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  1. Equity of access under Korean national long-term care insurance: implications for long-term care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju Moon

    2015-09-15

    The national long-term care insurance was implemented in July 2008. Few studies have been conducted with representative national survey data since the long-term care insurance was introduced. Therefore, this study examines the extent to which equity in the use of long-term care has been achieved in Korea. The Aday-Andersen model was used as a conceptual model, based on the Korean Health Panel Study which was conducted in 2011. Descriptive and logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between the dependent and independent variables and the relative importance of factors as predictors of utilization. The results of this study indicated that those who rated his or her health to be fair, good, and very good, had no limited activities, were disabled, and had insurance coverage were more likely to use long-term care services, respectively. Their decision to use long-term care was primarily affected by need (health status, limited activity, disability) and enabling (insurance coverage) factors. The findings also indicated that the introduction of a national long-term care insurance program did not yield a fully equitable distribution of services. Long-term care reforms in Korea should continue to concentrate on expanding insurance coverage and reducing the inequities reflected in disparities in consumer cost-sharing and associated patterns of utilization across plans. The subsequent impact on managed care and expenditures need to be more fully understood.

  2. Long-Term Engagement in Formal Volunteering and Well-Being: An Exploratory Indian Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Jereesh K; Sudhir, Paulomi; Mehrotra, Seema

    2016-09-27

    Sustained engagement in volunteering and its correlates have been examined in many studies across the globe. However, there is a dearth of research that explores the perspectives of long-term formal volunteers on the nature of changes perceived in oneself as a result of volunteering. Moreover, the linkages between psychological well-being and volunteering have been insufficiently explored. The present study was aimed at addressing these gaps. A heterogeneous sample of 20 long-term formal volunteer engaged in volunteering across different voluntary organisations in a southern metropolitan Indian city formed the primary sample for the study. In addition, a group of 21 short-term volunteers, matched on age, income and gender, was utilised for comparison with long-term volunteers on well-being indices. A semi structured interview schedule was used to explore self-perceived changes attributable to volunteering experience. In addition, a few standardised measures were used to comprehensively assess subjective well-being and psychological well-being. The interview data provided rich descriptions of perceived positive changes in self across cognitive, behavioral and emotional domains. Mirroring these patterns, the quantitative analyses indicated that long-term volunteers experienced higher levels of psychological well-being (sense of mastery and competence, self-acceptance and sense of engagement and growth) than short-term volunteers. The potential mechanisms involved in beneficial outcomes of long-term volunteering and implications for further research are highlighted.

  3. National Security Implications of Long-Term Deficit Spending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 30 MAR 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE National...Oil Exporters 3/ 187.7 Carib Bnkng Ctrs 4 179.8 Brazil 157.1 Hong Kong 146.2 Russia 128.1 Luxembourg 91.7 Taiwan 78.4...Illusions of empire: defining the new American order,” Foreign Affairs 83, no. 2 ( Mar /Apr 2004): 153. 33 Robert J. Samuelson, “Up Against a Wall of Debt

  4. Long-term outcome of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in Navajo Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angio, C T; Froehlke, R G; Plank, G A; Meehan, D J; Aguilar, C M; Lande, M B; Hugar, L

    1995-09-01

    To determine the long-term neurologic, cognitive, and educational outcomes of Navajo children who survived Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis. Retrospective cohort study, with 3.6- to 15.0-year follow-up. Navajo Indian reservation. Population-based cohort of 76 Navajo children with Haemophilus meningitis at less than 5 years of age between 1975 and 1986, with 41 (54%) consenting to undergo follow-up in 1990. Each case was matched to one nearest-age sibling and one unrelated age-matched control. Standard intelligence test scores, neurologic abnormalities, and school performance. The mean IQ for cases was lower than that for siblings (79 vs 87, P = .006) or age-matched controls (79 vs 95, P cognitive, and school-related disability than siblings or age-matched controls. They may also suffer higher morbidity than Haemophilus meningitis survivors in the general population.

  5. Indian moored observatory in the Arctic for long-term in situ data collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Venkatesan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the first Indian arctic multi-sensor mooring (IndARC observatory in Kongsfjorden of Arctic waters. The Ministry of Earth Sciences evolved a unique moored observatory ‘IndARC’ with suite of sensors for physico-chemical and oceanographic in situ long-term data collection. The Arctic Ocean plays an important role in governing the earth’s climate and also faithfully records its past climatic history and represents a significant gap in ocean observations. This indigenously designed and installed observatory IndARC, for the first time, collected various parameters from July 2014 to July 2015. The uniqueness of this system, the challenges faced and results from data collected are presented in this article.

  6. Long-term Outcomes of Bariatric Surgery: A National Institutes of Health Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courcoulas, Anita P.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Bonds, Denise; Eggerman, Thomas L.; Horlick, Mary; Staten, Myrlene A.; Arterburn, David E.

    2017-01-01

    Importance The clinical evidence base demonstrating bariatric surgery’s health benefits is much larger than it was when the NIH last held a Consensus Panel in 1991. Still, it remains unclear whether ongoing studies will address critical questions about long-term complication rates and the sustainability of weight loss and comorbidity control. Objective The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a multidisciplinary workshop in May 2013 to summarize the current state of knowledge of bariatric surgery, review research findings on the long-term outcomes of bariatric surgery, and establish priorities for future research directions. Evidence Review The evidence presented at the workshop was selected by the planning committee for both its quality and duration of follow up. The data review emphasized RCTs and large observational studies with long-term follow up, with or without a control group. Findings Several small RCTs showed greater weight loss and T2DM remission compared to non-surgical treatments within the first 2 years of follow-up after bariatric surgery. Large, long-term observational studies show durable (>5 years) weight loss, diabetes and lipid improvements with bariatric surgery. Still unclear are predictors of outcomes, long-term complications, long-term survival, micro- and macro-vascular events, mental health outcomes, and costs. The studies needed to address these knowledge gaps would be expensive and logistically difficult to perform. Conclusions and Relevance High-quality evidence shows that bariatric surgical procedures result in greater weight loss than non-surgical treatments and are more effective at inducing initial T2DM remission in obese patients. More information is needed about the long term durability of comorbidity control and complications after bariatric procedures and this evidence will most likely come from carefully designed

  7. The long-term game: an analysis of the life expectancy of national football league players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, R.h.; Matheson, V.; Nathan, A.; Pantano, J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Football League (NFL) has recently received significant negative media attention surrounding the safety of its players, revolving largely around the long term health risks of playing the sport. Recent premature deaths and instances of suicide associated with chronic traumatic

  8. Assessment of regional downscaling simulations for long term mean, excess and deficit Indian Summer Monsoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varikoden, Hamza; Mujumdar, M.; Revadekar, J. V.; Sooraj, K. P.; Ramarao, M. V. S.; Sanjay, J.; Krishnan, R.

    2018-03-01

    This study undertakes a comprehensive assessment of dynamical downscaling of summer monsoon (June-September; JJAS) rainfall over heterogeneous regions namely the Western Ghats (WG), Central India (CI) and North-Eastern Region (NER) for long term mean, excess and deficit episodes for the historical period from 1951 to 2005. This downscaling assessment is based on six Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiments (CORDEX) for South Asia (SAS) region, their five driving Global Climate Models (GCM) simulations along with observations from India Meteorological Department (IMD) and Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Integrated Towards Evaluation for Water Resources (APHRODITE). The analysis reveals an overall reduction of dry bias in rainfall across the regions of Indian sub-continent in most of the downscaled CORDEX-SAS models and in their ensemble mean as compared to that of driving GCMs. The interannual variabilities during historical period are reasonably captured by the ensemble means of CORDEX-SAS simulations with an underestimation of 0.43%, 38% and 52% for the WG, CI and NER, respectively. Upon careful examination of the CORDEX-SAS models and their driving GCMs revealed considerable improvement in the regionally downscaled rainfall. The value addition of dynamical downscaling is apparent over the WG in Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations with an improvement of more than 30% for the long term mean, excess and deficit episodes from their driving GCMs. In the case of NER, the improvement in the downscaled rainfall product is more than 10% for all the episodes. However, the value addition in the CORDEX-SAS simulations for CI region, dominantly influenced by synoptic scale processes, is not clear. Nevertheless, the reduction of dry bias in the complex topographical regions is remarkable. The relative performance of dynamical downscaling of rainfall over complex topography in response to local forcing and orographic lifting depict the value

  9. State efforts toward creating a national policy on healthy aging and long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempthorne, Dirk

    2004-10-01

    The Honorable Dirk Kempthorne served Idaho as a U.S. senator for six years prior to his election as governor in 1998. He has since served in this role with marked distinction--one poll lauded him as Idaho's "most popular figure" in the state's history. His leadership capabilities were recognized by the National Governors Association (NGA), which elected him chairman in 2003. Upon his election, Gov. Kempthorne asserted--and the NGA collectively agreed--to make long-term care for America's seniors and persons with disabilities the No. 1 item on the NGA agenda. Idaho's governor has since led the NGA through a series of hearings and fact-finding missions on long-term care culminating in a report that comprised the central focus of the NGA's Annual Meeting in July 2004. The following is a summary of Gov. Kempthorne's statements regarding long-term care and the reports he presented on the topic at that gathering. In recognition of his work, the Idaho governor has been selected to receive NAHC's highest accolade--The Claude Pepper Award--presented annually to the one person who has done the most to promote the interests of senior citizens and persons with disabilities within the past year.

  10. National Strength and Conditioning Association Position Statement on Long-Term Athletic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Rhodri S; Cronin, John B; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Haff, G Gregory; Howard, Rick; Kraemer, William J; Micheli, Lyle J; Myer, Gregory D; Oliver, Jon L

    2016-06-01

    There has recently been a growing interest in long-term athletic development for youth. Because of their unique physical, psychological, and social differences, children and adolescents should engage in appropriately prescribed exercise programs that promote physical development to prevent injury and enhance fitness behaviors that can be retained later in life. Irrespective of whether a child is involved in organized sport or engages in recreational physical activity, there remains a need to adopt a structured, logical, and evidence-based approach to the long-term development of athleticism. This is of particular importance considering the alarmingly high number of youth who fail to meet global physical activity recommendations and consequently present with negative health profiles. However, appropriate exercise prescription is also crucial for those young athletes who are physically underprepared and at risk of overuse injury because of high volumes of competition and an absence of preparatory conditioning. Whether the child accumulates insufficient or excessive amounts of exercise, or falls somewhere between these opposing ends of the spectrum, it is generally accepted that the young bodies of modern day youth are often ill-prepared to tolerate the rigors of sports or physical activity. All youth should engage in regular physical activity and thus should be viewed as "athletes" and afforded the opportunity to enhance athleticism in an individualized, holistic, and child-centered manner. Because of emerging interest in long-term athletic development, an authorship team was tasked on behalf of the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) to critically synthesize existing literature and current practices within the field and to compose a relevant position statement. This document was subsequently reviewed and formally ratified by the NSCA Board of Directors. A list of 10 pillars of successful long-term athletic development are presented, which summarize

  11. Long-term monitoring of high-elevation white pine communities in Pacific West Region National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn T. McKinney; Tom Rodhouse; Les Chow; Penelope Latham; Daniel Sarr; Lisa Garrett; Linda Mutch

    2011-01-01

    National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) networks conduct long-term monitoring to provide park managers information on the status and trends in key biological and environmental attributes (Vital Signs). Here we present an overview of a collaborative approach to long-term monitoring of high-elevation white pine forest dynamics among three Pacific West...

  12. Why every national deep-geological-isolation program needs a long-term science & technology component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R J

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to set down the rationale for a separate Science & Technology (S&T) Program within every national deep-geological-isolation program. The fundamental rationale for such a Program is to provide a dedicated focus for longer-term science and technology activities that ultimately will benefit the whole repository mission. Such a Program, separately funded and with a dedicated staff (separate from the ''mainline'' activities to develop the repository, the surface facilities, and the transportation system), can devote itself exclusively to the development and management of a long-term science and technology program. Broad experience in governments worldwide has demonstrated that line offices are unlikely to be able to develop and sustain both the appropriate longer-term philosophy and the specialized skills associated with managing longer-term science and technology projects. Accomplishing both of these requires a separate dedicated program office with its own staff

  13. The Long-Term Game: An Analysis of the Life Expectancy of National Football League Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud Koning

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Football League (NFL has recently received significant negative media attention surrounding the safety of its players, revolving largely around the long term health risks of playing the sport. Recent premature deaths and instances of suicide associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy and other football related injuries have brought the sport under increased scrutiny. By comparing mortality rates of the general population to mortality rates of players using publically available data from the 1970 and 1994 NFL seasons, we test whether participation in football is significantly harmful to the longevity of the players. We conclude that, in total, players in the NFL have lower mortality rates than the general population. However, there is evidence that line players have higher mortality rates than other players and that those who played more games have higher mortality rates than those who played fewer games.

  14. 2011 Updates on the Long-term Glacier Monitoring Program in Denali National Park and Preserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, R. A.; Adema, G. W.; Herreid, S. J.; Arendt, A. A.; Larsen, C. F.

    2011-12-01

    The area of Denali National Park and Preserve (DENA) dominated by ice is vast, with glaciers covering 3,780 km^2, approximately one sixth of the park's area. They are integral components of the region's hydrologic, ecologic, and geologic systems - with changes to the glacier systems driving the dependent ecosystems. The National Park Service (NPS) conducts long term monitoring of glaciers in Denali with a variety of methods at a range of spatial and temporal scales. This includes seasonal mass balance and surface movement data collection, annual searches for surging glaciers, and decadal areal extent mapping and volume change estimates of all glaciers in the park. If a glacier surge is detected, the event is documented via photography and surface measurements, when possible. In addition, more intensive ground-based GPS surveys of termini and ice surface elevations are conducted on ten study glaciers every 5-10 years, on a rotating basis. Many of the glaciers are located in designated Wilderness, hence the use of mechanized transport is reduced as much as possible. Monitoring objectives are accomplished by park staff and with cooperative agreements with other agencies and universities. Research to understand the context of the long term data is encouraged and supported as much as possible by the NPS and has recently yielded significant results. The year 2011 marks the 20th anniversary of glacier mass balance monitoring on Kahiltna and Traleika Glaciers, located on the south and north sides of Mt. McKinley respectively. A single "index" site near the ELA of each glacier provides an index of winter, summer, and net balances each year as well as flow velocities and changes in surface elevation. Long-term net balance trends are positive from 1991-2003, and negative since 2003, including the 2009-2010 balance year. The average flow velocity at the Kahiltna index site is 200 +/- 21 m/year with a neutral to slightly negative trend, while on Traleika average velocity is 67

  15. Long-Term Prognostic Validity of Talent Selections: Comparing National and Regional Coaches, Laypersons and Novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorer, Jörg; Rienhoff, Rebecca; Fischer, Lennart; Baker, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    In most sports, the development of elite athletes is a long-term process of talent identification and support. Typically, talent selection systems administer a multi-faceted strategy including national coach observations and varying physical and psychological tests when deciding who is chosen for talent development. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate the prognostic validity of talent selections by varying groups 10 years after they had been conducted. This study used a unique, multi-phased approach. Phase 1 involved players ( n = 68) in 2001 completing a battery of general and sport-specific tests of handball 'talent' and performance. In Phase 2, national and regional coaches ( n = 7) in 2001 who attended training camps identified the most talented players. In Phase 3, current novice and advanced handball players ( n = 12 in each group) selected the most talented from short videos of matches played during the talent camp. Analyses compared predictions among all groups with a best model-fit derived from the motor tests. Results revealed little difference between regional and national coaches in the prediction of future performance and little difference in forecasting performance between novices and players. The best model-fit regression by the motor-tests outperformed all predictions. While several limitations are discussed, this study is a useful starting point for future investigations considering athlete selection decisions in talent identification in sport.

  16. Long-Term Prognostic Validity of Talent Selections: Comparing National and Regional Coaches, Laypersons and Novices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Schorer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In most sports, the development of elite athletes is a long-term process of talent identification and support. Typically, talent selection systems administer a multi-faceted strategy including national coach observations and varying physical and psychological tests when deciding who is chosen for talent development. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate the prognostic validity of talent selections by varying groups 10 years after they had been conducted. This study used a unique, multi-phased approach. Phase 1 involved players (n = 68 in 2001 completing a battery of general and sport-specific tests of handball ‘talent’ and performance. In Phase 2, national and regional coaches (n = 7 in 2001 who attended training camps identified the most talented players. In Phase 3, current novice and advanced handball players (n = 12 in each group selected the most talented from short videos of matches played during the talent camp. Analyses compared predictions among all groups with a best model-fit derived from the motor tests. Results revealed little difference between regional and national coaches in the prediction of future performance and little difference in forecasting performance between novices and players. The best model-fit regression by the motor-tests outperformed all predictions. While several limitations are discussed, this study is a useful starting point for future investigations considering athlete selection decisions in talent identification in sport.

  17. Long-Term Prognostic Validity of Talent Selections: Comparing National and Regional Coaches, Laypersons and Novices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorer, Jörg; Rienhoff, Rebecca; Fischer, Lennart; Baker, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    In most sports, the development of elite athletes is a long-term process of talent identification and support. Typically, talent selection systems administer a multi-faceted strategy including national coach observations and varying physical and psychological tests when deciding who is chosen for talent development. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate the prognostic validity of talent selections by varying groups 10 years after they had been conducted. This study used a unique, multi-phased approach. Phase 1 involved players (n = 68) in 2001 completing a battery of general and sport-specific tests of handball ‘talent’ and performance. In Phase 2, national and regional coaches (n = 7) in 2001 who attended training camps identified the most talented players. In Phase 3, current novice and advanced handball players (n = 12 in each group) selected the most talented from short videos of matches played during the talent camp. Analyses compared predictions among all groups with a best model-fit derived from the motor tests. Results revealed little difference between regional and national coaches in the prediction of future performance and little difference in forecasting performance between novices and players. The best model-fit regression by the motor-tests outperformed all predictions. While several limitations are discussed, this study is a useful starting point for future investigations considering athlete selection decisions in talent identification in sport. PMID:28744238

  18. Fingerprinting the Impacts of Aerosols on Long-Term Trends of the Indian Summer Monsoon Regional Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laul, K. M.; Kim, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present corroborative observational evidences from satellites, in-situ observations, and re-analysis data showing possible impacts of absorbing aerosols (black carbon and dust) on subseasonal and regional summer monsoon rainfall over India. We find that increased absorbing aerosols in the Indo-Gangetic Plain in recent decades may have lead to long-term warming of the upper troposphere over northern India and the Tibetan Plateau, enhanced rainfall in northern India and the Himalayas foothill regions in the early part (may-June) of the monsoon season, followed by diminished rainfall over central and southern India in the latter part (July-August) of the monsoon season. These signals which are consistent with current theories of atmospheric heating and solar dimming by aerosol and induced cloudiness in modulating the Indian monsoon, would have been masked by conventional method of using al-India rainfall averaged over the entire monsoon season.

  19. Improving Service Quality in Long-term Care Hospitals: National Evaluation on Long-term Care Hospitals and Employees Perception of Quality Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jinkyung; Han, Woosok

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate predictors for specific dimensions of service quality perceived by hospital employees in long-term care hospitals. Methods Data collected from a survey of 298 hospital employees in 18 long-term care hospitals were analysed. Multivariate ordinary least squares regression analysis with hospital fixed effects was used to determine the predictors of service quality using respondents? and organizational characteristics. Results The most significant predictors of employee-...

  20. Empowering a database with national long-term data about mortality: the use of national death registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, David L S; McClellan, Andrew J; Jacobs, Jeffrey P

    2008-12-01

    The interest of professional medical societies in research about outcomes, mixed with the recent accessibility to management of data on the internet, has moved many societies to create national databases or registries for their specialty. In societies with procedure-based specialties such as surgery, these databases will help with the care of patients by predicting prognosis, defining risk-factors, and aiding with the selection of patients who are the best candidates for these procedures. These databases eventually will also help to establish standards of care. The latter is rapidly growing in importance as governments attempt to create "pay-for-performance" programs in many of the surgical specialties. It is essential to create a database from which a specialty can provide accurate data and standards to its members, its patients, and third parties, such as regulatory bodies and agencies of re-numeration. Unfortunately, surgeons often only care for their patients in the short-term peri-operative period, typically lasting weeks to months; and therefore, the ability of surgeons to create databases with long-term follow-up has been limited. The introduction of "personal health information" into a surgical database, with the intention of linking with other societies or national databases that have long-term follow-up, can remedy this weakness. This article describes the investigation by one surgical society into the available national registries of death and examines their accuracy, accessibility, cost, and their suitability in respect to the goals of that society. The information gathered, the comparisons outlined, and the processes used to determine the best combination of indices of death for this society should be translatable and hopefully useful for other societies and registries who wish to empower their databases with long-term national data about mortality.

  1. Understanding Long-Term Variations in Surface Ozone in United States (U.S. National Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah McGlynn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term surface ozone observations at 25 National Park Service sites across the United States were analyzed for processes on varying time scales using a time scale decomposition technique, the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD. Time scales of interest include the seasonal cycle, large-scale climate oscillations, and long-term (>10 years trends. Emission reductions were found to have a greater impact on sites that are nearest major urban areas. Multidecadal trends in surface ozone were increasing at a rate of 0.07 to 0.37 ppbv year−1 before 2004 and decreasing at a rate of −0.08 to −0.60 ppbv year−1 after 2004 for sites in the East, Southern California, and Northwestern Washington. Sites in the Intermountain West did not experience a reversal of trends from positive to negative until the mid- to late 2000s. The magnitude of the annual amplitude (=annual maximum–minimum decreased at eight sites, two in the West, two in the Intermountain West, and four in the East, by 5–20 ppbv and significantly increased at three sites; one in Alaska, one in the West, and one in the Intermountain West, by 3–4 ppbv. Stronger decreases in the annual amplitude occurred at a greater proportion of sites in the East (4/6 sites than in the West/Intermountain West (4/19 sites. The date of annual maximums and/or minimums has changed at 12 sites, occurring 10–60 days earlier in the year. There appeared to be a link between the timing of the annual maximum and the decrease in the annual amplitude, which was hypothesized to be related to a decrease in ozone titration resulting from NOx emission reductions. Furthermore, it was found that a phase shift of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO, from positive to negative, in 1998–1999 resulted in increased occurrences of La Niña-like conditions. This shift had the effect of directing more polluted air masses from East Asia to higher latitudes over the North American continent. The change in the

  2. Lower Risk of Stroke after Deformity Surgery: Long Term Benefit Demonstrated by a National Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang-Chung; Chung, Wu-Fu; Liu, Shih-Wei; Chang, Peng-Yuan; Chen, Li-Fu; Wu, Jau-Ching; Chen, Yu-Chun; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Liu, Laura; Cheng, Henrich; Lo, Su-Shun

    2015-10-12

    This study aimed to investigate the long-term risk of stroke in adult patients with spinal deformity. Specifically, the study addressed the possible protective effect of surgery for spinal deformity against stroke. Using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), a monopolistic national database in Taiwan, this retrospective cohort study analyzed the incidence of stroke in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) in a 11-year period. A total of 13,503 patients, between 55 and 75 years old, were identified for the diagnosis of ASD. The patients were grouped into two: the surgical group (n = 10,439) who received spinal fusion surgery, and the control group (n = 2124) who received other medical treatment. The incidence rates of all subsequent cerebrovascular accidents, including ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, were calculated. Hazard ratios for stroke were calculated use a full cohort and a propensity score matched cohort. Adjustments for co-morbidities that may predispose to stroke, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, arrhythmia and coronary heart disease were conducted. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed to compare the risk of stroke between the two groups. During the total observation period of 50,450 person-years, the incidence rate of stroke in the surgical group (15.55 per 1000 person-years) was significantly lower than that of the control group (20.89 per 1000 person-years, p Stroke was more likely to occur in the control group than in the surgical group (crude hazard ratio 1.34, p stroke was approximately 25% less likely to happen in patients who underwent spinal fusion surgery than those who received medical management. Therefore, spinal fusion surgery may provide a protective effect against stroke in adult patients with spinal deformity.

  3. Long-term efficacy of liraglutide in Indian patients with Type 2 diabetes in a real-world setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parjeet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term efficacy of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 analog, on body weight and glycemic control has not been studied in Indian Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM subjects. Aim: To evaluate the effect of liraglutide on glycemic control and body weight for 1 year in Indian T2DM patients. Methods: Liraglutide was prescribed to 96 obese patients with T2DM and followed up for 1 year. Clinical parameters were measured at baseline and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Dosage of liraglutide and other medications was adjusted according to clinical judgment. Results: 1 year data were available for 74 patients. Mean age was 50.9 ± 9.6 years. Mean duration of diabetes was 11.6 ± 6.3 years. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c significantly decreased from 8.9 ± 1.3% at baseline to 7.4 ± 1.2% at 1 year. Body weight significantly declined from 98.9 ± 16.0 kg at baseline to 93.8 ± 15.0 kg at 1 year. After an initial decline, subset of patients had an increase in mean HbA1c (n = 30/74 and mean body weight (n = 33/74 after 6 months of liraglutide initiation. Baseline HbA1c and baseline body weight were positively associated with a reduction of HbA1c and body weight at 1 year, respectively. No major side effects occurred. Conclusion: Liraglutide treatment resulted in a significant and sustained reduction in HbA1c and body weight over 1 year in Indian T2DM patients. Magnitude of reduction of HbA1c and body weight at 1 year was positively associated with baseline HbA1c and baseline weight, respectively.

  4. Long-Term Respiratory Support for Children and Adolescents in Austria: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S; Van Egmond-Fröhlich, A; Hofer, N; Pfleger, A; Rath, R; Schwarz, R; Kurz, H; Waibel, V; Kenzian, H; Kommer, E; Wadlegger, F; Stelzl, W; Keck, B; Grigorow, I; Kerbl, R; Sauseng, W; Frischer, T; Eber, E; Bernert, G

    2016-01-01

    Population-based data on pediatric patients on long-term respiratory support (LTRS) in Austria are lacking. This study aimed to record the pediatric departments active in this field, as well as number and characteristics of patients on LTRS. A national cross-sectional study was carried out by means of questionnaires sent to all pediatric departments in Austria. All departments answered to the questionnaires. On June 1st, 2013, the reference day for this study, 12 of the 41 pediatric departments in Austria were active in the field. At this time, these centers were caring for 143 patients, 111 (77.6%) of them under 18 years, which corresponds to a prevalence of 7.4 per 100 000. The patients suffered from neuromuscular disorders (44%), other neurological disorders (18.9%), disorders of respiratory drive (9.1%), obstructive sleep apnea (8.4%), thoracal and spinal diseases (8.4%), pulmonary disorders (4.9%) and other diseases (6.3%). Continuous positive airway pressure was used in 6.3%, non-invasive ventilation in 60.1% and invasive ventilation in 33.6% of the patients, respectively. LTRS was performed at home in 92.3%. LTRS represents a common management strategy in children and adolescents with a variety of disorders. Census reports such as this one provide the basis for appropriate planning of resource allocation. The age distribution of our patients shows the need for structured transition into adult care. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Lower Risk of Stroke after Deformity Surgery: Long Term Benefit Demonstrated by a National Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Chung Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the long-term risk of stroke in adult patients with spinal deformity. Specifically, the study addressed the possible protective effect of surgery for spinal deformity against stroke. Methods: Using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD, a monopolistic national database in Taiwan, this retrospective cohort study analyzed the incidence of stroke in patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD in a 11-year period. A total of 13,503 patients, between 55 and 75 years old, were identified for the diagnosis of ASD. The patients were grouped into two: the surgical group (n = 10,439 who received spinal fusion surgery, and the control group (n = 2124 who received other medical treatment. The incidence rates of all subsequent cerebrovascular accidents, including ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, were calculated. Hazard ratios for stroke were calculated use a full cohort and a propensity score matched cohort. Adjustments for co-morbidities that may predispose to stroke, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, arrhythmia and coronary heart disease were conducted. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed to compare the risk of stroke between the two groups. Results: During the total observation period of 50,450 person-years, the incidence rate of stroke in the surgical group (15.55 per 1000 person-years was significantly lower than that of the control group (20.89 per 1000 person-years, p < 0.001. Stroke was more likely to occur in the control group than in the surgical group (crude hazard ratio 1.34, p < 0.001; adjusted HR 1.28, p < 0.001, by a propensity score matched model. Conclusions: In this national cohort of more than 13,000 ASD patients covering 10 years, stroke was approximately 25% less likely to happen in patients who underwent spinal fusion surgery than those who received medical management. Therefore, spinal fusion surgery may provide a protective effect against stroke

  6. Future Perspective and Long-Term Strategy of the Indian EO Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Mukund; Jayaraman, V.; Sridhara Murthi, K. R.; Kasturirangan, K.

    EO technology development will continue to have profound effects on spatial information activities, as we are seeing it today - the changing demand of GIS technology to understanding processes around us and its representation as maps. In the longer term, information needs will drive further RS and GIS technological developments - creating stringent demands for technology solutions for spatial data capture, integration and representation. The emergence of Spatial Business from the highly volatile and dynamic synergy of information, technology and access will see a truly Spatial Society. EO will have a major impact on day-to-day life of nations, communities and even an individual. It will become the One-stop source for information - spatial information at that - thus enabling not only development oriented activities but also Business GIS, quality research and Info-savvy communities. Internationally, there will be a mix of Government and Commercial satellites vying to provide information services to a wide variety of users. EO satellites are also becoming smaller, efficient and less costlier. Almost 5-6 commercial systems will orbit around the Earth in the foreseeable future to generate massive, seamless archives of high-resolution panchromatic and multispectral images - almost reducing the need for aerial surveys for photography and mapping. Reaching resolution of cm level and covering narrower and more spectral bands, the trend is to IMAGE the Earth in its entirety and organize Image Infrastructures. The race will be to imaginatively capture the market with the fullest archive of the globe and cater to any imaging demand of users. One will also see efficient satellite operations that will enable imaging any part of the globe with minimum turn-around time - reaching concepts of IMAGING ON DEMAND. The need of the hour is looking forward now towards how the EO technology can adapt itself to the changing scenario and the steps to be taken to sustain use of EO data it in

  7. Pain in European long-term care facilities: Cross-national study in Finland, Italy and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, W.P.; Gambassi, G.; Finne-Soveri, H.; Liperoti, R.; Noro, A.; Frijters, D.H.M.; Cherubini, A.; Dell'Aquila, G.; Ribbe, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    There have been very few and limited cross-national comparisons concerning pain among residents of long-term care facilities in Europe. The aim of the present cross-sectional study has been to document the prevalence of pain, its frequency and severity as well as its correlates in three European

  8. The national program for long term seed storage for ash germplasm preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.P. Karrfalt

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USDA FS) began ash (Fraxinus) germplasm preservation in 2005, through seed collections for long term seed storage. The work was coordinated with the Agricultural Research Service (ARS). Collections have been accomplished through many cooperators. Various methods of outreach were deployed to solicit cooperators. No...

  9. Reforming Long-Term Care in the United States: Findings from a National Survey of Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edward Alan; Mor, Vincent; Clark, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Theories of the policy process recognize that policy proposals are typically generated, debated, redrafted, and accepted for consideration through the gradual accumulation of knowledge within communities of specialists. Thus, to inform long-term care (LTC) reform efforts, we conducted a Web-based survey of 1,147 LTC specialists…

  10. Association Between Playing American Football in the National Football League and Long-term Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, Atheendar S; Gandhavadi, Maheer; Jena, Anupam B

    2018-02-27

    ; 10.4%). Among NFL replacement players, the leading causes of death were cardiometabolic diseases (n = 19; 51.4%), self-harm and interpersonal violence (n = 5; 13.5%), and neoplasms (n = 4; 10.8%). Among NFL football players who began their careers between 1982 and 1992, career participation in the NFL, compared with limited NFL exposure obtained primarily as an NFL replacement player during a league-wide strike, was not associated with a statistically significant difference in long-term all-cause mortality. Given the small number of events, analysis of longer periods of follow-up may be informative.

  11. Abuse in Mexican Older Adults with Long-Term Disability: National Prevalence and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Rodríguez, Liliana; Rosas-Carrasco, Oscar; Mino-León, Dolores

    2015-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of self-reported abuse in elderly Mexican adults with long-term disabilities and to identify associated risk factors. Secondary analysis of the Perception of Disability in Mexican Population 2010 survey. Mexico. Individuals aged 60 and older with long-term disabilities without cognitive decline (N = 1,089). The elder abuse variable was constructed from the 21 questions included in the survey that assessed the presence of physical, psychological, sexual, and financial exploitation. Independent variables included demographic characteristics, self-rated health, disability (number of functional domains or basic activities), multimorbidity, emotional symptoms, health resources used, and informal help. The prevalence of elder abuse was 32.1%. The most frequent type of abuse was psychological (28.1%). Nearly 58% of respondents reported one type of abuse, 34% reported two types, and 8% reported more than three types. The most common combination of two types of abuse was psychological with financial exploitation. Variables associated with the presence of psychological, physical, and sexual abuse (conflict abuse) were age 80 and older, 9 or more years of education, unemployment, negative self-rated health, three or more disabilities, emotional symptoms, and history of hospitalization. Financial exploitation was associated with age 80 and older, being married or living with a partner, 9 or more years of education, unemployment, living in an urban area, negative self-rated health, three or more disabilities, emotional symptoms, and history of hospitalization. The prevalence of abuse in elderly Mexican adults with long-term disabilities is high. Associated factors were level of education, number of disabilities, and health status. Further studies should explore the applicability of these results to other populations. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. Long-term in vitro generation of amoebocytes from the Indian horseshoe crab Tachypleus gigas (Müller).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Bhupali; Chatterji, Anil; Bhonde, Ramesh

    2002-05-01

    Amoebocyte is the single type of cell circulating in the horseshoe crab hemolymph, which plays a major role in the defense system of the animal. Granules present in these cells are sensitive to nanogram quantities of bacterial endotoxins, which form the basis of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test. Normally, amoebocytes for the production of the LAL are collected by cardiac puncture; hence, development of the in vitro culture system for amoebocytes will reduce the variability of the lysate and help to conserve the 400 million-yr-old living fossil. In the present investigation we have attempted organ culture of gill flaps that have been shown to be the source of amoebocytes. The gill flaps were cultured at 28 degrees C on a rocker platform in a modified L-15 medium supplemented with 10% v/v horseshoe crab serum. This led to the release of amoebocytes outside the gill flaps for a period of 6-8 wk with a more or less steady number of amoebocytes during the weekly harvest. No significant difference was seen in the yield of amoebocytes from male and female horseshoe crabs. Confocal laser microscopy studies revealed significant difference in the size of amoebocytes released in vitro as compared with those obtained in vivo. Thus, we have optimized the culture conditions for the long-term generation of amoebocytes in vitro from the Indian horseshoe crab Tachypleus gigas by reducing the incidence of contamination, simulating in vivo conditions for the organ culture of gill flaps, and improvising the nutritional status using the modified L-15 medium, providing the desired osmolarity and pH.

  13. Long-term Planning for Sustainable Water and Wastewater Infrastructure in Wellpinit, Washington, for the Spokane Tribe of Indians

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Spokane Tribe initiated a long-term planning process for a water and wastewater infrastructure system that can support the tribe’s goals to add compact, mixed-use development in the town of Wellpinit.

  14. Workshop proceedings: Developing the scientific basis for long-term land management of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperber, T.D.; Reynolds, T.D.

    1998-03-01

    Responses to a survey on the INEEL Comprehensive Facility and Land Use Plan (US DOE 1996a) indicated the need for additional discussion on environmental resources, disturbance, and land use issues on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). As a result, in September 1997, a workshop evaluated the existing scientific basis and determined future data needs for long-term land management on the INEEL. This INEEL Long-Term Land Management Workshop examined existing data on biotic, abiotic, and heritage resources and how these resources have been impacted by disturbance activities of the INEEL. Information gained from this workshop will help guide land and facility use decisions, identify data gaps, and focus future research efforts. This report summarizes background information on the INEEL and its long-term land use planning efforts, presentations and discussions at the workshop, and the existing data available at the INEEL. In this document, recommendations for future INEEL land use planning, research efforts, and future workshops are presented. The authors emphasize these are not policy statements, but comments and suggestions made by scientists and others participating in the workshop. Several appendices covering land use disturbance, legal drivers, land use assumptions and workshop participant comments, workshop participants and contributors, and the workshop agenda are also included

  15. Workshop proceedings: Developing the scientific basis for long-term land management of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperber, T.D.; Reynolds, T.D. [eds.] [Environmental Science and Research Foundation, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Breckenridge, R.P. [ed.] [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Responses to a survey on the INEEL Comprehensive Facility and Land Use Plan (US DOE 1996a) indicated the need for additional discussion on environmental resources, disturbance, and land use issues on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). As a result, in September 1997, a workshop evaluated the existing scientific basis and determined future data needs for long-term land management on the INEEL. This INEEL Long-Term Land Management Workshop examined existing data on biotic, abiotic, and heritage resources and how these resources have been impacted by disturbance activities of the INEEL. Information gained from this workshop will help guide land and facility use decisions, identify data gaps, and focus future research efforts. This report summarizes background information on the INEEL and its long-term land use planning efforts, presentations and discussions at the workshop, and the existing data available at the INEEL. In this document, recommendations for future INEEL land use planning, research efforts, and future workshops are presented. The authors emphasize these are not policy statements, but comments and suggestions made by scientists and others participating in the workshop. Several appendices covering land use disturbance, legal drivers, land use assumptions and workshop participant comments, workshop participants and contributors, and the workshop agenda are also included.

  16. National experience with long-term use of the wearable cardioverter defibrillator in patients with cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Madhab; Gardiner, Joseph C; Bianco, Nicole R; Szymkiewicz, Steven J; Thakur, Ranjan K

    2017-01-01

    The wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD) is generally used for short periods of sudden cardiac death (SCD) risk; circumstances may occasionally result in prolonged use (over 1 year). The aim of this study was to determine the benefits and risks of prolonged use in patients with systolic heart failure (HF). ZOLL's post-market US database included adult patients (≥18 years) with ischemic and/or non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM, NICM) and at least 1 year of use. Cox-regression was used to identify factors associated with survival with WCD use, and reasons for stopping use were entered as time-dependent factors. Among 220 patients, age (mean ± SD) 55.4 ± 14.8 years, WCD use 451.4 ± 289.9 days, and 67.3 % were male and their left ventricle ejection fraction (EF) averaged 20.9 ± 7.2 %. Eighty-nine (40.5 %) were continuing WCD use at the last follow-up. Thirty-six (16.4 %) and 56 (25.5 %) patients discontinued WCD use because of EF recovery and implantable cardioverter (ICD) implantation, respectively. Nine patients (4.1 %) received appropriate shock therapy for 13 episodes of sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmia with 12 (92.3 %) successful shocks. One patient died of refractory ventricular fibrillation. One patient died from sinus bradycardia transitioning to asystole. Eight patients (3.6 %) had nine episodes of non-fatal inappropriate shocks. Long-term use of the WCD is safe and effective. Recovery of EF was seen in significant number of patients even after 1 year of WCD use.

  17. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006, (NODC Accession 0012632)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  18. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, June and November 2005 (NCEI Accession 0127074)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  19. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, June 2006 (NCEI Accession 0127075)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  20. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, 2002-2006 (NODC Accession 0012632)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  1. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, November 2004 (NCEI Accession 0127073)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  2. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, 2002 (NCEI Accession 0127071)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  3. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, August 2003 (NCEI Accession 0127072)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary 2002-2006 data include biological and oceanographic measurements...

  4. The Longevity of Crop Seeds Stored Under Long-term Condition in the National Gene Bank of Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Desheva Gergana

    2016-01-01

    Seed accessions from 7 plant families and 28 species stored for above 20 years in the National gene bank of Bulgaria were evaluated. All seed accessions were maintained as base collection under long-term storage conditions with low moisture contents (5±2%) in hermetically closed containers at −18°C. On the basis of experimental data, the seed storage characters σ (standard deviation of seed death in storage), P50% (the time for viability to fall to 50%) and P10% (the time for viability reduct...

  5. Science, environment and technology summit: A long term national science strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivelpiece, A.W.

    1995-06-01

    This document contains the text of the testimony given by Alvin W. Trivelpiece, Director, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, before the Subcommittee on Basic Research, Committee on Science, US House of Representatives in Oak Ridge, TN on June 1, 1995.

  6. Army Transformation: Its Long-Term Ability to Support the National Security Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Limberg, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    ..., interconnected and risky than ever before". The Cold War containment strategy is no longer effective in an environment of rogue nations, strong nationalistic sentiments, international criminal and terrorist organizations, and the proliferation...

  7. Long-term forecasting of international relations as strategic planning of national security policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Podberezkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary transformation and chaos in international relations reduce its predictability, which must be compensated by strengthening the normative content of its analysis that is in fact strategic planning. The deepening of international relations in recent years allows one to make a pessimistic conclusion about the most likely and dangerous scenario for the development of international relations - «the strengthening of military power struggles among the major local human civilizations» and they represent a militarypolitical coalitions and power centers. It should be noted that an effective tool for the implementation of this confrontation is the system of military and civilian instruments used to provide comprehensive multi-factor and multi-dimensional effect on an object. Today, the most striking example of such an integrated infl uence policy is the new public diplomacy. For implementation of such an integrated approach Russia needs to reform the system of national security to include in it not only the traditional enforcement agencies, but also the organizations of business and civil society, as well as to improve coordination between its individual parts. However, the implementation of such a reform is impossible without national ideology that forms the regulatory priorities of national development and national security

  8. Short-Term and Long-Term Effects of United Nations Peace Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Sambanis, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that United Nations peace operations make a positive contribution to peacebuilding efforts after civil wars. But do these effects carry over to the period after the peacekeepers leave? And how do the effects of UN peace operations interact with other determinants of peacebuilding in the long run? The author addresses these questions using a revised version of the...

  9. Improving reproductive long-term prognosis for women with a first ectopic pregnancy. A national controlled follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerup, Pia; Kårhus, Line Lund; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Lidegaard, Ojvind

    2014-05-01

    To describe developments in reproductive long-term prognosis in women with a first ectopic pregnancy as compared with two control cohorts. Controlled cohort study. Data were collected from four national Danish registries. All Danish women of reproductive age (15-49 years) through the period 1977-2009 and all reproductive outcomes in these women. Data were collected from four national Danish registries. Three cohorts of women with a first recorded ectopic pregnancy during the periods 1980-84, 1985-89, and 1990-94, were compared with age-matched controls with a first miscarriage and a first induced abortion and followed for 15 years for all further pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancy outcomes included deliveries, miscarriages, induced abortions and ectopic pregnancies. The birth rate for women with a first ectopic pregnancy increased significantly through the three cohorts from 85 to 122 deliveries/100 women during the follow-up period. The risk of miscarriages also increased over time, whereas the risk of further ectopic pregnancies remained unchanged at 22-24 events/100 women. Compared to women with a first miscarriage, the rate ratio for deliveries increased from 0.59 (95% CI 0.56-0.63) to 0.71 (95% CI 0.68-0.75) over the time covering the three cohorts. The long-term delivery rate among women with a first ectopic pregnancy has improved significantly over time. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Long-term follow-up after bariatric surgery in a national cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thereaux, J; Lesuffleur, T; Païta, M; Czernichow, S; Basdevant, A; Msika, S; Millat, B; Fagot-Campagna, A

    2017-09-01

    Lifelong medical follow-up is mandatory after bariatric surgery. The aim of this study was to assess the 5-year follow-up after bariatric surgery in a nationwide cohort of patients. All adult obese patients who had undergone primary bariatric surgery in 2009 in France were included. Data were extracted from the French national health insurance database. Medical follow-up (medical visits, micronutrient supplementation and blood tests) during the first 5 years after bariatric surgery was assessed, and compared with national and international guidelines. Some 16 620 patients were included in the study. The percentage of patients with at least one reimbursement for micronutrient supplements decreased between the first and fifth years for iron (from 27.7 to 24.5 per cent; P bariatric surgery is poor, especially for young men with poor early follow-up. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Long-term soil gas flux and root mortality, Tapajos National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. L. Silver; A. W. Thompson; M. E. McGroddy; R. K. Varner; J. R. Robertson; J. D. Dias; H. Silva; P. Crill; M. Keller

    2012-01-01

    This data set reports measurements of trace gas fluxes of methane (CH4), nitric oxide (N2O), nitrous oxide (NO), carbon dioxide (CO2) from soils at a study site in the Tapajos National Forest (TNF), near the km 83 on the Santarem-Cuiaba Highway south of Santarem, Para, Brazil. Data for root mass and carbon content, soil nitrogen (N), nitrification, and moisture content...

  12. The National Landscape Conservation System: A model for long term conservation of significant landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave Harmon; Jeff Jarvis

    2011-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management administers over 256 million surface acres, more than any other U.S. public agency, the vast majority of which is in the western half of the United States. A land protection system was initiated in 1970 with the creation of the King Range National Conservation Area. In 1976, the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (http://www.blm.gov/...

  13. Long-Term National Impacts of State-Level Policies: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, N.; Short, W.; Denholm, P.; Heimiller, D.

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents analysis conducted with the Wind Deployment System Model (WinDS) -- a model of capacity expansion in the U.S. electric sector. With 358 regions covering the United States, detailed transmission system representation, and an explicit treatment of wind intermittency and ancillary services, WinDS is uniquely positioned to evaluate the market impacts of specific state-level policies. This paper provides analysis results regarding the impact of existing state-level policies designed to promote wind-capacity expansion, including state portfolio standards, mandates, and tax credits. The results show the amount of wind deployment due to current state-level incentives as well as examine their lasting impact on the national wind industry. For example, state-level mandates increase industry size and lower costs, which result in wind capacity increases in states without mandates and greater market growth even after the policies expire. Although these policies are enacted by individual states, the cumulative effect must be examined at a national level. Finally, this paper examines the impact on wind-capacity growth by increasing the penalty associated with the state-level renewable portfolio standards (RPS). The results show national and regional wind energy deployment and generation through 2050.

  14. Long-term land use future scenarios for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    In order to facilitate decision regarding environmental restoration activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the United States Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) conducted analyses to project reasonable future land use scenarios at the INEL for the next 100 years. The methodology for generating these scenarios included: review of existing DOE plans, policy statements, and mission statements pertaining to the INEL; review of surrounding land use characteristics and county developments policies; solicitation of input from local, county, state and federal planners, policy specialists, environmental professionals, and elected officials; and review of environmental and development constraints at the INEL site that could influence future land use

  15. Long-term trajectories of the human appropriation of net primary production: Lessons from six national case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausmann, Fridolin; Gingrich, Simone; Haberl, Helmut; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Musel, Annabella; Kastner, Thomas; Kohlheb, Norbert; Niedertscheider, Maria; Schwarzlmüller, Elmar

    2012-05-01

    The 'human appropriation of net primary production' (HANPP) is an integrated socio-ecological indicator measuring effects of land use on ecological biomass flows. Based on published data for Austria, Hungary, the Philippines, South Africa, Spain and the UK, this paper investigates long-term trends in aboveground HANPP and discusses the relations between population, economic growth, changes in biomass use and land-use intensity and their influences on national HANPP trajectories. During early stages of industrialization, population growth and increasing demand for biomass drive land-cover change, often resulting in deforestation, which raises HANPP. During later stages, industrialization of agriculture boosts agricultural yields often faster than biomass demand grows, resulting in stable or even declining HANPP. Technological change improves agricultural area-efficiency (biomass provision per unit area), thereby decoupling population and economic growth from HANPP. However, these efficiency gains require large inputs of fossil fuels and agrochemicals resulting in pressures on ecosystems and emissions. Our findings corroborate the argument that HANPP alone cannot - as sometimes suggested - be used as a simple measure of carrying capacity. Nevertheless, analyses of long-term HANPP trajectories in combination with accounts of material and energy flows can provide important insights into the sustainability of land use, thereby helping to understand limits to growth.

  16. Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the Gulf of Mexico, 2007-2008 (NODC Accession 0070125)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Long-Term Monitoring at the East and West Flower Garden Banks 2007-2008 dataset includes biological and oceanographic measurements collected to satisfy the...

  17. Neuromyelitis optica and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: Natural history and long-term outcome, an Indian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Abajirao Jagtap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO has evolved from devic′s classical description to a broader disease spectrum, from monophasic illness to a polyphasic illness with multiple recurrences, disease confined to optic nerve and spinal cord to now brain stem, cerebrum and even endocrinopathy due to hypothalamic involvement. Objectives: To report, the epidemiological characteristics, clinical presentations, recurrence rate, treatment and response to therapy in 26 patients with NMO and NMO spectrum disorder among the Indian population. Methods: We performed observational, retrospective analysis of our prospectively maintained data base of patients with NMO, longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis during the period of January 2003-December 2012 who satisfied the national multiple sclerosis society (NMSS task force criteria for diagnosis of NMO and NMO spectrum disorder. Results: There were 26 patients (female: male, 21:5, the mean age of onset of symptom was 27 years (range 9-58, standard deviation = 12. Twenty-one patients (80% fulfilled NMSS criteria for NMO while rest 5 patients (20% were considered as NMO spectrum disorder. Seven patients (27% had a monophasic illness, 19 patients (73% had a polyphasic illness with recurrences. The Median recurrence rate was 4/patient in the polyphasic group. 13 (50% patient were tested for aquaporin 4 antibody, 8 (61% were positive while 5 patients (39% were negative. All patients received intravenous methyl prednisolone, 9 patients (35% required further treatment for acute illness in view of unresponsiveness to steroids. Thirteen patients (50% received disease-modifying agents for recurrences. Mean duration of follow-up was 5 years. All patients had a good outcome (modified Rankin scale, <3 except one who had poor visual recovery. Conclusion: Neuromyelitis optica/NMO spectrum disorder is demyelinating disorder with female predominance, polyphasic course, myelitis being most common event although brain

  18. Keratinophilic fungi isolated from soils of long-term fold-grazed, degraded pastures in national parks of Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javoreková, Soňa; Labuda, Roman; Maková, Jana; Novák, Ján; Medo, Juraj; Majerčíková, Kamila

    2012-09-01

    A total of 939 isolates of 11 genera representing 15 species of keratinophilic fungi were isolated and identified from the soils of three long-term fold-grazed pastures in national parks of Slovakia (Pod Ploskou, Strungový príslop, and Pod Kečkou) and one non-fold-grazed pasture in sierra Stolicke vrchy (Diel) using the hair-baiting technique. Keratinophilic fungi were present in all soil samples with a prevalence of Trichophyton ajelloi and Paecilomyces lilacinus. These fungi were more abundant in soil from fold-grazed pasture (Strungový príslop) compared to non-fold-grazed pasture (Diel). The occurrence of the other keratinophilic fungi was substantially lower, likely because of low pH in some soils.

  19. Race Differences in ADL Disability Decline 1984-2004: Evidence From the National Long-Term Care Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Miles G; Lynch, Scott M; Ureña, Stephanie

    2018-02-01

    Disability declined in lower levels of impairment during the late 20th century. However, it is unclear whether ADL disability also declined, or whether it did so across race. In this study, we examine cohorts entering later life between 1984 and 1999, by race, to understand changing ADL disability. We used latent class methods to model trajectories of ADL disability and subsequent mortality in the National Long-Term Care Survey among cohorts entering older adulthood (ages 65-69) between 1984 and 1999. We examined patterns by race, focusing on chronic condition profiles. White cohorts experienced consistent declines in ADL disability but Blacks saw little improvement with some evidence for increased disability. Stroke, diabetes, and heart attack were predominant in predicting disability among Blacks. Declining disability trends were only observed consistently among Whites, suggesting previous and future disability trends and their underlying causes should be examined by race.

  20. Disparities in sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma short- and long-term outcomes: Analysis from the national cancer database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Ryan M; Parasher, Arjun K; Workman, Alan D; Yan, Carol H; Glicksman, Jordan T; Chen, Jinbo; Palmer, James N; Adappa, Nithin D; Newman, Jason G; Brant, Jason A

    2018-03-01

    To examine sociodemographic, hospital-specific, and disease-related characteristics in relation to outcomes in sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The National Cancer Database was queried for location codes corresponding to the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses and histology codes representing SCC malignancy. Multivariate analyses were performed against short- and long-term outcomes (overall survival, days to discharge, 30-day readmission, and 30- and 90-day mortality). The database included 5,584 sinonasal SCC patients with an overall median survival of 53.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 49.7-57.8). On multivariate analysis, uninsured, Medicaid, and Medicare were independently associated with worse overall survival compared to private insurance (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.22-1.82, P exist. An understanding of these differences may help minimize disparities in oncologic treatment. 2c. Laryngoscope, 128:560-567, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. A Framework for Long-term Ecological Monitoring in Olympic National Park: Prototype for the Coniferous Forest Biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt; Woodward, Andrea; Schreiner, Ed

    2003-01-01

    This report is the result of a five-year collaboration between scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Olympic Field Station, and the natural resources staff of Olympic National Park to develop a comprehensive strategy for monitoring natural resources of Olympic National Park. Olympic National Park is the National Park Serviceʼs prototype monitoring park, representing parks in the coniferous forest biome. Under the umbrella of the National Park Serviceʼs prototype parks program, U.S. Geological Survey and Olympic National Park staffs are obligated to:develop strategies and designs for monitoring the long-term health and integrity of national park ecosystems with a significant coniferous forest component.design exportable monitoring protocols that can be used by other parks within the coniferous forest biome (i.e., parks having similar environments), andcreate a demonstration area and ʻcenter of excellenceʼ for assisting other parks in developing ecological monitoring programs.Olympic National Park is part of the North Coast and Cascades Network, a network of seven Pacific Northwestern park units created recently by the National Park Serviceʼs Inventory and Monitoring Program to extend the monitoring of ʻvital signsʼ of park health to all National Park Service units. It is our intent and hope that the monitoring strategies and conceptual models described here will meet the overall purpose of the prototype parks monitoring program in proving useful not only to Olympic National Park, but also to parks within the North Coast and Cascades Network and elsewhere. Part I contains the conceptual design and sampling framework for the prototype long-term monitoring program in Olympic National Park. In this section, we explore key elements of monitoring design that help to ensure the spatial, ecological, and temporal integration of monitoring program elements and discuss approaches used to design an ecosystem

  2. Contemporary and long-term erosion in the Kruger National Park, Lowveld Savanna, South Africa. First results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baade, Jussi; Rheinwarth, Bastian; Glotzbach, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Human-induced soil erosion as a consequence of the transformation of landscapes to pasture or arable land is a function of natural conditions (relief and soil properties), natural drivers (climate) as well as land use and management. It is common understanding that humans have accelerated erosion of landscapes by modifying land surface characteristics, like vegetation cover and soil properties, among others. But the magnitude of the acceleration is not yet well established. Partly, the uncertainty about the magnitude of the problem is due to the fact that baseline values, i.e., data on rates of natural erosion from uncultivated land under current climate conditions, are difficult to find. Against this background, we conducted an assessment of contemporary and long-term erosion in the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. The KNP has been set aside for the recovery of wildlife in the early 20th century and was spared from agricultural practices even before that. Concerning soil properties and vegetation cover the KNP can thus be considered to represent a rather pristine savanna environment. In order to secure water provision to wildlife a number of reservoirs was established in the 1930s to 1970s with catchment areas entirely within the KNP boundaries. The size of the catchments varies from 4 to 100 km2. Volumetric mapping and dry bulk density measurements of reservoir deposits provided average minimum sediment yield rates for observation periods of 30 to 80 years. Hydrological modelling was used to assess the trap efficiency of the reservoirs and to estimate the most likely sediment yield rates. At the same time this exercise provided evidence for the stochastic nature of runoff and erosion events in this semi-arid environment and the need to evaluate contemporary erosion based on long observation periods. Measuring cosmogenic 10Be in quartz sand samples collected at the inlet of the reservoirs provided the corresponding average long-term erosion rates for

  3. Long-term energy security in a national scale using LEAP. Application to de-carbonization scenarios in Andorra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travesset-Baro, Oriol; Jover, Eric; Rosas-Casals, Marti

    2016-04-01

    This paper analyses the long-term energy security in a national scale using Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) modelling tool. It builds the LEAP Andorra model, which forecasts energy demand and supply for the Principality of Andorra by 2050. It has a general bottom-up structure, where energy demand is driven by the technological composition of the sectors of the economy. The technological model is combined with a top-down econometric model to take into account macroeconomic trends. The model presented in this paper provides an initial estimate of energy demand in Andorra segregated into all sectors (residential, transport, secondary, tertiary and public administration) and charts a baseline scenario based on historical trends. Additional scenarios representing different policy strategies are built to explore the country's potential energy savings and the feasibility to achieve the Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) submitted in April 2015 to UN. In this climatic agreement Andorra intends to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) by 37% as compared to a business-as-usual scenario by 2030. In addition, current and future energy security is analysed in this paper under baseline and de-carbonization scenarios. Energy security issues are assessed in LEAP with an integrated vision, going beyond the classic perspective of security of supply, and being closer to the sustainability's integrative vision. Results of scenarios show the benefits of climate policies in terms of national energy security and the difficulties for Andorra to achieving the de-carbonization target by 2030.

  4. Long-term and storm-related shoreline change trends in the Florida Gulf Islands National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, C.J.; Christiano, M.

    2007-01-01

    Coastal erosion on Northern Gulf of Mexico barrier islands is an ongoing issue that was exacerbated by the storm seasons of 2004 and 2005 when several hurricanes made landfall in the Gulf of Mexico. Two units of the Gulf Islands National Seashore (GUIS), located on Santa Rosa Island, a barrier island off the Panhandle coast of Florida, were highly impacted during the hurricanes of 2004 (Ivan) and 2005 (Cindy, Dennis, Katrina and Rita). In addition to the loss of or damage to natural and cultural resources within the park, damage to park infrastructure, including park access roads and utilities, occurred in areas experiencing rapid shoreline retreat. The main park road was located as close as 50 m to the pre-storm (2001) shoreline and was still under repair from damage incurred during Hurricane Ivan when the 2005 hurricanes struck. A new General Management Plan is under development for the Gulf Islands National Seashore. This plan, like the existing General Management Plan, strives to incorporate natural barrier island processes, and will guide future efforts to provide access to units of Gulf Islands National Seashore on Santa Rosa Island. To assess changes in island geomorphology and provide data for park management, the National Park Service and the U.S. Geological Survey are currently analyzing shoreline change to better understand long-term (100+ years) shoreline change trends as well as short-term shoreline impact and recovery to severe storm events. Results show that over an ~140-year period from the late 1800s to May 2004, the average shoreline erosion rates in the Fort Pickens and Santa Rosa units of GUIS were -0.7m/yr and -0.1 m/yr, respectively. Areas of historic erosion, reaching a maximum rate of -1.3 m/yr, correspond to areas that experienced overwash and road damage during the 2004 hurricane season. The shoreline eroded as much as ~60 m during Hurricane Ivan, and as much as ~88 m over the course of the 2005 storm season. The shoreline erosion rates in

  5. Sandia National Laboratories performance assessment methodology for long-term environmental programs : the history of nuclear waste management.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marietta, Melvin Gary; Anderson, D. Richard; Bonano, Evaristo J.; Meacham, Paul Gregory (Raytheon Ktech, Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is the world leader in the development of the detailed science underpinning the application of a probabilistic risk assessment methodology, referred to in this report as performance assessment (PA), for (1) understanding and forecasting the long-term behavior of a radioactive waste disposal system, (2) estimating the ability of the disposal system and its various components to isolate the waste, (3) developing regulations, (4) implementing programs to estimate the safety that the system can afford to individuals and to the environment, and (5) demonstrating compliance with the attendant regulatory requirements. This report documents the evolution of the SNL PA methodology from inception in the mid-1970s, summarizing major SNL PA applications including: the Subseabed Disposal Project PAs for high-level radioactive waste; the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant PAs for disposal of defense transuranic waste; the Yucca Mountain Project total system PAs for deep geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; PAs for the Greater Confinement Borehole Disposal boreholes at the Nevada National Security Site; and PA evaluations for disposal of high-level wastes and Department of Energy spent nuclear fuels stored at Idaho National Laboratory. In addition, the report summarizes smaller PA programs for long-term cover systems implemented for the Monticello, Utah, mill-tailings repository; a PA for the SNL Mixed Waste Landfill in support of environmental restoration; PA support for radioactive waste management efforts in Egypt, Iraq, and Taiwan; and, most recently, PAs for analysis of alternative high-level radioactive waste disposal strategies including repositories deep borehole disposal and geologic repositories in shale and granite. Finally, this report summarizes the extension of the PA methodology for radioactive waste disposal toward development of an enhanced PA system for carbon sequestration and storage systems

  6. Long Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... us! Living with HD Long-Term Care Long Term Care Click here to download Long-Term Care for HD, (part of HDSA’s Family Guide ... on patient and family issues related to long-term HD care. For many caregivers of people with ...

  7. Assessment of nuclear energy cost competitiveness against alternative energy sources in Romania envisaging the long-term national energy sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margeanu, C. A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper includes some of the results obtained by RATEN ICN Pitesti experts in the IAEA.s Collaborative Project INPRO-SYNERGIES. The case study proposed to evaluate and analyze the nuclear capacity development and increasing of its share in the national energy sector, envisaging the long term national and regional energy sustainability by keeping collaboration options open for the future while bringing solutions to short/medium-term challenges. The following technologies, considered as future competing technologies for electric energy generation in Romania, were selected: nuclear technology (represented by PHWR CANDU Units 3 and 4 - CANDU new, advanced HWR - Adv. HWR, and advanced PWR - Adv. PWR) and, as alternative energy sources, classical technology (represented by Coal-fired power plant using lignite fossil fuel, with carbon capture - Coal n ew, and Gas-fired power plant operating on combined cycle, with carbon capture - Gas n ew). The study included assessment of specific economic indicators, sensitivity analyses being performed on Levelised Unit Energy Cost (LUEC) variation due to different perturbations (e.g. discount rate, overnight costs, etc). Robustness indices (RI) of LUEC were also calculated by considering simultaneous variation of input parameters for the considered power plants. The economic analyses have been performed by using the IAEA.s NEST program. The study results confirmed that in Romania, under the national specific conditions defined, electricity produced by nuclear power plants is cost competitive against coal and gas fired power plants electricity. The highest impact of considered perturbations on LUEC has been observed for capital intensive technologies (nuclear technologies) comparatively with the classic power plants, especially for discount rate changes. (authors)

  8. Herbivores shape woody plant communities in the Kruger National Park: Lessons from three long-term exclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Wigley

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of grazers in determining vegetation community compositions and structuring plant communities is well recognised in grassy systems. The role of browsers in affecting savanna woody plant communities is less clear. We used three long-term exclosures in the Kruger National Park to determine the effect of browsers on species compositions and population structures of woody communities. Species assemblages, plant traits relating to browsing and soil nutrients were compared inside and outside of the exclosures. Our results showed that browsers directly impact plant species distributions, densities and population structures by actively selecting for species with traits which make them desirable to browsers. Species with high leaf nitrogen, low total phenolic content and low acid detergent lignin appeared to be favoured by herbivores and therefore tend to be rare outside of the exclosures. This study also suggested that browsers have important indirect effects on savanna functioning, as the reduction of woody cover can result in less litter of lower quality, which in turn can result in lower soil fertility. However, the magnitude of browser effects appeared to depend on inherent soil fertility and climate. Conservation implications: Browsers were shown to have significant impacts on plant communities. They have noticeable effects on local species diversity and population structure, as well as soil nutrients. These impacts are shown to be related to the underlying geology and climate. The effects of browsers on woody communities were shown to be greater in low rainfall, fertile areas compared to high rainfall, infertile soils.

  9. The Longevity of Crop Seeds Stored Under Long-term Condition in the National Gene Bank of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desheva Gergana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Seed accessions from 7 plant families and 28 species stored for above 20 years in the National gene bank of Bulgaria were evaluated. All seed accessions were maintained as base collection under long-term storage conditions with low moisture contents (5±2% in hermetically closed containers at −18°C. On the basis of experimental data, the seed storage characters σ (standard deviation of seed death in storage, P50% (the time for viability to fall to 50% and P10% (the time for viability reduction of 10% were determined allowing the prediction of seed storage life and the regeneration needs. The results showed significant differences in loss of seed viability among species and within the species. After 20–24 years of storage, eleven crops showed minimal viability decline under 5% as compared to the initial viability (oats, barley, maize, bread wheat, durum wheat, smooth brome grass, faba bean, chickpea, sunflower, cucumber and pepper. For the same storage time, another group of crops (sorghum, triticale, orchard grass, tall fescue, common vetch, grass pea, lentil, common bean, rapeseed, tobacco, flax, cabbage and tomatoes presented 5–10% reduction of seed viability. More significant changes in seed viability – above 10% – were detected for peanuts, lettuce, soybean and rye. The σ values varied from 20.41 years (Arachis hypogaea L. to 500 years (for Avena sativa L. and Triticum aestivum L. There was wide variation across species, both in time taken for the viability to fall to 50% and in time taken for the seed viability reduction of 10%. The study illustrates the positive effect of both seed storability early monitoring and prediction of regeneration needs as a tool for limiting undesired losses.

  10. Celebrating National American Indian Heritage Month

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mann, Diane

    2004-01-01

    November has been designated National American Indian Heritage Month to honor American Indians and Alaska Natives by increasing awareness of their culture, history, and, especially, their tremendous...

  11. Using nestling plasma to assess long-term spatial and temporal concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bald eagles within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Tyler Pittman; William W. Bowerman; Leland H. Grim; Teryl G. Grubb; William C. Bridges; Michael R. Wierda

    2015-01-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population at Voyageurs National Park (VNP) provides an opportunity to assess long-term temporal and spatial trends of persistent environmental contaminants. Nestling bald eagle plasma samples collected from 1997 to 2010 were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides. Trends of total PCBs,...

  12. Long-term reproductive outcomes in women whose first pregnancy is ectopic: a national controlled follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund Kårhus, Line; Egerup, Pia; Wessel Skovlund, Charlotte; Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2013-01-01

    How does long-term reproductive prognosis among women whose first pregnancy is ectopic differ from prognosis in women with other initial pregnancy outcomes? Women with a first recorded ectopic pregnancy (EP) have a significantly lower long-term delivery rate and a manifold increased risk of further EPs. Women with a first EP have an increased risk of further EPs. Few studies have assessed long-term reproductive outcomes after an EP, and none was controlled. The study was designed as a historical controlled cohort study. Data were collected from four Danish registries covering the period 1977-2009. Women with an EP as their first recorded pregnancy during the period 1977-1982 were age matched with women whose first recorded pregnancy was a miscarriage, an induced abortion, a delivery, or women with no recorded pregnancies, respectively. The cohorts were followed until the end of 2009 or on average through 30 years. When compared with women with a first miscarriage, women with a first EP had a relative risk of deliveries of 0.55 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-0.58], miscarriages of 0.46 (0.41-0.52) and induced abortions of 0.72 (0.65-0.80) and a 4.7 (3.8-5.8)-fold increased risk of further EPs. The relative delivery rate when compared with women with a first induced abortion was 0.89 (0.84-0.95) and with women with no pregnancy 0.69 (0.65-0.72). We had no information about the attempts to become pregnant in the different cohorts. New fertility techniques may have improved the prognosis among women with a first EP. These results indicate that fertility is compromised in women whose first pregnancy is ectopic. It is possible that better assisted reproductive techniques that have been developed in recent years could improve the long-term delivery rates for women with EP. All the expenses were covered by Gynaecological Clinic, Rigshospitalet. Ø.L. has within the last 3 years received honoraria for speeches in pharmacoepidemiological issues. L.L.K., P.E. and C

  13. GI+100: Long Term Preservation of Digital Geographic Information - 16 Fundamental Principles Agreed by National Mapping Agencies and State Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Carsten Rönsdorf

    2017-05-01

    There are many reasons why people wish to retain access to information, though the main drivers for archiving digital geographic information include meeting legislative requirements; the short and long term exploitation of archived data for analyzing social, environmental (e.g. global climate changes and economic changes over time; as well as efficiency savings in managing superseded datasets. This paper sets out the path and describes what needs to be done now to future-proof the investment government agencies around the world have made in creating digital geographic data.

  14. Long-term dietary exposure to lead in young European children: Comparing a pan-European approach with a national exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, P.E.; Te Biesebeek, J.D.; van Klaveren, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    the national exposure calculations. For both assessments cereals contributed most to the exposure. The lower dietary exposure in the national study was due to the use of lower lead concentrations and a more optimal linkage of food consumption and concentration data. When a pan-European approach, using......Long-term dietary exposures to lead in young children were calculated by combining food consumption data of 11 European countries categorised using harmonised broad food categories with occurrence data on lead from different Member States (pan-European approach). The results of the assessment...... in children living in the Netherlands were compared with a long-term lead intake assessment in the same group using Dutch lead concentration data and linking the consumption and concentration data at the highest possible level of detail. Exposures obtained with the pan-European approach were higher than...

  15. 76 FR 63325 - National Indian Gaming Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...-63326] [FR Doc No: 2011-25932] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice of no action. SUMMARY: On November 18, 2010, the National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC) issued a Notice of Inquiry and Notice of Consultation advising the public...

  16. A long-term trend in precipitation of different spatial regions of Bangladesh and its teleconnections with El Niño/Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean Dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Md. Kawser; Alam, Mohammad Samsul; Yousuf, Abu Hena Muhammad; Islam, Md. Monirul

    2017-07-01

    A long-term (1948 to 2012) trend of precipitation (annual, pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon seasons) in Bangladesh was analyzed in different regions using both parametric and nonparametric approaches. Moreover, the possible teleconnections of precipitation (annual and monsoon) variability with El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episode and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) were investigated using both average and individual (both positive and negative) values of ENSO index and IOD. Our findings suggested that for annual precipitation, a significant increasing monotonic trend was found in whole Bangladesh (4.87 mm/year), its western region (5.82 mm/year) including Rangpur (9.41 mm/year) and Khulna (4.95 mm/year), and Sylhet (10.12 mm/year) and Barisal (6.94 mm/year) from eastern region. In pre-monsoon, only Rangpur (2.88 mm/year) showed significant increasing trend, while in monsoon, whole Bangladesh (3.04 mm/year), Sylhet (7.17 mm/year), and Barisal (6.94 mm/year) showed similar trend. In post-monsoon, there was no significant trend. Our results also revealed that the precipitation (annual or monsoon) of whole Bangladesh and almost all of the spatial regions did not show any significant correlation with ENSO events, whereas the average IOD values showed significant correlation only in monsoon precipitation of western region. The individual positive IODs showed significant correlation in whole Bangladesh, western region, and its two divisions (Rajshahi and Khulna). So, in the context of Bangladesh climate, IOD has the more teleconnection to precipitation than that of ENSO. Our findings indicate that the co-occurrence of ENSO and IOD events may suppress their influence on each other.

  17. Long-term outcomes from the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Roger D; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Griffin, Margaret L; Provost, Scott E; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; McDermott, Katherine A; Srisarajivakul, Emily N; Dodd, Dorian R; Dreifuss, Jessica A; McHugh, R Kathryn; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2015-05-01

    Despite the growing prevalence of prescription opioid dependence, longitudinal studies have not examined long-term treatment response. The current study examined outcomes over 42 months in the Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study (POATS). POATS was a multi-site clinical trial lasting up to 9 months, examining different durations of buprenorphine-naloxone plus standard medical management for prescription opioid dependence, with participants randomized to receive or not receive additional opioid drug counseling. A subset of participants (N=375 of 653) enrolled in a follow-up study. Telephone interviews were administered approximately 18, 30, and 42 months after main-trial enrollment. Comparison of baseline characteristics by follow-up participation suggested few differences. At Month 42, much improvement was seen: 31.7% were abstinent from opioids and not on agonist therapy; 29.4% were receiving opioid agonist therapy, but met no symptom criteria for current opioid dependence; 7.5% were using illicit opioids while on agonist therapy; and the remaining 31.4% were using opioids without agonist therapy. Participants reporting a lifetime history of heroin use at baseline were more likely to meet DSM-IV criteria for opioid dependence at Month 42 (OR=4.56, 95% CI=1.29-16.04, p<.05). Engagement in agonist therapy was associated with a greater likelihood of illicit-opioid abstinence. Eight percent (n=27/338) used heroin for the first time during follow-up; 10.1% reported first-time injection heroin use. Long-term outcomes for those dependent on prescription opioids demonstrated clear improvement from baseline. However, a subset exhibited a worsening course, by initiating heroin use and/or injection opioid use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2007-01-01

    The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

  19. Purchase of power by State Electricity Boards from biomass gasifier systems: formulating a long term national policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, B.C.

    1992-01-01

    Current policy for purchase of power from renewable sources of energy by State Electricity Boards in India is examined and certain changes in that policy are suggested. State Electricity Boards are reluctant to buy power from renewables as such a purchase is seen by the Boards as being of against their economic interests. But if socio-environmental and climatological costs of power of thermal plants are taken into consideration, it becomes imperative that a long term policy for power purchase from renewables by electricity boards will have to be followed. Such a policy is outlined. After giving formulae for unit cost of generation from thermal power plants, diesel generation (DG) sets and biomass gasification, it is recommended that basis for the purchase price for power generated through biomass gas should be the cost of generation through DG sets or cost of generation through biomass gasification whichever is lower. A clause for automatic price escalation should also be a part of such policy. Some measures to compensate electricity boards for purchase of power from renewables are suggested. They include levying of a special surcharge by boards on their electricity sales and funding by the Central Government. (M.G.B.)

  20. Undertaking high impact strategies: The role of national efficiency measures in long-term energy and emission reduction in steel making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Tengfang; Karali, Nihan; Sathaye, Jayant

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Evaluate long-term effects of national energy efficiency in steel making. • Use bottom-up optimization for projection in China, India and the U.S. • The effects include changes in steel production, energy use, emissions, and costs. • Three emission targets induce different structural changes and investments. • Projected energy and CO 2 intensity declines in each country from 2010 to 2050. - Abstract: In this paper, we applied bottom-up linear optimization modeling to analyze long-term national impacts of implementing energy efficiency measures on energy savings, CO 2 -emission reduction, production, and costs of steel making in China, India, and the U.S. We first established two base scenarios representing business-as-usual steel production for each country from 2010 to 2050; Base scenario (in which no efficiency measure is available) and Base-E scenario (in which efficiency measures are available), and model scenarios representing various emission-reduction targets that affects production, annual energy use and costs with the goal of cost minimization. A higher emission-reduction target generally induces larger structural changes and increased investments in nation-wide efficiency measures, in addition to autonomous improvement expected in the Base scenario. Given the same emission-reduction target compared to the base scenario, intensity of annual energy use and emissions exhibits declining trends in each country from year 2010 to 2050. While a higher emission-reduction target result in more energy reduction from the base scenario, such reduction can become more expensive to achieve. The results advance our understanding of long-term effects of national energy efficiency applications under different sets of emission-reduction targets for steel sectors in the three major economies, and provide useful implications for high impact strategies to manage production structures, production costs, energy use, and emission reduction in steel making

  1. Indian Reserves: Canada's Developing Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Musto, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    Indian reserves are the most visible reminder of the separation of aboriginal people from the rest of Canada and other Canadians. Illness patterns and social conditions in Native communities closely parallel those in developing nations. While they continue to have a large burden of infectious diseases, these groups also have an increased incidence of chronic and lifestyle diseases as well as environment-related conditions. Similarities can be seen in urban areas between immigrants from abroad...

  2. Indian Academy of Sciences Indian National Science Academy The ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DO. NOT FILL OR PHOTOCOPY THIS FORM. USE THIS FORMAT TO PREPARE THE APPLICATION ON A. SEPARATE SHEET. Indian Academy of Sciences. Indian National Science Academy. The National Academy of Sciences, India. Summer Research Fellowships 2010. Format of application. Category of the Applicant:.

  3. Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore Indian National Science ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    2012-09-28

    Sep 28, 2012 ... FORMAT FOR LETTER OF RECOMMENDATION (to be typed on a separate sheet). Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore. Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi. The National Academy of Sciences, India, Allahabad. Summer Research Fellowships 2013. TO BE USED ONLY FOR STUDENT ...

  4. Indian Academy of Sciences Indian National Science Academy The ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    FORMAT FOR LETTER OF RECOMMENDATION (to be typed on a separate sheet). 1032. Indian Academy of Sciences. Indian National Science Academy. The National Academy of Sciences, India. Summer Research Fellowships 2010. TO BE USED ONLY FOR STUDENT APPLICANTS*. Name of applicant ...

  5. Does long-term care use within primary health care reduce hospital use among older people in Norway? A national five-year population-based observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deraas Trygve S

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population ageing may threaten the sustainability of future health care systems. Strengthening primary health care, including long-term care, is one of several measures being taken to handle future health care needs and budgets. There is limited and inconsistent evidence on the effect of long-term care on hospital use. We explored the relationship between the total use of long-term care within public primary health care in Norway and the use of hospital beds when adjusting for various effect modifiers and confounders. Methods This national population-based observational study consists of all Norwegians (59% women older than 66 years (N = 605676 (13.2% of total population in 2002-2006. The unit of analysis was defined by municipality, age and sex. The association between total number of recipients of long-term care per 1000 inhabitants (LTC-rate and hospital days per 1000 inhabitants (HD-rate was analysed in a linear regression model. Modifying and confounding effects of socioeconomic, demographic and geographic variables were included in the final model. We defined a difference in hospitalization rates of more than 1000 days per 1000 inhabitants as clinically important. Results Thirty-one percent of women and eighteen percent of men were long-term care users. Men had higher HD-rates than women. The crude association between LTC-rate and HD-rate was weakly negative. We identified two effect modifiers (age and sex and two strong confounders (travel time to hospital and mortality. Age and sex stratification and adjustments for confounders revealed a positive statistically significant but not clinically important relationship between LTC-rates and hospitalization for women aged 67-79 years and all men. For women 80 years and over there was a weak but negative relationship which was neither statistically significant nor clinically important. Conclusions We found a weak positive adjusted association between LTC-rates and HD

  6. LBA-ECO TG-07 Long-Term Soil Gas Flux and Root Mortality, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports measurements of trace gas fluxes of methane (CH4), nitric oxide (N2O), nitrous oxide (NO), carbon dioxide (CO2) from soils at a study site in...

  7. LBA-ECO TG-07 Long-Term Soil Gas Flux and Root Mortality, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports measurements of trace gas fluxes of methane (CH4), nitric oxide (N2O), nitrous oxide (NO), carbon dioxide (CO2) from soils at a study...

  8. A study on making a long-term improvement in the national energy efficiency and GHG control plans by the AHP approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seong Kon; Yoon, Yong Jin; Kim, Jong Wook

    2007-01-01

    Owing to the expiration of the national 10-year period plan and the establishment of an efficient energy and resource technology R and D system, the Korean government needs to make a strategic long-term national energy and resource technology R and D plan (NERP) to cope with forthcoming 10-year period. A new NERP aims to improve the energy intensity, reduce the emissions of greenhouse gas within the United Nations framework convention on climate change (UNFCCC), and contribute to the construction of an advanced economic system. We determine the priorities in technology development for the energy efficiency and greenhouse gas control plans (EGCP), which are parts of a new NERP, by using the AHP approach for the first time. We suggest a scientific procedure to determine the priorities in technology development by using AHP

  9. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Comité des collectes à long terme

    2011-01-01

    It is the time of the year when our fireman colleagues go around the laboratory for their traditional calendars sale. A part of the money of the sales will be donated in favour of the long-term collections. We hope that you will welcome them warmly.

  10. Long-term follow-up among Danish transfusion recipients identified in the national hepatitis C lookback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Søren Andreas; Grau, Katrine; Georgsen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    cohort alive in 1996. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study of 230 patients exposed to HCV by blood transfusion and alive in 1996 we extracted data from national registers and compared these with a matched group of unexposed transfusion recipients. RESULTS: Among 230 HCV......BACKGROUND: In 1996, a national lookback study was performed in Denmark identifying 1018 patients exposed to hepatitis C virus (HCV) by transfusion before 1991. The objective of this study was to describe morbidity and mortality during extended follow-up among patients in the Danish HCV lookback......-exposed recipients alive in 1996, 124 (53.9%) had chronic hepatitis C, 43 (18.7%) were not infected, and 63 (27.4%) had incomplete HCV data. In 2009, 121 (52.6%) were still alive a median of 21.8 years after transfusion. The mortality rate among the HCV-exposed recipients followed from 1996 was 4.9 per 100 person...

  11. New ideas for teaching natural resource management: From the long-term realities of national forest management

    OpenAIRE

    Fedkiw, John

    1998-01-01

    Research and study of 90 years of managing multiple uses on national forests has revealed three new ideas or understandings about the nature of forest management (Fedkiw 1997a). The first idea is a new definition that describes the task of forest management and the role of forest managers. The second emphasizes the critical, continuous role of the learning experience that accompanies resource management and its relationship to both the adaptive and holistic ecological approaches to resource m...

  12. National-scale exposure prediction for long-term concentrations of particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Young; Song, Insang

    2017-07-01

    The limited spatial coverage of the air pollution data available from regulatory air quality monitoring networks hampers national-scale epidemiological studies of air pollution. The present study aimed to develop a national-scale exposure prediction model for estimating annual average concentrations of PM 10 and NO 2 at residences in South Korea using regulatory monitoring data for 2010. Using hourly measurements of PM 10 and NO 2 at 277 regulatory monitoring sites, we calculated the annual average concentrations at each site. We also computed 322 geographic variables in order to represent plausible local and regional pollution sources. Using these data, we developed universal kriging models, including three summary predictors estimated by partial least squares (PLS). The model performance was evaluated with fivefold cross-validation. In sensitivity analyses, we compared our approach with two alternative approaches, which added regional interactions and replaced the PLS predictors with up to ten selected variables. Finally, we predicted the annual average concentrations of PM 10 and NO 2 at 83,463 centroids of residential census output areas in South Korea to investigate the population exposure to these pollutants and to compare the exposure levels between monitored and unmonitored areas. The means of the annual average concentrations of PM 10 and NO 2 for 2010, across regulatory monitoring sites in South Korea, were 51.63 μg/m3 (SD = 8.58) and 25.64 ppb (11.05), respectively. The universal kriging exposure prediction models yielded cross-validated R 2 s of 0.45 and 0.82 for PM 10 and NO 2 , respectively. Compared to our model, the two alternative approaches gave consistent or worse performances. Population exposure levels in unmonitored areas were lower than in monitored areas. This is the first study that focused on developing a national-scale point wise exposure prediction approach in South Korea, which will allow national exposure assessments and

  13. Short-Term and Long-Term Technology Needs/Matching Status at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. L. Claggett

    1999-12-01

    This report identifies potential technology deployment opportunities for the Environmental Management (EM) programs at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The focus is on identifying candidates for Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) proposals within the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management areas. The 86 technology needs on the Site Technology Coordination Group list were verified in the field. Six additional needs were found, and one listed need was no longer required. Potential technology matches were identified and then investigated for applicability, maturity, cost, and performance. Where promising, information on the technologies was provided to INEEL managers for evaluation. Eleven potential ASTD projected were identified, seven for near-term application and four for application within the next five years.

  14. Short-Term and Long-Term Technology Needs/Matching Status at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claggett, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    This report identifies potential technology deployment opportunities for the Environmental Management (EM) programs at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The focus is on identifying candidates for Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) proposals within the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management areas. The 86 technology needs on the Site Technology Coordination Group list were verified in the field. Six additional needs were found, and one listed need was no longer required. Potential technology matches were identified and then investigated for applicability, maturity, cost, and performance. Where promising, information on the technologies was provided to INEEL managers for evaluation. Eleven potential ASTD projected were identified, seven for near-term application and four for application within the next five years

  15. The Importance of the United Nations Guidelines for the Long-Term Sustainability of Space Activities and Other International Initiatives to Promote Space Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Delgado López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The long-term sustainability of space activities is an emerging issue to which actors in the global space community –including governments, agencies, and industry– are devoting increasing amounts of attention and resources. Considering the sustainability of space activities involves taking into account the present population of space debris, the size of the debris population in the most commonly-used Earth orbits in the future, and the possibility of collision events between objects in space. Addressing space debris and other threats to space sustainability involves both technological and political solutions. The United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (copuos has led a major effort to define such solutions and has established a working group tasked with the development of non-binding long-term sustainability (lts guidelines. This article includes an overview of the concept of space sustainability, a discussion of the need, development, and current status of the lts guidelines, as well as an analysis of some of the guidelines themselves. It concludes with a broader discussion of space as an area without state sovereignty – one of the key aspects that have influenced the development of non-binding measures to address the space sustainability challenge. In this context, and given the governance questions that arise from the interaction between states and non-state actors in this domain, this discussion should be of interest to international relations scholars and practitioners.

  16. Long-term Survival with Ipilimumab: Experience from a National Expanded Access Program for Patients with Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajsová, Ivana; Arenberger, Petr; Lakomý, Radek; Kubala, Eugen; Březinová, Ivana; Poprach, Alexandr; Šťastný, Marek; Mužík, Jan; Melichar, Bohuslav

    2015-11-01

    Evaluation of efficacy and safety of ipilimumab in patients with advanced, refractory melanoma enrolled into a national ipilimumab Expanded Access Program. Adult patients with advanced/metastatic refractory melanoma were eligible for study inclusion. Ipilimumab was administered up to a total of four doses. One hundred and ninety-six patients were analyzed. Full ipilimumab induction was administered to 66.8% of patients. Median overall survival (OS) in the entire cohort was 7.5 months. Median OS for patients after four doses of ipilimumab was significantly longer than for patients with fewer doses (12.3 months vs. 2.0 months respectively; p<0.001). Median OS for patients with objective tumor response was 42.3 months. Normal baseline serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and the number of affected organs correlated with improved OS. The number of affected organs and combination of baseline LDH and CRP levels could potentially serve as predictors for both treatment response and OS. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term temporal and spatial dynamics of food availability for endangered mountain gorillas in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueter, Cyril C; Ndamiyabo, Ferdinand; Plumptre, Andrew J; Abavandimwe, Didier; Mundry, Roger; Fawcett, Katie A; Robbins, Martha M

    2013-03-01

    Monitoring temporal and spatial changes in the resource availability of endangered species contributes to their conservation. The number of critically endangered mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Virunga Volcano population has doubled over the past three decades, but no studies have examined how food availability has changed during that period. First, we assessed if the plant species consumed by the gorillas have changed in abundance and distribution during the past two decades. In 2009-2010, we replicated a study conducted in 1988-1989 by measuring the frequency, density, and biomass of plant species consumed by the gorillas in 496 plots (ca. 6 km(2)) in the Karisoke study area in Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda. We expected to observe a decreased presence of major gorilla food plants as a likely result of density-dependent overharvesting by gorillas. Among the five most frequently consumed species (composing approximately 70% of the gorilla's diet, excluding bamboo), two have decreased in availability and abundance, while three have increased. Some species have undergone shifts in their altitudinal distribution, possibly due to regional climatic changes. Second, we made baseline measurements of food availability in a larger area currently utilized by the gorillas. In the extended sampling (n = 473 plots) area (ca. 25 km(2) ), of the five most frequently consumed species, two were not significantly different in frequency from the re-sampled area, while two occurred significantly less frequently, and one occurred significantly more frequently. We discuss the potential impact of gorilla-induced herbivory on changes of vegetation abundance. The changes in the species most commonly consumed by the gorillas could affect their nutrient intake and stresses the importance of monitoring the interrelation among plant population dynamics, species density, and resource use. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A National Long-term Outcomes Evaluation of U.S. Premedical Postbaccalaureate Programs Designed to Promote Health care Access and Workforce Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougle, Leon; Way, David P; Lee, Winona K; Morfin, Jose A; Mavis, Brian E; Matthews, De'Andrea; Latham-Sadler, Brenda A; Clinchot, Daniel M

    2015-08-01

    The National Postbaccalaureate Collaborative (NPBC) is a partnership of Postbaccalaureate Programs (PBPs) dedicated to helping promising college graduates from disadvantaged and underrepresented backgrounds get into and succeed in medical school. This study aims to determine long-term program outcomes by looking at PBP graduates, who are now practicing physicians, in terms of health care service to the poor and underserved and contribution to health care workforce diversity. We surveyed the PBP graduates and a randomly drawn sample of non-PBP graduates from the affiliated 10 medical schools stratified by the year of medical school graduation (1996-2002). The PBP graduates were more likely to be providing care in federally designated underserved areas and practicing in institutional settings that enable access to care for vulnerable populations. The NPBC graduates serve a critical role in providing access to care for underserved populations and serve as a source for health care workforce diversity.

  19. Quinault Indian Nation Comprehensive Biomass Strategic Planning Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Jesus [American Community Enrichment, Elma, WA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The overall purposes of the Quinault Indian Nation’s Comprehensive Biomass Strategic Planning Project were to: (1) Identify and confirm community and tribal energy needs; (2) Conducting an inventory of sustainable biomass feedstock availability; (3) Development of a biomass energy vision statement with goals and objectives; (4) Identification and assessment of biomass options for both demand-side and supply side that are viable to the Quinault Indian Nation (QIN); and (5) Developing a long-term biomass strategy consistent with the long-term overall energy goals of the QIN. This Comprehensive Biomass Strategic Planning Project is consistent with the QIN’s prior two-year DOE Renewable Energy Study from 2004 through 2006. That study revealed that the most viable options to the QIN’s renewable energy options were biomass and energy efficiency best practices. QIN's Biomass Strategic Planning Project is focused on using forest slash in chipped form as feedstock for fuel pellet manufacturing in support of a tribal biomass heating facility. This biomass heating facility has been engineered and designed to heat existing tribal facilities as well as tribal facilities currently being planned including a new K-12 School.

  20. Long-Term Care: Need for a National Policy. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and Long-Term Care of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session (December 15, 1983, San Francisco, California).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    This document contains transcripts of witness testimony and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to review the need for a national health care policy for long-term care. Opening statements are presented from committee chairman Claude Pepper and from Representatives Sala Burton and Barbara Boxer. Testmonies are presented from…

  1. Long-Term Collection

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, As previously announced in Echo (No. 254), your delegates took action to draw attention to the projects of the Long-Term Collections (LTC), the humanitarian body of the CERN Staff Association. On Tuesday, 11 October, at noon, small Z-Cards were widely distributed at the entrances of CERN restaurants and we thank you all for your interest. We hope to have achieved an important part of our goal, which was to inform you, convince you and find new supporters among you. We will find out in the next few days! An exhibition of the LTC was also set up in the Main Building for the entire week. The Staff Association wants to celebrate the occasion of the Long-Term Collection’s 45th anniversary at CERN because, ever since 1971, CERN personnel have showed great support in helping the least fortunate people on the planet in a variety of ways according to their needs. On a regular basis, joint fundraising appeals are made with the Directorate to help the victims of natural disasters around th...

  2. Collectes à long terme

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2014-01-01

    En cette fin d’année 2014 qui approche à grands pas, le Comité des Collectes à Long Terme remercie chaleureusement ses fidèles donatrices et donateurs réguliers pour leurs contributions à nos actions en faveur des plus démunis de notre planète. C’est très important, pour notre Comité, de pouvoir compter sur l’appui assidu que vous nous apportez. Depuis plus de 40 ans maintenant, le modèle des CLT est basé principalement sur des actions à long terme (soit une aide pendant 4-5 ans par projet, mais plus parfois selon les circonstances), et sa planification demande une grande régularité de ses soutiens financiers. Grand MERCI à vous ! D’autres dons nous parviennent au cours de l’année, et ils sont aussi les bienvenus. En particulier, nous tenons à remercier...

  3. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    45 years helping in developing countries! CERN personnel have been helping the least fortunate people on the planet since 1971. How? With the Long-Term Collections! Dear Colleagues, The Staff Association’s Long-Term Collections (LTC) Committee is delighted to share this important milestone in the life of our Laboratory with you. Indeed, whilst the name of CERN is known worldwide for scientific discoveries, it also shines in the many humanitarian projects which have been supported by the LTC since 1971. Several schools and clinics, far and wide, carry its logo... Over the past 45 years, 74 projects have been supported (9 of which are still ongoing). This all came from a group of colleagues who wanted to share a little of what life offered them here at CERN, in this haven of mutual understanding, peace and security, with those who were less fortunate elsewhere. Thus, the LTC were born... Since then, we have worked as a team to maintain the dream of these visionaries, with the help of regular donat...

  4. Demographics and Clinical Features of Postresuscitation Comorbidities in Long-Term Survivors of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A National Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Pei Su

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of patients suffering from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA is very poor, and postresuscitation comorbidities increase long-term mortality. This study aims to analyze new-onset postresuscitation comorbidities in patients who survived from OHCA for over one year. The Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI Database was used in this study. Study and comparison groups were created to analyze the risk of suffering from new-onset postresuscitation comorbidities from 2011 to 2012 (until December 31, 2013. The study group included 1,346 long-term OHCA survivors; the comparison group consisted of 4,038 matched non-OHCA patients. Demographics, patient characteristics, and risk of suffering comorbidities (using Cox proportional hazards models were analyzed. We found that urinary tract infections (n=225, 16.72%, pneumonia (n=206, 15.30%, septicemia (n=184, 13.67%, heart failure (n=111, 8.25% gastrointestinal hemorrhage (n=108, 8.02%, epilepsy or recurrent seizures (n=98, 7.28%, and chronic kidney disease (n=62, 4.61% were the most common comorbidities. Furthermore, OHCA survivors were at much higher risk (than comparison patients of experiencing epilepsy or recurrent seizures (HR = 20.83; 95% CI: 12.24–35.43, septicemia (HR = 8.98; 95% CI: 6.84–11.79, pneumonia (HR = 5.82; 95% CI: 4.66–7.26, and heart failure (HR = 4.88; 95% CI: 3.65–6.53. Most importantly, most comorbidities occurred within the first half year after OHCA.

  5. Long-term ecological changes in the north Adriatic Sea: Epi-to Infauna turnover at the Brijuni islands national park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifeas, Iason; Gallmetzer, Ivo; Haselmair, Alexandra; Stachowitsch, Michael; Zuschin, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea with its densely populated coastline experienced strong anthropogenic impacts during the last centuries. The Brijuni islands at the southern tip of Istria, Croatia, are a national park since 1983 and represent a study area of special interest when comparing impacted marine areas with regions under relatively long-term protection that were able to recover from the pressure of fishing and bottom trawling. The present study is part of a project on the historical ecology of the northern Adriatic sea and focusses on long-term ecological changes and benthic community shifts as a result of anthropogenic impacts since the Holocene transgression. Several cores of 1.5 m length and a diameter of 90 mm were taken close to the main island of Brijuni and sliced into smaller subunits for sediment analyses and the investigation of death assemblages. Hard part remains of molluscs, crustaceans, bryozoans, echinoderms and sedentary polychaetes were analysed for species composition, abundance and indicators for high biomass epifauna. Death assemblages were compared with surface samples of the recent fauna taken at the same area by grab-sampling and by divers using a 100 x 100 cm frame. Data analyses revealed a steep increase of species abundance and diversity in the early stages of the Holocene transgression, at the very bottom of the core, followed by a steady decline, representing a major shift from a previously epibenthic to an infauna dominated community. Towards the top of the core, this trend weakens, and in the uppermost 6 cm it even reverses indicating a possible recovery of the benthic communities since the protection of the area. By correlating down-core changes in benthic community structure with sediment parameters (grain size distribution, TOC, heavy metal content, concentrations of organic pollutants) and data from radiometric sediment dating, we can further improve our understanding of the timing and the magnitude of past ecological changes and

  6. Introduction: Long term prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranger, G.

    2003-01-01

    Making a decision upon the right choice of a material appropriate to a given application should be based on taking into account several parameters as follows: cost, standards, regulations, safety, recycling, chemical properties, supplying, transformation, forming, assembly, mechanical and physical properties as well as the behaviour in practical conditions. Data taken from a private communication (J.H.Davidson) are reproduced presenting the life time range of materials from a couple of minutes to half a million hours corresponding to applications from missile technology up to high-temperature nuclear reactors or steam turbines. In the case of deep storage of nuclear waste the time required is completely different from these values since we have to ensure the integrity of the storage system for several thousand years. The vitrified nuclear wastes should be stored in metallic canisters made of iron and carbon steels, stainless steels, copper and copper alloys, nickel alloys or titanium alloys. Some of these materials are passivating metals, i.e. they develop a thin protective film, 2 or 3 nm thick - the so-called passive films. These films prevent general corrosion of the metal in a large range of chemical condition of the environment. In some specific condition, localized corrosion such as the phenomenon of pitting, occurs. Consequently, it is absolutely necessary to determine these chemical condition and their stability in time to understand the behavior of a given material. In other words the corrosion system is constituted by the complex material/surface/medium. For high level nuclear wastes the main features for resolving problem are concerned with: geological disposal; deep storage in clay; waste metallic canister; backfill mixture (clay-gypsum) or concrete; long term behavior; data needed for modelling and for predicting; choice of appropriate solution among several metallic candidates. The analysis of the complex material/surface/medium is of great importance

  7. Long-Term Symbolic Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, William G; Trafton, J. G

    2007-01-01

    What are the characteristics of long-term learning? We investigated the characteristics of long-term, symbolic learning using the Soar and ACT-R cognitive architectures running cognitive models of two simple tasks...

  8. LONG TERM COLLECTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Long-Term Collections (CLT) committee would like to warmly thank its faithful donors who, year after year, support our actions all over the world. Without you, all this would not be possible. We would like to thank, in particular, the CERN Firemen’s Association who donated 5000 CHF in the spring thanks to the sale of their traditional calendar, and the generosity of the CERN community. A huge thank you to the firemen for their devotion to our cause. And thank you to all those who have opened their door, their heart, and their purses! Similarly, we warmly thank the CERN Yoga Club once again for its wonderful donation of 2000 CHF we recently received. We would also like to tell you that all our projects are running well. Just to remind you, we are currently supporting the activities of the «Réflexe-Partage» Association in Mali; the training centre of «Education et Développement» in Abomey, Benin; and the orphanage and ...

  9. Using nestling plasma to assess long-term spatial and temporal concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bald eagles within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, H Tyler; Bowerman, William W; Grim, Leland H; Grubb, Teryl G; Bridges, William C; Wierda, Michael R

    2015-03-01

    The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) population at Voyageurs National Park (VNP) provides an opportunity to assess long-term temporal and spatial trends of persistent environmental contaminants. Nestling bald eagle plasma samples collected from 1997 to 2010 were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides. Trends of total PCBs, total DDTs, 4,4'-DDE, and Dieldrin were analyzed since >50% of nestling plasma samples had detectable concentrations. Total PCBs, total DDTs, and 4,4'-DDE concentrations have all decreased over time (26.09%, 24.09%, and 40.92% respectively). Concentrations of Dieldrin have increased by 50.25%. In this study, 61.1% of all nestlings sampled had detectable concentrations of Dieldrin from all time periods and all areas of VNP. Since Dieldrin is a banned pesticide in North America, the source of this increase is unknown. However, increases and fluctuations in Dieldrin concentration suggest contaminant levels in VNP may be linked to a new source or environmental process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Long term effects of fire frequency and season on the woody vegetation dynamics of the Sclerocarya birrea/Acacia nigrescens savanna of the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.W. Enslin

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A lack of knowledge together with vacillating fire management approaches in the Kruger National Park until the mid 1950s, gave rise to a long term fire research experiment aimed at shedding light on savanna responses to various combinations of fire fre- quencies and seasons. This trial was laid out in 1954 in four of the six major vegetation zones of the park. With the future of the experiment now being reconsidered, full scale vegetation surveys have been conducted on all the plots and compared to the surveys done in 1954. This paper examines the woody vegetation responses to fourteen fire treatments in the Knobthorn/Marula savanna. Parameters of interest were woody species composition responses, together with tree & shrub density and structural changes. The results indicate that no significant changes in woody species had occurred for the peri- od 1954 vs 1998, while density decreased on biennial and increased on triennial treatments. The proportion of single stemmed plants increased over the period. Season of burn has a marked effect on structure, with April and August burns giving rise to the largest basal areas but the lowest heights. Environmental parameters such as climate, varying herbivory and differing soils, and their respective interactions on vegetation morphology, together with fire behaviour, further influenced results.

  11. The National Wind Erosion Research Network: Building a standardized long-term data resource for aeolian research, modeling and land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas P.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Van Zee, Justin W; Courtright, Ericha M; Hugenholtz, Ted M; Zobeck, Ted M; Okin, Gregory S.; Barchyn, Thomas E; Billings, Benjamin J; Boyd, Robert A.; Clingan, Scott D; Cooper, Brad F; Duniway, Michael C.; Derner, Justin D.; Fox, Fred A; Havstad, Kris M.; Heilman, Philip; LaPlante, Valerie; Ludwig, Noel A; Metz, Loretta J; Nearing, Mark A; Norfleet, M Lee; Pierson, Frederick B; Sanderson, Matt A; Sharrat, Brenton S; Steiner, Jean L; Tatarko, John; Tedela, Negussie H; Todelo, David; Unnasch, Robert S; Van Pelt, R Scott; Wagner, Larry

    2016-01-01

    The National Wind Erosion Research Network was established in 2014 as a collaborative effort led by the United States Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service and Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the United States Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Land Management, to address the need for a long-term research program to meet critical challenges in wind erosion research and management in the United States. The Network has three aims: (1) provide data to support understanding of basic aeolian processes across land use types, land cover types, and management practices, (2) support development and application of models to assess wind erosion and dust emission and their impacts on human and environmental systems, and (3) encourage collaboration among the aeolian research community and resource managers for the transfer of wind erosion technologies. The Network currently consists of thirteen intensively instrumented sites providing measurements of aeolian sediment transport rates, meteorological conditions, and soil and vegetation properties that influence wind erosion. Network sites are located across rangelands, croplands, and deserts of the western US. In support of Network activities, http://winderosionnetwork.org was developed as a portal for information about the Network, providing site descriptions, measurement protocols, and data visualization tools to facilitate collaboration with scientists and managers interested in the Network and accessing Network products. The Network provides a mechanism for engaging national and international partners in a wind erosion research program that addresses the need for improved understanding and prediction of aeolian processes across complex and diverse land use types and management practices.

  12. Impact of organic and mineral inputs onto soil biological and metabolic activities under a long-term rice-wheat cropping system in sub-tropical Indian Inceptisols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Nirmalendu; Datta, Ashim; Mitran, Tarik; Mandal, Biswapati; Mani, P K

    2016-01-01

    Long-term use of organic and mineral inputs has an overriding impact on soil biological and metabolic activities and crop management. Farm yard manure (FYM), paddy straw (PS) and green manure (GM, Sesbania sesban L.) were used for 24- years old rice (Oyza sativa L.) -wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping system in sub-tropical India to predict whether the screened soil biological and metabolic activities are correlated with system yield. The integrated approaches viz., NPK + FYM, NPK + PS and NPK + GM significantly increased both rice and wheat yield together by 67.5, 44.4 and 55.4%, respectively over control. However, for a few exceptions both soil microbial activity and metabolic activity were remarkably enhanced under integrated treatment NPK + FYM followed by NPK + PS, and NPK + GM, respectively. Among the studied attributes fluorescein diacetate hydrolyzing, dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase activity (β-glu) and microbial biomass C (C(mic)) were screened through principal component (PCA) and discriminate analysis (DA) that explained nearly 89% of total variations of the entire data set. Among the four identified attributes, only β-glu assay value could predict system yield (R2 = 0.65). Further, estimation of β-glu activity in soil can predict other soil biological properties (R2 = 0.96).

  13. Long term wet spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The meeting showed that there is continuing confidence in the use of wet storage for spent nuclear fuel and that long-term wet storage of fuel clad in zirconium alloys can be readily achieved. The importance of maintaining good water chemistry has been identified. The long-term wet storage behaviour of sensitized stainless steel clad fuel involves, as yet, some uncertainties. However, great reliance will be placed on long-term wet storage of spent fuel into the future. The following topics were treated to some extent: Oxidation of the external surface of fuel clad, rod consolidation, radiation protection, optimum methods of treating spent fuel storage water, physical radiation effects, and the behaviour of spent fuel assemblies of long-term wet storage conditions. A number of papers on national experience are included

  14. Geologic processes in the RWMC area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Implications for long term stability and soil erosion at the radioactive waste management complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, W.R.; Tullis, J.A.; Smith, R.P. [and others

    1995-09-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is the disposal and storage facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Transuranic waste and mixed wastes were also disposed at the RWMC until 1970. It is located in the southwestern part of the INEL about 80 km west of Idaho Falls, Idaho. The INEL occupies a portion of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), a low-relief, basalt, and sediment-floored basin within the northern Rocky Mountains and northeastern Basin and Range Province. It is a cool and semiarid, sagebrush steppe desert characterized by irregular, rolling terrain. The RWMC began disposal of INEL-generated wastes in 1952, and since 1954, wastes have been accepted from other Federal facilities. Much of the waste is buried in shallow trenches, pits, and soil vaults. Until about 1970, trenches and pits were excavated to the basalt surface, leaving no sediments between the waste and the top of the basalt. Since 1970, a layer of sediment (about 1 m) has been left between the waste and the basalt. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has developed regulations specific to radioactive-waste disposal, including environmental standards and performance objectives. The regulation applicable to all DOE facilities is DOE Order 5820.2A (Radioactive Waste Management). An important consideration for the performance assessment of the RWMC is the long-term geomorphic stability of the site. Several investigators have identified geologic processes and events that could disrupt a radioactive waste disposal facility. Examples of these {open_quotes}geomorphic hazards{close_quotes} include changes in stream discharge, sediment load, and base level, which may result from climate change, tectonic processes, or magmatic processes. In the performance assessment, these hazards are incorporated into scenarios that may affect the future performance of the RWMC.

  15. Geologic processes in the RWMC area, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Implications for long term stability and soil erosion at the radioactive waste management complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, W.R.; Tullis, J.A.; Smith, R.P.

    1995-09-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) is the disposal and storage facility for low-level radioactive waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Transuranic waste and mixed wastes were also disposed at the RWMC until 1970. It is located in the southwestern part of the INEL about 80 km west of Idaho Falls, Idaho. The INEL occupies a portion of the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), a low-relief, basalt, and sediment-floored basin within the northern Rocky Mountains and northeastern Basin and Range Province. It is a cool and semiarid, sagebrush steppe desert characterized by irregular, rolling terrain. The RWMC began disposal of INEL-generated wastes in 1952, and since 1954, wastes have been accepted from other Federal facilities. Much of the waste is buried in shallow trenches, pits, and soil vaults. Until about 1970, trenches and pits were excavated to the basalt surface, leaving no sediments between the waste and the top of the basalt. Since 1970, a layer of sediment (about 1 m) has been left between the waste and the basalt. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has developed regulations specific to radioactive-waste disposal, including environmental standards and performance objectives. The regulation applicable to all DOE facilities is DOE Order 5820.2A (Radioactive Waste Management). An important consideration for the performance assessment of the RWMC is the long-term geomorphic stability of the site. Several investigators have identified geologic processes and events that could disrupt a radioactive waste disposal facility. Examples of these open-quotes geomorphic hazardsclose quotes include changes in stream discharge, sediment load, and base level, which may result from climate change, tectonic processes, or magmatic processes. In the performance assessment, these hazards are incorporated into scenarios that may affect the future performance of the RWMC

  16. Field-based evaluation of two herbaceous plant community composition sampling methods for long-term monitoring in Northern Great Plains National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symstad, Amy J.; Wienk, Cody L.; Thorstenson, Andy

    2006-01-01

    The Northern Great Plains Inventory & Monitoring (I&M) Network (Network) of the National Park Service (NPS) consists of 13 NPS units in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, and eastern Wyoming. The Network is in the planning phase of a long-term program to monitor the health of park ecosystems. Plant community composition is one of the 'Vital Signs,' or indicators, that will be monitored as part of this program for three main reasons. First, plant community composition is information-rich; a single sampling protocol can provide information on the diversity of native and non-native species, the abundance of individual dominant species, and the abundance of groups of plants. Second, plant community composition is of specific management concern. The abundance and diversity of exotic plants, both absolute and relative to native species, is one of the greatest management concerns in almost all Network parks (Symstad 2004). Finally, plant community composition reflects the effects of a variety of current or anticipated stressors on ecosystem health in the Network parks including invasive exotic plants, large ungulate grazing, lack of fire in a fire-adapted system, chemical exotic plant control, nitrogen deposition, increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, and climate change. Before the Network begins its Vital Signs monitoring, a detailed plan describing specific protocols used for each of the Vital Signs must go through rigorous development and review. The pilot study on which we report here is one of the components of this protocol development. The goal of the work we report on here was to determine a specific method to use for monitoring plant community composition of the herb layer (< 2 m tall).

  17. Spatial Heterogeneity in Tropospheric Column Ozone over the Indian Subcontinent: Long-Term Climatology and Possible Association with Natural and Anthropogenic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatry Kalita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Monthly averaged tropospheric ozone residual (TOR data from TOMS and OMI during the period 1979–2009 are used to study the spatial distribution of tropospheric column ozone within the landmass of the Indian subcontinent, the Tibetan plateau in the north and the Bay of Bengal in the south. The climatological mean shows seasonal maxima in spring and minima in winter in all the regions. The oceanic regions exhibit broad summer maximum and the maximum to minimum ratio is the lowest for these regions. The concentration of tropospheric column ozone is found to be highest in North Eastern India (NE and the Indo Gangetic plains (IGP. NE ozone concentration exceeds that of IGP during spring whereas in post monsoon and winter reverse is the case. In the monsoon season, O3 levels in the two regions are equal. The spring time highest level of tropospheric column ozone over NE region is found to be associated with highest incidence of lightning and biomass burning activity. The Stratosphere-Troposphere exchange is also found to contribute to the enhanced level of ozone in spring in NE India. A net decrease in tropospheric ozone concentration over NE during the period 1979 to 2009 has been observed.

  18. A national strategy for a long-term monitoring of permafrost and periglacial processes and their relationship to natural hazard prevention in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Andreas; Bartsch, Annett; Gitschthaler, Christoph; Reisenhofer, Stefan; Weyss, Gernot; Riedl, Claudia; Avian, Michael

    2016-04-01

    About 2.5% (~2000 km²) of the national territory of Austria is influenced by permafrost conditions. A slightly smaller area of Austria is additionally affected by deep seasonal frost which is, however, similarly exposed to intensive physical weathering and related geomorphic processes. Currently, 23 skiing resorts, 31 water reservoirs and 42 mountain huts are either directly or indirectly influenced by permafrost and associated processes in Austria as determined from regional permafrost models. Ground thermal changes most likely affect the ground stability and infrastructure in those areas. Therefore, changes in the distribution and characteristics of permafrost and seasonal frost are of high economic and ecological importance. A range of Austrian institutions are interested in systematic permafrost monitoring (several universities, geological surveys, the Austrian torrent and avalanche control agency or several different alpine clubs). However, to date no coordinated monitoring network has been established on a national scale and a strategy for long-term permafrost/periglacial observation did not exist so far. Such a national strategy has been developed in 2015 within the permAT project funded through the StartClim2014-program. During permAT an extensive literature review and data search as well as a workshop with 40 participants (scientists, stakeholder and policy maker) were accomplished. The workshop allowed the integration of national as well as international colleagues into the strategy development. Results of permAT clearly demonstrate that the number of present permafrost/periglacial monitoring sites is far too little in Austria. Only few alpine areas of Austria are well represented by the existing monitoring activities but large areas lack such instrumentations. Furthermore, permafrost boreholes exist at only three sites in central Austria (all contribution to the GTN-P network) and there is a lack of knowledge about thermal conditions and recent changes

  19. Gender-Based Violence in India: Long-Term Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simister, John; Mehta, Parnika S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines long-term trends in Indian society regarding domestic violence between husband and wife, and attitudes to such violence. This article analyzes crime data and uses data from several Indian household surveys: "Work Attitudes and Spending" surveys (1992 to 2007); "World Values Survey" (1990, 1995, 2001, and…

  20. Long-Term Changes in Jump Performance and Maximum Strength in a Cohort of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Women's Volleyball Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Ashley A; Mizuguchi, Satoshi; Sands, William A; Ramsey, Michael W; Stone, Michael H

    2018-01-01

    Kavanaugh, AA, Mizuguchi, S, Sands, WA, Ramsey, MW, and Stone, MH. Long-term changes in jump performance and maximum strength in a cohort of NCAA division I women's volleyball Athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 66-75, 2018-The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the magnitude of change in maximal strength and jumping abilities over approximately 1, 2, and 3 years of supervised sport and resistance training in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) division I women's volleyball athletes. This was an exploratory study on a cohort of women's volleyball athletes (n = 29) split into 3 groups based on the length of the time spent in a supervised resistance training program: group 1 (n = 11): 0.7 ± 0.3 years, group 2 (n = 9): 1.6 ± 0.2 years, and group 3 (n = 9): 2.4 ± 0.6 years. Monitoring tests consisted of standing height (cm), body mass (kg), body fat (%), static jump height (SJH) and countermovement JH (CMJH) with 0-, 11-, and 20-kg loads (cm), and midthigh clean pull isometric peak force (IPF) and allometrically scaled IPF (IPFa) (N·kg). Increasing trends were observed for all variables from groups 1 to 2 to 3. Statistically greater improvements (p ≤ 0.05) with moderate to large effect sizes were found between groups 1 and 3 for SJH 0 (19.7%, d = 1.35), SJH 11 (23.8%, d = 1.23), SJH 20 (30.6%, d = 1.20), CMJH 11 (22.6%, d = 1.18), IPF (44.4%, d = 1.22), and IPFa (41.2%, d = 1.32). A combination of traditional resistance training exercises and weightlifting variations at various loads, in addition to volleyball practice, seem to be effective at increasing maximal strength by 44% and vertical JH by 20-30% in NCAA division I women's volleyball athletes after about 2.5 years of training. Furthermore, these characteristics can be improved in the absence of additional plyometric training outside normal volleyball-specific practice.

  1. Long-term opioid therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, H.; Ekholm, O.; Sjøgren, P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Longitudinal population-based studies of long-term opioid therapy (L-TOT) in chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) patients are sparse. Our study investigated incidence and predictors for initiating L-TOT and changes in self-rated health, pain interference and physical activities in long......-term opioid therapy does not seem to provide pain relief, improvement in HRQOL and physical capacity in CNCP patients in a general population.......,145). A nationally representative subsample of individuals (n = 2015) completed the self-administered questionnaire in both 2000 and 2013. Collected information included chronic pain (≥6 months), health behaviour, self-rated health, pain interference with work activities and physical activities. Long-term users were...

  2. Long-term opioid therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, H; Ekholm, Ola; Sjøgren, P

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Longitudinal population-based studies of long-term opioid therapy (L-TOT) in chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP) patients are sparse. Our study investigated incidence and predictors for initiating L-TOT and changes in self-rated health, pain interference and physical activities in long......-term opioid therapy does not seem to provide pain relief, improvement in HRQOL and physical capacity in CNCP patients in a general population.......,145). A nationally representative subsample of individuals (n = 2015) completed the self-administered questionnaire in both 2000 and 2013. Collected information included chronic pain (≥6 months), health behaviour, self-rated health, pain interference with work activities and physical activities. Long-term users were...

  3. a long-term study

    OpenAIRE

    Petereit, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The hospital mortality rate of renal transplant patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) is considered to be significantly higher compared to general ICU patients. Data concerning the long term outcomes of these patients is lacking. Furthermore, little data exists to guide the management of immunosuppression (IS) in critically ill patients on ICU. The author hypothesizes that a reduced IS on ICU will not lead to significantly increased long-term mortality, rejections and transplant fai...

  4. Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Empagliflozin Monotherapy in Drug-Naïve Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Indian Subgroup: Results from a 76-week Extension Trial of Phase III, Double-Blind, Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sunil; Shaikh, Shehla; Joshi, Pooja; Bhure, Shraddha; Suvarna, Viraj

    2017-01-01

    Empagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, was recently evaluated in a randomized, controlled trial (RCT) in drug-naïve Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients managed on diet and exercise therapy. Efficacy and safety of empagliflozin in Indian subgroup of patients from a 76-week extension study of the initial multicentric RCT are reported in this article. In this study, patients were randomized to empagliflozin 10 mg (E10, n = 24), empagliflozin 25 mg (E25, n = 29), placebo ( n = 28) and sitagliptin 100 mg (S100, n = 27). Exploratory efficacy endpoints were changed from baseline to week 76 in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, %) and fasting blood glucose (mg/dL) along with body weight (kg) and blood pressure (BP) (mmHg) reduction. Safety analysis included clinically relevant adverse events (AEs). In 108 randomized patients, adjusted mean reduction in HbA1c compared to placebo was significant with E10 (-0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.33, -0.28; P = 0.0029) and E25 (-1.11, 95% CI - 1.60, -0.61; P empagliflozin compared to placebo. AEs were similar in all treatment groups except for genital infections which were more common in E10 (20.8%) but not in E25 (3.4%) as compared to placebo (3.6%). All treatments were well tolerated with no severe AEs. Treatment with empagliflozin was well tolerated and resulted in sustained glycemic efficacy over long-term (76 weeks) in drug-naïve Indian T2DM patients.

  5. [Long-term psychiatric hospitalizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancke, L; Amariei, A

    2017-02-01

    Long-term hospitalizations in psychiatry raise the question of desocialisation of the patients and the inherent costs. Individual indicators were extracted from a medical administrative database containing full-time psychiatric hospitalizations for the period 2011-2013 of people over 16 years old living in the French region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais. We calculated the proportion of people who had experienced a hospitalization with a duration of 292 days or more during the study period. A bivariate analysis was conducted, then ecological data (level of health-care offer, the deprivation index and the size of the municipalities of residence) were included into a multilevel regression model in order to identify the factors significantly related to variability of long-term hospitalization rates. Among hospitalized individuals in psychiatry, 2.6% had had at least one hospitalization of 292 days or more during the observation period; the number of days in long-term hospitalization represented 22.5% of the total of days of full-time hospitalization in psychiatry. The bivariate analysis revealed that seniority in the psychiatric system was strongly correlated with long hospitalization rates. In the multivariate analysis, the individual indicators the most related to an increased risk of long-term hospitalization were: total lack of autonomy (OR=9.0; 95% CI: 6.7-12.2; Phospitalization (OR=1.7; CI95%: 1.4-2.1; Plong-term hospitalization rates depending on the type of establishment were very high, but the density of hospital beds or intensity of ambulatory activity services were not significantly linked to long-term hospitalization. The inhabitants of small urban units had significantly less risk of long-term hospitalization than those of large cities. We found no influence of material and social deprivation in the long-term hospitalizations. Long-term hospitalization in psychiatry only concerns a minority of patients but represents the fifth of the total number of days of

  6. Trauma in adolescents causes long-term marked deficits in quality of life: adolescent children do not recover preinjury quality of life or function up to two years postinjury compared to national norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Troy Lisa; Hoyt, David B; Coimbra, Raul; Potenza, Bruce; Sise, Michael J; Sack, Dan I; Anderson, John P

    2007-03-01

    Injury is a leading cause of death and preventable morbidity in adolescents. Little is known about long-term quality of life (QoL) outcomes in injured adolescents. The objectives of the present report are to describe long-term QoL outcomes and compare posttrauma QoL to national norms for QoL in uninjured adolescents from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). In all, 401 trauma patients aged 12 to 19 years were enrolled in the study. Enrollment criteria excluded spinal cord injury. QoL after trauma was measured using the Quality of Well-being (QWB) scale, a sensitive and well-validated functional index (range: 0 = death to 1.000 = optimum functioning). Patient outcomes were assessed at discharge, and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after discharge. NHIS data were based on 3 survey years and represent a population-based U.S. national random sample of uninjured adolescents. Major trauma in adolescents was associated with significant and marked deficits in QoL throughout the 24-month follow-up period, compared with NHIS norms for this age group. Compared with NHIS norms for QoL in uninjured adolescents aged 12 to 19 years (N = 81,216,835; QWB mean = 0.876), injured adolescents after major trauma had striking and significant QoL deficits beginning at 3-month follow-up (QWB mean = 0.694, p or=15 years) and female sex. Other significant risk factors for poor QoL outcomes were perceived threat to life, pedestrian struck mechanism, and Injury Severity Scores >16. Major trauma in adolescents is associated with significant and marked deficits in long-term QoL outcomes, compared with U.S. norms for healthy adolescents. Early identification and treatment of risk factors for poor long-term QoL outcomes must become an integral component of trauma care in mature trauma care systems.

  7. Relationships between forest fires and weather parameters from long-term national observations on a transect from Europe to North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsias, Nikos; Boris Pezzatti, Gianni; Madoui, Amar; Mouillot, Florent; Conedera, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Long-term historical fire records extending back to the late 1800s are very rare worldwide. Three such long-term historical fire data spanning for more than one century have been gathered along a north-south transect across (i) Switzerland, central Europe (1900-2014), (ii) Greece, south Europe (1897-2014), and (iii) Algeria, north Africa (1870-2014). Within the context of a Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant (individual fellowship, GRADIENT), these data gave a unique and excellent opportunity to investigate the relationships between forest fire activity and meteorological parameters and to understand fire - weather relationships in a north to south transect. The time series of fire and weather data were analyzed on the basis of their autocorrelation in order to identify potential temporal structures. Change point estimation methods were also used to detect significant shifts in time series. The relationships between fire occurrence and selected meteorological parameters were investigated using non-parametric as well as parametric statistics. Finally, lagged relationships between fires and weather data were further explored. Preliminary results underline the dominant effect of meteorological parameters on fire spread by controlling both fuel production and fuel moisture. In all study areas there was a negative relationship between total yearly precipitation and area burned while only in Greece there was a positive correlation of fires with spring precipitation and with yearly precipitation at lag 2 years, which reflects a fuel accumulation process. In Switzerland fires seem to be related to precipitation and temperature depending on the fire causes (anthropogenic or lighting-induced), whereas in Greece they are mostly controlled by both fuel and meteorological conditions (precipitation and max temperature, especially during the fire season). In Algeria, on contrary, no clear influence is detectable despite a marginal negative effect of the total precipitation that

  8. Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Metabolic Syndrome—Position Paper of the Indian National Association for the Study of the Liver, Endocrine Society of India, Indian College of Cardiology and Indian Society of Gastroenterology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duseja, Ajay; Singh, Shivaram P.; Saraswat, Vivek A.; Acharya, Subrat K.; Chawla, Yogesh K.; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Dhiman, Radha K.; Jayakumar, Rohinivilasam V.; Madan, Kaushal; Misra, Sri P.; Mishra, Hrudananda; Modi, Sunil K.; Muruganathan, Arumugam; Saboo, Banshi; Sahay, Rakesh; Upadhyay, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely associated with metabolic syndrome. Prevalence of metabolic risk factors including diabetes mellitus, obesity, etc. is rapidly increasing in India putting this population at risk for NAFLD. Patients with NAFLD are at increased risk for liver-related morbidity and mortality and also cardiovascular disease risk and increased incidence of diabetes mellitus on long-term follow-up. Management of patients with NAFLD may require a multi-disciplinary approach involving not only the hepatologists but also the internists, cardiologists, and endocrinologists. This position paper which is a combined effort of the Indian National Association for Study of the Liver (INASL), Endocrine Society of India (ESI), Indian College of Cardiology (ICC) and the Indian Society of Gastroenterology (ISG) defines the spectrum of NAFLD and the association of NAFLD with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome besides suggesting preferred approaches for the diagnosis and management of patients with NAFLD in the Indian context. PMID:25941433

  9. Long-term efficacy and safety of empagliflozin monotherapy in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes in Indian subgroup: Results from a 76-week extension trial of phase iii, double-blind, randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Empagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, was recently evaluated in a randomized, controlled trial (RCT in drug-naïve Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients managed on diet and exercise therapy. Efficacy and safety of empagliflozin in Indian subgroup of patients from a 76-week extension study of the initial multicentric RCT are reported in this article. Materials and Methods: In this study, patients were randomized to empagliflozin 10 mg (E10, n = 24, empagliflozin 25 mg (E25, n = 29, placebo (n = 28 and sitagliptin 100 mg (S100, n = 27. Exploratory efficacy endpoints were changed from baseline to week 76 in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, % and fasting blood glucose (mg/dL along with body weight (kg and blood pressure (BP (mmHg reduction. Safety analysis included clinically relevant adverse events (AEs. Results: In 108 randomized patients, adjusted mean reduction in HbA1c compared to placebo was significant with E10 (−0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI −1.33, −0.28; P = 0.0029 and E25 (−1.11, 95% CI − 1.60, −0.61; P < 0.0001. HbA1c below 7% at week 76 was achieved in significantly higher number of patients with E10 (20.8%, P < 0.0001 and E25 (28.0%, P < 0.0001. There was significant reduction in adjusted mean weight as compared to placebo with E10 (−1.41, 95% CI − 2.51, −0.31; P = 0.0125 and E25 (−1.50, 95% CI − 2.54, −0.46; P = 0.0051 but nonsignificant with S100 (−0.75 95% CI − 1.86, −0.36; P = 0.1842. BP reduction was numerically higher with empagliflozin compared to placebo. AEs were similar in all treatment groups except for genital infections which were more common in E10 (20.8% but not in E25 (3.4% as compared to placebo (3.6%. All treatments were well tolerated with no severe AEs. Conclusion: Treatment with empagliflozin was well tolerated and resulted in sustained glycemic efficacy over long-term (76 weeks in drug-naïve Indian T2DM patients.

  10. Factors related to satisfaction with long-term care services among low-income Korean elderly adults: A national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Chanyeong; Lee, Eunhee; Kim, Hyunjung

    With the growing demand for long-term care (LTC) services, it is increasingly important to explore experience with care. This study examined care satisfaction in a nursing home and at home among low-income elders in South Korea. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 246 elderly recipients of welfare benefits using a proportional stratified sampling method. Two self-reported versions of a questionnaire developed for users of nursing home care and homecare were used. Those at home reported higher care satisfaction than those in nursing homes did. Both users of nursing home care and homecare were less satisfied with the food served. Users of nursing homes had comparatively less satisfaction regarding the daily activities available to them and less autonomy concerning their care decisions. Factors that influenced satisfaction with nursing home care and homecare were the quality of caregivers, care facilities, and physical wellbeing. An approach focused on improving the quality of the care facilities and caregivers could help enhance care satisfaction among low-income Korean elders receiving LTC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Empowering disaster-affected communities for long-term reconstruction: intervening in Sri Lanka after the tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominelli, Lena

    2013-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami highlighted the importance of interdependencies between nations, delivery of humanitarian aid in an empowering manner, and long-term reconstruction. I examine relationships between overseas actors and local residents in tsunami-affected villages in Sri Lanka in a project initiated by the International Association of Schools of Social Work through its Rebuilding People's Lives After Disasters Network and another based on an institutional endeavour supported by Durham University because these sought to empower local communities through local, egalitarian partnerships. Lacking sufficient educational resources, capacity building in social work education has become a long-term objective.

  12. Nuclear Energy, Long Term Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    2006-01-01

    There are serious warnings about depletion of oil and gas and even more serious warnings about dangers of climate change caused by emission of carbon dioxide. Should developed countries be called to replace CO2 emitting energy sources as soon as possible, and the time available may not be longer then few decades, can nuclear energy answer the call and what are the requirements? Assuming optimistic contribution of renewable energy sources, can nuclear energy expand to several times present level in order to replace large part of fossil fuels use? Paper considers intermediate and long-term requirements. Future of nuclear power depends on satisfactory answers on several questions. First group of questions are those important for near and intermediate future. They deal with economics and safety of nuclear power stations in the first place. On the same time scale a generally accepted concept for radioactive waste disposal is also required. All these issues are in the focus of present research and development. Safer and more economical reactors are targets of international efforts in Generation IV and INPRO projects, but aiming further ahead these innovative projects are also addressing issues such as waste reduction and proliferation resistance. However, even assuming successful technical development of these projects, and there is no reason to doubt it, long term and large-scale nuclear power use is thereby not yet secured. If nuclear power is to play an essential role in the long-term future energy production and in reduction of CO2 emission, than several additional questions must be replied. These questions will deal with long-term nuclear fuel sufficiency, with necessary contribution of nuclear power in sectors of transport and industrial processes and with nuclear proliferation safety. This last issue is more political then technical, thus sometimes neglected by nuclear engineers, yet it will have essential role for the long-term prospects of nuclear power. The

  13. Long-term data archiving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Long term data archiving has much value for chemists, not only to retain access to research and product development records, but also to enable new developments and new discoveries. There are some recent regulatory requirements (e.g., FDA 21 CFR Part 11), but good science and good business both benefit regardless. A particular example of the benefits of and need for long term data archiving is the management of data from spectroscopic laboratory instruments. The sheer amount of spectroscopic data is increasing at a scary rate, and the pressures to archive come from the expense to create the data (or recreate it if it is lost) as well as its high information content. The goal of long-term data archiving is to save and organize instrument data files as well as any needed meta data (such as sample ID, LIMS information, operator, date, time, instrument conditions, sample type, excitation details, environmental parameters, etc.). This editorial explores the issues involved in long-term data archiving using the example of Raman spectral databases. There are at present several such databases, including common data format libraries and proprietary libraries. However, such databases and libraries should ultimately satisfy stringent criteria for long term data archiving, including readability for long times into the future, robustness to changes in computer hardware and operating systems, and use of public domain data formats. The latter criterion implies the data format should be platform independent and the tools to create the data format should be easily and publicly obtainable or developable. Several examples of attempts at spectral libraries exist, such as the ASTM ANDI format, and the JCAMP-DX format. On the other hand, proprietary library spectra can be exchanged and manipulated using proprietary tools. As the above examples have deficiencies according to the three long term data archiving criteria, Extensible Markup Language (XML; a product of the World Wide Web

  14. Long-term working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, K A; Kintsch, W

    1995-04-01

    To account for the large demands on working memory during text comprehension and expert performance, the traditional models of working memory involving temporary storage must be extended to include working memory based on storage in long-term memory. In the proposed theoretical framework cognitive processes are viewed as a sequence of stable states representing end products of processing. In skilled activities, acquired memory skills allow these end products to be stored in long-term memory and kept directly accessible by means of retrieval cues in short-term memory, as proposed by skilled memory theory. These theoretical claims are supported by a review of evidence on memory in text comprehension and expert performance in such domains as mental calculation, medical diagnosis, and chess.

  15. Analysing long term discursive processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    What do timescales - the notion that processes take place or can be viewed within a shorter or longer temporal range (Lemke 2005) - mean for the analysis of discourse? What are the methodological consequences of analyzing discourse at different timescales? It may be argued that discourse analysis...... in general has favored either the analysis of short term processes such as interviews, discussions, and lessons, or the analysis of non-processual entities such as (multimodal) texts, arguments, discursive repertoires, and discourses (in a Foucaultian sense). In contrast, analysis of long term processes...... which extend beyond the single interaction, for instance negotiations or planning processes, seems to have played a less important role, with studies such as Iedema 2001 and Wodak 2000 as exceptions. These long term processes, however, are central to the constitution and workings of organizations...

  16. Short-term and long-term effects of childhood cancer on income from employment and employment status: A national cohort study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl Norberg, Annika; Montgomery, Scott M; Bottai, Matteo; Heyman, Mats; Hovén, Emma I

    2017-04-01

    There is insufficient knowledge regarding the economic impact of childhood cancer on parents. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the short-term and long-term effects of childhood cancer on mothers' and fathers' income from employment and employment status. The study sample consisted of the parents of children diagnosed with cancer from 2004 to 2009 in Sweden (3626 parents of 1899 children). Annual register data concerning income from employment and employment status (employed/not employed) were retrieved from the Longitudinal Integration Database for Health Insurance and Labor Market Studies. Using generalized linear models, the mean income from employment and employment status were compared with a matched control cohort of 34,874 parents sampled from the general population. Parents' income was found to decrease significantly after the child's cancer diagnosis. The effect was most pronounced for mothers, whose income was reduced for 6 years after diagnosis, whereas fathers' income was similar to that of control fathers 3 years after the diagnosis. Mothers were more likely to stop working after a child's cancer diagnosis compared with controls. No association was found for fathers' employment status. Younger age of parents; lower level of education; and, among mothers, being born outside of Sweden were found to be associated with more adverse effects on income. Parents' income from employment and employment status appear to be adversely affected by having a child with cancer. Socioeconomic consequences are not distributed equally: the income of fathers appears to catch up after a few years, whereas mothers tend to be disadvantaged in their professional life for several years after a child's cancer diagnosis. Cancer 2017;123:1238-1248. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  17. Long-term outcomes of dilated cardiomyopathy diagnosed during childhood: results from a national population-based study of childhood cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Peta M A; Daubeney, Piers E F; Nugent, Alan W; Lee, Katherine J; Turner, Christian; Colan, Steven D; Robertson, Terry; Davis, Andrew M; Ramsay, James; Justo, Robert; Sholler, Gary F; King, Ingrid; Weintraub, Robert G

    2013-10-29

    Existing studies of childhood dilated cardiomyopathy deal mainly with early survival. This population-based study examines long-term outcomes for children with dilated cardiomyopathy. The diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy was based on clinical, echocardiographic, and pathological findings. The primary study end point included time to the combined outcome of death or cardiac transplantation. There were 175 patients 0 to time of diagnosis. Survival free from death or transplantation was 74% (95% confidence interval, 67-80) 1 year after diagnosis, 62% (95% confidence interval, 55-69) at 10 years, and 56% (95% confidence interval, 46-65) at 20 years. In multivariable analysis, age at diagnosis 5 years, familial cardiomyopathy, and lower baseline left ventricular fractional shortening Z score were associated with increased risk of death or transplantation, as was lower left ventricular fractional shortening Z score during follow-up. At 15 years after diagnosis, echocardiographic normalization had occurred in 69% of surviving study subjects. Normalization was related to higher baseline left ventricular fractional shortening Z score, higher left ventricular fractional shortening Z score during follow-up, and greater improvement in left ventricular fractional shortening Z score. Children with lymphocytic myocarditis had better survival and a higher rate of echocardiographic normalization. At the latest follow-up, 100 of 104 of survivors (96%) were free of cardiac symptoms, and 83 (80%) were no longer receiving pharmacotherapy. Death or transplantation occurred in 26% of patients with childhood dilated cardiomyopathy within 1 year of diagnosis and ~1% per year thereafter. Risk factors for death or transplantation include age at diagnosis, familial cardiomyopathy, and severity of left ventricular dysfunction. The majority of surviving subjects are well and free of cardiac medication.

  18. Acoustics long-term passive monitoring using moored autonomous recorders in the Bering, Chukchi, and Western Beaufort Seas conducted by Alaska Fisheries Scientific Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 2007-08-15 to 2015-04-30 (NCEI Accession 0143303)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) has deployed long-term passive acoustic recorders in various locations in Alaskan waters and in the High Arctic to...

  19. Long-term protection effects of National Reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: biodiversity change analysis of major forest types in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fan; Sang, WeiGuo; Li, GuangQi; Liu, RuiGang; Chen, LingZhi; Wang, Kun

    2008-10-01

    The Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CNR) was established in 1960 to protect the virgin Korean pine mixed hardwood forest, a typical temperate forest of northeast China. We conducted systematic studies of vascular diversity patterns on the north slope of the CNR mountainside forests (800-1700 m a.s.l.) in 1963 and 2006 respectively. The aim of this comparison is to assess the long-term effects of the protection on plant biodiversity of CNR during the interval 43 years. The research was carried out in three types of forests: mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (MCBF), mixed coniferous forest (MCF), and sub-alpine coniferous forest (SCF), characterized by different dominant species. The alpha diversity indicted by species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were found different in the same elevations and forest types during the 43-year interval. The floral composition and the diversity of vascular species were generally similar along altitudinal gradients before and after the 43-year interval, but some substantial changes were evident with the altitude gradient. In the tree layers, the dominant species in 2006 were similar to those of 1963, though diversity declined with altitude. The indices in the three forest types did not differ significantly between 1963 and 2006, and these values even increased in the MCBF and MCF from 1963 to 2006. However, originally dominant species, P. koraiensis for example, tended to decline, while the proportion of broad-leaved trees increased, and the species turnover in the succession layers trended to shift to higher altitudes. The diversity pattern of the under canopy fluctuated along the altitudinal gradient due to micro-environmental variations. Comparison of the alpha diversity in the three forests shows that the diversity of the shrub and herb layer decreased with time. During the process of survey, we also found some rare and medicinal species disappeared. Analysis indicates that the changes of the diversity pattern in

  20. Long term stability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P.; Gao, B. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

  1. Implementation evaluation of the Dutch national heat plan among long-term care institutions in Amsterdam: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, Anton E.; Britstra, Rieneke

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, a national heat plan was introduced in the Netherlands to effectively protect vulnerable populations (such as institutionalised elderly people) against heatwaves. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which the measures recommended in this heat plan had been implemented, and

  2. Long-term effects of fire frequency and season on herbaceous vegetation in savannas of the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, MD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available in savannas, the experimental burn plots (EBPs), which is located in the Kruger National Park (South Africa) and encompasses four major savanna vegetation types that span broad spatial gradients of rainfall (450–700mm) and soil fertility....

  3. Transparent national strategies for long-term decarbonization in compliance with the 2 deg. C goal: The Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombier, Michel; Waisman, Henri

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen countries among the biggest emitters of greenhouse gases are involved in the Deep Decarbonization Pathways Project (DDPP), which is based on 'country teams' of climate experts. This international project seeks to draw the pathways for a transition toward national decarbonization in compliance with the goal of limiting global warming to 2 deg. C maximum by 2050. These pathways should serve to: a) foresee the economic, technical and behavioral 'ruptures' to be addressed in order to facilitate the transition; b) identify specifically national factors in pathways toward decarbonization; and c) analyze the effects over time of this transition and the sequencing of the measures that might cause them. A preliminary report was released in September 2014, and the final report is scheduled for mid-2015. In support of an international agreement during the Paris Climate Conference, it will focus on the implications of deep decarbonization and the conditions for achieving it

  4. The 2 °C Global Temperature Target and the Evolution of the Long-Term Goal of Addressing Climate Change—From the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to the Paris Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Gao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Agreement proposed to keep the increase in global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. It was thus the first international treaty to endow the 2 °C global temperature target with legal effect. The qualitative expression of the ultimate objective in Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC has now evolved into the numerical temperature rise target in Article 2 of the Paris Agreement. Starting with the Second Assessment Report (SAR of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, an important task for subsequent assessments has been to provide scientific information to help determine the quantified long-term goal for UNFCCC negotiation. However, due to involvement in the value judgment within the scope of non-scientific assessment, the IPCC has never scientifically affirmed the unacceptable extent of global temperature rise. The setting of the long-term goal for addressing climate change has been a long process, and the 2 °C global temperature target is the political consensus on the basis of scientific assessment. This article analyzes the evolution of the long-term global goal for addressing climate change and its impact on scientific assessment, negotiation processes, and global low-carbon development, from aspects of the origin of the target, the series of assessments carried out by the IPCC focusing on Article 2 of the UNFCCC, and the promotion of the global temperature goal at the political level.

  5. Groundwater data collection for the Quinault Indian Nation, Grays Harbor and Jefferson Counties, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Sue C.; Fasser, Elisabeth T.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2017-11-03

    Groundwater data were collected on the Quinault Indian Reservation to provide the Quinualt Indian Nation (QIN) with basic knowledge of the existing wells and springs on the reservation, and to establish a water-level network to be monitored by QIN to begin building a long-term groundwater dataset. The 327 mi2 Quinault Indian Reservation is located within the heavily forested Queets-Quinault watershed along the west-central coast of Washington and includes the coastal communities of Taholah and Queets, and the inland community of Amanda Park. Groundwater data were collected or compiled for 87 sites—82 wells and 5 springs. In October 2016, a field inventory was done to locate the sites and acquire site data. Groundwater levels were measured in 15 of the field-inventoried wells and 3 of those wells were observed as flowing (artesian). A monthly groundwater‑level monitoring network of 13 wells was established by the U.S. Geological Survey in March 2017, and the network was transferred to QIN in June 2017 for continued measurements.Several data needs were identified that would provide a more complete understanding of the groundwater system of the Quinault Indian Reservation. The collection of monthly water-level data for multiple years is an important first step in understanding seasonal and long term changes in water levels. Additionally, the collection of baseline groundwater chemistry and quality data across the reservation would help with future efforts to monitor existing and potentially changing groundwater quality conditions. Development of a water budget of the Queets-Quinault Watershed and the reservation within that area would provide water users with a better understanding of this important resource and provide needed information about the competing demands on local water sources.

  6. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

    1980-10-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

  7. Long-term changes in the woody vegetation of the Kruger National Park, with special reference to the effects of elephants and fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.S.W. Trollope

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of the investigation reviewing the South African National Parks policy on the management of elephants in the Kruger National Park in South Africa it was decided to assess the current density and structural diversity of the woody vegetation in the park as it is affected by elephants and fire. The management policy used till recently, limited the population to approximately 7000 elephants, based on a conclusion that 6000 elephants (1 per 1.94 km2 was the highest number of elephants that could be carried in the Kruger National Park. The inclusion of the effects and interaction of fire in the investigation arises from the general recognition that elephants and fire can have a highly significant impact on the species and structural diversity of tree and shrub vegetation in African savannas. In the absence of quantitative data describing the condition of the woody vegetation in the Kruger National Park, subjective comparisons of changes in the density of large trees were made for the periods 1940 vs 1960 and 1960 vs 1986/89 using aerial photographs based on four of the major vegetation landscape units in the park. The results indicate that in the vegetation landscapes in areas with granitic soils there were no significant changes in the density of large trees between 1940 vs 1960 whereas a moderate decline occurred in the vegetation in the areas with basaltic soils. Conversely during the period 1960 to 1986/89 there was a dramatic decline in the density of large trees in all four major vegetation landscape units. On-site inspections and botanical surveys suggest that the decline in the density of large trees is the result of the effects of the interaction of elephants and fire. This had arisen because during the period 1960 to 1986/89 systematic burning programs had been introduced at the same time as elephant numbers had risen sharply. The results presented suggest that the changes in the woody vegetation do not involve a decrease in species

  8. Long-term survival and quality of life in patients treated with a national all protocol 15-20 years earlier: IDM/HDM and late effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, P J; Holen, A; Glomstein, A; Madsen, B; Hellebostad, M; Stokland, T; Wefring, K W; Steen-Johnsen, J; Nielsen, B; Howlid, H; Børsting, S; Hapnes, C

    1997-01-01

    In a follow-up matched control study the 93 (70.5%) survivors of 132 children treated with a national protocol for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 5 survivors of the other 21 cases of ALL in childhood diagnosed in the same period were evaluated. Thus it was also a population-based study. The national treatment protocol was used in the period 1975-1980. Methotrexate (MTX) infusions combined with intrathecal MTX were used as prophylaxis against neuroleukemia instead of irradiation. Neither doxorubicin (Adriamycin) nor cyclophosphamide was used in the protocol. A questionnaire covering demographic data, number of offspring, learning problems, level of athletic performance, education, and work status as well as medical information was used. Forms were received from 94 (96%) of the 98 adult surviving cases and corresponding controls in the family. Interviews were performed in the remaining four cases (4%). There were no statistical differences between the two groups with respect to physical and mental health and quality of life. Hospital records of all patients were also checked for possible late effects. There was no definite case of secondary malignant neoplasm; however, there was one case of prolactinoma and only one case of serious sequelae (hemiparesis during therapy), probably due to intrathecal and intravenous MTX.

  9. Topical Session on Liabilities identification and long-term management at national level - Topical Session held during the 36. Meeting of the RWMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    These proceedings cover a topical session that was held at the March 2003 meeting of the Radioactive Waste Management Committee. The topical session focused on liability assessment and management for decommissioning of all types of nuclear installations, including decontamination of historic sites and waste management, as applicable. The presentations covered the current, national situations. The first oral presentation, from Switzerland, set the scene by providing a broad coverage of the relevant issues. The subsequent presentations - five from Member countries and one from the EC - described additional national positions and the evolving EC proposed directives. Each oral presentation was followed by a brief period of Q and As for clarification only. A plenary discussion took place on the ensemble of presentations and a Rapporteur provided a report on points made and lessons learnt. Additionally, written contributions were provided by RWMC delegates from several other countries. These are included in the proceedings as are the papers from the oral sessions, and the Rapporteur's report. These papers are not intended to be exhaustive, but to give an informed glimpse of NEA countries' approaches to liability identification and management in the context of nuclear facilities decommissioning and dismantling

  10. Navigating Long-Term Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Holt MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Americans over age 65 constitute a larger percentage of the population each year: from 14% in 2010 (40 million elderly to possibly 20% in 2030 (70 million elderly. In 2015, an estimated 66 million people provided care to the ill, disabled, and elderly in the United States. In 2000, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 15 million Americans used some form of long-term care: adult day care, home health, nursing home, or hospice. In all, 13% of people over 85 years old, compared with 1% of those ages 65 to 74, live in nursing homes in the United States. Transitions of care, among these various levels of care, are common: Nursing home to hospital transfer, one of the best-studied transitions, occurs in more than 25% of nursing home residents per year. This article follows one patient through several levels of care.

  11. Gender-based violence in India: long-term trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simister, John; Mehta, Parnika S

    2010-09-01

    This article examines long-term trends in Indian society regarding domestic violence between husband and wife, and attitudes to such violence. This article analyzes crime data and uses data from several Indian household surveys: "Work Attitudes and Spending" surveys (1992 to 2007); "World Values Survey" (1990, 1995, 2001, and 2006); and "Demographic and Health Surveys" (1992-1993, 1998-2000, and 2005). Several trends are apparent- some changes suggest that Indian women are becoming more liberated, but others imply worsening conditions for Indian women, such as more violence against women. This increase in violence may be temporary, as India is in transition to a more modern society: There is evidence that some gender-based violence is a male response to increasingly "modern" attitudes among Indian women.

  12. Self-reported history of stroke and long-term living conditions near air pollution sources: results of a national epidemiological study in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Pascale; Farah, Rita; Hallit, Souheil; Zeidan, Rouba Karen; Chahine, Mirna N; Asmar, Roland; Hosseini, Hassan

    2018-02-20

    Stroke is a disease related to high mortality and morbidity, particularly in developing countries. Some studies have linked self-reported indoor and outdoor pollution to stroke and mini-stroke, while some others showed no association. Our objective was to assess this association in Lebanon, a Middle Eastern developing country. A national cross-sectional study was conducted all over Lebanon. In addition to self-reported items of pollution exposure, we assessed potential predictors of stroke and mini-stroke, including sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health information, and biological measurements. Moreover, we assessed dose-effect relationship of pollution items in relation with stroke. Self-reported indoor pollution exposure was associated with stroke and mini-stroke, with or without taking biological values into account. Moreover, we found a dose-effect relationship of exposure with risk of disease, but this effect did not reach statistical significance after adjustment for sociodemographics and biological characteristics. No association was found for any outdoor pollution item. Although additional studies would be necessary to confirm these findings, sensitizing the population about the effect of pollution on chronic diseases, working on reducing pollution, and improving air quality should be implemented to decrease the burden of the disease on the population and health system.

  13. World's trend of national nuclear power policy and long-term perspective of nuclear power and supply and demand of uranium fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuji; Nishida, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Shimogoori, Kei; Murakami, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    Based on perspective of nuclear power reflecting latest trend of national nuclear policy, supply and demand of uranium resources until 2035 was evaluated based on latest data. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, Germany and Italy dramatically changed nuclear power to phase out, while United States, Russia, France and Korea as well as China and India continued to promote nuclear power with no essential change of policy. Thus world's nuclear power capacity was foreseen to expand from 389 GW (2010) to 471 GW (2035, low growth case) and 760 GW (2035, high growth case). Following sharp increase of uranium cost after 2005, investment on natural uranium development became active and new operation start of uranium enrichment plants was anticipated in US and Europe, and then both supply and demand of natural uranium and uranium enrichment service would tend to relax until around 2020 and until 2035 extreme tightness of supply and demand might not occur even for high growth case. Uranium demand of Asian region including China and India would be largely expanded with natural uranium from Africa and Australia and uranium enrichment services from US, and Asian high overseas dependence would be continued. (T. Tanaka)

  14. Long-term effects of mental disorders on marital outcomes in the National Comorbidity Survey ten-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojtabai, Ramin; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Hwang, Irving; Eaton, William W; Sampson, Nancy; Kessler, Ronald C

    2017-10-01

    Epidemiological research has consistently shown an association between mental disorders and marital dissolution. However, this research mostly examined the association of divorce as a risk factor for mental illness. This study prospectively examined the associations of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders with future marital dissolution and new marriages in a representative population sample. The study used data from the National Comorbidity Survey panel study-a two-wave community epidemiological survey of 5001 participants interviewed in 1990-1992 and re-interviewed in 2001-2003. Mental disorders were ascertained with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, a fully structured instrument. Associations of baseline lifetime disorders and disorders with onset after the baseline with subsequent divorce and marriage/remarriage were examined using discrete-time survival analysis models. Mental disorders at baseline or with onset after baseline were associated with significantly greater odds of subsequent divorce among respondents who either were married at baseline or got married after baseline. Mental disorders with onset after baseline were associated with smaller odds of marriage or remarriage. Projections assuming causal effects of mental illness on marital outcomes suggest that preventing the effects of common mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders would be associated with 6.7 million fewer divorces and 3.5 million more marriages in the US population over an 11-year period. Individuals with common mental disorders are at greater risk of marital dissolution and are less likely to enter new marriages. These factors contribute to the diminished social engagement and social support for individuals with these disorders. Interventions aimed at improving marital and family relationships could potentially ameliorate the effect of mental disorders on these vital social ties.

  15. Do service innovations influence the adoption of electronic health records in long-term care organizations? Results from the U.S. National Survey of Residential Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Soumitra S; Zhu, He; Chandak, Aastha; Kim, Jungyoon; Stimpson, Jim P

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare organizations including residential care facilities (RCFs) are diversifying their services to meet market demands. Service innovations have been linked to the changes in the way that healthcare organizations organize their work. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between organizational service innovations and Electronic Health Record (EHR) adoption in the RCFs. We used the data from the 2010 National Survey of Residential Care Facilities conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The outcome was whether an RCF adopted EHR or not, and the predictors were the organizational service innovations including provision of skilled nursing care and medication review. We also added facility characteristics as control variables. Weighted multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate the relationship between service innovation factors and EHR adoption in the RCFs. In 2010, about 17.4% of the RCFs were estimated to use EHR. Multivariate analysis showed that RCFs employing service innovations were more likely to adopt EHR. The residential care facilities that provide skilled nursing services to their residents are more likely (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.09-1.87) to adopt EHR. Similarly, RCFs with a provision of medication review were also more likely to adopt EHR (OR: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.00-1.95). Among the control variables, facility size, chain affiliation, ownership type, and Medicaid certification were significantly associated with EHR adoption. Our findings suggest that service innovations may drive EHR adoption in the RCFs in the United States. This can be viewed as a strategic attempt by RCFs to engage in a new business arrangement with hospitals and other health care organizations, where quality of care and interoperability of patients' records might play a vital role under the current healthcare reform. Future research could examine the relationship between service innovations and use of different EHR functionality in

  16. Long-Term Demonstration of Hydrogen Production from Coal at Elevated Temperatures Year 6 - Activity 1.12 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislowski, Joshua; Tolbert, Scott; Curran, Tyler; Swanson, Michael

    2012-04-30

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has continued the work of the National Center for Hydrogen Technology® (NCHT®) Program Year 6 Task 1.12 project to expose hydrogen separation membranes to coal-derived syngas. In this follow-on project, the EERC has exposed two membranes to coal-derived syngas produced in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU). Western Research Institute (WRI), with funding from the State of Wyoming Clean Coal Technology Program and the North Dakota Industrial Commission, contracted with the EERC to conduct testing of WRI’s coal-upgrading/gasification technology for subbituminous and lignite coals in the EERC’s TRDU. This gasifier fires nominally 200–500 lb/hour of fuel and is the pilot-scale version of the full-scale gasifier currently being constructed in Kemper County, Mississippi. A slipstream of the syngas was used to demonstrate warm-gas cleanup and hydrogen separation using membrane technology. Two membranes were exposed to coal-derived syngas, and the impact of coal-derived impurities was evaluated. This report summarizes the performance of WRI’s patent-pending coalupgrading/ gasification technology in the EERC’s TRDU and presents the results of the warm-gas cleanup and hydrogen separation tests. Overall, the WRI coal-upgrading/gasification technology was shown to produce a syngas significantly lower in CO2 content and significantly higher in CO content than syngas produced from the raw fuels. Warm-gas cleanup technologies were shown to be capable of reducing sulfur in the syngas to 1 ppm. Each of the membranes tested was able to produce at least 2 lb/day of hydrogen from coal-derived syngas.

  17. Community re-integration and long-term need in the first five years after stroke: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Mary Elizabeth; Galvin, Rose; Loughnane, Cliona; Macey, Chris; Horgan, N Frances

    2015-01-01

    Acute stroke care continues to improve but the later stroke recovery phase remains less well understood. The aim of this study was to document self-reported need in relation to stroke recovery and community re-integration among community-dwelling persons up to five years post-stroke. A national survey was carried out in Ireland. Participants were recruited through stroke advocacy organisations and health professionals. Existing validated questionnaires were adapted with permission. The final questionnaire assessed respondents' perceptions of their community re-integration and on-going needs. A total of 196 stroke survivors, aged 24-89 years responded. Over 75% of respondents reported experiencing mobility, emotional, fatigue and concentration difficulties post-stroke. Emotional problems and fatigue demonstrated the highest levels of unmet need. Families provided much support with 52% of people needing help with personal care post-stroke. Forty-two per cent of respondents in a relationship felt that it was significantly affected by their stroke. In addition, 60% of respondents reported negative financial change. Only 23% of those <66 years had worked since their stroke, while 60% of drivers returned to driving. Stroke had a personal, social and economic impact. Emotional distress and fatigue were common and satisfaction with the help available for these problems was poor. Implications for Rehabilitation Professionals should recognise that family members provide high levels of support post-stroke while dealing with changes to personal relationships. Emotional, concentration and fatigue problems post-stroke require recognition by health professionals. A greater focus on return-to-work as part of stroke rehabilitation may be of value for patients of working age.

  18. Geographic variation in Chinese children' forced vital capacity and its association with long-term exposure to local PM10: a national cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Jun; Li, Qin; Guo, Yuming; Song, Jie-Yun; Wang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Jun

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the association between Chinese children's forced vital capacity (FVC) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM 10 ). The FVC data of 71,763 children aged 7 to 18 was collected from 2010 Chinese National Survey on Students' Construction and Health (CNSSCH). The local annual average concentration of PM 10 , relative humidity, ambient temperature, and other air pollutant data of 30 cities was collected from China Meteorological Administration and Ministry of Environment Protection of China. Then, we used generalized additive model (GAM) to estimate the association between children's FVC and PM 10 . The obvious geographic variation in FVC was found in children of 30 Chinese cities ranging from 1647 ml in Xining to 2571 ml in Beijing. The annual average concentration of PM 10 was also different, ranging from 40 μg/m 3 in Haikou to 155 μg/m 3 in Lanzhou. After adjusted individual characteristics, socioeconomic conditions, ambient temperature, relative humidity, and other air pollutants (e.g., NO 2 and SO 2 ) in the generalized additive model, we found that the increase of PM 10 was associated with decrease of FVC in Chinese children. A 10-μg/m 3 increase of PM 10 was associated with 1.33-ml decrease in FVC (95% confidence interval: -2.18 to -0.47). We also found a larger effect estimate of PM 10 on FVC in boys than that in girls. Consistent associations were found in both physically inactive and active children. The increase of PM 10 was associated with decrease of children's FVC. We should develop proper public health policy to protect children's respiratory health during growth and development in polluted areas.

  19. History and the West Indian nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Birbalsingh

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Art of Kamau Brathwaite. STEWART BROWN (ed.. Bridgend, Wales: Seren/Poetry Wales Press, 1995. 275 pp. (Cloth US$ 50.00, Paper US$ 22.95 Atlantic Passages: History, Community, and Language in the Fiction of Sam Selvon. MARK LOOKER. New York: Peter Lang, 1996. x + 243 pp. (Cloth n.p. Caliban's Curse: George Lamming and the Revisioning of History. SUPRIYA NAIR. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996. viii + 171 pp. (Cloth US$ 34.50 Phyllis Shand Allfrey: A Caribbean Life. LlZABETH PARAVISINI-GEBERT. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1996. xii + 335 pp. (Cloth US$ 55.00, Paper US$ 18.95 Of the four books to be considered here, those on Brathwaite, Selvon, and Lamming fit snugly together into a natural category of literature that has to do with the emergence of a Creole or African-centered Caribbean culture, and related issues of race, color, class, history, and nationality. The fourth is a biography of Phyllis Shand Allfrey, a white West Indian, who is of an altogether different race, color, and class than from the other three. Yet the four books are linked together by nationality, for Allfrey and the others are all citizens of one region, the English-speaking West Indies, which, as the Federation of the West Indies between 1958 and 1962, formed a single nation.

  20. Plan for Long-Term Monitoring of North American Geoid Change in Support of the U.S. National Spatial Reference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, T.

    2016-12-01

    The US, Canada, and Mexico will adopt a new, shared spatial reference system in 2022, allowing the calculation of 1 cm-accurate orthometric heights in many places. The vertical datum portion of the reference system will be supported by a geoid model that spans the entire northwest hemisphere of Earth. The US National Geodetic Survey's goal is to create the geoid model to 1 cm accuracy, if possible, by collecting new airborne gravity data across the United States and improving geoid modeling techniques. Assuming this effort is successful­— a safe assumption as it is obtaining positive results from its 8 years of ongoing work­— the next challenge facing North American geodetic agencies will be maintaining the vertical datum. To do so requires monitoring geoid change in North America. First, we review sources of North American geoid change, their rates of change, and their spatial extents. Based on this, it is clear that monitoring will rely on NASA's 2017 Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment- Follow On (GRACE-FO) mission. However, GRACE-FO will be similar to GRACE such that some gravity change below its measurement resolution is large enough to cause geoid change. Present-day ice melting (primarily in Greenland, Alaska, and the Canadian Rockies) and catastrophic-sized earthquakes or volcanic eruptions fall into this category. With current technology, the only ways to monitor these and other geoid change signals is with terrestrial absolute gravity measurements, likely with co-located GNSS height monitoring. We review the absolute gravity and GNSS networks in North America, placing emphasis stations with the longest and most reliable time series of absolute gravity and/or GNSS, and which smaller subset of sites have co-located measurements. Current networks are compared to the areas most in need of geoid monitoring. The result is two plans: 1. terrestrial gravity and GNSS coverage needed if GRACE-FO (or a similar mission) is successfully launched before 2022

  1. THE BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY PERFLUOROCARBON TRACER TECHNOLOGY: A PROVEN AND COST EFFECTIVE METHOD TO VERIFY INTEGRITY AND MONITOR LONG TERM PERFORMANCE OF WALLS, FLOORS, CAPS, AND COVER SYSTEMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEISER, J.; SULLIVAN, T.

    2002-03-11

    Currently, containment system failures are detected by monitoring wells downstream of the waste site. Clearly this approach is inefficient, as the contaminants will have migrated from the disposal area before they are detected. Methods that indicate early cover failure (prior to contaminant release) or predict impending cover failure are needed. The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Perfluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) technology can measure performance changes and integrity losses as the cover ages. This allows early detection of cover failure or pending failure so that repair or replacement can be made before contaminants leave the disposal cell. The PFT technology has been successfully applied to four subsurface barrier problems, one leak detection problem from underground ducts, and one surface cover problem. Testing has demonstrated that the PFTs are capable of accurately detecting and locating leaks down to fractions of an inch. The PFT technology has several advantages over competing approaches. The ability to simultaneously use multiple PFTs separates it from other gas tracer technologies. Using multiple tracers provides independent confirmation of flaw location, helps to clearly define transport pathways, and can be used for confirmatory testing (e.g., repeat the test using a new tracer). The PFT tests provide a direct measure of flaws in a barrier, whereas other measurements (pressure, moisture content, temperature, subsidence) provide indirect measures that need interpretation. The focus of the six PFT demonstrations has been on engineering aspects of the technology with the intent of finding if a flaw existed in the barrier. Work remains to be done on the scientific basis for this technology. This includes determining PFT diffusion rates through various materials (soils and barrier) as a function of moisture content, determining the effects of barometric pumping on PFT flow for cover systems, and determining wind effects on side slopes of cover systems and

  2. Long term study of mechanical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Diab

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, properties of limestone cement concrete containing different replacement levels of limestone powder were examined. It includes 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% of limestone powder as a partial replacement of cement. Silica fume was added incorporated with limestone powder in some mixes to enhance the concrete properties. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity were determined. Also, durability of limestone cement concrete with different C3A contents was examined. The weight loss, length change and cube compressive strength loss were measured for concrete attacked by 5% sodium sulfate using an accelerated test up to 525 days age. The corrosion resistance was measured through accelerated corrosion test using first crack time, cracking width and steel reinforcement weight loss. Consequently, for short and long term, the use of limestone up to 10% had not a significant reduction in concrete properties. It is not recommended to use blended limestone cement in case of sulfate attack. The use of limestone cement containing up to 25% limestone has insignificant effect on corrosion resistance before cracking.

  3. Do patients using long-term liquid oxygen differ from those on traditional treatment with oxygen concentrators and/or compressed gas cylinders? A comparison of two national registers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaanning, J; Strøm, K; Boe, J

    1998-01-01

    Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) in patients with chronic hypoxaemia is an expanding field. Traditional stationary oxygen, with and without portable compressed gas cylinders, and portable liquid oxygen equipment is available today. No official guidelines exist for the prescription of liquid oxygen vs traditional oxygen supply in LTOT, although it is generally though that patients receiving liquid oxygen are younger and less seriously affected. The authors tested this hypothesis by comparing register data from two national Scandinavian registers of patients on LTOT in the same time period; one including all the patients on traditional oxygen treatment alone, e.g. concentrators and compressed gas cylinders (n = 1039), the other including all the patients using portable liquid oxygen alone (n = 117). About 80% of the patients in both groups suffered from chrome obstructive pulmonary disease. Younger patients were found in the liquid oxygen group (P gas derangement (mostly statistically significant). They had higher frequency of previous or present oedema (P gas levels.

  4. 78 FR 4399 - National Advisory Council on Indian Education (NACIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Standard Time. Comments should pertain to the work of NACIE and/or the Office of Indian Education. Speakers... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION National Advisory Council on Indian Education (NACIE) AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education. ACTION: Notice...

  5. Celebrating National American Indian Heritage Month

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mann, Diane

    2004-01-01

    .... Installation planning for American Indian Heritage Month should incorporate cultural traditions and history specific to Native Americans of the area, patriotism of Native Americans who have served...

  6. Association of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' National Partnership to Improve Dementia Care With the Use of Antipsychotics and Other Psychotropics in Long-term Care in the United States From 2009 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maust, Donovan T; Kim, H Myra; Chiang, Claire; Kales, Helen C

    2018-03-17

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' National Partnership to Improve Dementia Care in Nursing Homes (hereafter referred to as the partnership) was established to improve the quality of care for patients with dementia, measured by the rate of antipsychotic prescribing. To determine the association of the partnership with trends in prescribing of antipsychotic and other psychotropic medication among older adults in long-term care. This interrupted time-series analysis of a 20% Medicare sample from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2014, was conducted among 637 426 fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries in long-term care with Part D coverage. Data analysis was conducted from May 1, 2017, to January 9, 2018. Quarterly prevalence of use of antipsychotic and nonantipsychotic psychotropic medications (antidepressants, mood stabilizers [eg, valproic acid and carbamazepine], benzodiazepines, and other anxiolytics or sedative-hypnotics). Among the 637 426 individuals in the study (446 538 women and 190 888 men; mean [SD] age at entering nursing home, 79.3 [12.1] years), psychotropic use was declining before initiation of the partnership with the exception of mood stabilizers. In the first quarter of 2009, a total of 31 056 of 145 841 patients (21.3%) were prescribed antipsychotics, which declined at a quarterly rate of -0.53% (95% CI, -0.63% to -0.44%; P partnership. At that point, the quarterly rate of decline decreased to -0.29% (95% CI, -0.39% to -0.20%; P partnership and then accelerated after initiation of the partnership (rate, 0.22%; 95% CI, 0.18%-0.25%; P partnership, but the decrease slowed (rate change, 0.34%; 95% CI, 0.18%-0.50%; P partnership did not accelerate this decrease. However, the use of mood stabilizers, possibly as a substitute for antipsychotics, increased and accelerated after initiation of the partnership in both long-term care residents overall and in those with dementia. Measuring use of antipsychotics alone may be an

  7. Effect of long-term GH replacement therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in isolated GH deficiency compared with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies: a sub-analysis from the Dutch National Registry of Growth Hormone Treatment in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bunderen, Christa C; van den Dries, Carline J; Heymans, Martijn W; Franken, Anton A M; Koppeschaar, Hans P F; van der Lely, Aart J; Drent, Madeleine L

    2014-08-01

    Isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) could provide a model to investigate the influence of GH deficiency per se and the effect of GH replacement therapy without the influence from other pituitary hormone deficiencies or their treatment. The aim of this study is to address the questions about differences between IGHD and multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies (MPHDs) in clinical presentation and in responsiveness to GH treatment. A nationwide surveillance study was carried out to describe the difference in the clinical presentation and responsiveness to GH treatment of patients with IGHD and MPHDs. The Dutch National Registry of GH Treatment in Adults was founded in 1998 to gain more insight into long-term efficacy and safety of GH therapy. Out of 2891 enrolled patients, 266 patients with IGHD at the start of GH treatment were identified and compared with 310 patients with MPHDs. Cardiovascular indices will be investigated at baseline and during long-term follow-up, including body composition, lipid profile, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and morbidity. Patients with IGHD and MPHDs were demonstrated to be different entities at clinical presentation. Metabolically, patients with MPHDs had a larger waist circumference, lower HDL cholesterol level, and higher triglyceride level. The effect of GH treatment was comparable between patient groups. GH seems to protect against rising lipid levels and blood pressure, even after excluding patients using corresponding concomitant medication. The risk for cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus during follow-up was not different between patients with IGHD and MPHDs. Patients with IGHD had a less impaired metabolic profile than patients with MPHDs at baseline. Influence of other pituitary hormone replacement therapies on the effect of GH treatment is not demonstrated. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  8. Evaluation of the national surveillance system for point-prevalence of healthcare-associated infections in hospitals and in long-term care facilities for elderly in Norway, 2002-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajdu Agnes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2002, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health has invited all hospitals and long-term care facilities for elderly (LTCFs to participate in two annual point-prevalence surveys covering the most frequent types of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs. In a comprehensive evaluation we assessed how well the system operates to meet its objectives. Methods Surveillance protocols and the national database were reviewed. Data managers at national level, infection control practitioners and ward personnel in hospitals as well as contact persons in LTCFs involved in prevalence data collection were surveyed. Results The evaluation showed that the system was structurally simple, flexible and accepted by the key partners. On average 87% of hospitals and 32% of LTCFs participated in 2004-2008; high level of data completeness was achieved. The data collected described trends in the prevalence of reportable HAIs in Norway and informed policy makers. Local results were used in hospitals to implement targeted infection control measures and to argue for more resources to a greater extent than in LTCFs. Both the use of simplified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC definitions and validity of data seemed problematic as compliance with the standard methodology were reportedly low. Conclusions The surveillance system provides important information on selected HAIs in Norway. The system is overall functional and well-established in hospitals, however, requires active promotion in LTCFs. Validity of data needs to be controlled in the participating institutions before reporting to the national level.

  9. Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energy’s (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOE’s long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOE’s cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

  10. Indian Academy of Sciences Indian National Science Academy The ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    .in, www.insaindia.org or www.nasi.org.in); however a copy of the application together with enclosures must be sent by speed post to The Coordinator, Science Education Programme, Indian. Academy of Sciences, CV Raman Avenue, Near ...

  11. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Haney R. VanHorn

    2007-01-01

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used to determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality

  12. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Haney

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  13. Long-term mortality after poliomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Rostgaard, Klaus; Juel, Knud

    2003-01-01

    .18-3.37). Apart from polio patients with respiratory failure, long-term mortality did not appear to increase until 20 years after discharge. Contracting severe paralytic poliomyelitis at a young age seemed to increase long-term mortality. The most common causes of death were polio sequelae (standardized mortality...... patients. CONCLUSIONS: Survivors of poliomyelitis, especially severely paralyzed polio patients, have an increased long-term mortality....

  14. HOME LONG-TERM CARE IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kułagowska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The considerable proportion of the elderly, the chronically ill and the disabled in community is an economic and organizational challenge for the state social policy. It requires a large, steadily increasing financing from the public funds and creating an optional care model to fulfill the needs of citizens and guarantee high quality services. Development of the long-term care is one of the problems to be solved. This paper presents: – a long-term care forms, organization and tasks; – a role of long-term care but particularly home longterm care to protect health in Poland; – problems related with home long-term care functioning.

  15. Financing long term liabilities (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    charges and fees levied from the waste producers. Altogether, financial resources for decommissioning are needed for the following steps: the post-operational phase in which the facility is prepared for dismantling after its final shut-down, dismantling of the radioactive part of the facility, management, storage and disposal of the radioactive waste, restoration of the site, licensing and regulatory supervision of all these steps. Additional means are necessary for the management, storage and disposal of the spent fuel. The way in which the availability of financial resources is secured differs between public owned installations and installations of the private power utilities. In Germany, past practices has resulted in singular contaminated sites of limited extent, mainly during the first half of the 20. century. Those contaminated sites have been or are being cleaned up and redeveloped. In large areas of Saxony and Thuringia, the geological formations permitted the surface and underground mining of Uranium ore. Facilities of the former Soviet-German WISMUT Ltd. where ore was mined and processed from 1946 until the early 1990's can be found at numerous sites. In the course of the re-unification of Germany, the soviet shares of the WISMUT were taken over by the Federal Republic of Germany and the closure of the WISMUT facilities was initiated. In that phase the extent of the damages to the environment and of the necessary remediation work became clear. All mining and milling sites are now closed and are under decommissioning. A comprehensive remediation concept covers all WISMUT sites. Heaps and mill-tailing ponds are transferred into a long-term stable condition. The area of the facilities to be remediated amounts to more than 30 km 2 . Heaps cover a total area of ca. 15,5 km 2 , tailing ponds in which the tailings resulting from the Uranium production are stored as sludges cover 6,3 km 2 ). In total, the remediation issues are very complex and without precedent. The

  16. Quinault Indian Nation Renewable Energy Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Hopps, Institute for Washington' s Future; Jesse Nelson, Institute for Washington' s Future

    2006-11-28

    The Quinault Indian Nation (Nation) initiated this study on conservation and production of renewable energy because this approach created the opportunity: • To become self-sufficient and gain greater control over the energy the Nation uses; • To generate jobs and businesses for its members; • To better manage, sustain, and protect its resources; • To express the cultural values of the Nation in an important new arena. The Nation has relatively small energy needs. These needs are concentrated at two separate points: the Quinault Beach Resort and Casino (QBRC) and Taholah on the Quinault Indian Reservation (QIR). Except for the town of Queets, energy needs are small and scattered. The needs vary greatly over the season. The small scale, widely dispersed, and variable nature of these needs presents a unique challenge to the Nation. Meeting these needs requires a resource and technology that is flexible, effective, and portable. Conservation is the most cost-effective way to meet any need. It is especially effective in a situation like this where production would leave a high per unit cost. This plan is based on first gaining energy savings through conservation. Major savings are possible through: 1. Upgrading home appliances on the QIR. 2. Weatherizing homes and facilities. 3. Changes in lighting/ventilation in the QBRC pool room. These elements of the plan are already being implemented and promise to save the Nation around a quarter of its present costs. Wood biomass is the best resource available to the QIN for energy production either on-site or for commercial development. It is abundant, flexible and portable. Its harvesting has high job potential and these jobs are a good fit for the present “skill set” of the QIN. This plan focuses on using wood biomass to produce energy and other value-added products. Our study considered various technologies and approaches to using wood for energy. We considered production for both on-site and commercial production

  17. 75 FR 34760 - Final Determination for Federal Acknowledgment of the Shinnecock Indian Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... ``Indians not taxed'' be excluded (Art. 1, Sec. 2). Indians documented in contemporary records as residents... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Final Determination for Federal Acknowledgment of the Shinnecock Indian Nation AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of final...

  18. Long-Term Stewardship Program Science and Technology Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan McDonald

    2002-09-01

    Many of the United States’ hazardous and radioactively contaminated waste sites will not be sufficiently remediated to allow unrestricted land use because funding and technology limitations preclude cleanup to pristine conditions. This means that after cleanup is completed, the Department of Energy will have long-term stewardship responsibilities to monitor and safeguard more than 100 sites that still contain residual contamination. Long-term stewardship encompasses all physical and institutional controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms required to protect human health and the environment from the hazards remaining. The Department of Energy Long-Term Stewardship National Program is in the early stages of development, so considerable planning is still required to identify all the specific roles and responsibilities, policies, and activities needed over the next few years to support the program’s mission. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked with leading the development of Science and Technology within the Long-Term Stewardship National Program. As part of that role, a task was undertaken to identify the existing science and technology related requirements, identify gaps and conflicts that exist, and make recommendations to the Department of Energy for future requirements related to science and technology requirements for long-term stewardship. This work is summarized in this document.

  19. Review of National Work Programme on the Long Term Effects of Sustained High G on the Cervical Spine (Analyse du programme de travail national : les effets long terme sur la colonne cervicale d’un nombre de G lev et prolong )

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    biomécaniques, de méthodologies et de réponses humaines à appliquer aux domaines concernés pour tous les états membres. La base de données devrait...occurrence of asymptomatic signs without symptoms. • Modelling: Capitalize on the various national efforts to model the spine for injury prediction

  20. Long-term survival after perforated diverticulitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vermeulen (Jan); M.P. Gosselink (Martijn Pieter); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); E. van der Harst (Erwin); B.E. Hansen (Bettina); G.H.H. Mannaerts (Guido); P-P. Coene (Peter Paul); W.F. Weidema (Wibo); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAim: Short-term survival after emergency surgery for perforated diverticulitis is poor. Less is known about long-term survival. The aims of this study were to evaluate long-term survival after discharge from hospital and to identify factors associated with prognosis. Method: All patients

  1. The Long-Term Swap Rate and a General Analysis of Long-Term Interest Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Biagini; Alessandro Gnoatto; Maximilian H\\"artel

    2015-01-01

    We introduce here for the first time the long-term swap rate, characterised as the fair rate of an overnight indexed swap with infinitely many exchanges. Furthermore we analyse the relationship between the long-term swap rate, the long-term yield, see [4], [5], and [25], and the long-term simple rate, considered in [8] as long-term discounting rate. We finally investigate the existence of these long-term rates in two term structure methodologies, the Flesaker-Hughston model and the linear-rat...

  2. Comparison of the fixed ratio and the Z-score of FEV1/FVC in the elderly population: a long-term mortality analysis from the Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh DK

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dong Kyu Oh,1 Seunghee Baek,2 Sei Won Lee,1 Jae Seung Lee,1 Sang-Do Lee,1 Yeon-Mok Oh1 1Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Clinical Research Center for Chronic Obstructive Airway Diseases, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Background and objective: Despite the ongoing intense debate on the definition of airflow limitation by spirometry in the elderly population, there have only been few studies comparing the fixed ratio and the Z-score of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC in terms of long-term mortalities. In this study, we aimed to identify the proper method for accurately defining the airflow limitation in terms of long-term mortality prediction in the elderly population. Methods: Data were collected from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the US. Non-Hispanic Caucasians aged 65–80 years were included. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves of both methods were plotted and compared for 10-year all-cause, respiratory, and COPD mortalities. Results: Of 1,331 subjects, the mean age was 71.7 years and 805 (60.5% were males. For the 10-year all-cause mortality, the area under the curve (AUC of the fixed ratio was significantly greater than that of the Z-score of FEV1/FVC, but both showed poor prediction performance (0.633 vs 0.616, p<0.001. For the 10-year respiratory and COPD mortalities, both the fixed ratio and the Z-score of FEV1/FVC showed comparable prediction performance with greater AUCs (0.784 vs 0.778, p=0.160, and 0.896 vs 0.896, p=0.971, respectively. Interestingly, the conventional cutoff of 0.7 in the fixed ratio was consistently higher than the optimal for the 10-year all-cause, respiratory, and COPD mortalities (0.70 vs 0.69, 0.62, and 0.61, respectively

  3. The Implementation of Long-Term Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Rafaelič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term care is a new area of social protection that is based on the users needs and their understanding of the quality of life. In other countries direct payments are an important part of the long-term care systems. Discussed in the article are the development of direct payments in Slovenia and other countries. Different systems of long term care and direct payment schemes are presented. The slovene long term care system is provided through different laws and social secruity pillars and has yet to be established. Experiences of the pilot project in direct funding with the resettlements to the community are presented in the last part of the article. Direct payments are very effective in terms of resettlement of people from institutions into the community. New solutions for the new long term care law that will promote deinstitutionalisation and the development of community services are suggested.

  4. Industrial Foundations as Long-Term Owners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen; Poulsen, Thomas; Børsting, Christa Winther

    Short-termism has become a serious concern for corporate governance, and this has inspired a search for institutional arrangements to promote long-term decision-making. In this paper, we call attention to long-term ownership by industrial foundations, which is common in Northern Europe but little...... known in the rest of the world. We use a unique Danish data set to document that industrial foundations are long-term owners that practice long-term governance. We show that foundation ownership is highly stable compared to other ownership structures. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less...... and particularly that industrial foundations possess characteristics that promote long-termism. Policymakers, business owners and managers interested in promoting long-term governance models should therefore reconsider the role of ownership structure....

  5. 78 FR 47003 - Proposed Appointment to the National Indian Gaming Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... Office of the Secretary Proposed Appointment to the National Indian Gaming Commission ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act provides for a three-person National Indian Gaming Commission... Indian Gaming Commission for a term of 3 years. DATES: Comments must be received before September 3, 2013...

  6. National demonstration of full reactor coolant system (RCS) chemical decontamination at Indian Point 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trovato, S.A.; Parry, J.O. [Consolidated Edison Co., New York, NY (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Key to the safe and efficient operation of the nation`s civilian nuclear power plants is the performance of maintenance activities within regulations and guidelines for personnel radiation exposure. However, maintenance activities, often performed in areas of relatively high radiation fields, will increase as the nation`s plant age. With the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) lowering the allowable radiation exposure to plant workers in 1994 and considering further reductions and regulations in the future, it is imperative that new techniques be developed and applied to reduce personnel exposure. Full primary system chemical decontamination technology offers the potential to be single most effective method of maintaining workers exposure {open_quotes}as low as reasonably achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) while greatly reducing plant operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. A three-phase program underway since 1987, has as its goal to demonstrate that full RCS decontamination is a visible technology to reduce general plant radiation levels without threatening the long term reliability and operability of a plant. This paper discusses research leading to and plans for a National Demonstration of Full RCS Chemical Decontamination at Indian Point 2 nuclear generating station in 1995.

  7. Electric vehicles and India's low carbon passenger transport: A long-term co-benefits assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhar, Subash; Pathak, Minal; Shukla, Priyadarshi

    2017-01-01

    price for CO2 in line with the global target of 2 °C temperature stabilization. The scenarios analysis delineates penetration of EVs and their co-benefits as well as co-costs. The co-benefits relate to local air quality, national energy security and CO2 emissions in India whereas the co-costs (risks...... of existing EV policies as outlined in India's Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC); ii) a ‘EV policy’ scenario which, in line with India's INDCs, follows targeted supply-side push policies for EVs, but without the budget constraints; and iii) a ‘low carbon’ scenario which uses an exogenous...... to significant diffusion of electric 2- wheelers in India by 2030. These policies enhance diffusion of electric 4-wheelers only if financial incentives are sustained in the long-term, iii) the application of global carbon price on the Indian economy in the 2° C stabilization scenario increases competitiveness...

  8. Diabetes MILES--Australia (management and impact for long-term empowerment and success: methods and sample characteristics of a national survey of the psychological aspects of living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in Australian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speight Jane

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful management of diabetes requires attention to the behavioural, psychological and social aspects of this progressive condition. The Diabetes MILES (Management and Impact for Long-term Empowerment and Success Study is an international collaborative. Diabetes MILES--Australia, the first Diabetes MILES initiative to be undertaken, was a national survey of adults living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in Australia. The aim of this study was to gather data that will provide insights into how Australians manage their diabetes, the support they receive and the impact of diabetes on their lives, as well as to use the data to validate new diabetes outcome measures. Methods/design The survey was designed to include a core set of self-report measures, as well as modules specific to diabetes type or management regimens. Other measures or items were included in only half of the surveys. Cognitive debriefing interviews with 20 participants ensured the survey content was relevant and easily understood. In July 2011, the survey was posted to 15,000 adults (aged 18-70 years with type 1 or type 2 diabetes selected randomly from the National Diabetes Services Scheme (NDSS database. An online version of the survey was advertised nationally. A total of 3,338 eligible Australians took part; most (70.4% completed the postal survey. Respondents of both diabetes types and genders, and of all ages, were adequately represented in both the postal and online survey sub-samples. More people with type 2 diabetes than type 1 diabetes took part in Diabetes MILES--Australia (58.8% versus 41.2%. Most respondents spoke English as their main language, were married/in a de facto relationship, had at least a high school education, were occupied in paid work, had an annual household income > $AUS40,000, and lived in metropolitan areas. Discussion A potential limitation of the study is the under-representation of respondents from culturally and

  9. Long-term costs of colorectal cancer treatment in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Julieta; Castells, Xavier; Molins, Eduard; Chiarello, Pietro; Borras, Josep Maria; Cots, Francesc

    2016-02-16

    Assessing the long-term cost of colorectal cancer (CRC) increases our understanding of the disease burden. The aim of this paper is to estimate the long-term costs of CRC care by stage at diagnosis and phase of care in the Spanish National Health Service. Retrospective study on resource use and direct medical cost of a cohort of 699 patients diagnosed and treated for CRC in 2000-2006, with follow-up until 30 June 2011, at Hospital del Mar (Barcelona). The Kaplan-Meier sample average estimator was used to calculate observed 11-year costs, which were then extrapolated to 16 years. Bootstrap percentile confidence intervals were calculated for the mean long-term cost per patient by stage. Phase-specific, long-term costs for the entire CRC cohort were also estimated. With regard to stage at diagnosis, the mean long-term cost per patient ranged from €20,708 (in situ) to €47,681 (stage III). The estimated costs increased at more advanced stages up to stage III and then substantially decreased in stage IV. In terms of treatment phase, the mean cost of the initial period represented 24.8 % of the total mean long-term cost, whereas the cost of continuing and advanced care phases represented 16.9 and 58.3 %, respectively. This study is the first to provide long-term cost estimates for CRC treatment, by stage at diagnosis and phase of care, based on data from clinical practice in Spain, and it will contribute useful information for future studies on cost-effectiveness and budget impact of different therapeutic innovations in Spain.

  10. Long-Term Outcome in Pyridoxine-Dependent Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Levinus A.; Halbertsma, Feico J..; Houterman, Saskia; Wevers, Ron A.; Vreeswijk, Charlotte; Jakobs, Cornelis; Struys, Eduard; van der Hoeven, Johan H.; Sival, Deborah A.; Willemsen, Michel A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The long-term outcome of the Dutch pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy cohort and correlations between patient characteristics and follow-up data were retrospectively studied. Method: Fourteen patients recruited from a national reference laboratory were included (four males, 10 females, from 11 families; median age at assessment 6y; range 2y…

  11. Associations of dietary fiber intake with long-term predicted cardiovascular disease risk and C-reactive protein levels (from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data [2005-2010]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Hongyan; Van Horn, Linda; Shay, Christina M; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2014-01-15

    Dietary fiber intake might reduce cardiovascular risk factor levels and, in turn, might lower the long-term risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A total of 11,113 subjects, aged 20 to 79 years with no history of CVD, from the 2005 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in the present study to examine associations of dietary fiber intake with predicted lifetime CVD risk and C-reactive protein levels. Dietary fiber intake showed a significant gradient association with the likelihood of having a low or an intermediate predicted lifetime CVD risk among young and middle-age adults. In fully adjusted multinomial logistic models, dietary fiber intake was related to a low lifetime CVD risk with an odds ratio of 2.71 (95% confidence interval 2.05 to 3.59) in the young adults and 2.13 (95% confidence interval 1.42 to 3.20) in the middle-age adults and was related to an intermediate lifetime risk of 2.65 (95% confidence interval 1.79 to 3.92) in the young and 1.98 (95% confidence interval 1.32 to 2.98) in the middle-age adults compared with a high lifetime risk. A significant inverse linear association was seen between dietary fiber intake and log-transformed C-reactive protein levels with a regression coefficient ± standard error of -0.18 ± 0.04 in the highest quartile of fiber intake compared with the lowest fiber intake. In conclusion, these data suggest that dietary fiber intake is independently associated with the predicted lifetime CVD risk, especially in young and middle-age adults. A greater amount of dietary fiber intake might be associated with lower C-reactive protein levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of long-term GH replacement therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in GH-deficient patients previously treated for acromegaly: a sub-analysis from the Dutch National Registry of Growth Hormone Treatment in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bunderen, Christa C; van Varsseveld, Nadège C; Heymans, Martijn W; Franken, Anton A M; Koppeschaar, Hans P F; van der Lely, Aart J; Drent, Madeleine L

    2014-12-01

    The effect of GH deficiency (GHD) on the metabolic profile of acromegaly patients is unclear in patients previously treated for acromegaly, as are the efficacy and safety of GH treatment in this particular group. The aim of the study is to describe the characteristics of patients with severe GHD who were previously treated for acromegaly, and to investigate the effects of long-term GH treatment on cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity, compared with patients who were treated for a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA). A nationwide surveillance study. Sixty-five patients from the Dutch National Registry of Growth Hormone Treatment in Adults with previous acromegaly were compared with 778 patients with previous NFPA. Cardiovascular indices, including body composition, lipid profile, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and morbidity were investigated. GHD patients with previous acromegaly had an unfavorable metabolic profile comparable with or more than GHD patients with previous NFPA. GH treatment led to improvement of the lipid profile in both groups, also after excluding patients using lipid-lowering medication. In patients with previous acromegaly, HbA1c levels increased more than in patients with previous NFPA (estimate 0.03, 95% CI 0.002-0.06, P=0.04). The risk for developing cardiovascular diseases was not different between the groups. The patients with GHD after previous acromegaly have an unfavorable metabolic profile comparable with patients with GHD after previous NFPA. In both groups, the lipid profile improves during GH treatment. Changes in glucose metabolism should be monitored closely. GH treatment in patients with GHD previously treated for acromegaly had no deleterious effect on cardiovascular morbidity. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  13. Do Adaptive Comanagement Processes Lead to Adaptive Comanagement Outcomes? A Multicase Study of Long-term Outcomes Associated with the National Riparian Service Team's Place-based Riparian Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Smedstad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive comanagement (ACM is a novel approach to environmental governance that combines the dynamic learning features of adaptive management with the linking and network features of collaborative management. There is growing interest in the potential for ACM to resolve conflicts around natural resource management and contribute to greater social and ecological resilience, but little is known about how to catalyze long lasting ACM arrangements. We contribute to knowledge on this topic by evaluating the National Riparian Service Team's (NRST efforts to catalyze ACM of public lands riparian areas in seven cases in the western U.S. We found that the NRST's approach offers a relatively novel model for integrating joint fact-finding, multiple forms of knowledge, and collaborative problem solving to improve public lands riparian grazing management. With this approach, learning and dialogue often helped facilitate the development of shared understanding and trust, key features of ACM. Their activities also influenced changes in assessment, monitoring, and management approaches to public lands riparian area grazing, also indicative of a transition to ACM. Whereas these effects often aligned with the NRST's immediate objectives, i.e., to work through a specific issue or point of conflict, there was little evidence of long-term effects beyond the specific issue or intervention; that is, in most cases the initiative did not influence longer term changes in place-based governance and institutions. Our results suggest that the success of interventions aimed at catalyzing the transformation of governance arrangements toward ACM may hinge on factors external to the collaborative process such as the presence or absence of (1 dynamic local leadership and (2 high quality agreements regarding next steps for the group. Efforts to establish long lasting ACM institutions may also face significant constraints and barriers, including existing laws and regulations

  14. Common Calibration Source for Monitoring Long-term Ozone Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Accurate long-term satellite measurements are crucial for monitoring the recovery of the ozone layer. The slow pace of the recovery and limited lifetimes of satellite monitoring instruments demands that datasets from multiple observation systems be combined to provide the long-term accuracy needed. A fundamental component of accurately monitoring long-term trends is the calibration of these various instruments. NASA s Radiometric Calibration and Development Facility at the Goddard Space Flight Center has provided resources to minimize calibration biases between multiple instruments through the use of a common calibration source and standardized procedures traceable to national standards. The Facility s 50 cm barium sulfate integrating sphere has been used as a common calibration source for both US and international satellite instruments, including the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet 2 (SBUV/2) instruments, Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV), Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI), Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) (ESA), Scanning Imaging SpectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY) (ESA), and others. We will discuss the advantages of using a common calibration source and its effects on long-term ozone data sets. In addition, sphere calibration results from various instruments will be presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the long-term characterization of the source itself.

  15. Acute and long-term psychiatric side effects of mefloquine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringqvist, Åsa; Bech, Per; Glenthøj, Birte

    2015-01-01

    psychiatric side effects were retrospectively assessed using the SCL-90-R and questions based on Present State Examination (PSE). Subjects reporting suspected psychotic states were contacted for a personal PSE interview. Electronic records of psychiatric hospitalizations and diagnoses were cross-checked. Long-term......BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to explore the profile of acute and long-term psychiatric side effects associated with mefloquine. METHODS: Subjects (n = 73) reported to a Danish national register during five consecutive years for mefloquine associated side effects were included. Acute...... symptoms were found in 15% and were time-limited. Illusions/hallucinations were more frequently observed among women. Cases of hypomania/mania in the acute phase were 5.5%. Significant long-term mental health effects were demonstrated for the SF-36 subscales mental health (MH), role emotional (RE...

  16. Long Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a standardized, primary screening and assessment tool of health status that forms the foundation of the comprehensive...

  17. Reforming long-term care in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costa-i-Font, Joan

    2011-01-01

    .... Offers the very latest analysis of long-term care reform agendas in Europe. Compares countries comparatively less studied with the experiences of reform in Germany, the UK, Netherlands and Sweden...

  18. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted imag...

  19. Long-term outcomes after severe shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Cristina M; Hirshberg, Eliotte L; Jones, Jason P; Kuttler, Kathryn G; Lanspa, Michael J; Wilson, Emily L; Hopkins, Ramona O; Brown, Samuel M

    2015-02-01

    Severe shock is a life-threatening condition with very high short-term mortality. Whether the long-term outcomes among survivors of severe shock are similar to long-term outcomes of other critical illness survivors is unknown. We therefore sought to assess long-term survival and functional outcomes among 90-day survivors of severe shock and determine whether clinical predictors were associated with outcomes. Seventy-six patients who were alive 90 days after severe shock (received ≥1 μg/kg per minute of norepinephrine equivalent) were eligible for the study. We measured 3-year survival and long-term functional outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, the EuroQOL 5-D-3L, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and an employment instrument. We also assessed the relationship between in-hospital predictors and long-term outcomes. The mean long-term survival was 5.1 years; 82% (62 of 76) of patients survived, of whom 49 were eligible for follow-up. Patients who died were older than patients who survived. Thirty-six patients completed a telephone interview a mean of 5 years after hospital admission. The patients' Physical Functioning scores were below U.S. population norms (P shock had a high 3-year survival rate. Patients' long-term physical and psychological outcomes were similar to those reported for cohorts of less severely ill intensive care unit survivors. Anxiety and depression were relatively common, but only a few patients had symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study supports the observation that acute illness severity does not determine long-term outcomes. Even extremely critically ill patients have similar outcomes to general intensive care unit survivor populations.

  20. Manganese in long term paediatric parenteral nutrition.

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, A P; Kiely, E; Meadows, N

    1994-01-01

    The current practice of providing manganese supplementation to neonates on long term parenteral nutrition is leading to a high incidence of hypermanganesaemia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in adults on long term manganese parenteral nutrition have shown changes in TI weighted MRI images and similar findings in a neonate receiving trace element supplementation are reported here. Whole blood manganese concentration in the infant was 1740 nmol/l (or 8.3 times upper reference limit). ...

  1. Indian Academy of Sciences Indian National Science Academy The ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The three national Science Academies offer several two-month Summer Fellowships to enable students/teachers to work with scientists associated with the three Academies during 2012. A list of those who have consented to guide students/teachers to work on short-term projects is displayed on the online announcement.

  2. Are self-report of disability pension and long-term sickness absence accurate? Comparisons of self-reported interview data with national register data in a Swedish twin cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichtenstein Paul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported disability pension (DP and sickness absence are commonly used in epidemiological and other studies as a measure of exposure or even as an outcome. The aims were (1 to compare such self-reports with national register information in order to evaluate the validity of self-reported DP and sickness absence, and (2 to estimate the concordance of reporting behaviour in different twin zygosity groups, also by sex. Methods All Swedish twins born 1933-1958 who participated in the Screening Across the Lifespan Twin study (SALT 1998-2003, were included (31,122 individuals. The self-reported DP and long-term sickness absence (LTSA at the time of interview was compared to the corresponding register information retrieved from the National Social Insurance Agency by calculating the proportions of agreements, kappa, sensitivity, specificity, concordance rates, and chi-square test, to evaluate construct validity. Results The proportions of overall agreement were 96% and specificity 99% for both DP and LTSA, while the sensitivity was 70% for DP and 45% for LTSA. Kappa estimates were 0.76 for DP, and 0.58 for LTSA. The proportions of positive agreement were 64% for DP and 42% for LTSA. No difference in response style was found between zygosity groups among complete twin pairs for DP and LTSA. Results were similar for women and men and across age. Kappa estimates for DP differed somewhat depending on years of education, 0.68 (college/university vs. 0.77 (less than 13 years in school but not for LTSA. Conclusions Self-reported DP data may be very useful in studies when register information is not available, however, register data is preferred especially for LTSA. The same degree of twin similarity was found for truthful self-report of DP and LTSA in both monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. Thus, the response style was not influenced by genetic factors. One consequence of this would be that when estimating the relative importance of

  3. National Energy Plan 2030: a proposal for power generation expansion in the long term; Plano Nacional de Energia 2030: uma proposta de expansao para a geracao de energia eletrica no longo prazo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, Amilcar Goncalves; Pereira Junior, Amaro Olimpio; Lopes, Juarez Castrillon; Tavares, Marina Elisabete E.; Silva, Renata de A.M. da; Queiroz, Renato P.; Oliveira, Ricardo G. de [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The article aims to present and discuss a proposal for electric energy expansion generation capacity in long term. This work identifies the most appropriate evolution of the hydrothermal mix for the expansion of the supply of electrical power in the country, over the horizon of planning by 2030. (author)

  4. National Atlas, Indian tribes, cultures & languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturtevant, William C.

    1967-01-01

    Tribal distributions depicted on these maps (and on all other tribal maps covering a comparable area) are arbitrary at many points. Detailed knowledge of tribal areas was acquired at different times in different regions. For example, by the time knowledge was gained of the areas occupied by Plains tribes, many groups in the East had become extinct or had moved from their aboriginal locations. Some of these movements ultimately affected distributions on the Plains prior to reasonably detailed knowledge of Plains occupancy. Hence, it is not possible to approximate aboriginal areas of occupancy on a single map of continental scope. Furthermore, most groups did not occupy sharply defined areas, so that the delineation of territories is misleading.Distributions were derived, with slight modifications, from Indian tribes of North America (Driver and others, 1953), and boundaries within California were simplified after Languages, territories, and names of California Indian tribes (Heizer, 1966). According to the authors of these publications, the boundaries shown are those of the mid-17th century in the Southeast and the eastern part of the Northeast, the late 17th and early 18th centuries farther west in the Northeast, the late 18th and early 19th centuries in the Plains, the late 18th century in California, and the middle-to-late 19th century elsewhere. Even so, many compromises had to be made.

  5. Long-term prisoner in prison isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Grudzińska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term prisoner belongs to a particular category of people who are imprisoned in prisons. On the one hand in this group are often heavily demoralized people who committed the most serious crimes, on the other hand it is a group of prisoners, who should be well thought out and programmed the impact of rehabilitation. The situation of man trapped for years poses in a complicated situation not only the prisoners, but also the entire prison staff. They have to take care of the fact that the prison isolation did not cause the state in which convicts form itself in learned helplessness and lack of skills for self-planning and decision-making. In addition, planning the rehabilitation impact of long-term prisoners should not be forgotten that these prisoners in the short or the long term will return to the libertarian environment therefore, should prevent any negative effects of long-term imprisonment. This article presents the main issues related to the execution of imprisonment against long-term prisoners. It is an attempt to systematize the knowledge of this category of people living in prison isolation.

  6. Globalization, women's migration, and the long-term-care workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Colette V; Braun, Kathryn L

    2008-02-01

    With the aging of the world's population comes the rising need for qualified direct long-term-care (DLTC) workers (i.e., those who provide personal care to frail and disabled older adults). Developed nations are increasingly turning to immigrant women to fill these needs. In this article, we examine the impact of three global trends-population aging, globalization, and women's migration-on the supply and demand for DLTC workers in the United States. Following an overview of these trends, we identify three areas with embedded social justice issues that are shaping the DLTC workforce in the United States, with a specific focus on immigrant workers in these settings. These include world poverty and economic inequalities, the feminization and colorization of labor (especially in long-term care), and empowerment and women's rights. We conclude with a discussion of the contradictory effects that both population aging and globalization have on immigrant women, source countries, and the long-term-care workforce in the United States. We raise a number of policy, practice, and research implications and questions. For policy makers and long-term-care administrators in receiver nations such as the United States, the meeting of DLTC worker needs with immigrants may result in greater access to needed employees but also in the continued devaluation of eldercare as a profession. Source (supply) nations must balance the real and potential economic benefits of remittances from women who migrate for labor with the negative consequences of disrupting family care traditions and draining the long-term-care workforce of those countries.

  7. Perinatal respiratory infections and long term consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Indinnimeo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most important pathogen in the etiology of respiratory infections in early life. 50% of children are affected by RSV within the first year of age, and almost all children become infected within two years. Numerous retrospective and prospective studies linking RSV and chronic respiratory morbidity show that RSV bronchiolitis in infancy is followed by recurrent wheezing after the acute episod. According to some authors a greater risk of wheezing in children with a history of RSV bronchiolitis would be limited to childhood, while according to others this risk would be extended into adolescence and adulthood. To explain the relationship between RSV infection and the development of bronchial asthma or the clinical pathogenetic patterns related to a state of bronchial hyperreactivity, it has been suggested that RSV may cause alterations in the response of the immune system (immunogenic hypothesis, activating directly mast cells and basophils and changing the pattern of differentiation of immune cells present in the bronchial tree as receptors and inflammatory cytokines. It was also suggested that RSV infection can cause bronchial hyperreactivity altering nervous airway modulation, acting on nerve fibers present in the airways (neurogenic hypothesis.The benefits of passive immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab, which seems to represent an effective approach in reducing the sequelae of RSV infection in the short- and long-term period, strengthen the implementation of prevention programs with this drug, as recommended by the national guidelines of the Italian Society of Neonatology. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the

  8. Long-term home care scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Jensen, Thomas Sejr

    In several countries, home care is provided for certain citizens living at home. The long-term home care scheduling problem is to generate work plans spanning several days such that a high quality of service is maintained and the overall cost is kept as low as possible. A solution to the problem...... provides detailed information on visits and visit times for each employee on each of the covered days. We propose a branch-and-price algorithm for the long-term home care scheduling problem. The pricing problem generates one-day plans for an employee, and the master problem merges the plans with respect...

  9. Long-term characteristics of nuclear emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, N; Kuwabara, K

    2010-01-01

    Long-term characteristics of the nuclear emulsion so called 'OPERA film' used in the neutrino oscillation experiment, OPERA, has been studied for 8 years since its production or refreshing after it. In the results, it turned out to be excellent in sensitivity, amount of random noise, and refreshing characteristics. The retention capacity of latent image of tracks was also studied. The result will open the way to the recycling of 7,000,000 emulsion films which will remain not developed after 5 years of OPERA's run, and other long-term experiments with emulsion.

  10. Valuing a long-term care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellen, C M

    1992-10-01

    The business valuation industry generally uses at least one of three basic approaches to value a long-term care facility: the cost approach, sales comparison approach, or income approach. The approach that is chosen and the resulting weight that is applied to it depend largely on the circumstances involved. Because a long-term care facility is a business enterprise, more weight usually is given to the income approach which factors into the estimate of value both the tangible and intangible assets of the facility.

  11. A Long-term Plan for Kalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    In this case, the author demonstrates together with the owner-manager of KALK A/S, Mr Rasmus Jorgensen, how to use the Family Business Map to frame a constructive discussion about long-term planning. The Family Business Map is a tool for long-term planning in family firms developed by Professor...... Morten Bennedsen, INSEAD and Professor Joseph Fan, Chinese University of Hong Kong. It consists of 40 questions regarding assets in the family and roadblocks facing the family firm. The Family Business Map determines that the level of family assets in KALK is high, while the level of roadblocks is severe...

  12. [The long-term preservation of scientific and technical information. PAC, the archive platform for digital documents at the Centre Informatique National de l'Enseignement Supérieur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouchon, Olivier

    2008-12-01

    During a fifteen years period, the long-term preservation of digital information has only been a matter under consideration for a few scientific or patrimonial institutions. These have played a key role in the understanding of the subsequent risks and the definition of standards in this domain. The exponential progress of the digital information in every domain, as well as the mandatory aspect of its preservation have sped up the awareness process even at the highest management level of companies or public administrations. Thus, a significant number of projects have kicked off during the last four years, with the objective of rolling out infrastructures dedicated to the long term preservation of electronic data. Among those projects, the one currently run at the CINES, which main goal is to provide the scientific and technical community in the Higher Education and Research sectors with a genuine long term preservation service for digital information, is now operational. Here is a brief outline of the PAC system...

  13. 77 FR 5528 - National Commission on Indian Trust Administration and Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Office of the Secretary National Commission on Indian Trust Administration and Reform AGENCY: Office of... that the National Commission on Indian Trust Administration and Reform (the Commission) will hold its... Commission on Indian Trust Administration and Reform established under Secretarial Order No. 3292, dated...

  14. 75 FR 8731 - Proposed Appointment to the National Indian Gaming Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... Office of the Secretary of the Interior Proposed Appointment to the National Indian Gaming Commission ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act provides for a three-person National Indian Gaming Commission. One member, the chairman, is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of...

  15. The long term characteristics of greenschist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bo-An

    2016-04-01

    The greenschist in the Jinping II Hydropower Station in southwest China exhibits continuous creep behaviour because of the geological conditions in the region. This phenomenon illustrates the time-dependent deformation and progressive damage that occurs after excavation. In this study, the responses of greenschist to stress over time were determined in a series of laboratory tests on samples collected from the access tunnel walls at the construction site. The results showed that the greenschist presented time-dependent behaviour under long-term loading. The samples generally experienced two stages: transient creep and steady creep, but no accelerating creep. The periods of transient creep and steady creep increased with increasing stress levels. The long-term strength of the greenschist was identified based on the variation of creep strain and creep rate. The ratio of long-term strength to conventional strength was around 80% and did not vary much with confining pressures. A quantitative method for predicting the failure period of greenschist, based on analysis of the stress-strain curve, is presented and implemented. At a confining pressure of 40 MPa, greenschist was predicted to fail in 5000 days under a stress of 290 MPa and to fail in 85 days under the stress of 320 MPa, indicating that the long-term strength identified by the creep rate and creep strain is a reliable estimate.

  16. Long-Term Stability of Social Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyyppa, Markku T.; Maki, Juhani; Alanen, Erkki; Impivaara, Olli; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    The long-term stability of social participation was investigated in a representative urban population of 415 men and 579 women who had taken part in the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey in the years 1978-1980 and were re-examined 20 years later. Stability was assessed by means of the following tracking coefficients: kappa, proportion of…

  17. Timber joints under long-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldborg, T.; Johansen, M.

    This report describes tests and results from stiffness and strength testing of splice joints under long-term loading. During two years of loading the spicimens were exposed to cyclically changing relative humidity. After the loading period the specimens were short-term tested. The connectors were...

  18. Professionalism in Long-Term Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubinski, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists who serve elders in a variety of long-term care settings have a variety of professional skills and responsibilities. Fundamental to quality service is knowledge of aging and communication changes and disorders associated with this process, institutional alternatives, and the changing nature of today's elders in…

  19. Pituitary diseases : long-term psychological consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemensma, Jitske

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, pituitary adenomas can be appropriately treated, but patients continue to report impaired quality of life (QoL) despite long-term remission or cure. In patients with Cushing’s disease, Cushing’s syndrome or acromegaly, doctors should be aware of subtle cognitive impairments and the

  20. Long-term effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Alexander; Burkart, Werner; Grosche, Bernd; Jung, Thomas; Martignoni, Klaus; Stephan, Guenther

    1997-01-01

    This paper approaches the long-term effects of ionizing radiation considering the common thought that killing of cells is the basis for deterministic effects and that the subtle changes in genetic information are important in the development of radiation-induced cancer, or genetic effects if these changes are induced in germ cells

  1. Asthma Medicines: Long-Term Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or injected, are sometimes of value to get asthma quickly under control when a child is beginning long-term asthma therapy. Inhaled corticosteroids ... Updated 11/21/2015 Source Guide to Your Childs Allergies and Asthma (Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics) The information ...

  2. Long-term effects of directed forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupbach, Almut

    2018-03-01

    The intention to forget reduces the accessibility of information in memory, which is commonly explained with temporary retrieval difficulties. Long-term effects have rarely been studied, and results are inconsistent. The present study re-assessed the long-term effects of directed forgetting (DF). Participants encoded a first list of items (L1), and were then instructed to forget or to remember this list. Immediately afterwards, all participants were presented with a second list to remember. In Experiment 1, memory for L1 and L2 was assessed after a 24-h delay. The forget cue reduced the number of items that were recalled from L1. Experiment 2 implemented a 12-h delay between encoding and test that was either filled with day-time wakefulness or night-time sleep. Replicating the findings of Exp. 1, recall of L1 was reduced in the forget in comparison to the remember condition. Sleep in comparison to wakefulness significantly strengthened L1 memory in the remember group only. Taken together, the present study shows that the intention to forget can have long-lasting consequences. This suggests that different mechanisms underlie the short- and long-term effects of DF, with long-term effects potentially reflecting the preferential consolidation of information that has been identified as important during encoding.

  3. High Black Carbon (BC) Concentrations along Indian National Highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract:Black carbon (BC), the optically absorbing component of carbonaceous aerosol, has direct influence on radiation budget and global warming. Vehicular pollution is one of the main sources for poor air quality and also atmospheric pollution. The number of diesel vehicles has increased on the Indian National Highways during day and night; these vehicles are used for the transport of goods from one city to another city and also used for public transport. A smoke plume from the vehicles is a common feature on the highways. We have made measurements of BC mass concentrations along the Indian National Highways using a potable Aethalometer installed in a moving car. We have carried out measurements along Varanasi to Kanpur (NH-2), Varanasi to Durgapur (NH-2), Varanasi to Singrauli (SH-5A) and Varanasi to Ghazipur (NH-29). We have found high concentration of BC along highways, the average BC mass concentrations vary in the range 20 - 40 µg/m3 and found high BC mass concentrations up to 600 μg/m3. Along the highways high BC concentrations were characteristics of the presence of industrial area, power plants, brick kilns and slow or standing vehicles. The effect of increasing BC concentrations along the National Highways and its impact on the vegetation and human health will be presented. Key Words: Black Carbon; Aethalometer; mass concentration; Indian National Highways.

  4. Physiological, Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Long-Term Habituation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calin-Jageman, Robert J

    2009-09-12

    Work funded on this grant has explored the mechanisms of long-term habituation, a ubiquitous form of learning that plays a key role in basic cognitive functioning. Specifically, behavioral, physiological, and molecular mechanisms of habituation have been explored using a simple model system, the tail-elicited siphon-withdrawal reflex (T-SWR) in the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. Substantial progress has been made on the first and third aims, providing some fundamental insights into the mechanisms by which memories are stored. We have characterized the physiological correlates of short- and long-term habituation. We found that short-term habituation is accompanied by a robust sensory adaptation, whereas long-term habituation is accompanied by alterations in sensory and interneuron synaptic efficacy. Thus, our data indicates memories can be shifted between different sites in a neural network as they are consolidated from short to long term. At the molecular level, we have accomplished microarray analysis comparing gene expression in both habituated and control ganglia. We have identified a network of putatively regulated transcripts that seems particularly targeted towards synaptic changes (e.g. SNAP25, calmodulin) . We are now beginning additional work to confirm regulation of these transcripts and build a more detailed understanding of the cascade of molecular events leading to the permanent storage of long-term memories. On the third aim, we have fostered a nascent neuroscience program via a variety of successful initiatives. We have funded over 11 undergraduate neuroscience scholars, several of whom have been recognized at national and regional levels for their research. We have also conducted a pioneering summer research program for community college students which is helping enhance access of underrepresented groups to life science careers. Despite minimal progress on the second aim, this project has provided a) novel insight into the network mechanisms by

  5. Long-Term Control Medications for Lung Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Asthma Medications Long-Term Control Medications Long-Term Control Medications Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer Patient Long-term control medications are taken daily to control and ...

  6. Working with Indian Tribal Nations. A guide for DOE employees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-31

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) employees and contractors frequently work with Indian tribes or nations as part of their jobs. The purpose of this guide is to help DOE employees and contractors initiate contact with tribes and build effective relationships. DOE maintains a unique government-to government relationship with tribal nations. This guide presents an overview of the history of the relationship between the tribes and the Federal government, as well as the laws and Executive Orders that define that relationship. The guide discusses the Federal government’s trust responsibility to the tribes, tribal treaty rights, and the Department of Energy’s American Indian policy. The guide also discusses important cultural differences that could lead to communication problems if not understood and provides examples of potential cultural misunderstandings. In particular the guide discusses tribal environmental beliefs that shape tribal responses to DOE actions. The guide also provides pointers on tribal etiquette during meetings and cultural ceremonies and when visiting tribal reservations. Appendix 1 gives examples of the tribal nations with whom DOE currently has Memoranda of Understanding. While this guide provides an introduction and overview of tribal relations for DOE staff and contractors, DOE has also designated Tribal Issues Points of Contacts at each of its facilities. A list of these Points of Contact for all DOE facilities is provided in Appendix 2. DOE staff and contractors should consult with the appropriate tribal representatives at their site before initiating contact with a tribal nation, because many tribes have rules and procedures that must be complied with before DOE staff or contractors may go on tribal lands or conduct interviews with tribal members. Appendix 3 is the complete DOE American Indian Policy. Appendices 4-6 are Executive Orders that govern the relationship of all federal agencies with tribal nations. DOE employees and staff are

  7. Long-Term Prognosis of Plantar Fasciitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Liselotte; Krogh, Thøger Persson; Ellingsen, Torkell

    2018-01-01

    , exercise-induced symptoms, bilateral heel pain, fascia thickness, and presence of a heel spur) could predict long-term outcomes, (3) to assess the long-term ultrasound (US) development in the fascia, and (4) to assess whether US-guided corticosteroid injections induce atrophy of the heel fat pad. Study....... The risk was significantly greater for women (P Fascia thickness decreased significantly in both the asymptomatic and symptomatic groups (P Fascia thickness (P =.49) and presence of a heel...... spur (P =.88) at baseline had no impact on prognosis. At follow-up, fascia thickness and echogenicity had normalized in only 24% of the asymptomatic group. The mean fat pad thickness was 9.0 mm in patients who had received a US-guided corticosteroid injection and 9.4 mm in those who had not been given...

  8. Long-Term Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christa Winther; Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Poulsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    in Denmark. Industrial foundations are independent legal entities without owners or members typically with the dual objective of preserving the company and using excess profits for charity. We use a unique Danish data set to examine the governance of foundation-owned companies. We show that they are long......-term in several respects. Foundations hold on to their shares for longer. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less frequently. They have more conservative capital structures with less leverage. Their companies survive longer. Their business decisions appear to be more long term. This paper supports...... the hypothesis that time horizons are influenced by ownership structures and particularly that industrial foundations promote longtermism. Policymakers which are interested in promoting longtermism should allow and perhaps even encourage the creation of industrial foundations. More generally they should consider...

  9. French Approach for Long Term Storage Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, Jacob; Carreton, Jean-Pierre; Lizot, Marie Therese; Lhomme, Veronique

    2014-01-01

    IRSN presents its statement regarding long-term storage facilities; in France, the regulatory documents do not define the long term duration. The storage facility lifetime can only be appreciated according to the needs and materials stored therein. However, the magnitude of the long-term can be estimated at a few hundred years compared to a few decades for current storage. Usually, in France, construction of storage facilities is driven from the necessity various necessities, linked to the management of radioactive material (eg spent fuel) and to the management of radioactive waste. Because of the variety of 'stored materials and objects' (fission product solutions, plutonium oxide powders, activated solids, drums containing technological waste, spent fuel...), a great number of storage facility design solutions have been developed (surface, subsurface areas, dry or wet conditions...) in the World. After describing the main functions of a storage facility, IRSN displays the safety principles and the associated design principles. The specific design principles applied to particular storage (dry or wet spent fuel storage, depleted uranium or reprocessed uranium storage, plutonium storage, waste containing tritium storage, HLW and ILLW storage...) are also presented. Finally, the concerns due to the long-term duration storage and related safety assessment are developed. After discussing these issues, IRSN displays its statement. The authorization procedures governing the facility lifetime are similar to those of any basic nuclear installation, the continuation of the facility operation remaining subject to periodic safety reviews (in France, every 10 years). The applicant safety cases have to show, that the safety requirements are always met; this requires, at minimum, to take into account at the design stage, comfortable design margins. (author)

  10. Experiences of long-term tranquillizer use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinhoj, K T; Larsson, S; Helweg-Joergensen, S

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the article is to analyse narrative descriptions and experiences of long-term tranquillizer use. The analysis is based on a Danish in-depth study of 50 informants with a self-diagnosed dependency on tranquillizers. The theoretical analysis is dependent on psychodynamic reasoning. Furth...... use. Important themes frequently mentioned in the clients' descriptions are traumatic childhood experiences, identity problems, life crises in adulthood and difficulties in stopping taking psychotropic drugs....

  11. Murine model of long term obstructive jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hiroaki; Aoki, Masayo; Yang, Jing; Katsuta, Eriko; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Woelfel, Ingrid A.; Wang, Xuan; Spiegel, Sarah; Zhou, Huiping; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    Background With the recent emergence of conjugated bile acids as signaling molecules in cancer, a murine model of obstructive jaundice by cholestasis with long-term survival is in need. Here, we investigated the characteristics of 3 murine models of obstructive jaundice. Methods C57BL/6J mice were used for total ligation of the common bile duct (tCL), partial common bile duct ligation (pCL), and ligation of left and median hepatic bile duct with gallbladder removal (LMHL) models. Survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier method. Fibrotic change was determined by Masson-Trichrome staining and Collagen expression. Results 70% (7/10) of tCL mice died by Day 7, whereas majority 67% (10/15) of pCL mice survived with loss of jaundice. 19% (3/16) of LMHL mice died; however, jaundice continued beyond Day 14, with survival of more than a month. Compensatory enlargement of the right lobe was observed in both pCL and LMHL models. The pCL model demonstrated acute inflammation due to obstructive jaundice 3 days after ligation but jaundice rapidly decreased by Day 7. The LHML group developed portal hypertension as well as severe fibrosis by Day 14 in addition to prolonged jaundice. Conclusion The standard tCL model is too unstable with high mortality for long-term studies. pCL may be an appropriate model for acute inflammation with obstructive jaundice but long term survivors are no longer jaundiced. The LHML model was identified to be the most feasible model to study the effect of long-term obstructive jaundice. PMID:27916350

  12. Long term evolution 4G and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Yacoub, Michel; Figueiredo, Fabrício; Tronco, Tania

    2016-01-01

    This book focus on Long Term Evolution (LTE) and beyond. The chapters describe different aspects of research and development in LTE, LTE-Advanced (4G systems) and LTE-450 MHz such as telecommunications regulatory framework, voice over LTE, link adaptation, power control, interference mitigation mechanisms, performance evaluation for different types of antennas, cognitive mesh network, integration of LTE network and satellite, test environment, power amplifiers and so on. It is useful for researchers in the field of mobile communications.

  13. Long-Term Contracting with Markovian Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Battaglini

    2005-01-01

    To study how a firm can capitalize on a long-term customer relationship, we characterize the optimal contract between a monopolist and a consumer whose preferences follow a Markov process. The optimal contract is nonstationary and has infinite memory, but is described by a simple state variable. Under general conditions, supply converges to the efficient level for any degree of persistence of the types and along any history, though convergence is history-dependent. In contrast, as with consta...

  14. The 2013 Long-Term Budget Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    and Social Security. Population projections depend on projections of fertility , immigration, and mortality. For fertility rates, CBO adopted the...projections, which differ from those of the Social Security trustees. Together, CBO’s long-term assump- tions about fertility , mortality, and...such as obesity and future medical technology, CBO has based its mortality projec- tions on a simple extrapolation of past trends. Conse- quently

  15. Long-Term Hearing Results After Ossiculoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Matthew D; Trinidade, Aaron; Russell, James Shep; Dornhoffer, John L

    2017-04-01

    To determine if the OOPS index is predictive of long-term hearing results after ossiculoplasty. Case series with retrospective chart review. Tertiary care otology practice. Adult and pediatric patients (3-88 years of age). Ossiculoplasty with cartilage tympanoplasty, with or without mastoidectomy. Primary outcome measures included short-term hearing results (pure-tone average air-bone gap [PTA-ABG] measured between 60 days and 1 year after surgery), long-term hearing results (PTA-ABG measured ≥5 years after surgery), and the rate of successful ABG closure to ≤20 dB. Secondary measures included the need for revision surgery, delayed tympanic membrane graft failure, worsening conductive hearing loss (after an initially satisfactory hearing result), and recurrence of cholesteatoma. There was no significant difference between adults and children for short-term hearing results (average post-op PTA-ABG was 18.9 dB vs. 19.8 dB, respectively; p = 0.544), long-term hearing results (average final PTA-ABG was 19.3 dB vs. 19.4 dB, respectively; p = 0.922), or rate of ABG closure to less than 20 dB (63.1% vs. 58.0%, p = 0.282). Spearman's rank-order correlation (ρ) identified a strong positive correlation between OOPS index score and average post-operative PTA-ABG (ρ = 0.983; p hearing outcomes in adult and pediatric patients undergoing ossiculoplasty in both the short term and the long term.

  16. Penobscot Indian Nation's Strategic Energy Planning Efficiency on tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sockalexis, Mike; Fields, Brenda

    2006-11-30

    The energy grant provided the resources to evaluate the wind, hydro, biomass, geothermal and solar resource potential on all Penobscot Indian Naiton's Tribal lands. The two objectives address potential renewable energy resources available on tribal lands and energy efficiency measures to be taken after comprehensive energy audits of commercial facilities. Also, a Long Term Strategic Energy Plan was developed along with a plan to reduce high energy costs.

  17. Safety of Long-term Interim Storage Facilities - Workshop Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this workshop was to discuss and review current national activities, plans and regulatory approaches for the safety of long term interim storage facilities dedicated to spent nuclear fuel (SF), high level waste (HLW) and other radioactive materials with prolonged storage regimes. It was also intended to discuss results of experiments and to identify necessary R and D to confirm safety of fuel and cask during the long-term storage. Safety authorities and their Technical Support Organisation (TSO), Fuel Cycle Facilities (FCF) operating organisations and international organisations were invited to share information on their approaches, practices and current developments. The workshop was organised in an opening session, three technical sessions, and a conclusion session. The technical sessions were focused on: - National approaches for long term interim storage facilities; - Safety requirements, regulatory framework and implementation issues; - Technical issues and operational experience, needs for R and D. Each session consisted of a number of presentations followed by a panel discussion moderated by the session Chairs. A summary of each session and subsequent discussion that ensued are provided as well as a summary of the results of the workshop with the text of the papers given and presentations made

  18. Long-term surveillance plan for the Collins Ranch Disposal Site, Lakeview, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Lakeview (Collins Ranch) disposal cell, which will be referred to as the Collins Ranch disposal cell throughout this document. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials. This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe, and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. It is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  19. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  20. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah disposal site. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE's Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a)

  1. India’s long-term growth potential and the implications for Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Ralston; Wilson Au-Yeung; Bill Brummitt

    2011-01-01

    After 20 years of economic reform this article discusses India’s long-term growth potential and canvasses some of the challenges that Indian policy makers will need to overcome to realise this potential. Some of the consequences of India’s growth for Australia are also explored.

  2. Long-Term Environmental Research Programs - Evolving Capacity for Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, F. J.

    2008-12-01

    Long-term forestry, watershed, and ecological research sites have become critical, productive nodes for environmental science research and in some cases for work in the social sciences and humanities. The Forest Service's century-old Experimental Forests and Ranges and the National Science Foundation's 28- year-old Long-Term Ecological Research program have been remarkably productive in both basic and applied sciences, including characterization of acid rain and old-growth ecosystems and development of forest, watershed, and range management systems for commercial and other land use objectives. A review of recent developments suggests steps to enhance the function of collections of long-term research sites as interactive science networks. The programs at these sites have evolved greatly, especially over the past few decades, as the questions addressed, disciplines engaged, and degree of science integration have grown. This is well displayed by small, experimental watershed studies, which first were used for applied hydrology studies then more fundamental biogeochemical studies and now examination of complex ecosystem processes; all capitalizing on the legacy of intensive studies and environmental monitoring spanning decades. In very modest ways these collections of initially independent sites have functioned increasingly as integrated research networks addressing inter-site questions by using common experimental designs, being part of a single experiment, and examining long-term data in a common analytical framework. The network aspects include data sharing via publicly-accessible data-harvester systems for climate and streamflow data. The layering of one research or environmental monitoring network upon another facilitates synergies. Changing climate and atmospheric chemistry highlight a need to use these networks as continental-scale observatory systems for assessing the impacts of environmental change on ecological services. To better capitalize on long-term

  3. 75 FR 30842 - Statutorily Mandated Single Source Award Program Name: National Indian Health Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... consistently provided education and outreach to Tribal leadership regarding the potential impact of Health Care... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Statutorily Mandated Single Source Award Program Name: National Indian Health Board AGENCY: Indian Health Service, HHS. ACTION: Notice of...

  4. Long-term EARLINET dust observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, Lucia; Amiridis, Vassilis; Amodeo, Aldo; Binietoglou, Ioannis; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Schwarz, Anja; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Papayannis, Alexandros; Sicard, Michael; Comeron, Adolfo; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2015-04-01

    Systematic observations of Saharan dust events over Europe are performed from May 2000 by EARLINET, the European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork. EARLINET is a coordinated network of stations that make use of advanced lidar methods for the vertical profiling of aerosols. The backbone of EARLINET network is a common schedule for performing the measurements and the quality assurance of instruments/data. Particular attention is paid to monitoring the Saharan dust intrusions over the European continent. The geographical distribution of the EARLINET stations is particularly appealing for the dust observation, with stations located all around the Mediterranean and in the center of the Mediterranean (Italian stations) where dust intrusions are frequent, and with several stations in the central Europe where dust penetrates occasionally. All aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles related to observations collected during these alerts are grouped in the devoted "Saharan dust" category of the EARLINET database. This category consists of about 4700 files (as of December 2013). Case studies involving several stations around Europe selected from this long-term database have been provided the opportunity to investigate dust modification processes during transport over the continent. More important, the long term EARLINET dust monitoring allows the investigation of the horizontal and vertical extent of dust outbreaks over Europe and the climatological analysis of dust optical intensive and extensive properties at continental scale. This long-term database is also a unique tool for a systematic comparison with dust model outputs and satellite-derived dust products. Because of the relevance for both dust modeling and satellite retrievals improvement, results about desert dust layers extensive properties as a function of season and source regions are investigated and will be presented at the conference. First comparisons with models outputs and CALIPSO dust products will be

  5. LONG-TERM OUTCOME IN PEDIATRIC TRICHOTILLOMANIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Maya C; Panza, Kaitlyn E; Mulqueen, Jilian M; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Bloch, Michael H

    2015-10-01

    To examine long-term outcome in children with trichotillomania. We conducted follow-up clinical assessments an average of 2.8 ± 0.8 years after baseline evaluation in 30 of 39 children who previously participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for pediatric trichotillomania. Our primary outcome was change in hairpulling severity on the Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Hospital Hairpulling Scale (MGH-HPS) between the end of the acute phase and follow-up evaluation. We also obtained secondary measures examining styles of hairpulling, comorbid anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as continued treatment utilization. We examined both correlates and predictors of outcome (change in MGH-HPS score) using linear regression. None of the participants continued to take NAC at the time of follow-up assessment. No significant changes in hairpulling severity were reported over the follow-up period. Subjects reported significantly increased anxiety and depressive symptoms but improvement in automatic pulling symptoms. Increased hairpulling symptoms during the follow-up period were associated with increased depression and anxiety symptoms and increased focused pulling. Older age and greater focused pulling at baseline assessment were associated with poor long-term prognosis. Our findings suggest that few children with trichotillomania experience a significant improvement in trichotillomania symptoms if behavioral treatments are inaccessible or have failed to produce adequate symptom relief. Our findings also confirm results of previous cross-sectional studies that suggest an increased risk of depression and anxiety symptoms with age in pediatric trichotillomania. Increased focused pulling and older age among children with trichotillomania symptoms may be associated with poorer long-term prognosis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Long-term governance for sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, M.

    2007-01-01

    Meritxell Martell spoke of the long-term aspects of radioactive waste management. She pointed out that decision-making processes need to be framed within the context of sustainability, which means that a balance should be sought between scientific considerations, economic aspects and structural conditions. Focusing on structural aspects, Working Group 3 of COWAM-Spain came to the conclusion that the activity of the regulator is a key factor of long-term management. Another finding is that from a sustainability perspective multi-level governance is more effective for coping with the challenges of radioactive waste management than one tier of government-making decisions. The working group also felt that the current Local Information Committees need to evolve towards more institutionalized and legitimized mechanisms for long-term involvement. Ms. Martell introduced a study comparing the efficiency of economic instruments to advance sustainable development in nuclear communities vs. municipalities in mining areas. The study found that funds transferred to nuclear zones had become a means to facilitate local acceptance of nuclear facilities rather than a means to promote socio-economic development. Another finding is that economic instruments are not sufficient guarantees of sustainable development by themselves; additional preconditions include leadership, vision and entrepreneur-ship on the part of community leaders, private or public investments, among others. Finally, Ms. Martell summarised the challenges faced by the Spanish radioactive waste management programme, which include the need for strategic thinking, designing the future in a participatory fashion, and working with local and regional governments and citizens to devise mechanisms for social learning, economic development and environmental protection. (author)

  7. Long-term outcomes of infantile spasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seak Hee Oh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The aims of this study were to investigate the long-term outcomes in children with infantile spasms (IS and to identify the prognostic factors influencing their neurodevelopment. Methods : We retrospectively evaluated seventy two children over five years old who were treated for IS at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, between 1994 and 2007. Forty-three children were contacted by telephone or medical follow-up to assess their current neurodevelopmental status. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (95% CIs of risk factors for unfavorable outcomes. Results : The mean follow-up duration for these 43 children was 7.2¡?#?.5 ;years (range, 4.5 to 13.0 years. Of these, 13 (30.2% had cryptogenic and 30 (69.8% had symptomatic IS. Eleven (25.6% children were initially treated with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH therapy, with a mean treatment lag of 1.3¡?#?.9 ;months (range; 0.1 to 7.0 months. Eighteen (41.8% children clinically responded to initial treatment, as shown by EEG response. Overall, 22 (51.2% children had at least moderate neurodevelopmental disorders and 2 (4.8% died. In univariate analysis, etiology (symptomatic and poor electroclinical response to initial treatment were related to long-term unfavorable outcomes. In multivariate analysis, response to primary treatment was the sole significant independent risk factor with a high OR. Conclusion : Overall prognosis of children with IS was poor. Electroclinical non-responsiveness to initial treatment was related to unfavorable long-term outcomes, indicating that initial control of seizures may be important in reducing the likelihood of poor neurodevelopment.

  8. Transcriptional regulation of long-term potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliim, Nicola; Leshchyns'ka, Iryna; Sytnyk, Vladimir; Janitz, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP), the persistent strengthening of synapses following high levels of stimulation, is a form of synaptic plasticity that has been studied extensively as a possible mechanism for learning and memory formation. The strengthening of the synapse that occurs during LTP requires cascades of complex molecular processes and the coordinated remodeling of pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurons. Despite over four decades of research, our understanding of the transcriptional mechanisms and molecular processes underlying LTP remains incomplete. Identification of all the proteins and non-coding RNA transcripts expressed during LTP may provide greater insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in learning and memory formation.

  9. Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

  10. Long Term Planning at IQ Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This is a Danish version. This case about long term planning at the owner-managed manufacturing firm IQ Metal shows how the future management and ownership may be organized to utilize owner assets and minimize roadblocks. Initially, the owner-manager Bo Fischer Larsen explains how he acquired...... in The Owner Strategy Map into the questionnaire available on www.ejerstrategi-kortet.dk. Lastly, the Owner Strategy Map's recommendation of how to organize the future management and ownership of IQ Metal is explained....

  11. Rising Long-term Interest Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    Rather than chronicle recent developments in European long-term interest rates as such, this paper assesses the impact of increases in those interest rates on economic performance and inflation. That puts us in a position to evaluate the economic pressures for further rises in those rates...... spending, debt service costs and shrinking fiscal space. There are also countervailing positive effects, which render the net negative effects on spending and the real costs of borrowing relatively small. The illustrative projections, based on techniques derived from an analysis of how financial markets...

  12. Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N; Henningfield, J E; Benowitz, N L; Connolly, G N; Dresler, C; Fagerstrom, K; Jarvis, M J; Boyle, P

    2005-06-01

    Global tobacco deaths are high and rising. Tobacco use is primarily driven by nicotine addiction. Overall tobacco control policy is relatively well agreed upon but a long term nicotine policy has been less well considered and requires further debate. Reaching consensus is important because a nicotine policy is integral to the target of reducing tobacco caused disease, and the contentious issues need to be resolved before the necessary political changes can be sought. A long term and comprehensive nicotine policy is proposed here. It envisages both reducing the attractiveness and addictiveness of existing tobacco based nicotine delivery systems as well as providing alternative sources of acceptable clean nicotine as competition for tobacco. Clean nicotine is defined as nicotine free enough of tobacco toxicants to pass regulatory approval. A three phase policy is proposed. The initial phase requires regulatory capture of cigarette and smoke constituents liberalising the market for clean nicotine; regulating all nicotine sources from the same agency; and research into nicotine absorption and the role of tobacco additives in this process. The second phase anticipates clean nicotine overtaking tobacco as the primary source of the drug (facilitated by use of regulatory and taxation measures); simplification of tobacco products by limitation of additives which make tobacco attractive and easier to smoke (but tobacco would still be able to provide a satisfying dose of nicotine). The third phase includes a progressive reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes, with clean nicotine freely available to take the place of tobacco as society's main nicotine source.

  13. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M.

    2000-04-01

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, ii) modelling, iii) countermeasures, iv) runoff v) spatial variations, and vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides 137 Cs, 90 Sr and 239-240 Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  14. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition.

  15. Andra long term memory project - 59277

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charton, Patrick; Boissier, Fabrice; Martin, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Long term memory of repositories is required by safety, reversibility and social expectations. Thus Andra has implemented since 2010 a long-term memory project to reinforce and diversify its current arrangements in this field, as well as to explore opportunities to extend memory keeping over thousands years. The project includes opportunity studies of dedicated facilities. The 'Ecotheque' and 'Geotheque' projects contribute to memory respectively through environmental and geological samples preservation. The options of creating (i) an archive centre for Andra's interim and permanent archives, (ii) an artist center to study the contribution of arts to memory preservation, (iii) a museum of radioactive waste disposal history and technology (radium industry..., sea disposal, current solutions...) are considered. Other studies provided by the project examine our heritage. This includes the continuity of languages and symbolic systems, the continuity of writing and engraving methods, the archaeology of landscapes (memory of the earths evolution, multi-century memory of industrial and agricultural landscapes), the archaeology practices (how might a future archaeologist be interested in our current activity?), the preservation of historical sites and industrial memory, the continuity of institutional organizations, the memory and history of science evolution as well as broad history

  16. Institutionalization and Organizational Long-term Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L. Fleck

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Institutionalization processes have an ambivalent effect on organizational long-term success. Even though they foster organizational stability and permanence, they also bring about rigidity and resistance to change. As a result, successful organizations are likely to lose their competitive advantage over time. The paper addresses this issue through the investigation of the institutionalization processes of two long-lived companies: General Electric, a firm that has been a long-term success and its rival, Westinghouse, which was broken up after eleven decades of existence. The longitudinal, multilevel analysis of firms and industry has identified two different modes of organizational institutionalization. The reactive mode gives rise to rigidity and change resistance, much like institutional theory predicts; the proactive mode, on the other hand, neutralizes those negative effects of institutionalization processes. In the reactive mode, structure predominates. In the proactive mode, agency plays a major role in organizational institutionalization, and in managing the organization’s relations with the environment, clearly contributing to environmental institutionalization.

  17. Long term testing of PSI-membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huslage, J.; Brack, H.P.; Geiger, F.; Buechi, F.N.; Tsukada, A.; Scherer, G.G. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Long term tests of PSI membranes based on radiation-grafted FEP and ETFE films were carried out and FEP-based membranes were evaluated by monitoring the in-situ membrane area resistance measured by a current pulse method. By modifying our irradiation procedure and using the double crosslinking concept we obtain reproducible membrane cell lifetimes (in term of in-situ membrane resistance) of greater than 5000 hours at 60-65{sup o}C. Preliminary tests at 80-85{sup o}C with lifetimes of greater than 2500 demonstrate the potential long term stability of PSI proton exchange membranes based on FEP over the whole operating temperature range of low-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Radiation grafted PSI membranes based on ETFE have better mechanical properties than those of the FEP membranes. Mechanical properties are particularly important in large area cells and fuel cell stacks. ETFE membranes have been tested successfully for approximately 1000 h in a 2-cell stack (100 cm{sup 2} active area each cell). (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  18. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M

    2000-04-01

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: (i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, (ii) modelling, (iii) countermeasures, (iv) runoff (v) spatial variations, and (vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239-240}Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  19. Neo bladder long term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhr, I.; Mohamed, A. M.; Moustafa, A.; Al-Sherbiny, M.; Salama, M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the commonest forms of orthotopic bladder substitution for bladder cancer surivors, used in our institute, is the use of ileocecal segment. Sometimes, the need for Indiana pouch heterotropic continent diversion arises. Aim: To compare the long-term effect of orthotopic ileocecal bladder and heterotropic Indiana pouch following radical cystectomy in bladder cancer patients. Patients and methods: Between January 2008 and December 2011, 91 patients underwent radical cystectomy/anterior pelvic exentration and ortho topic ileocecal bladder reconstruction (61 patients) and Indiana pouch (30 patients), when orthotopic diversion could not be technically or oncologically feasible. Results: Convalescence was uneventful in most patients. All minor and major urinary leakage cases, in both diversions groups, where successfully conservatively treated. Only one patient in the ileocecal group with major urinary leak required re-exploration with successful revision of uretro-colonic anastomosis. Only one patient in the Indiana pouch group had accidentally discovered sub-centimetric stone, which was simply expelled. The overall survival proportion of ileocecal group was 100% compared to 80% in the Indiana pouch group (p < 0.001). The disease free survival proportion of ileocecal group was 90.8% compared to 80% in the Indiana pouch group (p = 0.076). Effective comparative daytime and nighttime urinary continence as well as renal function deterioration were not statistically significant between both reconstruction types. Conclusion: Both ileocecal bladder and Indiana pouch are safe procedures in regard to long-term effects over kidney function following radical cystectomy

  20. Amyloid osteoarthropathy in long term hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orzincolo, C.; Cardona, P.; Vita, G.; Bedani, P.L.; Farinelli, A.; Scutellari, P.N.

    1988-01-01

    The accumulation of amyloid in the bone and joint system has recently been recognized as a peculiar disease in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis (5 years at least), especially in those who use cuprophan membranes. The pathology of amyloidosis is characterized by deposits of amyloid (β microglobulin mainly) in the bone, in the synovia, and in pericapsular soft tissues. The skeleton of 46 long-term hemodialysis patients (19 males and 27 females) was studied by X-ray; bone and joint abnormalities due to amyloid deposition were observed in 45% of cases. The shoulder, hip, and wrist were the most frequently involved joints. Destructive spondyloarthorapathy was present in 15% of cases. The radiographic patterns of AOD are generally divided into axial and peripheral lesions. In the appendicular skeleton abnormalities include: well-defined lytic areas (geodes), pathologic fractures, marginal erosions, and particular soft tissue swelling. Destructive spondyloarthropathy is frequently present in the cervical spine (85% of our cases) and is characterized by narrowing of the invertebral space, marginal erosion, and subchondral bone sclerosis of the vertebral body

  1. What Makes Institutional Long-Term Care the Most Appropriate Setting for People With Dementia? Exploring the Influence of Client Characteristics, Decision-Maker Attributes, and Country in 8 European Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Sue; Brand, Christian; Sutcliffe, Caroline; Challis, David; Saks, Kai; Verbeek, Hilde; Cabrera, Esther; Karlsson, Staffan; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Stephan, Astrid; Soto, Maria E

    2016-05-01

    To explore the extent to which client characteristics, decision-maker attributes, and country influence judgments of institutional long-term care (ILTC) appropriateness for people with dementia. A total of 161 experts in dementia care from 8 European countries reviewed a series of 14 vignettes representing people with dementia on the cusp of ILTC admission and indicated the most appropriate setting in which to support each case in a simple discrete choice exercise: own home, very sheltered housing, residential home, or nursing home. At least 16 experts participated in each country (Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom). Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the experts and their placement preferences. Logistic regression modeling was used to explore the extent to which the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of people with dementia, and the profession, workplace, and country of decision-makers were associated with ILTC recommendation. Client characteristics, decision-maker attributes, and country all seemed to play a part in influencing professionals' perceptions of the appropriateness of ILTC for people with dementia. Expert decision-makers were more likely to recommend ILTC for individuals who required help with mobility or had multiple care needs, and appeared to give more weight to carers' than clients' wishes. Community-based social workers were less likely than other professional groups to favor ILTC placement. Experts in Finland, Germany, and the United Kingdom were less likely to recommend ILTC than experts in France, the Netherlands, and Estonia; experts in Sweden and Spain took an intermediate position. This study provides new understanding of the factors that shape professionals' perceptions of ILTC appropriateness and highlights the need to construct multifaceted models of institutionalization when planning services for people with dementia. It also has several important clinical

  2. Guam Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program Reef Fish Surveys since 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Government of Guam's Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program, coordinated by the Guam Coastal Management Program until October 2013 and now coordinated by the...

  3. Guam Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program Reef Fish Surveys FY2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Government of Guam's Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program, coordinated by the University of Guam Marine Lab, involves the collection of data for a suite of...

  4. Guam Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program Coral Colony Size and Condition Surveys since 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Government of Guam's Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program, coordinated by the Guam Coastal Management Program until October 2013 and now coordinated by the...

  5. Guam Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program Macroinvertebrate Belt Transects since 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Government of Guam's Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program, coordinated by the Guam Coastal Management Program until October 2013 and now coordinated by the...

  6. LONG-TERM EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS IN CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, P.L.; Greene, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Charleston, South Carolina, area offers a unique opportunity to conduct studies that give insight into the implementation of policy for long-term earthquake preparedness at the local level. Research by Greene and Gori documented the low state of preparedness in 1981. Recent studies show that earthquake preparedness activities are now occurring in Charleston. Since 1981, increased national attention has been used by local citizens in Charleston to overcome political, informational, social, organizational, and economic barriers which tend to retard the adoption and implementation of earthquake mitigation policies.

  7. BRUS2. An energy system simulator for long term planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, K.; Skjerk Christensen, P.

    1999-01-01

    the energy system by four demand sectors: residential, service. production, and transport, and by two supply systems: electricity, and gas and oil. The simulations are carried out in three years: a base year For calibration, a midterm year preferably in accordance with the planning horizon of national...... and regional plans, and an end year, used to study long-term trends of development of society and technology. The results of simulations include fuel demand, emissions of pollutants, and economic consequences. BRUS2 has been implemented in several countries, recently in Mexico. The methodology is described...

  8. Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreie, Ken [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, CO (United States); Findlay, Rick [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States)

    2016-06-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) prepared this Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan (LTSMP) for the Gnome-Coach, New Mexico, Site (the Gnome site). The Gnome site is approximately 25 miles east of Carlsbad in Eddy County, New Mexico (Figure 1). The site was the location of a 3-kiloton-yield underground nuclear test and radioisotope groundwater tracer test. The tests resulted in residual contamination and post-detonation features that require long-term oversight. Long-term responsibility for the site was transferred from the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office to LM on October 1, 2006. Responsibilities include surveillance, monitoring, and maintenance of institutional controls (ICs) as part of the long-term stewardship of the site. Long-term stewardship is designed to ensure protection of human health and the environment.

  9. Autobiographical reasoning in long-term fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lee Harrington

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We explore the social psychological processes through which fan-based experiences become situated in fans' larger life narratives. Drawing on original survey data with long-term U.S. soap opera fans, we examine how the psychological mechanism of autobiographical reasoning functions in fans' construction of self-narratives over time. The case study presented here is a subset of a larger investigation into the age-related structure of fans' activities, identities, and interpretive capacities. Situated at the intersections of gerontological (life span/life course theory and contemporary fan studies, our project mines relatively uninvestigated theoretical terrain. We conclude with a brief discussion of implications for future fan studies.

  10. Technology for long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Sunghee H; Benefield, Lazelle E; Mahoney, Diane Feeney

    2010-01-01

    Severe staff shortages in long-term care (LTC) make it difficult to meet the demands of the growing aging population. Further, technology-savvy Baby Boomers are expected to reshape the current institutional environments toward gaining more freedom and control in their care and lives. Voices from business, academia, research, advocacy organizations, and government bodies suggest that innovative technological approaches are the linchpin that may prepare society to cope with these projected demands. In this article, we review the current state of aging-related technology, identify potential areas for efficacy testing on improving the quality of life of LTC residents in future research, and discuss barriers to implementation of LTC technology. Finally, we present a vision of future technology use that could transform current care practices. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes

  12. Long term radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, V.; Glodeanu, F.; Dina, D.

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive waste management is a key issue of the environmental policy of any company. According to the Romanian Nuclear Act (Law 111/1996) and the Environmental Protection Act (Law 137/1996) the owner is responsible for the management of all radioactive waste effluents at the nuclear installations, including the technical and cost components. The developed policy incorporates the practice in the EU Member States and in the country of the plant supplier (Canada). On short term, the priorities of our radioactive waste management policy are to extend the spent fuel storage capacity using the dry storage technology. On long term the policy includes a facilities for L/ILW packaging for disposal in a new surface repository to be built on the Cernavoda NPP site. For HLW the interim storage for about 50 years will provide the necessary time to select and implement the geological disposal, in accordance with the best international practice. (authors)

  13. Long-term Consequences of Early Parenthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Eva Rye; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Verner, Mette

    Having children at an early age is known to be associated with unfavorable economic outcomes, such as lower education, employment and earnings. In this paper, we study the long-term consequences of early parenthood for mothers and fathers. Our study is based on rich register-based data that......, importantly, merges all childbirths to the children’s mothers and fathers, allowing us to study the consequences of early parenthood for both parents. We perform a sibling fixed effects analysis in order to account for unobserved family attributes that are possibly correlated with early parenthood...... (and to lesser extent employment), as fathers appear to support the family, especially when early parenthood is combined with cohabitation with the mother and the child. Heterogeneous effects reveal that individuals with a more favorable socioeconomic background are affected more severely than...

  14. Long-term stability of salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2005-01-01

    The measurement of salivary cortisol provides a simple, non-invasive, and stress-free measure frequently used in studies of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. In research projects, samples are often required to be stored for longer periods of time either because of the protocol...... of the project or because of lack of funding for analysis. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of long-term storage of samples on the amounts of measurable cortisol. Ten pools of saliva were collected on polyester Salivette tampons from five subjects. After centrifugation the samples were...... either stored in small vials or spiked to polyester Salivette tampons before analysis for cortisol using Spectria RIA kits. The effects of storage were evaluated by a linear regression model (mixed procedure) on a logarithmic scale. No effects on cortisol concentrations were found after storage of saliva...

  15. Long term radiological impact of thorium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, S.; Schapira, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Thorium extraction produces a certain amount of radioactive wastes. Potential long term radiological impact of these residues has been calculated using the recent ICRP-68 ingestion dose factors in connection with the computing code DECAY, developed at Orsay and described in this work. This code solves the well known Bateman's equations which govern the time dependence of a set of coupled radioactive nuclei. Monazites will be very likely the minerals to be exploited first, in case of an extensive use of thorium as nuclear fuel. Because monazites contain uranium as well, mining residues will contain not only the descendants of 232 Th and a certain proportion of non-extracted thorium (taken here to be 5%), but also this uranium, if left in the wastes for economical reasons. If no uranium would be present at all in the mineral, the potential radiotoxicity would strongly decrease in approximately 60 years, at the pace of the 5.8 years period of 228 Ra, which becomes the longest-lived radionuclide of the 4n radioactive family in the residues. Moreover, there is no risk due to radon exhalation, because of the very short period of 220 Rn. These significant differences between uranium and thorium mining have to be considered in view of some estimated long term real radiological impacts due to uranium residues, which could reach a value of the order of 1 mSv/year, the dose limit recommended for the public by the recent ICRP-60. (authors). 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs., 43 appendices

  16. Dynamics of long-term genomic selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannink Jean-Luc

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simulation and empirical studies of genomic selection (GS show accuracies sufficient to generate rapid gains in early selection cycles. Beyond those cycles, allele frequency changes, recombination, and inbreeding make analytical prediction of gain impossible. The impacts of GS on long-term gain should be studied prior to its implementation. Methods A simulation case-study of this issue was done for barley, an inbred crop. On the basis of marker data on 192 breeding lines from an elite six-row spring barley program, stochastic simulation was used to explore the effects of large or small initial training populations with heritabilities of 0.2 or 0.5, applying GS before or after phenotyping, and applying additional weight on low-frequency favorable marker alleles. Genomic predictions were from ridge regression or a Bayesian analysis. Results Assuming that applying GS prior to phenotyping shortened breeding cycle time by 50%, this practice strongly increased early selection gains but also caused the loss of many favorable QTL alleles, leading to loss of genetic variance, loss of GS accuracy, and a low selection plateau. Placing additional weight on low-frequency favorable marker alleles, however, allowed GS to increase their frequency earlier on, causing an initial increase in genetic variance. This dynamic led to higher long-term gain while mitigating losses in short-term gain. Weighted GS also increased the maintenance of marker polymorphism, ensuring that QTL-marker linkage disequilibrium was higher than in unweighted GS. Conclusions Losing favorable alleles that are in weak linkage disequilibrium with markers is perhaps inevitable when using GS. Placing additional weight on low-frequency favorable alleles, however, may reduce the rate of loss of such alleles to below that of phenotypic selection. Applying such weights at the beginning of GS implementation is important.

  17. 77 FR 11565 - National Commission on Indian Trust Administration and Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary National Commission on Indian Trust Administration and Reform AGENCY: Office of... National Commission on Indian Trust Administration and Reform (the Commission). This notice corrects the...

  18. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy V.P. Bliss

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke.

  19. Third Indian National Conference on Harbour and Ocean Engineering (INCHOE - 2004). Proceedings

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; SanilKumar, V.; Jayakumar, S.

    The two volumes contain 103 scientific papers in the field of harbour and ocean engineering, presented at the Third Indian National Conference on Harbour and Ocean Engineering (INCHOE - 2004), held at National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Dona...

  20. Non-intrusive long-term monitoring approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smathers, D.; Mangan, D.

    1998-01-01

    In order to promote internatinal confidence that the US and Russia are disarming per their commitments under Article 6 of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, an international verification regime may be applied to US and Russian excess fissile materials. Initially, it is envisioned that this verification regime would be applied at storage facilities; however, it should be anticipated that the verification regime would continue throughout any material disposition activities, should such activities be pursued. once the materials are accepted into the verification regime, it is assumed that long term monitoring will be used to maintain continuity of knowledge. The requirements for long term storage monitoring include unattended operation for extended periods of time, minimal intrusiveness on the host nation's safety and security activities, data collection incorporating data authentication, and monitoring redundancy to allow resolution of anomalies and to continue coverage in the event of equipment failures. Additional requirements include effective data review and analysis processes, operation during storage facility loading, procedure for removal of inventory items for safety-related surveillance, and low cost, reliable equipment. A monitoring system might include both continuous monitoring of storagecontainers and continuous area monitoring. These would be complemented with periodic on-site inspections. A fissile material storage facility is not a static operation. The initial studies have shown there are a number of valid reasons why a host nation may need them to remove material from the storage facility. A practical monitoring system must be able to accommodate necessary material movements

  1. HIV-related politics in long-term perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, S R

    1998-06-01

    Some long-term, large-scale socio-economic changes may affect the politics of HIV and other emerging viruses such as hepatitis C. It is useful to ask why the potential peace dividend of the early 1990s failed to provide adequate resources for HIV-related social and medical service delivery in developed or developing nations. This failure can be understood by looking at long-term global economic trends and the pressures they put on governments and corporations. They have produced a period in which fundamental issues of political and economic structure are at stake and, often, the response is a divide-and-rule politics to promote stability. National politics differ in terms of the extent to which such a 'politics of scapegoating' is institutionalized and in terms of which groups are scapegoated. Groups such as drug injectors, gay and bisexual men and sex traders are particularly likely to be targeted both by the scapegoaters and by HIV. Given this framework, how should public health professionals and activists engaged in HIV-related issues respond? Under what circumstances should we orient efforts upwards towards corporate, political or bureaucratic leaders? Under what circumstances, and how, should we orient towards popular forces? Relatedly, we need to consider an issue we often ignore: What do we have to offer potential allies? That is, in terms of their goals, philosophies and needs, why should they ally with us?

  2. Conditioning radium needles for long term storage : Sri Lankan experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjith, H.L.A.; Shantha, T.H.S.; Gunaratne, M.G.J.; De Silva, U.W.K.H.; Perera, H.P.H.

    2000-01-01

    Radium the first radioisotope invented by Madame Curie was used for cancer therapy for the intracavitory treatment of cervical cancers and as oral implants etc. Radium needles and other geometries were made in standard strengths and Radium therapy enjoyed a heyday during the 1st half of the 20th century. Radium-226 is a long-lived radioactive material with a half-life of 1600 years. The use of radium was abandoned in the world in 1980s with the invention of short lived radioactive materials offering remote after loading systems which minimise radiation protection and waste disposal problems associated with long lived radioactive materials. This paper reports the conditioning procedure of the spent radium sources for long term storage (less than 20 years) and transport to national/ international stores if needed. The dose received by those involved in this exercise is also discussed in terms of radiation protection. The Ra was contained for long term storage according to international radiation safety regulations with a surface dose of less than 2 mSv per hour in a conditioned package having 17.5 GBq activity and can be transported to national/international stores if needed. The highest dose received during the exercise is well within the recommended dose limits for occupational exposures (20 and 500 mSv per year) for whole body and extremities respectively

  3. International Long-term Data and Analysis Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, J; Rahal, G; South, D; Guelzow, V; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2011-01-01

    The preservation of scientific data for long-term use and re-analysis has been identified as a key requirement in the field of High Energy Physics and other disciplines such as Astronomy and Astrophysics, as well as Life and Earth Sciences. In collaboration with related projects in the US (in particular in close collaboration with the National Science Foundation and Department of Energy) the proposed project would take the work of the Data Preservation in HEP Study group that defines the physics motivation for long-term data preservation and many of the associated issues, and extend this to cover not only the existing use cases but also consider the needs of the LHC experiments at CERN. This work would ensure the persistent availability of existing data and enable it to be shared between organisations and across national boundaries. Now is the time to define standards for data and meta-data formats and address access and authorization issues for on-going experiments (e.g. those at the LHC) – issues that hav...

  4. Elevated rheumatoid factor and long term risk of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Schnohr, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis.......To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis....

  5. 2003 Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive waste was created by the Federal Government and private industry at locations around the country in support of national defense, research, and civilian power-generation programs. If not controlled, much of this legacy waste would remain hazardous to human health and the environment indefinitely. Current technology does not allow us to render this waste harmless, so the available methods to control risk rely on consolidation, isolation, and long-term management of the waste. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an obligation to safely control the radioactive waste and to inform and train future generations to maintain and, perhaps, improve established protections. DOE is custodian for much of the radioactive and other hazardous waste under control of the Federal Government. DOE established the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) in 1974 and the Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program and the Surplus Facilities Management Program in the 1980s. Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) in 1978. These federal programs and legislation were established to identify, remediate, and manage legacy waste. Remedial action is considered complete at a radioactive waste site when the identified hazardous material is isolated and the selected remedial action remedy is in place and functioning. Radioactive or other hazardous materials remain in place as part of the remedy at many DOE sites. Long-term management of radioactive waste sites incorporates a set of actions necessary to maintain protection of human health and the environment. These actions include maintaining physical impoundment structures in good repair to ensure that they perform as designed, preventing exposure to the wastes by maintaining access restrictions and warnings, and recording site conditions and activities for future custodians. Any actions, therefore, that will prevent exposure to the radioactive waste now or in the future

  6. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah disposal site. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out

  7. Long-term surveillance plan for the Shiprock disposal site, Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Shiprock disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP is being submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a requirement for issuance of a general license for custody and long-term care for the disposal site. The general license requires that the disposal cell be cared for in accordance with the provisions of this LTSP. This Shiprock, New Mexico, LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the US or an Indian tribe and describes in detail the long-term care program through the UMTRA Project Office

  8. Multilevel analysis of workplace and individual risk factors for long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Christensen, Karl B; Lund, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine if psychosocial and physical work-environment factors predict long-term sickness absence (>8 weeks) at both the individual and the workplace level. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected in a prospective study in 52 Danish workplaces....... Psychosocial factors were aggregated as workplace means. We used multilevel logistic regression models with psychosocial factors as predictors of long-term sickness absence over 5 years based on data from a national absence register. RESULTS: Long-term sickness absence was predicted by physical work...

  9. Long-term runoff changes in regions of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miklanek, Pavol; Pekarova; Pavla

    2004-01-01

    Mean annual runoff variability includes both natural and anthropogenic (climate change) impacts. Aim of the paper is to identify the long-term trends and the cyclic runoff components of selected Slovak rivers for the period 1931-2000, and of the Danube river for the period 1840-2000. The variability is analysed by the long-term runoff trends of 27 Slovak rivers for the period 1931-2000. The stations were included into the Slovak National Climate Program and they are supposed not to be influenced by anthropogenic activities except of possible climate change. Comparison of the monthly runoff series of the 27 rivers allowed us to draw 3 regions with different runoff trends on the territory of Slovakia (constant trend in Northern and Eastern Slovakia, slow decrease in Central Slovakia, and rapid decrease in Southern Slovakia; The identification of different cyclic components of the runoff series is included. The length of the series allows to identify the 22-year cycles as maximum. By means of the longer runoff series of the Danube river it is shown that the more dry periods occurred in the central Europe and Slovakia in mid 19 th century. The longer Danube series were used also to find the longer runoff cycles of about 31 and 46 years. The mean annual temperature in Europe was lower by 0.6 o C in mid 19 th century compared to 1990s. The temperature increase is put down to climate change impact. The driest period shown by Danube runoff series in mid 19 th century occurred before the start of the climate change. Therefore it is probable that the long-term runoff variability has its own dynamics as well. (Author)

  10. Beyond the Nation: the Mobility of Indian Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Ashcroft

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that while it is generally accepted that contemporary Indian literature entered a decisive, cosmopolitan and globally popular phase with the publication of Midnight’s Children in 1981, this period actually demonstrated a continuation of deep skepticism about nationalism that had originated with Rabindranath Tagore and Mahatma Gandhi. The three decades after 1981 have revealed a literature whose mobility and energy has had perhaps a greater impact on English literature than any other. The argument is that this mobility goes hand in hand with skepticism about nation and nationalism that has had a pronounced impact on the perception of the globalization of literature. Arundhati Roy’s The God of Small Things (1997, Kiran Desai’s The Inheritance of Loss (2006, Aravind Adiga’s The White Tiger (2008 and Hari Kunzru’s Transmission (2004 sketch the trajectory of the contemporary novel’s extension of Midnight Children’s subversion of the grand narrative of nation. Three of these share the status of Rushdie’s novel as a Booker Prize winner and indicating that the impact of India’s nationalist skepticism has been felt globally.

  11. CERN Services for Long Term Data Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, Jamie; Blomer, Jakob; Ganis, Gerardo; Dallmeier-Tiessen, Sunje; Simko, Tibor; Cancio Melia, German; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe the services that are offered by CERN for Long Term preservation of High Energy Physics (HEP) data, with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) as a key use case. Data preservation is a strategic goal for European High Energy Physics (HEP), as well as for the HEP community worldwide and we position our work in this global content. Specifically, we target the preservation of the scientific data, together with the software, documentation and computing environment needed to process, (re-)analyse or otherwise (re-)use the data. The target data volumes range from hundreds of petabytes (PB – 10^15 bytes) to hundreds of exabytes (EB – 10^18 bytes) for a target duration of several decades. The Use Cases driving data preservation are presented together with metrics that allow us to measure how close we are to meeting our goals, including the possibility for formal certification for at least part of this work. Almost all of the services that we describe are fully generic – the exception being A...

  12. Long-term outcome of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Francesconi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Neuroparacoccidioidomycosis (NPCM is a term used to describe the invasion of the central nervous system by the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. NPCM has been described sporadically in some case reports and small case series, with little or no focus on treatment outcome and long-term follow-up. METHODS: All patients with NPCM from January 1991 to December 2006 were analyzed and were followed until December 2009. RESULTS: Fourteen (3.8% cases of NPCM were identified out of 367 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. A combination of oral fluconazole and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMZ/TMP was the regimen of choice, with no documented death due to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. Residual neurological deficits were observed in 8 patients. Residual calcification was a common finding in neuroimaging follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: All the patients in this study responded positively to the association of oral fluconazole and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, a regimen that should be considered a treatment option in cases of NPCM. Neurological sequela was a relatively common finding. For proper management of these patients, anticonvulsant treatment and physical therapy support were also needed.

  13. Alpine Soils as long-term Bioindicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestroy, O.

    2009-04-01

    Alpine soils as long-term bioindicators The introductory words concern the definitions and peculiarities of alpine soils and their position in the Austrian Soil Classification 2000 in comparison with the World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2006. The important parameters for genesis and threats for these soils in steep and high positions are discussed. It must be emphasized that the main threats are the very different kinds of erosion e.g. by water, wind and snow, and also by skiing (end of season) as well as and mountain-biking (mainly summer-sport). Due the very slow regeneration and - in this connection - due to the very slow changes of the soil entities, these soils give an utmost importance as a long-time bioindicator. With regard to the climate change one can assume an increase in the content of organic matter on site, but also an increase of erosion and mass movement on the other site, e. g. in kind of "plaiken" (soil slide) as result of an increasing intensity of rainfall. It lies partly in our hands to diminish the number and the intensity of the threats, we can influence the soil development, but the result to reach a new ecological equilibrium is very long - in case of alpine soil more than two generations.

  14. Long-term world energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizia, K.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of the extent to which new nuclear power plants are to be added, or the possibility of a complete ban on nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany, is now very much under discussion again. On the basis of the study published by the Conservation Commission of the World Energy Conference, 'World Energy - Looking Ahead to 2020,' whose findings are probably still on the conservative side, it is demonstrated that disastrous conditions will arise in most areas of the world unless the energy requirement can be met. There is still time to develop solutions by means of today's technologies and resources in order to ensure the long term continuity of energy supply. However, this will not be possible without the immediate and undisturbed expansion of nuclear energy, including the use of breeder reactors at the earliest possible date. In view of these perspectives there is no reason why the expansion of energy supply worldwide should not be assigned the same priority as the development of all-destructive weapons systems. (orig.) [de

  15. Long-term Variability of Beach Cusps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianca, C.; Holman, R. A.; Siegle, E.

    2016-02-01

    The most curious morphological features observed on beaches are the cusps. Due to their rhythmic spacing, beach cusps have attracted many observers and many, often contradictory, theories as to their form. Moreover, most of the research about beach cusps has focused on their formation. Few had available long time series to study such things as the variability of alongshore and cross-shore position and spacing on the cusp field, the presence, longevity and interactions between higher and lower sets of cusps, and the processes by which cusp fields extend, shrink or change length scale. The purpose of this work is to use long-term data sets of video images from two study sites, an intermediate (Duck, USA, 26 years) and a reflective beach (Massaguaçu, Brazil, 3 years), to investigate the temporal and spatial changes of cusps conditions. Time-evolving shoreline data were first extracted using an algorithm called ASLIM (Pianca et al 2015). Cusps were then identified based on the band-passed variability of time exposure image data about this shoreline as a function of elevation relative to MSL. The identified beaches cusps will be analyzed for cusp spacing, positions (upper or lower cusps), alongshore variability, merging events, percentage of cusp events, patterns of the events and time scales of variability. Finally, the relationship of these characteristics to environmental conditions (wave, tides, beach conditions) will be studied.

  16. Long term results of childhood dysphonia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackiewicz-Nartowicz, Hanna; Sinkiewicz, Anna; Bielecka, Arleta; Owczarzak, Hanna; Mackiewicz-Milewska, Magdalena; Winiarski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the long term results of treatment and rehabilitation of childhood dysphonia. This study included a group of adolescents (n=29) aged from 15 to 20 who were treated due to pediatric hyperfunctional dysphonia and soft vocal fold nodules during their pre-mutational period (i.e. between 5 and 12 years of age). The pre-mutational therapy was comprised of proper breathing pattern training, voice exercises and psychological counseling. Laryngostroboscopic examination and perceptual analysis of voice were performed in each patient before treatment and one to four years after mutation was complete. The laryngostroboscopic findings, i.e. symmetry, amplitude, mucosal wave and vocal fold closure, were graded with NAPZ scale, and the GRBAS scale was used for the perceptual voice analysis. Complete regression of the childhood dysphonia was observed in all male patients (n=14). Voice disorders regressed completely also in 8 out of 15 girls, but symptoms of dysphonia documented on perceptual scale persisted in the remaining seven patients. Complex voice therapy implemented in adolescence should be considered as either the treatment or preventive measure of persistent voice strain, especially in girls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term plutonium storage: Design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkey, D.D.; Wood, W.T.; Guenther, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    An important part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Complex Reconfiguration (WCR) Program is the development of facilities for long-term storage of plutonium. The WCR design goals are to provide storage for metals, oxides, pits, and fuel-grade plutonium, including material being held as part of the Strategic Reserve and excess material. Major activities associated with plutonium storage are sorting the plutonium inventory, material handling and storage support, shipping and receiving, and surveillance of material in storage for both safety evaluations and safeguards and security. A variety of methods for plutonium storage have been used, both within the DOE weapons complex and by external organizations. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of proposed storage concepts based upon functional criteria. The concepts discussed include floor wells, vertical and horizontal sleeves, warehouse storage on vertical racks, and modular storage units. Issues/factors considered in determining a preferred design include operational efficiency, maintenance and repair, environmental impact, radiation and criticality safety, safeguards and security, heat removal, waste minimization, international inspection requirements, and construction and operational costs

  18. [Percutaneous transhepatic bilioplasty: long-term results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, D; Martina, M C; Tola, E; Fonio, P; Fronda, G R; Gandini, G

    1990-10-01

    We report the results of a long-term follow-up of 40/101 patients with benign biliary strictures treated with percutaneous balloon dilatation (PBD) at the Radiology Department of the University of Turin, from March 1983 to March 1990. We excluded all the patients who were not followed or treated after June 1988, being their follow-up shorter than 18 months. All patients underwent accurate clinical, biological (AST, ALT, gammaGT, alcaline phosphatase) and US controls. Mean follow-up was 33.5 months. Mean success rate was 75% in strictures of bilioenteric anastomosis, 86% in iatrogenic strictures of the common bile duct, 65% in sclerosing cholangitis, 80% in papillary strictures in which endoscopic treatment had not been possible for anatomical reasons. Our results, compared to the most important radiological and surgical series, show PBD to have lower morbidity than surgery and no mortality during the so-called peroperative period (30 days). Moreover, in case of recurrences, PBD can be repeated without further complications and does not affect eventual surgery.

  19. Long-Term Soft Denture Lining Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Chladek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-term soft denture lining (LTSDL materials are used to alleviate the trauma associated with wearing complete dentures. Despite their established clinical efficacy, the use of LTSDLs has been limited due to the unfavorable effects of the oral environment on some of their mechanical and performance characteristics. The unresolved issue of LTSDL colonization by Candida albicans is particularly problematic. Silicone-based LTSDL (SLTSDL materials, which are characterized by more stable hardness, sorption and solubility than acrylic-based LTSDLs (ALTSDLs, are currently the most commonly used LTSDLs. However, SLTSDLs are more prone to debonding from the denture base. Moreover, due to their limitations, the available methods for determining bond strength do not fully reflect the actual stability of these materials under clinical conditions. SLTSDL materials exhibit favorable viscoelastic properties compared with ALTSDLs. Furthermore, all of the lining materials exhibit an aging solution-specific tendency toward discoloration, and the available cleansers are not fully effective and can alter the mechanical properties of LTSDLs. Future studies are needed to improve the microbiological resistance of LTSDLs, as well as some of their performance characteristics.

  20. Long term agreements energy efficiency. Progress 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    Long Term Agreements (LTAs) on energy efficiency have been contracted with various business sectors since 1992, as part of energy conservation policy: industrial sectors, commercial services, agrarian sectors and non-profit services. LTAs are voluntary agreements between a specific sector and the Minister of Economic Affairs. In some cases, the Minister of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries is also involved. The sector commits to an effort to improve energy efficiency by a particular percentage within an agreed period. As at 31 December 1999, a total of 29 LTAs had been contracted with industrial sectors and 14 with non-industrial ones. This report describes the progress of the LTAs in 1999. It reviews the energy efficiency improvements realised through the LTAs, both overall and in each individual sector. The aim is to make the efforts and results in the various sectors accessible to the general public. Appendix 1 describes the positioning of the LTA instrument. This Appendix provides and insight into the position of the LTAs within the overall set of policy instruments. It also covers the subsidy schemes and fiscal instruments that support the LTAs, the relationships between LTAs and environmental policy and new developments relating to the LTAs in the years ahead. Appendices 2 to 6 contain the reports on the LTAs and a list of abbreviations (Appendix 7)

  1. Containment long-term operational integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammataro, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Periodic integrated leak rate tests are required to assure that containments continue to meet allowable leakage limits. Although overall performance has been quite good to date, several major containment aging and degradation mechanisms have been identified. Two pilot plant life extension (PLEX) studies serve as models for extending the operational integrity of present containments for light-water cooled nuclear power plants in the United States. One study is for a Boiling-Water Reactor (BWR) and the second is for a Pressurized-Water Reactor (PWR). Research and testing programs for determining the ultimate pressure capacity and failure mechanisms for containments under severe loading conditions and studies for extending the life of current plants beyond the present 40-year licensed lifetime are under way. This paper presents an overview of containment designs in the United States. Also presented are a discussion of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (ASME Code) and regulatory authority requirements for the design, construction, inservice inspection, leakage testing and repair of steel and concrete containments. Findings for containments from the pilot PLEX studies and continuing containment integrity research and testing programs are discussed. The ASME Code and regulatory requirements together with recommendations from the PLEX studies and containment integrity research and testing provide a basis for continued containment long-term operational integrity. (orig./GL)

  2. Long term results of mandibular distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batra Puneet

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular distraction osteogenesis has become a popular surgical modality due to its many advantages over conventional orthognathic surgical procedures. However, in spite of the technique having been used for over 15 years, no concrete long term results are available regarding the stability of results. We discuss the various studies which have reported either in favour or against the stablility of results after distraction. We report a series of 6 cases (3 unilateral and 3 bilateral distraction where distraction was carried out before puberty and followed them up to seven years after removal of distractors. This case series shows that results achieved by distraction osteogenesis are unstable or best unpredictable with respect to producing a permanent size increase in the mandible. The role of the distraction osteogenesis in overcoming the pterygomassetric sling is questionable. We suggest a multicenter study with adequate patient numbers treated with a similar protocol and documented after growth cessation to have meaningful conclusions on the debate of distraction osteogenesis versus orthognathic surgery.

  3. Long term results of compression sclerotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labas, P; Ohradka, B; Cambal, M; Reis, R; Fillo, J

    2003-01-01

    To compare the short and long term results of different techniques of compression sclerotherapy. In the past 10 years the authors treated 1622 pts due to chronic venous insufficiency. There were 3 groups of patients: 1) Pts treated by Sigg's technique using Aethoxysclerol, 2) Pts treated by Fegan's technique with Fibrovein, and 3) Pts treated by Fegan's procedure, but using a combination of both sclerosants. In all cases, the techniques of empty vein, bubble air, uninterrupted 6-week compression and forced mobilisation were used. In the group of pats. treated by Sigg's procedure, the average cure rate was 67.47% after 6 months, 60.3% after 5 years of follow-up. In Fegan's group this rate was 83.6% after 6 months and 78.54% after 5 year assessment. Statistically, significant differences were found only by the disappearance of varices and reduction of pain in favour of Fegan's technique. In the group of pts treated by Fegan's (Aethoxysclerol + Fibrovein) this rate after 5 years was 86%. The only statistically significant difference was found by the disappearance of varices in favour of Fegan's technique using a combination of 2 detergent sclerosants. Sclerotherapy is effective when properly executed in any length of vein no matter how dilated it has become. The recurrences are attributed more to inadequate technique than to the shortcoming of the procedure. Sclerotherapy is miniinvasive, with few complications, and can be repeated on out-patient basis. (Tab. 1, Ref. 22.).

  4. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10 3 -10 5 years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., open-quotes natural analoguesclose quotes) provide perhaps the only means of partial open-quotes validation,close quotes as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10 3 -10 8 years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the open-quotes validationclose quotes of performance assessments

  5. Long term prediction of flood occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Aguilar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available How long a river remembers its past is still an open question. Perturbations occurring in large catchments may impact the flow regime for several weeks and months, therefore providing a physical explanation for the occasional tendency of floods to occur in clusters. The research question explored in this paper may be stated as follows: can higher than usual river discharges in the low flow season be associated to a higher probability of floods in the subsequent high flow season? The physical explanation for such association may be related to the presence of higher soil moisture storage at the beginning of the high flow season, which may induce lower infiltration rates and therefore higher river runoff. Another possible explanation is persistence of climate, due to presence of long-term properties in atmospheric circulation. We focus on the Po River at Pontelagoscuro, whose catchment area amounts to 71 000 km2. We look at the stochastic connection between average river flows in the pre-flood season and the peak flows in the flood season by using a bivariate probability distribution. We found that the shape of the flood frequency distribution is significantly impacted by the river flow regime in the low flow season. The proposed technique, which can be classified as a data assimilation approach, may allow one to reduce the uncertainty associated to the estimation of the flood probability.

  6. 26 CFR 1.460-1 - Long-term contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long-term contracts. 1.460-1 Section 1.460-1...) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-1 Long-term contracts. (a..., building, installation, or construction of property is a long-term contract under section 460 and what...

  7. The environment in the Netherlands in the long-term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieringa, K.; Maas, R.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental problem is one of the central elements in the newest long-term scenarios of the CPB (Dutch Central Planning Bureau). Will the environmental problems limit the economic growth for the next 25 years? Or can growth of production and consumption be combined with the environmental aims as formulated in the National Environmental Policy (NMP in Dutch). Being a preliminary study on the third National Environmental Outlook (to be published in 1993) the governmental institute for public health and environmental hygiene (RIVM) calculated the environmental impacts in the scenarios developed by the CPB. In particular attention is paid to the costs of the planned environmental policy. The scenarios discussed are Balanced Growth, characterized by a strong economic growth, sustainable economic development, and a dynamic technological development, the Global Shift scenario, characterized by a very dynamic technological development, and the European Renaissance scenario with a less dynamic development. 2 figs., 1 tab

  8. Forging a Nation: Through Indian Eyes, Volume 2. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donald J.; Johnson, Jean E.

    An Indian view of India and the world is presented in this book, which is the second of two volumes intended for use with secondary and college level students. The reality of everyday life as experienced by the Indian people is recreated in the series. Almost all of the material in both volumes has been written by Indians and has been taken from a…

  9. 2003 Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    Radioactive waste was created by the Federal Government and private industry at locations around the country in support of national defense, research, and civilian power-generation programs. If not controlled, much of this legacy waste would remain hazardous to human health and the environment indefinitely. Current technology does not allow us to render this waste harmless, so the available methods to control risk rely on consolidation, isolation, and long-term management of the waste. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an obligation to safely control the radioactive waste and to inform and train future generations to maintain and, perhaps, improve established protections. DOE is custodian for much of the radioactive and other hazardous waste under control of the Federal Government. DOE established the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) in 1974 and the Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program and the Surplus Facilities Management Program in the 1980s. Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) in 1978. These federal programs and legislation were established to identify, remediate, and manage legacy waste. Remedial action is considered complete at a radioactive waste site when the identified hazardous material is isolated and the selected remedial action remedy is in place and functioning. Radioactive or other hazardous materials remain in place as part of the remedy at many DOE sites. Long-term management of radioactive waste sites incorporates a set of actions necessary to maintain protection of human health and the environment. These actions include maintaining physical impoundment structures in good repair to ensure that they perform as designed, preventing exposure to the wastes by maintaining access restrictions and warnings, and recording site conditions and activities for future custodians. Any actions, therefore, that will prevent exposure to the radioactive waste now or in the future

  10. Policy legitimacy - The key to long term Management of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, E.; Dalton, J.; Wild, D.

    2003-01-01

    Experience in the UK has shown that the central theme of delivering a solution is contingent on building a broad base of support for the long term management project. This is multi-layered, both in terms of local, regional and national political actors, but also across societal groups. Legitimacy is the key to success and needs to be understood in three main domains - equity, competence and economics. Finding the appropriate balance is essential for progress in the long term. (authors)

  11. Energy in 2010 - 2020. Long term challenges; Energie 2010-2020. Les defis du long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessus, Benjamin [ed.] [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-02-02

    This report presents the results of a workshop intending to anticipate the long term challenges, to guide better the short term power options, to understand the available political, economical and technical assumptions for the prospective world situation, to give some strategic hints on the necessary transition. Indeed, the difficult issue which the workshop tried to tackle was how should we prepare to reveal the energetic challenge of the development of the eight to ten billion inhabitants of our Planet in the next century without jeopardizing its existence. The energetic problems, a hardcore of the international preoccupation of both growth and environment, as it was recently evidenced by the climatic conference in Kyoto, have ever been the object of a particular attention on the part of General Commissariat of Plan. Thus, the commission 'Energy in 2010 - 2020' has been instituted in April 1996 in order to update the works done in 1990 - 1991 by the commission 'Energy 2010'. Soon it occurred to this new commission the task of illuminating its works by a long term (2050 - 2100) world prospective analysis of the challenges and problems linked to energy, growth and environment. In conclusion, this document tried to find answers to questions like: - which are the risks the energy consumption augmentation entail? - can we control them by appropriate urbanism and transport policies or technological innovation?. Four options for immediate action are suggested: - the energy efficiency should become a priority objective of policies; -coping with the long term challenges requires acting at present; - building the transition between governmental leadership and market; - taking profit of all the possible synergies between short and long term planning.

  12. Long-term monitoring of breath methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polag, Daniela; Keppler, Frank

    2018-05-15

    In recent years, methane as a component of exhaled human breath has been considered as a potential bioindicator providing information on microbial activity in the intestinal tract. Several studies indicated a relationship between breath methane status and specific gastrointestinal disease. So far, almost no attention has been given to the temporal variability of breath methane production by individual persons. Thus here, for the first time, long-term monitoring was carried out measuring breath methane of three volunteers over periods between 196 and 1002days. Results were evaluated taking into consideration the health status and specific medical intervention events for each individual during the monitoring period, and included a gastroscopy procedure, a vaccination, a dietary change, and chelate therapy. As a major outcome, breath methane mixing ratios show considerable variability within a person-specific range of values. Interestingly, decreased breath methane production often coincided with gastrointestinal complaints whereas influenza infections were mostly accompanied by increased breath methane production. A gastroscopic examination as well as a change to a low-fructose diet led to a dramatic shift of methane mixing ratios from high to low methane production. In contrast, a typhus vaccination as well as single chelate injections resulted in significant short-term methane peaks. Thus, this study clearly shows that humans can change from high to low methane emitters and vice versa within relatively short time periods. In the case of low to medium methane emitters the increase observed in methane mixing ratios, likely resulting from immune reactions and inflammatory processes, might indicate non-microbial methane formation under aerobic conditions. Although detailed reaction pathways are not yet known, aerobic methane formation might be related to cellular oxidative-reductive stress reactions. However, a detailed understanding of the pathways involved in human

  13. Nutritional deficit and Long Term Potentiation alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Petrosino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we examined the ability of prenatally malnourished offspring to produce and maintain long-term potentiation (LTP of the perforant path/dentate granule cell synapse in freely moving rats at 15,30, and 90 days of age. Population spike amplitude (PSA was calculated from dentate field potential recordings prior to and at 15, 30, 60 min. and 3, 5, 18 and 24 h following tetanization of the perforant pathway. All animals of both malnourished and well-nourished diet groups at 15 days of age showed potentiation of PSA measures but the measures obtained from 15-day-old prenatally malnourished animals were significantly less than that of age-matched, well-nourished controls. At 30 days of age, remarkable effect of tetanization was likely observed from PSA measures for this age group followed much the same pattern. At 90 days of age, PSA measures obtained from malnourished animals decreased from pretetanization levels immediately following tetanization. At this age, however, at three hours time recordings, this measure growing up to a level which did not differ significantly from that of the control group. These results indicate that the width of tetanization induced enhancement of dentate granule cell response in preweanling rats (15-day-old animals is signifacantly affected fromgestational protein malnutrition and this trend is kept in animals tested at 30 and 90 days of age. The fact, however, that considerable limitation in LTP generation was gained from prenatally malnourished animals at 90 days of age, implying that dietary rehabilitation starting at birth is an intervention strategy not capable to imbrove the effects of the gestational stress.

  14. The long-term nuclear explosives predicament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swahn, J.

    1992-01-01

    A scenario is described, where the production of new military fissile materials is halted and where civil nuclear power is phased out in a 'no-new orders' case. It is found that approximately 1100 tonnes of weapons-grade uranium, 233 tonnes of weapons-grade plutonium and 3795 tonnes of reactor-grade plutonium have to be finally disposed of as nuclear waste. This material could be used for the construction of over 1 million nuclear explosives. Reactor-grade plutonium is found to be easier to extract from spent nuclear fuel with time and some physical characteristics important for the construction of nuclear explosives are improved. Alternative methods for disposal of the fissile material that will avoid the long-term nuclear explosives predicament are examined. Among these methods are dilution, denaturing or transmutation of the fissile material and options for practicably irrecoverable disposal in deep boreholes, on the sea-bed, and in space. It is found that the deep boreholes method for disposal should be the primary alternative to be examined further. This method can be combined with an effort to 'forget' where the material was put. Included in the thesis is also an evaluation of the possibilities of controlling the limited civil nuclear activities in a post-nuclear world. Some surveillance technologies for a post-nuclear world are described, including satellite surveillance. In a review part of the thesis, methods for the production of fissile material for nuclear explosives are described, the technological basis for the construction of nuclear weapons is examined, including use of reactor-grade plutonium for such purposes; also plans for the disposal of spent fuel from civil nuclear power reactors and for the handling of the fissile material from dismantled warheads is described. The Swedish plan for the handling and disposal of spent nuclear fuel is described in detail. (490 refs., 66 figs., 27 tabs.)

  15. A new long-term care manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Robert L

    2015-04-01

    This article argues for a fresh look at how we provide long-term care (LTC) for older persons. Essentially, LTC offers a compensatory service that responds to frailty. Policy debate around LTC centers on costs, but we are paying for something we really don't want. Building societal enthusiasm (or even support) for LTC will require re-inventing and re-branding. LTC has three basic components: personal care, housing, and health care (primarily chronic disease management). They can be delivered in a variety of settings. It is rare to find all three done well simultaneously. Personal care (PC) needs to be both competent and compassionate. Housing must provide at least minimal amenities and foster autonomy; when travel time for PC raises costs dramatically, some form of clustered housing may be needed. Health care must be proactive, aimed at preventing exacerbations of chronic disease and resultant hospitalizations. Enhancing preferences means allowing taking informed risks. Payment incentives should reward both quality of care and quality of life, but positive outcomes must be defined as slowing decline. Paying for services but not for housing under Medicaid would automatically level the playing field between nursing homes (NH) and community-based services. Regulations should achieve greater parity between NH and community care and include both positive and negative feedback. Providing post-acute care should be separate from LTC. Using the tripartite LTC framework, we can create innovative flexible approaches to providing needed services for frail older persons in formats that are both desirable and affordable. Such care will be more socially desirable and hence worth paying for. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Long term results of pyeloplasty in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayib, Abdul Malik

    2004-01-01

    To determine the presenting systems, complications, stone coincidence in adult patients with primary ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction seen at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We are also reporting the success rate and long term results of adult pyeloplasty. We reviewed the records of 34 patients who underwent 37 pyeloplasty operations during the period January 1992 through to June 2002. The preoperative radiological diagnosis made by intravenous urogram or renal isotopes scan. We excluded from our study patients with previous history of passage of stones, renal or ureteral surgeries, large renal pelvis stone that may cause UPJ obstruction or abnormalities that may lead to secondry UPJ obstruction such as vesicoureteral reflux. There were 28 male patients and 8 females, their age varied between 16 and 51-years, the mean age was 36.1 years, and 18 (52.9%) patients had concomitant renal stones. Ispsilateral split renal function improved by 3-7% post pyeloplasty in 23 patients, while in one patient the function stayed the same, and in another patient the split function reduced by 4%. T1/2 renal isotopes washout time became less than 15 minutes in 19 patients and less than 20 minutes in 6 patients. Intravenous urogram revealed disappearence of the obstruction at UPJ in 7 patients while in 2 patients it became poorly functioning. Anderson Hynes pyeloplasty is an excellent procedure for treating UPJ obstruction in adults. Our success rate is comparable to the international repoted rates, while our study revealed a higher incidence of concomitant renal stones than the international studies. (author)

  17. Long term stability of atomic time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Gérard; Arias, Elisa Felicitas

    2012-08-01

    International Atomic Time TAI gets its stability from some 400 atomic clocks worldwide that generate the free atomic scale EA L and its accuracy from a small number of primary frequency standards (PFS) which frequency measurements are used to steer the EAL frequency. Because TAI is computed in "real - time" (every month) and has operational constraints, it is not optimal and the BIPM computes in deferred time another time scale TT(BIPM), which is based on a weighted average of the evaluations of TAI frequency by the PFS. We show that a point has been reached where the stability of atomic time scales, the accuracy of primary frequency standards, and the capabilities of frequency transfer are approximately at a similar level, in the low 10 - 16 in relative frequency. The goal is now to reach and surpass 1x10 - 16 and the three fields are in various stages of advancement towards this aim. We review the stability and accuracy recently achieved by frequency standards, focusing on primary frequency standards on one hand, and on new secondary realizations e.g. based on optical transitions on the other hand. We study how these performances can translate to the performance of atomic time scales, and the possible implications of the availability of new high - accuracy frequency standards operating on a regular basis. Finally we show how time transfer is trying to keep up with the progresses of frequency standards. Time transfer is presently the limiting factor at short averaging time (e.g. 1 - 2 weeks) but it should not be limiting the long term stability of atomic time scales, which is the main need of many applications in astronomy.

  18. HLW Long-term Management Technology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Won; Kang, C. H.; Ko, Y. K.

    2010-02-01

    Permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuels from the power generation is considered to be the unique method for the conservation of human being and nature in the present and future. In spite of spent nuclear fuels produced from power generation, based on the recent trends on the gap between supply and demand of energy, the advance on energy price and reduction of carbon dioxide, nuclear energy is expected to play a role continuously in Korea. It means that a new concept of nuclear fuel cycle is needed to solve problems on spent nuclear fuels. The concept of the advanced nuclear fuel cycle including PYRO processing and SFR was presented at the 255th meeting of the Atomic Energy Commission. According to the concept of the advanced nuclear fuel cycle, actinides and long-term fissile nuclides may go out of existence in SFR. And then it is possible to dispose of short term decay wastes without a great risk bearing. Many efforts had been made to develop the KRS for the direct disposal of spent nuclear fuels in the representative geology of Korea. But in the case of the adoption of Advanced nuclear fuel cycle, the disposal of PYRO wastes should be considered. For this, we carried out the Safety Analysis on HLW Disposal Project with 5 sub-projects such as Development of HLW Disposal System, Radwaste Disposal Safety Analysis, Feasibility study on the deep repository condition, A study on the Nuclide Migration and Retardation Using Natural Barrier, and In-situ Study on the Performance of Engineered Barriers

  19. Long term data preservation for CDF at INFN-CNAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amerio, S; Chiarelli, L; Dell'Agnello, L; Girolamo, D De; Gregori, D; Pezzi, M; Prosperini, A; Ricci, P; Rosso, F; Zani, S

    2014-01-01

    Long-term preservation of experimental data (intended as both raw and derived formats) is one of the emerging requirements coming from scientific collaborations. Within the High Energy Physics community the Data Preservation in High Energy Physics (DPHEP) group coordinates this effort. CNAF is not only one of the Tier-1s for the LHC experiments, it is also a computing center providing computing and storage resources to many other HEP and non-HEP scientific collaborations, including the CDF experiment. After the end of data taking in 2011, CDF is now facing the challenge to both preserve the large amount of data produced during several years of data taking and to retain the ability to access and reuse it in the future. CNAF is heavily involved in the CDF Data Preservation activities, in collaboration with the Fermilab National Laboratory (FNAL) computing sector. At the moment about 4 PB of data (raw data and analysis-level ntuples) are starting to be copied from FNAL to the CNAF tape library and the framework to subsequently access the data is being set up. In parallel to the data access system, a data analysis framework is being developed which allows to run the complete CDF analysis chain in the long term future, from raw data reprocessing to analysis-level ntuple production. In this contribution we illustrate the technical solutions we put in place to address the issues encountered as we proceeded in this activity.

  20. Spent Fuel Long Term Interim Storage: The Spanish Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Lopez, Javier

    2014-01-01

    ENRESA is the Spanish organization responsible for long-term management of all categories of radioactive waste and nuclear spent fuel and for decommissioning nuclear installations. It is also in charge of the management of the funds collected from waste producers and electricity consumers. The national policy about radioactive waste management is established at the General Radioactive Waste Plan by the Government upon proposal of the Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism. Now the Plan in force is the Sixth Plan approved in 2006. The policy on spent nuclear fuel, after description of the current available options, is set up as a long term interim storage at a Centralized Temporary Storage facility (CTS, or ATC in Spanish acronym) followed by geologic disposal, pending technological development on other options being eligible in the future. After a site selection process launched in 2009, the site for the ATC has been chosen at the end of 2011. The first steps for the implementation of the facility are described in the present paper. (authors)

  1. A security/safety survey of long term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acorn, Jonathan R

    2010-01-01

    What are the major security/safety problems of long term care facilities? What steps are being taken by some facilities to mitigate such problems? Answers to these questions can be found in a survey of IAHSS members involved in long term care security conducted for the IAHSS Long Term Care Security Task Force. The survey, the author points out, focuses primarily on long term care facilities operated by hospitals and health systems. However, he believes, it does accurately reflect the security problems most long term facilities face, and presents valuable information on security systems and practices which should be also considered by independent and chain operated facilities.

  2. Strategies for the long-term climate policy. The results of the Cool project. Final report of the second phase of the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP II) 1995-2001. Part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk M; Hisschemoller M; Mol T; Hordijk L; Kok M; Metz B; NOP

    2002-01-01

    This report, Climate Change, a Permanent Concern, presents the results of research that was conducted in over 90 projects during the second phase of the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP-II, 1995-2001). The report is intended for policymakers, members of

  3. The Performance of American Indian Children on the Draw-A-Man Test. National Study of American Indian Education, Series III, No. 2, Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levensky, Kay

    As a part of the National Study of American Indian Education, this document reports on 1700 American Indian primary school children (representing 14 tribal groups and 12 states) who were administered the Goodenough Draw-A-Man Test (DAM) as a measure of mental alertness. A comparison is given of the Indian and white children's scores. It appears…

  4. Acid deposition: long-term trends

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff

    1986-01-01

    ... on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1986 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other this and of recomposed styles, version headi...

  5. Northern European long term climate archives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohl, Veronica [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is responsible for the management and disposal of Sweden's radioactive waste. It is intended to deposit the spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository. This repository shall keep the radiotoxic material separated from humans and the environment for extended periods, from decades to millennia and possibly to geological timescales. During this time perspective climate induced changes such as shore-level displacement and evolution of permafrost and ice sheets are expected to occur which may affect the repository. The possible occurrence, extent and duration of these long-term changes, are therefore of interest when considering the assessment of repository performance and safety. The main climate parameters determining both surface and subsurface conditions are temperature and precipitation. As a result of the last advance of the Weichselian ice sheet only few geological archives exist, which contain information on past climatic conditions in Sweden before c 16,000 years BP. The purpose of this literature review is to compile and evaluate available information from Scandinavian, Northern and Central European geological archives, which record climatic conditions during the Weichselian time period. The compilation provides paleotemperature data sets, which may be used to explore the possible evolution of periglacial permafrost in Sweden. This report is a synopsis of 22 publications detailing climatic and environmental changes during the Weichselian time period in Northwestern Europe based on quantified paleotemperature records. Some of the data is presented as temperature curves which were digitised specifically for this report. The time range covered by the different publications varies considerably. Only few authors dealt with the whole Weichselian period and the majority cover only a few thousand years. This however is not considered to influence the reliability of the archives. The reason for the

  6. Northern European long term climate archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohl, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is responsible for the management and disposal of Sweden's radioactive waste. It is intended to deposit the spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository. This repository shall keep the radiotoxic material separated from humans and the environment for extended periods, from decades to millennia and possibly to geological timescales. During this time perspective climate induced changes such as shore-level displacement and evolution of permafrost and ice sheets are expected to occur which may affect the repository. The possible occurrence, extent and duration of these long-term changes, are therefore of interest when considering the assessment of repository performance and safety. The main climate parameters determining both surface and subsurface conditions are temperature and precipitation. As a result of the last advance of the Weichselian ice sheet only few geological archives exist, which contain information on past climatic conditions in Sweden before c 16,000 years BP. The purpose of this literature review is to compile and evaluate available information from Scandinavian, Northern and Central European geological archives, which record climatic conditions during the Weichselian time period. The compilation provides paleotemperature data sets, which may be used to explore the possible evolution of periglacial permafrost in Sweden. This report is a synopsis of 22 publications detailing climatic and environmental changes during the Weichselian time period in Northwestern Europe based on quantified paleotemperature records. Some of the data is presented as temperature curves which were digitised specifically for this report. The time range covered by the different publications varies considerably. Only few authors dealt with the whole Weichselian period and the majority cover only a few thousand years. This however is not considered to influence the reliability of the archives. The reason for the varying

  7. From national allegory to cosmopolitanism: Transformations in contemporary Anglo-Indian and Turkish novels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doğangün, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, I explore the transformation of contemporary Turkish and Anglo-Indian novels from national allegories to sites of multiple belongings by way of a comparative analysis. I analyse ten novels by Turkish and Anglo-Indian novelists that were published between 1973 and 2010: Adalet

  8. The Indian National Food Security Act, 2013: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadharajan, Kiruba Sankar; Thomas, Tinku; Kurpad, Anura

    2014-06-01

    The National Food Security Act (NFSA) 2013, passed recently by the Indian Parliament, aims to ensure food security in India, chiefly by providing cereals at subsidized prices through the Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) for about two-thirds of households. The predominant line of criticism of the NFSA has been the costs of such an ambitious rights-based approach in the context of decelerating economic growth and growing fiscal deficits. We argue that the food subsidy has been increasing through the last few decades and is set to climb even higher with this act but that the incremental costs, at about 0.2% of gross domestic product, are not as high as claimed. Further, recent evidence of increasing utilization of the TPDS and decreasing corruption add credence to the act's premise that significant income transfers to poor households can be achieved, thereby promoting food security as well as dietary diversity. Several concerns remain to be addressed in the design and implementation of the act, including its proposed coverage, a cereal-centric approach, the identification of beneficiaries, and its adaptability at the state level. If these are resolved effectively, the act can prove to be a significant step forward in India's long-drawn-out battle against undernutrition and food insecurity. Finally, the NFSA also provides a fresh opportunity to reform and strengthen the TPDS, which has been an integral component of India's strategy to achieve food security at the national level.

  9. Preparing Tomorrow’s Nursing Home Nurses: The Wisconsin-Long Term Care Clinical Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolet, Kim; Roberts, Tonya; Gilmore-Bykovskyi, Andrea; Roiland, Rachel; Gullickson, Colleen; Ryther, Brenda; Bowers, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Preparing future nurses to care for the growing population of older adults has become a national priority. The demand for long term care services is expected to double between 2000 and 2040, yet the field remains stigmatized as an undesirable place for highly-skilled nurses to work. Recent efforts to increase student preparation in geriatrics have been shown to improve student attitudes toward working with older adults and increase knowledge, but long term care settings remain unattractive to students. This paper reports on development, implementation and evaluation of The Wisconsin Long Term Care Clinical Scholars Program, a nursing home internship for baccalaureate nursing students. The program couples a paid nursing home work experience with an evidence-based long term care nursing curriculum. The program increased student preparation and interest in working with older adults and in nursing homes, while concurrently increasing the capacity of nursing homes to provide a positive student experience. PMID:25162659

  10. Preparing tomorrow's nursing home nurses: the wisconsin long term care clinical scholars program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolet, Kim; Roberts, Tonya; Gilmore-Bykovskyi, Andrea; Roiland, Rachel; Gullickson, Colleen; Ryther, Brenda; Bowers, Barbara J

    2015-01-01

    Preparing future nurses to care for the growing population of older adults has become a national priority. The demand for long term care services is expected to double between 2000 and 2040, yet the field remains stigmatized as an undesirable place for highly skilled nurses to work. Recent efforts to increase student preparation in geriatrics have been shown to improve student attitudes toward working with older adults and increase knowledge, but long term care settings remain unattractive to students. This article reports on the development, implementation, and evaluation of The Wisconsin Long Term Care Clinical Scholars Program, a nursing home internship for baccalaureate nursing students. The program couples a paid nursing home work experience with an evidence-based long term care nursing curriculum. The program increased student preparation and interest in working both with older adults and in nursing homes, while increasing the capacity of nursing homes to provide a positive student experience.

  11. Nuclear energy; real problems of the long term development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.

    1996-01-01

    Whilst general public accepts the operation of western designed nuclear power stations as safe, waste management and decommission still figure as open problems, although such views are not in agreement with technical and economic status of these operations. A concern with imagined problems can have the effect of neglecting the real ones. In considering the long term development of nuclear energy the real problems can be associated with the wide use of plutonium and multiplication of national reprocessing and enrichment installations. Nuclear proliferation safety could be retained and developed through establishment of international nuclear fuel centres. Their operation would be particularly beneficial for small or medium nuclear countries. Several arguments are given why it is not premature to initiate a study which would identify and analyze the problems of establishing an international nuclear fuel centre. Central Europe could be a region which could be served by one of such nuclear fuel centres. (author)

  12. PEBS. Long-term performance of engineered barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieczorek, Klaus; Czaikowski, Oliver; Miehe, Ruediger

    2014-12-15

    The evolution of the engineered barrier system (EBS) of geological repositories for radioactive waste has been the subject of many national and international research programmes. The emphasis of the research activities was on the elaboration of a detailed understanding of the complex THMC processes, which are expected to evolve in the early post closure period in the near field. From the perspective of radiological long-term safety, an in-depth understanding of these coupled processes is of great significance, because the evolution of the EBS during the early post-closure phase may have a non-negligible impact on the radiological safety functions at the time when the canisters breach. Unexpected process interactions during the resaturation phase could impair the safety-relevant parameters in the EBS (e. g. swelling pressure, hydraulic conductivity, diffusivity).

  13. Long-term alternative energy R and D strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Within the coming decades a transition must be initiated from oil and gas to 'unlimited' primary energy sources, i.e., nuclear and solar energy. Ever more expensive fossil energy forms will have to provide for an intermediary solution to the growing global energy demand. While a rather clear-cut picture of the energy problem has emerged on the global level, a straightforward translation to the national or even to the company level is not available. The current study contract between the European Economic Community and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) is a first exercice designed to transfer the global results to the intermediary level of the ''Subregion'' of the European Community. In operational terms the contract aims at identifying long-term (up to 2030) alternative energy R and D strategies for twelve European countries that would be consistent with the global scenarios, identified by IIASA

  14. Is previous hyperthyroidism associated with long-term cognitive dysfunction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillevang-Johansen, Mads; Petersen, Inge; Christensen, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hyperthyroidism has been suggested to adversely affect cognitive function. However, this association could also be caused by genetic and environmental factors affecting both the development of hyperthyroidism and cognitive functioning. By investigating twin pairs discordant...... for hyperthyroidism, this potential confounding can be minimized. The aim of the study was to examine if hyperthyroidism is associated with long-term cognitive dysfunction. DESIGN: Twin case-control study. PATIENTS: Twin pairs discordant for hyperthyroidism were identified by record-linkage between The Danish...... National Patient Registry and 3036 twin pairs from The Danish Twin Registry, who had participated in nationwide surveys on health conditions. MEASUREMENTS: Among other investigations, survey participants had carried out cognitive tests including a Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) and six separate cognitive...

  15. Long-term anal incontinence after obstetric anal sphincter injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jangö, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anal incontinence is a major concern following delivery with obstetric anal sphincter injury and has been related to the degree of sphincter tear. OBJECTIVES: To 1) evaluate whether women with a fourth degree obstetric anal sphincter injury in the first delivery have an increased risk...... of long-term anal- and fecal incontinence after a second delivery and 2) assess the impact of mode of second delivery on anal incontinence and related symptoms in these patients. STUDY DESIGN: We performed secondary analyses of a national questionnaire study in all Danish women with an obstetric anal...... performed uni- and multivariable logistic regression analyses to evaluate the outcomes. RESULTS: In total, 2,008 patients had an obstetric anal sphincter injury of which 12.2% (n=245) had a fourth degree tear in the first delivery. The median follow-up time since the first delivery with OASIS was 11.6 years...

  16. Autonomous Training for Long-Term Spaceflight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop the autonomous capability to intelligently select/generate practice scenarios in order to provide individually targeted crew training when...

  17. Long-Term Monitoring of Permeable Reactive Barriers - Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, L.

    2001-04-12

    The purpose of this project is to conduct collaborative research to evaluate and maximize the effectiveness of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) with a broad-based working group including representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) and its project partner, Battelle, are leading the DoD effort with funding from DoD's Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) and Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is coordinating the DOE effort with support from Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area (SCFA), a research program under DOEs Office of Science and Technology. The National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division is leading EPA's effort. The combined effort of these three agencies allows the evaluation of a large number of sites. Documents generated by this joint project will be reviewed by the participating agencies' principal investigators, the Permeable Barriers Group of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (RTDF), and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation (ITRC). The technical objectives of this project are to collect and review existing field data at selected PRB sites, identify data gaps, conduct additional measurements, and provide recommendations to DOE users on suitable long-term monitoring strategies. The specific objectives are to (1) evaluate geochemical and hydraulic performance of PRBs, (2) develop guidelines for hydraulic and geochemical characterization/monitoring, and (3) devise and implement long-term monitoring strategies through the use of hydrological and geochemical models. Accomplishing these objectives will provide valuable information regarding the optimum configuration and lifetime of barriers at specific sites. It will

  18. Long-term patterns in Iberian hare population dynamics in a protected area (Doñana National Park) in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula: Effects of weather conditions and plant cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Francisco; Soriguer, Ramón C

    2017-01-01

    The Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis) is a widely distributed endemic species in the Iberian Peninsula. To improve our knowledge of its population dynamics, the relative abundance and population trends of the Iberian hare were studied in the autumns of 1995-2012 in a protected area (Doñana National Park) by spotlighting in 2 different habitats: marshland and ecotones. The average relative abundance was 0.38 hare/km (SD = 0.63) in the marshland and 3.6 hares/km (SD = 4.09) in ecotones. The Iberian hare population exhibited local interannual fluctuations and a negative population trend during the study period (1995-2012). The results suggest that its populations are in decline. The flooding of parts of the marshland in June, July and October favor hare abundance in the ecotone. Hare abundance in the marshland increases as the flooded surface area increases in October. These effects are more pronounced if the rains are early (October) and partially flood the marsh. By contrast, when marsh grasses and graminoids are very high and thick (as measured using the aerial herbaceous biomass [biomass marshland] as a proxy), the abundance of hares decreases dramatically as does the area of the marsh that is flooded (in November). © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Long-Term Patency of Lymphovenous Anastomoses: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourani, Saam S; Taylor, G Ian; Ashton, Mark W

    2016-08-01

    With advancements in technology and microsurgical techniques, lymphovenous anastomosis has become a popular reconstructive procedure in the treatment of chronic lymphedema. However, the long-term patency of these anastomoses is not clear in the literature. A systematic review of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed to assess the reported long-term patency of lymphovenous anastomoses. A total of eight studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Pooled data from four similar experiments in normal dogs showed an average long-term (≥5 months) patency of 52 percent. The only experiment in dogs with chronic lymphedema failed to show any long-term patency. The creation of peripheral lymphovenous anastomoses with a moderate long-term patency rate has become technically possible. However, the long-term results in chronic lymphedema are limited.

  20. Long term behaviour of singularly perturbed parabolic degenerated equation

    OpenAIRE

    Faye, Ibrahima; Frenod, Emmanuel; Seck, Diaraf

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider models for short-term, mean-term and long-term morphodynamics of dunes and megariples. We give an existence and uniqueness result for long term dynamics of dunes. This result is based on a time-space periodic solution existence result for degenerated parabolic equation that we set out. Finally the mean-term and long-term models are homogenized.

  1. Assessment of Long-Term Mate Preferences in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Atari

    2017-01-01

    Previous research suggests that assessment of mate preferences has received relatively little psychometric attention from researchers, particularly in non-Western cultures. The current research was designed to (1) extend previous findings on long-term mate preferences by using a qualitative strategy, (2) develop a psychometrically sound scale for assessment of long-term mate preferences in men, and (3) develop a sex-neutral scale for assessment of long-term mate preferences. Six dimensions of...

  2. Unemployment and Long-Term Unemployment of Immigrants in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerija Botrić

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Migration issues in Croatia have been mostly discussed in relation to the recent increase in emigration, in particular related to the emigration of young and highly educated persons. However, active migration policy should consider immigration dynamics as well. In the framework of long-term prospects of the Croatian labour market, and taking into consideration the advanced effects of the demographic aging process, the issue of active immigration policy is expected to become more important in the future. The main goal of the paper is to analyse the existing position of immigrants on the Croatian labour market. Important characteristics of the Croatian labour market in recent years have been a high unemployment rate and high share of long-term unemployment. The effects of these adverse conditions are manifold, not only at the level of the economy (in terms of under-utilisation of available resources, but also at the level of affected individuals. Regarding individuals, the consequences of long-term unemployment frequently incorporate increased distance from the labour market due to the (perceived loss of skills. The aim of the paper is to investigate individual characteristics that predict either unemployment or long-term unemployment of the immigrant population in Croatia. The empirical analysis is based on the Labour Force Survey conducted by the Croatian Central Bureau of Statistics. Due to the data source used, the immigrant population is not defined on the basis of their nationality or citizenship. It entails all persons who were born outside Croatia and currently have permanent residence in the country. The second condition is directly related to the nature of the sample used for the Survey, where the sample frame relies on permanent residency. This implies that any short-term circular migrations (due to, for example, increased labour market during the tourist season are probably not covered by the data. To the extent that this is important

  3. Audit of long-term and short-term liabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Korinko M.D.; Kushnir Y.O.

    2017-01-01

    The article determines the importance of long-term and short-term liabilities for the management of financial and material resources of an enterprise. It reviews the aim, objects and information generators for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations. The organizing and methodical providing of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities of an enterprise are generalized. The authors distinguish the stages of realization of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities, th...

  4. Simulated Climate Response to Long-term Solar Geoengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, L.; Bala, G.; Caldeira, K.; Duan, L.

    2016-12-01

    Many climate modeling studies have been conducted to explore various climate effects of solar geoengineering. However, most studies, including the GeoengineeringModel Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP), conducted geoengineering simulations for only several decades, and thus neglect feedbacks from the deep ocean dynamics. Given the long lifetime of anthropogenic CO2 and long-term climate commitment to CO2 emissions, there is a need to understand climate response to solar geoengineering over long terms. For example, The National Research Council's report on solar geoengineering wrote, "Because the GeoMIP simulations are of limited duration (under a century), the deep ocean does not have time to come into equilibrium with the climate forcing. These G1 (simulations in which solar irradiance is reduced uniformly to offset warming effect from 4 × CO2) and 4 × CO2 simulations therefore do not provide an indication of how the climate would evolve if the albedo modification was maintained for centuries, allowing the deep ocean to respond …". We used Hadley Center Climate model, HadCM3L, to perform a 1000-year idealized solar geoengineering simulation in which solar irradiance is uniformly reduced by 4% to approximately offset global mean warming resulting from an abrupt quadrupling of atmospheric CO2. We contrast this solar geoengineering simulation with the control preindustrial simulation and the 4×CO2 simulation. Our results show that during the 1000 year simulation period, modeled global climate, including temperature, hydrological cycle, sea ice, and ocean circulation of the high-CO2 simulation departs substantially from that of the control preindustrial simulation, whereas the climate of the geoengineering simulation remains much closer to that of the preindustrial state with little drift. In particular, solar geoeningeering simulation stabilizes large-scale ocean meridional circulation throughout the 1000-year period. We do not use the simulation results to argue

  5. The challenges facing the long term interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iracane, D.; Marvy, A.

    2001-01-01

    In France electricity generation by means of commercial nuclear power plants has come to a point where it contributes to the national demand at a level of 80%. The safety performance of the production system has also reached a high level of both maturity and reliability taking advantage of the cumulative effect of a 30 years long learning experience and ever more stringent safety requirements. The policy to reprocess spent fuel has been overriding but no final decision has yet been made regarding the ultimate disposition of the waste streams. Although studies on deep geological disposal are ongoing, France is also looking at whether and under which conditions a long-term interim storage may provide an effective flexibility to the fuel cycle back-end. We discuss thereafter the needs and the paramount objectives of this latter R and D program. Results are being framed as potential guiding criteria for decision makers and various stakeholders. In first part, we propose a general analysis which emphasises that a long term interim storage is more than a classical nuclear facility because it explicitly requires long-lasting control and creates a burden for Society during many generations. Then, in second part, we offer an overview of the technical results from the R and D program as they stand at the time of writing. As an answer to the Government request, a strong emphasis has been put on this research for three years. Conclusion is an attempt to outline the societal context in which future decisions will have to be made. (author)

  6. Backcasting long-term climate data: evaluation of hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghafian, Bahram; Aghbalaghi, Sara Ghasemi; Nasseri, Mohsen

    2018-05-01

    Most often than not, incomplete datasets or short-term recorded data in vast regions impedes reliable climate and water studies. Various methods, such as simple correlation with stations having long-term time series, are practiced to infill or extend the period of observation at stations with missing or short-term data. In the current paper and for the first time, the hypothesis on the feasibility of extending the downscaling concept to backcast local observation records using large-scale atmospheric predictors is examined. Backcasting is coined here to contrast forecasting/projection; the former is implied to reconstruct in the past, while the latter represents projection in the future. To assess our hypotheses, daily and monthly statistical downscaling models were employed to reconstruct past precipitation data and lengthen the data period. Urmia and Tabriz synoptic stations, located in northwestern Iran, constituted two case study stations. SDSM and data-mining downscaling model (DMDM) daily as well as the group method of data handling (GMDH) and model tree (Mp5) monthly downscaling models were trained with National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) data. After training, reconstructed precipitation data of the past was validated against observed data. Then, the data was fully extended to the 1948 to 2009 period corresponding to available NCEP data period. The results showed that DMDM performed superior in generation of monthly average precipitation compared with the SDSM, Mp5, and GMDH models, although none of the models could preserve the monthly variance. This overall confirms practical value of the proposed approach in extension of the past historic data, particularly for long-term climatological and water budget studies.

  7. Backcasting long-term climate data: evaluation of hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghafian, Bahram; Aghbalaghi, Sara Ghasemi; Nasseri, Mohsen

    2017-04-01

    Most often than not, incomplete datasets or short-term recorded data in vast regions impedes reliable climate and water studies. Various methods, such as simple correlation with stations having long-term time series, are practiced to infill or extend the period of observation at stations with missing or short-term data. In the current paper and for the first time, the hypothesis on the feasibility of extending the downscaling concept to backcast local observation records using large-scale atmospheric predictors is examined. Backcasting is coined here to contrast forecasting/projection; the former is implied to reconstruct in the past, while the latter represents projection in the future. To assess our hypotheses, daily and monthly statistical downscaling models were employed to reconstruct past precipitation data and lengthen the data period. Urmia and Tabriz synoptic stations, located in northwestern Iran, constituted two case study stations. SDSM and data-mining downscaling model (DMDM) daily as well as the group method of data handling (GMDH) and model tree (Mp5) monthly downscaling models were trained with National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) data. After training, reconstructed precipitation data of the past was validated against observed data. Then, the data was fully extended to the 1948 to 2009 period corresponding to available NCEP data period. The results showed that DMDM performed superior in generation of monthly average precipitation compared with the SDSM, Mp5, and GMDH models, although none of the models could preserve the monthly variance. This overall confirms practical value of the proposed approach in extension of the past historic data, particularly for long-term climatological and water budget studies.

  8. Health-related quality of life in long-term breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuckmann, Vera; Ekholm, Ola; Rasmussen, Niels Kristian

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of long-term breast cancer survivors (BCS) in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: An age-stratified random sample of 2,000 female BCS > or = 5 years after primary surgery without recurrence was drawn...... from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, which is representative regarding long-term BCS in Denmark, and compared with 3,104 women of the nationally representative Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2000. The Short Form-36 questionnaire assessed HRQOL and its association with BCS...... health" (P mental health" (P

  9. The long term operation of nuclear power plants measured by the yardstick of environmental impact assessment and public participation. Perspective on the European directives, on the Aarhus convention and the Espoo convention. Application to the specific case of Belgium/A perspective on the national implementation of the conventions to nuclear activities. Long-term operation of NPP's measured by the yardstick of environmental impact assessment and public participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyens, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Mr Beyens illustrated the challenges regarding the applicability of the concepts of environmental impact assessment and public participation, as defined in the Aarhus and Espoo Conventions and the relevant directives of the European Union, to the federal laws extending the operation of two nuclear power plants in Belgium. The Belgian authorities considered that those laws only opened the possibility to extend the operational period of those nuclear plants, subject to conditions set by the Belgian regulatory authority. Therefore, these laws should be considered as 'policies', exempt from the requirements of environmental impact assessment and public participation. In addition, Mr Beyens explained that, after an environmental screening had been carried out, the regulator ruled that its decision to authorise the long-term operation project did not require an environmental impact assessment, since it considered that the modifications to the installations would not significantly impact existing radiological environmental effects. However, in both instances legal challenges have been filed before the constitutional and administrative courts and are still pending. It is possible that a request for a preliminary ruling be submitted to the Court of Justice of the European Union in this regard

  10. Immunostimulatory and Other Haematological Effects of Long Term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carica papaya Linn. (Caricaceae)is used traditionally to treat malaria, hypertension, sickle cell anemia and diabetes. Its long-term hypoglycaemic and anti-obesity effects in normal rabbits are documented. This study assessed the long term immunostimulatory and other haematological effects of aqueous C. papaya leaf ...

  11. Sacrococcygeal teratoma: Clinical characteristics and long-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... Background/Purpose:The excision of sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) may be associated with significant long-term morbidity for the child. We reviewed our experience with SCT in a tertiary health care facility in a developing country with particular interest on the long-term sequelae. Methods: Between ...

  12. Sacrococcygeal teratoma: Clinical characteristics and long-term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Purpose : The excision of sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) may be associated with significant long-term morbidity for the child. We reviewed our experience with SCT in a tertiary health care facility in a developing country with particular interest on the long-term sequelae. Methods : Between January 1990 and ...

  13. Long-Term Gowth Opportunities in Ethiopia | Alemu | Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Economics ... The paper attempts to investigate the role of institutions in the long-term growth performance of Ethiopia. In this study, it is hypothesized that the long-term growth of the country, apart from traditional factors of production i.e. capital and labor is largely influenced by institutional factors.

  14. Long-term sealability of spent fuel casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, O.; Kosaki, A.; Ito, C.; Ozaki, S.; Iitsuka, S.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of long-term sealability test of full-scale model casks which have been in progress since 1990. (O.Kato and C.Ito 1992) The purpose is to confirm the long-term sealability of the casks. (J.P.N.)

  15. How Does Long-Term Finance Affect Economic Volatility?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirgüç-Kunt, A.; Horváth, Bálint; Huizinga, Harry

    2016-01-01

    In an approach analogous to Rajan and Zingales (1998), we examine how the ability to access long-term debt affects firm-level growth volatility. We find that firms in industries with stronger preference to use long-term finance relative to short-term finance experience lower growth volatility in

  16. Long-Term Mortality of Emergency Medical Services Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtker, Morten Thingemann; Terkelsen, Christian J; Sørensen, Jan N.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Emergency medical services (EMS) provides out-of-hospital care to patients with life-threatening conditions, but the long-term outcomes of EMS patients are unknown. We seek to determine the long-term mortality of EMS patients in Denmark. METHODS: We analyzed linked EMS, hospital...

  17. Private Placements as Sources of Long Term Funds for publicly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Private Placements as Sources of Long Term Funds for publicly quoted firms in the Nigerian Capital Market. ... AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities ... Abstract. Private placements are gradually becoming means of raising long-term funds in the Nigerian capital market by publicly quoted companies.

  18. Long-term forest ecosystem research: a programmatic view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne Swank; James Vose

    2010-01-01

    Long-term research provides the building blocks of knowledge needed to address natural resource and environmental issues. "Long-term" has frequently been considered to span decades with a time frame that usually encompasses at least one generation of scientists and frequently two or more generations. In the rich history of forest science, the origin of long-...

  19. Psychological symptoms as long-term consequences of war experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, S.; Jankovic Gavrilovic, J.; Bremner, S.; Ajdukovic, D.; Franciskovic, T.; Galeazzi, G.M.; Kucukalic, A.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Morina, N.; Popovski, M.; Schützwohl, M.; Bogic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: War experiences can affect mental health, but large-scale studies on the long-term impact are rare. We aimed to assess long-term mental health consequences of war in both people who stayed in the conflict area and refugees. Method: On average 8 years after the war in former

  20. Factors associated with long-term mortality in acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøjgaard, Camilla; Matzen, Peter; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the long-term prognosis of acute pancreatitis (AP) is limited. The aims were to investigate: (1) prognostic factors associated with long-term mortality in patients with AP; (2) whether or not the level of serum (S-)amylase at admission had an impact on the prognosis; (3) causes...

  1. Albumin: Creatinine Ratio during long term Diabetes Mellitus in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Albumin: Creatinine Ratio during long term Diabetes Mellitus in the Assessment of early Nephropathy in Sudanese Population. ... Further studies with 24 hour urine sample are recommended for assessment of Microalbuminuria in long term Diabetic patients, provided that the patients are on a normal diet with regular ...

  2. Long-term hearing preservation in vestibular schwannoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Thomsen, Jens; Tos, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term hearing during "wait and scan" management of vestibular schwannomas.......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term hearing during "wait and scan" management of vestibular schwannomas....

  3. Quantification of long term emission potential from landfills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimovaara, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Novel approaches for the after-care of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills are based on technological measures to reduce the long term emission potential in a short time period. Biological degradation in landfills is a means to significantly reduce the long term emission potential. Leachate

  4. Long-term effects of a preoperative smoking cessation programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villebro, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Tom; Møller, Ann M

    2008-01-01

    Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation.......Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation....

  5. Long-Term Follow Up of Superficial Bladder Tumors | Shelbaia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The treatment of superficial TCC may be done by relatively minor endoscopic procedures, but the disease itself is a serious condition that merits close long-term follow-up. Key words: bladder tumors, transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), ND: YAG lasers, transurethral resection (TURT) Suivi à long terme des ...

  6. Long Term Incentives for Residential Customers Using Dynamic Tariff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews several grid tariff schemes, including flat tariff, time-of-use, time-varying tariff, demand charge and dynamic tariff (DT), from the perspective of the long term incentives. The long term incentives can motivate the owners of flexible demands to change their energy consumption...

  7. Inflammatory markers in relation to long-term air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostafavi Montazeri, Nahid|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375290575; Vlaanderen, Jelle|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31403160X; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Modig, Lars; Palli, Domenico; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Vineis, Paolo; Hoek, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios Α; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620

    Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution can lead to chronic health effects such as cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Systemic inflammation has been hypothesized as a putative biological mechanism contributing to these adverse health effects. We evaluated the effect of long-term

  8. Long term physical and chemical stability of polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Grooth, Joris; Haakmeester, Brian; Wever, Carlos; Potreck, Jens; de Vos, Wiebe Matthijs; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a detailed investigation into the long term stability of polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) modified membranes, a key factor for the application of these membranes in water purification processes. Although PEM modified membranes have been frequently investigated, their long term

  9. Long-term effects of childbirth in MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, M.B.; Nagels, G.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The uncertainty about long-term effects of childbirth presents MS patients with dilemmas. Methods: Based on clinical data of 330 female MS patients, the long-term effects of childbirth were analysed, using a cross-sectional study design. Four groups of patients were distinguished: (1)

  10. Long-term follow-up of obstetric studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teune, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on long-term child follow-up after obstetric studies. Obstetric randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) are performed to evaluate the effectiveness of perinatal interventions. However, most often only short-term outcomes are reported, while long-term outcomes are just as

  11. The Case for Democracy as a Long Term National Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walsh, John E

    2007-01-01

    ... with the ultimate goal of ending tyranny in the world. Throughout his presidency, President Bush has religiously argued that there is an inextricable link between freedom and peace, and between democracy and security...

  12. Long-term sickness absence from work due to physical inactivity: A registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgsbro, Cecilie; Davidsen, Michael; Sørensen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between leisure-time physical inactivity and long-term sickness absence in a representative sample of individuals aged 16-54 years, within the labour market and in good health. It was hypothesised that physically inactive individuals have a higher risk of long-term sickness absence and longer duration of sickness absence. The study population was identified from the National Health and Morbidity Survey, 2010. Weekly data on long-term sickness absence were obtained from the National Register on Social Transfer Payments (the DREAM registry). The association of incidence and duration of long-term sickness absence with physical inactivity was explored using logistic and Poisson regression. Data were fitted to models with levels of physical activity, demographic, social and lifestyle characteristics as independent variables. A combined hurdle model was used to estimate the difference in mean number of absence weeks. Logistic regression showed that physically inactive individuals had a 27% higher incidence of long-term sickness absence compared with physically active individuals. The Poisson regression showed that long-term sickness absence was only slightly shorter (1 week less) for moderately active individuals compared with inactive individuals. The hurdle model estimated longer absence periods for inactive individuals (additional 2.5 weeks) in comparison with moderately and highly active individuals. The study showed that physically inactive individuals have a higher incidence of long-term absence and that physically inactive individuals have longer periods with sickness absence than moderately and highly active individuals. When adjustments for social and health behaviour were included, the estimated associations became statistically insignificant.

  13. Environmental Management Long-Term Stewardship Transition Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after the completion of facility cleanup. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. This report describes the background of long-term stewardship and gives general guidance about considerations when ownership and/or responsibility of a site should be transferred to a long-term stewardship program. This guidance document will assist the U.S. Department of Energy in: (a) ensuring that the long-term stewardship program leads transition planning with respect to facility and site areas, and (b) describing the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete.

  14. Trend analysis of long-term rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio de Oliveira Sanches

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Pampas Region in the southwest of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, there are areas that show fragility in relation to soil and climatic characteristics. The sandy areas of this region have attracted special attention in the recent decades due to historical, socio economic and environmental issues. An increase in the amount of sand, or “sandization”, occurred due to natural phenomena such as rainfall and wind. Therefore, the sandization process could be influenced by an increase of precipitation in the area. The goal of this work was to analyze precipitation during different time periods in Alegrete, Rio Grande do Sul, from 1928 to 2009 in order to identify evidence of changes in rainfall behavior. Rainfall data from the Brazilian National Water Agency (Portuguese acronym ANA provided by the system hidroweb (http://hidroweb.ana.gov.br were analyzed. After the data were organized on total monthly, trimestral and annual values, they were analyzed for their linear trend over time. The Mann-Kendall test was used to quantitatively evaluate positive and negative trends; however, the data did not provide evidence of climatic changes, but rather of normal random weather events during the time period studied.

  15. Long-term results of PTFE grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Vascular surgeons are essential in "lifeline" creation for hemodialysis patients and should be the central player in any multidisciplinary access service together with nephrologists, dialysis staff and interventional radiology. In this position, access surgeons are involved in complicated clinical decision making regarding primary and secondary access selection, which throughout the last decade has been largely aided, and influenced, by national and international guidelines as well as other initiatives. These recommendations, unanimously and appropriately, advocate the placement of native fistulas over synthetic grafts (the majority grafts from expanded polytetrafluoroethylene, ePTFE, herein referred to as PTFE) based on the superiority of fistulas with respect to complications such as infections and thrombosis. Nevertheless, the use of PTFE grafts for hemodialysis access is an accepted and firmly established alternative to native fistulas where data today reveal unwanted consequences to overinterpretation of established guidelines such as increased catheter use. This information highlights a need for an adjustment of access selection strategies based on patient-centered algorithms. Here, available results on PTFE graft performance in hemodialysis access is recapitulated, with respect to both conventional grafts and technical modifications, and conclude with a modified approach to primary access selection.

  16. Combating computer crimes: A long term strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kizza, J.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Computer crimes are a new kind of crime less than twenty years old, but in these twenty years or so the computer crime rate has risen alarmingly, costing society billions of dollars annually. In software alone this figure is in billions; software piracy in USA resulted in a loss of 2.9 billion dollars in 1989 and 2.4 billion dollars in 1990. The problem is growing rapidly with a steadily increasing use of computers by the public. The number of people using computers in the USA in the last 10 years either at work or at home has jumped from almost zero to about 40 per cent of the population. In the next decade this number may approach 80 percent. With such widespread use of computers at work and home together with the ever increasing number of local, national, and international networks, computer crimes are expected to sky rocket, and if no adequate means are devised to combat these crimes now, the future promises to be no less frightening than the present.

  17. Systematic long-term observations of the global carbon cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, R J; Monteiro, P M S; Sabine, C L; Canadell, J G

    2009-08-01

    Imagine a meeting convened to avert a global financial crisis where none of the finance ministers had access to reliable information on changes in the stock market, national gross domestic product or international trade flows. It is hardly conceivable. Yet the infinitely more existence-threatening planetary social and ecological crisis we refer to as 'global change' (comprising the linked issues of biogeochemical, climate, biotic and human system change) is in an analogous situation. Our information on the profound and accelerating changes currently depends to an unacceptable degree on serendipity, individual passion, redirected funding and the largely uncoordinated efforts of a few nations. The thesis of this paper is that navigation of the very narrow 'safe passages' that lie ahead requires a comprehensive and systematic approach to Earth observations, supported by a globally coordinated long-term funding mechanism. We developed the argument based on observations of the carbon cycle, because the issues there are compelling and easily demonstrated, but we believe the conclusions also to be true for many other types of observations relating to the state and management of the biosphere.

  18. Abstracts 1987. New Horizons in Long Term Care: A Report on the Long Term Care Research and Demonstration Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Aid, Springfield.

    This booklet provides a description of 14 projects which were awarded funds during fiscal year 1987 for collaborative research in long-term care to find new ways to treat long-term care patients in Illinois nursing homes. It includes the organization or institution receiving the award, an abstract of the research proposal, and the name of the…

  19. Modeling long-term dynamics of electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsina, Fernando; Garces, Francisco; Haubrich, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade, many countries have restructured their electricity industries by introducing competition in their power generation sectors. Although some restructuring has been regarded as successful, the short experience accumulated with liberalized power markets does not allow making any founded assertion about their long-term behavior. Long-term prices and long-term supply reliability are now center of interest. This concerns firms considering investments in generation capacity and regulatory authorities interested in assuring the long-term supply adequacy and the stability of power markets. In order to gain significant insight into the long-term behavior of liberalized power markets, in this paper, a simulation model based on system dynamics is proposed and the underlying mathematical formulations extensively discussed. Unlike classical market models based on the assumption that market outcomes replicate the results of a centrally made optimization, the approach presented here focuses on replicating the system structure of power markets and the logic of relationships among system components in order to derive its dynamical response. The simulations suggest that there might be serious problems to adjust early enough the generation capacity necessary to maintain stable reserve margins, and consequently, stable long-term price levels. Because of feedback loops embedded in the structure of power markets and the existence of some time lags, the long-term market development might exhibit a quite volatile behavior. By varying some exogenous inputs, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to assess the influence of these factors on the long-run market dynamics

  20. Audit of long-term and short-term liabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korinko M.D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article determines the importance of long-term and short-term liabilities for the management of financial and material resources of an enterprise. It reviews the aim, objects and information generators for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations. The organizing and methodical providing of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities of an enterprise are generalized. The authors distinguish the stages of realization of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities, the aim of audit on each of the presented stages, and recommend methodical techniques. It is fixed that it is necessary to conduct the estimation of the systems of internal control and record-keeping of an enterprise by implementation of public accountant procedures for determination of volume and maintenance of selection realization. After estimating the indicated systems, a public accountant determines the methodology for realization of public accountant verification of long-term and short-term liabilities. The analytical procedures that public accountants are expedient to use for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations are determined. The authors suggest the classification of the educed defects on the results of the conducted public accountant verification of short-term and long-term obligations.

  1. Long-Term Resource Adequacy, Long-Term Flexibility Requirements, and Revenue Sufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, Erik [Electric Power Research Institute; Botterud, Audun [Argonne National Laboratory; Levin, Todd [Argonne National Laboratory

    2018-02-15

    Variable generation (VG) can reduce market prices over time and also the energy that other suppliers can sell in the market. The suppliers that are needed to provide capacity and flexibility to meet the long-term reliability requirements may, therefore, earn less revenue. This chapter discusses the topics of resource adequacy and revenue sufficiency - that is, determining and acquiring the quantity of capacity that will be needed at some future date and ensuring that those suppliers that offer the capacity receive sufficient revenue to recover their costs. The focus is on the investment time horizon and the installation of sufficient generation capability. First, the chapter discusses resource adequacy, including newer methods of determining adequacy metrics. The chapter then focuses on revenue sufficiency and how suppliers have sufficient opportunity to recover their total costs. The chapter closes with a description of the mechanisms traditionally adopted by electricity markets to mitigate the issues of resource adequacy and revenue sufficiency and discusses the most recent market design changes to address these issues.

  2. Innovative Stirling-Cycle Cryocooler for Long Term In-Space Storage of Cryogenic Liquid Propellants, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Numerous studies have concluded that increasing effectiveness of long-term storage of cryogenic liquid propellants, primarily LO2 and LH2, offers the largest single...

  3. Synthetic Biology for Recycling Human Waste into Nutraceuticals, and Materials: Closing the Loop for Long-Term Space Travel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is impractical for astronauts to travel with all necessary supplies in future long-term space exploration missions. Therefore, it is imperative that technologies...

  4. Guam Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program Benthic Percent Cover Derived from Image Analysis since 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Government of Guam's Long-term Coral Reef Monitoring Program, coordinated through the Guam Coastal Management Program until October 2013 and now coordinated...

  5. The long-term power purchase: Recovery of capacity costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, P.S.

    1990-01-01

    As electric utilities increase their reliance on the long-term power purchase as an alternative to utility-owned generation, the appropriate rate treatment of the costs established in the purchase agreement assumes growing importance. In the November 9, 1989, issue, the authors examined the recent trend among state regulators to treat the long-term purchase in a manner similar to the addition by a utility of a new plant, including a full-scale prudence review. This installment will review recent rulings on the related issue of rate recovery of long-term capacity costs through the fuel cost adjustment clause

  6. Cyclic and Long-Term Variation of Sunspot Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-15

    AFRL-RV-PS- TP-2014-0009 AFRL-RV-PS- TP-2014-0009 CYCLIC AND LONG-TERM VARIATION OF SUNSPOT MAGNETIC FIELDS Alexei A. Pevtsov, et al. 15...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cyclic and Long-Term Variation of Sunspot Magnetic Fields 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62601F...from the Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) were used to study the long-term variations of sunspot field strengths from 1920 to 1958. Following a modified

  7. Trend analysis of evapotranspiration over India: Observed from long-term satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goroshi, Sheshakumar; Pradhan, Rohit; Singh, Raghavendra P.; Singh, K. K.; Parihar, Jai Singh

    2017-12-01

    Owing to the lack of consistent spatial time series data on actual evapotranspiration ( ET), very few studies have been conducted on the long-term trend and variability in ET at a national scale over the Indian subcontinent. The present study uses biome specific ET data derived from NOAA satellite's advanced very high resolution radiometer to investigate the trends and variability in ET over India from 1983 to 2006. Trend analysis using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test showed that the domain average ET decreased during the period at a rate of 0.22 mm year^{-1}. A strong decreasing trend (m = -1.75 mm year^{-1}, F = 17.41, P 0.01) was observed in forest regions. Seasonal analyses indicated a decreasing trend during southwest summer monsoon (m= -0.320 mm season^{-1} year^{-1}) and post-monsoon period (m= -0.188 mm season^{-1 } year^{-1}). In contrast, an increasing trend was observed during northeast winter monsoon (m = 0.156 mm season^{-1 } year^{-1}) and pre-monsoon (m = 0.068 mm season^{-1 } year^{-1}) periods. Despite an overall net decline in the country, a considerable increase ( 4 mm year^{-1}) was observed over arid and semi-arid regions. Grid level correlation with various climatic parameters exhibited a strong positive correlation (r >0.5) of ET with soil moisture and precipitation over semi-arid and arid regions, whereas a negative correlation (r -0.5) occurred with temperature and insolation in dry regions of western India. The results of this analysis are useful for understanding regional ET dynamics and its relationship with various climatic parameters over India. Future studies on the effects of ET changes on the hydrological cycle, carbon cycle, and energy partitioning are needed to account for the feedbacks to the climate.

  8. The Long-Term Effects of Bilingualism on Children of Immigration: Student Bilingualism and Future Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirdag, Orhan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine the largely neglected long-term effects of bilingualism for students with roots in immigration. Our central research question is whether students' bilingual proficiencies have an impact on their future earnings in the USA. For this purpose, we used two different data-sets, i.e. the National Education Longitudinal…

  9. The North-American Long-Term Soil Productivity Study: Concepts and literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah S. Page-Dumroese

    2010-01-01

    The resiliency of forest sites after a pulse disturbance is one of the key questions mandated by the National Forest Management Act (NFMA) of 1976. This Act mandated that we maintain the productive capacity of federally managed stands. The original USDA Forest Service soil quality standards were based largely on professional judgment. The North American Long-Term Soil...

  10. Experimental forests and ranges as a network for for long-term data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Vavra; John Mitchell

    2010-01-01

    In the new millennium, national leaders and policymakers are facing profound issues regarding people and the environment. Experimental Forests and Ranges (EFRs), managed by the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), form a network of locations amenable to the development of long-term data collection across many major ecosystems of the continental United...

  11. Long-Term Preservation of Digital Information in China: Some Problems and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiazhen; Du, Peng

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper to describe the research work on the long-term preservation of Chinese digital information funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) since 2001. Design/methodology/approach: The paper provides an overview, in text and figures, of ways in which e-documents originating in China, in now obsolete…

  12. Long-term clinical outcome after alcohol septal ablation for obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veselka, Josef; Jensen, Morten Kvistholm; Liebregts, Max

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The first cases of alcohol septal ablation (ASA) for obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) were published two decades ago. Although the outcomes of single-centre and national ASA registries have been published, the long-term survival and clinical outcome of the procedure are still...

  13. "System Leader" Consultancy Development in English Schools: A Long-Term Agenda for a Democratic Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Within the policy rationale of a "self-improving" school system, there are now several thousand National College designated "system leaders" working as consultants in English schools on aspects of school to school support. So far, there has been no systematic consideration of the long-term development of these consultants in…

  14. Pulmonary function and autoantibodies in a long-term follow-up of juvenile dermatomyositis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Pernille Raasthøj; Buchvald, Frederik Fouirnaies; Nielsen, Kim G

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Pulmonary disease is a rare complication in JDM, described in only a few studies. This long-term follow-up study aimed to (i) describe pulmonary involvement in a national cohort of JDM patients estimated by conventional spirometry, (ii) compare pulmonary impairment with overall JDM ou...

  15. Predictors of Long-Term Care Utilization by Dutch Hospital Patients aged 65+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elderkamp-de Groot Rianne

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term care is often associated with high health care expenditures. In the Netherlands, an ageing population will likely increase the demand for long-term care within the near future. The development of risk profiles will not only be useful for projecting future demand, but also for providing clues that may prevent or delay long-term care utilization. Here, we report our identification of predictors of long-term care utilization in a cohort of hospital patients aged 65+ following their discharge from hospital discharge and who, prior to hospital admission, were living at home. Methods The data were obtained from three national databases in the Netherlands: the national hospital discharge register, the long-term care expenses register and the population register. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to determine which variables were the best predictors of long-term care utilization. The model included demographic characteristics and several medical diagnoses. The outcome variables were discharge to home with no formal care (reference category, discharge to home with home care, admission to a nursing home and admission to a home for the elderly. Results The study cohort consisted of 262,439 hospitalized patients. A higher age, longer stay in the hospital and absence of a spouse were found to be associated with a higher risk of all three types of long-term care. Individuals with a child had a lower risk of requiring residential care. Cerebrovascular diseases [relative risk ratio (RRR = 11.5] were the strongest disease predictor of nursing home admission, and fractures of the ankle or lower leg (RRR = 6.1 were strong determinants of admission to a home for the elderly. Lung cancer (RRR = 4.9 was the strongest determinant of discharge to the home with home care. Conclusions These results emphasize the impact of age, absence/presence of a spouse and disease on long-term care utilization. In an era of demographic and

  16. Indian National Conference on Hemoglobinopathies, 17-18 May 2013, Bangalore - India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editors: Karuna Rameshkumar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This abstract book contains some abstracts presented at the Indian National Conference on Hemoglobinopathies, 17-18 May 2013, Bangalore - IndiaOrganized by Departments of Clinical Pathology, Paediatrics & Haematology St. John’s National Academy of Health Sciences Bangalore - India

  17. Long-Term Care: Safe Drug Handling of Oral Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tali M

    2017-02-01

    Many oral chemotherapy agents have been approved over the last 15 years and are displacing or augmenting parenteral chemotherapy. As 8,000 Baby Boomers turn 65 years of age every day, more elders will migrate to long-term care and assisted living facilities, and consultant pharmacists may need to manage chemotherapy for the first time. Though many therapeutic classes of oral drugs are hazardous, the majority of oral chemotherapy agents are hazardous by virtue of their mechanisms of action. Previous hazardous drug-handling recommendations from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, the Hematology/Oncology Pharmacy Association, and the Oncology Nursing Society have matured into new standards from the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP), Chapter , "Hazardous Drugs-Handling in Health Care Settings." These standards provide a comprehensive approach for safe drug handling across all health care settings and underscore the need for consultant pharmacist involvement in nursing and assisted living facilities.

  18. Assessment of long-term WRF–CMAQ simulations for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term simulations with the coupled WRF–CMAQ (Weather Research and Forecasting–Community Multi-scale Air Quality) model have been conducted to systematically investigate the changes in anthropogenic emissions of SO2 and NOx over the past 16 years (1995–2010) across the United States (US), their impacts on anthropogenic aerosol loading over North America, and subsequent impacts on regional radiation budgets. In particular, this study attempts to determine the consequences of the changes in tropospheric aerosol burden arising from substantial reductions in emissions of SO2 and NOx associated with control measures under the Clean Air Act (CAA) especially on trends in solar radiation. Extensive analyses conducted by Gan et al. (2014a) utilizing observations (e.g., SURFRAD, CASTNET, IMPROVE, and ARM) over the past 16 years (1995–2010) indicate a shortwave (SW) radiation (both all-sky and clear-sky) "brightening" in the US. The relationship of the radiation brightening trend with decreases in the aerosol burden is less apparent in the western US. One of the main reasons for this is that the emission controls under the CAA were aimed primarily at reducing pollutants in areas violating national air quality standards, most of which were located in the eastern US, while the relatively less populated areas in the western US were less polluted at the beginning of this study period. Comparisons of model results with observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD), aer

  19. Long-term monitoring of western aspen--lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, E K; Bunting, S C; Starcevich, L A; Nahorniak, M T; Dicus, G; Garrett, L K

    2015-08-01

    Aspen woodland is an important ecosystem in the western United States. Aspen is currently declining in western mountains; stressors include conifer expansion due to fire suppression, drought, disease, heavy wildlife and livestock use, and human development. Forecasting of tree species distributions under future climate scenarios predicts severe losses of western aspen within the next 50 years. As a result, aspen has been selected as one of 14 vital signs for long-term monitoring by the National Park Service Upper Columbia Basin Network. This article describes the development of a monitoring protocol for aspen including inventory mapping, selection of sampling locations, statistical considerations, a method for accounting for spatial dependence, field sampling strategies, and data management. We emphasize the importance of collecting pilot data for use in statistical power analysis and semi-variogram analysis prior to protocol implementation. Given the spatial and temporal variability within aspen stem size classes, we recommend implementing permanent plots that are distributed spatially within and among stands. Because of our careful statistical design, we were able to detect change between sampling periods with desired confidence and power. Engaging a protocol development and implementation team with necessary and complementary knowledge and skills is critical for success. Besides the project leader, we engaged field sampling personnel, GIS specialists, statisticians, and a data management specialist. We underline the importance of frequent communication with park personnel and network coordinators.

  20. Design tradeoffs in long-term research for stream salamanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Adrianne B,; Grant, Evan H. Campbell

    2017-01-01

    Long-term research programs can benefit from early and periodic evaluation of their ability to meet stated objectives. In particular, consideration of the spatial allocation of effort is key. We sampled 4 species of stream salamanders intensively for 2 years (2010–2011) in the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, Maryland, USA to evaluate alternative distributions of sampling locations within stream networks, and then evaluated via simulation the ability of multiple survey designs to detect declines in occupancy and to estimate dynamic parameters (colonization, extinction) over 5 years for 2 species. We expected that fine-scale microhabitat variables (e.g., cobble, detritus) would be the strongest determinants of occupancy for each of the 4 species; however, we found greater support for all species for models including variables describing position within the stream network, stream size, or stream microhabitat. A monitoring design focused on headwater sections had greater power to detect changes in occupancy and the dynamic parameters in each of 3 scenarios for the dusky salamander (Desmognathus fuscus) and red salamander (Pseudotriton ruber). Results for transect length were more variable, but across all species and scenarios, 25-m transects are most suitable as a balance between maximizing detection probability and describing colonization and extinction. These results inform sampling design and provide a general framework for setting appropriate goals, effort, and duration in the initial planning stages of research programs on stream salamanders in the eastern United States.

  1. Long-term outcomes of children after solid organ transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Jin Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid organ transplantation has transformed the lives of many children and adults by providing treatment for patients with organ failure who would have otherwise succumbed to their disease. The first successful transplant in 1954 was a kidney transplant between identical twins, which circumvented the problem of rejection from MHC incompatibility. Further progress in solid organ transplantation was enabled by the discovery of immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids and azathioprine in the 1950s and ciclosporin in 1970. Today, solid organ transplantation is a conventional treatment with improved patient and allograft survival rates. However, the challenge that lies ahead is to extend allograft survival time while simultaneously reducing the side effects of immunosuppression. This is particularly important for children who have irreversible organ failure and may require multiple transplants. Pediatric transplant teams also need to improve patient quality of life at a time of physical, emotional and psychosocial development. This review will elaborate on the long-term outcomes of children after kidney, liver, heart, lung and intestinal transplantation. As mortality rates after transplantation have declined, there has emerged an increased focus on reducing longer-term morbidity with improved outcomes in optimizing cardiovascular risk, renal impairment, growth and quality of life. Data were obtained from a review of the literature and particularly from national registries and databases such as the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies for the kidney, SPLIT for liver, International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation and UNOS for intestinal transplantation.

  2. Coding long-term care services—eDESDE-LTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Poole, Miriam; Bendeck, Murielle; Romero, Cristina; Salinas, José Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Semantic variability is a barrier to effective networking of long-term care (LTC) services. The same name may be used for services providing different activities (i.e. day centres), and services with different names may have a similar pattern of care delivery. Furthermore, services are complex constructs which depend on local characteristics, vary over time and do not allow comparisons like with like. At present there is no standard coding system of LTC in Europe. This fact impedes cross-national comparisons, hampers European statistics on service availability, access and use, and slows down the development of international care planning strategies and patient mobility. Description The ‘Description and Evaluation of Services and Directories in Europe’ (DESDE) adapts to LTC the only currently available methodology for mapping, comparing and monitoring mental health and disability services (European Service Mapping Schedule—ESMS), which has already been applied in 16 countries in Europe. The system is based on descriptors called ‘Main Types of Care’ (MTC) including accessibility, information, self-help, outpatient and community care, day care and residential care. Services are arranged or organised in cluster combination of MTCs which emulate ‘bar codes’, identifying service characteristics according to MTCs. Thus, MTC availability and use can be compared across areas regardless of how services are named. Conclusion DESDE is a standard coding system of services for LTC which can be incorporated to electronic registers, databases and websites.

  3. Public long-term care insurance in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, N

    A public long-term care (LTC) insurance program is likely to be introduced to Japan in the year 2000. A consensus on the need for more LTC resources in the rapidly aging society and dissatisfaction with the current system are some of the factors that have contributed to its introduction. Half the costs will be paid by premiums that will be levied on all those older than 40 years, and half will be covered by general taxation. The insurer will be the municipalities with a pooling mechanism at the national level to balance the differences in their demographic structure. The benefits will include institutional care, respite care, day care, home help, visiting nurses, and loan of devices. Eligibility status will be classified into 6 levels that will be determined by assessment of functional and cognitive status. However, there are few mechanisms to limit benefits and contain costs. Problems also exist in the design of the eligibility classification and in the assessment instrument. The proposed LTC insurance system highlights the need for defining what should be included in a "basic package" of LTC as an entitlement for every citizen, for an organizational mechanism and an assessment instrument to deliver services efficiently and equitably, and for physicians to work outside the traditional medical model. To what degree the Japanese public in general, and physicians in particular, is willing to deal with these issues is a challenge for the 21 st century.

  4. Long-Term Stewardship At DOE's Hanford Site - 12575

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moren, R.J.; Grindstaff, K.D.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeast Washington and consists of 1,518 square kilometers (586 square miles) of land. Established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project, Hanford workers produced plutonium for our nation's nuclear defense program until the mid 1980's. Since then, the site has been in cleanup mode that is being accomplished in phases. As we achieve remedial objectives and complete active cleanup, DOE will manage Hanford land under the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program until completion of cleanup and the site becomes ready for transfer to the post cleanup landlord - currently planned for DOE's Office of Legacy Management (LM). We define Hanford's LTS Program in the ''Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan,'' (DOE/RL-201 0-35)(1), which describes the scope including the relationship between the cleanup projects and the LTS Program. DOE designed the LTS Program to manage and provide surveillance and maintenance (S and M) of institutional controls and associated monitoring of closed waste sites to ensure the protection of human health and the environment. DOE's Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and Hanford cleanup and operations contractors collaboratively developed this program over several years. The program's scope also includes 15 key activities that are identified in the DOE Program Plan (DOE/RL-2010-35). The LTS Program will transition 14 land segments through 2016. The combined land mass is approximately 570 square kilometers (220 square miles), with over 1,300 active and inactive waste sites and 3,363 wells. Land segments vary from buffer zone property with no known contamination to cocooned reactor buildings, demolished support facilities, and remediated cribs and trenches. DOE-RL will transition land management responsibilities from cleanup contractors to the Mission Support Contract (MSC), who will then administer the LTS Program for DOE-RL. This process requires an environment of cooperation

  5. Long-term visual changes following pituitary irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movsas, Benjamin; Movsas, Tammy Z.; Steinberg, Seth M.; Okunieff, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze possible long-term effects of pituitary irradiation on visual fields and acuity. Methods and Materials: Eighty-six patients were treated with radiotherapy for pituitary tumors at the National Cancer Institute between 1980 and 1991. Twenty-one patients had baseline preradiation and long-term follow-up visual fields. Eyes were followed with serial Goldmann or Humphrey visual field testing. Neuroradiologic correlation was made with the available brain scans. There were 12 females and 9 males with an median age of 44. Eighteen patients had hormone-secreting tumors and three had chromophobe adenomas. All but one patient with an inoperable invasive macroadenoma were irradiated after one or more transphenoidal resections or a craniotomy. The indications for radiation in the operable patients were: nine patients, partial tumor resection; nine patients, tumor recurrence; and two patients, persistent hormonal elevation after surgery. The median dose delivered was 50 Gy (45-59.4 Gy). The average field size was 6 x 6 cm (5 x 5 cm to 10 x 12.5 cm). Results: With a median follow-up of 48 months (14-128) after radiotherapy, 1 out of 21 patients has recurred (at 8 months) and all patients are alive. Of the 38 sighted eyes, 27 had normal visual fields before and after radiation, 7 eyes showed improvement, and 4 eyes had a stable defect, mostly in the superior temporal region. There were no cases of radiation-induced visual field or acuity deterioration. Six out of 21 patients (29%) had neurologic symptoms in follow-up, most of which appeared vascular in nature. Four patients complained of atypical migranous-like headaches that first began 1.5-3 years following treatment. One patient complained of recurrent vertical diplopia and one patient had a cerebral vascular accident 7 years following therapy. A dose-related association with these neurovascular symptoms approached statistical significance. Only 1 out of 11 (9%) patients who received doses less than or equal

  6. LONG-TERM STEWARDSHIP AT DOE HANFORD SITE - 12575

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MOREN RJ; GRINDSTAFF KD

    2012-01-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeast Washington and consists of 1,518 square kilometers (586 square miles) of land. Established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project, Hanford workers produced plutonium for our nation's nuclear defense program until the mid 1980's. Since then, the site has been in cleanup mode that is being accomplished in phases. As we achieve remedial objectives and complete active cleanup, DOE will manage Hanford land under the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program until completion of cleanup and the site becomes ready for transfer to the post cleanup landlord - currently planned for DOE's Office of Legacy Management (LM). We define Hanford's LTS Program in the ''Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan,'' (DOE/RL-201 0-35)[1], which describes the scope including the relationship between the cleanup projects and the LTS Program. DOE designed the LTS Program to manage and provide surveillance and maintenance (S&M) of institutional controls and associated monitoring of closed waste sites to ensure the protection of human health and the environment. DOE's Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and Hanford cleanup and operations contractors collaboratively developed this program over several years. The program's scope also includes 15 key activities that are identified in the DOE Program Plan (DOE/RL-2010-35). The LTS Program will transition 14 land segments through 2016. The combined land mass is approximately 570 square kilometers (220 square miles), with over 1,300 active and inactive waste sites and 3,363 wells. Land segments vary from buffer zone property with no known contamination to cocooned reactor buildings, demolished support facilities, and remediated cribs and trenches. DOE-RL will transition land management responsibilities from cleanup contractors to the Mission Support Contract (MSC), who will then administer the LTS Program for DOE-RL. This

  7. Collaboration in long-term stewardship at DOE Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moren, R. J.; Zeisloft, J. H.; Feist, E. T.; Brown, D.; Grindstaff, K. D.

    2013-01-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site comprises approximately 1,517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) of land in southeastern Washington. The site was established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project to produce plutonium for the nation's nuclear weapons program. As the Cold War era came to an end, the mission of the site transitioned from weapons production to environmental cleanup. As the River Corridor area of the site cleanup is completed, the mission for that portion of the site will transition from active cleanup to continued protection of environment through the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program. The key to successful transition from cleanup to LTS is the unique collaboration among three (3) different DOE Programs and three (3) different prime contractors with each contractor having different contracts. The LTS Program at the site is a successful model of collaboration resulting in efficient resolution of issues and accelerated progress that supports DOE's Richland Office 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site. The 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site involves shrinking the active cleanup footprint of the surface area of the site to approximately 20 mi{sup 2} on the Central Plateau. Hanford's LTS Program is defined in DOE's planning document, Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan, DOE/RL-2010-35 Rev 1. The Plan defines the relationship and respective responsibilities between the federal cleanup projects and the LTS Program along with their respective contractors. The LTS Program involves these different parties (cleanup program and contractors) who must work together to achieve the objective for transition of land parcels. Through the collaborative efforts with the prime contractors on site over the past two years, 253.8 km{sup 2} (98 mi{sup 2}) of property has been successfully transitioned from the cleanup program to the LTS Program upon completion of active surface cleanup. Upcoming efforts in the near term will include transitioning another large

  8. Long-term safety and efficacy of infliximab for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elalouf, Ofir; Elkayam, Ori

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of TNFα blockers has revolutionized the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The objectives of this review are to summarize the most up-to-date data on long-term efficacy and safety of infliximab in AS, with special emphasis on axial and extra-articular disease, predictors of response, and radiological response. The general consensus of this literature search was that infliximab is highly efficacious in the treatment of AS. Most studies have demonstrated good clinical outcomes after 3 years of treatment, as measured by Spondyloarthritis International Society response in 75%–85% of treated AS patients. Reports on the long-term effects of infliximab as documented by radiological findings, however, are controversial. While some studies reported a similar progression rate as that of the historical OASIS cohort, others have suggested that infliximab may halt new bone formation. The long-term safety of infliximab is well known, mainly from data stored in national registries. While it has been suggested that side effects of infliximab may be fewer in AS compared to rheumatoid arthritis, data on this issue are sparse, with most of the information on long-term safety pertaining to rheumatoid arthritis. It can however be concluded that the long-term efficacy of infliximab is apparently maintained in AS and with an acceptable safety profile. PMID:26640380

  9. Present state and long term planning on nuclear power plants in principal countries in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Junichi

    1978-01-01

    The situation of nuclear power stations and the long term planning in each major country in the world were summarized, but the situation is changing from time to time, therefore it is difficult to make the long term prediction. The advanced countries in terms of nuclear power established the long term plans to adopt nuclear power generation largely owing to the oil crisis, but thereafter the revision was carried out again and again in respective countries. The developing countries already started the operation of nuclear power generation occupy only 2 to 3% of the total installed capacity in the world, but the countries constructing or planning nuclear power generation are many, and if the operation will be started as scheduled, their capacity will reach 30 million kW by 1985, and occupy about 10% of the total installed capacity of nuclear power generation in the world. As for the range of investigation of this report, the countries where the long term plans are unknown or the number of construction is small, Japan, Great Britain, USA and communist countries are excluded. As a rule, the light water reactors with power output of more than 200,000 kW are listed. The number of nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and in planning stage, national situation, long term plan, and others in each country are described. (Kako, I.)

  10. Meeting of the High Committee - 13 December 2012: Report by the national commission of assessment of the financing of nuclear liabilities on a long term (CNEF); Elements of doctrine for the post-accidental management of a nuclear accident; Interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepine, M.; Gallay, Florence; Aubert, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this document proposes a report made by the national commission of assessment of the financing of the nuclear liabilities on a long term (CNEF): presentation of the administrative authority, assessment of liabilities, assets, and remarks. The second part contains elements of doctrine for the post-accidental management of a nuclear accident: works made by the CODIRPA, definition of three critical objectives and six key issues for post-accidental management, post-accidental zoning, first post-accidental measures for the protection of the population, future objectives for CODIRPA work groups. The third part addresses interventional radiology: definition, specificities (uses, characteristics, continuous increase, number of sessions), related risks, clinic evidence and thresholds and delays of appearance of cutaneous effects, international concern, legal and regulatory framework (radiation protection measures), incidents known by the IRSN, results of a national survey on patient radiation protection in interventional cardiology centres, perspectives and expectations, worker exposure, recommendations regarding the regulatory framework, professional training, equipment and patient monitoring, information on potential undesired effects

  11. Long-term neurological conditions: management at the interface between neurology, rehabilitation and palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Stokes, Lynne; Sykes, Nigel; Silber, Eli

    2008-04-01

    Long-term neurological conditions (LTNCs) comprise a diverse set of conditions resulting from injury or disease of the nervous system that will affect an individual for life. Some 10 million people in the UK are living with a neurological condition which has a significant impact on their lives, and they make up 19% of hospital admissions. These guidelines build on the Quality Requirements in the National Service Framework for Long-term (Neurological) Conditions to explore the interaction between specialist neurology, rehabilitation and palliative care services, and how they may best work together to provide long-term support for people with LTNCs and the family members who care for them. The guidelines also provide some practical advice for other clinicians when caring for someone with an LTNC, and outline indications for specialist referral. This article provides a brief summary. Full details of the methods and literature evaluation, as well as tools for implementation, are available in the full guideline.

  12. In search of the elusive long-term price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, M.J.; Combs, J.

    1989-01-01

    The Uranium Institute, WNFM, and past USCEA sessions described and compared existing price reporting systems. The McGraw-Hill conference led to a rather heated discussion as to the propriety of spot prices having the influence they do on amounts paid in long-term contracts. The Ux representative proposed a future's market as a way that producers could hedge against some of the uncertainty of volatile spot market. In discussing the search for the elusive long-term price, there are two interrelated issues. The first is obvious-the search for a starting or initializing price that is representative of recently-signed or pending long-term contracts. The second is less obvious, but perhaps more important-the search for a successful mechanism for determining later delivery values in long-term contracts. This paper addresses the question of pricing mechanisms first

  13. Radiation effects after low dose chronic long-term exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliedner, T.M.; Friesecke, I.

    1997-01-01

    This document approaches the radiation effects after low dose chronic long-term exposure, presenting examples occurred, the pathophysiologic mechanisms for cell system tolerance in elevated radiation fields, and the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities

  14. Advancing an ethical framework for long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Mary Whelan

    2002-02-01

    This article represents an effort to formulate an ethical framework for long-term care with the explicit purpose of providing a catalyst to promote further discourse and expand consideration of what an ethic of long-term care might entail. Grounding the discussion, an introduction to traditional ethical philosophy is presented, focusing mainly on the fundamentals of deontological and teleological ethical theories. Attention then shifts to a review of the more frequently cited principles found in the long-term care ethics literature, followed by a critique of the current reliance upon principlism to resolve ethical dilemmas in long-term care. In response to this criticism, an agent-driven ethical framework stressing dignity and respect for personhood, drawn from the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, is advanced.

  15. Strategies to meet the need for long-term data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; Borghi, Claudio; Manolis, Athanasios; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Chronic diseases afflict patients for many years, often to the end of life, and there is increasing need for estimating lifelong risk and for evaluating the effects of treatment in the long term. Yet recommendations for lifelong treatment are most frequently based on findings from randomized clinical trials lasting only a few years. There is therefore a clear need for much longer term data, and here we present the advantages and disadvantages of many strategies, including the use of long-term posttrial follow-up, of long-term prospective cohort studies, registry databases, and of administrative databases. We also emphasize the need for long-term cost-effectiveness studies. One of the most promising strategies comes from linkage of data gathered through the ever-expanding pool of administrative databases worldwide with data from other sources, including randomized trials and the many forms of observational study.

  16. Long-term bridge performance high priority bridge performance issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Bridge performance is a multifaceted issue involving performance of materials and protective systems, : performance of individual components of the bridge, and performance of the structural system as a whole. The : Long-Term Bridge Performance (LTBP)...

  17. Long-Term Quiescent Fibroblast Cells Transit into Senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marthandan, Shiva; Priebe, Steffen; Hemmerich, Peter; Klement, Karolin; Diekmann, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Cellular senescence is described to be a consequence of telomere erosion during the replicative life span of primary human cells. Quiescence should therefore not contribute to cellular aging but rather extend lifespan. Here we tested this hypothesis and demonstrate that cultured long-term quiescent human fibroblasts transit into senescence due to similar cellular mechanisms with similar dynamics and with a similar maximum life span as proliferating controls, even under physiological oxygen conditions. Both, long-term quiescent and senescent fibroblasts almost completely fail to undergo apoptosis. The transition of long-term quiescent fibroblasts into senescence is also independent of HES1 which protects short-term quiescent cells from becoming senescent. Most significantly, DNA damage accumulates during senescence as well as during long-term quiescence at physiological oxygen levels. We suggest that telomere-independent, potentially maintenance driven gradual induction of cellular senescence during quiescence is a counterbalance to tumor development. PMID:25531649

  18. Ethical Dimensions of Autonomy in Long-Term Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collopy, Bart J.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term care of the elderly raises conflicts between personal autonomy and well-being. Assessments of decision-making capacity and definitions of negative and positive autonomy pose value-laden dilemmas for caregivers. (SK)

  19. Long-term Outcomes of Childhood Onset Nephrotic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorten, Rebecca; Anwar, Zohra; Reidy, Kimberly Jean

    2016-01-01

    There are limited studies on long-term outcomes of childhood onset nephrotic syndrome (NS). A majority of children with NS have steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is associated with a high risk of developing end-stage renal disease. Biomarkers and analysis of genetic mutations may provide new information for prognosis in SRNS. Frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent NS is associated with long-term complications, including dyslipidemia, cataracts, osteoporosis and fractures, obesity, impaired growth, and infertility. Long-term complications of SSNS are likely to be under-recognized. There remain many gaps in our knowledge of long-term outcomes of childhood NS, and further study is indicated.

  20. Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT1ESWTR) builds on the requirements of the Surface Water Treatment Rule and specifies treatment requirements to address Cryptosporidium m and other microbial contaminants in public water systems.

  1. Modelled long term trends of surface ozone over South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available timescale seeks to provide a spatially comprehensive view of trends while also creating a baseline for comparisons with future projections of air quality through the forcing of air quality models with modelled predicted long term meteorology. Previous...

  2. Long-Term Care Insurance and Life Insurance Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Volker Meier

    1998-01-01

    This article investigates the interaction between life insurance and long-term care insurance markets on the demand side. In the model utility depends on both consumption and bequest, and utility from consumption is contingent on the state of health. While the demand for life insurance increases both with decreasing income and with a rising degree of altruism, the influences of these two parameters on the demand for long-term care insurance are ambiguous. If the utility shock arising from dis...

  3. Long-Term Prognosis of Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Varona, Jose F.

    2010-01-01

    There is limited information about long-term prognosis of ischemic stroke in young adults. Giving the potentially negative impact in physical, social, and emotional aspects of an ischemic stroke in young people, providing early accurate long-term prognostic information is very important in this clinical setting. Moreover, detection of factors associated with bad outcomes (death, recurrence, moderate-to-severe disability) help physicians in optimizing secondary prevention strategies. The prese...

  4. Long-term patient survival in ANCA-associated vasculitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flossmann, Oliver; Berden, Annelies; de Groot, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis are antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides with significant morbidity and mortality. The long-term survival of patients with ANCA associated vasculitis treated with current regimens is uncertain.......Wegener's granulomatosis and microscopic polyangiitis are antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitides with significant morbidity and mortality. The long-term survival of patients with ANCA associated vasculitis treated with current regimens is uncertain....

  5. Long term acroecosystem research in the Southern Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean L. Steiner; Patrick J. Starks; Jurgen Garbrecht; Daniel Moriasi; Paul Bartholomew; Jim Neel; Kenneth E. Turner; Brian Northup

    2016-01-01

    The Southern Plains (SP) site of the Long Term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network is headquartered at the USDA-ARS Grazinglands Research Laboratory (GRL) in El Reno, Oklahoma. The GRL was established in 1948. A long-term watershed and climate research program was established in the Little Washita River Experimental Watershed (LWREW) in 1961 and in the Fort Cobb...

  6. Changing incentives for long-term gas contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    There is much concern about the absence of long-term gas contracts with fixed price and quantity conditions, which until recent years was the standard way of doing business in the gas industry. These types of contracts performed a valuable service in the development of the gas industry, and there comparative absence today is sometimes thought to be one reason for the current malaise in the industry. One hears the argument that there must be some kind of 'market failure' that prevents buyers and sellers from entering into these long term arrangements, and recent changes in state and federal regulations are often cited as the cause of the problem. The purpose of the author's remarks is to argue that what is taken as a breakdown in the market may be simply a reaction to a decline in economic incentives to enter into long-term contracts with rigid price and quantity terms. This is, in other words, simply one more aspect of change in the gas business that Frank Heintz referred to in his opening remarks this morning. The author starts by giving a brief description of the motives for engaging in long-term contracts, and then describes how incentives to use long-term contracts have declined for both gas buyers and gas sellers. He concludes that the decline in the use of long-term contracts is not cause for regulatory concern, but a result of the continuing transformation of the gas business to one that more closely resembles other commodity markets

  7. Subjective social status predicts long-term smoking abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Lorraine R; Businelle, Michael S; Kendzor, Darla E; Li, Yisheng; Cao, Yumei; Castro, Yessenia; Mazas, Carlos A; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2011-02-25

    The relationship between subjective social status (SSS), a person's perception of his/her relative position in the social hierarchy, and the ability to achieve long-term smoking abstinence during a specific quit attempt is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between SSS and long-term smoking abstinence among 421 racially/ethnically diverse smokers undergoing a specific quit attempt, as well as the interactive effects of race/ethnicity and sex. The main effects and moderated relationships of SSS on biochemically-confirmed, continuous smoking abstinence through 26 weeks post-quit were examined using continuation ratio logit models adjusted for sociodemographics and smoking characteristics. Even after adjusting for the influence of socioeconomic status and other covariates, smokers endorsing lower SSS were significantly less likely to maintain long-term smoking abstinence during a specific quit attempt than those with higher SSS (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.28; p = 0.044). The statistical significance of this relationship, however, did not vary by race/ethnicity or sex. SSS independently predicts long-term smoking abstinence during a specific quit attempt. SSS may be a useful screener to identify smokers at elevated risk of relapse who may require additional attention to facilitate long-term abstinence. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying the relationship between SSS and long-term smoking abstinence in order to appropriately tailor treatment to facilitate abstinence among lower SSS smokers.

  8. Diagnosis, treatment and long-term outcome in fetal hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Mami; Nonaka, Masahiro; Bamba, Yohei; Teramoto, Chika; Ban, Chiaki; Pooh, Ritsuko

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the method of prenatally estimating an appropriate clinical outcome in fetal hydrocephalus. Retrospective study, single institute (Osaka National Hospital). Hundred and seventeen cases with fetal hydrocephalus treated at Osaka National Hospital from 1992 to 2010 were analysed. Of the 117 cases analysed, 38% are diagnosed as isolated ventriculomegaly (IVM), 51% as other types of malformation (30 cases of myelomeningocele, 4 cases of holoprosencephaly, 4 of Dandy Walker syndrome, 10 of arachnoid cyst and 6 of encephalocele etc.) and 11% as secondary hydrocephalus. They are diagnosed between 17 and 40 weeks of gestation (average 27 weeks), 17% diagnosed between 17 and 21 weeks, 30% between 22 and 27 weeks and 53% after 28 weeks. With the exception of 9 aborted cases and 30 unknown cases too young to be evaluated or lost due to lack of follow-up, final outcome was analyzed in 78 cases. Of these 78 cases, 15% died in utero or after birth, 23% showed severe retardation, 17% moderate retardation, 26% mild retardation, and 19% showed good outcome. Long term consequences were mostly influenced by basic disease and accompanied anomalies. Hydrocephalus associated with arachnoid cyst, atresia of Monro, corpus callosum agenesis and hydrocephalus due to fetal intracranial hemorrhage are categorized in the good outcome group. On the other hand, holoprosencephaly, hydrocephalus associated with encephalocele, syndromic hydrocephalus and hydrocephalus due to fetal virus infection are categorized in the poor outcome group. In order to accurate diagnosis and proper counseling, establishment of diagnosis protocol and treatment policy for fetal hydrocephalus including not only fetal sonography, fetal MRI, toxoplasma, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex (TORCH) screening test but also chromosomal and gene testing is required. (author)

  9. Relating long-term studies to conservation practice: the case of the Serengeti Cheetah Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Sarah M; Bashir, Sultana; Maddox, Thomas; Laurenson, M Karen

    2007-06-01

    Although detailed, long-term scientific studies provide potentially crucial information for conservation, they are rare. Moreover, there is often a disjunction between scientists and managers that can affect whether scientific results are applied to help solve conservation problems. Long-term studies can promote increased communication between scientists and managers and hence offer an opportunity for constructive engagement between the two groups. We examined direct and indirect impacts of a 30-year study, the Serengeti Cheetah Project (SCP). Much of what is currently known about wild cheetahs comes from the SCP. In particular, the SCP has demonstrated that cheetahs have a combination of semisociality and ranging patterns that is unique among mammals. This system arises because cheetahs need to be mobile to avoid predators and competitors, yet maintain access to prey; this results in densities much lower than for other large carnivores and a requirement for large areas of heterogenous and connected habitat. The SCP started as a research project, but expanded into a national program, developing capacity for carnivore conservation within Tanzania. Long-term studies such as the SCP are uniquely placed to establish effective working relationships between scientists and managers, engage local and national institutions, and strengthen national capacity for biodiversity conservation. This process is best realized through the establishment of frameworks for conservation that seek to align scientific research with management needs. Long-term studies also play an important role in identifying international priorities for conservation. Nonetheless, the integration of science and management in conservation is a two-way process that requires concerted efforts by both sides to improve and maintain dialogue. Ultimately, conservation depends on people, and maintaining a commitment to a particular area over many years-such as through implementation of a long-term research project

  10. Sense of Community as a Protective Factor against Long-Term Psychological Effects of Childhood Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Greenfield, Emily A.; Marks, Nadine F.

    2010-01-01

    This study uses a risk and resilience framework for conceptualizing the long-term effects of childhood family violence on mental health. It examines sense of community as a protective factor against adult psychological distress associated with experiences of physical or psychological violence in childhood from parents. Regression models are estimated using data from the 1995 National Survey of Midlife Development in the U.S. and from the 1996–97 National Study of Daily Experiences. Reported e...

  11. Technical aspects of ageing for long-term operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The aspects of plant ageing management gained increasing attention over the last ten years. Numerous technical studies have been performed to study the impact of ageing mechanisms on the safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. National research activities have been initiated or are in progress to provide the technical basis for decision making processes. The long-term operation of nuclear power plants is influenced by economic considerations, the socio-economic environment including public acceptance, developments in research and the regulatory framework, the availability of technical infrastructure to maintain and service the systems, structures and components as well as qualified personnel. This document restricts itself to the technical aspects of the basis for long-term operation. Its objective is the characterisation of technical key items. Regulatory aspects are being discussed within CNRA. The light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants in operation are generically of pressurised water reactor (PWR) or boiling water reactor (BWR) type. The design principles of the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) are proven in long-term operation as well as the principles being applied to the balance of plant (BOP), although a rather large variety of technical solutions do exist. The steps in the developments were tremendous in the 60's and 70's up to a power output of 1200 MWe followed by a period of further optimisation in the 80's and 90's, which raised it close to 1500 MWe. The NPPs in operation can be grouped into different generations of design in order to characterise similarities in technical principles and manufacturing standards. In the area of civil and mechanical structures and components there has been continuous development to optimise the design, the materials used as well as the manufacturing technology. The majority of these structures and components is still in use. In principle there are no major obstacles to further use of these

  12. Volunteer provision of long-term care for older people in Thailand and Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; Pot, Anne Margriet; Sasat, Siriphan; Morales-Martinez, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    Demand for long-term care services for older people is increasing rapidly in low- and middle-income countries. Countries need to establish national long-term care systems that are sustainable and equitable. The Governments of Costa Rica and Thailand have implemented broadly comparable interventions to deploy volunteers in long-term home care. Both countries trained older volunteers from local communities to make home visits to impoverished and vulnerable older people and to facilitate access to health services and other social services. Costa Rica and Thailand are upper-middle-income countries with strong traditions of community-based health services that they are now extending into long-term care for older people. Between 2003 and 2013 Thailand's programme trained over 51 000 volunteers, reaching almost 800 000 older people. Between 2010 and 2016 Costa Rica established 50 community care networks, serving around 10 000 people and involving over 5000 volunteers. Despite some evidence of benefits to the physical and mental health of older people and greater uptake of other services, a large burden of unmet care needs and signs of a growth of unregulated private services still exist. There is scope for low- and middle-income countries to develop large-scale networks of community-based long-term care volunteers. The capacity of volunteers to enhance the quality of life of clients is affected by the local availability of care services. Volunteer care networks should be complemented by other initiatives, including training about health in later life for volunteers, and investment in community long-term care services.

  13. Men's Sheds: enabling environments for Australian men living with and without long-term disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansji, Neeraj L; Wilson, Nathan J; Cordier, Reinie

    2015-05-01

    The health of Australian men has recently received greater attention. Men's Sheds are named in national policy as an exemplar community-based organisation for the betterment of men's psychosocial health; yet, the evidence base to support this is limited. This study investigates the comparative experience of men with long-term disabilities and men without long-term disabilities who go to a Men's Shed and to what extent this provides these men with an enabling, as opposed to disabling, environment. Data were collected from 12 individual interviews with men with long-term disabilities (5) and men without long-term disabilities (6), including 1 interview with the male Men's Shed Coordinator (MSC); participant observation within the shed; and a document received from the female MSC regarding the funding the Shed receives. Interviews explored the men's experiences at the Shed and their sense of belonging and social inclusion. Participants had any type of long-term disability and had been attending the shed for a minimum of 1 month. Data were collected between May and September 2013 and were analysed using the constant comparative method of grounded theory. The core theme that emerged was an enabling community space. The four sub-themes were: a community and social hub; an equalising space; a safe and supportive male environment; and meaningful male activities. The current literature exemplifies Men's Sheds to be important community-based organisations beneficial to men's health and well-being. For men living with long-term disabilities, this study illuminates that Men's Sheds offer an environment of equality, facilitating a collegial and egalitarian culture. Men can partake in enabling activities and enjoy the company of other men enhancing their sense of belonging and social inclusion as well as interact with other community groups that occupy the same space as the Men's Shed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. ERDA's long-term waste management goals and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perge, A.F.; Trice, V.G. Jr.; Walton, R.D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the ERDA's major program for the long-term waste management of radioactive waste and provides a perspective for symposium participants with regard to the interrelationship of specific components of the program that are discussed in detail in other ERDA-sponsored papers. Needs, goals, and plans are reviewed for ERDA's management of the commercially generated wastes which are expected to be delivered to ERDA in accordance with Federal regulations. At present, ERDA responsibilities include long-term management of commercial-level wastes. Possible future regulations may give ERDA responsibility for the long-term management of commercial low-level solid wastes contaminated with transuranic nuclides. Primary planning goals and programs for the development of terminal storage facilities and waste processing technology to produce acceptable waste forms for long-term management are reviewed for each of the waste types identified above. The status of development programs for the long-term management of airborne radionuclides, which may be required at some time in the future, is also reviewed. (author)

  15. Mesozoic long-term eustatic cycles and their uncertain hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Ruban

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Global sea-level has changed in a cyclic manner through geologic history, but the regularities of these changes are yet to be fully understood. Despite certain (and sometimes significant differences, the available Mesozoic eustatic curves permit the outlining of long-term eustatic cycles, which are provisionally defined as cycles recognizable at the stage level and higher. Interpretation of the Triassic eustatic curves indicates two orders of long-term cycles and a 1st-order sea-level rise throughout the entire period. The Jurassic eustatic curves imply cyclicity of one or two orders, and a 1st-order eustatic rise during the entire period is also evident. Most challenges are interpretations for the Cretaceous; two to four orders of long-term eustatic cycles can be established for this period. Generally, the hierarchy of the long-term eustatic cycles might have changed through the Mesozoic. If so, and if one considers differences of cycles of the same order between the periods of this era, it is difficult to apply “standard” hierarchical classifications to the documented cycles. The hypothetical uncertainty of the hierarchy of the Mesozoic long-term eustatic cycles is an important challenge for modern researchers.

  16. Long-Term Retardation of Uranium in the KURT Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Shin, Joo Do; Park, Tae Jin

    2016-01-01

    One of possibilities resolving this issue is to study the migration and retardation processes of radionuclides in the subsurface environments by using naturally occurring radionuclides as analogues of radioactive waste. To date, however, the long-term behavior of radionuclides in a granitic groundwater system is not yet fully understood. The ubiquitous presence of uranium (U) in rocks makes it an ideal natural analogue for studying the behaviors of radionuclides in a deep geological repository for the final disposal of HLW. In this study, long-term retardation behavior of natural uranium was investigated using granite rock samples taken from the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel), located in Daejeon city. The distribution of uranium and its binding mechanism in granite samples were investigated using the sequential chemical extraction (SCE) technique combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ICP-MS methods. In this study, the long-term retardation of uranium in the KURT environment was investigated using SCE and EPMA techniques combined with ICP-MS and XRD. Results showed that long-term interaction of rock with groundwater can change U species and mineralize dissolved U, which can consequently contribute to the retardation of U in the fractured granitic rock environment. This study will help us to understand the long-term behavior of radionuclides migrating through the fractured granite rock and then enhance the reliability of the safety assessment for a HLW repository

  17. Long-term psychosocial consequences of surgical congenital malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseth, Trond H; Emblem, Ragnhild

    2017-10-01

    Surgical congenital malformations often represent years of treatment, large number of hospital stays, treatment procedures, and long-term functional sequels affecting patients' psychosocial functioning. Both functional defects and psychosocial difficulties that occur commonly in childhood may pass through adolescence on to adulthood. This overview presents reports published over the past 3 decades to elucidate the long-term psychosocial consequences of surgical congenital malformations. Literature searches conducted on PubMed database revealed that less than 1% of all the records of surgical congenital malformations described long-term psychosocial consequences, but with diverse findings. This inconsistency may be due to methodological differences or deficiencies; especially in study design, patient sampling, and methods. Most of the studies revealed that the functional deficits may have great impact on patients' mental health, psychosocial functioning, and QoL; both short- and long-term negative consequences. Factors other than functional problems, e.g., repeated anesthesia, multiple hospitalization, traumatic treatment procedures, and parental dysfunctioning, may also predict long-term mental health and psychosocial functioning. Through multidisciplinary approach, pediatric surgeons should also be aware of deficits in emotional and psychosocial functioning. To achieve overall optimal psychosocial functioning, the challenge is to find a compromise between physically optimal treatment procedures and procedures that are not psychologically detrimental. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. A mechanism for long-term changes of Atlantic tropical cyclone intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Liguang; Tao, Li [Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster of Ministry of Education, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2011-05-15

    Although previous studies reported upward trends in the basin-wide average lifetime, annual frequency, proportion of intense hurricanes and annual accumulated power dissipation index of Atlantic tropical cyclones (TCs) over the past 30 years, the basin-wide intensity did not increase significantly with the rising sea surface temperature (SST). Observational analysis and numerical simulation conducted in this study suggest that Sahel rainfall is the key to understanding of the long-term change of Atlantic TC intensity. The long-term changes of the basin-wide TC intensity are generally associated with variations in Sahara air layer (SAL) activity and vertical wind shear in the main development region (MDR), both of which are highly correlated with Sahel rainfall. The drying Sahel corresponds to an equatorward shift in the African easterly jet and African easterly wave activity, introducing the SAL to lower latitudes and increasing the MDR vertical wind shear. As a result, Atlantic TCs are more vulnerable to the suppressing effects of the SAL and vertical wind shear. Since the SST warming, especially in the tropical Indian Ocean, is a dominant factor for the Sahel drying that occurred over the past 30 years, it is suggested that the remote effect of SST warming is important for the long-term change of Atlantic TC intensity. Although influence of the AMO warm phase that started in the early 1990s alone can provide a favorable condition for TC intensification, its influence may have been offset by the influence of the ongoing SST warming, particularly in the Indian Ocean. As a result, there was no significant trend observed in the basin-wide average and peak intensity of Atlantic TCs. (orig.)

  19. American Indians, hunting and fishing rates, risk, and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, J.

    1999-01-01

    Hunting, fishing, and recreational rates of 276 American Indians attending a festival at Fort Hall, near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), were examined. Nearly half of the sample lived on the Fort Hall Reservation, and half were American Indians from elsewhere in the western United States. An additional 44 White people attending the festival were also interviewed. The hypothesis that there are differences in hunting, fishing, and recreational rates as a function of tribal affiliation, educational level, gender, and age was examined. Information on hunting and fishing rates are central for understanding potential exposure scenarios for American Indians if the Department of Energy's INEEL lands are ever opened to public access, and the data are important because of the existence of tribal treaties that govern the legal and cultural rights of the Shoshone-Bannock regarding INEEL lands. Variations in hunting, fishing, and photography rates were explained by tribal affiliation (except fishing), gender, age, and schooling. Hunting rates were significantly higher for Indians (both those living on Fort Hall and others) than Whites. Men engaged in significantly higher rates of outdoor activities than women (except for photography). Potential and current hunting and fishing on and adjacent to INEEL was more similar among the local Whites and Fort Hall Indians than between these two groups and other American Indians

  20. Status of coral reefs on the main volcanic islands of American Samoa: a resurvey of long-term monitoring sites including benthic communities, fish communities, and key microinvertebrates, 1994 - 2002 (NODC Accession 0001973)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study demonstrates the important role that long term monitoring programs can play in understanding the natural variability and long term trends in the coral...

  1. Year 2000 status of coral reefs on the main volcanic islands of American Samoa: a resurvey of long term monitoring sites including benthic communities, fish communities, and key micro invertebrates (NODC Accession 0001976)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study demonstrates the important role that long term monitoring programs can play in understanding the natural variability and long term trends in the coral...

  2. 2002 Status of coral reefs on the main volcanic islands of American Samoa: a resurvey of long term monitoring sites including benthic communities, fish communities, and key macroinvertebrates (NODC Accession 0001976)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study demonstrates the important role that long term monitoring programs can play in understanding the natural variability and long term trends in the coral...

  3. An European framework for the long term preservation of EO data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcada, E.; Albani, M.; Beruti, V.

    2009-04-01

    The need for accessing historical Earth Observation (EO) data series strongly increased in the last ten years, mainly for long term science and environmental monitoring applications. This trend is likely to increase even more in the future in particular for the growing interest on global change monitoring that requires data time-series spanning 20 years and more, and for the need to support the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Content of EO data archives is extending from a few years to decades and their scientific value is continuously increasing hence is well recognized the need to preserve them without time limitation and to keep the archived EO data well accessible and exploitable as they constitute a humankind asset. The large amount of new Earth Observation missions upcoming in the next years will moreover lead to a major increase of EO data volumes. This fact, together with the increased demands from the scientific user community, marks a challenge for Earth Observation satellite operators, Space Agencies and EO data providers regarding coherent data preservation and optimum availability and accessibility of the different data products. Traditionally in Europe, there has been poor cooperation in this field with no common approach for long term preservation and access to EO space data even if cooperation and sharing are key aspects to be pursued for the benefit of the user community. Single organizations have difficulties to afford data preservation in the long term that calls for the need of optimising costs and efforts, identifying commonalities. In 2006, the European Space Agency (ESA) initiated a coordination action to share among all the European (and Canadian) stakeholders a common approach to the long term preservation of Earth Observation data. During 2007, the Agency started consultations with its Member States presenting an EO Long Term Data Preservation (LTDP) strategy targeting the preservation of all European

  4. Influence of Whipping on Long term Vertical Bending Moment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baarholm, G. S.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2004-01-01

    approach. Effect of whipping is included by assuming that the whipping and wave induced response are independent, but the effect of correlation of the long term extreme value is also studied. Numerical calculations are performed using a nonlinear, hydroelastic strip theory as suggested by (Xia et al 1998...... to introduce ways to improve the efficiency in the calculation. A method to determine the long term extremes by considering only a few short term sea state is applied. Long term extreme values are estimated using a set of sea states which have a certain probability of occurrence, known as the contour line......This paper is concerned with estimating the response value corresponding to a long return period, say a twenty years. Time domain simulation is required to obtain the nonlinear response, and long time series are required to limit the statistical uncertainty in the simulations. It is crucial...

  5. Sexuality and physical intimacy in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long-term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long-term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders, it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literature on sexuality and aging, examines some of the clinical practices and guidelines regarding sexual expression in long-term care, and presents two case examples. A semistructured interview and decision tree is presented to assist therapists in making careful and informed decisions and thereby balancing the needs for protection with the needs for autonomy.

  6. Sexuality and Physical Intimacy in Long Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Sexuality and sexual needs in older adults remains a neglected area of clinical intervention, particularly so in long term care settings. Because older adults in medical rehabilitation and long term care beds present with significant frailties, and often significant neurocognitive disorders it makes it difficult for occupational therapists and other staff to evaluate the capacity of an older adult resident to participate in sexual relationships. The current paper reviews the current literature on sexuality and aging, examines some of the clinical practices and guidelines regarding sexual expression in long term care and presents two case examples. A semi-structured interview and decision tree is presented to assist therapists in making careful and informed decisions and thereby balancing needs for protection with needs for autonomy. PMID:24354331

  7. Long-term multipactor discharge in multicarrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gimeno, B.; Boria, V. E.; Armendariz, J.

    2007-01-01

    A new mechanism of long-term multipactor in multicarrier systems is studied employing both analytical and numerical methods. In particular, the investigation is focused on the impact that a realistic secondary emission yield at low energies produces on the development of long term multipactor. A novel analytical model for this interperiod charge accumulation is presented using the traditional multipactor theory for parallel plates, and approximating the multicarrier signal as a single-carrier signal modulated by a pulsed signal envelope. The analytical predictions are verified by numerical simulations for a typical rectangular waveguide. The analytical and numerical results demonstrate that the susceptibility of the system to develop a long-term multipactor discharge increases with higher values of low-energy secondary emission yield

  8. Long-term visual associations affect attentional guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivers, Christian N L

    2011-06-01

    When observers perform a visual search task, they are assumed to adopt an attentional set for what they are looking for. The present experiment investigates the influence of long-term visual memory associations on this attentional set. On each trial, observers were asked to search a display for a grayscale version of a known traffic sign. On each trial, a distractor sign was drawn in full color. This color could either be related or unrelated to the target sign. Distractors interfered more with search when their color was related (e.g. red when the target was a stop sign), implying that long-term color associations resulted in inadvertent attentional guidance, even though color was irrelevant to the task. The results add to the growing body of evidence that long-term memory representations automatically affect attentional orienting. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethics and Intimate Sexual Activity in Long-Term Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Eran

    2017-07-01

    A case is presented in which the staff of a long-term care facility discovers that the husband of a resident with dementia is engaged in sexual activity with her. The case illustrates a dilemma for long-term care facilities that create a home-like environment with a goal of maximizing residents' autonomy while ensuring their safety. An approach to assessing capacity to consent to intimate sexual activity is described, followed by guidelines that nursing homes can implement to support residents who wish to engage in sexual activity. Recommendations are also offered for supporting long-term care staff and family members of residents who are interested in intimate sexual activity. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Long-term impact of sales promotion on brand image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Mandić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sales promotion (SP is an inevitable tool in the marketing communications mix, especially in the FMCG markets, due to pressures such as retailers’ growing demands and increasing competition. This has proven to be an issue for many companies, especially those with a premium brand positioning and those concerned about the impact that SP might have on the long-term image of the company. Despite the fact that literature is replete with research on SP, it seems to be vastly generalized and mostly focused on price reductions. Thus, this paper aims to analyze and discuss the issue of the long-term impact that SP has on companies, especially on premium brands in the FMCG markets. It concludes that, when used properly and strategically, SP may have a positive long-term impact on brands.

  11. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellman, M.; Valkiainen, M.

    1985-10-01

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are ralated to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product. (author)

  12. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellman, M.; Valkiainen, M.

    1985-10-01

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for the long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are related to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product

  13. Winning market positioning strategies for long term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, L F; Weinstein, K; Arndt, K

    1997-01-01

    The decision to develop an aggressive marketing strategy for its long term care facility has become a priority for the management of a one-hundred bed facility in the Rocky Mountain West. Financial success and lasting competitiveness require that the facility in question (Deer Haven) establish itself as the preferred provider of long term care for its target market. By performing a marketing communications audit, Deer Haven evaluated its present market position and created a strategy for solidifying and dramatizing this position. After an overview of present conditions in the industry, we offer a seven step process that provides practical guidance for positioning a long term care facility. We conclude by providing an example application.

  14. How to improve long-term outcome after liver transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, François

    2018-02-01

    The outcome of liver transplantation has markedly improved in the last 3 decades. Although early post-transplantation outcomes have improved over time, this is not true of the long-term outcome. The majority of late deaths are not related to graft dysfunction, and with the advent of new antiviral agents, recurrence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C after transplantation may no longer represent a source of graft loss and patient's death in the long term. The complications of metabolic syndrome may represent an increasing source of morbidity and mortality after transplantation. This study discusses these modifiable factors associated with late mortality to improve the long-term results of transplantation. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Improved work ability and return to work following vocational multidisciplinary rehabilitation of subjects on long-term sick leave

    OpenAIRE

    Braathen, Tore; Veiersted, Kaj Bo; Heggenes, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a vocational multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme for patients on long-term sick leave with respect to their work ability and return to work. Methods: A multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme was administered to an intervention group of 183 patients on long-term sick leave (mean 12.2 months). Effects of the treatment were compared with a control group (n = 96) recruited from the national sickness insurance record of patients on sick leave of 6??2 month...

  16. Subjective social status predicts long-term smoking abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cofta-Woerpel Ludmila

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between subjective social status (SSS, a person's perception of his/her relative position in the social hierarchy, and the ability to achieve long-term smoking abstinence during a specific quit attempt is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between SSS and long-term smoking abstinence among 421 racially/ethnically diverse smokers undergoing a specific quit attempt, as well as the interactive effects of race/ethnicity and sex. Methods The main effects and moderated relationships of SSS on biochemically-confirmed, continuous smoking abstinence through 26 weeks post-quit were examined using continuation ratio logit models adjusted for sociodemographics and smoking characteristics. Results Even after adjusting for the influence of socioeconomic status and other covariates, smokers endorsing lower SSS were significantly less likely to maintain long-term smoking abstinence during a specific quit attempt than those with higher SSS (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.28; p = 0.044. The statistical significance of this relationship, however, did not vary by race/ethnicity or sex. Conclusions SSS independently predicts long-term smoking abstinence during a specific quit attempt. SSS may be a useful screener to identify smokers at elevated risk of relapse who may require additional attention to facilitate long-term abstinence. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying the relationship between SSS and long-term smoking abstinence in order to appropriately tailor treatment to facilitate abstinence among lower SSS smokers.

  17. Report on the 1st Indian National Physics Olympiad and the 29th ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 2. Report on the 1st Indian National Physics Olympiad and the 29th International Physics Olympiad. H C Pradhan. Information and Announcements Volume 4 Issue 2 February 1999 pp 104-108 ...

  18. 78 FR 18363 - Proposed Appointment to the National Indian Gaming Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Office of the Secretary Proposed Appointment to the National Indian Gaming Commission AGENCY: Office of... Gaming Commission, the Secretary must provide public notice and allow a comment period. Notice is hereby... Gaming Commission for a term of 3 years. DATES: Comments must be received before April 25, 2013...

  19. 78 FR 55743 - Notice of Service Delivery Area Designation for the Shinnecock Indian Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ..., Haakon, Cheyenne River Reservation, South SD, Meade, SD, Perkins, SD, Dakota. Potter, SD, Stanley, SD...,\\35\\ Cheyenne Indian Reservation, Montana. Rosebud, MT. Northwestern Band of Shoshoni Nation of Box... since 1979. \\36\\ Land of Box Elder County, Utah, taken into trust for the Tribe in 1986. \\37\\ Washabaugh...

  20. Long-term stability scintillation tiles for LHCb detector

    CERN Document Server

    Grinyov, B V; Khlapova, N P; Lebedev, V N; Melnychuk, S V; Senchyshyn, V G

    2004-01-01

    Accelerated thermal aging tests of materials-UPS-923A, UPS-96G, UPS-96GM and their analogues, SCSN-81 (Kuraray) and BC-408 (Bicron)- were made. A forecast of tile lifetime was made for normal conditions of usage (20% reduction of light output and 50% reduction of the bulk attenuation length (BAL) and technical attenuation length (TAL). Scintillator UPS-96GM has the most long-term stability of parameters- more than 11 yr. BC-408 samples have the minimum lifetime ~7 yr. The long-term stability, calculated by light yield reduction, of UPS-96G, UPS-923A and SCSN-81 is 10, 9 and 8 yr, respectively.

  1. Long-term stability scintillation tiles for LHCb detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinyov, B.V.; Khlapova, N.P.; Senchyshyn, V.G.; Lebedev, V.N.; Adadurov, A.F.; Melnychuk, S.V.

    2004-01-01

    Accelerated thermal aging tests of materials - UPS-923A, UPS-96G, UPS-96GM and their analogues, SCSN-81 (Kuraray) and BC-408 (Bicron) - were made. A forecast of tile lifetime was made for normal conditions of usage (20% reduction of light output and 50% reduction of the bulk attenuation length (BAL) and technical attenuation length (TAL). Scintillator UPS-96GM has the most long-term stability of parameters--more than 11 yr. BC-408 samples have the minimum lifetime ∼7 yr. The long-term stability, calculated by light yield reduction, of UPS-96G, UPS-923A and SCSN-81 is 10, 9 and 8 yr, respectively

  2. Long-term recurrence and death rates after acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Helle; Tønnesen, Hanne; Tønnesen, Maja Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare long-term recurrence and death rates after a first episode of acute pancreatitis in patients with and without gallstones. Additionally, it was of interest to find out if there were factors predictive of readmission or death.......The aim of this study was to compare long-term recurrence and death rates after a first episode of acute pancreatitis in patients with and without gallstones. Additionally, it was of interest to find out if there were factors predictive of readmission or death....

  3. [Analysis of long-term survivors in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Akira; Matuzu, Kenichi

    2012-07-01

    We analyzed the clinicopathologic and therapeutic factors associated with long-term survival in 449 patients with anaplastic carcinoma registered with the Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Consortium of Japan. Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between long-term survival of more than 1 year and the following factors: the appearance of acute symptom; WBC thyroid gland after surgery; no distant metastasis at initial diagnosi; complete resection of gross tumor; and administration of external irradiation (40 Gy) and chemotherapy. In multivariate analysis, only tumor diameter (disease.

  4. On the long-term analysis with finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyris, J.H.; Szimmat, J.; Willam, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    Following a presentation of concrete creep, a brief summary of the direct and incremental calculation methods on long-term behaviour is given. This is followed by a survey of the method of the inner state variables, which on the one hand gives a uniform framework for the various formulations of concrete creep, and on the other hand leads to a computer-ready calculation process. Two examples on long-term behaviour illustrate the regions of application of the computer methods. (orig./LH) [de

  5. Long-term creep test with finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyris, J.H.; Szimmat, J.; Willam, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    Following a presentation of concrete creep, a brief summary of the direct and incremental calculation methods for long-term creep behaviour is given. In addition, a survey on the methods of the inner state variables is given which, on the one hand, gives a uniform framework for the various formulations of concrete creep, and on the other hand leads to a computable calculation method. Two examples on long-term creep behaviour illustrate the application field of the calculation method. (orig./LH) [de

  6. Long-term risks of kidney living donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggiore, Umberto; Budde, Klemens; Heemann, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Two recent matched cohort studies from the USA and Norway published in 2014 have raised some concerns related to the long-term safety of kidney living donation. Further studies on the long-term risks of living donation have since been published. In this position paper, Developing Education Science...... to the confounding effect related to a family history of renal disease. DESCARTES board members emphasize the importance of optimal risk–benefit assessment and proper information to the prospective donor, which should also include recommendations on health-promoting behaviour post-donation....

  7. General practitioners and long-term neurological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) can have a significant role to play in the management of individuals with long-term neurological conditions (LTNC). This paper looks at various roles and responsibilities of GPs in the management of these patients. This paper is based on a Medline literature search using the key words 'general practitioner;''rehabilitation;''long-term;' and 'neurological'. The findings are broadly divided into diagnostic, supportive and palliative roles. GPs have a lot to offer individuals with LTNC, but recent changes in the way they work, especially in the UK, may hamper their role.

  8. The Challenge of Long-Term Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselmann, K.; Latif, M.; Hooss, G.; Azar, C.; Edenhofer, O.; Jaeger, C. C.; Johannessen, O. M.; Kemfert, C.; Welp, M.; Wokaun, A.

    2003-12-01

    Climate policy needs to address the multidecadal to centennial time scale of climate change. Although the realization of short-term targets is an important first step, to be effective climate policies need to be conceived as long-term programs that will achieve a gradual transition to an essentially emission-free economy on the time scale of a century. This requires a considerably broader spectrum of policy measures than the primarily market-based instruments invoked for shorter term mitigation policies. A successful climate policy must consist of a dual approach focusing on both short-term targets and long-term goals.

  9. Mapping long-term wetland response to climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q.; Gallant, A.; Rover, J.

    2016-12-01

    Wetlands provide unique feeding and breeding habitat for numerous waterfowl species. The distribution of wetlands has been considerably changed due to agricultural land conversion and hydrologic modification. Climate change may further impact wetlands through altered moisture regimes. This study characterized long-term variation in wetland conditions by using dense time series from all available Landsat data from 1985 to 2014. We extracted harmonic frequencies from 30 years to two years to delineate the long-term variation in all seven Landsat bands. A cluster analysis and unsupervised classification then enabled us to map different classes of wetland response. We demonstrated the method in the Prairie Pothole Region in North Dakota.

  10. A NOVEL APPROACH FOR LONG TERM SOLAR RADIATION PREDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Khanna

    2018-10-01

    Full Text Available With present stress, being laid on green energy worldwide, harnessing solar energy for commercial use has importance in sizing and long-term prediction of solar radiation. However, with continuous changing environment parameters, it is quite difficult for long-term prediction of solar radiation. In the past research scholars, have carried out solar prediction only for a few days, which is insufficient to exploit the radiation for sizing and harnessing the solar energy for commercial use. To overcome this gap, present work utilizes application of lifting wavelet transform along with ANFIS to predict the radiation for long duration.

  11. Long-term outcome in patients with juvenile dermatomyositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, P; Hegaard, H; Herlin, Troels

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate a group of 53 patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), on average 13.9 years after disease onset, in order to describe the long-term disease outcome and to identify disease-related parameters associated with poor disease outcome.......To evaluate a group of 53 patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), on average 13.9 years after disease onset, in order to describe the long-term disease outcome and to identify disease-related parameters associated with poor disease outcome....

  12. Towards The Long-Term Preservation of Building Information Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beetz, Jacob; Dietze, Stefan; Berndt, René

    2013-01-01

    primarily been on textual and audio-visual media types. With the recent paradigm shift in architecture and construction from analog 2D plans and scale models to digital 3D information models of buildings, long-term preservation efforts must turn their attention to this new type of data. Currently......, no existing approach is able to provide a secure and efficient long-term preservation solution covering the broad spectrum of 3D architectural data, while at the same time taking into account the demands of institutional collectors like architecture libraries and archives as well as those of the private...

  13. 42 CFR 412.536 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged Medicare patients admitted from a hospital not located in the same building or on the same campus as the long-term care hospital or satellite... payment provisions for long-term care hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals that discharged...

  14. Global Uranium Supply Ensured for Long Term, New Report Shows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    (tU) at the end of 2010 to between 98 000 tU and 136 000 tU by 2035. The currently defined uranium resource base is more than adequate to meet high-case requirements through 2035 and well into the foreseeable future. Although ample resources are available, meeting projected demand will require timely investments in uranium production facilities. This is because of the long lead times (typically in the order of ten years or more in most producing countries) required to develop production facilities that can turn resources into refined uranium ready for nuclear fuel production. With uranium production ready to expand to new countries, efforts are being made to develop transparent and well-regulated operations similar to those used elsewhere to minimise potential environmental and local health impacts. Although not the primary focus of the Red Book, activity updates on the environmental aspects of the uranium production cycle are included in the national reports in this edition. While the status of supply and demand is considered from the perspective of technologies in use today, the deployment of advanced reactors and fuel cycle technologies can also positively affect the long-term availability of uranium, conceivably extending the time horizon of the currently defined resource base to thousands of years. These are some of the findings in the just-published Uranium 2011: Resources, Production and Demand, a joint study by the OECD/NEA and the IAEA, carried out in co-operation with their member countries. This is the 24th edition of this periodic assessment (currently every two years) which has been published since the mid-1960s. (IAEA)

  15. Performance of the ocean state forecast system at Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, T.M.B.; Sirisha, P.; Sandhya, K.G.; Srinivas, K.; SanilKumar, V.; Sabique, L.; Nherakkol, A.; KrishnaPrasad, B.; RakhiKumari; Jeyakumar, C.; Kaviyazhahu, K.; RameshKumar, M.; Harikumar, R.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Nayak, S.

    on hazardous oceanic situations, Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) started the Ocean State Forecast (OSF) service in 2005 by issuing forecasts of vital ocean parameters like significant wave heights, remotely generated waves... international agencies such as National Centres for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), USA and Euro- pean Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), UK issue sea state forecasts based on models such as WAVEWATCH III and WAM, these forecasts...

  16. Long-term observations of operated and irradiated breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker-Mroz, G.; Schroeder, R.

    1983-01-01

    498 patients with histologically established and surgically removed breast carcinomas received post-operative irradiation treatment at Moabit hospital, Berlin, between 1965 and 1975. The long-term results of this largely standardized therapy have been compiled and evaluated. (orig./MG) [de

  17. Long-term followup of hypospadias: functional and cosmetic results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rynja, Sybren P.; Wouters, Gerlof A.; van Schaijk, Maaike; Kok, Esther T.; de Jong, Tom P.; de Kort, Laetitia M.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed long-term results after hypospadias surgery with respect to urinary and sexual function, cosmetic appearance and intimate relationships. We contacted 116 patients who are now adults and who underwent surgery between 1987 and 1992. Participation included mailed questionnaires containing

  18. Long-term outcomes of young people who attempted suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grisham, Jessica R; Williams, Alishia D

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Suicidal behavior has increased since the onset of the global recession, a trend that may have long-term health and social implications. OBJECTIVE To test whether suicide attempts among young people signal increased risk for later poor health and social functioning above and beyond a

  19. Long-Term Outcome in Guillain-Barre Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The long-term sequelae and early predictors of sequelae were determined in a chart review of 47 children with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS of whom 30 had been treated with intravenous gammaglobulin (IVIG at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.

  20. Subintimal angioplasty: predictors of long-term success.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Aoife N

    2009-08-01

    To determine the clinical outcomes and success rates after percutaneous subintimal angioplasty (SIA) in patients with lower-limb occlusive lesions causing intermittent claudication (IC) or critical limb ischemia (CLI) at midterm to long-term follow-up. The secondary aim was to elicit factors predictive of a successful outcome.

  1. Long-Term Effects of a Psycholinguistic Treatment for Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijms, Jurgen; Hoeks, Jan J. W. M.; Paulussen-Hoogeboom, Marja C.; Smolenaars, Anton J.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates short- and long-term effects of a treatment for dyslexia. Notes that the treatment focuses on learning to recognize and to make use of the phonological and morphological structure of Dutch words. Finds that the results of the treatment were clear improvements in reading words, reading text and spelling. (SG)

  2. Long-term hepatotoxicity and hypoglycaemic study of Aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of Carica papaya extracts as an anti-diabetic remedy in Nigeria is well documented. Since these extracts are usually taken for long periods of time, it is important to assess their long term biochemical effects so as to ascertain their safety. In this study, the effects of aqueous extracts of C. papaya leaves, orally ...

  3. Long term nitrogen and phosphorus application to veld. | Donaldson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The long term effects of a 5N x 3P factorial fertiliser application trial on hay yield, botanical composition and soil properties of veld are presented. Significant increases in hay yields were recorded during most years. There was a strong correlation (r = 0,757) between mean (over all 15 treatment combinations) annual hay ...

  4. The long-term consequences of anaesthetic management | Sessler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, it is reasonable to ask to what extent anaesthetic management might influence long-term outcomes. The distinction being made here is between the classical definition of anaesthetic complications, which is restricted to the immediate perioperative period, perhaps extending to a few days after surgery, and the ...

  5. Universal Preschool Programs and Long-Term Child Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrichson, Jens; Kristiansen, Ida Lykke; Viinholt Nielsen, Bjørn Christian

    2018-01-01

    This systematic review included 25 studies using natural experiments to estimate the effects of universal preschool programs for children aged 0-6 years on child outcomes measured from third grade to adulthood. Studies comparing preschool with parental, family, or other informal modes of care...... alternative types of universal preschool programs in terms of long-term outcomes....

  6. Long-Term Adaptation to Institutionalization in Dementia Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaugler, Joseph E.; Pot, Anne Margriet; Zarit, Steven H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Longitudinal research in dementia has acknowledged the importance of transitions during the course of family caregiving. However, long-term adaptation to institutionalization has received little attention. This study attempts to describe caregivers' adaptation (changes in stress, well-being, and psychosocial resources) to placement up to…

  7. Some shortcomings of long-term working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobet, F

    2000-11-01

    Within the framework of their long term working memory theory, Ericsson and Kintsch (1995) propose that experts rapidly store information in long-term memory through two mechanisms: elaboration of long-term memory patterns and schemas and use of retrieval structures. They use chess players' memory as one of their most compelling sources of empirical evidence. In this paper, I show that evidence from chess memory, far from supporting their theory, limits its generality. Evidence from other domains reviewed by Ericsson and Kintsch, such as medical expertise, is not as strong as claimed, and sometimes contradicts the theory outright. I argue that Ericsson and Kintsch's concept of retrieval structure conflates three different types of memory structures that possess quite different properties. One of these types of structures--generic, general purpose retrieval structures--has a narrower use than proposed by Ericsson and Kintsch: it applies only in domains where there is a conscious, deliberate intent by individuals to improve their memory. Other mechanisms, including specific retrieval structures, exist that permit a rapid encoding into long-term memory under other circumstances.

  8. Archiving primary data : Solutions for long-term studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, James A.; Teplitsky, Celine; Arroyo, Beatriz; Charmantier, Anne; Becker, Peter. H.; Birkhead, Tim R.; Bize, Pierre; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Bonenfant, Christophe; Boutin, Stan; Bushuev, Andrey; Cam, Emmanuelle; Cockburn, Andrew; Cote, Steeve D.; Coulson, John C.; Daunt, Francis; Dingemanse, Niels J.; Doligez, Blandine; Drummond, Hugh; Espie, Richard H. M.; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Frentiu, Francesca; Fitzpatrick, John W.; Furness, Robert W.; Garant, Dany; Gauthier, Gilles; Grant, Peter R.; Griesser, Michael; Gustafsson, Lars; Hansson, Bengt; Harris, Michael P.; Jiguet, Frederic; Kjellander, Petter; Korpimaki, Erkki; Krebs, Charles J.; Lens, Luc; Linne, John D. C.; Low, Matthew; McAdam, Andrew; Margalida, Antoni; Merila, Juha; Moller, Anders P.; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Nilsson, Jan-Ake; Nisbet, Ian C. T.; van Noordwijk, Arie J.; Oro, Daniel; Part, Tomas; Pelletier, Fanie; Potti, Jaime; Pujol, Benoit; Reale, Denis; Rockwel, Robert F.; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Roulin, Alexandre; Sedinger, James S.; Swenson, Jon E.; Thebaud, Christophe; Visser, Marcel E.; Wanless, Sarah; Westneat, David F.; Wilson, Alastair J.; Zedrosser, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The recent trend for journals to require open access to primary data included in publications has been embraced by many biologists, but has caused apprehension amongst researchers engaged in long-term ecological and evolutionary studies. A worldwide survey of 73 principal investigators (PIs) with

  9. Input reduction for long-term morphodynamic simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, D.J.R.; Ruessink, G.; Hoekstra, R.; Tonnon, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Input reduction is imperative to long-term (> years) morphodynamic simulations to avoid excessive computation times. Here, we discuss the input-reduction framework for wave-dominated coastal settings introduced by Walstra et al. (2013). The framework comprised 4 steps, viz. (1) the selection of the

  10. LONG-TERM EFFICACY OF MACROPLASTIQUE INJECTION FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective To evaluate the long-term efficacy of endoscopic injection of Macroplastique (Polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS)in male and female urinary incontinence (UI). Patients and Methods A total of 87 patients with different causes of urinary incontinence have been treated by endoscopic injection of PDMS at our department ...

  11. Long-term human-robot interaction with young users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baxter, P.; Belpaeme, T.; Canamero, L.; Cosi, P.; Demiris, Y.; Enescu, V.; Et al.

    2011-01-01

    Artificial companion agents have the potential to combine novel means for effective health communication with young patients support and entertainment. However, the theory and practice of long-term child-robot interaction is currently an underdeveloped area of research. This paper introduces an

  12. The Long-Term Effects of Youth Unemployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Thomas A.; Savage, Timothy H.

    2006-01-01

    Using NLSY data, we examine the long-term effects of youth unemployment on later labor market outcomes. Involuntary unemployment may yield suboptimal investments in human capital in the short run. A theoretical model of dynamic human capital investment predicts a rational "catch-up" response. Using semiparametric techniques to control for the…

  13. Long-term implant performance and patients' satisfaction in oligodontia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filius, Marieke A. P.; Vissink, Arjan; Cune, Marco S.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Visser, Anita

    Objectives: To assess long-term (>= 10 years) implant survival, peri-implant health, patients' satisfaction and oral health related quality of life (OHQoL) in oligodontia patients rehabilitated with implant-based fixed prosthodontics. Methods: All oligodontia patients treated >= 10 years previously

  14. Areas of Marital Dissatisfaction among Long-Term Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duba, Jill D.; Hughey, Aaron W.; Lara, Tracy; Burke, Monica G.

    2012-01-01

    To better understand relational dissatisfaction and duration of long-term married couples, this study surveyed 30 couples married at least 40 years with the Marital Satisfaction Inventory. Findings suggest various areas of dissatisfaction (e.g., affective communication, conflict over child rearing) and relationship among and link to other areas of…

  15. Long-Term Mean Wind Profiles Based on Similarity Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Mark C.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2010-01-01

    We provide general forms for long-term mean wind profiles from similarity-based wind profiles, beginning with a probabilistic adaptation of Monin–Obukhov similarity theory. We develop an analytical formulation for the stability distributions prevailing in the atmospheric surface layer, which...

  16. A cross cultural comparison of long-term supply relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Gjalt de; Nooteboom, Bart

    2003-01-01

    This paper challenges the received view that long-term supply relationships are a typically Japanese feature, embedded and developed in a typically Japanese society characterized by high levels of trust and cooperation, and for that reason cannot be established in the typically a-cooperative,

  17. Long-term changes and trends in the lower ionosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 27, - (2002), s. 497-507 ISSN 1474-7065 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3042101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : lower ionosphere * long-term trends Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  18. Investment in Skills Must Be for the Long Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, John

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1980s, researchers have formed a much better understanding of how unemployment scars people's lives, not just in the short term, but sometimes for years ahead. Researchers differ on the details, but no one disagrees that the negative effects are serious and long term. In the recession of the 1980s, government schemes to improve people's…

  19. Long-term prevention of diabetic nephropathy: an audit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoedt, K.J.; Hansen, H.P.; Tarnow, L.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In type 1 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria not receiving antihypertensive treatment, an increase in urinary AER (UAER) of 6-14%/year and a risk of developing diabetic nephropathy (DN) of 3-30%/year have been reported. We audited the long-term effect of blocking the renin...

  20. Long-term monitoring of the HPC Charenton Canal Bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    The report contains long-term monitoring data collection and analysis of the first fully high : performance concrete (HPC) bridge in Louisiana, the Charenton Canal Bridge. The design of this : bridge started in 1997, and it was built and opened to tr...