirty one (11.8%) of the 261 cases included in our study developed thyroid disease. Twenty four (77%) of the patients who developed thyroiditis were found to have high titres of thyroid antibodies. Of these 24 patients, 21 (67.7%) tested positive for antimicrosomal antibodies and 17 (54.8%) tested positive for antithyroglobulin antibodies. Patients were found to have a spectrum of thyroid dysfunction. Transient hypothyroidism developed in 17 patients, I patient developed persistent hypothyroidism, 7 had transient thyrotoxicosis and 6 developed euthyroid goiters. Twenty two patients had goiters ranging from grade OB to grade II. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in 20 patients, while 2 had colloid goiter. It is concluded from our study that there is a significant incidence of post partum thyroid disease in the female population representative of North India, and most of the patients (93.5%) develop transient thyroid disorder. (author)

  17. Three-year data from the XIENCE V® INDIA study: Safety and efficacy of XIENCE V® in 1000 real world Indian patients

    Ashok Seth

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: Despite the high risk population of coronary artery disease, the use of XIENCE V® in 'real world' Indian patients was associated with very low clinical event rates upto three years of follow up.

  18. Association of paraoxonase-1 gene polymorphisms with insulin resistance in South Indian population.

    Gomathi, Panneerselvam; Iyer, Anandi Chandramouli; Murugan, Ponniah Senthil; Sasikumar, Sundaresan; Raj, Nancy Bright Arul Joseph; Ganesan, Divya; Nallaperumal, Sivagnanam; Murugan, Maruthamuthu; Selvam, Govindan Sadasivam

    2018-04-15

    Insulin resistance plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, paraoxonase-1(PON1) is reported to have an ability to reduce insulin resistance by promoting glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) expression in vitro. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in PON1 is associated with variability in enzyme activity and concentration. Based on this we aimed to investigate the association of PON1 (Q192R and L55M) polymorphisms with the risk of developing insulin resistance in adult South Indian population. Two hundred and eighty seven (287) Type 2 diabetes patients and 293 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. All the study subjects were genotyped for PON1 (Q192R and L55M) missense polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCRRFLP) method. Fasting serum insulin level was measured by ELISA. The distribution of QR/RR and LM/MM genotypes were significantly higher in type 2 diabetes patients compared with healthy controls. Moreover, the R and M alleles were significantly associated with type 2 diabetes with an Odds Ratio of 1.68 (P  R genotypes were found to be significantly associated with higher BMI, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, fasting serum insulin and HOMA-IR. Further, the mutant allele or genotypes of PON1 L55M were associated with higher BMI, triglycerides, VLDL, fasting serum insulin and HOMA-IR among adult type 2 diabetes patients. PON1 (Q192R and L55M) polymorphisms may play a crucial role in pathogenesis and susceptibility of insulin resistance thus leads to the development of type 2 diabetes in South Indian population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphism in North American, South American, and Mexican Indian populations.

    Goedde, H W; Agarwal, D P; Harada, S; Rothhammer, F; Whittaker, J O; Lisker, R

    1986-01-01

    While about 40% of the South American Indian populations (Atacameños, Mapuche, Shuara) were found to be deficient in aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme I (ALDH2 or E2), preliminary investigations showed very low incidence of isozyme deficiency among North American natives (Sioux, Navajo) and Mexican Indians (mestizo). Possible implications of such trait differences on cross-cultural behavioral response to alcohol drinking are discussed. PMID:3953578

  20. Risk factors for choledocholithiasis in a south Indian population: a case-control study.

    Chandran, Alexander Palapatti; Sivarajan, Ramya Ramakrishnan; Srinivas, Melpakkam; Srinivasan, Vijaya; Venkataraman, Jayanthi

    2013-11-01

    To identify risk factors for common bile duct (CBD) stones in a south Indian population. Demographic characteristics and diet details were obtained from patients with isolated CBD stones (Gp I) and those with combined CBD and gallstones (Gp II) and age- and sex-matched controls. The risk factors were compared between the two groups. The demographic characteristics were similar between the two groups and matched controls. The significant risk factors for Gp I were infrequent consumption of green vegetable (odds ratio (OR), 2.3; p 3 times per week) of spices (OR, 2.8; p oil (p oil intake (251 + 105 vs. 292 + 89 mL; p CBD stones in both groups were associated with reduced intake of sugar and green vegetables. Our findings need to be validated in larger studies.

  1. 77 FR 31637 - Revision of Agency Information Collection for the American Indian and Alaska Native Population...

    2012-05-29

    ... the population by gender, age, availability for work, and employment. The survey instrument is being... Act of 1995. The Indian Employment, Training and Related Services Demonstration Act of 1992, as... of standard measures of population and employment, as defined in the Federal Statistical System, to...

  2. SULT1A1 copy number variation: ethnic distribution analysis in an Indian population.

    Almal, Suhani; Padh, Harish

    2017-11-01

    Cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) are phase II detoxification enzymes involved in metabolism of numerous xenobiotics, drugs and endogenous compounds. Interindividual variation in sulfonation capacity is important for determining an individual's response to xenobiotics. SNPs in SULTs, mainly SULT1A1 have been associated with cancer risk and also with response to therapeutic agents. Copy number variation (CNVs) in SULT1A1 is found to be correlated with altered enzyme activity. This short report primarily focuses on CNV in SULT1A1 and its distribution among different ethnic populations around the globe. Frequency distribution of SULT1A1 copy number (CN) in 157 healthy Indian individuals was assessed using florescent-based quantitative PCR assay. A range of 1 to >4 copies, with a frequency of SULT1A1 CN =2 (64.9%) the highest, was observed in our (Indian) population. Upon comparative analysis of frequency distribution of SULT1A1 CN among diverse population groups, a statistically significant difference was observed between Indians (our data) and African-American (AA) (p = 0.0001) and South African (Tswana) (p populations. Distribution of CNV in the Indian population was found to be similar to that in European-derived populations of American and Japanese. CNV of SULT1A1 varies significantly among world populations and may be one of the determinants of health and diseases.

  3. Epidemiology of Oral Lichen Planus in a Cohort of South Indian Population: A Retrospective Study

    Varghese, Soma Susan; George, Giju Baby; Sarojini, Sreenivasan Bargavan; Vinod, Sankar; Mathew, Philips; Mathew, Deepu George; Sebastian, Joseph; George, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an immune-mediated potentially malignant disorder of the oral cavity. Dysplastic OLP has an altered cytogenic profile and can progress into oral squamous cell carcinoma. The epidemiology of OLP is well-described in several relatively large series from various geographic locations, whereas such series from southern India is rare. The aim of the present study was to determine the epidemiology of OLP in a cohort of South Indian population. Methods: All the case data records of 29,606 patients who visited Mar Baselios Dental College and Hospital, Kerala, India from 2014 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. For data review, 122 patients of OLP were selected Estimated were type, number, and location of lesions, clinical manifestation, age of the patient, gender, onset and duration of lesion, stressful life style, habits, skin involvement and associated systemic illness, and presence/absence of dysplasia. Results: When the distribution of OLP among the gender was considered, we found more prevalence in females than males. Fifty-seven percent of patients were associated with stressful lifestyle. Reticular lichen planus was the most common clinical subtype found. Bilateral buccal mucosal was the common site, when the distribution of sites of OLP were compared (P lichen planus lesions. Conclusions: OLP patients had high incidence of hypersensitivity reactions and 5% of OLP lesions showed anaplasia. Long term follow-up is necessary to monitor the recurrence, prognosis, and malignant transformation of OLP. PMID:27051650

  4. Cultural identity and patient trust among older American Indians.

    Simonds, Vanessa W; Goins, R Turner; Krantz, Elizabeth M; Garroutte, Eva Marie

    2014-03-01

    Patients' trust in healthcare providers and institutions has been identified as a likely contributor to racial-ethnic health disparities. The likely influence of patients' cultural characteristics on trust is widely acknowledged but inadequately explored. To compare levels of patients' trust in primary care provider (interpersonal trust) with trust in healthcare organizations (institutional trust) among older American Indians (AIs), and determine associations with cultural identity. Patient survey administered following primary care visits. Two-hundred and nineteen American Indian patients ≥ 50 years receiving care for a non-acute condition at two clinics operated by the Cherokee Nation in northeastern Oklahoma. Self-reported sociodemographic and cultural characteristics. Trust was measured using three questions about interpersonal trust and one measure of institutional trust; responses ranged from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Finding substantial variation only in institutional trust, we used logistic generalized estimating equations to examine relationships of patient cultural identity with institutional trust. Ninety-five percent of patients reported trusting their individual provider, while only 46 % reported trusting their healthcare institution. Patients who strongly self-identified with an AI cultural identity had significantly lower institutional trust compared to those self-identifying less strongly (OR: 0.6, 95 % CI: 0.4, 0.9). Interpersonal and institutional trust represent distinct dimensions of patients' experience of care that may show important relationships to patients' cultural characteristics. Strategies for addressing low institutional trust may have special relevance for patients who identify strongly with AI culture.

  5. Prevalence of Rh, Duffy, Kell, Kidd & MNSs blood group antigens in the Indian blood donor population.

    Makroo, R N; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Gupta, Richa; Phillip, Jessy

    2013-03-01

    Little data are available regarding the frequencies of the blood group antigens other than ABO and RhD in the Indian population. Knowledge of the antigen frequencies is important to assess risk of antibody formation and to guide the probability of finding antigen-negative donor blood, which is especially useful when blood is required for a patient who has multiple red cell alloantibodies. This study was carried out to determine the frequencies of the D, C, c, E, e, K, k, Fy(a), Fy(b), Jk(a), Jk(b), M, N, S and s antigens in over 3,000 blood donors. Samples from randomly selected blood donors from Delhi and nearby areas (both voluntary and replacement) were collected for extended antigen typing during the period January 2009 to January 2010. Antigens were typed via automated testing on the Galileo instrument using commercial antisera. A total of 3073 blood samples from donors were phenotyped. The prevalence of these antigens was found to be as follows in %: D: 93.6, C: 87, c: 58, E: 20, e: 98, K: 3.5, k: 99.97, F(a) : 87.4, Fy(b) : 57.6, Jk(a) : 81.5, Jk(b) : 67.4, M: 88.7, N: 65.4, S: 54.8 and s: 88.7. This study found the prevalence of the typed antigens among Indian blood donors to be statistically different to those in the Caucasian, Black and Chinese populations, but more similar to Caucasians than to the other racial groups.

  6. Eruption age of permanent mandibular first molars and central incisors in the south Indian population

    Gupta Rakhi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The existing eruption schedules for permanent and deciduous dentition are based on studies in the Western population. Since Indians differ from Westerners racially, genetically, and environmentally, these studies fail to provide relevant guidance on the eruption schedule in the Indian population. This study aims at determining the eruption pattern of permanent mandibular molars and central incisors in the south Indian population. Materials and Methods: 10,156 apparently healthy Indian children in the age-group of 6-9 years were examined with mouth mirror and probe under adequate illumination for the status of the eruption of the permanent mandibular first molar and permanent mandibular central incisor. Pearson′s Chi-square test with Yates′ continuity correction was used to calculate the P -value for comparison of proportion between girls and boys. The values obtained in our study were compared with the standard values. The Z-test with continuity correction was used to calculate the P -value. Results: As per our study, the permanent mandibular first molars and central incisors erupted one to two years later compared to the values reported in Westerners. The earlier eruption of the permanent mandibular first molars compared to the permanent mandibular central incisors, as well as the earlier eruption of both the teeth in girls compared to boys, were in accordance with the existing literature. Conclusion: The eruption age reported by us may form a standard reference for eruption age in Indians.

  7. IL10 Variant g.5311A Is Associated with Visceral Leishmaniasis in Indian Population.

    Anshuman Mishra

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a multifactorial disease, where the host genetics play a significant role in determining the disease outcome. The immunological role of anti-inflammatory cytokine, Interleukin 10 (IL10, has been well-documented in parasite infections and considered as a key regulatory cytokine for VL. Although VL patients in India display high level of IL10 in blood serum, no genetic study has been conducted to assess the VL susceptibility / resistance. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the role of IL10 variations in Indian VL; and to estimate the distribution of disease associated allele in diverse Indian populations.All the exons and exon-intron boundaries of IL10 were sequenced in 184 VL patients along with 172 ethnically matched controls from VL endemic region of India.Our analysis revealed four variations; rs1518111 (2195 A>G, intron, rs1554286 (2607 C>T, intron, rs3024496 (4976 T>C, 3' UTR and rs3024498 (5311 A>G, 3' UTR. Of these, a variant g.5311A is significantly associated with VL (χ2=18.87; p =0.00001. In silico approaches have shown that a putative micro RNA binding site (miR-4321 is lost in rs3024498 mRNA. Further, analysis of the above four variations in 1138 individuals from 34 ethnic populations, representing different social and linguistic groups who are inhabited in different geographical regions of India, showed variable frequency. Interestingly, we have found, majority of the tribal populations have low frequency of VL ('A' of rs3024498; and high frequency of leprosy ('T' of rs1554286, and Behcet's ('A' of rs1518111 associated alleles, whereas these were vice versa in castes. Our findings suggest that majority of tribal populations of India carry the protected / less severe allele against VL, while risk / more severe allele for leprosy and Behcet's disease. This study has potential implications in counseling and management of VL and other infectious diseases.

  8. Increasing incidence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever among the American Indian population in the United States.

    Holman, Robert C; McQuiston, Jennifer H; Haberling, Dana L; Cheek, James E

    2009-04-01

    To examine trends of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) incidence among American Indians compared with other race groups, a retrospective analysis of national RMSF surveillance data reported to the National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance and the Tickborne Rickettsial Disease Case Report Forms system were used. The RMSF incidence for American Indians, which was comparable to those for other race groups during 1990-2000, increased at a disproportionate rate during 2001-2005. The average annual incidence of RMSF reported among American Indians for 2001-2005 was 16.8 per 1,000,000 persons compared with 4.2, 2.6, and 0.5 for white, black, and Asian/Pacific Islander persons, respectively. Most cases in American Indians were reported from Oklahoma (113.1 cases per 1,000,000), North Carolina (60.0), and Arizona (17.2). The incidence of RMSF increased dramatically among American Indians disproportionately to trends for other race groups. Education about tick-borne disease and prevention measures should be addressed for high-risk American Indian populations.

  9. OPHTHALMIC MANIFESTATIONS OF TAKAYASU ARTERITIS IN SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

    Nandhini Arumugam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Takayasu arteritis is a chronic inflammatory vasculopathy mainly affecting the aorta and its main branches and rarely the pulmonary artery. It usually affects females of the childbearing age group and is more prevalent in the South East Asian countries. 1 Ocular manifestations are not uncommon in cases of Takayasu arteritis. They may be ischaemic ocular manifestations when aorta and its branches are involved and get stenosed or hypertensive retinopathy when renal or suprarenal aorta is involved. 2 Uyama and Asayama broadly classified the ocular manifestations into three types. 3 Type 1 comprised of the ischaemic ocular manifestations of Takayasu arteritis, termed as Takayasu Retinopathy which has been further classified into four stages. Stage one is characterised by the distention of veins, stage two consists of microaneurysm formation, occurrence of arteriovenous anastomoses indicates stage three and complications like retinal ischaemia, neovascularisation, rubeosis iridis and vitreous haemorrhage occurs in stage four. Type two ocular findings have features of mixed retinopathy and type three had retinal manifestations due to hypertension which occurs due to the involvement of the renal and abdominal aorta. Since this disease occurs predominantly in younger individuals it causes severe ocular morbidity in the young if not diagnosed and intervened at an early stage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical spectrum of ocular findings in patients with Takayasu arteritis and to describe the Fundus Fluorescein angiographic characteristics of various retinal findings in patients with Takayasu arteritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS 63 patients who were diagnosed as Takayasu Arteritis who attended our tertiary eye care centre in the time period of November 2014 to march 2017 were included in our study. RESULTS This cross-sectional study consisted of 63 patients. The mean age of the presentation of the study population was 27.8 years

  10. Unraveling Brazilian Indian population prostate good health: clinical, anthropometric and genetic features

    Mario M. de Lima Junior

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To compare dietary, lifestyle, clinical, anthropometric, genetic and prostatic features of Brazilian Indians and non-Indians (Amazon. Methods 315 men, 228 Indians and 89 non-Indians, ≥40 years old were submitted to digital rectal examination, serum prostate specific antigen (PSA, testosterone, TP53 and GSTP1 genotyping, anthropometric, lifestyle, dietary, personal and familial medical history. Prostatic symptoms were evaluated with the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS. Results Macuxis and Yanomamis represented 43.6% and 14.5% of Indians respectively who spontaneously referred no prostate symptoms. Mean IPSS was 7, range 3-19, with only 15% of moderate symptoms (score 8-19; Mean age was 54.7 years, waist circumference 86.6 cm, BMI 23.9 kg/m2. Yanomamis presented both lower BMI (21.4 versus 24.8 and 23.3, p=0,001 and prostate volume than Macuxis and “other ethnic groups” (15 versus 20, p=0.001. Testosterone (414 versus 502 and 512, p=0.207 and PSA (0.48 versus 0.6 and 0.41, p=0.349 were similar with progressive PSA increase with aging. Val/Val correlated with lower PSA (p=0.0361. Indians compared to control population presented: - TP53 super representation of Arg/Arg haplotype, 74.5% versus 42.5%, p<0.0001. -GSTP1 Ile/Ile 35.3% versus 60.9%; Ile/Val 45.9% versus 28.7%; Val/Val 18.8% versus 10.3%; p=0.0003. Conclusions Observed specific dietary, lifestyle, anthropometric and genetic profile for TP53 and GSTP1 may contribute to Brazilian Indian population prostate good health.

  11. Unraveling Brazilian Indian population prostate good health: clinical, anthropometric and genetic features

    de Lima, Mario M.; Reis, Leonardo O.; Ferreira, Ubirajara; Cardoso, Ulieme Oliveira; Barbieri, Raquel Bueno; de Mendonça, Gustavo B.; Ward, Laura S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare dietary, lifestyle, clinical, anthropometric, genetic and prostatic features of Brazilian Indians and non-Indians (Amazon). Methods 315 men, 228 Indians and 89 non-Indians, ≥40 years old were submitted to digital rectal examination, serum prostate specific antigen (PSA), testosterone, TP53 and GSTP1 genotyping, anthropometric, lifestyle, dietary, personal and familial medical history. Prostatic symptoms were evaluated with the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Results Macuxis and Yanomamis represented 43.6% and 14.5% of Indians respectively who spontaneously referred no prostate symptoms. Mean IPSS was 7, range 3-19, with only 15% of moderate symptoms (score 8-19); Mean age was 54.7 years, waist circumference 86.6 cm, BMI 23.9 kg/m2. Yanomamis presented both lower BMI (21.4 versus 24.8 and 23.3, p=0,001) and prostate volume than Macuxis and “other ethnic groups” (15 versus 20, p=0.001). Testosterone (414 versus 502 and 512, p=0.207) and PSA (0.48 versus 0.6 and 0.41, p=0.349) were similar with progressive PSA increase with aging. Val/Val correlated with lower PSA (p=0.0361). Indians compared to control population presented: - TP53 super representation of Arg/Arg haplotype, 74.5% versus 42.5%, p<0.0001. -GSTP1 Ile/Ile 35.3% versus 60.9%; Ile/Val 45.9% versus 28.7%; Val/Val 18.8% versus 10.3%; p=0.0003. Conclusions Observed specific dietary, lifestyle, anthropometric and genetic profile for TP53 and GSTP1 may contribute to Brazilian Indian population prostate good health. PMID:26005978

  12. Mutation analysis of β-thalassemia in East-Western Indian population: a recent molecular approach

    Shah PS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Parth S Shah,1 Nidhi D Shah,2 Hari Shankar P Ray,3 Nikunj B Khatri,3 Ketan K Vaghasia,3 Rutvik J Raval,4 Sandip C Shah,3 Mandava V Rao5 1Department of Medicine, Lahey Hospital and Medical Center, Boston, MA, 2Department of Pediatrics, Nassau University Medical Centre, New York, NY, USA; 3Supratech Micropath Laboratory and Research Institute, 4Department of Zoology, 5School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India Background: β-Thalassemia is the most prevalent genetic disorder in India. Its traits and coinheritance vary from mild to severe conditions, resulting in thalassemia minor, intermediate, and major, depending upon many factors.Purpose: The objective of this study was to identify the incidence of β-thalassemia traits, their coinheritance, and mutations, as well as to support the patients already diagnosed with β-thalassemia in East-Western Indian population for better management.Patients and methods: Seventy-five referral cases for β-thalassemia were analyzed for various β-thalassemia traits, heterozygosity, and homozygosity conditions. Blood phenotypic parameters using cell counter and capillary electrophoresis were investigated. Analyses of eight common mutations of thalassemia in India were carried out using polymerase chain reaction-amplification refractory mutation system, end point polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing methods.Results: Of these (75 referral cases from East-Western Indian region, 68 were positive for β-thalassemia (90.67%. The majority of case types were of β-thalassemia minor (49, 65.33%, followed by HbE traits (6, 8.0% and β-thalassemia major, including heterozygous and homozygous (5, 6.66%; 4, 5.33% types and then HbE homozygous (2, 2.66%, as well as one each of the HbE/β-thalassemia and HbD/β-thalassemia (1, 1.34% combination. Mutation analysis also revealed that the highest frequency of mutation was c.92+5G>C (41, 60.29% followed by deletion 619bp (9, 13.23% and c.79G>A (8, 11

  13. Mutation analysis of β-thalassemia in East-Western Indian population: a recent molecular approach

    Shah, Parth S; Shah, Nidhi D; Ray, Hari Shankar P; Khatri, Nikunj B; Vaghasia, Ketan K; Raval, Rutvik J; Shah, Sandip C; Rao, Mandava V

    2017-01-01

    Background β-Thalassemia is the most prevalent genetic disorder in India. Its traits and coinheritance vary from mild to severe conditions, resulting in thalassemia minor, intermediate, and major, depending upon many factors. Purpose The objective of this study was to identify the incidence of β-thalassemia traits, their coinheritance, and mutations, as well as to support the patients already diagnosed with β-thalassemia in East-Western Indian population for better management. Patients and methods Seventy-five referral cases for β-thalassemia were analyzed for various β-thalassemia traits, heterozygosity, and homozygosity conditions. Blood phenotypic parameters using cell counter and capillary electrophoresis were investigated. Analyses of eight common mutations of thalassemia in India were carried out using polymerase chain reaction-amplification refractory mutation system, end point polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing methods. Results Of these (75) referral cases from East-Western Indian region, 68 were positive for β-thalassemia (90.67%). The majority of case types were of β-thalassemia minor (49, 65.33%), followed by HbE traits (6, 8.0%) and β-thalassemia major, including heterozygous and homozygous (5, 6.66%; 4, 5.33%) types and then HbE homozygous (2, 2.66%), as well as one each of the HbE/β-thalassemia and HbD/β-thalassemia (1, 1.34%) combination. Mutation analysis also revealed that the highest frequency of mutation was c.92+5G>C (41, 60.29%) followed by deletion 619bp (9, 13.23%) and c.79G>A (8, 11.76%) in our study group. Five cases (nos. 24, 27, 33, 58, and 71) exhibited coinheritance between β0/β+ (2), β0/β D (1), and c.124_127delTTCT/β+ or β0(2) affecting the Rajasthani and Gujarati populations in our study of the Western region of India. Conclusion We strongly recommend these Western populations for genetic screening before adopting reproductive technologies and interracial marital relations. PMID:28546763

  14. HLA polymorphism in a Guarani-Indian population from Paraguay and its usefulness for the Hispano-Indian admixture study in Paraguay.

    Benitez, O; Busson, M; Charron, D; Loiseau, P

    2011-02-01

    In this study we investigated the human leucocyte antigen-A (HLA-A), -B and DRB1 polymorphism of Native American population of Paraguay, the Guarani Indians. We found that the HLA variability consisted of 5 HLA-A, 7 HLA-B and 6 HLA-DRB1 groups of alleles and of several specific alleles (B*1504, B*3505, B*3912, B*4004, B*5104, DRB1*0411, DRB1*1413) common in other Native American populations. The comparison of the HLA polymorphism of the Guaranis from Paraguay with the «Mestizos» of Paraguay and the Spaniards showed that the «Mestizos» of Paraguay are genetically very distant from the Guarani Indians of Paraguay but much more close to the Spaniards. This can be explained, at least in part, by the history of the country. Our results are of importance in transplantation, in particular in the search for an unrelated donor for a Paraguayan patient requiring hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Population Genetic Status of the Western Indian Ocean: What do we ...

    The Western Indian Ocean (WIO) is faced with increasing evidence of degradation and effective management initiatives are needed to curtail the environmental decline. The management of the WIO region can therefore benefit from the information that population genetics can provide. Extensive literature searches revealed ...

  16. Drug‑induced Stevens–Johnson Syndrome in Indian Population: A ...

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Drug-induced Stevens–Johnson syndrome in Indian population: A multicentric retrospective analysis. Niger J Clin Pract 2017;20:978-83. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix,.

  17. Association of maternal risk factors with large for gestational age fetuses in Indian population

    Shamim Khandaker; Shabana Munshi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the risk of delivering large-for gestational age (LGA) fetuses associated with maternal obesity, excessive maternal weight gain, and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)- in Indian mothers. Design: Retrospective study. Settings: Fernandez Hospital Private Limited, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India; a tertiary perinatal centre. Populations: Pregnant singleton mothers with correct pregnancy dating. Methods: Estimated fetal weight (EFW) is determined using ultrasound variabl...

  18. Prevalence and distribution of selected developmental dental anomalies in an Indian population.

    Gupta, Saurabh K; Saxena, Payal; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Deshraj

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of developmental dental anomalies in an Indian population and to statistically analyze the distribution of these anomalies. The study was based on clinical examination, evaluation of dental casts, and panoramic radiographs of 1123 Indian subjects (572 males, 551 females), who visited the outpatient clinic at Government Dental College, Indore between November 2009 and September 2010, after obtaining their informed consent. These patients were examined for the following developmental dental anomalies: shape anomalies (microdontia, talon cusp, dens evaginatus, fusion, taurodontism), number anomalies (hypodontia, oligodontia, anodontia), structural anomalies (amelogenesis imperfecta, dentinogenesis imperfecta) and positional anomalies (ectopic eruption, rotation, impaction). The percentages of these anomalies were assessed for the whole group and compared using statistical analysis. Among the 1123 subjects, a total of 385 individuals (34.28%) presented with the selected developmental dental anomalies. The distribution by sex was 197 males (34.44%), and 188 females (34.06%). Out of the total 1123 individuals, 351 (31.26%) exhibited at least one anomaly, 28 (2.49 %) showed two anomalies and 6 (0.53%) displayed more than two anomalies. P values indicated that the dental anomalies were statistically independent of sex. On intergroup comparison, positional anomalies were significantly most prevalent (P dental anomaly was rotation (10.24%), followed by ectopic eruption (7.93%). The next common group was number anomalies. The most common number anomaly was hypodontia (4.19%), which had a higher frequency than hyperdontia (2.40%). Analyzing the next prevalent group of shape anomalies, microdontia (2.58%) was found to be the most common, followed by taurodontism (2.49%), dens evaginatus (2.40%) and talon cusp (0.97%). Dentinogenesis imperfecta (0.09%) was the rarest, followed by amelogenesis imperfecta (0.27%) and fusion

  19. Mutation profiling of the hepatitis B virus strains circulating in North Indian population.

    Amit Tuteja

    Full Text Available AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the genomic mutations in the circulating Hepatitis B virus strains causing infection in the Indian population. Further, we wanted to analyze the biological significance of these mutations in HBV mediated disease. METHODS: 222 HBsAg positive patients were enrolled in the study. The genotype and mutation profile was determined for the infecting HBV isolate by sequencing overlapping fragments. These sequences were analyzed by using different tools and compared with previously available HBV sequence information. Mutation Frequency Index (MFI for the Genes and Diagnosis group was also calculated. RESULTS: HBV Genotype D was found in 55% (n = 121 of the patient group and genotype A was found in 30% (n = 66 of samples. The majority (52% of the HBV-infected individuals in the present study were HBeAg-negative in all the age groups studied. Spontaneous drug associated mutations implicated in resistance to antiviral therapy were also identified in about quarter of our patients, which is of therapeutic concern. The MFI approach used in the study indicated that Core peptide was the most conserved region in both genotypes and Surface peptide had highest mutation frequency. Few mutations in X gene (T36A and G50R showed high frequency of association with HCC. A rare recombinant strain of HBV genotype A and D was also identified in the patient group. CONCLUSIONS: HBV genotype D was found out to be most prevalent. More than half of the patients studied had HBeAg negative disease. Core region was found to be most conserved. Drug Associated mutations were detected in 22% of the patient group and T36A and G50R mutations in X gene were found to be associated with HCC.

  20. Identification of novel target genes involved in Indian Fanconi anemia patients using microarray.

    Shyamsunder, Pavithra; Ganesh, Kripa S; Vidyasekar, Prasanna; Mohan, Sheila; Verma, Rama Shanker

    2013-12-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic disorder characterized by progressive bone marrow failure and a predisposition to cancers. Mutations have been documented in 15 FA genes that participate in the FA-BRCA DNA repair pathway, a fundamental pathway in the development of the disease and the presentation of its characteristic symptoms. Certain symptoms such as oxygen sensitivity, hematological abnormalities and impaired immunity suggest that FA proteins could participate in or independently control other pathways as well. In this study, we identified 9 DNA repair genes that were down regulated in a genome wide analysis of 6 Indian Fanconi anemia patients. Functional clustering of a total of 233 dysregulated genes identified key biological processes that included regulation of transcription, DNA repair, cell cycle and chromosomal organization. Microarray data revealed the down regulation of ATXN3, ARID4A and ETS-1, which were validated by RTPCR in a subsequent sample set of 9 Indian FA patients. Here we report for the first time a gene expression profile of Fanconi anemia patients from the Indian population and a pool of genes that might aid in the acquisition and progression of the FA phenotype. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors associated with tardive dyskinesia among Indian patients with schizophrenia.

    Achalia, Rashmin M; Chaturvedi, Santosh K; Desai, Geetha; Rao, Girish N; Prakash, Om

    2014-06-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is one of the most distressing side effects of antipsychotic treatment. As prevalence studies of TD in Asian population are scarce, a cross-sectional study was performed to assess the frequency of TD in Indian patients with schizophrenia and risk factors of TD. Cross-sectional study of 160 Indian patients fulfilling the DSM-IV TR criteria for schizophrenia and who received antipsychotics for at least one year, were examined with two validated scales for TD. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between TD and clinical risk factors. The frequency of probable TD in the total sample was 26.4%. The logistic regression yielded significant odds ratios between TD and age, intermittent treatment, and total cumulative antipsychotic dose. The difference of TD between SGA and FGA disappeared after adjusting for important co-variables in regression analysis. Indian patients with schizophrenia and long-term antipsychotic treatment have a high risk of TD, and TD is associated with older age, intermittent antipsychotic treatment, and a high total cumulative antipsychotic dose. Our study findings suggest that there is no significant difference between SGAs with regards to the risk of causing TD as compared to FGAs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Extensive copy number variations in admixed Indian population of African ancestry: potential involvement in adaptation.

    Narang, Ankita; Jha, Pankaj; Kumar, Dhirendra; Kutum, Rintu; Mondal, Anupam Kumar; Dash, Debasis; Mukerji, Mitali

    2014-11-13

    Admixture mapping has been enormously resourceful in identifying genetic variations linked to phenotypes, adaptation, and diseases. In this study through analysis of copy number variable regions (CNVRs), we report extensive restructuring in the genomes of the recently admixed African-Indian population (OG-W-IP) that inhabits a highly saline environment in Western India. The study included subjects from OG-W-IP (OG), five different Indian and three HapMap populations that were genotyped using Affymetrix version 6.0 arrays. Copy number variations (CNVs) detected using Birdsuite were used to define CNVRs. Population structure with respect to CNVRs was delineated using random forest approach. OG genomes have a surprising excess of CNVs in comparison to other studied populations. Individual ancestry proportions computed using STRUCTURE also reveals a unique genetic component in OGs. Population structure analysis with CNV genotypes indicates OG to be distant from both the African and Indian ancestral populations. Interestingly, it shows genetic proximity with respect to CNVs to only one Indian population IE-W-LP4, which also happens to reside in the same geographical region. We also observe a significant enrichment of molecular processes related to ion binding and receptor activity in genes encompassing OG-specific CNVRs. Our results suggest that retention of CNVRs from ancestral natives and de novo acquisition of CNVRs could accelerate the process of adaptation especially in an extreme environment. Additionally, this population would be enormously useful for dissecting genes and delineating the involvement of CNVs in salt adaptation. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  3. Population differentiation of southern Indian male lineages correlates with agricultural expansions predating the caste system.

    Arunkumar, Ganeshprasad; Soria-Hernanz, David F; Kavitha, Valampuri John; Arun, Varatharajan Santhakumari; Syama, Adhikarla; Ashokan, Kumaran Samy; Gandhirajan, Kavandanpatti Thangaraj; Vijayakumar, Koothapuli; Narayanan, Muthuswamy; Jayalakshmi, Mariakuttikan; Ziegle, Janet S; Royyuru, Ajay K; Parida, Laxmi; Wells, R Spencer; Renfrew, Colin; Schurr, Theodore G; Smith, Chris Tyler; Platt, Daniel E; Pitchappan, Ramasamy

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies that pooled Indian populations from a wide variety of geographical locations, have obtained contradictory conclusions about the processes of the establishment of the Varna caste system and its genetic impact on the origins and demographic histories of Indian populations. To further investigate these questions we took advantage that both Y chromosome and caste designation are paternally inherited, and genotyped 1,680 Y chromosomes representing 12 tribal and 19 non-tribal (caste) endogamous populations from the predominantly Dravidian-speaking Tamil Nadu state in the southernmost part of India. Tribes and castes were both characterized by an overwhelming proportion of putatively Indian autochthonous Y-chromosomal haplogroups (H-M69, F-M89, R1a1-M17, L1-M27, R2-M124, and C5-M356; 81% combined) with a shared genetic heritage dating back to the late Pleistocene (10-30 Kya), suggesting that more recent Holocene migrations from western Eurasia contributed caste) system from the historically-documented Brahmin migrations into the area. In contrast, the overall Y-chromosomal patterns, the time depth of population diversifications and the period of differentiation were best explained by the emergence of agricultural technology in South Asia. These results highlight the utility of detailed local genetic studies within India, without prior assumptions about the importance of Varna rank status for population grouping, to obtain new insights into the relative influences of past demographic events for the population structure of the whole of modern India.

  4. Impact of classical risk factors of type 2 diabetes among Asian Indian, Chinese and Japanese populations.

    He, L; Tuomilehto, J; Qiao, Q; Söderberg, S; Daimon, M; Chambers, J; Pitkäniemi, J

    2015-11-01

    This review investigated the population impact of major modifiable type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk factors, with special focus on native Asian Indians, to estimate population attributable risks (PARs) and compare them with estimates from Chinese and Japanese populations. Information was obtained on risk factors in 21,041 Asian Indian, 17,774 Chinese and 17,986 Japanese populations from multiple, large, cross-sectional studies (the DECODA project) of T2D. Crude and adjusted PARs were estimated for the major T2D risk factors. Age had the highest crude and adjusted PARs among Asian Indians and Chinese in contrast to waist-hip ratio among Japanese. After adjusting for age, the PAR for body mass index (BMI) in Asian Indians (41.4% [95% CI: 37.2%; 45.4%]) was second only to triglycerides (46.4% [95% CI: 39.5%; 52.8%]) compared with 35.8% [95% CI: 29.9%; 41.4%] in Japanese and 38.4% [95% CI: 33.5%; 43.2%] in Chinese people. The PAR for BMI adjusted for age, LDL and triglycerides (39.7% [95% CI: 31.6%; 47.2%]) was higher than for any other factor in Asian Indians, and was much higher than in the Chinese (16.8% [95% CI: 3.0%; 30.9%]) and Japanese (30.4% [95% CI: 17.5%; 42.2%]) populations. This review provides estimates of the association between major risk factors and prevalences of T2D among Asian populations by examining their PARs from large population-based samples. From a public-health point of view, the importance of BMI in Asian Indians is especially highlighted in comparison to the other Asian populations. Given these results and other recent findings on the causality link between BMI and T2D, it can be postulated that obesity may be involved in the aetiology of T2D through interaction with ethnic-specific genetic factors, although ethnicity itself is not a direct risk factor for T2D as people of all ethnic backgrounds develop diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Phylogeography of Indian populations of Panax bipinnatifidus Seem

    ksu

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... Renner, 2011; Ali et al., 2009; Kocyan et al., 2007; Zhang et al., 2006; Jeffrey, 2005; ... information on population structure and genetic variation of D. palmatus is lacking. ..... Fine scale geographic structure, intra-individual ...

  6. A clinical study to evaluate the correlation between maxillary central incisor tooth form and face form in an Indian population.

    Koralakunte, Pavankumar R; Budihal, Dhanyakumar H

    2012-09-01

    A study was performed to examine the correlation between maxillary central incisor tooth form and face form in males and females in an Indian population. The selection of prosthetic teeth for edentulous patients is a primary issue in denture esthetics, especially in the case of maxillary central incisors, which are the most prominent teeth in the arch. Two hundred dental students of Indian origin comprising 79 males and 121 females aged 18-28 years studying at Bapuji Dental College and Hospital were randomly selected as the study subjects. A standardized photographic procedure was used to obtain images of the face and the maxillary central incisors. The outline forms of the face and the maxillary right central incisor tooth were determined using a standardized method. The outline forms obtained were used to classify both face form and tooth form on the basis of visual and William's methods. The means were considered after evaluation by five prosthodontists, and the results were tabulated. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-squared test for association and Z-test for equality of proportions. A correlation greater than 50% was observed between tooth form and face form by the visual method, compared with one of 31.5% by William's method. There was no highly defined correlation between maxillary central incisor tooth form and face form among the male and female Indian subjects studied.

  7. Status of epigenetic chromatin modification enzymes and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk in northeast Indian population.

    Singh, Virendra; Singh, Laishram C; Singh, Avninder P; Sharma, Jagannath; Borthakur, Bibhuti B; Debnath, Arundhati; Rai, Avdhesh K; Phukan, Rup K; Mahanta, Jagadish; Kataki, Amal C; Kapur, Sujala; Saxena, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal cancer incidence is reported in high frequency in northeast India. The etiology is different from other population at India due to wide variations in dietary habits or nutritional factors, tobacco/betel quid chewing and alcohol habits. Since DNA methylation, histone modification and miRNA-mediated epigenetic processes alter the gene expression, the involvement of these processes might be useful to find out epigenetic markers of esophageal cancer risk in northeast Indian population. The present investigation was aimed to carryout differential expression profiling of chromatin modification enzymes in tumor and normal tissue collected from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. Differential mRNA expression profiling and their validation was done by quantitative real time PCR and tissue microarray respectively. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the epidemiological data. mRNA expression data was analyzed by Student t-test. Fisher exact test was used for tissue microarray data analysis. Higher expression of enzymes regulating methylation (DOT1L and PRMT1) and acetylation (KAT7, KAT8, KAT2A and KAT6A) of histone was found associated with ESCC risk. Tissue microarray done in independent cohort of 75 patients revealed higher nuclear protein expression of KAT8 and PRMT1 in tumor similar to mRNA expression. Expression status of PRMT1 and KAT8 was found declined as we move from low grade to high grade tumor. Betel nut chewing, alcohol drinking and dried fish intake were significantly associated with increased risk of esophageal cancer among the study subject. Study suggests the association of PRMT1 and KAT8 with esophageal cancer risk and its involvement in the transition process of low to high grade tumor formation. The study exposes the differential status of chromatin modification enzymes between tumor and normal tissue and points out that relaxed state of chromatin facilitates more transcriptionally active

  8. Pilot case-control investigation of risk factors for hip fractures in the urban Indian population

    Malhotra Nidhi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the reported high prevalence of osteoporosis in India, there have been no previous studies examining the risk factors for hip fracture in the Indian population. Methods We carried out a case control investigation comprising 100 case subjects (57 women and 43 men admitted with a first hip fracture into one of three hospitals across New Delhi. The 100 controls were age and sex matched subjects who were either healthy visitors not related to the case patients or hospital staff. Information from all subjects was obtained through a questionnaire based interview. Results There was a significant increase in the number of cases of hip fracture with increasing age. There were significantly more women (57% than men (43%. Univariate analysis identified protective effects for increased activity, exercise, calcium and vitamin supplements, almonds, fish, paneer (cottage cheese, curd (plain yogurt, and milk. However, tea and other caffeinated beverages were significant risk factors. In women, hormone/estrogen therapy appeared to have a marginal protective effect. For all cases, decreased agility, visual impairment, long term medications, chronic illnesses increased the risk of hip fracture. The multivariate analysis confirmed a protective effect of increased activity and also showed a decrease in hip fracture risk with increasing body mass index (odds ratio (OR 0.024, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.006-0.10 & OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.97 respectively. Individuals who take calcium supplements have a decreased risk of hip fracture (OR 0.076; CI 0.017-0.340, as do individuals who eat fish (OR 0.094; CI 0.020-0.431, and those who eat paneer (OR 0.152; 0.031-0.741. Tea drinkers have a higher risk of hip fracture (OR 22.8; 95% CI 3.73-139.43. Difficulty in getting up from a chair also appears to be an important risk factor for hip fractures (OR 14.53; 95% CI 3.86-54.23. Conclusions In the urban Indian population, dietary calcium, vitamin D

  9. Evaluation of antioxidants and argpyrimidine in normal and cataractous lenses in north Indian population

    Bharani K Mynampati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the level of glutathione, thioltransferase, and argpyrimidine in nuclear and cortical cataractous lenses as well as in the clear lenses in the north Indian population. METHODS: Human cataractous lenses were collected from the patients who underwent extracapsular cataract extraction surgery; clear lenses were collected from the freshly donated eye bank eyes. Antioxidant molecules such as glutathione and thioltransferase enzyme activity were measured; simultaneously in these lenses a blue fluorophore argpyrimidine, an advanced glycation end (AGE product level was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. RESULTS: The protein concentration was found to be present at higher levels in the control lenses compared to cataract lenses. A significant decrease in the glutathione level was observed in the nuclear cataractous lenses compared to cortical cataractous (P=0.004 and clear lenses (P≤0.005, but no significant change in the level of antioxidant enzyme thioltransferase was observed. Further, argpyrimidine a blue fluorophore (AGE was found to be significantly higher in the nuclear cataract (P=0.013 compared to cortical cataract lenses. CONCLUSION: Antioxidants such as glutathione significantly decrease in age-related nuclear and cortical cataract and an AGE, argpyrimidine are present at significantly higher levels in nuclear cataract.

  10. Root surface area measurement of permanent dentition in Indian population – CBCT analysis

    Kanika Lakhani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The area of the root surface of human teeth has been investigated extensively in the dental literature. All previous attempts mainly rely on the use of physical methods to calculate surface area on extracted teeth or use virtual 3D Models for the same. The aim is to develop an algorithm using MATLAB software that estimates the dimensions of 3-D image produced with the help of CBCT so that the same can be utilized to calculate the root surface area of teeth among Indian population. Present research utilizes CBCT images of samples of extracted teeth mounted on a customized jpg. A descriptive chart for statistical analysis has been prepared to obtain average root surface area of each tooth type. The currently developed algorithm has been successfully applied to the CBCT images of complete sample of teeth to obtain their root surface area. The algorithm developed to calculate root surface area of the teeth holds wide spread application in the field of dentistry pursuing its high expediency in even various specializations of dentistry including orthodontics, prosthodontics, periodontology and implantalogy. It is concluded that it has now become a reality to accurately determine the surface area of the root of human teeth without extracting them using the CBCT radiographs of the patients.

  11. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) metabonomic study of breast cancer in Indian population

    Sonkar, Kanchan; Sinha, Neeraj; Arshad, Farah

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women worldwide with over 1.3 million new cases per year. Recently it has been observed that breast cancer is increasing very rapidly in low income countries including India. Lipids not only play very important and vital role of prime structural component in human body they are also important functional components in cellular metabolism. Transformation from benign to malignant tissue involves several biochemical processes and understanding these processes provides very useful insight related to cancer prognosis. Thus study of lipids becomes very important and NMR spectroscopy is one of the techniques which can be utilized to identifying all lipid components simultaneously. The tissue specimens (35, benign 20 and malignant 15; patient age group 47 yrs) were collected after breast surgeries and were snap frozen in liquid nitrogen. Part of all tissues was sent for routine histopathology. Lipid extraction was performed by Folch method (Folch, 1957) using cholesterol and methanol (2:1 ratio). The NMR spectra of the extracted lipids were recorded immediately after the sample preparation. All NMR experiments were performed on a Bruker Avance 800 MHz spectrometer. 1 H NMR analysis of lipid extract of breast tissue in Indian population shows there is significant elevation of phosphotidycholine, plasmalogen and esterified cholesterol with decrease in triacylglycerol in cancer breast compared to benign tissue implying that their metabolism is definitely altered during carcinogenesis. This study analyzes the role of NMR as an additional diagnostic tool on the basis of examination of lipid extract. (author)

  12. High risk association of IL-4 VNTR polymorphism with asthma in a North Indian population.

    Birbian, Niti; Singh, Jagtar; Jindal, Surinder Kumar; Sobti, Ranbir Chander

    2014-03-01

    A case-control study was conducted to evaluate the role of IL-4 VNTR polymorphism in asthma that has been associated with various inflammatory diseases worldwide. This is the first case-control study conducted in India, investigating the role of IL-4 VNTR polymorphism in asthma pathogenesis. A case-control study was performed with a total of 824 adult subjects, inducting 410 asthma patients and 414 healthy controls from North India. The genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction. Statistical analysis for the IL-4 VNTR polymorphism revealed that the Rp1 allele was significantly associated with asthma with OR=1.47, 95% CI (1.11-1.94) and p=0.005. The Rp1/Rp1 homozygous mutant genotype posed a high risk towards asthma with OR=2.39, 95% CI (0.96-6.14) and p=0.040. The Rp2/Rp1 heterozygous genotype also posed a risk towards asthma with OR=1.39, 95% CI (1.00-1.94) and p=0.040. Most of the phenotypic traits were significantly associated with the disease. IL-4 VNTR polymorphism is a high risk factor for asthma in the studied North Indian population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reliability and validity analysis of modified Nursing Stress Scale for Indian population.

    Pathak, Vasundhara; Chakraborty, Tania; Mukhopadhyay, Suman

    2013-01-01

    The original Nursing Stress Scale (NSS) was structurally modified according to results of factorial analysis and a new scale was named as modified nursing stress scale (MNSS). This is the first study to modify and validate NSS for Indian nursing population. Factorial analysis showed different factor loading for two subscales and items were shifted according to their loading to provide a more meaningful structure. After relocation of Items 13, 14, and 15 into first factor, this factor was renamed as "emotional and painful conditions of patients" to provide a more appropriate name to the first factor. Items 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, and 29 were found to be distributed under two different factors; one of these two was renamed as "unpredictable changes" and another retained its original name (i.e., workload). This distribution was also supported by rational analysis. All other items were distributed under factors as in the original scale. Rest of the validity assessment was done with the modified scale. Thus, with minor changes in structure, the scale was found to have better content validity.

  14. Temporary Efficacy of Pyrimethamine in Juvenile-Onset Tay-Sachs Disease Caused by 2 Unreported HEXA Mutations in the Indian Population

    Anaita Udwadia-Hegde MD, DCH, MRCPCH

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Juvenile Tay-Sachs disease is rarer than other forms of Tay-Sachs disease and is usually seen in children between the age of 2 and 10 years. Pyrimethamine as a pharmacological chaperone was used to increase β-hexosaminidase A activity in this patient. Patient: We describe a patient with Tay-Sachs disease from the Indian population, a juvenile case who presented with developmental regression starting at the age of three, initially with motor followed by language regression. She is currently incapacitated with severe behavioral issues. Conclusion: This brief communication gives an insight into the efficacy of pharmacological chaperones. It also describes two unreported mutations in hexosaminidase A gene from the Indian population. After commencing Pyrimethamine, though initial benefits with increase in levels corresponded with briefly halting the motor regression, the observed increase was only transient and not associated with discernible beneficial neurological or psychiatric effects.

  15. Clinical Spectrum, Risk Factors, and Behavioral Abnormalities among Dementia Subtypes in a North Indian Population: A Hospital-Based Study

    Suman Kushwaha

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: As variability in the clinical profile of dementia subtypes had been reported with regional differences across the world, we conducted a retrospective hospital-based study in a North Indian population. Methods: We retrieved patient records from 2007 to 2014 for details of clinical evaluation, diagnosis, neuroimaging, biochemical investigations, and follow-up of 1,876 patients with dementia (PwD, and the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Of the total PwD, Alzheimer disease (AD accounted for 30% followed by vascular dementia (VaD 26%, mixed dementia (MD 21%, Parkinson-related dementia 11%, frontotemporal dementia (FTD 7%, and infective dementia 5%. Of all PwD excluding the infective group (n = 1,777, 63% were men, 39% were from rural areas, 87% had behavioral abnormalities along with cognitive deficits, and 73% had impaired ADLs. Among dementia subtypes, a positive family history, cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors, and behavioral abnormalities were found to be distributed. However, there existed a predominance of specific behavioral pattern in each subtype. The mean duration of follow-up varied from 2.9 ± 2.3 (VaD to 3.6 ± 2.1 (AD and greater than 30% were found to be stable on treatment (except in dementia with Lewy body. Conclusions: This large hospital-based study provides a distribution pattern and clinical spectrum of dementia subtypes in a North Indian population.

  16. Population and genomic lessons from genetic analysis of two Indian populations

    Juyal, G.; Mondal, M.; Luisi, P.; Laayouni, H.; Sood, A.; Midha, V.; Heutink, P.; Bertranpetit, J.; Thelma, B.K.; Casals, F.

    2014-01-01

    Indian demographic history includes special features such as founder effects, interpopulation segregation, complex social structure with a caste system and elevated frequency of consanguineous marriages. It also presents a higher frequency for some rare mendelian disorders and in the last two

  17. Human leukocyte Antigen-B*27 allele subtype prevalence and disease association of ankylosing spondylitis among south indian population

    Vikram Haridas

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The current study indicates that a majority of South Indian AS patients are associated with HLA-B*27 alleles. In addtion we found that HLA-B*27 associated AS patients presented with more severe axial manifestations.

  18. Ocular abnormalities in atopic dermatitis in Indian patients

    Kaujalgi Radhika

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common skin disease. Long-standing, severe AD with repeated scratching and rubbing of the face, which requires continuous dermatologic care, predisposes the patient to various ocular complications. The knowledge of the frequency and significance of these ocular complications may allow their early diagnosis and treatment. The present study assesses the ocular complications in Indian children suffering from AD. Methods: In order to study the ocular complications in AD, 100 patients (61 male and 39 female between the ages of 1 and 14 years were recruited. All the patients had complete dilated fundus examination with indirect ophthalmoscopy. The lid, conjunctiva and cornea were examined. Also, any evidence of cataract formation and retinal disorders were recorded. Results: The mean age of the children was 5.4 years. Forty-three (43.0% AD patients showed ocular abnormalities in the form of lid and conjunctival changes. Of these, 18 (41.9% patients showed only lid involvement, 16 (37.2% only conjunctival involvement and both conjunctival and lid changes were seen in nine (20.9% patients. Conjunctival changes were mostly in the form of a cobblestone appearance of the papillae, with mild to moderate papillary reaction and papillary hypertrophy. Variables observed to have a significant impact on the development of ocular abnormalities were age more than 5 years, duration of illness> 12 months, positive family history of atopy, presence of palmar hyperlinearity and a combination of both xerosis and Dennie-Morgan fold. Conclusions: The present study is the first of its kind from India to document an association between AD in children and various ocular manifestations. The ocular manifestations observed in our cohort were not associated with significant ocular morbidity or visual impairment possibly because of a less-severe disease in Indians.

  19. Risk factors and epidemiological profile of hip fractures in Indian population: A case-control study

    Kaustubh Ahuja

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Hip fractures in the elderly population are on a rising trend especially in the Indian subcontinent due to a number of factors both hereditary and acquired. Simple measures like routine usage of bedside railing, wall-side railings at an appropriate height, high friction tiles inside rooms and washrooms, and adequate lighting indoors can play a significant role in reducing falls and hip fractures among the elderly.

  20. A Systematic Evaluation of Ultrasound-based Fetal Weight Estimation Models on Indian Population

    Sujitkumar S. Hiwale

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: We found that the existing fetal weight estimation models have high systematic and random errors on Indian population, with a general tendency of overestimation of fetal weight in the LBW category and underestimation in the HBW category. We also observed that these models have a limited ability to predict babies at a risk of either low or high birth weight. It is recommended that the clinicians should consider all these factors, while interpreting estimated weight given by the existing models.

  1. Population genetics and conservation strategies for the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus Linnaeaus,1758) in Brazil

    Luna, Fábia de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) and the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis) belong to the mammalian Order Sirenia, classified respectively as critically endangered and as vulnerable in Brazil. Both species have been hunted commercially since the sixteenth century, resulting in a drastic reduction or elimination of manatees in some places. This hunting pressure may have caused isolation of the populations resulting in geographic genetic isolation, with a reduction of their gen...

  2. The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations

    Kivisild, T.; Rootsi, S.; Metspalu, M.; Mastana, S.; Kaldma, K.; Parik, J.; Metspalu, E.; Adojaan, M.; Tolk, H.-V.; Stepanov, V.; Gölge, M.; Usanga, E.; Papiha, S. S.; Cinnioğlu, C.; King, R.; Cavalli-Sforza, L.; Underhill, P. A.; Villems, R.

    2003-01-01

    Two tribal groups from southern India—the Chenchus and Koyas—were analyzed for variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the Y chromosome, and one autosomal locus and were compared with six caste groups from different parts of India, as well as with western and central Asians. In mtDNA phylogenetic analyses, the Chenchus and Koyas coalesce at Indian-specific branches of haplogroups M and N that cover populations of different social rank from all over the subcontinent. Coalescence times suggest early late Pleistocene settlement of southern Asia and suggest that there has not been total replacement of these settlers by later migrations. H, L, and R2 are the major Indian Y-chromosomal haplogroups that occur both in castes and in tribal populations and are rarely found outside the subcontinent. Haplogroup R1a, previously associated with the putative Indo-Aryan invasion, was found at its highest frequency in Punjab but also at a relatively high frequency (26%) in the Chenchu tribe. This finding, together with the higher R1a-associated short tandem repeat diversity in India and Iran compared with Europe and central Asia, suggests that southern and western Asia might be the source of this haplogroup. Haplotype frequencies of the MX1 locus of chromosome 21 distinguish Koyas and Chenchus, along with Indian caste groups, from European and eastern Asian populations. Taken together, these results show that Indian tribal and caste populations derive largely from the same genetic heritage of Pleistocene southern and western Asians and have received limited gene flow from external regions since the Holocene. The phylogeography of the primal mtDNA and Y-chromosome founders suggests that these southern Asian Pleistocene coastal settlers from Africa would have provided the inocula for the subsequent differentiation of the distinctive eastern and western Eurasian gene pools. PMID:12536373

  3. Identification of fish populations with particular reference to the pelagic fish stocks of the Indian Ocean region

    Dwivedi, S.N.

    The most essential step in any fishery management is the identification of discrete fish populations. This is particularly important for the development of Indian Ocean pelagic fisheries. The simple signal character analysis of meristic or metric...

  4. Genetic polymorphisms of multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATE1 and MATE2 in South Indian population

    Gerard Marshall Raj

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: Thus, the allele and genotype distributions of SLC47A1 and SLC47A2 gene polymorphisms were established in South Indian population and were found to be different from the frequencies of other ethnicities.

  5. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma polymorphism Pro12Ala in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS of South Indian Population

    Raichel Jacob

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: PPARγ2 gene Pro12Ala polymorphism was supposed to be susceptible genes in PCOS. The present study demonstrated that there is a statistical difference between the distributions of PPAR gamma Pro12Ala polymorphism in South Indian Population.

  6. Studies of the anatomical, physiological and metabolic characteristics of the Indian population for setting up a Reference Man

    Dang, H.S.; Jaiswal, D.D. Parameswaran, M.; Krishnamony, S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents Indian data on various human characteristics such as physical, anatomical, physiological and metabolic parameters. The knowledge of these parameters is required for dosimetric purposes and for developing, secondary radiation standards for occupational workers and the general public. The data reported are for the adult population, as well as for the younger population at the ages newborn, and 1, 5, 10 and 15 years. On the basis of the collection, collation and generation of the above data, the characteristics of the Reference Indian Man are proposed. The comparison of Indian data with that for ICRP Reference Man (representing the Caucasian population) shows that most of the physical, physiological and anatomical characteristics of the Indian population are smaller. The weights of a few smaller organs such as thyroid, testes, etc. are comparable and the daily intake of drinking water, the sweat rate and urine excretion rate etc. are higher than those for ICRP Reference man. (author)

  7. Time Trends in Breast Cancer Among Indian Women Population: An Analysis of Population Based Cancer Registry Data.

    Chaturvedi, Meesha; Vaitheeswaran, K; Satishkumar, K; Das, Priyanka; Stephen, S; Nandakumar, A

    2015-12-01

    The trends observed in cancer breast among Indian women are an indication of effect of changing lifestyle in population. To draw an appropriate inference regarding the trends of a particular type of cancer in a country, it is imperative to glance at the reliable data collected by Population Based Cancer Registries over a period of time. To give an insight of changing trends of breast cancer which have taken place over a period of time among women in Cancer Registries of India. Breast Cancer trends for invasive breast cancer in women in Indian Registries have varied during the selected period. Occurrence of breast cancers has also shown geographical variation in India. This data was collected by means of a 'Standard Core Proforma' designed by NCRP conforming to the data fields as suggested by International norms. The Proforma was filled by trained Registry workers based on interview/ hospital medical records/ supplementing data by inputs from treating surgeons/radiation oncologists/involved physicians/pathologists. The contents of the Proforma are entered into specifically created software and transmitted electronically to the coordinating center at Bangalore. The registries contributing to more number of years of data are called as older registries, while other recently established registries are called newer registries. While there has been an increase recorded in breast cancer in most of the registries, some of them have recorded an insignificant increase. Comparison of Age Adjusted Rates (AARs) among Indian Registries has been carried out after which trends observed in populations covered by Indian Registries are depicted. A variation in broad age groups of females and the proneness of females developing breast cancer over the period 1982 to 2010 has been shown. Comparisons of Indian registries with International counterparts have also been carried out. There are marked changes in incidence rates of cancer breast which have occurred in respective registries in a

  8. Economic losses occurring due to brucellosis in Indian livestock populations.

    Singh, B B; Dhand, N K; Gill, J P S

    2015-05-01

    Brucellosis is a serious public health issue in India. Estimation of economic losses occurring due to brucellosis is required to help formulate prevention and control strategies, but has not been done in India. We estimated economic losses due to brucellosis by sourcing prevalence data from epidemiological surveys conducted in India. Data for livestock populations were obtained from official records. Probability distributions were used for many of the input parameters to account for uncertainty and variability. The analysis revealed that brucellosis in livestock is responsible for a median loss of US $ 3.4 billion (5th-95th percentile 2.8-4.2 billion). The disease in cattle and buffalo accounted for 95.6% of the total losses occurring due to brucellosis in livestock populations. The disease is responsible for a loss of US $ 6.8 per cattle, US$18.2 per buffalo, US $ 0.7 per sheep, US $ 0.5 per goat and US $ 0.6 per pig. These losses are additional to the economic and social consequences of the disease in humans. The results suggest that the disease causes significant economic losses in the country and should be controlled on a priority basis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Female sexual dysfunction in patients with endometriosis: Indian scenario

    Vineet V Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD in Indian women is often overlooked due to cultural beliefs and considered as social taboos. Sexuality is an important and integral part of life. There are many causes of sexual dysfunction, but the prevalence of FSD in endometriotic patients is still underdiagnosed. Materials and Methods: Study design - Cross-sectional observational study conducted at tertiary care center, from June 2015 to March 2016. Sample size - Fifty-one patients in reproductive age group (18-47 years who were diagnosed with endometriosis on diagnostic laparoscopy were included. Methods - FSD was assessed with a detailed 19-item female sexual function index questionnaire. All six domains of sexual dysfunction, i.e., desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were studied. Exclusion - Patients with other gynecological, medical or surgical history were excluded. Results: Out of 51 patients with endometriosis, 47.06% of patients had sexual dysfunction. With the increase in staging of endometriosis, sexual dysfunction prevalence is also rising. FSD was 100% in patients with severe endometriosis as compared to 33.33% in minimal endometriosis. Conclusion: Every individual deserves good sexual life. The sexual dysfunction associated with endometriosis should also be taken into consideration while managing these patients.

  10. Using Electronic Health Records to Examine Disease Risk in Small Populations: Obesity Among American Indian Children, Wisconsin, 2007-2012.

    Tomayko, Emily J; Weinert, Bethany A; Godfrey, Liz; Adams, Alexandra K; Hanrahan, Lawrence P

    2016-02-25

    Tribe-based or reservation-based data consistently show disproportionately high obesity rates among American Indian children, but little is known about the approximately 75% of American Indian children living off-reservation. We examined obesity among American Indian children seeking care off-reservation by using a database of de-identified electronic health records linked to community-level census variables. Data from electronic health records from American Indian children and a reference sample of non-Hispanic white children collected from 2007 through 2012 were abstracted to determine obesity prevalence. Related community-level and individual-level risk factors (eg, economic hardship, demographics) were examined using logistic regression. The obesity rate for American Indian children (n = 1,482) was double the rate among non-Hispanic white children (n = 81,042) (20.0% vs 10.6%, P American Indian children were less likely to have had a well-child visit (55.9% vs 67.1%, P American Indian records (18.3% vs 14.6%, P obesity risk among American Indian children (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-2.1) independent of age, sex, economic hardship, insurance status, and geographic designation. An electronic health record data set demonstrated high obesity rates for nonreservation-based American Indian children, rates that had not been previously assessed. This low-cost method may be used for assessing health risk for other understudied populations and to plan and evaluate targeted interventions.

  11. Population differentiation of southern Indian male lineages correlates with agricultural expansions predating the caste system.

    Ganeshprasad Arunkumar

    Full Text Available Previous studies that pooled Indian populations from a wide variety of geographical locations, have obtained contradictory conclusions about the processes of the establishment of the Varna caste system and its genetic impact on the origins and demographic histories of Indian populations. To further investigate these questions we took advantage that both Y chromosome and caste designation are paternally inherited, and genotyped 1,680 Y chromosomes representing 12 tribal and 19 non-tribal (caste endogamous populations from the predominantly Dravidian-speaking Tamil Nadu state in the southernmost part of India. Tribes and castes were both characterized by an overwhelming proportion of putatively Indian autochthonous Y-chromosomal haplogroups (H-M69, F-M89, R1a1-M17, L1-M27, R2-M124, and C5-M356; 81% combined with a shared genetic heritage dating back to the late Pleistocene (10-30 Kya, suggesting that more recent Holocene migrations from western Eurasia contributed <20% of the male lineages. We found strong evidence for genetic structure, associated primarily with the current mode of subsistence. Coalescence analysis suggested that the social stratification was established 4-6 Kya and there was little admixture during the last 3 Kya, implying a minimal genetic impact of the Varna (caste system from the historically-documented Brahmin migrations into the area. In contrast, the overall Y-chromosomal patterns, the time depth of population diversifications and the period of differentiation were best explained by the emergence of agricultural technology in South Asia. These results highlight the utility of detailed local genetic studies within India, without prior assumptions about the importance of Varna rank status for population grouping, to obtain new insights into the relative influences of past demographic events for the population structure of the whole of modern India.

  12. Mutation spectrum of the Norrie disease pseudoglioma (NDP) gene in Indian patients with FEVR

    Musada, Ganeswara Rao; Jalali, Subhadra; Hussain, Anjli; Chururu, Anupama Reddy; Gaddam, Pramod Reddy; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Mutations in the Norrie disease pseudoglioma (NDP; Xp11.3) gene have been involved in retinal blood vessel formation and neural differentiation and are implicated in familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) cases. However, the role of the gene has not been explored in the Indian context. Thus, this study was designed to understand the involvement of NDP among Indian patients with FEVR. Methods The study cohort comprised 225 subjects, including unrelated patients with FEVR (n = 110) and ethnically matched healthy subjects (n = 115) recruited from a tertiary eye care center in India. The entire coding regions, intron–exon boundaries, along with the 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions of NDP were screened with resequencing following standard protocols. The spectrum of the observed variants was analyzed in conjunction with data available from other populations. Results Eight potentially pathogenic mutations (p.His4ArgfsX21, p.Asp23GlufsX9, p.Ile48ValfsX55, p.His50Asp, p.Ser57*, p.Gly113Asp, p.Arg121Gln, and p.Cys126Arg, including five novel ones), were observed in the coding region of the NDP gene in ten unrelated FEVR probands (9%). The novel changes were not observed in the control subjects and were unavailable in the dbSNP, ESP5400, NIEHS95, and ExAC databases. All probands with NDP mutations exhibited classical features of the disease as observed among patients with FEVR worldwide. Conclusions This is perhaps the first study to demonstrate the involvement of NDP among patients with Indian FEVR that further expands its mutation spectrum. The data generated could have broad implications in genetic counseling, disease management, and early intervention for a better prognosis in FEVR. PMID:27217716

  13. Mutation spectrum of the Norrie disease pseudoglioma (NDP) gene in Indian patients with FEVR.

    Musada, Ganeswara Rao; Jalali, Subhadra; Hussain, Anjli; Chururu, Anupama Reddy; Gaddam, Pramod Reddy; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata; Kaur, Inderjeet

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the Norrie disease pseudoglioma (NDP; Xp11.3) gene have been involved in retinal blood vessel formation and neural differentiation and are implicated in familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) cases. However, the role of the gene has not been explored in the Indian context. Thus, this study was designed to understand the involvement of NDP among Indian patients with FEVR. The study cohort comprised 225 subjects, including unrelated patients with FEVR (n = 110) and ethnically matched healthy subjects (n = 115) recruited from a tertiary eye care center in India. The entire coding regions, intron-exon boundaries, along with the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of NDP were screened with resequencing following standard protocols. The spectrum of the observed variants was analyzed in conjunction with data available from other populations. Eight potentially pathogenic mutations (p.His4ArgfsX21, p.Asp23GlufsX9, p.Ile48ValfsX55, p.His50Asp, p.Ser57*, p.Gly113Asp, p.Arg121Gln, and p.Cys126Arg, including five novel ones), were observed in the coding region of the NDP gene in ten unrelated FEVR probands (9%). The novel changes were not observed in the control subjects and were unavailable in the dbSNP, ESP5400, NIEHS95, and ExAC databases. All probands with NDP mutations exhibited classical features of the disease as observed among patients with FEVR worldwide. This is perhaps the first study to demonstrate the involvement of NDP among patients with Indian FEVR that further expands its mutation spectrum. The data generated could have broad implications in genetic counseling, disease management, and early intervention for a better prognosis in FEVR.

  14. Prospective Evaluation of Psychosocial Impact after One Year of Orthodontic Treatment Using PIDAQ Adapted for Indian Population.

    Garg, Kanika; Tripathi, Tulika; Rai, Priyank; Sharma, Nandini; Kanase, Anup

    2017-08-01

    The impact of dental appearance, malocclusion and treatment for the same on psychological and functional well-being has drawn increasing attention over the past decade. Various psychometric instruments alongside normative indices have been used to predict orthodontic concerns. Evaluating the patients' experience during the orthodontic treatment can help us understand the true benefits and advantages of orthodontic therapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the change in the psychosocial impact of malocclusion using the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) adapted for the Indian population after one year of fixed orthodontic treatment. This interventional study was conducted on 93 patients requiring fixed orthodontic treatment. Brazilian, Chinese, Spanish, Nepali and Moroccan versions of the PIDAQ have been published but the questionnaire is not available in Hindi. In the present study, the original PIDAQ was translated into Hindi language to adapt it for the Indian population and was validated by back translation and pretest. All the subjects answered the Hindi version of the questionnaire at pretreatment (T1) and at one year of orthodontic treatment (T2). Additionally, the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) was applied to measure the severity and self-perception of malocclusion. The data were analysed using paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed rank test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Significant reduction was found in the total PIDAQ score and each factor's score (porthodontic treatment. There was a positive association of the psychosocial impact of malocclusion with the IOTN-AC (IOTN-Aesthetic Component). Adolescent females were found to be most concerned with their dentofacial appearance. Results showed significant improvement in the psychosocial impact of malocclusion with a reduction in the self-perceived needs of patients with orthodontic treatment. The psychometric instrument used may be recommended as an Oral Health Related

  15. Temporary Efficacy of Pyrimethamine in Juvenile-Onset Tay-Sachs Disease Caused by 2 Unreported HEXA Mutations in the Indian Population.

    Udwadia-Hegde, Anaita; Hajirnis, Omkar

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile Tay-Sachs disease is rarer than other forms of Tay-Sachs disease and is usually seen in children between the age of 2 and 10 years. Pyrimethamine as a pharmacological chaperone was used to increase β-hexosaminidase A activity in this patient. We describe a patient with Tay-Sachs disease from the Indian population, a juvenile case who presented with developmental regression starting at the age of three, initially with motor followed by language regression. She is currently incapacitated with severe behavioral issues. This brief communication gives an insight into the efficacy of pharmacological chaperones. It also describes two unreported mutations in hexosaminidase A gene from the Indian population. After commencing Pyrimethamine, though initial benefits with increase in levels corresponded with briefly halting the motor regression, the observed increase was only transient and not associated with discernible beneficial neurological or psychiatric effects.

  16. Incidence of endocrine disorders in Indian adult male population

    K. V. S. Hari Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The comprehensive epidemiology of endocrine disorders is lacking from our country. Most of the available data pertain to the prevalence of diabetes and thyroid disorders only. We studied the incidence of endocrine disorders in a cohort of service personnel followed for a long duration. Materials and Methods: The data for this descriptive epidemiologic study were derived from the electronic medical records of the male service personnel enrolled between 1990 and 2015. They were recruited between the ages of 17 and 20 years in good health, and their morbidity data were derived from the medical records. We calculated the incidence rates as per person-years (py using appropriate statistical methods. Results: Our analysis includes 51,217 participants (median: age 33 years, range: 17–54 with a mean follow-up of 12.5 years. Yearly evaluation of the data gave a cumulative follow-up duration of 613,925 py. The incidence of diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia was 0.41, 0.23, and 0.12 per 1000 py, respectively. The incidence of thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and metabolic bone disorders was 3.9, 8.6, 1.6, 0.81, and 0.97 per 100,000 py, respectively. Conclusion: Our cohort had lower incidence rates of endocrine disorders when compared with the Western population. Long-term epidemiological studies are essential to identify the demographic trends of the endocrine disorders in India.

  17. Population differences in brain morphology and microstructure among Chinese, Malay, and Indian neonates.

    Bai, Jordan; Abdul-Rahman, Muhammad Farid; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Fortier, Marielle V; Meaney, Michael J; Qiu, Anqi

    2012-01-01

    We studied a sample of 75 Chinese, 73 Malay, and 29 Indian healthy neonates taking part in a cohort study to examine potential differences in neonatal brain morphology and white matter microstructure as a function of ethnicity using both structural T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We first examined the differences in global size and morphology of the brain among the three groups. We then constructed the T2-weighted MRI and DTI atlases and employed voxel-based analysis to investigate ethnic differences in morphological shape of the brain from the T2-weighted MRI, and white matter microstructure measured by fractional anisotropy derived from DTI. Compared with Malay neonates, the brains of Indian neonates' tended to be more elongated in anterior and posterior axis relative to the superior-inferior axis of the brain even though the total brain volume was similar among the three groups. Although most anatomical regions of the brain were similar among Chinese, Malay, and Indian neonates, there were anatomical variations in the spinal-cerebellar and cortical-striatal-thalamic neural circuits among the three populations. The population-related brain regions highlighted in our study are key anatomical substrates associated with sensorimotor functions.

  18. Radiographic study of the hip joint to determine anthropometric parameters for Indian population

    Bagaria, Vaibhav; Deshpande, Shirish; Kuthe, Abhay; Rasalkar, Darshana D.; Paunipagar, Bhawan K.; Madhugiri, Tanushree Subhash

    2012-01-01

    Hip replacement surgeries are on the rise in India. However, for these surgeries, most of the implants used are imported and manufactured entirely to suit the geometrical considerations of the western population. Studies in the past have shown that there are anatomical variations in the hip joint for different ethnic backgrounds and geographical locations. There is paucity of anthropometric hip joint data related to Indian population and anthropometric variations in skeletal geometry between Asian and Western counterparts have not yet been thoroughly reviewed and considered for implant manufacturing. The purpose of this anthropometric study is to determine any anatomical variations in the normal hip joint among the Indian population and to statistically compare the mean values with the existing data on western population. 422 Hip radiographs of 211 individuals (141 males and 70 females) with normal and healthy hip joints were evaluated to obtain the horizontal offset, vertical offset and neck shaft angle. For males, mean neck shaft angle was 127.68° (SD = 3.94), horizontal offset was 34.60 mm (SD = 6.55) and vertical offset was 39.17 mm (SD = 5.86). For females, mean neck shaft angle was 125.92° (SD = 4.75), horizontal offset was 32.96 mm (SD = 7.04) and vertical offset was 36.38 mm (SD = 6.28). When these parameters were compared to the data available from western world, there were significant anatomical variations and it was evident that there is a need to evaluate existing implants in relation to this data and possibly design the implants suited and relevant to Indian population.

  19. DEPRESSION AND GUILT IN INDIAN AND NORTH AMERICAN PATIENTS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Ananth, Jambur; Engelsman, Frank; Ghadirian, A.M.; Wohl, Marcy; Shamasundara, Padmini; Narayanan, H.S.

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY One hundred and nineteen Indian and one hundred and fourteen North American depressed patients were compared to assess the differences in psychopathology. The study revealed two important findings: 1) Indian patients scored significantly higher than American patients on the HAMD items of poor appetite, hypochondriasis, diurnal variation, and psychomotor retardation; and lower on the items of anxiety and middle insomnia. 2) Guilt was expressed less often by Indian patients. Guilt was more common among those who felt that God was responsible for their depression and in those who believed in reincarnation. These differences may be related to cultural factors and not to religious beliefs. PMID:21776166

  20. Documenting Nursing and Medical Students’ Stereotypes about Hispanic and American Indian Patients

    Bean, Meghan G.; Focella, Elizabeth S.; Covarrubias, Rebecca; Stone, Jeff; Moskowitz, Gordon B.; Badger, Terry A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hispanic Americans and American Indians face significant health disparities compared with White Americans. Research suggests that stereotyping of minority patients by members of the medical community is an important antecedent of race and ethnicity-based health disparities. This work has primarily focused on physicians’ perceptions, however, and little research has examined the stereotypes healthcare personnel associate with Hispanic and American Indian patients. The present study assesses: 1) the health-related stereotypes both nursing and medical students hold about Hispanic and American Indian patients, and 2) nursing and medical students’ motivation to treat Hispanic and American Indian patients in an unbiased manner. Design Participants completed a questionnaire assessing their awareness of stereotypes that healthcare professionals associate with Hispanic and American Indian patients then completed measures of their motivation to treat Hispanics and American Indians in an unbiased manner. Results Despite being highly motivated to treat Hispanic and American Indian individuals fairly, the majority of participants reported awareness of stereotypes associating these patient groups with noncompliance, risky health behavior, and difficulty understanding and/or communicating health-related information. Conclusion This research provides direct evidence for negative health-related stereotypes associated with two understudied minority patient groups—Hispanics and American Indians—among both nursing and medical personnel. PMID:26504671

  1. Establishment of sexual dimorphism in north indian population by odontometric study of permanent maxillary canine teeth

    Shalini Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate whether sexual dimorphism can be established by odontometric study of permanent maxillary canine teeth as well as inter-canine width in north Indian population. Study Design: The study was carried out at department of oral and maxillofacial pathology, King George′s Medical University, Lucknow, India on students and patients reporting at OPD. Out of total 180 subjects examined 90 subjects were female and 90 were male. Impressions of the upper arch were made using alginate and casts poured in dental stone. The mesiodistal diameter (MD of the crown of permanent maxillary canine both on right and left sides and inter-canine width were measured. From these measurements, maxillary canine index was calculated. The percentage of sexual dimorphism (SD was assessed for all the parameters. Results: In the present study, the MD of maxillary canine for both right (P = 0.001 and left side (P = 0.005 was significantly higher among male subjects than females, Similar observation was found for inter-canine width too (P = 0.0001. However, the maxillary canine index for right and left was almost similar (P > 0.05 for both male and female subjects. The SD in right and left MDs of maxillary canine was 4.2% and 3.6% respectively. For, inter-canine width it was maximum (13.7%. However, SD in right and left canine index showed negative values (−2.1% and -0.9% respectively. Conclusion: There was SD in MD and inter-canine width of permanent maxillary canine teeth. SD was more on right permanent maxillary canine teeth than left permanent maxillary canine.

  2. Growth of the human lens in the Indian adult population: Preliminary observations

    Ashik Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The eye lens grows throughout life by the addition of new cells inside the surrounding capsule. How this growth affects the properties of the lens is essential for understanding disorders such as cataract and presbyopia. Aims: To examine growth of the human lens in the Indian population and compare this with the growth in Western populations by measuring in vitro dimensions together with wet and dry weights. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at the research wing of a tertiary eye care center in South India and the study design was prospective. Materials and Methods: Lenses were removed from eye bank eyes and their dimensions measured with a digital caliper. They were then carefully blotted dry and weighed before being placed in 5% buffered formalin. After 1 week fixation, the lenses were dried at 80 °C until constant weight was achieved. The constant weight was noted as the dry weight of the lens. Statistical Analysis Used: Lens parameters were analyzed as a function of age using linear and logarithmic regression methods. Results: Data were obtained for 251 lenses, aged 16-93 years, within a median postmortem time of 22 h. Both wet and dry weights increased linearly at 1.24 and 0.44 mg/year, respectively, throughout adult life. The dimensions also increased continuously throughout this time. Conclusions: Over the age range examined, lens growth in the Indian population is very similar to that in Western populations.

  3. Probability of Finding Marrow Unrelated Donor (MUD) for an Indian patient in a Multi-national Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Registry.

    Tiwari, Aseem K; Bhati-Kushwaha, Himakshi; Kukreja, Pooja; Mishra, Vikash C; Tyagi, Neetu; Sharma, Ashish; Raina, Vimarsh

    2015-06-01

    With an increase in the number of transplants happening globally, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) transplantation from matched unrelated donor (MUD) has begun. The increasing trend of MUD transplants across countries has been largely facilitated with the conspicuous growth of volunteer HSC donor noted in the last decade i.e. 8 million HSC donors in 2002 to more than 22 million in 2013 registered in 71 member registries of the Bone Marrow Donor Worldwide (BMDW). Some populations of the world are still very poorly represented in these registries. Since, the chances of successful engraftment and disease free survival are directly proportional to the HLA compatibility between the recipient and the prospective donor, the diversity of the HLA system at the antigenic and allelic level and the heterogeneity of HLA data of the registered donors has a bearing on the probability of finding a volunteer unrelated HSC donor for patients from such populations. In the present study 126 patients were identified suffering from hematological diseases requiring MUD transplant. Their HLA typing was performed and search was done using BMDW database. The search results for these Indian patients in the multinational registry as well as in the Indian Registries were analyzed using mean, range, standard deviation and finally evaluated in terms of probability for finding matched donor (MUD). Total Asian population is only 11 % in the BMDW making it difficult to find a MUD for an Asian patient. The current study supports this, experimentally; revealing that the probability of finding an allele match for an Indian patient in the multinational Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) registries is 16 % and a dismal 0.008 % in the Indian registries (donors in Indian registries is just 33,678 as compared to 22.5 million in BMDW). This greatly, emphasizes on enhancing the number of Indian donors in Indian and multi-national registries.

  4. Replication of type 2 diabetes candidate genes variations in three geographically unrelated Indian population groups.

    Shafat Ali

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a syndrome of multiple metabolic disorders and is genetically heterogeneous. India comprises one of the largest global populations with highest number of reported type 2 diabetes cases. However, limited information about T2D associated loci is available for Indian populations. It is, therefore, pertinent to evaluate the previously associated candidates as well as identify novel genetic variations in Indian populations to understand the extent of genetic heterogeneity. We chose to do a cost effective high-throughput mass-array genotyping and studied the candidate gene variations associated with T2D in literature. In this case-control candidate genes association study, 91 SNPs from 55 candidate genes have been analyzed in three geographically independent population groups from India. We report the genetic variants in five candidate genes: TCF7L2, HHEX, ENPP1, IDE and FTO, are significantly associated (after Bonferroni correction, p<5.5E-04 with T2D susceptibility in combined population. Interestingly, SNP rs7903146 of the TCF7L2 gene passed the genome wide significance threshold (combined P value = 2.05E-08 in the studied populations. We also observed the association of rs7903146 with blood glucose (fasting and postprandial levels, supporting the role of TCF7L2 gene in blood glucose homeostasis. Further, we noted that the moderate risk provided by the independently associated loci in combined population with Odds Ratio (OR<1.38 increased to OR = 2.44, (95%CI = 1.67-3.59 when the risk providing genotypes of TCF7L2, HHEX, ENPP1 and FTO genes were combined, suggesting the importance of gene-gene interactions evaluation in complex disorders like T2D.

  5. Association of common genetic variants with human skin color variation in Indian populations.

    Sarkar, Anujit; Nandineni, Madhusudan R

    2018-01-01

    Human skin color is one of the most conspicuously variable physical traits that has attracted the attention of physical anthropologists, social scientists and human geneticists. Although several studies have established the underlying genes and their variants affecting human skin color, they were mostly confined to Europeans and Africans and similar studies in Indian populations have been scanty. Studying the association between candidate genetic variants and skin color will help to validate previous findings and to better understand the molecular mechanism of skin color variation. In this study, 22 candidate SNPs from 12 genes were tested for association with skin color in 299 unrelated samples sourced from nine geographical locations in India. Our study establishes the association of 9 SNPs with the phenotype in Indian populations and could explain ∼31% of the variance in skin color. Haplotype analysis of chromosome 15 revealed a significant association of alleles G, A and C of SNPs rs1426654, rs11070627, and rs12913316, respectively, to the phenotype, and accounted for 17% of the variance. Latitude of the sampling location was also a significant factor, contributing to ∼19% of the variation observed in the samples. These observations support the findings that rs1426654 and rs4775730 located in SLC24A5, and rs11070627 and rs12913316 located in MYEF2 and CTXN2 genes respectively, are major contributors toward skin pigmentation and would aid in further unraveling the genotype-phenotype association in Indian populations. These findings can be utilized in forensic DNA applications for criminal investigations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Population Growth and Sprawl on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota

    Campbell, R. L.

    2006-05-01

    The most important impact on global land cover is human use and development. With the recent population growth occurring on the reservations in South Dakota, especially Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, the towns and agricultural areas of the reservation are undergoing a change. Although urban sprawl certainly is not a consideration on the reservations, the population explosion currently underway has seen a subsequent increase in rural sprawl. In this case, rural sprawl is defined as exponential population growth and geographic expansion of remote reservation communities. Using satellite imagery and software to render these images is a cost effective way to investigate this growth. Also, using remotely sensed data and a GIS (geographic information system) package can address different issues that concern people and communities in and around the Pine Ridge area. The objective of my project is to observe land use change on the Pine Ridge Indian reservation using Geographic Information Systems such as; ARCGis 9, ENVI, and Multispec, along with Landsat 4, 5, and 7 imagery over the past 20 years.

  7. Effect of geographical and ethnic variation on Dysphonia Severity Index: a study of Indian population.

    Jayakumar, T; Savithri, S R

    2012-01-01

    Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) is a widely used multiparametric approach to objectively quantify the voice quality. Few research groups have investigated the test-retest, interobserver variability, and influence of age and gender. They have also verified the application of DSI in various voice rehabilitation conditions. However, all these studies have been conducted on European population. There is a possibility of variation in the basic parameters of DSI across geographical and ethnic groups. Hence, the present study evaluated DSI in Indian population. One hundred twenty voluntary participants (60 males, 60 females) who had G(0) on the Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Aesthenia, Strain (GRBAS) scale participated in the study (age range of 18-25 years, M=21.8, standard deviation=2.7). Maximum phonation time (MPT), frequency intensity, and jitter measurements were made using CSL 4500 (Kay Elemetrics, Pine Brook, NJ). Results showed noticeable difference between Indian and European population on MPT, Highest frequency (F(0)-High), and DSI values. Significant gender difference was also observed on MPT and F(0)-High. Test-retest reliability showed >95% for all the parameters. The MPT decrement lead to a reduction in the overall DSI value in both the genders. These results of the study caution voice professionals to reinvestigate and establish their own norms for their geographical and ethnic groups. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of Catalase (-21 A/T Gene Variant in South Indian (Tamil Population

    A. Lourdhu Mary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalase, an endogenous antioxidant enzyme, is responsible for regulating reactive species levels. Several epidemiologic studies have suggested that single nucleotide polymorphism in catalase gene may be associated with many diseases. The genotype of CAT (-21 A/T point mutation in promoter region of catalase gene was determined by polymerase chain based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in the DNA of 100 healthy volunteers. The frequency of CAT (-21 A/T gene polymorphism AA, AT, and TT genotypes was found to be 7, 23, and 70 percent, respectively. The mutant “T” allele frequency was found to be 0.82 among the south Indian (Tamil population. Chi square analysis showed that the study population lies within the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The wild type genotype (AA was found to be very low (7% and the mutant genotype (AT/TT was found to be more prevalent (93% among the south Indian population. This suggests that the high prevalence of mutant genotype may increase the susceptibility to oxidative stress associated diseases.

  9. Allele and Genotype Distributions of DNA Repair Gene Polymorphisms in South Indian Healthy Population

    Katiboina Srinivasa Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various DNA repair pathways protect the structural and chemical integrity of the human genome from environmental and endogenous threats. Polymorphisms of genes encoding the proteins involved in DNA repair have been found to be associated with cancer risk and chemotherapeutic response. In this study, we aim to establish the normative frequencies of DNA repair genes in South Indian healthy population and compare with HapMap populations. Genotyping was done on 128 healthy volunteers from South India, and the allele and genotype distributions were established. The minor allele frequency of Xeroderma pigmentosum group A ( XPA G23A, Excision repair cross-complementing 2 ( ERCC2 /Xeroderma pigmentosum group D ( XPD Lys751Gln, Xeroderma pigmentosum group G ( XPG His46His, XPG Asp1104His, and X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 ( XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphisms were 49.2%, 36.3%, 48.0%, 23.0%, and 34.0% respectively. Ethnic variations were observed in the frequency distribution of these polymorphisms between the South Indians and other HapMap populations. The present work forms the groundwork for cancer association studies and biomarker identification for treatment response and prognosis.

  10. The psychosocial impact of vitiligo in Indian patients

    Pooja Pahwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitiligo has a special significance in Indian patients both because depigmentation is obvious on darker skin and the enormous stigma associated with the disease in the culture. Aims: This study was carried out to determine the beliefs about causation, aspects of the disease that cause concern, medical, and psychosocial needs of the patients, expectation from treatment and from the treating physician, and effects of disease on the patient′s life. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 50 patients with vitiligo. Purposive sampling was used to select subjects for the study. Each interview was recorded on an audio-cassette and transcripts were analyzed to identify significant issues and concerns. Results: Patients had a range of concerns regarding their disease such as physical appearance, progression of white patches onto exposed skin and the whole body, ostracism, social restriction, dietary restrictions, difficulty in getting jobs, and they considered it to be a significant barrier to getting married. The condition was perceived to be a serious illness. Stigma and suicidal ideation was reported. While there were several misconceptions about the cause of vitiligo, most patients did not think their disease was contagious, heritable or related to leprosy. Multiple medical consultations were frequent. Complete repigmentation was strongly desired, but a lesser degree of repigmentation was acceptable if progression of disease could be arrested. The problems were perceived to be more severe in women. The disease imposed a significant financial burden. Conclusion: Addressing psychosocial factors is an important aspect of the management of vitiligo, particularly in patients from communities where the disease is greatly stigmatizing.

  11. Age and gender might influence big five factors of personality: a preliminary report in Indian population.

    Magan, Dipti; Mehta, Manju; Sarvottam, Kumar; Yadav, Raj Kumar; Pandey, R M

    2014-01-01

    Age and gender are two important physiological variables which might influence the personality of an individual. The influence of age and gender on big five personality domains in Indian population was assessed in this cross-sectional study that included 155 subjects (female = 76, male = 79) aged from 16-75 years. Big five personality factors were evaluated using 60-item NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) at a single point in time. Among the big five factors of personality, Conscientiousness was positively correlated (r = 0.195; P personality traits might change with age, and is gender-dependent.

  12. Vitamin D status and vascular dementia due to cerebral small vessel disease in the elderly Asian Indian population.

    Prabhakar, Puttachandra; Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Supriya, Manjunath; Issac, Thomas Gregor; Prasad, Chandrajit; Christopher, Rita

    2015-12-15

    Vitamin D plays vital roles in human health and recent studies have shown its beneficial effect on brain functioning. The present study was designed to evaluate the association of vitamin D with vascular dementia (VaD) due to cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) in Asian Indian population. 140 VaD patients aged ≥ 60 years with neuroimaging evidence of SVD, and 132 age and gender-matched controls, were investigated. Vitamin D status was estimated by measuring serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D. Logistic regression model revealed that deficient levels of vitamin D (vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency (12-20 ng/ml), the odds were increased to 31.6-fold and 14.4-fold, respectively. However, in hypertensives with vitamin D sufficiency (>20 ng/ml), the odds of VaD were increased by 3.8-fold only. Pearson correlation showed that serum vitamin D was inversely associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (r=-0.401 and -0.411, pvitamin D-deficient subjects. Since the combined presence of hypertension and vitamin D deficiency increases the probability of developing VaD, screening for vitamin D status in addition to regular monitoring of blood pressure, could reduce the risk of VaD associated with cerebral SVD in the elderly Asian Indian subjects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Replication of type 2 diabetes candidate genes variations in three geographically unrelated Indian population groups.

    Ali, Shafat; Chopra, Rupali; Manvati, Siddharth; Singh, Yoginder Pal; Kaul, Nabodita; Behura, Anita; Mahajan, Ankit; Sehajpal, Prabodh; Gupta, Subash; Dhar, Manoj K; Chainy, Gagan B N; Bhanwer, Amarjit S; Sharma, Swarkar; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a syndrome of multiple metabolic disorders and is genetically heterogeneous. India comprises one of the largest global populations with highest number of reported type 2 diabetes cases. However, limited information about T2D associated loci is available for Indian populations. It is, therefore, pertinent to evaluate the previously associated candidates as well as identify novel genetic variations in Indian populations to understand the extent of genetic heterogeneity. We chose to do a cost effective high-throughput mass-array genotyping and studied the candidate gene variations associated with T2D in literature. In this case-control candidate genes association study, 91 SNPs from 55 candidate genes have been analyzed in three geographically independent population groups from India. We report the genetic variants in five candidate genes: TCF7L2, HHEX, ENPP1, IDE and FTO, are significantly associated (after Bonferroni correction, ppopulation. Interestingly, SNP rs7903146 of the TCF7L2 gene passed the genome wide significance threshold (combined P value = 2.05E-08) in the studied populations. We also observed the association of rs7903146 with blood glucose (fasting and postprandial) levels, supporting the role of TCF7L2 gene in blood glucose homeostasis. Further, we noted that the moderate risk provided by the independently associated loci in combined population with Odds Ratio (OR)<1.38 increased to OR = 2.44, (95%CI = 1.67-3.59) when the risk providing genotypes of TCF7L2, HHEX, ENPP1 and FTO genes were combined, suggesting the importance of gene-gene interactions evaluation in complex disorders like T2D.

  14. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in adult Indian diabetic patients: A cross sectional study (SOLID

    Ambrish Mithal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: India leads the world with largest number of diabetic patients and is often referred to as the diabetes capital of the world. Diabetic dyslipidemia in India is one of the main cause for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD mortality. Although diabetes continues to be a major lifestyle condition in India, there is a lack of studies in India on whether dyslipidemia in Indian diabetics is being adequately controlled. Our study provides critical insights into the insights into proportion of diabetes patients achieving lipid goal in India. Aims: The primary objective of our study was to assess the control of dyslipidemia in the Indian diabetic population treated with lipid lowering drugs (LLDs, as per American Diabetes Association (ADA 2010 guidelines. Settings and Design: The study was carried out in a real world Indian clinical setting involving 178 sites. This is a multicenter, noninterventional, and cross-sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: A total of 5400 adult subjects with established type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and dyslipidemia were recruited for the study. Patients in the study were on LLD at a stable dose for at least last 3 months before the designated study visit. Routine lipid profile tests were conducted for all patients. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics was used to analyze qualitative and discrete variables. Chi-square test and t-test were conducted to assess the existence of statistically significant association between the variables. Results: A total of 5400 patients with T2DM from 178 centers across India were recruited. Out of the total population, 56.75% (N = 3065 of them were males. Primary end-point of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C level below ADA 2010 target was achieved in a total of 48.74% (N = 2632 patients. Gender was significantly associated with lipid levels and age was significantly (P < 0.05 correlated with all lipid levels. Control rates of other lipid parameters like

  15. Mitochondrial DNA history of Sri Lankan ethnic people: their relations within the island and with the Indian subcontinental populations.

    Ranaweera, Lanka; Kaewsutthi, Supannee; Win Tun, Aung; Boonyarit, Hathaichanoke; Poolsuwan, Samerchai; Lertrit, Patcharee

    2014-01-01

    Located only a short distance off the southernmost shore of the Greater Indian subcontinent, the island of Sri Lanka has long been inhabited by various ethnic populations. Mainly comprising the Vedda, Sinhalese (Up- and Low-country) and Tamil (Sri Lankan and Indian); their history of settlements on the island and the biological relationships among them have remained obscure. It has been hypothesized that the Vedda was probably the earliest inhabitants of the area, followed by Sinhalese and Tamil from the Indian mainland. This study, in which 271 individuals, representing the Sri Lankan ethnic populations mentioned, were typed for their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable segment 1 (HVS-1) and part of hypervariable segment 2 (HVS-2), provides implications for their settlement history on the island. From the phylogenetic, principal coordinate and analysis of molecular variance results, the Vedda occupied a position separated from all other ethnic people of the island, who formed relatively close affiliations among themselves, suggesting a separate origin of the former. The haplotypes and analysis of molecular variance revealed that Vedda people's mitochondrial sequences are more related to the Sinhalese and Sri Lankan Tamils' than the Indian Tamils' sequences. MtDNA haplogroup analysis revealed that several West Eurasian haplogroups as well as Indian-specific mtDNA clades were found amongst the Sri Lankan populations. Through a comparison with the mtDNA HVS-1 and part of HVS-2 of Indian database, both Tamils and Sinhalese clusters were affiliated with Indian subcontinent populations than Vedda people who are believed to be the native population of the island of Sri Lanka.

  16. Role of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Polymorphisms in Predicting Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in South Indian Patients

    Linda Koshy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS gene polymorphisms have been implicated as predisposing genetic factors that can predict aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH, but with controversial results from different populations. Using a case-control study design, we tested the hypothesis whether variants in eNOS gene can increase risk of aSAH among South Indian patients, either independently, or by interacting with other risk factors of the disease. We enrolled 122 patients, along with 224 ethnically matched controls. We screened the intron-4 27-bp VNTR, the promoter T-786C and the exon-7 G894T SNPs in the eNOS gene. We found marked interethnic differences in the genotype distribution of eNOS variants when comparing the South Indian population with the reported frequencies from Caucasian and Japanese populations. Genotype distributions in control and patient populations were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. In patients, the allele, genotype and estimated haplotype frequencies did not differ significantly from the controls. Multiple logistic regression indicated hypertension and smoking as risk factors for the disease, however the risk alleles did not have any interaction with these risk factors. Although the eNOS polymorphisms were not found to be a likely risk factor for aSAH, the role of factors such as ethnicity, gender, smoking and hypertension should be evaluated cautiously to understand the genotype to phenotype conversion.

  17. Analysis of MC1R variants in Indian oculocutaneous albinism patients

    1Molecular and Human Genetics Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research - Indian Institute of Chemical ... patients: highlighting the risk of skin cancer among albinos. .... The finer assessment of the imparted risk due to the indi-.

  18. Establishment of reference CD4+ T cell values for adult Indian population

    Ray Krishnangshu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD4+ T lymphocyte counts are the most important indicator of disease progression and success of antiretroviral treatment in HIV infection in resource limited settings. The nationwide reference range of CD4+ T lymphocytes was not available in India. This study was conducted to determine reference values of absolute CD4+ T cell counts and percentages for adult Indian population. Methods A multicentric study was conducted involving eight sites across the country. A total of 1206 (approximately 150 per/centre healthy participants were enrolled in the study. The ratio of male (N = 645 to female (N = 561 of 1.14:1. The healthy status of the participants was assessed by a pre-decided questionnaire. At all centers the CD4+ T cell count, percentages and absolute CD3+ T cell count and percentages were estimated using a single platform strategy and lyse no wash technique. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Scientist (SPSS, version 15 and Prism software version 5. Results The absolute CD4+ T cell counts and percentages in female participants were significantly higher than the values obtained in male participants indicating the true difference in the CD4+ T cell subsets. The reference range for absolute CD4 count for Indian male population was 381-1565 cells/μL and for female population was 447-1846 cells/μL. The reference range for CD4% was 25-49% for male and 27-54% for female population. The reference values for CD3 counts were 776-2785 cells/μL for Indian male population and 826-2997 cells/μL for female population. Conclusion The study used stringent procedures for controlling the technical variation in the CD4 counts across the sites and thus could establish the robust national reference ranges for CD4 counts and percentages. These ranges will be helpful in staging the disease progression and monitoring antiretroviral therapy in HIV infection in India.

  19. Significant association of the dupA gene of Helicobacter pylori with duodenal ulcer development in a South-east Indian population

    Alam, Jawed; Maiti, Sankar; Ghosh, Prachetash; De, Ronita; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Das, Suryasnata; Macaden, Ragini; Devarbhavi, Harshad; Ramamurthy, T.; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K.

    2012-01-01

    A novel virulence factor, duodenal ulcer-promoting gene A (dupA), in Helicobacter pylori has been found to be associated with disease in certain populations but not in others. This study analysed a South-east Indian population as part of the debate about the relevance of dupA for the prediction of clinical outcomes. A total of 140 H. pylori strains isolated from duodenal ulcer (DU) (n=83) and non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) patients (n=57) were screened by PCR and dot-blot hybridization to determin...

  20. Hepatic steatosis is associated with cardiometabolic risk in a rural Indian population: A prospective cohort study.

    Barik, Anamitra; Shah, Ravi V; Spahillari, Aferdita; Murthy, Venkatesh L; Ambale-Venkatesh, Bharath; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Das, Kaushik; Santra, Amal; Hembram, Jaba Ranjan; Bhattacharya, Dilip; Freedman, Jane E; Lima, Joao; Das, Ranendra; Bhattacharyya, Pinakpani; Das, Saumya; Chowdhury, Abhijit

    2016-12-15

    While adiposity and hepatic steatosis are linked to cardiovascular risk in developed countries, their prevalence and impact in low-income countries are poorly understood. We investigated the association of anthropomorphic variables and hepatic steatosis with cardiometabolic risk profiles and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a large rural Indian cohort. In 4691 individuals in the Birbhum Population Project in West Bengal, India, we performed liver ultrasonography, carotid ultrasound and biochemical and clinical profiling. We assessed the association of hepatic steatosis and anthropomorphic indices (BMI, waist circumference) with CVD risk factors (dysglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension) and subclinical CVD (by carotid intimal-medial thickness). Rural Indians exhibited a higher visceral adiposity index and pro-atherogenic dyslipidemia at a lower BMI than Americans. Individuals with any degree of hepatic steatosis by ultrasound had a greater probability of dysglycemia (adjusted odds ratio, OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.31-2.12, P<0.0001) and pro-atherogenic dyslipidemia (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.07-1.63, P=0.009). We observed a positive association between liver fat, adiposity and carotid intimal-medial thickness (CIMT) in an unadjusted model (β=0.02, P=0.0001); the former was extinguished after adjustment for cardiometabolic risk factors. In a large population of rural Indians, hepatic steatosis and waist circumference were associated with prevalent cardiometabolic risk and subclinical CVD at lower BMI relative to multi-ethnic Americans, though the association of the former with subclinical CVD was extinguished after adjustment. These results underscore the emerging relevance of hepatic steatosis and adiposity in the developing world, and suggest efforts to target these accessible phenotypes for cardiometabolic risk prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Traces of sub-Saharan and Middle Eastern lineages in Indian Muslim populations

    Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Haque, Ikramul; Ravesh, Zeinab; Romero, Irene Gallego; Meganathan, Poorlin Ramakodi; Dubey, Bhawna; Khan, Faizan Ahmed; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Kivisild, Toomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2010-01-01

    Islam is the second most practiced religion in India, next to Hinduism. It is still unclear whether the spread of Islam in India has been only a cultural transformation or is associated with detectable levels of gene flow. To estimate the contribution of West Asian and Arabian admixture to Indian Muslims, we assessed genetic variation in mtDNA, Y-chromosomal and LCT/MCM6 markers in 472, 431 and 476 samples, respectively, representing six Muslim communities from different geographical regions of India. We found that most of the Indian Muslim populations received their major genetic input from geographically close non-Muslim populations. However, low levels of likely sub-Saharan African, Arabian and West Asian admixture were also observed among Indian Muslims in the form of L0a2a2 mtDNA and E1b1b1a and J*(xJ2) Y-chromosomal lineages. The distinction between Iranian and Arabian sources was difficult to make with mtDNA and the Y chromosome, as the estimates were highly correlated because of similar gene pool compositions in the sources. In contrast, the LCT/MCM6 locus, which shows a clear distinction between the two sources, enabled us to rule out significant gene flow from Arabia. Overall, our results support a model according to which the spread of Islam in India was predominantly cultural conversion associated with minor but still detectable levels of gene flow from outside, primarily from Iran and Central Asia, rather than directly from the Arabian Peninsula. PMID:19809480

  2. Novel P-TEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) variant in Indian Parkinson's disease patient.

    Halder, Tamali; Raj, Janak; Sharma, Vivek; Das, Parimal

    2015-09-25

    Loss-of-function mutation in PINK1 is known for causing autosomal recessive early onset Parkinsonism accounting approximately 6.5% of PD cases. Recently, PINK1 has also been shown to cause Parkinson's disease (PD) in eastern India. Present study is aimed to see its contribution in north-Indian PD patients. A total of 106 PD patients and 60 ethnically matched healthy controls were included in the study. All the patients were screened for mutation in PINK1 by direct DNA sequence analysis of the PCR amplicons covering all exons and exon-intron boundaries. Identified novel variant was reconfirmed by DNA sequencing of 10 randomly selected TA clones containing the variant amplicon. In vitro functional assay of the mutant protein was performed by transfecting COS-7 cell line with wild type and mutant (created by site-directed-mutagenesis) cDNA construct of PINK1 fused to N' terminal GFP followed by western blot analysis. Two potentially pathogenic, one being novel (p.Q267X) and 6 other apparently non-pathogenic variants were identified. Western blot analysis reveals production of truncated PINK1 fusion protein of ∼55kDa in p.Q267X mutant instead of 82/93kDa of wild type PINK1 fusion protein (molecular weight of GFP is ∼27kDa). Our study concludes that PINK1 variants are prevalent for causing Parkinson's disease (PD) in India, as revealed by the occurrence of 1.8% (2/106) in PD patients from north Indian population. The novel homozygous variant of PINK1 (c.799C>T) reported here is the plausible cause for disease manifestation in this patient. Future study, however, would be helpful to understand the functional mechanism how this premature PINK1 protein (p.Q267X) responds to cellular stress leading to the PD pathophysiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Diagnostic evaluation of rapid tests for scrub typhus in the Indian population is needed.

    Shivalli, Siddharudha

    2016-05-12

    Owing to frequent outbreaks witnessed in different parts of the country in the recent past, scrub typhus is being described as a re-emerging infectious disease in India. Differentiating scrub typhus from other endemic diseases like malaria, leptospirosis, dengue fever, typhoid, etc. is difficult due to overlapping clinical features and a lower positivity for eschars in Asian populations. Hence, the diagnosis heavily relies on laboratory tests. Costs and the need of technical expertise limit the wide use of indirect immunoperoxidase or immunofluorescence assays, ELISA and PCR. The Weil-Felix test is the most commonly used and least expensive serological test, but lacks both sensitivity and specificity. Hence, the diagnosis of scrub typhus is often delayed or overlooked. With due consideration of the cost, rapidity, single test result and simplicity of interpretation, rapid diagnostic tests have come into vogue. However, evaluation of rapid diagnostic tests for scrub typhus in the Indian population is needed to justify or discourage their use. Research studies are needed to find the most suitable test in terms of the rapidity of the result, simplicity of the procedure, ease of interpretation and cost to be used in the Indian populace.

  4. ANTERIOR KNEE PAIN AND LOWER EXTREMITY FUNCTIONS IN INDIAN ADOLESCENT POPULATION

    Riddhi Shroff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Purpose - Anterior knee pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal complain seen in Indian adolescent population with high incidence among those who are active in sports and recreation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the age of onset of anterior knee pain, to find its effect on sports participation and also to find the activities which are maximally affected due to anterior knee pain in Indian population. Method- A questionnaire based survey was conducted among 50 subjects using three outcome measures namely self made demographic questionnaire, anterior knee pain scale and lower extremity functional scale. Result- Maximally affected activities are running, jumping & squatting and maximally affected functions are squatting, running on uneven ground, making sharp turns while running and hopping with increase incidence of anterior knee pain among those who participate daily in sports. Conclusion- The study concluded, that in adolescent age group of 11-17 years, anterior knee pain is more prevalent in adolescent girls with the age of onset being around 13 years for girls & 14.5 years in boys and it also showed moderate positive correlation between anterior knee pain and lower extremity functions.

  5. Estimating the effect of native Indian population on county alcohol consumption: the example of Ontario.

    Adrian, M; Layne, N; Williams, R T

    Multiple regression analysis of cross-sectional 1985-1986 Ontario county data indicated that the presence of Native Indians on reserves is a significant factor in explaining differences in county alcohol consumption levels. Consumption in counties with reserves was higher than in those without reserves by roughly 1.48 liters of absolute alcohol per adult; consumption increased as the Native reserve population increased (p less than 0.05). When income, employment, household crowding, type of industrial activity, northern isolation, and tourism were included, we could account for over 60% of the variation in alcohol consumption between Ontario counties (p less than 0.01). Every extra $1,000 in income per tax return was associated with a 0.297-liter reduction in absolute alcohol consumption. Efforts to reduce alcohol consumption in the Native population would have their greatest impact when associated with improved economic conditions.

  6. The role of hip and chest radiographs in osteoporotic evaluation among south Indian women population: a comparative scenario with DXA.

    Kumar, D Ashok; Anburajan, M

    2014-05-01

    Osteoporosis is recognized as a worldwide skeletal disorder problem. In India, the older as well as postmenopausal women population suffering from osteoporotic fractures has been a common issue. Bone mineral density measurements gauged by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) are used in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. (1) To evaluate osteoporosis in south Indian women by radiogrammetric method in a comparative perspective with DXA. (2) To assess the capability of KJH; Anburajan's Empirical formula in the prediction of total hip bone mineral density (T.BMD) with estimated Hologic T.BMD. In this cross-sectional design, 56 south Indian women were evaluated. These women were randomly selected from a health camp. The patients with secondary bone diseases were excluded. The standard protocol was followed in acquiring BMD of the right proximal femur by DPX Prodigy (DXA Scanner, GE-Lunar Corp., USA). The measured Lunar Total hip BMD was converted into estimated Hologic Total hip BMD. In addition, the studied population underwent chest and hip radiographic measurements. Combined cortical thickness of clavicle has been used in KJH; Anburajan's Empirical formula to predict T.BMD and compared with estimated Hologic T.BMD by DXA. The correlation coefficients exhibited high significance. The combined cortical thickness of clavicle and femur shaft of total studied population was strongly correlated with DXA femur T.BMD measurements (r = 0.87, P < 0.01 and r = 0.45, P < 0.01) and it is also having strong correlation with low bone mass group (r = 0.87, P < 0.01 and r = 0.67, P < 0.01) KJH; Anburajan's Empirical formula shows significant correlation with estimated Hologic T.BMD (r = 0.88, P < 0.01) in total studied population. The empirical formula was identified as better tool for predicting osteoporosis in total population and old-aged population with a sensitivity (88.8 and 95.6 %), specificity (89.6 and 90.9 %), positive predictive value (88.8 and 95.6 %) and negative

  7. Analysis of human blood plasma proteome from ten healthy volunteers from Indian population.

    Poonam Gautam

    Full Text Available Analysis of any mammalian plasma proteome is a challenge, particularly by mass spectrometry, due to the presence of albumin and other abundant proteins which can mask the detection of low abundant proteins. As detection of human plasma proteins is valuable in diagnostics, exploring various workflows with minimal fractionation prior to mass spectral analysis, is required in order to study population diversity involving analysis in a large cohort of samples. Here, we used 'reference plasma sample', a pool of plasma from 10 healthy individuals from Indian population in the age group of 25-60 yrs including 5 males and 5 females. The 14 abundant proteins were immunodepleted from plasma and then evaluated by three different workflows for proteome analysis using a nanoflow reverse phase liquid chromatography system coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer. The analysis of reference plasma sample a without prefractionation, b after prefractionation at peptide level by strong cation exchange chromatography and c after prefractionation at protein level by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, led to the identification of 194, 251 and 342 proteins respectively. Together, a comprehensive dataset of 517 unique proteins was achieved from all the three workflows, including 271 proteins with high confidence identified by ≥ 2 unique peptides in any of the workflows or identified by single peptide in any of the two workflows. A total of 70 proteins were common in all the three workflows. Some of the proteins were unique to our study and could be specific to Indian population. The high-confidence dataset obtained from our study may be useful for studying the population diversity, in discovery and validation process for biomarker identification.

  8. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF AIR WAY ASSESSMENT BY SIMPLE B ED SIDE TEST IN INDIAN PATIENTS

    Patil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Simple bedside tests for airway assessment were performed in 500 randomly selected Indian adult patients posted for surgery . The parameters studied were Thyromental distance ( TMD , Inter incisor distance ( IID Sternomental distance ( STMD , Ratio of height to thyromental distance ( RHTMD , Laryngeal mobility ( LM and Mallampati classification . The TMD , STMD , IID , RHTMD and LM measurements were consolidated into three groups namely normal , moderate and low scores . The airway parameters were finally co - related with the Mallampati classification . The normal range of values observed in Indian patients were TMD - 6 - 7cms , IID - 4 . 5 - 5 . 5 cms , STMD - 14 - 15cms , RHTMD - 18 - 22 and LM was good in 90% of patients assessed . The airway parameters of TMD , STMD , RHTMD , IID and LM in conjunction with Mallampati classification may be a useful routine preoperative screening te st for predicting intubation difficulties in Indian population . BACKGROUND AND AIMS : Difficult airway assessment is based on various anatomic parameters of upper airway , much of it being concentrated on oral cavity and the pharyngeal structures . The diagno stic value of tests based on neck anatomy in predicting difficult laryngoscopy was assessed in this prospective , open cohort study . METHODS : We studied 500 adult patients scheduled to receive general anaesthesia . Thyromental distance ( TMD , Sternomental Distance ( STMD , I nterincisior Distance ( IID , Ratio of Height t o Thyromental Distance ( RHTMD , Mallampatti Classification ( MPC , Laryngeal Mobility ( LM was calculated . The laryngoscopic view was classified according to the Cormack - Lehane Grade ( 1 - 4 . Di fficult laryngoscopy was defined as Cormack - Lehane Grade 3 or 4 . The optimal cut - off points for each variable were identified by using receiver operating characteristic analysis . Sensitivity , specificity and positive predictive value and negative predictiv e value ( NPV were

  9. Role of type-specific herpes simplex virus-1 and 2 serology as a diagnostic modality in patients with clinically suspected genital herpes: A comparative study in Indian population from a tertiary care hospital.

    Patwardhan, Vrushali; Bhalla, Preena

    2016-01-01

    Type-specific serology (TSS) test for herpes simplex virus (HSV) have been used as a research tool in seroepidemiological studies for some years. However, TSS as a diagnostic modality for diagnosis of current episode of genital herpes is not well documented. To measure the seroprevalence of type-specific HSV Type 1 (HSV-1) and Type 2 (HSV-2) IgG antibodies in cases provisionally diagnosed as primary and recurrent genital herpes and to evaluate the role of TSS as a diagnostic modality for diagnosis of genital herpes versus polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A cross-sectional study was performed over a period of 10 months in which 44 adult patients with clinically suspected genital herpes were recruited. An in-house glycoprotein G gene base PCR was performed directly from the genital lesion specimen for simultaneous detection and typing of HSV. TSS was performed to detect IgG antibody against HSV-1 and 2 in all patients using commercially available kits, and the results were compared. Seroprevalence of HSV-1 IgG was 43% among primary and 65% among recurrent genital herpes cases (P = 0.22). Whereas that of HSV-2 IgG was found to be 14% and 83% in respective patient group (P = 0.0001). When compared to PCR results HSV-1 IgG detection in both primary and recurrent genital herpes diagnosis had poor specificity, positive predictive value, and sensitivity. Whereas, HSV-2 serology had a sensitivity of 13.33% and 73.33% in primary and recurrent genital herpes and specificity of 83.33% and 85.71%, respectively. HSV-2 IgG detection helps in strengthening the diagnosis of recurrent HSV-2 disease, whereas the absence of HSV-2 IgG antibody helps in excluding genital herpes as a likely cause of recurrent genital ulceration. However, detection of HSV-1 IgG antibody may not be useful for diagnosis in patients of genital ulcer disease.

  10. MEASURING INDIAN PATIENTS' SATISFACTION: A CASE OF PRIVATE HOSPITALS

    S. Samar Ali; Faizan Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to global markets and competitors has placed increasing demands on all sectors of the Indian market. Introducing consumer choice was one of the key motivations underpinning the various healthcare utility privatization of the Indian Hospitals in 1980s, along with enhancing the quality of service provided to consumers. Customer satisfaction is becoming increasingly important for organizational survival, let alone prosperity. This paper aims to study the effect of service facilities pro...

  11. Assessment of genetic diversity, population structure and relationships in Indian and non-Indian genotypes of finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn) using genomic SSR markers.

    Ramakrishnan, M; Antony Ceasar, S; Duraipandiyan, V; Al-Dhabi, N A; Ignacimuthu, S

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the genetic variation and population structure in Indian and non-Indian genotypes of finger millet using 87 genomic SSR primers. The 128 finger millet genotypes were collected and genomic DNA was isolated. Eighty-seven genomic SSR primers with 60-70 % GC contents were used for PCR analysis of 128 finger millet genotypes. The PCR products were separated and visualized on a 6 % polyacrylamide gel followed by silver staining. The data were used to estimate major allele frequency using Power Marker v3.0. Dendrograms were constructed based on the Jaccard's similarity coefficient. Statistical fitness and population structure analyses were performed to find the genetic diversity. The mean major allele frequency was 0.92; the means of polymorphic alleles were 2.13 per primer and 1.45 per genotype; the average polymorphism was 59.94 % per primer and average PIC value was 0.44 per primer. Indian genotypes produced an additional 0.21 allele than non-Indian genotypes. Gene diversity was in the range from 0.02 to 0.35. The average heterozygosity was 0.11, close to 100 % homozygosity. The highest inbreeding coefficient was observed with SSR marker UGEP67. The Jaccard's similarity coefficient value ranged from 0.011 to 0.836. The highest similarity value was 0.836 between genotypes DPI009-04 and GPU-45. Indian genotypes were placed in Eleusine coracana major cluster (EcMC) 1 along with 6 non-Indian genotypes. AMOVA showed that molecular variance in genotypes from various geographical regions was 4 %; among populations it was 3 % and within populations it was 93 %. PCA scatter plot analysis showed that GPU-28, GPU-45 and DPI009-04 were closely dispersed in first component axis. In structural analysis, the genotypes were divided into three subpopulations (SP1, SP2 and SP3). All the three subpopulations had an admixture of alleles and no pure line was observed. These analyses confirmed that all the genotypes were genetically diverse and had been grouped based on

  12. Evaluation of Homocysteine, Lipoprotein(a and Endothelin as diagnostic markers of Coronary Artery Disease in Indian population

    Vandana Saini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Indians have been reported to have high prevalence rates of coronary artery disease (CAD even in the absence of traditional risk factors. The objective of this study was to assess the role of endothelin, lipoprotein(a, homocysteine and lipid profile as markers of CAD in Indian population. It was a hospital based observational case-control study, which included 60 documented patients of CAD, and 50 age and sex matched controls. Routine biochemical parameters were performed. Lipoprotein(a, homocysteine and endothelin levels were estimated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of endothelin (9.78±0.40 pg/ml vs. 7.86±0.31 pg/ml, lipoprotein(a (51.42±1.71 mg/dl vs. 36.26±1.21 mg/dl, homocysteine (21.31±1.22 µmol/L vs. 10.41±0.844 µmol/L and LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio (4.23±0.32 vs. 2.60±0.10 were significantly higher whereas that of HDL (29.82±1.39 mg/dl vs. 40.82±6.24 mg/dl was significantly lower in patients of CAD as compared to the controls (p0.7 for all the markers. Higher levels of homocysteine, endothelin, and lipoprotein(a were independently associated with increased risk of CAD. Thus, they may be helpful in risk assessment in premature cardiovascular disease and in individuals where traditional risk factors are not present.

  13. Myositis-specific and myositis-associated autoantibodies in Indian patients with inflammatory myositis.

    Srivastava, Puja; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Misra, Ramnath

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to study the prevalence and clinical associations of myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSAs) and myositis-associated autoantibodies (MAAs) in a large cohort of Indian patients with idiopathic inflammatory myositis (IIM). Clinical details and serum samples were collected from patients with IIM (satisfying Bohan and Peter Criteria, 1975) and CTD-associated myositis. Sera were analysed for antibodies against SRP, Mi2, Jo1, PL7, PL12, EJ, OJ, Ro52, Ku, Pm-Scl 75 and PM-Scl 100, using immunoblot assay. The cohort comprised 124 patients with IIM (M:F = 1:3.6). Fifty-five of them had dermatomyositis (DM), 22 had juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), 25 had polymyositis (PM) and 22 had connective tissue disease-associated myositis (CTD myositis). Mean disease duration was 10.9 months. ANA was positive in 84 (68.9 %), and MSAs in 61 (49.2 %) patients. Among MSAs, autoantibodies to Mi2, synthetase (Jo1, PL7, PL12, EJ) and SRP were present in 26 (20.9 %), 29 (23.4 %) and 6 (4.8 %) patients, respectively. Prevalence of MAAs was as follows: antibodies to Ro52 in 45 (36.3 %), Ku and PM-Scl 75 in 13 (10.5 %) and PM-Scl 100 in 5 (4 %) patients. Anti-Mi2 antibodies were positively associated with DM (21/55, 38.2 %; p < 0.0001) and pharyngeal weakness (13/34, 38.2 %; p = 0.004) and negatively associated with ILD (0/28; p = 0.001). ILD and mechanics' hands were significantly more in patients with anti-synthetase antibodies (16/28, 57 % and 14/22, 63.6 %; p < 0.0001). Four of six patients with anti-SRP antibody showed poor response to multiple drugs. Higher prevalence of anti-Mi2 is probably related to higher proportion of patients with DM. Absence of ILD in patients with anti-Mi2 antibody suggests that it may protect against ILD. In Indian population also, anti-synthetase antibodies are associated with ILD, and anti-SRP antibodies with poor response to treatment.

  14. An epidemic of tuberculosis with a high rate of tuberculin anergy among a population previously unexposed to tuberculosis, the Yanomami Indians of the Brazilian Amazon

    Sousa, Alexandra O.; Salem, Julia I.; Lee, Francis K.; Verçosa, Maria C.; Cruaud, Philippe; Bloom, Barry R.; Lagrange, Philippe H.; David, Hugo L.

    1997-01-01

    A survey of an emerging tuberculosis epidemic among the Yanomami Indians of the Amazonian rain forest provided a unique opportunity to study the impact of tuberculosis on a population isolated from contact with the tubercle bacillus for millennia until the mid-1960s. Within the Yanomami population, an extraordinary high prevalence of active tuberculosis (6.4% of 625 individuals clinically examined) was observed, indicating a high susceptibility to disease, even among bacille Calmette–Guérin-vaccinated individuals. Observational studies on cell-mediated and humoral immune responses of the Yanomami Indians compared with contemporary residents of the region suggest profound differences in immunological responsiveness to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Among the Yanomami, a very high prevalence of tuberculin skin test anergy was found. Of patients with active tuberculosis, 46% had purified protein derivative of tuberculosis reactions Yanomami also had higher titers of antibodies against M. tuberculosis glycolipid antigens (>70%) than the control subjects comprised of Brazilians of European descent (14%). The antibodies were mostly of the IgM isotype. Among the tuberculosis patients who also produced IgG antibodies, the titers of IgG4 were significantly higher among the Yanomami than in the control population. Although it was not possible to analyze T-cell responses or patterns of lymphokine production in vitro because of the remoteness of the villages from laboratory facilities, the results suggest that the first encounter of the Yanomami Indian population with tuberculosis engenders a diminished cell-mediated immune response and an increased production antibody responses, relative to other populations with extensive previous contact with the pathogen. These findings suggest that tuberculosis may represent a powerful selective pressure on human evolution that over centuries has shaped the nature of human immune responses to infection. PMID:9371828

  15. An epidemic of tuberculosis with a high rate of tuberculin anergy among a population previously unexposed to tuberculosis, the Yanomami Indians of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Sousa, A O; Salem, J I; Lee, F K; Verçosa, M C; Cruaud, P; Bloom, B R; Lagrange, P H; David, H L

    1997-11-25

    A survey of an emerging tuberculosis epidemic among the Yanomami Indians of the Amazonian rain forest provided a unique opportunity to study the impact of tuberculosis on a population isolated from contact with the tubercle bacillus for millennia until the mid-1960s. Within the Yanomami population, an extraordinary high prevalence of active tuberculosis (6.4% of 625 individuals clinically examined) was observed, indicating a high susceptibility to disease, even among bacille Calmette-Guérin-vaccinated individuals. Observational studies on cell-mediated and humoral immune responses of the Yanomami Indians compared with contemporary residents of the region suggest profound differences in immunological responsiveness to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Among the Yanomami, a very high prevalence of tuberculin skin test anergy was found. Of patients with active tuberculosis, 46% had purified protein derivative of tuberculosis reactions Yanomami also had higher titers of antibodies against M. tuberculosis glycolipid antigens (>70%) than the control subjects comprised of Brazilians of European descent (14%). The antibodies were mostly of the IgM isotype. Among the tuberculosis patients who also produced IgG antibodies, the titers of IgG4 were significantly higher among the Yanomami than in the control population. Although it was not possible to analyze T-cell responses or patterns of lymphokine production in vitro because of the remoteness of the villages from laboratory facilities, the results suggest that the first encounter of the Yanomami Indian population with tuberculosis engenders a diminished cell-mediated immune response and an increased production antibody responses, relative to other populations with extensive previous contact with the pathogen. These findings suggest that tuberculosis may represent a powerful selective pressure on human evolution that over centuries has shaped the nature of human immune responses to infection.

  16. Diversity of palatal rugae patterns and their reliability in sex discrimination in a South Indian population

    Sai Madhavi Nallamilli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aims: Array of palatal rugae in the realm of forensic odontology has been constantly explored owing to their individual uniqueness and resistance to postmortem procedures, while their scope in sex determination and racial profiling remains understated. In this context, the present study aimed to record the diversity of palatal rugae patterns in a South Indian population. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among people who reported to the outpatient department of a dental institution. Sample comprised a total of 200 subjects divided into two groups of 100 each, based upon gender. Impressions of anterior maxilla were made of all the study subjects and casts obtained subsequently. Outline of palatal rugae pattern was traced on these models and the data computed. Z test and unpaired t-test were used for statistical analysis and the probability value calculated. In addition, logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the accuracy of sex allocation. Results: The shape of rugae exhibited highly significant sex difference in the curved type, which was found to be higher in males, and in the wavy type which was higher in females, enabling sex differentiation using palatal rugae patterns. Logistic regression analysis predicted high power of sex allocation for males rather than females in the study population. Conclusion: This study highlighted the uniqueness and greater sex discrimination potential of curved shape of palatal rugae in categorizing males of South Indian population, substantiating their use in the identification of deceased, by relating the antemortem and postmortem dental records.

  17. Concept and understanding of premature discharge in Indian patients

    B S Chavan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to lack of formal sex education in India, the unpleasant past sexual experiences and at times normal physiological activities can lead to various myths and sexual beliefs. Base on their beliefs, individuals seeking treatment for early ejaculation have their set of expectations. Premature ejaculation (PME in Indian population thus, has personal meaning and there is no common agreement on it. Materials and Methods: With the help of semi-structured questionnaire, we surveyed the sexual activity, sexual beliefs and past sexual experiences of those seeking treatment for early ejaculation (n = 62 and compared them with an age-matched control (n = 50. Results: Those seeking treatment for early ejaculation expected more number of strokes (39.1 vs. 32.6 in lesser time (11.5 min vs. 16.3 during sexual encounters i.e. more rapid thrusting. Significantly more of those seeking treatment for early ejaculation felt that masturbation was not a normal activity and that both male and female partners must climax simultaneously for satisfactory sexual experience. Also, significantly more of those seeking treatment for early ejaculation reported their first sexual experience to be unsatisfactory. Conclusion: In the cultural context of India, those seeking treatment for early ejaculation may be distressed due to their inability to meet their own expectations in addition to distress of inability to hold ejaculation as desired. It is essential to re-educate such individuals before considering the diagnosis of PME. Various diagnostic criteria for PME have not emphasized the exclusion of cultural factors as contributors to distress of PME.

  18. Genetic Isolation among the Northwestern, Southwestern and Central-Eastern Indian Ocean Populations of the Pronghorn Spiny Lobster Panulirus penicillatus

    Muhamad Fadry Abdullah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus is a highly valuable species which is widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific and Eastern Pacific regions. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences (566–571 bp were determined to investigate the population genetic structure of this species in the Indian Ocean. In total, 236 adult individuals of Panulirus penicillatus were collected from five locations in the Indian Ocean region. Almost all individuals had a unique haplotype. Intrapopulation haplotype (h and nucleotide (π diversities were high for each locality, ranging from h = 0.9986–1.0000 and π = 0.031593–0.043441. We observed distinct genetic isolation of population located at the northwestern and southwestern edge of the species range. Gene flow was found within localities in the central and eastern region of the Indian Ocean, probably resulting from an extended planktonic larval stage and prevailing ocean currents.

  19. Relationships between perceived diagnostic disclosure, patient characteristics, psychological distress and illness perceptions in Indian cancer patients.

    Chittem, Mahati; Norman, Paul; Harris, Peter R

    2013-06-01

    Non-disclosure of a cancer diagnosis is a common practice in many Asian cultures where family-based medical decision making is the norm. The present study sought to compare Indian cancer patients who were aware versus unaware of their cancer diagnosis on a range of patient characteristics, levels of psychological distress and illness perceptions. A sample of 329 Indian cancer patients were interviewed about their understanding of their illness (to assess awareness of a cancer diagnosis) and administered the following measures: the modified Rotterdam Symptom Checklist, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire. Demographic and medical details were also obtained. Over half of the sample (54.1%) was unaware of their cancer diagnosis. A logistic regression analysis predicting perceived diagnostic disclosure indicated that awareness of a cancer diagnosis was associated with being involved in medical decisions, receiving multiple treatments, longer treatment durations, greater perceived understanding of one's illness (illness coherence) and citing a cause for one's illness. The results highlight the importance of the context in which decisions about the patient's illness are made (e.g. by whom) as well as illness perceptions relating to patients' understanding of their illness. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Association of CYP17 and SRD5A2 gene polymorphisms with Prostate cancer risk among Iranian and Indian populations

    kh onsory

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims and objectives: Prostate cancer is a complicated disease that genetics and environmental factors may be playing a promoting role in its progression. Polymorphism of genes such as steroid hormone receptors are having very important role in developing this disease. One such gene, CYP17 is playing role in hydroxylation and SRD5A2 gene, the predominant 5&alpha-reductase isozyme in prostate, catalyzes the conversion of testosterone into the more potent androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT, which is required for the normal growth and development of the prostate gland. The purpose of this study was to investigate association of CYP17 and SRD5A2 genes polymorphisms with prostate cancer risk. Materials and methods: PCR-RFLP analysis of CYP17 and SRD5A2 genes were performed on 100 prostate cancer patients admitted to the Department of Urology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Science and Research (PGIMER, Chandigarh, India, and 150 patients from Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran, compared with equal number of matching controls for each group visiting same centers for other reason. The data was analyzed using the computer software SPSS for windows (version 19, using logistic regression. Results: In this case-control study, there was a significant increase with risk of prostate cancer association for individuals carrying one copy of CYP17 A2 allele in Iranian (OR= 2.10 95% CI, 1.03-4.27 P=0.041 and Indian populations (OR= 2.16 95% CI, 1.08-4.33 P=0.029. While the risk was decreased in individuals having two A2 alleles in both groups. Compared with men having the VV genotype of SRD5A2 gene, there was no significant association between the VL genotype and the risk of prostate cancer among Iranian (OR, 0.87 95% CI, 0.49 -1.56 P=0.661 and Indian (OR, 0.99 95% CI, 0.54 -1.81 P=0.989 patients. Also there was no difference in the occurrence of the genotype LL between prostate cancer patients and control groups in both studied populations therefore, there

  1. Ethnic Association of Cusp of Carabelli Trait and Shoveling Trait in an Indian Population

    Manju, M; Praveen, R; Umesh, W

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Variations in the structure of teeth have always been of great interest to the dentist from the scientific as well as practical point of view. Additionally, ever since decades inter trait relationships have been a useful means to categorize populations to which an individual belongs. Aim To determine the association between Cusp of Carabelli and Shoveling Trait in a selected Indian population native of Bangalore city, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1885 children aged between 7-10 years. Casts of the study subjects were made to study the presence of Cusp of Carabelli of right maxillary permanent molar and shoveling trait of right maxillary permanent central incisor using the Dahlberg’s classification and Hrdliucka’s classification respectively. Linear regression was used to assess the association of cusp of carabelli trait with the tooth dimensions and logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of the carabelli trait with gender and presence/absence of shoveling. Results A 40.5% of subjects had Cusp of Carabelli on first molar and 68.2% had shoveling on upper central incisor. The study revealed positive association between the two traits studied in the population. A significant difference was also found with presence of Cusp of Carabelli and the buccolingual tooth dimension of the maxillary molar (pshoveling trait in the present study population, and this will be valuable in the determination of ethnic origin of an individual. PMID:27135008

  2. Patterns of genetic diversity at the nine forensically approved STR loci in the Indian populations.

    Dutta, Ranjan; Reddy, B Mohan; Chattopadhyay, P; Kashyap, V K; Sun, Guangyun; Deka, Ranjan

    2002-02-01

    Genetic diversity at the nine short tandem repeat (STR) loci, which are universally approved and widely used for forensic investigations, has been studied among nine Indian populations with diverse ethnic, linguistic, and geographic backgrounds. The nine STR loci were profiled on 902 individuals using fluorescent detection methods on an ABI377 System, with the aid of an Amp-F1 Profiler Plus Kit. The studied populations include two upper castes, Brahmin and Kayastha; a tribe, Garo, from West Bengal; a Hindu caste, Meitei, with historical links to Bengal Brahmins; a migrant group of Muslims; three tribal groups, Naga, Kuki and Hmar, from Manipur in northeast India; and a middle-ranking caste, Golla, who are seminomadic herders from Andhra Pradesh. Gene diversity analysis suggests that the average heterozygosity is uniformly high (>0.8) in the studied populations, with the coefficient of gene differentiation at 0.050 +/- 0.0054. Both neighbor-joining (NJ) and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) trees based on DA distances bring out distinct clusters that are consistent with ethnic, linguistic, and/or geographic backgrounds of the populations. The fit of the Harpending and Ward model of regression of average heterozygosity on the gene frequency centroid is found to be good, and the observed outliers are consistent with the population structure and history of the studied populations. Our study suggests that the nine STR loci, used so far mostly for forensic investigations, can be used fruitfully for microevolutionary studies as well, and for reconstructing the phylogenetic history of human populations, at least at the local level.

  3. Need for a nomogram of renal sizes in the Indian population- findings from a single centre sonographic study

    Prakash Muthusami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Renal size is an important parameter used in the diagnosis and follow up of renal diseases. However, while making decisions, clinicians must be aware of the dependence of these dimensions on the ethnicity of the individual, independent of anthropometric indices. There is no established nomogram for renal sizes in the Indian population. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of oft-quoted ranges of normal renal sizes in our population. Methods: Renal dimensions including length, width and parenchymal thickness were sonographically measured in 140 individuals with no renal disease. Analysis was done for differences due to age, gender and laterality. The correlation of renal dimensions with anthropometric parameters like weight, height, body mass index (BMI and body surface area (BSA was analyzed. Results: The means of length, width and parenchymal thickness of all 280 kidneys of 140 patients were 9.65 ± 0.63, 4.5 ± 0.42 and 2.04 ± 0.2 cm, respectively. There was a significant difference in parenchymal thickness between the right and left kidneys, while there was no significant right-left difference in length or width. Gender-wise analysis showed significant differences between male and female renal breadths but not length and parenchymal thickness. Age group-wise analysis showed significant decrease in renal length and parenchymal thickness beyond the seventh decade. There was a moderate positive correlation of bilateral renal length with body weight and BSA, and a weak positive correlation with body height and BMI. Interpretation & conclusions: Renal sizes in our population are in contrast to commonly quoted normal values in literature. Conclusions about renal sizes need to be made with reference to nomograms and should not be based upon data from other populations. We also present formulae whereby to derive renal sizes from anthropometric indices in our population.

  4. Microsatellite and HLA class II oligonucleotide typing in a population of Yanomami Indians.

    Roewer, L; Nagy, M; Schmidt, P; Epplen, J T; Herzog-Schröder, G

    1993-01-01

    We have used three different microsatellites (on chromosome 12 and Y) together with HLA class II oligonucleotide typing (DQA and DQB) to analyze families of Yanomami indians settling in villages in Southern Venezuela. There exist complex networks of biological relationship between villages as a result of wife exchange, village fissioning and changing patterns of alliances associated with inter-village warfare. Social status in this society is largely determined by the kinship system. Polygyny is common, especially among headmen, with additional wives, frequently being chosen among the sisters of the first wife. Our preliminary results mainly obtained from inhabitants of the village HAP show the expected allele distribution in populations with a high degree of consanguinity: (i) deficiency of observed heterozygotes at the autosomal loci and (ii) almost all men carry the same Y chromosomal allele. Nevertheless in the Yanomami village two thirds of the described autosomal microsatellite alleles were identified. Several paternities were clarified.

  5. The Variations in Calcaneal Articular Facets In North Indian Population and its Clinical Implication

    Seema

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives- To know the most common type of calcanei in North Indian population and itsclinical importance. There are three articular facets on superior surface of calcaneus- anterior, middle andposterior. Three types of calcanei are noted according to number and arrangement of the articular facets-type A, B and C. Methodology - The present studywas done on 300 dry adult human calcanei of unknownsex taken from Department of Anatomy Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Medical Sciences and ResearchVallah (Amritsar. Results- In our study Type B was found as the most common type. Type A is the nextmost common. Interpretation- The talocalcaneal joint is important in arthritis and coalition, flat foot, valgus deformity, congenital anomalies and intra articular fractures.

  6. Role of the APOB Gene Polymorphism (c.12669G>A, p. Gln4154Lys) in Coronary Artery Disease in the Indian Punjabi Population.

    Sharma, R; Mahajan, M; Singh, B; Singh, G; Singh, P

    2011-12-01

    High concentration of apolipoprotein B (apoB) is a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). The association of the APOB gene polymorphism c.12669G>A, p.Gln4154Lys with the risk of CAD varies considerably in different populations. The present study represents the first investigation regarding the role of this APOB gene polymorphism with CAD in the Indian Punjabi population. We have studied the APOB gene polymorphism c.12669G>A, p.Gln4154Lys and its relationship with lipid, apoB, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) heterogeneity and oxidation in subjects suffering from CAD. The study was conducted on 87 patients with CAD; 75 healthy subjects served as controls. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to determine the DNA polymorphism in the APOB gene. Frequency of R- (mutant) allele was significantly high (p 0.05). However, serum apoB levels were significantly raised (p Punjabi population. Overall, it may be concluded that the R- allele might be associated with increased susceptibility towards CAD development in the Indian Punjabi population, and one of the linking factor is the elevation in serum apoB levels. However, this association needs further evaluation in a larger population. Secondly, the robust mechanism behind the positive association of the R- allele with raised serum apoB levels needs to be explored, which might be helpful in the strengthening the observed results.

  7. Clinical profile and neuroimaging in pediatric optic neuritis in Indian population: A case series

    Rutika Khadse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: The purpose of this study was to report clinical features, neuroimaging, and visual outcome in pediatric optic neuritis (ON in Indian population. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of children up to the age of 16 years, diagnosed with ON, that presented at pediatric and neuroophthalmology clinic of a tertiary eye care center, in South India, within the period of 2010–2015. Results: We identified 62 eyes of 40 children diagnosed as ON within the study period. The mean age was 11.15 ± 3.24 years (1–15 years with mean follow-up of 13 months. In this series, there was female preponderance (67%. Mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity at presentation was 1.14 ± 0.93, which after treatment recovered to 0.10 ± 0.26 at final visit (P < 0.001. Involvement was bilateral in 22 children (55% and recurrent in 3 eyes of 3 children. Preceding febrile illness was reported in seven cases (18%. Four (10% cases were diagnosed as multiple sclerosis (MS, one with neuromyelitis optica , and one with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. One case was associated with tuberculous meningitis, 1 with septicemia, and 1 with bilateral maxillary sinusitis. Neuroimaging studies of optic nerve in 14 children demonstrated isolated optic nerve enhancement. Magnetic resonance imaging brain revealed white matter T2 hyperintense lesions separate from optic nerve in ten cases, of which four cases were diagnosed as MS. Conclusions: Bilateral presentation was common, association with MS was low. Papillitis was more frequent than retrobulbar neuritis and prognosis was good in pediatric ON in Indian population.

  8. Replication of 13 obesity loci among Singaporean Chinese, Malay and Asian-Indian populations.

    Dorajoo, R; Blakemore, A I F; Sim, X; Ong, R T-H; Ng, D P K; Seielstad, M; Wong, T-Y; Saw, S-M; Froguel, P; Liu, J; Tai, E-S

    2012-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 38 obesity-associated loci among European populations. However, their contribution to obesity in other ethnicities is largely unknown. We utilised five GWAS (N=10 482) from Chinese (three cohorts, including one with type 2 diabetes and another one of children), Malay and Indian ethnic groups from Singapore. Data sets were analysed individually and subsequently in combined meta-analysis for Z-score body-mass index (BMI) associations. Variants at the FTO locus showed the strongest associations with BMI Z-score after meta-analysis (P-values 1.16 × 10(-7)-7.95 × 10(-7)). We further detected associations with nine other index obesity variants close to the MC4R, GNPDA2, TMEM18, QPCTL/GIPR, BDNF, ETV5, MAP2K5/SKOR1, SEC16B and TNKS/MSRA loci (meta-analysis P-values ranging from 3.58 × 10(-4)-1.44 × 10(-2)). Three other single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from CADM2, PTBP2 and FAIM2 were associated with BMI (P-value ≤ 0.0418) in at least one dataset. The neurotrophin/TRK pathway (P-value=0.029) was highlighted by pathway-based analysis of loci that had statistically significant associations among Singaporean populations. Our data confirm the role of FTO in obesity predisposition among Chinese, Malays and Indians, the three major Asian ethnic groups. We additionally detected associations for 12 obesity-associated SNPs among Singaporeans. Thus, it is likely that Europeans and Asians share some of the genetic predisposition to obesity. Furthermore, the neurotrophin/TRK signalling may have a central role for common obesity among Asians.

  9. Expanding the spectrum of HEXA mutations in Indian patients with Tay–Sachs disease

    Jayesh Sheth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tay–Sachs disease is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder occurring due to impaired activity of β-hexosaminidase-A (EC 3.2.1.52, resulting from the mutation in HEXA gene. Very little is known about the molecular pathology of TSD in Indian children except for a few mutations identified by us. The present study is aimed to determine additional mutations leading to Tay–Sachs disease in nine patients confirmed by the deficiency of β-hexosaminidase-A (C (D175A and c.805G>C (p.G269R in one case; and one small 1 bp deletion c.426delT (p.F142LfsX57 and one splice site mutation c.459+4A>C in the other two cases respectively. None of these mutations were detected in 100 chromosomes from healthy individuals of the same ethnic group. Three previously reported missense mutations, (i c.532C>T (p.R178C, (ii c.964G>T (p.D322Y, and (iii c.1385A>T (p.E462V; two nonsense mutations (i c.709C>T (p.Q237X and (ii c.1528C>T (p.R510X, one 4 bp insertion c.1277_1278insTATC (p.Y427IfsX5 and one splice site mutation c.459+5G>A were also identified in six cases. We observe from this study that novel mutations are more frequently observed in Indian patients with Tay–Sachs disease with clustering of ~73% of disease causing mutations in exons 5 to 12. This database can be used for a carrier rate screening in the larger population of the country.

  10. Expanding the spectrum of HEXA mutations in Indian patients with Tay-Sachs disease.

    Sheth, Jayesh; Mistri, Mehul; Datar, Chaitanya; Kalane, Umesh; Patil, Shekhar; Kamate, Mahesh; Shah, Harshuti; Nampoothiri, Sheela; Gupta, Sarita; Sheth, Frenny

    2014-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder occurring due to impaired activity of β-hexosaminidase-A (EC 3.2.1.52), resulting from the mutation in HEXA gene. Very little is known about the molecular pathology of TSD in Indian children except for a few mutations identified by us. The present study is aimed to determine additional mutations leading to Tay-Sachs disease in nine patients confirmed by the deficiency of β-hexosaminidase-A (C (D175A) and c.805G>C (p.G269R) in one case; and one small 1 bp deletion c.426delT (p.F142LfsX57) and one splice site mutation c.459+4A>C in the other two cases respectively. None of these mutations were detected in 100 chromosomes from healthy individuals of the same ethnic group. Three previously reported missense mutations, (i) c.532C>T (p.R178C), (ii) c.964G>T (p.D322Y), and (iii) c.1385A>T (p.E462V); two nonsense mutations (i) c.709C>T (p.Q237X) and (ii) c.1528C>T (p.R510X), one 4 bp insertion c.1277_1278insTATC (p.Y427IfsX5) and one splice site mutation c.459+5G>A were also identified in six cases. We observe from this study that novel mutations are more frequently observed in Indian patients with Tay-Sachs disease with clustering of ~ 73% of disease causing mutations in exons 5 to 12. This database can be used for a carrier rate screening in the larger population of the country.

  11. Genetic association of pro-inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms with coronary artery disease (CAD) in a North Indian population.

    Mastana, Sarabjit; Prakash, Swayam; Akam, Elizabeth C; Kirby, Melissa; Lindley, Martin R; Sinha, Nakul; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2017-09-10

    Cytokines regulate the expression of inflammatory molecules which destabilize the atheromatic plaques. This study focuses on studying the association of inflammatory cytokine polymorphisms like TNF-α -308 (G/A), TNF-β +252 (A/G), IL-6 -174 (G/C) and IL-6 -597 (G/A), and IFN-ɣ +874 (T/A) with coronary artery disease (CAD) among north Indian patients. 143 CAD and 137 normal healthy controls were recruited in this study. DNA extraction was carried out by high salting out method. TNF-α -308 (G/A) (rs1800797), TNF-β +252 (A/G) (rs909253), IL-6 -174 (G/C) (rs1800795), IL6 -597 (G/A) (rs1800797), and IFN-ɣ +874 (T/A) (rs2430561) SNPs were genotyped by TaqMan®SNP genotyping assays. Different statistical analyses were performed using SPSS v 22.0 and SNPStats. p≤0.05 was considered significant. Significant risk association with CAD was found for TNF-α -308 (G/A) "A" allele (OR=5.6, CI 1.8-17.4, p=0.001) and TNF-β +252 (A/G) "G" allele (OR=3.4, CI=1.9-6.0, pCAD. TNF-α -308 (G/A), and TNF-β +252 (A/G) haplotype "GG" "AG" increased CAD risk significantly (GG haplotype, adjusted OR=2.6, CI 1.4-5.0, p=0.003 and AG haplotype OR=8.5, CI 2.2-33.35, p=0.002) after adjustments for age, sex, TC, TG, HDL, APOB, smoking and diet. The present study found significant risk association for TNF-α -308 (G/A), and TNF-β +252 (A/G) genotypes, alleles and haplotypes, with CAD in a North Indian population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of risk factors for coronary artery disease in an urban Indian population

    Sekhri, T; Kanwar, R S; Wilfred, R; Chugh, P; Chhillar, M; Aggarwal, R; Sharma, Y K; Sethi, J; Sundriyal, J; Bhadra, K; Singh, S; Rautela, N; Chand, Tek; Singh, M; Singh, S K

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) in government employees across India. Methods The study population consisted of government employees in different parts of India ({n=10 642 men and n=1966 women; age 20–60 years}) and comprised various ethnic groups living in different environmental conditions. Recruitment was carried out in 20 cities across 14 states, and in one union territory. All selected individuals were subjected to a detailed questionnaire, medical examinations and anthropometric measurements. Blood samples were collected for blood glucose and serum lipid profile estimation, and resting ECG was recorded. Results were analysed using appropriate statistical tools. Results The study revealed that 4.6% of the study population had a family history of premature CAD. The overall prevalence of diabetes was 16% (5.6% diagnosed during the study and the remaining 10.4% already on medication). Hypertension was present in 21% of subjects. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was significantly high, with 45.6% of study subjects having a high total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein ratio. Overall, 78.6% subjects had two or more risk factors for CAD. Conclusions The present study demonstrates a high prevalence of CAD risk factors in the Indian urban population. Therefore, there is an immediate need to initiate measures to raise awareness of these risk factors so that individuals at high risk for future CAD can be managed. PMID:25488095

  13. Normative Data of Corpus Callosal Morphology in a North-West Indian Population- An autopsy and MRI study

    Tulika Gupta

    2009-01-01

    The values of different CC parameters observed were almost similar to the values reported in the other two Indian studies. However, Indian values were found to be more than the Japanese values for length, height and most of the widths of CC. The length and width of CC were found to be less than those of Caucasian population. Generation of this data will help in comparing the CC structure of different sex and ages, to study variations from the normal and may help in surgical planning. Keywords:autopsy brains; corpus callosum; magnetic resonance imaging; morphometric data.

  14. Blood thiamin status and determinants in the population of Seychelles (Indian Ocean).

    Bovet, P; Larue, D; Fayol, V; Paccaud, F

    1998-04-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies have become rare in industrialised countries as availability of fresh food, supplementation, and fortification have improved but a less favourable situation may still prevail in many developing countries. Blood thiamin status and determinants were therefore investigated in the Seychelles in view of the high incidence of dilated cardiomyopathy and as the staple diet is polished rice that is deficient in thiamin. This was a cross sectional population study using an age and sex stratified random sample. Seychelles Islands (Indian Ocean). A subsample of 206 subjects aged 25-64 years from the population of Seychelles. Measurement of total thiamin concentration in whole blood using high performance liquid chromatography. Dietary variables measured using a face to face semi-quantitative food questionnaire. Mean (SD) whole blood thiamin concentration was 77.9 (22.4) nmol/l and low concentration (< 70 nmol/l) was found in 37% of the subjects (95% CI: 31%, 44%). Blood thiamin was significantly related to education and diet but not to age, sex, smoking, and body mass index. Blood thiamin was associated positively with meat, vegetable, salad, and tea intake and negatively with alcohol and fish intake. However, no combination of the examined variables could explain more than 15% of the observed variance in blood thiamin values. These data suggest that the distribution of blood thiamin in the sampled population is shifted to lower values compared with that generally accepted as normal in European populations. Further research should establish the significance of such lower values in this specific population to facilitate clinical and public health action as necessary.

  15. Association of ECRG2 TCA short tandem repeat polymorphism with the risk of oesophageal cancer in a North Indian population.

    Jain, Meenu; Kumar, Shaleen; Ghoshal, Uday C; Mittal, Balraj

    2008-06-01

    Oesophageal cancer-related gene (ECRG2) is a tumour suppressor gene and it has been suggested that a triplet TCA short tandem repeat (STR) in the noncoding region of exon 4 plays a role in genetic susceptibility to oesophageal cancer. In the present study, ECRG2 STR polymorphism was studied in 134 patients with oesophageal cancer and 194 controls, using PCR and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results showed a higher frequency of the ECRG2 TCA (3)/TCA (4) genotype in cancer patients than in controls (odds ratio 2.6, 95% CI 1.0-6.4, p = 0.03). The association of the ECRG2 TCA (3)/TCA (4) genotype with clinical characteristics showed an increased risk for squamous cell histology (2.8, 95% CI 1.1-7.1, p = 0.03), while no association with tumor location or lymph node involvement was observed. Interaction of tobacco, alcohol and occupational exposure with the ECRG2 genotypes did not show modulation of risk. In conclusion, the ECRG2 TCA (3)/TCA (4) genotype is associated with the risk of oesophageal carcinoma in a North Indian population.

  16. An anthropometric analysis of facial height, arch length, and palatal rugae in the Indian and Nepalese population.

    Kallianpur, Shreenivas; Desai, Ami; Kasetty, Sowmya; Sudheendra, Us; Joshi, Prathamesh

    2011-01-01

    A country such as India abounds with diverse population groups with distinct anthropometric characteristics. Among these, numerous Nepalese population groups are present in different states of India comprising one of the most common immigrant races. The aim of the study is to compare two distinct races, Indians and Nepalese on the basis of facial height proportions, arch length and palatal rugae patterns and assess their significance in racial identification. A total of 120 subjects comprising of 60 Indians and 60 Nepalese were selected, with each group including 30 males and 30 females. Facial heights were measured using sliding digital calipers, arch lengths with the help of a brass wire and rugae patterns were traced on dental casts obtained with alginate impressions. Facial height measurements did not give significant results for racial or gender identification of given races. Differences between arch length parameters were found to be significant between the two population groups. Secondary and fragmentary palatal rugae forms were found to be more common in Nepalese than Indians. The Indian and Nepalese have similar anthropometric characteristics with regard to facial height. However, arch length and palatal rugae characteristics vary between the two races.

  17. Prevalence of plateau iris configuration in primary angle closure glaucoma using ultrasound biomicroscopy in the Indian population

    Gaurav Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the prevalence of plateau iris in patients with primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG, in North India. Materials and Methods: The patients with PACG, attending the glaucoma services at a tertiary care center in North India were included in the study. All patients had undergone Nd-YAG laser peripheral iridotomy at least four weeks prior to inclusion in the study. Four weeks prior to inclusion in the study, none of the patients had used pilocarpine. Ultrasound Biomicroscopy (UBM images were qualitatively evaluated and plateau iris configuration was defined in an eye if the following criteria were fulfilled in two or more quadrants: anteriorly directed ciliary process supporting the peripheral iris, steep rise of iris root from its point of insertion followed by a downward angulation from the corneoscleral wall, absent ciliary sulcus, and iridotrabecular contact in the same quadrant. Results: One hundred and one eyes were included in the study. There were 63 (62.4% females and 38 (37.6% males. The mean age of the patients was 57.8 ± 9.5 years (range: 42 to 78 years. The mean axial length in the study population was 22.2 ± 1.1 mm. The mean spherical equivalent refraction was 0.06 ± 1.12 D. The mean intraocular pressure was 18.5 ± 4.7 mmHg (range: 12 - 24 mmHg. Twenty-nine (28.7% subjects were diagnosed with plateau iris on the basis of above-defined criteria. Of the 29 eyes, 18 (62.1% subjects had plateau iris in two quadrants, nine (31.03% in three quadrants, and two (6.8% had this configuration in all the four quadrants. Conclusions: Approximately 30% of the eyes with PACG had plateau iris on UBM. Plateau iris was very often the cause for residual angle closure following laser peripheral iridotomy in Indian eyes with PACG.

  18. A study of distribution, sex differences and stability of lip print patterns in an Indian population.

    Kapoor, Neeti; Badiye, Ashish

    2017-09-01

    Lip prints are very useful in forensic investigations. The objective of this study is to determine predominant lip print pattern found among a central Indian population, to evaluate whether any sex difference exists and to study the permanence of the pattern over a 6 month duration. This study included 200 healthy adult subjects comprising of 100 males and 100 females in the age group of 18-25 years. A convenient and easier method of data collection i.e., digital photography was used instead of the traditional lipstick methods. Lip prints were then divided into four quadrants and recognized as per Suzuki and Tsuchihashi's classification. Type I (30.63%) was found to be most predominant overall in the Marathi population. Type I (29.75%) and Type III (35.75%) were found most prevalent in males and females respectively. Applying the Chi-Square test, statistically significant differences ( p  < 0.05) were observed between male and female lip print patterns in each of the quadrants individually and all quadrants taken together. The lip print patterns remained stable over a period of six-months. Being stable and with significant sex differences, lip prints can be effectively used as an important tool in forensic investigations for individualization as well as identification of sex of the donor, thus, narrowing down the scope of investigation to almost half.

  19. Sex determination from hand and foot dimensions in a North Indian population.

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Sharma, Abhilasha

    2011-03-01

    Hands and feet are often recovered from the site of natural as well as man-made disasters because of bomb blasts, train accidents, plane crashes, or mass homicides. This study is intended to establish standards for determination of sex from the dimensions of hands and feet in a North Indian population. The data for this study comprise 123 men and 123 women aged between 17 and 20 years from the "Rajput" population of Himachal Pradesh in North India. Four anthropometric measurements viz. hand length, hand breadth, foot length, and foot breadth have been taken on both sides of each subject following international anthropometric standards. The hand index (hand breadth/hand length × 100) and the foot index (foot breadth/foot length × 100) were calculated. Sectioning points and regression models are derived for the hand and foot dimensions and the derived indices. The hand and foot dimensions show a higher accuracy in sex determination by sectioning point analysis when compared to hand and foot index. Of the hand and the foot dimensions, hand breadth and foot breadth showed better accuracy in sex determination. Hand index and foot index remain poor sex discriminators in the study. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Clinical Outcome of Patients with Complete Pathological Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancers: The Indian Scenario

    Snita Sinukumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and total mesorectal excision are considered the standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer. Various studies have reported pathological downstaging and a complete pathological response rate of 15%–27% following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy which has translated into improved survival. We endeavour to determine the clinical outcome of patients attaining a complete pathological tumor response following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in the Indian setting where most of our patient population is younger and presents with aggressive tumor biology. Materials and Methods. Clinicopathological and treatment details were recorded for 64 patients achieving pathological complete response from 2010 to 2013. Disease-free survival (DFS, overall survival (OS, and locoregional and systemic recurrence rates were evaluated for these patients. Results. After a median follow-up of 30.5 months (range 11–59 months, the 3-year overall survival (OS was 94.6% and the 3-year disease-free survival (DFS was 88.5%. The locoregional and systemic recurrence rates were 4.7% and 3.1%, respectively. Conclusion. In the Indian subcontinent, despite younger patients with aggressive tumor biology, outcome in complete responders is good.

  1. The earliest settlers' antiquity and evolutionary history of Indian populations: evidence from M2 mtDNA lineage

    Kotal M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The "out of Africa" model postulating single "southern route" dispersal posits arrival of "Anatomically Modern Human" to Indian subcontinent around 66–70 thousand years before present (kyBP. However the contributions and legacy of these earliest settlers in contemporary Indian populations, owing to the complex past population dynamics and later migrations has been an issue of controversy. The high frequency of mitochondrial lineage "M2" consistent with its greater age and distribution suggests that it may represent the phylogenetic signature of earliest settlers. Accordingly, we attempted to re-evaluate the impact and contribution of earliest settlers in shaping the genetic diversity and structure of contemporary Indian populations; using our newly sequenced 72 and 4 published complete mitochondrial genomes of this lineage. Results The M2 lineage, harbouring two deep rooting subclades M2a and M2b encompasses approximately one tenth of the mtDNA pool of studied tribes. The phylogeographic spread and diversity indices of M2 and its subclades among the tribes of different geographic regions and linguistic phyla were investigated in detail. Further the reconstructed demographic history of M2 lineage as a surrogate of earliest settlers' component revealed that the demographic events with pronounced regional variations had played pivotal role in shaping the complex net of populations phylogenetic relationship in Indian subcontinent. Conclusion Our results suggest that tribes of southern and eastern region along with Dravidian and Austro-Asiatic speakers of central India are the modern representatives of earliest settlers of subcontinent. The Last Glacial Maximum aridity and post LGM population growth mechanised some sort of homogeneity and redistribution of earliest settlers' component in India. The demic diffusion of agriculture and associated technologies around 3 kyBP, which might have marginalized hunter-gatherer, is

  2. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Gene Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism and Small Vessel Cerebral Stroke in Indian Population

    Puttachandra Prabhakar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypertension is an established risk factor for small-vessel cerebral stroke and the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the maintenance of blood pressure. We aimed at evaluating the contribution of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE gene insertion/deletion (I/D polymorphism to the risk of small-vessel stroke in south Indian population. Materials and Methods. We investigated 128 patients diagnosed with small-vessel stroke and 236 age, and gender-matched healthy controls. ACE I/D polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Results. Hypertension was significantly more prevalent in the patient group and was associated with 6-fold increase in risk for stroke. ACE genotypes were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in both patients and controls. Prevalence of DD, ID, and II genotypes in cases (34.4%, 43.7%, and 28% did not differ significantly from controls (31.8%, 43.2%, and 25%. The polymorphism was not associated with small-vessel stroke (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.52–1.55. However, diastolic blood pressure was associated with the ACE I/D genotypes in the patients. (DD; 90.2±14.2> ID; 86.2±11.9> II; 82.3±7.8 mm Hg,  P=0.047. Conclusion. Our study showed that hypertension, but not ACE I/D polymorphism, increased the risk of small-vessel stroke.

  3. Results of interferon-based treatments in Alaska Native and American Indian population with chronic hepatitis C

    Stephen E. Livingston

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There have been few reports of hepatitis C virus (HCV treatment results with interferon-based regimens in indigenous populations. Objective: To determine interferon-based treatment outcome among Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI population. Design: In an outcomes study of 1,379 AN/AI persons with chronic HCV infection from 1995 through 2013, we examined treatment results of 189 persons treated with standard interferon, interferon plus ribavirin, pegylated interferon plus ribavirin and triple therapy with a protease inhibitor. For individuals treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin, the effect of patient characteristics on response was also examined. Results: Sustained virologic response (SVR with standard interferon was 16.7% (3/18 and with standard interferon and ribavirin was 29.7% (11/37. Of 119 persons treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin, 61 achieved SVR (51.3%, including 10 of 46 with genotype 1 (21.7%, 38 of 51 with genotype 2 (74.5% and 13 of 22 with genotype 3 (59.1%. By multivariate analysis, SVR in the pegylated interferon group was associated with female sex (p=0.002, estimated duration of infection (p=0.034 and HCV genotype (p<0.0001. There was a high discontinuation rate due to side effects in those treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin for genotype 1 (52.2%. Seven of 15 genotype 1 patients treated with pegylated interferon, ribavirin and telaprevir or boceprevir achieved SVR (46.7%. Conclusions: We had success with pegylated interferon-based treatment of AN/AI people with genotypes 2 and 3. However, there were low SVR and high discontinuation rates for those with genotype 1.

  4. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: Study of clinical characteristics in an Indian population

    Sanjay Vikrant

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is the most common hereditary form of kidney disease. Clinical data on this multisystem disorder are scarce from developing countries. We conducted a prospective observational study of the clinical profile of ADPKD patients at a single center over a period of six years. A total of 208 patients were studied. Majority were male (60.6% and the mean age was 45.8 ± 14.5 years. About 61.5% had early stage (Stages 1-3 of chronic kidney disease (CKD and 38.5% had advanced CKD (Stages 4 and 5. Clinical features observed included pain abdomen (46.2%, nocturia (65.9%, hematuria (21.6%, nephrolithiasis (38.9%, urinary tract infection (UTI (38.9%, hypertension (69.5%, and raised serum creatinine (54.3%. The prevalence of nocturia, hypertension, and renal dysfunction showed a significant increase with age (P = 0.001. Extrarenal manifestations were polycystic liver disease in 77 patients (37%, cysts in pancreas in two (1%, and stroke in three (1.5% (hemorrhage in 2 and infarct in 1. There was significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (P = 0.027 and nephrolithiasis (P = 0.044 in males compared to females. Ninety-two patients (44.2% had a positive family history for ADPKD. Fifteen (7.2% had kidney failure at the diagnosis of ADPKD, were hospitalized, and underwent emergency dialysis. A total of 20 patients (9.6% developed end-stage kidney disease during the study period. The age at diagnosis was higher, and there was a high prevalence of hypertension, nocturia, abdominal pain, nephrolithiasis, UTI, and renal dysfunction in Indian ADPKD patients.

  5. Ayurgenomics for stratified medicine: TRISUTRA consortium initiative across ethnically and geographically diverse Indian populations.

    Prasher, Bhavana; Varma, Binuja; Kumar, Arvind; Khuntia, Bharat Krushna; Pandey, Rajesh; Narang, Ankita; Tiwari, Pradeep; Kutum, Rintu; Guin, Debleena; Kukreti, Ritushree; Dash, Debasis; Mukerji, Mitali

    2017-02-02

    Genetic differences in the target proteins, metabolizing enzymes and transporters that contribute to inter-individual differences in drug response are not integrated in contemporary drug development programs. Ayurveda, that has propelled many drug discovery programs albeit for the search of new chemical entities incorporates inter-individual variability "Prakriti" in development and administration of drug in an individualized manner. Prakriti of an individual largely determines responsiveness to external environment including drugs as well as susceptibility to diseases. Prakriti has also been shown to have molecular and genomic correlates. We highlight how integration of Prakriti concepts can augment the efficiency of drug discovery and development programs through a unique initiative of Ayurgenomics TRISUTRA consortium. Five aspects that have been carried out are (1) analysis of variability in FDA approved pharmacogenomics genes/SNPs in exomes of 72 healthy individuals including predominant Prakriti types and matched controls from a North Indian Indo-European cohort (2) establishment of a consortium network and development of five genetically homogeneous cohorts from diverse ethnic and geo-climatic background (3) identification of parameters and development of uniform standard protocols for objective assessment of Prakriti types (4) development of protocols for Prakriti evaluation and its application in more than 7500 individuals in the five cohorts (5) Development of data and sample repository and integrative omics pipelines for identification of genomic correlates. Highlight of the study are (1) Exome sequencing revealed significant differences between Prakriti types in 28 SNPs of 11 FDA approved genes of pharmacogenomics relevance viz. CYP2C19, CYP2B6, ESR1, F2, PGR, HLA-B, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DRB1, LDLR, CFTR, CPS1. These variations are polymorphic in diverse Indian and world populations included in 1000 genomes project. (2) Based on the phenotypic attributes of

  6. Morphology of Sigmoid Colon in South Indian Population: A Cadaveric Study.

    Michael, Stelin Agnes; Rabi, Suganthy

    2015-08-01

    Sigmoid volvulus is a common etiological factor in acute large bowel obstruction. The increased length of sigmoid colon is attributed as one of the causes of sigmoid volvulus. The aim of this study was to find the morphology of sigmoid colon in South Indian population using cadavers. The present study was performed with 31 cadavers used for teaching purpose. The sigmoid colon was classified into classical, long-narrow and long- broad types by their disposition in the abdominal cavity. The sigmoid loop's relation to pelvic brim was also observed and grouped as pelvic and suprapelvic in position. The length of sigmoid colon along the mesenteric and antimesenteric border, height and width of sigmoid mesocolon in relation to the pelvic brim and the root of mesentery were measured in the study. The study showed that the majority of the sigmoid colons fell into the classical type (47.6%). The sigmoid colon in pelvic position was significantly more prevalent. The mean length of sigmoid colon was 15.2 ± 4.4cm and 19.2 ± 6cm considering the pelvic brim and root of mesentery as reference points of measurement respectively. The mean length along antimesenteric border was 22.3 ± 7.9cm and 25 ± 8.7cm along the same reference points. The mean length of mesocolon height was 6.5 ± 3cm with reference to pelvic brim and 7.3 ± 3cm with reference to root of Sigmoid mesocolon respectively. The mean width of mesocolon was 7.4 ± 3cm (pelvic brim) and 8 ± 2cm (root of Sigmoid mesocolon) There was a positive correlation of sigmoid colon length with the height of the mesocolon. The gender analysis showed that males had statistically significant longer sigmoid colon and mesocolon. This study documents that the South Indian population has a more classical type of sigmoid colon and that the anatomical dimensions of sigmoid colon and its mesocolon is significantly longer in males.

  7. A study regarding efficacy of various intraocular lens power calculation formulas in a subset of Indian myopic population

    Ashish Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of intraocular lens power calculation formulas in a subset of Indian myopic population. Retrospectively reviewed 43 patients who underwent phacoemulsification with high axial length (AL (>24.5 mm, range 24.75-32.35 mm. The power of the implanted intraocular lens (IOL was used to calculate the predicted post-operative refractive error by four formulas: Sanders-Retzlaff-Kraff (SRK II, SRK/T, Holladay 1, and Hoffer Q. The predictive accuracy of the formulas was analyzed by comparing the difference between the "actual" and "predicted" postoperative refractive errors. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA tests were done to have pair-wise comparisons between the formulas and P < 0.05 was considered significant. A subcategory of axial length 24.5-26.5 mm was also tested. Holladay 1, Hoffer Q and SRK/T formulas showed a slight tendency toward resultant hyperopia, with mean error of +0.24 diopters (D, +0.58 D, and +0.92 D, respectively. The Holladay 1 formula provided the best predictive result overall.

  8. Vertical and horizontal proportions of the face and their correlation to phi among Indians in Moradabad population: A survey.

    Anand, Shruti; Tripathi, Siddhi; Chopra, Anubhav; Khaneja, Karan; Agarwal, Swatantra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose was to examine the existence of divine proportions among the Indian faces in Moradabad population. Totally, 100 patients (50 males; 50 females) aged 25-45 years were selected for the study. All facial photographs were analyzed based on the method of Ricketts assessing the divine proportions in vertical and transverse facial planes. Six horizontal and seven vertical ratios were determined, which were then compared with the phi ratio. The horizontal ratio results showed that three male and female ratios were not significantly different from each other (P > 0.05), and interchilion/nose width ratio was highly significant (P phi ratio (P 0.05) for males. The vertical ratio results showed that there was a highly significant difference (P 0.05) for the male group. Although, the golden proportion is a prominent and recurring theme in esthetics, it should not be embraced as the only method by which human beauty is measured to the exclusion of others factors.

  9. The Role of PAI-1 4G/5G Promoter Polymorphism and Its Levels in the Development of Ischemic Stroke in Young Indian Population.

    Akhter, Mohammad Suhail; Biswas, Arijit; Abdullah, Saleh Mohammed; Behari, Madhuri; Saxena, Renu

    2017-11-01

    The plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene has been found to be associated with the pathogenesis and progression of vascular diseases including stroke. A 4G/5G, PAI-1 gene polymorphism has been found to be associated with the plasma PAI-1 levels in different ethnic populations but results are still controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the potential association of 4G/5G polymorphism and plasma PAI-1 levels in the development of ischemic stroke (IS) in young Asian Indians. One hundred patients with IS and an equal number of age- and sex-matched controls were studied. The 4G/5G polymorphism was genotyped in the study population through allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. Plasma PAI-1 levels were evaluated using a commercial kit. The PAI-1 levels were significantly higher in patients when compared to the controls ( P = .03). The variant 4G allele for the PAI-I 4G/5G polymorphism showed both genotypic ( P = .0013, χ 2 = 10.303; odds ratio [OR] = 3.75) as well as allelic association ( P = .0004, χ 2 = 12.273; OR = 1.99) with IS. The homozygous variant 4G/4G also was found to be associated with the higher PAI-1 levels (0.005). The variant allele 4G of PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and higher plasma PAI-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with IS in young Asian Indians.

  10. SOD1 Gene +35A/C (exon3/intron3 Polymorphism in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus among South Indian Population

    K. Nithya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase is an antioxidant enzyme that is involved in defence mechanisms against oxidative stress. Cu/Zn SOD is a variant that is located in exon3/intron3 boundary. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the Cu/Zn SOD (+35A/C gene polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus among south Indian population. The study included patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n=100 and healthy controls (n=75. DNA was isolated from the blood and genotyping of Cu/Zn SOD gene polymorphism was done by polymerase chain reaction based restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Occurrence of different genotypes and normal (A and mutant (C allele frequencies were determined. The frequency of the three genotypes of the total subjects was as follows: homozygous wild-type A/A (95%, heterozygous genotype A/C (3%, and homozygous mutant C/C (2%. The mutant (C allele and the mutant genotypes (AC/CC were found to be completely absent among the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Absence of mutant genotype (CC shows that the Cu/Zn SOD gene polymorphism may not be associated with the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus among south Indian population.

  11. Socioeconomic rehabilitation of successful renal transplant patients and impact of funding source: Indian scenario.

    Kapoor, Rakesh; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Srivastava, Aneesh; Kapoor, Rohit; Arora, Sohrab; Sureka, Sanjoy Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Socio-economic rehabilitation is an important outcome parameter in successful renal transplant recipients, particularly in developing countries with low income patients who often depend on extraneous sources to fund their surgery costs. We studied the socioeconomic rehabilitation and changes in socioeconomic status (SES) of successful renal allograft recipients among Indian patients and its correlation with their source of funding for the surgery. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted on 183 patients between January 2010 to January 2013. Patients with follow up of at least 1 year after successful renal transplant were included. During interview, two questionnaires were administered, one related to the SES including source of funding before transplantation and another one relating to the same at time of interview. Changes in SES were categorized as improvement, stable and deterioration if post-transplant SES score increased >5%, increased or decreased by 5% of pre-transplant value, respectively. In this cohort, 97 (52.7%), 67 (36.4%) and 19 (10.3%) patients were non-funded (self-funded), one-time funded and continuous funded, respectively. Fifty-six (30.4%) recipients had improvement in SES, whereas 89 (48.4%) and 38 (20.7%) recipients had deterioration and stable SES. Improvement in SES was seen in 68% patients with continuous funding support whereas, in only 36% and 12% patients with non-funded and onetime funding support (P = 0.001) respectively. Significant correlation was found (R = 0.715) between baseline socioeconomic strata and changes in SES after transplant. 70% of the patients with upper and upper middle class status had improving SES. Patients with middle class, lower middle and lower class had deterioration of SES after transplant in 47.4%, 79.6% and 66.7% patients, respectively. Most of the recipients from middle and lower social strata, which included more than 65% of our patient's population, had deteriorating SES even after a

  12. Determination of mercury and selenium in hair samples of Brazilian Indian populations living in the Amazonic region by NAA

    Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Paletti, G.; Catharino, M.G.M.; Saiki, M.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Bode, P.; Ammerlaan, A.K.; Byrne, A.R.; Baruzzi, R.; Rodrigues, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    Biomonitoring of mercury contamination of Brazilian Indian population groups living in the Xingu Park, a reservation situated in the Amazonic region, has revealed very high levels of mercury in hair samples as compared to controls. Total mercury was determined by INAA in most of the tribes living in the Park and methylmercury was determined by CVAAS in samples with total mercury above 10 mg/kg. Due to the fact that selenium seems to protect animals against the toxic effects of methylmercury, it was considered also of interest to determine its concentrations in the hair samples with very high mercury levels. Selenium was determined by INAA via the short-lived radionuclide 77m Se (T 1/2 = 17.45 s). The correlations between selenium and mercury concentrations in Brazilian controls and in the Indian population groups are discussed. (author)

  13. Genetic species identification and population structure of Halophila (Hydrocharitaceae) from the Western Pacific to the Eastern Indian Ocean.

    Nguyen, Vy X; Detcharoen, Matsapume; Tuntiprapas, Piyalap; Soe-Htun, U; Sidik, Japar B; Harah, Muta Z; Prathep, Anchana; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2014-04-30

    The Indo-Pacific region has the largest number of seagrass species worldwide and this region is considered as the origin of the Hydrocharitaceae. Halophila ovalis and its closely-related species belonging to the Hydrocharitaceae are well-known as a complex taxonomic challenge mainly due to their high morphological plasticity. The relationship of genetic differentiation and geographic barriers of H. ovalis radiation was not much studied in this region. Are there misidentifications between H. ovalis and its closely related species? Does any taxonomic uncertainty among different populations of H. ovalis persist? Is there any genetic differentiation among populations in the Western Pacific and the Eastern Indian Ocean, which are separated by the Thai-Malay peninsula? Genetic markers can be used to characterize and identify individuals or species and will be used to answer these questions. Phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region based on materials collected from 17 populations in the Western Pacific and the Eastern Indian Ocean showed that some specimens identified as H. ovalis belonged to the H. major clade, also supported by morphological data. Evolutionary divergence between the two clades is between 0.033 and 0.038, much higher than the evolutionary divergence among H. ovalis populations. Eight haplotypes were found; none of the haplotypes from the Western Pacific is found in India and vice versa. Analysis of genetic diversity based on microsatellite analysis revealed that the genetic diversity in the Western Pacific is higher than in the Eastern Indian Ocean. The unrooted neighbor-joining tree among 14 populations from the Western Pacific and the Eastern Indian Ocean showed six groups. The Mantel test results revealed a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances among populations. Results from band-based and allele frequency-based approaches from Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism showed that all

  14. Morphometric study of tensor of vastus intermedius in South Indian population.

    Veeramani, Raveendranath; Gnanasekaran, Dhivyalakshmi

    2017-03-01

    Tensor of vastus intermedius is a newly discovered muscle located between vastus lateralis and vastus intermedius. The purpose of this study was to investigate the detailed morphology of tensor of vastus intermedius, specifically to provide data pertaining to the attachments, innervations, variation in the types and its morphometry in South Indian population. The tensor of vastus intermedius was studied in thirty six cadaveric lower limbs using macrodissection techniques. The origin of the muscle was from upper part of intertrochanteric line and anterior part of greater trochanter of femur inserted to medial aspect of upper border of patella. The muscle was classified into four types based on the origin and also the aponeurosis course with independent type (type 1) being common. The mean and standard deviation of the length of tensor of vastus intermedius and aponeurosis were 145.40±37.55 mm and 193.55±42.32 mm, respectively. The results of the study suggest that tensor of vastus intermedius is variable and the information provided regarding the attachments, types and quantitative data will contribute to the existing knowledge of the muscle.

  15. Correlation of chronological, skeletal, and dental age in North Indian population

    Madhurima Nanda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study was to find out the correlation between chronological, dental, and skeletal age. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalograms and orthopantomograms of 100 subjects of age ranging 9–14 years were obtained for the estimation of skeletal and dental age. Dental age was assessed using Demirjian's method; skeletal age was assessed using the new improved version of the cervical vertebral maturation method given by Baccetti, Franchi, and McNamara. Statistical analysis was carried out. Student's t-test and Spearman's coefficient correlation were used to assess the relation between chronological, skeletal, and dental age. Results: The Spearman's correlation coefficient was 0.777 (P < 0.001 between chronological and dental age, 0.516 (P < 0.001 between chronological and skeletal age, and 0.563 (P < 0.001 between dental and skeletal age. Conclusion: There is a good correlation between chronological and dental age in North Indian population which was higher for males as compared to females. A moderate correlation was found between chronological and skeletal age as well as between dental and skeletal age.

  16. Fertility change in the American Indian and Alaska Native population, 1980-2010

    Sarah Cannon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since 1990, Vital Statistics reports show a dramatic decline in the total fertility rates (TFRs of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN women in the United States. Objective: We study whether the decrease in TFRs is due to a real change in fertility for a stable population; a compositional change in who identifies as AI/AN; or a methodological issue stemming from differences in identifying race across the data systems used to calculate fertility rates. Methods: We use data from the decennial US Census to study change in AI/AN fertility from 1980-2010. Results: We find declining TFRs when fertility is calculated within a single data system. Additionally, although TFRs are relatively stable within the subgroups of married and unmarried AI/AN women, the proportion of AI/AN women who are married has declined across birth cohorts. Conclusions: The decrease in TFRs for AI/AN women is a real change in fertility patterns and is not due to differences in racial identification across data systems. Contribution: We update knowledge of AI/AN fertility to include the decline in TFRs between 1980 and 2010.

  17. Clinical comparison of Pulsair non-contact tonometer and Goldmann applanation tonometer in Indian population.

    Mohan, Shalini; Tiwari, Satyaprakash; Jain, Arvind; Gupta, Jaya; Sachan, Surendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT) is the gold standard for Intraocular Pressure (IOP) measurement but has disadvantage of being contact device and problems with portability. The aim of the study was to compare the Keeler's Pulsair noncontact tonometer (NCT) with GAT in Indian Population. Eighty-one subjects were screened from a Glaucoma clinic of a tertiary care centre in North India. The IOP was measured by Pulsair NCT and GAT after explaining the procedure. Central corneal thickness (CCT) was measured to avoid its bias on IOP readings. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. The mean age of subjects was 49.9±8.8 (mean±SD) years. The mean IOP as taken by Pulsair NCT was 15.79±4.07mmHg and that for GAT was 17.02±4.23mmHg (p=0.062). The mean CCT was 0.536±0.019mm. A positive Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.909 (p=0.0001) was found between the two instruments. Bland and Altmann analysis showed a fair agreement between the two tonometers at lower IOP range. Pulsair NCT can be used as a screening tool for community practices but is not reliable in the subjects with higher IOP range. Copyright © 2011 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Age related changes in size of thyroid follicle in north Indian population: A histologic study

    Preeti Malik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing number of cases of thyroid gland disorders nowadays, there are rising trends of thyroid gland surgeries and interventions which requires comprehensive data regarding the gland. This study was done to find out the changes in the size of the thyroid follicle in different age groups. The age groups were Group A - upto 20 years, Group B – 21-50 years and Group C – above 50 years. The study was conducted on 60 human thyroid glands in the Department of Anatomy in collaboration with Department of Pathology, Pt. B. D. Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak in North Indian population. The diameter of the thyroid follicle was measured by Image Analyzer. The study revealed that the mean size of the thyroid follicle was found to be in Group A - 56.38±14.12 µm, Group B - 130.08±30.67 µm and Group C - 96.05±12.86 µm. The study concluded that the mean size of the thyroid follicle was found to be higher in Group B (21-50 years followed by Group C (above 50 years followed by Group A (below 20 years.

  19. Palmaris Longus Muscle in the South Indian Population – A Cadaveric Study

    Lydia S. Quadros

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Palmaris longus, one of the superficial flexor muscles of the anterior compartment of the forearm is the most variable muscle of the upper limb. Purpose: To note the variations of palmaris longus for tendon grafts. Methods: Forty formalin-fixed upper limb specimens of South Indian population were dissected to note the variations of Palmaris longus muscle. Results: Out of the forty upper limb specimens, two variants of the palmaris longus were noted. In one specimen, a reversed palmaris longus was noted. It had a long tendinous origin with a muscle belly and a short flat tendon at insertion. The tendon inserted partly into the flexor retinaculum and partly into palmar aponeurosis. In another specimen, apart from the normal palmaris longus muscle, an additional smaller muscle was noted. It was the Palmaris profundus. This muscle took origin in the form of a tendon from the middle of the shaft of the radius, continued as a muscle belly and then terminated as a tendon which later inserted into the flexor retinaculum, close to the tendon of palmaris longus muscle. At its insertion, the superficial palmar branch of radial artery hooked it. The anterior interosseous nerve supplied the Palmaris profundus. Conclusion: These variations are worthy to be noted for tendon grafts.

  20. Radio-morphometric Analysis of Sella Turcica in the South Indian Population: A Digital Cephalometric Study

    Ch. Sai Kiran

    2017-06-01

    Results: A higher percentage of both males (70.0% and females (67.7% were presented with normal sella. The second best sella presentation was the shallow sella in males (16.2%. The mean antero-posterior diameter was significantly higher in females (12.25 mm than males (11.74 mm. The mean depth of sella turcica was greater in females (8.08 mm than males (7.68mm. Discriminant function analysis was done with gender as a grouping variable and antero-posterior dimensions and sella depth as independent variables. The formula obtained was D = 0.452 (x +0.295(y-7.753. (Where “D” is the discriminant score “x” is antero-posterior diameter of sella “y” is sella depth.The present study revealed an overall accuracy rate of58.1% in identifying correct gender using sella measurements. Conclusion: The present study was the first of its kind in the South Indian population and has presented results that justify the use of sella turcica for sex determination.

  1. All India survey for analyses of colors in sweets and savories: exposure risk in Indian population.

    Dixit, Sumita; Khanna, Subhash K; Das, Mukul

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to understand the exposure assessment of food colors through 2 major groups, sweets and savories, at a national level so as to evolve a scientific yardstick to fix levels of colors in commodities based on technological and safety requirement. A vast majority of colored food commodities (83.6%) were found to employ permitted colors and confirmed a marked decline in the trend of use of nonpermitted colors (NPCs). Of the 4 zones of India, East zone showed the maximum adulteration (80.3%) both by exceeding the prescribed limits of permitted colors (72.3%) and the use of NPCs (28.7%). Tartrazine was the most popular color among the permitted list, which ranged from 12.5 to 1091 mg/kg. Rhodamine B was the most prevalent dye in the NPCs group. On the basis of average consumption of food commodities and average levels of detected colors, the intake of Sunset Yellow FCF saturates the acceptable daily intake limit to a maximum of 47.8% in children, which is a cause of concern. The uniform maximum permissible limit of synthetic colors at 100 mg/kg under the Indian rules thus needs to be reviewed and should rather be governed by the technological necessity and the consumption profiles of food commodities so that the vulnerable population should not unnecessary be exposed to excessive amounts of synthetic colors to pose health risks. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Epidemiological aspects of retrovirus (HTLV infection among Indian populations in the Amazon Region of Brazil

    Ricardo Ishak

    Full Text Available HTLV was initially described in association with a form of leukemia in Japan and a neurological disease in the Caribbean. It was soon shown that HTLV-II was endemic among Amerindians and particularly among Brazilian Indians. The Amazon Region of Brazil is presently the largest endemic area for this virus and has allowed several studies concerning virus biology, the search for overt disease, epidemiological data including detailed demographic data on infected individuals, clear-cut geographic distribution, definition of modes of transmission and maintenance within small, epidemiologically-closed groups, and advances in laboratory diagnosis of the infection. A new molecular subtype named HTLV-IIc was further described on the basis of genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. This subtype is present in other areas of Brazil, indicating that the virus is additionally both a valuable marker for tracing past human migration routes in the Americas and a probable marker for social habits of the present human population. HIV, the other human retrovirus, is still not prevalent among indigenous communities in the Brazilian Amazon, but these groups are also easy targets for the virus.

  3. Field populations of native Indian honey bees from pesticide intensive agricultural landscape show signs of impaired olfaction

    Priyadarshini Chakrabarti; Santanu Rana; Sreejata Bandopadhyay; Dattatraya G. Naik; Sagartirtha Sarkar; Parthiba Basu

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available regarding the adverse effects of pesticides on natural honey bee populations. This study highlights the detrimental effects of pesticides on honey bee olfaction through behavioural studies, scanning electron microscopic imaging of antennal sensillae and confocal microscopic studies of honey bee brains for calcium ions on Apis cerana, a native Indian honey bee species. There was a significant decrease in proboscis extension response and biologically active free ...

  4. Nutritional profile of the morbidly obese patients attending a bariatric clinic in a South Indian tertiary care centre

    Mini Joseph

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is sweeping across continents and is a major public health concern of the modern society. Aims: The main objective of this study was to study the demographic, anthropometric and dietary patterns of the morbidly obese and study region wise variation in their nutrient intake. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 101 morbidly obese individuals from different regions of India who attended the Bariatric clinic of a tertiary care hospital in India. Their socio-demographic details, anthropometric measurements were collected. The dietary assessment was done using a 24 hour dietary recall and a food frequency questionnaire. The study was approved by the Institutional review board and informed consent was obtained from them. Results: More than 3/4th of the patients were females and 61 per cent had Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mean age of the male and female population was 41.3 + 15.5 years and 36.7 + 11.9 years respectively. Their mean BMI was 41kg/m2. The mean daily intake of calories was more than 2200kcal/day with a gross deficit in the intake of micronutrients. Bonferroni Test showed that there was region wise variation in dietary intake, South Indian female population had the lowest intake of the micronutrients and those from East India had the highest intake. In the male population, there was a significant regional difference in intake of Proteins (p=0.039 and Energy (p=0.024. Independent Sample T test showed that South Indian had the highest intake of Energy and proteins. Anthropometric measures showed positive relation with various macronutrient intakes. Conclusion: The obese patients require intense counselling by a dedicated team of an endocrinologist, psychiatrist, dietician, bariatric surgeon and a social worker to make achievable changes in the quality of life of the morbidly obese patients. Regional influences must be considered when counselling the patient.

  5. Phenotype guided characterization and molecular analysis of Indian patients with long QT syndromes

    Bijal Vyas

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: This study in a cohort of Asian Indian patients highlights the mutation spectrum of common Long QT syndromes. The clinical utility for prevention of unexplained sudden cardiac deaths is an important sequel to identification of the mutation in at-risk family members.

  6. Bone mineral density and factors influencing it in Asian Indian population with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Sadishkumar Kamalanathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess bone mineral density (BMD in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients and its relation, if any, to clinical, hormonal and metabolic factors. Materials and Methods: A prospective evaluation of 194 T2DM patients (97 men and 97 women was carried out. BMD was done with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA at the lumbar spine and total hip. Physical activity, nutritional intake and sunlight exposure were calculated. Biochemical and hormonal tests included serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH D], parathyroid hormone, estrogen, testosterone and urinary calcium-creatinine ratio. Glycosylated hemoglobin and complete lipid profiles were done in patients with diabetes. Five hundred and seventy one non-diabetic controls (262 males and 309 females were evaluated for BMD alone. Results: BMD was normal (Z score > -2 in 156 (80.5% and low (Z score ≤ -2 in 38 (19.5% patients in the diabetes study group. BMD in the diabetes group was significantly higher than the control group in both sexes at the hip and spine. The difference was no longer significant on analysis of a BMI matched control subgroup. Weight and BMI showed significant correlation to BMD. Duration of T2DM, degree of glycemic control, use of drugs like statins and thiazolidinediones, 25(OH D levels, calcium intake, sunlight exposure and physical activity did not significantly affect BMD in this cohort of individuals with diabetes. Conclusions: Bone mineral density of Asian Indian T2DM subjects was similar to that of healthy volunteers in this study.

  7. Chronic airflow limitation in a rural Indian population: etiology and relationship to body mass index

    Chakrabarti B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Biswajit Chakrabarti1, Sabita Purkait2, Punyabrata Gun2, Vicky C Moore3, Samadrita Choudhuri4, MJ Zaman5,6, Christopher J Warburton1, Peter MA Calverley7, Rahul Mukherjee3 1Aintree Chest Centre, University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool, UK; 2Moitri Swasthya Kendra, Shramajibi Swasthya Udyog, Chengail, West Bengal, India; 3Department of Respiratory Medicine and Physiology, Birmingham Heartlands Hospital, Birmingham, UK; 4National Medical College, Birgunj, Nepal; 5Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College, London, UK; 6The George Institute for Global Health, Sydney, Australia; 7Clinical Sciences Centre, University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool, UK Purpose: Respiratory conditions remain a source of morbidity globally. As such, this study aimed to explore factors associated with the development of airflow obstruction (AFO in a rural Indian setting and, using spirometry, study whether underweight is linked to AFO. Methods: Patients > 35 years old attending a rural clinic in West Bengal, India, took a structured questionnaire, had their body mass index (BMI measured, and had spirometry performed by an ancillary health care worker. Results: In total, 416 patients completed the study; spirometry was acceptable for analysis of forced expiratory volume in 1 second in 286 cases (69%; 16% were noted to exhibit AFO. Factors associated with AFO were: increasing age (95% confidence interval (CI 0.004–0.011; P = 0.005, smoking history (95% CI 0.07–0.174; P = 0.006, male gender (95% CI 0.19–0.47; P = 0.012, reduced BMI (95% CI 0.19–0.65; P = 0.02, and occupation (95% CI 0.12–0.84; P = 0.08. The mean BMI in males who currently smoked (n = 60; 19.29 kg/m2; standard deviation [SD] 3.46 was significantly lower than in male never smokers (n = 33; 21.15 kg/m2 SD 3.38; P < 0.001. AFO was observed in 27% of subjects with a BMI <18.5 kg/m2, falling to 13% with a BMI ≥18.5 kg/m2 (P = 0.013. AFO was observed in 11% of housewives, 22% of farm

  8. Communication Adaptations for a Diverse International Patient Population.

    Ghosh, Aditya; Joshi, Shashank; Ghosh, Amit K

    2017-11-01

    We live in an age of hyper connectivity, people from around the world are looking outside their own national borders to receive medical care. As more people are learning about the quality that the elite Indian hospitals provide at a competitive, and often more affordable, price compared to other institutions around the world, they are becoming increasingly interested in receiving their medical care in Indian hospitals. It is for this exact reason that it is very important to learn the importance of communicating effectively with people from a diverse background. Over the next decade, the number of international patients that Indian hospitals will provide care for is set to dramatically increase. In this new age of medicine in India, it is imperative that doctors are adequately equipped with the communication skills to appropriately connect with patients coming from very different cultural backgrounds. The interaction with an international patient can be tremendously deepened through effective communication that adheres to the cultural beliefs of the patient. In this article, we detail how to effectively communicate with people from different backgrounds. We explore how to speak with patients and connect on a deeper level and respect the cultural differences that exist. We will also discuss how to avoid offending your patients or miscommunicating your plans to them. Overall, improved awareness of cultural differences will ensure higher patient satisfaction as well as an improved doctor patient interaction. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  9. A STUDY ON TIBIAL TORSION IN ADULT DRY TIBIA OF EAST AND SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

    Jami Sagar Prusti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Rotational deformities of the lower limbs are very common. There is increasing evidence that abnormal torsion in the tibia is associated with severe knee and ankle arthritis. Primary knee osteoarthritis is a leading cause of disability in older persons. Varus or valgus alignment increases the risk of osteoarthritis. Coexistence of tibial torsional deformity may increase the risk further. Variability in the tibial torsion has been reported and is due to the torsional forces applied on tibia during development. The aim of the study is to estimate the angle of tibial torsion on both sides and both sexes. The present study was an attempt to provide baseline data of tibial torsion in the East and South Indian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted mechanically on 100 dry adult unpaired human tibia, i.e. 50 male and 50 female bones. The measurements were recorded and statistically analysed using Student’s unpaired t-test using GraphPad Prism 5.0 (free trial version. RESULTS Out of the 100 tibia undertaken, mean value of tibial torsion angle obtained is 25.8°. In males, it is 23.68° and in females it is about 27.86°. Statistical analysis revealed significant greater average angle of tibial torsion in female bones. The angle of the right-sided bones was more and this was statistically significant. CONCLUSION The gender variation for the angle could be the result of the difference in lifestyle in day-to-day activities. The knowledge of the angle in a population could be helpful in understanding the incidence of pathogenesis related to gait and knee osteoarthritis and in view of reconstructive surgeries in orthopaedic practice.

  10. Phylogeography of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus): how many populations and how many taxa?

    Garcia-Rodriguez, A I; Bowen, B W; Domning, D; Mignucci-Giannoni, A; Marmontel, M; Montoya-Ospina, A; Morales-Vela, B; Rudin, M; Bonde, R K; McGuire, P M

    1998-09-01

    To resolve the population genetic structure and phylogeography of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region sequences were compared among eight locations across the western Atlantic region. Fifteen haplotypes were identified among 86 individuals from Florida, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Columbia, Venezuela, Guyana and Brazil. Despite the manatee's ability to move thousands of kilometers along continental margins, strong population separations between most locations were demonstrated with significant haplotype frequency shifts. These findings are consistent with tagging studies which indicate that stretches of open water and unsuitable coastal habitats constitute substantial barriers to gene flow and colonization. Low levels of genetic diversity within Florida and Brazilian samples might be explained by recent colonization into high latitudes or bottleneck effects. Three distinctive mtDNA lineages were observed in an intraspecific phylogeny of T. manatus, corresponding approximately to: (i) Florida and the West Indies; (ii) the Gulf of Mexico to the Caribbean rivers of South America; and (iii) the northeast Atlantic coast of South America. These lineages, which are not concordant with previous subspecies designations, are separated by sequence divergence estimates of d = 0.04-0.07, approximately the same level of divergence observed between T. manatus and the Amazonian manatee (T. inunguis, n = 16). Three individuals from Guyana, identified as T. manatus, had mtDNA haplotypes which are affiliated with the endemic Amazon form T. inunguis. The three primary T. manatus lineages and the T. inunguis lineage may represent relatively deep phylogeographic partitions which have been bridged recently due to changes in habitat availability (after the Wisconsin glacial period, 10 000 B P), natural colonization, and human-mediated transplantation.

  11. Phylogeography of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus): How many populations and how many taxa?

    Garcia-Rodriguez, A. I.; Bowen, B.W.; Domning, D.; Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Marmontel, M.; Montoya-Ospina, R. A.; Morales-Vela, B.; Rudin, M.; Bonde, R.K.; McGuire, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    To resolve the population genetic structure and phylogeography of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region sequences were compared among eight locations across the western Atlantic region. Fifteen haplotypes were identified among 86 individuals from Florida, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana and Brazil. Despite the manatee's ability to move thousands of kilometres along continental margins, strong population separations between most locations were demonstrated with significant haplotype frequency shifts. These findings are consistent with tagging studies which indicate that stretches of open water and unsuitable coastal habitats constitute substantial barriers to gene flow and colonization. Low levels of genetic diversity within Florida and Brazilian samples might be explained by recent colonization into high latitudes or bottleneck effects. Three distinctive mtDNA lineages were observed in an intraspecific phylogeny of T. manatus, corresponding approximately to: (i) Florida and the West Indies; (ii) the Gulf of Mexico to the Caribbean rivers of South America; and (iii) the northeast Atlantic coast of South America. These lineages, which are not concordant with previous subspecies designations, are separated by sequence divergence estimates of d = 0.04-0.07, approximately the same level of divergence observed between T. manatus and the Amazonian manatee (T. inunguis, n = 16). Three individuals from Guyana, identified as T. manatus, had mtDNA haplotypes which are affiliated with the endemic Amazon form T. inunguis. The three primary T. manatus lineages and the T. inunguis lineage may represent relatively deep phylogeographic partitions which have been bridged recently due to changes in habitat availability (after the Wisconsin glacial period, 10 000 BP), natural colonization, and human-mediated transplantation.

  12. Principal component analysis of cardiovascular risk traits in three generations cohort among Indian Punjabi population

    Badaruddoza

    2015-09-01

    interact with each other over the time to create clinical disease. The findings also added depth to the negligible amount of literature of factor analysis of cardiovascular risk in any Indian ethnic population.

  13. Principal component analysis of cardiovascular risk traits in three generations cohort among Indian Punjabi population.

    Badaruddoza; Kumar, Raman; Kaur, Manpreet

    2015-09-01

    each other over the time to create clinical disease. The findings also added depth to the negligible amount of literature of factor analysis of cardiovascular risk in any Indian ethnic population.

  14. Spectrum of lip lesions in a tertiary care hospital: An epidemiological study of 3009 Indian patients

    Shivani Bansal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Large-scale population-based screening studies have identified lip lesions to be the most common oral mucosal lesions; however, few studies have been carried out to estimate the prevalence of lip lesions exclusively. The aim of present study is to highlight the diversity of lip lesions and determine their prevalence in an unbiased Indian population. Materials and Methods: Lip lesions were selected from 3009 patients who visited the department over a period of 3 years (January 2012 to December 2014. Age, sex, location of lip lesions, a detailed family and medical history, along with the history of any associated habit was recorded. Biopsy was carried out in necessary cases to reach a final diagnosis. The pathologies of the lip were classified based on the etiology. Results: Among 3009 patients, 495 (16.5% had lip lesions ranging from 4 years to 85 years with a mean age of 39.7 years. There were 309 (62.4% males and 185 (31.9% females. Lower lip was the most affected region (54.1% followed by the corner of the mouth (30.9% and upper lip (11.7%. In 3.2% of the cases, both the lips were involved. Of the 495 lip lesions, the most common were Potentially Malignant Disorders (PMDs (37.4%, herpes labialis (33.7%, mucocele (6.7%, angular cheilitis (6.1%, and allergic and immunologic lesions (5.7%. Conclusion: Lip lesions may act as an indicator for the presence of an underlying systemic disease. PMDs and infections were the most common lip lesions in the present study.

  15. Reference Data for Standardized Quality of Life Questionnaires in Indian Patients with Brain Metastases from Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: Results from a Prospective Study.

    Aggarwal, Jaiprakash; Chakraborty, Santam; Ghosh Laskar, Sarbani; Patil, Vijay M; Prabhash, Kumar; Bhattacharya, Atanu; Noronha, Vanita; Purandare, Nilendu C; Joshi, Amit; Mummudi, Naveen; Arora, Jitendra; Badhe, Rupali

    2017-04-10

    Reference data for European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) quality of life questionnaires do not include studies from the Indian subcontinent. The objective of the current study was to establish a reference dataset for Indian patients of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) presenting with brain metastases (BM). One hundred forty patients with NSCLC with BM treated between 2012-2015 were registered in a prospective cohort study (CTRI/2013/01/003299). The baseline quality of life was evaluated using the EORTC general quality of life questionnaire QLQ-C30 and lung cancer specific module LC13. Minimum important difference (MID) scores for individual domains of the EORTC QLQ-C30 and LC13 questionnaires were derived (MID = 0.2 x standard deviation) from the reference data for patients with recurrent/metastatic lung cancers. In addition, a systematic review was conducted to identify studies reporting baseline quality of life scores for recurrent/metastatic NSCLC. Scores of several functional as well as symptom scales in the current NSCLC population differed by more than the MID from the baseline mean scores in the reference EORTC population as well as that reported from other studies. Differences in mean score from the EORTC reference data ranged from 6.2 and 9.4 points for the role functioning and cognitive functioning domains. In the symptom scales, the largest differences were observed for the financial difficulties (23.9) scores for the QLQ-C30 and peripheral neuropathy (21.7) for LC13 questionnaires. The current study demonstrates that baseline reference scores need to be established for patients from the Indian subcontinent. The findings from the current study have important implications for studies employing quality of life (QOL) assessment in the Indian NSCLC patient population.

  16. A study of cranial variations based on craniometric indices in a South Indian population.

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Krishan, Kewal; Gupta, Anadi; Acharya, Jenash

    2014-09-01

    Human skull has been the most extensively studied bone for establishing the taxonomies at evolutionary levels. Crania are also the most commonly used skeletal elements in population studies because they are known to be more genetically driven and less affected by environmental factors. The craniofacial indices are considered as clinical anthropometric parameters used in the investigation of craniofacial skeletal deformities and brain development. The present research is an attempt to study the cranial indices in the South Indian population. The sample for the study included 118 dry adult crania. All the osteometric measurements were taken using standard anthropometric instruments, and 3 indices, namely, cranial index, orbital index (OI), and index of foreman magnum (FMI), were calculated. Cranial index is calculated as (maximum cranial breadth / maximum cranial length) × 100, OI as (orbital height / orbital breadth) × 100, and FMI as (transverse diameter / anteroposterior diameter) × 100. The crania were further classified based on these indices. The cranial index ranged between 66.67 and 85.71 (mean, 78.57 [SD, 4.11]), the OI ranged between 68.89 and 102.63 (mean, 84.23 [SD, 6.64]), and the FMI ranged between 68.57 and 96.88 (mean, 79.71 [SD, 6.98]). Cranial index did not show any significant correlation with the OI (r = -0.162, P = 0.081) or the FMI (r = -0.045, P = 0.626). A statistically significant correlation was, however, observed between OI and FMI (r = -0.232, P = 0.012). The current study developed population-specific classification of crania using cranial indices. This craniometric baseline data pertaining to the craniofacial indices may be useful in presurgical planning and the postsurgical evaluation. It may also assist the forensic anthropologists in the categorization of human skulls, which may be an important component in identification of highly decomposed dead bodies and skeletal remains. More such studies need to be conducted to understand the

  17. Risk factors for mortality in a south Indian population on generic antiretroviral therapy.

    Rupali, Priscilla; Mannam, Sam; Bella, Annie; John, Lydia; Rajkumar, S; Clarence, Peace; Pulimood, Susanne A; Samuel, Prasanna; Karthik, Rajiv; Abraham, Ooriapadickal Cherian; Mathai, Dilip

    2012-12-01

    Antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs from low-income countries utilizing standardized ART regimens, simplified approaches to clinical decision making and basic lab monitoring have reported high mortality rates. We determined the risk factors for mortality among HIV-infected adults following the initiation of ART from a single center in south India. ART-naive HIV-infected south Indian adults attending the Infectious Diseases clinic in a 2000-bed academic medical center in south India who were initiated on ART (generic, fixed-dose combinations) as per the national guidelines were followed up. Cases (32 patients who died) were compared with age and sex matched controls. Eight-hundred and twenty-two patients were started on ART from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2008. The cumulative mortality was 6.8% (56/822). Among the cases mean age was 44 years, 18% were women and mean CD4 counts was 107 cells/microl. Among the controls mean age was 41 years, 18% were women and mean CD4 counts were 113 cells/microl. Stavudine based ART was predominant 62.5% in the cases vs 37.5% in the controls, followed by zidovudine based therapy in 31.2% of cases and 43.7% in the controls. Tenofovir based therapy was used in 6.2% of cases vs 18.7% in the controls. The commonest causes of death were drug toxicity 19%, advanced Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in 37%, Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) in 16%, non AIDS related deaths in 22% and malignancies 6%. In a univariate analysis, absolute lymphocyte count ART (p=0.001) were significantly associated with mortality. The mortality among our patients was comparable to that reported from other low-income countries. Earlier initiation of ART may reduce the high mortality rates observed.

  18. Anatomic variations in intrahepatic bile ducts in a north Indian population.

    Sharma, Vijay; Saraswat, Vivek Anand; Baijal, Sanjay Saran; Choudhuri, Gourdas

    2008-07-01

    In the present study, we described the anatomical variations in the branching patterns of intrahepatic bile ducts (IHD) and determined the frequency of each variation in north Indian patients. There are no data from India. The study group consisted of 253 consecutive patients (131 women) undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiograms for different indications. Anatomical variations in IHD were classified according to the branching pattern of the right anterior segmental duct (RASD) and the right posterior segmental duct (RPSD), presence or absence of first-order branch of left hepatic duct (LHD) and of an accessory hepatic duct. Anatomy of the IHD was typical in 52.9% of cases (n = 134), showing triple confluence in 11.46% (n = 29), anomalous drainage of the RPSD into the LHD in 18.2% (n = 46), anomalous drainage of the RPSD into the common hepatic duct (CHD) in 7.1% (n = 18), drainage of the right hepatic duct (RHD) into the cystic duct 0.4% (n = 1), presence of an accessory duct leading to the CHD or RHD in 4.7% (n = 12), individual drainage of the LHD into the RHD or CHD in 2.4% (n = 6), and unclassified or complex variations in 2.7% (n = 7). None had anomalous drainage of RPSD into the cystic duct. The branching pattern of IHD was atypical in 47% patients. The two most common variations were drainage of the RPSD into the LHD (18.2%) and triple confluence of the RASD, RPSD, and LHD (11.5%).

  19. Posterior circulation ischemic stroke-clinical characteristics, risk factors, and subtypes in a north Indian population: a prospective study.

    Mehndiratta, Manmohan; Pandey, Sanjay; Nayak, Rajeev; Alam, Anwar

    2012-04-01

    Posterior circulation stroke accounts for approximately 20% of all strokes with varied clinical presentation, which differ from strokes in anterior circulation, with reference to etiology, clinical features, and prognosis. Short penetrating and circumferential branches in the posterior circulation supply the brain stem, thalamus, cerebellum, occipital, and medial temporal lobes. We prospectively analyzed 80 participants of posterior circulation ischemic stroke from a registry of 944 participants attending a tertiary care referral university hospital. Patients were analyzed for demographics, stroke risk factors, clinical characteristics, neuroimaging, and stroke subtypes. Posterior circulation ischemic stroke accounted for 80 (8.5%) of 944 of all strokes and 80 (10.45%) of 765 of ischemic stroke. Sixty-three were males with mean age 51.7 ± 14.4 years. Twenty-one participants were young (defined as age less than 45 years). Hypertension was found to be the most common risk factor (63.75%). Vertigo was the most common clinical symptom reported in 45 (56.25%) cases. Sixty-eight (85%) patients had large artery disease, 8 (10%) had documented cardioembolic source, 3 (3.75%) small artery disease, and 2 (2.5%) vasculitis. Posterior cerebral artery was most commonly involved. Topographically distal intracranial involvement was most frequent (66.25%) followed by proximal (30%) and middle intracranial territory (3.75%). Our study demonatrated the occurrence of posterior circulation stroke in relatively younger age group compared to the Western world. We also found higher percentage of large artery disease, while cardioembolism as a less frequent cause of posterior circulation ischemic stroke in North Indian population. Distal territory involvement was most common in our study.

  20. Association analysis of nine candidate gene polymorphisms in Indian patients with type 2 diabetic retinopathy

    Govindarajan Gowthaman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic retinopathy (DR is classically defined as a microvasculopathy that primarily affects the small blood vessels of the inner retina as a complication of diabetes mellitus (DM.It is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. The aim of this study is to investigate the association of a set of nine candidate genes with the development of diabetic retinopathy in a South Indian cohort who have type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods Seven candidate genes (RAGE, PEDF, AKR1B1, EPO, HTRA1, ICAM and HFE were chosen based on reported association with DR in the literature. Two more, CFH and ARMS2, were chosen based on their roles in biological pathways previously implicated in DR. Fourteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and one dinucleotide repeat polymorphism, previously reported to show association with DR or other related diseases, were genotyped in 345 DR and 356 diabetic patients without retinopathy (DNR. The genes which showed positive association in this screening set were tested further in additional sets of 100 DR and 90 DNR additional patients from the Aravind Eye Hospital. Those which showed association in the secondary screen were subjected to a combined analysis with the 100 DR and 100 DNR subjects previously recruited and genotyped through the Sankara Nethralaya Hospital, India. Genotypes were evaluated using a combination of direct sequencing, TaqMan SNP genotyping, RFLP analysis, and SNaPshot PCR assays. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to analyze the genotype and allele frequencies. Results Among the nine loci (15 polymorphisms screened, SNP rs2070600 (G82S in the RAGE gene, showed significant association with DR (allelic P = 0.016, dominant model P = 0.012, compared to DNR. SNP rs2070600 further showed significant association with DR in the confirmation cohort (P = 0.035, dominant model P = 0.032. Combining the two cohorts gave an allelic P HTRA1, rs11200638 (G>A, showed marginal

  1. Identification of the Rare, Four Repeat Allele of IL-4 Intron-3 VNTR Polymorphism in Indian Populations.

    Verma, Henu Kumar; Jha, Aditya Nath; Khodiar, Prafulla Kumar; Patra, Pradeep Kumar; Bhaskar, Lakkakula Venkata Kameswara Subrahmanya

    2016-06-01

    Cytokines are cell signaling molecules which upon release by cells facilitate the recruitment of immune-modulatory cells towards the sites of inflammation. Genetic variations in cytokine genes are shown to regulate their production and affect the risk of infectious as well as autoimmune diseases. Intron-3 of interleukin-4 gene (IL-4) harbors 70-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) that may alter the expression level of IL-4 gene. To determine the distribution of IL-4 70-bp VNTR polymorphism in seven genetically heterogeneous populations of Chhattisgarh, India and their comparison with the finding of other Indian and world populations. A total of 371 healthy unrelated individuals from 5 caste and 2 tribal populations were included in the present study. The IL-4 70-bp VNTR genotyping was carried out using PCR and electrophoresis. Overall, 3 alleles of IL-4 70-bp VNTR (a2, a3 and a4) were detected. The results demonstrated the variability of the IL-4 70-bp VNTR polymorphism in Chhattisgarh populations. Allele a3 was the most common allele at the 70-bp VNTR locus in all populations followed by a2 allele. This study reports the presence four repeat allele a4 at a low frequency in the majority of the Chhattisgarh populations studied. Further, the frequency of the minor allele (a2) in Chhattisgarh populations showed similarity with the frequencies of European populations but not with the East Asian populations where the a2 allele is a major allele. Our study provides a baseline for future research into the role of the IL-4 locus in diseases linked to inflammation in Indian populations.

  2. Outcomes of cataract surgery in a rural and urban south Indian population

    Vijaya Lingam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the visual outcome after cataract surgery in a south Indian population. Materials and Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study of subjects aged 40 years or more. Three thousand nine hundred and twenty-four rural subjects from 27 contiguous villages and 3850 urban subjects from five randomly selected divisions were studied. All subjects underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination that included visual acuity, refraction, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and dilated retinal examination. Statistical Analysis: Chi square test, t test and multivariate analysis were used. Results: Five hundred and twenty-eight (216 males, 312 females, 781 eyes rural subjects (13.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI 12.4% to 14.6% and 406 (197 males, 209 females, 604 eyes urban subjects (10.5%, 95% CI 9.6-11.5% had undergone cataract surgery. Outcome of cataract surgery was defined based on visual acuity. Using best-corrected visual acuity for classification, the single most important cause for visual impairment was cystoid macular edema in the aphakic group and posterior capsule opacification in the pseudophakic group. Aphakia (visual acuity of < 20/60 to ≤ 20/400 - odds ratio (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3 to 2.6%, visual acuity of < 20/400 - OR 6.2; 95% 4.0 to 9.8%, rural residence (visual acuity of < 20/60 to ≤ 20/400 - OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.2 to 4.5% and visual acuity of < 20/400 - OR OR 3.5; 95% CI 2.3 to 5.5% were associated with visual impairment. The urban cataract-operated population had significantly more pseudophakics ( P < 0.001, men ( P = 0.02 and literates ( P < 0.001. In the rural group the prevalence of cataract surgery (13.5% vs. 10.5%, P < 0.001 and number of people that had undergone cataract surgery within three years prior to examination ( P < 0.001 were significantly greater. In 30% of rural and 16% of urban subjects uncorrected refraction was the cause of visual impairment. Conclusions: Surgery

  3. Evidence of Early Emergence of the Primary Dentition in a Northern Plains American Indian Population.

    Dawson, D V; Blanchette, D R; Douglass, J M; Tinanoff, N; Kramer, K W O; Warren, J J; Phipps, K R; Starr, D E; Marshall, T A; Mabry, T R; Pagan-Rivera, K; Banas, J A; Drake, D R

    2018-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe primary tooth emergence in an American Indian (AI) population during the first 36 mo of life to compare 1) patterns of emergence between male and female children and 2) tooth emergence between these AI children and other U.S. ethnic groups. Data were derived from a birth cohort of 239 AI children from a Northern Plains tribe participating in a longitudinal study of early childhood caries, with examination data at target ages of 8, 12, 16, 22, 28, and 36 mo of age (±1 mo). Patterns of emergence in AI children were characterized and sex comparisons accomplished with interval-censored survival methodology. Numbers of erupted teeth in AI children at each age were compared via Kruskal-Wallis tests against those in children of the same age, as drawn from a cross-sectional study of dental caries patterns in Arizona; these comparisons were based on the dental examinations of 547 White non-Hispanic and 677 Hispanic children. Characterization of time to achievement of various milestones-including emergence of the anterior teeth, the first molars, and the complete primary dentition-provided no evidence of sex differences among AI children. AI children had significantly more teeth present at 8 mo (median, 3) than either White non-Hispanic ( P 0.05). These results provide evidence of earlier tooth emergence in AI children than in the other 2 ethnicities. Although the underlying etiology of the severity of early childhood caries in AI children is likely to be multifactorial, earlier tooth emergence may be a contributing factor. Knowledge Transfer Statement: The findings of this study have practical implications for practitioners providing childhood oral health care to ethnic groups with early tooth emergence. It may be important to provide parents with information on toothbrushing, dentist visits, and other practices supportive of good oral health as early as possible to protect their children's primary dentition.

  4. Prevalence and etiological profile of short stature among school children in a South Indian population

    Kumaravel Velayutham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Short stature (SS is a common pediatric problem and it might be the first sign of underlying illness. Studies documenting the burden and etiological profile of SS are scarce from India and are mostly limited to data obtained from referral centers. Due to the lack of large-scale, community-based studies utilizing a standard protocol, the present study aimed to assess the prevalence and etiological profile of SS in school children of a South Indian district. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, children aged 4–16 years from 23 schools in Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, underwent anthropometric measurements and height was plotted in Khadilkar et al. growth chart. The cause of SS was assessed using clinical and laboratory evaluations in assigned children with a height less than third centile. Results: A total of 15644 children belonging to 23 schools were evaluated, and 448 (2.86% children had SS. Etiological evaluation was further performed in 87 randomly assigned children, and it is identified that familial SS or constitutional delay in growth was the most common cause of SS in the study population (66.67%. Hypothyroidism and growth hormone deficiency were the two most common pathological causes of SS seen in 12 (13.79% and 8 (9.20% children, respectively. Malnutrition was the cause of SS in 6 (6.9% children and cardiac disorders, psychogenic SS, and skeletal dysplasia were other identified causes of SS in the study. Interpretation and Conclusions: The overall prevalence of SS in school children was 2.86% and familial SS or constitutional delay in growth was the most common cause of SS. As a significant percentage of children with SS had correctable causes, monitoring growth with a standard growth chart should be mandatory in all schools.

  5. Palliative care services for Indian migrants in Australia: Experiences of the family of terminally Ill patients

    Sujatha Shanmugasundaram

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The way that health care systems in developing countries like India care for dying patients, has an impact on the expectations of such care for those who migrate to other countries faces. At the end of life, cultural issues may impact on the quality of life remaining and for that reason, it is important that particular cultural practices are understood. This paper describes a study that investigated the cultural issues of access to palliative care services for Indian migrants in Australia. Purpose of the Study: To investigate the experiences of the family members of terminally ill Indian migrants in Victoria, Australia. Objective of the Study: To explore the issues related to accessing palliative care services for Indian migrants; to identify the effectiveness of palliative care in supporting the patient and family and to recommend strategies for improving this care. Materials and Methods: A qualitative descriptive design was utilized. Up to 6 family members were selected for in-depth interviews in understanding cultural issues related to the palliative care services for a family member. Results: Analysis of the interviews revealed that families of Indian patients experience difficulties whilst receiving palliative care services, which fell into three main categories: Indian support systems, cultural issues, and caring experiences. Although each of these issues had a direct influence on the experience of terminal care that their family member received, cultural issues and support systems also influenced the caring experiences. Conclusion: Despite the successful implementation of palliative care services across Australia, there are still problems in accessing and receiving the services among minority and disadvantaged groups like various cultural groups.

  6. A review of the key genetic tools to assist imperiled species conservation: analyzing West Indian manatee populations

    Bonde, Robert K.; McGuire, Peter M.; Hunter, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Managers faced with decisions on threatened and endangered wildlife populations often are lacking detailed information about the species of concern. Integration of genetic applications will provide management teams with a better ability to assess and monitor recovery efforts on imperiled species. The field of molecular biology continues to progress rapidly and many tools are currently available. Presently, little guidance is available to assist researchers and managers with the appropriate selection of genetic tools to study the status of wild manatee populations. We discuss several genetic tools currently employed in the application of conservation genetics, and address the utility of using these tools to determine population status to aid in conservation efforts. As an example, special emphasis is focused on the endangered West Indian manatee (Order Sirenia). All four extant species of sirenians are imperiled throughout their range, predominately due to anthropogenic sources; therefore, the need for genetic information on their population status is direly needed.

  7. A STUDY ON FEMORAL ANTEVERSION IN ADULT DRY FEMORA OF SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

    Sushma Korukonda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Femoral Neck Anteversion (FNA is an important parameter for diagnosis of gait abnormality in children, risk of various congenital and acquired orthopaedic disorders as well as corrective osteotomy and hip arthroplasty. Femoral anteversion is the lateral rotation of the neck of the femur to the long axis of its shaft. Variability in FNA has been reported and is due to torsional forces applied on femur during development. The aim of this study was to estimate the angle of anteversion of femur in both genders on both sides. The present study was an attempt to provide baseline data of FNA in South Indian population, in particular, Andhra Pradesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted mechanically on 70 dried adult unpaired human femora, i.e. 48 male and 22 female bones. The Kingsley Olmsted 1 method was used for the study and the data was analysed. Statistical analysis - Statistical analysis was done using student unpaired ‘t’ test. The data was analysed using GraphPad Prism 5.0 (Free Trial Version. RESULTS Out of the 70 femora undertaken, mean value of FNA obtained in male is 15.95, 14.1 on right and 17.8 on left sides and in female it is 19.2, 21.8 on right and 16.6 on left side. Statistical analysis revealed significant (p < 0.05 greater average anteversion in female bones and right-left variations being greater on the left side. CONCLUSION In the present study, the mean FNA was 17.8 deg. There was a gender variation for the FNA values in the population studied with females showing higher value than the male with a statistically significant difference. The reason for the difference obtained could be the small sample size of female femora due to the rarity of the donated female bodies. The value was higher on the left side than the right; 50% of the femora had the range of 16 - 25 deg of FNA. The overall mean of femoral anteversion determined is very much different from the studies in various regions in India.

  8. Addressing Cancer Disparities Among American Indians through Innovative Technologies and Patient Navigation: The Walking Forward Experience

    Petereit, Daniel G. [Department of Oncology, John T. Vucurevich Cancer Care Institute, Rapid City, SD (United States); Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Wong, Rosemary; Coleman, C. Norman, E-mail: dpetereit@regionalhealth.com [Radiation Research Program, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2011-06-22

    Purpose/Objective(s): American Indians (AIs) present with more advanced stages of cancer and, therefore, suffer from higher cancer mortality rates compared to non-AIs. Under the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Disparities Research Partnership (CDRP) Program, we have been researching methods of improving cancer treatment and outcomes since 2002, for AIs in Western South Dakota, through the Walking Forward (WF) Program. Materials/Methods: This program consists of (a) a culturally tailored patient navigation program that facilitated access to innovative clinical trials in conjunction with a comprehensive educational program encouraging screening and early detection, (b), surveys to evaluate barriers to access, (c) clinical trials focusing on reducing treatment length to facilitate enhanced participation using brachytherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for breast and prostate cancer, as AIs live a median of 140 miles from the cancer center, and (d) a molecular study (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) to address whether there is a specific profile that increases toxicity risks. Results: We describe the design and implementation of this program, summary of previously published results, and ongoing research to influence stage at presentation. Some of the critical outcomes include the successful implementation of a community-based research program, development of trust within tribal communities, identification of barriers, analysis of nearly 400 navigated cancer patients, clinical trial accrual rate of 10%, and total enrollment of nearly 2,500 AIs on WF research studies. Conclusion: This NCI funded pilot program has achieved some initial measures of success. A research infrastructure has been created in a community setting to address new research questions and interventions. Efforts underway to promote cancer education and screening are presented, as well as applications of the lessons learned to other health disparity populations – both nationally and

  9. Addressing Cancer Disparities Among American Indians through Innovative Technologies and Patient Navigation: The Walking Forward Experience

    Petereit, Daniel G.; Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh; Wong, Rosemary; Coleman, C. Norman

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): American Indians (AIs) present with more advanced stages of cancer and, therefore, suffer from higher cancer mortality rates compared to non-AIs. Under the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Disparities Research Partnership (CDRP) Program, we have been researching methods of improving cancer treatment and outcomes since 2002, for AIs in Western South Dakota, through the Walking Forward (WF) Program. Materials/Methods: This program consists of (a) a culturally tailored patient navigation program that facilitated access to innovative clinical trials in conjunction with a comprehensive educational program encouraging screening and early detection, (b), surveys to evaluate barriers to access, (c) clinical trials focusing on reducing treatment length to facilitate enhanced participation using brachytherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for breast and prostate cancer, as AIs live a median of 140 miles from the cancer center, and (d) a molecular study (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) to address whether there is a specific profile that increases toxicity risks. Results: We describe the design and implementation of this program, summary of previously published results, and ongoing research to influence stage at presentation. Some of the critical outcomes include the successful implementation of a community-based research program, development of trust within tribal communities, identification of barriers, analysis of nearly 400 navigated cancer patients, clinical trial accrual rate of 10%, and total enrollment of nearly 2,500 AIs on WF research studies. Conclusion: This NCI funded pilot program has achieved some initial measures of success. A research infrastructure has been created in a community setting to address new research questions and interventions. Efforts underway to promote cancer education and screening are presented, as well as applications of the lessons learned to other health disparity populations – both nationally and

  10. Etiology and outcome determinants of intracerebral hemorrhage in a south Indian population, A hospital-based study

    Sunil K Narayan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is paucity of methodologically sound published studies on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH from India, on pub med/embase search. Aims: To explore etiology of ICH and correlate the causes, location, and size of hemorrhage to clinical outcome. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based descriptive study from South Indian eastern coastal town of Puducherry; 60 consecutive subjects aged > 12 years, predominantly of inbred Tamil population, with head CT evidence of intracerebral hemorrhage not associated with trauma and brain tumors, were recruited. Outcome at three months was measured using Glasgow Outcome scale, NIHSS and mortality. SPSS v 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Commonest etiological factor was hypertension, followed by bleeding diathesis, thrombolysis for myocardial infarction, and cortical vein thrombosis. Most frequent locations of hematoma were basal ganglia, thalamus, internal capsule, and cerebral and cerebellar parenchyma. Hematoma volume correlated significantly with systolic and mean arterial pressure but not with diastolic blood pressure. Poor outcome was correlated to size (P < 0.05 and intraventricular extension of hematoma (P < 0.05, and to systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure, but not to age, gender, smoking, alcoholism, ischemic heart disease, and blood sugar level. Among diabetic patients with ICH, the size of hematoma (P = 0.04 and severity of coma (P = 0.01 at admission were significantly worse compared to the non-diabetic, but not the outcome at three months [Glasgow outcome scale or mortality (P = 0.94 and 0.14]. Conclusions: The location of hemorrhage and correlation with outcome agreed with the patterns described for the non-white races in prior reports. Independence of outcome to diabetic status despite a more severe initial presentation may indicate importance of good care, even in high risk groups.

  11. Morphometric analysis of diameter and relationship of vertebral artery with respect to transverse foramen in Indian population

    Binit Sureka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the location, origin, size and relationship of the vertebral artery and the transverse foramina in the lower cervical spine by computed tomographic angiography (CTA measurements in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of multi-detector CT (MDCT cerebral angiography scans was done between June 2011 and February 2014. A total of 120 patients were evaluated. The diameter of the vertebral artery (AL and the shortest distance between the vertebral artery and the medial (M, lateral (L, anterior (A, and posterior (P borders of transverse foramen were studied. In addition, the shortest distance between the vertebral artery and pedicle (h was also analyzed. Statistical Analysis: The means and their standard deviations (SD were calculated in both the sexes. The t-tests were performed to look for significant sexual difference. Results: The largest vertebral artery diameter (AL was at level C7 on the right side (3.5 ± 0.8 and at the level of C5 on the left side (3.7 ± 0.4. Statistically significant difference between males and females were seen at levels C4, C5, and C7. The diameter of the vertebral artery was smaller in females than males. The L value was greater than other parameters (M, A, P at the same level in all the measurements. The h value was greatest at C6 level and shortest at C5. Conclusion: CTA is necessary before pedicle screw fixation due to variation in measurements at all levels. The highest potential risk of vertebral artery injury during cervical pedicle screw implantation may be at C5, then at C4, and the safest is at C7.

  12. Morphometric analysis of cervical spinal canal diameter, transverse foramen, and pedicle width using computed tomography in Indian population.

    Sureka, Binit; Mittal, Aliza; Mittal, Mahesh K; Agarwal, Kanhaiya; Sinha, Mukul; Thukral, Brij Bhushan

    2018-01-01

    Accurate and detailed measurements of spinal canal diameter (SCD) and transverse foraminal morphometry are essential for understanding spinal column-related diseases and for surgical planning, especially for transpedicular screw fixation. This is especially because lateral cervical radiographs do not provide accurate measurements. This study was conducted to measure the dimensions of the transverse foramen sagittal and transverse diameters (SFD, TFD), SCD, and the distance of spinal canal from the transverse foramina (dSC-TF) at C1-C7 level in the Indian population. The study population comprised 84 male and 42 female subjects. The mean age of the study group was 44.63 years (range, 19-81 years). A retrospective study was conducted, and data were collected and analyzed for patients who underwent cervical spine computed tomography (CT) imaging for various reasons. One hundred and twenty-six patients were included in the study. Detailed readings were taken at all levels from C1-C7 for SCD, SFD, TFD, and dSc-TF. Values for male and female subjects were separately calculated and compared. For both the groups, the widest SCD were measured at the C1 level and the narrowest SCD at the C4 level. The narrowest SFD was measured at C7 for both male and female subjects on the right and left sides. The widest SFD was measured at C1 both for male and female subjects on the right and left side. The narrowest TFD on the left side was measured at C7 for male and at C1 for female subjects. The narrowest mean distance of dSC-TF was found to be at C4 for both male and female subjects on both left and right side. The computed tomographic (CT) imaging is better than conventional radiographs for the preoperative evaluation of cervical spine and for better understanding cervical spine morphometry. Care must be taken during transpedicular screw fixation, especially in female subjects, more so at the C2, C4, and C6 levels due to a decrease in the distance of dSC-TF.

  13. Hb F Levels in Indian Sickle Cell Patients and Association with the HBB Locus Variant rs10128556 (C>T), and the HBG XmnI (Arab-Indian) Variant.

    Bhanushali, Aparna A; Himani, Kumari; Patra, Pradeep K; Das, Bibhu R

    The prevalence of sickle cell disease in India is very high. Hb F is one of the most powerful modulators of disease severity in sickle cell disease patients. It was traditionally thought that the disease is milder in Indian sickle cell disease patients predominantly due to the Arab-Indian haplotype characterized by the HBG XmnI [rs7482144 (G>A)] variant, which is associated with increased Hb F levels. In the current study, we investigated the Hb F levels in individuals with the rs10128556 (C>T) variant and also determined its linkage with the HBG XmnI variant. The present study was conducted on a cohort of 275 individuals, which consisted of 221 patients with sickle cell disease and 54 patients with sickle cell trait. Analysis of hemoglobin (Hb) fractions and variants was done on the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. Genotyping for rs10128556 was done by direct sequencing of the products. Mean Hb F levels in the sickle cell disease patients was 19.36 ± 6.79. The genotypic frequencies for rs10128556 were 82.0% (TT), 16.7% (CT) and 1.3% (CC) for sickle cell disease patients. The minor C allele resulted in 52.0% decrease in Hb F levels when homozygous and 7.0% decrease when heterozygous. The rs10128556 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was in strong but not complete linkage with the HBG XmnI variant. In conclusion, the study determined for the first time the frequency and association of rs10128556 in Indian sickle cell disease patients with Hb F. It also established that it was not in complete linkage with the HBG XmnI variant in this high risk population.

  14. Association of systemic risk factors with the severity of retinal hard exudates in a north Indian population with type 2 diabetes

    Sachdev N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The various risk factors for diabetic retinopathy and its spectrum are still poorly understood in the Indian population. Aims: To study the association of various systemic risk factors with retinal hard exudates in type 2 diabetic north Indian patients and to measure the incidence of dyslipidemia in them. Settings and Design: A tertiary-hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: An observational case-study which included 180 type 2 diabetic patients (180 eyes of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR with clinically significant macular edema (CSME. In these patients the retinal hard exudates were graded on a central 500 fundus picture using modified Airlie House classification and divided into three groups of absent or minimal hard exudates (Group 1, hard exudates present (Group 2 and prominent hard exudates (Group 3. Their association with various risk factors, namely the age of onset of diabetes and its duration, gender, insulin therapy, and various systemic parameters like hypertension, blood hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, serum (s. creatinine levels, 24-h proteinuria and complete lipid profile including total s. cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL and s. triglyceride (TG was studied. The incidence of dyslipidemia was also calculated among these groups of patients. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA test, linear regression analysis and Spearman′s correlation test. Results: On univariate analysis, the retinal hard exudates were significantly associated with s. creatinine (P=0.016, systolic blood pressure (P=0.014, s. cholesterol (P < 0.001, s. LDL (P=0.008 and s. TG (P=0.013 levels. While on linear regression analysis, s. cholesterol (P < 0.001 and s. LDL cholesterol (P=0.028 were found to be independent risk factors affecting the density of retinal hard exudates. On Spearman′s correlation test, the

  15. Mutations of NPM1 gene in de novo acute myeloid leukaemia: determination of incidence, distribution pattern and identification of two novel mutations in Indian population.

    Ahmad, Firoz; Mandava, Swarna; Das, Bibhu Ranjan

    2009-06-01

    Mutations in the nucleophosmin (NPM1) gene have been recently described to occur in about one-third of acute myeloid leukaemias (AMLs) and represent the most frequent genetic alteration currently known in this subset, specially in those with normal karyotype. This study explored the prevalence and clinical profile of NPM1 mutations in a cohort of 200 Indian adult and children with AML. NPM1 mutations were observed in 19.5% of all population and 34.2% of those with normal karyotype. Adults had a significantly higher incidence of NPM1 mutations than children [38 of 161 (23.6%) vs. 1 of 39 (2.5%), p = 0.002]. NPM1 mutations were significantly associated with normal karyotype (p = 0.001), high WBC count (p = 0.034), AML-M4 subtype (p = 0.039) and a gradient increase of mutation rate with the increase in age groups. Sequence analysis of 39 mutated cases revealed typical mutations (types A, B, D, Nm and H*) as well as two novel variations (types F1 and F2). Majority of the patients had mutation type A (69.2%), followed by B (5.1%), D (15.3%), H* (2.5%) and Nm (2.5%) all involving COOH terminal of the NPM1 protein. In conclusion, this study represents the first report of NPM1 mutation from Indian population and confirms that the incidence of NPM1 mutations varies considerably globally, with slightly lower incidence in Indian population compared to western countries. The current study also served to identify two novel NPM1 mutants that add new insights into the heterogeneity of genomic insertions at exon 12. More ongoing larger studies are warranted to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of AML that arises in this part of the world. Furthermore, we believe that in light of its high prevalence worldwide, inclusion of NPM1 mutation detection assay in diagnostic evaluations of AML may improve the efficacy of routine genetic characterization and allow assignment of patients to better-defined risk categories.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors in the South Indian adult population: The Andhra Pradesh Eye disease study

    Sannapaneni Krishnaiah

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Sannapaneni Krishnaiah1,2,3, Marmamula Srinivas1,2,3, Rohit C Khanna1,2, Gullapalli N Rao1,2,31L V Prasad Eye Institute, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, India; 2International Center for Advancement of Rural Eye Care, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, India; 3Vision CRC, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAim: To report the prevalence, risk factors and associated population attributable risk percentage (PAR for refractive errors in the South Indian adult population.Methods: A population-based cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. A multistage cluster, systematic, stratified random sampling method was used to obtain participants (n = 10293 for this study.Results: The age-gender-area-adjusted prevalence rates in those ≥40 years of age were determined for myopia (spherical equivalent [SE] < −0.5 D 34.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 33.1–36.1, high-myopia (SE < −5.0 D 4.5% (95% CI: 3.8–5.2, hyperopia (SE > +0.5 D 18.4% (95% CI: 17.1–19.7, astigmatism (cylinder < −0.5 D 37.6% (95% CI: 36–39.2, and anisometropia (SE difference between right and left eyes >0.5 D 13.0% (95% CI: 11.9–14.1. The prevalence of myopia, astigmatism, high-myopia, and anisometropia significantly increased with increasing age (all p < 0.0001. There was no gender difference in prevalence rates in any type of refractive error, though women had a significantly higher rate of hyperopia than men (p < 0.0001. Hyperopia was significantly higher among those with a higher educational level (odds ratio [OR] 2.49; 95% CI: 1.51–3.95 and significantly higher among the hypertensive group (OR 1.24; 95% CI: 1.03–1.49. The severity of lens nuclear opacity was positively associated with myopia and negatively associated with hyperopia.Conclusions: The prevalence of myopia in this adult Indian population is much higher than in similarly aged white populations. These results confirm the previously

  17. Evaluation of photopatch test allergens for Indian patients of photodermatitis: Preliminary results

    Nidhi Jindal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a strong need to develop a photopatch test tray suitable for Indian patients of photodermatitis as European/Scandinavian photopatch test trays may not be wholly relevant for them. Aim: We carried out this study using photoallergens relevant in the Indian context to determine their relevance in patients of photodermatitis. Methods: Thirty patients (M:F, 23:7 between 19 and 76 years of age of photodermatitis and 10 controls were patch- and photopatch tested with 20 common photoallergens. In addition, the patients were also (photo patch tested with articles of daily use as and when these were suspected to be the cause. Results: Forty-three positive reactions to one or more antigens were seen in 22 (74% patients. Fourteen positive photopatch tests to seven allergens were observed in 10 (33% patients, and nine (30% of them had a definite relevance. The most common contact allergen was fragrance mix (FM (30%, followed by p-phenylenediamine (20% and Parthenium hysterophorous (17%. The definite relevance of the patch- and photopatch tests could be correlated in 47% of these patients. Conclusions: FM is the most common contact and photocontact allergen among the various photopatch test antigens. Although differences in technique and evaluation make direct comparison between different centers difficult, still photopatch testing remains an integral part and gold standard for the work-up of the photosensitive patients.

  18. Relationship between different cardiovascular risk scores and measures of subclinical atherosclerosis in an Indian population

    Manish Bansal

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: The present study shows that in Indian subjects RiskJBS appears to provide the most accurate estimation of CV risk. It least underestimates the risk and has the best correlation with CIMT and CCS. However, large-scale prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  19. Genealogy construction in a historically isolated population: application to genetic studies of rheumatoid arthritis in the Pima Indian.

    Lin, J P; Hirsch, R; Jacobsson, L T; Scott, W W; Ma, L D; Pillemer, S R; Knowler, W C; Kastner, D L; Bale, S J

    1999-01-01

    Due to the characteristics of complex traits, many traits may not be amenable to traditional epidemiologic methods. We illustrate an approach that defines an isolated population as the "unit" for carrying out studies of complex disease. We provide an example using the Pima Indians, a relatively isolated population, in which the incidence and prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, gallbladder disease, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are significantly increased compared with the general U.S. population. A previous study of RA in the Pima utilizing traditional methods failed to detect a genetic effect on the occurrence of the disease. Our approach involved constructing a genealogy for this population and using a genealogic index to investigate familial aggregation. We developed an algorithm to identify biological relationships among 88 RA cases versus 4,000 subsamples of age-matched individuals from the same population. Kinship coefficients were calculated for all possible pairs of RA cases, and similarly for the subsamples. The sum of the kinship coefficient among all combination of RA pairs, 5.92, was significantly higher than the average of the 4,000 subsamples, 1.99 (p genealogy can be anticipated to provide valuable information for the genetic study of diseases other than RA. Defining an isolated population as the "unit" in which to assess familial aggregation may be advantageous, especially if there are a limited number of cases in the study population.

  20. Spectrum of CREBBP mutations in Indian patients with Rubinstein ...

    Prakash

    eight groups showing markers of independent association or .... variants which were present exclusively in the patients and not in the parents were considered to have arisen de ..... possibility of some recombination events cannot be totally.

  1. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a north Indian hospital-based population with obstructive sleep apnoea

    Agrawal, Swastik; Sharma, Surendra K.; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is known to be associated with cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome (MS). The burden of MS in patients with OSA in India is unknown. We investigated the prevalence of MS and its components in a cross-sectional study in patients with and without OSA in a hospital-based population of a tertiary health care centre in New Delhi, India. Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing overnight polysomnography in the Sleep Laboratory of the Department of Internal Medicine of All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) hospital, New Delhi, were studied. Anthropometry and body composition analysis, blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose, insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and fasting blood lipid profile were measured. MS was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult treatment panel III criteria, with Asian cut-off values for abdominal obesity. Results: Of the 272 subjects recruited, 187 (82%) had OSA [apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI)>5 events/h] while 40 (18%) had a normal sleep study. Prevalence of MS in OSA patients was 79 per cent compared to 48 per cent in non-OSA individuals [OR 4.15, (2.05-8.56), P<0.001]. Prevalence of OSA in mild, moderate and severe OSA was 66, 72 and 86 per cent, respectively (P<0.001). Patients with OSA were more likely to have higher BP [OR: 1.06 (1.02-1.11)], fasting insulin [OR: 1.18 (1.05-1.32)], HOMA-IR [OR: 1.61 (1.11-2.33)] and waist circumference [OR: 1.20 (1.13-1.27)]. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings suggest that OSA is associated with a 4-fold higher occurrence of MS than patients without OSA. The prevalence of MS increases with increasing severity of OSA, therefore, early detection will be beneficial. PMID:22199102

  2. Erdheim-Chester disease with cutaneous features in an Indian patient.

    Garg, Taru; Chander, Ram; Gupta, Tanvi; Mendiratta, Vibhu; Jain, Manjula

    2008-01-01

    A 60-year-old Indian woman presented with multiple asymptomatic, firm swellings over the face that had been progressively increasing for the past 3.5 years. She complained of dry cough and dyspnea of 2 years' duration, which was diagnosed as interstitial lung disease (ILD) based on chest radiography and high-resolution computed tomography. Apart from occasional backaches, the patient had no other systemic complaints. The results of the general physical examination was normal, with no lymphadenopathy. Cutaneous examination revealed multiple (5) firm, yellowish to skin-colored well-defined nodules with irregular margins ranging in size from 1 x 1 cm to 4 x 8 cm present over the left periorbital region and right jawline, with overlying telangiectasias on the skin (Figure 1). On examination of the chest, she had generalized rhonchi and crepts; the remainder of the systemic examination results were normal. Fine needle aspiration cytology from the nodule in the periorbital area revealed a dispersed population of spindle cells, numerous foam cells, and giant cells suggestive of xanthogranuloma. Histopathology from the nodule on the jawline showed abundant foamy histiocytes in the dermis with few multinucleated giant cells and lymphocytes (Figure 2). The foamy histiocytes were periodic acid-Schiff-positive. On immunohistochemistry, histiocytes were CD68-positive. Findings of routine investigations including hemogram, peripheral blood smear, and blood chemistry were normal. Radiography of the lumbosacral spine showed mixed osteolytic and osteosclerotic lesions involving L5-S1, the left sacroiliac joint, and the left iliac blade. Findings from radiography of the long bones and skull were normal. Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed areas of osteolysis, with marginal sclerosis present bilaterally that involved the iliac blades and the right half of the sacrum. A methylene diphosphate bone scan revealed increased tracer uptake seen at

  3. Spectrum of SMPD1 mutations in Asian-Indian patients with acid sphingomyelinase (ASM)-deficient Niemann-Pick disease.

    Ranganath, Prajnya; Matta, Divya; Bhavani, Gandham SriLakshmi; Wangnekar, Savita; Jain, Jamal Mohammed Nurul; Verma, Ishwar C; Kabra, Madhulika; Puri, Ratna Dua; Danda, Sumita; Gupta, Neerja; Girisha, Katta M; Sankar, Vaikom H; Patil, Siddaramappa J; Ramadevi, Akella Radha; Bhat, Meenakshi; Gowrishankar, Kalpana; Mandal, Kausik; Aggarwal, Shagun; Tamhankar, Parag Mohan; Tilak, Preetha; Phadke, Shubha R; Dalal, Ashwin

    2016-10-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM)-deficient Niemann-Pick disease is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by biallelic mutations in the SMPD1 gene. To date, around 185 mutations have been reported in patients with ASM-deficient NPD world-wide, but the mutation spectrum of this disease in India has not yet been reported. The aim of this study was to ascertain the mutation profile in Indian patients with ASM-deficient NPD. We sequenced SMPD1 in 60 unrelated families affected with ASM-deficient NPD. A total of 45 distinct pathogenic sequence variants were found, of which 14 were known and 31 were novel. The variants included 30 missense, 4 nonsense, and 9 frameshift (7 single base deletions and 2 single base insertions) mutations, 1 indel, and 1 intronic duplication. The pathogenicity of the novel mutations was inferred with the help of the mutation prediction software MutationTaster, SIFT, Polyphen-2, PROVEAN, and HANSA. The effects of the identified sequence variants on the protein structure were studied using the structure modeled with the help of the SWISS-MODEL workspace program. The p. (Arg542*) (c.1624C>T) mutation was the most commonly identified mutation, found in 22% (26 out of 120) of the alleles tested, but haplotype analysis for this mutation did not identify a founder effect for the Indian population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest study on mutation analysis of patients with ASM-deficient Niemann-Pick disease reported in literature and also the first study on the SMPD1 gene mutation spectrum in India. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Expression of Epstein-Barr virus among oral potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinomas in the South Indian tobacco-chewing population.

    Reddy, Sujatha S; Sharma, Shivani; Mysorekar, Vijaya

    2017-07-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common malignancy in the world. Viruses are the causative agents of approximately 10-15% of all cancers worldwide (Cancers, 6, 2014 and 2155). The tumorigenic roles of Epstein-Barr virus in oral cancer are unclear. Literature search results are conflicting and dependent on various factors such as geographical/regional variations, sociocultural lifestyles, dietary habits, chewing/smoking tobacco habit. This study is the first original observation about frequency of Epstein-Barr virus among South Indian tobacco-chewing patients to elucidate its involvement in oral carcinogenesis and to know whether this can be a valuable diagnostic and prognostic indicator. A total number of 75 tobacco chewer subjects aged between 23 and 76 years with histopathologically confirmed oral potentially malignant disorders (25), oral squamous cell carcinoma (25), and age-matched healthy controls (25) formed the study group. Immunohistochemical expression of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 was assessed among cases and healthy controls. Out of the total 75 subjects, six subjects (8%) were positive for Epstein-Barr virus antigen and 69 subjects (92%) negative. The antigen positivity was observed among two cases of moderately differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma, two cases of leukoplakia, and two healthy controls. No significant association between Epstein-Barr virus positivity was observed among oral potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma among South Indian tobacco-chewing patients. This can be partially explained by the methodology employed, by the patient population analyzed and different habits in various geographical regions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Restricted genetic variation in populations of Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica outside of East Africa and the Indian Ocean Islands points to the Indian Ocean Islands as the earliest known common source.

    Fontanilla, Ian Kendrich C; Sta Maria, Inna Mikaella P; Garcia, James Rainier M; Ghate, Hemant; Naggs, Fred; Wade, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    The Giant African Land Snail, Achatina ( =  Lissachatina) fulica Bowdich, 1822, is a tropical crop pest species with a widespread distribution across East Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, the Pacific, the Caribbean, and North and South America. Its current distribution is attributed primarily to the introduction of the snail to new areas by Man within the last 200 years. This study determined the extent of genetic diversity in global A. fulica populations using the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. A total of 560 individuals were evaluated from 39 global populations obtained from 26 territories. Results reveal 18 distinct A. fulica haplotypes; 14 are found in East Africa and the Indian Ocean islands, but only two haplotypes from the Indian Ocean islands emerged from this region, the C haplotype, now distributed across the tropics, and the D haplotype in Ecuador and Bolivia. Haplotype E from the Philippines, F from New Caledonia and Barbados, O from India and Q from Ecuador are variants of the emergent C haplotype. For the non-native populations, the lack of genetic variation points to founder effects due to the lack of multiple introductions from the native range. Our current data could only point with certainty to the Indian Ocean islands as the earliest known common source of A. fulica across the globe, which necessitates further sampling in East Africa to determine the source populations of the emergent haplotypes.

  6. Restricted genetic variation in populations of Achatina (Lissachatina fulica outside of East Africa and the Indian Ocean Islands points to the Indian Ocean Islands as the earliest known common source.

    Ian Kendrich C Fontanilla

    Full Text Available The Giant African Land Snail, Achatina ( =  Lissachatina fulica Bowdich, 1822, is a tropical crop pest species with a widespread distribution across East Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, the Pacific, the Caribbean, and North and South America. Its current distribution is attributed primarily to the introduction of the snail to new areas by Man within the last 200 years. This study determined the extent of genetic diversity in global A. fulica populations using the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. A total of 560 individuals were evaluated from 39 global populations obtained from 26 territories. Results reveal 18 distinct A. fulica haplotypes; 14 are found in East Africa and the Indian Ocean islands, but only two haplotypes from the Indian Ocean islands emerged from this region, the C haplotype, now distributed across the tropics, and the D haplotype in Ecuador and Bolivia. Haplotype E from the Philippines, F from New Caledonia and Barbados, O from India and Q from Ecuador are variants of the emergent C haplotype. For the non-native populations, the lack of genetic variation points to founder effects due to the lack of multiple introductions from the native range. Our current data could only point with certainty to the Indian Ocean islands as the earliest known common source of A. fulica across the globe, which necessitates further sampling in East Africa to determine the source populations of the emergent haplotypes.

  7. Impacts of urbanisation on the lifestyle and on the prevalence of diabetes in native Asian Indian population.

    Ramachandran, A; Snehalatha, C; Latha, E; Manoharan, M; Vijay, V

    1999-06-01

    Recent studies from the Asian subcontinent show an increasing prevalence of diabetes. This increase has been attributed to factors related to lifestyle changes related to modernisation. A periurban rural population resembling the rural in their occupation, but with access to certain urban facilities was chosen for this study. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of modernisation on the rising prevalence of diabetes in the native Indians. A total of 1637 adults aged 20 years and above (749 men and 888 women) were tested for diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) by 2 h post-glucose challenge. Demographic, anthropometric, dietary and occupational details, were recorded. Dietary habits were similar in all categories of socio-economic strata. In the present study group, the age standardised prevalence of Type 2 diabetes was 5.9%, which was intermediate to that in the urban (11.6%) and rural (2.4%) populations. The prevalence data of the latter two population were available from previous surveys. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was high (6.9%) and similar in all three population samples. In the periurban population, a large percentage of subjects were doing only routine household work and had a sedentary life-style. After correcting for the age and BMI, sedentary work and occupation had a significant association with diabetes, suggesting that sedentary lifestyle may be an important determinant for the higher prevalence of diabetes in an urbanising population.

  8. Foraminifera Population from South Africa Coast Line (Indian and Atlantic Oceans

    Engin Meriç

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cape Town is the second-largest city of the Republic of South Africa. Research is conducted in 3 different stations: Maori Bay, which lies in the southwest of Cape Town, and Pyramid Rock and Partridge Points which lies in the False Bay, southeast part of Cape Town. Samples are taken from young sediments at 10.00 and 20.00 m depths, and collected by scuba-diving method. The aim of the study is to investigate the living benthic foraminifera assemblages in the Atlantic Ocean, and to compare these assemblages with the southeastern part of the Atlantic Ocean, the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean and Western Pacific assemblages. Moreover, the aim of the study is to determine whether there are any benthic foraminifera forms reaching to the Mediterranean from Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean or Red Sea via Suez Channel.

  9. Field populations of native Indian honey bees from pesticide intensive agricultural landscape show signs of impaired olfaction

    Chakrabarti, Priyadarshini; Rana, Santanu; Bandopadhyay, Sreejata; Naik, Dattatraya G.; Sarkar, Sagartirtha; Basu, Parthiba

    2015-07-01

    Little information is available regarding the adverse effects of pesticides on natural honey bee populations. This study highlights the detrimental effects of pesticides on honey bee olfaction through behavioural studies, scanning electron microscopic imaging of antennal sensillae and confocal microscopic studies of honey bee brains for calcium ions on Apis cerana, a native Indian honey bee species. There was a significant decrease in proboscis extension response and biologically active free calcium ions and adverse changes in antennal sensillae in pesticide exposed field honey bee populations compared to morphometrically similar honey bees sampled from low/no pesticide sites. Controlled laboratory experiments corroborated these findings. This study reports for the first time the changes in antennal sensillae, expression of Calpain 1(an important calcium binding protein) and resting state free calcium in brains of honey bees exposed to pesticide stress.

  10. Prevalence and clinical patterns of psoriatic arthritis in Indian patients with psoriasis

    Ramesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence and clinical patterns of psoriatic arthritis (PsA varies in different parts of the world and there is little clinical and epidemiological data from the Indian subcontinent. Aims: Our study was designed to evaluate the prevalence and clinical patterns of PsA in Indian patients. Methods: This was a non-interventional, cross-sectional study, in which 1149 consecutive psoriasis patients seen over 1 year were screened for PsA according to classification of psoriatic arthritis (CASPAR criteria. Demographic and disease parameters were recorded including Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI, Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI, and number of swollen and tender joints. Results: Among 1149 patients with psoriasis, 100 (8.7% patients had PsA, of which 83% were newly diagnosed. The most common pattern was symmetrical polyarthritis (58%, followed by spondyloarthropathy 49%, asymmetric oligoarthritis (21%, isolated spondyloarthropathy (5%, predominant distal interphalangeal arthritis (3%, and arthritis mutilans (1%. Enthesitis and dactylitis were present in 67% and 26% of cases, respectively. The mean number of swollen and tender joints were 3.63 ± 3.59 (range, 0-22 and 7.76 ± 6.03 (range, 1-26, respectively. Nail changes were present in 87% of the cases. The median PASI and NAPSI of the subjects with PsA was 3.6 and 20, respectively. There was no significant correlation of number of swollen/tender joints with PASI or NAPSI. Conclusion: There is a relatively low prevalence of PsA among Indian psoriasis patients presenting to dermatologists. No correlation was found between the severity of skin and nail involvement and articular disease.

  11. Prevalence of three rooted permanent mandibular first molars in Haryana (North Indian population

    Alpa Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mandibular first molars typically have two roots but sometimes a supernumerary root presents distolingually called as radix entomolaris (RE. Aim: The present study evaluated the prevalence of permanent mandibular first molars featuring a distolingual root in Haryana (North India. Materials and Methods: Five hundred patients possessing bilateral mandibular first molars were selected for this study. The intraoral periapical radiographs were taken. The radiographs of these patients were evaluated under optimal conditions. A total of 1000 mandibular first molars were screened, and the incidence of three-rooted mandibular first molars, RE and the correlation between left and right side occurrence and between either gender were recorded. Statistical Analysis: The binary logistic regression test and Pearson's Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The prevalence of three-rooted permanent mandibular first molars was 13% of the patients examined and 8.3% of the teeth examined. There was no statistically significant difference between gender and side of occurrence (P ≥ 0.05. The bilateral incidence of a symmetric distribution was 27.6 (18/65 among the RE teeth examined. Conclusion: RE is considered as an Asiatic trait. The occurrence of this macrostructure in the Haryana (North India population was found to be 13%. The clinician must thoroughly examine the radiographs before the initiation of endodontic therapy.

  12. High Frequency Of Thyroid Dysfunction In Indian Patients With Vitiligo

    Dave Shriya

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This Study was carried out look for any association of vitiligo with autoimmune thyroid disease and to find out clinical characteristics of vitiligo, which may predict such and association. Thirty-five consecutive cases of vitiligo were enrolled for this study. Besides recording the clinical features of vitiligo and thyroid disease, antithyroid autoantibody assays (anthi-thyroglobulin, anti-TPO and thyroid hormone profiles were done in these cases and 30 appropriately age and sex matched controls. Radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU thyroid scintiscan was done for all the cases and controls. Amongst the vitiligo cases, vitiligo vulgaris was the commonest type (45.70%, while mucosal vitiligo constituted 22.8% of cases. No Patient was found to have thyroid disease clinically; however, on assays, thyroid abnormality (endocrine, immunological or both was found in 57.1% of the cases as against 10% of the controls (p<0.05. Autonatibody positivity was found in 31.4% of the cases as against 10% of the controls (p<0.05. Biochemical abnormality (predominantly hyperthyroidism was found in 40% of the cases as against 6.7% of the controls (p<0.05. Four patients with hyperthyroidism showed diffuse increase in uptake on RAIU scan and auto antibody poisitivity, thus were diagnosed as Grave’s disease. An early age at onset was found in patients with thyroid disease. Mucosal vitiligo was found in 35% of the cases with thyroid dysfunction as against 6.7% in those without (p<0.05 with was the most unique finding of the study. To conclude, we would like to stress that patients with vitiligo should be screened for thyroid dysfunction, especially those with mucosal vitiligo.

  13. Clinical profile and mutation analysis of xeroderma pigmentosum in Indian patients.

    Tamhankar, Parag M; Iyer, Shruti V; Ravindran, Shyla; Gupta, Neerja; Kabra, Madhulika; Nayak, Chitra; Kura, Mahendra; Sanghavi, Swapnil; Joshi, Rajesh; Chennuri, Vasundhara Sridhar; Khopkar, Uday

    2015-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by cutaneous and ocular photosensitivity and an increased risk of developing cutaneous neoplasms. Progressive neurological abnormalities develop in a quarter of XP patients. To study the clinical profile and perform a mutation analysis in Indian patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. Ten families with 13 patients with XP were referred to our clinic over 2 years. The genes XPA, XPB and XPC were sequentially analyzed till a pathogenic mutation was identified. Homozygous mutations in the XPA gene were seen in patients with moderate to severe mental retardation (6/10 families) but not in those without neurological features. Two unrelated families with a common family name and belonging to the same community from Maharashtra were found to have an identical mutation in the XPA gene, namely c.335_338delTTATinsCATAAGAAA (p.F112SfsX2). Testing of the XPC gene in two families with four affected children led to the identification of the novel mutations c.1243C>T or p.R415X and c.1677C>A or p.Y559X. In two families, mutations could not be identified in XPA, XPB and XPC genes. The sample size is small. Indian patients who have neurological abnormalities associated with XP should be screened for mutations in the XPA gene.

  14. Computed Tomography-Based Occipital Condyle Morphometry in an Indian Population to Assess the Feasibility of Condylar Screws for Occipitocervical Fusion.

    Srivastava, Abhishek; Nanda, Geetanjali; Mahajan, Rajat; Nanda, Ankur; Mishra, Nirajana; Karmaran, Srinivasa; Batra, Sahil; Chhabra, Harvinder Singh

    2017-12-01

    A retrospective computed tomography (CT)-based morphometric study of 82 occipital condyles in the Indian population, focusing on critical morphometric dimensions with relation to placing condylar screws. This study focused on determining the feasibility of placing occipital condylar screws in an Indian population using CT anatomical morphometric data. The occipital condylar screw is a novel technique being explored as one of the options in occipitocervical stabilization. Sex and ethnic variations in anatomical structures may restrict the feasibility of this technique in some populations. To the best of our knowledge, there are no CT-based data on an Indian population that assess the feasibility of occipital condylar screws. We measured the dimensions of 82 occipital condyles in 41 adults on coronal, sagittal, and axial reconstructed CT images. The differences were noted between the right and left sides and also between males and females. Statistical analysis was performed using the t -test, with a p -value of occipital condyle shows that condylar screws are anatomically feasible in a large portion of the Indian population. However, because a small number of population may not be suitable for this technique, meticulous study of preoperative anatomy using detailed CT data is advised.

  15. Prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma in an urban south Indian population and comparison with a rural population. The Chennai Glaucoma Study.

    Vijaya, Lingam; George, Ronnie; Baskaran, M; Arvind, Hemamalini; Raju, Prema; Ramesh, S Ve; Kumaramanickavel, Govindasamy; McCarty, Catherine

    2008-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence and risk factors of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in an urban population and compare the same with that of our published rural population data in southern India. Population-based cross-sectional study. Four thousand eight hundred subjects 40 years or older were selected using a multistage random cluster sampling procedure in Chennai city. Three thousand eight hundred fifty (80.2%) subjects underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, including applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, pachymetry, optic disc photography, and automated perimetry. Glaucoma was diagnosed using the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology Classification. The distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR) was obtained from the right eye of the 2532 subjects with normal suprathreshold visual fields. Mean IOP was 16.17+/-3.74 mmHg (97.5th and 99.5th percentiles, 24 mmHg and 30 mmHg). The mean VCDR was 0.43+/-0.17 (97.5th and 99.5th percentiles, 0.7 and 0.8). One hundred thirty-five (64 men, 71 women) subjects had POAG (3.51%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.04-4.0). Primary open-angle glaucoma subjects (58.4+/-11.3 years) were older (P or =40-year-old south Indian urban population was 3.51%, higher than that of the rural population. The prevalence increased with age, and >90% were not aware of the disease.

  16. Potential hydrophobic protein markers of breast cancer in Malaysian Chinese, Malay and Indian patients.

    Liang, Seng; Singh, Manjit; Gam, Lay-Harn

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of worldwide mortality in females. In Malaysia, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Of these, the Chinese had the most number of breast cancer cases, followed by the Indian and the Malay. The most common type of breast cancer is infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC). A proteomic approach was used to identify protein profile changes in cancerous tissues compared with the normal tissues, the tissues were collected from patients of three different ethnicities, i.e. Chinese, Malay and Indian. Ten differentially expressed hydrophobic proteins were identified. We had evaluated the potential of these proteins as biomarker for infiltrating ducal carcinoma (IDC) and the ethnic-specific expression of these proteins was also determined. The data showed that peroxiredoxin-2, heat shock protein 60, protein disulfide isomerase and calreticulin may serve as ethnic-related potential markers for either one or combination of Chinese, Malay and Indian cohorts as their expression levels were significantly high in the cancerous tissues compared to the normal tissues in the ethnic group tested.

  17. Association of tinnitus and hearing loss in otological disorders: a decade-long epidemiological study in a South Indian population

    Santoshi Kumari Manche

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Tinnitus is a common disorder that occurs frequently across all strata of population and has an important health concern. Tinnitus is often associated with different forms of hearing loss of varying severity. Objective: The present study aimed to identify the association of tinnitus with hearing loss in various otological disorders of a South Indian population. Methods: A total of 3255 subjects referred to the MAA ENT Hospital, Hyderabad, from 2004 to 2014, affected with various otological diseases have been included in the present cross-sectional study. Diagnosis of the diseases was confirmed by an ear, nose, and throat (ENT specialist using detailed medical and clinical examination. Statistical analysis was performed using the χ 2 test and binary logistic regression. Results: Tinnitus was observed in 29.3% (956 of the total study subjects that showed an increased prevalence in greater than 40 years of age. There was a significant increase in risk of tinnitus with middle (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.02-3.16 and inner (OR = 3.00, 95% CI = 1.65-5.45 inner ear diseases. It was noted that 96.9% (n = 927 of the tinnitus subjects was associated with hearing loss. Otitis media (60.9%, presbycusis (16.6% and otosclerosis (14.3% are the very common otological disorders leading to tinnitus. Tinnitus was significantly associated with higher degree of hearing loss in chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM subjects. Conclusion: The present study could identify the most prevalent otological risk factors leading to development of tinnitus with hearing loss in a South Indian population.

  18. Sequence diversity and natural selection at domain I of the apical membrane antigen 1 among Indian Plasmodium falciparum populations

    Kumar Ashwani

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1 is a leading malaria vaccine candidate antigen. The complete AMA1 protein is comprised of three domains where domain I exhibits high sequence polymorphism and is thus named as the hyper-variable region (HVR. The present study describes the extent of genetic polymorphism and natural selection at domain I of the ama1 gene among Indian P. falciparum isolates. Methods The part of the ama1 gene covering domain I was PCR amplified and sequenced from 157 P. falciparum isolates collected from five different geographical regions of India. Statistical and phylogenetic analyses of the sequences were done using DnaSP ver. 4. 10. 9 and MEGA version 3.0 packages. Results A total of 57 AMA1 haplotypes were observed among 157 isolates sequenced. Forty-six of these 57 haplotypes are being reported here for the first time. The parasites collected from the high malaria transmission areas (Assam, Orissa, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands showed more haplotypes (H and nucleotide diversity π as compared to low malaria transmission areas (Uttar Pradesh and Goa. The comparison of all five Indian P. falciparum subpopulations indicated moderate level of genetic differentiation and limited gene flow (Fixation index ranging from 0.048 to 0.13 between populations. The difference between rates of non-synonymous and synonymous mutations, Tajima's D and McDonald-Kreitman test statistics suggested that the diversity at domain I of the AMA1 antigen is due to positive natural selection. The minimum recombination events were also high indicating the possible role of recombination in generating AMA1 allelic diversity. Conclusion The level of genetic diversity and diversifying selection were higher in Assam, Orissa, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands populations as compared to Uttar Pradesh and Goa. The amounts of gene flow among these populations were moderate. The data reported here will be valuable for the

  19. Parental psychosocial factors and childhood caries prevention: Data from an American Indian population.

    Albino, Judith; Tiwari, Tamanna; Henderson, William G; Thomas, Jacob F; Braun, Patricia A; Batliner, Terrence S

    2018-04-10

    The objective of this study was to examine the association among psychological and social variables reported by American Indian parents/caregivers of preschool children and changes in their Oral Health Knowledge and Behaviors related to care of their children's teeth. We also investigated the relationship of these factors with progression of caries, as reflected by changes in their children's dmfs. The data used for this study were collected at baseline in a clinical trial of an oral health promotion intervention comprising behavioural and clinical interventions for caries prevention delivered by tribal members on a large Southwestern American Indian reservation. Linear regression analyses were performed for changes (baseline to Year 1) in dmfs, Oral Health Knowledge and Oral Health Behavior scores, with baseline psychosocial measures, taken individually, as the independent variables. Parents' attitudes and beliefs were associated with increases in their Oral Health Knowledge and Behavior and also with the progression of caries for their children. When all participants were considered together, increases in children's dmfs were smaller when the caregiver had higher Internal Oral Health Locus of Control (e = -1.33, P = .004), higher Health Literacy (e = -1.55, P Health Belief Model. For parents in the Intervention group, higher scores on Locus of Control, reflecting beliefs that chance, or other people determine their children's oral health, were associated with larger increases in Oral Health Knowledge (e = 1.73, P = .04) and Behaviors (e = 4.00, P = .005). Prevention of early childhood caries in American Indian children has proved to be especially challenging. Some of the measures identified in this report may suggest promising directions to prevention through approaches that build on competencies and skills to be learned and used within a context more broadly focused on parenting and management of health and family challenges. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A

  20. Prevalence of Charcot Arthropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Patients Aged over 50 Years with Severe Peripheral Neuropathy: A Retrospective Study in a Tertiary Care South Indian Hospital.

    Salini, Dharmadas; Harish, Kumar; Minnie, Pillay; Sundaram, Karimassery R; Arun, Bal; Sandya, Chirukandath J; Mangalanandan, Thacho S; Vivek, Lakshmanan; Praveen, Valiyaparambil P

    2018-01-01

    Available literature on the prevalence of Charcot arthropathy (CA) represents mainly Western population. No study has been reported from India so far. Hence we attempted to study the prevalence of CA in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and severe peripheral neuropathy (T2DMPN), belonging to Indian population amongst whom type 2 diabetes is on the rise in alarming proportions. Medical records of 3387 patients who performed an objective vibration perception threshold test during the year 2015 were screened for T2DMPN. Out of these, 1475 T2DMPN patients above 50 years were selected and analyzed in detail for CA. CA was diagnosed based on clinical features and/or radiological investigations. The anatomical localization of the disease distribution of the affected foot was done according to Brodsky's classification. The prevalence of CA in T2DMPN patients was found to be 9.8%. The mean age of patients diagnosed with CA was 63 ± 8.36 years, and mean duration of DM for CA to develop was 18.01 ± 8.23 years. About 62.5% of the patients were male and 37.5% female. Bilateral presentation of CA was observed in 20.8% of patients. Multiple sites of the foot were affected in 48.6% of patients and belonged to type 4 classification of Brodsky. A high prevalence of CA (9.8%) was observed in the present study conducted on T2DMPN patients who presented to the endocrinology department of a tertiary care South Indian hospital. In the majority of patients, the area of foot affected belonged to type 4 classification of Brodsky.

  1. FANCA Gene Mutations with 8 Novel Molecular Changes in Indian Fanconi Anemia Patients

    Solanki, Avani; Mohanty, Purvi; Shukla, Pallavi; Rao, Anita; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Vundinti, Babu Rao

    2016-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA), a rare heterogeneous genetic disorder, is known to be associated with 19 genes and a spectrum of clinical features. We studied FANCA molecular changes in 34 unrelated and 2 siblings of Indian patients with FA and have identified 26 different molecular changes of FANCA gene, of which 8 were novel mutations (a small deletion c.2500delC, 4 non-sense mutations c.2182C>T, c.2630C>G, c.3677C>G, c.3189G>A; and 3 missense mutations; c.1273G>C, c.3679 G>C, and c.3992 T>C). Among t...

  2. A Home-Based Educational Intervention Improves Patient Activation Measures and Diabetes Health Indicators among Zuni Indians.

    Vallabh O Shah

    Full Text Available One in three people will be diagnosed with diabetes by 2050, and the proportion will likely be higher among Native Americans. Diabetes control is currently suboptimal in underserved populations despite a plethora of new therapies. Patient empowerment is a key determinant of diabetes control, but such empowerment can be difficult to achieve due to resource limitation and cultural, language and health literacy barriers. We describe a home-based educational intervention using Community Health Representatives (CHRs, leading to improvement in Patient Activation Measures scores and clinical indicators of diabetes control.Sixty participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D completed a baseline evaluation including physical exam, Point of Care (POC testing, and the Patient Activation Measure (PAM survey. Participants then underwent a one hour group didactic session led by Community Health Representatives (CHRs who subsequently carried out monthly home-based educational interventions to encourage healthy lifestyles, including diet, exercise, and alcohol and cigarette avoidance until follow up at 6 months, when clinical phenotyping and the PAM survey were repeated.PAM scores were increased by at least one level in 35 (58% participants, while 24 participants who started at higher baseline score did not change. Six months after intervention, mean levels of A1C decreased by 0.7 ± 1.2%; fasting blood glucose decreased by 24.0 ± 38.0 mg/dl; BMI decreased by 1.5 ± 2.1 kg/m2; total cholesterol decreased by 12.0 ± 28.0 mg/dl; and triglycerides decreased by 52.0 ± 71.0 mg/dl. All of these changes were statistically significant (p < 0.05.This six month, CHR led and community-oriented educational intervention helps inform standards of practice for the management of diabetes, engages diabetic populations in their own care, and reduces health disparities for the underserved population of Zuni Indians.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02339311.

  3. Haplotype diversity of 16 Y-chromosomal STRs in three main ethnic populations (Malays, Chinese and Indians) in Malaysia.

    Chang, Yuet Meng; Perumal, Revathi; Keat, Phoon Yoong; Kuehn, Daniel L C

    2007-03-22

    We have analyzed 16 Y-STR loci (DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS458, DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, DYS635 or Y-GATA C4, DYS392, Y-GATA H4, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS448) from the non-recombining region of the human Y-chromosome in 980 male individuals from three main ethnic populations in Malaysia (Malay, Chinese, Indian) using the AmpFlSTR((R)) Y-filertrade mark (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). The observed 17-loci haplotypes and the individual allele frequencies for each locus were estimated, whilst the locus diversity, haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity were calculated in the three ethnic populations. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that 88.7% of the haplotypic variation is found within population and 11.3% is between populations (fixation index F(ST)=0.113, p=0.000). This study has revealed Y-chromosomes with null alleles at several Y-loci, namely DYS458, DYS392, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS439, DYS448 and Y-GATA H4; and several occurrences of duplications at the highly polymorphic DYS385 loci. Some of these deleted loci were in regions of the Y(q) arm that have been implicated in the occurrence of male infertility.

  4. Diclofenac disposition in Indian cow and goat with reference to Gyps vulture population declines

    Taggart, M.A. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire, SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); School of Biological Sciences, Department of Plant and Soil Science, University of Aberdeen, AB24 3UU (United Kingdom); Cuthbert, R. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire, SG19 2DL (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: richard.cuthbert@rspb.org.uk; Das, D. [Bombay Natural History Society, Hornbill House, Mumbai, 400023 (India); Sashikumar, C. [Bombay Natural History Society, Hornbill House, Mumbai, 400023 (India); Pain, D.J. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire, SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Green, R.E. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire, SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Conservation Biology Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EJ (United Kingdom); Feltrer, Y. [Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, Regent' s Park, London, NW1 4RY (United Kingdom); Shultz, S. [Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, The Lodge, Sandy, Bedfordshire, SG19 2DL (United Kingdom); Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, Regent' s Park, London, NW1 4RY (United Kingdom); Cunningham, A.A. [Institute of Zoology, Zoological Society of London, Regent' s Park, London, NW1 4RY (United Kingdom); Meharg, A.A. [School of Biological Sciences, Department of Plant and Soil Science, University of Aberdeen, AB24 3UU (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    Gyps vultures across India are declining rapidly and the NSAID diclofenac has been shown to be the major cause. Vultures scavenge livestock carcasses that have been treated with diclofenac within the days preceding death. We present data on diclofenac disposition in Indian cow and goat, and field data on the prevalence of diclofenac in carcases in the environment. In the disposition experiment, animals were treated with a single intramuscular injection of diclofenac at 1000 {mu}g kg{sup -1} bw. In cow, diclofenac was detectable in liver, kidney and intestine up to 71 h post-treatment; in plasma, half-life was 12.2 h. In goat, tissue residues were undetectable after 26 h. Prevalence of diclofenac in liver from 36 dead livestock collected in the field was 13.9%. Data suggest that diclofenac residues in Indian cow and goat are short-lived, but diclofenac prevalence in carcasses available to vultures may still be very high. - Residual diclofenac in livestock carcasses in India poses a continuing risk to Gyps vultures.

  5. Diclofenac disposition in Indian cow and goat with reference to Gyps vulture population declines

    Taggart, M.A.; Cuthbert, R.; Das, D.; Sashikumar, C.; Pain, D.J.; Green, R.E.; Feltrer, Y.; Shultz, S.; Cunningham, A.A.; Meharg, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Gyps vultures across India are declining rapidly and the NSAID diclofenac has been shown to be the major cause. Vultures scavenge livestock carcasses that have been treated with diclofenac within the days preceding death. We present data on diclofenac disposition in Indian cow and goat, and field data on the prevalence of diclofenac in carcases in the environment. In the disposition experiment, animals were treated with a single intramuscular injection of diclofenac at 1000 μg kg -1 bw. In cow, diclofenac was detectable in liver, kidney and intestine up to 71 h post-treatment; in plasma, half-life was 12.2 h. In goat, tissue residues were undetectable after 26 h. Prevalence of diclofenac in liver from 36 dead livestock collected in the field was 13.9%. Data suggest that diclofenac residues in Indian cow and goat are short-lived, but diclofenac prevalence in carcasses available to vultures may still be very high. - Residual diclofenac in livestock carcasses in India poses a continuing risk to Gyps vultures

  6. Nonassociation of homocysteine gene polymorphisms with treatment outcome in South Indian Tamil Rheumatoid Arthritis patients.

    Muralidharan, Niveditha; Gulati, Reena; Misra, Durga Prasanna; Negi, Vir S

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to look for any association of MTR 2756A>G and MTRR 66A>G gene polymorphisms with clinical phenotype, methotrexate (MTX) treatment response, and MTX-induced adverse events in South Indian Tamil patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 335 patients with RA were investigated. MTR 2756A>G gene polymorphism was analyzed by PCR-RFLP, and MTRR 66A>G SNP was analyzed by TaqMan 5' nuclease assay. The allele frequencies were compared with HapMap groups. MTR 2756G allele was found to be associated with risk of developing RA. The allele frequencies of MTR 2756A>G and MTRR 66A>G SNPs in controls differed significantly when compared with HapMap groups. Neither of the SNPs influenced the MTX treatment outcome and adverse effects. Neither of the SNPs seems to be associated with MTX treatment outcome and adverse events in South Indian Tamil patients with RA.

  7. Quantification of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in normal Indian population

    Tarannum Mansoori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT in normal Indian eyes, for which, 210 normal volunteers were recruited. One eye of each subject underwent RNFL scanning at 3.4 mm circle diameter around optic nerve using SD OCT. The data were analyzed to determine RNFLT in the sample population and its variation with age and gender. The average peripapillary RNFLT was 114.03 ± 9.59 μm. There was no effect of gender on RNFLT parameters. Age had significant negative correlation with average (P = 0.005, superior (P = 0.04, temporal (P = 0.049, and nasal quadrants (P = 0.01 RNFLT. Inferior quadrant RNFLT also had a negative correlation with age, but it was not statistically significant (P = 0.15.

  8. Association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism and risk of ischemic stroke in North Indian population: A hospital based case–control study

    Amit Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Findings of the present study suggest that MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism might be a risk factor of IS mainly for SVD subtypes of IS in North Indian population. Further large prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.

  9. Comparison of SSR and SNP markers in estimation of genetic diversity and population structure of Indian rice varieties.

    Nivedita Singh

    Full Text Available Simple sequence repeat (SSR and Single Nucleotide Polymorphic (SNP, the two most robust markers for identifying rice varieties were compared for assessment of genetic diversity and population structure. Total 375 varieties of rice from various regions of India archived at the Indian National GeneBank, NBPGR, New Delhi, were analyzed using thirty six genetic markers, each of hypervariable SSR (HvSSR and SNP which were distributed across 12 rice chromosomes. A total of 80 alleles were amplified with the SSR markers with an average of 2.22 alleles per locus whereas, 72 alleles were amplified with SNP markers. Polymorphic information content (PIC values for HvSSR ranged from 0.04 to 0.5 with an average of 0.25. In the case of SNP markers, PIC values ranged from 0.03 to 0.37 with an average of 0.23. Genetic relatedness among the varieties was studied; utilizing an unrooted tree all the genotypes were grouped into three major clusters with both SSR and SNP markers. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA indicated that maximum diversity was partitioned between and within individual level but not between populations. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA with SSR markers showed that genotypes were uniformly distributed across the two axes with 13.33% of cumulative variation whereas, in case of SNP markers varieties were grouped into three broad groups across two axes with 45.20% of cumulative variation. Population structure were tested using K values from 1 to 20, but there was no clear population structure, therefore Ln(PD derived Δk was plotted against the K to determine the number of populations. In case of SSR maximum Δk was at K=5 whereas, in case of SNP maximum Δk was found at K=15, suggesting that resolution of population was higher with SNP markers, but SSR were more efficient for diversity analysis.

  10. Identifying key demographic parameters of a small island–associated population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Reunion, Indian Ocean)

    Estrade, Vanessa; Fayan, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Photo-identification surveys of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins were conducted from 2009 to 2014 off Reunion Island (55°E33’/21°S07’), in the Indian Ocean. Robust Design models were applied to produce the most reliable estimate of population abundance and survival rate, while accounting for temporary emigration from the survey area (west coast). The sampling scheme consisted of a five-month (June–October) sampling period in each year of the study. The overall population size at Reunion was estimated to be 72 individuals (SE = 6.17, 95%CI = 61–85), based on a random temporary emigration (γ”) of 0.096 and a proportion of 0.70 (SE = 0.03) distinct individuals. The annual survival rate was 0.93 (±0.018 SE, 95%CI = 0.886–0.958) and was constant over time and between sexes. Models considering gender groups indicated different movement patterns between males and females. Males showed null or quasi-null temporary emigration (γ” = γ’ < 0.01), while females showed a random temporary emigration (γ”) of 0.10, suggesting that a small proportion of females was outside the survey area during each primary sampling period. Sex-specific temporary migration patterns were consistent with movement and residency patterns observed in other areas. The Robust Design approach provided an appropriate sampling scheme for deriving island-associated population parameters, while allowing to restrict survey effort both spatially (i.e. west coast only) and temporally (five months per year). Although abundance and survival were stable over the six years, the small population size of fewer than 100 individuals suggested that this population is highly vulnerable. Priority should be given to reducing any potential impact of human activity on the population and its habitat. PMID:28640918

  11. Identifying key demographic parameters of a small island-associated population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Reunion, Indian Ocean).

    Dulau, Violaine; Estrade, Vanessa; Fayan, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Photo-identification surveys of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins were conducted from 2009 to 2014 off Reunion Island (55°E33'/21°S07'), in the Indian Ocean. Robust Design models were applied to produce the most reliable estimate of population abundance and survival rate, while accounting for temporary emigration from the survey area (west coast). The sampling scheme consisted of a five-month (June-October) sampling period in each year of the study. The overall population size at Reunion was estimated to be 72 individuals (SE = 6.17, 95%CI = 61-85), based on a random temporary emigration (γ") of 0.096 and a proportion of 0.70 (SE = 0.03) distinct individuals. The annual survival rate was 0.93 (±0.018 SE, 95%CI = 0.886-0.958) and was constant over time and between sexes. Models considering gender groups indicated different movement patterns between males and females. Males showed null or quasi-null temporary emigration (γ" = γ' < 0.01), while females showed a random temporary emigration (γ") of 0.10, suggesting that a small proportion of females was outside the survey area during each primary sampling period. Sex-specific temporary migration patterns were consistent with movement and residency patterns observed in other areas. The Robust Design approach provided an appropriate sampling scheme for deriving island-associated population parameters, while allowing to restrict survey effort both spatially (i.e. west coast only) and temporally (five months per year). Although abundance and survival were stable over the six years, the small population size of fewer than 100 individuals suggested that this population is highly vulnerable. Priority should be given to reducing any potential impact of human activity on the population and its habitat.

  12. Identifying key demographic parameters of a small island-associated population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Reunion, Indian Ocean.

    Violaine Dulau

    Full Text Available Photo-identification surveys of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins were conducted from 2009 to 2014 off Reunion Island (55°E33'/21°S07', in the Indian Ocean. Robust Design models were applied to produce the most reliable estimate of population abundance and survival rate, while accounting for temporary emigration from the survey area (west coast. The sampling scheme consisted of a five-month (June-October sampling period in each year of the study. The overall population size at Reunion was estimated to be 72 individuals (SE = 6.17, 95%CI = 61-85, based on a random temporary emigration (γ" of 0.096 and a proportion of 0.70 (SE = 0.03 distinct individuals. The annual survival rate was 0.93 (±0.018 SE, 95%CI = 0.886-0.958 and was constant over time and between sexes. Models considering gender groups indicated different movement patterns between males and females. Males showed null or quasi-null temporary emigration (γ" = γ' < 0.01, while females showed a random temporary emigration (γ" of 0.10, suggesting that a small proportion of females was outside the survey area during each primary sampling period. Sex-specific temporary migration patterns were consistent with movement and residency patterns observed in other areas. The Robust Design approach provided an appropriate sampling scheme for deriving island-associated population parameters, while allowing to restrict survey effort both spatially (i.e. west coast only and temporally (five months per year. Although abundance and survival were stable over the six years, the small population size of fewer than 100 individuals suggested that this population is highly vulnerable. Priority should be given to reducing any potential impact of human activity on the population and its habitat.

  13. Comparison of SSR and SNP markers in estimation of genetic diversity and population structure of Indian rice varieties.

    Singh, Nivedita; Choudhury, Debjani Roy; Singh, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Sundeep; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Tyagi, R K; Singh, N K; Singh, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) and Single Nucleotide Polymorphic (SNP), the two most robust markers for identifying rice varieties were compared for assessment of genetic diversity and population structure. Total 375 varieties of rice from various regions of India archived at the Indian National GeneBank, NBPGR, New Delhi, were analyzed using thirty six genetic markers, each of hypervariable SSR (HvSSR) and SNP which were distributed across 12 rice chromosomes. A total of 80 alleles were amplified with the SSR markers with an average of 2.22 alleles per locus whereas, 72 alleles were amplified with SNP markers. Polymorphic information content (PIC) values for HvSSR ranged from 0.04 to 0.5 with an average of 0.25. In the case of SNP markers, PIC values ranged from 0.03 to 0.37 with an average of 0.23. Genetic relatedness among the varieties was studied; utilizing an unrooted tree all the genotypes were grouped into three major clusters with both SSR and SNP markers. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that maximum diversity was partitioned between and within individual level but not between populations. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) with SSR markers showed that genotypes were uniformly distributed across the two axes with 13.33% of cumulative variation whereas, in case of SNP markers varieties were grouped into three broad groups across two axes with 45.20% of cumulative variation. Population structure were tested using K values from 1 to 20, but there was no clear population structure, therefore Ln(PD) derived Δk was plotted against the K to determine the number of populations. In case of SSR maximum Δk was at K=5 whereas, in case of SNP maximum Δk was found at K=15, suggesting that resolution of population was higher with SNP markers, but SSR were more efficient for diversity analysis.

  14. DNA Repair Gene (XRCC1 Polymorphism (Arg399Gln Associated with Schizophrenia in South Indian Population: A Genotypic and Molecular Dynamics Study.

    S P Sujitha

    Full Text Available This paper depicts the first report from an Indian population on the association between the variant Arg399Gln of XRCC1 locus in the DNA repair system and schizophrenia, the debilitating disease that affects 1% of the world population. Genotypic analysis of a total of 523 subjects (260 patients and 263 controls revealed an overwhelming presence of Gln399Gln in the case subjects against the controls (P < 0.0068, indicating significant level of association of this nsSNP with schizophrenia; the Gln399 allele frequency was also perceptibly more in cases than in controls (p < 0.003; OR = 1.448. The results of the genotypic studies were further validated using pathogenicity and stability prediction analysis employing computational tools [I-Mutant Suite, iStable, PolyPhen2, SNAP, and PROVEAN], with a view toassess the magnitude of deleteriousness of the mutation. The pathogenicity analysis reveals that the nsSNP could be deleterious inasmuch as it could affect the functionality of the gene, and interfere with protein function. Molecular dynamics simulation of 60ns was performed using GROMACS to analyse structural change due to a mutation (Arg399Gln that was never examined before. RMSD, RMSF, hydrogen bonds, radius of gyration and SASA analysis showedthe existence of asignificant difference between the native and the mutant protein. The present study gives astrong indication that the XRCC1 locus deserves serious attention, as it could be a potential candidatecontributing to the etio-pathogenesis of the disease.

  15. Asian patients with dyslipidemia in an urban population: Effect of ethnicity on their LDL-cholesterol treatment goals.

    Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Koh, Kim Hwee; Goh, Chin Chin; Koh, Yi Ling Eileen; Goh, Soo Chye Paul

    2016-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is the primary risk factor for arthrosclerosis. It is the most common chronic disease among the multiethnic Asian population in Singapore. Local national health survey has shown ethnic variability in achieving control of dyslipidemia. This study aimed to determine the proportion of patients in primary care, who achieved their low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol treatment goals, stratified by the local major ethnic groups. It also evaluated the factors that affected their dyslipidemia control, including diet, exercise and medication usage. Research assistants administered questionnaires on adult patients with physician-diagnosed dyslipidemia to determine their views on diet, exercise, and medications in this cross-sectional study in 2 local primary care clinics. Their lipid profiles were retrieved from their laboratory reports in their electronic health records. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used for the categorical demographics and questionnaire variables, (P < .05: statistically significant). Logistic regression was performed using these significant variables to determine the adjusted odds of the ethnic groups. A total of 1093 eligible patients completed the questionnaires. The proportion of Chinese, Malay, and Indian patients who achieved LDL-cholesterol goals was 78.3%, 67.9%, and 68.5%, respectively. Among those who self-reported taking their favorite cholesterol-rich food occasionally when their cholesterol became controlled, 35.8% Indians failed to achieve treatment goals, compared to 20.1% Chinese and 30.9% Malay patients. Regular medication adherence was associated with 81.8% Chinese, 69.0% Malay, and 69.7% Indian reaching treatment goals. More Chinese met LDL-cholesterol treatment goals compared to Malays and Indians. Lipid-lowering medications enabled but smoking hindered their achievement of these treatment goals. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Polymorphic Variation in Double Strand Break Repair Gene in Indian Population: A Comparative Approach with Worldwide Ethnic Group Variations.

    Mandal, Raju Kumar; Mittal, Rama Devi

    2018-04-01

    DNA repair capacity is essential in maintaining cellular functions and homeostasis. Identification of genetic polymorphisms responsible for reduced DNA repair capacity may allow better cancer prevention. Double strand break repair pathway plays critical roles in maintaining genome stability. Present study was conducted to determine distribution of XRCC3 Exon 7 (C18067T, rs861539) and XRCC7 Intron 8 (G6721T, rs7003908) gene polymorphisms in North Indian population and compare with different populations globally. The genotype assays were performed in 224 normal healthy individuals of similar ethnicity using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Allelic frequencies of wild type were 79% (C) in XRCC3 Exon 7 C > T and 57% (G) in XRCC7 Intron 8 (G > T) 57% (G) observed. On the other hand, the variant allele frequency were 21% (T) in XRCC3 Exon 7 C > T and 43% (T) in XRCC7 Intron 8 G > T respectively. Major differences from other ethnic populations were observed. Our results suggest that frequency in these DNA repair genes exhibit distinctive pattern in India that could be attributed to ethnicity variation. This could assist in high-risk screening of humans exposed to environmental carcinogens and cancer predisposition in different ethnic groups.

  17. Estuarine fish biodiversity of Socotra Island (N.W. Indian Ocean): from the fish community to the functioning of Terapon jarbua populations

    Lavergne, Edouard

    2012-01-01

    Understanding connectivity between estuarine nurseries and marine habitats is fundamental to explore fish population dynamics and to the design of effective conservation and fisheries management strategies. The aim of this work was to provide the first faunistic and ecological baseline of Socotra Island (North-Western Indian Ocean) estuaries and lagoon fishes for governmental coastal managers and decision makers, with a particular focus on the population functioning of a sentinel species: Ter...

  18. Significant association of the dupA gene of Helicobacter pylori with duodenal ulcer development in a South-east Indian population.

    Alam, Jawed; Maiti, Sankar; Ghosh, Prachetash; De, Ronita; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Das, Suryasnata; Macaden, Ragini; Devarbhavi, Harshad; Ramamurthy, T; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K

    2012-09-01

    A novel virulence factor, duodenal ulcer-promoting gene A (dupA), in Helicobacter pylori has been found to be associated with disease in certain populations but not in others. This study analysed a South-east Indian population as part of the debate about the relevance of dupA for the prediction of clinical outcomes. A total of 140 H. pylori strains isolated from duodenal ulcer (DU) (n = 83) and non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) patients (n = 57) were screened by PCR and dot-blot hybridization to determine the presence of the ORFs jhp0917 and jhp0918. Part of jhp0917-jhp0918 was sequenced to search for the C/T insertion that characterizes dupA and the levels of dupA transcripts were also assessed. The PCR and dot-blot results indicated the presence of jhp0917 and jhp0918 in 37.3 % (31/83) and 12.2 % (7/57) of H. pylori strains isolated from DU and NUD patients, respectively. Sequencing analysis showed insertion of a C at nt 1386 in the 3' region of jhp0917, forming the dupA gene in 35 strains. RT-PCR analysis detected the dupA transcript in 28 of these 35 strains. The expression level of the dupA transcript varied from strain to strain, as shown by real-time PCR. The results demonstrated that analysis based on PCR only for dupA may produce an erroneous interpretation. The prevalence of dupA was significantly greater among strains isolated from patients with DU than from patients with NUD in this population (P = 0.001, odds ratio = 4.26, confidence interval = 1.60-11.74). Based on these findings, dupA can be considered a biomarker for DU patients in India. The reported discrepancies for this putative virulence marker in different populations may be due to the genome plasticity of H. pylori.

  19. Vildagliptin vs sulfonylurea in Indian Muslim diabetes patients fasting during Ramadan.

    Shete, Abhijit; Shaikh, Aheson; Nayeem, K Javeed; Rodrigues, Lily; Ali, Mohamed Sheikamunadeen Sadiq; Shah, Parag; Khanna, Rajiv; Majid, Sarfaraj; Rasheed, Sabeer A; Shaikh, Shehla; Rahman, Tawfiqur

    2013-12-15

    To compare the use of vildagliptin and sulfonylurea with or without metformin in Indian Muslim patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, fasting during Ramadan. This was a 4-wk, multicenter, non-interventional, open-label, observational study. Incidence of hypoglycemic events (HEs), adverse events, and changes in glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, postprandial plasma glucose and body weight were measured pre- and post-Ramadan. Totally, 97 patients were recruited and all completed the study (vildagliptin group, n = 55; sulfonylurea group, n = 42). HEs were reported in low frequencies in both the vildagliptin and the sulfonylurea groups [0 vs 2 (4.8%) patients, respectively]. Interestingly, HbA1c reduced by -0.43% (-4.71 mmol/mol) in the vildagliptin group [8.75% (72.10 mmol/mol) to 8.32% (67.38 mmol/mol), P = 0.009] while in the sulfonylurea group there was a small increase by 0.01% [0.08 mmol/mol; 8.64% (70.92 mmol/mol) to 8.65% (71.00 mmol/mol), P = 0.958]. Higher percentage of vildagliptin-treated patients achieved HbA1c < 7.0% (< 53 mmol/mol) compared with sulfonylurea (16.4% vs 4.8%). Mean decrease in the body weight was 1.2 kg and 0.03 kg, respectively (P < 0.001). Both treatment groups were well tolerated during Ramadan. Vildagliptin is an attractive treatment option for Indian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who are fasting during Ramadan.

  20. Lower respiratory tract infection hospitalizations among American Indian/Alaska Native children and the general United States child population

    Eric M. Foote

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI-associated hospitalization rate in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN children aged <5 years declined during 1998–2008, yet remained 1.6 times higher than the general US child population in 2006–2008. Purpose: Describe the change in LRTI-associated hospitalization rates for AI/AN children and for the general US child population aged <5 years. Methods: A retrospective analysis of hospitalizations with discharge ICD-9-CM codes for LRTI for AI/AN children and for the general US child population <5 years during 2009–2011 was conducted using Indian Health Service direct and contract care inpatient data and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, respectively. We calculated hospitalization rates and made comparisons to previously published 1998–1999 rates prior to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction. Results: The average annual LRTI-associated hospitalization rate declined from 1998–1999 to 2009–2011 in AI/AN (35%, p<0.01 and the general US child population (19%, SE: 4.5%, p<0.01. The 2009–2011 AI/AN child average annual LRTI-associated hospitalization rate was 20.7 per 1,000, 1.5 times higher than the US child rate (13.7 95% CI: 12.6–14.8. The Alaska (38.9 and Southwest regions (27.3 had the highest rates. The disparity was greatest for infant (<1 year pneumonia-associated and 2009–2010 H1N1 influenza-associated hospitalizations. Conclusions: Although the LRTI-associated hospitalization rate declined, the 2009–2011 AI/AN child rate remained higher than the US child rate, especially in the Alaska and Southwest regions. The residual disparity is likely multi-factorial and partly related to household crowding, indoor smoke exposure, lack of piped water and poverty. Implementation of interventions proven to reduce LRTI is needed among AI/AN children.

  1. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2015, 240, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 60% more ...

  2. Is accredited social health activists' basic oral health knowledge appropriate in educating rural Indian population?

    Narayana Rao Vinnakota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Accredited social health activists (ASHAs are the grassroot level health activists in the community who are involved in health education and community mobilization toward utilizing the health services. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the oral health knowledge among ASHAs working in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Five Primary Health Centers were randomly selected, and the total sample was 275. Categorical data were analyzed using Chi-square test. P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The mean age was 32 ± 5.11 years and mean education was 9 ± 1.329 years of schooling. ASHAs were categorized into two groups based on their education levels, i.e., Group I whose education qualification is <10th class and Group II whose education qualification is above 10th class to observe any difference in knowledge based on their education. Overall knowledge among ASHAs was poor and also it was observed that both the groups were having poor knowledge regarding dental caries, calculus, dental plaque, oral cancer, and change of tooth brush. About 69.5% of the ASHAs were approached by public with dental problems, but only a few, i.e., 15.8% have referred the patients to the nearby dentist. Conclusion: As we know that most of the dental diseases are preventable, there is a dire need that ASHAs should be thoroughly educated in the aspects of oral health and diseases during their training period. This not only helps in creating awareness among them but also serves the ultimate purpose of improving the oral health of rural population.

  3. Association of Nitric Oxide Synthase2 gene polymorphisms with leprosy reactions in northern Indian population.

    Dubey, Amit; Biswas, Sanjay Kumar; Sinha, Ekata; Chakma, Joy Kumar; Kamal, Raj; Arora, Mamta; Sagar, Harish; Natarajan, Mohan; Bhagyawant, Sameer S; Mohanty, Keshar Kunja

    2017-07-01

    The pathogen Mycobacterium leprae causes leprosy that affects mainly skin and nerves. Polymorphisms of certain genes are substantiated to be associated with the susceptibility/resistance to leprosy. The present investigation addressed the association of Nitric Oxide Synthase2 gene polymorphisms and leprosy in a population from northern part of India. A total of 323 leprosy cases and 288 healthy controls were genotyped for four NOS2 promoter variants (rs1800482, rs2779249, rs8078340 and rs2301369) using FRET technology in Real Time PCR. None of these SNPs in promoter sites was associated with susceptibility/resistance to leprosy. NOS2 rs1800482 was found to be monomorphic with GG genotype. However, NOS2-1026T allele was observed to be in higher frequency with leprosy cases (BL and LL) who were not suffering from any reactional episodes compared to cases with ENL reaction {OR=0.30, 95% CI (0.10-0.86), p=0.024}. NOS2-1026GT genotype was more prevalent in cases without reaction (BT, BB and BL) compared to RR reactional patients {OR=0.38, 95% CI (0.17-0.86), p=0.02}. Although haplotype analysis revealed that no haplotype was associated with leprosy susceptibility/resistance with statistical significance, GTG haplotype was noted to be more frequent in healthy controls. These SNPs are observed to be in linkage disequilibrium. Although, these SNPs are not likely to influence leprosy vulnerability, -1026G>T SNP was indicated to have noteworthy role in leprosy reactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and need of blood transfusion in total knee arthroplasty: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study in Indian population

    Abhishek Shinde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For quite a few years, tranexamic acid (TEA has been used during total knee arthroplasty (TKA to reduce blood loss. However, no consensus exits regarding its timing and doses. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized double-blinded study of 56 patients in the Indian population undergoing TKA from 2011 to 2012. A dose of 10 mg/kg body weight of TEA (three doses was given in one group and normal saline was administered in the other. Results: The mean blood loss in the TEA unilateral group was 295 mL ± 218 mL and in the placebo group was 482 mL ± 186 mL (P < 0.005. In the bilateral TEA group, the mean blood loss was 596 mL ± 235 mL and in the placebo group was 1349 mL ± 41 mL (P < 0.005. Conclusion: The number of patients requiring blood transfusion reduced substantially. There was no increase in the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT and pulmonary embolism. TEA reduces intraoperative and postoperative blood loss and thus reduces the need of allogenic blood transfusion.

  5. Analysis of prevalence and clinical features of multicystic ameloblastoma and its histological subtypes in South Indian sample population: A retrospective study over 13 years

    Manickam Selvamani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was designed to analyze the frequency and clinical features of multicystic ameloblastoma and its histological variants in South Indian sample population, as there is minute information available in the English literature. Methodology: The study source was the biopsy specimens retrieved from the archives of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere, Karnataka, India, during the past 13 years, from 2001 to 2013. Clinical data for the study were obtained from the case records of patients and the analyzed clinical variables were age, gender and anatomical location. Histologically, hematoxylin and eosin stained sections fitting the World Health Organization (2005 criteria for diagnosis of multicystic ameloblastoma were selectively included. Results: Of the 3026 biopsy reports analyzed, 103 cases were odontogenic tumors (3.4% and 58 cases were ameloblastoma. 31 cases of multicystic ameloblastoma, including follicular ameloblastoma (54.8%, acanthomatous ameloblastoma (29%, plexiform ameloblastoma (6.5%, granular cell ameloblastoma (6.5% and desmoplastic ameloblastoma (3.2% were recorded. The age of the patients during the presentation of the lesion was ranging from 21 to 73 years, with a mean of 39.5 years. The most frequent clinical manifestation was swelling, followed by a combination of pain and swelling. In our study, ameloblastoma showed distinct anatomic predilections for occurrence in mandible (96.8% rather than maxilla (3.2%. This study result also indicated that there is geographical variation in the frequency and distribution of ameloblastoma.

  6. LRRK2 and RIPK2 variants in the NOD 2-mediated signaling pathway are associated with susceptibility to Mycobacterium leprae in Indian populations.

    Patrick Marcinek

    Full Text Available In recent years, genome wide association studies have discovered a large number of gene loci that play a functional role in innate and adaptive immune pathways associated with leprosy susceptibility. The immunological control of intracellular bacteria M. leprae is modulated by NOD2-mediated signaling of Th1 responses. In this study, we investigated 211 clinically classified leprosy patients and 230 ethnically matched controls in Indian population by genotyping four variants in NOD2 (rs9302752A/G, LRRK2 (rs1873613A/G, RIPK2 (rs40457A/G and rs42490G/A. The LRRK2 locus is associated with leprosy outcome. The LRRK2 rs1873613A minor allele and respective rs1873613AA genotypes were significantly associated with an increased risk whereas the LRRK2 rs1873613G major allele and rs1873613GG genotypes confer protection in paucibacillary and leprosy patients. The reconstructed GA haplotypes from RIPK2 rs40457A/G and rs42490G/A variants was observed to contribute towards increased risk whereas haplotypes AA was observed to confer protective role. Our results indicate that a possible shared mechanisms underlying the development of these two clinical forms of the disease as hypothesized. Our findings confirm and validates the role of gene variants involved in NOD2-mediated signalling pathways that play a role in immunological control of intracellular bacteria M. leprae.

  7. Population pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in Jordanian patients

    predictors of vancomycin clearance include: weight, serum creatinine, chronic renal ... (http://www.budapestopenaccessinitiative.org/read), which permit ... reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. ... fluid balance; and albumin levels]); (3) .... vancomycin half-life is prolonged in patients with.

  8. Ectodermal Dysplasia: Report and Analysis of Eleven South Indian Patients with Review of Literature

    Renuka Ammanagi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasia represents a rare syndrome affecting two or more ectodermally derived structures. The condition is thought to occur in approximately 1 in every 100,000 live births. It affects men more frequently and severely, while women being the carriers and heterozygote usually show minor defects. There are more than 150 different variants of ectodermal dysplasia (ED reported in the literature. Most commonly encountered among them is hypohidrotic ED which frequently exhibits the most severe dental anomalies like hypodontia or anodontia along with hypohidrosis and hypotrichosis. Here we make an attempt to collectively report and discuss eleven South Indian patients who reported to our department during the year 1998 to 2004. An added emphasis is laid on family history of consanguineous marriage among the parents of these patients.

  9. Association of glutathione S-transferase (GSTM1, T1 and P1 gene polymorphisms with type 2 diabetes mellitus in north Indian population

    Bid H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and a reduction in antioxidant defense. The oxidative stress becomes evident as a result of accumulation of ROS in conditions of inflammation and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The genes involved in redox balance, which determines the susceptibility to T2DM remain unclear. In humans, the glutathione S-transferase (GST family comprises several classes of GST isozymes, the polymorphic variants of GSTM1, T1 and P1 genes result in decreased or loss of enzyme activity. Aims: The present study evaluated the effect of genetic polymorphisms of the GST gene family on the risk of developing T2DM in the North Indian population. Settings and Design: GSTM1, T1 and P1 polymorphisms were genotyped in 100 T2DM patients and 200 healthy controls from North India to analyze their association with T2DM susceptibility. Materials and Methods: Analysis of GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms was performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR and GSTP1 by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP. Statistical Analysis: Fisher′s exact test and χ2 statistics using SPSS software (Version-15.0. Results: We observed significant association of GSTM1 null (P=0.004, OR= 2.042, 95%CI= 1.254-3.325 and GSTP1 (I/V (P=0.001, OR= 0.397, 95%CI=0.225-0.701 with T2DM and no significant association with GSTT1 (P=0.493. The combined analysis of the three genotypes GSTM1 null, T1 present and P1 (I/I demonstrated an increase in T2DM risk (P= 0.005, OR= 2.431 95% CI=1.315-4.496. Conclusions: This is the first study showing the association of a combined effect of GSTM1, T1 and P1 genotypes in a representative cohort of Indian patients with T2DM. Since significant association was seen in GSTM1 null and GSTP1 (I/V and multiple association in GSTM1 null, T1 present and P1 (I/I, these polymorphisms can be screened in the population to determine the diabetic risk.

  10. Evaluating Disparities in Inpatient Surgical Cancer Care Among American Indian/Alaska Native Patients

    Simianu, Vlad V.; Morris, Arden M.; Varghese, Thomas K.; Porter, Michael P.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Flum, David R.; Javid, Sara H.

    2016-01-01

    Background American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) patients with cancer have the lowest survival rates of all racial and ethnic groups, possibly because they are less likely to receive “best practice” surgical care than patients of other races. Methods Prospective cohort study comparing adherence to generic and cancer-specific guidelines on processes of surgical care between AI/AN and non-Hispanic white (NHW) patients in Washington State (2010–2014). Results 156 AI/AN and 6,030 NHW patients underwent operations for 10 different cancers, and had similar mean adherence to generic surgical guidelines (91.5% vs 91.9%, p=0.57). AI/AN patients with breast cancer less frequently received preoperative diagnostic core-needle biopsy (81% versus 94%, p=0.004). AI/AN patients also less frequently received care adherent to prostate cancer-specific guidelines (74% versus 92%,p=0.001). Conclusions While AI/ANs undergoing cancer operations in Washington receive similar overall best practice surgical cancer care to NHW patients, there remain important, modifiable disparities that may contribute to their lower survival. PMID:26846176

  11.  A Comparison of Serum Cystatin C and Creatinine with Glomerular FiltrationRate in Indian Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Ramanathan Kumaresan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: There is no literature available on the performance of cystatin C in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD patients of Indian population based on age group. Hence, this study is aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of serum cystatin C and creatinine with measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR and estimated GFR (eGFR in subjects of Indian origin. Methods: The study was carried out at Tiruchirappalli, South India during the period of September 2010 to march 2011. One hundred and six CKD patients (82 males, 24 females were enrolled and categorized into three groups based on age. The eGFR was calculated using Cockcroft-Gault (CG and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD formulae. Serum cystatin C was measured with a particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay (PENIA method. GFR was measured using 99mTC - diethylene triamine penta aceticacid (DTPA renal scan method. Results: Serum cystatin C showed significant correlation with measured GFR in all the three groups (r=-0.9735, r=-0.8975 and r=-0.7994 respectively than serum creatinine (r=-0.7380, r=- 0.6852 and r=-0.5127 respectively. Conclusion: Serum cystatin C showed a high correlation with measured GFR in young and older patients with CKD than creatinine. Thus, cystatin C is a good alternative marker to creatinine in CKD patients.

  12. Comparison of various risk indicators among patients with chronic and aggressive periodontitis in davangere population

    Vandana, Kharidhi Laxman; Nadkarni, Rahul Dilip; Guddada, Kaveri

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to compare various risk indicators of chronic periodontitis (CP) and aggressive periodontitis (AP) among patients of Davangere population. Materials and Methods: Totally, 89 CP and 90 AP patients were selected from outpatient Department of Periodontics, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere. Various clinical parameters proven to be risk indicators were determined for each patient such as age, gender, occupation, oral hygiene habits, personal habits, income, level of education, place of residence, frequency of dental visits, various oral hygiene indices, gingival status, wasting diseases, malocclusion, laboratory investigations, and the results were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: This study demonstrated that AP is manifested early in life in susceptible individuals. Proven risk indicators for AP and CP in the present study population included young age, place of residence, income and education levels, frequency of dental visits. Patients with AP had better oral hygiene habits and oral hygiene index results than patients with CP. Paan chewing and smoking could be considered as risk factors, both in CP and AP cases. The similar association of plaque scores but higher bleeding tendency in AP patients supported the fact of higher susceptibility of AP patients to periodontal breakdown. Malocclusion being present in the majority of cases could also be put forth as a risk factor for AP and CP. Conclusion: This study identifies the different risk indicators for CP and AP and demonstrates the need for constructing nationwide oral health promotion programs to improve the level of oral health awareness and standards in Indian population. PMID:26392693

  13. Predictors of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis in Indian population

    Inderjeet Verma

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: In the present study, FMD and CIMT were impaired in RA, indicating endothelial dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis respectively. CRP, TNF-α, serum nitrite, DAS-28 and depleted EPC population predicted endothelial dysfunction. Age, IL-6, HDL, LDL and depleted EPC population predicted accelerated atherosclerosis.

  14. Daily dietary intake of trace elements of radiological and nutritional importance by the adult Indian population

    Dang, H.S.; Jaiswal, D.D.; Nair, S.

    2001-01-01

    The concentrations of eleven elements: Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, I, K, Se, Sr, Th and Zn were determined in total diet samples and also in individual food materials which constitute the typical Indian diet. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) were employed for the analysis. Whereas the elements Fe, Co, Cr, Se and Zn are important from the view point of their role in nutrition, the elements Cs, K, Sr and Th are of importance in radiation protection, and Ca and I have dual importance: both in nutrition as well as in radiation protection. Based on the analysis of twenty total diet samples, prepared as per the data on the dietary intake pattern of four provinces of India and the data on intake pattern of an average adult Indian, the geometric mean (GM) intake of various elements was estimated to be 0.33 g (0.2-0.67) for Ca, 16.5 μg (8.3-31.1) for Co, 52.3μg (35.1-131) for Cr, 4.7μg (2.79-11.8) for Cs, 94.6μg (60.6-201) for I, 1.90 g (1.25-3.54) for K, 1.13 mg (0.78-2.97) for Sr, 0.76μg (0.45-1.66) for Th, 15.9 mg (10.2-34.3) for Fe, 56.3μg (27.6-105.3) for Se and 8.6 mg (5.1-16.7) for Zn. Some of the important individual food materials, such as cereals, pulses, milk, vegetables etc., were also analysed for these elements to observe the contributions of the individual food materials to their daily dietary intake. The results of the analysis showed that in the case of Cs, K, Sr, Th, Fe, Zn and Co, almost 50% of the daily dietary intake of the above stated elements is contributed by cereals and pulses. In the case of Ca however, significant amount is amount is contributed by milk and in case of I, iodised salt could make significant contribution. The data collected so far, for Se and Cr, was not sufficient to draw any definite conclusion. (author)

  15. Population dynamics and reproductive biology of Barilius bendelisis (Cyprinidae: Cypriniformes) from river Gaula of Central Indian Himalaya.

    Saxena, Neha; Patiyal, Rabindar Singh; Dube, Kiran; Tiwari, Virendra K

    2016-09-01

    The Indian hill trout cyprinid, Barilius bendelisis is a member of family Cyprinidae that dwells in shallow, cold, and clear water. In this study, growth parameters and reproductive biology of Indian hill trout, Barilius bendelisis from river Gaula, Central Himalaya region, India, were studied. The length-frequency data were grouped sex wise and were analyzed to determine the growth and mortality parameters using the computer software programme, FAO-ICLARM Stock Assessment Tool (FISAT II). Altogether, 501 individuals were collected from river Gaula (November 2013-October 2014) and were preserved in formalin for further analysis. The results showed that the female outnumbered the male population. The minimum GSI of females was observed in the month of October (4.93 ± 0.26) and for males in the month of June and July (0.093 ± 0.12), whereas, the maximum value was in the month of April for both females (13.47 ± 0.52) and males (1.21 ± 0.12). Fluctuation in GSI values had a bimodal pattern showing two peaks during March-May and August-September in both the sexes, indicating the common spawning period of fish. The slope of regression showed the negative allometric growth for both males and females (b= 2.65 for male and b= 2.5 for female). A significant relationship between length and weight was observed in the present study (p < 0.05). The ELEFAN-I estimated L∞ and K of the von Bertalanffy growth factor for males (17.33 cm and 0.310 per year), females (17.33 cm and 0.3 per year) and pooled sexes (17.33 cm and 0.240 per year). The results indicated that Barilius bendelisis is a small sized fish having negative allometric growth that spawns twice a year. Thus, the present study on biological traits represents the baseline information for effective production, conservation and restoration planning.

  16. Surgical Morphometry of C1 and C2 Vertebrae: A Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography Analysis of 180 Chinese, Indian, and Malay Patients.

    Lee, Chee Kean; Tan, Tiam Siong; Chan, Chris Yin Wei; Kwan, Mun Keong

    2017-04-01

    Clinical imaging study. To study the surgical morphometry of C1 and C2 vertebrae in Chinese, Indian, and Malay patients. C1 lateral mass and C2 pedicle screw fixation is gaining popularity. However, there is a lack of C1-C2 morphometric data for the Asian population. Computed tomography analysis of 180 subjects (60 subjects each belonging to Chinese, Indian, and Malay populations) using simulation software was performed. Length and angulations of C1 lateral mass (C1LM) and C2 pedicle (C2P) screws were assessed. The predicted C1LM screw length was between 23.2 and 30.2 mm. The safe zone of trajectories was within 11.0°±7.7° laterally to 29.1°±6.2° medially in the axial plane and 37.0°±10.2° caudally to 20.9°±7.8° cephalically in the sagittal plane. The shortest and longest predicted C2P screw lengths were 22.1±2.8 mm and 28.5±3.2 mm, respectively. The safe trajectories were from 25.1° to 39.3° medially in the axial plane and 32.3° to 45.9° cephalically in the sagittal plane. C1LM screw length was 23-30 mm with the axial safe zone from 11° laterally to 29° medially and sagittal safe zone at 21° cephalically. C2P screw length was 22-28 mm with axial safe zone from 26° to 40° medially and sagittal safe zone from 32° to 46° cephalically. These data serve as an important reference for Chinese, Indian, and Malay populations during C1-C2 instrumentation.

  17. Circulating MiRNAs of 'Asian Indian Phenotype' Identified in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Paramasivam Prabu

    Full Text Available Several omics technologies are underway worldwide with an aim to unravel the pathophysiology of a complex phenotype such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. While recent studies imply a clinically relevant and potential biomarker role of circulatory miRNAs in the etiology of T2DM, there is lack of data on this aspect in Indians--an ethnic population characterized to represent 'Asian Indian phenotype' known to be more prone to develop T2DM and cardiovascular disease than Europeans. We performed global serum miRNA profiling and the validation of candidate miRNAs by qRT-PCR in a cohort of subjects comprised of normal glucose tolerance (NGT, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and patients with T2DM. Our study revealed 4 differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-128, miR-130b-3p, miR-374a-5p, miR-423-5p in subjects with IGT and T2DM patients compared to control subjects. They were positively or negatively correlated to cholesterol levels, HbA1C, HOMA-IR and fasting insulin. Interestingly, circulating level of miR-128 and miR-130b-3p were also altered in serum of diet-induced diabetic mice compared to control animals. Among the altered circulating miRNAs, miR-128 had never been described in previous studies/populations and appeared to be a 'New Lead' in Indians. It was positively correlated with cholesterol both in prediabetic subjects and in diet-induced diabetic mice, suggesting that its increased level might be associated with the development of dyslipedemia associated with T2DM. Our findings imply directionality towards biomarker potential of miRNAs in the prevention/diagnosis/treatment outcomes of diabetes.

  18. Circulating MiRNAs of 'Asian Indian Phenotype' Identified in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Prabu, Paramasivam; Rome, Sophie; Sathishkumar, Chandrakumar; Aravind, Sankaramoorthy; Mahalingam, Balakumar; Shanthirani, Coimbatore Subramanian; Gastebois, Caroline; Villard, Audrey; Mohan, Viswanathan; Balasubramanyam, Muthuswamy

    2015-01-01

    Several omics technologies are underway worldwide with an aim to unravel the pathophysiology of a complex phenotype such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). While recent studies imply a clinically relevant and potential biomarker role of circulatory miRNAs in the etiology of T2DM, there is lack of data on this aspect in Indians--an ethnic population characterized to represent 'Asian Indian phenotype' known to be more prone to develop T2DM and cardiovascular disease than Europeans. We performed global serum miRNA profiling and the validation of candidate miRNAs by qRT-PCR in a cohort of subjects comprised of normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and patients with T2DM. Our study revealed 4 differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-128, miR-130b-3p, miR-374a-5p, miR-423-5p) in subjects with IGT and T2DM patients compared to control subjects. They were positively or negatively correlated to cholesterol levels, HbA1C, HOMA-IR and fasting insulin. Interestingly, circulating level of miR-128 and miR-130b-3p were also altered in serum of diet-induced diabetic mice compared to control animals. Among the altered circulating miRNAs, miR-128 had never been described in previous studies/populations and appeared to be a 'New Lead' in Indians. It was positively correlated with cholesterol both in prediabetic subjects and in diet-induced diabetic mice, suggesting that its increased level might be associated with the development of dyslipedemia associated with T2DM. Our findings imply directionality towards biomarker potential of miRNAs in the prevention/diagnosis/treatment outcomes of diabetes.

  19. Association of MTHFR and PPARγ2 gene polymorphisms in relation to type 2 diabetes mellitus cases among north Indian population.

    Raza, Syed Tasleem; Abbas, Shania; Ahmed, Faisal; Fatima, Jalees; Zaidi, Zeashan Haider; Mahdi, Farzana

    2012-12-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial and polygenic disease, which is considered as a major life threatening problem all over the world. There has been a worldwide effort in the identification of susceptibility genes for type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications. At present, adequate data is not available dealing with MTHFR (rs1801133) and PPARγ2 (rs1801282) gene polymorphisms and its association with type 2 diabetes mellitus cases among north Indian populations. Thus, we conceived the need for further studies to investigate MTHFR and PPARγ2 gene polymorphisms and their susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus in north Indian population. In this study, a total 175 subjects including 87 type 2 diabetes mellitus cases and 88 controls were enrolled. MTHFR and PPARγ2 gene polymorphisms in the cases and controls were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The MTHFR gene CC, CT, TT genotype frequencies obtained were 40%, 43%, and 17% in type 2 diabetes mellitus cases and 56%, 29%, and 15% in healthy controls respectively. The OR for CC was 0.54 (95%CI 0.29-0.98, P=0.041, χ(2)=4.18, power=0.98), for CT 1.76 (95%CI 0.94-3.30, P=0.07, χ(2)=3.2, power=0.96), and for TT 1.2 (95%CI 0.53-2.70, P=0.66, χ(2)=0.198, power=0.76). The PPARγ2 gene GG CG, CC genotype frequencies obtained were 28%, 41%, and 31% in cases and 40%, 39%, and 21% in healthy controls respectively. OR for GG was 0.58 (95%CI 0.30-1.09, P=0.08, χ(2)=2.9, power=0.96), for CG 1.12 (95%CI 0.61-2.05, P=0.71, χ(2)=0.137, power=0.778), and for CC 1.63 (95%CI 0.82-3.23, P=0.156, χ(2)=2.01, power=0.92). It might be recommended that MTHFR CC genotype seems to be a good marker for the early identification of population at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. While we have detected significant difference in allelic frequencies of PPARγ2 C (Proline) and G (Alanine), but at genotypic level significant difference was not detected in this case

  20. Hypersensitivity Reaction Associated with Abacavir Therapy in an Indian HIV Patient - A Case Report.

    Janardhanan, Manju; Amberkar V, Mohan Babu; Vidyasagar, Sudha; Kumari K, Meena; Holla, Sadhana N

    2014-09-01

    The most important and unique adverse effect of abacavir (ABC) is fatal hypersensitivity reaction (HSR). The objective of this report is to describe a case of ABC induced HSR that occurred in an Indian HIV patient during treatment. Although this adverse effect is not uncommon, it is perhaps underreported or has never been reported so far in an Indian case scenario. A 44-year-old known case of HIV-1 was admitted in view of his worsening condition and very low CD4 cell counts 3 cells/μL. He was on anti-retroviral therapy since three years but not regular. On the basis of treatment failure, non-compliance and progressive low CD4 counts, the anti HIV regime was switched over to abacavir 600 mg+ atazanavir/ ritonavir 300mg/100mg Two weeks after ABC therapy he presented with maculopapular rash, headache and signs of hepatic damage (serum AST, ALP and ALT increased to 3-4 fold) suggestive of hypersensitivity reaction. As we know discontinuation of the drug is the ultimate litmus test to confirm diagnosis of drug induced adverse reaction. We did confirm ABC induced HSR by de-challenge wherein, rash disappeared within 2-3 days and LFT came back to normal within 5 days. However, no rechallenge was done. HSR was more in favour of ABC because atazanavir failed to produce any similar reaction after re-challenge.

  1. Effect of CPAP Therapy in Improving Daytime Sleepiness in Indian Patients with Moderate and Severe OSA.

    Battan, Gulshan; Kumar, Sanjeev; Panwar, Ajay; Atam, Virendra; Kumar, Pradeep; Gangwar, Anil; Roy, Ujjawal

    2016-11-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) is a highly prevalent disease and a major public health issue in India. Excessive daytime sleepiness is an almost ubiquitous symptom of OSA. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score is a validated objective score to measure the degree of daytime sleepiness. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) therapy has been established as the gold standard treatment modality for OSA patients. A few Indian studies have reported the effectiveness of CPAP therapy in improving ESS scores after 1 st month of CPAP use. To observe both, short-term (one month) and long-term (three month) effects of CPAP therapy on ESS scores in moderate to severe OSA patients. The patients complaining of excessive day-time sleepiness, snoring and choking episodes during sleep, consecutively presenting to medicine OPD over a period of 2 years, were subjected to Polysomnography (PSG). Seventy-three patients with apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥15 were categorised as having moderate to severe forms of OSA (moderate OSA with AHI=15-30 and severe OSA with AHI >30), and were scheduled for an initial trial of CPAP therapy. Forty-seven patients reported good tolerance to CPAP therapy after a trial period of 2 weeks and comprised the final study group. ESS scores in these patients were recorded at the baseline, and after 1 st and 3 rd month of CPAP therapy, and statistically analysed for significance. Mean ESS score at the baseline among moderate and severe OSA patients were 13.67±2.29 and 16.56 ±1.87, respectively. ESS score in both these subgroups improved significantly to 11.63±3.79, p=0.022, CI (0.3293-4.0106)} and 14.13 ±3.74, p CPAP therapy. Likewise, mean ESS scores among moderate and severe OSA patients improved significantly to 9.84 ±2.97, p = 0.022, CI (0.3293-4.0106) and 12.29 ±3.97, p CPAP therapy. The result of the present study shows that CPAP therapy is significantly effective in improving ESS scores in Indian patients having moderate to severe OSA. Benefits

  2. Measured glomerular filtration rate at dialysis initiation and clinical outcomes of Indian peritoneal dialysis patients

    N Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal time for dialysis initiation remains controversial. Studies have failed to show better outcomes with early initiation of hemodialysis; even a few had shown increased adverse outcomes including poorer survival. Few studies have examined the same in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD. Measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR not creatinine-based estimated GFR is recommended as the measure of kidney function in end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients. The objective of this observational study was to compare the outcomes of Indian patients initiated on PD with different residual renal function (RRF as measured by 24-h urinary clearance method. A total of 352 incident patients starting on chronic ambulatory PD as the first modality of renal replacement therapy were followed prospectively. Patients were categorized into three groups as per mGFR at the initiation of PD (≤5, >5–10, and> 10 ml/min/1.73 m2. Patient survival and technique survival were compared among the three groups. Patients with GFR of ≤5 ml/min/1.73 m2 (hazard ratio [HR] - 3.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] - 1.85–6.30, P = 0.000 and> 5–10 ml/min/1.73 m2 (HR - 2.16, 95% CI - 1.26–3.71, P = 0.005 had higher risk of mortality as compared to those with GFR of> 10 ml/min/1.73 m2. Each increment of 1 ml/min/1.73 m2 in baseline GFR was associated with 10% reduced risk of death (HR - 0.90, 95% CI - 0.85–0.96, P = 0.002. Technique survival was poor in those with an initial mGFR of ≤5 ml/min/1.73 m2 as compared to other categories. RRF at the initiation was also an important factor predicting nutritional status at 1 year of follow-up. To conclude, initiation of PD at a lower baseline mGFR is associated with poorer patient and technique survival in Indian ESRD patients.

  3. Prognostic factors in patients with node-negative gastric cancer: an Indian experience

    Ranganathan Rama

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The status of the regional nodes is the most important prognostic factor in gastric cancer. There are subgroups of patients with different prognosis even in node-negative patients of gastric cancer. The aim of this study is to analyze the factors influencing the prognosis in Indian patients with node-negative gastric cancer. Methods This was a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent radical gastrectomy in a tertiary cancer centre in India between1991 and 2007. The study group included only patients with histologically node-negative disease. Various clinical, pathological and treatment related factors in this group of patients were analyzed to determine their prognostic ability by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Among the 417 patients who underwent gastrectomy during this period, 122 patients had node-negative disease. A major proportion of the patients had advanced gastric cancer. The 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival in all node-negative gastric cancer patients was 68.2% and 67.5% respectively. The overall recurrence rate in this group was 27.3%. On univariate analysis, the factors found to significantly influence the disease-free survival were the size, location and presence or absence of serosal invasion of the primary tumor. However, on multivariate analysis, only tumor size more than 3 cm and serosal invasion were found to be independently associated with an inferior survival. Conclusion Serosal invasion and primary tumor size more than 3 cm independently predict a poor outcome in patients with node-negative gastric cancer.

  4. Low prevalence of transcriptionally active human papilloma virus in Indian patients with HNSCC and leukoplakia.

    Bhosale, Priyanka G; Pandey, Manishkumar; Desai, Rajiv S; Patil, Asawari; Kane, Shubhada; Prabhash, Kumar; Mahimkar, Manoj B

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, we comprehensively analyzed the prevalence of transcriptionally active human papilloma virus (HPV) in tissue samples of Indian patients with leukoplakia, predominantly hyperplastic lesions and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In addition, saliva samples from patients with HNSCC were screened for HPV detection. P16 overexpression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Tissue samples of leukoplakia (n = 121) and HNSCC (n = 427) and saliva from patients with HNSCC (n = 215) were tested for HPV using nested polymerase chain reaction. Positive samples were sequenced for subtyping. The presence of HPV E6/E7 mRNA was confirmed by RNA in situ hybridization. P16 expression and HPV DNA were not detected in any of the leukoplakia specimens. Of the 427 HNSCC tumors, 9 showed p16 overexpression and 7/427 cases were positive for HPV16 DNA, in saliva or tissue. E6/E7 mRNA positivity was observed in 8 HNSCC samples, primarily from patients with no habit of tobacco consumption. The prevalence of high-risk HPV was restricted to oropharynx and larynx, with very little concordance between p16 overexpression and HPV positivity. All patients with HPV-positive saliva samples had transcriptionally active HPV present in their tumors. The presence of HPV DNA does not necessarily reflect transcriptionally active virus in tumors; hence, it is important to consider this fact while categorizing HPV-associated tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bone mineral density trends in Indian patients with hyperthyroidism--effect of antithyroid therapy.

    Dhanwal, Dinesh Kumar; Gupta, Nandita

    2011-09-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with bone loss, which is reversible after treatment. The extent of reversibility of loss of bone mass density (BMD) in hyperthyroid patients after treatment especially at forearm is not clear. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess degree of reversibility in bone mineral density following one-year medical treatment in Indian patients with hyperthyroidism. A total of 30 consecutive patients with hyperthyroidism were included in this one year study at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. All the patients were assessed for parameters of bone mineral homeostasis such as calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25 (OH) D], parathyroid hormone (PTH) at the time of diagnosis and after one year medical treatment. Bone mineral density was measured using Hologic DXA scan at hip, spine and forearm. All the patients received medical therapy with carbimazole. The parameters of bone homeostasis and bone mineral density at base line and after one year medical treatment was compared. All patients attained euthyroid status after eight weeks of carbimazole therapy. Parameters of bone homeostasis such as calcium, phosphorous, 25 (OH) D and PTH did not show any significant change from base line. Bone mineral density expressed as bone mineral content in gm/cm2 at left hip neck, trochanteric and intertrochanteric region was significantly higher after carbimazole therapy (745.2 +/- 127.6 gm/cm2 vs. 688.2 +/- 123.5 gm/cm2; p = 0.02, 573.4 +/- 109.9 gm/cm2 vs. 641.0 +/- 138.0 gm/cm2, p = 0.005 and 1008.6 +/- 185.5 gm/cm2 vs. 938.0 +/- 145.3 gm/cm2 p = 0.0131 respectively). Bone mineral density at lumbar spine expressed as either T and Z score was significantly higher after treatment (10 months of euthyroid state) (-0.6 +/- 1.3 vs. -1.7 +/- 1.2, p = 0.013 and -0.4 +/- 1.2 vs. -1.4 +/- 1.2, p = 0.012 respectively). However Bone mineral measures as T and Z score at left forearm decreased significantly

  6. Association of Intact dupA (dupA1) rather than dupA1 cluster with duodenal ulcer in Indian population.

    Alam, Jawed; Ghosh, Prachetash; Ganguly, Mou; Sarkar, Avijit; De, Ronita; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K

    2015-01-01

    The duodenal ulcer promoting gene (dupA) and dupA cluster in Helicobacter pylori have been described as a risk factor for duodenal ulcer development in some populations. Polymorphic gene dupA can be divided into two groups, intact dupA1 (long or short type based on the presence or absence of 615-bp extra sequences at the 5' region) having complete reading frame and other truncated dupA2 having frame-shift mutation. This study was aimed to elucidate the role of dupA of H. pylori and their clusters in the disease manifestation of Indian population. A total of 170 H. pylori strains were screened for the presence of dupA, dupA alleles and dupA cluster by PCR and sequencing. Pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-8) with different dupA variant H. pylori stimulated gastric epithelial cells (AGS cells) was measured by ELISA. A total of 50 strains (29.4%) were positive for dupA among the tested 170 strains. The prevalence of dupA1 in duodenal ulcer (DU) and non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) populations was found to be 25.5% (25/98) and 11.1% (8/72), respectively and 16.4% (28/170) of the tested strains had dupA1, cagA and vacAs1m1 positive. The distribution of long and short type dupA1 has not been significantly associated with the disease outcome. The dupA cluster analysis showed that 10.2% (10/98) and 8.3% (6/72) strains were positive among DU and NUD, respectively. IL-8 production was significantly higher in dupA1(+) , cagA (+), vacA (+) (902.5 ± 79.01 pg/mL) than dupA2 (+) , cagA (+) , vacA (+) (536.0 ± 100.4 pg/mL, P = 0.008) and dupA (-), cagA (+), vacA (+) (549.7 ± 104.1 pg/mL, P = 0.009). Phylogenetic analysis of dupA indicated that the Indian H. pylori strains clustered with East Asian strains but distinct from Western strains. This is the first known genetic element of Indian H. pylori that is genetically closer to the East Asian strains but differed from the Western strains. The intact dupA1 was significantly associated with DU than NUD (P = 0

  7. Role of immune activation in CD4+ T-cell depletion in HIV-1 infected Indian patients.

    Vajpayee, M; Kaushik, S; Sreenivas, V; Mojumdar, K; Mendiratta, S; Chauhan, N K

    2009-01-01

    The correlation of immune activation with CD4(+) depletion and HIV-1 disease progression has been evidenced by several studies involving mainly clade B virus. However, this needs to be investigated in developing countries such as India predominately infected with clade C virus. In a cross-sectional study of 68 antiretroviral treatment naïve, HIV-1 infected Indian patients, we studied the association between CD4(+) T cells, plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, and immune activation markers using unadjusted and adjusted correlative analyses. Significant negative correlations of higher magnitude were observed between the CD4(+) T cell percentages and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels in the study population when adjusted for the effects of immune activation markers. However, the negative association of CD4(+) T cells with immune activation markers remained unaffected when controlled for the effects of plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. Our results support the important role of immune activation in CD4(+) T cell depletion and disease progression during untreated HIV-1 infection.

  8. The Role of TLR4, TNF-α and IL-1β in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Development within a North Indian Population.

    Doody, Natalie E; Dowejko, Monika M; Akam, Elizabeth C; Cox, Nick J; Bhatti, Jasvinder S; Singh, Puneetpal; Mastana, Sarabjit S

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated the role of IL-1β-511 (rs16944), TLR4-896 (rs4986790) and TNF-α-308 (rs1800629) polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among an endogamous Northern Indian population. Four hundred fourteen participants (204 T2DM patients and 210 nondiabetic controls) were genotyped for IL-1β-511, TLR4-896 and TNF-α-308 loci. The C allele of IL-1β-511 was shown to increase T2DM susceptibility by 75% (OR: 1.75 [CI 1.32-2.33]). Having two parents affected by T2DM increased susceptibility by 5.7 times (OR: 5.693 [CI 1.431-22.648]). In this study, we have demonstrated a conclusive association with IL-1β-511 locus and IL-1β-511-TLR4-896 diplotype (CC-AA) and T2DM, which warrants further comprehensive analyses in larger cohorts. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  9. Effect of CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2 and GGCX genetic variants on warfarin maintenance dose and explicating a new pharmacogenetic algorithm in South Indian population.

    Krishna Kumar, Dhakchinamoorthi; Shewade, Deepak Gopal; Loriot, Marie-Anne; Beaune, Philippe; Balachander, Jayaraman; Sai Chandran, B V; Adithan, Chandrasekaran

    2014-01-01

    To determine the influence of genetic polymorphisms on warfarin maintenance dose and to explicate an algorithm using the pharmacogenetic and clinical factors to determine the maintenance and/or starting dose of warfarin in South Indian patients receiving warfarin therapy. Patients receiving stabilized warfarin therapy (n=257) were included in the study. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CYP2C9 (rs1799853 and rs1057910), VKORC1 (rs9923231, rs7196161, rs2884737, rs9934438, rs8050894, rs2359612 and rs7294), CYP4F2 (rs2108622) and GGCX (rs11676382) were genotyped by the quantitative real time-PCR method. The mean daily maintenance dose of warfarin was found to be 4.7 ± 2.1 mg/day. Patients with the CYP2C9*1/*2, *1/*3 and *2/*3 variant genotypes required a 51.0 (2.8 mg), 60.9 (2.3 mg) and 62.2 % (2.2 mg) lower daily maintenance dose of warfarin, respectively, than those patients with the CYP2C9*1/*1 wild-type genotype (5.2 mg) (pmaintenance dose. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2 and GGCX are important predictive factors of warfarin maintenance dose, and the developed algorithm will be useful to predict the required maintenance and/or starting warfarin dose in South Indian populations.

  10. Genetic epidemiology of pharmacogenetic variations in CYP2C9, CYP4F2 and VKORC1 genes associated with warfarin dosage in the Indian population.

    Giri, Anil K; Khan, Nazir M; Grover, Sandeep; Kaur, Ismeet; Basu, Analabha; Tandon, Nikhil; Scaria, Vinod; Kukreti, Ritushree; Brahmachari, Samir K; Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan

    2014-07-01

    Warfarin, a widely used anticoagulant, exhibits large interindividual variability in dose requirements. CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms in various ethnic groups have been extensively studied as genetic markers associated with variable drug response. However, allele frequencies of these variants have not been assessed in major ethnic groups in the Indian population. To study the functional variants known to affect warfarin dosing, we reanalyzed genotype microarray datasets generated as a part of genome-wide association studies as well as data from the Indian Genome Variation database. We examined data from 2680 individuals across 24 ethnically diverse Indian subpopulations. Allelic distribution of VKORC1 (-1639G>A) showed a greater degree of variation across Indian subpopulations, with frequencies as low as 6.5% in an out-group subpopulation to >70% in Tibeto-Burmans. Risk allele frequency of CYP4F2*3 (V433M) was higher in north Indians (0.30-0.44), as compared with other world populations, such as African-American (0.12), Caucasian (0.34) and Hispanic (0.23). TheVKORC1 variant (-1639A) was shown to be prevalent amongst Tibeto-Burmans, whereas CYP2C9 (R144C, I359L) and CYP4F2 (V433M) variants were observed in considerable variability amongst Indo-Europeans. The frequency of CYP2C9*3 (I359L) in north Indians was found to be higher than in most Asian populations. Furthermore, geographical distribution patterns of these variants in north India showed an increased trend of warfarin extensive metabolizers from the Himalayan to Gangetic region. Combined allele frequency (CYP2C9*3 and CYP4F2*3) data suggest that poor metabolizers varied in the range of 0.38-1.85% in Indo-Europeans. Based on genotypic distribution, the majority of the Indian subpopulation might require higher doses for stable anticoagulation, whereas careful assessment is required for Tibeto-Burmans who are expected to have intermediate dose requirement. This is the largest global genetic epidemiological

  11. An epidemiological survey: Effect of predisposing factors for PCOS in Indian urban and rural population

    R. Vidya Bharathi

    2017-12-01

    Major conclusions: Family history was found to have a strong association in incidence and manifestation of the disorder. Stress was found to set off the symptoms pertaining to PCOS. We also noticed that the awareness, among the rural population especially, was very minimum and thus they were not oblivious of diagnosis.

  12. Spatial distribution and population structure of fiddler crabs in an Indian Sundarban mangrove

    Shilpa Sen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Brachyuran crabs constitute the most abundant faunal component of mangrove ecosystems and support a wide range of ecosystem services. In the present study, seasonal variation of population density and biomass along with demographic categories and sex ratios of four species of fiddler crabs (Uca rosea, Uca triangularis, Uca dussumieri and Uca vocans from Jhorkhali Island in the Sundarban mangrove were studied in relation to some major environmental parameters (salinity, nutrient content, soil organic carbon, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solute, etc. during bimonthly sampling for three consecutive years (2010-2012. Maximum population density and biomass of the ocypodid crabs were recorded during the pre-monsoonal month and minimum values during the monsoon. Different peaks in reproductive activity were observed among seasonal breeders (U. triangularis, U. dussumieri. For U. vocans, the sex ratio peaks declined during the ovigerous period. All four populations were characterized by significantly more males than females. Multiple regression analysis suggested a cumulative effect of several ecological parameters on seasonal fluctuations of the crab population. Breeding periodicity might be controlled by a combination of factors, including temperature, quality of the substratum, food availability for the adult and larval stages, and intertidal zonations.

  13. Feasibility of pre-operative autologous blood donation in Indian patients with elective orthopaedic surgery.

    Saluja, Karan; Marwaha, Neelam; Thakral, Beenu; Goni, Vijay; Sharma, R R; Puri, G D

    2006-11-01

    Pre-operative autologous blood donation (PABD) in elective orthopaedic surgeries is a well known procedure in the West. We initiated this programme at a tertiary care hospital in north India to study its feasibility in Indian patients. In a prospective case-control study, 144 patients undergoing primary total hip or knee replacement, inter-vertebral discectomy, mal-union and non-union reconstruction were educated and motivated to pre-donate. Patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria and making autologous donation formed the PABD group (n=22). Patients eligible for PABD, but unwilling to participate; age, sex, pre-operative haemoglobin and operative procedure matched acted as controls (n=27). Unit(s) collected was processed like an allogeneic unit. Unit(s) found reactive for infectious markers or not utilized was discarded. Mean blood losses, transfusion trigger, allogeneic exposure and wastage between the two groups were compared. Of the 144 patients motivated, 40 per cent of the eligible subjects pre-deposited. The main motivational factor was fear of getting infection from someone's blood. Cardiac events and anaemia prevented 61.8 per cent patients to participate. Of the 50 units ordered, autologous units with a mean of 1.4 units/patient contributed 62 per cent. For total hip and total knee replacement (THR and TKR), autologous units met 76.2 and 80 per cent respectively of the total blood requirement. A significant decrease in the allogeneic exposure was observed between PABD and control group (18.2 vs 66.7%); 32.3 per cent of the autologous units were discarded. Comprehensive PABD programme may be an effective method for reducing the need for allogeneic transfusion in patients undergoing joint replacement surgeries in our country, where transfusion transmitted infections due to high percentage of replacement donations and lack of sensitive assays for testing are still a cause for concern.

  14. Internal consistency & validity of Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS in patients with schizophrenia

    Sandeep Grover

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS has been recommended for assessment and certification of disability by the Government of India (GOI. However, the psychometric properties of IDEAS as adopted by GOI remain understudied. Our aim, thus, was to study the internal consistency and validity of IDEAS in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: A total of 103 consenting patients with residual schizophrenia were assessed for disability, quality of life (QOL and psychopathology using the IDEAS, WHO QOL-100 and Positive and Negative symptom scale (PANSS respectively. Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach′s alpha. For construct validity, relations between IDEAS, and psychopathology and QOL were studied. Results: The inter-item correlations for IDEAS were significant with a Cronbach′s alpha of 0.721. All item scores other than score on communication and understanding; total and global IDEAS scores correlated significantly with the positive, negative and general sub-scales, and total PANSS scores. Communication and understanding was significantly related to negative sub-scale score only. Total and global disability scores correlated negatively with all the domains of WHOQOL-100 (ρ<0.01. The individual IDEAS item scores correlated negatively with various WHOQOL-100 domains (ρ0< 0.01. Interpretation & conclusions: This study findings showed that the GOI-modified IDEAS had good internal consistency and construct validity as tested in patients with residual schizophrenia. Similar studies need to be done with other groups of patients.

  15. The prognostic value of dobutamine stress echocardiography amongst British Indian Asian and Afro-Caribbean patients: a comparison with European white patients.

    O'Driscoll, Jamie M; Rossato, Claire; Gargallo-Fernandez, Paula; Araco, Marco; Giannoglou, Dimitrios; Sharma, Sanjay; Sharma, Rajan

    2015-08-06

    The incidence of cardiovascular disease is considerably disparate among different racial and ethnic populations. While dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) has been shown to be useful in Caucasian patients, its role among ethnic minority groups remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic importance of DSE in three ethnic groups in the UK. DSE was performed on 6231 consecutive patients. After exclusions, 5329 patients formed the study (2676 [50.2%] Indian Asian, 2219 [41.6%] European white and 434 [8.1%] Afro-Caribbean). Study outcome measures were non-fatal cardiac events (NFCE) and all-cause mortality. There were 849 (15.9%) NFCE and 1365 (25.6%) deaths over a median follow-up period of 4.6 years. In total 1174 (22%) patients had inducible myocardial ischaemia during DSE, 859 (16.1%) had fixed wall motion abnormalities and 3645 (68.4%) patients had a normal study. Ethnicity did not predict events. Among the three ethnic groups, ischaemia on DSE was associated with 2 to 2.5 times the risk of non-fatal cardiac events and 1.2 to 1.4 times the risk of all-cause mortality. Peak wall motion score index was the strongest independent predictor of non-fatal cardiac events and all-cause mortality in all groups. The C statistic for the prediction of NFCE and all-cause mortality were significantly higher when DSE parameters were added to the standard risk factors for all ethnic groups. DSE is a strong predictor of NFCE and all-cause mortality and provides predictive information beyond that provided by standard risk factors in three major racial and ethnic groups. No major differences among racial and ethnic groups in the predictive value of DSE was detected.

  16. Population dynamics of the yellowstripe scad (Selaroides leptolepis Cuvier, 1833) and Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta Cuvier, 1816) in the Wondama Bay Water, Indonesia

    Sala, R.; Bawole, R.; Runtuboi, F.; Mudjirahayu; Wopi, I. A.; Budisetiawan, J.; Irwanto

    2018-03-01

    The Wondama Bay water is located within the Cendrawasih Bay National Park and is potential for fishery resources, including pelagic fish such as yellowstripe scad (Selaroides leptolepis Cuvier, 1833) and Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta Cuvier, 1816). Yet, information about the population dynamics of these species in the region is unknown until today. Meanwhile, the fishing activities have been quite intensive and include the dominant catches over the last ten years by traditional fishermen fishing using liftnets. Therefore, this study aims to determine some of specific characteristics of the population dynamics and fish utilization status of scad and mackerel in the waters of the Wondama Bay. Data used in this study were taken from direct observation of catch of liftnet fishery. The data then were analysed by using FISAT II to estimate the growth parameters, mortality rates, and yield per recruitment. The results showed that yellowstripe scad has the positive allometric growth, while Indian mackerel followed isometric growth. Models of fish growth were L(t) = 22 (1-e-3.0(t-0.05)) for yellowstripe scad and L(t) = 27.8 (1-e-4.0(t-0.04)) for Indian mackerel. The natural mortality (M) of 4.19 year-1, fishing mortality (F) of 5.01 year-1, and total mortality (Z) of 9.20 year-1 were for yellowstripe scad, and M of 4.74 year-1, F of 2.52 year-1 and Z of 7.26 year-1 were for Indian mackerel. Based on the mortality rates, estimated exploitation rate for the yellowatripe scad was 54 % and the Indian mackerel was 35 %. To increase the production of catch without increasing fishing effort (fishing mortality) can be done by increasing the size of fish caught or the Lc/L∞ should be greater than 0.5.

  17. Prevalence and evaluation of environmental risk factors associated with cleft lip and palate in a central Indian population.

    Kalaskar, Ritesh; Kalaskar, Ashita; Naqvi, Fatama Sana; Tawani, Gopal S; Walke, Damayanti R

    2013-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate, the most common developmental deformity seen worldwide, may be either genetic or environmental in origin. Recent research clearly shows the inter-relationship between environmental risk factors and development of oral clefts. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of cleft lip and palate in the Nagpur region of India and to evaluate environmental risk factors associated with the occurrence of this orofacial abnormality. The parents of infants born with or without cleft lip and palate were subjected to questionnaires that elicited sociodemographic profiles and histories of maternal dietary, medical, and environmental risk factors as well family histories of cleft. A multifactorial comparison of environmental risk factors associated with this deformity was performed. The prevalence of cleft lip and palate and cleft palate was found to be 0.66% and 0.27%, respectively, in the Nagpur region. The results demonstrated a positive association between cleft lip and palate and the environmental risk factors of nutritional deficiency, anemia, and self-administered medications. Several environmental risk factors appear to play an important role in the development of cleft lip and palate in a Central Indian population of low socioeconomic status.

  18. The impact of primary open-angle glaucoma: Quality of life in Indian patients.

    Kumar, Suresh; Ichhpujani, Parul; Singh, Roopali; Thakur, Sahil; Sharma, Madhu; Nagpal, Nimisha

    2018-03-01

    Glaucoma significantly affects the quality of life (QoL) of a patient. Despite the huge number of glaucoma patients in India, not many, QoL studies have been carried out. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the QoL in Indian patients with varying severity of glaucoma. This was a hospital-based, cross-sectional, analytical study of 180 patients. The QoL was assessed using orally administered QoL instruments comprising of two glaucoma-specific instruments; Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 (GQL-15) and Viswanathan 10 instrument, and 1 vision-specific instrument; National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEIVFQ25). Using NEIVFQ25, the difference between mean QoL scores among cases (88.34 ± 4.53) and controls (95.32 ± 5.76) was statistically significant. In GQL-15, there was a statistically significant difference between mean scores of cases (22.58 ± 5.23) and controls (16.52 ± 1.24). The difference in mean scores with Viswanathan 10 instrument in cases (7.92 ± 0.54) and controls (9.475 ± 0.505) was also statistically significant. QoL scores also showed moderate correlation with mean deviation, pattern standard deviation, and vertical cup-disc ratio. In our study, all the three instruments showed decrease in QoL in glaucoma patients compared to controls. With the increase in severity of glaucoma, corresponding decrease in QoL was observed. It is important for ophthalmologists to understand about the QoL in glaucoma patients so as to have a more holistic approach to patients and for effective delivery of treatment.

  19. Pharmacogenetic markers to predict the clinical response to methotrexate in south Indian Tamil patients with psoriasis.

    Indhumathi, S; Rajappa, Medha; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Ananthanarayanan, P H; Thappa, D M; Negi, V S

    2017-08-01

    Despite the advent of several new systemic therapies, methotrexate remains the gold standard for the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis. However, there exists a significant heterogeneity in individual response to methotrexate. There are no consistently reliable markers to predict methotrexate treatment response till date. We aimed to demonstrate the association of certain genetic variants in the HLA (HLA-A2, HLA-B17, and HLA-Cw6) and the non-HLA genes including T-helper (Th)-1, Th-2, Th-17 cytokine genes (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12B, and IL-23R), and T-regulatory gene (FOXP3) with the methotrexate treatment response in South Indian Tamil patients with psoriasis. Of the 360 patients recruited, 189 patients with moderate to severe psoriasis were treated with methotrexate. Of the 189 patients, 132 patients responded to methotrexate and the remaining 57 patients were non-responders. We analyzed the association of aforesaid polymorphisms with the methotrexate treatment outcome using binary logistic regression. We observed that there were significant differences between genotype frequencies of HLA-Cw6 and FOXP3 (rs3761548) among the responders compared to non-responders, with conservative estimation. We observed that pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12, and IL-23 were markedly reduced with the use of methotrexate, in comparison to the baseline levels, while the plasma IL-4 levels were increased posttreatment. Our results serve as preliminary evidence for the clinical use of genetic markers as predictors of response to methotrexate in psoriasis. This might aid in the future in the development of a point-of-care testing (POCT) gene chip, to predict optimal treatment response in patients with psoriasis, based on their individual genotypic profile.

  20. Analysis of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 gene polymorphisms and risk of cervical cancer in an East Indian population: A case–control study

    Dipanshu Sur

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: PTGS-2 genotype rs689466:—1195A/G gene polymorphism demonstrated strongly associated with cervical cancer disease. However, exon1-+837T > C polymorphism was not associated with cancer risk in East Indian women. Further studies evaluating the role of PTGS-2 gene polymorphisms in ethnically diverse populations and a larger cohort may help in understanding the etiopathogenesis of cervical cancer in women worldwide.

  1. Comparison of dietary profile of a rural south Indian population with the current dietary recommendations for prevention of non-communicable diseases (CURES 147

    Narasimhan Sowmya

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The dietary profile of this rural south Indian population reflected unhealthy choices, with the high consumption of refined cereals in the form of polished white rice and low intake of protective foods like fruits, vegetables, n-3 poly and monounsaturated fatty acids. This could potentially contribute to the increase in prevalence of NCDs like diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in rural areas and calls for appropriate remedial action.

  2. Population genetic structure of skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis from the Indian coast using sequence analysis of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region

    Menezes, M.R.; Kumar, G.; Kunal, S.P.

    Biology (2012) 80, 2198–2212 doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2012.03270.x, available online at wileyonlinelibrary.com Population genetic structure of skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis from the Indian coast using sequence analysis of the mitochondrial DNA D...-loop region M. R. Menezes*, G. Kumar and S. P. Kunal Biological Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography (CSIR), Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India (Received 26 May 2011, Accepted 14 February 2012) Genetic structure of skipjack tuna Katsuwonus...

  3. Superoxide Dismutase1 Levels in North Indian Population with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Akshay Anand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study was to estimate the levels of superoxide dismutase1 (SOD1 in patients of age-related macular degeneration (AMD and examine the role of oxidative stress, smoking, hypertension, and other factors involved in the pathogenesis of AMD. Methods. 115 AMD patients and 61 healthy controls were recruited for this study. Serum SOD1 levels were determined by ELISA and were correlated to various risk factors. Logistic regression model of authenticity, by considering SOD1 as independent variable, has been developed along with ROC curve. Results. The SOD1 levels were significantly higher in AMD patients as compared to those of the controls. The difference was not significant for wet and dry AMD. However, the difference was significant between wet AMD subtypes. Nonsignificance of the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit statistic (χ2=10.516, df=8, P=0.231 indicates the appropriateness of logistic regression model to predict AMD. Conclusion. Oxidative stress in AMD patients may mount compensatory response resulting in increased levels of SOD1 in AMD patients. To predict the risk of AMD on the basis of SOD1, a logistic regression model shows authenticity of 78%, and area under the ROC curve (0.827, P=.0001 with less standard error of 0.033 coupled with 95% confidence interval of 0.762–0.891 further validates the model.

  4. Effect of smoking status and nicotine dependence on pain intensity and outcome of treatment in Indian patients with temporomandibular disorders: A longitudinal cohort study.

    Katyayan, Preeti Agarwal; Katyayan, Manish Khan

    2017-01-01

    Evidence regarding the association of smoking with various forms of chronic musculoskeletal pain is vast, but that with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is scarce. The aims of this study are to evaluate the effect of smoking status (SS) and nicotine dependence (ND) on TMD pain intensity and treatment outcome in an Indian population with TMD. Nine hundred and sixty-two patients with TMD were selected for this longitudinal cohort study. Lifetime SS was evaluated and patients were classified as current smokers (YS), former smokers (FS), or nonsmokers (NS). The Fagerstrom test was used to evaluate the ND of YS. Pain intensity was evaluated using visual analog scale scores. Six months posttreatment, the pain intensity was again recorded. The effect of treatment was evaluated using a global transition outcome measure and categorized as treatment success or failure. A minimum 30% reduction in pain was used as a criterion for categorizing patients as those who had gotten "better." Data obtained from the study were compared using Chi-square tests, paired samples t -tests, and one-way ANOVA tests. The criterion for statistical significance for all analyses was set at P = 0.05. Among groups of SS, YS showed the maximum pain intensity at baseline and posttreatment. The outcome of treatment was most successful in NS and least in FS. The number of patients who had gotten "better" after treatment was significantly highest in NS. There was no significant difference between groups of ND with respect to pain intensity, treatment outcome, or "better" patients. Among Indian patients with TMD, smokers reported significantly greater pain intensity and poorer response to treatment than NS. Pain intensity or treatment outcome was independent of ND.

  5. Mapping of PARK2 and PACRG overlapping regulatory region reveals LD structure and functional variants in association with leprosy in unrelated indian population groups.

    Chopra, Rupali; Ali, Shafat; Srivastava, Amit K; Aggarwal, Shweta; Kumar, Bhupender; Manvati, Siddharth; Kalaiarasan, Ponnusamy; Jena, Mamta; Garg, Vijay K; Bhattacharya, Sambit N; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Leprae, where the host genetic background plays an important role toward the disease pathogenesis. Various studies have identified a number of human genes in association with leprosy or its clinical forms. However, non-replication of results has hinted at the heterogeneity among associations between different population groups, which could be due to differently evolved LD structures and differential frequencies of SNPs within the studied regions of the genome. A need for systematic and saturated mapping of the associated regions with the disease is warranted to unravel the observed heterogeneity in different populations. Mapping of the PARK2 and PACRG gene regulatory region with 96 SNPs, with a resolution of 1 SNP per 1 Kb for PARK2 gene regulatory region in a North Indian population, showed an involvement of 11 SNPs in determining the susceptibility towards leprosy. The association was replicated in a geographically distinct and unrelated population from Orissa in eastern India. In vitro reporter assays revealed that the two significantly associated SNPs, located 63.8 kb upstream of PARK2 gene and represented in a single BIN of 8 SNPs, influenced the gene expression. A comparison of BINs between Indian and Vietnamese populations revealed differences in the BIN structures, explaining the heterogeneity and also the reason for non-replication of the associated genomic region in different populations.

  6. MODULATING EFFECT OF THE −158 GΓ (C→T XMN-1 POLYMORPHISM IN INDIAN SICKLE CELL PATIENTS

    Sanjay Pandey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Xmn-1 polymorphism is a known factor, which increases fetal haemoglobin production. Among the inherited disorders of blood, thalassaemia and SCD constitutes a major bulk of genetic diseases in India.  Our aim was to verify the role of the Xmn I polymorphism as a modulating factor in sickle cell patients and frequency of the polymorphism in Indian sickle cell patients. Subjects were 60 sickles homozygous and 75 sickle beta thalassemia patients. 5 ml blood   samples collected from patients. Screening of sickle patients done by HPLC. An automated cell analyzer SYSMEX (K-4500 Model used to analyze the CBC of patients.Xmn1 polymorphism analysis done by PCR-RFLP and Statistical analysis was performed on GraphPad static’s software. t test applied to compare the means amongst group. Among the sickle homozygous 27 were   heterozygous (+/- and 19 were   homozygous (+/+ while 30 were heterozygous and 24 were homozygous in sickle β-thalassemia patients. Extremely significant differences (p-value <0.001 of hematological parameters seen among patient with xmn-1 carrier and without the xmn-1 carrier. In our cases the clinical symptom less frequent and higher HbF level with Xmn-1 carriers. Presence of Xmn-1 polymorphism in sickle patients with higher HbF that improve phenotypic presentation in the sickle cell patients. We conclude that the phenotype of Indian sickle cell patients influenced by Xmn-1 polymorphism.

  7. Population-based intervention for cardiovascular diseases related knowledge and behaviours in Asian Indian women.

    Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Agrawal, Aachu; Misra, Anoop; Vikram, Naval Kishore; Misra, Puneet; Dey, Sanjit; Rao, Shobha; Vasantha Devi, K P; Usha Menon, V; Revathi, R; Sharma, Vinita; Gupta, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    There is poor knowledge and behaviors regarding chronic diseases related nutritional and lifestyle factors among women in low income countries. To evaluate efficacy of a multilevel population-based intervention in improving knowledge and practices for related factors we performed a study in India. Population based study among women 35-70 years was performed in four urban and five rural locations. Stratified sampling was performed and we enrolled 4624 (rural 2616, urban 2008) of eligible 8000 women (58%). Demographic details, medical history, diet, physical activity and anthropometry were recorded and blood hemoglobin, glucose and total cholesterol determined. Knowledge and behaviors regarding diet in chronic diseases were inquired in a randomly selected 100 women at each site (n = 900). A systematic multilevel population based intervention (using posters, handouts, street plays, public lectures, group lectures and focused group discussions) was administered over 6 months at each site. The questionnaire was re-administered at the end in random 100 women (n = 900) and differences determined. Descriptive statistics are reported. Comparison of parameters before and after intervention was assessed using Mann Whitney test. Prevalence (%) of chronic disease related lifestyles and risk factors in rural/urban women, respectively, was illiteracy in 63.6/29.4, smoking/tobacco use 39.3/18.9, high fat intake 93.6/93.4, high salt intake 18.2/12.6, low physical activity 59.5/70.2, overweight/obesity 22.5/45.6, truncal obesity 13.0/44.3, hypertension 31.6/48.2, hypercholesterolemia 13.5/27.7, and diabetes in 4.3/15.1 percent. Composite chronic diseases knowledge at baseline vs after intervention increased significantly in overall (32.0 vs 62.0), rural (29.0 vs 63.5) and urban (39.5 vs 60.5) groups (p women in rural and urban locations in India increased chronic disease knowledge but failed to influence practices. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Prevalence rate of supernumerary teeth among non-syndromic South Indian population: An analysis

    M Nazargi Mahabob

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Supernumerary teeth are considered as one of the most significant dental anomalies during the primary and early mixed dentition stage. The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence rate of supernumerary teeth in the patients who reported to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology and to study the associated clinical complications. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal observational study was conducted of 2216 patients for a period of 4 months with the documentation of demographic data, the presence of supernumerary teeth, their location, and associated complications such as mechanical trauma, dental caries, and associated pathology. Results: The study recorded 27 supernumerary teeth from the examined 2216 patients. This yields a prevalence of 1.2%, with greater frequency in males which was 1.49% and in females the frequency was 0.85%. The greatest proportion of supernumerary teeth was found in the maxillary anterior region (77.8%. Out of this, 85.7% were classified as mesiodens based on their location. The displacement of adjacent teeth was the most common finding, followed by dental caries. Conclusion: The prevalence of supernumerary teeth in this study was 1.2% which is in agreement with that reported in similar studies and the maxillary mesiodens was the most common location. Displacement of adjacent teeth was the most common finding.

  9. Cone Beam Computed Tomography Analysis of Incidental Maxillary Sinus Pathologies in North Indian Population

    Sangeeta S Malik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Maxillary sinus can be visualized in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional images. Computed tomography (CT is considered the gold standard method for the examination of maxillary sinus. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT addresses the limitation of CT and provides many dental advantages. It can provide valuable knowledge about the pathology with limited exposure and low cost compared with other imaging used for diagnostic purposes. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study is to analyze the prevalence of pathological changes in maxillary sinus of asymptomatic cases using CBCT for diagnostic purposes. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study evaluated 231 patients for incidental maxillary sinus pathologies. Pathological findings were categorized as mucosal thickening, polypoid mucosal thickening, radiopacification, and no pathological findings. Evaluation of pathological findings was done using factors of age and gender. Results: The present study showed 86 cases with maxillary sinus pathology and 145 cases with no pathological findings. Patients with maxillary sinus pathology were mostly diagnosed with mucosal thickening on both sides. In right maxillary sinus, 45 cases (52.3% showed mucosal thickening, and on the left side 36 cases (41.9% were diagnosed with mucosal thickening. Among 86 cases reported, 20 right maxillary sinus (23.3% and 25 left maxillary sinus (29.1% showed no signs of pathology. Conclusion: The incidental maxillary sinus pathologies are highly prevalent in asymptomatic patients. Therefore, oral radiologists should be aware of these incidental findings which will help in early diagnosis and treatment of disease.

  10. Cross-Cultural Validation of Urdu Version KOOS in Indian Population with Primary Knee Osteoarthritis

    Mahamed Ateef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The primary aim of this study was to translate a self-reported questionnaire (KOOS from English to Urdu and then to see its internal consistency, agreement, test-retest reliability, and validity among primary OA knee patients. Methodology. First, KOOS questionnaire was translated from English language to Urdu through standardized cross-cultural protocol. This translated version of KOOS was administered to 111 radiographically diagnosed primary OA knee patients at two times with 48-hour interval in-between. Cronbach’s alpha, floor and ceiling effect, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, absolute agreement %, and Spearman correlation were used to fulfill our objectives. Results. Average time to administer this questionnaire was 20 minutes. There was good internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha ranging from 0.7246 to 0.9139. The absolute agreement of each item between two tests ranged from 81.08% to 98.20%. Test-retest reliability was excellent (“r” ranged from 0.9673 to 0.9782. There was no ceiling effect; however less than 4% floor effect was seen in two subscales. There was significant difference that existed between different X-ray grades in all subscales meaning good content validity for disease prognosis. Conclusion. The present results show that KOOS Urdu version is a reliable and valid measure for primary OA knee patients.

  11. Genetic Population Structure of the Coral Reef Sea Star Linckia laevigata in the Western Indian Ocean and Indo-West Pacific.

    Otwoma, Levy Michael; Kochzius, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The coral reef sea star Linckia laevigata is common on shallow water coral reefs of the Indo-West Pacific. Its large geographic distribution and comprehensive data from previous studies makes it suitable to examine genetic differentiation and connectivity over large geographical scales. Based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene this study investigates the genetic population structure and connectivity of L. laevigata in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) and compares it to previous studies in the Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago (IMPA). A total of 138 samples were collected from nine locations in the WIO. AMOVA revealed a low but significant ΦST-value of 0.024 for the WIO populations. In the hierarchical AMOVA, the following grouping rejected the hypothesis of panmixia: (1) Kenya (Watamu, Mombasa, Diani) and Tanzanian Island populations (Misali and Jambiani) and (2) the rest of the WIO sites (mainland Tanzania and Madagascar; ΦCT = 0.03). The genetic population structure was stronger and more significant (ΦST = 0.13) in the comparative analysis of WIO and IMPA populations. Three clades were identified in the haplotype network. The strong genetic differentiation (ΦCT = 0.199, P Indo-West Pacific populations of L. laevigata can be grouped into four biogeographic regions: (1) WIO (2) Eastern Indian Ocean (3) IMPA and (4) Western Pacific. The findings of this study support the existence of a genetic break in the Indo-West Pacific consistent with the effect of lowered sea level during the Pleistocene, which limited gene flow between the Pacific and Indian Ocean.

  12. Genetic Population Structure of the Coral Reef Sea Star Linckia laevigata in the Western Indian Ocean and Indo-West Pacific.

    Levy Michael Otwoma

    Full Text Available The coral reef sea star Linckia laevigata is common on shallow water coral reefs of the Indo-West Pacific. Its large geographic distribution and comprehensive data from previous studies makes it suitable to examine genetic differentiation and connectivity over large geographical scales. Based on partial sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene this study investigates the genetic population structure and connectivity of L. laevigata in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO and compares it to previous studies in the Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago (IMPA. A total of 138 samples were collected from nine locations in the WIO. AMOVA revealed a low but significant ΦST-value of 0.024 for the WIO populations. In the hierarchical AMOVA, the following grouping rejected the hypothesis of panmixia: (1 Kenya (Watamu, Mombasa, Diani and Tanzanian Island populations (Misali and Jambiani and (2 the rest of the WIO sites (mainland Tanzania and Madagascar; ΦCT = 0.03. The genetic population structure was stronger and more significant (ΦST = 0.13 in the comparative analysis of WIO and IMPA populations. Three clades were identified in the haplotype network. The strong genetic differentiation (ΦCT = 0.199, P < 0.001 suggests that Indo-West Pacific populations of L. laevigata can be grouped into four biogeographic regions: (1 WIO (2 Eastern Indian Ocean (3 IMPA and (4 Western Pacific. The findings of this study support the existence of a genetic break in the Indo-West Pacific consistent with the effect of lowered sea level during the Pleistocene, which limited gene flow between the Pacific and Indian Ocean.

  13. Asian population frequencies and haplotype distribution of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes among Chinese, Malay, and Indian in Singapore.

    Lee, Yi Chuan; Chan, Soh Ha; Ren, Ee Chee

    2008-11-01

    Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) gene frequencies have been shown to be distinctly different between populations and contribute to functional variation in the immune response. We have investigated KIR gene frequencies in 370 individuals representing three Asian populations in Singapore and report here the distribution of 14 KIR genes (2DL1, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL4, 2DL5, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 2DS4, 2DS5, 3DL1, 3DL2, 3DL3, 3DS1) with two pseudogenes (2DP1, 3DP1) among Singapore Chinese (n = 210); Singapore Malay (n = 80), and Singapore Indian (n = 80). Four framework genes (KIR3DL3, 3DP1, 2DL4, 3DL2) and a nonframework pseudogene 2DP1 were detected in all samples while KIR2DS2, 2DL2, 2DL5, and 2DS5 had the greatest significant variation across the three populations. Fifteen significant linkage patterns, consistent with associations between genes of A and B haplotypes, were observed. Eighty-four distinct KIR profiles were determined in our populations, 38 of which had not been described in other populations. KIR haplotype studies were performed using nine Singapore Chinese families comprising 34 individuals. All genotypes could be resolved into corresponding pairs of existing haplotypes with eight distinct KIR genotypes and eight different haplotypes. The haplotype A2 with frequency of 63.9% was dominant in Singapore Chinese, comparable to that reported in Korean and Chinese Han. The A haplotypes predominate in Singapore Chinese, with ratio of A to B haplotypes of approximately 3:1. Comparison with KIR frequencies in other populations showed that Singapore Chinese shared similar distributions with Chinese Han, Japanese, and Korean; Singapore Indian was found to be comparable with North Indian Hindus while Singapore Malay resembled the Thai.

  14. Age estimation using development of third molars in South Indian population: A radiological study.

    Priyadharshini, K Indra; Idiculla, Jose Joy; Sivapathasundaram, B; Mohanbabu, V; Augustine, Dominic; Patil, Shankargouda

    2015-05-01

    To assess the estimation of chronological age based on the stages of third molar development following the eight stages (A-H) method of Demirjian et al. in Chennai population of South India. A sample consisting of 848 individuals (471 males and 377 females) aged between 14 and 30 years was randomly selected for the clinical evaluation and 323 orthopantomograms with clinically missing third molars were taken for radiological evaluation using Demirjian's method from a Chennai population of known chronological age and sex. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's Chi-square test and mean values were compared between the study groups using t-test or analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's highly significant difference (HSD). In the present study, P age of having clinically completely erupted maxillary third molars was 22.41 years in male subjects and 23.81 years in female subjects and that of mandibular third molars was 21.49 years in male subjects and 23.34 years in female subjects. Mandibular third molars were clinically missing more often in females than in males. Eruption of mandibular third molars was generally ahead of the emergence of maxillary third molars into the oral cavity. Third molar development between male and female subjects showed statistically significant differences at calcification stage F and stage G in maxillary third molars and stage F in mandibular third molars (P third molar eruption reached Demirjian's formation stages earlier in males than in females. It is suggested that in future studies, to increase the accuracy of age determination, indications of sexual maturity and ossification should also be evaluated in addition to third molar mineralization.

  15. An epidemiological study of sexual disorders in south Indian rural population.

    Sathyanarayana Rao, T S; Darshan, M S; Tandon, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    Sexuality is an important aspect of the personality of an individual and influences psychological, physical and social well-being of both men and women. It is a paradox, that in the country where 'kamasutra' (by Vatsyayana) took birth, there is a lack of research publications and sexuality related literature; hence the current study was conducted, to estimate the prevalence and association of sexual disorders with various socio-demographic variables, in the selected rural population. Subjects who were sexually active and fulfilled the study criteria were administered Arizona Sexual Experience Scale as screening tool for the presence of sexual problems. Those who were found to be having sexual problems were interviewed further using appropriate questionnaires. 21.15% of the male subjects were diagnosed to have one (or more) sexual disorder. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction was found to be 15.77%, male hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) 2.56%; premature ejaculation was found to be prevalent in 8.76% of the male subjects. Around 14% of the female subjects were diagnosed to have female sexual disorders. Prevalence of female arousal dysfunction was found to be 6.65%, female HSDD 8.87%, female anorgasmia 5.67%, female dyspareunia 2.34% and female sexual aversion disorder was found to be prevalent in 0.37% of the female subjects. This study concluded that one in five males and one in seven females were suffering from one (or more) sexual disorder. Improving the training of undergraduate medical and nursing students in sexuality related issues, increasing trained individuals in sexual medicine by starting new courses, providing sex education to the general population using media and merging sexual health care with primary care, are likely to play a significant role in addressing the increasing sexual health morbidity.

  16. Guideline-Concordant Cancer Care and Survival Among American Indian/Alaskan Native Patients

    Javid, Sara H.; Varghese, Thomas K.; Morris, Arden M.; Porter, Michael P.; He, Hao; Buchwald, Dedra; Flum, David R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND American Indians/Alaskan Natives (AI/ANs) have the worst 5-year cancer survival of all racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Causes for this disparity are unknown. The authors of this report examined the receipt of cancer treatment among AI/AN patients compared with white patients. METHODS This was a retrospective cohort study of 338,204 patients who were diagnosed at age ≥65 years with breast, colon, lung, or prostate cancer between 1996 and 2005 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database. Nationally accepted guidelines for surgical and adjuvant therapy and surveillance were selected as metrics of optimal, guideline-concordant care. Treatment analyses compared AI/ANs with matched whites. RESULTS Across cancer types, AI/ANs were less likely to receive optimal cancer treatment and were less likely to undergo surgery (P ≤ .025 for all cancers). Adjuvant therapy rates were significantly lower for AI/AN patients with breast cancer (P <.001) and colon cancer (P = .001). Rates of post-treatment surveillance also were lower among AI/ANs and were statistically significantly lower for AI/AN patients with breast cancer (P = .002) and prostate cancer (P <.001). Nonreceipt of optimal cancer treatment was associated with significantly worse survival across cancer types. Disease-specific survival for those who did not undergo surgery was significantly lower for patients with breast cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 0.62), colon cancer (HR, 0.74), prostate cancer (HR, 0.52), and lung cancer (HR, 0.36). Survival rates also were significantly lower for those patients who did not receive adjuvant therapy for breast cancer (HR, 0.56), colon cancer (HR, 0.59), or prostate cancer (HR, 0.81; all 95% confidence intervals were <1.0). CONCLUSIONS Fewer AI/AN patients than white patients received guideline-concordant cancer treatment across the 4 most common cancers. Efforts to explain these differences are critical to improving cancer care and

  17. Gender variation in morphological patterns of lip prints among some north Indian populations.

    Vats, Yogesh; Dhall, Jasmine Kaur; Kapoor, Ak

    2012-01-01

    Personal identification is an integral part of forensic investigations. For the same, DNA profiling and fingerprints are the most commonly used tools. But these evidences are not ubiquitous and may not necessarily be obtained from the crime scene. In such a scenario, other physical and trace evidences play a pivotal role and subsequently the branches employed are forensic osteology, odontology, biometrics, etc. A relatively recent field in the branch of forensic odontology is cheiloscopy or the study of lip prints. A comparison of lip prints from the crime scene and those obtained from the suspects may be useful in the identification or narrowing down the investigation. The purpose of the present study is to determine the gender and population variability in the morphological patterns of lip prints among brahmins, Jats, and scheduled castes of Delhi and Haryana, India. Samples were collected from Jats, brahmins, and scheduled castes of Delhi and Haryana. The total sample size consisted of 1399 individuals including 781 males and 618 females in the age group of 8-60 years. Care was taken not to collect samples from genetically related individuals. The technique was standardized by recording lip prints of 20 persons and analyzing them. Lip prints were collected by using a corporate's invisible tape and analyzed using a hand lens. The patterns were studied along the entire length and breadth of both the upper and the lower lip. The data were analyzed by SPSS statistical package version 17 to determine the frequencies and percentages of occurrence of the pattern types in each population group and a comparison between males and females among the groups was carried out by using the z test. The z-test comparison between patterns of males and females shows significant differences with respect to pattern types I', II, III, and IV among brahmins; I', II, III, IV, and Y among Jats; and I, I', II, III, and V among scheduled castes. Thus, it can be concluded that the

  18. Isolation and characterization of new Leptospira genotypes from patients in Mayotte (Indian Ocean.

    Pascale Bourhy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis has been implicated as a severe and fatal form of disease in Mayotte, a French-administrated territory located in the Comoros archipelago (southwestern Indian Ocean. To date, Leptospira isolates have never been isolated in this endemic region. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Leptospires were isolated from blood samples from 22 patients with febrile illness during a 17-month period after a PCR-based screening test was positive. Strains were typed using hyper-immune antisera raised against the major Leptospira serogroups: 20 of 22 clinical isolates were assigned to serogroup Mini; the other two strains belonged to serogroups Grippotyphosa and Pyrogenes, respectively. These isolates were further characterized using partial sequencing of 16S rRNA and ligB gene, Multi Locus VNTR Analysis (MLVA, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Of the 22 isolates, 14 were L. borgpetersenii strains, 7 L. kirschneri strains, and 1, belonging to serogoup Pyrogenes, was L. interrogans. Results of the genotyping methods were consistent. MLVA defined five genotypes, whereas PFGE allowed the recognition of additional subgroups within the genotypes. PFGE fingerprint patterns of clinical strains did not match any of the patterns in the reference strains belonging to the same serogroup, suggesting that the strains were novel serovars. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary PCR screening of blood specimen allowed a high isolation frequency of leptospires among patients with febrile illness. Typing of leptospiral isolates showed that causative agents of leptospirosis in Mayotte have unique molecular features.

  19. FANCA Gene Mutations with 8 Novel Molecular Changes in Indian Fanconi Anemia Patients.

    Avani Solanki

    Full Text Available Fanconi anemia (FA, a rare heterogeneous genetic disorder, is known to be associated with 19 genes and a spectrum of clinical features. We studied FANCA molecular changes in 34 unrelated and 2 siblings of Indian patients with FA and have identified 26 different molecular changes of FANCA gene, of which 8 were novel mutations (a small deletion c.2500delC, 4 non-sense mutations c.2182C>T, c.2630C>G, c.3677C>G, c.3189G>A; and 3 missense mutations; c.1273G>C, c.3679 G>C, and c.3992 T>C. Among these only 16 patients could be assigned FA-A complementation group, because we could not confirm single exon deletions detected by MLPA or cDNA amplification by secondary confirmation method and due to presence of heterozygous non-pathogenic variations or heterozygous pathogenic mutations. An effective molecular screening strategy should be developed for confirmation of these mutations and determining the breakpoints for single exon deletions.

  20. FANCA Gene Mutations with 8 Novel Molecular Changes in Indian Fanconi Anemia Patients.

    Solanki, Avani; Mohanty, Purvi; Shukla, Pallavi; Rao, Anita; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Vundinti, Babu Rao

    2016-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA), a rare heterogeneous genetic disorder, is known to be associated with 19 genes and a spectrum of clinical features. We studied FANCA molecular changes in 34 unrelated and 2 siblings of Indian patients with FA and have identified 26 different molecular changes of FANCA gene, of which 8 were novel mutations (a small deletion c.2500delC, 4 non-sense mutations c.2182C>T, c.2630C>G, c.3677C>G, c.3189G>A; and 3 missense mutations; c.1273G>C, c.3679 G>C, and c.3992 T>C). Among these only 16 patients could be assigned FA-A complementation group, because we could not confirm single exon deletions detected by MLPA or cDNA amplification by secondary confirmation method and due to presence of heterozygous non-pathogenic variations or heterozygous pathogenic mutations. An effective molecular screening strategy should be developed for confirmation of these mutations and determining the breakpoints for single exon deletions.

  1. Risk profile for drowning deaths in children in the Indian state of Bihar: results from a population-based study.

    Dandona, Rakhi; Kumar, G Anil; George, Sibin; Kumar, Amit; Dandona, Lalit

    2018-05-19

    We report on incidence of drowning deaths and related contextual factors in children from a population-based study in the Indian state of Bihar which estimated the causes of death using verbal autopsy (VA). Interviews were conducted for deaths in 1-14 years population that occurred from January 2012 to March 2014 in 109 689 households (87.1% participation) in 1017 clusters representative of the state. The Population Health Metrics Research Consortium shortened VA questionnaire was used for interview and cause of death was assigned using the SmartVA automated algorithm. The annualised unintentional drowning death incidence, activity prior to drowning, the body of water where drowning death had occurred and contextual information are reported. The survey covered 224 077 children aged 1-14 years. Drowning deaths accounted for 7.2%, 12.5% and 5.8% of all deaths in 1-4, 5-9 and 10-14 years age groups, respectively. The adjusted incidence of drowning deaths was 14.3 (95% CI 14.0 to 14.7) per 100 000 children, with it being higher in urban (16.1, 95% CI 14.8 to 17.3) areas. Nearly half of the children drowned in a river (5.9, 95% CI 5.6 to 6.1) followed by in a pond (2.8, 95% CI 2.6 to 2.9). Drowning death incidence was the highest while playing (5.1, 95% CI 4.9 to 5.4) and bathing (4.0, 95% CI 3.8 to 4.2) with the former accounting for more deaths in 1-4 years age group. Sixty per cent of children were already dead when found. None of these deaths were reported to the civil registration system to obtain death certificate. The findings from this large representative sample of children document the magnitude of and variations in unintentional drowning deaths in Bihar. Urgent targeted drowning interventions are needed to address the risk in children. Gross under-reporting of drowning deaths in children in India needs attention. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No

  2. How to communicate climate change 'impact and solutions' to vulnerable population of Indian Sundarbans? From theory to practice.

    Chowdhury, Abhiroop; Maiti, Subodh Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    Global consciousness on climate change problems and adaptation revolves around the disparity of information sharing and communication gap between theoretical scientific knowledge at academic end and practical implications of these at the vulnerable populations' end. Coastal communities facing socio-economic stress, like densely populated Sundarbans, are the most affected part of the world, exposed to climate change problems and uncertainties. This article explores the successes of a socio-environmental project implemented at Indian Sundarbans targeted towards economic improvement and aims at communicating environmental conservation through organized community participation. Participatory rural appraisal (PRA) and the wealth rank tool (WRT) were used to form a "group based organization" with 2100 vulnerable families to give them knowledge about capacity building, disaster management, resource conservation and sustainable agriculture practices. Training was conducted with the selected group members on resource conservation, institution building, alternative income generation activities (AIGA) like, Poultry, Small business, Tricycle van, Organic farming and disaster management in a participatory mode. The climate change 'problems-solutions' were communicated to this socio-economically marginalized and ostracized community through participatory educational theater (PET). WRT revealed that 45 % of the population was under economic stress. Out of 2100 beneficiaries', 1015 beneficiaries' started organic farming, 133 beneficiaries' adopted poultry instead of resource exploitive livelihood and 71 beneficiaries' engaged themselves with small business, which was the success stories of this project. To mitigate disaster, 10-committees were formed and the endemic knowledge about climate change was recorded by participatory method validated through survey by structured questionnaire. As a part of this project 87 ha of naked deforested mudflat was reclaimed with endangered

  3. ABO blood groups and oral premalignancies: A clinical study in selected Indian population.

    Bhateja, S; Arora, G

    2014-01-01

    Background: The ABO blood group antigens are present on the surface of red blood cells and various epithelial cells. As the majority of human cancers are derived from epithelial cells, changes in blood group antigens constitute an important aspect of human cancers. The aim of the study was to establish clinical usefulness of ABO blood group as a predisposing factor in early diagnosis and management of patients with oral precancerous lesions/conditions. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 50 control and 50 oral precancer (25 leukoplakia and 25 Oral Submucous Fibrosis) confirmed by histopathologic examination. All samples were subjected to blood group testing and their prevalence was compared by Z-test using STATA version 8. Results: The "A" blood group was prevalent among the precancerous group. Significant differences on prevalences of blood groups were found (P blood group. Conclusion: Blood group type should be considered along with other risk factors to understand the individual patient's risk and further studies in larger samples with inclusion of Rh factor is needed to elucidate the relationship with ABO blood group types.

  4. Assessment of crown angulations, crown inclinations, and tooth size discrepancies in a South Indian population

    Geeta Maruti Doodamani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objective: The aim of this study was to assess crown angulations, crown inclinations, and tooth size discrepancy in a sample population from Davangere, South India. Materials and Methods: One hundred adults (50 male and 50 female of age 18-30 years, with Angle′s class I ideal occlusion and balanced profiles, were selected for the study. Study models were prepared and crown angulations and crown inclinations were measured using a customized protractor device. Bolton′s analysis was used to measure the tooth size discrepancies. Results: Maxillary and mandibular teeth had less crown angulations. Maxillary and mandibular incisors and maxillary molars showed increased crown inclinations, whereas mandibular molars and premolars had less crown inclinations than the original Andrews sample. The mean maxillary and mandibular tooth size ratios, overall and anterior, were similar to Bolton′s ratios. Conclusions: The finding of this study indicates that there are possible racial and ethnic factors contributing to variations in crown angulations and crown inclinations.

  5. Psidium guajava: A Single Plant for Multiple Health Problems of Rural Indian Population.

    Daswani, Poonam G; Gholkar, Manasi S; Birdi, Tannaz J

    2017-01-01

    The rural population in India faces a number of health problems and often has to rely on local remedies. Psidium guajava Linn. (guava), a tropical plant which is used as food and medicine can be used by rural communities due to its several medicinal properties. A literature search was undertaken to gauge the rural health scenario in India and compile the available literature on guava so as to reflect its usage in the treatment of multiple health conditions prevalent in rural communities. Towards this, electronic databases such as Pubmed, Science Direct, google scholar were scanned. Information on clinical trials on guava was obtained from Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Clinicaltrial.gov. The literature survey revealed that guava possesses various medicinal properties which have been reported from across the globe in the form of ethnobotanical/ethnopharmacological surveys, laboratory investigations and clinical trials. Besides documenting the safety of guava, the available literature shows that guava is efficacious against the following conditions which rural communities would encounter. (a) Gastrointestinal infections; (b) Malaria; (c)Respiratory infections; (d) Oral/dental infections; (e) Skin infections; (f) Diabetes; (g) Cardiovascular/hypertension; (h) Cancer; (i) Malnutrition; (j) Women problems; (k) Pain; (l) Fever; (m) Liver problems; (n) Kidney problems. In addition, guava can also be useful for treatment of animals and explored for its commercial applications. In conclusion, popularization of guava, can have multiple applications for rural communities.

  6. A study of morphological patterns of lip prints in relation to gender of North Indian population.

    Gupta, Shalini; Gupta, Khushboo; Gupta, Op

    2011-01-01

    Establishing a person's identity is a very important process in civil and criminal cases. Dental, fingerprint and DNA comparisons are probably the most common techniques allowing fast and secure identification processes. However, in certain circumstances related to the scene of the crime or due to lack of experienced personnel, these techniques might be unavailable; so there is still an increasing need for reliable alternative methods of establishing identity. The objective of the study was to check for any peculiar lip patterns in relation to the sex of the individual and determine the most common lip patterns in the given population. This study was conducted on 150 subjects, which included 75 males and 75 females, in the age group of 18-30 years. After applying lipstick evenly, the lip print of each subject was obtained on a simple bond paper by a researcher, and later the lip print was then analyzed and interpreted. The intersected type was most commonly seen in females and branched in males. Reticular pattern was the least common type in both males and females. This study shows that the lip prints are unique to an individual and behold the potential for recognition of the sex of an individual.

  7. Surveillance of multidrug resistant suppurative infection causing bacteria in hospitalized patients in an Indian tertiary care hospital

    Nabakishore Nayak; Rajesh K. Lenka; Rabindra N. Padhy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine antibiograms of a cohort of suppurative bacteria isolated from wound-swabs from hospitalized patients of all economic groups of a typical Indian teaching hospital. Methods: In surveillance, antibiotic resistance patterns of 10 species of suppurative bacteria isolated from wound-swabs over a period of 24 months were recorded. Those were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity test, using 16 prescribed antibiotics of 5 different groups (3 aminoglycosides, 4 beta-lactams, 3 ...

  8. Nailfold capillaroscopy by digital microscope in an Indian population with systemic sclerosis.

    Bhakuni, Darshan S; Vasdev, Vivek; Garg, M K; Narayanan, Krishanan; Jain, Rahul; Mullick, Gautam

    2012-02-01

    Nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC) is a simple, non-invasive method with exceptional predictive value for the analysis of microvascular abnormalities, especially in systemic sclerosis (SSc) but remains underutilized due to cost factors of the nailfold videocapillaroscope, lack of expertise and availability issues. The aim of this study was to establish the utility of an inexpensive digital microscope to study NFC changes in SSc in correlation with disease subsets and extent of skin involvement. Twenty-two diffuse cutaneous SSc (DSS), 20 limited cutaneous SSc (LSS) patients and 42 controls were evaluated with NFC using a digital microscope at 30× and 100× magnification. Digital micrographs were used to study qualitative and quantitative changes in microvasculature. The capillary density was significantly less in all cases of SSc as compared to controls (5.3 ± 1.4 vs. 8.7 ± 1.2; P Nailfold capillaroscopy changes in SSc are related to disease subset and MRSS. NFC with digital microscope is a simplified, inexpensive, outpatient procedure with results comparable to previous studies. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases © 2011 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Usefulness of Estimation of Glycated Albumin and Glycosylated Haemoglobin in Indian Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    Kumaresan Ramanathan

    2014-09-01

    CONCLUSION: GA estimation is a useful marker in assessment of short term glycemic control in stage III & IV (< 30 ml/min/1.73m2 diabetic CKD patients. GA: HbA1c ratio if routinely done may also become a useful marker in Diabetic CKD population in future.

  10. Development and validation of a Hindi language health-related quality of life questionnaire for melasma in Indian patients.

    Sarkar, Rashmi; Garg, Shilpa; Dominguez, Arturo; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Jain, R K; Pandya, Amit G

    2016-01-01

    Melasma, which is fairly common in Indians, causes significant emotional and psychological impact. A Hindi instrument would be useful to assess the impact of melasma on the quality of life in Indian patients. To create a semantic equivalent of the original MELASQOL questionnaire in Hindi and validate it. A Hindi adaptation of the original MELASQOL (Hi-MELASQOL) was prepared using previously established guidelines. After pre-testing, the Hi-MELASQOL questionnaire was administered to 100 women with melasma visiting the out-patient registration counter of Safdarjung Hospital, Delhi. These women were also administered a Hindi equivalent of the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) questionnaire. Melasma area severity index (MASI) of all the participants was calculated. The mean MASI score was 20.0 ± 7.5 and Hi-MELASQOL score was 37.19 ± 18.15; both were highly, positively and significantly correlated. Reliability analysis showed satisfactory results. Physical health, emotional well-being and social life were the most adversely affected life domains. It was a single-center study and the number of patients studied could have been larger. Hi-MELASQOL is a reliable and validated tool to measure the quality of life in Indians with melasma.

  11. Multiple single nucleotide polymorphism analysis and association of specific genotypes in FHIT, SAMD4A, and ANKRD17 in Indian patients with oral cancer.

    D'Souza, Wendy; Pradhan, Sultan; Saranath, Dhananjaya

    2017-08-01

    Oral cancer has a high incidence primarily because of tobacco chewing habits. However, a small proportion of habitués develop oral cancer, implying a role for genomic variants in its susceptibility. Thirteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in an Indian cohort comprising patients with oral cancer (n = 500) and healthy controls (n = 500) were genotyped using allelic discrimination real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Prevalence of SNPs rs11130760, rs1957358, rs2306058, rs4883543, rs12637722, rs1457115, rs2353292, rs709821, rs2194861, rs4789378, rs3827538, rs2667552, and rs2886093 was determined in the Indian cohort. A significant association of rs11130760 GG (odds ratio [OR] 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.84) and rs1957358 TT (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.10-1.90) indicated increased risk; whereas rs1957358 TC (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.53-0.87) and rs2306058 CT (OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.56-0.93) reflected decreased risk. The SNP rs11130760 wild-type (WT) allele G indicated an increased risk for oral cancer (OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.09-1.73), whereas SNP allele T indicated a decreased risk (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.58-0.92) for oral cancer. Our study identified SNPs with susceptibility to oral cancer in high-risk populations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Survival rate of breast cancer patients in Malaysia: a population-based study.

    Abdullah, Nor Aini; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Muhammad, Nor Asiah; Ali, Zainudin Mohamad; Ibrahim, Lailanor; Ibrahim Tamim, Nor Saleha; Mustafa, Amal Nasir; Kamaluddin, Muhammad Amir

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Malaysian women. Other than hospital-based results, there are no documented population-based survival rates of Malaysian women for breast cancers. This population- based retrospective cohort study was therefore conducted. Data were obtained from Health Informatics Centre, Ministry of Health Malaysia, National Cancer Registry and National Registration Department for the period from 1st Jan 2000 to 31st December 2005. Cases were captured by ICD-10 and linked to death certificates to identify the status. Only complete data were analysed. Survival time was calculated from the estimated date of diagnosis to the date of death or date of loss to follow-up. Observed survival rates were estimated by Kaplan- Meier method using SPSS Statistical Software version 17. A total of 10,230 complete data sets were analysed. The mean age at diagnosis was 50.6 years old. The overall 5-year survival rate was 49% with median survival time of 68.1 months. Indian women had a higher survival rate of 54% compared to Chinese women (49%) and Malays (45%). The overall 5-year survival rate of breast cancer patient among Malaysian women was still low for the cohort of 2000 to 2005 as compared to survival rates in developed nations. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance the strategies for early detection and intervention.

  13. Relationship between systemic hypertension, perfusion pressure and glaucoma: A comparative study in an adult Indian population

    Amit K Deb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To study the relationship between blood pressure (BP, intraocular pressure (IOP, mean ocular perfusion pressure (MOPP and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG in patients with hypertension and compare it to a control group of normotensives. Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: A total of 108 subjects with primary hypertension and 100 age-matched controls without hypertension were enrolled for the study. IOP measurement using Noncontact Tonometer and dilated fundus evaluation using + 90 D lens were done for all cases. Single recording of BP was taken. Gonioscopy, Humphrey′s central visual fields, optical coherence tomography and pachymetry were done for all subjects with IOP > 21 mm Hg or C: D ratio ≥ 0.5 or asymmetry of > 0.2. Statistical Analysis: Univariate and multivariate multinomial regression models were used to determine the association between covariates and risk of glaucoma or glaucoma suspect. Results: There was no difference in the glaucoma status between subjects with and without hypertension. Subjects on antihypertensive medications were 1΍ times more likely to have suspicious glaucoma (odds ratio [OR] =1.56] and nearly twice as likely to have POAG (OR = 1.85. In addition, we found a 31% and 12% reduction in risk of having POAG (95% confidence interval [CI] =13-45%, P = 0.001 and glaucoma suspect (95% CI = 2-21%, P = 0.03 respectively with every 1 mm Hg increment in MOPP. Conclusion: Subjects on antihypertensive medications are more likely to have either glaucoma or glaucoma suspect, and higher ocular perfusion pressure offers relative protection from glaucomatous damage.

  14. Pharmacoepidemiological observational study of antimicrobial use in outpatients of ophthalmology department in North Indian population

    Hina Kauser

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recognition of drug usage patterns provides the basis for improving safety and plummeting risks associated with their use. Thus, this study was undertaken to explore the drug usage pattern in ophthalmology with an emphasis on antimicrobial use at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: An observational study was conducted in the Department of Ophthalmology, Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India for 9 months. Newly registered patients visiting the Outpatient Department for curative complaints were included. All drugs prescribed were recorded, including dose, route, dosage form, frequency of administration, indications for prescription, and duration of therapy, and the data was audited using the indicators prescribed by the World Health Organization. Result: A total of 600 prescriptions were analyzed. The number of drugs prescribed was 1097 with an average drug per prescription being 1.8. The most common disorders diagnosed were infective conjunctivitis (21.5% followed by stye (5.5%. Drugs were prescribed in different dosage forms with eye drops (72.6% being the most common. Drugs were predominantly prescribed by brand name (100%. Antimicrobials (44.7% were the most commonly prescribed drugs followed by lubricants (17.5%. Moxifloxacin (53.5% was the most commonly prescribed antimicrobial agent. Of the antimicrobials prescribed, 89.6% were prescribed topically. Average total cost per prescription was 113 INR. Conclusion: The study concludes with an overall impression of rational prescription in terms of prescribing in consensus with the recommended treatment protocol of ocular diseases. Nevertheless, health-care professionals should be encouraged to prescribe by generic name. Creating awareness regarding selection of drugs from essential drug list to reduce the drug cost is the need of the hour. Last but not least, updating knowledge regarding appropriate antimicrobial use and the

  15. Positive Association of D Allele of ACE Gene With High Altitude Pulmonary Edema in Indian Population.

    Bhagi, Shuchi; Srivastava, Swati; Tomar, Arvind; Bala Singh, Shashi; Sarkar, Soma

    2015-06-01

    High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a potentially fatal high altitude illness occurring as a result of hypobaric hypoxia with an unknown underlying genetic mechanism. Recent studies have shown a possible association between HAPE and polymorphisms in genes of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which play a key role in sensitivity of an individual toward HAPE. For the present investigation, study groups consisted of HAPE patients (HAPE) and acclimatized control subjects (rCON). Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis in genes of the RAAS pathway, specifically, renin (REN) C(-4063)T (rs41317140) and RENi8-83 (rs2368564), angiotensin (AGT) M(235)T (rs699), and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) (rs1799752). Only the I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene showed a significant difference between the HAPE and rCON groups. The frequency of the D allele was found to be significantly higher in the HAPE group. Arterial oxygen saturation levels were significantly lower in the HAPE group compared with the rCON group and also decreased in the I/D and D/D genotypes compared with the I/I genotype in these groups. The other polymorphisms occurring in the REN and AGT genes were not significantly different between the 2 groups. These findings demonstrate a possible association of the I/D polymorphism of the ACE gene with the development of HAPE, with D/D being the at-risk genotype. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Moyamoya vasculopathy - Patient demographics and characteristics in the Finnish population.

    Saarela, Marika; Mustanoja, Satu; Pekkola, Johanna; Tyni, Tiina; Hernesniemi, Juha; Kivipelto, Leena; Tatlisumak, Turgut

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Moyamoya vasculopathy, a rare steno-occlusive progressive cerebrovascular disorder, has not been thoroughly studied in Caucasian populations. We established a registry of Finnish patients treated at the Helsinki University Hospital, to collect and report demographic and clinical data. Methods We collected data both retrospectively and prospectively from all the patients with a moyamoya vasculopathy referred to our hospital between January 1987 and December 2014. All patients underwent a neurological outpatient clinic visit. Results We diagnosed 61 patients (50 females, 10 children) with moyamoya vasculopathy. The mean age at the disease-onset was 31.5 ± 17.9 years. The two most common presenting symptoms were ischemic stroke (n = 31) and hemorrhage (n = 8). Forty-four percent underwent revascularization surgery, and 70% were prescribed antithrombotic treatment. Conclusions The results support in part the Western phenotype of the disease considering the later presentation and larger female predominance compared to the Asian moyamoya vasculopathy reports. However, the proportion of ischemic strokes and hemorrhagic strokes is closer to Japanese population than German population. The absence of familial cases points to a different genetic profile in the Finnish patients.

  17. High prevalence of ACE DD genotype among north Indian end stage renal disease patients

    Pandirikkal Baburajan Vinod

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Renin-Angiotensin system (RAS is a key regulator of both blood pressure and kidney functions and their interaction. In such a situation, genetic variability in the genes of different components of RAS is likely to contribute for its heterogeneous association in the renal disease patients. Angiotensin converting enzyme-1 (ACE-1 is an important component of RAS which determines the vasoactive peptide Angiotensin-II. Methods In the present study, we have investigated 127 ESRD patients and 150 normal healthy controls from north India to deduce the association between ACE gene polymorphism and ESRD. The inclusion criteria for patients included a constantly elevated serum creatinine level above normal range (ranging from 3.4 to 15.8 and further the patients were recommended for renal transplantation. A total of 150 normal healthy controls were also genotyped for ACE I/D polymorphism. The criterion of defining control sample as normal was totally based on the absence of any kidney disease determined from the serum creatinin level. Genotyping of ACE I/D were assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR based DNA amplification using specific flanking primers Based on the method described elsewhere. Results The difference of DD and II genotypes was found highly significant among the two groups (p = 0.025; OR = 3.524; 95%CI = 1.54-8.07. The combined genotype DD v/s ID+II comparison validated that DD genotype is a high risk genotype for ESRD (p = 0.001; OR = 5.74; 95%CI limit = 3.4-8.5. However, no correlation was obtained for different biochemical parameters of lipid profile and renal function among DD and non DD genotype. Interestingly, ~87% of the DD ESRD patients were found hypertensive in comparison to the 65% patients of non DD genotype Conclusion Based on these observations we conclude that ACE DD genotype implicate a strong possible role in the hypertensive state and in renal damage among north Indians. The study will help in

  18. Clinical profile, common thrombophilia markers and risk factors in 85 young Indian patients with arterial thrombosis

    Mahendra Narain Mishra

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Arterial thrombosis may occur consequent to hereditary thrombophilia and increased lipoprotein(a [Lp(a] and fibrinogen. Our aim was to study the prevalence of common thrombophilia markers in 85 consecutive cases of arterial thrombosis. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective study was conducted from 85 consecutive young patients treated as outpatients or admitted due to stroke or myocardial infarction at a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: Eighty-five Indian patients (age < 45 years presenting ischemic stroke (n = 48 or myocardial infarction (n = 37 and 50 controls were studied for seven thrombophilia markers including antithrombin (AT, factor V, protein C, protein S, activated protein C resistance (APC-R, fibrinogen and Lp(a. Functional assays for protein C, protein S, factor V and APC-R were performed using clotting-based methods. Semi-quantitative estimation of fibrinogen was done using Clauss's method and Lp(a using immunoturbidimetry. Statistical analysis was done using the Epi Info 6 software. RESULTS: Thirty-three samples (38.8% tested positive for one or more thrombophilia markers. The three commonest abnormalities were elevated Lp(a (20%, fibrinogen (17.6% and low APC-R (14.2%. Low levels of protein C, protein S and AT were present in 4.7, 9.4 and 7% of the patients, respectively. Overall, the risk factor profile was: smoking (33%, positive family history (15.3%, hyperlipidemia (7%, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and obesity (2.3% each. CONCLUSIONS: An association was found between low levels of protein C, protein S and AT and arterial thrombosis, but only elevated fibrinogen levels, smoking, positive family history and hyperlipidemia showed statistical significance.

  19. Circulating MiRNAs of ‘Asian Indian Phenotype’ Identified in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Prabu, Paramasivam; Rome, Sophie; Sathishkumar, Chandrakumar; Aravind, Sankaramoorthy; Mahalingam, Balakumar; Shanthirani, Coimbatore Subramanian; Gastebois, Caroline; Villard, Audrey; Mohan, Viswanathan; Balasubramanyam, Muthuswamy

    2015-01-01

    Several omics technologies are underway worldwide with an aim to unravel the pathophysiology of a complex phenotype such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). While recent studies imply a clinically relevant and potential biomarker role of circulatory miRNAs in the etiology of T2DM, there is lack of data on this aspect in Indians—an ethnic population characterized to represent ‘Asian Indian phenotype’ known to be more prone to develop T2DM and cardiovascular disease than Europeans. We performed global serum miRNA profiling and the validation of candidate miRNAs by qRT-PCR in a cohort of subjects comprised of normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and patients with T2DM. Our study revealed 4 differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-128, miR-130b-3p, miR-374a-5p, miR-423-5p) in subjects with IGT and T2DM patients compared to control subjects. They were positively or negatively correlated to cholesterol levels, HbA1C, HOMA-IR and fasting insulin. Interestingly, circulating level of miR-128 and miR-130b-3p were also altered in serum of diet-induced diabetic mice compared to control animals. Among the altered circulating miRNAs, miR-128 had never been described in previous studies/populations and appeared to be a ‘New Lead’ in Indians. It was positively correlated with cholesterol both in prediabetic subjects and in diet-induced diabetic mice, suggesting that its increased level might be associated with the development of dyslipedemia associated with T2DM. Our findings imply directionality towards biomarker potential of miRNAs in the prevention/diagnosis/treatment outcomes of diabetes. PMID:26020947

  20. Diabetic vitrectomy in a large type 1 diabetes patient population

    Ostri, Christoffer; la Cour, Morten; Lund-Andersen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    1996 and 2010. Surgical history was obtained from The Danish National Patient Register. RESULTS: The population consisted of 3980 patients with type 1 diabetes. Median follow-up was 10.0 years. In total, 106 patients underwent diabetic vitrectomy in the observation period. Surgery indications were...... nonclearing vitreous haemorrhage (43%) or tractional retinal detachment (57%). The cumulative incidence rates of diabetic vitrectomy were 1.6% after 5 years and 2.9% after 10 years. When excluding patients with no or mild diabetic retinopathy, the corresponding rates were higher; 3.7% and 6.4%, respectively...... (p diabetic vitrectomy increased in patients experiencing glycosylated haemoglobin A1c > 75 mmol/mol in the observation period (p

  1. Kras gene mutation and RASSF1A, FHIT and MGMT gene promoter hypermethylation: indicators of tumor staging and metastasis in adenocarcinomatous sporadic colorectal cancer in Indian population.

    Rupal Sinha

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC development involves underlying modifications at genetic/epigenetic level. This study evaluated the role of Kras gene mutation and RASSF1A, FHIT and MGMT gene promoter hypermethylation together/independently in sporadic CRC in Indian population and correlation with clinicopathological variables of the disease.One hundred and twenty four consecutive surgically resected tissues (62 tumor and equal number of normal adjacent controls of primary sporadic CRC were included and patient details including demographic characteristics, lifestyle/food or drinking habits, clinical and histopathological profiles were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction - Restriction fragment length polymorphism and direct sequencing for Kras gene mutation and Methylation Specific-PCR for RASSF1A, FHIT and MGMT genes was performed.Kras gene mutation at codon 12 & 13 and methylated RASSF1A, FHIT and MGMT gene was observed in 47%, 19%, 47%, 37% and 47% cases, respectively. Alcohol intake and smoking were significantly associated with presence of Kras mutation (codon 12 and MGMT methylation (p-value <0.049. Tumor stage and metastasis correlated with presence of mutant Kras codon 12 (p-values 0.018, 0.044 and methylated RASSF1A (p-values 0.034, 0.044, FHIT (p-values 0.001, 0.047 and MGMT (p-values 0.018, 0.044 genes. Combinatorial effect of gene mutation/methylation was also observed (p-value <0.025. Overall, tumor stage 3, moderately differentiated tumors, presence of lymphatic invasion and absence of metastasis was more frequently observed in tumors with mutated Kras and/or methylated RASSF1A, FHIT and MGMT genes.Synergistic interrelationship between these genes in sporadic CRC may be used as diagnostic/prognostic markers in assessing the overall pathological status of CRC.

  2. Primary intestinal T cell lymphomas in Indian patients - In search of enteropathic T cell lymphoma

    Shet Tanuja

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This series of six intestinal T cell lymphomas (ITCL attempts to document enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma (EATCL in India. Materials and Methods: A total of six ITCL were selected from 170 gastrointestinal lymphomas in last 10 years. Results: The cases studied included EATCL (4, ITCL with a CD4 positive phenotype (1 and ITCL NK/T cell type (1. Of the four EATCL, two occurred in the ileum, one in right colon and one in duodenum. In three EATCL cases, there was history of celiac disease or lactose intolerance and enteropathic changes were noted in the adjacent mucosa. These tumors had CD3+/CD8+/CD56 (+/-/CD4-/ Granzyme B+ immunophenotype. One EATCL was monomorphic small cell type (type II EATCL with a CD3+/CD8-CD56+/CD4-/ Granzyme B+ phenotype. EBER- ISH (Epstein Barr virus coded RNA′s- in situ hybridization revealed positive tumor cells in ITCL NK/T cell type and in bystander cells in three EATCL. Conclusion: ITCL are rare in Indian patients but do occur and comprise a mixture of the enteropathic and non-enteropathic subtypes.

  3. Morphometric Evaluation of Occipital Condyles: Defining Optimal Trajectories and Safe Screw Lengths for Occipital Condyle-Based Occipitocervical Fixation in Indian Population.

    Bosco, Aju; Venugopal, Prakash; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad; Shanmuganathan, Rajasekaran; Kanna, Rishi Mugesh

    2018-04-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) morphometric analysis. To assess the feasibility and safety of occipital condyle (OC)-based occipitocervical fixation (OCF) in Indians and to define anatomical zones and screw lengths for safe screw placement. Limitations of occipital squama-based OCF has led to development of two novel OC-based OCF techniques. Morphometric analysis was performed on the OCs of 70 Indian adults. The feasibility of placing a 3.5-mm-diameter screw into OCs was investigated. Safe trajectories and screw lengths for OC screws and C0-C1 transarticular screws without hypoglossal canal or atlantooccipital joint compromise were estimated. The average screw length and safe sagittal and medial angulations for OC screws were 19.9±2.3 mm, ≤6.4°±2.4° cranially, and 31.1°±3° medially, respectively. An OC screw could not be accommodated by 27% of the population. The safe sagittal angles and screw lengths for C0-C1 transarticular screw insertion (48.9°±5.7° cranial, 26.7±2.9 mm for junctional entry technique; 36.7°±4.6° cranial, 31.6±2.7 mm for caudal C1 arch entry technique, respectively) were significantly different than those in other populations. The risk of vertebral artery injury was high for the caudal C1 arch entry technique. Screw placement was uncertain in 48% of Indians due to the presence of aberrant anatomy. There were significant differences in the metrics of OC-based OCF between Indian and other populations. Because of the smaller occipital squama dimensions in Indians, OC-based OCF techniques may have a higher application rate and could be a viable alternative/salvage option in selected cases. Preoperative CT, including three-dimensional-CT-angiography (to delineate vertebral artery course), is imperative to avoid complications resulting from aberrant bony and vascular anatomy. Our data can serve as a valuable reference guide in placing these screws safely under fluoroscopic guidance.

  4. Cytokine responses to novel antigens in an Indian population living in an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis.

    Singh, Om Prakash; Stober, Carmel B; Singh, Abhishek Kr; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Sundar, Shyam

    2012-01-01

    There are no effective vaccines for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a neglected parasitic disease second only to malaria in global mortality. We previously identified 14 protective candidates in a screen of 100 Leishmania antigens as DNA vaccines in mice. Here we employ whole blood assays to evaluate human cytokine responses to 11 of these antigens, in comparison to known defined and crude antigen preparations. Whole blood assays were employed to measure IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 responses to peptide pools of the novel antigens R71, Q51, L37, N52, L302.06, J89, M18, J41, M22, M63, M57, as well as to recombinant proteins of tryparedoxin peroxidase (TRYP), Leishmania homolog of the receptor for activated C kinase (LACK) and to crude soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA), in Indian patients with active (n = 8) or cured (n = 16) VL, and in modified Quantiferon positive (EHC(+ve), n = 20) or modified Quantiferon negative (EHC(-ve), n = 9) endemic healthy controls (EHC). Active VL, cured VL and EHC(+ve) groups showed elevated SLA-specific IFN-γ, but only active VL patients produced IL-10 and EHC(+ve) did not make TNF-α. IFN-γ to IL-10 and TNF-α to IL-10 ratios in response to TRYP and LACK antigens were higher in cured VL and EHC(+ve) exposed individuals compared to active VL. Five of the eleven novel candidates (R71, L37, N52, J41, and M22) elicited IFN-γ and TNF-α, but not IL-10, responses in cured VL (55-87.5% responders) and EHC(+ve) (40-65% responders) subjects. Our results are consistent with an important balance between pro-inflammatory IFNγ and TNFγ cytokine responses and anti-inflammatory IL-10 in determining outcome of VL in India, as highlighted by response to both crude and defined protein antigens. Importantly, cured VL patients and endemic Quantiferon positive individuals recognise 5 novel vaccine candidate antigens, confirming our recent data for L. chagasi in Brazil, and their potential as cross-species vaccine candidates.

  5. Cytokine responses to novel antigens in an Indian population living in an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis.

    Om Prakash Singh

    Full Text Available There are no effective vaccines for visceral leishmaniasis (VL, a neglected parasitic disease second only to malaria in global mortality. We previously identified 14 protective candidates in a screen of 100 Leishmania antigens as DNA vaccines in mice. Here we employ whole blood assays to evaluate human cytokine responses to 11 of these antigens, in comparison to known defined and crude antigen preparations.Whole blood assays were employed to measure IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 responses to peptide pools of the novel antigens R71, Q51, L37, N52, L302.06, J89, M18, J41, M22, M63, M57, as well as to recombinant proteins of tryparedoxin peroxidase (TRYP, Leishmania homolog of the receptor for activated C kinase (LACK and to crude soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA, in Indian patients with active (n = 8 or cured (n = 16 VL, and in modified Quantiferon positive (EHC(+ve, n = 20 or modified Quantiferon negative (EHC(-ve, n = 9 endemic healthy controls (EHC.Active VL, cured VL and EHC(+ve groups showed elevated SLA-specific IFN-γ, but only active VL patients produced IL-10 and EHC(+ve did not make TNF-α. IFN-γ to IL-10 and TNF-α to IL-10 ratios in response to TRYP and LACK antigens were higher in cured VL and EHC(+ve exposed individuals compared to active VL. Five of the eleven novel candidates (R71, L37, N52, J41, and M22 elicited IFN-γ and TNF-α, but not IL-10, responses in cured VL (55-87.5% responders and EHC(+ve (40-65% responders subjects.Our results are consistent with an important balance between pro-inflammatory IFNγ and TNFγ cytokine responses and anti-inflammatory IL-10 in determining outcome of VL in India, as highlighted by response to both crude and defined protein antigens. Importantly, cured VL patients and endemic Quantiferon positive individuals recognise 5 novel vaccine candidate antigens, confirming our recent data for L. chagasi in Brazil, and their potential as cross-species vaccine candidates.

  6. Employment among patients with multiple sclerosis-a population study.

    Hanne Marie Bøe Lunde

    Full Text Available To investigate demographic and clinical factors associated with employment in MS.The study included 213 (89.9% of all MS patients in Sogn and Fjordane County, Western Norway at December 31st 2010. The patients underwent clinical evaluation, structured interviews and completed self-reported questionnaires. Demographic and clinical factors were compared between patients being employed versus patients being unemployed and according to disease course of MS. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors independently associated with current employment.After a mean disease duration of almost 19 years, 45% of the population was currently full-time or part- time employed. Patients with relapsing -remitting MS (RRMS had higher employment rate than patients with secondary (SPMS and primary progressive (PPMS. Higher educated MS patients with lower age at onset, shorter disease duration, less severe disability and less fatigue were most likely to be employed.Nearly half of all MS patients were still employed after almost two decades of having MS. Lower age at onset, shorter disease duration, higher education, less fatigue and less disability were independently associated with current employment. These key clinical and demographic factors are important to understand the reasons to work ability in MS. The findings highlight the need for environmental adjustments at the workplace to accommodate individual 's needs in order to improve working ability among MS patients.

  7. Employment among patients with multiple sclerosis-a population study.

    Bøe Lunde, Hanne Marie; Telstad, Wenche; Grytten, Nina; Kyte, Lars; Aarseth, Jan; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Bø, Lars

    2014-01-01

    To investigate demographic and clinical factors associated with employment in MS. The study included 213 (89.9%) of all MS patients in Sogn and Fjordane County, Western Norway at December 31st 2010. The patients underwent clinical evaluation, structured interviews and completed self-reported questionnaires. Demographic and clinical factors were compared between patients being employed versus patients being unemployed and according to disease course of MS. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors independently associated with current employment. After a mean disease duration of almost 19 years, 45% of the population was currently full-time or part- time employed. Patients with relapsing -remitting MS (RRMS) had higher employment rate than patients with secondary (SPMS) and primary progressive (PPMS). Higher educated MS patients with lower age at onset, shorter disease duration, less severe disability and less fatigue were most likely to be employed. Nearly half of all MS patients were still employed after almost two decades of having MS. Lower age at onset, shorter disease duration, higher education, less fatigue and less disability were independently associated with current employment. These key clinical and demographic factors are important to understand the reasons to work ability in MS. The findings highlight the need for environmental adjustments at the workplace to accommodate individual 's needs in order to improve working ability among MS patients.

  8. Hepatitis B and C virus co-infections in human immunodeficiency virus positive North Indian patients

    Gupta, Swati; Singh, Sarman

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -positive patients at a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. METHODS: Serum samples from 451 HIV positive patients were analyzed for HBsAg and HCV antibodies during three years (Jan 2003-Dec 2005). The control group comprised of apparently healthy bone-marrow and renal donors. RESULTS: The study population comprised essentially of heterosexually transmitted HIV infection. The prevalence rate of HBsAg in this population was 5.3% as compared to 1.4% in apparently healthy donors (P < 0.001). Though prevalence of HCV co-infection (2.43%) was lower than HBV in this group of HIV positive patients, the prevalence was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than controls (0.7%). Triple infection of HIV, HBV and HCV was not detected in any patient. CONCLUSION: Our study shows a significantly high prevalence of hepatitis virus infections in HIV infected patients. Hepatitis viruses in HIV may lead to faster progression to liver cirrhosis and a higher risk of antiretroviral therapy induced hepatotoxicity. Therefore, it would be advisable to detect hepatitis virus co-infections in these patients at the earliest. PMID:17106941

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of lumbar canal stenosis in Indian patients

    Inder Pawar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has become the choice of imaging modality for lumbar canal stenosis (LCS due to limitations and radiation risks of computed tomography (CT and spinal radiography. The radiological criteria for diagnosis of LCS are still ambiguous. Aim of this study is to find out the radiological dimensions on MRI of lumbar spinal canal in Indian patients and the critical dimensions at which the symptoms occur. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in ESI Hospital, New Delhi from July 2011 to 2013. Two study groups were studied, the symptomatic LCS group, consisted of 30 individuals of either sex in age group of 45-65 years. The control group consisted of 30 asymptomatic age matched individuals. MRI scans were performed on 1.5 Tesla scanner. Dimensions of lumbar canal at all the levels (L1-L5 of lumbar vertebra of 60 patients were measured. Results: In our study, in symptomatic group, narrowest mid-sagittal diameter antero-posterior (mean 10.61 was at L5-S1 level. The interligamentous diameter (ILD showed no significant difference between the two groups. Lateral recess depths showed a significant difference between the two groups at all levels except L1 on right side and L1 and L2 on left side. Critical canal dimension was found to be 11.13 mm. Conclusion: MRI can effectively evaluate the lumbar canal stenosis. The critical canal dimensions at which symptoms of stenosis appear were 11.13.

  10. Population pharmacokinetics of ticagrelor in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    Li, Jianguo; Tang, Weifeng; Storey, Robert F; Husted, Steen; Teng, Renli

    2016-09-01

    Ticagrelor is an orally administered antiplatelet agent used to reduce thrombotic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Data from two studies in patients with acute coronary syndromes with large amounts of pharmacokinetic (PK) data (phase IIb DISPERSE-2 study (n = 609)); phase III PLATO PK substudy (n = 6,381)), along with non-linear mixed effects modeling software, were used to develop population PK models for ticagrelor and its metabolite, AR-C124910XX, and to evaluate the impact of demographic and clinical factors on the PK of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX. 32 covariates relating to disease history, biomarkers, clinical chemistry, and concomitant medications were assessed. A one-compartment model with population mean PK parameters of firstorder absorption rate constant (0.67/h), apparent systemic clearance (14 L/h), and apparent volume of distribution (221 L) was shown to best describe the PK profile of ticagrelor. Patients co-administered moderate CYP3A inducers or inhibitors increased (by 110%, 95% confidence interval (CI), 52 - 192%) or decreased (by 64%, 95% CI, 39 - 73%) apparent ticagrelor clearance, respectively, while habitual smoking decreased apparent ticagrelor clearance by 22% (95% CI, 19 - 25%). Ticagrelor bioavailability was 21% (95% CI, 19 - 22%) lower at treatment initiation (visit 1) versus subsequent visits. Compared with Caucasian patients, ticagrelor bioavailability was 39% (95% CI, 33 - 46%) higher in Asian patients and 18% (95% CI, 6 - 28%) lower in Black patients. In the current analyses, the population PK models developed for ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX described the data obtained in the DISPERSE-2 and PLATO studies well, and were consistent with previous phase I PK studies.

  11. [The management of asymptomatic bacteriuria in different patient population].

    Ivanov, M-L; Malinverni, R

    2008-11-12

    Who should be screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) and who should be treated? This review updates some aspects of the management of AB in different patient populations. A systematic screening for AB is recommended for pregnant women because of a significant risk of complications. In these cases as well as before any uro-gynecologic surgical procedure treatment of AB is strongly recommended. The management of AB in immunosuppressed or transplanted patients is more controversial. In other populations treating AB is not recommended and the outcome seems to be worse in case of treatment due to possible side effects and selection of resistant organisms. Recent studies have shown a considerable gap between clinical practice and recommendations.

  12. The estimation of daily intake and organ content of Cs, I, Sr, Th and U in Indian population: Application to the study of their biokinetics

    Dang, H.S.; Jaiswal, D.D.; Pullat, V.R.; Parameswaran, M.; Krishnamony, S.

    1998-01-01

    The analytical methods involving both instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation techniques (INAA and RNAA) are being standardised for the determination of the elements Cs, I, Sr, Th and U in various kinds of biological samples. The sampling method proposed to be adopted for the estimation of the daily dietary intake, of the above elements is described. Also reported in this paper are the preliminary results on the concentrations of these elements in the food ingredients which form important components of the diet of Indian population. (author)

  13. Long-term efficacy of liraglutide in Indian patients with Type 2 diabetes in a real-world setting

    Parjeet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term efficacy of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 analog, on body weight and glycemic control has not been studied in Indian Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM subjects. Aim: To evaluate the effect of liraglutide on glycemic control and body weight for 1 year in Indian T2DM patients. Methods: Liraglutide was prescribed to 96 obese patients with T2DM and followed up for 1 year. Clinical parameters were measured at baseline and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Dosage of liraglutide and other medications was adjusted according to clinical judgment. Results: 1 year data were available for 74 patients. Mean age was 50.9 ± 9.6 years. Mean duration of diabetes was 11.6 ± 6.3 years. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c significantly decreased from 8.9 ± 1.3% at baseline to 7.4 ± 1.2% at 1 year. Body weight significantly declined from 98.9 ± 16.0 kg at baseline to 93.8 ± 15.0 kg at 1 year. After an initial decline, subset of patients had an increase in mean HbA1c (n = 30/74 and mean body weight (n = 33/74 after 6 months of liraglutide initiation. Baseline HbA1c and baseline body weight were positively associated with a reduction of HbA1c and body weight at 1 year, respectively. No major side effects occurred. Conclusion: Liraglutide treatment resulted in a significant and sustained reduction in HbA1c and body weight over 1 year in Indian T2DM patients. Magnitude of reduction of HbA1c and body weight at 1 year was positively associated with baseline HbA1c and baseline weight, respectively.

  14. Genetic structure of four socio-culturally diversified caste populations of southwest India and their affinity with related Indian and global groups

    Rajkumar, Revathi; Kashyap, VK

    2004-01-01

    Background A large number of microsatellites have been extensively used to comprehend the genetic diversity of different global groups. This paper entails polymorphism at 15 STR in four predominant and endogamous populations representing Karnataka, located on the southwest coast of India. The populations residing in this region are believed to have received gene flow from south Indian populations and world migrants, hence, we carried out a detailed study on populations inhabiting this region to understand their genetic structure, diversity related to geography and linguistic affiliation and relatedness to other Indian and global migrant populations. Results Various statistical analyses were performed on the microsatellite data to accomplish the objectives of the paper. The heretozygosity was moderately high and similar across the loci, with low average GST value. Iyengar and Lyngayat were placed above the regression line in the R-matrix analysis as opposed to the Gowda and Muslim. AMOVA indicated that majority of variation was confined to individuals within a population, with geographic grouping demonstrating lesser genetic differentiation as compared to linguistic clustering. DA distances show the genetic affinity among the southern populations, with Iyengar, Lyngayat and Vanniyar displaying some affinity with northern Brahmins and global migrant groups from East Asia and Europe. Conclusion The microsatellite study divulges a common ancestry for the four diverse populations of Karnataka, with the overall genetic differentiation among them being largely confined to intra-population variation. The practice of consanguineous marriages might have attributed to the relatively lower gene flow displayed by Gowda and Muslim as compared to Iyengar and Lyngayat. The various statistical analyses strongly suggest that the studied populations could not be differentiated on the basis of caste or spatial location, although, linguistic affinity was reflected among the southern

  15. Genetic structure of four socio-culturally diversified caste populations of southwest India and their affinity with related Indian and global groups

    Rajkumar Revathi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large number of microsatellites have been extensively used to comprehend the genetic diversity of different global groups. This paper entails polymorphism at 15 STR in four predominant and endogamous populations representing Karnataka, located on the southwest coast of India. The populations residing in this region are believed to have received gene flow from south Indian populations and world migrants, hence, we carried out a detailed study on populations inhabiting this region to understand their genetic structure, diversity related to geography and linguistic affiliation and relatedness to other Indian and global migrant populations. Results Various statistical analyses were performed on the microsatellite data to accomplish the objectives of the paper. The heretozygosity was moderately high and similar across the loci, with low average GST value. Iyengar and Lyngayat were placed above the regression line in the R-matrix analysis as opposed to the Gowda and Muslim. AMOVA indicated that majority of variation was confined to individuals within a population, with geographic grouping demonstrating lesser genetic differentiation as compared to linguistic clustering. DA distances show the genetic affinity among the southern populations, with Iyengar, Lyngayat and Vanniyar displaying some affinity with northern Brahmins and global migrant groups from East Asia and Europe. Conclusion The microsatellite study divulges a common ancestry for the four diverse populations of Karnataka, with the overall genetic differentiation among them being largely confined to intra-population variation. The practice of consanguineous marriages might have attributed to the relatively lower gene flow displayed by Gowda and Muslim as compared to Iyengar and Lyngayat. The various statistical analyses strongly suggest that the studied populations could not be differentiated on the basis of caste or spatial location, although, linguistic affinity was

  16. Genetic structure of four socio-culturally diversified caste populations of southwest India and their affinity with related Indian and global groups.

    Rajkumar, Revathi; Kashyap, V K

    2004-08-19

    A large number of microsatellites have been extensively used to comprehend the genetic diversity of different global groups. This paper entails polymorphism at 15 STR in four predominant and endogamous populations representing Karnataka, located on the southwest coast of India. The populations residing in this region are believed to have received gene flow from south Indian populations and world migrants, hence, we carried out a detailed study on populations inhabiting this region to understand their genetic structure, diversity related to geography and linguistic affiliation and relatedness to other Indian and global migrant populations. Various statistical analyses were performed on the microsatellite data to accomplish the objectives of the paper. The heretozygosity was moderately high and similar across the loci, with low average GST value. Iyengar and Lyngayat were placed above the regression line in the R-matrix analysis as opposed to the Gowda and Muslim. AMOVA indicated that majority of variation was confined to individuals within a population, with geographic grouping demonstrating lesser genetic differentiation as compared to linguistic clustering. DA distances show the genetic affinity among the southern populations, with Iyengar, Lyngayat and Vanniyar displaying some affinity with northern Brahmins and global migrant groups from East Asia and Europe. The microsatellite study divulges a common ancestry for the four diverse populations of Karnataka, with the overall genetic differentiation among them being largely confined to intra-population variation. The practice of consanguineous marriages might have attributed to the relatively lower gene flow displayed by Gowda and Muslim as compared to Iyengar and Lyngayat. The various statistical analyses strongly suggest that the studied populations could not be differentiated on the basis of caste or spatial location, although, linguistic affinity was reflected among the southern populations, distinguishing them

  17. Efficacy and Safety of Fingolimod in an Unselected Patient Population.

    Maria Rasenack

    Full Text Available Fingolimod is a first in class oral compound approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and neuroradiological responses to fingolimod as well as the safety and tolerability in RR-MS patients in clinical practice. In addition, a panel of pro-inflammatory serum cytokines was explored as potential biomarker for treatment response.We conducted a retrospective, non-randomized, open-label, observational study in 105 patients with RR-MS and measured cytokines in longitudinal serum samples.Compared to the year before fingolimod start the annualized relapse rate was reduced by 44%. Also, the percentage of patients with a worsening of the EDSS decreased. Accordingly, the fraction of patients with no evidence of disease activity (no relapse, stable EDSS, no new active lesions in MRI increased from 11% to 38%. The efficacy and safety were comparable between highly active patients or patients with relevant comorbidities and our general patient population.The efficacy in reducing relapses was comparable to that observed in the phase III trials. In our cohort fingolimod was safe and efficacious irrespective of comorbidities and previous treatment.

  18. Immigrant Asian Indians in the U.S.: A Population at Risk for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

    Misra, Ranjita

    2009-01-01

    Asian Indians are the third largest and fastest growing Asian subgroup in the U.S. and considered the model minority due to their high education and income level. Unlike other Asian immigrants, they are a more heterogeneous group with a genetic predisposition for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Current national surveys are incapable of…

  19. Changes in Cancer Incidence Patterns among a Northeastern American Indian Population: 1955-1969 versus 1990-2004

    Mahoney, Martin C.; Va, Puthiery; Stevens, Adrian; Kahn, Amy R.; Michalek, Arthur M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This manuscript examines shifts in patterns of cancer incidence among the Seneca Nation of Indians (SNI) for the interval 1955-1969 compared to 1990-2004. Methods: A retrospective cohort design was used to examine cancer incidence among the SNI during 2 time intervals: 1955-1969 and 1990-2004. Person-years at risk were multiplied by…

  20. Validity and reliability of English and Marathi Oswestry Disability Index (version 2.1a) in Indian population.

    Joshi, Veena D; Raiturker, Pradyumna P Pai; Kulkarni, Aditi A

    2013-05-15

    A total of 200 patients with low back pain (LBP) completed an English and Marathi Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaires (100 each), visual analogue scale, and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. To validate the English and Marathi versions of ODI (version 2.1a). Patient-orientated assessment methods are important in the evaluation of treatment outcome. The ODI is one of the condition-specific questionnaires recommended for the use of patients with LBP. An adaptation of the ODI (version 2.1a) for Marathi language was carried out according to established guidelines. Average age of patients who answered the English ODI was 42 ± 15, whereas that of Marathi-speaking patients was 52 ± 15 years. About 40% were males. The Cronbach α reliability score was 0.877 for English and 0.943 for Marathi. Forty-seven and 53 of these patients were retested with English and Marathi ODI within 2 weeks (to assess test-retest reliability). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the test-retest reliability of the questionnaire was 0.877 and 0.943 for English and Marathi respectively. The ODI scores correlated with visual analogue scale pain intensity (r = 0.67, P Disability Questionnaire score (r = 0.71, P Disability Questionnaire scores (r = 0.503, P Oswestry questionnaire is reliable and valid, and shows psychometric characteristics as good as the English version. It should represent a valuable tool for use in future patient-orientated outcome studies for population with LBP in India.

  1. Identification of factors associated with stillbirth in the Indian state of Bihar using verbal autopsy: A population-based study.

    Dandona, Rakhi; Kumar, G Anil; Kumar, Amit; Singh, Priyanka; George, Sibin; Akbar, Mohammad; Dandona, Lalit

    2017-08-01

    India was estimated to have the largest numbers of stillbirths globally in 2015, and the Indian government has adopted a target of autopsy interviews to examine factors associated with stillbirth in the Indian state of Bihar and make recommendations for the INAP to better inform the setting of priorities and actions to reduce stillbirths. Verbal autopsy interviews were conducted for deaths including stillbirths that occurred from January 2011 to March 2014 in a sample of 109,689 households (87.1% participation) in 1,017 clusters representative of the state of Bihar. The Population Health Metrics Research Consortium shortened verbal autopsy questionnaire was used for each interview, and cause of death was assigned using the SmartVA automated algorithm. A stillbirth was defined as a foetal death with a gestation period of ≥28 weeks wherein the foetus did not show any sign of life. We report on the stillbirth epidemiology and present case studies from the qualitative data on the health provider interface that can be used to improve success of improved, skilled care at birth and delivery interventions. The annualised stillbirth incidence was 21.2 (95% CI 19.7 to 22.6) per 1,000 births, with it being higher in the rural areas. A total of 1,132 stillbirths were identified; 686 (62.2%) were boys, 327 (29.7%) were firstborn, and 760 (68.9%) were delivered at a health facility. Of all the stillbirths, 54.5% were estimated to be antepartum. Only 6,161 (55.9%) of the women reported at least 1 antenatal care visit, and 33% of the women reported not consuming the iron folic acid tablets during pregnancy. Significant differences were seen in delivery-related variables and associated maternal conditions based on the place of delivery and type of stillbirth. Only 6.1% of the women reported having undergone a test to rule out syphilis. For 34.2% of the stillbirths, the possible risk factor for stillbirth was unexplained. For the remaining 65.8% of the women who reported at least

  2. Identification of factors associated with stillbirth in the Indian state of Bihar using verbal autopsy: A population-based study.

    Rakhi Dandona

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available India was estimated to have the largest numbers of stillbirths globally in 2015, and the Indian government has adopted a target of <10 stillbirths per 1,000 births by 2030 through the India Newborn Action Plan (INAP. The objective of this study was to use verbal autopsy interviews to examine factors associated with stillbirth in the Indian state of Bihar and make recommendations for the INAP to better inform the setting of priorities and actions to reduce stillbirths.Verbal autopsy interviews were conducted for deaths including stillbirths that occurred from January 2011 to March 2014 in a sample of 109,689 households (87.1% participation in 1,017 clusters representative of the state of Bihar. The Population Health Metrics Research Consortium shortened verbal autopsy questionnaire was used for each interview, and cause of death was assigned using the SmartVA automated algorithm. A stillbirth was defined as a foetal death with a gestation period of ≥28 weeks wherein the foetus did not show any sign of life. We report on the stillbirth epidemiology and present case studies from the qualitative data on the health provider interface that can be used to improve success of improved, skilled care at birth and delivery interventions. The annualised stillbirth incidence was 21.2 (95% CI 19.7 to 22.6 per 1,000 births, with it being higher in the rural areas. A total of 1,132 stillbirths were identified; 686 (62.2% were boys, 327 (29.7% were firstborn, and 760 (68.9% were delivered at a health facility. Of all the stillbirths, 54.5% were estimated to be antepartum. Only 6,161 (55.9% of the women reported at least 1 antenatal care visit, and 33% of the women reported not consuming the iron folic acid tablets during pregnancy. Significant differences were seen in delivery-related variables and associated maternal conditions based on the place of delivery and type of stillbirth. Only 6.1% of the women reported having undergone a test to rule out syphilis

  3. The awareness and attitudes of students of one indian dental school toward information technology and its use to improve patient care.

    Jathanna, Vinod R; Jathanna, Ramya V; Jathanna, Roopalekha

    2014-01-01

    Many obstacles need to be overcome if digital and electronic technologies are to be fully integrated in the operation of dental clinics in some countries. These obstacles may be physical, technical, or psychosocial barriers in the form of perceptions and attitudes related to software incompatibilities, patient privacy, and interference with the patient-practitioner relationship. The objectives of the study are to assess the perceptions of Indian dental students of one school toward the usefulness of digital technologies in improving dental practice; their willingness to use digital and electronic technologies; the perceived obstacles to the use of digital and electronic technologies in dental care setups; and their attitudes toward Internet privacy issues. The study population consisted of 186 final year undergraduate dental students from the A. B. Shetty Memorial institute of Dental Sciences, Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Mangalore, India. Survey data were analyzed descriptively . Most students indicated that information technology enhances patient satisfaction, the quality of dental record, diagnosis, treatment planning, and doctor-doctor communication. Cost of equipment and need for technical training were regarded as major obstacles by substantial proportions of respondents. Most dental students at our school feel that the information technology will support their decision making in diagnoses and devising effective treatment plans, which in turn increase patient satisfaction and quality of care. Students also perceived that lack of technical knowledge and the high cost of implementation are major barriers to developing information technology in India.

  4. Socioeconomic and sociocultural determinants of psychological distress and quality of life among patients with psoriasis in a selected multi-ethnic Malaysian population.

    Kwan, Zhenli; Bong, Yii Bonn; Tan, Leng Leng; Lim, Shu Xian; Yong, Adrian Sze Wai; Ch'ng, Chin Chwen; Tan, Maw Pin; Thevarajah, Suganthi; Ismail, Rokiah

    2017-02-01

    Patients with psoriasis may have increased risk of psychological comorbidities. This cross-sectional study aimed at determining associations between sociocultural and socioeconomic factors with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) scores and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores. Adult patients with psoriasis were recruited from a Dermatology outpatient clinic via convenience sampling. Interviews were conducted regarding socio-demographic factors and willing subjects were requested to complete the DASS and DLQI questionnaires. The Pearson χ 2 test, Fisher's exact test and multivariate logistic regression were used for statistical analysis to determine independent predictors of depression, anxiety, stress and severe impairment of quality of life. Unadjusted analysis revealed that depression was associated with Indian ethnicity (p = .041) and severe impairment of quality of life was associated with Indian ethnicity (p = .032), higher education (p = .013), higher income (p = .042), and employment status (p = .014). Multivariate analysis revealed that Indian ethnicity was a predictor of depression (p = .024). For stress, tertiary level of education (p = .020) was an independent risk factor while a higher monthly income was a protective factor (p = .042). The ethnic Indians and Malays were significantly more likely than the ethnic Chinese to suffer reduced quality of life (p = .001 and p = .006 respectively) and subjects with tertiary education were more likely to have severe impairment of quality of life (p = .002). Our study was unique in determining sociocultural influences on psychological complications of psoriasis in a South East Asian population. This has provided invaluable insight into factors predictive of adverse effects of psoriasis on psychological distress and quality of life in our patient population. Future studies should devise interventions to specifically target at risk groups in the development of strategies to

  5. Hurdles overcome in technology transfer for AIET and Positive outcome in Indian patients

    Dedeepiya V

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cell based immunotherapies have been in practice in Japan for the past two decades with established clinical trials on its efficacy in both solid tumours and hematological malignancies including gastric cancer, ovarian cancer , lung cancer and liver cancer. [1,2,3,4] In India, NCRM has been providing Autologous Immune Enhancement Therapy (AIET using autologous Natural Killer (NK cells and activated T Lymphocytes for Cancer since 2005 following the established protocols practiced by the Biotherapy Institute of Japan. Significant outcome achieved after AIET in advanced pancreatic cancer, Acute Myeloid leukemia (AML in Indian patients have already been reported. [5, 6] Here we report our experience in few more patients and present the hurdles overcome and lessons learned in translating the technology from Japan to India Case Details: Case 1: A 54 year-old female presented with Stage IV recurrent ovarian malignancy in 2010 with a history of previous surgery and chemotherapy for ovarian malignancy in June 2009. The CA-125 level of 243 U/ml. CT scan revealed lesions in the liver, spleen, along the greater curvature of body of stomach and in the perisplenic region, between the medial aspect of liver and stomach and in the right inguinal region. She was suggested six cycles of chemotherapy with Doxorubicin (50 mg and Carboplatin (450 mg along with AIET. After proper informed consent, the peripheral blood was withdrawn and the in vitro expansion of the NK cells, activated T Lymphocytes from the peripheral blood was performed using the protocol reported earlier. [7] Average cell count after the in vitro expansion was 1.2 X 108 cells. Six transfusions of the in vitro expanded NK cells and activated T lymphocytes were administered following which the CA-125 decreased to 4.7 U/mL. CT scan taken in December 2010 showed a regression of the lesions in the spleen and perisplenic peritoneal deposits, stable hepatic lesions and resolution of

  6. Benefits & risks of statin therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in Asian Indians – A population with the highest risk of premature coronary artery disease & diabetes

    Enas, Enas A.; Kuruvila, Arun; Khanna, Pravien; Pitchumoni, C.S.; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2013-01-01

    Several reviews and meta-analyses have demonstrated the incontrovertible benefits of statin therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). But the role for statins in primary prevention remained unclear. The updated 2013 Cochrane review has put to rest all lingering doubts about the overwhelming benefits of long-term statin therapy in primary prevention by conclusively demonstrating highly significant reductions in all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and the need for coronary artery revascularization procedures (CARPs). More importantly, these benefits of statin therapy are similar at all levels of CVD risk, including subjects at low (statins is also highly effective in delaying and avoiding expensive CARPs such as angioplasties, stents, and bypass surgeries. There is no evidence of any serious harm or threat to life caused by statin therapy, though several adverse effects that affect the quality of life, especially diabetes mellitus (DM) have been reported. Asian Indians have the highest risk of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes. When compared with Whites, Asian Indians have double the risk of CAD and triple the risk of DM, when adjusted for traditional risk factors for these diseases. Available evidence supports the use of statin therapy for primary prevention in Asian Indians at a younger age and with lower targets for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL-C), than those currently recommended for Americans and Europeans. Early and aggressive statin therapy offers the greatest potential for reducing the continuing epidemic of CAD among Indians. PMID:24434254

  7. Modification of the Fitzpatrick system of skin phototype classification for the Indian population, and its correlation with narrowband diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry.

    Sharma, V K; Gupta, V; Jangid, B L; Pathak, M

    2018-04-01

    The Fitzpatrick classification for skin phototyping is widely used, but its usefulness in dark-skinned populations has been questioned by some researchers. Recently, skin colour measurement has been proposed for phototyping skin colour objectively. To modify the Fitzpatrick system of skin phototyping for the Indian population and to study its correlation with skin colour using narrowband diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry METHODS: Answer choices for three items (eye colour, hair colour, colour of unexposed skin) out of 10 in the original Fitzpatrick questionnaire were modified, followed by self-administration of the original and the modified Fitzpatrick questionnaire by 70 healthy Indian volunteers. Skin colour (melanin and erythema indices) was measured from two photoexposed and two photoprotected sites using a narrowband reflectance spectrophotometer. The mean ± SD scores for the original and modified Fitzpatrick questionnaires were 25.40 ± 4.49 and 23.89 ± 4.82, respectively (r = 0.97, P Spectrophotometry can be a useful objective tool for skin phototyping. © 2018 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. Efficacy and Safety of Ibrutinib in Indian Patients with Relapsed or Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Mantle Cell Lymphoma: Cases from a Named Patient Program.

    Agarwal, Mohan B; Bhurani, Dinesh; Shah, Chirag; Sood, Nitin; Singhal, Manish; Kamat, Anil; Chezhian, Subash; Mishra, Suryaprakash; Nagrale, Dinesh

    2017-01-01

    This named patient program evaluated the safety and efficacy of ibrutinib, a selective inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase in Indian patients with relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, with/without chromosome 17 deletion [del17p]) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). The eight enrolled patients (relapsed/refractory CLL: n = 6 [4/6 patients with del17p] and relapsed/refractory MCL: n = 2) had median age of 55 years (range, 52-60) and had received a median of 3 (CLL patients) and 4 (MCL patients) prior therapies. Patients received once-daily dose of ibrutinib (420 mg: CLL, 560 mg: MCL). In CLL patients, the median time to response was 3 months (range, 0.5-7) and five of six patients had partial response (PR) whereas one achieved complete response (CR). Median time on treatment was 11.5 months (range, 8-14); five patients continued treatment and one was recommended stem cell transplantation (SCT). Of the two MCL patients, one achieved PR and one showed CR and advanced to SCT. In CLL patients, the median (range) hemoglobin level improved from 9.8 g/dL (7.2-11) at baseline to 12.0 g/dL (9.5-13.2) and median (range) platelet count improved from 150,000 cells/μL (21,000-195,000) at baseline to 190,350 cells/μL (130,000-394,000) at the time of analysis (July 2016). Most adverse events (AEs) reported were infections ( n = 2). No Grade 3-4 or serious AEs, dose reductions, or treatment discontinuation due to AEs were reported. In this first real-world experience in Indian patients, ibrutinib demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in relapsed/refractory CLL (with/without del17p) and MCL. Safety results were consistent with the current known profile of ibrutinib.

  9. The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Florida: a summary and analysis of biological, ecological, and administrative problems affecting preservation and restoration of the population. Final report

    Wray, P.

    1978-09-01

    The population of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), an endangered species, is estimated at 800-1,000 individuals in peninsular Florida. Observed annual mortality between 1974 and 1977 was 6-8% of the estimated population. Human activities are implicated in much of this mortality. Direct and indirect threats include boat collisions, diver harassment, creation of artificial warm water refuges, vandalism, entanglement in fishing gear, herbicides in food resources, and possible effects of offshore oil exploration. Lack of federal commitment to manatee protection is evidenced by an absence of implementing regulations under the Marine Mammal Protection Act and the Endangered Species Act, absence of a recovery plan for the species, faulty interagency communication, and a lack of law enforcement. Problems are discussed, with recommendations for conservation. (Color illustrations reproduced in black and white)

  10. Systematic review on vitamin D level in apparently healthy Indian population and analysis of its associated factors

    Sandhiya Selvarajan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D which is involved in the maintenance of bone mineral homeostasis has been found to portray various pleiotropic effects. Although it has been widely accepted that serum 25-hydroxy Vitamin D level above 30 ng/ml is considered optimal for the biological actions of Vitamin D, there is a need to explore the levels of Vitamin D reported among Indians from various regions of the country. Hence, this systematic review aims to appraise the status of Vitamin D levels reported from apparently healthy Indians across various parts of India. Methodology: A comprehensive literature search was carried out to identify the range of Vitamin D levels among apparently healthy individuals from various parts of India, with the search term “Vitamin D and India” in the search portals of PubMed, Google Scholar, Indmed, and ScienceDirect. A total of 2998 articles were retrieved by the above search strategy, of which only forty studies fulfilled the criteria to be included in the systematic review. Studies done in various states were compiled under the respective zones based on the classification of Indian zones as specified in Zonal maps of India. Results: The level of Vitamin D from all the forty included studies ranged from 3.15 ± 1.4 to 52.9 ± 33.7 ng/ml. The effect size of Vitamin D level was higher in the South Zone compared to other zones. Conclusion: The present study shows that Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among apparently healthy Indians living in different regions of India, irrespective of their exposure to sunlight.

  11. Replication and Relevance of Multiple Susceptibility Loci Discovered from Genome Wide Association Studies for Type 2 Diabetes in an Indian Population.

    Nagaraja M Phani

    Full Text Available Several genetic variants for type 2 diabetes (T2D have been identified through genome wide association studies (GWAS from Caucasian population; however replication studies were not consistent across various ethnicities. Objective of the current study is to examine the possible correlation of 9 most significant GWAS single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for T2D susceptibility as well as the interactive effect of these variants on the risk of T2D in an Indian population.Case-control cohorts of 1156 individuals were genotyped for 9 SNPs from an Indian population. Association analyses were performed using logistic regression after adjusting for covariates. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR analysis was adopted to determine gene-gene interactions and discriminatory power of combined SNP effect was assessed by grouping individuals based on the number of risk alleles and by calculating area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUC.We confirm the association of TCF7L2 (rs7903146 and SLC30A8 (rs13266634 with T2D. MDR analysis showed statistically significant interactions among four SNPs of SLC30A8 (rs13266634, IGF2BP2 (rs4402960, HHEX (rs1111875 and CDKN2A (rs10811661 genes. Cumulative analysis showed an increase in odds ratio against the baseline group of individuals carrying 5 to 6 risk alleles and discriminatory power of genetic test based on 9 variants showed higher AUC value when analyzed along with body mass index (BMI.These results provide a strong evidence for independent association between T2D and SNPs for in TCF7L2 and SLC30A8. MDR analysis demonstrates that independently non-significant variants may interact with one another resulting in increased disease susceptibility in the population tested.

  12. Population differentiation or species formation across the Indian and the Pacific Oceans? An example from the brooding marine hydrozoan Macrorhynchia phoenicea.

    Postaire, Bautisse; Gélin, Pauline; Bruggemann, J Henrich; Pratlong, Marine; Magalon, Hélène

    2017-10-01

    Assessing population connectivity is necessary to construct effective marine protected areas. This connectivity depends, among other parameters, inherently on species dispersal capacities. Isolation by distance (IBD) is one of the main modes of differentiation in marine species, above all in species presenting low dispersal abilities. This study reports the genetic structuring in the tropical hydrozoan Macrorhynchia phoenicea α ( sensu Postaire et al ., 2016a), a brooding species, from 30 sampling sites in the Western Indian Ocean and the Tropical Southwestern Pacific, using 15 microsatellite loci. At the local scale, genet dispersal relied on asexual propagation at short distance, which was not found at larger scales. Considering one representative per clone, significant positive F IS values (from -0.327*** to 0.411***) were found within almost all sites. Gene flow was extremely low at all spatial scales, among sites within islands (11,000 km distance), with significant pairwise F ST values (from 0.035*** to 0.645***). A general pattern of IBD was found at the Indo-Pacific scale, but also within ecoregions in the Western Indian Ocean province. Clustering and network analyses identified each island as a potential independent population, while analysis of molecular variance indicated that population genetic differentiation was significant at small (within island) and intermediate (among islands within province) spatial scales. As shown by this species, a brooding life cycle might be corollary of the high population differentiation found in some coastal marine species, thwarting regular dispersal at distances more than a few kilometers and probably leading to high cryptic diversity, each island housing independent evolutionary lineages.

  13. Population-based estimation of renal function in healthy young Indian adults based on body mass index and sex correlating renal volume, serum creatinine, and cystatin C

    Rajagopalan P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Prashanth Rajagopalan,1 Georgi Abraham,2 Yuvaram NV Reddy,2 Ravivarman Lakshmanasami,1 ML Prakash,1 Yogesh NV Reddy2 1Department of General Medicine, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Puducherry, 2Department of Nephrology, Madras Medical Mission Hospital, Chennai, India Abstract: This population-based prospective study was undertaken in Mahatma Gandhi Medical College to estimate the renal function in young healthy Indian adults. A young healthy heterogeneous Indian cohort comprising 978 individuals, predominantly medical students, was assessed by a detailed questionnaire, and variables such as height, weight, body mass index (BMI, birth weight, and blood pressure were documented. Laboratory investigations included serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, blood sugar, urine protein, and imaging of the kidneys with ultrasound. The mean age of the cohort was 25±6 years, comprising 672 males and 306 females. The estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs by the Cockcroft–Gault formula for BMI <18.5 kg/m2, 18.5–24.99 kg/m2, 25–29.99 kg/m2, and ≥30 kg/m2 were 71.29±10.45 mL/min, 86.38±13.46 mL/min, 98.88±15.29 mL/min, and 109.13±21.57 mL/min, respectively; the eGFRs using cystatin C for the four groups of BMI were 84.53±18.14 mL/min, 84.01±40.11 mL/min, 79.18±13.46 mL/min, and 77.30±10.90 mL/min, respectively. This study attempts to establish a normal range of serum creatinine and cystatin C values for the Indian population and shows that in young healthy Indian adults, eGFR and kidney volume vary by BMI and sex. Keywords: eGFR, birth weight, renal volume

  14. Difficulties in using Oswestry Disability Index in Indian patients and validity and reliability of translator-assisted Oswestry Disability Index.

    Aithala, Janardhana P

    2015-06-09

    In Indian patients, in view of language plurality and illiteracy, self-reporting of English version of Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is not practical. Our study aim was to find out to what extent self-reporting of ODI was possible and in cases where self-reporting was not possible, to see validity and reliability of a translator-assisted ODI score. Fifty patients with low backache and who could not use the English version were assessed with ODI with the use of two translators at a gap of 3 h in a test and retest manner. Patients were also asked to report the most important disabling activity in their day-to-day life. A total of 58 questionnaires were filled during the study period out of which eight patients (14%) self-reported English version; while 50 patients needed a translator. The Cronbach's alpha between two translators for the ODI scores of 50 patients was 0.866, but aggregate of difference between two scores for each ODI component shows high difference between two translators for question nos. 3, 9, and 10. Cronbach's alpha was best when item no. 3 was deleted (0.875, translator 1; 0.777, translator 2). Thirty-seven people did not answer the question related to sexual activity. Agreement between two values was assessed using Kendall's tau and was found good (0.585, Spearman's coefficient 0.741). Kendall's tau values correlating total ODI score and individual components show that all the items move together, but correlation was poor for question no. 3 (P value 0.16 for translator 2). Translator-assisted ODI is a good outcome assessment tool in backache assessment in places where validated local language versions are not available, but in Indian patients, inclusion of question nos. 3 and 8 related to weight lifting and sexual function needs to be reviewed.

  15. Utilizing linkage disequilibrium information from Indian Genome ...

    Using LD information derived from Indian Genome Variation database (IGVdb) on populations .... Line diagram represents the SNPs selected in Indian (upper panel) and CEPH .... out procedure for extracting DNA from human nucleated cells.

  16. Patient and population exposure from clinic nuclear medicine in China

    Zhang Liangan; Chang Hexin; Zhang Wenyi; Sun Kai

    1993-01-01

    In the work, a method of epidemiological stratified sampling was adopted. The sampling covers 200 hospitals throughout 24 provinces. The patient doses were estimated by MIRD method. The survey data were statistic analysis by a computer, and main results of the annual frequencies, patient dose and collective dose were reported. The annual frequency of clinic nuclear medicine in China was 0.62 cases per 1000 inhabitant. The highest frequency was found in thyroid uptake procedure, it is 0.26 cases per 1000 population. The patient dose per examination is changed with various radiopharmaceuticals administered mainly. In nuclear medical examination, the highest effective dose per examination was found in the procedure of thyroid scintigraphy, it is about 93.8 mGy lexam with 131 I, and this is 312 times as that with 99m Tc. In hyperthyroidism, the patient dose is very high, the effective dose is 2.6 Gy lexam, the thyroid dose is 86.0 Gy lexam. (5 tabs.)

  17. Patient engagement with research: European population register study.

    McKevitt, Christopher; Fudge, Nina; Crichton, Siobhan; Bejot, Yannick; Daubail, Benoît; Di Carlo, Antonio; Fearon, Patricia; Kolominsky-Rabas, Peter; Sheldenkar, Anita; Newbound, Sophie; Wolfe, Charles D A

    2015-12-01

    Lay involvement in implementation of research evidence into practice may include using research findings to guide individual care, as well as involvement in research processes and policy development. Little is known about the conditions required for such involvement. To assess stroke survivors' research awareness, use of research evidence in their own care and readiness to be involved in research processes. Cross sectional survey of stroke survivors participating in population-based stroke registers in six European centres. The response rate was 74% (481/647). Reasons for participation in register research included responding to clinician request (56%) and to 'give something back' (19%); however, 20% were unaware that they were participating in a stroke register. Research awareness was generally low: 57% did not know the purpose of the register they had been recruited to; 73% reported not having received results from the register they took part in; 60% did not know about any research on stroke care. Few participants (7.6%) used research evidence during their consultations with a doctor. The 34% of participants who were interested in being involved in research were younger, more highly educated and already research aware. Across Europe, stroke survivors already participating in research appear ill informed about stroke research. Researchers, healthcare professionals and patient associations need to improve how research results are communicated to patient populations and research participants, and to raise awareness of the relationship between research evidence and increased quality of care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The collaborative edge: patient empowerment for vulnerable populations.

    Safran, Charles

    2003-03-01

    The problems with access to care and the special needs for educational outreach for disadvantage or vulnerable populations of patients require innovation. This paper describes Baby CareLink use of information technology to support communication, consultation, and collaboration among colleagues as well as with patients, their families, and community resources. In response to the educational, emotional and communication needs of parents of premature infants and the clinicians who care for the infants and support the families, we developed Baby CareLink, a secure collaborative environment. Baby CareLink provides a nurturing environment where parents, even though remote from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, can actively participate in decisions surrounding their baby's care. In a southeastern hospital serving a mostly Medicaid population in a rural setting, more than 300 parents have used Baby CareLink more than 11000 times during the past year. Despite the common wisdom that Medicaid families do not have access to the Internet, approximately 85% of the parents access Baby CareLink from home, at work, from the library or other public access point. The median use of Baby CareLinks from outside the hospital by parents is 17 separate sessions. In a city hospital in the midwestern US which exclusively serves a Medicaid population, experience has been equally encouraging. More than 70 parents have initiated more than 600 secure sessions with Baby CareLink. In contrast to the rural hospital, only 35% of sessions have been initiated outside the hospital. Experience with Baby CareLink suggests that families from all walks of life will use and benefit from collaborative tools that keep them informed and involved in the care of their children. The most significant barrier to wider deployment is bandwidth limitations into the homes of most families. The care of premature infants is a great example of an area where medical knowledge and ability has grown dramatically, and where

  19. The thyroid registry: Clinical and hormonal characteristics of adult indian patients with hypothyroidism

    Bipin Sethi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Appropriate treatment of hypothyroidism requires accurate diagnosis. This registry aimed to study the disease profile and treatment paradigm in hypothyroid patients in India. Materials and Methods: We registered 1500 newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve, adult hypothyroid males and nonpregnant females across 33 centers and collected relevant data from medical records. The first analysis report on baseline data is presented here. Results: The mean age of the study population was 41.1 ± 14.01 years with a female to male ratio of 7:3. The most frequently reported symptoms and signs were fatigue (60.17% and weight gain with poor appetite (36.22%. Menstrual abnormalities were reported in all women (n = 730 who had not attained menopause. Grades 1 and 2 goiter (as per the WHO were observed in 15.41% and 3.27% patients, respectively. Comorbidities were reported in 545 patients (36.36%, type 2 diabetes mellitus being the most prevalent (13.54% followed by hypertension (11.34%. Total serum thyroxine (T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels were assessed in 291 (19.47% patients only. In majority of patients (81%, treatment was based on serum TSH levels alone. The dose of levothyroxine ranged from 12.5 to 375 mcg. Conclusions: Guidelines suggest a diagnosis of hypothyroidism based on TSH and T4 levels. However, most of the patients as observed in this registry received treatment with levothyroxine based on TSH levels alone, thus highlighting the need for awareness and scientific education among clinicians in India. The use of standard doses (100, 75, and 25 mcg of levothyroxine may point toward empirical management practices.

  20. Racial and Ethnic Variation in Lipoprotein (a Levels among Asian Indian and Chinese Patients

    Dipanjan Banerjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lipoprotein (a [Lp(a] is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD in Non-Hispanic Whites (NHW. There are known racial/ethnic differences in Lp(a levels, and the association of Lp(a with CVD outcomes has not been examined in Asian Americans in the USA. Objective. We hypothesized that Lp(a levels would differ in Asian Indians and Chinese Americans when compared to NHW and that the relationship between Lp(a and CVD outcomes would be different in these Asian racial/ethnic subgroups when compared to NHW. Methods. We studied the outpatient electronic health records of 2022 NHW, 295 Asian Indians, and 151 Chinese adults age ≥18 y in Northern California in whom Lp(a levels were assessed during routine clinical care from 2001 to 2008, excluding those who had received prescriptions for niacin (14.6%. Nonparametric methods were used to compare median Lp(a levels. Significance was assessed at the P<.0001 level to account for multiple comparisons. CVD outcomes were defined as ischemic heart disease (IHD (265 events, stroke (122, or peripheral vascular disease (PVD (87. We used logistic regression to determine the relationship between Lp(a and CVD outcomes. Results. Both Asian Indians (36 nmol/L and NHW (29 nmol/L had higher median Lp(a levels than Chinese (22 nmol/L, P≤.0001 and P=.0032. When stratified by sex, the differences in median Lp(a between these groups persisted in the 1761 men (AI v CH: P=.001, NHW v CH: P=.0018 but were not statistically significant in the 1130 women (AI v CH: P=.0402, NHW v CH: P=.0761. Asian Indians (OR=2.0 and Chinese (OR=4.8 exhibited a trend towards greater risk of IHD with high Lp(a levels than NHW (OR=1.4, but no relationship was statistically significant. Conclusion. Asian Indian and NHW men have higher Lp(a values than Chinese men, with a trend toward, similar associations in women. High Lp(a may be more strongly associated with IHD in Asian Indians and Chinese, although we did

  1. Study of association and molecular analysis of human papillomavirus in breast cancer of Indian patients: Clinical and prognostic implication.

    Saimul Islam

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV causes tumors primarily Cervical cancer. Recently, inconsistent reports came up in Breast cancer (BC too. In India, despite treatment 70,218 BC patients die each year. So, we explored the association of HPV, if any, with BC prognosis in Indian pre-therapeutic (PT and Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NACT patients with subsequent analysis of HPV profile.HPV prevalence was checked and analysis of physical status, copy number, genome variation, promoter methylation and expression (mRNA and protein of the prevalent subtype was done.High prevalence of HPV was observed in both PT (64.0% and NACT (71.0% cases with significant association with younger (20-45 yrs PT patients. Interestingly, HPV infection was significantly increased from adjacent normal breast (9.5%, 2/21, fibro adenomas (30%, 3/10 to tumors (64.8%, 203/313 samples. In both PT and NACT cases, HPV16 was the most prevalent subtype (69.0% followed by HPV18 and HPV33. Survival analysis illustrated hrHPV infected PT patients had worst prognosis. So, detailed analysis of HPV16 profile was done which showed Europian-G350 as the most frequent HPV16 variant along with high rate of integration. Moreover, low copy number and hyper-methylation of P97 early promoter were concordant with low HPV16 E6 and E7 mRNA and protein expression. Notably, four novel variations (KT020838, KT020840, KT020841 and KT020839 in the LCR region and two (KT020836 and KT020837 in the E6 region were identified for the first time along with two novel E6^E7*I (KU199314 and E6^E7*II (KU199315 fusion transcript variants.Thus, significant association of hrHPV with prognosis of Indian BC patients led to additional investigation of HPV16 profile. Outcomes indicated a plausible role of HPV in Indian BC patients.

  2. Scintigraphic changes of osteoarthritis: An analysis of findings during routine bone scans to evaluate the incidence in an Indian population

    Samuel, Aban M; Jain, HM

    2012-01-01

    The reported prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) varies according to the method that is used to detect it. X-rays are commonly used in the diagnosis of OA. However, marked osteoarthritic damage must be present to detect characteristic changes with radiologic imaging. Our intention was to evaluate bone scans (1) he occurrence of such changes, (2) he incidence of OA (single or multiple joints) in the general population (a mixture of urban and rural) who were asymptomatic. Data on OA incidence in India is sketchy and sparse as against more detailed information obtained from USA and European nations. Also, clinical rheumatologists are not well-versed with the potential application of bone scans in the management of arthritides. Two hundred and eighty nine planar images of routine bone scans were randomly evaluated by two trained nuclear medicine physicians. The ages of the patients ranged from 20 to over 80 years. It is observed that as the age increases, the incidence of joint involvement increases. However, it is worth noting that even in the age group of 20-40 years, as many as 34% of asymptomatic persons have involvement of the joints. In this age group, as the manifestation is probably in the inception stage, there is a tendency for single joint involvement as against multiple joints seen in the older age groups. Another point to note is that the incidence of joint involvement was not affected by weight. In our patient population, gross obesity was not seen. The predominant joints involved are the knees and hips, followed by the shoulders and ankles. Females show a higher incidence than males. Some patients would be having only a single site or multiple site involvement. This observation is important as in a single, simple test whole body survey gives more information with low radiation burden. Scintigraphic prevalence of OA is higher than reported in US, Europe, and Asia as this test is more sensitive in detecting early changes as compared to radiological changes

  3. Clustering of cardiac risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome and associations with psychosocial distress in a young Asian Indian population.

    Suchday, Sonia; Bellehsen, Mayer; Friedberg, Jennifer P; Almeida, Maureen; Kaplan, Erica

    2014-08-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a precursor for coronary heart disease. However, its pathophysiology is not clear, its phenotypic expression may vary by region; also, the phenotypic manifestation may be exacerbated by psychosocial distress and family history. The purpose of the current study was to assess the factor structure of the metabolic syndrome in young urban Asian Indians. Asian Indian youth (N = 112) were evaluated for body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio, blood pressure (systolic: SBP; diastolic: DBP), blood sugar, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, psychosocial distress and family health history. Factor analyses were computed on components of the metabolic syndrome. Three factors were identified for the entire sample: hemodynamic-obesity (SBP, DBP, waist-hip ratio), Lipid (cholesterol, triglyceride), and insulin-obesity (blood sugar, BMI, insulin). Similar to previous research with this population, three distinct factors with no overlap were identified. Factors did not correlate with psychosocial distress or family history. Lack of correlation with family history and psychosocial distress may be a function of the young age and demographics of the sample.

  4. Effect of severe obesity in childhood and adolescence on risk of type 2 diabetes in youth and early adulthood in an American Indian population.

    Tanamas, Stephanie K; Reddy, Sanil P; Chambers, Melissa A; Clark, Elena J; Dunnigan, Diana L; Hanson, Robert L; Nelson, Robert G; Knowler, William C; Sinha, Madhumita

    2017-12-28

    The risk of early-onset type 2 diabetes associated with the severity of obesity in youth is not well understood. This study aims to determine metabolic alterations and type 2 diabetes risk among American Indian children who are obese or severely obese. Incidence rates of diabetes before 20 years (youth-onset) and 45 years were computed in 2728 children who were from 5 to Obesity was defined as age-sex-adjusted body mass index (BMI) ≥95th percentile, and its severity was quantified as the percentage of the 95th percentile (%BMI p95 ). In the younger cohort, 0.9% of those non-obese and 2.9% of those with 100% to obese and 9.8% of those with 100% to youth-onset diabetes was 3.8 and 4.9/1000 person-years in the child and adolescent cohorts, respectively, and before the age of 45 was 12.3 and 16.8/1000 person-years, respectively. Incidence rates of youth-onset diabetes in those with the most severe obesity (≥140%BMI p95 ) were 2.3 to 5.1 times as high as in those with the least severe obesity (100 to obesity in an American Indian population is a major driver of type 2 diabetes developing in adolescents and young adults. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Irritable Bowel Syndrome in a Population of African Patients

    Sylvester Chuks Nwokediuko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Functional dyspepsia is the prototype functional gastrointestinal disorder. This study was designed to determine its prevalence, subtypes, and risk factors associated with the subtypes. Method. Patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms who presented for endoscopy were administered a questionnaire containing the functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome modules of the Rome III diagnostic criteria. Results. Of 192 patients who had functional dyspepsia, epigastric pain syndrome, postprandial distress syndrome, and combination of the two subtypes accounted for 79.2%, 62.5%, and 50%, respectively. Multivariate analysis of the risk factors showed that independent predictors of postprandial distress syndrome were alcohol and irritable bowel syndrome while irritable bowel syndrome was independent predictor of epigastric pain syndrome. Alcohol, smoking, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were independent predictors of cooccurrence of postprandial distress syndrome and epigastric pain syndrome. Conclusion. Functional dyspepsia accounts for 62.5% of dyspepsia in a population of black African patients. Regarding symptomatology, epigastric pain syndrome, postprandial distress syndrome, and combination of the two subtypes account for 79.2%, 62.5%, and 50%, respectively. Risk factors for functional dyspepsia are irritable bowel syndrome, alcohol, smoking, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  6. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, improves glycamic control and reduces body weight in type 2 diabetes: Findings on indian patients from the pooled data analysis

    Sanjay Kalra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are widely used especially in Asian countries as a treatment option for type 2 diabetes patients with high postprandial glycemia (PPG. The higher carbohydrate in the Indian diets lead to greater prandial glycemic excursion, increased glucosidase, and incretin activity in the gut and may need special therapeutic strategies to tackle these glucose peaks. This is the subgroup analysis of Indian subjects who participated in the GlucoVIP study that investigated the effectiveness and tolerability of acarbose as add-on or monotherapy in a range of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 1996 Indian patients were included in the effectiveness analysis. After 12.5 weeks (mean, the mean change in 2-hour PPG from baseline was −74.4 mg/dl, mean HbA1c decreased by -1.0%, and mean fasting blood glucose decreased by -37.9 mg/dl. The efficacy of acarbose was rated "very good" or "good" in 91.1% of patients, and tolerability as "very good" or "good" in 88.0% of patients. The results of this observational study suggest that acarbose was effective and well tolerated in the Indian patients with T2DM.

  7. Safety and persistence of non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid fillers for nasolabial folds correction in 30 Indian patients

    Shehnaz Z Arsiwala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Correction of nasolabial creases through minimally invasive procedures is increasingly being sought by patients. Injecting non-animal stabilized hyaluronic acid filler is a highly effective method to achieve an optimal and persistent cosmetic result. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy, persistence and safety of Restylane and Perlane (Q-Med, Sweden for correction of nasolabial folds in Indian patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty Indian patients with mild, moderate and severe nasolabial folds (based on Wrinkle Assessment Scale were recruited in the study after informed consent for correction of their folds with Restylane or Perlane or both. Injections were administered in a single sitting after global assessment of the patient′s face using Wrinkle assessment scale (WAS.Optimal filling was performed by using appropriate techniques and its safety and efficacy assessed independently by the investigator as well as by patients at immediately, 3, 6 and 9 months post-procedure. Any adverse reactions were noted. Results: Twenty two females and 8 males (age range 45-55 years, mean age 52 years were recruited in the study. An optimum cosmetic correction was obtained in all patients. The efficacy increased with time and was greatest at 3 months after the treatment. Grade 2 improvement was maintained at 9 months in mild and moderate folds, and grade 3 improvement for severe folds. Minor post injection side effects like erythema at puncture site, needle marks and bruising were seen. Conclusion: Restylane and Perlane are safe and effective dermal fillers for correction of nasolabial creases and offer immediate effect.

  8. Development and validation of health related quality of life questionnaire (Indian scenario) in diabetic foot ulcer patients.

    Kateel, Ramya; Augustine, Alfred J; Ullal, Sheetal; Prabhu, Shivananda; Bhat, Rahul; Adhikari, Prabha

    2017-12-01

    To develop and validate Health Related Quality of Life Questionnaire in Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patients (HRQLQDFU) for Indian scenario. This study was conducted in two phases. First phase was Development of HRQLQDFU which included literature search and expert interview. Second phase was validation of HRQLQDFL which included face validation, content validation and construct validation. Face validation was done by ten diabetic foot ulcer patients, ten practicing nurses and ten care givers. They were asked to read and respond to questionnaire and report any difficulty in understanding the questions. Further they were asked to add any item to the questionnaire which according to them has a significant effect on quality of life. Content validation was done by six subject experts who judged the content relevance of questionnaire with score ranging from zero to four; zero being least relevant and four being most relevant. Content validity index was calculated for each question. Questions having content validity index≥0.8 were selected for the study. Reliability was tested by calculating Cronbach's alpha. In the development phase a questionnaire containing 37 questions with six domains was developed. None of patient had difficulty in understanding questions. After content validation a new questionnaire containing 20 questions was developed. Cronbach's alpha was 0.86 which shows good reliability. The new health related quality of life questionnaire on diabetic foot ulcer patients for an Indian scenario is validated and can be a reliably measure for quality of life in diabetic foot ulcer patients. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Human mtDNA hypervariable regions, HVR I and II, hint at deep common maternal founder and subsequent maternal gene flow in Indian population groups.

    Sharma, Swarkar; Saha, Anjana; Rai, Ekta; Bhat, Audesh; Bamezai, Ramesh

    2005-01-01

    We have analysed the hypervariable regions (HVR I and II) of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in individuals from Uttar Pradesh (UP), Bihar (BI) and Punjab (PUNJ), belonging to the Indo-European linguistic group, and from South India (SI), that have their linguistic roots in Dravidian language. Our analysis revealed the presence of known and novel mutations in both hypervariable regions in the studied population groups. Median joining network analyses based on mtDNA showed extensive overlap in mtDNA lineages despite the extensive cultural and linguistic diversity. MDS plot analysis based on Fst distances suggested increased maternal genetic proximity for the studied population groups compared with other world populations. Mismatch distribution curves, respective neighbour joining trees and other statistical analyses showed that there were significant expansions. The study revealed an ancient common ancestry for the studied population groups, most probably through common founder female lineage(s), and also indicated that human migrations occurred (maybe across and within the Indian subcontinent) even after the initial phase of female migration to India.

  10. Genetic diversity and differentiation among insular honey bee populations in the southwest Indian Ocean likely reflect old geographical isolation and modern introductions.

    Techer, Maéva Angélique; Clémencet, Johanna; Simiand, Christophe; Turpin, Patrick; Garnery, Lionel; Reynaud, Bernard; Delatte, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    With globalization the Western honey bee has become a nearly cosmopolitan species, but it was originally restricted to the Old World. This renowned model of biodiversity has diverged into five evolutionary lineages and several geographic "subspecies." If Apis mellifera unicolor is indubitably an African subspecies endemic to Madagascar, its relationship with honey bees from three archipelagos in the southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO) hotspot of biodiversity is misunderstood. We compared recent mtDNA diversity data to an original characterization of the nuclear diversity from honey bees in the Mascarenes and Comoros archipelagos, using 14 microsatellites, but also additional mtDNA tRNALeu-cox2 analysis. Our sampling offers the most comprehensive dataset for the SWIO populations with a total of 3,270 colonies from 10 islands compared with 855 samples from Madagascar, 113 from Africa, and 138 from Europe. Comprehensive mitochondrial screening confirmed that honey bees from La Réunion, Mauritius, and Comoros archipelagos are mainly of African origin (88.1% out of 2,746 colonies) and that coexistence with European lineages occurs only in the Mascarenes. PCA, Bayesian, and genetic differentiation analysis showed that African colonies are not significantly distinct on each island, but have diversified among islands and archipelagos. FST levels progressively decreased in significance from European and African continental populations, to SWIO insular and continental populations, and finally among islands from the same archipelago. Among African populations, Madagascar shared a nuclear background with and was most closely related to SWIO island populations (except Rodrigues). Only Mauritius Island presented clear cytoplasmic disequilibrium and genetic structure characteristic of an admixed population undergoing hybridization, in this case, between A. m. unicolor and A. m. ligustica, A. m. carnica and A. m. mellifera-like individuals. Finally, global genetic clustering analysis

  11. Genetic diversity and differentiation among insular honey bee populations in the southwest Indian Ocean likely reflect old geographical isolation and modern introductions.

    Maéva Angélique Techer

    Full Text Available With globalization the Western honey bee has become a nearly cosmopolitan species, but it was originally restricted to the Old World. This renowned model of biodiversity has diverged into five evolutionary lineages and several geographic "subspecies." If Apis mellifera unicolor is indubitably an African subspecies endemic to Madagascar, its relationship with honey bees from three archipelagos in the southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO hotspot of biodiversity is misunderstood. We compared recent mtDNA diversity data to an original characterization of the nuclear diversity from honey bees in the Mascarenes and Comoros archipelagos, using 14 microsatellites, but also additional mtDNA tRNALeu-cox2 analysis. Our sampling offers the most comprehensive dataset for the SWIO populations with a total of 3,270 colonies from 10 islands compared with 855 samples from Madagascar, 113 from Africa, and 138 from Europe. Comprehensive mitochondrial screening confirmed that honey bees from La Réunion, Mauritius, and Comoros archipelagos are mainly of African origin (88.1% out of 2,746 colonies and that coexistence with European lineages occurs only in the Mascarenes. PCA, Bayesian, and genetic differentiation analysis showed that African colonies are not significantly distinct on each island, but have diversified among islands and archipelagos. FST levels progressively decreased in significance from European and African continental populations, to SWIO insular and continental populations, and finally among islands from the same archipelago. Among African populations, Madagascar shared a nuclear background with and was most closely related to SWIO island populations (except Rodrigues. Only Mauritius Island presented clear cytoplasmic disequilibrium and genetic structure characteristic of an admixed population undergoing hybridization, in this case, between A. m. unicolor and A. m. ligustica, A. m. carnica and A. m. mellifera-like individuals. Finally, global genetic

  12. Demonstration of anticoagulation patient self-testing feasibility at an Indian Health Service facility: A case series analysis

    Schupbach RR

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anticoagulation patient self-testing (PST represents an alternative approach to warfarin monitoring by enabling patients to use coagulometers to test their international normalized ratio (INR values. PST offers several advantages that potentially improve warfarin management. Objective: To describe implementation and associated performance of a PST demonstration program at an Indian Health Service (IHS facility. Methods: A non-consecutive case series analysis of patients from a pharmacy-managed PST demonstration program was performed at an IHS facility in Oklahoma between July 2008 and February 2009.Results: Mean time in therapeutic range (TTR for the seven patients showed a small, absolute increase during the twelve weeks of PST compared to the twelve weeks prior to PST. Four of the seven patients had an increase in TTR during the twelve week course of PST compared to their baseline TTR. Three of four patients with increased TTR in the final eight week period of PST achieved a TTR of 100%. Of the three patients who experienced a decrease in TTR after initiating self-testing, two initially presented with a TTR of 100% prior to PST and one patient had a TTR of 100% for the final eight weeks of PST. The two patients not achieving a TTR of 100% during the twelve week PST period demonstrated an increase in TTR following the first four weeks of PST. Conclusion: Although anticoagulation guidelines now emphasize patient self-management (PSM only, optimal PST remains an integral process in PSM delivery. In the patients studied, the results of this analysis suggest that PST at the IHS facility provided a convenient, alternative method for management of chronic warfarin therapy for qualified patients. More than half of the patients demonstrated improvement in TTR. Although there is a learning curve immediately following PST initiation, the mean TTR for the entire PST period increased modestly when compared to the time period prior to PST.

  13. Assessment of Diabetes Risk in an Adult Population Using Indian Diabetes Risk Score in an Urban Resettlement Colony of Delhi.

    Acharya, Anita Shankar; Singh, Anshu; Dhiman, Balraj

    2017-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the non-communicable diseases which has become a major global health problem whose prevalence is increasing worldwide and is expected to reach 4.4% by 2030. The risk of diabetes escalates with increase in the number of risk factors and their duration as well. The Indian Diabetic Risk Score (IDRS) is a simple, low cost, feasible tool for mass screening programme at the community level. To assess the risk score of diabetes among the study subjects using IDRS. A cross sectional survey was conducted on adults >30 years (n=580) on both gender in an urban resettlement colony of Delhi during December 2013 to March 2015. A Semi-structured interview schedule consisting of Socio-demographic characteristics, risk factor profile and Indian Diabetes Risk Score was used. Data was entered and analyzed in SPSS. Out of 580 subjects, 31 (5.3%) study subjects were not at risk of having diabetes, rest 94.5% were at moderate or high risk of diabetes.A statistically significant association of diabetes risk with marital status(p=0.0001), education(0.005),body mass index(0.049) and systolic blood pressure was seen.(p=0.006). More than 90% of the study subjects were at risk of having diabetes, hence screening is of utmost importance so that interventions can be initiated at an early stage.

  14. Diabetes-specific genetic effects on obesity traits in American Indian populations: the Strong Heart Family Study

    Howard Barbara V

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body fat mass distribution and deposition are determined by multiple environmental and genetic factors. Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and type 2 diabetes. We previously identified evidence for genotype-by-diabetes interaction on obesity traits in Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS participants. To localize these genetic effects, we conducted genome-wide linkage scans of obesity traits in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes, and in the combined sample while modeling interaction with diabetes using maximum likelihood methods (SOLAR 2.1.4. Methods SHFS recruited American Indians from Arizona, North and South Dakota, and Oklahoma. Anthropometric measures and diabetes status were obtained during a clinic visit. Marker allele frequencies were derived using maximum likelihood methods estimated from all individuals and multipoint identity by descent sharing was estimated using Loki. We used variance component linkage analysis to localize quantitative trait loci (QTLs influencing obesity traits. We tested for evidence of additive and QTL-specific genotype-by-diabetes interactions using the regions identified in the diabetes-stratified analyses. Results Among 245 diabetic and 704 non-diabetic American Indian individuals, we detected significant additive gene-by-diabetes interaction for weight and BMI (P P Conclusion These results suggest distinct genetic effects on body mass in individuals with diabetes compared to those without diabetes, and a possible role for one or more genes on chromosome 1 in the pathogenesis of obesity.

  15. Population Dynamics of Patients with Bacterial Resistance in Hospital Environment

    Leilei Qu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, the increase of antibiotic resistance has become a major concern worldwide. The researchers found that superbugs with new type of resistance genes (NDM-1 have two aspects of transmission characteristics; the first is that the antibiotic resistance genes can horizontally transfer among bacteria, and the other is that the superbugs can spread between humans through direct contact. Based on these two transmission mechanisms, we study the dynamics of population in hospital environment where superbugs exist. In this paper, we build three mathematic models to illustrate the dynamics of patients with bacterial resistance in hospital environment. The models are analyzed using stability theory of differential equations. Positive equilibrium points of the system are investigated and their stability analysis is carried out. Moreover, the numerical simulation of the proposed model is also performed which supports the theoretical findings.

  16. Clinical research in small genomically stratified patient populations.

    Martin-Liberal, J; Rodon, J

    2017-07-01

    The paradigm of early drug development in cancer is shifting from 'histology-oriented' to 'molecularly oriented' clinical trials. This change can be attributed to the vast amount of tumour biology knowledge generated by large international research initiatives such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the use of next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques developed in recent years. However, targeting infrequent molecular alterations entails a series of special challenges. The optimal molecular profiling method, the lack of standardised biological thresholds, inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity, availability of enough tumour material, correct clinical trials design, attrition rate, logistics or costs are only some of the issues that need to be taken into consideration in clinical research in small genomically stratified patient populations. This article examines the most relevant challenges inherent to clinical research in these populations. Moreover, perspectives from the Academia point of view are reviewed as well as initiatives to be taken in forthcoming years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Patient - implant dimension mismatch in total knee arthroplasty: Is it worth worrying? An Indian scenario

    Jai Thilak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The correct sizing of the components in both anteroposterior and mediolateral (ML dimensions is crucial for the success of a total knee arthroplasty (TKA. The size of the implants selected is based on the intraoperative measurements. The currently used TKA implants available to us are based on morphometric measurements obtained from a Western/Caucasian population. Hence, the risk of component ML mismatch is more common in Asian sub-population, as they are of a smaller built and stature. This study aims to look into the following aspects agnitude of the ML mismatch between the femoral component and the patient′s anatomical dimension, evaluation of gender variations in distal femur dimensions, and gender-wise and implant-wise correlation of ML mismatch. Materials and Methods: Intraoperatively, the distal femoral dimensions were measured using sterile calipers after removing the osteophytes and compared with the ML dimension of the implant used. ML mismatch length thus obtained is correlated with the various parameters. Results: Males showed larger distal femoral dimensions when compared to females. Males had larger ML mismatch. None of the implants used perfectly matched the patient′s anatomical dimensions. Patients with larger mismatch had lower scorings at 2 years postoperative followup. Conclusion: Implant manufacturers need to design more options of femoral implants for a better fit in our subset of patients. The exact magnitude of mismatch which can cause functional implications need to be made out. The mismatch being one of the important factors for the success of the surgery, we should focus more on this aspect.

  18. Study of short term memory status in adult bipolar disorder patients in south Indian population.

    Aslam, Mohammed; Siddiq, Mohamed; Dhundasi, Salim A; Das, Kusal K; Kulkarni, B R

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to establish short term memory status in bipolar disorder cases as compared with normal age and sex matched control group in Bijapur (Karnataka). Results showed that a significant decrease in short term memory status in bipolar disorder cases as compared to their control group .Loss of attention, decreased processing speed and executive function patterns may be the probable causes of such observations.

  19. Comparison of Lipid Accumulation Product Index with Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference as a Predictor of Metabolic Syndrome in Indian Population.

    Ray, Lopamudra; Ravichandran, Kandasamy; Nanda, Sunil Kumar

    2018-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), which confers a high risk for cardiovascular diseases, needs early diagnosis and treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality. Lipid accumulation product index has been reported to be an inexpensive marker of visceral fat and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to evaluate lipid accumulation product index as a marker for metabolic syndrome in the Indian population where the prevalence of the condition is steadily increasing. A hospital-based, case-control study was conducted with 72 diagnosed cases of metabolic syndrome and 79 control subjects. In all the participants, body mass index (BMI) and lipid accumulation product index were calculated. The difference between cases and controls in BMI, waist circumference (WC), and lipid accumulation product index was assessed by Mann-Whitney U test/unpaired t-test. Associations of BMI, WC, and lipid accumulation product index with metabolic syndrome were compared by multiple logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic analysis. BMI, WC, and lipid accumulation product index were significantly higher in metabolic syndrome (P product index had the highest prediction accuracy. The parameter also had a high area under curve of 0.901 (95% confidence interval 0.85-0.95) and a high sensitivity (76.4%), specificity (91.1%), positive predictive value (88.7%), and negative predictive value (80.9%) for detection of metabolic syndrome. In the Indian population, lipid accumulation product index is a better predictor of metabolic syndrome compared to BMI and WC and should be incorporated in laboratory reports as early, accurate, and inexpensive indicator of metabolic syndrome.

  20. A Commentary on Perceived Need from Indian Perspective

    Ankur Joshi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The current Indian health –care scenario is overwhelmed not only with burden of diseases but also with quality of care and expenditures.  The structure of this paper is interwoven around a storyline about a patient and narrations of the active actors involved in the journey of illness including patient himself. The narrations are followed by a commentary as an attempt to decipher the deeper meaning of narration from the population perspectives. The essential aim of this exercise is to establish the necessity of generalist care from a qualitative view-point in Indian context.

  1. Mutation spectrum of fork-head transcriptional factor gene (FOXL2) in Indian Blepharophimosis Ptosis Epicanthus Inversus Syndrome (BPES) patients.

    Kaur, Inderjeet; Hussain, Avid; Naik, Milind N; Murthy, Ramesh; Honavar, Santosh G

    2011-06-01

    The fork-head transcription factor gene (FOXL2) gene has been implicated in Blepharophimosis Ptosis Epicanthus Inversus Syndrome (BPES) type I and type II. The authors aimed to evaluate the involvement of FOXL2 in familial and sporadic cases of BPES in an Indian cohort. The present cohort comprised clinically well-characterised BPES cases that included six affected families, two sporadic cases and 60 unaffected normal controls. The 5' untranslated and coding region of FOXL2 was screened by resequencing and confirmed by restriction digestion. Further, genotype-phenotype correlations were done to understand the implications of the observed mutation. Six mutations were observed in eight cases (87.5%). These included a novel deletion (c.860delC), three previously reported duplications (c.663-692dup 30, c.672-701dup30 and c.843-859dup17), a frame shift (c.804dupC) and a homozygous missense mutation (p.E69K). The p.E69k mutation was seen in both heterozygous and homozygous form in a large four-generational family, and disease severity was found to be directly linked to the allelic dosage. Two SNPs (c.501C→T, c.536C→G) were also noted. An unusual coexistence of polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) with BPES was also seen in one of the families. Mutations in the region downstream of the fork-head domain were predominantly responsible for BPES among Indian patients.

  2. Does the cancer patient want to know? Results from a study in an Indian tertiary cancer center

    Shekhawat Laxmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The disclosure of the diagnosis of cancer is a distressing and complex issue. Families and doctors still do not tell patients when they have cancer in the belief that the patient does not want to know and telling him would lead to fear and depression. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the information needs of Indian cancer patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 300 patients′ views was conducted with the help of an adaptation of Cassileth′s Information Needs questionnaire. Results: A majority of cancer patients exhibited a strong need for information about illness and treatment. Ninety-four percent wanted to know if their illness was cancer. Most patients also wanted to know the chance of cure (92%. Age, education, and type of treatment significantly affect information preferences. Gender did not have an effect on information needs. Conclusion: This study showed that most of the patients wanted to know about their illness, treatment, side-effects, and chances of cure.

  3. Population Pharmacokinetics of Cladribine in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Savic, Radojka M; Novakovic, Ana M; Ekblom, Marianne; Munafo, Alain; Karlsson, Mats O

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the concentration-time course of cladribine (CdA) and its main metabolite 2-chloroadenine (CAde), estimate interindividual variability in pharmacokinetics (PK), and identify covariates explaining variability in the PK of CdA. This population PK analysis was based on the combined dataset from four clinical studies in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS): three phase I studies, including one food and one drug-drug interaction study, and one phase III clinical study. Plasma and urine concentration data of CdA and CAde were modeled simultaneously. The analysis comprised a total of 2619 CdA and CAde plasma and urine concentration observations from 173 patients with MS who received an intravenous infusion or oral tablet doses of CdA as a single agent or in combination with interferon (IFN) β-1a. CdA PK data were best described by a three-compartment model, while a one-compartment model best described the PK of CAde. CdA renal clearance (CL R ) was correlated with creatinine clearance (CL CR ), predicting a decrease in the total clearance of 19%, 30% and 40% for patients with mild (CL CR  = 65 ml/min), moderate (CL CR  = 40 ml/min) and severe (CL CR  = 20 ml/min) renal impairment, respectively. Food decreased the extent of CdA absorption by 11.2% and caused an absorption delay. Coadministration with IFNβ-1a was found to increase non-CL R (CL NR ) by 21%, resulting in an increase of 11% in total clearance. Both CdA and CAde displayed linear PK after intravenous and oral administration of CdA, with CdA renal function depending on CL CR . Trial registration number for study 25643: NCT00213135.

  4. Transforming growth factor-β1 (C509T, G800A, and T869C) gene polymorphisms and risk of ischemic stroke in North Indian population: A hospital-based case-control study.

    Kumar, Pradeep; Misra, Shubham; Kumar, Amit; Faruq, Mohammad; Shakya, Sunil; Vardhan, Gyan; Vivekanandhan, Subiah; Srivastava, Achal Kumar; Prasad, Kameshwar

    2017-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) is a multifunctional pleiotropic cytokine involved in inflammation and pathogenesis of cerebrovascular diseases. There is limited information on the association between variations within the TGF-β1 gene polymorphisms and risk of ischemic stroke (IS). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the TGF-β1 gene (C509T, G800A, and T869C) polymorphisms, and their haplotypes with the risk of IS in North Indian population. A total of 250 IS patients and 250 age- and sex-matched controls were studied. IS was classified using the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the strength of association between TGF-β1 gene polymorphisms and risk of IS. Genotyping was performed using SNaPshot method. Hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, alcohol, smoking, family history of stroke, sedentary lifestyle, and low socioeconomic status were found to be associated with the risk of IS. The distribution of C509T, G800A and T869C genotypes was consistent with Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium in the IS and control groups. Adjusted conditional logistic regression analysis showed a significant association of TGF-β1 C509T (odds ratio [OR], 2.1; 95% CI; 1.2-3.8; P = 0.006), G800A (OR, 4.4; 95% CI; 2.1-9.3; P population.

  5. The estimation of daily intake and organ content of Ca, Cs, I, K, Sr, Th and U in Indian population

    Jaiswal, D.D.; Dang, H.S.; Pullat, V.R.; Parameswaran, M.

    2000-01-01

    The analytical methods involving both instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (INAA and RNAA) were standardised and applied for the determination of the elements: Ca, Cs, I, K, Sr, Th and U in various kinds of biological samples. The results of the analysis of six Standard Reference Materials (NIST-USA) received from IAEA, namely, Bone Meal, Oyester Tissue, Muscle Powder, Total Diet I and II and Pine Needles are reported. The results obtained are in good agreement with the average values of those reported from six laboratories. The results of the analysis of skeletal muscle samples for the trace elements Cs and K, individual food components which form major essential components of Indian diet and a few cooked total diets are also reported for the above named seven elements. (author)

  6. Association of DD genotype of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (I/D) polymorphism with hypertension among a North Indian population.

    Rana, Garima; Yadav, Suniti; Joshi, Shipra; Saraswathy, K N

    2018-01-01

    Hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Genetic predisposition to the risk of developing hypertension due to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion(I)/deletion(D) polymorphism (through altered serum ACE activity) is well documented among various populations. The present study investigated the possible association between ACE (DD) genotype and hypertension using a nested case-control study design including 451 individuals (of either sex in the age group 30-65 years) from a rural North Indian population practicing agriculture and lacto-vegetarianism. Blood Pressure was classified using JNC-7 criterion. Age- and sex-matched individuals were selected from normotensive (N-122), pre-hypertensive (N-123), hypertensive not on medication (N-122), and hypertensive on medication (N-84) categories. Amplification of DNA and genotyping of PCR product was done using standard protocols. From the analysis, comparatively higher frequency of individuals with DD genotype in the hypertensive category was observed, indicating a possible relation between DD genotype and hypertension. The odds ratio analysis revealed 2.225 (1.13-4.37)-fold significant increased risk for hypertension among cases, validating the vulnerability of individuals with DD genotype towards hypertension. Thus, the present study highlights the increased risk for developing hypertension due to ACE DD genotype in the studied population.

  7. Evaluation critique of state of the art dyslipidemia management in general and with a special emphasis on the Indian population.

    Whayne, Thomas F

    2007-01-01

    Classically, there have been three well established major cardiovascular risk factors, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and tobacco abuse. With accumulating clinical evidence, diabetes can now be added as a fourth major risk factor. Much interest in various other risk factors and possible causative factors has been generated, but it should be remembered that of all these, low density lipoproteins (LDL) remains the gold standard for evaluating risk. The common perception is that only caucasians in the western world have significant cardiovascular (CV) risk. However, much clinical information to the contrary has accumulated and now it is realized that many other ethnic groups also have significant CV disease, such as in India, especially in the urban population. Dyslipidemias of specific lipoproteins and their treatment is an important part of understanding and managing CV disease and risk. Various plasma factors such as homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) [(a)] have been considered to have definite associations with CV disease, but any treatment benefit remains in doubt. In addition, inflammatory risk factors are considered to be of significant clinical interest, especially high sensitivity C-Reactive protein (hsCRP). Where do these factors fit into routine clinical practice still awaits clarification. Only two of these inflammatory risk (Lp-factors can be tested commercially on a routine clinical basis and these are hsCRP and Lipoprotein-associated Phospholipase A2 Lp-PLA2). Their clinical utillity is not established and acceptance is limited: some third party health coverage organizations refuse to pay for such analyses. In the past, women have been looked upon as not having significant CV disease. More recently, evidence suggests that women may have more CV disease than men, and that physicians may have failed to realize this and act accordingly. The true situation is that women have less CV disease than men prior to menopause and then they slowly catch up

  8. Efficacy and safety of teneligliptin in Indian patients with inadequately controlled Type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized, double-blind study

    Piyush Agarwal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of teneligliptin in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Settings and Design: This was a randomized, doubleblind, placebocontrolled, parallelgroup, multicenter, Phase III study. Subjects and Methods: Patients with T2DM and inadequate glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c]: >7.0-≤8.5% were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned (ratio: 2:1 to receive teneligliptin 20 mg (Glenmark or placebo. The primary efficacy variable was change from baseline in HbA1c at week 16. Additional analyses included the proportion of patients who achieved target of HbA1c ≤7.0%, changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG, and postprandial glucose (PPG. Statistical Analysis: Mean change in HbA1c was analyzed using an analysis of covariance model, least square (LS means, 95% confidence intervals (CIs, and P values were calculated. Results: Overall, 237 patients were included. Patients of the teneligliptin group showed reduced HbA1c levels (LS mean difference = −0.304% for intent-to-treat [ITT]; −0.291% for per-protocol (PP populations after 16 weeks of treatment, and a statistically significant difference was observed between the ITT (LS mean difference = 0.555; 95% CI: 0.176–0.934; P = 0.0043 and PP populations (LS mean difference = 0.642; 95% CI: 0.233–1.052; P = 0.0023. Target HbA1c level was achieved by a greater proportion of teneligliptin group patients (ITT, 43.4%; PP, 43.6% than placebo group patients (ITT, 27.3%; PP, 26.6%. Reduction in FPG levels was observed in ITT (LS mean difference: 8.829; 95% CI: −4.357–22.016; P = 0.1883 and PP populations (LS mean difference: 11.710 mg/dL; 95% CI: −2.893-26.312; P = 0.1154. Reduction in PPG levels was higher in teneligliptin group than placebo group in both ITT (LS mean difference = 25.849 mg/dL; 95% CI: 7.143–44.556; P = 0.0070 and PP populations (LS mean difference = 25.683 mg/dL; 95% CI: 5.830–45.536; P

  9. Polymorphism of alcohol metabolizing gene ADH3 predisposes to development of alcoholic pancreatitis in North Indian population

    Divya eSingh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim- Genetic factors regulating alcohol metabolism could predispose in developing alcoholic pancreatitis (ACP. Studies revealed that alcohol could be metabolized by both ways, oxidative and non-oxidative. The main oxidative pathway includes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH and cytochrome P450 enzyme. We investigated whether polymorphism in these alcohol metabolizing enzyme genes could be associated with alcoholic pancreatitis and is the purpose of our study. Method- Patients with alcoholic pancreatitis (ACP (n=72, tropical calcific pancreatitis (TCP (n=75, alcoholic controls (AC (n=40 and healthy controls (HC (n=100 were included in the study. Blood samples were collected from the subjects in EDTA coated vials. DNA was extracted and genotyping for ADH3, ALDH2 and CYP2E1 was done by PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism. The products were analyzed by gel electrophoresis. Result- The frequency distribution of ADH3*1/*1 genotype was significantly higher in ACP group (59.7% compared with TCP (38.7%, HC (42% and AC (37.5% and was found to be associated with increased risk of alcoholic pancreatitis. There was no statistically significant difference between the frequency distribution of ADH3*1/*1, ADH3*1/*2 and ADH3*2/*2 genotype between TCP and HC and healthy alcoholics. ALDH2 gene was monomorphic in our population, and the frequencies for CYP2E1 intron 6 Dra I polymorphism were comparable in all four groups. Conclusion- This study shows that carriers of ADH3*1/*1 individuals consuming alcohol are at higher risk for alcoholic pancreatitis than those with other genotypes such as ADH3*1/*2 and ADH3*2/*2.

  10. PTSD in post-road traffic accident patients requiring hospitalization in Indian subcontinent: A review on magnitude of the problem and management guidelines.

    Undavalli, Chaitanya; Das, Piyush; Dutt, Taru; Bhoi, Sanjeev; Kashyap, Rahul

    2014-10-01

    Traumatic events after a road traffic accident (RTA) can be physical and/or psychological. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the major psychological conditions which affect accident victims. Psychological issues may not be addressed in the emergency department(ED) immediately. There have been reports about a mismatch between the timely referrals from ED to occupational or primary care services for these issues. If left untreated, there may be adverse effects on quality of life (QOL) and work productivity. Hospital expenses, loss of income, and loss of work could create a never ending cycle for financial difficulties and burden in trauma victims. The aim of our review is to address the magnitude of PTSD in post-RTA hospitalized patients in Indian subcontinent population. We also attempted to emphasis on few management guidelines. A comprehensive search was conducted on major databases with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) term 'PTSD or post-traumatic stress' and Emergency department and vehicle or road or highway or automobile or car or truck or trauma and India. Out of 120 studies, a total of six studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Our interpretation of the problem is that; hospital expenditure due to trauma, time away from work during hospitalization, and reduction in work performance, are three major hits that can lead RTA victims to financial crisis. Proposed management guidelines are; establish a coordinated triage, implementing a screening tool in the ED, and provide psychological counseling.

  11. PTSD in post-road traffic accident patients requiring hospitalization in Indian subcontinent: A review on magnitude of the problem and management guidelines

    Chaitanya Undavalli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic events after a road traffic accident (RTA can be physical and/or psychological. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is one of the major psychological conditions which affect accident victims. Psychological issues may not be addressed in the emergency department(ED immediately. There have been reports about a mismatch between the timely referrals from ED to occupational or primary care services for these issues. If left untreated, there may be adverse effects on quality of life (QOL and work productivity. Hospital expenses, loss of income, and loss of work could create a never ending cycle for financial difficulties and burden in trauma victims. The aim of our review is to address the magnitude of PTSD in post-RTA hospitalized patients in Indian subcontinent population. We also attempted to emphasis on few management guidelines. A comprehensive search was conducted on major databases with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH term ′PTSD or post-traumatic stress′ and Emergency department and vehicle or road or highway or automobile or car or truck or trauma and India. Out of 120 studies, a total of six studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Our interpretation of the problem is that; hospital expenditure due to trauma, time away from work during hospitalization, and reduction in work performance, are three major hits that can lead RTA victims to financial crisis. Proposed management guidelines are; establish a coordinated triage, implementing a screening tool in the ED, and provide psychological counseling.

  12. Digit ratio (2D:4D – A forensic marker for sexual dimorphism in North Indian population

    Sangeeta Dey

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: This research study proves beneficial for identity authentication, for criminal investigation and a powerful forensic tool for medico – legal cases. This will help in the advancement of technology which will prove beneficial for the welfare of indigenous population of India. Also the data so collected can be useful as forensic anthropology population data.

  13. The population genetics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from different patient populations exhibits high-level host specificity.

    Rosa van Mansfeld

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether highly prevalent P. aeruginosa sequence types (ST in Dutch cystic fibrosis (CF patients are specifically linked to CF patients we investigated the population structure of P. aeruginosa from different clinical backgrounds. We first selected the optimal genotyping method by comparing pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, multilocus sequence typing (MLST and multilocus variable number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA. METHODS: Selected P. aeruginosa isolates (n = 60 were genotyped with PFGE, MLST and MLVA to determine the diversity index (DI and congruence (adjusted Rand and Wallace coefficients. Subsequently, isolates from patients admitted to two different ICUs (n = 205, from CF patients (n = 100 and from non-ICU, non-CF patients (n = 58, of which 19 were community acquired were genotyped with MLVA to determine distribution of genotypes and genetic diversity. RESULTS: Congruence between the typing methods was >79% and DIs were similar and all >0.963. Based on costs, ease, speed and possibilities to compare results between labs an adapted MLVA scheme called MLVA9-Utrecht was selected as the preferred typing method. In 363 clinical isolates 252 different MLVA types (MTs were identified, indicating a highly diverse population (DI  = 0.995; CI  = 0.993-0.997. DI levels were similarly high in the diverse clinical sources (all >0.981 and only eight genotypes were shared. MTs were highly specific (>80% for the different patient p