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Sample records for indian mustard electronic

  1. Mercury-induced oxidative stress in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyab, Safwan; Chen, Jian; Han, Fengxiang X; Monts, David L; Matta, Fank B; Gu, Mengmeng; Su, Yi; Masad, Motasim A

    2009-10-01

    Mercury, a potent neurotoxin, is released to the environment in significant amounts by both natural processes and anthropogenic activities. No natural hyperaccumulator plant has been reported for mercury phytoremediation. Few studies have been conducted on the physiological responses of Indian mustard, a higher biomass plant with faster growth rates, to mercury pollution. This study investigated the phytotoxicity of mercury to Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) and mercury-induced oxidative stress in order to examine the potential application of Indian mustard to mercury phytoremediation. Two common cultivars (Florida Broadleaf and Longstanding) of Indian mustard were grown hydroponically in a mercury-spiked solution. Plant uptake, antioxidative enzymes, peroxides, and lipid peroxidation under mercury stress were investigated. Antioxidant enzymes (catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD; and superoxide dismutase, SOD) were the most sensitive indices of mercury-induced oxidative response of Indian mustard plants. Indian mustard effectively generated an enzymatic antioxidant defense system (especially CAT) to scavenge H(2)O(2), resulting in lower H(2)O(2) in shoots with higher mercury concentrations. These two cultivars of Indian mustard demonstrated an efficient metabolic defense and adaptation system to mercury-induced oxidative stress. A majority of Hg was accumulated in the roots and low translocations of Hg from roots to shoots were found in two cultivars of Indian mustard. Thus Indian mustard might be a potential candidate plant for phytofiltration/phytostabilization of mercury contaminated waters and wastewater.

  2. Interaction between copper and radiocesium in Indian mustard and sunflower grown in the hydroponic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirong Tang; Xiaochang Wang

    2002-01-01

    Both Indian mustard and sunflower were grown in a hydroponic solution treated with different concentration activities of 134 Cs or with different amounts of copper or with both in order to investigate the interaction between copper and radiocesium. It was found that 134 Cs activity concentration applied in the nutrient solution exerted more influence on the uptake and translocation of copper by Indian mustard than by sunflower. Indian mustard grown in hydroponic solution containing certain levels of copper and being treated with higher 134 Cs activity concentration showed higher uptake of copper than sunflower. However, in the case of root copper concentrations, sunflower showed significantly higher copper immobilization by roots than Indian mustard. It was also found that the presence of copper the the hydroponic solution did modify radiocesium uptake by both species. The application of 1 mg/l in the growth medium could greatly increase the uptake of 134 Cs by both species. With 3 mg/l concentration of copper amended to the solution, the accumulation of 134 Cs by both species was decreased compared to the 1 mg/l copper treatment. These lines of evidence show that there is stronger interaction between copper and radiocesium in Indian mustard than in sunflower during the root uptake through nutrient solution. (author)

  3. Genotypic variation of nitrogen use efficiency in Indian mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Altaf; Khan, Ishrat; Abrol, Yash P.; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the variation of nitrogen efficiency (NE), nitrogen uptake efficiency (UE), physiological nitrogen use efficiency (PUE) among Indian mustard genotypes, grown under N-insufficient and N-sufficient conditions. Nitrogen efficiency varied from 52.7 to 92.8. Seed yield varied from 1.14 t ha -1 to 3.21 t ha -1 under N-insufficient condition, while 2.14 t ha -1 -3.33 t ha -1 under N-sufficient condition. Physiological basis of this difference was explained in terms of nitrogen uptake efficiency and physiological nitrogen use efficiency, and their relationship with the growth and yield characteristics. While nitrogen uptake efficiency was positively correlated with plant biomass (0.793**), leaf area index (0.664*), and leaf nitrogen content (0.783**), physiological nitrogen use efficiency is positively correlated with photosynthetic rate (0.689**) and yield (0.814**). This study suggests that genotype having high nitrogen uptake efficiency and high physiological nitrogen use efficiency might help in reducing the nitrogen load on soil without any penalty on the yield. - Nitrogen efficient crop plants may help in reducing environmental contamination of nitrate without any penalty on seed yield

  4. Reduction and Coordination of Arsenic in Indian Mustard1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Ingrid J.; Prince, Roger C.; George, Martin J.; Smith, Robert D.; George, Graham N.; Salt, David E.

    2000-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of arsenic by plants may provide a means of removing this element from contaminated soils and waters. However, to optimize this process it is important to understand the biological mechanisms involved. Using a combination of techniques, including x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we have established the biochemical fate of arsenic taken up by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). After arsenate uptake by the roots, possibly via the phosphate transport mechanism, a small fraction is exported to the shoot via the xylem as the oxyanions arsenate and arsenite. Once in the shoot, the arsenic is stored as an AsIII-tris-thiolate complex. The majority of the arsenic remains in the roots as an AsIII-tris-thiolate complex, which is indistinguishable from that found in the shoots and from AsIII-tris-glutathione. The thiolate donors are thus probably either glutathione or phytochelatins. The addition of the dithiol arsenic chelator dimercaptosuccinate to the hydroponic culture medium caused a 5-fold-increased arsenic level in the leaves, although the total arsenic accumulation was only marginally increased. This suggests that the addition of dimercaptosuccinate to arsenic-contaminated soils may provide a way to promote arsenic bioaccumulation in plant shoots, a process that will be essential for the development of an efficient phytoremediation strategy for this element. PMID:10759512

  5. Accumulation of Cd in Indian mustard and sunflower for phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Satoshi; Fukutani, Satoshi; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Fukui, Masami

    2004-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a new method that uses plants to remove contaminants from soil without affecting soil fertility. It can therefore be used for contaminated agricultural land. Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) are used in phytoremediation to remove Cadmium (Cd), which they can accumulate in large quantities. It is important to know when plants have accumulated significant Cd, so that we can decide when the plants should be harvested and synthetic chelates applied. Brassica juncea seeds and Helianthus annuus L. seeds were planted in a field in Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KUR). Brassica juncea and Helianthus annuus L. were collected at time intervals ranging from 1 to 6 months and 2 to 7 weeks, respectively, after seedling emergence and the concentration of Cd in the plants was analyzed. These results indicated that Brassica juncea should be harvested before beginning flowering and Helianthus annuus L. should be harvested after it becomes old enough. The solubility of Cd in soil is enhanced when the soil is heated or dried, and black vinyl mulch was therefore used to absorb the heat from sunlight. The difference in the Cd uptake of Brassica juncea between mulching cultivation and non-mulching cultivation was investigated in a field, and this indicated that there is no probability that mulching enhances Cd uptake in plants. The solubility of Cd in soil decreases over time. Repeated pot experiments were done. We planted Brassica juncea in pots, and investigated the uptake of Cd and the solid phase fractions in which Cd was present in each pot experiment. These did not change considerably over time, indicating that age has a negligible effect on Cd uptake in plants. (author)

  6. Isolation of low erucic acid-containing genotype of Indian mustard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reciprocal crosses were done between two cultivars; cv. RJ15 and cv. RLM198 of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). Anther derived lines designated as A1 plants, were raised through anther culture from these F1 hybrid plants. 45% germination was obtained from distinctly shriveled and small A1 seeds and grown along ...

  7. Overexpressing both ATP sulfurylase and selenocysteine methyltransferase enhances selenium phytoremediation traits in Indian mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeDuc, Danika L.; AbdelSamie, Manal; Montes-Bayon, Maria; Wu, Carol P.; Reisinger, Sarah J.; Terry, Norman

    2006-01-01

    A major goal of our selenium (Se) phytoremediation research is to use genetic engineering to develop fast-growing plants with an increased ability to tolerate, accumulate, and volatilize Se. To this end we incorporated a gene (encoding selenocysteine methyltransferase, SMT) from the Se hyperaccumulator, Astragalus bisulcatus, into Indian mustard (LeDuc, D.L., Tarun, A.S., Montes-Bayon, M., Meija, J., Malit, M.F., Wu, C.P., AbdelSamie, M., Chiang, C.-Y., Tagmount, A., deSouza, M., Neuhierl, B., Boeck, A., Caruso, J., Terry, N., 2004. Overexpression of selenocysteine methyltransferase in Arabidopsis and Indian mustard increases selenium tolerance and accumulation Plant Physiol. 135, 377-383.). The resulting transgenic plants successfully enhanced Se phytoremediation in that the plants tolerated and accumulated Se from selenite significantly better than wild type. However, the advantage conferred by the SMT enzyme was much less when Se was supplied as selenate. In order to enhance the phytoremediation of selenate, we developed double transgenic plants that overexpressed the gene encoding ATP sulfurylase (APS) in addition to SMT, i.e., APS x SMT. The results showed that there was a substantial improvement in Se accumulation from selenate (4 to 9 times increase) in transgenic plants overexpressing both APS and SMT. - Simultaneous overexpression of APS and SMT genes in Indian mustard greatly increases ability to accumulate selenate

  8. Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of gamma rays and ethyl methanesulhonate in Indian mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Singh, Basudeo

    1986-01-01

    Mutagenic effectiveness is a measure of the frequency of mutations induced by unit dose of a mutagen while mutagenic efficiency gives the proportion of mutations in relation to other associated undesirable biological effects such as gross chromosomal aberrations, lethality and sterility induced by the mutagen in question (Konzak, et al., 1965). The usefulness of any mutagen in plant breeding depends not only on its mutagenic effectiveness but also on its mutagenic efficiency. The efficiency and effectiveness of ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) in relation to gamma rays in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern and Coss] was studied. (author)

  9. Germination and seedling growth of Indian mustard exposed to cadmium and chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Marchiol

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available To make phytoremediation a technically viable option for large-scale applications we need plants that are able to guarantee high biomass yield as well as high accumulation of heavy metals in their aerial parts. The aim of this investigation was to study the performance of aquacultured plants of Indian mustard in the presence of different concentrations of cadmium and chromium since seed germination. The effects on germination and growth of seedlings of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern cv. WNFP, Varuna and Barton, were investigated in/under hydroponic conditions during a 4-week experiment. Cadmium and chromium were provided since germination as cadmium nitrate Cd(NO32 and chromium bichromate K2Cr2O7 (0.5, 1 and 1.5 M. Plant biomass growth measured at the end of the experiments varied with the different metal concentrations in the nutrient solution and the accumulation of the elements in the plant fractions differed significantly among/between cultivars. Ability in the uptake of metals and their mobilization and storage in the aerial plant biomass, expressed by the bioconcentration factor (BCF and translocation factor (TF, respectively, are the most important traits of plants with phytoextraction potential. Brassica juncea was confirmed as being a highly tolerant species, but poor metal translocation values were registered, therefore the high amount of Cd and Cr concentrated in the root systems did not migrate to the aerial, harvestable, part of the plant.

  10. Relation between soil temperature and biophysical parameters in Indian mustard seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, T.; Chakravarty, N. V. K.

    2013-12-01

    Temporal changes in surface soil temperature were studied in winter crop. Significant changes in bare and cropped soil temperature were revealed. Air temperature showed a statistically positive and strong relationship (R2 = 0.79** to 0.92**) with the soil temperature both at morning and afternoon hours. Linear regression analysis indicated that each unit increase in ambient temperature would lead to increase in minimum and maximum soil temperatures by 1.04 and 1.02 degree, respectively. Statistically positive correlation was revealed among biophysical variables with the cumulative surface soil temperature. Linear and non-linear regression analysis indicated 62-69, 72-86 and 72-80% variation in Leaf area index, dry matter production and heat use efficiency in Indian mustard crop as a function of soil degree days. Below 60% variation in yield in Indian mustard was revealed as a function of soil temperature. In contrast, non-significant relationship between oil content and soil temperature was found, which suggests that oil accumulation in oilseed crops was not affected significantly by the soil temperature as an independent variable.

  11. Phytoextraction of potentially toxic elements by Indian mustard, rapeseed, and sunflower from a contaminated riparian soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Sabry M; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the phytoextraction of the potentially toxic elements Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn by Indian mustard, rapeseed, and sunflower from a contaminated riparian soil. To achieve this goal, a greenhouse pot experiment was established using a highly contaminated grassland soil collected at the Wupper River (Germany). The impact of ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), humate (HK), and phosphate potassium (PK) on the mobility and uptake of the elements by rapeseed also was investigated. Indian mustard showed the highest efficiency for phytoextraction of Al, Cr, Mo, Se, and V; sunflower for Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn, and rapeseed for Cu. The bioconcentration ratios were higher than 1 for the elements (except As and Cu), indicating the suitability of the studied plants for phytoextraction. Application of EDTA to the soil increased significantly the solubility of Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, and Pb and decreased the solubility of Al, As, Se, V, and Mo. Humate potassium decreased significantly the concentrations of Al and As in rapeseed but increased the concentrations of Cu, Se, and Zn. We may conclude that HK can be used for immobilization of Al and As, while it can be used for enhancing the phytoextraction of Cu, Se, and Zn by rapeseed. Phosphate potassium immobilized Al, Cd, Pb, and Zn, but enhanced phytoextraction of As, Cr, Mo, and Se by rapeseed.

  12. EFFECT OF REACTIVE MATERIALS ON THE CONTENT OF SELECTED ELEMENTS IN INDIAN MUSTARD GROWN IN CR(VI-CONTAMINATED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Radziemska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Reactive materials represent a promising agent for environmental co-remediation. The research was aimed to determine the influence of hexavalent chromium in doses of 0, 25, 50, and 150 mg Cr(VI.kg-1 of soil as well as zero valent-iron, and lignite additives on the content of macroelements in the Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.. The average accumulation of the analysed elements in Indian mustard grown in Cr(VI contaminated soil were found to follow the decreasing order Mg>Na>P>Ca>K. Soil contamination at 150 mg Cr(VI.kg-1 of soil led to the highest increase in magnesium, calcium, sodium, and potassium content in Indian mustard. The application of zero-valent iron had a positive influence on the average Na and K content of the tested plant. The application of lignite had a positive influence on the average magnesium, sodium and calcium content in the above-ground parts of the studied plant. In the non-amended treatments (without reactive materials, the increasing rates of chromium (VI had an explicitly positive effect on the content of phosphorous and sodium in Indian mustard.

  13. 28-homobrassinolide Protects Photosynthetic Machinery in Indian mustard Under High Temperature Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qazi Fariduddin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available High temperature is a serious threat to crop production. Brassinosteroids (BRs, a group of plant steroidal hormones, can reduce effects of abiotic stresses. The present study was aimed to study the potency of brassinosteroids on high temperature induced changes in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. for effects on growth, chlorophyll, photosynthesis, photosystem II, antioxidant system and proline. Surface sterilized seeds of Indian mustard were sown in pots, grown for 21 days and treated with double distilled water or 0.01 µM of 28-homobrassinolide. Treated plants, after 24 h, were exposed to 30°C or 40°C for 48 h. One set of plants were kept at ambient temperature, 25°C, as the control. Plants were harvested at 30 days stage of growth to assess the various parameters. Plants exposed to 40°C had a decline in growth, leaf water potential, chlorophyll, photosynthetic rate, and activities of carbonic anhydrase (E.C.4.2.1.1 and nitrate reductase (E.C.1.6.1.1. The 28-homobrassinolide alone improved growth and photosynthesis responses along with various enzymes activities. Treatment of plants with HBL prior to exposure to 40°C, partially reduced damage and completely controlled damage when exposure was to 30°C. Levels of the antioxidative enzymes catalase (E.C.1.11.1.6, peroxidase (E.C.1.11.1.7, and superoxide dismutase (E.C.1.15.1.1, and the level of proline increased in response to 30 or 40°C and were further enhanced in the presence of 28-homobrassinolide. Plants grown under high temperature had increased levels of H2O2; application of HBL before temperature treatment decreased H2O2 content compared to the control. Elevated levels of antioxidative enzymes and proline might be responsible for conferring tolerance to high temperature stress in Indian mustard and overcome the loss of productivity of the crop.

  14. Genotypic variation in phytoremediation potential of Indian mustard exposed to nickel stress: a hydroponic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mohd Kafeel Ahmad; Ahmad, Altaf; Umar, Shahid; Zia, Munir Hussain; Iqbal, Muhammad; Owens, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Ten Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) genotypes were screened for their nickel (Ni) phytoremediation potential under controlled environmental conditions. All ten genotypes were grown hydroponically in aqueous solution containing Ni concentrations (as nickel chloride) ranging from 0 to 50 μM and changes in plant growth, biomass and total Ni uptake were evaluated. Of the ten genotypes (viz. Agrini, BTO, Kranti, Pusa Basant, Pusa Jai Kisan, Pusa Bahar, Pusa Bold, Vardhan, Varuna, and Vaibhav), Pusa Jai Kisan was the most Ni tolerant genotype accumulating up to 1.7 μg Ni g(-1) dry weight (DW) in its aerial parts. Thus Pusa Jai Kisan had the greatest potential to become a viable candidate in the development of practical phytoremediation technologies for Ni contaminated sites.

  15. The chemical toxicity of cesium in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Jin-long; Tao, Zong-ya; Fu, Qian; Han, Na; Wu, Guo; Zhang, Hong; Lu, Hong; Luo, Xue-gang

    2016-01-01

    To distinguish between the radiological and chemical effects of radiocesium, we study the chemical toxicity of cesium in the seedlings of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). In this study, the experiment was designed in two factors and five levels random block design to investigate the interaction effects of Cs and K. Results showed that excessive Cs was one of the main factors influence the growth of Brassica juncea seedlings. And the toxicity of Cs in Brassica juncea is likely to be caused by Cs interacts with K-binding sites in essential K-dependent protein, either competes with K for essential biochemical functions, causing intracellular metabolic disturbance. To test the hypothesis that the toxicity of Cs might cause intracellular metabolic disturbance, next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based Illumina paired-end Solexa sequencing platform was employed to analysis the changes in gene expression, and understand the key genes in B. juncea seedlings responding to the toxicity of Cs. Based on the assembled de novo transcriptome, 2032 DEGs that play significant roles in the response to the toxicity of Cs were identified. Further analysis showed that excessive Cs is disturbance the auxin signal transduction pathway, and inhibited the indoleacetic acid-induced protein (AUX/IAA) genes expression eventually lead the seedlings growth and development be inhibited. The results suggest that disturbances to tryptophan metabolism might be linked to changes in growth. - Highlights: • Analyze the chemical toxicity of cesium in seedlings of Indian mustard. • Distinguish between the radiological and chemical effects of radiocesium. • 2032 DEGs that play significant roles in the response to Cs toxicity were identified. • Excessive Cs is disturbance the auxin signal transduction pathway.

  16. Transport of Cd and Zn to seeds of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) during specific stages of plant growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Renuka P; Ebbs, Stephen D

    2008-01-01

    The accumulation of excess Cd in the seeds of cereal and other crops compromises their commercial value and presents a potential risk to human health. Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.] is a moderate accumulator of heavy metals such as Cd and Zn, and the seeds are consumed throughout the world, particularly in the Indian subcontinent. The study here examined the transport of Cd into Indian mustard plants and to seeds as a function of external Cd and the stage of the life cycle (vegetative growth, flowering and seed set) to identify critical developmental windows where transport from roots to seeds was the greatest. Plants were also treated simultaneously with Zn to determine if Zn fertilization mitigated the transport of Cd to seeds. Plants treated with Cd during the seed set accumulated the highest concentrations of Cd, exceeding 8 mg kg(-1) dry weight in some instances. Cadmium accumulated during vegetative growth was not highly redistributed to seeds. No effects of Zn were observed with regard to Cd redistribution to seeds. This may be because of the relatively small Zn : Cd ratios tested. However, the results suggest that if Zn fertilization is to be used to reduce the Cd accumulation in seeds of this species, that plants should be treated during the seed set stage. As the seeds of Indian mustard consistently accumulated Cd to concentrations that exceed acceptable limits for food crops, additional study of Cd redistribution in this species is warranted.

  17. Enhanced phytoextraction of uranium and selected heavy metals by Indian mustard and ryegrass using biodegradable soil amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duquene, L. [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Vandenhove, H. [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)], E-mail: hvandenh@sckcen.be; Tack, F.; Meers, E. [Ghent University, Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry and Applied Ecochemistry, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Baeten, J. [Katholieke Hogeschool Kempen, Department of Health-Care and Chemistry, Kleinhoefstraat 4, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Wannijn, J. [SCK-CEN, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2009-02-15

    The applicability of biodegradable amendments in phytoremediation to increase the uptake of uranium (U), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) was tested in a greenhouse experiment. Plants were cultivated during one month on two soils with naturally or industrially increased contaminant levels of U. Treatments with citric acid, NH{sub 4}-citrate/citric acid, oxalic acid, S,S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) or nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at a rate of 5 mmol kg{sup -1} dry soil caused increases in soil solution concentrations that were up to 18 times higher for U and up to 1570 times higher for other heavy metals, compared to the controls. Shoot concentrations increased to a much smaller extent. With EDDS, 19-, 34-, and 37-fold increases were achieved in shoots of Indian mustard for U, Pb and Cu, respectively. The increases in plant uptake of Cd, Cr and Zn were limited to a factor of four at most. Ryegrass generally extracted less U and metals than Indian mustard. Despite a marked increase of U and metal concentrations in shoots after addition of amendments, the estimated time required to obtain an acceptable reduction in soil contaminant concentrations was impractically long. Only for Cu and Zn in one of the studied soils, could the Flemish standards for clean soil theoretically be attained in less than 100 years.

  18. Enhanced phytoextraction of uranium and selected heavy metals by Indian mustard and ryegrass using biodegradable soil amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duquene, L.; Vandenhove, H.; Tack, F.; Meers, E.; Baeten, J.; Wannijn, J.

    2009-01-01

    The applicability of biodegradable amendments in phytoremediation to increase the uptake of uranium (U), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) was tested in a greenhouse experiment. Plants were cultivated during one month on two soils with naturally or industrially increased contaminant levels of U. Treatments with citric acid, NH 4 -citrate/citric acid, oxalic acid, S,S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) or nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at a rate of 5 mmol kg -1 dry soil caused increases in soil solution concentrations that were up to 18 times higher for U and up to 1570 times higher for other heavy metals, compared to the controls. Shoot concentrations increased to a much smaller extent. With EDDS, 19-, 34-, and 37-fold increases were achieved in shoots of Indian mustard for U, Pb and Cu, respectively. The increases in plant uptake of Cd, Cr and Zn were limited to a factor of four at most. Ryegrass generally extracted less U and metals than Indian mustard. Despite a marked increase of U and metal concentrations in shoots after addition of amendments, the estimated time required to obtain an acceptable reduction in soil contaminant concentrations was impractically long. Only for Cu and Zn in one of the studied soils, could the Flemish standards for clean soil theoretically be attained in less than 100 years

  19. Influence of indian mustard (Brassica juncea) on rhizosphere soil solution chemistry in long-term contaminated soils: a rhizobox study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwon-Rae; Owens, Gary; Kwon, Soon-lk

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) root exudation on soil solution properties (pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), metal solubility) in the rhizosphere using a rhizobox. Measurement was conducted following the cultivation of Indian mustard in the rhizobox filled four different types of heavy metal contaminated soils (two alkaline soils and two acidic soils). The growth of Indian mustard resulted in a significant increase (by 0.6 pH units) in rhizosphere soil solution pH of acidic soils and only a slight increase (soil solution varied considerably amongst different soils, resulting in significant changes to soil solution metals in the rhizosphere. For example, the soil solution Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations increased in the rhizosphere of alkaline soils compared to bulk soil following plant cultivation. In contrast, the soluble concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn in acidic soils decreased in rhizosphere soil when compared to bulk soils. Besides the influence of pH and DOC on metal solubility, the increase of heavy metal concentration having high stability constant such as Cu and Pb resulted in a release of Cd and Zn from solid phase to liquid phase.

  20. Potassium and calcium application ameliorates growth and oxidative homeostasis in salt-stressed indian mustard (brassica juncea) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousuf, P. Y.; Ahmad, A.; Hemant, M.; Ganie, A. H.; Iqbal, M.; Aref, I. M.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) on growth and antioxidant defence system of salt-stressed Indian mustard plants was studied. Twenty-day-old Indian mustard plants grown hydroponically in Hoagland growth medium were randomly divided into five groups. To served as control and did not receive any additional K or Ca (except that present in Hoagland solution), T1 received 150 mM NaCl, T2 was given an additional doze of 6 mM K, T3 was given 5.6 mM Ca as additional doze, while as T4 received a combination of 150 mM NaCl + 6 mM K + 5.6 mM Ca. The response of the plants was studied ten days after treatment. Salt stress inhibited growth parameters including biomass, chlorophyll content, protein content and NR activity. Membrane damage was induced by the salt treatment with a concurrent increase in antioxidant defence system and proline content. Individual application of K and Ca mitigated the negative influence of the stress with the maximum alleviating potential exhibited by the combined application of these nutrients. Results obtained on real time expression of genes encoding enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, APX, CAT and GR), NR and proline supported our findings with biochemical assays. We conclude from the study that maintaining high K and Ca levels may serve as an effective means for regulating the growth and productivity of Indian mustard plants under saline conditions. (author)

  1. Enhanced phytoextraction of uranium and selected heavy metals by Indian mustard and ryegrass using biodegradable soil amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquène, L; Vandenhove, H; Tack, F; Meers, E; Baeten, J; Wannijn, J

    2009-02-15

    The applicability of biodegradable amendments in phytoremediation to increase the uptake of uranium (U), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne) was tested in a greenhouse experiment. Plants were cultivated during one month on two soils with naturally or industrially increased contaminant levels of U. Treatments with citric acid, NH4-citrate/citric acid, oxalic acid, S,S-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) or nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) at a rate of 5 mmol kg(-1) dry soil caused increases in soil solution concentrations that were up to 18 times higher for U and up to 1570 times higher for other heavy metals, compared to the controls. Shoot concentrations increased to a much smaller extent. With EDDS, 19-, 34-, and 37-fold increases were achieved in shoots of Indian mustard for U, Pb and Cu, respectively. The increases in plant uptake of Cd, Cr and Zn were limited to a factor of four at most. Ryegrass generally extracted less U and metals than Indian mustard. Despite a marked increase of U and metal concentrations in shoots after addition of amendments, the estimated time required to obtain an acceptable reduction in soil contaminant concentrations was impractically long. Only for Cu and Zn in one of the studied soils, could the Flemish standards for clean soil theoretically be attained in less than 100 years.

  2. Phytoextraction based on Indian mustard (Brassica juncea arawali planted on spiked soil by aliquot amount of Lead and Nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Kaur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoextraction is one of the mechanisms of phytoremediation for removal of heavy metals from contaminated soils. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of metal chelants, ethelyne diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA and salicylic acid (SA, on the accumulation of lead and nickel by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea arawali plants in contaminated soil. Plants were treated with Pb and Ni, each at concentrations of 800 mg/l. EDTA and SA were amended at 0.1 M and 1.0 mM respectively. Plants were harvested and oven-dried. Pb and Ni content were estimated using ICP-OES (Varian Vista-MPX CCD Simultaneous ICP-OES. The samples thus prepared were investigated for metals distribution and morphology in different tissues (root, stem and leaf using energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX spectrometer attached to the scanning electron microscope (SEM. Metal distribution study in different tissues (root, stem, leaf was done by SEM/EDS. The results showed that EDTA increased Pb and Ni uptake as compared to SA.

  3. Mutation induction, evaluation and utilization for development of high yielding varieties in Indian mustard and sunflower: an overview of BARC work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambhulkar, S.J.; Shitre, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Mutation breeding programme in Indian mustard and sunflower at BARC has resulted into the development of wide spectrum of mutations for seed coat colour, chlorophyll, plant height, maturity, flower morphology, seed weight and oil content. In Indian mustard, TM1 and TM50 are high yielding yellow seed coat mutants, which were exploited in hybridisation to develop bold, yellow seed coat and high yielding genotypes. Light green leaf and variegated leaf are novel mutation in mustard. Putative mutants for drought tolerance have been isolated. Variability for zero erucic acid and zero glucosinolates genotypes have been developed in B. napus and B. juncea. In sunflower, high yielding black seed coat mutant were isolated. Extreme dwarf measuring only 11 cm is novel. Three high yielding varieties namely TM2, TM4, and TPM1 in mustard and one i.e.TAS82 in sunflower have been released for cultivation in collaboration with state agricultural universities. (author)

  4. Phyto-toxicity and Phyto-remediation Potential of Mercury in Indian Mustard and Two Ferns with Mercury Contaminated Water and Oak Ridge Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Y.; Han, F.X.; Chen, J.; Shiyab, S.; Monts, D.L.; Monts, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    Phyto-remediation is an emerging technology that uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. Certain fern and Indian mustard species have been suggested as candidates for phyto-remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil and water because of their high efficiency of accumulating metals in shoots and their high biomass production. Currently, no known hyper-accumulator plants for mercury have been found. Here we report the Hg uptake and phyto-toxicity by two varieties of fern and Indian mustard. Their potential for Hg phyto-remediation application was also investigated. Anatomical, histochemical and biochemical approaches were used to study mercury phyto-toxicity as well as anti-oxidative responses in ferns [Chinese brake fern (P. vittata) and Boston fern (N. exaltata)] and Indian mustard (Florida broadleaf and longstanding) (Brassica juncea L.) grown in a hydroponic system. Phyto-remediation potentials of these plant species were estimated based on their Hg uptake performance with contaminated soils from Oak Ridge (TN, USA). Our results show that mercury exposure led to severe phyto-toxicity accompanied by lipid peroxidation and rapid accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) in P. vittata, but not in N. exaltata. The two cultivars of fern responded differently to mercury exposure in terms of anti-oxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD; glutathione reductase, GR). Mercury exposure resulted in the accumulation of ascorbic acid (ASA) and glutathione (GSH) in the shoots of both cultivars of fern. On the other hand, Indian mustard effectively generated an enzymatic antioxidant defense system (especially CAT) to scavenge H 2 O 2 , resulting in lower H 2 O 2 in shoots with higher mercury concentrations. These two cultivars of Indian mustard demonstrated an efficient metabolic defense and adaptation system to mercury-induced oxidative stress. In both varieties of fern and Indian

  5. Genetic variability and inter-character associations in the mutants of Indian mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labana, K.S.; Chaurasia, B.D.; Singh, Balwant

    1980-01-01

    To study the genetic variability and the inter-character associations in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (Linn.)Czern. and Coss. subsp. juncea Linn.], 104 radiation-induced mutants (including 'RLM 198') and 'RL 18' were grown during winter season of 1976-77 at the experimental farm of the Punjab Agricultural University. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences between the mutant genotypes for all the characters under study except for the primary branch number and siliqua number of main shoot, which were non-significant. High estimates of phenotypic coefficients of variation (pcv) and genetic coefficients of variation (gcv) were observed for secondary branch number, seed yield/plant, main shoot length and seed number/siliqua. In general, pcv estimates were higher than gcv estimates. The high estimates of both heritability and genetic advance were recorded in similar order for the plant height, seed number/siliqua, main shoot length and seed yield, in which the genetic progress could be achieved through mass selection. Seed yield was positively correlated with the primary branch number, the secondary branch number and the siliqua number of main shoot and negatively with the plant height. Shorter plant height w;.th more number of primary and secondary branches and more siliquae on main shoot were found to be good selection criteria for isolating high-yielding strains. (auth.)

  6. Synergistic action of tropospheric ozone and carbon dioxide on yield and nutritional quality of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyavan; Bhatia, Arti; Tomer, Ritu; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, B; Singh, S D

    2013-08-01

    Field experiments were conducted in open top chamber during rabi seasons of 2009-10 and 2010-11 at the research farm of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study the effect of tropospheric ozone (O3) and carbon dioxide (CO2) interaction on yield and nutritional quality of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.). Mustard plants were grown from emergence to maturity under different treatments: charcoal-filtered air (CF, 80-85 % less O3 than ambient O3 and ambient CO2), nonfiltered air (NF, 5-10 % less O3 than ambient O3 and ambient CO2 ), nonfiltered air with elevated carbon dioxide (NF + CO2, NF air and 550 ± 50 ppm CO2), elevated ozone (EO, NF air and 25-35 ppb elevated O3), elevated ozone along with elevated carbon dioxide (EO + CO2, NF air, 25-35 ppb O3 and 550 ± 50 ppm CO2), and ambient chamber less control (AC, ambient O3 and CO2). Elevated O3 exposure led to reduced photosynthesis and leaf area index resulting in decreased seed yield of mustard. Elevated ozone significantly decreased the oil and micronutrient content in mustard. Thirteen to 17 ppm hour O3 exposure (accumulated over threshold of 40 ppm, AOT 40) reduced the oil content by 18-20 %. Elevated CO2 (500 ± 50 ppm) along with EO was able to counter the decline in oil content in the seed, and it increased by 11 to 13 % over EO alone. Elevated CO2, however, decreased protein, calcium, zinc, iron, magnesium, and sulfur content in seed as compared to the nonfiltered control, whereas removal of O3 from air in the charcoal-filtered treatment resulted in a significant increase in the same.

  7. Enhanced accumulation of copper and lead in amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus), Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Motior M; Azirun, Sofian M; Boyce, Amru N

    2013-01-01

    Soil contamination by copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental problem. For phytoextraction to be successful and viable in environmental remediation, strategies that can improve plant uptake must be identified. In the present study we investigated the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer as an efficient way to enhance accumulation of Cu and Pb from contaminated industrial soils into amaranth, Indian mustard and sunflower. Plants were grown in a greenhouse and fertilized with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 190 and 380 mg kg⁻¹ soil. Shoots, roots and total accumulation of Cu and Pb, transfer factor (TF), translocation index were assessed to evaluate the transport and translocation ability of tested plants. Addition of N fertilizer acidified the industrial soil and caused the pH to decrease to 5.5 from an initial pH of 6.9. Industrial soil amended with N fertilizer resulted in the highest accumulation of Pb and Cu (for Pb 10.1-15.5 mg kg⁻¹, for Cu 11.6-16.8 mg kg⁻¹) in the shoots, which was two to four folds higher relative to the concentration in roots in all the three plants used. Sunflower removed significantly higher Pb (50-54%) and Cu (34-38%) followed by amaranth and Indian mustard from industrial soils with the application of N fertilizer. The TF was Sunflower is the best plant species to carry out phytoextraction of Pb and Cu. In contrast, Pb and Cu removal by Indian mustard and amaranth shows great potential as quick and short duration vegetable crops. The results suggest that the application of N fertilizer in contaminated industrial soil is an effective amendment for the phytoextraction of Pb and Cu from contaminated industrial soils.

  8. Advances in Agronomic Management of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea (L. Czernj. Cosson: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapila Shekhawat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available India is the fourth largest oilseed economy in the world. Among the seven edible oilseeds cultivated in India, rapeseed-mustard contributes 28.6% in the total oilseeds production and ranks second after groundnut sharing 27.8% in the India’s oilseed economy. The mustard growing areas in India are experiencing the vast diversity in the agro climatic conditions and different species of rapeseed-mustard are grown in some or other part of the country. Under marginal resource situation, cultivation of rapeseed-mustard becomes less remunerative to the farmers. This results in a big gap between requirement and production of mustard in India. Therefore site-specific nutrient management through soil-test recommendation based should be adopted to improve upon the existing yield levels obtained at farmers field. Effective management of natural resources, integrated approach to plant-water, nutrient and pest management and extension of rapeseed-mustard cultivation to newer areas under different cropping systems will play a key role in further increasing and stabilizing the productivity and production of rapeseed-mustard. The paper reviews the advances in proper land and seedbed preparation, optimum seed and sowing, planting technique, crop geometry, plant canopy, appropriate cropping system, integrated nutrient management and so forth to meet the ever growing demand of oil in the country and to realize the goal of production of 24 million tonnes of oilseed by 2020 AD through these advanced management techniques.

  9. Whole cell Deinococcus radiodurans ameliorates salt stress in Indian mustard through pyrroloquinoline quinone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.K.; Jadhav, P.; Suprasanna, P.; Rajpurohit, Y.S.; Misra, H.S.

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress is considered as one of the major abiotic stresses limiting crop productivity. A variety of symbiotic and non-symbiotic bacteria are currently being used worldwide with the aim to boost built-in defense system in plants. Deinococcus radiodurans is a highly desiccation and radiation tolerant bacterium which synthesizes PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone) that has been shown to have a versatile role in crop productivity and as a general stress response regulator in bacteria and mammals. PQQ also acts as scavenger of reactive oxygen species and hence, can module redox signaling, one of the major regulator of stress tolerance in plants. In view of this, present research was conducted to evaluate the potential of whole cell D. radiodurans for ameliorating salt stress in plants. The soil colonization with wild-type cells led to partial amelioration of salt stress. The PQQ mutant showed an intermediate phenotype between wild-type seedlings and those grown on non-colonized soils which confirmed that the effects are largely associated with PQQ. The differential phenotype was also correlated with ROS level and ABA accumulation. The flame photometry data showed that there was no significant reduction in water soluble Na + level in control plant and those treated with either wild-type or PQQ mutant. Further, the elevated levels of antioxidant enzymes and reduced ascorbate in the plants treated with bacterial cells indicated its positive role in oxidative stress management. Although, the exact molecular basis to these effects is yet to be understood, present findings support the use of whole cell D. radiodurans for managing the growth and productivity of Indian mustard in salt affected fields. (author)

  10. Isolation and characterization of useful mutants induced by gamma irradiation in 'Kranti' indian mustard (Brassica juncea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, B.; Kumar, H.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic variability was induced, in the 'Kranti' Indian mustard [Brassica/juncea (L.) Czemj. & Cosson]. utilizing 30,40 and 50 kr doses of gamma-ray Irradiation. 'In M 3 generation, compared with the econtrol, substantial decrease was observed in the mean value of various quantitative characters in the mutagen-treated populations. More variation was induced at 30 kr compared with that at 40 or 50 kr dose. Four mutants were identified ar 30 kr dose, which besides being early in maturity, gave better yield also-compared with the control. The better seed yield of the transmutated plants was due either to increase in seed weight or to increase in number of siliquae/plant

  11. Vale do Ipanema: Potential and benefits of indian mustard culture by the beekeeping | Vale do Ipanema: Potencial e benefícios da cultura da mostarda indiana pela apicultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Iris Verslype

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As agriculture is widely linked edaphoclimatic characteristics of a place. In this study, digital terrain modeling (DTM was performed to precipitation parameters, altitude and temperature Micro region Vale do Ipanema. And then these data were analyzed and compared with the requirements of the brown mustard, in order to verify adaptability indian mustard cultivation and its relation to beekeeping. The districts analyzed were Águas Belas, Buíque, Itaíba, Pedra, Tupanatinga and Venturosa. It was possible to conclude that the micro-region has the ability to develop the cultivation of indian mustard, it is a versatile product with great financial returns, which can help with beekeeping in the region, since it is directly linked to beekeeping, bee is the main pollinator of the crop. The crop of indian mustard, can contribute to the increase bee production and the quality of life in the place.

  12. Phytoextract of Indian mustard seeds acts by suppressing the generation of ROS against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Harita; Pandita, Nancy; Khanna, Aparna

    2015-07-01

    Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss. (Brassicaceae)] is reported to possess diverse pharmacological properties. However, limited information is available concerning its hepatoprotective activity and mechanism of action. To study the protective mechanism of mustard seed extract against acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in a hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line. Hepatotoxicity models were established using APAP (2.5-22.5 mM) based on the cytotoxicity profile. An antioxidant-rich fraction from mustard seeds was extracted and evaluated for its hepatoprotective potential. The mechanism of action was elucidated using various in vitro antioxidant assays, the detection of intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell cycle analysis. The phytoconstituents isolated via HPLC-DAD were also evaluated for hepatoprotective activity. Hydromethanolic seed extract exhibited hepatoprotective activity in post- and pre-treatment models of 20 mM APAP toxicity and restored the elevated levels of liver indices to normal values (p DAD analysis revealed the presence quercetin, vitamin E, and catechin, which exhibited hepatoprotective activity. A phytoextract of mustard seeds acts by suppressing the generation of ROS in response to APAP toxicity.

  13. Impact of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea and Flax (Linum usitatissimum Seed Meal Applications on Soil Carbon, Nitrogen, and Microbial Dynamics

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    Autumn S. Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a critical need to investigate how land application of dedicated biofuel oilseed meals affects soil ecosystems. In this study, mustard (Brassica juncea and flax (Linum usitatissimum seed meals and sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor were added to soil at levels of 0, 1, 2.5, and 5% (w/w. Both the type of amendment and application rate affected soil organic C, total C & N, and C & N mineralization. Mustard meal amendment initially inhibited C mineralization as compared to flax, but >50% of mustard and flax organic C was mineralized within 51 d. Nitrogen mineralization was similar for flax and mustard, except for the 2.5% rate for which a lower proportion of mustard N was converted to nitrate. The mustard meal greatly impacted microbial community composition, appearing to select for specific fungal populations. The potential varying impacts of different oilseed meals on soil ecosystems should be considered when developing recommendations for land application.

  14. Comparative study on the effect of chemicals on Alternaria blight in Indian mustard--a multi-location study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, P D; Chattopadhyay, C; Kumar, A; Awasthi, R P; Singh, R; Kaur, S; Thomas, L; Goyal, P; Chand, P

    2011-05-01

    High severity of Altemaria blight disease is a major constraint in production of rapeseed-mustard in India. The aim of this study was to investigate the suppressive potential of chemicals viz., zinc sulphate, borax, sulphur, potash and calcium sulphate, aqueous extracts viz., Eucalyptus globosus (50 g l-1) leaf extract and garlic (Allium sativum) bulb (20 g l-1) extract, cow urine and bio-agents Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescence in comparison with the recommended chemical fungicide (mancozeb), against foliar disease Alternaria blight of Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. and Coss] under five different geographical locations of India. Mancozeb recorded the lowest mean severity (leaf: 33.1%; pod: 26.3%) of Alternaria blight with efficacy of garlic bulb extract alone (leaf = 34.4%; pod = 27.3%) or in combination with cow urine (leaf = 34.2%; pod = 28.6%) being statistically at par with the recommended chemical fungicide. Chemicals also proved effective in reducing Alternaria blight severity on leaves and pods of Indian mustard (leaf = 36.3-37.9%; pod = 27.5-30.1%). The effective treatments besides providing significant reduction in disease severity also enabled increase in dry seed yield of the crop (mancozeb = 2052 kg ha-1; garlic = 2006 kg ha-1; control = 1561 kg ha-1).

  15. Soil Physico-Bio-Chemical Properties under Poplar + Indian Mustard Inter Cropping System

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    Tara Bahadur Ghimire

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during the winter seasons of 2008-10 at Agroforestry Research Centre, Pantnagar, India with aim to examine the effect of different levels of recommended Nitrogen (N: Phosphorus (P: Potassium (K (NPK on soil physico-bio-chemical properties under varying poplar tree densities with mustard introcropping. Lower soil bulk density was recorded under 1000 trees/ha density compared to sole crop in both the year. Soil bulk density (BD decreased underneath trees. However, soil pH, available N and K were not influenced by tree density in both the years. Electrical conductivity (EC and soil organic carbon (SOC increased underneath trees of either tree density compared to sole crop in both the years. Significantly (P<0.05 higher available P was recorded under 1000 trees/ha density compared to 250 and 500 trees/ha densities including sole crop in 2008-09. Similarly, soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC increased with increasing the tree density and significantly (P<0.01 higher value was recorded under 1000 trees/ha density compared to sole crop and sparse density both the years except 2009-10, where 500 and 1000 trees/ha densities remain statistically at par. On the other hand, dehydrogenase activity (DA was maximum under 500 trees/ha density compared to sole crop and 1000 trees/ha density in both the years. Among the fertility levels, the maximum SOC and available N were recorded with 75% compared to 50, 100 and 125% of recommended NPK in 2008-09, except available N with 100% of recommended NPK. But, available P was more with 100% of recommended NPK in 2008-09. Similarly, maximum SMBC were recorded with 75 % compared to higher doses of recommended NPK in both the years. Similarly, BD, EC, SOC, available N, P and K were recorded maximum and soil pH minimum in 0-15 cm soil layers compared deeper layers.

  16. Expression of Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin in Indian mustard provides resistance against Lipaphis erysimi and the expressed protein is non-allergenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ayan; Ghosh, Prithwi; Das, Sampa

    2018-06-01

    Transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA) shows the non-allergenic nature of the expressed protein leading to enhanced mortality and reduced fecundity of mustard aphid-Lipaphis erysimi. Lipaphis erysimi (common name: mustard aphid) is the most devastating sucking insect pest of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA), a GNA (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin)-related lectin has previously been reported by the present group to be effective against a wide array of hemipteran insects in artificial diet-based bioassays. In the present study, efficacy of CEA in controlling L. erysimi has been established through the development of transgenic B. juncea expressing this novel lectin. Southern hybridization of the transgenic plants confirmed stable integration of cea gene. Expression of CEA in T 0 , T 1 and T 2 transgenic plants was confirmed through western blot analysis. Level of expression of CEA in the T 2 transgenic B. juncea ranged from 0.2 to 0.47% of the total soluble protein. In the in planta insect bioassays, the CEA expressing B. juncea lines exhibited enhanced insect mortality of 70-81.67%, whereas fecundity of L. erysimi was reduced by 49.35-62.11% compared to the control plants. Biosafety assessment of the transgenic B. juncea protein containing CEA was carried out by weight of evidence approach following the recommendations by FAO/WHO (Evaluation of the allergenicity of genetically modified foods: report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation, 22-25 Jan, Rome, http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/y0820e/y0820e00.HTM , 2001), Codex (Codex principles and guidelines on foods derived from biotechnology, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome; Codex, Codex principles and guidelines on foods derived from biotechnology, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 2003) and ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research, guidelines for safety assessment of

  17. Sulfur Mustard

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in of the vapors can cause chronic respiratory disease, repeated respiratory infections, or death. Extensive eye exposure can cause permanent blindness. Exposure to sulfur mustard may increase a person’s risk for lung and respiratory cancer. ...

  18. 14CO2 fixation and allocation of 14C into major biochemical fractions in different parts of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subrahmanyam, D.; Rathore, V.S.

    1993-01-01

    14CO2 fixation and transport of 14C-photosynthates amongst different parts of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and the incorporation of 14C into major chemical fractions in different plant parts was studied at ripening stage. Stem and pod together contributed 70 % of the total 14C fixed by the plant. In all plant parts neutral saccharide fraction contained maximum radioactivity immediately after exposing plants to 14CO2. After 24 h, the radioactivity in this fraction declined considerably due to translocation or conversion into other fractions. Concomitantly radioactivity in lipids and pigments, residue and starch fractions increased after 24 h. The 14C allocation patterns in stem and leaves were similar. However, in pods very high radioactivity was recovered from amino and organic acid fractions indicating the presence of active phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in pod walls

  19. Phytoextraction and accumulation of mercury in three plant species: Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), beard grass (Polypogon monospeliensis), and Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi; Han, Fengxiang X; Chen, Jian; Sridhar, B B Maruthi; Monts, David L

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research was to screen and search for suitable plant species to phytoextract mercury-contaminated soil. Our effort focused on using some of the known metal-accumulating wild-type plants since no natural plant species with mercury-hyperaccumulat ing properties has yet been identified. Three plant species were evaluated for their uptake efficiency for mercury: Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), beard grass (Polypogon monospeliensis), and Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata). Four sets of experiments were conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation potential of these three plant species: a pot study with potting mix where mercury was provided daily as HgCl2 solution; experiments with freshly mercury-spiked soil; and a study with aged soils contaminated with different mercury sources (HgCl2, Hg(NO3)2, and HgS). Homemade sunlit chambers were also used to study foliar uptake of Hg from ambient air. Among the three plant species, Chinese brake fern showed the least stress symptoms resulting from mercury exposure and had the highest mercury accumulation. Our results indicate that Chinese brake fern may be a potential candidate for mercury phytoextraction. We found that mercury contamination is biologically available for plant uptake and accumulation, even if the original and predominating mercury form is HgS, and also after multiple phytoremediation cycles.

  20. Genetic Diversity Studies Based on Morphological Variability, Pathogenicity and Molecular Phylogeny of the Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Population From Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea

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    Pankaj Sharma

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available White mold or stem rot disease are ubiquitously distributed throughout the world and the causal organism of this disease Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, is known to infect over 400 plant species. Sclerotinia stem rot is one of the most devastating fungal diseases and poses a serious threat to the worldwide cultivation of oilseed Brassica including India. S. sclerotiorum pathogen usually infects the stem but in severe cases leaves and pods also affected at different developmental stages that deteriorate not only the oil quality but also causing the seed and oil yield losses up to 90% depending on the severity of the disease infestation. This study investigated the morphological and molecular characterization of pathogenic S. sclerotiorum (Lib de Bary geographical isolates from oilseed Brassica including Brassica juncea (Indian mustard. The aim of this study was to compare isolates of S. sclerotiorum originated from different agro-climatic conditions and to analyse similarity or differences between them as well as to examine the virulence of this pathogen specifically in Brassica for the first time. The collection of S. sclerotiorum isolates from symptomatic Brassica plants was done and analyzed for morphological features, and molecular characterization. The virulence evaluation test of 65 isolates on four Brassica cultivars has shown 5 of them were highly virulent, 46 were virulent and 14 were moderately virulent. Phylogenetic analysis encompassing all the morphological features, SSR polymorphism, and ITS sequencing has shown the existence of high genetic diversity among the isolates that categorized all the isolates in three evolutionary lineages in the derived dendrogram. Further, genetic variability analysis based on sequences variation in ITS region of all the isolates has shown the existence of either insertions or deletions of the nucleotides in the ITS region has led to the interspecies variability and observed the variation were

  1. Beneficial effect of ghee consumption over mustard oil on lipid profile: A study in North Indian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hanjabam Barun; Vyas, Soniya; Kumar, Jayant; Manna, Soumen

    2018-01-24

    Background Ghee (G) is attributed with numerous health benefits in Ayurveda. However, due to the high saturated fat content, it has been predicted to increase the cardiovascular disease risk. Hence, the current study was performed to evaluate the effect of G consumption as compared to mustard oil (MO) on lipid profile. Methods Two hundred (100 males) apparently healthy adults (≥40 years) were randomly selected out of the total individuals interviewed in a house-to-house survey. They were divided into three groups based on G and MO consumption: (A) MO >1 L/month, G1.25 kg/month. Serum lipid parameters were compared among the groups. Results Group C had the significantly lowest triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), TC/HDL and LDL/HDL and highest high-density lipoprotein (HDL). A similar finding was found when analysis was done separetely for male and female. Conclusions A favorable lipid profile might suggest a possible beneficial effect of predominantly G consumption over MO.

  2. Chemical genetics analysis of an aniline mustard anticancer agent reveals complex I of the electron transport chain as a target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedeles, Bogdan I; Zhu, Angela Y; Young, Kellie S; Hillier, Shawn M; Proffitt, Kyle D; Essigmann, John M; Croy, Robert G

    2011-09-30

    The antitumor agent 11β (CAS 865070-37-7), consisting of a DNA-damaging aniline mustard linked to an androgen receptor (AR) ligand, is known to form covalent DNA adducts and to induce apoptosis potently in AR-positive prostate cancer cells in vitro; it also strongly prevents growth of LNCaP xenografts in mice. The present study describes the unexpectedly strong activity of 11β against the AR-negative HeLa cells, both in cell culture and tumor xenografts, and uncovers a new mechanism of action that likely explains this activity. Cellular fractionation experiments indicated that mitochondria are the major intracellular sink for 11β; flow cytometry studies showed that 11β exposure rapidly induced oxidative stress, mitochondria being an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, 11β inhibited oxygen consumption both in intact HeLa cells and in isolated mitochondria. Specifically, 11β blocked uncoupled oxygen consumption when mitochondria were incubated with complex I substrates, but it had no effect on oxygen consumption driven by substrates acting downstream of complex I in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Moreover, 11β enhanced ROS generation in isolated mitochondria, suggesting that complex I inhibition is responsible for ROS production. At the cellular level, the presence of antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine or vitamin E) significantly reduced the toxicity of 11β, implicating ROS production as an important contributor to cytotoxicity. Collectively, our findings establish complex I inhibition and ROS generation as a new mechanism of action for 11β, which supplements conventional DNA adduct formation to promote cancer cell death.

  3. Isolation of phytase-producing bacteria from Himalayan soils and their effect on growth and phosphorus uptake of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Prashant; Jorquera, Milko A; Sangwan, Punesh; Kumar, Piyush; Verma, A K; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2013-08-01

    Phytase-producing bacteria (PPB) is being investigated as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to improve the phosphorus (P) nutrition and growth of plants grown in soil with high phytate content. Phytate is dominant organic P forms in many soils and must be hydrolyzed to be available for plants. Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) is a plant with economic importance in agriculture and phytoremediation, therefore biotechnological tools to improve growth and environmental stress tolerance are needed. In this study, we isolated and characterized PPB from Himalayan soils and evaluated their effect on growth and P uptake by B. juncea under greenhouse conditions. Sixty five PPB were isolated and based on phytate hydrolysis, three efficient PPB were chosen and identified as Acromobacter sp. PB-01, Tetrathiobacter sp. PB-03 and Bacillus sp. PB-13. Selected PPB showed ability to grow at wide range of pH, temperature and salt concentrations as well as to harbour diverse PGPR activities, such as: solubilization of insoluble Ca-phosphate (193-642 μg ml(-1)), production of phytohormone indole acetic acid (5-39 μg ml(-1)) and siderophore. Tetrathiobacter sp. PB-03 and Bacillus sp. PB-13 showed 50 and 70 % inhibition of phytopathogen Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. Greenhouse potting assay also showed that the bacterization of B. juncea seeds with Tetrathiobacter sp. PB-03 and Bacillus sp. PB-13 significantly increased the biomass and P content in 30 days old seedlings. This study reveals the potential of PPB as PGPR to improve the growth of B. juncea.

  4. Contact Hwersensitaity to Mustard Khal and Mustard Oil

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    J S Pasricha

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes 2 females patients having contact dermatitis due to mustard khal the residue of,mustard seeds after the oil hasbeen extracted out. The dermatitis was caused by mbdng mustard khal with the cattle feed and was occurring on the hands and forearms, though the face, ear lobules and neck were also mvolved because of the practice of applying mustard oil on the hair. Patch tests were positive with the mustard khal and its fractionation products in both the patients and with mustard oil in one patient.

  5. Dinâmica floral e abortamento de flores em híbridos de canola e mostarda castanha Floral dynamics and flower abortion in hybrids of canola and Indian mustard

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    Rafael Battisti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a dinâmica floral e determinar o índice de abortamento de flores de híbridos de canola (Brassica napus e de mostarda castanha (Brassica juncea, bem como determinar suas relações com as condições meteorológicas do Sul do Brasil. Durante a floração, dez híbridos de canola e dois de mostarda foram avaliados a cada três dias quanto ao número de flores abertas, de síliquas e de flores abortadas. O número acumulado e relativo de flores foi usado para avaliação da dinâmica floral. A relação desses números com a soma térmica acumulada durante a floração foi determinada por meio de modelo logístico. A partir dos coeficientes desse modelo, identificaram-se grupos de genótipos com diferentes taxas de emissão de flores. O abortamento de flores entre híbridos variou de 10,53 a 45,96% e correlacionou-se com a temperatura e a demanda evaporativa da atmosfera. Genótipos com maiores tempos térmicos entre o período de máxima emissão de flores e o final da floração geralmente apresentam maiores percentagens de abortamento de flores. O ajuste dos dados de emissão de flores aos de soma térmica do período da floração, por meio de modelo logístico, permite simular a dinâmica floral de híbridos de canola e mostarda castanha.The objective of this work was to evaluate the floral dynamics and to determine the index of flower abortion in canola (Brassica napus and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea hybrids, as well as to determine their relation with meteorological conditions of southern Brazil. During flowering, ten hybrids of canola and two of Indian mustard were evaluated every three days as to the number of open flowers, pods, and aborted flowers. The cumulative and the relative number of flowers were used to evaluate floral dynamics. The relation of these numbers with the accumulated thermal sum during flowering was determined with a logistic model. Groups of genotypes with different

  6. Contact Hwersensitaity to Mustard Khal and Mustard Oil

    OpenAIRE

    J S Pasricha; Ramji Gupta; S K Gupta

    1985-01-01

    This report describes 2 females patients having contact dermatitis due to mustard khal the residue of,mustard seeds after the oil hasbeen extracted out. The dermatitis was caused by mbdng mustard khal with the cattle feed and was occurring on the hands and forearms, though the face, ear lobules and neck were also mvolved because of the practice of applying mustard oil on the hair. Patch tests were positive with the mustard khal and its fractionation products in both the patients and with must...

  7. Brassicaceae Mustards: Traditional and Agronomic Uses in Australia and New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmudur Rahman; Amina Khatun; Lei Liu; Bronwyn J. Barkla

    2018-01-01

    Commonly cultivated Brassicaceae mustards, namely garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), white mustard (Brassica alba), Ethiopian mustard (B. carinata), Asian mustard (B. juncea), oilseed rape (B. napus), black mustard (B. nigra), rapeseed (B. rapa), white ball mustard (Calepina irregularis), ball mustard (Neslia paniculata), treacle mustard (Erysimum repandum), hedge mustard (Sisymbrium officinale), Asian hedge mustard (S. orientale), smooth mustard (S. erysimoides) and canola are the major ec...

  8. Development of applications for Indian industry using electron beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, K.S.S.; Khader, S.A.; Sabharwal, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a report on the industrial applications that have been developed and demonstrated to the Indian industry using 2MeV/20kW Electron Beam accelerator at BARC-BRIT in the field of polymer modifications (crosslinking and degradation), gem stone coloration etc. Technological scale demonstration of the applications citing the benefits in terms of clean technology and better economics, encouraged three companies in private industry to set up EB facilities for the treatment of cable insulations, heat shrinkable products, diamond and gem stones during the last five years. Recent work on EB processing of automobile rubber tires is also included. (author)

  9. Platinum bioaccumulation by mustard plants (Sinapis alba L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawienczyk, M.; Bystrzejewska-Piotrowska, G.; Kowalska, J.; Asztemborska, M.

    2005-01-01

    The ability of hydroponically cultivated Indian mustard plants (Sinapis alba L.) to accumulate platinum was investigated. The Pt-bioaccumulation in leaves, stem and shoots of plants growing for 2 and 4 weeks at Pt-concentration of 50 and 500 μg/L was compared. The relation between dry and fresh weight was also estimated. Adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) were applied for determination of Pt. Increasing Pt-concentration from 50 to 500 μg/L in the medium causes: (1) reduction of the root tissue hydration level at unchanged modification in aboveground parts of the plants and (2) decrease of the Pt transfer factor (TF) for roots and increase for leaves and stem. Duration of the culture influenced on Pt-accumulation in roots and in aboveground organs of mustard plants. Transfer factor for Pt between 560 and 1600 makes Indian mustard plants one at Pt-hyperaccumulators. Distribution of Pt-bioaccumulation in the plant organs may be useful for biomonitoring of platinum in the environment. (author)

  10. Ocular Effects of Sulfur Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunes Panahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To review current knowledge about ocular effects of sulfur mustard (SM and the associated histopathologic findings and clinical manifestationsMethods: Literature review of medical articles (human and animal studies was accomplished using PubMed, Scopus and ISI databases. A total of 274 relevant articles in English were retrieved and reviewed thoroughly.Results: Eyes are the most sensitive organs to local toxic effects of mustard gas. Ocular injuries are mediated through different toxic mechanisms including: biochemical damages, biomolecular and gene expression modification, induction of immunologic and inflammatory reactions, disturbing ultrastructural architecture of the cornea, and long-lasting corneal denervation. The resulting ocular injuries can roughly be categorized into acute or chronic complications. Most of the patients recover from acute injuries, but a minority of victims will suffer from chronic ocular complications. Mustard gas keratopathy (MGK is a devastating late complication of SM intoxication that proceeds from limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD.Conclusion: SM induces several different damaging changes in case of ocular exposure; hence leading to a broad spectrum of ocular manifestations in terms of severity, timing and form. Unfortunately, no effective strategy has been introduced yet to inhibit or restore these damaging changes.

  11. Applications of petrography and electron microprobe analysis to the study of Indian stone sculpture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.

    1992-01-01

    Examples of research on ancient Indian stone artefacts utilizing petrographic examination coupled with qualitative and quantitative electron beam microprobe analysis of specific minerals are described. Types of artefacts discussed include Gandharan schist sculptures, Pala dynasty phyllite and schist objects from eastern India. Hoysala sculptures from Karnataka state (southern India), and sandstone objects from northern India. In spite of the rich history of stone sculpture in the Indian subcontinent, characterization studies to date have been limited in scope, typically involving unprovenanced artefacts. The examples described point to areas in which more extensive research could produce useful information for the provenancing of artefacts. (author)

  12. Using Electronic Health Records to Examine Disease Risk in Small Populations: Obesity Among American Indian Children, Wisconsin, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, Emily J; Weinert, Bethany A; Godfrey, Liz; Adams, Alexandra K; Hanrahan, Lawrence P

    2016-02-25

    Tribe-based or reservation-based data consistently show disproportionately high obesity rates among American Indian children, but little is known about the approximately 75% of American Indian children living off-reservation. We examined obesity among American Indian children seeking care off-reservation by using a database of de-identified electronic health records linked to community-level census variables. Data from electronic health records from American Indian children and a reference sample of non-Hispanic white children collected from 2007 through 2012 were abstracted to determine obesity prevalence. Related community-level and individual-level risk factors (eg, economic hardship, demographics) were examined using logistic regression. The obesity rate for American Indian children (n = 1,482) was double the rate among non-Hispanic white children (n = 81,042) (20.0% vs 10.6%, P American Indian children were less likely to have had a well-child visit (55.9% vs 67.1%, P American Indian records (18.3% vs 14.6%, P obesity risk among American Indian children (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-2.1) independent of age, sex, economic hardship, insurance status, and geographic designation. An electronic health record data set demonstrated high obesity rates for nonreservation-based American Indian children, rates that had not been previously assessed. This low-cost method may be used for assessing health risk for other understudied populations and to plan and evaluate targeted interventions.

  13. Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite for decontamination of sulfur mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praveen Kumar, J.; Prasad, G.K.; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Garg, P.; Ganesan, K.

    2013-01-01

    Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. They were prepared by precipitation pyrolysis method and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Obtained data indicated the presence of mesopores with diameter ranging from 2 to 80 nm and the materials exhibited relatively high surface area 86 m 2 g −1 when compared to the individual metal oxide nanoparticles. Reactive sites of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied by infrared spectroscopy technique using pyridine as a probe molecule. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard when compared to single component metal oxides and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Highlights: • Preparation of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • CuO–ZnO with better surface area was synthesized by precipitation pyrolysis. • Decontamination of HD using mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • HD decontaminated by elimination and hydrolysis reactions

  14. Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite for decontamination of sulfur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen Kumar, J.; Prasad, G.K., E-mail: gkprasad2001@yahoo.com; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Garg, P.; Ganesan, K.

    2013-11-01

    Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. They were prepared by precipitation pyrolysis method and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Obtained data indicated the presence of mesopores with diameter ranging from 2 to 80 nm and the materials exhibited relatively high surface area 86 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} when compared to the individual metal oxide nanoparticles. Reactive sites of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied by infrared spectroscopy technique using pyridine as a probe molecule. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard when compared to single component metal oxides and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Highlights: • Preparation of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • CuO–ZnO with better surface area was synthesized by precipitation pyrolysis. • Decontamination of HD using mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • HD decontaminated by elimination and hydrolysis reactions.

  15. 72th Annual Meeting | Annual Meetings | Events | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Convener: R Gadagkar) ... of decline? Social sciences-humanities education in India ... MGK Menon, President, Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi The changing ... of Delhi, Delhi Breeding of mustard through conventional and molecular methods.

  16. Mesoporous binary metal oxide nanocomposites: Synthesis, characterization and decontamination of sulfur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen Kumar, J., E-mail: praveenjella10@gmail.com; Prasad, G.K.; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Singh, Beer; Gopi, T.; Krishna, R.

    2016-04-15

    Mesoporous MnO{sub 2}–ZnO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ZnO, NiO–ZnO, and CeO{sub 2}–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard. They were synthesized by precipitation pyrolysis method and characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive analysis of X rays, X ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption techniques. The transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption data indicated the presence of pores with diameter ranging from 10 to 70 nm in the binary metal oxide nanocomposites and these materials exhibited surface area values in the range of 76–134 m{sup 2}/g. These binary metal oxide nanocomposites demonstrated large decontamination efficiencies against sulfur mustard when compared to their single component metal oxide nanoparticles. The binary metal oxide nanocomposites effectively decontaminated sulfur mustard into relatively non toxic products such as chloro ethyl vinyl sulfide, divinyl sulfide, 1,4-oxathiane, etc. The promising decontamination properties of binary metal oxide nanocomposites against sulfur mustard were attributed to the basic sites, Lewis acid sites, and the presence of these sites was confirmed by CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} temperature programmed desorption. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous MnO{sub 2}–ZnO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ZnO, NiO–ZnO, and CeO{sub 2}–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard. - Highlights: • Binary metal oxide nanocomposites were synthesized by co-precipitation method. • They were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard. • They decontaminated sulfur mustard into non toxic products. • MnO{sub 2}–ZnO and CeO{sub 2}–ZnO nanocomposites showed greater decontamination efficiency.

  17. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

    OpenAIRE

    Paunović, Dragana; Šolević-Knudsen, Tatjana; Krivokapić, Mirjana; Zlatković, Branislav; Antić, Mališa

    2012-01-01

    Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetonitrile. The most a...

  18. Sulfur Mustard Damage to Cornea: Preventive Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Varma, Shambhu

    2004-01-01

    Studies are in progress to determine the efficacy and mechanism of a formulation containing anti-alkylating, antioxidants and metabolic accelerators present in VM against mustard induced skin toxicity...

  19. Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinalbin degradation products in mild yellow mustard paste were investigated. The analyzed material consisted of a mild yellow mustard paste condiment and ground white mustard seeds which were originally used in the mustard paste production process. The samples were extracted in a Soxhlet extraction system and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique. The only sinalbin degradation product in ground mustard seeds was 2-(4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile. The most abundant sinalbin degradation product in yellow mustard paste was 4-(hydroxymethylphenol. Other compounds identified in this sample were: 4-methyl phenol, 4-ethyl phenol, 4-(2-hydroxyethylphenol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl ethanoic acid.

  20. Reactions of sulphur mustard on impregnated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, G K; Singh, Beer

    2004-12-31

    Activated carbon of surface area 1100 m2/gm is impregnated with 4% sodium hydroxide plus 3% Cr(VI) as CrO3 with and without 5% ethylene diamine (EDA), 4% magnesium nitrate and 5% ruthenium chloride by using their aqueous solutions. These carbons are characterized for surface area analysis by BET conventional method and exposed to the vapours of sulphur mustard (HD) at room temperature (30 degrees C). After 24 h, the reaction products are extracted in dichloromethane and analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hemisulphur mustard, thiodiglycol, 1,4-oxathiane are observed to be the products of reaction between sulphur mustard and NaOH/CrO3/C system, whereas on NaOH/CrO3/EDA/C system HD reacted to give 1,4-thiazane. On Mg(NO3)2/C system it gave hemisulphur mustard and thiodiglycol. On RuCl3/C system it degraded to divinyl sulphone. Residual sulphur mustard is observed along with reaction products in all systems studied. Reaction mechanisms are also proposed for these interesting surface reactions. Above-mentioned carbons can be used in filtration systems for protection against hazardous gases such as sulphur mustard.

  1. Reactions of sulphur mustard on impregnated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, G.K.; Singh, Beer

    2004-01-01

    Activated carbon of surface area 1100 m 2 /gm is impregnated with 4% sodium hydroxide plus 3% Cr(Vi) as CrO 3 with and without 5% ethylene diamine (EDA), 4% magnesium nitrate and 5% ruthenium chloride by using their aqueous solutions. These carbons are characterized for surface area analysis by BET conventional method and exposed to the vapours of sulphur mustard (HD) at room temperature (30 deg. C). After 24 h, the reaction products are extracted in dichloromethane and analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hemisulphur mustard, thiodiglycol, 1,4-oxathiane are observed to be the products of reaction between sulphur mustard and NaOH/CrO 3 /C system, whereas on NaOH/CrO 3 /EDA/C system HD reacted to give 1,4-thiazane. On Mg(NO 3 ) 2 /C system it gave hemisulphur mustard and thiodiglycol. On RuCl 3 /C system it degraded to divinyl sulphone. Residual sulphur mustard is observed along with reaction products in all systems studied. Reaction mechanisms are also proposed for these interesting surface reactions. Above-mentioned carbons can be used in filtration systems for protection against hazardous gases such as sulphur mustard

  2. Tribological Characteristics Evaluation of Mustard Oil Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hassan Jabal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A progressive increase in the desire for environmentally friendly lubricants by users and strict government regulations for the use of these lubricants has provided an opportunity to use plant oils as biodegradable lubricants, therefore vegetable oils have been investigated to replace oil lubricants because of their maintaining the conditions of nature (environment properties. In this paper, the influences of the blending ratio of mustard seeds oil with commercial mineral oil (SAE40 on the tribological characteristics were investigated and compared with mineral oil using the four-ball tribotester. Mustard seeds oil was blended with mineral oil at a volumetric ratio ranging from 22.5 to 90%. All experimental works were confirmed to ASTM D4172-B standard. The results exhibit that some blends of mustard seeds oil with mineral oil have lower wear scar diameter, friction torque, Friction coefficient and a higher parameter of flash temperature value compared to mineral oil and neat mustard seed oil. In conclusion, the mustard seed oil blend (MU22.5 shows a better anti-wear and anti-friction performance compared to oil samples. Therefore, mustard seeds oil has the potential to be used as a lubricant of mating surfaces.

  3. Electronic Cigarette Use Among Emerging and Young West Indian Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayshell Dhandoolal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, evidence concerning electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use in the West Indies is unavailable. This study examines the prevalence and associated factors of e-cigarette use in young Trinidadian adults, 6 years after e-cigarettes were introduced in Trinidad. Young adults between the ages of 18 and 40 years were surveyed from May–June 2016. Based on the survey results, descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to identify correlations in e-cigarette use. The prevalence of those who had used e-cigarettes was 24.6%, and 41.9% of these people had used both e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes. A high proportion (16.95% of those who had never used tobacco cigarettes had used e-cigarettes. Males were twice as likely as females to have used e-cigarettes (odds ratio [OR]: 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.85–3.68, and participants aged 18–25 years were more likely than those aged 36–40 years to use e-cigarettes (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14–0.81. The predictors of e-cigarette use as assessed by univariate analysis were current tobacco cigarette smoking (OR: 9.34; 95% CI: 6.14–14.39; p<0.001 and the belief that e-cigarettes are dangerous to health (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.44–0.85; p=0.004. The predictors as assessed by multivariate logistic regression (adjusted OR were ethnicity (p=0.043, education (p=0.012, and age group (p=0.007. Those who quit using tobacco cigarettes were 7.98 times more likely to use e-cigarettes (95% CI: 4.21–15.45, and those who knew that e-cigarettes contain nicotine were 2.70 times more likely to use them (95% CI: 1.53–4.86; p<0.001. Two summative scales were constructed that measured knowledge and perception. The perception scale, but not the knowledge scale (Cronbach’s alpha=0.736, was a significant predictor of e-cigarette use. The number of e-cigarette users is high (24.6% in young adults in Trinidad and in those who have never smoked tobacco (16.95%. Current smokers, as well as

  4. Mustard gas or sulfur mustard: an old chemical agent as a new terrorist threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattana, Monica; Bey, Tareg

    2009-01-01

    Sulfur mustard is a member of the vesicant class of chemical warfare agents that causes blistering to the skin and mucous membranes. There is no specific antidote, and treatment consists of systematically alleviating symptoms. Historically, sulfur mustard was used extensively in inter-governmental conflicts within the trenches of Belgium and France during World War I and during the Iran-Iraq conflict. Longitudinal studies of exposed victims show that sulfur mustard causes long-term effects leading to high morbidity. Given that only a small amount of sulfur mustard is necessary to potentially cause an enormous number of casualties, disaster-planning protocol necessitates the education and training of first-line healthcare responders in the recognition, decontamination, triage, and treatment of sulfur mustard-exposed victims in a large-scale scenario.

  5. Sulfur mustard and respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Feng Ru; Loke, Weng Keong

    2012-09-01

    Victims exposed to sulfur mustard (HD) in World War I and Iran-Iraq war, and those suffered occupational or accidental exposure have endured discomfort in the respiratory system at early stages after exposure, and marked general physical deterioration at late stages due to pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans or lung cancer. At molecule levels, significant changes of cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum, and of selectins (in particular sE-selectin) and soluble Fas ligand in the serum have been reported in recent studies of patients exposed to HD in Iran-Iraq war, suggesting that these molecules may be associated with the pathophysiological development of pulmonary diseases. Experimental studies in rodents have revealed that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, their product peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), nitric oxide synthase, glutathione, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase, activating protein-1 signaling pathway are promising drug targets for preventing HD-induced toxicity, whereas N-acetyl cysteine, tocopherols, melatonin, aprotinin and many other molecules have been proved to be effective in prevention of HD-induced damage to the respiratory system in different animal models. In this paper, we will systemically review clinical and pathophysiological changes of respiratory system in victims exposed to HD in the last century, update clinicians and researchers on the mechanism of HD-induced acute and chronic lung damages, and on the relevant drug targets for future development of antidotes for HD. Further research directions will also be proposed.

  6. Hypothermia reduces sulphur mustard toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi Lei; Gong Wenrong; Nelson, Peggy; Martin, Leanne; Sawyer, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the development of sulphur mustard (HD)-induced toxicity was investigated in first passage cultures of human skin keratinocytes and on hairless guinea pig skin. When cells exposed to HD were incubated at 37 deg. C, a concentration-dependent decline in viability was observed that was maximal by 2 days. In contrast, no significant HD-induced toxicity was evident up to 4 days posttreatment when the cells were incubated at 25 deg. C. However, these protective effects were lost by 24 h when the cells were switched back to 37 deg. C. The protective effects of hypothermia were also demonstrated when apoptotic endpoints were examined. The HD concentration-dependent induction of fragmented DNA (as quantitated using soluble DNA and the TUNEL reaction), morphology, and p53 expression were all significantly depressed when cell cultures were incubated at 25 deg. C compared to 37 deg. C. When animals were exposed to HD vapour for 2, 4, and 6 min and left at room temperature, lesions were produced whose severity was dependent on exposure time and that were maximal by 72 h posttreatment. Moderate cooling (5-10 deg. C) of HD exposure sites posttreatment (4-6 h) significantly reduced the severity of the resultant lesions. However, in contrast to the in vitro results, these effects were permanent. It appears that the early and noninvasive act of cooling HD-exposed skin may provide a facile means of reducing the severity of HD-induced cutaneous lesions

  7. Sulphur mustard degradation on zirconium doped Ti-Fe oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i 250 68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic); Grygar, Tomas Matys [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i 250 68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} New stechiometric materials for sulphur mustard degradation. {yields} High degree of degradation, more then 95% h{sup -1}. {yields} One-pot synthesis procedure. - Abstract: Zirconium doped mixed nanodispersive oxides of Ti and Fe were prepared by homogeneous hydrolysis of sulphate salts with urea in aqueous solutions. Synthesized nanodispersive metal oxide hydroxides were characterised as the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis, and acid-base titration. These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (chemical warfare agent HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide). The presence of Zr{sup 4+} dopant tends to increase both the surface area and the surface hydroxylation of the resulting doped oxides in such a manner that it can contribute to enabling the substrate adsorption at the oxide surface and thus accelerate the rate of degradation of warfare agents. The addition of Zr{sup 4+} to the hydrolysis of ferric sulphate with urea shifts the reaction route and promotes formation of goethite at the expense of ferrihydrite. We discovered that Zr{sup 4+} doped oxo-hydroxides of Ti and Fe exhibit a higher degradation activity towards sulphur mustard than any other yet reported reactive sorbents. The reaction rate constant of the slower parallel reaction of the most efficient reactive sorbents is increased with the increasing amount of surface base sites.

  8. Mesoporous titanium-manganese dioxide for sulphur mustard and soman decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stengl, Vaclav; Bludska, Jana; Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → New nano-dispersive materials for warfare agents decontamination. → 95% decontamination activities for sulphur mustard. → New materials base on titanium and manganese oxides. -- Abstract: Titanium(IV)-manganese(IV) nano-dispersed oxides were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and titanium(IV) oxo-sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide. Synthesised samples were characterised using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide) and soman (GD or (3,3'-dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate). Mn 4+ content affects the decontamination activity; with increasing Mn 4+ content the activity increases for sulphur mustard and decreases for soman. The best decontamination activities for sulphur mustard and soman were observed for samples TiMn 3 7 with 18.6 wt.% Mn and TiMn 5 with 2.1 wt.% Mn, respectively.

  9. Mesoporous titanium-manganese dioxide for sulphur mustard and soman decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengl, Vaclav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Bludska, Jana [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Oplustil, Frantisek; Nemec, Tomas [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslarska 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} New nano-dispersive materials for warfare agents decontamination. {yields} 95% decontamination activities for sulphur mustard. {yields} New materials base on titanium and manganese oxides. -- Abstract: Titanium(IV)-manganese(IV) nano-dispersed oxides were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and titanium(IV) oxo-sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide. Synthesised samples were characterised using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett-Joiner-Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity with sulphur mustard (HD or bis(2-chloroethyl)sulphide) and soman (GD or (3,3'-dimethylbutan-2-yl)-methylphosphonofluoridate). Mn{sup 4+} content affects the decontamination activity; with increasing Mn{sup 4+} content the activity increases for sulphur mustard and decreases for soman. The best decontamination activities for sulphur mustard and soman were observed for samples TiMn{sub 3}7 with 18.6 wt.% Mn and TiMn{sub 5} with 2.1 wt.% Mn, respectively.

  10. Novel Molecular Strategies Against Sulfur Mustard Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Ilker Kunak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the available chemical warfare agents, sulfur mustard (SM, also known as mustard gas, has been widely used chemical weapon. In our laboratory, we have shown that, acute toxicity of SM is related to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, DNA damage, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase activation and energy depletion within the affected cell. In spite of the knowledge about acute SM-induced cellular toxicity, unfortunately, it is not clear how mustard gas causes severe multi-organ damage years after even a single exposure. A variety of treatment modalities including antioxidants, anti-inflammatory drugs and others have resulted no promising results. We, therefore, made an attempt whether epigenetic aberrations may contribute to pathogenesis of mustard poisoning. The term epigenetic describes the study of inheritable alterations in gene expression that occur in the absence of changes in genome sequence. Therefore, epigenetic gene regulation requires molecular mechanisms that encode information in addition to the DNA base sequence and can be propagated through mitosis and meiosis. Our current understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression involves basically two classes of molecular mechanisms: histone modifications and DNA methylation. Preliminary evidence obtained from our laboratory reveals that exposure to mustards may not only cause nitro-oxidative stress and DNA (genetic damage, but epigenetic perturbations as well. Epigenetic therapy is a new and rapidly developing field in pharmacology. Epigenetic drugs alone or in combination with conventional drugs may prove to be a significant advance over the conventional drugs used to treat both acute and delayed SM toxicity. Future studies are urgently needed to clarify the mechanism of delayed SM-induced toxicity and novel treatment modalities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 231-236

  11. Laminin-5 Degradation Due to Mustard in Cultured Normal Human Epidermal Keratinocytes (NHEK)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ray, Prabhati; Jin, Xiannu; Leng, Yan; Li, Zhuangwu; Ray, Radharaman

    2003-01-01

    .... We observed that in NHEK, mustards degrade laminin-5. Calmodulin antagonist, W7 or the serine protease inhibitor, TLCK prior to mustard exposure prevented mustard-induced degradation of laminin-5...

  12. 7 CFR 201.56-3 - Mustard family, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Chinese cabbage, cauliflower, collards, garden cress, upland cress, water cress, kale, Chinese kale, Siberian kale, kohlrabi, mustard, pakchoi, radish, rape, rutabaga, and turnip. (a) General description. (1...

  13. Features of accumulation of inorganic elements in seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and black mustard (Brassica nigra L.)

    OpenAIRE

    О. І. Рудник-Іващенко; Л. М. Михальська; В. В. Швартау

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate special aspects of accumulation of inorganic elements including heavy metals in seeds of white and black mustard to be grown for obtaining drugs. Methods. Field experiments, microwave digestion, ICP-MS and statistical analysis. Results. The content of inorganic elements including heavy metals was determined in the seeds of white and black mustard grown in Kiev Oblast. It was revealed that during the growing season plants of white mustard were able to accumulate...

  14. Tribological Characteristics Evaluation of Mustard Oil Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Hassan Jabal; Muhannad Zaidan Khalefa

    2018-01-01

    A progressive increase in the desire for environmentally friendly lubricants by users and strict government regulations for the use of these lubricants has provided an opportunity to use plant oils as biodegradable lubricants, therefore vegetable oils have been investigated to replace oil lubricants because of their maintaining the conditions of nature (environment) properties. In this paper, the influences of the blending ratio of mustard seeds oil with commercial mineral oil (SAE40) on the ...

  15. Impact of mixed low-molecular-weight organic acids on uranium accumulation and distribution in a variant of mustard (Brassica juncea var. tumida)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fangfang Qi; Dingna Wang; Lijian Ma; Yongdong Jin; Liang Du; Dong Zhang; Chuanqin Xia; Sichuan University, Chengdu

    2014-01-01

    The impact of a mixture of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) composed of CA/MA/OA/LA with a molar ratio of 2.5:2.31:1.15:0.044 on uranium (U) accumulation and distribution in mustard (Brassica juncea var. tumida) was studied in this paper in order to understand the mechanism of rhizosphere-exudation assisted phytoremediation by hydroponic and pot culture experiments. The impact of the mixture of LWMOAs (Mix) on U accumulation showed that in hydroponic conditions Mix could enhance U translocation from root-to-shoot in mustard, but inhibit U uptake in root. In pot experiments, Mix enhanced both root and shoot U accumulation in mustard. The time-dependent kinetics of U uptake in mustard on Mix treatment showed that U content in plant shoots and roots increased with time increasing, and the steady state conditions were obtained at the 8th and 5th day with the U content of 1,528 and 2,300 mg/kg, respectively. Transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis for mustard roots showed that U was mainly observed on cell membrane of mustard roots on Mix treatment. This study would provide new insights for the mixture of LWMOAs-assisted phytoremediation of U-contaminated soil. (author)

  16. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method to detect mustard protein in mustard seed oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, S.J.; Vlooswijk, R.; Bottger, G.; Duijn, G. van; Schaft, P. van der; Dekker, J.; Bemgen, H. van

    2007-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of mustard protein was developed. The assay is based on a polyclonal antiserum directed against a mixture of mustard proteins raised in rabbits. The assay has a detection limit of 1.5 ppm (milligrams per kilogram) and is suitable for the

  17. PERFORMANCE AND ANALYSIS OF MUSTARD FARMING IN JAYAPURA PAPUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Tangkelayuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research aim was to see variability, feasibility, and mustard farm income cultivated in Jayapura . The experiment was conducted in Kampung Yobeh, District of Sentani, Jayapura regency, on November to December 2013, using data growing season in October 2013, in form of a survey involving 30 mustard farmers as respondents . Determination of respondent using simple random method by getting farmers planting mustard continuously. Results: average mustard farmers area of 0,099 ha, seed expenses of IDR 37,400, the use of 9.20 kg Urea, NPK 2.80 kg, 526 kg manure , and cost of medicines IDR 26.366, male workers 2.66 HOK and women 2.03 HOK , and other expenses (shrinkage values and land tax .The level of productivity of mustard is 538.6 kg/0.99 ha/cropping season. Total revenue mustard farming with land size 0,099 ha/growing season is IDR 1.615.800, total spending is IDR 562 18. Benefit of farmers is IDR 1,053,618 with value of R/C ratio of 2.87. Analysis shows that mustard farming in Yobeh village, Sentani, Jayapura profitable, it is advisable for further development. Need guidance from Field Extension so that increased production increased.

  18. Mustard Group Chemical War Agents from Preventive Medicine Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Ucar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Although many preventive efforts and treaties, chemical warfare agents have still been a severe assault form against both military and civilian individuals. The most important chemical warfare agents sulphur mustard and others are easy to handle and cheap those the important reasons to accept sulphur mustard as a chemical warfare agent. Many individuals attacked by sulphur mustard have severe health problems such as respiratory system diseases. After ten years of sulphur mustard exposure, several health problems such as respiratory tract problems (%42.5, eye problems (%40 and other systemic diseases have been observed to insist on induviduals when examined. Exposure of even single sulphur mustard exposure has been seen to result high level of disability and early deaths. In spite of the fact that there is no available antidote and/or remedy against sulphur mustard exposure, our country has an incremental chemical assault threat for both military personels and civilians because of its jeopolitics position. Experimental studies regarding sulphur mustard toxicity will be helpful for novel preventive strategies and antidot devolepment. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 209-214

  19. Mesoporous iron–manganese oxides for sulphur mustard and soman degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Štengl, Václav, E-mail: stengl@iic.cas.cz [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); J.E. Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, Faculty of Environment, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Grygar, Tomáš Matys [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); J.E. Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, Faculty of Environment, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Bludská, Jana [Department of Solid State Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Opluštil, František; Němec, Tomáš [Military Technical Institute of Protection Brno, Veslařská 230, 628 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► New nanodispersive materials based on Fe and Mn oxides for degradations of warfare agents. ► The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min). ► One pot synthesis with friendly transformed to industrial conditions. -- Abstract: Substituted iron(III)–manganese(III, IV) oxides, ammonio-jarosite and birnessite, were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and iron(III) sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide and urea, respectively. Synthesised oxides were characterised using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett–Joiner–Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity against sulphur mustard (HD) and soman (GD). When ammonio-jarosite formation is suppressed by adding urea to the reaction mixture, the reaction products are mixtures of goethite, schwertmannite and ferrihydrite, and their degradation activity against soman considerably increases. The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min) were observed for FeMn{sub 7}5 with 32.6 wt.% Fe (36.8 wt.% Mn) and FeMn{sub 3}7U with 60.8 wt.% Fe (10.1 wt.% Mn) samples, respectively.

  20. Mesoporous iron–manganese oxides for sulphur mustard and soman degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Štengl, Václav; Grygar, Tomáš Matys; Bludská, Jana; Opluštil, František; Němec, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► New nanodispersive materials based on Fe and Mn oxides for degradations of warfare agents. ► The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min). ► One pot synthesis with friendly transformed to industrial conditions. -- Abstract: Substituted iron(III)–manganese(III, IV) oxides, ammonio-jarosite and birnessite, were prepared by a homogeneous hydrolysis of potassium permanganate and iron(III) sulphate with 2-chloroacetamide and urea, respectively. Synthesised oxides were characterised using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area and Barrett–Joiner–Halenda porosity (BJH), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The oxides were taken for an experimental evaluation of their reactivity against sulphur mustard (HD) and soman (GD). When ammonio-jarosite formation is suppressed by adding urea to the reaction mixture, the reaction products are mixtures of goethite, schwertmannite and ferrihydrite, and their degradation activity against soman considerably increases. The best activities for the degradation of sulphur mustard (97.9% in 64 min) and soman (97.9% in 64 min) were observed for FeMn 7 5 with 32.6 wt.% Fe (36.8 wt.% Mn) and FeMn 3 7U with 60.8 wt.% Fe (10.1 wt.% Mn) samples, respectively.

  1. Can Mustard Gas Induce Late Onset Polyneuropathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SJ. Mousavi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:Mustard gas, lethal in high doses, affects multiple organs such as skin, eye and respiratory system. We studied the development of late onset mustardinduced polyneuropathy among chemically wounded Iranian veterans.Methods:In this descriptive study,100 chemically wounded Iranian veterans with severe eye involvement were examined for any signs and symptoms of polyneuropathy by an internist.20 patients were suspected to have neurological symptoms or signs.These patients were examined by a neurologist again. 13 showed abnormal neurological symptoms. Electrodiagnostic exams were performed for this group by another physician.Results:13 veterans had abnormal neurological exam results with prominent sensory signs and symptoms in almost all of them. Brisk deep tendon reflexes were found in 3 cases. Electrodiagnostic studies were compatible with axonal type distal sensory polyneuropathy in 6 subjects. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of late onset polyneuropathy among chemically-wounded victims who were exposed to mustard gas. The pathophysiology of this form of neuropathy is still unknown. Unlike most toxic neuropathies,obvious clinical signs and symptoms appeared several years after exposure. No specific treatment for.polyneuropathy due to chemical weapons exposure has been described to date.

  2. Combustion characteristics of the mustard methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikov, M.G.; Vasilev, I.P.

    2011-01-01

    Mustard Methyl Esters (further bio diesel) and regular diesel fuel were tested in direct injection diesel engine. Analysis of experimental data was supported by an analysis of fuel injection and combustion characteristics. Engine fuelled with bio diesel had increased brake specific fuel consumption, reduced nitrogen oxides emission and smoke opacity, moderate increase in carbon monoxide emission with essentially unchanged unburned hydrocarbons emission. Increase in fuel consumption was attributed to lesser heating value of bio diesel and partially to decreased fuel conversion efficiency. Analysis of combustion characteristics revealed earlier start of injection and shorter ignition delay period of bio diesel. Resulting decrease in maximum rate of heat release and cylinder pressure was the most probable reason for reduced emission of nitrogen oxides. Analysis of combustion characteristics also showed that cetane index determined by ASTM Method D976 is not a proper measure of ignition quality of bio diesel. Conclusion was made on applicability of mustard oil as a source for commercial production of bio diesel in Pakistan. Potentialities of on improving combustion and emissions characteristics of diesel engine by reformulating bio diesel were discussed. (author)

  3. Models of invasion and establishment of African Mustard (Brassica tournefortii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kristin H.; Gowan, Timothy A.; Miller, David M.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduced exotic plants can drive ecosystem change. We studied invasion and establishment ofBrassica tournefortii (African mustard), a noxious weed, in the Chemehuevi Valley, western Sonoran Desert, California. We used long-term data sets of photographs, transects for biomass of annual plants, and densities of African mustard collected at irregular intervals between 1979 and 2009. We suggest that African mustard may have been present in low numbers along the main route of travel, a highway, in the late 1970s; invaded the valley along a major axial valley ephemeral stream channel and the highway; and by 2009, colonized 22 km into the eastern part of the valley. We developed predictive models for invasibility and establishment of African mustard. Both during the initial invasion and after establishment, significant predictor variables of African mustard densities were surficial geology, proximity to the highway and axial valley ephemeral stream channel, and number of small ephemeral stream channels. The axial valley ephemeral stream channel was the most vulnerable of the variables to invasions. Overall, African mustard rapidly colonized and quickly became established in naturally disturbed areas, such as stream channels, where geological surfaces were young and soils were weakly developed. Older geological surfaces (e.g., desert pavements with soils 140,000 to 300,000 years old) were less vulnerable. Microhabitats also influenced densities of African mustard, with densities higher under shrubs than in the interspaces. As African mustard became established, the proportional biomass of native winter annual plants declined. Early control is important because African mustard can colonize and become well established across a valley in 20 yr.

  4. Pityriasis rosea-like eruptions due to mustard oil application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawar Vijay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A young man employed in a construction company, presented with cutaneous lesions clinically simulating pityriasis rosea. Satisfactory and complete response to corticosteroids and antihistamines was followed by recurrence. Multiple recurrences within a short span of time arose a suspicion of alternative diagnosis. Site visit helped us to rule out occupational contact dermatitis. Further history taking revealed that he was recently using mustard oil for body massage. Subsequent patch testing confirmed contact hypersensitivity to mustard oil. Avoidance of the contact with mustard oil arrested appearance of further skin lesions. We stress the importance of taking a good history in clinical practice in disclosing a possible contactant.

  5. Projected impacts of climate change on Indian agriculture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Projected impacts of climate change on Indian agriculture. Increase in CO2 to 550 ppm increases yields of rice, wheat, legumes and oilseeds by 10-20%. A 1oC increase in temperature may reduce yields of wheat, soybean, mustard, groundnut, and potato by 3-7%.

  6. Breeding cultivars of barley and mustard containing biochemical mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oram, R N [Division of Plant industry, CSIRO, Canberra (Australia)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The inactivation of dominant and co-dominant alleles is becoming increasingly important in changing the composition of seed carbohydrates, protein, oil, fibre and secondary products to suit modern food and feed technologies. In barley, breeding lines adapted to south-eastern Australian conditions have been developed containing a waxy endosperm from the Japanese variety 'Sumire Mochi', the high lysine gene lys from cv. 'Hiproly' of Ethiopia, and the induced high lysine mutant gene lys 3a from 'Risoe 1508'. The improved mutant lines yield 12-34% less than the highest yielding feed barley. The lys and lys 3a alleles suppress the formation of prolamins, the waxy allele inhibits the formation of amylose. It seems difficult to modify the background genotype to fully compensate for the reduction of major storage carbohydrate or protein compounds. However, waxy barleys have uses in some human foods and a premium can be paid to producers. The grain of the provisionally-patented waxy cultivar Wasiro is suitable for pearling. It contains 5% {beta}-glucan (soluble fibre) and therefore should be as effective as oat bran for reducing blood cholesterol. In Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), three cultivars differing in date of maturity, each containing the spontaneous mutant alleles for low erucic acid levels in the seed oil, have been developed to produce a high quality, mildly flavoured cooking/salad oil. The concentration of glucosinolates in the seed meal must be reduced to make it palatable and non-toxic to pigs and poultry. Three B. juncea lines were treated in up to four successive generations with gamma rays or EMS. 60,000 seed samples were analysed in subsequent generations. Two induced mutants with reduced glucosinolate concentrations are now available besides 4 naturally-occurring sources with only little reduced yields. Recombination may give a high-yielding low erucic acid and low glucosinolate variety of B. juncea. (author)

  7. Breeding cultivars of barley and mustard containing biochemical mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oram, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The inactivation of dominant and co-dominant alleles is becoming increasingly important in changing the composition of seed carbohydrates, protein, oil, fibre and secondary products to suit modern food and feed technologies. In barley, breeding lines adapted to south-eastern Australian conditions have been developed containing a waxy endosperm from the Japanese variety 'Sumire Mochi', the high lysine gene lys from cv. 'Hiproly' of Ethiopia, and the induced high lysine mutant gene lys 3a from 'Risoe 1508'. The improved mutant lines yield 12-34% less than the highest yielding feed barley. The lys and lys 3a alleles suppress the formation of prolamins, the waxy allele inhibits the formation of amylose. It seems difficult to modify the background genotype to fully compensate for the reduction of major storage carbohydrate or protein compounds. However, waxy barleys have uses in some human foods and a premium can be paid to producers. The grain of the provisionally-patented waxy cultivar Wasiro is suitable for pearling. It contains 5% β-glucan (soluble fibre) and therefore should be as effective as oat bran for reducing blood cholesterol. In Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), three cultivars differing in date of maturity, each containing the spontaneous mutant alleles for low erucic acid levels in the seed oil, have been developed to produce a high quality, mildly flavoured cooking/salad oil. The concentration of glucosinolates in the seed meal must be reduced to make it palatable and non-toxic to pigs and poultry. Three B. juncea lines were treated in up to four successive generations with gamma rays or EMS. 60,000 seed samples were analysed in subsequent generations. Two induced mutants with reduced glucosinolate concentrations are now available besides 4 naturally-occurring sources with only little reduced yields. Recombination may give a high-yielding low erucic acid and low glucosinolate variety of B. juncea. (author)

  8. The Mustard Consortium’s Elucidation of the Pathophysiology of Sulfur Mustard and Antidote Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    fibrosis is well documented (4). Not unexpectedly, HD is radiomimetic, teratogenic and mutagenic (5,6). Currently, there is no effective therapy ...available. The long term goals are to further define the mode of action of mustard gas and to develop a therapy using liposomes containing both lipid...unilamellar antioxidant liposomes containing 6.6 mole percent RRR-alpha- tocopherol (as well as 66.6, 26.5 and 0.66 mole percent of soy lecithin

  9. Carcinogenicity of Mustard Gas: Report of the Cancer Registry Project Among Mustard Gas Exposed Iranian Veterans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroush, M. R.

    2007-01-01

    Since 2003 The Janbazan Medical and Engineering Research Center in collaboration with Tehran University has conducted a nationwide cancer registry project among all Iranian Veterans with history of exposure to mustard gas during 1980-1988 Iran Iraq war. The mixed cohort study has a retrospective phase from the exposure time to 2003 and a prospective phase from 2003 to 2013. The main goal is to find any possible relationship between exposure to mustard gas and developing cancer as a long term health effect. A total number of 7500 individual (both military and civilians) with confirmed medical records of exposure to mustard gas have been included in the study to be compared with the same number of control population as well as the statistics of the national cancer registry system. The follow up of all cases is being done as a part of the national health monitoring program of the Janbazan (veterans) organization. In this report the latest findings of this project will be presented.(author)

  10. Brassicaceae Mustards: Traditional and Agronomic Uses in Australia and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmudur Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Commonly cultivated Brassicaceae mustards, namely garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata, white mustard (Brassica alba, Ethiopian mustard (B. carinata, Asian mustard (B. juncea, oilseed rape (B. napus, black mustard (B. nigra, rapeseed (B. rapa, white ball mustard (Calepina irregularis, ball mustard (Neslia paniculata, treacle mustard (Erysimum repandum, hedge mustard (Sisymbrium officinale, Asian hedge mustard (S. orientale, smooth mustard (S. erysimoides and canola are the major economically important oilseed crops in many countries. Mustards were naturalized to Australia and New Zealand and Australia is currently the second largest exporter of Brassicaceae oilseeds to meet the global demand for a healthy plant-derived oil, high in polyunsaturated fats. Apart from providing edible oil, various parts of these plants and many of their phytochemicals have been used traditionally for both agronomic as well as medicinal purposes, with evidence of their use by early Australian and New Zealand settlers and also the indigenous population. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of traditional and agronomic uses of Brassicaceae oilseeds and mustards with a focus on their importance in Australia and New Zealand.

  11. Brassicaceae Mustards: Traditional and Agronomic Uses in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahmudur; Khatun, Amina; Liu, Lei; Barkla, Bronwyn J

    2018-01-21

    Commonly cultivated Brassicaceae mustards, namely garlic mustard ( Alliaria petiolata ), white mustard ( Brassica alba ), Ethiopian mustard ( B. carinata ), Asian mustard ( B. juncea ), oilseed rape ( B. napus ), black mustard ( B. nigra ), rapeseed ( B. rapa ), white ball mustard ( Calepina irregularis ), ball mustard ( Neslia paniculata ), treacle mustard ( Erysimum repandum ), hedge mustard ( Sisymbrium officinale ), Asian hedge mustard ( S. orientale ), smooth mustard ( S. erysimoides ) and canola are the major economically important oilseed crops in many countries. Mustards were naturalized to Australia and New Zealand and Australia is currently the second largest exporter of Brassicaceae oilseeds to meet the global demand for a healthy plant-derived oil, high in polyunsaturated fats. Apart from providing edible oil, various parts of these plants and many of their phytochemicals have been used traditionally for both agronomic as well as medicinal purposes, with evidence of their use by early Australian and New Zealand settlers and also the indigenous population. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of traditional and agronomic uses of Brassicaceae oilseeds and mustards with a focus on their importance in Australia and New Zealand.

  12. Development of Biological Control for Alliaria petiolata (Garlic Mustard)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blossey, Bernd; Nuzzo, Victoria; Hinz, Harriet; Gerber, Esther

    2003-01-01

    Alliaria petiolata, garlic mustard, a biennial plant of European origin accidentally introduced to North America, has spread throughout much of eastern and midwestern North America and is now recorded...

  13. Dehalogenase: The Follow-Up Enzyme After Mustard Oxidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elashvili, Ilya; DeFrank, Joseph J

    2002-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (HD) has been used as a chemical warfare agent since 1917. Currently fielded M258A1 and M280 decontamination kits and prospective oxidative decontaminants convert HD to HD sulfoxide (HDSO...

  14. Diversity Analysis of Ethiopian Mustard Breeding Lines Using RAPD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) is an oilseed crop less known to the ... have also been used for cultivar identification in B. napus (Ren et al. ..... of Brassica oleracea L. group (2n=18) using random amplified polymorphic DNA.

  15. TREATMENT OF BIODIESEL WASTEWATER USING YELLOW MUSTARD SEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    SAVCI, Serpil

    2017-01-01

    In thisstudy, removal of original biodiesel wastewater (BOD, COD, oil&greas) by yellow mustard seeds was examined bya batch system. The effect of the adsorption time 300 minutes, adsorbent dose(1.0 g/L) and mixing rate (120 rpm) on the adsorption capacity of pollutants.The applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were examined.According to the data obtained from experiments, biodiesel wastewater can betreated by adsorption using yellow mustard seeds.

  16. Phytocontact Dermatitis due to Mustard Seed Mimicking Burn Injury: Report of a Case

    OpenAIRE

    Yabanoglu, Hakan; Akbulut, Sami; Karakayali, Feza

    2012-01-01

    Mustard seeds have been used in traditional folk medicine as a stimulant, diuretic, and purgative and to treat a variety of ailments including peritonitis and neuralgia. Mustards are still used today in mustard plasters to treat rheumatism, arthritis, chest congestion, aching back, and sore muscles. To make a mustard plaster, mix equal parts of flour and powdered mustard and spread it as a paste on a doubled piece of soft cloth. Apply mustard plaster to the affected area for a maximum of 15 m...

  17. Ionic dependence of sulphur mustard cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, Thomas W.; Nelson, Peggy; Bjarnason, Stephen; Vair, Cory; Shei Yimin; Tenn, Catherine; Lecavalier, Pierre; Burczyk, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The effect of ionic environment on sulphur mustard (bis 2-chloroethyl sulphide; HD) toxicity was examined in CHO-K1 cells. Cultures were treated with HD in different ionic environments at constant osmolar conditions (320 mOsM, pH 7.4). The cultures were refed with fresh culture medium 1 h after HD exposure, and viability was assessed. Little toxicity was apparent when HD exposures were carried out in ion-free sucrose buffer compared to LC 50 values of ∼ 100-150 μM when the cultures were treated with HD in culture medium. Addition of NaCl to the buffer increased HD toxicity in a salt concentration-dependent manner to values similar to those obtained in culture medium. HD toxicity was dependent on both cationic and anionic species with anionic environment playing a much larger role in determining toxicity. Substitution of NaI for NaCl in the treatment buffers increased HD toxicity by over 1000%. The activity of the sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE) in recovering from cytosolic acidification in salt-free and in different chloride salts did not correlate with the HD-induced toxicity in these buffers. However, the inhibition by HD of intracellular pH regulation correlated with its toxicity in NaCl, NaI and sucrose buffers. Analytical chemical studies and the toxicity of the iodine mustard derivative ruled out the role of chemical reactions yielding differentially toxic species as being responsible for the differences in HD toxicity observed. This work demonstrates that the early events that HD sets into motion to cause toxicity are dependent on ionic environment, possibly due to intracellular pH deregulation.

  18. Features of accumulation of inorganic elements in seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L. and black mustard (Brassica nigra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. І. Рудник-Іващенко

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate special aspects of accumulation of inorganic elements including heavy metals in seeds of white and black mustard to be grown for obtaining drugs. Methods. Field experiments, microwave digestion, ICP-MS and statistical analysis. Results. The content of inorganic elements including heavy metals was determined in the seeds of white and black mustard grown in Kiev Oblast. It was revealed that during the growing season plants of white mustard were able to accumulate such elements as aluminum, barium, strontium, zinc in seeds in concentrations that exceed their content in black mustard seeds, while compounds of calcium, cesium, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium in a greater degree were accumulated in black mustard seeds. Conclusions. As legal and regulatory documents for important chemical elements don’t contain the maximum permissible limits of their content in medicinal plants, it would make sense to launch a comprehensive research with the involvement of specia­lists of relevant profiles in order to establish such a gradation. Plants of white and black mustard in Kiev Oblast have accumulated high levels of such metals as Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Sr, Zn that exceed the known limits of accumulation, indicating a partial contamination of soils in the region. Consequently, these plants can be used for phytoremediation of soils. Considering the fact that in the pharmaceutical practice refined mustard seed oil is used, revealed alterations of metal accumulation in seeds will not affect the quality of the final drugs. According to the research results, white and black mustard is promising for cultivation in Kiev Oblast with a view to obtain raw material that can be processed into drugs.

  19. Preliminary report into the effects of nitrogen ion bombardment treatment on mustard seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.W.; Al-Hashmi, S.A.R.; Ahmed, N.A.G.; Pollard, M.

    1988-01-01

    Mustard seeds have been subjected to nitrogen ion bombardment. A range of conditions was found within which there was an enhancement in the growth of seedlings from the ion bombardment treated seeds relative to those grown from control seeds. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine seeds after treatment. It appeared that there had been an etching of the seed coating by the ion bombardment. This view was supported by experiments which showed that the rate of capillary water uptake by the treated seeds had been enhanced. (author)

  20. The systemic nature of mustard lung: Comparison with COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriary Alireza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur mustard (SM is a powerful blister-causing alkylating chemical warfare agent used by Iraqi forces against Iran. One of the known complications of mustard gas inhalation is mustard lung which is discussed as a phenotype of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. In this complication, there are clinical symptoms close to COPD with common etiologies, such as in smokers. Based on information gradually obtained by conducting the studies on mustard lung patients, systemic symptoms along with pulmonary disorders have attracted the attention of researchers. Changes in serum levels of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, interleukin (IL, chemokines, selectins, immunoglobulins, and signs of imbalance in oxidant-antioxidant system at serum level, present the systemic changes in these patients. In addition to these, reports of extra-pulmonary complications, such as osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease are also presented. In this study, the chance of developing the systemic nature of this lung disease have been followed on using the comparative study of changes in the mentioned markers in mustard lung and COPD patients at stable phases and the mechanisms of pathogenesis and phenomena, such as airway remodeling in these patients.

  1. Harmony of computational quantum chemistry and experimental chemistry: Comprehensive DFT studies, microsynthesis, and characterization of mustard gas polysulfide analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidian, Hamid; Faraz, Sajjad Mousavi; Mirjafary, Zohreh; Babri, Mehran

    2018-05-01

    After microsynthesis, structures of mustard gas polysulfide analogues were characterized using electron impact (EI) mass spectrometry. General EI fragmentation pathways for such compounds are proposed. The structure of sulfur mustard (HD) and its two other polysulfide analogues have been examined through B3LYP/6-311++G(2d, 2p) calculations. Geometrical analysis of HD shows that the calculated bond distances are satisfactorily comparable with experimental results. Calculated NMR chemical shifts for HD also were compared with experimental data, indicating good agreement both for 1H and 13C atoms. The vibrational frequencies of HD and polysulfide analogues have been precisely assigned. At the end, based on visual inspection of lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals and the relative difference in the total energies of their episulfonium ions, relative reactivity of HD and its polysulfide analogues were investigated.

  2. Thermal and pressure stability of myrosinase enzymes from black mustard (Brassica nigra L. W.D.J Koch. var. nigra), brown mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern. var. juncea) and yellow mustard (Sinapsis alba L. Subsp Maire) seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Okunade, O. A.; Ghawi, S. K.; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of temperature and pressure on inactivation of myrosinase extracted from black, brown and yellow mustard seeds. Brown mustard had higher myrosinase activity (2.75 un/mL) than black (1.50 un/mL) and yellow mustard (0.63 un/mL). The extent of enzyme inactivation increased with pressure (600-800 MPa) and temperature (30-70 °C) for all the mustard seeds. However, at combinations of lower pressures (200-400 MPa) and high temperatures (60-80 °C), there was less i...

  3. Applications of deuterium labeling in studies of drug metabolism: metabolism of trideuteroaniline mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, P.J.; Farmer, P.B.; Foster, A.B.; Jarman, M.

    1977-01-01

    In a continuation of a study of aniline mustard, the metabolism of 2,4,6-trideuteroaniline mustard [N-N-di-(2-chloroethyl)-2,4,6-trideuteroaniline] was investigated. Measurements of the ratios of deuterated to nondeuterated species in p-hydroxyaniline mustard and N-(2-chloroethyl)-4-hydroxyaniline isolated following in vitro metabolism of a mixture of aniline mustard and aniline mustard-d 3 enabled a determination both of the kinetic isotope effect and of the extents of NIH shifts and indicated the probable metabolite sequence

  4. Mugwort-Mustard Allergy Syndrome due to Broccoli Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Sugita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS is a relatively rare form of food allergy which develops in individuals who are sensitized to pollen. Tree pollens, especially birch pollen, frequently induce PFAS; however, the incidence of PFAS due to grass or weed pollens such as ragweed or mugwort is relatively rare. Mugwort-mustard allergy syndrome (MMAS is an example of a PFAS in which individuals sensitized to mugwort may develop an allergy to mustard and experience severe reactions. We herein describe a case of MMAS due to broccoli consumption.

  5. Large enhancements in low latitude total electron content during 15 May 2005 geomagnetic storm in Indian zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dashora

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Results pertaining to the response of the equatorial and low latitude ionosphere to a major geomagnetic storm that occurred on 15 May 2005 are presented. These results are also the first from the Indian zone in terms of (i GPS derived total electron content (TEC variations following the storm (ii Local low latitude electrodynamics response to penetration of high latitude convection electric field (iii effect of storm induced traveling atmospheric disturbances (TAD's on GPS-TEC in equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA zone. Data set comprising of ionospheric TEC obtained from GPS measurements, ionograms from an EIA zone station, New Delhi (Geog. Lat. 28.42° N, Geog. Long. 77.21° E, ground based magnetometers in equatorial and low latitude stations and solar wind data obtained from Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE has been used in the present study. GPS receivers located at Udaipur (Geog. Lat. 24.73° N, Geog. Long. 73.73° E and Hyderabad (Geog. Lat. 17.33° N, Geog. Long. 78.47° E have been used for wider spatial coverage in the Indian zone. Storm induced features in vertical TEC (VTEC have been obtained comparing them with the mean VTEC of quiet days. Variations in solar wind parameters, as obtained from ACE and in the SYM-H index, indicate that the storm commenced on 15 May 2005 at 02:39 UT. The main phase of the storm commenced at 06:00 UT on 15 May with a sudden southward turning of the Z-component of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF-Bz and subsequent decrease in SYM-H index. The dawn-to-dusk convection electric field of high latitude origin penetrated to low and equatorial latitudes simultaneously as corroborated by the magnetometer data from the Indian zone. Subsequent northward turning of the IMF-Bz, and the penetration of the dusk-to-dawn electric field over the dip equator is also discernible. Response of the low latitude ionosphere to this storm may be characterized in terms of (i enhanced background level of VTEC as compared to

  6. Large enhancements in low latitude total electron content during 15 May 2005 geomagnetic storm in Indian zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dashora

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Results pertaining to the response of the equatorial and low latitude ionosphere to a major geomagnetic storm that occurred on 15 May 2005 are presented. These results are also the first from the Indian zone in terms of (i GPS derived total electron content (TEC variations following the storm (ii Local low latitude electrodynamics response to penetration of high latitude convection electric field (iii effect of storm induced traveling atmospheric disturbances (TAD's on GPS-TEC in equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA zone.

    Data set comprising of ionospheric TEC obtained from GPS measurements, ionograms from an EIA zone station, New Delhi (Geog. Lat. 28.42° N, Geog. Long. 77.21° E, ground based magnetometers in equatorial and low latitude stations and solar wind data obtained from Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE has been used in the present study. GPS receivers located at Udaipur (Geog. Lat. 24.73° N, Geog. Long. 73.73° E and Hyderabad (Geog. Lat. 17.33° N, Geog. Long. 78.47° E have been used for wider spatial coverage in the Indian zone. Storm induced features in vertical TEC (VTEC have been obtained comparing them with the mean VTEC of quiet days. Variations in solar wind parameters, as obtained from ACE and in the SYM-H index, indicate that the storm commenced on 15 May 2005 at 02:39 UT. The main phase of the storm commenced at 06:00 UT on 15 May with a sudden southward turning of the Z-component of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF-Bz and subsequent decrease in SYM-H index. The dawn-to-dusk convection electric field of high latitude origin penetrated to low and equatorial latitudes simultaneously as corroborated by the magnetometer data from the Indian zone. Subsequent northward turning of the IMF-Bz, and the penetration of the dusk-to-dawn electric field over the dip equator is also discernible. Response of the low latitude ionosphere to this storm may be characterized in terms of (i

  7. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razavi Seyed Mansour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone Iraq-Iran war. Electronic databases of Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, and Irandoc sites were searched. We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion. The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators. Preva-lence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%. The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea. Major respiratory complications are chronic obstructive pulmo-nary disease, bronchiectasis, and asthma. Spirometry re-sults can reveal restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease. Plain chest X-ray does not help in about 50% of lung diseases. High-resolution CT of the lung is the best modality for diagnostic assessment of parenchymal lung and bronchi. There is no definite curative treatment for mus-tard lung. The effective treatment regimens consist of oxy-gen administration, use of vaporized moist air, respiratory physiotherapy, administration of mucolytic agents, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and long-acting beta-2 agonists, antioxidants, surfactant, magnesium ions, thera-peutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, placement of respira-tory stents, early tracheostomy in laryngospasm, and ulti-mately lung transplantation. High-resolution CT of the lung is the most accurate modality for the evaluation of the lung parenchyma and bronchi. The treatment efficacy of patients exposed to mustard gas depends on patient conditions (acute or chronic, upper or lower respiratory tract involvement. There are various treatment protocols, but unfortunately none of them is definitely curable. Key words: Lung injury; Chemical warfare; Mustard gas

  8. Community-Based Study Recruitment of American Indian Cigarette Smokers and Electronic Cigarette Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Dana Mowls; Brame, Lacy S; Stephens, Lancer D; Wagener, Theodore L; Campbell, Janis E; Beebe, Laura A

    2018-02-01

    Data on the effectiveness of strategies for the recruitment of American Indians (AIs) into research is needed. This study describes and compares methods for identifying and recruiting AI tobacco users into a pilot study. Community-based strategies were used to recruit smokers (n = 35), e-cigarette users (n = 28), and dual users (n = 32) of AI descent. Recruitment was considered proactive if study staff contacted the individual at a pow wow, health fair, or vape shop and participation on-site or reactive if the individual contacted the study staff and participation occurred later. Screened, eligible, participated and costs and time spent were compared with Chi square tests. To understand AI descent, the relationship between number of AI grandparents and AI blood quantum was examined. Number of participants screened via the proactive strategy was similar to the reactive strategy (n = 84 vs. n = 82; p-value = 0.8766). A significantly greater proportion of individuals screened via the proactive than the reactive strategy were eligible (77 vs. 50%; p-value = 0.0002) and participated (75 vs. 39%; p-value = < 0.0001). Per participant cost and time estimated for the proactive strategy was $89 and 87 min compared to $79 and 56 min for the reactive strategy. Proportion at least half AI blood quantum was 32, 33, and 70% among those with 2, 3, and 4 AI grandparents, respectively (p = 0.0017). Proactive strategies resulted in two-thirds of the sample, but required more resources than reactive strategies. Overall, we found both strategies were feasible and resulted in the ability to reach sample goals. Lastly, number of AI biological grandparents may be a good, non-invasive indicator of AI blood quantum.

  9. Prevention and treatment of respiratory consequences induced by sulfur mustard in Iranian casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed M Razavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: About 100,000 Iranian have been exposed to chemical weapons during Iraq-Iran conflict (1980-88. After being spent of more than two decades, still about 30,000 of them are under follow-up treatment. The main aim of this study was to review various preventive and therapeutic methods for injured patients with sulfur mustard in different phases. Methods: For gathering information, we have used the electronic databases including Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, Irandoc sites. According to this search strategy, 104 published articles associated to respiratory problems and among them 50 articles related to prevention and treatment of respiratory problems were found and reviewed. Results: There is not any curative treatment for sulfur mustard induced lung injuries, but some valuable experienced measures for prevention and palliative treatments are available. Some useful measures in acute phase include: Symptomatic management, oxygen supplementation, tracheostomy in laryngospasm, use of moist air, respiratory physical therapy, mucolytic agents and bronchodilators. In the chronic phases, these measures include: Periodic clinical examinations, administration of inhaled corticosteroids alone or with long-acting beta 2 agonists, use of antioxidants, magnesium ions, long term oxygen supplement, therapeutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, and use of respiratory tract stents. Conclusions: Most treatments are symptomatic but using preventive points immediately after exposure could improve following outcomes.

  10. Genetic diversity analysis of mustard ( Brassica spp.) germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization of 16 mustard (Brassica spp.) genotypes by using 12 RAPD markers revealed that three primers GLA-11, OPB-04 and OPD-02 showed good technical resolution and sufficient variations among different genotypes. A total of 40 RAPD bands were scored of which 38 (94.87%) polymorphic ...

  11. Sulphur Mustard Poisoning and Its Complications in Iranian Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beeta Balali-Mood

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur mustard is a chemical warfare agent, which was largelyused during the World War One and in Iraq-Iran conflict. It mayalso be used as a chemical terrorism agent. Therefore, medicalprofessions should have sufficient knowledge and be preparedfor medical intervention of any such chemical attack.Sulphur mustard exerts direct toxic effects on the eyes, skin,and respiratory tract, with subsequent systemic actions on thenervous, immunologic, hematologic, digestive, and reproductivesystems. It is an alkylating agent that affects DNA synthesis andthus, delayed complications have been considered since theWorld War One. Cases of malignancies in the target organs particularlyin hematopoietic, respiratory, and digestive systemswere reported. Common delayed respiratory complications includechronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, frequent bronchopneumonia,and pulmonary fibrosis, all of which tend to deterioratewith time. Severe dry skin, delayed keratitis, and reduction ofnatural killer cells with subsequent increased risk of infectionsand malignancies are also among the most distressing long-termconsequences of sulphur mustard intoxication. However, despiteextensive research that has been conducted on Iranian veteransduring the past decades, major gaps continue to remain in thesulphur mustard literature. Immunological and neurological dysfunctionsand the relationship between exposure to sulphur mustardand mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity areimportant fields that require further studies, particularly on Iranianveterans with chronic health problems caused by sulphurmustard poisoning. There is also a paucity of information on themedical management of acute and delayed toxic effects of sulphurmustard poisoning, a subject that greatly challenges themedical professions.

  12. Genetic diversity analysis of mustard (Brassica spp.) germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    successfully cultivated between Aman and Boro rice rotation without affecting this popular cropping pattern. So, it is urgent to analyze the genetic diversity and its response for the selection of short duration mustard genotypes for increasing our cropping intensity. Diversity at marker loci is currently the most feasible strategy ...

  13. Onion and weed response to mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control in organic onion production is often difficult and expensive, requiring numerous cultivations and extensive hand-weeding. Onion safety and weed control with mustard seed meal (MSM) derived from Sinapis alba was evaluated in greenhouse and field trials. MSM applied at 110, 220, and 440 g...

  14. Response of bread wheat to increasing mustard meal nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Greenhouse experiment on the nitrogen uptake from the mustard meal using 15N showed significant difference on both soil types. On the Vertisol the per cent nitrogen derived from the meal and per cent nitrogen use efficiency varied from 18 to 40 and from 18 to 62%, respectively. On the Nitosol, these values varied from 25 ...

  15. Genetic diversity in Ethiopian mustard ( Bbrassica carinata a. braun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, genetic diversity in 60 Ethiopian mustard genotypes, collected from 16 regions of Ethiopia, were assessed using the techniques of cluster and ... for the majority of traits of interest: seed yield/plot, seed yield/plant, biomass/plot, biomass/plant, plant height, number of pods/plant, 1000 seeds' weight and oil content ...

  16. 7 CFR 457.168 - Mustard crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... amount of production delivered, and the processor contract provides for delivery of the mustard under... that are identified by the Food and Drug Administration or other public health organizations of the... FCIC including, but not limited to, protein and oil will not be considered. (e) Any production...

  17. Pulmonary Complications of Mustard Gas Exposure: A Study on Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Behnoush

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard gas is one of the chemical warfare gases that roughly about 45000 soldiers continue to suffer long-lasting consequences of exposure during the Iran-Iraq war between 1980 and 1988. According to the common pulmonary lesions due to this gas exposure, we studied gross and microscopic pulmonary lesions in cadavers and also assessed the main causes of mortality caused by mustard gas exposure. A case-series study was performed on hospital record files of 100 cadavers that were exposed with documented sulfur mustard gas during the Iran-Iraq war from 1979 to 1988 and autopsied in legal medicine organization In Tehran between 2005 and 2007 and gross and microscopic pathological findings of autopsied organs such as hematological, pulmonary, hepatic, and renal changes were evaluated. All cases were male with the mean age of 43 years. The time interval between the gas exposure and death was almost 20years. The most frequent pulmonary complication was chronic bronchitis in 81% of autopsied cadavers. Other pulmonary findings were progressive pulmonary fibrosis (9%, pulmonary infections and tuberculosis (29%, malignant cellular infiltration (4%, and aspergilloma (1%. According to the chronic progressive lesions caused by mustard gas exposure such as pulmonary lesions and also its high mortality rate, suitable programming for protection of the gas exposed persons and prohibiting chemical warfare are recommended.

  18. Therapeutic journery of nitrogen mustard as alkylating anticancer agents: Historic to future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajesh K; Kumar, Sahil; Prasad, D N; Bhardwaj, T R

    2018-05-10

    Cancer is considered as one of the most serious health problems today. The discovery of nitrogen mustard as an alkylating agent in 1942, opened a new era in the cancer chemotherapy. This valuable class of alkylating agent exerts its biological activity by binding to DNA, cross linking two strands, preventing DNA replication and ultimate cell death. At the molecular level, nitrogen lone pairs of nitrogen mustard generate a strained intermediate "aziridinium ion" which is very reactive towards DNA of tumor cell as well as normal cell resulting in various adverse side effects alogwith therapeutic implications. Over the last 75 years, due to its high reactivity and peripheral cytotoxicity, numerous modifications have been made in the area of nitrogen mustard to improve its efficacy as well as enhancing drug delivery specifically to tumor cells. This review mainly discusses the medicinal chemistry aspects in the development of various classes of nitrogen mustards (mechlorethamine, chlorambucil, melphalan, cyclophosphamide and steroidal based nitrogen mustards). The literature collection includes the historical and the latest developments in these areas. This comprehensive review also attempted to showcase the recent progress in the targeted delivery of nitrogen mustards that includes DNA directed nitrogen mustards, antibody directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT), gene directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT), nitrogen mustard activated by glutathione transferase, peptide based nitrogen mustards and CNS targeted nitrogen mustards. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of native herbs and light on garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Mao, Laura; Larson, Diane L.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which invasive species drive or respond to environmental change has important implications for conservation and invasion management. Often characterized as a driver of change in North American woodlands, the invasive herb garlic mustard may instead respond to declines in native plant cover and diversity. We tested effects of native herb cover, richness, and light availability on garlic mustard invasion in a Minnesota oak woodland. We planted 50 garlic mustard seeds into plots previously planted with 0 to 10 native herb species. We measured garlic mustard seedling establishment, survival to rosette and adult stages, and average (per plant) and total (per plot) biomass and silique production. With the use of structural equation models, we analyzed direct, indirect, and net effects of native cover, richness, and light on successive garlic mustard life stages. Native plant cover had a significant negative effect on all life stages. Species richness had a significant positive effect on native cover, resulting in indirect negative effects on all garlic mustard stages, and net negative effects on adult numbers, total biomass, and silique production. Light had a strong negative effect on garlic mustard seedling establishment and a positive effect on native herb cover, resulting in significant negative net effects on garlic mustard rosette and adult numbers. However, light's net effect on total garlic mustard biomass and silique production was positive; reproductive output was high even in low-light/high-cover conditions. Combined effects of cover, richness, and light suggest that native herbs provide biotic resistance to invasion by responding to increased light availability and suppressing garlic mustard responses, although this resistance may be overwhelmed by high propagule pressure. Garlic mustard invasion may occur, in part, in response to native plant decline. Restoring native herbs and controlling garlic mustard seed production may effectively reduce

  20. Effect of electrojet on the total electron content of the ionosphere over the Indian subcontinent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, M.R.; Rastogi, R.G.; Vats, H.O.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that the satellite radio beacon method of measuring total electron content (TEC) along a chain of spaced stations near the 'equatorial anomaly' has been used to continuously monitor the latitudinal extent of the anomaly. A clear dependence of the strength of the anomaly upon the electrojet intensity, with an approximately two-hour time delay, was established. By 'equatorial anomaly' is meant the anomalous latitudinal distribution of electron density in the F2 region, as observed by Appleton (J. Atmos. Terr. Phys.; 5:348 (1954)). It has been shown that the equatorial anomaly in TEC over India is positively correlated with the electrojet strength. Observations of the diurnal development of the equatorial anomaly in TEC are here described, together with magnetometer records indicating the strength of the equatorial electrojet, leading to records of the TEC anomaly. The observations were made on three days in May 1976, using radio beacon signals from the geostationary satellite ATS-6 received at a number of locations in India. Association of the diurnal development of the equatorial anomaly in TEC with electrojet strength were clearly established. (U.K.)

  1. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS): Mapping the Indian Online Retail Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Vikrant R; Chahar, Puneet; Balappanavar, Aswini Y; Yadav, Vipul

    2017-11-01

    Motivating tobacco consumers to change their behavior, and harm reduction strategies, are the predominant traditional approaches to tobacco cessation. Recent trends worldwide have shown the emergence of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), as a purported harm reduction strategy to traditional cigarettes. Considering the global rise in the popularity of ENDS, our study aims to survey the online retail market for ENDS in India. The current study was conducted in September-October, 2015 and 4 keywords were used to search Google India to identify online retail websites marketing ENDS. Each website was searched using the same keywords and all specific website pages displaying ENDS models were considered. Thus, data was obtained for various measures of ENDS present on the model descriptions. A total of 6 retail shopping websites were searched which revealed 65 different models of ENDS (34 brands). Forty-five models (69%) were flavored and 21 models (33%) mentioned about nicotine strengths. Seventeen models (26%) provided health warnings in their product descriptions. "No tar no tobacco" was most common claim accounting to 34 models (51%). This article provide insight into the current status of evident online sales of ENDS in India. There is urgent need to implement regulations on online sales of these products and protect the future from such approaches of tobacco control which still have divided opinions. The study permits the use of web search engine to explore market availability of ENDS at various online retail websites. Recommendations from the study can be used to guide policy makers in developing strategies tailored to regulate availability and online sales of ENDS in India. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Competitive Interactions of Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and Damesrocket (Hesperis matronalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Adams, Jean V.

    2012-01-01

    Competitive interactions between native plants and nonnative, invasive plant species have been extensively studied; however, within degraded landscapes, the effect of interspecific interactions among invasive plants is less explored. We investigated a competitive interaction between two sympatric, invasive mustard species that have similar life history strategies and growth forms: garlic mustard and damesrocket. Greenhouse experiments using a full range of reciprocal density ratios were conducted to investigate interspecific competition. Garlic mustard had a negative effect on the final biomass, number of leaves, and relative growth rate in height of damesrocket. Survival of damesrocket was not negatively affected by interspecific competition with garlic mustard; however, garlic mustard showed higher mortality because of intraspecific competition. These results indicated that although garlic mustard has been observed to be the dominant species in this landscape, it may not completely outcompete damesrocket in all situations. Studies of invasive species in competition are important in degraded landscapes because this is the common situation in many natural areas.

  3. Computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in Nepalese mustard seed oil based on fatty acid composition

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Kshitij; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was carried out for the computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in the mustard seed oil using chemometric technique based on fatty acid composition. Principal component analysis and K-mean clustering of fatty acid composition data showed 4 major mustard/rapeseed clusters, two of high erucic and two of low erucic mustard type. Soybean and other possible adulterants made a distinct cluster from them. The methodology for estimation of soybean oil adulteration was deve...

  4. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P. L.; Rommereim, R. L.; Burton, F. G.; Buschbom, R. L.; Sasser, L . B.

    1987-09-30

    Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with 0. 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development. These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats and rabbits since fetal effects were observed only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for "no observable effects levels" in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.

  5. Electronic nicotine delivery system use behaviour and loss of autonomy among American Indians: results from an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Dana Mowls; Wagener, Theodore L; Thompson, David M; Stephens, Lancer D; Peck, Jennifer D; Campbell, Janis E; Beebe, Laura A

    2017-12-19

    American Indians (AI) have a high prevalence of electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) use. However, little information exists on (ENDS) use, either alone or in combination with cigarettes (dual use), among AI. The objective of this small-scaled study was to examine use behaviours and dependence among exclusive ENDS users and dual users of AI descent. Exclusive smokers were included for comparison purposes. Oklahoma, USA. Adults of AI descent who reported being exclusive ENDS users (n=27), dual users (n=28) or exclusive cigarette smokers (n=27). Participants completed a detailed questionnaire on use behaviours. The Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC) was used to assess loss of autonomy over cigarettes and was reworded for ENDS. Dual users completed the HONC twice. Sum of endorsed items indicated severity of diminished autonomy. Comparisons were made with non-parametric methods and statistical significance was defined as Pautonomy over ENDS was similar among ENDS and dual users (medians: 4 vs 3; P=0.6865). Among dual users, severity of diminished autonomy was lower for ENDS than cigarettes (medians: 3 vs 9; P=autonomy (4 vs 8; P=0.0077). Comparing dual users with smokers, median severity of diminished autonomy over cigarettes did not differ (P=0.6865). Severity of diminished autonomy was lower for ENDS than cigarettes in this small sample of AI. Future, adequately powered studies should be conducted to fully understand ENDS use patterns and dependence levels in this population. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Sensory evaluation of dry-fermented sausage containing ground deodorized yellow mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuliu; Aliani, Michel; Holley, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    Ground deodorized yellow mustard is used as a binder and meat protein substitute in cooked processed meat products. Recent studies have shown that it has the potential to be used in uncooked processed meat products because of its natural antimicrobial properties. In the present study, ground deodorized yellow mustard was added to uncooked dry-fermented sausage during manufacture at 1% to 4% (w/w) and analyzed for its effects on starter cultures, physico-chemical properties, and consumer acceptability. Mustard had a nondose-dependent inhibitory effect on the Staphylococcus starter culture, had no effect on water activity or instrumental texture, and tended to accelerate sausage pH reduction. At 3% and 4% mustard, consumer scores on all sensory attributes as well as overall acceptability were significantly lower. The appearance and color of 3% and 4% mustard-treated sausages were liked slightly, whereas flavor, texture, and overall acceptability scores were reduced. The control without mustard and 1% mustard-treated sausages had similar sensory properties and were the most acceptable, while 2% mustard-treated sausages were given "like moderately" and "like slightly" descriptors. Sensory results mean that at concentrations necessary for mandated regulatory control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dry sausages, mustard may have a negative effect on consumer acceptance. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Biodiesel from Mustard oil: a Sustainable Engine Fuel Substitute for Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Alam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Various attractive features of mustard oil based biodiesel as a potential substitute for engine fuel are investigated in this paper for use in Bangladesh. Although the use of mustard oil as edible oil has been reduced, Bangladesh still produces 0.22 million metric tons of mustard oil per year. This surplus mustard oil would satisfactorily be used as an alternative to diesel fuel, and thus could contribute in reducing the expenses for importing fuel from foreign countries. Moreover, the rural people of Bangladesh are capable of producing mustard oil themselves using indigenous machines. Fuel properties of biodiesel obtained from mustard oil were determined in the laboratory using standard procedure and an experimental setup was constructed to study the performance of a small diesel engine. It is observed that with biodiesel, the engine is capable of running without difficulty. Initially different lower blends of biodiesel (e.g., B20, B30 etc. have been used to avoid complicated modification of the engine and the fuel supply system. It is also found in some condition that mustard oil based biodiesel have better properties than those made from other vegetable oils. These properties of mustard oil based biodiesel were evaluated to validate its sustainability in Bangladesh. Keywords: biodiesel, indigenous machines, mustard oil, renewable energy policy, sustainability

  8. Mustard vesicant-induced lung injury: Advances in therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberger, Barry; Malaviya, Rama; Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Venosa, Alessandro; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    Most mortality and morbidity following exposure to vesicants such as sulfur mustard is due to pulmonary toxicity. Acute injury is characterized by epithelial detachment and necrosis in the pharynx, trachea and bronchioles, while long-term consequences include fibrosis and, in some instances, cancer. Current therapies to treat mustard poisoning are primarily palliative and do not target underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. New knowledge about vesicant-induced pulmonary disease pathogenesis has led to the identification of potentially efficacious strategies to reduce injury by targeting inflammatory cells and mediators including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, proteases and proinflammatory/cytotoxic cytokines. Therapeutics under investigation include corticosteroids, N-acetyl cysteine, which has both mucolytic and antioxidant properties, inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, liposomes containing superoxide dismutase, catalase, and/or tocopherols, protease inhibitors, and cytokine antagonists such as anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antibody and pentoxifylline. Antifibrotic and fibrinolytic treatments may also prove beneficial in ameliorating airway obstruction and lung remodeling. More speculative approaches include inhibitors of transient receptor potential channels, which regulate pulmonary epithelial cell membrane permeability, non-coding RNAs and mesenchymal stem cells. As mustards represent high priority chemical threat agents, identification of effective therapeutics for mitigating toxicity is highly significant.

  9. Mustard vesicant-induced lung injury: Advances in therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberger, Barry, E-mail: bweinberger@northwell.edu [Division of Neonatal and Perinatal Medicine, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, Cohen Children' s Medical Center of New York, New Hyde Park, NY 11040 (United States); Malaviya, Rama; Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Venosa, Alessandro [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Department of Environmental Health Science, New York Medical College, School of Public Health, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Most mortality and morbidity following exposure to vesicants such as sulfur mustard is due to pulmonary toxicity. Acute injury is characterized by epithelial detachment and necrosis in the pharynx, trachea and bronchioles, while long-term consequences include fibrosis and, in some instances, cancer. Current therapies to treat mustard poisoning are primarily palliative and do not target underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. New knowledge about vesicant-induced pulmonary disease pathogenesis has led to the identification of potentially efficacious strategies to reduce injury by targeting inflammatory cells and mediators including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, proteases and proinflammatory/cytotoxic cytokines. Therapeutics under investigation include corticosteroids, N-acetyl cysteine, which has both mucolytic and antioxidant properties, inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, liposomes containing superoxide dismutase, catalase, and/or tocopherols, protease inhibitors, and cytokine antagonists such as anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antibody and pentoxifylline. Antifibrotic and fibrinolytic treatments may also prove beneficial in ameliorating airway obstruction and lung remodeling. More speculative approaches include inhibitors of transient receptor potential channels, which regulate pulmonary epithelial cell membrane permeability, non-coding RNAs and mesenchymal stem cells. As mustards represent high priority chemical threat agents, identification of effective therapeutics for mitigating toxicity is highly significant.

  10. Panceratic Complications of Mustard Gas Exposure: A Study on Cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Farshid Fayyaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur mustard is one of the chemical warfare gases that has been known as a vesicant or blistering agents. It is a chemical alkylating compound agent that can be frequently absorbed through skin, respiratory system, genital tract, and ocular system. This study was done to pathologically analyze the microscopic pancreatic lesions in cadavers. Methods: This case series study was performed during 2007 to 2012 in Legal Medicine Organization. Exposure was confirmed by the written reports of the field hospitals, based on acute presentation of eye, skin and pulmonary symptoms of the exposure. Results: Pancreatic autopsy findings were chronic inflammation, fibrosis and duct ectasia; acinar atrophy was also seen in 4 cases. All 4 cases had chronic pancreatic disease with abdominal pain, steatorrhea and weight loss that was confirmed by sonography. CT scan and Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio-Pancreatography (ERCP have also demonstrated the chronic pancreatitis. Conclusion: According to the chronic progressive lesions caused by mustard gas exposure such as pulmonary lesions and also its high mortality rate, suitable programming for protection of the mustard gas exposed people in chemical factories is necessary.

  11. Rhizosphere competent Mesorhizobiumloti MP6 induces root hair curling, inhibits Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and enhances growth of Indian mustard (Brassica campestris Mesorhizobium loti MP6 rizosférico competente induz encurvamento do pelo daraiz, inibe Sclerotinia sclerotiorum e estimula o crescimento de mostarda indiana (Brassica campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Chandra

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial strain Mesorhizobium loti MP6, isolated from root nodules of Mimosa pudica induced growth and yield of Brassica campestris. The isolate MP6 secreted hydroxamate type siderophore in Chrom-Azurol Siderophore (CAS agar medium. Production of hydrocyanic acid (HCN, indole acetic acid (IAA and phosphate solubilizing ability was also recorded under normal growth conditions. Root hair curling was observed through simple glass-slide technique. In vitro study showed a significant increase in population of M. loti MP6 in rhizosphere due to root exudates of B. campestris. In dual culture technique the strain showed a strong antagonistic effect against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a white rot pathogen of Brassica campestris. The growth of S. sclerotiorum was inhibited by 75% after prolonged incubation. Efficient root colonization of mustard seedlings was confirmed by using a streptomycin-resistant marker M. loti MP6strep+. The M. loti MP6 coated seeds proved enhanced seed germination, early vegetative growth and grain yield as compared to control. Also, a drastic decline (99% in the incidence of white rot was observed due to application of M. loti MP6.A cepa bacteriana Mesorhizobium loti MP6 isolada de nódulos de raiz de Mimosa pudica induziu o crescimento e o rendimento de Brassica campestris. A cepa MP6 secretou sideróforo do tipo hidroxamato em meio sólido Chrom-Azurol Siderophore (CAS. Em condições normais de crescimento, a cepa foi também capaz de produzir de ácido cianídrico (HCN e acido indolacético (AIA e solubilizar fosfato. O encurvamento do pelo da raiz foi observado usando a simples técnica de lâmina e lamínula. Estudos in vitro mostraram um aumento significativo na população de M. loti MP6 na rizosfera devido aos exsudatos de B. campestris. Empregando-se técnica de co-cultura, a cepa mostrou um grande efeito antagônico contra o fungo Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, o patógeno da podridão branca de Brassica campestris. Ap

  12. Declines in a ground-dwelling arthropod community during an invasion by Sahara mustard (Brassica tournefortii) in aeolian sand habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather L. Hulton VanTassel; Anne M. Hansen; Cameron W. Barrows; Quresh Latif; Margaret W. Simon; Kurt E. Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Sahara Mustard (Brassica tournefortii; hereafter mustard), an exotic plant species, has invaded habitats throughout the arid southwestern United States. Mustard has reached high densities across aeolian sand habitats of southwestern deserts, including five distinct sand habitats in the eastern Coachella Valley, California. We examined trends in ground-dwelling...

  13. Combination of electron beam irradiation and thermal treatment to enhance the shelf-life of traditional Indian fermented food (Idli)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulmule, Manoj D.; Shimmy, Shankar M.; Bambole, Vaishali; Jamdar, Sahayog N.; Rawat, K.P.; Sarma, K.S.S.

    2017-01-01

    Idli, a steam-cooked breakfast food item consumed in India, is famous as a staple food for its spongy texture and unique fermented taste. Idli preparation is a time consuming process; although instant Idli pre-mixes as powder or batter are available in the market, they do not have the distinctive taste and aroma similar to the Idli prepared at home. Hence ready-to-eat (RTE) form of this food is in demand. Therefore, an attempt was made to prepare RTE Idli bearing similar taste as home-cooked Idli with an extended shelf-life of up to two months at an ambient temperature using Electron Beam Irradiation (EBI) at dosages 2.5 kGy, 5 kGy and 7.5 kGy and combination processing comprised of EBI dosage at 2.5 kGy and thermal treatment (80 °C for 20 min). The treated Idli's were microbiologically and sensorially evaluated at storage periods of zero day, 14 days, 30 days and 60 days. Idli's irradiated at 7.5 kGy and subjected to combination processing at 2.5 kGy and thermal treatment were shelf-stable for 60 days. 2.5 kGy and 5 kGy radiation dosages alone were not sufficient to preserve Idli samples for more than 14 days. Undesirable change in sensory properties of Idli was observed at an EBI dosage of 7.5 kGy. Sensory properties of combination processed Idli's were found to undergo minor change over the storage period. The present work suggests that lowest radiation dosage in combination with thermal treatment could be useful to achieve the extended shelf-life without considerably impairing the organoleptic quality of Ready-to-Eat Idli. - Highlights: • Idli (traditional Indian fermented food) was prepared in ready-to-eat (RTE) form. • Ready-to-eat Idli was then subjected to combination processing comprised of lowest irradiation dosage of 2.5 kGy with mild heat treatment to extend its shelf life. • Increase in hardness and decrease in brightness of combination processed Idli was observed. • Combination processed Idli was microbiologically safe and

  14. A highly selective and sensitive "turn-on" fluorescence chemodosimeter for the detection of mustard gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavender Goud, D; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Tak, Vijay; Dubey, Devendra Kumar; Kumar, Pravin; Pardasani, Deepak

    2014-10-21

    A new chemodosimetric protocol based on a tandem S-alkylation followed by desulfurisation reaction of rhodamine-thioamide with mustard gas is reported. The chemodosimeter is highly selective for potential DNA alkylating agents like sulfur mustard, over other simple alkyl halides with the limit of detection of 4.75 μM.

  15. Phytocontact Dermatitis due to Mustard Seed Mimicking Burn Injury: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yabanoglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mustard seeds have been used in traditional folk medicine as a stimulant, diuretic, and purgative and to treat a variety of ailments including peritonitis and neuralgia. Mustards are still used today in mustard plasters to treat rheumatism, arthritis, chest congestion, aching back, and sore muscles. To make a mustard plaster, mix equal parts of flour and powdered mustard and spread it as a paste on a doubled piece of soft cloth. Apply mustard plaster to the affected area for a maximum of 15 minutes. Prolonged application can result in burns to the skin and nerve damage. Skin lesions occur within hours after exposure, and there is no significant therapy procedure. This case report is about a patient with second-degree burn, occurred when a mixture including mustard seed was exposed to her skin in the pain therapy of the osteoarthritis in her left knee. There are no studies analyzing treatment of skin burns induced by mustard seed in the literature. While in this type of burns our experience is limited, we think that conservative approach should be first choice of treatment.

  16. Consumer acceptability and sensory profile of cooked broccoli with mustard seeds added to improve chemoprotective properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Shen, Yuchi; Niranjan, Keshavan; Methven, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Broccoli, a rich source of glucosinolates, is a commonly consumed vegetable of the Brassica family. Hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, have been associated with health benefits and contribute to the flavor of Brassica. However, boiling broccoli causes the myrosinase enzyme needed for hydrolysis to denature. In order to ensure hydrolysis, broccoli must either be mildly cooked or active sources of myrosinase, such as mustard seed powder, can be added postcooking. In this study, samples of broccoli were prepared in 6 different ways; standard boiling, standard boiling followed by the addition of mustard seeds, sous vide cooking at low temperature (70 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature (100 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature followed by the addition of mustard seeds at 2 different concentrations. The majority of consumers disliked the mildly cooked broccoli samples (70 °C, 12 min, sous vide) which had a hard and stringy texture. The highest mean consumer liking was for standard boiled samples (100 °C, 7 min). Addition of 1% mustard seed powder developed sensory attributes, such as pungency, burning sensation, mustard odor, and flavor. One cluster of consumers (32%) found mustard seeds to be a good complement to cooked broccoli; however, the majority disliked the mustard-derived sensory attributes. Where the mustard seeds were partially processed, doubling the addition to 2% led to only the same level of mustard and pungent flavors as 1% unprocessed seeds, and mean consumer liking remained unaltered. This suggests that optimization of the addition level of partially processed mustard seeds may be a route to enhance bioactivity of cooked broccoli without compromising consumer acceptability. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Novel liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method for sensitive determination of the mustard allergen Sin a 1 in food

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Maes, Xavier; Muñoz-García, Esther; Villalba, Mayte; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Pérez-Gordo, Marina; Vivanco, Fernando; Pérez-Gordo, Carlos; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Mustard is a condiment added to a variety of foodstuffs and a frequent cause of food allergy. A new strategy for the detection of mustard allergen in food products is presented. The methodology is based on liquid chromatography analysis coupled to mass spectrometry. Mustard allergen Sin a 1 was purified from yellow mustard seeds. Sin a 1 was detected with a total of five peptides showing a linear response (lowest LOD was 5 ng). Sin a 1 was detected in mustard sauces and salty biscuit (19 ± 3 ...

  18. Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems of Old Arsenical and 'Mustard' Munitions (Joseph F. Bunnett and Marian Mikotajczyk, Eds.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Benjamin

    1999-10-01

    What do Knute Rockne, Notre Dame's famed football coach, and Lewisite, a chemical warfare agent dubbed "the dew of death", have in common? Both owe their discovery to Father Julius Arthur Nieuwland.1 Rockne's legacy lives on in the Fighting Irish and their tradition of excellence on the gridiron. Lewisite, together with other arsenical- and mustard-type chemical warfare agents, provide a legacy that lives on, too, but with less cheerful consequences. The book Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems of Old Arsenical and 'Mustard' Munitions makes clear the challenges faced in dealing with those consequences. This book documents the proceedings of a workshop devoted to arsenical- and mustard-type chemical warfare agents and their associated munitions. The workshop, held in Poland in 1996, included nine lectures, eight posters, and three discussion groups; and the contents of all these are presented. Major support for the workshop came from the Scientific Affairs Division of NATO as part of on ongoing series of meetings, cooperative research projects, and related efforts dealing with problems leftover from the Cold War and, in the case of the arsenicals and mustards, from conflicts dating to World War I. These problems can be seen in contemporary accounts, including a January 1999 news report that the U.S. Department of Defense intends to survey Washington, DC, areas near both American University and the Catholic University of America (CUA), site of the original synthesis of Lewisite, for chemical warfare agents and other materials disposed at the end of World War I.2 The first nine chapters of the book present the workshop's lectures. Of these, readers interested in chemical weapon destruction might find especially useful the first chapter, in which Ron Mansley of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons presents a scholarly overview covering historical aspects of the arsenicals and mustards; their production and use; prospective destruction

  19. Zinc and application to optimize seed yield of mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, N.; Nawaz, M.S.; Cheema, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted on a sandy clay loam soil at the National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan, during 2005 and 2006. The mustard (Brassica juncea) variety BARD-1 was treated with various levels of Zn and Fe, (0-0, 0-1.5, 0-3, 2.5-0, 2.5-1.5, 2.5-3, 5-0, 5-1.5 kgha/sup -1/ and 5-3 kgha/sup -1/, respectively. A basal dose of 90N and 60P kgha/sup -1/ was applied, in the form of Urea and triple super phosphate (TSP) with Zn and Fe. The increase in Zn and Fe fertility from 0-1.5 to 5-1.5 kg ha/sup -1/ increased yield of BARD-I. The maximum yield response was recorded when 5 kg ha/sup -1/ Zn and 1.5 kg ha/sup -1/ Fe were applied. Beyond this level, no further increase in yield was recorded in any mustard traits. A positive correlation was recorded between seed yield and 1000-seed weight with the application of 5 kg Zn ha-1 and 1.5 kg Fe ha/sup -1/ in combination at the time of sowing. It can therefore be concluded that 100 % seed yield of mustard variety BARD-l increased at 5 Zn: 1.5 Fc kg ha-1 as a result of increased pods plant/sup -l/, number of seeds pod-1 and 1000-seed weight. (author)

  20. Protein Changes in Sulfur Mustard Exposure: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, P.; Jin, X.; Ray, R.

    2007-01-01

    Laminin-5, a heterotrimer of laminin α3, β3, and γ2 subunits, is a component of the skin basal epithelium. Laminin-5 functions as a ligand of the α3β1 and α6β4 integrins in epidermal keratinocytes to regulate cell adhesion, migration, morphogenesis, and assembly of basement membranes; thus it is essential for a stable attachment of the epidermis to the dermis and recovery of damaged skin. Sulfur mustard (SM), also known as mustard gas, is a vesicant chemical warfare and terrorism agent. Skin exposure to SM results in fluid-filled blisters; proposed mechanisms are inflammation, protease stimulation, basal cell death, and separation of the epidermis from the dermis apparently due to the degradation of attachment proteins like laminin-5. Therefore, we investigated the effects of SM exposure on the degradation of laminin-5 by exposing normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) to SM (0-300 μM, 1-24 hours). We found that SM degraded laminin-5 and its two subunits β3 and γ2, but not α3. Preincubation of cells with a serine protease inhibitor (PMSF), or a metalloprotease inhibitor (1, 10-phenanthroline) prior to SM exposure partially prevented SM-induced degradation of laminin-5 subunits, β3 and γ2. Regarding specificity, laminin-5 γ2 was degraded due to a bifunctional mustard compound like SM, but not due to the other alkylating agents tested. Our results support that laminin-5 degradation is an important mechanism of SM injury as well as a useful biomarker of SM exposure. This knowledge of the mechanism of laminin-5 degradation due to SM has potential application in developing cutaneous therapeutics against SM.(author)

  1. Capsaicinoids, chloropicrin and sulfur mustard: Possibilities for exposure biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maija Pesonen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Incapacitating and irritating agents produce temporary disability persisting for hours to days after the exposure. One can be exposed to these agents occupationally in industrial or other working environments. Also general public can be exposed in special circumstances, like industrial accidents or riots. Incapacitating and irritating agents discussed in this review are chloropicrin and capsaicinoids. In addition, we include sulfur mustard, which is an old chemical warfare agent and known to cause severe long-lasting injuries or even death. Chloropicrin that was used as a warfare agent in the World War I is currently used mainly as a pesticide. Capsaicinoids, components of hot pepper plants, are used by police and other law enforcement personnel as riot control agents. Toxicity of these chemicals is associated particularly with the respiratory tract, eyes and skin. Their acute effects are relatively well known but the knowledge of putative long-term effects is almost non-existent. Also, mechanisms of effects at cellular level are not fully understood. There is a need for further research to get better idea of health risks, particularly of long-term and low-level exposures to these chemicals. For this, exposure biomarkers are essential. Validated exposure biomarkers for capsaicinoids, chloropicrin and sulfur mustard do not exist so far. Metabolites and macromolecular adducts have been suggested biomarkers for sulfur mustard and these can already be measured qualitatively, but quantitative biomarkers await further development and validation. The purpose of this review is, based on the existing mechanistic and toxicokinetic information, to shed light on the possibilities for developing biomarkers for exposure biomonitoring of these compounds. It is also of interest to find ideas for early effect biomarkers considering the need for studies on subchronic and chronic toxicity.

  2. Anionic carbonato and oxalato cobalt(III) nitrogen mustard complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Peter R; Brothers, Penelope J; Clark, George R; Wilson, William R; Denny, William A; Ware, David C

    2004-02-21

    Synthetic approaches to cobalt(III) complexes [Co(L)(L')2] containing the bidentate dialkylating nitrogen mustard N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1,2-ethanediamine (L = dce) together with anionic ancilliary ligands (L') which are either carbonato (CO3(2-)), oxalato (ox2-), bis(2-hydroxyethyl)dithiocarbamato (bhedtc-), 2-pyridine carboxylato (pico-) or 2-pyrazine carboxylato (pyzc-) were investigated. Synthetic routes were developed using the related amines N,N-diethyl-1,2-ethanediamine (dee) and 1,2-ethanediamine (en). The complexes [Co(CO3)2(L)]- (L = dee 1, dce 2), [Co(ox)2(L)]- (L = dee 3, dce 4), [Co(bhedtc)2(dee)]+ 5, [Co(bhedtc)2(en)]+ 6, mer-[Co(pico)3], mer-[Co(pyzc)]3 7 and [Co(pico)2(dee)]+ 8 were prepared and were characterised by IR, UV-Vis, 1H and 13C[1H] NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and cyclic voltammetry. [Co(bhedtc)2(en)]BPh4 6b and trans(O)-[Co(pico)2(dee)]ClO4 8 were characterised by X-ray crystallography. In vitro biological tests were carried out on complexes 1-4 in order to assess the degree to which coordination of the mustard to cobalt attenuated its cytotoxicity, and the differential toxicity in air vs. nitrogen.

  3. Breeding strategy for the improvement of mustard (Brassica Juncea Coss.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayar, G.G.

    1980-01-01

    Mutants having desirable agronomic characters were obtained in the high yielding, recommended mustard (B. juncea) varieties Rai 5, RL 9 and Varuna (T 59). Following hybridizations between induced mutants or mutants with other promising varieties, recombinants having superior agronomic traits have been developed. The parent varieties are characterised by open pod arrangement and blackish brown seeds. The mutants and the recombinants have desirable agronomic characters like compact plant type, appressed pods with less shattering nature, yellow seeds, higher oil content and lighter coloured oil. Among the 12 new strains developed at this centre, five have been tested at various locations in the country. At many places, TM-(Trombay Mustard-) cultures outyielded or were at par with the local check varieties. TM-2-11 (Appressed pod mutant) and TM-4 (Yellow bold seeded Mutant) have also been included in the Initial Evaluation Trial of the All India Co-ordinated Research Project in Oilseeds (AICORPO) improvement. Reports so far received from various locations in the country indicate that TM-strains, being relatively early cultures, are suited more for states of Rajasthan, Gujarat, U.P. and Bihar. (author)

  4. Sulfur Mustard Exposure from Dredged Artillery Shell in a Commercial Clammer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Otter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old commercial fisherman presented with a blistering second degree burn to the right arm after handling a dredged and undetonated World War I-era sulfur mustard artillery shell. He sustained isolated second degree cutaneous injury requiring wound care and skin grafting. Sulfur mustard, or dichlorethylsulphide, is a vesicant chemical warfare agent that causes significant cutaneous chemical burn and is managed with burn wound care. Long-term effects include cosmetic disfigurement and increased risk of developing cancer. Sulfur mustard exposure is a rare but devastating injury when discarded artillery shells are encountered in coastal waters.

  5. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Subchronic Toxicity of Sulfur Mustard (HD) In Rats Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasser, L. B.; Miller, R. A.; Kalkwarf, D, R.; Buschbom, R. L.; Cushing, J. A.

    1989-06-30

    Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard [bis(2- chlorethyl)-sulfide], a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Seventytwo Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex, 6-7 weeks old, were divided into six groups (12/group/ sex) and gavaged with either 0, 0.003 , 0.01 , 0.03 , 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg of sulfur mustard in sesame oil 5 days/week for 13 weeks. No dose-related mortality was observed. A significant decrease (P ( 0.05) in body weight was observed in both sexes of rats only in the 0.3 mg/kg group. Hematological evaluations and clinical chemistry measurements found no consistent treatment-related effects at the doses studied. The only treatment-related lesion associated with gavage exposure upon histopathologic evaluation was epithelial hyperplasia of the forestomach of both sexes at 0.3 mg/kg and males at 0.1 mg/kg. The hyperplastic change was minimal and characterized by cellular disorganization of the basilar layer, an apparent increase in mitotic activity of the basilar epithelial cells, and thickening of the epithelial layer due to the apparent increase in cellularity. The estimated NOEL for HD in this 90-day study is 0.1 mg/kg/day when administered orally.

  6. 31P NMR study of phosphate metabolites in intact developing seeds of wheat, soybean and mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambhir, P.N.; Pande, P.C.; Ratcliffe, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The study of 31 P NMR spectra of intact developing seeds of wheat, soybean and mustard and its possible use for assessing the relative degree of hypoxia under in vivo conditions are reported. 7 refs., 2 figs

  7. Fluorogenic dansyl-ligated gold nanoparticles for the detection of sulfur mustard by displacement assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighton, Richard C; Sambrook, Mark R; Vincent, Jack C; Smith, Simon A; Serpell, Christopher J; Cookson, James; Vickers, Matthew S; Beer, Paul D

    2013-03-21

    The dansyl fluorophore ligated to gold nanoparticles via imidazole and amine groups affords conjugates capable of detecting micromolar concentrations of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard by a fluorescence switching 'ON' displacement assay.

  8. Pathogenesis of Acute and Delayed Corneal Lesions after Ocular Exposure to Sulfur Mustard Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    14. ABSTRACT See reprint. 15. SUBJECT TERMS mustard gas keratopathy, ocular toxicity , vapor exposure , sulfur mustard, chemical warfare agent, medical...had poor outcomes . Using a rabbit corneal vapor exposure model, we previously demonstrated a clinical progression with acute and chronic sequelae...the appearance of BCN between one and two weeks suggests that necrosis is either due to delayed SM toxicity or a second-order effect indirectly

  9. Quantum molecular modeling of the interaction between guanine and alkylating agents--2--nitrogen mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, A; Broch, H; Vasilescu, D

    1996-06-01

    The alkylation mechanism of guanine by nitrogen mustard (HN2) was studied by using a supermolecular modeling at the ab initio 6-31G level. Our computations show that interaction of guanine with the aziridinium form of HN2 necessitates a transition state for the N7 alkylation route. The pathway of N7-guanine alkylation by nitrogen and sulfur mustards is discussed on the basis of the Molecular Electrostatic Potential and HOMO-LUMO properties of these molecules.

  10. Dermatotoxicology of sulfur mustard: Historical perspectives from World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Austin; Maibach, Howard

    2018-01-01

    Sulfur mustard has been used as a chemical warfare agent for the past century. After its introduction by the Germans in World War I, investigators quickly began studying its impact on the human body including its deleterious effects on skin. This review focuses on two groups in particular who conducted experiments from 1917 to 1918: the United States Army at the American University Experiment Station Laboratories and Torald Sollmann at Western Reserve University. Through this work, these researchers proved far ahead of their time by anticipating dermatologic phenomena not described in the literature until later in the twentieth century. These include regional variation of percutaneous penetration, effect of vehicle on penetration and predicting immunologic contact urticaria. The work conducted by these researchers set the groundwork for much of twentieth century dermatotoxicology. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Sulfur mustard-induced poikiloderma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadi, Seyed Naser; Kaffashi, Mohammad; Poursaleh, Zohreh; Akhavan-Moghaddam, Jamal; Soroush, Mohammad Reza; Emadi, Seyed Emad; Taghavi, Nez'hat-o-Sadat

    2011-06-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent chemical warfare agent that was widely used during the First World War and the Iran-Iraq conflict. This vesicant agent causes several acute and chronic effects on the skin, eye, and respiratory system. We report the case of a 41-year-old man who was injured with SM in Iraq chemical attack in 1988. After exposure, he developed severe skin blisters on his upper trunk, dorsum of hands, and genitalia. Based on several clinical observations, such as atrophy, pigmentation, and vascular changes on genitalia with relevant findings in histopathological studies, persistent pigmentation, and damaged skin appendix in hand lesions, a diagnosis of "SM-induced poikiloderma" was postulated. The absence of any complication on the palmar aspect of hands is another remarkable finding in presented case, which suggests a plausible role of the palms as a vector for transporting SM to other sites of the skin.

  12. Advanced biotherapy for the treatment of sulfur mustard poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingxue; Yang, Yuyan; Meng, Wenqi; Xu, Qingqiang; Lin, Fengwu; Chen, Yongchun; Zhao, Jie; Xiao, Kai

    2018-04-25

    Sulfur mustard (SM), a bifunctional alkylating agent, can react with a variety of biochemical molecules (DNA, RNA, proteins and other cell components) to cause a series of serious health issues or even death. Although a plethora of research has been done, the pathogenesis of SM poisoning has yet to be fully understood due to its high complexity. As a consequence, a specific antidote has not yet been developed and the treatment of SM poisoning remains a medical challenge. In recent years, various biological products and cell transplantation in the treatment of SM poisoning offered a significant clinical treatment progress. By highlighting these and other research studies, we hereby summarize the progress in this field in an effort to provide useful information on the clinical treatment of SM poisoning. This review summarizes the major advances of SM poisoning therapy by means of biological products (peptide and protein drugs, polysaccharides drugs, nucleic acid drugs, etc.), and cell transplantation (e.g., bone marrow, limbal stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells), as well as other relevant biotherapeutic approaches. We searched the database PubMed for published domestic and international articles using web based resources for information on histological, immunochemical, ultrastructural, and treatment features of SM-induced manifestations in both animal models and human tissues. To this end, we applied keywords containing mustard gas, chemical warfare, SM, eye, lung and skin. Our review provides a comprehensive understanding of the advances of available biotherapies in SM poisoning, and its potential for the treatment of SM-induced injuries. Potentially, our review will provide new insights for future research studies in this field. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Bipyridine (2,2′-dipyridyl) potentiates Escherichia coli lethality induced by nitrogen mustard mechlorethamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Alencar, T.A.M.; Wilmart-Gonçalves, T.C.; Vidal, L.S.; Fortunato, R.S.; Leitão, A.C.; Lage, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Reduction of Fe 2+ ensues a respiratory burst to reduce the oxidized iron pool. • Through Harber–Weiss recycling, superoxide electrons can reduce oxidized iron. • Redox imbalance sensitized repair proficient Escherichia coli to mustard lethal crosslinks. • A stronger synergism impacted survival of a superoxide dismutase-deficient strain. • Anti-cancer cocktails added of an iron chelator may impact hypoxia and genotoxicity. - Abstract: Alkylating agents are used in anti-tumor chemotherapy because they bind covalently to DNA and generate adducts that may lead to cell death. Bifunctional (HN2) and monofunctional (HN1) nitrogen are two such agents, and HN2 was the first drug successfully employed in anti-leukemia chemotherapy. Currently, HN2 is used either alone or combined with other drugs to treat Hodgkin's disease. It is well known that several crosslinking agents require metabolic activation via reactive oxygen species (ROS) to exert their lethal effects. The objective of this work was therefore to determine whether the abovementioned mustards would also require metabolic activation to exert lethal action against Escherichia coli. For this purpose, we measured survival following exposure to HN2 in E. coli strains that were deficient in nucleotide excision repair (uvrA NER mutant), base excision repair (xthA nfo nth fpg BER mutant) or superoxide dismutase (sodAB mutant) activity. We also performed the same experiments in cells pretreated with an iron chelator (2,2′-dipyridyl, DIP). The NER and BER mutants were only sensitive to HN2 treatment (survival rates similar to those of the wild-type were achieved with 5-fold lower HN2 doses). However, wild-type and sodAB strains were not sensitive to treatment with HN2. In all tested strains, survival dropped by 2.5-fold following pretreatment with DIP compared to treatment with HN2 alone. Furthermore, DIP treatment increased ROS generation in both wild type and sodAB-deficient strains. Based

  14. Bipyridine (2,2′-dipyridyl) potentiates Escherichia coli lethality induced by nitrogen mustard mechlorethamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Alencar, T.A.M.; Wilmart-Gonçalves, T.C.; Vidal, L.S.; Fortunato, R.S.; Leitão, A.C. [Laboratório de Radiobiologia Molecular (Brazil); Lage, C., E-mail: claudia_lage_dna@yahoo.com.br [Laboratório de Radiações em Biologia (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Reduction of Fe{sup 2+} ensues a respiratory burst to reduce the oxidized iron pool. • Through Harber–Weiss recycling, superoxide electrons can reduce oxidized iron. • Redox imbalance sensitized repair proficient Escherichia coli to mustard lethal crosslinks. • A stronger synergism impacted survival of a superoxide dismutase-deficient strain. • Anti-cancer cocktails added of an iron chelator may impact hypoxia and genotoxicity. - Abstract: Alkylating agents are used in anti-tumor chemotherapy because they bind covalently to DNA and generate adducts that may lead to cell death. Bifunctional (HN2) and monofunctional (HN1) nitrogen are two such agents, and HN2 was the first drug successfully employed in anti-leukemia chemotherapy. Currently, HN2 is used either alone or combined with other drugs to treat Hodgkin's disease. It is well known that several crosslinking agents require metabolic activation via reactive oxygen species (ROS) to exert their lethal effects. The objective of this work was therefore to determine whether the abovementioned mustards would also require metabolic activation to exert lethal action against Escherichia coli. For this purpose, we measured survival following exposure to HN2 in E. coli strains that were deficient in nucleotide excision repair (uvrA NER mutant), base excision repair (xthA nfo nth fpg BER mutant) or superoxide dismutase (sodAB mutant) activity. We also performed the same experiments in cells pretreated with an iron chelator (2,2′-dipyridyl, DIP). The NER and BER mutants were only sensitive to HN2 treatment (survival rates similar to those of the wild-type were achieved with 5-fold lower HN2 doses). However, wild-type and sodAB strains were not sensitive to treatment with HN2. In all tested strains, survival dropped by 2.5-fold following pretreatment with DIP compared to treatment with HN2 alone. Furthermore, DIP treatment increased ROS generation in both wild type and sodAB-deficient strains

  15. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TCP performs poorly in wireless mobile networks due to large bit error rates. ... TCP, and find considerable improvement in data throughput over wireless links. ... Centre for Electronics Design and Technology, Indian Institute of Science, ...

  16. Fellowship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Date of birth: 1 July 1959. Specialization: Game Theory & Mechanism Design, Electronic Commerce Internet and Network Economics Address: Department of Computer Science & Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru 560 012, Karnataka Contact: Office: (080) 2293 2773. Residence: (080) 2331 0265

  17. Fellowship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Specialization: Computer Science & Engineering, Information Technology and Electronics Address: INSA Senior Scientist, Faculty Consciousness Studies Programme, National Institute of Advanced Studies, Indian Institute of Science Campus, Bengaluru 560 012, Karnataka Contact: Residence: (080) 2360 2635

  18. Lipid Profile Status in Mustard Lung Patients and its Relation to Severity of Airflow Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Attaran

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD secondary to sulfur mustard gas poisoning, known as mustard lung, is a major late pulmonary complications in chemical warfare patients. Serious comorbidities like dyslipidemia are frequently encountered in COPD. The aim of this study was to measure the serum lipid profile and evaluate the relation of lipid parameters with the severity of airway obstruction in mustard lung patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six non-smoker mustard lung patients with no history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia were entered into this cross-sectional study. Control group consisted of 36 healthy non-smoker men were considered in this study. Serum lipid profile was performed in the patients and the controls. Spirometry was done in mustard lung patients. Results: The mean age of the patients was 47±6.80 SD years. The mean duration of COPD was 18.50±7.75 SD years. There were statistically significant differences in mean serum triglycerides and total cholesterol levels between patients and controls (p=0.04 and p=0.03, respectively.The mean levels of lipid parameters were not statistically significant different among the 4 stages of COPD severity (p>0.05. Conclusion: The current study revealed that the serum levels of triglycerides and cholesterol are elevated in mustard lung patients compared with the healthy controls. Since lipid profile abnormalities are considered as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, especial attention to this matter is recommended in mustard lung patients

  19. Retrospective detection of exposure to sulfur mustard: Improvements on an assay for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of albumin/sulfur mustard adducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Fidder, A.; Hulst, A.G.; Woolfitt, A.R.; Ash, D.; Barr, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    We here report on the further development of the method comprising the pronase digestion of albumin alkylated by sulfur mustard and the subsequent mass spectrometric analysis of an adducted tripeptide. This includes significant improvements in both the albumin isolation procedure and the automation

  20. ANALYSIS OF TRANSGENIC INDIAN MUSTARD PLANTS FOR PHYTOREMEDIATION OF METAL-CONTAMINATED MINE TAILINGS. (R827104)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  1. Remediation of cadmium by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) from cadmium contaminated soil: a phytoextraction study

    OpenAIRE

    Rajeev Kumar Bhadkariya; VK Jain; GPS Chak; SK Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is a toxic metal for living organisms and an environmental contaminant. Soils in many parts of the world are slightly too moderately contaminated by Cd due to long term use and disposal of Cd-contaminated wastes. Cost effective technologies are needed to remove cadmium from the contaminated sites. Soil phytoextraction is engineering based, low cost and socially accepted developing technology that uses plants to clean up contaminants in soils. This technology can be adopted as a remedi...

  2. Remediation of cadmium by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. from cadmium contaminated soil: a phytoextraction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Bhadkariya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a toxic metal for living organisms and an environmental contaminant. Soils in many parts of the world are slightly too moderately contaminated by Cd due to long term use and disposal of Cd-contaminated wastes. Cost effective technologies are needed to remove cadmium from the contaminated sites. Soil phytoextraction is engineering based, low cost and socially accepted developing technology that uses plants to clean up contaminants in soils. This technology can be adopted as a remediation of cadmium from Cd-contaminated soils with the help of Brassica juncea plant. The objective of this work was to evaluate the cadmium (Cd accumulate and the tolerance of Brassica juncea. The Cd accumulates in all parts of plants (roots, stems and leaves. It was found that accumulating efficiency increased with the increase in the concentration of applied cadmium metal solution. Maximum accumulation of cadmium was found in roots than stem and leaves. Phytoextraction coefficient and translocation factor were highest to show the validity of the Brassica juncea species for hyperaccumulation of the Cd metal. These results suggested that Brassica juncea has a high ability to tolerate and accumulate Cd, so it might be a promising plant to be used for phytoextraction of Cd contaminated soil. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10533 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 229-237

  3. The GC/AED studies on the reactions of sulfur mustard with oxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popiel, StanisIaw; Witkiewicz, Zygfryd; Szewczuk, Aleksander

    2005-01-01

    A gas chromatograph coupled with an atomic emission detector was used to identify and to determine the products formed on oxidation of sulfur mustard. The oxidation rate and the resulting oxidates were studied in relation to oxidant type and reaction medium parameters. Hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, sodium perborate, potassium monopercarbonate, ammonium peroxydisulfate, potassium peroxymonosulfate (oxone), and tert-butyl peroxide were used as oxidants. Oxidations were run in aqueous media or in solvents of varying polarities. The oxidation rate was found to be strongly related to oxidant type: potassium peroxymonosulfate (oxone) and sodium hypochlorite were fast-acting oxidants; sodium perborate, hydrogen peroxide, ammonium peroxydisulfate, and sodium monopercarbonate were moderate oxidants; tert-butyl peroxide was the slowest-acting oxidant. In non-aqueous solvents, the oxidation rate was strongly related to solvent polarity. The higher the solvent polarity, the faster the oxidation rate. In the acid and neutral media, the mustard oxidation rates were comparable. In the alkaline medium, oxidation was evidently slower. A suitable choice of the initial oxidant-to-mustard concentration ratio allowed to control the type of the resulting mustard oxidates. As the pH of the reaction medium was increased, the reaction of elimination of hydrogen chloride from mustard oxidates becomes more and more intensive

  4. New studies on mustard gold from the Dongping Mines, Hebei Province, China: The tellurian, plumbian, manganoan and mixed varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiuling; Makovicky, Emil

    2001-01-01

    geologi, Dongping gold tellurite deposit, mustard gold, calaverite, Fe-Pb-Te minerals, alteration, tellurium, filling in micro-porous, composite varieties, particles of gold......geologi, Dongping gold tellurite deposit, mustard gold, calaverite, Fe-Pb-Te minerals, alteration, tellurium, filling in micro-porous, composite varieties, particles of gold...

  5. 38 CFR 3.316 - Claims based on chronic effects of exposure to mustard gas and Lewisite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... effects of exposure to mustard gas and Lewisite. 3.316 Section 3.316 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Compensation Ratings and Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.316 Claims based on chronic effects of exposure to mustard gas and Lewisite. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, exposure to the...

  6. Characterization of sulfur mustard induced structural modifications in human hemoglobin by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Verheij, E.R.; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, L.P.A. de; Benschop, H.P.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we describe the use of tandem mass spectrometry to identify modified sites in human hemoglobin after in vitro exposure to bis(2- chloroethyl) sulfide (sulfur mustard). Globin isolated from human whole blood which had been exposed to sulfur mustard was degraded with trypsin, and the

  7. The effect of mustard seed meal (Sinapis arvensis on thyroid hormones and liver enzymes in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Mohebali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of wild black mustard seed meal on thyroid hormones (thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone in Japanese quails and also study the ability of FeSO4 to alleviate the possible negative effect of mustard meal on thyroid hormones in these birds for the first time. Methods: The experimental procedure was undertaken on 28 quails which were randomly assigned to a control and 6 test groups with 4 quails in each group for 28 days, during which the control group received basic diet with no mustard meal whereas the test groups (No. 2, 3 and 4 received mustard meal (5%, 10% and 15%, respectively and test groups (No. 5, 6 and 7 received FeSO4 (1%-treated mustard meal (5%, 10% and 15%, respectively on the basic of basic diet. Results: The group fed on 15% non-treated mustard seed meal had the least thyroxine level and its level backed to normal in group fed on 15% FeSO4-treated mustard seed meal although this group had the highest alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels. Conclusions: We concluded that up to 10% FeSO4 mustard seed meal could be incorporated in the quail diet successfully with the least damage to thyroids and livers, but further investigations on these birds are still needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  8. Morphological and genetic characterization of a new cytoplasmic male sterility system (oxa CMS) in stem mustard (Brassica juncea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Shuangping; Liu, Sansan; Xia, Chunxiu; Tang, HongYu; Xie, Fei; Fu, Tingdong; Wan, Zhengjie

    2018-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE: oxa CMS is a new cytoplasmic male sterility type in Brassica juncea. oxa CMS is a cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line that has been widely used in the production and cultivation of stem mustard in the southwestern China. In this study, different CMS-type specific mitochondrial markers were used to confirm that oxa CMS is distinct from the pol CMS, ogu CMS, nap CMS, hau CMS, tour CMS, Moricandia arvensis CMS, orf220-type CMS, etc., that have been previously reported in Brassica crops. Pollen grains of the oxa CMS line are sterile with a self-fertility rate of almost 0% and the sterility strain rate and sterility degree of oxa CMS is 100% due to a specific flower structure and flowering habit. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that most pollen grains in mature anthers of the oxa CMS line are empty, flat and deflated. Semi-thin section further showed that the abortive stage of anther development in oxa CMS is initiated at the late uninucleate stage. Abnormally vacuolated microspores caused male sterility in the oxa CMS line. This cytological study combined with marker-assisted selection showed that oxa CMS is a novel CMS type in stem mustard (Brassica juncea). Interestingly, the abortive stage of oxa CMS is later than those in other CMS types reported in Brassica crops, and there is no negative effect on the oxa CMS line growth period. This study demonstrated that this novel oxa CMS has a unique flower structure with sterile pollen grains at the late uninucleate stage. Our results may help to uncover the mechanism of oxa CMS in Brassica juncea.

  9. Evaluation of the pharmacoeconomics of drugs used for the treatment of long-term complications of sulfur mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunes Panahi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur Mustard (SM, a cytotoxic vesicant chemical warfare agent, has powerful irritant and blistering effects on the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Since during the Iraq-Iran war, many Iranian soldiers and civilians were exposed to SM, there are several victims still suffering from long-term cutaneous, ocular and pulmonary complications. Currently, there is no definite treatment for long-term complications of SM, and only supportive medical care is being taken to minimize the symptoms. In this study, we compared the cost-effectiveness of common drugs that are used against long-term SM-induced complications in Iranian patients. In this review article, electronic databases were checked using the following key words: sulfur mustard, lung, skin, eye, cost-effectiveness, pharmacoeconomics and treatment. Abstracts of non-English papers and proceedings of congresses on SM were also assessed. Among the studied drugs, high-dose oral N-acetyl cysteine and long-acting inhaled corticosteroids against respiratory complications, topical corticosteroids and oral antihistamines against cutaneous complications and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids ophthalmic drops against ocular complications were found to be cost-effective. Usage of different drugs in the treatment of SM injuries in Iran, have imposed a significant economic burden to patients and their families because many drugs that are effective against chemical injuries are not covered by insurance. In addition, the development of more effective drugs in this field is considered as an urgent demand that should be noticed by the pharmaceutical industry.

  10. Toward hypoxia-selective DNA-alkylating agents built by grafting nitrogen mustards onto the bioreductively activated, hypoxia-selective DNA-oxidizing agent 3-amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine 1,4-dioxide (tirapazamine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin M; Parsons, Zachary D; Barnes, Charles L; Gates, Kent S

    2014-08-15

    Tirapazamine (3-amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine 1,4-dioxide) is a heterocyclic di-N-oxide that undergoes enzymatic deoxygenation selectively in the oxygen-poor (hypoxic) cells found in solid tumors to generate a mono-N-oxide metabolite. This work explored the idea that the electronic changes resulting from the metabolic deoxygenation of tirapazamine analogues might be exploited to activate a DNA-alkylating species selectively in hypoxic tissue. Toward this end, tirapazamine analogues bearing nitrogen mustard units were prepared. In the case of the tirapazamine analogue 18a bearing a nitrogen mustard unit at the 6-position, it was found that removal of the 4-oxide from the parent di-N-oxide to generate the mono-N-oxide analogue 17a did indeed cause a substantial increase in reactivity of the mustard unit, as measured by hydrolysis rates and DNA-alkylation yields. Hammett sigma values were measured to quantitatively assess the magnitude of the electronic changes induced by metabolic deoxygenation of the 3-amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine 1,4-dioxide heterocycle. The results provide evidence that the 1,2,4-benzotiazine 1,4-dioxide unit can serve as an oxygen-sensing prodrug platform for the selective unmasking of bioactive agents in hypoxic cells.

  11. Study on irradiation sterilization of mixture of blanched mustard greed and soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shurong; Ha Yiming; Wang Shuo; Gao Meixu; Zhou Hongjie; Li Qingpeng

    2010-01-01

    The effects of irradiation on microbiological and sensory qualities of mixture of blanched mustard green and soybean stored at commercial condition and D 10 values of pathogens of Listeria innocua were investigated. The results show that D 10 value of Listeria innocua inoculated in mixture of blanched mustard green and soybean is 0.264 kGy, and fatality rate of the Listeria irradiated by a dose of 1.2 kGy was 99.996%; Irradiation at doses less than 2.0 kGy does not have significant effects on sensory qualities, and this dose is able to decrease microbe and pathogens of Listeria innocua by 2-3 log and 6 log, respectively. A dose of 2.0 kGy might be applied to ensure the hygienic quality of mixture of blanched mustard green and soybean. (authors)

  12. Teratology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Sulfur Mustard in Rats and Rabbits - Part 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P L; Rommereim, R L; Burton, F G; Buschbom, R L; Sasser, L B

    1987-09-30

    Sulfur mustard (HD) was administered to rats and rabbits by intragastric intubation. Rats were dosed daily from 6 through 15 days of gestation (dg) with o. 0.5, 1 .0 or 2.0 mg of HD/kg; rabbits were dosed with 0, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8 mg/kg on 6 through 19 dg. Maternal animals were weighed periodically and, at necropsy, were examined for gross lesions of major organs and reproductive performance; live fetuses were weighed and examined for external, internal and skeletal defects. In rats, reductions in body weights were observed in maternal animals and their female fetuses at the lowest administered dose (0.5 mg/kg), but the incidence of fetal malformations was not increased. In rabbits the highest administered dose (0.8 mg/kg) induced maternal mortality and depressed body weight measures but did not affect fetal development These results suggest that orally administered HD is not teratogenic in rats • and rabbits since fetal effects were obs~rved only at dose levels that induced frank maternal toxicity. Estimations of dose ranges for •no observable effects levers· in rats and rabbits, respectively, were: < 0.5 and < 0.4 mg/kg in maternal animals and < 0.5 and > 0.8 mg/kg in their fetuses.

  13. Phytoextraction potential of sunflower and white mustard plants in zinc-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Zalewska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phytoextraction relies on plants with a high capacity to absorb heavy metals and remove them from the soil. The objective of this study was to analyze the potential of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and white mustard (Sinapis alba L. for phytoextraction of Zn-contaminated soil. Research was based on a strict pot experiment conducted in a greenhouse. Seven treatments were established with increasing Zn concentrations: 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg Zn kg-1 air-dry soil. The first tested plant was fodder sunflower. In the following year, white mustard was sown in the same pots. Plants were harvested at the end of the flowering stage. The toxic effect of Zn on sunflower yields occurred at the contamination level of 200 mg Zn kg-1 soil. In the second year of the experiment, a significant decrease in mustard biomass took place in response to 400 mg Zn kg-1 soil. The contamination level of 600 mg Zn kg-1 soil resulted in complete plant death. Plant growth was not inhibited even at high tissue Zn concentrations of 515 mg Zn kg-1 sunflower DM and 422 mg Zn kg-1 mustard DM. The 2-yr cropping system did not contribute to a significant decrease in soil Zn content. Despite high concentrations of Zn in sunflower and mustard plants, total Zn uptake accounted for only 1% to 8% of the Zn rate introduced into the soil. However, in the long run, the growing of crops could reduce Zn contamination levels in the soil. The relatively high tolerance of sunflower and white mustard for Zn contamination and rapid growth of these species are possible alternatives for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of Zn-contaminated soil.

  14. Kinetics of the degradation of sulfur mustard on ambient and moist concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevett, Carol A.S.; Sumpter, Kenneth B.; Nickol, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    The rate of degradation of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard, bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, was measured on ambient and moist concrete using 13 C Solid State Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SSMAS NMR). Three samples of concrete made by the same formulation, but differing in age and alkalinity were used. The sulfur mustard eventually degraded to thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane via the intermediate sulfonium ions CH-TG, H-TG, H-2TG and O(CH 2 CH 2 ) 2 S + CH 2 CH 2 OH on all of the concrete samples, and in addition formed 8-31% vinyl moieties on the newer, more alkaline concrete samples. This is the first observation of the formation of O(CH 2 CH 2 ) 2 S + CH 2 CH 2 OH on a solid substrate. The addition of 2-chloroethanol to concrete on which mustard had fully degraded to thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane resulted in the formation of O(CH 2 CH 2 ) 2 S + CH 2 CH 2 OH, thus demonstrating the reversibility of sulfur mustard degradation pathways. The sulfur mustard degradation half-lives on ambient concrete at 22 deg. C ranged from 3.5 to 54 weeks. When the substrates were moistened, the degradation half-lives at 22 deg. C ranged from 75 to 350 h. The degradation of sulfur mustard occurred more quickly at elevated temperatures and with added water. The non-volatile toxic sulfonium ions persisted for months to years on concrete at 22 deg. C and weeks to months on concrete at 35 deg. C, before decomposing to the relatively non-toxic compounds thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane

  15. Kinetics of the degradation of sulfur mustard on ambient and moist concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevett, Carol A.S. [SAIC, Gunpowder Branch, P.O. Box 68, APG, MD 21010-0068 (United States)], E-mail: carol.brevett@us.army.mil; Sumpter, Kenneth B. [U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, 5183 Blackhawk Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010-5424 (United States); Nickol, Robert G. [SAIC, Gunpowder Branch, P.O. Box 68, APG, MD 21010-0068 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    The rate of degradation of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard, bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, was measured on ambient and moist concrete using {sup 13}C Solid State Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SSMAS NMR). Three samples of concrete made by the same formulation, but differing in age and alkalinity were used. The sulfur mustard eventually degraded to thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane via the intermediate sulfonium ions CH-TG, H-TG, H-2TG and O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}S{sup +}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH on all of the concrete samples, and in addition formed 8-31% vinyl moieties on the newer, more alkaline concrete samples. This is the first observation of the formation of O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}S{sup +}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH on a solid substrate. The addition of 2-chloroethanol to concrete on which mustard had fully degraded to thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane resulted in the formation of O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}S{sup +}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH, thus demonstrating the reversibility of sulfur mustard degradation pathways. The sulfur mustard degradation half-lives on ambient concrete at 22 deg. C ranged from 3.5 to 54 weeks. When the substrates were moistened, the degradation half-lives at 22 deg. C ranged from 75 to 350 h. The degradation of sulfur mustard occurred more quickly at elevated temperatures and with added water. The non-volatile toxic sulfonium ions persisted for months to years on concrete at 22 deg. C and weeks to months on concrete at 35 deg. C, before decomposing to the relatively non-toxic compounds thiodiglycol and 1,4-oxathiane.

  16. Assessing Natural Isothiocyanate Air Emissions after Field Incorporation of Mustard Cover Crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trott, Donna M.; LePage, Jane; Hebert, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    A regional air assessment was performed to characterize volatile natural isothiocyanate (NITC) compounds in air during soil incorporation of mustard cover crops in Washington State. Field air sampling and analytical methods were developed specific to three NITCs known to be present in air at appreciable concentrations during/after field incorporation. The maximum observed concentrations in air for the allyl, benzyl, and phenethyl isothiocyanates were respectively 188, 6.1, and 0.7 lg m-3 during mustard incorporation. Based on limited inhalation toxicity information, airborne NITC concentrations did not appear to pose an acute human inhalation exposure concern to field operators and bystanders.

  17. Availability and uptake of sulphur by mustard in three soils in Udaipur valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataria, S.K.; Shriniwas

    1976-01-01

    The differential behaviour of three soils (Bargaon, Bhatewar red and Bhatewar black) for availability of sulphur to mustard was studied in a greenhouse pot culture experiment using five doses of sulphur (0,20,40,80,120 ppm) applied as 35 S tagged ammonium sulphate. Application of sulphur significantly increased the dry matter of mustard over control, however, maximum dry matter was obtained when sulphur was applied at 40 ppm level, thereafter, any higher doses did not prove beneficial. Sulphur content in the plant tissue and percent of sulphur in the plant derived from fertilizer increased with successive doses of applied sulphur. (author)

  18. Indian Legends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting American Indian legends, this material provides insight into the cultural background of the Dakota, Ojibwa, and Winnebago people. Written in a straightforward manner, each of the eight legends is associated with an Indian group. The legends included here are titled as follows: Minnesota is Minabozho's Land (Ojibwa); How We Got the…

  19. Metabolomics diagnostic approach to mustard airway diseases: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BiBi Fatemeh Nobakht Mothlagh Ghoochani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: This study aims to evaluate combined proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS metabolic profiling approaches, for discriminating between mustard airway diseases (MADs and healthy controls and for providing biochemical information on this disease. Materials and Methods: In the present study, analysis of serum samples collected from 17 MAD subjects and 12 healthy controls was performed using NMR. Of these subjects, 14 (8 patients and 6 controls were analyzed by GC-MS. Then, their spectral profiles were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal partial least squares regression discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA. Results: A panel of twenty eight metabolite biomarkers was generated for MADs, sixteen  NMR-derived metabolites (3-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate, lactic acid, lysine, glutamic acid, proline, hydroxyproline, dimethylamine, creatine, citrulline, choline, acetic acid, acetoacetate, cholesterol, alanine, and lipid (mainly VLDL and twelve GC-MS-derived metabolites (threonine, phenylalanine, citric acid, myristic acid, pentadecanoic acid, tyrosine, arachidonic acid, lactic acid, propionic acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid. This composite biomarker panel could effectively discriminate MAD subjects from healthy controls, achieving an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC values of 1 and 0.79 for NMR and GC-MS, respectively. Conclusion: In the present study, a robust panel of twenty-eight biomarkers for detecting MADs was established. This panel is involved in three metabolic pathways including aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, arginine, and proline metabolism, and synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, and could differentiate MAD subjects from healthy controls with a higher accuracy.

  20. Whole body exposure of rats to sulfur mustard vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachir, Shlomit; Rabinovitz, Ishai; Yaacov, Guy; Gutman, Hila; Cohen, Liat; Horwitz, Vered; Cohen, Maayan; Kadar, Tamar

    2017-11-24

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is an incapacitating chemical warfare agent used in numerous conflicts around the world and it is still a major threat for both, army troops and civilians. To evaluate its multiple targets effects in experimental setup, a model of whole body exposure (WBE) to SM vapor was established in rats and its simultaneous effects on lungs and eyes as well as on general wellbeing were examined. Rats were exposed to SM vapor. Evaluation (up to 10 weeks post-exposure) included body weight, general observation, blood counts and histological analysis. Results showed that following a latency-period of several hours, rats typical symptoms developed over a period of more than one week. The initial symptoms, characterized by swollen and erythematic nose, deteriorated into extensive rhinorrhea, eye closure, excessive lacrimation as well as rhonchi, wheezing and breathing difficulties. Alopecia and behavioral abnormality were also recorded. A weight loss of up to 40% was measured within one week with spontaneous recovery to baseline level within three weeks after exposure. Blood counts revealed leukopenia during the first three days post-exposure. Histological evaluation revealed a long lasting damage to the trachea, lungs and eyes. Thus, WBE to SM, was found to closely mimic the deleterious effects of SM on the sensitive tissues previously described in human victims during WWI and the Iran-Iraq war. The use of this animal model will enable comprehensive characterization of changes in biological processes that may lead to the development of therapeutic measures to ameliorate SM induced multi-system injuries.

  1. Pathogens present on vegetative organs and seeds of white mustard (Sinapis alba L. and chinese mustad (Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Majchrzak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in the years 1999-2001. The aim of the research was to determine the health condition of overground parts and seeds of white niuslard (Sinapis alba L. cv. Metex and chinese mustard (Brassica juncea L. cv. Małopolska. In all the years of the research alternaria blight was found on the leaves of white mustard which injury index ranged from 5,6% in 2001 to 17,6% in 200O. The most dangerous disease of chinese mustard also was alternaria blight and its symptoms were found on leaves and siliques. The strongest infection of leaves was in 2000 (50% and the weakest in 2001 (6,7%. In all the years of the research siliques were rather weak infected (50-8,89%. Besides powdery mildew was found on chinese mustard which injury index ranged from 0,3% in 1999 to 32,3% in 2000. Intensity of diseases was affected generally by the weather conditions. From the seeds of white mustard and chinese mustard were isolated respectively 263 and 137 colonies. Alternaria alternata was the most numerous species which makes respectively 60,9% and 42,3% isolates. Among the fungi pathogenic for white and chinese mustard were also isolated: A. brassicae, Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solami.

  2. Combination of electron beam irradiation and thermal treatment to enhance the shelf-life of traditional Indian fermented food (Idli)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulmule, Manoj D.; Shimmy, Shankar M.; Bambole, Vaishali; Jamdar, Sahayog N.; Rawat, K. P.; Sarma, K. S. S.

    2017-02-01

    Idli, a steam-cooked breakfast food item consumed in India, is famous as a staple food for its spongy texture and unique fermented taste. Idli preparation is a time consuming process; although instant Idli pre-mixes as powder or batter are available in the market, they do not have the distinctive taste and aroma similar to the Idli prepared at home. Hence ready-to-eat (RTE) form of this food is in demand. Therefore, an attempt was made to prepare RTE Idli bearing similar taste as home-cooked Idli with an extended shelf-life of up to two months at an ambient temperature using Electron Beam Irradiation (EBI) at dosages 2.5 kGy, 5 kGy and 7.5 kGy and combination processing comprised of EBI dosage at 2.5 kGy and thermal treatment (80 °C for 20 min). The treated Idli's were microbiologically and sensorially evaluated at storage periods of zero day, 14 days, 30 days and 60 days. Idli's irradiated at 7.5 kGy and subjected to combination processing at 2.5 kGy and thermal treatment were shelf-stable for 60 days. 2.5 kGy and 5 kGy radiation dosages alone were not sufficient to preserve Idli samples for more than 14 days. Undesirable change in sensory properties of Idli was observed at an EBI dosage of 7.5 kGy. Sensory properties of combination processed Idli's were found to undergo minor change over the storage period. The present work suggests that lowest radiation dosage in combination with thermal treatment could be useful to achieve the extended shelf-life without considerably impairing the organoleptic quality of Ready-to-Eat Idli.

  3. Performance evaluation of linear time-series ionospheric Total Electron Content model over low latitude Indian GPS stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbakuti, J. R. K. Kumar; Venkata Ratnam, D.

    2017-10-01

    Precise modeling of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) is a critical aspect of Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) services intended for the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) applications as well as Earth Observation System (EOS), satellite communication, and space weather forecasting applications. In this paper, linear time series modeling has been carried out on ionospheric TEC at two different locations at Koneru Lakshmaiah University (KLU), Guntur (geographic 16.44° N, 80.62° E; geomagnetic 7.55° N) and Bangalore (geographic 12.97° N, 77.59° E; geomagnetic 4.53° N) at the northern low-latitude region, for the year 2013 in the 24th solar cycle. The impact of the solar and geomagnetic activity on periodic oscillations of TEC has been investigated. Results confirm that the correlation coefficient of the estimated TEC from the linear model TEC and the observed GPS-TEC is around 93%. Solar activity is the key component that influences ionospheric daily averaged TEC while periodic component reveals the seasonal dependency of TEC. Furthermore, it is observed that the influence of geomagnetic activity component on TEC is different at both the latitudes. The accuracy of the model has been assessed by comparing the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) 2012 model TEC and TEC measurements. Moreover, the absence of winter anomaly is remarkable, as determined by the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between the linear model TEC and GPS-TEC. On the contrary, the IRI2012 model TEC evidently failed to predict the absence of winter anomaly in the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) crest region. The outcome of this work will be useful for improving the ionospheric now-casting models under various geophysical conditions.

  4. H5PV2Mo10O40 encapsulated in MIL-101(Cr): facile synthesis and characterization of rationally designed composite materials for efficient decontamination of sulfur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanqin; Gao, Qi; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhou, Yunshan; Zhong, Yuxu; Ying, Ying; Zhang, Mingcai; Huang, Chunqian; Wang, Yong'an

    2018-04-24

    Currently extensive effort is compulsively expended to decontaminate efficiently banned chemical war agents. In this work, H5PV2Mo10O40 molecules have been encapsulated in mesoporous MIL-101(Cr), which features two types of mesoporous cages (internal diameters of 29 Å and 34 Å) and microporous windows (diameters of 12 Å and 16 Å), leading to the formation of a new composite H5PV2Mo10O40@MIL-101(Cr) through a simple impregnation method. The composite was characterized thoroughly by elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, TG/DTA, and textural analysis thereby confirming the encapsulation of the H5PV2Mo10O40 into MIL-101(Cr). The decontamination efficiency of sulfur mustard (4 μL HD in 40 μL of petroleum ether) by 20 mg of the composite is found to be 97.39% in 120 min under ambient conditions. GC-MS analysis on the decontaminated products using 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), which has been widely used as a simulant of sulfur mustard, showed that MIL-101(Cr) just decontaminates CEES by adsorption, while CEES can be decontaminated under ambient conditions by a synergetic combination of adsorption of MIL-101(Cr) and subsequent chemical oxidation degradation to nontoxic 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfoxide (CEESO) due to the presence of highly dispersed H5PV2Mo10O40 within the composites.

  5. Effect of garlic mustard invasion on ectomycorrhizae in mature pine trees and pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauren A. Carlson; Kelly D. McConnaughay; Sherri J. Morris

    2014-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are mutualistic fungi that colonize the roots of many terrestrial plants. These fungi increase plant vigor by acquiring nutrients from the soil for their hosts in exchange for photosynthates. We studied the effect of garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) invasion on the density of ectomycorrhizal symbionts using two approaches. We...

  6. No metabolic effects of mustard allyl-isothiocyanate compared with placebo in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, Mirjam; Tan, Chong Yew; Soeters, Maarten R.; Virtue, Samuel; Watson, Laura Pe; Murgatroyd, Peter R.; Ambler, Graeme K.; Vidal-Puig, Santiago; Chatterjee, Krishna V.; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background: Induction of nonshivering thermogenesis can be used to influence energy balance to prevent or even treat obesity. The pungent component of mustard, allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC), activates the extreme cold receptor transient receptor potential channel, subfamily A, member 1 and may thus

  7. Therapeutic options to treat sulfur mustard poisoning--the road ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William J

    2009-09-01

    For the past 15 years the international research community has conducted a basic and applied research program aimed at identifying a medical countermeasure against chemical threat vesicant, or blistering, agents. The primary emphasis of this program has been the development of therapeutic protection against sulfur mustard and its cutaneous pathology-blister formation. In addition to the work on a medical countermeasures, significant research has been conducted on the development of topical skin protectants and medical strategies for wound healing. This review will focus on the pharmacological strategies investigated, novel therapeutic targets currently under investigation and therapeutic approaches being considered for transition to advanced development. Additionally, we will review the expansion of our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of mustard injury that has come from this research. While great strides have been made through these investigations, the complexity of the mustard insult demands that further studies extend the inroads made and point the way toward better understanding of cellular and tissue disruptions caused by sulfur mustard.

  8. Analysis of Genetic Parameters on Ethiopian Mustard (Brassica Carinata A. Braun Genotypes in Northwestern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walle Tesfaye

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with the objective to estimate the genotypic variability and other yield related traits of Ethiopian mustard in North West Ethiopia. A total of 36 genotypes of Ethiopian mustard were considered for this study. Analysis of variance was computed to contrast the variability within the collected genotypes based on yield and other yield related traits. The results revealed highly significant values(p<0.01 for days to maturity, grain filling period, number of pod per plot, secondary branches per plant, harvest index, seed yield per plot, seed yield per hectare and oil content. Significant differences (p<0.05 were noted for days to flowering, plant height, primary branch per plant, biomass per plot, oil yield per plot differences among the genotypes. Genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV % was lower than phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV % for all the traits studied. High genetic advance with heritability was observed in the following characters; plant height, biomass of the plant, number of secondary branch per plant and grain filling period. There are variations in the extent of genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance of traits which can facilitate selection for further improvement of important traits of Ethiopian mustard. Therefore, it can be concluded that the variability within Ethiopian mustard genotypes collected from different areas of northern Ethiopia is high and vital for better crop improvement.

  9. Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted extraction of natural antioxidants from mustard seed cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydłowska-Czerniak, Aleksandra; Tułodziecka, Agnieszka; Karlovits, György; Szłyk, Edward

    2015-05-01

    Modified mustard varieties can produce edible oil with reduced amounts of erucic acid and glucosinolates and enhanced antioxidant potential. Therefore, this work focused on the optimisation of the ultrasound-assisted extraction of compounds with high antioxidant capacity from three white mustard seed cultivars using response surface methodology. The predicted optimum solvent polarity (57.2, 56.5 and 57.6) and ultrasound power-to-sonication time ratio (4.5, 4.8 and 4.3 W min(-1)) resulted in antioxidant capacities determined by the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay [54.37, 65.75 and 68.55 mmol Trolox equivalent (TE) kg(-1)] and the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method (141.65, 175.26 and 185.10 mmol TE kg(-1)) and total phenolics content (23.70, 27.16 and 11.29 mg sinapic acid g(-1)) for extracts obtained from one traditional and two modified mustard seed varieties. The highest FRAP and DPPH values (69.51 and 197.73 mmol TE kg(-1)) revealed 50% methanolic extract prepared from modified mustard seed cultivar without erucic acid and glucosinolates treated with ultrasound for 30 min (ultrasound power/ultrasound time = 4 W min(-1)). Ultrasound-assisted extraction was found to be a more rapid, convenient and appropriate extraction method with higher yield of antioxidants, shorter time and lower solvent consumption in comparison to conventional extraction. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Effectiveness of Defatted Mustard Meals Used to Control Fungus Gnats: 2000-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaffrey, J. P.; Morra, M. J.

    2005-07-01

    Our objective is to develop a pesticidal product from mustard meals that can be used to control insect pests. We have focused our efforts on fungus gnats. This report details our current progress in developing a pesticidal product that can be used to control this plant pest.

  11. Degradation of the blister agent sulfur mustard, bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, on concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevett, Carol A.S.; Sumpter, Kenneth B.; Wagner, George W.; Rice, Jeffrey S.

    2007-01-01

    The products formed from the degradation of the blister agent sulfur mustard [bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide] on concrete were identified using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (GC/MSD), 1 H NMR, 2D 1 H- 13 C NMR and 13 C solid state magic angle spinning (SSMAS) NMR. In situ and extraction experiments were performed. Sulfur mustard was detected in the in situ 13 C SSMAS samples for 12 weeks, whereas less than 5% of the sulfur mustard was detected in extracts from the concrete monoliths after 8 days. Sulfonium ions and (2-chloroethylthio)ethyl ether (T) were observed on the in situ samples after a period of 12 weeks, whereas vinyl species and bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfoxide were observed in the extracts of the concrete monoliths within 24 h. The differences between the extraction and the SSMAS data indicated that the sulfur mustard existed in the concrete in a non-extractable form prior to its degradation. Extraction methods alone were not sufficient to identify the products; methods to identify the presence of non-extractable degradation products were also required

  12. Mustard vesicants alter expression of the endocannabinoid system in mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlman, Irene M.; Composto, Gabriella M.; Heck, Diane E.; Heindel, Ned D.; Lacey, C. Jeffrey; Guillon, Christophe D.; Casillas, Robert P.; Croutch, Claire R.; Gerecke, Donald R.; Laskin, Debra L.; Joseph, Laurie B.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Vesicants including sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM) are bifunctional alkylating agents that cause skin inflammation, edema and blistering. This is associated with alterations in keratinocyte growth and differentiation. Endogenous cannabinoids, including N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide, AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), are important in regulating inflammation, keratinocyte proliferation and wound healing. Their activity is mediated by binding to cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2), as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Levels of endocannabinoids are regulated by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). We found that CB1, CB2, PPARα and FAAH were all constitutively expressed in mouse epidermis and dermal appendages. Topical administration of NM or SM, at concentrations that induce tissue injury, resulted in upregulation of FAAH, CB1, CB2 and PPARα, a response that persisted throughout the wound healing process. Inhibitors of FAAH including a novel class of vanillyl alcohol carbamates were found to be highly effective in suppressing vesicant-induced inflammation in mouse skin. Taken together, these data indicate that the endocannabinoid system is important in regulating skin homeostasis and that inhibitors of FAAH may be useful as medical countermeasures against vesicants. - Highlights: • Sulfur mustard and nitrogen mustard are potent skin vesicants. • The endocannabinoid system regulates keratinocyte growth and differentiation. • Vesicants are potent inducers of the endocannabinoid system in mouse skin. • Endocannabinoid proteins upregulated are FAAH, CB1, CB2 and PPARα. • FAAH inhibitors suppress vesicant-induced inflammation in mouse skin.

  13. Covalent binding of nitrogen mustards to the cysteine-34 residue in human serum albumin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Hulst, A.G.; Jansen, R.

    2002-01-01

    Covalent binding of various clinically important nitrogen mustards to the cysteine-34 residue of human serum albumin, in vitro and in vivo, is demonstrated. A rapid method for detection of these adducts is presented, based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the adducted

  14. Serum level of substance P in patients with lung injuries due to sulfur mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Najafian

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The SP may have a role in pulmonary complications of mustard gas. The lower level of SP in the moderate to severe patients may be due to corticosteroid consumption in such severe cases. However, further studies are needed to clarify the roles and mechanism of SP in this setting.

  15. Efficacy of white mustard and soybean meal as a bioherbicide in organic broccoli and spinach production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control in organic cropping systems generally rely on mechanical or physical methods because of the lack of reliable organically accepted herbicides. Among the several potential bioherbicides being explored, white mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal is among those bioherbicides that have been sho...

  16. Detection of sulfur mustard adducts in human callus by phage antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, F.J.; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Noort, D.; Fidder, A.; Schans, G.P. van der

    2007-01-01

    As part of a research program to develop novel methods for diagnosis of sulfur mustard exposure in the human skin the suitability of phage display was explored. Phage display is a relative new method that enables researchers to quickly evaluate a huge range of potentially useful antibodies, thereby

  17. Space mutation in Sulao mustard, Futian-flowering chinese cabbage and Pachi-radish breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanrong; Cao Jian; Li Guihua; Zhao Xiujuan

    2004-01-01

    Vegetable seeds of Sulao mustard, Futian flowering Chinese cabbage and Pachi-Radish were mutated by boarding on Shenzhou No.4 Spaceship. The results showed that there were no significant differences between SP 1 and control, however, some variability of plants were found in SP 2

  18. Analysis of esterase isozyme and SSR for mutagenic progenies induced by space mutation in mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jinjuan; Liu Yihua; Zhang Zhaorong; Ran Guangkui; Zhao Shouzhong; Xiao Li

    2012-01-01

    Seeds of five mustard (Brassica juncea Coss) varieties were carried into outer space by 'Shijian No.8' satellite. After five years' consecutive planting and selection, ten relatively stable mutant lines were obtained, which had significant variation in agronomic and economic characters. The mutant lines and their original varieties without space mutation treatment as control were studied by esterase isozyme and SSR analyses. Electrophoresis analysis of esterase isozymes indicated that there were differences between mutant lines and their controls in enzyme types and enzyme activity. Different mustard varieties had different enzymographs, and so did the mutants induced by space mutation, which shows different sensitivity among different mustard varieties. The SSR analysis showed that large differences were found in the SSR loci between mutant lines and their original variety, the variation frequency was between 9.52% and 57.14% with an average frequency of 26.19% for all the mutant lines. Among the mutant SSR loci, about 56.36% showed changes in band number and 43.64% in molecular weight. These results indicated that the ten mutant lines had large genetic difference in phenotype, genomic sequence and gene expression, and the outer space mutation would be an effective method to develop new mustard germplasm and variety. (authors)

  19. Further progress in the utilization of yellow seeded Trombay mustard in breeding programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, V.; Bhatia, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    Full text: As reported previously the yellow seeded TM (Trombay Mustard) cultivars developed at this centre have been utilized in cross breeding programmes at several other mustard breeding centres in India. According to reports of AICORPO (All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Oilseeds) these cultivars have been used during 1977-87 in over 383 crosses. Derivatives of these crosses in advanced generations were tested in Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and West Bengal. In Rajasthan, these derivatives have now reached multilocation trials and three selections RS.64, RS.84, and RS.104 were found promising. In a yield trial under late sown conditions at Phaltan in Maharashtra with 12 varieties, yellow seeded TM-17 was the best yielder with 689 kg/ha compared to 593 kg/ha for Varuna, the national check. One of the objectives of mustard breeding is to evolve early maturing varieties which can be harvested in 100 days. TM-18, a selection from TM-4 x Lethbridge (Canadian cultivar) isolated at our centre, can be harvested in 75 days. It gave 1170 kg/ha seed yield at Trombay. TM-18 is the earliest maturing mustard cultivar available in India. (author)

  20. Mustard vesicants alter expression of the endocannabinoid system in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlman, Irene M.; Composto, Gabriella M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Health Science, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Heindel, Ned D.; Lacey, C. Jeffrey; Guillon, Christophe D. [Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States); Casillas, Robert P.; Croutch, Claire R. [MRIGlobal, Kansas City, MO (United States); Gerecke, Donald R.; Laskin, Debra L.; Joseph, Laurie B. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Environmental and Occupational Health, Rutgers University School of Public Health, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Vesicants including sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM) are bifunctional alkylating agents that cause skin inflammation, edema and blistering. This is associated with alterations in keratinocyte growth and differentiation. Endogenous cannabinoids, including N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide, AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), are important in regulating inflammation, keratinocyte proliferation and wound healing. Their activity is mediated by binding to cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2), as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Levels of endocannabinoids are regulated by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). We found that CB1, CB2, PPARα and FAAH were all constitutively expressed in mouse epidermis and dermal appendages. Topical administration of NM or SM, at concentrations that induce tissue injury, resulted in upregulation of FAAH, CB1, CB2 and PPARα, a response that persisted throughout the wound healing process. Inhibitors of FAAH including a novel class of vanillyl alcohol carbamates were found to be highly effective in suppressing vesicant-induced inflammation in mouse skin. Taken together, these data indicate that the endocannabinoid system is important in regulating skin homeostasis and that inhibitors of FAAH may be useful as medical countermeasures against vesicants. - Highlights: • Sulfur mustard and nitrogen mustard are potent skin vesicants. • The endocannabinoid system regulates keratinocyte growth and differentiation. • Vesicants are potent inducers of the endocannabinoid system in mouse skin. • Endocannabinoid proteins upregulated are FAAH, CB1, CB2 and PPARα. • FAAH inhibitors suppress vesicant-induced inflammation in mouse skin.

  1. Kinetics of degradation of sulfur mustard and sarin simulants on HKUST-1 metal organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anuradha; Srivastava, Avanish K; Singh, Beer; Shah, Dilip; Mahato, Timir Haran; Srivastava, Anchal

    2012-10-28

    The applicability of HKUST-1 for the degradation of sulfur mustard and sarin simulants was studied with and without coadsorbed water. Degradation was found to be via hydrolysis and dependent on the nucleophilic substitution reaction, vapour pressure and molecular diameter of the toxicants.

  2. A comparison of sulfur mustard and heptane penetrating a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thomas J., E-mail: t.mueller@theo.chemie.tu-darmstadt.de [Theoretische Physikalische Chemie, Eduard-Zintl-Institut fuer Anorganische und Physikalische Chemie, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 20, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Mueller-Plathe, Florian [Theoretische Physikalische Chemie, Eduard-Zintl-Institut fuer Anorganische und Physikalische Chemie, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 20, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-08-30

    In the present molecular dynamics simulations we study the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide) and the alkane heptane inserted into a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer, a generic model for a biological membrane. We investigate the diffusion, the orientation, the preferred positioning, and the end-to-end distance of the solutes within the membrane as well as the corresponding coupling times. We compare results of equilibrium simulations and simulation at different external forces, which drag the solutes through the membrane. These properties lead to a general comparison of the rotational and translational behaviors of the two solutes during the penetration of the membrane. We show that sulfur mustard, due to its atomic charge polarization, its bigger flexibility and its smaller molecular volume, is the faster moving molecule within the membrane. In last consequence, we show that this leads to different limits for the transport mechanism as observed in these simulations. For heptane the hindrance to penetrate into the membrane is significantly higher than for sulfur mustard. In contrast to heptane molecules, which spend the most of the time penetrating the tail groups, sulfur mustard needs more time to escape the tail group-head group interface of the membrane.

  3. Correlations of sleep disorders with severity of obstructive airway disease in mustard gas-injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi, Ensieh; Taheri, Saeed; Alaedini, Farshid; Poursaleh, Zohreh; Ameli, Javad; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2012-06-01

    Mustard gas has serious adverse effects on several organs and functions in humans. In this study, we analyzed potential correlations between obstructive airway disease and sleep disorders in Iranian mustard gas-injured patients. We enrolled 30 male mustard gas-injured veterans and civilians from the Chemical Warfare Exposure Clinic at Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran. All the subjects underwent comprehensive polysomnographic and spirometric evaluations for diagnosis of sleep disorders. Patients were categorized into three groups according to the severity of their obstructive airway disease based on the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria: group 1 (GOLD I and II), group 2 (GOLD III), and group 3 (GOLD IV). Patients with less severe obstructive airway disease had significantly higher rate of hypopnea (p = 0.05) and AHI (p = 0.05). The number of REM events was significantly higher in patients with less severe airway disease (p = 0.028). Stage 1 sleep among patients with higher FEV1 significantly constituted a higher proportion of sleep, and stage 4 sleep was significantly longer in patients with higher DLCO (p = 0.043, both). We found that sleep parameters in SM-exposed patients have some relations with spirometric parameters. Future studies with large patient populations are needed for confirmation of our results, and therapeutic interventions are needed to evaluate endeavors we can do to enhance health and quality of life in our mustard gas-injured population.

  4. Cine computed tomography for diagnosis of superior vena cava obstruction following the mustard operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matherne, G.P.; Atkins, D.L.; Frey, E.E.; Smith, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    Superior vena caval obstruction is a well described complication following Mustard's repair for transposition of the great arteries. We report a case of a 6-year-old child with superior vena cava obstruction correctly diagnosed by Cine-CT. The advantages of imaging with Cine-CT for this complication are discussed. (orig.)

  5. pH-dependent toxicity of sulphur mustard in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawyer, Thomas W.; Vair, Cory; Nelson, Peggy; Shei Yimin; Bjarnason, Stephen; Tenn, Catherine; McWilliams, Michael; Villanueva, Mercy; Burczyk, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The dependence of sulphur mustard (HD) toxicity on intracellular (pH i ) and extracellular pH was examined in CHO-K1 cells. HD produced an immediate and significant concentration-dependent decline in cytosolic pH, and also inhibited the mechanisms responsible for restoring pH i to physiological values. The concentration-response of HD-induced cytosolic acidification, closely paralleled the acidification of the extracellular buffer through HD hydrolysis. A viability study was carried out in order to assess the importance of HD-induced cytosolic acidification. Cultures were exposed to HD for 1 h in media that were adjusted through a pH range (pH 5.0-10), and the 24 h LC 50 values were assessed using the viability indicator dye alamarBlue TM . The toxicity of HD was found to be dependent on extracellular pH, with a greater than eight-fold increase in LD 50 obtained in cultures treated with HD at pH 9.5, compared to those treated at pH 5.0. Assays of apoptotic cell death, including morphology, soluble DNA, caspase-3 activity and TUNEL also showed that as pH was increased, much greater HD concentrations were required to cause cell death. The modest decline in HD half-life measured in buffers of increasing pH, did not account for the protective effects of basic pH. The early event(s) that HD initiates to eventually culminate in cell death are not known. However, based on the data obtained in this study, we propose that HD causes an extracellular acidification through chemical hydrolysis and that this, in both a concentration and temporally related fashion, results in cytosolic acidification. Furthermore, HD also acts to poison the antiporter systems responsible for maintaining physiological pH i , so that the cells are unable to recover from this insult. It is this irreversible decline in pH i that initiates the cascade of events that results in HD-induced cell death

  6. Performance, combustion and emission analysis of mustard oil biodiesel and octanol blends in diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Yuvarajan; Munuswamy, Dinesh Babu; Nagappan, Beemkumar; Pandian, Amith Kishore

    2018-01-01

    Biodiesels from the mustard oil promise to be an alternative to the conventional diesel fuel due to their similarity in properties. Higher alcohols are added to neat Mustard oil biodiesel (M100) to vary the properties of biodiesel for improving its combustion, emission and performance characteristics. N-Octanol has the ability to act as an oxygen buffer during combustion which contributes to the catalytic effect and accelerates the combustion process. N-Octanol is dispersed to neat Mustard oil biodiesel in the form of emulsions at different dosage levels of 10, 20 and 30% by volume. Three emulsion fuels prepared for engine testing constitutes of 90% of biodiesel and 10% of n-Octanol (M90O10), 80% of biodiesel and 20% of n-Octanol (M80O20) and 70% of biodiesel and 30% of n-Octanol (M70O30) by volume respectively. AVL 5402 diesel engine is made to run on these fuels to study the effect of n-Octanol on combustion, emission and performance characteristics of the mustard oil biodiesel. Experimental results show that addition of n-octanol has a positive effect on performance, combustion and emission characteristics owing to its inbuilt oxygen content. N-octanol was found to be the better oxidizing catalyst as it was more effective in reducing HC and CO emissions. A significant reduction in NOx emission was found when fuelled with emulsion techniques. The blending of n-octanol to neat Mustard oil biodiesel reduces the energy and fuel consumption and a marginal increase in brake thermal efficiency. Further, n-octanol also reduces the ignition delay and aids the combustion.

  7. Effect of Wild Mustard (Sinapis arvensis Competition and Nitrogen Levels on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Soleymani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of wild mustard plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on morphological characters, yield and yield components of canola a split-plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications was carried out in Bu-Ali Sina university of Hamedan, in 2009. 4 levels of nitrogen fertilization (100, 150, 200 and 250 kgN h-1 were assigned to main-plots and plant density of wild mustard at 5 levels (0, 4, 8, 16 and 32 plants m-2 to the sub-plots. Results showed that the effects of wild mustard competition on yield and components of canola was significant. 32 plants m-2 of wild mustard reduced grain and biologic yield, number of pod per plant, number of seed per pod and 1000seed weight about 28.7, 30, 40.9, 22.2 and 16 percent respectively. With more nitrogen application, number of pod per plant, number of seed per pod, 1000seed weight and grain yield was increased. By increasing nitrogen from 100 to 250 kg ha-1, grain yield was increased more than 53 percent. Increasing density of wild mustard significantly reduced all above mentioned morphological and qualitative characters, except protein percentage. By increasing nitrogen fertilizer, plant height, number of branches per plant, pod length, oil yield and protein percentage of canola were increased significantly. Overall nevertheless negative effect of weed on canola yield, seems that the application 200 kgN/ha in addition to increasing grain yield and canola oil, had less decline in weed interference.

  8. Performance, combustion and emission analysis of mustard oil biodiesel and octanol blends in diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Yuvarajan; Munuswamy, Dinesh Babu; Nagappan, Beemkumar; Pandian, Amith Kishore

    2018-06-01

    Biodiesels from the mustard oil promise to be an alternative to the conventional diesel fuel due to their similarity in properties. Higher alcohols are added to neat Mustard oil biodiesel (M100) to vary the properties of biodiesel for improving its combustion, emission and performance characteristics. N-Octanol has the ability to act as an oxygen buffer during combustion which contributes to the catalytic effect and accelerates the combustion process. N-Octanol is dispersed to neat Mustard oil biodiesel in the form of emulsions at different dosage levels of 10, 20 and 30% by volume. Three emulsion fuels prepared for engine testing constitutes of 90% of biodiesel and 10% of n-Octanol (M90O10), 80% of biodiesel and 20% of n-Octanol (M80O20) and 70% of biodiesel and 30% of n-Octanol (M70O30) by volume respectively. AVL 5402 diesel engine is made to run on these fuels to study the effect of n-Octanol on combustion, emission and performance characteristics of the mustard oil biodiesel. Experimental results show that addition of n-octanol has a positive effect on performance, combustion and emission characteristics owing to its inbuilt oxygen content. N-octanol was found to be the better oxidizing catalyst as it was more effective in reducing HC and CO emissions. A significant reduction in NOx emission was found when fuelled with emulsion techniques. The blending of n-octanol to neat Mustard oil biodiesel reduces the energy and fuel consumption and a marginal increase in brake thermal efficiency. Further, n-octanol also reduces the ignition delay and aids the combustion.

  9. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Modified Dominant Lethal Study of Sulfur Mustard in Rats Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasser, L. B.; Cushing, J. A.; Kalkwarf, D. R.; Buschbom, R. L.

    1989-05-01

    Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard (HD) [bis{2-chloroethyl)-sulfide) ' a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Little, however, is known about the mutagenic activity of HD in mammalian species and data regarding the dominant lethal effects of HD are ambiguous. The purpose of this study was to determine the dominant lethal effect in male and female rats orally exposed to HD. The study was conducted in two phases; a female dominant lethal phase and a male dominant lethal phase. Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex were administered 0.08, 0.20, or 0.50 mg/kg HD in sesame oil 5 days/week for 10 weeks. For the female phase, treated or untreated males were mated with treated females and their fetuses were evaluated at approximately 14 days after copulation. For the male dominant lethal phase, treated males cohabited with untreated femal (during 5 days of each week for 10 weeks) and females were sacrificed for fetal evaluation 14 days after the midweek of cohabitation during each of the 10 weeks. The appearance and behavior of the rats were unremarkable throughout the experiment and there were no treatment-related deaths. Growth rates were reduced in both female and male rats treated with 0.50 mg/kg HD. Indicators of reproductive performance did not demonstrate significant female dominant lethal effects, although significant male dominant lethal effects were observed at 2 and 3 week post-exposure. These effects included increases of early fetal resorptions and preimplantation losses and decreases of total live embryo implants. These effects were most consistently observed at a dose of 0.50 mg/kg, but frequently occurred at the lower doses. Although no treatment-related effects on male reproductive organ weights or sperm motility were found, a significant increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm was detected in males exposed to 0. 50 mg/kg HD. The timing of these effects is consistent with an effect during the

  10. Phytotoxic effects of calotropis procera, tamarix aphylla and peganum harmala on plant growth of wheat and mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.M.; Khatoon, A.; Rehman, A.; Khan, P.; Shakir, S.U.K.; Irfan, S.; Rehman, S.U.; Jamil, M.; Mlaook, I.; Bashar, K.U.; Afridi, M.; Rahim, A.; Ullah, F.

    2016-01-01

    Phytotoxic effects of many plants are known on growth of different useful crops. This research study was designed to find out phytotoxic effects of Calotropis procera, Tamarix aphylla and Peganum harmala on seed germination and seedling length of wheat and mustard. Results showed that seed germination of wheat was significantly decreased by 5 percent, 10 percent, 15 percent, 20 percent and 25 percent while mustard seeds were resistant and were affected by higher dilutions (15 percent, 20 percent and 25 percent) of all plant extracts. Roots of both wheat and mustard were highly affected by plant aqueous extracts at all concentrations (5 percent, 10 percent, 15 percent, 20 percent and 25 percent) but shoots were inhibited by higher concentrations (20 percent and 25 percent). This study revealed that wheat is more sensitive to different plant extracts as compared to mustard. It is thus concluded that inhibitory effect increases with the increase of extracts concentration. (author)

  11. Assay techniques for detection of exposure to sulfur mustard, cholinesterase inhibitors, sarin, soman, GF, and cyanide. Technical bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This technical bulletin provides analytical techniques to identify toxic chemical agents in urine or blood samples. It is intended to provide the clinician with laboratory tests to detect exposure to sulfur mustard, cholinesterase inhibitors, sarin, soman, GF, and cyanide.

  12. Endogenous Phenolics in Hulls and Cotyledons of Mustard and Canola: A Comparative Study on Its Sinapates and Antioxidant Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Mayengbam, Shyamchand; Aachary, Ayyappan; Thiyam-Holländer, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous sinapic acid (SA), sinapine (SP), sinapoyl glucose (SG) and canolol (CAN) of canola and mustard seeds are the potent antioxidants in various lipid-containing systems. The study investigated these phenolic antioxidants using different fractions of canola and mustard seeds. Phenolic compounds were extracted from whole seeds and their fractions: hulls and cotyledons, using 70% methanol by the ultrasonication method and quantified using HPLC-DAD. The major phenolics from both hulls and...

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE AND BIOSOLIDS ON HEAVY METAL CONTENT IN WHITE MUSTARD SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Wołejko

    2017-06-01

    The statistical analysis indicated that the concentrations of Cd in mustard seed was significantly correlated with the concentrations of Ni and Zn (respectively, r=-0.89 and r=-0.54. There were significant positive correlations between soil pH and metal concentrations in the seeds of mustard. The pH was significantly correlated with Ni (r = 0.60 and Zn (r = 0.55 at a p≤ 0.05.

  14. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  15. Seed rate and nitrogen fertilizer effects on wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    karim moosavi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate wild mustard competitive effect on winter wheat, an additive series experiment was conducted in 2000-2001 at Agricultural Research Station of Mashhad University.The experiment had 3 factor: wheat seed rate (175 , 215 and 255 kg/ha, nitrogen rate (150 and 225 kg/ha, and a range of wild mustard densities. Hyperbolic functions was used to describe yield-weed density relationship. Increasing wild mustard density had a negative , asymptotic – type effect on wheat biomass and grain yield. By increasing wheat seed rate , in optimum nitrogen rate , maximum wheat biomas loss has reduced about 51 %. Maximum yield loss has increased from 42.1 % to 50.4 %, as nitrogen rate incrased from optimum to upper optimum rate of wheat. By increasing of wheat seed rate from 175 to 255 kg/ha, maximum tiller number reduction due to high densities of wild mustard, has decreased by 54 %. Reduction of fertile tiller number was mostly occurred at presence of high nitrogen level, thus, reduction of fertile tiller number compared to control in N1 was 18% , while in N2 has increased to 30%. Wild mustard competition has reduced wheat seed number per ear 30% in compare to weed free control. Results show that wheat 1000 seed weight was more affected by nitrogen rate than plant densities. Apparently, in competition with wheat, wild mustard was better able to utilize the added nitrogen and thus gained a competitive adventage over the wheat.

  16. Impacts of increasing ozone on Indian plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oksanen, E.; Pandey, V.; Pandey, A.K.; Keski-Saari, S.; Kontunen-Soppela, S.; Sharma, C.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing anthropogenic and biogenic emissions of precursor compounds have led to high tropospheric ozone concentrations in India particularly in Indo-Gangetic Plains, which is the most fertile and cultivated area of this rapidly developing country. Current ozone risk models, based on European and North American data, provide inaccurate estimations for crop losses in India. During the past decade, several ozone experiments have been conducted with the most important Indian crop species (e.g. wheat, rice, mustard, mung bean). Experimental work started in natural field conditions around Varanasi area in early 2000's, and the use of open top chambers and EDU (ethylene diurea) applications has now facilitated more advanced studies e.g. for intra-species sensitivity screening and mechanisms of tolerance. In this review, we identify and discuss the most important gaps of knowledge and future needs of action, e.g. more systematic nationwide monitoring for precursor and ozone formation over Indian region. -- Tropospheric ozone is an increasing threat to food production in India

  17. Indian Summer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, E. [Sho-Ban High School, Fort Hall, ID (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

  18. Beneficial role of carbon nanotubes on mustard plant growth: an agricultural prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Anindita; Basu, Ruma; Das, Sukhen; Nandy, Papiya

    2011-10-01

    Nowadays an increasing application of nanotechnology in different fields has arisen an extensive debate about the effect of the engineered nanoparticles on environment . Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles has come into limelight in the last few years. However, very few studies have been done so far on the beneficial aspects of nanoparticles on plants. In this article, we report the beneficial effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) having diameter of 30 nm on Brassica juncea (mustard) seeds. Measurements of germination rate, T 50 (time taken for 50% germination), shoot and root growth have shown encouraging results using low concentration of oxidized MWCNT (OMWCNT) treated seeds as compared to non-oxidized as well as high concentration OMWCNT treated seeds. For toxicity study we measured the germination index and relative root elongation, while conductivity test and infra-red spectra were also performed to study the overall effect of oxidized and non-oxidized nanotubes on mustard seeds and seedlings.

  19. A mediational model of PTSD in World War II veterans exposed to mustard gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, M Kay; Schnurr, Paula P; Adams, Gary A; Green, Bonnie L; Ford, Julian D; Friedman, Matthew J

    2004-08-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine associations among trauma-related contextual factors, initial psychological reactions, social support, and subsequent disclosure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of World War II (WWII) veterans exposed to mustard gas (N = 305). A structural model suggested that initial psychological reaction mediated the relationship between variables related to the context of mustard gas exposure and severity of PTSD symptoms 50 years later. Unexpectedly, social support appeared to be positively related to PTSD symptoms, and not related to the contextual variables or initial psychological reactions. These findings contribute to our understanding of PTSD in older veterans, and have relevance for early intervention services to prevent PTSD among those at risk for exposure to toxic agents.

  20. Diversity of Pollinator Insects in Relation to Seed Set of Mustard (Brassica rapa L.: Cruciferae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRI ATMOWIDI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollinators provide key services to both natural and agricultural ecosystems. Agricultural productivity depends, in part, on pollinator populations from adjacent seminatural habitats. Here we analysed the diversity of pollinator insects and its effect to seed set of mustard (Brassica rapa planted in agricultural ecosystem near the Gunung Halimun-Salak National Park, West Java. At least 19 species of insects pollinated the mustard, and three species, i.e. Apis cerana, Ceratina sp., and Apis dorsata showed a high abundance. The higher abundance and species richness of pollinators occurred at 08.30-10.30 am and the diversity was related to the number of flowering plants. Insect pollinations increased the number of pods, seeds per pod, seed weights per plant, and seed germination.

  1. SELECTED YIELD COMPONENTS IN WHITE MUSTARD (SINAPIS ALBA VERSUS SULFUR FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena BARCZAK

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available As shown by the research made based on the four-year field experiment, sulfur fertilization, in general, significantly differentiated the white mustard yield components. Of all the factors (sulfur application method, its form and dose, the greatest effect on the yield structure components was demonstrated for the sulfur dose. The use of 40 kg S·ha-1, regardless of the form applied and the sulfur application method, resulted in significant increases in most of the characters, as compared with the control. The application of sulfur into soil showed a significantly more favorable effect on the seed weigh and number per silique and on the weight of seeds of the entire plant than the foliar application of this nutrient. The white mustard seed yield size was most correlated with the number of siliques per plant, and successively less with the thousand seed weight.

  2. Beneficial role of carbon nanotubes on mustard plant growth: an agricultural prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Anindita; Basu, Ruma; Das, Sukhen; Nandy, Papiya

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays an increasing application of nanotechnology in different fields has arisen an extensive debate about the effect of the engineered nanoparticles on environment. Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles has come into limelight in the last few years. However, very few studies have been done so far on the beneficial aspects of nanoparticles on plants. In this article, we report the beneficial effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) having diameter of ∼30 nm on Brassica juncea (mustard) seeds. Measurements of germination rate, T 50 (time taken for 50% germination), shoot and root growth have shown encouraging results using low concentration of oxidized MWCNT (OMWCNT) treated seeds as compared to non-oxidized as well as high concentration OMWCNT treated seeds. For toxicity study we measured the germination index and relative root elongation, while conductivity test and infra-red spectra were also performed to study the overall effect of oxidized and non-oxidized nanotubes on mustard seeds and seedlings.

  3. Laser effects on the growth and photosynthesis process in mustard plants (Sinapis Alba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghel, Sorin; Stanescu, Constantin S.; Giosanu, Dana; Flenacu, Monica; Iorga-Siman, Ion

    2001-06-01

    In this paper we present the results of our experiments concerning the influence of the low energy laser (LEL) radiation on the germination, growth and photosyntheses processes in mustard plants (sinapis alba). We used a He-Ne laser ((lambda) equals 632.8 nm, P equals 6 mW) to irradiate the mustard seeds with different exposure times. The seeds were sowed and some determinations (the germination and growth intensity, chlorophyll quantity, and respiration intensity) were made on the plant culture. We ascertained that the germination and growth of the plants are influenced by the irradiation. Also, the chlorophyll quantity is the same for both plants from irradiated and non-irradiated seeds but the respiration and photosynthesis processes are influenced by the irradiation.

  4. Prevalence of Skin Cancers Among Iranian Veterans, 18-23 Years Following Exposure to Sulfur Mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emadi, S. N.; Soroush, R.; Khateri, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this historical Cohort, in a population of 800 veterans with documented history of exposure to Sulfur Mustard during the period of 1984-88 (all have been under the close health monitoring program) 25 cases are found to have developed skin cancer over the past years. The most common cancer among these cases has been Basal Cell Carcinoma -BCC- with 9 cases and then Squamous Cell Carcinoma -SCC- , mycosis fungoides-MF-, Bowen disease and Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans-DFSP- (5, 5, 4 and 2 cases respectively). Considering the number of diagnosed skin cancers among the subjects of this study and new cases even 2 decades after exposure, more in depth studies are necessary to investigate the possible casual relationship between the exposure to mustard gas and the skin cancers. (author)

  5. Treatment for Sulfur Mustard Lung Injuries; New Therapeutic Approaches from Acute to Chronic Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Poursaleh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sulfur mustard (SM is one of the major potent chemical warfare and attractive weapons for terrorists. It has caused deaths to hundreds of thousands of victims in World War I and more recently during the Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988. It has ability to develop severe acute and chronic damage to the respiratory tract, eyes and skin. Understanding the acute and chronic biologic consequences of SM exposure may be quite essential for developing efficient prophylactic/therapeutic measures. One of the systems majorly affected by SM is the respiratory tract that numerous clinical studies have detailed processes of injury, diagnosis and treatments of lung. The low mortality rate has been contributed to high prevalence of victims and high lifetime morbidity burden. However, there are no curative modalities available in such patients. In this review, we collected and discussed the related articles on the preventive and therapeutic approaches to SM-induced respiratory injury and summarized what is currently known about the management and therapeutic strategies of acute and long-term consequences of SM lung injuries.Method:This review was done by reviewing all papers found by searching following key words sulfur mustard; lung; chronic; acute; COPD; treatment.Results:Mustard lung has an ongoing pathological process and is active disorder even years after exposure to SM. Different drug classes have been studied, nevertheless there are no curative modalities for mustard lung. Conclusion:Complementary studies on one hand regarding pharmacokinetic of drugs and molecular investigations are mandatory to obtain more effective treatments.

  6. Treatment for sulfur mustard lung injuries; new therapeutic approaches from acute to chronic phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poursaleh Zohreh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Sulfur mustard (SM is one of the major potent chemical warfare and attractive weapons for terrorists. It has caused deaths to hundreds of thousands of victims in World War I and more recently during the Iran-Iraq war (1980–1988. It has ability to develop severe acute and chronic damage to the respiratory tract, eyes and skin. Understanding the acute and chronic biologic consequences of SM exposure may be quite essential for developing efficient prophylactic/therapeutic measures. One of the systems majorly affected by SM is the respiratory tract that numerous clinical studies have detailed processes of injury, diagnosis and treatments of lung. The low mortality rate has been contributed to high prevalence of victims and high lifetime morbidity burden. However, there are no curative modalities available in such patients. In this review, we collected and discussed the related articles on the preventive and therapeutic approaches to SM-induced respiratory injury and summarized what is currently known about the management and therapeutic strategies of acute and long-term consequences of SM lung injuries. Method This review was done by reviewing all papers found by searching following key words sulfur mustard; lung; chronic; acute; COPD; treatment. Results Mustard lung has an ongoing pathological process and is active disorder even years after exposure to SM. Different drug classes have been studied, nevertheless there are no curative modalities for mustard lung. Conclusion Complementary studies on one hand regarding pharmacokinetic of drugs and molecular investigations are mandatory to obtain more effective treatments.

  7. Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    in Abyssinia and the Japanese in China . In the beginning of World War II (WWII), the specter of chemical warfare was again raised by reports of the use...Annales Medicinae Militaris Belgicae 3:S1-61. World Health Organization. 1970. Health Aspects of Chemical and Biological Weapons: Report of a WHO Group...Clinical management of mustard gas casualties. Annales Medicinae Militaris Belgicae 3:51-61. Winternitz MC. 1919. Anatomical changes in the

  8. A Literature Review on the Mechanism of Action of Sulphur and Nitrogen Mustard

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    for years is also poeqible (Aasted et al, 1987; Colardyn et al, 1986). Severely poisoned individuals exhibit bone marrow depression and may die from...MMS does not produce the enhanced depression of DNA synthesis in sensitive cells, compared to resistant cells, produced by sulphur mustard and...Compound MATD 1 Protection (mg/mouse) index 2 WR-3689 15 159 WR-2721 15 44 Aminoethylcysteine 80 27 N- acetylcysteine 8 26 Glutathione 60 22 Cysteine 8

  9. [Isolation and partial characterization of DNA topoisomerase I from the nucleoids of white mustard chloroplasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, G G; Pogul'skaia, E V; Iurina, N P

    2004-01-01

    DNA topoisomerase was isolated for the first time from nucleoids of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) chloroplasts. The enzyme had a molecular weight of 70 kDa; it was ATP-independent, required the presence of mono- (K+) and bivalent (Mg2+) cations, and was capable of relaxing both negatively and positively supercoiled DNA. These results suggest that the enzyme isolated belongs to type IB DNA topoisomerases.

  10. Effect of gamma rays on growth and survival of three mustard varieties in M1 generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamala, T.; Rao, R.N.B.

    1982-01-01

    Effects of gamma radiation on germination, survival percentage, seedling height, leaf length and breadth, and growth rate in three mustard varieties were studied in M 1 generation. Seeds were exposed to 15, 30, 45, 60 and 80 Kr doses for the study. Germinations and survival percentages and seedling height showed dose-dependent decrease, while growth rate, leaf length and breadth increased at 60, 45 and 30 Kr and decreased at 80 Kr, though varietal differences were observed. (M.G.B.)

  11. Cytokinetic Analysis of Slowly Renewing Bone-Marrow Cells after Administration of Nitrogen Mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, R.; Fliedner, T. M.; Stehle, H. [Abteilung fuer Klinische Physiologie der Universitaet Ulm, Ulm/Donau, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1968-08-15

    The continuous or repeated administration of tritiated thymidine into pregnant rats during organogenesis provides a method for the complete labelling of newborn rats. If these are continuously injected with tritiated thymidine for the first four weeks after birth, the fraction of labelled cells of all organs and cell-renewal systems is still 100% If completely labelled animals are sacrificed at regular intervals after the discontinuance of thymidine administration, one can distinguish two groups of cells with distinct differences in their cell renewal. While the reticular cells A and B, the endothelial cells and the bone-marrow lymphocytes belong to a slowly proliferating group of cells, the differentiated myelopoietic and erythropoietic cells of the bone marrow proliferate rapidly. That labelled erythropoietic or myelopoietic cells are not found later than 6-10 days after discontinuance of tritated thymidine injection in these animals argues strongly against the hypothesis that under normal steady-state conditions a G{sub 0} fraction exists in the bone-marrow, from which stem cells are deviated into the differentiated cell pools by adequate stimuli. The administration of nitrogen mustard in a dose sufficient to cause bone-marrow aplasia neither destroys nor stimulates the reticular cells and endothelial cells of the bone-marrow matrix. These cells retain their label and remain present in normal numbers throughout the period of observation after nitrogen mustard treatment: The only cell type in the marrow that changes its labelling intensity after nitrogen mustard administration is the marrow lymphocyte. The decrease in the fraction and intensity of labelled bone-marrow lymphocytes precedes the rapid regeneration of nitrogen mustard aplastic bone-marrow. This cell type, in our opinion, would be the only cell to qualify as a stem cell, although positive evidence is still lacking. (author)

  12. Associateship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Sensors, Paper Electronics Address: Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kandi, Hyderabad 502 285, A.P.. Contact: Office: (040) 2301 8443. Residence: 84552 37735, 94948 19735. Fax: (040) 2301 6032. Email: sbadh@iith.ac.in. http://www.iith.ac.in/~sbadh/ · YouTube · Twitter · Facebook · Blog ...

  13. Fellowship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 2015 Section: Engineering & Technology. Dasgupta, Prof. Pallab Ph.D. (IIT, Kharagpur), FNAE. Date of birth: 31 October 1967. Specialization: Electronic Design Automation, Artificial Intelligence, Formal Methods Address: Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology ...

  14. Effect of white mustard essential oil on inoculated Salmonella sp. in a sauce with particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Jairus R D; Ekanayake, Athula; Singh, Indarpal; Farina, Brian; Meyer, Michael

    2013-04-01

    White mustard essential oil (WMEO), from white mustard seed (Sinapis alba L.), is obtained by solvent extraction of defatted and wetted ground mustard; endogenous myrosinase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the glucosinolate sinalbin to yield 4-hydroxybenzyl isothiocyanate (4-HBITC), the antimicrobial component of WMEO. Sauce with particulates was made by mixing sauce, which served as the carrier for WMEO, with frozen vegetable and chicken particulates inoculated with Salmonella sp. WMEO (at 250 to 750 ppm of 4-HBITC) was able to reduce inoculated Salmonella counts by 0.8 to 2.7 log (CFU/g) in a frozen sauce with particulates in a dose-dependent manner, starting from the point of formulating the sauce through the microwave cooking step. High-pressure liquid chromatography-based analytical data confirmed that 4-HBITC was present in all of the samples in the expected concentrations and was completely hydrolyzed after the recommended cooking time in microwave ovens. In another experiment simulating unintentional abuse conditions, where the WMEO containing sauce with particulates was kept at room temperature for 5 h, WMEO (at 250 to 750 ppm of 4-HBITC) was able to reduce inoculated Salmonella counts from the point of first contact and up to 5 h by 0.7 to 2.4 log (CFU/g). Despite the known hydrolytic instability of the active component 4-HBITC, particularly at close to neutral pH values, WMEO was effective in controlling deliberately inoculated Salmonella sp. in a frozen sauce with particulates.

  15. Solid-Phase Extraction of Sulfur Mustard Metabolites Using an Activated Carbon Fiber Sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Young; Lee, Yong Han

    2016-01-01

    A novel solid-phase extraction method using activated carbon fiber (ACF) was developed and validated. ACF has a vast network of pores of varying sizes and microporous structures that result in rapid adsorption and selective extraction of sulfur mustard metabolites according to the pH of eluting solvents. ACF could not only selectively extract thiodiglycol and 1-methylsulfinyl-2-[2-(methylthio)-ethylsulfonyl]ethane eluting a 9:1 ratio of dichloromethane to acetone, and 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylsulfinyl)ethane] and 1,1'-sulfonylbis- [2-S-(N-acetylcysteinyl)ethane] eluting 3% hydrogen chloride in methanol, but could also eliminate most interference without loss of analytes during the loading and washing steps. A sample preparation method has been optimized for the extraction of sulfur mustard metabolites from human urine using an ACF sorbent. The newly developed extraction method was applied to the trace analysis of metabolites of sulfur mustard in human urine matrices in a confidence-building exercise for the analysis of biomedical samples provided by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Effect of mustard gas hydrolysis products on the development of water-bloom forming cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaytseva Tatyana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mustard gas and its hydrolysis products (MGHP belong to stable organochlorine compounds with high toxicity and broad spectrum of activity. Since the Second World War many aquatic ecosystems including the Baltic and the Adriatic Sea as well as the coastal waters of Japan, the USA, the UK, Australia have been contaminated with mustard gas due to the dumping of chemical weapon. Mustard gas and its hydrolysis products have a negative impact on aquatic life including microbiota. The aim of this work was to define the effect of MGHP on the growth, photosynthetic activity and synthesis of secondary metabolites by water-bloom forming cyanobacteria Trichormus variabilis, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Microcystis aeruginosa, Nodularia spumigena. Microbiological, chromatographic, spectrophotometric methods were used. The growth inhibition test with MGHP on cyanobacteria showed influence on the concentration EC50 within the range of 5.5 – 11.2 mg of organochlorine compounds (ОCC per liter. The synthesis of chlorophyll a was also decreased. It was shown that the chlorophyll synthesis was more sensitive to MGHP than the growth of cyanobacteria. NGHP induced enhanced excretion of exopolysaccharides. Low concentration of MGHP – 0.3 mg OCC/l - promoted the growth of toxigenic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and increased microcystin-LR concentration in the environment. enhanced excretion of such metabolites as polysaccharides and cyanotoxins has a serious negative impact on water pollution due to MGHP.

  17. Remediation Of Cadmium And Lead Contamination In Mustard-Maize Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrit Kumar Jha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Farmers field trial was conducted at Patratu Ramgarh to study the effect of lime compost plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for remediation of high trace metal levels in mustard-maize cropping system. Results reveal that microbial inoculants with or without vermicompost increased the trace metal removal however vermicompost alone decreased the removal. Vermicompost lime and lime vermicompost significantly reduced the total Cd uptake by mustard and maize. Inoculation with Glomus mossae resulted in elevated level of Cd in mustard and maize plants. Total trace metal content in soil was significantly reduced by microbial inoculation alone or that in combination with vermicompost. However DTPA-extractable trace metals decreased with addition of amendments as well as inoculation of microbes. Glomus mossae was most effective in remediating the trace metals. under this study the total metal content reduced effectively by their inoculation alone while inoculation along with vermicompost resulted in reducing the DTPA-extractable fraction more effectively. The extent of reduction in total Cd and Pb after harvest of both crops was 6 to 26 and 5 to 12 per cent respectively over control. However the corresponding values observed for DTPA extractable Cd and Pb was 53 to 65 and 20 to 32 per cent over control in microbial inoculation and 46 to 47 and 14 to 17 per cent in case of amendments.

  18. In-situ degradation of sulphur mustard using (1R)-(-)-(camphorylsulphonyl) oxaziridine impregnated adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Abha, E-mail: abha_052002@yahoo.co.in [Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Mahatam Gandhi Marg, Lucknow, UP (India); Saxena, Amit; Singh, Beer [Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior, MP (India)

    2009-12-30

    Bis-2-chloroethyl sulphide (sulphur mustard or HD) is an extremely toxic and persistent chemical warfare agent. For in-situ degradation of HD and its analogues (simulants), i.e., dibutyl sulphide (DBS) and ethyl 2-hydroxyethyl sulphide (HEES), different adsorbents systems loaded with (1R)-(-)-(camphorylsulphonyl) oxaziridine were prepared. Solution of sulphur mustard and its simulants was prepared in carbon tetrachloride and taken for uniform adsorption on the impregnated systems using incipient volume. Degradation kinetics monitored by GC/FID were found to be first-order. The half-life of degradation reactions for simulants was obtained in less than 30 and for HD in 120 min. From the studied kinetics it was observed that reaction was very rapid with simulants and decreased rate was found for HD. The order of reactivity of MgO/Oxa system for HD and simulants was found to be DBS > HEES > HD. Reaction products of the oxidation reaction of simulants and HD on adsorbents were extracted in dichloromethane and analysed by GC-MS. The products were found to be non-toxic sulphoxide. The objective of the study is to develop a reactive adsorbent for in-situ degradation of sulphur mustard which could be used in nuclear biological and chemical (NBC) filtration systems.

  19. Temporal and spatial features of the formation of DNA adducts in sulfur mustard-exposed skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batal, Mohamed [Laboratoire «Lésions des Acides Nucléiques», Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1, CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche (France); Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Wartelle, Julien; Emorine, Sandy; Bertoni, Marine [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche (France); Bérard, Izabel [Laboratoire «Lésions des Acides Nucléiques», Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1, CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Cléry-Barraud, Cécile [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche (France); and others

    2013-12-15

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that targets skin where it induces large blisters. DNA alkylation is a critical step to explain SM-induced cutaneous symptoms. We determined the kinetics of formation of main SM–DNA adducts and compare it with the development of the SM-induced pathogenesis in skin. SKH-1 mice were exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM and treated skin was biopsied between 6 h and 21 days. Formation of SM DNA adducts was dose-dependent with a maximum immediately after exposure. However, adducts were persistent and still detectable 21 days post-exposure. The time-dependent formation of DNA adducts was also found to be correlated with the appearance of apoptotic cells. This temporal correlation suggests that these two early events are responsible for the severity of the damage to the skin. Besides, SM–DNA adducts were also detected in areas located next to contaminated zone, thus suggesting that SM diffuses in skin. Altogether, this work provides for the first time a clear picture of SM-induced genotoxicity using DNA adducts as a marker. - Highlights: • Sulfur mustard adducts are formed in DNA after skin exposure. • DNA damage formation is an early event in the pathological process of skin burn. • The amount of SM–DNA adducts is maximal at the earliest time point investigated. • Adducts are still detected 3 weeks after exposure. • Sulfur mustard diffuses in skin especially when large doses are applied.

  20. Power electronics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kishore Chatterjee

    This special issue of Sadhana is a compilation of papers selected from those presented at the 7th National Power. Electronics Conference (NPEC), held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, on 21–23 December 2015. From among the papers presented in NPEC-2017, selected papers were peer-reviewed for ...

  1. 25 CFR 502.8 - Electronic or electromechanical facsimile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic or electromechanical facsimile. 502.8 Section 502.8 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.8 Electronic or electromechanical facsimile. Electronic or electromechanical...

  2. Determination of mustard and lewisite related compounds in abandoned chemical weapons (Yellow shells) from sources in China and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, Shigeyuki; Nomura, Koji; Wada, Takeharu

    2006-01-06

    Knowledge of the states of the contents in chemical munitions that Japanese Imperial Forces abandoned at the end of World War II in Japan and China is gravely lacking. To unearth and recover these chemical weapons and detoxify the contents safely, it is essential to establish analytical procedures to definitely determine the CWA contents. We established such a procedure and applied it to the analysis of chemicals in the abandoned shells. Yellow shells are known to contain sulfur mustard, lewisite, or a mixture of both. Lewisite was analyzed without thiol derivatization, because it and its decomposition products yield the same substances in the derivatization. Analysis using our new procedure showed that both mustard and lewisite remained as the major components after the long abandonment of nearly 60 years. The content of mustard was 43% and that of lewisite 55%. The viscous material found was suggested to be mostly oligomers of mustard. Comparison of the components in the Yellow agents with mustard recovered in both Japan and China showed a difference in the impurities between the CWAs produced by the former Imperial navy and those by the former Imperial army.

  3. DNA-directed alkylating ligands as potential antitumor agents: sequence specificity of alkylation by intercalating aniline mustards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, A S; Denny, W A; Gourdie, T A; Valu, K K; Woodgate, P D; Wakelin, L P

    1990-10-23

    The sequence preferences for alkylation of a series of novel parasubstituted aniline mustards linked to the DNA-intercalating chromophore 9-aminoacridine by an alkyl chain of variable length were studied by using procedures analogous to Maxam-Gilbert reactions. The compounds alkylate DNA at both guanine and adenine sites. For mustards linked to the acridine by a short alkyl chain through a para O- or S-link group, 5'-GT sequences are the most preferred sites at which N7-guanine alkylation occurs. For analogues with longer chain lengths, the preference of 5'-GT sequences diminishes in favor of N7-adenine alkylation at the complementary 5'-AC sequence. Magnesium ions are shown to selectively inhibit alkylation at the N7 of adenine (in the major groove) by these compounds but not the alkylation at the N3 of adenine (in the minor groove) by the antitumor antibiotic CC-1065. Effects of chromophore variation were also studied by using aniline mustards linked to quinazoline and sterically hindered tert-butyl-9-aminoacridine chromophores. The results demonstrate that in this series of DNA-directed mustards the noncovalent interactions of the carrier chromophores with DNA significantly modify the sequence selectivity of alkylation by the mustard. Relationships between the DNA alkylation patterns of these compounds and their biological activities are discussed.

  4. Childhood physical abnormalities following paternal exposure to sulfur mustard gas in Iran: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khademolhosseini Seyyed M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mustard gas, a known chemical weapon, was used during the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-1988. We aimed to determine if exposure to mustard gas among men was significantly associated with abnormalities and disorders among progenies. Methods Using a case-control design, we identified all progenies of Sardasht men (exposed group, n = 498, who were born at least nine months after the exposure, compared to age-matched controls in Rabat, a nearby city (non-exposed group, n = 689. We conducted a thorough medical history, physical examination, and appropriate paraclinical studies to detect any physical abnormality and/or disorder. Given the presence of correlated data, we applied Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE multivariable models to determine associations. Results The overall frequency of detected physical abnormalities and disorders was significantly higher in the exposed group (19% vs. 11%, Odds Ratio [OR] 1.93, 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.37-2.72, P = 0.0002. This was consistent across sexes. Congenital anomalies (OR 3.54, 95% CI, 1.58-7.93, P = 0.002 and asthma (OR, 3.12, 95% CI, 1.43-6.80, P = 0.004 were most commonly associated with exposure. No single abnormality was associated with paternal exposure to mustard gas. Conclusion Our study demonstrates a generational effect of exposure to mustard gas. The lasting effects of mustard gas exposure in parents effects fertility and may impact child health and development in the long-term.

  5. Endogenous Phenolics in Hulls and Cotyledons of Mustard and Canola: A Comparative Study on Its Sinapates and Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamchand Mayengbam

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous sinapic acid (SA, sinapine (SP, sinapoyl glucose (SG and canolol (CAN of canola and mustard seeds are the potent antioxidants in various lipid-containing systems. The study investigated these phenolic antioxidants using different fractions of canola and mustard seeds. Phenolic compounds were extracted from whole seeds and their fractions: hulls and cotyledons, using 70% methanol by the ultrasonication method and quantified using HPLC-DAD. The major phenolics from both hulls and cotyledons extracts were SP, with small amounts of SG, and SA with a significant difference of phenolic contents between the two seed fractions. Cotyledons showed relatively high content of SP, SA, SG and total phenolics in comparison to hulls (p < 0.001. The concentration of SP in different fractions ranged from 1.15 ± 0.07 to 12.20 ± 1.16 mg/g and followed a decreasing trend- canola cotyledons > mustard cotyledons > mustard seeds > canola seeds > mustard hulls > canola hulls. UPLC-tandem Mass Spectrometry confirmed the presence of sinapates and its fragmentation in these extracts. Further, a high degree of correlation (r = 0.93 was noted between DPPH scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

  6. Evaluation of Growth Indices and Estimation Seed Yield Loss Threshold of Canola in Response to Various Densities of Crop and Wild Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Anafjeh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to study the effect of various densities of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. on growth indices of Canola (Brassica napus L. in climate of Molathani, Ahvaz, an experiment was conducted in the experimental field of Ramin Agricultural and Natural Resources University, in 2006-2007. The split-plot set of treatments was arranged within randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatments included of wild mustard at five levels (0, 7, 14, 21 and 35 plants m2 and Canola at three densities (60, 80 and 100 plants m2. The results showed that the increase in mustard density rates lead to decreasing total dry matter, leaf area index, crop growth rate, relative growth rate and mean pod dry matter in three canola densities (60, 80 and 100 plants m2. Somewhat the lowest growth indices was obtained in 35 plants mustard (that is the highest mustard density. In addition damage rate of mustard decreased canola seed yield for 7, 14, 21 and 35 plants mustard up to 61, 71, 76 and 91%, respectively. Keywords: Plant density, Competition, Yield loss threshold, Growth indices, Canola, Mustard

  7. Diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure to sulfur mustard: Development of a standard operating procedure for hemoglobin adducts: Exploratory research on albumin and keratin adducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Fidder, A.; Jong, L.P.A. de; Schans, G.P. van der; Benschop, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    A standard operating procedure (SOP) for determination of the sulfur mustard adduct to the N-terminal valine in hemoglobin was developed. By using this SOP, it was found that the Nterminal valine adduct in globin of hairless guinea pigs and marmosets which had been exposed to sulfur mustard (0.5

  8. Alkylation of human serum albumin by sulfur mustard in vitro and in vivo : Mass spectrometric analysis of a cysteine adduct as a sensitive biomarker of exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Hulst, A.G.; Jong, L.P.A. de; Benschop, H.P.

    1999-01-01

    To develop a mass spectrometric assay for the detection of sulfur mustard adducts with human serum albumin, the following steps were performed: quantitation of the binding of the agent to the protein by using [14C] sulfur mustard and analysis of acidic and tryptic digests of albumin from blood after

  9. Clinical practice guidelines for prevention, diagnosis and management of early and delayed-onset ocular injuries due to mustard gas exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhale Rajavi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Considering the lack of CPGs for the prevention, diagnosis, and management of mustard gas-induced keratitis, these recommendations would be useful to prevent the serious ocular complications of mustard gas and standardize eye care services to the affected individuals.

  10. Fellowship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sc. (h.c.) (Nottingham), FNASc, FNAAS, FNA. Date of birth: 12 May 1951. Specialization: Transgenic Crops and Breeding of Oilseed Mustard Address: Centre for Genetic Manipulation of Crop Plants, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi ...

  11. Long-Term Outcome of Mustard/Senning Correction for Transposition of the Great Arteries in Sweden and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejlstrup, Niels; Sørensen, Keld; Mattsson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    and leaves the right ventricle as the systemic ventricle. The Mustard and Senning cohort is now well into adulthood and we begin to see the long-term outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: All the 6 surgical centers that performed Mustard and Senning operations in Sweden and Denmark identified all operated TGA...... patients. Information about death was obtained in late 2007 and early 2008 from the Danish and Swedish Centralised Civil Register by using the patients' unique national Civil Registration Numbers. Four hundred sixty-eight patients undergoing the atrial switch operation were identified. Perioperative 30-day...... of long-term outcome (hazard ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-3.46, P=0.04), once the TGA patient has survived the perioperative period. The risk of reoperation was correlated to the presence of associated defects and where the first Mustard/Senning operation was performed. CONCLUSIONS: The long...

  12. The stibian mustard gold from the Kriván¿ Au deposit,Tatry Mts., Slovak Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Martin, Chovan; František, Bakos

    2007-01-01

    The Kriván Au-Sb mineralization is hosted in several subhorizontal variscan mylonite zones located in granitoid rocks. Ore minerals occur in thin lens-shaped quartz veinlets. Albite, chlorite, calcite, muscovite and tourmaline are minor gangue minerals. Four mineral assemblages have been recognized...... - (1) pyrite-arsenopyrite-gold, (2) stibnite-sulfosalts-sphalerite, (3) tetrahedrite- chalcopyrite-electrum, (4) supergene minerals. Isometric and irregular grains of mustard gold are 0.X mm in size. In refl ected light it is isotropic with low refl ectivity and orange-red or brown-yellow color...... with pores more or less fi lled by oxidation products of Sb and Fe. Compositionally it does not conform with stibian mustard gold from Yakutia and Bolivia, approximately AuSb1.4O2.1, derived from decomposition of aurostibite, but it conforms with mustard gold from Krásná Hora, Czech Republic. For this type...

  13. Anthropometry of south Indian industrial workmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J E; Uppugonduri, K G

    1992-11-01

    This paper presents the results of an anthropometric survey conducted on South Indian male workers in the electronic industry. The data were collected as part of a project to modify work stations that utilized equipment from other countries. A set of 27 body dimensions were taken from a sample of 128 workmen (aged 18-35 years). The anthropometric measurements are compared with those of Indian men from Central, Western, and Northern parts of India and with those of the American, German, and Japanese men. The results indicate that in general the South Indian man is smaller than Central, Western, and Northern Indian men, as well as smaller than men in America, Germany, Japan, and Africa. This difference needs to be allowed for when considering buying and subsequently using imported equipment for the electronics industry in South India.

  14. Study on remediation for uranium contaminated soils enhanced by chelator using brassica mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Qinfang; Pan Ning; Jin Yongdong; Xia Chuanqin

    2012-01-01

    Screening of perfect hyperaccumulators is the key to the application of this technology. Through the previous stage study, mustard was found to be good at absorption and accumulation of uranium among 51 species, the plant grows fast with wide adaptability and large biomass. Researches will focus on the following two aspects: 1. Simulating U- contaminated soils was prepared by two different ways to add uranium. (1). UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 . 6H 2 O solution was sprayed into soil when the plant was grown in the soil; (2). Above U-contaminated soils after planting and placed for a year. Study on whether the way of adding uranium can effect mustard accumulate uranium. Results found: in the first Phytoremediation, U-contaminated concentration at 100 mg/kg, U concentration in shoots reaches 1103.42 mg/kg, roots reach 1909.49 mg/kg, annual removal rate is 7.81%; in the second Phytoremediation, U-contaminated concentration at 100 mg/kg, U concentration in shoots reach 295.83 mg/kg, roots reach 268.42 mg/kg, annual removal rate is 2.52%. Led to the difference between the twice remediation is the speciation of uranium m soils has changed, respectively, Tessier-five step continuous extraction method for determination of uranium speciation in soils and found available uranium (exchangeable uranium, uranium carbonate) in the soil of the first phytoremediation was 52% higher than the second phytoremediation. 2. Study on chelators (Citric acids, Malic acids) and soil amendments (Organic fertilizer, microbe fertilizer. Humic acid organic fertilizer, Urea) whether effect mustard accumulate uranium, found organic fertilizer can reduce shoots accumulate uranium, Citric acid and microbe fertilizer increase shoots enrichment of uranium. (authors)

  15. Nitrogen mustard (Chlorambucil) has a negative influence on early vascular development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Annette; Boelck, Birgit; Jedig, Maria; Steinritz, Dirk; Balszuweit, Frank; Kehe, Kai; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2009-01-01

    The sulphur and nitrogen mustards are strong alkylating agents, which induces inflammations of the skin including blistering right up to ulcerations. Depending on the severity, the wounds may need weeks to heal. In the past it was shown that sulphur mustard has a destructive effect on endothelial precursor cells, which have been shown to play a pivotal role in the wound healing reaction by inducing neovascularisation. However, for these alkylating agents as well as for sulphur mustard nothing is known about their effects on endothelial precursors. Therefore, we investigated and compared the influence of Chlorambucil on proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation of endothelial cells in intact mouse embryoid bodies (EB). EBs were treated at different developmental stages and with different periods of Chlorambucil treatment. It was found that in each developmental stage and under each treatment period's Chlorambucil has an extremely negative effect on the vascularisation with a vessel reduction of around 99%. Of particular importance was the negative effect of treatment around day 3 of the development. On this day we found 377 vessels under control conditions but only 1.6 vessels under 24 h treatment of Chlorambucil. At this point in time many endothelial precursors can be found in the EB. Moreover, a negative effect on all stem cells was evident at this point in time, shown by an extreme reduction in EB size with 17.9 mm 2 for the control and only 1.55 mm 2 under Chlorambucil treatment. This negative effect on the vascularisation, on endothelial precursors but also on stem cells in general is of possible importance for impaired wound healing.

  16. DNA damage in internal organs after cutaneous exposure to sulphur mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batal, Mohamed; Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile; Wartelle, Julien; Bérard, Izabel; Douki, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that attacks mainly skin, eye and lungs. Due to its lipophilic properties, SM is also able to diffuse through the skin and reach internal organs. DNA represents one of the most critical molecular targets of this powerful alkylating agent which modifies DNA structure by forming monoadducts and biadducts. These DNA lesions are involved in the acute toxicity of SM as well as its long-term carcinogenicity. In the present work we studied the formation and persistence of guanine and adenine monoadducts and guanine biadducts in the DNA of brain, lungs, kidneys, spleen, and liver of SKH-1 mice cutaneously exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM. SM-DNA adducts were detected in all studied organs, except in liver at the two lowest doses. Brain and lungs were the organs with the highest level of SM-DNA adducts, followed by kidney, spleen and liver. Monitoring the level of adducts for three weeks after cutaneous exposure showed that the lifetime of adducts were not the same in all organs, lungs being the organ with the longest persistence. Diffusion from skin to internal organs was much more efficient at the highest compared to the lowest dose investigated as the result of the loss of the skin barrier function. These data provide novel information on the distribution of SM in tissues following cutaneous exposures and indicate that brain is an important target. - Highlights: • Sulphur mustard reaches internal organs after skin exposure • Adducts are detected in the DNA of internal organs • Brain is the organ with the highest level of DNA damage • The barrier function of skin is lost at high dose of sulphur mustard • DNA adducts persist in organs for 2 or 3 weeks

  17. DNA damage in internal organs after cutaneous exposure to sulphur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batal, Mohamed [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche, BP87, F-38702 La Tronche Cedex (France); Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile; Wartelle, Julien [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche, BP87, F-38702 La Tronche Cedex (France); Bérard, Izabel [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Douki, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.douki@cea.fr [Laboratoire « Lésions des Acides Nucléiques », Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1/CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France)

    2014-07-01

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that attacks mainly skin, eye and lungs. Due to its lipophilic properties, SM is also able to diffuse through the skin and reach internal organs. DNA represents one of the most critical molecular targets of this powerful alkylating agent which modifies DNA structure by forming monoadducts and biadducts. These DNA lesions are involved in the acute toxicity of SM as well as its long-term carcinogenicity. In the present work we studied the formation and persistence of guanine and adenine monoadducts and guanine biadducts in the DNA of brain, lungs, kidneys, spleen, and liver of SKH-1 mice cutaneously exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM. SM-DNA adducts were detected in all studied organs, except in liver at the two lowest doses. Brain and lungs were the organs with the highest level of SM-DNA adducts, followed by kidney, spleen and liver. Monitoring the level of adducts for three weeks after cutaneous exposure showed that the lifetime of adducts were not the same in all organs, lungs being the organ with the longest persistence. Diffusion from skin to internal organs was much more efficient at the highest compared to the lowest dose investigated as the result of the loss of the skin barrier function. These data provide novel information on the distribution of SM in tissues following cutaneous exposures and indicate that brain is an important target. - Highlights: • Sulphur mustard reaches internal organs after skin exposure • Adducts are detected in the DNA of internal organs • Brain is the organ with the highest level of DNA damage • The barrier function of skin is lost at high dose of sulphur mustard • DNA adducts persist in organs for 2 or 3 weeks.

  18. Flavanone silibinin treatment attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced toxic effects in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Anil K.; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Kumar, Dileep [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Orlicky, David J. [Department of Pathology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Chapla [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); White, Carl W. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045USA (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh, E-mail: Rajesh.Agarwal@UCDenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Currently, there is no effective antidote to prevent skin injuries by sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), which are vesicating agents with potential relevance to chemical warfare, terrorist attacks, or industrial/laboratory accidents. Our earlier report has demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in reversing monofunctional alkylating SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced toxic effects in mouse skin. To translate this effect to a bifunctional alkylating vesicant, herein, efficacy studies were carried out with NM. Topical application of silibinin (1 or 2 mg) 30 min after NM exposure on the dorsal skin of male SKH-1 hairless mice significantly decreased NM-induced toxic lesions at 24, 72 or 120 h post-exposure. Specifically, silibinin treatment resulted in dose-dependent reduction of NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, dead and denuded epidermis, parakeratosis and microvesication. Higher silibinin dose also caused a 79% and 51%reversal in NM-induced increases in myeloperoxidase activity and COX-2 levels, respectively. Furthermore, silibinin completely prevented NM-induced H2A.X phosphorylation, indicating reversal of DNA damage which could be an oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by high levels of 8-oxodG in NM-exposed mouse skin that was significantly reversed by silibinin. Together, these findings suggest that attenuation of NM-induced skin injury by silibinin is due to its effects on the pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation, vesication and oxidative stress. In conclusion, results presented here support the optimization of silibinin as an effective treatment of skin injury by vesicants. - Highlights: • Silibinin treatment attenuated nitrogen mustard (NM)-induced skin injury. • Silibinin affects pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation and vesication. • The efficacy of silibinin could also be associated with oxidative stress. • These results support testing and optimization of

  19. Tracer studies on P use efficiency by mustard (Brassica juncea L.), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Kamath, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    Mustard and chickpea derived a large fraction of their P requirement from applied phosphate compared to safflower crop at flowering. Consequently mean per cent P utilization was maximum in mustard (17.7) followed by chickpea (13.0) and safflower (9.5). However, P uptake at maturity was higher for oilseeds than for the pulse. Grain yield response per kg of applied P was higher at lower rate of P application regardless of the crop. (author). 11 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  20. Indian Ledger Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcoat, George W.

    1990-01-01

    Offers an innovative way to teach mid-nineteenth century North American Indian history by having students create their own Indian Ledger art. Purposes of the project are: to understand the role played by American Indians, to reveal American Indian stereotypes, and to identify relationships between cultures and environments. Background and…

  1. New high yielding mutant varieties of mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. yellow sarson)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.; Das, M.L.; Pathan, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    Mutation breeding work at the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture has been successful with the development of a number of promising mutants and with the release of two mutant varieties of mustard (Brassica campestris L. var. Yellow Sarson), Agrani and Safal, for commercial cultivation in Bangladesh. The mutant varieties have higher seed and oil yield with higher biomass production, tolerance to Alternaria blight and aphid under field conditions. The average seed yield of the varieties is 1726 and 1754 kg/ha as compared to 1447 kg/ha of the best check Sonali. These varieties have 42-43 per cent oil in the seed. (author). 7 refs., 3 tabs

  2. The Effects of Mixed Source Fertilizer Application on Vertisol Fertility and Growth of Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauhari Syamsiyah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility is a crucial factor determining the growth and yield of plants. The increase of nutrient content and availability in soil can be achieved by fertilization. A field experiment was conducted using a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD with two factors and three replications in order to study the effects of Mixed Source of Fertilizer (MSF application on the nutrient contents in Vertisol and its relationship to the growth and yield of mustard. The first factor was the three MSF formulas (F1, F2, F3 and second factor was the doses of MSF (0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10 Mg ha-1 applied to the soil. At the end of the experiment, the soil pH, CEC, organic-C, total-N, available-P and exchangeable-K contents were measured. The results show that there are no significant differences on the soil chemical characteristics, such as pH, organic-C content, available-P, exchangeable-K, -Ca and -Mg measured after application of different MSF formulas to the soil. Meanwhile, the increase of MSF doses applied to the soil significantly increases organic-C content, total-N, available-P and exchangeable-K in the soil. The significant increase of available-P (by 29.13% and total-N (by 24.1% occured after application of MSF at 5.0 Mg ha-1 and the increase of exchangeable-K (by 50% is achieved after application of 7.5 Mg ha-1, in comparison to that without MSF application. The height and fresh weight of mustard increase in accordance with the increase of MSF doses applied. The application of 10.0 Mg ha-1 MSF results in the highest height and fresh weight of the mustard up to 63.9% and 620%, respectively. The height and fresh weight of mustard are positively correlated to the total-N, available-P and exchangeable-K in the soil. The MSF is an alternative fertilizer that can be used to improve Vertisol fertility and plant growth.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of "golden mustard" for treating vitamin A deficiency in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Chow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin A deficiency (VAD is an important nutritional problem in India, resulting in an increased risk of severe morbidity and mortality. Periodic, high-dose vitamin A supplementation is the WHO-recommended method to prevent VAD, since a single dose can compensate for reduced dietary intake or increased need over a period of several months. However, in India only 34 percent of targeted children currently receive the two doses per year, and new strategies are urgently needed. METHODOLOGY: Recent advancements in biotechnology permit alternative strategies for increasing the vitamin A content of common foods. Mustard (Brassica juncea, which is consumed widely in the form of oil by VAD populations, can be genetically modified to express high levels of beta-carotene, a precursor to vitamin A. Using estimates for consumption, we compare predicted costs and benefits of genetically modified (GM fortification of mustard seed with high-dose vitamin A supplementation and industrial fortification of mustard oil during processing to alleviate VAD by calculating the avertable health burden in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALY. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that all three interventions potentially avert significant numbers of DALYs and deaths. Expanding vitamin A supplementation to all areas was the least costly intervention, at $23-$50 per DALY averted and $1,000-$6,100 per death averted, though cost-effectiveness varied with prevailing health subcenter coverage. GM fortification could avert 5 million-6 million more DALYs and 8,000-46,000 more deaths, mainly because it would benefit the entire population and not just children. However, the costs associated with GM fortification were nearly five times those of supplementation. Industrial fortification was dominated by both GM fortification and supplementation. The cost-effectiveness ratio of each intervention decreased with the prevalence of VAD and was sensitive to the efficacy rate of

  4. Effect of sulphur fertilisation on yield and quality of white mustard seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Ryant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the effect of different forms of sulphur on yields and qualitative parameters of white mustard seeds. This topic was studied in 2004 in the form of a pot trial in a vegetation hall and linked up with an identical experiment with spring wheat conducted in 2003. Besides the control variant not fertilised with sulphur (1 we fertilised the soil with elemental sulphur (2, ammonium sulphate (3 and gypsum (4 and applied foliar dressing of elemental sulphur with bentonite (5. For all variants the nitrogen dose was 0.9 g per pot (0.15 g . kg−1 of soil and for va­riants 2 to 4 it was 1 g of sulphur per pot (0.17 g. kg−1 of soil. Foliar dressing of elemental sulphur (S0 was not applied until the stage of six true leaves in a dose of 10 kg per ha (0.032 g per pot.Significantly higher yields of white mustard seeds were achieved after foliar application of S0 which can be also due to its fungicide action. The variants where gypsum was applied showed the highest average number of branches and pods and also straw yields. After gypsum fertilisation or foliar application of S0 the oil content in the mustard seeds exceeded 25%; this is the minimal content required for the production of good quality mustard. The 1000-seed weight was significantly higher after foliar application of S0. The proportion of seeds greyish on the surface, a sign of mildew, significantly decreased after fertilisation with all forms of sulphur, but most of all after foliar application of S0.Fertilisation with ammonium sulphate reduced the exchangeable soil reaction after harvest. On the other hand gypsum alkalised the soil environment and increased the content of available calcium and water-soluble sulphur. The soil of the variant where foliar dressing of S0 was applied had a higher content of available calcium after harvest. The least amount of available sulphur and phosphorus in the soil was seen after foliar

  5. Quantum molecular modeling of the interaction between guanine and alkylating agents--1--sulfur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broch, H; Hamza, A; Vasilescu, D

    1996-06-01

    Interaction between Guanine and the episulfonium form of Sulfur mustard (HD) was studied using the ab initio LCAO-MO method at the HF/6-31G level. The alkylation mechanism on guanine-N7 was analyzed by using a supermolecular modeling. Our stereostructural results associated with the molecular electrostatic potentials and HOMO-LUMO properties, show that in vacuum the alkylation of the N7 of guanine by HD in the aggressive episulfonium form is a direct process without transition state and of which the pathway is determined.

  6. New Methods for Evaluating Skin Injury from Sulfur Mustard in the Hairless Guinea Pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-13

    MUSTARD IN THE HAIRLESS GUINEA PIG Ernest H. Braue, Jr., Catherine R. Bangledorf, and Robert G. Rieder "U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical...evaluating the skin hydration state. The skin of anesthetized hairless guinea pigs was exposed to saturated HD vapor (1.4mg/ml) at 4 sites for 3, 5, 7, or 9...assessment of skin damage following cutaneous exposure to HD vapor. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS Each hairless guinea pig (HGP) was exposed to saturated HD vapor

  7. Thermal neutron activation analysis of different varieties of mustard and sunflower seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajurkar, N.S.; Bhamare, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique has been used for the estimation of Mn, Na and K in different varietes of oil seeds of mustard and sunflower in India. The samples were irradiated in a 252 Cf source with neutron flux of ∼10 9 n s -1 and the analysis was done using a multichannel analyzer (MCA) coupled to high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. Different varieties of seeds are found to have different concentrations of tracer elements when compared among themselves. (author) 5 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  8. Response ofMeteorus leviventris, (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to mustard oils in field trapping experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnick, K A

    1993-09-01

    Trapping experiments were carried out near Saskatoon, Canada, from May through August 1990 to assess the response of the braconid wasp,Meteorus leviventris, to four selected mustard oils or isothiocyanates (IC) at a release rate of 4 mg/day, and for allyl IC only, at 40 mg/day. Only allyl IC at 4 mg/day was significantly attractive when trap captures were compared to the captures in the control traps. The others (n-propyl IC, 2-phenylethyl IC., and ethyl IC) were not attractive, nor was allyl IC at the higher dose, although trap captures with the latter bait were the second highest.

  9. Epoxy Resin Modified Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensor for Chemical Warfare Agent Sulfur Mustard Vapor Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra BUNKAR

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An epoxy resin polymer coated quartz crystal microbalance (PC-QCM is used for detection of sulfur mustard vapor (SM. When SM vapor is exposed to PC-QCM sensor frequency shift is observed. The response of the sensor in ambient condition is 554 Hz with ±10 % variation upon exposure of 155 ppm of the SM concentration. The observed response loss is nearly 40 % over the period of 15 months. The response of the sensor is higher for SM than compare to structurally similar chloroethyl ether (CEE and other interferences.

  10. Skin manifestations in sulfur mustard exposed victims with ophthalmologic complications: Association between early and late phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Hejazi, MD

    Full Text Available Context: Sulfur mustard (SM was used during the Iraq-Iran war (1980–1988. Exposed veterans continue to suffer from its ocular, skin, and respiratory complications. Objective: We aimed to evaluate associations between early (at the time of acute exposure and decades later skin manifestations in individuals with severe ophthalmologic complications secondary to sulfur mustard exposure. Materials and methods: One hundred forty-nine veterans with severe ocular injuries were evaluated for acute and chronic skin complications. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between early and late skin manifestations. Results: Late skin complaints were observed in nearly all survivors who had early skin lesions (131 out of 137; 95.62%. Seven out of 12 patients (58.33% who did not have early skin lesions ultimately developed late skin complications. There was a significant relationship between the presence of lesions at the time of exposure and developing late skin complaints (two-sided Fisher's exact test, OR = 15.59, p < 0.001. There was an association between having at least one early skin lesion and occurrence of late skin complications. Survivors with blisters at the time of chemical exposure were more likely to complain of itching (95% CI: 3.63–25.97, p < 0.001, burning (OR = 11.16; 95% CI: 2.97–41.89, p < 0.001, pigmentation changes (OR = 10.17; 95% CI: 2.54–40.75, p = 0.001, dryness (OR = 6.71, 95% CI: 1.22–37.01, p = 0.03 or cherry angioma (OR = 2.59; 95% CI:1.21–5.55, p = 0.01 during the late phase. Using multivariate logistic models, early blisters remained significantly associated with latent skin complaints. Of note, the genitalia and great flexure areas were the most involved anatomical sites for both early and late skin lesions in SM exposed survivors. Conclusion: According to this study, the presence of blisters at the time of exposure to SM is the most important predictor of developing

  11. Dinitrobenzamide mustard prodrugs - hypoxic cytotoxins and dual substrates for E.coli nitroreductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, A.V.; Hogg, A.; Pullen, S.; Degenkolbe, A.; Li, D.; Chappell, A.; Ying, S.; Atwell, G.J.; Denny, W.A.; Anderson, R.F.; Wilson, W.R.

    2003-01-01

    Conditional replicating adenoviral vectors (CRAds) have received considerable attention as therapeutic tools in combination with radiotherapy. Viral distribution and micro-regional geometry are likely to be important issues in the treatment of human solid tumours with gene therapy, particularly following intravenous virus administration. The use of CRAds that are 'armed' with enzyme/prodrug systems may overcome some of the perceived limitations; CRAds can redistribute and self-amplify in a cytolytic fashion whilst prodrug metabolites may elicit a local bystander effect. Either or both of these cytotoxic properties could have favourable interactions with radiotherapy (IR). Nevertheless, they may be insufficient to avoid pockets of vector-naive tumour cells beyond the diffusion limits of cytotoxic prodrug metabolites, such as when perivascular seeding occurs. Under such circumstances hypoxic tumour cells may represent the least accessible compartment for vector transfection; the same tumour subpopulation that is likely to be radioresistant. E.coli nitroreductase (NTR) can bioactivate dinitrobenzamide mustards (DNBMs) and is a promising enzyme/prodrug system for 'arming' CRAds. Notably DNMBs can also be activated by endogenous human reductases under low oxygen conditions providing an opportunity to identify dual hypoxic cytotoxins/NTR substrates that may circumvent some of the geometry issues and provide complementarity with IR. To identify a prodrug for NTR that is also active as a hypoxic cytotoxin in vivo. From a set of 164 DNB prodrugs, 19 with favourable activity in vitro against a panel of four NTR-expressing cancer cells were selected and screened for activity as hypoxic cytotoxins in vitro. Measured E17 values ranged from -444 to -366 mV. Seven DNBMs possessed acceptable hypoxic selectivity against the human NSCLC cell line A549WT or clones engineered to overexpress either a human single-electron reductase, cytochrome P450 reductase (A549P450R), or oxic

  12. Effects of amount and timing of nitrogen application and weed density on wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis seed production in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehdi rastgoo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of amount and timing of nitrogen application and weed density on wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis seed production in winter wheat, an experiment was conducted in 2001 at Research station of college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. A Split plot design with three replications were used with factorial combination of weed density (0, 8, 16, and 32 plant/m2 and nitrogen (low=100, optimum= 150, and high= 225 Kg/ha as main plots.The sub plot factor included nitrogen splitting pattern (P1=1/3 at planting time+2/3 at tillering, P2= 1/3 at planting time + 1/3 at tillering + 1/3 at shooting. According to the results, wild mustard seed production increased with increasing wild mustard density and nitrogen rates, due to high wild mustard biomass production. Seed production of wild mustard was 161, 311, and 488 million/ha in low, optimum and high nitrogen rates, respectively. In the other hand, density and nitrogen rates had a significant effect on wild mustard fecundity. However, nitrogen splitting pattern showed no significant effect on wild mustard seed production.

  13. HIGH-Resolution CT in Chronic Pulmonary Changes after Mustard Gas Exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri, M.H.; Mostafavi, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the findings of high-resolution CT (HRCT) of the lung in patients with previous sulfur mustard gas exposure, and to correlate these findings with clinical and chest X-ray (CXR) results. Material and Methods: 50 consecutive patients were studied prospectively. The clinical data were recorded. Standard p.a. CXR and HRCT of the lung and spirometry were performed. The findings of CXR, HRCT and clinical and spirometry results were scored between 0 and 3 according to the severity of the findings. Results: HRCT abnormality was detected in all 50 patients (100%), while CXR was abnormal in 40 patients (80%). The most common HRCT findings was airway abnormalities (bronchial wall thickening in 100% of cases). Other important findings were suggestive of interstitial lung disease (ILD) (80%), bronchiectasis (26%), and emphysema (24%). A statistically significant correlation was found between the severity of clinical presentation and that of the HCTR scores in patients with bronchiectasis, bronchitis and ILD (p< 0.05), but not with severity scores of HRCT in patients with emphysema. No significant correlation was found between severity scores of CXR findings. HRCT evidence of bronchial wall thickening and with a lower frequency ILD were present despite normal CXR in 20% of the patients. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that bronchial wall thickening, ILD and emphysema are common chronic pulmonary sequelae of sulfur mustard injury. HRCT of the chest should be considered as the imaging modality of choice in chemical war injury

  14. HIGH-Resolution CT in Chronic Pulmonary Changes after Mustard Gas Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagheri, M.H.; Mostafavi, S.H. [Shiraz Univ. of Medical Siences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Radiology; Hosseini, S.K. [Shiraz Univ. of Medical Siences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Internal Medicine; Alavi, S.A. [Medical Center for Chemical Warfare Victims Foundation, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2003-05-01

    Purpose: To identify the findings of high-resolution CT (HRCT) of the lung in patients with previous sulfur mustard gas exposure, and to correlate these findings with clinical and chest X-ray (CXR) results. Material and Methods: 50 consecutive patients were studied prospectively. The clinical data were recorded. Standard p.a. CXR and HRCT of the lung and spirometry were performed. The findings of CXR, HRCT and clinical and spirometry results were scored between 0 and 3 according to the severity of the findings. Results: HRCT abnormality was detected in all 50 patients (100%), while CXR was abnormal in 40 patients (80%). The most common HRCT findings was airway abnormalities (bronchial wall thickening in 100% of cases). Other important findings were suggestive of interstitial lung disease (ILD) (80%), bronchiectasis (26%), and emphysema (24%). A statistically significant correlation was found between the severity of clinical presentation and that of the HCTR scores in patients with bronchiectasis, bronchitis and ILD (p< 0.05), but not with severity scores of HRCT in patients with emphysema. No significant correlation was found between severity scores of CXR findings. HRCT evidence of bronchial wall thickening and with a lower frequency ILD were present despite normal CXR in 20% of the patients. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that bronchial wall thickening, ILD and emphysema are common chronic pulmonary sequelae of sulfur mustard injury. HRCT of the chest should be considered as the imaging modality of choice in chemical war injury.

  15. Impact of Sowing Date Induced Temperature and Management Practices on Development Events and Yield of Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSA Khan, MA Aziz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted at the research field of the Agronomy Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI, Joydebpur, Gazipur, during rabi season of 2014-2015 to find out the relationship between different development events of mustard crop and sowing dates induced temperature as well as to minimize the yield reduction of the crop by adopting appropriate management practices. The mustard var. BARI Sarisha-15 was sown on 06, 25 November and 14 December 2014. Crop accumulated lower growing degree days (GDD i.e., 72.15, 521.10 and 1070 to 1154 °C were observed for the events of emergence, 50 % flowering and maturity on 14 December sowing. Late sown plants took minimum time from flowering to maturity (36 days due to increased temperature and high variability in both maximum and minimum temperature. The highest seed yield (1569 kg ha-1 was recorded from 06 November sowing with high management practices while the lowest seed yield (435 kg ha-1 from 14 December sowing with low management practices. At high management practices the crop yielded 1183 kg ha-1 at 14 December sowing. Yield reduction at late sowing condition was reduced to some extent with high management practices. The seed yield reductions at 14 December sowing as compared to high management practices at 06 November sowing were 72, 43 and 25% under low, medium and high management, respectively.

  16. Nitrogen availability regulates proline and ethylene production and alleviates salinity stress in mustard (Brassica juncea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Noushina; Umar, Shahid; Khan, Nafees A

    2015-04-15

    Proline content and ethylene production have been shown to be involved in salt tolerance mechanisms in plants. To assess the role of nitrogen (N) in the protection of photosynthesis under salt stress, the effect of N (0, 5, 10, 20 mM) on proline and ethylene was studied in mustard (Brassica juncea). Sufficient N (10 mM) optimized proline production under non-saline conditions through an increase in proline-metabolizing enzymes, leading to osmotic balance and protection of photosynthesis through optimal ethylene production. Excess N (20 mM), in the absence of salt stress, inhibited photosynthesis and caused higher ethylene evolution but lower proline production compared to sufficient N. In contrast, under salt stress with an increased demand for N, excess N optimized ethylene production, which regulates the proline content resulting in recovered photosynthesis. The effect of excess N on photosynthesis under salt stress was further substantiated by the application of the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor, 1-aminoethoxy vinylglycine (AVG), which inhibited proline production and photosynthesis. Without salt stress, AVG promoted photosynthesis in plants receiving excess N by inhibiting stress ethylene production. The results suggest that a regulatory interaction exists between ethylene, proline and N for salt tolerance. Nitrogen differentially regulates proline production and ethylene formation to alleviate the adverse effect of salinity on photosynthesis in mustard. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Long Term Follow-Up of Sulfur Mustard Related Bronchiolitis Obliterans Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Abtahi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO is the most remarkable pulmonary sequels of war-related sulfur mustard inhalation. There is little if any data about long-term efficacy of associated BO treatment. Five years spirometric records of three groups of patients with obstructive pulmonary diseases (asthma, COPD, BO and documented sulfur mustard inhalation were evaluated. The BO patients were treated with inhaled Seretide 125-250/25 (2 puffs BID, azithromycin (250 mg, three times/week and N-acetylcysteine (1200-1800/day. Asthma and COPD patients were treated according to existing guidelines. Seventy-three (38 asthma, 16 COPD and 19 BO patients completed the 5 years follow-up. Basal and final FEV1 in BO patients (2.69±0.81 and 2.39±0.65 respectively were not significantly different from COPD patients (2.46±0.56 and 1.96±0.76 respectively. There was also no significant difference between the yearly FEV1 decline in BO patients compared to COPD patients (60±84 cc vs. 99±79 cc respectively, P=0.163. The non-significant difference of FEV1 decline in BO compared to COPD patients suggests the effectiveness of azithromycin, inhaled steroid and N-acetyl cysteine in BO patients. Considering safety and possible effectiveness, this treatment is recommended until more data is available from controlled clinical studies.

  18. Effect of method and time of application on P use efficiency by mustard (Brassica juncea L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Kamath, M.B.

    1990-01-01

    Radiophosphorus( 32 p) employed in a two years field study to evaluate some techniques of phosphate application in relation to P utilization by mustard as a test crop on I.A.R.I. Farm alluvial soil revealed that split application of phosphate proved superior to other methods of P fertilization as judged by significantly higher values for per cent Pdff and per cent P utilization. Band placement of plain single suprphosphate(SSP) as well as slurry blended SSP 3 to 4 cm below the seed were at par but both were superior to broadcast application of slurry blended SSP in terms of different P uptake parmeters. Fertilizer applied as a traditional practice, i.e, to broadcast it at seeding was least efficiently utilized. Moreover, alternate tagging technique conclusively indicated that mustard crop derived relatively more P from the basal dose than that of side dressed 25 days after seeding. The grain yield response per unit quantity of added P was much higher in favour of split application followed by comparable response of band placement of blended SSP and unblended fertilizer. (author). 12 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Garlic mustard and its effects on soil microbial communities in a sandy pine forest in central Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander B. Faulkner; Brittany E. Pham; Truc-Quynh D. Nguyen; Kenneth E. Kitchell; Daniel S. O' Keefe; Kelly D. McConnaughay; Sherri J. Morris

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the impacts of garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), an invasive species, on soil microbial community dynamics in a pine plantation on sandy soils in central Illinois. In situ soil carbon dioxide efflux was significantly greater in invaded sites. Similarly, in vitro carbon mineralization was significantly greater for soils...

  20. Inhalation and Percutaneous Toxicokinetics of Sulfur Mustard and Its adducts in Hairless Guinea Pigs and Marmosets. Efficacy of Nasal Scavengers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Langenberg, Jan P

    2004-01-01

    As a follow-up to DAMDl7-94-V-4OO9, the inhalation toxicokinetics of sulfur mustard are studied in more detail in the hairless guinea pig as well as in a species more relevant for man, i.e., the marmoset...

  1. Study of selective metals accumulation in green mustard (Brassica rapa var. parachinesis L.) from Cameron Highlands farmlands, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Marlinda Musa; Ahmad Saat; Ahmad Saat

    2011-01-01

    There are many essential and non-essential elements including metals and radionuclides present in vegetables. However, the accumulation of the several metals and radionuclides might cause the contamination to vegetables itself. Green mustard (Brasissca rapa var. Parachinesis L.) was selected to represent the vegetable in this study. Objectives of this study are to determine the concentration of metals and radionuclides in the samples and to calculate the enrichment factor (EF) and also to estimate the uptake, base on biological accumulation coefficient (BAC), for the various parts of selected vegetables. Three farmlands in the Cameron Highlands were studied namely Bharat, Kg Raja and Bertam area. The green mustard and soil samples were collected during the harvest season. Samples were dried, ground and sieved prior to analysis. Analyses for both samples were done by using X-rays Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF) to measure the concentration of Fe, Zn, Hg, U and Th. The concentration of all elements in the soils is lower than their concentration in the control soil, except for Zn, U and Th. The concentration of all elements in Green Mustard is lower than their concentration in the soil where it was grown. The EF values in the Brasissca rapa var. Parachinesis L are lower than 2 except for U and Th, indicating some degree of contamination due to anthropogenic activities or naturally origin. The BAC values show that Zn and Hg were accumulated in the green mustard, depending on where the plant grows. (Author)

  2. Inhalation and Percutaneous Toxicokinetics of Sulfur Mustard and Its Adducts in Hairless Guinea Pigs and Marmosets. Efficacy of Naval Scavengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    activity ca. 40 units/mg protein) from Boehringer (Mannheim, Germany); RNase A, and Tween 20 from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO, USA); and skimmed milk ...al. 1997). This hypothesis is still awaiting falsification . Measurement of the concentration-time course of the adduct of sulfur mustard to hemoglobin

  3. Use of Se-enriched mustard and canola seed meals as potential bioherbicides and green fertilizers in strawberry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    New plant-based products can be produced from seed harvested from Brassica species used for phytomanaging selenium (Se) in the westside of central California. We tested Se-enriched seed meals produced from canola (Brassica napus) and mustard (Sinapis alba) plants as potential bio-herbicides and as g...

  4. Sulforaphane induces phase II detoxication enzymes in mouse skin and prevents mutagenesis induced by a mustard gas analog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, E.L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Boulware, S. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); Fields, T.; McIvor, E.; Powell, K.L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); DiGiovanni, J.; Vasquez, K.M. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); MacLeod, M.C., E-mail: mcmacleod@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Mustard gas, used in chemical warfare since 1917, is a mutagenic and carcinogenic agent that produces severe dermal lesions for which there are no effective therapeutics; it is currently seen as a potential terrorist threat to civilian populations. Sulforaphane, found in cruciferous vegetables, is known to induce enzymes that detoxify compounds such as the sulfur mustards that react through electrophilic intermediates. Here, we observe that a single topical treatment with sulforaphane induces mouse epidermal levels of the regulatory subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase, the rate-limiting enzyme in glutathione biosynthesis, and also increases epidermal levels of reduced glutathione. Furthermore, a glutathione S-transferase, GSTA4, is also induced in mouse skin by sulforaphane. In an in vivo model in which mice are given a single mutagenic application of the sulfur mustard analog 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), we now show that therapeutic treatment with sulforaphane abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin, measured four days after exposure. Sulforaphane, a natural product currently in clinical trials, shows promise as an effective therapeutic against mustard gas. -- Highlights: ► Sulforaphane induces increased levels of glutathione in mouse skin. ► Sulforaphane induces increased levels of GSTA4 in mouse skin. ► Sulforaphane, applied after CEES-treatment, completely abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ► The therapeutic effect may suggest a long biological half-life for CEES in vivo.

  5. A comparison of decontamination effects of commercially available detergents in rats pre-exposed to topical sulphur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misik, Jan; Jost, Petr; Pavlikova, Ruzena; Vodakova, Eva; Cabal, Jiri; Kuca, Kamil

    2013-06-01

    The genotoxic vesicant sulphur mustard [bis-2-(chloroethyl)sulphide] is a chemical warfare agent which is easily available due to its relatively simple synthesis. Thus, sulphur mustard is a potential agent for mass contamination. In this study, we focused on sulphur mustard toxicity and decontamination in a rat model using commercially available detergent mixtures for dermal decontamination. Male Wistar rats were percutaneously treated with sulphur mustard and subjected to wet decontamination 2 min postexposure. Commercially produced detergents Neodekont™, Argos™, Dermogel™ and FloraFree™ were tested for their decontamination efficacy against an exposed group and their protective ratios determined. The results showed that all tested detergent solutions produced an increase in the median lethal dose [LD(50) = 9.83 (5.87-13.63) mg·kg(-1)] in comparison to controls, which led to increased survival of experimental animals. In general, all tested detergents provided modest decontamination efficacy (PR = 2.0-5.7). The highest protective ratio (5.7) was consistently achieved with Argos™. Accordingly, Argos™ should be considered in further investigation of mass casualty decontamination.

  6. The Global Garlic Mustard Field Survey: challenges and opportunities of a unique, large-scale collaboration for invasion biology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Colautti, R. I.; Franks, S. J.; Hufbauer, R. A.; Kotanen, P. M.; Torchin, M.; Byers, J. E.; Pyšek, Petr; Bossdorf, O.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2014), s. 29-47 ISSN 1619-0033 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : garlic mustard * citizen science * model system Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  7. The effect of nightly nasal CPAP treatment on nocturnal hypoxemia and sleep disorders in mustard gas-injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi, Ensieh; Fazeli Varzaneh, Ali Reza; Ghanei, Mostafa; Afsharpaiman, Shahla; Poursaleh, Zohre

    2014-12-01

    Sleep-related breathing disorders are associated with unusual respiratory pattern or an abnormal reduction in gas exchange during sleep that is common in sulfur mustard (SM) exposure. We compared 57 Iranian male patients injured with SM and had any complaints of sleep problems with an age-matched group of 21 Iranian male patients who had complaints of sleep problems and were not chemically injured; this group had Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) above 10 and whom referred for polysomnography. Split-night studies were performed for patients with diagnostic polysomnography for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and respiratory events. We then studied respiratory events including episodes of OSA, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and respiratory disturbance index (RDI). The mean age in mustard-exposed patients was 48.14±8.04 years and in age-matched group, 48.19±8.39 years. In mustard exposed patients, there were statistical differences for the episodes of OSA (p=0.001), AHI (p=0.001), and RDI (p=0.001) between two segments of split-night studies. In the age-matched group, there were statistically differences for each parameter (episodes of OSA (p=0.001), AHI (p=0.001), and RDI (p=0.001)). There were no significant differences between two groups. This study indicated that the incidence of respiratory events and nocturnal hypoxemia during sleep in mustard-exposed patients were high and treatment with CPAP significantly reduced all these events.

  8. De novo transcriptome profiling of cold-stressed siliques during pod filling stages of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somya eSinha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature is a major abiotic stress that impedes plant growth and development. Brassica juncea is an economically important oil seed crop and is sensitive to freezing stress during pod filling subsequently leading to abortion of seeds. To understand the cold stress mediated global perturbations in gene expression, whole transcriptome of B. juncea siliques that were exposed to sub-optimal temperature was sequenced. Manually self-pollinated siliques at different stages of development were subjected to either short (6 h or long (12 h durations of chilling stress followed by construction of RNA-seq libraries and deep sequencing using Illumina’s NGS platform. De-novo assembly of B. juncea transcriptome resulted in 133641 transcripts, whose combined length was 117 Mb and N50 value was 1428 bp. We identified 13342 differentially regulated transcripts by pair-wise comparison of 18 transcriptome libraries. Hierarchical clustering of these differentially expressed transcripts along with Spearman correlation analysis identified two major clusters representing early (5-15 DAP and late stages (20-30 DAP of silique development. Detailed analysis led to the discovery of two gene expression clusters whose transcripts were inducible at both durations of the cold stress irrespective of the developmental stages. We further explored the expression patterns of gene families encoding for transcription factors (TFs, transcription regulators (TRs and kinases, and found that cold stress induced protein kinases specifically during early silique development. We validated the digital gene expression profiles of selected transcripts by qPCR and found a high degree of concordance between the two analyses. To our knowledge this is the first report of transcriptome sequencing of cold-stressed B. juncea siliques. The data generated in this study would be a valuable resource for not only understanding the cold stress signaling pathway but also for introducing cold hardiness in B. juncea.

  9. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. M R Meshram1 Nawal K Agrawal1 Bharoti Sinha1 P S Misra2. Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247 667, India; Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247 667, India ...

  10. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Centre for Rural and Cryogenic Technologies, Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032, India; Department of Central Scientific Services, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032, India; Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of ...

  11. Results of electron spin resonance measurement of cow teeth from a village around the Indian Nuclear Test Site and assessment of the human exposure to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, Deborshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ivannikov, Alexander; Ohtaki, Megu; Sarma, Haladhar D.

    2010-01-01

    A number of cow tooth samples are collected from the adjacent village of Khetolai, located 5 km from the actual Indian Nuclear Test Site in Rajasthan. The samples were processed and utilized for ESR measurements in this study by an X-band spectrometer from JEOL, Japan. The excess dose, determined by subtraction of the natural background dose from the dose absorbed by the enamel was found to the extent of 142 mGy. The intensity of ESR measurement of cow teeth, however, is lower than the human teeth in general. The detailed results obtained on dose estimation in the present study and its correlation with dose exposure for human beings as a result of nuclear test will be presented. The results of this study amply suggest that there is no direct evidence attributing to the development tumors in the cattle population of the locality. There are definitely other factors which were responsible for occurrence of such tumors and other congenital defects in the animal population in the area

  12. Response of Aspergillus niger Inoculated on Tomatoes Exposed to Vapor Phase Mustard Essential Oil for Short or Long Periods and Sensory Evaluation of Treated Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elena Aguilar-González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory effect of mustard essential oil (EO in vapor phase against Aspergillus niger was evaluated in vitro and in vivo (in tomatoes. Mold response in tomatoes exposed for short or long periods to selected concentrations of mustard EO was also evaluated. Furthermore, a sensory evaluation was also performed among treated tomatoes and compared with nontreated ones. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for the studied EO was determined by the inverted Petri dish method. MIC for the in vitro and in vivo tests for mustard EO was of 3.08 μL/Lair. In vitro and in vivo results demonstrate the effectiveness of vapors of mustard EO against A. niger. The studied EO contains highly volatile organic compounds with strong inhibitory effects, even when applied for short periods, and can consequently be considered a good alternative to traditional synthetic antimicrobials without detriment of selected sensory attributes.

  13. Women Fellows of INAE | Women in Science | Initiatives | Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Women Fellows of INAE. INAE - Indian National Academy of Engineering. Ms. Alpa Sheth Civil Engineering. Prof. Bharathi Bhat Electronics & Communication Engineering. Prof. Dipanwita Roy Chowdhury Computer Engineering and Information Technology. Prof. Kamala Krithivasan Computer Engineering and Information ...

  14. 71th Annual Meeting | Annual Meetings | Events | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D. D. Sarma, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru Electronic ... A molecular genetic perspective on primary congenital glaucoma in India ... Joint Statement by the Three Science Academies of India on the teaching of the theory of evolution

  15. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 83; Issue 3. Elastic constants and Debye temperature of wz-AlN and wz-GaN semiconductors under high ... Department of Electronic Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826 ...

  16. Induction and repair of DNA cross-links induced by sulfur mustard in the A-549 cell line followed by a comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Petr; Svobodova, Hana; Stetina, Rudolf

    2015-07-25

    Sulfur mustard is a highly toxic chemical warfare agent with devastating impact on intoxicated tissues. DNA cross-links are probably the most toxic DNA lesions induced in the cell by sulfur mustard. The comet assay is a very sensitive method for measuring DNA damage. In the present study using the A-549 lung cell line, the comet assay protocol was optimized for indirect detection of DNA cross-links induced by sulfur mustard. The method is based on the additional treatment of the assayed cells containing cross-links with the chemical mutagen, styrene oxide. Alkali-labile adducts of styrene oxide cause DNA breaks leading to the formation of comets. A significant dose-dependent reduction of DNA migration of the comet's tail was found after exposing cells to sulfur mustard, indicative of the amount of sulfur mustard induced cross-links. The remarkable decrease of % tail DNA could be observed as early as 5min following exposure to sulfur mustard and the maximal effect was found after 30min, when DNA migration was reduced to the minimum. Sulfur mustard preincubated in culture medium without cells lost its ability to induce cross-links and had a half-life of about 15min. Pre-incubation longer than 30min does not lead to a significant increase in cross-links when applied to cells. However, the amount of cross-links is decreased during further incubation due to repair. The current modification of the comet assay provides a useful tool for detecting DNA cross-links induced by sulfur mustard and could be used for detection of other DNA cross-linking agents such as chemotherapeutic drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of seed treatment with milk powder and mustard flour in control of common bunt (Tilletia tritici) in wheat and stem smut (Urocystis occulta) in rye

    OpenAIRE

    Borgen, Anders; Kristensen, Lars

    2001-01-01

    In field trials mustard flour was able to control seed borne infection by common bunt (Tilletia tritici) in wheat without decreasing the germination vigour of the treated seeds. Full control of common bunt by coating the seeds with milk powder could only be achieved at doses which reduced germination vigour of the seeds. Mustard flour can be recommended as a seed treatment in organic agriculture while a treatment based on milk powder should be developed in combination with biological control....

  18. Patterns of cross-sensitivity in the responses of clonal subpopulations isolated from the RIF-1 mouse sarcoma to selected nitrosoureas and nitrogen mustards.

    OpenAIRE

    Reeve, J. G.; Wright, K. A.; Workman, P.

    1984-01-01

    The response of clonal subpopulations isolated from the RIF-1 mouse sarcoma to melphalan treatment is independent of cell ploidy, whereas a clear relationship exists between ploidy and cell sensitivity to CCNU treatment. In the present study RIF-1 clones have been exposed to nitrogen mustard, aniline mustard and chlorambucil, and to nitrosoureas BCNU, MeCCNU and chlorozotocin, in order to evaluate whether or not the different physiochemical and biological activities of these agents would affe...

  19. Final report : multicomponent forensic signature development : interactions with common textiles; mustard precursors and simulants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

    2010-02-01

    2-Chloroethyl phenyl sulfide (CEPS), a surrogate compound of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard, was examined using thermal desorption coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD/GC-MS) and multivariate analysis. This work describes a novel method of producing multiway data using a stepped thermal desorption. Various multivariate analysis schemes were employed to analyze the data. These methods may be able to discern different sources of CEPS. In addition, CEPS was applied to cotton, nylon, polyester, and silk swatches. These swatches were placed in controlled humidity chambers maintained at 23%, 56%, and 85% relative humidity. At regular intervals, samples were removed from each test swatch, and the samples analyzed using TD/GC-MS. The results were compared across fabric substrate and humidity.

  20. Yellow mustard bran attenuates glycaemic response of a semi-solid food in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, Aron M; Thondre, Pariyarath S; Rosenthal, Andrew J

    2013-03-01

    In a randomized, repeated-measures design, the glycaemic response and satiety ratings of a potato and leek soup were compared with and without the addition of 5 g of yellow mustard bran. Ten healthy, non-smoking, moderately active male subjects (mean age of 21.1 years and mean body mass index 23.2 kg/m(2)) were recruited to the study. Capillary blood glucose and satiety were measured at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min, postprandial of each food. The incremental area under the blood glucose curve, blood glucose at each time point and satiety rating were calculated and compared via paired t-test. Mean blood glucose values at 15, 30 and 90 min (p soup.

  1. Induced mutagenesis for the development of high yielding varieties in mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.L.; Rahman, A.

    1988-01-01

    Variation for resistance to Alternaria brassicae (Berk.) Sacc. was induced in the oleiferous Brassica campestris cultivar yellow sarson, 'YS 52' using gamma rays. Variations were identified and isolated from the M 2 population. Screening in the subsequent generations (M 3 -M 4 ) confirmed the varying degrees of field resistance of the mutants. A total of 8 mutants of mustard developed by gamma irradiation was compared with the parental line and a released variety 'Sampad' as a check. Maximum plant height, highest number of pods and primary branches/plant were recorded in mutant '17-5-83'. The mutants '17-5-83' and '70-7-82' gave 45 and 21 per cent more grain yield respectively than the parent cultivar 'YS 52'. The mutant '17-5-83' appeared resistant while the mutants '70-7-82' and '53-11-82' were found to be moderately resistant against the disease. (author). 6 refs., 2 tables

  2. Mono- and Di-Alkylation Processes of DNA Bases by Nitrogen Mustard Mechlorethamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrañaga, Olatz; de Cózar, Abel; Cossío, Fernando P

    2017-12-06

    The reactivity of nitrogen mustard mechlorethamine (mec) with purine bases towards formation of mono- (G-mec and A-mec) and dialkylated (AA-mec, GG-mec and AG-mec) adducts has been studied using density functional theory (DFT). To gain a complete overview of DNA-alkylation processes, direct chloride substitution and formation through activated aziridinium species were considered as possible reaction paths for adduct formation. Our results confirm that DNA alkylation by mec occurs via aziridine intermediates instead of direct substitution. Consideration of explicit water molecules in conjunction with polarizable continuum model (PCM) was shown as an adequate computational method for a proper representation of the system. Moreover, Runge-Kutta numerical kinetic simulations including the possible bisadducts have been performed. These simulations predicted a product ratio of 83:17 of GG-mec and AG-mec diadducts, respectively. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. evaluation of best planting time of mustard (brassica juncea) strains in southern punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.; Hussain, G.; Hussain, M.

    2008-01-01

    The study was conducted to find out the proper planting time of newly evolved mustard (Brassica juncea) strains at Regional Agriculture Research Institute, Bahawalpur during the year 2000-2002. The study included 4 planting dates from 1st October to November 15th and three strains i.e. BRS-2 and BRS-10 and KH- 74 along with check RL-18. The 1st fortnight of October proved to be the best sowing time. KH-74 and BRS-2 gave significantly higher yield in wide range of sown period i.e. 1st October to 15th November. The highest grain yield of 2435 and 2341 Kgs, ha were obtained when crop was planted on 1st October and 15th October respectively. (author)

  4. Epigenetic perturbations in the pathogenesis of mustard toxicity; hypothesis and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, A.; Yaren, H.; Kunak, I.; Uysal, B.; Kurt, B.; Topal, T.

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenesis of sulfur mustard (SM) toxicity is not fully understood, although it is related to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, oxidative stress, DNA damage, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activation within the affected cell. We, therefore, made an attempt whether epigenetic aberrations may contribute to pathogenesis of SM poisoning in rats' lung. A total of 40 male SD rats were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 served as control and given 2 ml saline, three groups received single dose of mechlorethamine (MEC) (3.5 mg/kg subcutaneously) with the same time intervals. Group 2 received MEC only; group 3 received histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor (Trichostatine A) (1 mg/kg) and group 4 received DNA methyl transferase (DNMT) inhibitor (5-Azacytidine) (0.02 mg/kg), intraperitoneally. MEC injection resulted in severe lung toxicity with strong interstitial and alveolar edema, hemorrhage, emphysematous changes as well as mild inflammatory cell infiltration and septal thickening. In group 3, the HDAC inhibitor significantly reduced interstitial and alveolar edema, hemorrhage and inflammatory cell infiltration. On the other hand, we have observed severe lung damage by using DNMT inhibitor (group 4). In HDAC inhibitor group, the results were close to sham group. In DNMT inhibitor group, however, lungs were worse than MEC group results. These preliminary results revealed that, SM itself and/or its intracellular metabolites may perturb the epigenetic environment of the affected cell in lung tissue. Hypothetically, MEC may cause HDAC induction leading to a variety of gene silencing. Trichostatine A can reduce the active enzyme level and can reactivate the already silenced genes. Further studies are needed to clarify the involvement of epigenetic perturbations in the pathogenesis of mustard toxicity.(author)

  5. Impacts of mustard gas exposure on veterans mental health: A study on the role of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam-Reza Karami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mustard gas (MG exposure can impair physical health and therefore increase the probability of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and psychological disorders. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate long-term effects of MG exposure on veterans′ mental health. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. In order to assess prevalence of mental health and PTSD of 100 MG victims 25 years after the exposure to MG in Iran-Iraq conflict, the general health questionnaire (GHQ-28 and Impact of Event Scale-Revised, respectively was administered. Results: The mean (±standard deviation (SD age of participants was 40.63 (±5.86 years. The mean GHQ-28 (47.34 of the study group was higher compared to standardized cutoff point (23 of the Iranian community. Also, it was found that 38 participants (38% suffer from PTSD. The results of this study showed that academic education in the PTSD group was less than that in the non-PTSD group (P=0.03. In addition, in multivariate analysis it was found that only education level of the veterans and their wives were effective on the mental health score (adjusted P=0.036 and 0.041, respectively. The mean score of depression and psychosocial activity subscale in patients at higher education level was lower than patients at lower education level (P<0.05. Conclusion: This study found that sulfur mustard (SM exposure can be effect on mental health even 25 years after exposure. Therefore, the psychological state should be more considered in chemical injured veterans and it is important that providing more mental health centers for this community.

  6. Cell Death Mechanisms in Sulfur Mustard Injury: Basis for Therapeutics Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, R.; Keyser, B.; Benton, B.; Rosenthal, D. S.

    2007-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM, bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide), commonly called mustard gas, is a vesicant chemical warfare agent and a potential terrorism agent. SM is relatively easy to make and to deploy, which makes this chemical most likely to be used. SM exposure causes debilitating skin blisters (vesication) and injury to the eyes and the respiratory tract. Therefore, developing an effective medical countermeasure to protect against the dermal, ocular and airway injuries due to this dreaded chemical agent is an urgent priority of the US Army. SM pathophysiology is consistent with epithelial cell damage, particularly basal cell apoptosis. SM-induced apoptosis may occur via multiple pathways dependent on one or more of the following: (a) abnormal Ca2plus homeostasis, (b) disturbed cellular bioenergetics, and (c) Fas (death receptor) response. Apoptosis pathways are characterized by the involvement of the pathway-specific caspases (cysteine aspartase). We determined caspase activity by assay of fluorogenic caspase type-specific peptide substrate hydrolysis. We studied caspase processing, i.e., proteolytic conversion of procaspase to active caspase by immunoblot analyses utilizing caspase type-specific antibodies. Our results in cell culture models of both human epidermal keratinocytes and human airway epithelial cells indicated that SM activates (a) caspase-9, an indicator of the Ca2plus/CaM-mediated mitochondrial pathway, (b) caspase-8, a marker for the Fas-mediated pathway, and (c) caspase-3, the executioner caspase involved in both pathways. A peptide caspase inhibitor, specific for caspase-3 (AC-DEVD-CHO), added to cells prior to SM decreased apoptosis. These observations suggest apoptosis as a mechanism of SM toxicity and caspase inhibitors as prospective medical countermeasures.(author)

  7. Floral and Seed Variability Patterns among Ethiopian Mustard (B. carinata A. Braun of East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniji, OT.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In East Africa, Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun is cultivated primarily for its leaves, but in Ethiopia preference is high for oil in the seed. Dual purpose importance of the seeds for planting and for oil suggests the need to improve seed production efficiency through understanding variation pattern for floral morphology and seed characters. We investigated genetic diversity and correlations for floral and seed characteristics among 14 accessions of Ethiopian mustard to improve seed set and yield. Field trials were conducted during 2008 and 2009; flowers were examined for short stamen height, long stamen height, pistil height, and silliqua for seed weight, seeds/silliqua and silliqua/plant. Results were largely consistent between years, indicating that the variation measured was mainly controlled by genetic factors. High genetic variation for seed characters and reproductive phenology among the accessions was noted. The number of days to appearance of flowers showed high discriminatory ability among the accessions. A wide continuous variation was observed among accessions for anther-stigma separation. Accessions 1, 3 and 14 were identified as early flowering. A significant and positive correlation coefficient between short stamen height and seed weight indicated a substantial complementation among these characters for seed yield improvement. The short stamen height is a good indicator for selection in favour of seed commercialization and indices for selection of pollen parent for seed yield improvement. Accessions 5, 7, 14, 16 and 22 are best for multiple characters and are recommended for seed production for any of the seasons in Arusha, Tanzania.

  8. Management of textile wastewater for improving growth and yield of field mustard (Brassica campestris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Muhammad; Aziz, Muhammad Zahir; Komal, Aqleema; Naveed, Muhammad

    2017-09-02

    Disposal of industrial wastewater is a current issue of urbanization. However, this problem can be sorted out by using wastewater as an alternate source of irrigation after the addition of some amendment. In this way, the problem of disposal of wastewater not only will be resolved but also scarcity of irrigation water can be kept off in the future. The current research study was performed to evaluate the influence of different concentrations of wastewater along with canal water for enhancing growth and yield of field mustard. Plants were irrigated with different mixtures of canal water and wastewater (75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 00:100) in addition to canal water as control. The results revealed that application of 50:50% waste and canal water improved plant height, the number of pods plant -1 , pod length, root length, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, 100 grain weight, grain and biomass yield plant -1 , and nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium concentration in grain and straw up to 16%, 15%, 17%, 29%, 15%, 56%, 25%, 41%, 35%, 20%, 52%, 45%, 20%, 44%, and 42%, respectively, over positive control treatment. While, nutrient uptakes and agronomic efficiency of fertilizers also improved by the application of 50:50% canal and wastewater compared to positive control treatment. Furthermore, the concentration of heavy metals, predominantly Cr, Cu, Cd, and Pb, was reduced in grains by application of 50% canal water and 50% wastewater. The outcomes suggest that wastewater utilization along with canal water mixing might be an effective approach for enhancing growth and yield of field mustard.

  9. A Choline Oxidase Amperometric Bioassay for the Detection of Mustard Agents Based on Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with Prussian Blue Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Arduini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work a novel bioassay for mustard agent detection was proposed. The bioassay is based on the capability of these compounds to inhibit the enzyme choline oxidase. The enzymatic activity, which is correlated to the mustard agents, was electrochemically monitored measuring the enzymatic product, hydrogen peroxide, by means of a screen-printed electrode modified with Prussian Blue nanoparticles. Prussian Blue nanoparticles are able to electrocatalyse the hydrogen peroxide concentration reduction at low applied potential (−50 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, thus allowing the detection of the mustard agents with no electrochemical interferences. The suitability of this novel bioassay was tested with the nitrogen mustard simulant bis(2-chloroethylamine and the sulfur mustard simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide and 2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide. The bioassay proposed in this work allowed the detection of mustard agent simulants with good sensitivity and fast response, which are excellent premises for the development of a miniaturised sensor well suited for an alarm system in case of terrorist attacks.

  10. Leadership Preferences of Indian and Non-Indian Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, D. C.; Nilson, R. N.

    1991-01-01

    Among 86 Indian and non-Indian volleyball competitors, non-Indian players indicated significantly greater preferences for leadership that involved democratic behavior, autocratic behavior, or social support. Indians may adapt their behavior by participating in non-Indian games, without changing their traditional value orientations. Contains 22…

  11. 75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Under section 11 of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (IGRA), Public Law 100...

  12. 76 FR 42722 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs... Date: July 19, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming... INFORMATION: Under section 11 of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (IGRA), Public Law 100-497, 25 U.S.C...

  13. 75 FR 38834 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs...: July 6, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office...-4066. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Under Section 11 of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (IGRA...

  14. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Editorial Board. Sadhana. Editor. N Viswanadham, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru. Senior Associate Editors. Arakeri J H, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru Hari K V S, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru Mujumdar P P, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru Manoj Kumar Tiwari, Indian Institute of Technology, ...

  15. The Quantitation of Sulfur Mustard By-Products, Sulfur-Containing Herbicides, and Organophosphonates in Soil and Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomkins, B.A., Sega, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)], Macnaughton, S.J. [Microbial Insights, Inc., Rockford, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Over the past fifty years, the facilities at Rocky Mountain Arsenal have been used for the manufacturing, bottling, and shipping sulfur- containing herbicides, sulfur mustard, and Sarin. There is a need for analytical methods capable of determining these constituents quickly to determine exactly how specific waste structural materials should be handled, treated, and landfilled.These species are extracted rapidly from heated samples of soil or crushed concrete using acetonitrile at elevated pressure, then analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector. Thiodiglycol, the major hydrolysis product of sulfur mustard, must be converted to a silylated derivative prior to quantitation. Detection limits, calculated using two statistically-unbiased protocols, ranged between 2-13 micrograms analyte/g soil or concrete.

  16. Epigenetic: A missing paradigm in cellular and molecular pathways of sulfur mustard lung: a prospective and comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Imani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard (SM, bis- (2-chloroethyl sulphide is a chemical warfare agent that causes DNA alkylation, protein modification and membrane damage. SM can trigger several molecular pathways involved in inflammation and oxidative stress, which cause cell necrosis and apoptosis, and loss of cells integrity and function. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is a growing research topic and is addressed by DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling, and noncoding RNAs expression. It seems SM can induce the epigenetic modifications that are translated into change in gene expression. Classification of epigenetic modifications long after exposure to SM would clarify its mechanism and paves a better strategy for the treatment of SM-affected patients. In this study, we review the key aberrant epigenetic modifications that have important roles in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and compared with mustard lung.

  17. Effect of Soil Salinity, Type and Amount of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield and Biochemical Properties of Mustard (Brassica rapa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    S Tandisseh; A. R Astaraei; H Emami

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Soil salinity is a major limiting factor in agricultural development within Iran. Nitrogen is the most important nutrient that its uptake is limited over other elements under saline conditions due to decrease in the permeability of plant roots, soil microbial activity and mineralization of organic compounds and nitrate uptake by high concentrations of chloride anions in the root zone of the plant. Mustard plant has a good compatibility to weather conditions and since there is...

  18. Extraction and Analysis of Sulfur Mustard (HD) from Various Food Matrices by Gas ChromatographyMass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    9 8. (a) GC chromatogram and (b) mass spectrum for HD extracted from hot dog; (c) mass spectrum at Rt = 5.08 min (benzoic acid ...shows the mass spectrum for benzoic acid . Percent recoveries were calculated based on an external calibration curve for HD (Figure 14). The recoveries...EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS OF SULFUR MUSTARD ( HD ) FROM VARIOUS FOOD MATRICES BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY–MASS

  19. Efficacy of scalp hair decontamination following exposure to vapours of sulphur mustard simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide and methyl salicylate

    OpenAIRE

    Spiandore , Marie; Piram , Anne; Lacoste , Alexandre; Prevost , P.; Maloni , Pascal; TORRE , Franck; Asia , L.; Josse , D.; Doumenq , Pierre

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Chemical warfare agents are an actual threat and victims' decontamination is a main concern when mass exposure occurs. Skin decontamination with current protocols has been widely documented, as well as surface decontamination. However, considering hair ability to trap chemicals in vapour phase, we investigated hair decontamination after exposure to sulphur mustard simulants methyl salicylate and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide. Four decontamination protocols were tested o...

  20. Biochemical changes in mouse lung after subcutaneous injection of the sulfur mustard 2-chloroethyl 4-chlorobutyl sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Nabil M; Omaye, Stanley T

    2004-07-01

    Sulfur mustard (HD) is a vesicant-type chemical warfare agent (CWA) introduced in World War I which continues to be produced, stockpiled, and occasionally deployed by some countries, and could be used potentially by terrorists. Exposure to HD can cause erythema, blisters, corneal opacity, and airway damage. We have reported previously that subcutaneous (SC) injection of immunodeficient athymic nude mice with the half mustard butyl 2-chloroethyl sulfide (BCS) causes systemic biochemical changes in several organs distal to the exposure site. In the present study, we examined the response of non-immunodeficient Swiss Webster mice to the mustard, 2-chloroethyl 4-chlorobutyl sulfide (CECBS). In a pilot study, we found that a single SC injection of 20-25 microl/mouse causes death within 24h. Consequently, we used 5 microl/mouse (approx. 0.017 mg/kg body weight) of neat CECBS or an equal volume of saline as control. We examined the lungs after 1, 24, and 48 h for biochemical changes including total and oxidized glutathione, protein, DNA, and lipid peroxidation contents in tissue homogenate, and superoxide dismutase, catalase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glutathione S-transferases activities in the cytosol. After 1h and/or 24h, we found statistically significant changes that were resolved by 48 h. These changes mimicked those of HD and BCS and were generally consistent with free radical-mediated oxidative stress. The implications of these observations are two-fold. First, dermal exposure to low-dose mustard gas could elicit systemic changes impacting distal organs such as the lungs. It also suggests that antioxidants could potentially modulate the response and reduce the damage. Second, although the use of known CWAs such as HD is prohibited, analogs that are not recognized as agents are as toxic and could be dangerous if acquired and used by potential terrorists.

  1. Protective Effect of Liposome-Encapsulated Glutathione in a Human Epidermal Model Exposed to a Mustard Gas Analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Paromov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard or mustard gas (HD and its monofunctional analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES, or “half-mustard gas,” are alkylating agents that induce DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. HD/CEES are rapidly absorbed in the skin causing extensive injury. We hypothesize that antioxidant liposomes that deliver both water-soluble and lipid-soluble antioxidants protect skin cells from immediate CEES-induced damage via attenuating oxidative stress. Liposomes containing water-soluble antioxidants and/or lipid-soluble antioxidants were evaluated using in vitro model systems. Initially, we found that liposomes containing encapsulated glutathione (GSH-liposomes increased cell viability and attenuated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in HaCaT cells exposed to CEES. Next, GSH-liposomes were tested in a human epidermal model, EpiDerm. In the EpiDerm, GSH-liposomes administered simultaneously or 1 hour after CEES exposure (2.5 mM increased cell viability, inhibited CEES-induced loss of ATP and attenuated changes in cellular morphology, but did not reduce caspase-3 activity. These findings paralleled the previously described in vivo protective effect of antioxidant liposomes in the rat lung and established the effectiveness of GSH-liposomes in a human epidermal model. This study provides a rationale for use of antioxidant liposomes against HD toxicity in the skin considering further verification in animal models exposed to HD.

  2. Augmentation of potential phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB stimulate growth of green mustard (Brasica caventis Oed. in marginal soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULIASIH

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of phosphate solubilizing bacteria/PSB (Bacillus megaterium, B. pantothenticus, Chromobacterium lividum and Klebsiella aerogenes were used as biofertilizer to increase the fresh leaf production of green mustard (Brasica caventis Oed.. An experiment was conducted at green house condition. The experiment were used 18 treatments such as single isolate of potential PSB (A,B,C,D, inoculants contain two isolates of potential PSB (E,F,G,H,I,J, inoculants contain three isolates of potential PSB (K, L, M, N, inoculants contain four isolate of potential PSB (O, chemistry fertilizer (P = control 1, organic fertilizer (Q = control 2, and without fertilizer (R = control 3. The treatments were arranged in Completely Randomized Design (CRD with 5 replications. The result showed that the inoculants of potential PSB increased the fresh plant production of green mustard. The mix of four isolates of potential PSB (inoculants O was the best to increase the fresh plant production of green mustard until 32.87% than other PSB inoculants, 207.84% than control 1,217.23% than control 2, and 930.60% than control 3.

  3. Varietals resistance and susceptibility in mustard (brassica campestris l.) genotypes against aphid myzus persicae (sulzer) (homoptera: aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Ahmad, N.; Khan, G.Z.; Tofique, M.

    2009-01-01

    The exploitation of resistant cultivars is an imperative, simple, practical and flexible way to cope with insect pests incidence. Thirty genotypes of mustard (Brassica campestris L.) were tested for their resistance and susceptibility to aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) exposed under natural field conditions. Data on pest tolerance of genotypes were judged by quantitative traits such as number of aphids on each infested plant and mean dry weight of seeds per genotype. Studies observed the discrepancy in overall rates of pest invasion and seed yield contained by trailed mustard genotypes. Agati sarson (P), S-9-S-97-100/45 and S-9-S-97-100/45 were the least damaged genotypes showing their moderate resistance. Amongst other genotypes, MM-I/01-5, MM-I285 and MM-I/01-6 were the most damaged showing oversensitive response. Although the majority of genotypes were found vulnerable to pest, Agati sarson (P) and S-9-S-97-100/45 due to their lowest hypersensitive response toward aphid contamination and increased pods yield could be used for the development of essential resistance in mustard plant. A marked mode of damage inflicted by aphid on the crop was noticed and the abiotic factors contributing variations in aphid infestation levels during both growing seasons were determined. Knowledge about the host plant resistance investigated can facilitate growers to choose the most appropriate cultivars as pest control strategy. (author)

  4. The potential to intensify sulforaphane formation in cooked broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) using mustard seeds (Sinapis alba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Methven, Lisa; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2013-06-01

    Sulforaphane, a naturally occurring cancer chemopreventive, is the hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin, the main glucosinolate in broccoli. The hydrolysis requires myrosinase isoenzyme to be present in sufficient activity; however, processing leads to its denaturation and hence reduced hydrolysis. In this study, the effect of adding mustard seeds, which contain a more resilient isoform of myrosinase, to processed broccoli was investigated with a view to intensify the formation of sulforaphane. Thermal inactivation of myrosinase from both broccoli and mustard seeds was studied. Thermal degradation of broccoli glucoraphanin was investigated in addition to the effects of thermal processing on the formation of sulforaphane and sulforaphane nitrile. Limited thermal degradation of glucoraphanin (less than 12%) was observed when broccoli was placed in vacuum sealed bag (sous vide) and cooked in a water bath at 100°C for 8 and 12 min. Boiling broccoli in water prevented the formation of any significant levels of sulforaphane due to inactivated myrosinase. However, addition of powdered mustard seeds to the heat processed broccoli significantly increased the formation of sulforaphane. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. About | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The 82nd Annual Meeting of the Indian Academy of Sciences is being held at ... by newly elected Fellows and Associates over a wide range of scientific topics. ... Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), Bhopal: Indian ...

  6. Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. PMID:23858244

  7. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes on cooked cured chicken breasts by acidified coating containing allyl isothiocyanate or deodorized Oriental mustard extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2016-08-01

    Ready-to-eat meats are considered foods at high risk to cause life-threatening Listeria monocytogenes infections. This study screened 5 L. monocytogenes strains for their ability to hydrolyze sinigrin (a glucosinolate in Oriental mustard), which formed allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and reduced L. monocytogenes viability on inoculated vacuum-packed, cooked, cured roast chicken slices at 4 °C. Tests involved incorporation of 25-50 μl/g AITC directly or 100-250 mg/g Oriental mustard extract in 0.5% (w/v) κ-carrageenan/2% (w/v) chitosan-based coatings prepared using 1.5% malic or acetic acid. L. monocytogenes strains hydrolyzed 33.6%-48.4% pure sinigrin in MH broth by 21 d at 25 °C. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 100-250 mg/g mustard reduced the viability of L. monocytogenes and aerobic bacteria on cooked, cured roast chicken slices by 4.1 to >7.0 log10 CFU/g compared to uncoated chicken stored at 4 °C for 70 d. Coatings containing malic acid were significantly more antimicrobial than those with acetic acid. During storage for 70 d, acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan coatings containing 25-50 μl/g AITC or 250 mg/g mustard extract reduced lactic acid bacteria (LAB) numbers 3.8 to 5.4 log10 CFU/g on chicken slices compared to uncoated samples. Acidified κ-carrageenan/chitosan-based coatings containing either AITC or Oriental mustard extract at the concentrations tested had the ability to control L. monocytogenes viability and delay growth of potential spoilage bacteria on refrigerated, vacuum-packed cured roast chicken. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Acute intensive care unit management of mustard gas victims: the Turkish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Ertugrul; Ortatatli, Mesut; Sezigen, Sermet; Eyison, Rusen Koray; Kenar, Levent

    2018-05-07

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is an highly toxic and vesicant chemical weapon that was used in various military conflicts several times in the history. The severity of ocular, dermal, and pulmonary symptoms that may appear following a characteristic asymptomatic period are depending on the SM concentration and exposure duration. The aim of this study is to present the clinical features and share the intensive care unit (ICU) experiences for the medical management of mustard gas victims. Thirteen Free Syrian Army soldiers near Al-Bab region of North Syria were reportedly exposed to oily blackish smoke with garlic smell due to the explosion of a trapped bomb without causing any blast or thermal effect on 26th November 2016. None of them wore any chemical protective suits or gas masks during explosion. Since they observed skin lesions including bullous formation next day, they were admitted to the Turkish Field Hospital at the Turkish - Syrian border and then evacuated to the State Hospital of Gaziantep Province, Turkey for further management. Eight victims who were very close to point of explosion suffered burning eyes, sore throat, dry cough and dyspnoea after the chemical attack. On admission to hospital, all cases had conjunctivitis, hoarseness and bullae on various body areas. Blepharospasm and opacity were found in 8 patients and 5 of them had corneal erosions and periorbital oedema. Temporary loss of vision in 4 cases lasted for 24 h. Multiple fluid-filled blisters were observed especially on the scalp, neck, arms and hands, where direct skin exposure to the agent occurred. A definitive clinical care and infection prophylaxis measures along with the burn treatment and bronchodilators for respiratory effects were applied in ICU. Two patients received granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor due to the SM-mediated bone marrow suppression on the 16th day of exposure and one of them died because of necrotic bronchial pseudomembrane obstruction resulting in cardiopulmonary

  9. Inhibition of bladder cancer cell proliferation by allyl isothiocyanate (mustard essential oil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sávio, André Luiz Ventura, E-mail: savio.alv@gmail.com [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento de Patologia, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Nicioli da Silva, Glenda [UFOP – Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Escola de Farmácia, Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento de Patologia, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • AITC inhibits mutant and wild-type TP53 cell proliferation. • Morphological changes and cells debris were observed after AITC treatment in both cells. • BAX and BCL2 expression modulation was observed in wild-type TP53 cells. • BCL2, BAX and ANLN increased and S100P decreased expression was detected in mutated TP53 cells. • AITC effects in gene modulation are dependent TP53 gene status. - Abstract: Natural compounds hold great promise for combating antibiotic resistance, the failure to control some diseases, the emergence of new diseases and the toxicity of some contemporary medical products. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which is abundant in cruciferous vegetables and mustard seeds and is commonly referred to as mustard essential oil, exhibits promising antineoplastic activity against bladder cancer, although its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AITC activity on bladder cancer cell lines carrying a wild type (wt; RT4) or mutated (T24) TP53 gene. Morphological changes, cell cycle kinetics and CDK1, SMAD4, BAX, BCL2, ANLN and S100P gene expression were evaluated. In both cell lines, treatment with AITC inhibited cell proliferation (at 62.5, 72.5, 82.5 and 92.5 μM AITC) and induced morphological changes, including scattered and elongated cells and cellular debris. Gene expression profiles revealed increased S100P and BAX and decreased BCL2 expression in RT4 cells following AITC treatment. T24 cells displayed increased BCL2, BAX and ANLN and decreased S100P expression. No changes in SMAD4 and CDK1 expression were observed in either cell line. In conclusion, AITC inhibits cell proliferation independent of TP53 status. However, the mechanism of action of AITC differed in the two cell lines; in RT4 cells, it mainly acted via the classical BAX/BCL2 pathway, while in T24 cells, AITC modulated the activities of ANLN (related to cytokinesis) and S100P. These data confirm

  10. Overlapping toxic effect of long term thallium exposure on white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) photosynthetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Radosław; Sadowska, Monika; Kowalewska, Łucja; Abratowska, Agnieszka; Kalaji, Hazem M; Mostowska, Agnieszka; Garstka, Maciej; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata

    2016-09-02

    Heavy metal exposure affect plant productivity by interfering, directly and indirectly, with photosynthetic reactions. The toxic effect of heavy metals on photosynthetic reactions has been reported in wide-ranging studies, however there is paucity of data in the literature concerning thallium (Tl) toxicity. Thallium is ubiquitous natural trace element and is considered the most toxic of heavy metals; however, some plant species, such as white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) are able to accumulate thallium at very high concentrations. In this study we identified the main sites of the photosynthetic process inhibited either directly or indirectly by thallium, and elucidated possible detoxification mechanisms in S. alba. We studied the toxicity of thallium in white mustard (S. alba) growing plants and demonstrated that tolerance of plants to thallium (the root test) decreased with the increasing Tl(I) ions concentration in culture media. The root growth of plants exposed to Tl at 100 μg L(-1) for 4 weeks was similar to that in control plants, while in plants grown with Tl at 1,000 μg L(-1) root growth was strongly inhibited. In leaves, toxic effect became gradually visible in response to increasing concentration of Tl (100 - 1,000 μg L(-1)) with discoloration spreading around main vascular bundles of the leaf blade; whereas leaf margins remained green. Subsequent structural analyses using chlorophyll fluorescence, microscopy, and pigment and protein analysis have revealed different effects of varying Tl concentrations on leaf tissue. At lower concentration partial rearrangement of the photosynthetic complexes was observed without significant changes in the chloroplast structure and the pigment and protein levels. At higher concentrations, the decrease of PSI and PSII quantum yields and massive oxidation of pigments was observed in discolored leaf areas, which contained high amount of Tl. Substantial decline of the photosystem core proteins and disorder of the

  11. Inhibition of bladder cancer cell proliferation by allyl isothiocyanate (mustard essential oil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sávio, André Luiz Ventura; Nicioli da Silva, Glenda; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • AITC inhibits mutant and wild-type TP53 cell proliferation. • Morphological changes and cells debris were observed after AITC treatment in both cells. • BAX and BCL2 expression modulation was observed in wild-type TP53 cells. • BCL2, BAX and ANLN increased and S100P decreased expression was detected in mutated TP53 cells. • AITC effects in gene modulation are dependent TP53 gene status. - Abstract: Natural compounds hold great promise for combating antibiotic resistance, the failure to control some diseases, the emergence of new diseases and the toxicity of some contemporary medical products. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which is abundant in cruciferous vegetables and mustard seeds and is commonly referred to as mustard essential oil, exhibits promising antineoplastic activity against bladder cancer, although its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AITC activity on bladder cancer cell lines carrying a wild type (wt; RT4) or mutated (T24) TP53 gene. Morphological changes, cell cycle kinetics and CDK1, SMAD4, BAX, BCL2, ANLN and S100P gene expression were evaluated. In both cell lines, treatment with AITC inhibited cell proliferation (at 62.5, 72.5, 82.5 and 92.5 μM AITC) and induced morphological changes, including scattered and elongated cells and cellular debris. Gene expression profiles revealed increased S100P and BAX and decreased BCL2 expression in RT4 cells following AITC treatment. T24 cells displayed increased BCL2, BAX and ANLN and decreased S100P expression. No changes in SMAD4 and CDK1 expression were observed in either cell line. In conclusion, AITC inhibits cell proliferation independent of TP53 status. However, the mechanism of action of AITC differed in the two cell lines; in RT4 cells, it mainly acted via the classical BAX/BCL2 pathway, while in T24 cells, AITC modulated the activities of ANLN (related to cytokinesis) and S100P. These data confirm

  12. Survival and Transfer of Murine Norovirus within a Hydroponic System during Kale and Mustard Microgreen Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Hydroponically grown microgreens are gaining in popularity, but there is a lack of information pertaining to their microbiological safety. The potential risks associated with virus contamination of crops within a hydroponic system have not been studied to date. Here a human norovirus (huNoV) surrogate (murine norovirus [MNV]) was evaluated for its ability to become internalized from roots to edible tissues of microgreens. Subsequently, virus survival in recirculated water without adequate disinfection was assessed. Kale and mustard seeds were grown on hydroponic pads (for 7 days with harvest at days 8 to 12), edible tissues (10 g) were cut 1 cm above the pads, and corresponding pieces (4 cm by 4 cm) of pads containing only roots were collected separately. Samples were collected from a newly contaminated system (recirculated water inoculated with ∼3 log PFU/ml MNV on day 8) and from a previously contaminated system. (A contaminated system without adequate disinfection or further inoculation was used for production of another set of microgreens.) Viral titers and RNA copies were quantified by plaque assay and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The behaviors of MNV in kale and mustard microgreens were similar (P > 0.05). MNV was detected in edible tissues and roots after 2 h postinoculation, and the levels were generally stable during the first 12 h. Relatively low levels (∼2.5 to ∼1.5 log PFU/sample of both edible tissues and roots) of infectious viruses were found with a decreasing trend over time from harvest days 8 to 12. However, the levels of viral RNA present were higher and consistently stable (∼4.0 to ∼5.5 log copies/sample). Recirculated water maintained relatively high levels of infectious MNV over the period of harvest, from 3.54 to 2.73 log PFU/ml. Importantly, cross-contamination occurred easily; MNV remained infectious in previously contaminated hydroponic systems for up to 12 days (2.26 to 1.00 PFU/ml), and MNV was detected in both

  13. Survival and Transfer of Murine Norovirus within a Hydroponic System during Kale and Mustard Microgreen Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2016-01-15

    Hydroponically grown microgreens are gaining in popularity, but there is a lack of information pertaining to their microbiological safety. The potential risks associated with virus contamination of crops within a hydroponic system have not been studied to date. Here a human norovirus (huNoV) surrogate (murine norovirus [MNV]) was evaluated for its ability to become internalized from roots to edible tissues of microgreens. Subsequently, virus survival in recirculated water without adequate disinfection was assessed. Kale and mustard seeds were grown on hydroponic pads (for 7 days with harvest at days 8 to 12), edible tissues (10 g) were cut 1 cm above the pads, and corresponding pieces (4 cm by 4 cm) of pads containing only roots were collected separately. Samples were collected from a newly contaminated system (recirculated water inoculated with ∼3 log PFU/ml MNV on day 8) and from a previously contaminated system. (A contaminated system without adequate disinfection or further inoculation was used for production of another set of microgreens.) Viral titers and RNA copies were quantified by plaque assay and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The behaviors of MNV in kale and mustard microgreens were similar (P > 0.05). MNV was detected in edible tissues and roots after 2 h postinoculation, and the levels were generally stable during the first 12 h. Relatively low levels (∼2.5 to ∼1.5 log PFU/sample of both edible tissues and roots) of infectious viruses were found with a decreasing trend over time from harvest days 8 to 12. However, the levels of viral RNA present were higher and consistently stable (∼4.0 to ∼5.5 log copies/sample). Recirculated water maintained relatively high levels of infectious MNV over the period of harvest, from 3.54 to 2.73 log PFU/ml. Importantly, cross-contamination occurred easily; MNV remained infectious in previously contaminated hydroponic systems for up to 12 days (2.26 to 1.00 PFU/ml), and MNV was detected in both

  14. Associateship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Address: Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kandi, ... Specialization: Elementary Particle Physics Address during Associateship: Centre for Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012.

  15. Fellowship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Address: Director, Indian Institute of Science Education & Research, .... Address: Visiting Professor, CORAL, Indian Institute of Technology, ..... Specialization: Elementary Particles & High Energy Physics, Plasma Physics and Atomic Physics

  16. Fellowship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Address: Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Powai, Mumbai .... Address: Emeritus Professor, National Institute of Advanced Studies, Indian .... Specialization: High Energy & Elementary Particle Physics, Supersymmetric ...

  17. Effect of ionic strength and cationic DNA affinity binders on the DNA sequence selective alkylation of guanine N7-positions by nitrogen mustards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.A.; Forrow, S.M.; Souhami, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Large variations in alkylation intensities exist among guanines in a DNA sequence following treatment with chemotherapeutic alkylating agents such as nitrogen mustards, and the substituent attached to the reactive group can impose a distinct sequence preference for reaction. In order to understand further the structural and electrostatic factors which determine the sequence selectivity of alkylation reactions, the effect of increase ionic strength, the intercalator ethidium bromide, AT-specific minor groove binders distamycin A and netropsin, and the polyamine spermine on guanine N7-alkylation by L-phenylalanine mustard (L-Pam), uracil mustard (UM), and quinacrine mustard (QM) was investigated with a modification of the guanine-specific chemical cleavage technique for DNA sequencing. The result differed with both the nitrogen mustard and the cationic agent used. The effect, which resulted in both enhancement and suppression of alkylation sites, was most striking in the case of netropsin and distamycin A, which differed from each other. DNA footprinting indicated that selective binding to AT sequences in the minor groove of DNA can have long-range effects on the alkylation pattern of DNA in the major groove

  18. Investigation of growth indices and yield of canola (Brassica napus L. in competition with wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. as influenced by different amount of nitrogen application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Soleymani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer on growth indices and competitive ability of canola (Brassica napus L. against wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L., a split plot trial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications, was carried out at Agricultural Faculty of Bu-Ali Sina University, during 2008-2009. Experimental factors were amounts of nitrogen fertilizer of urea at four levels (100, 150, 200 and 250 kgN.ha-1 and five wild mustard plant densities (0, 4, 8, 16 and 32 plants.m-2. The results showed that wild mustard interference led to reduction of leaf area index (LAI, dry matter accumulation, crop growth rate (CGR, leaf area index duration (LAID, dry matter duration (BMD and seed yield of canola, while these characteristics were increased with more nitrogen fertilizer application. The maximum indices were obtained at 250 kg N.ha-1 and weed-free condition, but generally, the least reduction in maximum LAI, CGR, LAID and BMD of canola affected by wild mustard competition occurred at 200 kg N.ha-1. In conclusion, the results showed that optimum level of fertilizer 200 kg N.ha-1, increased competitive ability of canola against wild mustard and improved yield and growth indices.

  19. Study of Canopy Structure and Growth Characters Role of Two Wheat Cultivars in Competition, on Economic Threshold and Yield of Rye and Wild Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Saadatian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the role of effective factors on competition of two wheat cultivars against two species of narrow leaf and broad leaf weeds this study was conducted as two separated experiments based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications at Agricultural Faculty of Bu-Ali Sina University, in 2008-2009. In both Experiments, Alvand and Sayson cultivars were planted with densities of 450 plants m-2. In the 1st experiment, rye with densities of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 plants m-2 were planted in inter-rows of wheat. In the 2nd experiment, wild mustard densities were 0, 8, 16, 24 and 32 plants m-2. The results showed that characters such as vertical distribution of leaf area index and dry matter, height and its increase rate in interference, emergence rate, rate of canopy development and precocity led to increasing competitive ability of Alvand than Sayson in competition with two weed species. These factors were effective in reduction seed production of weeds and economic threshold in Alvand. Despite of lower height of wild mustard than rye, distribution of leaf area and canopy structure of wild mustard increased light competition ability and shadow on crop, so that harmful effects of individual plant of wild mustard in different densities was more than rye. Increasing rate of wild mustard seed bank was more than ray.

  20. Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanapariyanuch, Kornsulee; Tyler, Robert T; Shim, Youn Young; Reaney, Martin Jt

    2012-01-12

    Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs between 7.6 and 10.4 and salt concentrations between 3.4 × 10-2 and 1.2 M. The optimum extraction efficiency was pH 10.0 and 1.0 M NaCl. Napin and cruciferin were the most prevalent proteins in the isolate. The isolate exhibited high in vitro digestibility (74.9 ± 0.80%) and lysine content (5.2 ± 0.2 g/100 g of protein). No differences in the efficiency of extraction, SDS-PAGE profile, digestibility, lysine availability, or amino acid composition were observed between protein extracted with thin stillage and that extracted with NaCl solution. The use of thin stillage, in lieu of water, for protein extraction would decrease the energy requirements and waste disposal costs of the protein isolation and biofuel production processes.

  1. Changes in Salicylic Acid and Antioxidants during Induced Thermotolerance in Mustard Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat, James F.; Foyer, Christine H.; Scott, Ian M.

    1998-01-01

    Heat-acclimation or salicylic acid (SA) treatments were previously shown to induce thermotolerance in mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings from 1.5 to 4 h after treatment. In the present study we investigated changes in endogenous SA and antioxidants in relation to induced thermotolerance. Thirty minutes into a 1-h heat-acclimation treatment glucosylated SA had increased 5.5-fold and then declined during the next 6 h. Increases in free SA were smaller (2-fold) but significant. Changes in antioxidants showed the following similarities after either heat-acclimation or SA treatment. The reduced-to-oxidized ascorbate ratio was 5-fold lower than the controls 1 h after treatment but recovered by 2 h. The glutathione pool became slightly more oxidized from 2 h after treatment. Glutathione reductase activity was more than 50% higher during the first 2 h. Activities of dehydroascorbate reductase and monodehydroascorbate reductase decreased by at least 25% during the first 2 h but were 20% to 60% higher than the control levels after 3 to 6 h. One hour after heat acclimation ascorbate peroxidase activity was increased by 30%. Young leaves appeared to be better protected by antioxidant enzymes following heat acclimation than the cotyledons or stem. Changes in endogenous SA and antioxidants may be involved in heat acclimation. PMID:9847121

  2. Th17/Treg immunoregulation and implications in treatment of sulfur mustard gas-induced lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iman, Maryam; Rezaei, Ramazan; Azimzadeh Jamalkandi, Sadegh; Shariati, Parvin; Kheradmand, Farrah; Salimian, Jafar

    2017-12-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is an extremely toxic gas used in chemical warfare to cause massive lung injury and death. Victims exposed to SM gas acutely present with inhalational lung injury, but among those who survive, some develop obstructive airway diseases referred to as SM-lung syndrome. Pathophysiologically, SM-lung shares many characteristics with smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including airway remodeling, goblet cell metaplasia, and obstructive ventilation defect. Some of the hallmarks of COPD pathogenesis, which include dysregulated lung inflammation, neutrophilia, recruitment of interleukin 17A (IL -17A) expressing CD4 + T cells (Th17), and the paucity of lung regulatory T cells (Tregs), have also been described in SM-lung. Areas covered: A literature search was performed using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases inclusive of all literature prior to and including May 2017. Expert commentary: Here we review some of the recent findings that suggest a role for Th17 cell-mediated inflammatory changes associated with pulmonary complications in SM-lung and suggest new therapeutic approaches that could potentially alter disease progression with immune modulating biologics that can restore the lung Th17/Treg balance.

  3. Yield response of brassica varieties/strains in relation to mustard aphid lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, M.A.; Bukhari, S.A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Nine brassica varieties/advanced lines were tested to find out the varietal comparison against mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (kalt.) in relation to aphid population. average number of branches/plant, average number of grains per pod and grain yield (kg/ha) during 2004-2006. Minimum aphid population was observed on promising cultivar P-20 during both years 2004-2005-06 which were 2005-06 which were 31 and 23 aphid/30 cm of apical inflorescence from randomly selected five plants respectively. This promising strain also proved significantly the highest yielder and gave 1633 kg. grains/ha (2004,05) and 817.5 kg grains/ha (2005-06) followed by SP-36 which showed aphid population 36 and 32.5 aphid/30 cm inflorescence having yield 1373 and 780 kg grains/ha during the both periods respectively under report. The other parameters viz. Average number of branches per plant and average no. of grains/pod remained non significant as far as aphid effect is concerned. (author)

  4. Fate of sulfur mustard on soil: Evaporation, degradation, and vapor emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyunsook; Kah, Dongha; Chan Lim, Kyoung; Lee, Jin Young

    2017-01-01

    After application of sulfur mustard to the soil surface, its possible fate via evaporation, degradation following absorption, and vapor emission after decontamination was studied. We used a laboratory-sized wind tunnel, thermal desorber, gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13 C NMR) for systematic analysis. When a drop of neat HD was deposited on the soil surface, it evaporated slowly while being absorbed immediately into the matrix. The initial evaporation or drying rates of the HD drop were found to be power-dependent on temperature and initial drop volume. Moreover, drops of neat HD, ranging in size from 1 to 6 μL, applied to soil, evaporated at different rates, with the smaller drops evaporating relatively quicker. HD absorbed into soil remained for a month, degrading eventually to nontoxic thiodiglycol via hydrolysis through the formation of sulfonium ions. Finally, a vapor emission test was performed for HD contaminant after a decontamination process, the results of which suggest potential risk from the release of trace chemical quantities of HD into the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Yield and quality of white mustard seed depending on the seeding dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevđović Radosav

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sowing dates and harvest dates on yield and quality of white mustard seed been investigated in this study. During the experiment two sowing dates have been tested the first one based on the crops in March, and the other one when the direct sowing was carried out in late May, after the harvest of camomile crops. The harvest of the seed crops in the first seeding date was performed on 1st July, and the second on 15th September. Seed fractioning extracted the following fractions: large (3mm, medium (2 mm and small (1mm. I he objective of the laboratory' experiments was to observe the effect of the seed fraction size on the most important parameters of its quality (germination energy, total germination and absolute mass according to the stipulated terms. Based on the data obtained in the survey, it can be concluded that the seed yield is significantly affected by the varied seeding dates. Earlier seeding date produced significantly increased seed yield (1920 kg/ha than the later seeding date (1160 kg/ha. According to the seed quality parameters, the best characteristics are found in the seed fraction of 3 mm, in both seeding and harvest dates.

  6. Sulfur Mustard Research—Strategies for the Development of Improved Medical Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehe, Kai; Balszuweit, Frank; Emmler, Judith; Kreppel, Helmut; Jochum, Marianne; Thiermann, Horst

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Sulfur mustard (SM) is a bifunctional alkylating substance being used as chemical warfare agent (vesicant). It is still regarded as a significant threat in chemical warfare and terrorism. Exposure to SM produces cutaneous blisters, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract injury, eye lesions, and bone marrow depression. Victims of World War I as well as those of the Iran-Iraq war have suffered from devastating chronic health impairment. Even decades after exposure, severe long-term effects like chronic obstructive lung disease, lung fibrosis, recurrent corneal ulcer disease, chronic conjunctivitis, abnormal pigmentation of the skin, and different forms of cancer have been diagnosed. Methods: This review briefly summarizes the scientific literature and own results concerning detection, organ toxicity of SM, its proposed toxicodynamic actions, and strategies for the development of improved medical therapy. Results: Despite extensive research efforts during the last century, efficient antidotes against SM have not yet been generated because its mechanism of action is not fully understood. However, deeper insights into these mechanisms gained in the last decade and promising developments of new drugs now offer new chances to minimize SM-induced organ damage and late effects. Conclusion: Polymerase inhibitors, anti-inflammatory drugs, antioxidants, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, and probably regulators of DNA damage repair are identified as promising approaches to improve treatment. PMID:18615149

  7. Yield response of brassica varieties/strains in relation to mustard aphid lipaphis erysimi (kalt.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, M.A.; Bukhari, S.A.H.; Tariq, H.

    2010-01-01

    Nine brassica varieties/advanced lines were tested to find out the varietal comparison against mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (kalt.) in relation to aphid population, average number of branches/plant, average number of grains per pod and grain yield (kg/ha) during 2004-2006. Minimum aphid population was observed on promising cultivar P-20 during both years 2004-2005 and 2005-06 which were 3.l and 23 aphid/30 cm of apical inflorescence from randomly selected five plants respectively. This promising strain also proved significantly the highest yielder and gave 1633 kg. grains/ha (2004-05) and 8 17.5 kg grains/ha (2005-06) followed by SP-36 which showed aphid population 36 and 32.5 aphid/30 cm inflorescence having yield 1373 and 780 kg grains/ha during the both periods respectively under report. The other parameters viz. Average number of branches per plant and average no. of grains/pod remained nonsignificant as far as aphid effect is concerned. (author)

  8. Genetic Analysis of Reduced γ-Tocopherol Content in Ethiopian Mustard Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Navarro, Elena; Fernández-Martínez, José M; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Velasco, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) line BCT-6, with reduced γ-tocopherol content in the seeds, has been previously developed. The objective of this research was to conduct a genetic analysis of seed tocopherols in this line. BCT-6 was crossed with the conventional line C-101 and the F1, F2, and BC plant generations were analyzed. Generation mean analysis using individual scaling tests indicated that reduced γ-tocopherol content fitted an additive-dominant genetic model with predominance of additive effects and absence of epistatic interactions. This was confirmed through a joint scaling test and additional testing of the goodness of fit of the model. Conversely, epistatic interactions were identified for total tocopherol content. Estimation of the minimum number of genes suggested that both γ- and total tocopherol content may be controlled by two genes. A positive correlation between total tocopherol content and the proportion of γ-tocopherol was identified in the F2 generation. Additional research on the feasibility of developing germplasm with high tocopherol content and reduced concentration of γ-tocopherol is required.

  9. Bronchiolitis obliterans following exposure to sulfur mustard: chest high resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanei, Mostafa E-mail: m.ghanei@bmsu.ac.ir; Mokhtari, Majid; Mohammad, Mehdi Mir; Aslani, Jafar

    2004-11-01

    Background: Pulmonary complications are known to occur in over half of the patients exposed to sulfur mustard (SM). Chemical weapons of mass destruction (WMD) including SM were used by Iraq during Iran-Iraq war between 1983 and 1989. We undertook this study to evaluate the chest high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) as a diagnostic tool in patients with documented exposure to SM and chronic respiratory symptoms. Method: The medical records of 155 patients exposed to SM during Iran-Iraq war and suffered respiratory complications were reviewed. Chest HRCTs of these patients were examined. Ten healthy controls with no history of exposure to HD were matched for age, gender, and chest HRCT protocol applied. Results: Fifty chest HRCTs of these patients were randomly selected for this study. The most frequent findings were; air trapping 38 (76%), bronchiectasis 37 (74%), mosaic parenchymal attenuation (MPA) 36 (72%), irregular and dilated major airways 33 (66%) bronchial wall thickening (BWT) 45 (90%), and interlobular septal wall thickening (SWT) 13 (26%), respectively. Air trapping in one patient (10%) was the only positive finding in the control group. Conclusions: Chest HRCT findings of bronchiectasis, air trapping, MPA, SWT, and BWT were seen in our patients 15 years after exposure to HD. These findings suggest the diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO). We did not encounter chest HRCT features consistent with pulmonary fibrosis.

  10. Behavior of sulfur mustard in sand, concrete, and asphalt matrices: Evaporation, degradation, and decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyunsook; Choi, Seungki

    2017-10-15

    The evaporation, degradation, and decontamination of sulfur mustard on environmental matrices including sand, concrete, and asphalt are described. A specially designed wind tunnel and thermal desorber in combination with gas chromatograph (GC) produced profiles of vapor concentration obtained from samples of the chemical agent deposited as a drop on the surfaces of the matrices. The matrices were exposed to the chemical agent at room temperature, and the degradation reactions were monitored and characterized. A vapor emission test was also performed after a decontamination process. The results showed that on sand, the drop of agent spread laterally while evaporating. On concrete, the drop of the agent was absorbed immediately into the matrix while spreading and evaporating. However, the asphalt surface conserved the agent and slowly released parts of the agent over an extended period of time. The degradation reactions of the agent followed pseudo first order behavior on the matrices. Trace amounts of the residual agent present at the surface were also released as vapor after decontamination, posing a threat to the exposed individual and environment.

  11. Genetic Analysis of Reduced γ-Tocopherol Content in Ethiopian Mustard Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena García-Navarro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun line BCT-6, with reduced γ-tocopherol content in the seeds, has been previously developed. The objective of this research was to conduct a genetic analysis of seed tocopherols in this line. BCT-6 was crossed with the conventional line C-101 and the F1, F2, and BC plant generations were analyzed. Generation mean analysis using individual scaling tests indicated that reduced γ-tocopherol content fitted an additive-dominant genetic model with predominance of additive effects and absence of epistatic interactions. This was confirmed through a joint scaling test and additional testing of the goodness of fit of the model. Conversely, epistatic interactions were identified for total tocopherol content. Estimation of the minimum number of genes suggested that both γ- and total tocopherol content may be controlled by two genes. A positive correlation between total tocopherol content and the proportion of γ-tocopherol was identified in the F2 generation. Additional research on the feasibility of developing germplasm with high tocopherol content and reduced concentration of γ-tocopherol is required.

  12. Investigating Resistance of Wild Mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. ‎Populations to Tribenuron-Methyl Herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ‎ Mehdi Afshari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tribenuron-methyl is commonly used for post emergence control of broad leaf weeds in wheat fields. In order to survey suspicious resistant weeds in wheat fields to this herbicide thirty-eight fields of Kermanshah province were investigated during 2012- 2013. Seeds of suspected resistance of wild mustard were gathered and tested in a randomized complete blocks design experiment with three replications. First, for early detection of herbicide resistance, the suspected population was screened using discriminating dose of tribenuron-methyl. Determining of the resistance degree was conducted by whole plant bioassay tests using dose-response curves. The resistance mechanisms were assayed by molecular methods, especially using the ALS gene cloning by PJET1.2/blunt Vector. For susceptible populations, the concentration required for complete control was 10.4 g ai ha-1 tribenuron-methyl. Also, in screening tests 50% of populations as resistant populations were identified. According to the Beckie and Tardif, it was found that 57.8% of these population did have a very high degree of resistance, 31.5% with high resistance and 10/5% with low resistance degree. GR50 of the resistant weeds was also increased as compared to sensitive weed, which indicates resistance in this province, Thus to control the resistant populations Z15, this amount increased to 1309 g ai ha-1.The results of DNA sequencing showed that mutation by replacing proline amino acid at position Ala122 causes resistance based on target-site mutation.

  13. Allelopathic effect of ryegrass (lolium persicum) and wild mustard (sinapis arvensis) on barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baziar, M.R.; Farahvash, F.; Mirshekari, B.; Rashidi, V.

    2014-01-01

    Most crop plants and weeds have allelopathic effects and analysis of these effects on plants in crop alteration and successive planting is very important. In this research the allelopathic ability of different parts and concentrations of two weeds, Lolium Persicum (Ryegrass) and Sinapis arvensis (wild mustered), on growth characteristics of two barley varieties was studied in the greenhouse using a completely randomized design with four replications. Test factors consisted of two barley varieties (Valfajr and Rehane), three weed organs (root, stalk, leaf) and four concentrations of extracts of weed organs (25, 50, 75 and control or distilled water). After the preparation of extracts of different weed organs with different concentrations, their effect on growth characteristics of barley plant was evaluated. Finally, seedling length, rootlet length caulicle length, wet weight of seedling, dry weight of seedling were measured. Also, the above two seeds had significant effects on the two strains of barley and could influence growth characteristics of barley. Based on the results of present study, one can argue that Ryegrass (Lolium Persicum) and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis) can strongly affect germination, growth and performance of barley through production of chemical materials with allelopathic properties, leading unfavorable growth and product yield. (author)

  14. Evaluation of phytoextracting cadmium and lead by sunflower, ricinus, alfalfa and mustard in hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi-xin, Niu; Sun, Li-na; Sun, Tie-heng; Li, Yu-shuang; Wang, Hong

    2007-01-01

    Soil contaminated with heavy metals cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) is hard to be remediated. Phytoremediation may be a feasible method to remove toxic metals from soil, but there are few suitable plants which can hyperaccumulate metals. In this study, Cd and Pb accumulation by four plants including sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), mustard (Brassica juncea L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), ricinus (Ricinus communis L.) in hydroponic cultures was compared. Results showed that these plants could phytoextract heavy metals, the ability of accumulation differed with species, concentrations and categories of heavy metals. Values of BCF (bioconcentration factor) and TF (translocation factor) indicated that four species had dissimilar abilities of phytoextraction and transportation of heavy metals. Changes on the biomass of plants, pH and Eh at different treatments revealed that these four plants had distinct responses to Cd and Pb in cultures. Measurements should be taken to improve the phytoremediation of sites contaminated with heavy metals, such as pH and Eh regulations, and so forth.

  15. Cleome viscosa (wild mustard): a review on ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Ravindra G

    2010-01-01

    Cleome viscosa Linn. (Capparidaceae), commonly known as "wild or dog mustard," is an annual, sticky herb found as a common weed all over the plains of India and throughout the tropics of the world. The whole plant and its parts (leaves, seeds, and roots) are widely used in traditional and folkloric systems of medicine. In traditional systems of medicine the plant is reported to possess beneficial effects as an anthelmintic, antiseptic, carminative, antiscorbutic, sudorific, febrifuge, and cardiac stimulant. Following the various traditional claims for the use of C. viscosa (CV) as a cure of numerous diseases, considerable efforts have been made by researchers to verify its utility through scientific pharmacological screenings. The pharmacological studies have shown that CV possesses various notable biological activities such as anthelmintic, antimicrobial, analgesic, antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, antipyretic, psychopharmacological, antidiarrheal, and hepatoprotective activities. A wide variety of phytoprinciples have been isolated from the plant. The present review is an effort to consolidate traditional, ethnobotanical, phytochemical, and pharmacological information available on C. viscosa.

  16. GERD related micro-aspiration in chronic mustard-induced pulmonary disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Aliannejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO is the main pulmonary involvement resulting from sulfur mustard (SM gas exposure that was used against Iranian civilians and military forces during the Iran-Iraq war. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER and gastric micro-aspiration in SM gas injured patients with chronic pulmonary diseases and recurrent episodes of exacerbations. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done at Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Gastric micro-aspiration and GER were assessed in the enrolled patients by assessing bile acids, pepsin and trypsin in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Results: Our result showed that bile acids were found to be high in 21.4% patients, and low in 53.6% of patients. Only in 16% patients, no bile was detected in the BALF. Trypsin and pepsin were detected in BAL fluid of all patients. Conclusion: Most of BO patients after exposure to SM suffer GER, while none the etiologic factors of GER in post lung transplant BO are present. It would be hypothesized that GER per se could be considered as an aggregative factor for exacerbations in patients. Further studies will provide more advances to better understanding of pathophysiological mechanism regarding GER and BO and treatment.

  17. Red Women, White Policy: American Indian Women and Indian Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Linda Sue

    This paper discusses American Indian educational policies and implications for educational leadership by Indian women. The paper begins with an overview of federal Indian educational policies from 1802 to the 1970s. As the tribes have moved toward self-determination in recent years, a growing number of American Indian women have assumed leadership…

  18. Defeathering the Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRoque, Emma

    In an effort to mitigate the stultified image of the American Indian in Canada, this handbook on Native Studies is written from the Indian point of view and is designed to sensitize the dominant society, particularly educators. While numerous approaches and pointers are presented and specific mateirals are recommended, the focus is essentially…

  19. American Indian Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Feather, Gerald

    With the emergence of reservation based community colleges (th Navajo Community College and the Dakota Community Colleges), the American Indian people, as decision makers in these institutions, are providing Indians with the technical skills and cultural knowledge necessary for self-determination. Confronted with limited numbers of accredited…

  20. Indian Summer Arts Festival


    OpenAIRE

    Martel, Yann; Tabu; Tejpal, Tarun; Kunzru, Hari

    2011-01-01

    The SFU Woodward's Cultural Unit partnered with the Indian Summer Festival Society to kick off the inaugural Indian Summer Festival. Held at the Goldcorp Centre for the Arts, it included an interactive Literature Series with notable authors from both India and Canada, including special guests Yann Martel, Bollywood superstar Tabu, journalist Tarun Tejpal, writer Hari Kunzru, and many others.

  1. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  2. The Indian Monsoon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pacific Oceans, on subseasonal scales of a few days and on an interannual scale. ... over the Indian monsoon zone2 (Figure 3) during the summer monsoon .... each 500 km ×500 km grid over the equatorial Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal and ...

  3. Indian Arts in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawow, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A recent publication, "Indian Arts in Canada", examines some of the forces, both past and present, which are not only affecting American Indian artists today, but which will also profoundly influence their future. The review presents a few of the illustrations used in the book, along with the Introduction and the Foreword. (KM)

  4. 76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect. SUMMARY: This publishes..., Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary--Policy and Economic...

  5. 75 FR 38833 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes... Date: July 6, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming...

  6. 77 FR 76513 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect. SUMMARY..., 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the...

  7. 76 FR 165 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs... Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1992, as Amended in 1999, 2000, and 2003. DATES: Effective Date: January 3, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the...

  8. 75 FR 68618 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs... of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1991, as Amended in 1999 and 2003. DATES: Effective Date: November 8, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the...

  9. 77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect. SUMMARY: This... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy...

  10. New associates | Announcements | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sushmee Badhulika, Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad ... Sankar Chakma, Indian Institute of Science Education & Research, Bhopal Joydeep ... B Praveen Kumar, Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services, Hyderabad

  11. Comparison of the Lonidamine Potentiated Effect of Nitrogen Mustard Alkylating Agents on the Systemic Treatment of DB-1 Human Melanoma Xenografts in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Kavindra; Nelson, David S; Putt, Mary E; Leeper, Dennis B; Garman, Bradley; Nathanson, Katherine L; Glickson, Jerry D

    2016-01-01

    Previous NMR studies demonstrated that lonidamine (LND) selectively diminishes the intracellular pH (pHi) of DB-1 melanoma and mouse xenografts of a variety of other prevalent human cancers while decreasing their bioenergetic status (tumor βNTP/Pi ratio) and enhancing the activities of melphalan and doxorubicin in these cancer models. Since melphalan and doxorubicin are highly toxic agents, we have examined three other nitrogen (N)-mustards, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide and bendamustine, to determine if they exhibit similar potentiation by LND. As single agents LND, melphalan and these N-mustards exhibited the following activities in DB-1 melanoma xenografts; LND: 100% tumor surviving fraction (SF); chlorambucil: 100% SF; cyclophosphamide: 100% SF; bendamustine: 79% SF; melphalan: 41% SF. When combined with LND administered 40 min prior to administration of the N-mustard (to maximize intracellular acidification) the following responses were obtained; chlorambucil: 62% SF; cyclophosphamide: 42% SF; bendamustine: 36% SF; melphalan: 10% SF. The effect of LND on the activities of these N-mustards is generally attributed to acid stabilization of the aziridinium active intermediate, acid inhibition of glutathione-S-transferase, which acts as a scavenger of aziridinium, and acid inhibition of DNA repair by O6-alkyltransferase. Depletion of ATP by LND may also decrease multidrug resistance and increase tumor response. At similar maximum tolerated doses, our data indicate that melphalan is the most effective N-mustard in combination with LND when treating DB-1 melanoma in mice, but the choice of N-mustard for coadministration with LND will also depend on the relative toxicities of these agents, and remains to be determined.

  12. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor prevents airway obstruction, respiratory failure and death due to sulfur mustard analog inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancourt, Raymond C.; Veress, Livia A.; Ahmad, Aftab; Hendry-Hofer, Tara B.; Rioux, Jacqueline S.; Garlick, Rhonda B.; White, Carl W.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) inhalation causes airway injury, with enhanced vascular permeability, coagulation, and airway obstruction. The objective of this study was to determine whether recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) could inhibit this pathogenic sequence. Methods: Rats were exposed to the SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) via nose-only aerosol inhalation. One hour later, TFPI (1.5 mg/kg) in vehicle, or vehicle alone, was instilled into the trachea. Arterial O 2 saturation was monitored using pulse oximetry. Twelve hours after exposure, animals were euthanized and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma were analyzed for prothrombin, thrombin–antithrombin complex (TAT), active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels, and fluid fibrinolytic capacity. Lung steady-state PAI-1 mRNA was measured by RT-PCR analysis. Airway-capillary leak was estimated by BALF protein and IgM, and by pleural fluid measurement. In additional animals, airway cast formation was assessed by microdissection and immunohistochemical detection of airway fibrin. Results: Airway obstruction in the form of fibrin-containing casts was evident in central conducting airways of rats receiving CEES. TFPI decreased cast formation, and limited severe hypoxemia. Findings of reduced prothrombin consumption, and lower TAT complexes in BALF, demonstrated that TFPI acted to limit thrombin activation in airways. TFPI, however, did not appreciably affect CEES-induced airway protein leak, PAI-1 mRNA induction, or inhibition of the fibrinolytic activity present in airway surface liquid. Conclusions: Intratracheal administration of TFPI limits airway obstruction, improves gas exchange, and prevents mortality in rats with sulfur mustard-analog-induced acute lung injury. - Highlights: • TFPI administration to rats after mustard inhalation reduces airway cast formation. • Inhibition of thrombin activation is the likely mechanism for limiting casts. • Rats given TFPI had

  13. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor prevents airway obstruction, respiratory failure and death due to sulfur mustard analog inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rancourt, Raymond C., E-mail: raymond.rancourt@ucdenver.edu; Veress, Livia A., E-mail: livia.veress@ucdenver.edu; Ahmad, Aftab, E-mail: aftab.ahmad@ucdenver.edu; Hendry-Hofer, Tara B., E-mail: tara.hendry-hofer@ucdenver.edu; Rioux, Jacqueline S., E-mail: jacqueline.rioux@ucdenver.edu; Garlick, Rhonda B., E-mail: rhonda.garlick@ucdenver.edu; White, Carl W., E-mail: carl.w.white@ucdenver.edu

    2013-10-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) inhalation causes airway injury, with enhanced vascular permeability, coagulation, and airway obstruction. The objective of this study was to determine whether recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) could inhibit this pathogenic sequence. Methods: Rats were exposed to the SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) via nose-only aerosol inhalation. One hour later, TFPI (1.5 mg/kg) in vehicle, or vehicle alone, was instilled into the trachea. Arterial O{sub 2} saturation was monitored using pulse oximetry. Twelve hours after exposure, animals were euthanized and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma were analyzed for prothrombin, thrombin–antithrombin complex (TAT), active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels, and fluid fibrinolytic capacity. Lung steady-state PAI-1 mRNA was measured by RT-PCR analysis. Airway-capillary leak was estimated by BALF protein and IgM, and by pleural fluid measurement. In additional animals, airway cast formation was assessed by microdissection and immunohistochemical detection of airway fibrin. Results: Airway obstruction in the form of fibrin-containing casts was evident in central conducting airways of rats receiving CEES. TFPI decreased cast formation, and limited severe hypoxemia. Findings of reduced prothrombin consumption, and lower TAT complexes in BALF, demonstrated that TFPI acted to limit thrombin activation in airways. TFPI, however, did not appreciably affect CEES-induced airway protein leak, PAI-1 mRNA induction, or inhibition of the fibrinolytic activity present in airway surface liquid. Conclusions: Intratracheal administration of TFPI limits airway obstruction, improves gas exchange, and prevents mortality in rats with sulfur mustard-analog-induced acute lung injury. - Highlights: • TFPI administration to rats after mustard inhalation reduces airway cast formation. • Inhibition of thrombin activation is the likely mechanism for limiting casts. • Rats given TFPI

  14. The Competitive Response Investigation of Eighteen Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cultivars with Wild Mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh abdolahi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The crop competitive ability is an important and profitable factor for increment impact on the weeds, and decreasing their yield loss. Characteristics such as height, leaf area, growth rate and tillering ability could be effective on competitive ability of cultivar ability. Primary growth rate is important on competitiveness, and any other factors that provides fast establishment of crops growth can be effective too. Thus, utilization of cultivars with height competitiveness ability is one of the considerable strategies for integrated weed managements. Many studies had shown that there are high correlation between crop height and its competitiveness ability. Asef et al (2 reported that tall cultivars reduced weed biomass more than dwarf cultivars due to light intercept and shading. Safahani- langrodi et al (32 in competition condition tall cultivars had high weed tolerance and cause to decrease weed biomass and set seed. There are an important relationship between LAI and weed competition. Hiffle et al. (13 showed cultivars with higher leaf area index had a greater yield stability. Dianat et al. (10 reported that in weed competitive conditions, there are significant difference in the number of tillers among wheat cultivars, while competitor and non-competitor cultivars have most and lowest tiller numbers respectively. Nadery and Ghadiri (25 showed that increasing wild mustard density decreased tiller number and more yield loss in weed competition have caused by decreased number of tillers. Materials and Methods: Experiment was conducted in order to study morphological characteristics and yield of wheat (T. aestivum cultivars in wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. competition in greenhouse, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, during 2013-2014. Treatments were 18 wheat cultivars [Karkheh, Alborz, Azadi, Shahpasand, Sepahan, Flat, Ghods, Roshan, Sorkh¬tokhm, Moghan3, Alvand, MS-81-14, Yarvarus, Shahriyar, Golestn, Bam, Niknajad, Karaj3

  15. Hypochlorite Solution as a Decontaminant in Sulfur Mustard Contaminated Skin Defects in the Euthymic Hairless Guinea Pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-13

    AD-P008 792 Hyochlorte Solution as a Decossitamrsrl nan Sultur Mustard Contaminated Skin Defects in the Euthymesc Hailess Guinea Pig Mark B. Gol, OVM...euthymic hairles guinea pigs (EHGP) (n--6) were exposed tn 0 4 LD50 HO in a hA-thickntss 8 mm surgical bmop~sy skin deflect (ioe wound) Each animal was...in a animal model of an HO contaminated wound. The euthymic hairless guinea pig (EHGP) has been extensrvely studied and aicepted as the model of

  16. Involvement of a volatile metabolite during phosphoramide mustard-induced ovotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, Jill A. [Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Hoyer, Patricia B. [Department of Physiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Devine, Patrick J. [INRS—Institut Armand-Frappier Research Centre, University of Quebec, Laval, QC H7V 1B7 (Canada); Keating, Aileen F., E-mail: akeating@iastate.edu [Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Department of Physiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The finite ovarian follicle reserve can be negatively impacted by exposure to chemicals including the anti-neoplastic agent, cyclophosphamide (CPA). CPA requires bioactivation to phosphoramide mustard (PM) to elicit its therapeutic effects however; in addition to being the tumor-targeting metabolite, PM is also ovotoxic. In addition, PM can break down to a cytotoxic, volatile metabolite, chloroethylaziridine (CEZ). The aim of this study was initially to characterize PM-induced ovotoxicity in growing follicles. Using PND4 Fisher 344 rats, ovaries were cultured for 4 days before being exposed once to PM (10 or 30 μM). Following eight additional days in culture, relative to control (1% DMSO), PM had no impact on primordial, small primary or large primary follicle number, but both PM concentrations induced secondary follicle depletion (P < 0.05). Interestingly, a reduction in follicle number in the control-treated ovaries was observed. Thus, the involvement of a volatile, cytotoxic PM metabolite (VC) in PM-induced ovotoxicity was explored in cultured rat ovaries, with control ovaries physically separated from PM-treated ovaries during culture. Direct PM (60 μM) exposure destroyed all stage follicles after 4 days (P < 0.05). VC from nearby wells depleted primordial follicles after 4 days (P < 0.05), temporarily reduced secondary follicle number after 2 days, and did not impact other stage follicles at any other time point. VC was determined to spontaneously liberate from PM, which could contribute to degradation of PM during storage. Taken together, this study demonstrates that PM and VC are ovotoxicants, with different follicular targets, and that the VC may be a major player during PM-induced ovotoxicity observed in cancer survivors. - Highlights: • PM depletes all stage ovarian follicles in a temporal pattern. • A volatile ovotoxic compound is liberated from PM. • The volatile metabolite depletes primordial follicles.

  17. Sulfur mustard induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response in the mouse ear vesicant model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yoke-Chen; Wang, James D. [Rutgers University, Pharmacology and Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Svoboda, Kathy K. [Texas A and M University, Baylor College of Dentistry, Center for Craniofacial Research 3302 Gaston Ave, Dallas, Texas 75246 (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [MRIGlobal, 425 Volker Boulevard, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Gordon, Marion K. [Rutgers University, Pharmacology and Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Gerecke, Donald R., E-mail: gerecke@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Rutgers University, Pharmacology and Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is a cell survival pathway upregulated when cells are under severe stress. Severely damaged mouse ear skin exposed to the vesicant, sulfur mustard (bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide, SM), resulted in increased expression of ER chaperone proteins that accompany misfolded and incorrectly made proteins targeted for degradation. Time course studies with SM using the mouse ear vesicant model (MEVM) showed progressive histopathologic changes including edema, separation of the epidermis from the dermis, persistent inflammation, upregulation of laminin γ2 (one of the chains of laminin-332, a heterotrimeric skin glycoprotein required for wound repair), and delayed wound healing from 24 h to 168 h post exposure. This was associated with time related increased expression of the cell survival ER stress marker, GRP78/BiP, and the ER stress apoptosis marker, GADD153/CHOP, suggesting simultaneous activation of both cell survival and non-mitochondrial apoptosis pathways. Dual immunofluorescence labeling of a keratinocyte migration promoting protein, laminin γ2 and GRP78/BIP, showed colocalization of the two molecules 72 h post exposure indicating that the laminin γ2 was misfolded after SM exposure and trapped within the ER. Taken together, these data show that ER stress is induced in mouse skin within 24 h of vesicant exposure in a defensive response to promote cell survival; however, it appears that this response is rapidly overwhelmed by the apoptotic pathway as a consequence of severe SM-induced injury. - Highlights: ► We demonstrated ER stress response in the mouse ear vesicant model. ► We described the asymmetrical nature of wound repair in the MEVM. ► We identified the distribution of various ER stress markers in the MEVM.

  18. Transcriptome analysis of a petal anthocyanin polymorphism in the arctic mustard, Parrya nudicaulis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Butler

    Full Text Available Angiosperms are renown for their diversity of flower colors. Often considered adaptations to pollinators, the most common underlying pigments, anthocyanins, are also involved in plants' stress response. Although the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway is well characterized across many angiosperms and is composed of a few candidate genes, the consequences of blocking this pathway and producing white flowers has not been investigated at the transcriptome scale. We take a transcriptome-wide approach to compare expression differences between purple and white petal buds in the arctic mustard, Parrya nudicaulis, to determine which genes' expression are consistently correlated with flower color. Using mRNA-Seq and de novo transcriptome assembly, we assembled an average of 722 bp per gene (49.81% coding sequence based on the A. thaliana homolog for 12,795 genes from the petal buds of a pair of purple and white samples. Our results correlate strongly with qRT-PCR analysis of nine candidate genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway where chalcone synthase has the greatest difference in expression between color morphs (P/W = ∼7×. Among the most consistently differentially expressed genes between purple and white samples, we found 3× more genes with higher expression in white petals than in purple petals. These include four unknown genes, two drought-response genes (CDSP32, ERD5, a cold-response gene (GR-RBP2, and a pathogen defense gene (DND1. Gene ontology analysis of the top 2% of genes with greater expression in white relative to purple petals revealed enrichment in genes associated with stress responses including cold, drought and pathogen defense. Unlike the uniform downregulation of chalcone synthase that may be directly involved in the loss of petal anthocyanins, the variable expression of several genes with greater expression in white petals suggest that the physiological and ecological consequences of having white petals may be

  19. Characterization of high exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus strains isolated from mustard pickles for potential probiotic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing-Yao; Kao, Cheng-Yen; Liu, We-Sin; Fang, Tony J

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize high exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from mustard pickles in Taiwan for potential probiotic applications. Among 39 collected LAB strains, four most productive EPS-producing strains were selected for further analysis. Comparative analyses of 16S rDNA genes rpoA and pheS sequences demonstrated that these strains were members of Lactobacillus plantarum-group (LPG). NCD 2, NLD 4, SLC 13, and NLD 16 showed survival rates of 95.83% ± 0.49%, 95.07% ± 0.64%, 105.84% ± 0.82%, and 99.65% ± 0.31% under simulated gastrointestinal conditions, respectively. No cytotoxic effects on macrophage RAW 264.7 cells were observed when they were treated with a low dose (1 μg/ml) of stimulants extracted from the tested LAB strains. The production of nitric oxide in RAW 264.7 cells incubated with various LAB stimulants showed a dose-dependent increase. Among the four strains, SLC 13 showed higher inhibitory activity on growth of Enterococcus faecalis (BCRC 12302) and Yersinia enterocolitica (BCRC 10807). NLD 4 showed strong inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43894) as compared with the other three strains. In summary, our results suggest that Lactobacillus pentosus SLC 13 may be a good candidate for probiotic applications and for development of antibacterial compounds. [Int Microbiol 20(2):75-84 (2017)]. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  20. Nocturnal serum melatonin levels in sulfur mustard exposed patients with sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyyedeh Soghra; Vahedi, E; Shohrati, M; Panahi, Y; Parvin, S

    2017-12-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) exposure causes respiratory disorders, progressive deterioration in lung function and mortality in injured victims and poor sleep quality is one of the most common problems among SM-exposed patients. Since melatonin has a critical role in regulation of sleep and awareness, this study aimed to evaluate the serum melatonin levels in SM-injured subjects. A total of 30 SM-exposed male patients and 10 controls was evaluated. Sleep quality was evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); daytime sleepiness was measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and the risk of obstructive sleep apnoea was determined by the STOP-Bang questionnaire. Polysomnography (PSG) and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were also available. Nocturnal serum melatonin levels were measured using an ELISA kit. The mean of PSQI, ESS and STOP-Bang scores in patients (11.76±3.56, 12.6±3.03 and 5.03±1.09, respectively) were significantly (pmelatonin levels in patients (29.78±19.31 pg/mL) was significantly (p=0.005) lower than that in the controls (78.53±34.41 pg/mL). Reduced nocturnal serum melatonin and respiratory disorders can be the reasons for poor sleep quality among these patients. IRCT2015092924267N1, Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Biochemical and hematological findings of Khorasan veterans 23 years after sulfur mustard exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Keramati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur mustard (SM is an incapacitating chemical warfare agent, which has been widely employed in particular regions including Iran. We investigated and reported delayed biochemical and hematological complications of SM in severely toxic Iranian veterans 23 years after exposure. Materials and Methods : Forty-two Iranian veterans, residents of Khorasan Razavi, poisoned by SM, and suffering from clinical complications were investigated. A total of 30 healthy male volunteers were also selected as a control group. Biochemical and hematological variables were measured for the case and control groups. Data were analyzed using a Student′s t-test by InStat software (GraphPad Inc., San Diego, CA to determine significant differences between the data from the two groups. Results: The percentages of reticulocytes were significantly higher in patients (0.82 ± 0.04, P < 0.05. Total protein and albumin levels were significantly lower in veterans (total protein: 7.58 ± 0.07 g/dL, albumin: 4.97 ± 0.04 g/dL, P < 0.01. In addition, we observed a significant increase in serum cholesterol (226.74 ± 5.23 mg/dL, P < 0.01, triglyceride (173.53 ± 17.05 mg/dL, P < 0.05, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GTT activity of the patients (44.04 ± 3.35 IU/L, P < 0.05. Conclusion: Results showed that SM can cause long-term effects on some biochemical factors of veterans. As many of the functional tests of liver and kidney between two groups were statistically unchanged, it seems that the observed biochemical changes may be secondary to delayed respiratory complications of the patients.

  2. Decontamination of chemical warfare sulfur mustard agent simulant by ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Meysam; Yekta, Sina; Ghaedi, Hamed

    2016-07-01

    In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been surveyed to decontaminate the chloroethyl phenyl sulfide as a sulfur mustard agent simulant. Prior to the reaction, ZnO NPs were successfully prepared through sol-gel method in the absence and presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). PVA was utilized as a capping agent to control the agglomeration of the nanoparticles. The formation, morphology, elemental component, and crystalline size of nanoscale ZnO were certified and characterized by SEM/EDX, XRD, and FT-IR techniques. The decontamination (adsorption and destruction) was tracked by the GC-FID analysis, in which the effects of polarity of the media, such as isopropanol, acetone and n-hexane, reaction time intervals from 1 up to 18 h, and different temperatures, including 25, 35, 45, and 55 °C, on the catalytic/decontaminative capability of the surface of ZnO NPs/PVA were investigated and discussed, respectively. Results demonstrated that maximum decontamination (100 %) occurred in n-hexane solvent at 55 °C after 1 h. On the other hand, the obtained results for the acetone and isopropanol solvents were lower than expected. GC-MS chromatograms confirmed the formation of hydroxyl ethyl phenyl sulfide and phenyl vinyl sulfide as the destruction reaction products. Furthermore, these chromatograms proved the role of hydrolysis and elimination mechanisms on the catalyst considering its surface Bronsted and Lewis acid sites. A non-polar solvent aids material transfer to the reactive surface acid sites without blocking these sites.

  3. Late-onset Radiologic Findings of Respiratory System Following Sulfur Mustard Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Amini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur mustard (SM as a chemical warfare agent, increases permeability of bronchial vessels and damages airway epithelium. SM exposure causes debilitating respiratory complications. This study was designed to evaluate clinical respiratory manifestations, and to compare chest X ray (CXR and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT scan of chest in SM exposed patients with respiratory complaints. Methods:All patients with history of SM exposure who visited Imam Reza Specialized Clinic of Respiratory Diseases from September 2001 to March 2011 were included. Patients with other comorbidities which affect respiratory system were excluded. CXR and chest HRCT scan were performed on the same day and were repeated after 5 years. Clinical and radiologic findings were collected and were compared with each other. Results: In total, 62 male patients with mean age of 53 (6.9, 41-65 were studied. Dyspnea (61 cases; 100%, dry cough (40 cases; 66%, hemoptysis (21 cases; 35% and productive cough (20 cases; 33% were the most common respiratory manifestations. Pulmonary infiltration (51; 83%, pleural thickening (25; 40% and emphysema (16; 26% were the most common findings on CXR. According to HRCT scan, pulmonary infiltration (53; 85%, bronchiolitis obliterans (38; 61% and pleural thickening (36; 58% were the most common findings (Table 2. Repeated radiologic assessments after 5 years showed a few additional findings in HRCT scan, while in about one fifth of CXRs, new pathologic findings were found. Conclusion: Patients with SM exposure experience debilitating respiratory disorders in long term. Repeating CXR in patients who present with subjective symptoms may show new findings; however, repeating HRCT scan is probably not necessary.

  4. Skin decontamination efficacy of potassium ketoxime on rabbits exposed to sulfur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing-Hai; Sun, Pei-Pei; Zheng, Wei; Han, Song; Ying, Ying; Liu, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Cheng; Zhao, Bao-Quan; Zuo, Guo-Min; Lu, Hong; Zhong, Yu-Xu

    2015-03-01

    The chemical weapon sulfur mustard (SM) is a blister agent, and currently, there is no effective antidote. To evaluate the decontamination efficacy of potassium ketoxime against SM and preliminarily elucidate its decontamination mechanism. Potassium ketoxime reacted with SM, and SM residues were tested at different time intervals by T-135 colorimetry after the reaction. Rabbit skin was topically exposed to 2 mg/cm(2) SM, treated with potassium ketoxime 1 min later, and observed after 6, 12, and 24 h. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy was employed to screen and identify the main products of potassium ketoxime decontamination of SM. Potassium ketoxime had a great effect against SM contamination. With a mass ratio of decontaminant: SM of 50:1, decontamination rates against SM were 87.5% after 30 s, 95.9% after 1 min, and 99.0% after 5 min. Fifteen minutes after exposure to SM, the untreated group showed clear erythema lesions, whereas the experimental group showed no clear erythema lesions within 6 h. After 12 and 24 h, the areas of damaged skin in the experimental group were 0.038 and 0.125 cm(2), respectively, compared with 2.21 and 2.65 cm(2) in the control group. Histopathological analysis revealed that treatment with potassium ketoxime also reduced inflammation-induced damage. The results of this study indicate that potassium ketoxime reacted rapidly and completely with SM, and thus, it was found to be a suitable and effective skin decontaminant against SM. The decontamination reaction mechanism is mainly related to nucleophilic substitution.

  5. Locus-specific microemulsion catalysts for sulfur mustard (HD) chemical warfare agent decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallis, Ian A; Griffiths, Peter C; Cosgrove, Terence; Dreiss, Cecile A; Govan, Norman; Heenan, Richard K; Holden, Ian; Jenkins, Robert L; Mitchell, Stephen J; Notman, Stuart; Platts, Jamie A; Riches, James; Tatchell, Thomas

    2009-07-22

    The rates of catalytic oxidative decontamination of the chemical warfare agent (CWA) sulfur mustard (HD, bis(2-chlororethyl) sulfide) and a range (chloroethyl) sulfide simulants of variable lipophilicity have been examined using a hydrogen peroxide-based microemulsion system. SANS (small-angle neutron scattering), SAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering), PGSE-NMR (pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR), fluorescence quenching, and electrospray mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS) were implemented to examine the distribution of HD, its simulants, and their oxidation/hydrolysis products in a model oil-in-water microemulsion. These measurements not only present a means of interpreting decontamination rates but also a rationale for the design of oxidation catalysts for these toxic materials. Here we show that by localizing manganese-Schiff base catalysts at the oil droplet-water interface or within the droplet core, a range of (chloroethyl) sulfides, including HD, spanning some 7 orders of octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)), may be oxidized with equal efficacy using dilute (5 wt. % of aqueous phase) hydrogen peroxide as a noncorrosive, environmentally benign oxidant (e.g., t(1/2) (HD) approximately 18 s, (2-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide, C(6)H(5)SCH(2)CH(2)Cl) approximately 15 s, (thiodiglycol, S(CH(2)CH(2)OH)(2)) approximately 19 s {20 degrees C}). Our observations demonstrate that by programming catalyst lipophilicity to colocalize catalyst and substrate, the inherent compartmentalization of the microemulsion can be exploited to achieve enhanced rates of reaction or to exert control over product selectivity. A combination of SANS, ESI-MS and fluorescence quenching measurements indicate that the enhanced catalytic activity is due to the locus of the catalyst and not a result of partial hydrolysis of the substrate.

  6. Synthesis and radiolabelling of novel nitrogen mustards for the imaging of hypoxic tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falzon, C.; Ackermann, U.; Tochon-Danguy, H.J.; O'Keefe, G.J.; White, J.; Spratt, N.; Howells, D.; Scott, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Hypoxic tissue is of great significance in stroke and oncology. Among the radiotracers currently used to detect hypoxia, derivatives based on the 2-nitro-imidazole ring such as FMISO or FAZA have received considerable attention in medical imaging. Unfortunately, due to slow clearance of these tracers from normoxic tissue a waiting period of two hours is required between tracer injection and the scanning of the patient. In addition the target to background ratio is low and the quality of the image is therefore poor. Nitrogen mustards are another class of compounds that have great affinity to hypoxic tissue. Derivatives of these compounds labelled with a positron emitting radionuclide, such as [ 18 F], may allow for the imaging of hypoxic regions in the ischemic penumbra. It therefore, may be a useful diagnostic tool in stroke. Radiolabeled N-(2-[ 18 F]-fluoroethyl)-N-(2-chloroethyl)-4-methylsulfinylaniline was successfully synthesised using a potassium fluoride kryptofix complex, giving the desired product in 40% radiochemical yield (10 min at 100 Degrees C). In vitro analysis to determine the stability of the radiotracer in plasma and saline indicated no defluorination. Biological evaluation studies of the radiotracer were undertaken using a rat stroke model (Middle cerebral Arterial Occlusion (MCAO)) to determine whether the ischemic penumbra can be imaged using PET. 150//Ci (5.5MBq) of the radiotracer was injected into the tail vein of the rat immediately after the MCAO. The rat was sacrificed 2 hours post injection and ex-vivo autoradiography was performed. Uptake of the radiotracer was observed in hypoxic regions of the brain (n=6). Dynamic PET images revealed that the ischemic penumbra can be imaged 15 minutes post injection of this tracer. With these promising results, we are now synthesizing other analogues to determine their relationship between selectivity for hypoxic tissue and brain uptake

  7. Rasam Indian Restaurant: Menu

    OpenAIRE

    Rasam Indian Restaurant

    2013-01-01

    Rasam Indian Restaurant is located in the Glasthule, a suburb of Dublin and opened in 2003. The objective is to serve high quality, authentic Indian cuisine. "We blend, roast and grind our own spices daily to provide a flavour that is unique to Rasam. Cooking Indian food is founded upon long held family traditions. The secret is in the varying elements of heat and spices, the tandoor clay oven is a hugely important fixture in our kitchen. Marinated meats are lowered into the oven on long m...

  8. [Indian workers in Oman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longuenesse, E

    1985-01-01

    Until recently Oman was a country of emigration, but by 1980 an estimated 200,000 foreign workers were in the country due to the petroleum boom. Almost 1/3 of the estimated 300,000 Indian workers in the Gulf states were in Oman, a country whose colonial heritage was closely tied to that of India and many of whose inhabitants still speak Urdu. The number of work permits granted to Indians working in the private sector in Oman increased from 47,928 in 1976 to 80,787 in 1980. An estimated 110,000 Indians were working in Oman in 1982, the great majority in the construction and public works sector. A few hundred Indian women were employed by the government of Oman, as domestics, or in other capacities. No accurate data is available on the qualifications of Indian workers in Oman, but a 1979 survey suggested a relatively low illiteracy rate among them. 60-75% of Indians in Oman are from the state of Kerala, followed by workers from the Punjab and the southern states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh and Bombay. Indian workers are recruited by specialized agencies or by friends or relatives already employed in Oman. Employers in Oman prefer to recruit through agencies because the preselection process minimizes hiring of workers unqualified for their posts. Officially, expenses of transportation, visas, and other needs are shared by the worker and the employer, but the demand for jobs is so strong that the workers are obliged to pay commissions which amount to considerable sums for stable and well paying jobs. Wages in Oman are however 2 to 5 times the level in India. Numerous abuses have been reported in recruitment practices and in failure of employers in Oman to pay the promised wages, but Indian workers have little recourse. At the same level of qualifications, Indians are paid less then non-Omani Arabs, who in turn receive less than Oman nationals. Indians who remain in Oman long enough nevertheless are able to support families at home and to accumulate considerable

  9. Indian concepts on sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

    2013-01-01

    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality.

  10. 25 CFR 547.15 - What are the minimum technical standards for electronic data communications between system...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... communications between system components? This section provides minimum standards for electronic data... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum technical standards for electronic data communications between system components? 547.15 Section 547.15 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING...

  11. Indian refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, I.J.

    2002-01-01

    The author discusses the history of the Indian refining industry and ongoing developments under the headings: the present state; refinery configuration; Indian capabilities for refinery projects; and reforms in the refining industry. Tables lists India's petroleum refineries giving location and capacity; new refinery projects together with location and capacity; and expansion projects of Indian petroleum refineries. The Indian refinery industry has undergone substantial expansion as well as technological changes over the past years. There has been progressive technology upgrading, energy efficiency, better environmental control and improved capacity utilisation. Major reform processes have been set in motion by the government of India: converting the refining industry from a centrally controlled public sector dominated industry to a delicensed regime in a competitive market economy with the introduction of a liberal exploration policy; dismantling the administered price mechanism; and a 25 year hydrocarbon vision. (UK)

  12. Effects of mercury on visible/near-infrared reflectance spectra of mustard spinach plants (Brassica rapa P.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunagan, Sarah C.; Gilmore, Martha S.; Varekamp, Johan C.

    2007-01-01

    Mustard spinach plants were grown in mercury-spiked and contaminated soils collected in the field under controlled laboratory conditions over a full growth cycle to test if vegetation grown in these soils has discernible characteristics in visible/near-infrared (VNIR) spectra. Foliar Hg concentrations (0.174-3.993 ppm) of the Mustard spinach plants were positively correlated with Hg concentration of soils and varied throughout the growing season. Equations relating foliar Hg concentration to spectral reflectance, its first derivative, and selected vegetation indices were generated using stepwise multiple linear regression. Significant correlations are found for limited wavelengths for specific treatments and dates. Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) and Red Edge Position (REP) values of plants in Hg-spiked and field-contaminated soils are significantly lower relative to control plants during the early and middle portions of the growth cycle which may be related to lower chlorophyll abundance or functioning in Hg-contaminated plants. - Some spectral characteristics of leaves of Brassica rapa P. may be associated with foliar mercury content

  13. Importance of fruit wall in seed yield of pea (Pisum Sativum L.) and mustard (Brassica campestris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna-Chopra, R.; Sinha, S.K.

    1976-01-01

    Dry weight changes in fruit wall and seed during fruit development in the pea and mustard were suggestive of the importance of fruit wall during seed development. So the relative photosynthetic potential of leaves and reproductive parts in the above crops were studied. In addition, the translocation of current photosynthates to the developing seeds was also assessed when fruits and leaves were fed 14 CO 2 independently. Considerable amount of photosynthetic carboxylase activity was observed in the fruit wall of both pea and mustard on unit fresh weight, chlorophyll and organ basis. On unit chlorophyll basis fruit wall had several times more activity than leaves. Both fruit wall as well as leaves translocated current photosynthates to the developing fruits. In the early stages, translocation from the leaves was more efficient but in the later stages, more translocation occurred from the fruit wall as compared with the leaves. Above results are discussed in relation to the importance of reproductive organs in the developing seeds. (author)

  14. Quantitative MRI comparison of systemic hemodynamics in Mustard/Senning repaired patients and healthy volunteers at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffon, Eric; Jimenez, Maria; Choussat, Alain; Latrabe, Valerie; Ducassou, Dominique; Marthan, Roger; Laurent, Francois

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to non-invasively compare ascending aortic blood flow and cross-sectional area (CSA) variations vs time in Mustard or Senning repaired (MSR) patients against those of healthy volunteers at rest. Velocity-encoded MR imaging was performed in 10 male patients (age range 18-24 years, median age 20.5 years) late after a Mustard or Senning correction, and in 10 male healthy volunteers (age range 21-25 years, median age 22.5 years), at the upper part of the ascending aorta. Both aortic cross-sectional area (CSA) and blood-flow variations were recorded over a complete cardiac cycle, with a 30-ms time of resolution. The body-surface area (BSA), the mean CSA over the systolic phase, and the BSA-normalized systemic ventricle power and work were significantly lower in the patient series compared with those of the volunteer series. The BSA-normalized right ventricle (RV) power and work of MSR patients were equal to 87 and 83% on average of those of the left ventricle (LV) of healthy volunteers. We conclude that, at rest, the mechanical performance of the systemic RV in MSR patients is significantly lower than that of the LV in healthy volunteers. Furthermore, the significantly lower aortic CSA found in MSR patients than in healthy volunteers may reveal an increase in the vasomotor tone. (orig.)

  15. Structural flexibility of the sulfur mustard molecule at finite temperature from Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Joanna; Goclon, Jakub; Rodziewicz, Pawel

    2016-04-05

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is one of the most dangerous chemical compounds used against humans, mostly at war conditions but also in terrorist attacks. Even though the sulfur mustard has been synthesized over a hundred years ago, some of its molecular properties are not yet resolved. We investigate the structural flexibility of the SM molecule in the gas phase by Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations. Thorough conformation analysis of 81 different SM configurations using density functional theory is performed to analyze the behavior of the system at finite temperature. The conformational diversity is analyzed with respect to the formation of intramolecular blue-shifting CH⋯S and CH⋯Cl hydrogen bonds. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that all structural rearrangements between SM local minima are realized either in direct or non-direct way, including the intermediate structure in the last case. We study the lifetime of the SM conformers and perform the population analysis. Additionally, we provide the anharmonic dynamical finite temperature IR spectrum from the Fourier Transform of the dipole moment autocorrelation function to mimic the missing experimental IR spectrum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Protective effects of dietary glycine and glutamic acid toward the toxic effects of oxidized mustard oil in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Alam; Rahman, Saleem Ur

    2017-01-25

    The protective role of glycine and glutamic acid against the toxic effects of oxidized oil was studied for the first time. Mustard seed oil was thermally oxidized and characterized for quality characteristics and polyphenolic composition using reversed phase HPLC-DAD. Significant changes in the quality characteristics occurred with thermal oxidation. Fourteen polyphenolic compounds were identified and quantified in oils. Quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-feruloylsophoroside, catechin, quercetin-3-rutinoside, quercetin-3,7-diglucoside, sinapic acid and vanillic acid hexoside were the major compounds in the fresh and oxidized oil. Oxidized, un-oxidized mustard oils, glycine and glutamic acid were given to rabbits alone or in combination. The biochemical responses were studied in terms of haematological and biochemical parameters and histopathology. It has been observed that biochemical and haematological parameters were adversely affected by the oxidized oil, while supplementation of both amino acids was beneficial in normalizing these parameters. Both amino acids alone have no significant effects, however, oxidized oil affected the liver by enhancing fat accumulation, causing hepatitis, reactive Kupffer cells and necrosis. The co-administration of oxidized oils with glycine or glutamic acid revealed significant recovery of the liver structure and function. In conclusion, glycine or glutamic acid is beneficial and protective against food toxicity and can be considered as an ameliorative food supplement.

  17. The Cytotoxicity of Benzaldehyde Nitrogen Mustard-2-Pyridine Carboxylic Acid Hydrazone Being Involved in Topoisomerase IIα Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antitumor property of iron chelators and aromatic nitrogen mustard derivatives has been well documented. Combination of the two pharmacophores in one molecule in drug designation is worth to be explored. We reported previously the syntheses and preliminary cytotoxicity evaluation of benzaldehyde nitrogen mustard pyridine carboxyl acid hydrazones (BNMPH as extended study, more tumor cell lines (IC50 for HepG2: 26.1 ± 3.5 μM , HCT-116: 57.5 ± 5.3 μM, K562: 48.2 ± 4.0 μM, and PC-12: 19.4 ± 2.2 μM were used to investigate its cytotoxicity and potential mechanism. In vitro experimental data showed that the BNMPH chelating Fe2+ caused a large number of ROS formations which led to DNA cleavage, and this was further supported by comet assay, implying that ROS might be involved in the cytotoxicity of BNMPH. The ROS induced changes of apoptosis related genes, but the TFR1 and NDRG1 metastatic genes were not obviously regulated, prompting that BNMPH might not be able to deprive Fe2+ of ribonucleotide reductase. The BNMPH induced S phase arrest was different from that of iron chelators (G1 and alkylating agents (G2. BNMPH also exhibited its inhibition of human topoisomerase IIα. Those revealed that the cytotoxic mechanism of the BNMPH could stem from both the topoisomerase II inhibition, ROS generation and DNA alkylation.

  18. The Global Garlic Mustard Field Survey (GGMFS: challenges and opportunities of a unique, large-scale collaboration for invasion biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Colautti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand what makes some species successful invaders, it is critical to quantify performance differences between native and introduced regions, and among populations occupying a broad range of environmental conditions within each region. However, these data are not available even for the world’s most notorious invasive species. Here we introduce the Global Garlic Mustard Field Survey, a coordinated distributed field survey to collect performance data and germplasm from a single invasive species: garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata across its entire distribution using minimal resources. We chose this species for its ecological impacts, prominence in ecological studies of invasion success, simple life history, and several genetic and life history attributes that make it amenable to experimental study. We developed a standardised field survey protocol to estimate population size (area and density, age structure, plant size and fecundity, as well as damage by herbivores and pathogens in each population, and to collect representative seed samples. Across four years and with contributions from 164 academic and non-academic participants from 16 countries in North America and Europe thus far, we have collected 45,788 measurements and counts of 137,811 plants from 383 populations and seeds from over 5,000 plants. All field data and seed resources will be curated for release to the scientific community. Our goal is to establish A. petiolata as a model species for plant invasion biology and to encourage large collaborative studies of other invasive species.

  19. A comparative analysis to quantify the biogeochemical and biogeophysical cooling effects on climate of a white mustard cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlicoq, Morgan; Ceschia, Eric; Brut, Aurore; Tallec, Tiphaine; Carrer, Dominique; Pique, Gaetan; Ferroni, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    During the COP21, agriculture was recognised as a strategic sector and an opportunity to strengthen climate mitigation. In particular, the "4 per 1000" initiative relies upon solutions that refer to agro-ecology, conservation agriculture, … that could lead to increase carbon storage. Among those agro-ecology practices, including cover crops during fallow periods is considered as a fundamental agronomic lever for storing carbon. However, if biogeochemical benefits of cover-crops (CC) have already been addressed, their biogeophysical effects on climate have never been quantified and compared to biogeochemical effects. This comparative study (CC vs. bare soil), quantified and compared biogeochemical (including carbon storage) and biophysical effects (albedo and energy partitioning effect) of CC on climate. An experimental campaign was performed in 2013 in Southwest France, during the fallow period following a winter-wheat crop (and before a maize). The experimental plot was divided in two: the northern part was maintained in bare soil (BS) while white-mustard (WM) was grown during 3-months on the southern part. On each subplot, continuous measurements of CO2, latent and sensible fluxes (by eddy covariance) and solar radiation were acquired. Also, N2O emissions were measured by means of automatic chambers on each subplots. Moreover, by using a Life-Cycle-Analysis approach, each component of the greenhouse gas budget (GHGB) was quantified for each subplot, including emissions associated to field operations (FO). To quantify the albedo induced radiative forcing (RFα) caused by the white-mustard, the bare soil subplot was used as a reference state (IPCC, 2007). Finally, the net radiative forcing for each subplot was calculated as the sum of biogeochemical and biogeophysical (albedo effect) radiative forcing. The white-mustard allowed a net CO2 fixation of 63 g C-eq.m-2, corresponding to 20% of the net annual CO2 flux that year (-332 g C-eq.m-2). Through the WM seeds

  20. Evaluation of indigenous rhizobacterial strains with reduced dose of chemical fertilizer towards growth and yield of mustard (Brassica campestris under old alluvial soil zone of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shampa Dutta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment had been carried out in the Crop Research and Seed Multiplication Farm of The University of Burdwan, West Bengal, India during the two consecutive winter seasons of 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 to study the effect of indigenous rhizospheric bacterial strains on growth, physiology and yield of mustard variety. Pseudomonas putida, Burkholderia cepacia, Burkholderia sp. and their mixture were used as seed inoculants for mustard cultivation. The experiment was laid down in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications. Results revealed that indigenous inoculation (with reduced dose of chemical fertilizer significantly increased (p < 0.05 the yield of mustard as compared to uninoculated control (full recommended dose of NPK fertilizers. A combination treatment of biofertilizer and chemical fertilizer also increased plant height, plant biomass and other yield components compared to control. The comprehensive approach of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR in agriculturally important crops should be carried out to explore the hidden potential of PGPR and to promote the quality and yield of crop under field conditions. Keywords: Indigenous rhizobacteria, Mustard, PGPR, Yield

  1. Seed longevity and dormancy state suggest management strategies for garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) and Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) in deciduous forest sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mame E. Redwood; Glenn R. Matlack; Cynthia D. Huebner

    2018-01-01

    An effective management plan for invasive herb populations must consider the potential for regeneration from the soil seedbank. To test chis potential, we examined two species, Japanese scilcgrass and garlic mustard, at deciduous forest sites in southeastern Ohio. Seeds were buried in nylon mesh bags and recovered at regular intervals over 24 mo. Recovered seeds were...

  2. Inter and intra row spring effects on growth, seeds yield and oil contents of white mustard (snapis alba L.) under rainfed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arif, M.; Shehzad, M.A.; Mushtaq, S.

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different plant densities on growth and yield of white mustard during Rabi 2008-09 under rain fed conditions. Three plant spacing (5, 10 and 15 cm) and three row spacing (10, 20 and 30 cm) were applied during the course of study. Results indicated that plant density has significant effects on growth, seed yield and oil contents of white mustard. Number of pods per plant (2002), number of seeds per pod (4.67), 1000 seed weight (5.02 g), oil contents (32.21 %) and fatty acids except linoleic acid significantly increased by increasing plant spacing due to less competition among plants for moisture, light and nutrients. The maximum plant height (148.9 cm) was with 10 X 20 cm/sup -1/ spacing. Maximum seed yield (2046 kg ha) was recorded for row spacing 15 cm where plants were spaced 10 cm within rows. At higher plant density, the overall seed yield of white mustard increased with increasing number of pods per plant. Thus, it is concluded that white mustard should be grown at 150 cm grids for higher yield output. (author)

  3. Patterns of cross-sensitivity in the responses of clonal subpopulations isolated from the RIF-1 mouse sarcoma to selected nitrosoureas and nitrogen mustards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, J. G.; Wright, K. A.; Workman, P.

    1984-01-01

    The response of clonal subpopulations isolated from the RIF-1 mouse sarcoma to melphalan treatment is independent of cell ploidy, whereas a clear relationship exists between ploidy and cell sensitivity to CCNU treatment. In the present study RIF-1 clones have been exposed to nitrogen mustard, aniline mustard and chlorambucil, and to nitrosoureas BCNU, MeCCNU and chlorozotocin, in order to evaluate whether or not the different physiochemical and biological activities of these agents would affect the patterns of drug sensitivity obtained for melphalan and CCNU. Irrespective of the different lipophilicities, transport properties and chemical reactivities of the nitrogen mustards, RIF-1 clones showed the same pattern of sensitivity as previously observed for melphalan. Similarly, RIF-1 clones when exposed to nitrosoureas BCNU, MeCCNU and chlorozotocin, showed the same pattern of sensitivity as that obtained for CCNU exposure. These data suggest (a) that the variation in the sensitivity of RIF-1 clones to treatment by the nitrogen mustards is unlikely to reflect differences in either membrane permeability or in drug transport and (b) that the ploidy dependent nitrosourea responses shown by RIF-1 clones similarly do not reflect differences in drug uptake. PMID:6466534

  4. Determination of the sulfur mustard hydrolysis product thiodiglycol by microcolumn liquid chromatography coupled on-line with sulfur flame photometric detection using large-volume injections and peak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijschuur, E.W.J.; Kientz, C.E.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1999-01-01

    A selective, direct and relatively rapid method has been developed for the determination of thiodiglycol (TDG) in aqueous samples. TDG is the main hydrolysis product of the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard. The method of analysis is based on the on-line coupling of reversed-phase microcolumn

  5. Inter and intra row spacing effects on growth, seed yield and oil contents of white mustard (sinapis alba l.) under rainfed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arif, M.; Shehzad, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different plant densities on growth and yield of white mustard during Rabi 2008-09 under rain fed conditions. Three plant spacing (5, 10 and 15 cm) and three row spacing (10, 20 and 30 cm) were applied during the course of study. Results indicated that plant density has significant effects on growth, seed yield and oil contents of white mustard. Number of pods per plant (2002), number of seeds per pod (4.67), 1000 seed weight (5.02 g), oil contents (32.21 %) and fatty acids except linoleic acid significantly increased by increasing plant spacing due to less competition among plants for moisture, light and nutrients. The maximum plant height (148.9 cm) was with 10 X 20 cm spacing. Maximum seed yield (2046 kg ha/sup -1/) was recorded for row spacing 15 cm where plants were spaced 10 cm within rows. At higher plant density, the overall seed yield of white mustard increased with increasing number of pods per plant. Thus, it is concluded that white mustard should be grown at 150 cm grids for higher yield output. (author)

  6. Reproductive survival of explanted human tumor cells after exposure to nitrogen mustard or x irradiation; differences in response with subsequent subculture in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.; Berry, R.J.; Laing, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    Curves for the survival of reproductive capacity of explanted human tumor cells, following exposure to the alkylating agent nitrogen mustard (mustine hydrochloride) or 250-kVp x rays, were obtained as soon as a satisfactory plating efficiency, i.e., greater than or approximately equal to 10 percent, was obtained from the tumor cells in vitro (usually within 2-10 weeks of explanation). It was found that all six tumor explants tested became more sensitive to the action of nitrogen mustard on serial subculture, whereas the response of four explants which were X-irradiated was invariant with further subculturing. Furthermore, all but one explant yielded survival curves which were extremely similar, with D/sub q/ values circa 440-610 rad. One line, from a seminoma, however, had a D/sub q/ of 150 rad. These radiosensitive seminoma cells were, however, the most resistant to the action of nitrogen mustard. The increase in sensitivity to nitrogen mustard with serial subculture in vitro was not associated with any change in the proliferative rate of the cells, although it may be associated with an increase in the efficiency of transport

  7. A sOcIAL-scIENtIfIc rEADING Of tHE MUstArD sEED

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    context. Acta Theologica ... represents the word (the gospel)2 or Jesus,3 the land (or garden) represents the world,4 the tree the church or heaven,5 and the birds represent divine ... in the mustard seed an analogy for the church (Letter 66).

  8. The 11S globulin Sin a 2 from yellow mustard seeds shows IgE cross-reactivity with homologous counterparts from tree nuts and peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirvent Sofía

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 11S globulin Sin a 2 is a marker to predict severity of symptoms in mustard allergic patients. The potential implication of Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity with tree nuts and peanut has not been investigated so far. In this work, we studied at the IgG and IgE level the involvement of the 11S globulin Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut. Methods Eleven well-characterized mustard-allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2 were included in the study. A specific anti-Sin a 2 serum was obtained in rabbit. Skin prick tests (SPT, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, immunoblotting and IgG or IgE-inhibition immunoblotting experiments using purified Sin a 2, Sin a 1, Sin a 3, mustard, almond, hazelnut, pistachio, walnut or peanut extracts were performed. Results The rabbit anti-Sin a 2 serum showed high affinity and specificity to Sin a 2, which allowed us to demonstrate that Sin a 2 shares IgG epitopes with allergenic 11S globulins from tree nuts (almond, hazelnut, pistachio and walnut but not from peanut. All the patients included in the study had positive skin prick test to tree nuts and/or peanut and we subdivided them into two different groups according to their clinical symptoms after ingestion of such allergenic sources. We showed that 11S globulins contain conserved IgE epitopes involved in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut as well as species-specific IgE epitopes. Conclusions The allergenic 11S globulin Sin a 2 from mustard is involved in cross-reactivity at the IgE level with tree nuts and peanut. Although the clinical relevance of the cross-reactive IgE epitopes present in 11S globulins needs to be investigated in further detail, our results contribute to improve the diagnosis and management of mustard allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2.

  9. Listeria monocytogenes inhibition by defatted mustard meal-based edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hahn-Bit; Noh, Bong Soo; Min, Sea C

    2012-02-01

    An antimicrobial edible film was developed from defatted mustard meal (Sinapis alba) (DMM), a byproduct from the bio-fuel industry, without incorporating external antimicrobials and its antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and physical properties were investigated. The DMM colloidal solution consisting of 184 g water, 14 g DMM, and 2g glycerol was homogenized and incubated at 37°C for 0.2, 0.5, 24 or 48 h to prepare a film-forming solution. The pH of a portion of the film-forming solution (pH 5.5) was adjusted to 2.0 or 4.0. Films were formed by drying the film-forming solutions at 23°C for 48 h. The film-forming solution incubated for 48 h inhibited L. monocytogenes in broth and on agar media. Antimicrobial effects of the film prepared from the 48 h-incubated solution increased with decrease in pH of the solution from 5.5 to 2.0. The film from the film forming solution incubated for 48 h (pH 2.0) initially inhibited more than 4.0 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes inoculated on film-coated salmon. The film-coating retarded the growth of L. monocytogenes in smoked salmon at 5, 10, and 15°C and the antimicrobial effect during storage was more noticeable when the coating was applied before inoculation than when it was applied after inoculation. The tensile strength, percentage elongation, solubility in watercxu, and water vapor permeability of the anti microbial film were 2.44 ± 0.19 MPa, 6.40 ± 1.13%, 3.19 ± 0.90%, and 3.18 ± 0.63 gmm/kPa hm(2), respectively. The antimicrobial DMM films have demonstrated a potential to be applied to foods as wraps or coatings to control the growth of L. monocytogenes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibition of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase by a mustard gas analog in murine macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Milton

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 2-Chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES is a sulphur vesicating agent and an analogue of the chemical warfare agent 2,2'-dichlorodiethyl sulphide, or sulphur mustard gas (HD. Both CEES and HD are alkylating agents that influence cellular thiols and are highly toxic. In a previous publication, we reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS enhances the cytotoxicity of CEES in murine RAW264.7 macrophages. In the present investigation, we studied the influence of CEES on nitric oxide (NO production in LPS stimulated RAW264.7 cells since NO signalling affects inflammation, cell death, and wound healing. Murine macrophages stimulated with LPS produce NO almost exclusively via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS activity. We suggest that the influence of CEES or HD on the cellular production of NO could play an important role in the pathophysiological responses of tissues to these toxicants. In particular, it is known that macrophage generated NO synthesised by iNOS plays a critical role in wound healing. Results We initially confirmed that in LPS stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages NO is exclusively generated by the iNOS form of nitric oxide synthase. CEES treatment inhibited the synthesis of NO (after 24 hours in viable LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages as measured by either nitrite secretion into the culture medium or the intracellular conversion of 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA or dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA. Western blots showed that CEES transiently decreased the expression of iNOS protein; however, treatment of active iNOS with CEES in vitro did not inhibit its enzymatic activity Conclusion CEES inhibits NO production in LPS stimulated macrophages by decreasing iNOS protein expression. Decreased iNOS expression is likely the result of CEES induced alteration in the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB signalling pathway. Since NO can act as an antioxidant, the CEES induced down-regulation of iNOS in LPS

  11. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. A Salih1 S Ghosh Moulic2. Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 695 022; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 ...

  12. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sequential Bayesian technique: An alternative approach for software reliability estimation ... Software reliability; Bayesian sequential estimation; Kalman filter. ... Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302; Reliability Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 ...

  13. Fellowship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Address: Director, Indian Institute of Science Education & Research, Sri Rama ... Address: Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, Delhi ..... Specialization: Elementary Particle Physics, Field Theory and ...

  14. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Soumen Bag1 Gaurav Harit2. Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721 302, India; Information and Communication Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Rajasthan, Jodhpur 342 011, India ...

  15. 77 FR 5566 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... up to 900 gaming devices, any banking or percentage card games, and any devices or games authorized... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact Taking Effect. SUMMARY: This publishes...

  16. 76 FR 56466 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an approval of the gaming compact between the Flandreau Santee Sioux Tribe and the State of South...

  17. 76 FR 65208 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an Approval of the Gaming Compact between the Confederated Tribes of the [[Page 65209

  18. 75 FR 68823 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendment. SUMMARY: This notice publishes approval of the Amendments to the Class III Gaming Compact (Amendment) between the State of Oregon...

  19. 77 FR 43110 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and the State of South Dakota. DATES...

  20. 75 FR 8108 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes... Governing Class III Gaming. DATES: Effective Date: February 23, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula...

  1. 76 FR 8375 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of the Gaming Compact between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and the State of South Dakota...

  2. 78 FR 10203 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the Approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Chippewa-Cree Tribe of the...

  3. 77 FR 30550 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes approval by the Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake Paiute...

  4. 77 FR 45371 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and the State of South Dakota. DATES: Effective...

  5. 76 FR 11258 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect. SUMMARY: Notice is given that the Tribal-State Compact for Regulation of Class III Gaming between the Confederated Tribes of the...

  6. 78 FR 15738 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and the State of South Dakota...

  7. 77 FR 41200 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes approval by the Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the State of California...

  8. 77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and the State of South Dakota. DATES...

  9. 78 FR 17428 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe and...

  10. 78 FR 26801 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the approval of an amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact...

  11. 78 FR 62650 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This publishes notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

  12. 78 FR 54908 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the...

  13. 78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the Class III Gaming Compact between the North Fork Rancheria of Mono...

  14. 76 FR 52968 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and the State of South Dakota. DATES...

  15. 78 FR 78377 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000814] Indian Gaming AGENCY... Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This publishes notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy...

  16. 76 FR 33341 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and the State of South Dakota. DATES...

  17. 75 FR 55823 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and the State of South Dakota. DATES: Effective...

  18. 78 FR 44146 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the Class III Amended and Restated Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Shingle Springs Band of...

  19. 78 FR 54670 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of extension of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This publishes notice of the Extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

  20. 78 FR 33435 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendments. SUMMARY: This notice publishes approval of an Agreement to Amend the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Salt River...

  1. 78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes... Gaming (Compact). DATES: Effective Date: March 21, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula L. Hart...

  2. 78 FR 11221 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and the State of South Dakota...

  3. Facts about American Indian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Indian College Fund, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As a result of living in remote rural areas, American Indians living on reservations have limited access to higher education. One-third of American Indians live on reservations, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. According to the most recent U.S. government statistics, the overall poverty rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives, including…

  4. Leadership Challenges in Indian Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horse, Perry

    2002-01-01

    American Indian leaders must meld the holistic and cyclical world view of Indian peoples with the linear, rational world view of mainstream society. Tribal leaders need to be statesmen and ethical politicians. Economic and educational development must be based on disciplined long-range planning and a strong, Indian-controlled educational base.…

  5. Use of Plackett-Burman design for rapid screening of nitrogen and carbon sources for the production of lipase in solid state fermentation by Yarrowia lipolytica from mustard oil cake (Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarat Babu Imandi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mustard oil cake (Brassica napus, the residue obtained after extraction of mustard oil from mustard oil seeds, was investigated for the production of lipase under solid state fermentation (SSF using the marine yeast Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589. Process parameters such as incubation time, biomass concentration, initial moisture content, carbon source concentration and nitrogen source concentration of the medium were optimized. Screening of ten nitrogen and five carbon sources has been accomplished with the help of Plackett-Burman design. The highest lipase activity of 57.89 units per gram of dry fermented substrate (U/gds was observed with the substrate of mustard oil cake in four days of fermentation.

  6. Structural features of dilute acid, steam exploded, and alkali pretreated mustard stalk and their impact on enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Manali; Raj, Tirath; Vijayaraj, M; Chopra, Anju; Gupta, Ravi P; Tuli, Deepak K; Kumar, Ravindra

    2015-06-25

    To overcome the recalcitrant nature of biomass several pretreatment methodologies have been explored to make it amenable to enzymatic hydrolysis. These methodologies alter cell wall structure primarily by removing/altering hemicelluloses and lignin. In this work, alkali, dilute acid, steam explosion pretreatment are systematically studied for mustard stalk. To assess the structural variability after pretreatment, chemical analysis, surface area, crystallinity index, accessibility of cellulose, FT-IR and thermal analysis are conducted. Although the extent of enzymatic hydrolysis varies upon the methodologies used, nevertheless, cellulose conversion increases from adsorption capacity. However, no such relationship is observed for xylose yield. Mass balance of the process is also studied. Dilute acid pretreatment is the best methodology in terms of maximum sugar yield at lower enzyme loading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterizing harmful advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and ribosylated aggregates of yellow mustard seed phytocystatin: Effects of different monosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Azaj; Shamsi, Anas; Bano, Bilqees

    2017-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are at the core of variety of diseases ranging from diabetes to renal failure and hence gaining wide consideration. This study was aimed at characterizing the AGEs of phytocystatin isolated from mustard seeds (YMP) when incubated with different monosaccharides (glucose, ribose and mannose) using fluorescence, ultraviolet, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and microscopy. Ribose was found to be the most potent glycating agent as evident by AGEs specific fluorescence and absorbance. YMP exists as a molten globule like structure on day 24 as depicted by high ANS fluorescence and altered intrinsic fluorescence. Glycated YMP as AGEs and ribose induced aggregates were observed at day 28 and 32 respectively. In our study we have also examined the anti-aggregative potential of polyphenol, resveratrol. Our results suggested the anti-aggregative behavior of resveratrol as it prevented the in vitro aggregation of YMP, although further studies are required to decode the mechanism by which resveratrol prevents the aggregation.

  8. Effect of calcinations temperature of CuO nanoparticle on the kinetics of decontamination and decontamination products of sulphur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, T H; Singh, Beer; Srivastava, A K; Prasad, G K; Srivastava, A R; Ganesan, K; Vijayaraghavan, R

    2011-09-15

    Present study investigates the potential of CuO nanoparticles calcined at different temperature for the decontamination of persistent chemical warfare agent sulphur mustard (HD) at room temperature (30 ± 2 °C). Nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation method and characterized by using SEM, EDAX, XRD, and Raman Spectroscopy. Synthesized nanoparticles were tested as destructive adsorbents for the degradation of HD. Reactions were monitored by GC-FID technique and the reaction products characterized by GC-MS. It was observed that the rate of degradation of HD decreases with the increase in calcination temperature and there is a change in the percentage of product of HD degradation. GC-MS data indicated that the elimination product increases with increase in calcination temperature whereas the hydrolysis product decreases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Rhizospheric bacterial strain Brevibacterium casei MH8a colonizes plant tissues and enhances Cd, Zn, Cu phytoextraction by white mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz ePłociniczak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution by heavy metals has become a serious problem in the world. Phytoextraction, which is one of the plant-based technologies, has attracted the most attention for the bioremediation of soils polluted with these contaminants.The aim of this study was to determine whether the multiple-tolerant bacterium, Brevibacterium casei MH8a isolated from the heavy metal-contaminated rhizosphere soil of Sinapis alba L., is able to promote plant growth and enhance Cd, Zn and Cu uptake by white mustard under laboratory conditions. Additionally, the ability of the rifampicin-resistant spontaneous mutant of MH8a to colonize plant tissues and its mechanisms of plant growth promotion were also examined. In order to assess the ecological consequences of bioaugmentation on autochthonous bacteria, the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA analysis was used. The MH8a strain exhibited the ability to produce ammonia, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole 3-acetic acid and HCN but was not able to solubilize inorganic phosphate and produce siderophores. Introduction of MH8a into soil significantly increased S. alba biomass and the accumulation of Cd (208%, Zn (86% and Cu (39% in plant shoots in comparison with those grown in non-inoculated soil. Introduced into the soil, MH8a was able to enter the plant and was found in the roots and leaves of inoculated plants thus indicating its endophytic features. PLFA analysis revealed that the MH8a that was introduced into soil had a temporary influence on the structure of the autochthonous bacterial communities. The plant growth-promoting features of the MH8a strain and its ability to enhance the metal uptake by white mustard and its long-term survival in soil as well as its temporary impact on autochthonous microorganisms make the strain a suitable candidate for the promotion of plant growth and the efficiency of phytoextraction.

  10. Cutaneous injury-related structural changes and their progression following topical nitrogen mustard exposure in hairless and haired mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera Tewari-Singh

    Full Text Available To identify effective therapies against sulfur mustard (SM-induced skin injuries, various animals have been used to assess the cutaneous pathology and related histopathological changes of SM injuries. However, these efforts to establish relevant skin injury endpoints for efficacy studies have been limited mainly due to the restricted assess of SM. Therefore, we employed the SM analog nitrogen mustard (NM, a primary vesicating and bifunctional alkylating agent, to establish relevant endpoints for efficient efficacy studies. Our published studies show that NM (3.2 mg exposure for 12-120 h in both the hairless SKH-1 and haired C57BL/6 mice caused clinical sequelae of toxicity similar to SM exposure in humans. The NM-induced cutaneous pathology-related structural changes were further analyzed in this study and quantified morphometrically (as percent length or area of epidermis or dermis of skin sections in mice showing these lesions. H&E stained skin sections of both hairless and haired mice showed that NM (12-120 h exposure caused epidermal histopathological effects such as increased epidermal thickness, epidermal-dermal separation, necrotic/dead epidermis, epidermal denuding, scab formation, parakeratosis (24-120 h, hyperkeratosis (12-120 h, and acanthosis with hyperplasia (72-120 h. Similar NM exposure in both mice caused dermal changes including necrosis, edema, increase in inflammatory cells, and red blood cell extravasation. These NM-induced cutaneous histopathological features are comparable to the reported lesions from SM exposure in humans and animal models. This study advocates the usefulness of these histopathological parameters observed due to NM exposure in screening and optimization of rescue therapies against NM and SM skin injuries.

  11. Rhizospheric Bacterial Strain Brevibacterium casei MH8a Colonizes Plant Tissues and Enhances Cd, Zn, Cu Phytoextraction by White Mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płociniczak, Tomasz; Sinkkonen, Aki; Romantschuk, Martin; Sułowicz, Sławomir; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pollution by heavy metals has become a serious problem in the world. Phytoextraction, which is one of the plant-based technologies, has attracted the most attention for the bioremediation of soils polluted with these contaminants. The aim of this study was to determine whether the multiple-tolerant bacterium, Brevibacterium casei MH8a isolated from the heavy metal-contaminated rhizosphere soil of Sinapis alba L., is able to promote plant growth and enhance Cd, Zn, and Cu uptake by white mustard under laboratory conditions. Additionally, the ability of the rifampicin-resistant spontaneous mutant of MH8a to colonize plant tissues and its mechanisms of plant growth promotion were also examined. In order to assess the ecological consequences of bioaugmentation on autochthonous bacteria, the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis was used. The MH8a strain exhibited the ability to produce ammonia, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole 3-acetic acid and HCN but was not able to solubilize inorganic phosphate and produce siderophores. Introduction of MH8a into soil significantly increased S. alba biomass and the accumulation of Cd (208%), Zn (86%), and Cu (39%) in plant shoots in comparison with those grown in non-inoculated soil. Introduced into the soil, MH8a was able to enter the plant and was found in the roots and leaves of inoculated plants thus indicating its endophytic features. PLFA analysis revealed that the MH8a that was introduced into soil had a temporary influence on the structure of the autochthonous bacterial communities. The plant growth-promoting features of the MH8a strain and its ability to enhance the metal uptake by white mustard and its long-term survival in soil as well as its temporary impact on autochthonous microorganisms make the strain a suitable candidate for the promotion of plant growth and the efficiency of phytoextraction.

  12. The Short-Term Effect of Chest Physiotherapy on Spirometric Indices in Chemical Warfare Victims Exposed to Mustard Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abedi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABCTRACT Introduction & Objective: Chronic respiratory diseases are the most prevalent late sequels of sulfur mustard gas injury among Iranian chemical warfare victims. Chest physiotherapy is one of the useful methods in care, cure and infection prevention of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the short-term effect of chest physiotherapy on spirometric indices in chemical warfare victims exposed to sulfur mustard gas. Materials & Methods: In this study, 27 of the chemical warfare victims with respiratory diseases were selected. Chest physiotherapy including postural drainage percussion and vibration were used in four positions for all patients. Pulmonary function test (PFT was obtained before (baseline, immediately and 20 minute after the chest physiotherapy. The SPSS software was used for the data analysis of the collected data. Results: Results of this study showed the significant effect (p<0.01 of chest physiotherapy upon forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1 (baseline mean, 44.19 immediately after intervention mean 47.3 and 20 minute after intervention mean 48.3 and forced vital capacity (FVC (baseline mean, 69.37 immediately after intervention mean, 73.67 20 minute after intervention 75.74. Chest physiotherapy had significant effect (p<0.01 in asthmatic bronchitis group and also had significant effect (p<0.05 in both severe and moderate groups. Conclusion: Chest physiotherapy was able to improve pulmonary function test indices in chemical warfare victims suffering from respiratory problems. The effect on asthmatic bronchitis group, as well as both severe and moderate groups, was significant.

  13. Comparing the therapeutic efficiency of aminoguanidine and 3-aminobenzamide in lung and intestine toxicity caused by nitrogen mustard in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaren, H.; Korkmaz, A.; Kunak, Z. I.; Uysal, B.; Topal, T.; Kurt, B; Kenar, L.

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and peroxynitrite are responsible for sulfur mustard (SM) induced toxicity. Since endogenous production of peroxynitrite is known to lead to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation and sometimes ultimately cell death, in this study, it was aimed to compare the therapeutic efficiencies of aminoguanidine (iNOS inhibitor) and 3 aminobenzamide (PARP inhibitor) in lung and intestine toxicity caused by nitrogen mustard in rats. A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 served as control and given 2 ml saline, three groups received single dose of mechlorethamine (MEC) (3.5 mg/kg subcutaneously) with the same time intervals. Group 2 received MEC only, group 3 received selective iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG) (100 mg/kg i.p.) and, group 4 received PARP inhibitor 3 aminobenzamide (3-AB) (20 mg/kg i.p.). MEC injection resulted in severe lung toxicity with strong interstitial and alveolar edema, hemorrhage, emphysematous changes, Mild inflammatory cell infiltration and septal thickening. MEC injection also caused mucosal thinning, mild inflammatory cell infiltration, ischemic changes and multifocal, superficial ulcerations (erosions) in small intestine. In AG group, interstitial and alveolar edema, hemorrhage slightly reduced in lung comparing to MEC group. Inflammatory cell infiltration was minimal, septal thickening was similar to MEC group at densely edematous and hemorrhagical areas. In 3 AB group, edematous and hemorrhagic areas were very small, inflammatory cell infiltration was minimal and there were no densly densely edematous and hemorrhagical areas in lung. The results were better than AB group. In intestine, results of AG group were better than MEC group but worse than 3 AB group. These results suggest that both iNOS and PARP inhibitors are effective but PARP inhibitors may be more promising for treatment of SM induced early lung and intestinal toxicity.(author)

  14. Attenuation of acute nitrogen mustard-induced lung injury, inflammation and fibrogenesis by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaviya, Rama; Venosa, Alessandro [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Hall, LeRoy [Drug Safety Sciences, Johnson and Johnson, Raritan, NJ 08869 (United States); Gow, Andrew J. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Debra L., E-mail: laskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Nitrogen mustard (NM) is a toxic vesicant known to cause damage to the respiratory tract. Injury is associated with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In these studies we analyzed the effects of transient inhibition of iNOS using aminoguanidine (AG) on NM-induced pulmonary toxicity. Rats were treated intratracheally with 0.125 mg/kg NM or control. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung tissue were collected 1 d–28 d later and lung injury, oxidative stress and fibrosis assessed. NM exposure resulted in progressive histopathological changes in the lung including multifocal lesions, perivascular and peribronchial edema, inflammatory cell accumulation, alveolar fibrin deposition, bronchiolization of alveolar septal walls, and fibrosis. This was correlated with trichrome staining and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) was also increased in the lung following NM exposure, along with levels of protein and inflammatory cells in BAL, consistent with oxidative stress and alveolar-epithelial injury. Both classically activated proinflammatory (iNOS{sup +} and cyclooxygenase-2{sup +}) and alternatively activated profibrotic (YM-1{sup +} and galectin-3{sup +}) macrophages appeared in the lung following NM administration; this was evident within 1 d, and persisted for 28 d. AG administration (50 mg/kg, 2 ×/day, 1 d–3 d) abrogated NM-induced injury, oxidative stress and inflammation at 1 d and 3 d post exposure, with no effects at 7 d or 28 d. These findings indicate that nitric oxide generated via iNOS contributes to acute NM-induced lung toxicity, however, transient inhibition of iNOS is not sufficient to protect against pulmonary fibrosis. -- Highlights: ► Nitrogen mustard (NM) induces acute lung injury and fibrosis. ► Pulmonary toxicity is associated with increased expression of iNOS. ► Transient inhibition of iNOS attenuates acute

  15. The Living Indian Critical Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Dwivedi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to establish the identity of something that is often considered to be missing – a living Indian critical tradition. I refer to the tradition that arises out of the work of those Indians who write in English. The chief architects of this tradition are Sri Aurobindo, C.D. Narasimhaiah, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak and Homi K. Bhabha. It is possible to believe that Indian literary theories derive almost solely from ancient Sanskrit poetics. Or, alternatively, one can be concerned about the sad state of affairs regarding Indian literary theories or criticism in English. There have been scholars who have raised the question of the pathetic state of Indian scholarship in English and have even come up with some positive suggestions. But these scholars are those who are ignorant about the living Indian critical tradition. The significance of the Indian critical tradition lies in the fact that it provides the real focus to the Indian critical scene. Without an awareness of this tradition Indian literary scholarship (which is quite a different thing from Indian literary criticism and theory as it does not have the same impact as the latter two do can easily fail to see who the real Indian literary critics and theorists are.

  16. Bioengineering methods employed in the study of wound healing of sulphur mustard burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John S; Schomacker, Kevin T; Glatter, Robert D; Briscoe, Crystal M; Braue, Ernest H; Squibb, Katherine S

    2002-02-01

    Sulphur mustard (SM) is a potent incapacitating chemical warfare agent that remains a threat to war fighters and civilians worldwide. SM lesions may require weeks or months to heal, depending upon their severity. This study was undertaken to find a treatment regimen that promotes speedier healing of deep cutaneous SM burns in a weanling pig model. The principal objective of the study was to compare four treatment regimens and establish which achieved the shortest healing time. Twelve Yorkshire Cross weanling pigs were exposed to SM liquid for 2h, generating six large deep dermal/full thickness burns on the ventrum of each animal. Three additional animals served as sham-exposed controls. Surgical intervention occurred at 48 h postexposure. Treatments included: (i) full-thickness debridement of the burns with a computer controlled, raster scanned continuous wave CO2 laser followed by autologous split-thickness skin grafting; (ii) full-thickness sharp surgical tangential excision followed by skin grafting, the 'Gold Standard' used in human deep dermal/full-thickness thermal burns management; (iii) partial-thickness laser ablation with no grafting; and (iv) partial-thickness sharp surgical excision with no grafting. Several non-invasive bioengineering methods were used to monitor the progress of wound healing throughout a 36-day healing period: reflectance colourimetry, evaporimetry, laser Doppler perfusion imaging and ballistometry. Bioengineering methods indicated that laser debridement followed by autologous split-thickness skin grafting was as efficacious in improving the wound healing of deep SM burns in weanling swine as the 'Gold Standard.' Regardless of the method of debridement, barrier function, skin colour and mechanical properties returned to near-normal levels within 15 days of treatment in the grafted sites. Regardless of surgical approach, blood flux levels remained approximately 50-60% of normal tissue throughout the 36-day postsurgical observation

  17. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Potential energy surface; activated complex theory; effective resultant dipole moment; one-electron theory for optical activity; rate processes in biology. Author Affiliations. Pallavi Bhattacharyya1. Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. Resonance – Journal of ...

  18. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the presence of carbides. Volume 24 Issue 3 June 2001 pp 317-322 Cement and Concrete Materials. Characterization of ancient Indian iron and entrapped slag inclusions using electron, photon and nuclear microprobes ... 483-491 Alloys and Steels. Alloy design of ductile phosphoric iron: Ideas from archaeometallurgy.

  19. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 12. Transistors – From Point Contact to Single Electron. D N Bose. General Article Volume 2 Issue 12 ... Author Affiliations. D N Bose1. Semiconductor Division Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India ...

  20. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Logo of the Indian Academy of Sciences ... Soft X-ray Focusing Telescope Aboard AstroSat: Design, Characteristics and Performance ... Here, we present an overview of its design, mechanical hardware, electronics, data modes, observational constraints, pipeline processing and its in-orbit performance based on ...

  1. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 11. What's New in Computers ? Evolving Video Compression Standard: MPEG. Vijnan Shastri. Feature Article ... Author Affiliations. Vijnan Shastri1. Centre for Electronics Design Technology, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  2. Indian Women: An Historical and Personal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Rosemary Ackley

    1975-01-01

    Several issues relating to Indian women are discussed. These include (1) the three types of people to whom we owe our historical perceptions of Indian women, (2) role delineation in Indian society; (3) differences between Indian women and white women, and (4) literary role models of Indian women. (Author/BW)

  3. INDIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    2016-07-02

    Jul 2, 2016 ... P R O G R A M M E. 1 July 2016 (Friday). Venue: Faculty Hall, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru ... 1800–1900 Session 1E – Public Lecture. Pratap Bhanu Mehta, Centre for Policy Research, New Delhi. Two ideas of India.

  4. Indian Astronomy: History of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, R.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    From the time of A macronryabhat under dota (ca AD 500) there appeared in India a series of Sanskrit treatises on astronomy. Written always in verse, and normally accompanied by prose commentaries, these served to create an Indian tradition of mathematical astronomy which continued into the 18th century. There are as well texts from earlier centuries, grouped under the name Jyotishaveda macronn d...

  5. The Indian Monsoon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 3. The Indian Monsoon - Links to Cloud systems over the Tropical Oceans. Sulochana Gadgil. Series Article Volume 13 Issue 3 March 2008 pp 218-235. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. Becoming an Indian

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramachandra Guha

    2017-11-25

    Nov 25, 2017 ... learning science by what he later recalled as 'Gandhian or basic .... Calcutta to offer their thoughts on Indian planning. Hal- ... had come to India for good. But any .... am eager to be of help and service to a sincere soul like you.

  7. Indians of North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Published by the U.S. Department of the Interior, this brief booklet on the historical development of the Cherokee Nation emphasizes the Tribe's relationship with the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its improved economy. Citing tourism as the major tribal industry, tribal enterprises are named and described (a 61 unit motor court in existence since…

  8. Indian Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reservations and in rural communities, mostly in the western United States and Alaska. The American Indian and ... Office of Finance and Accounting - 10E54 Office of Human Resources - 11E53A Office of Information Technology - 07E57B Office of ...

  9. Caregiving in Indian Country

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-23

    This podcast discusses the role of caregivers in Indian County and the importance of protecting their health. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 12/23/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/23/2009.

  10. Effect of substitution of groundnut with high glucosinolate mustard (Brassica juncea) meal on nutrient utilization, growth, vital organ weight and blood composition of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, M K.; Mishra, A S.; Misra, A K.; Mondal, D; Karim, S A.

    2001-03-01

    Twenty-four 14-day-old weaner Avivastra (Russian MerinoxNali) male lambs were maintained for 180 days on ad libidum Cenchrus (Cenchrus ciliaris) hay and concentrate mixture (CM) contained groundnut meal (control) and mustard meal (MM group) as major protein source. The two CMs were isonitrogenous (21% CP) and isocaloric (2.78McalMEkg(-1) DM), while, CM fed to MM group contained 24.6mg glucosinolatesg(-1) DM. Digestibility of nutrients was similar (P>0.05) in the two groups except for CP and hemicellulose, which was higher (P0.05) in the two groups. Average daily gain (ADG) was, however, 22% higher (Pgrowth rate and induced iodine deficiency. Carcass of lambs fed mustard meal had more fat and less protein.

  11. Direct and residual effect of rockphosphate with amendments on growth and uptake of P by mustard and moong crops grown in Typic Ustochrept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dravid, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    A considerable increase in drymatter accumulation and total phosphorus uptake by mustard was observed with the addition of partially acidulated rockphosphate (PARP) and rockphosphate (RP) pre-decomposed with biogas slurry treatments as compared to other combinations, while in case of moong RP amended with pyrite followed by PARP exhibited marked increase in yield and assimilation of P over the other treatments. The differences between control and rockphosphate or pyrite alone were significant in both the crops. The percent Pdff and its utilization from rockphosphate were highest under partially acidulated rockphosphate treatment. Among the different amendments, the performance of biogas slurry was superior to the pyrite and P solubiliser with respect to the Pdff and P utilization from rockphosphate. The available P in soil was depressed drastically after mustard, but it improved again after moong. (author)

  12. Depreciation of the Indian Currency: Implications for the Indian Economy.

    OpenAIRE

    Sumanjeet Singh

    2009-01-01

    The Indian currency has depreciated by more than 20 per cent since April 2008 and breached its crucial 50-level against the greenback on sustained dollar purchases by foreign banks and stronger dollar overseas. The fall in the value of Indian rupee has several consequences which could have mixed effects on Indian economy. But, mainly, there are four expected implications of falling rupee. First, it should boost exports; second, it will lead to higher cost of imported goods and make some of th...

  13. Localization of sites modified during inactivation of the bovine heart mitochondrial F1-ATPase by quinacrine mustard using [3H]aniline as a probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullough, D.A.; Ceccarelli, E.A.; Verburg, J.G.; Allison, W.S.

    1989-01-01

    The aziridinium of purified quinacrine mustard at 50 microM inactivates the bovine heart mitochondrial F1-ATPase with a pseudo-first order rate constant of 0.07 min-1 at pH 7.0 and 23 degrees C. An apparent Kd of 27 microM for the enzyme-reagent complex was estimated from the dependence of the rate of inactivation on the concentration of quinacrine mustard. The pH inactivation profile revealed that deprotonation of a group with a pKa of about 6.7 is necessary for inactivation. The amount of reagent incorporated into the protein increased linearly with the extent of inactivation. Complete inactivation was estimated to occur when 3 mol of reagent were incorporated/mol of F1. Enzyme, in which steady state ATPase was inactivated by 98% by quinacrine mustard, hydrolyzed substoichiometric ATP with zero order kinetics suggesting that residual activity is catalyzed by F1 in which at least one beta subunit is modified. By exploiting the reactivity of the aziridinium of covalently attached reagent with [3H] aniline, sites modified by quinacrine mustard were labeled with 3H. Isolation of radioactive cyanogen bromide peptides derived from F1 inactivated with the reagent in the presence of [3H]aniline which were identified by sequence analysis and sequence analyses of radioactive tryptic fragments arising from them have revealed the following. About two thirds of the radioactivity incorporated into the enzyme during inactivation is apparently esterified to one or more of the carboxylic acid side chains in a CNBr-tryptic fragment of the beta subunit with the sequence: 394DELSEEDK401. The remainder of the radioactivity is associated with at least two sites within the cyanogen bromide peptide containing residues 293-358 of the beta subunit

  14. New fellows | Announcements | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of Medical Sciences, New Delhi; S K Bhowmik, Indian Institute of Technology, ... Souvik Mahapatra, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai; Prabal K Maiti, Indian ... Math Art and Design: MAD about Math, Math Education and Outreach.

  15. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2015, 240, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 60% more ...

  16. BIA Indian Lands Dataset (Indian Lands of the United States)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Geographic Data Committee — The American Indian Reservations / Federally Recognized Tribal Entities dataset depicts feature location, selected demographics and other associated data for the 561...

  17. Electronic structure and optical properties of thorium monopnictides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Indian Academy of Sciences. 165. Electronic structure and optical properties of thorium monopnictides. S KUMAR* and S AULUCK†. Physics Department, Institute of Engineering and Technology, M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly 243 006,. India. †Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247 667, ...

  18. The diversity of the effects of sulfur mustard gas inhalation on respiratory system 10 years after a single, heavy exposure: analysis of 197 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emad, A; Rezaian, G R

    1997-09-01

    To find out the late pulmonary sequelae of sulfur mustard gas inhalation in 197 veterans, 10 years after their exposure. Cross-sectional clinical study. University hospital. One hundred ninety-seven veterans with a single, heavy exposure to sulfur mustard gas in 1986 and 86 nonexposed veterans as their control group. Pulmonary function tests, carbon monoxide diffusion capacity, bronchoscopy, and high-resolution CT of the chest were performed in all patients. Transbronchial lung biopsy was done in 24 suspected cases of pulmonary fibrosis. Asthma was diagnosed in 21 (10.65%), chronic bronchitis in 116 (58.88%), bronchiectasis in 17 (8.62%), airway narrowing due to searing or granulation tissue in 19 (9.64%), and pulmonary fibrosis in 24 (12.18%) cases. None of these were found among the control group except for a single case of chronic bronchitis. Although the respiratory symptoms of an acute sulfur mustard gas inhalation are usually transient and nonspecific, it can lead to the development of a series of chronic destructive pulmonary sequelae in such cases.

  19. The synthesis and biological evaluation of new DNA-directed alkylating agents, phenyl N-mustard-4-anilinoquinoline conjugates containing a urea linker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvania, Bhavin; Kakadiya, Rajesh; Christian, Wilson; Chen, Tai-Lin; Wu, Ming-Hsi; Suman, Sharda; Tala, Kiran; Lee, Te-Chang; Shah, Anamik; Su, Tsann-Long

    2014-08-18

    We synthesized a series of phenyl N-mustard-4-anilinoquinoline conjugates to study their antitumorigenic effects. These agents were prepared by the condensation of 4-[N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl isocyanate with 6-amino-4-methylamino or 4-anilinoquinolines. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies revealed that the C2-methylquinoline derivatives (18a-o) were generally more cytotoxic than the C2-phenylquinoline conjugates (23a-d) in inhibiting the cell growth of various human tumor cell lines in vitro. However, the methylamino or aniline substituents at C4 of quinoline did not influence the cytotoxic effects. The title conjugates were capable of inducing DNA cross-linking and promoting cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. This study demonstrates that phenyl N-mustard-4-anilinoquinoline conjugates are generally more potent than phenyl N-mustard-4-anilinoquinazoline conjugates against the cell growth of various tumor cell-lines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Diffusing capacity for lung carbon monoxide (dlco) in chemical lung injuries due to the use of mustard gas in the poisoned soldiers of Iran-Iraq war 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhi, H.; Ganji, F.

    2010-01-01

    To assess the Mustard gas exposure effects on pulmonary system, particularly on diffusing capacity for lung carbon monoxide (DLCO) and simple spirometry. Sixty-five sulfur mustard- poisoned soldiers from Mostazafan and Janbazan organization were referred to our center in 2005. Complete history, physical examination, chest X ray, Echocardiography, Arterial blood gas, high - resolution computerized tomography, diffusion capacity for lung carbon monoxide and spirometry of these were performed and compared this result with normal value. The mean value of indices in studied injured subjects was: Spirometry: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) = 70.4, Forced vital capacity (FVC) = 66.5, EFE 25-75=81.1, FEV1/FVC=101.9, Flow 25% = 28.7, Flow 50%= 72.9, Flow 75%= 100.1, Sample volume: Functional residual capacity of lungs (FRC) = 131.5, residual volume (RV) = 157.3, RV/TLC= 169.1, Total lung capacity (TLC) = 91.3, KCO= 131.6, TLCO= 116.3. No significant correlation was observed between TLCO values with HRCT, echocardiography, ABG and spirometry values (P>0.05). We recommend TLCO and RV/TLV tests to assess severity of Injuries as there is no a suitable criterion to measure the real consequences of mustard gas on affected combatants. and Biological markers are also needed to determine cause effect relations. (author)

  1. The impact of no-tillage cultivation and white mustard as a cover crop on weed infestation and yield of carrot and red beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borowy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In a two-year field experiment, no-tillage cultivation using white mustard (Sinapis alba L. ‘Bardena’, 30 kg ha−1, as a cover crop did not influence emergence of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ‘Czerwona Kula REW’ and had a favorable effect on emergence of carrot (Daucus carota L. ‘Berlikumer 2 – Perfekcja REW’. However, further growth of both vegetables was significantly slower under no-tillage cultivation. Both vegetables produced a higher yield of roots and the diameter of these roots was bigger under conventional cultivation. The effect of cultivation method on the content of total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium in carrot and red beet leaves varied, while the content of dry matter, monosaccharides and total sugars was significantly higher in the roots of both vegetables harvested under no-tillage cultivation. The number of weeds growing on no-tilled plots covered with mustard mulch 4 weeks after seed sowing was lower by about 75%, but their fresh weight was higher more than 6 times in comparison to that under conventional cultivation. This was caused by the emergence of wintering and winter hardy weeds in places not covered by mustard plants in the autumn of the year preceding the cultivation of vegetables. Next year, they started to grow in the early spring and some of them produced a considerable amount of fresh weight and attained the flowering stage in the middle of April.

  2. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahima; Kumar, Vinod; Tomar, S. K.; Roy, Debashis; Kumar, Muneendra

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein) containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05) effect on pH, microbial biomass, partitioning factor, total gas production (TGP), TGP per g dry matter and TGP per g digestible dry matter (ml/g) was observed in almost all the treatments. Results: Total volatile fatty acids at 2% formaldehyde treatment level of mustard cake was lower (p<0.05) as compared to other groups, while in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility were reported to be low in 1% formaldehyde treated group. Conclusion: On a holistic view, it could be considered that formaldehyde treatment at 1.5% level was optimal for protection of mustard oil cake protein. PMID:27047133

  3. Acute effects of mustard, horseradish, black pepper and ginger on energy expenditure, appetite, ad libitum energy intake and energy balance in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Nikolaj Ture; Belza, Anita; Jensen, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Chilli peppers have been shown to enhance diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and reduce energy intake (EI) in some studies, but there are few data on other pungent spices. The primary aim of the present study was to test the acute effects of black pepper (pepper), ginger, horseradish and mustard...... randomly assigned to receive a brunch meal with either pepper (1·3 g), ginger (20 g), horseradish (8·3 g), mustard (21 g) or no spices (placebo). The amounts of spices were chosen from pre-testing to make the meal spicy but palatable. No significant treatment effects were observed on DIT, but mustard...... produced DIT, which tended to be larger than that of placebo (14 %, 59 (se 3) v. 52 (se 2) kJ/h, respectively, P = 0·08). No other spice induced thermogenic effects approaching statistical significance. Subjective measures of appetite (P>0·85), ad libitum EI (P = 0·63) and energy balance (P = 0·67) also...

  4. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05 effect on pH, microbial biomass, partitioning factor, total gas production (TGP, TGP per g dry matter and TGP per g digestible dry matter (ml/g was observed in almost all the treatments. Results: Total volatile fatty acids at 2% formaldehyde treatment level of mustard cake was lower (p<0.05 as compared to other groups, while in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility were reported to be low in 1% formaldehyde treated group. Conclusion: On a holistic view, it could be considered that formaldehyde treatment at 1.5% level was optimal for protection of mustard oil cake protein.

  5. Risks of on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to sulfur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoozabadi, Mehdi Dehghani; Sheikhi, Mohammad Ali; Rahmani, Hossein; Ebadi, Ahmad; Heidari, Amanollah; Gholizadeh, Behnam; Sharifi, Khosrow

    2017-10-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a toxic chemical agent that belongs to a class of vesicant compounds. In the 1980s it was used by the Iraqi army against Iranian forces. Sulfur mustard severely irritates the skin, eyes and lungs. The highest side effects seen in patients affected by this gas are pulmonary complications including different types of lung diseases such as bronchiolitis. It has also led to a certain type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease called mustard lung. Similar extra-pulmonary, molecular and hormonal effects can be observed in these patients and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Here cardiovascular complications may be one of the most dangerous visible effects. And atherosclerosis is probable following the direct effects or consequential long-term effects of SM. The development of atherosclerosis in these patients is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and coronary artery disease. Coronary artery bypass grafting surgery is the treatment of coronary artery disease. Doing this surgery by bypass pump has its own morbidity and due to local and systemic inflammation changes in patients with SM pulmonary disorders it may have more side effects. Therefore, detailed knowledge of inflammatory diseases as well as the serum level or even the local lung fluid of the inflammatory factors in these patients before surgery are needed so that it would be possible to reduce the rate of morbidity and mortality by normalizing the inflammatory conditions of the patients before cardiac surgery.

  6. Expression of proliferative and inflammatory markers in a full-thickness human skin equivalent following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, Adrienne T.; Hayden, Patrick J.; Casillas, Robert P.; Heck, Diane E.; Gerecke, Donald R.; Sinko, Patrick J.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Sulfur mustard is a potent vesicant that induces inflammation, edema and blistering following dermal exposure. To assess molecular mechanisms mediating these responses, we analyzed the effects of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, on EpiDerm-FT TM , a commercially available full-thickness human skin equivalent. CEES (100-1000 μM) caused a concentration-dependent increase in pyknotic nuclei and vacuolization in basal keratinocytes; at high concentrations (300-1000 μM), CEES also disrupted keratin filament architecture in the stratum corneum. This was associated with time-dependent increases in expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of cell proliferation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and phosphorylated histone H2AX, markers of DNA damage. Concentration- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein expression of eicosanoid biosynthetic enzymes including COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase, microsomal PGE 2 synthases, leukotriene (LT) A 4 hydrolase and LTC 4 synthase were observed in CEES-treated skin equivalents, as well as in antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferases A1-2 (GSTA1-2), GSTA3 and GSTA4. These data demonstrate that CEES induces rapid cellular damage, cytotoxicity and inflammation in full-thickness skin equivalents. These effects are similar to human responses to vesicants in vivo and suggest that the full thickness skin equivalent is a useful in vitro model to characterize the biological effects of mustards and to develop potential therapeutics.

  7. Hair analysis as a useful procedure for detection of vapour exposure to chemical warfare agents: simulation of sulphur mustard with methyl salicylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiandore, Marie; Piram, Anne; Lacoste, Alexandre; Josse, Denis; Doumenq, Pierre

    2014-06-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWA) are highly toxic compounds which have been produced to kill or hurt people during conflicts or terrorist attacks. Despite the fact that their use is strictly prohibited according to international convention, populations' exposure still recently occurred. Development of markers of exposure to CWA is necessary to distinguish exposed victims from unexposed ones. We present the first study of hair usage as passive sampler to assess contamination by chemicals in vapour form. This work presents more particularly the hair adsorption capacity for methyl salicylate used as a surrogate of the vesicant sulphur mustard. Chemical vapours toxicity through the respiratory route has historically been defined through Haber's law's concentration-time (Ct) product, and vapour exposure of hair to methyl salicylate was conducted with various times or doses of exposure in the range of incapacitating and lethal Ct products corresponding to sulphur mustard. Following exposure, extraction of methyl salicylate from hair was conducted by simple soaking in dichloromethane. Methyl salicylate could be detected on hair for vapour concentration corresponding to about one fifth of the sulphur mustard concentration that would kill 50% of exposed individuals (LCt50). The amount of methyl salicylate recovered from hair increased with time or dose of exposure. It showed a good correlation with the concentration-time product, suggesting that hair could be used like a passive sampler to assess vapour exposure to chemical compounds. It introduces great perspectives concerning the use of hair as a marker of exposure to CWA. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Celebrating National American Indian Heritage Month

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mann, Diane

    2004-01-01

    November has been designated National American Indian Heritage Month to honor American Indians and Alaska Natives by increasing awareness of their culture, history, and, especially, their tremendous...

  9. Fellowship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Last known address: Professor, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of ... Specialization: Natural Products & Drug Development, Reaction Mechanism, ... Specialization: Plant Molecular Biology, Plant Tissue Culture and Genetic ...

  10. Fellowship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Address: Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Powai, Mumbai ..... Specialization: Elementary Particle Physics ..... Sciences, National Institute of Science Education & Research, Jatni, Khordha 752 050, Orissa

  11. Fellowship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Specialization: DNA Double-Strand Break Repair, Genomic Instability, Cancer ... Address: Indian Institute of Science Education & Research, Dr Homi Bhabha Road, .... Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Gastrointestinal Microbiome Stem Cells

  12. Fellowship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Time Programs, Logic Programs, Mobile Computing and Computer & Information Security Address: Distinguished V Professor, Computer Science & Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Powai, Mumbai 400 076, Maharashtra

  13. Tunneling of electrons through semiconductor superlattices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Tunneling of electrons through semiconductor superlattices. C L ROY. Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India. Abstract. The purpose of the present paper is to report a study of tunneling of electrons through semicon- ductor superlattices (SSL); specially, we have ...

  14. Indian Danish intermarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Sriram, Sujata

    This paper explores motivations of Indian partner in mixed Indian-Danish couples living in Denmark. One of the characteristics of modernity is increased movements across borders, leading to increased intimate relationships across national/ethnic borders. The main research question here deals...... with the reasons for couple ‘getting together’. How do motives interplay with the gender- and the family generational, socio -economical categories? The paper draws from an explorative study conducted in Denmark among intermarried couples, consisting of in-depth interviews with ten ‘ordinary’ intermarried couples...... (TEM), transnationalism and a phenomenological approach to sexual desire and love. We find that there are three different pathways, highlighting commonality of work identity, a cosmopolitan identity and academic interests, where differential changing patterns of privileges and power are also evoked...

  15. Indian President visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    On 1 October, her Excellency Mrs Pratibha Devisingh Patil, President of India, picked CERN as the first stop on her official state visit to Switzerland. Accompanied by a host of Indian journalists, a security team, and a group of presidential delegates, the president left quite an impression when she visited CERN’s Point 2!   Upon arrival, Pratibha Patil was greeted by CERN Director General Rolf Heuer, as well as senior Indian scientists working at CERN, and various department directors. After a quick overview of the Organization, Rolf Heuer and the President addressed India’s future collaboration with CERN. India is currently an Observer State of the Organization, and is considering becoming an Associate Member State. A short stop in LHC operations gave Steve Myers and the Accelerator team the opportunity to take the President on a tour through the LHC tunnel. From there, ALICE’s Tapan Nayak and Spokesperson Paolo Giubellino took Pratibha Patil to the experiment&am...

  16. Indian cosmogonies and cosmologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajin Dušan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various ideas on how the universe appeared and develops, were in Indian tradition related to mythic, religious, or philosophical ideas and contexts, and developed during some 3.000 years - from the time of Vedas, to Puranas. Conserning its appeareance, two main ideas were presented. In one concept it appeared out of itself (auto-generated, and gods were among the first to appear in the cosmic sequences. In the other, it was a kind of divine creation, with hard work (like the dismembering of the primal Purusha, or as emanation of divine dance. Indian tradition had also various critiques of mythic and religious concepts (from the 8th c. BC, to the 6c., who favoured naturalistic and materialistic explanations, and concepts, in their cosmogony and cosmology. One the peculiarities was that indian cosmogony and cosmology includes great time spans, since they used a digit system which was later (in the 13th c. introduced to Europe by Fibonacci (Leonardo of Pisa, 1170-1240.

  17. Working Women: Indian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra MEHTA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In India, due to unprecedented rise in the cost of living, ris-ing prices of commodities, growing expenses on children ed-ucation, huge rate of unemployment, and increasing cost of housing properties compel every Indian family to explore all the possible ways and means to increase the household income. It is also witnessed that after globalization Indian women are able to get more jobs but the work they get is more casual in nature or is the one that men do not prefer to do or is left by them to move to higher or better jobs. Working women refers to those in paid employment. They work as lawyers, nurses, doctors, teachers and secretaries etc. There is no profession today where women are not employed. University of Oxford’s Professor Linda Scott recently coined the term the Double X Economy to describe the global economy of women. The present paper makes an attempt to discuss issues and challenges that are being faced by Indian working women at their respective workstations.

  18. Trace element concentrations in leachates and mustard plant tissue (Sinapis alba L.) after biochar application to temperate soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss, Stefanie; Zehetner, Franz; Oburger, Eva; Buecker, Jannis; Kitzler, Barbara; Wenzel, Walter W; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard

    2014-05-15

    Biochar application to agricultural soils has been increasingly promoted worldwide. However, this may be accompanied by unexpected side effects in terms of trace element (TE) behavior. We used a greenhouse pot experiment to study the influence of woodchip-derived biochar (wcBC) on leaching and plant concentration of various TEs (Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, As, B, Mo, Se). Three different agricultural soils from Austria (Planosol, Cambisol, Chernozem) were treated with wcBC at application rates of 1 and 3% (w/w) and subsequently planted with mustard (Sinapis alba L.). Soil samples were taken 0 and 7 months after the start of the pot experiment, and leachate water was collected twice (days 0 and 54). The extractability (with NH4NO3) of cationic TEs was decreased in the (acidic) Planosol and Cambisol after wcBC application, whereas in the (neutral) Chernozem it hardly changed. In contrast, anionic TEs were mobilized in all three soils, which resulted in higher anion concentrations in the leachates. The application of wcBC had no effect on Al and Pb in the mustard plants, but increased their B and Mo concentrations and decreased their Cd, Cu and Mn concentrations. A two-way analysis of variance showed significant interactions between wcBC application rate and soil type for most TEs, which indicates that different soil types may react differently upon wcBC application. Correlation and partial correlation analyses revealed that TE behavior was primarily related to soil pH, whereas the involvement of other factors such as electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC) content and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was found to be more soil and TE-specific. The application of wcBC may be a useful strategy for the remediation of soils with elevated levels of cationic TEs, but could lead to deficiencies of cationic micronutrients and enhance short-term translocation of anionic TEs towards the groundwater at high leaching rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Indian Academy of Sciences Conference Series | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Indian Academy of Sciences Conference Series. PRIYANKA SHUKLA. Articles written in Indian Academy of Sciences Conference Series. Volume 1 Issue 1 December 2017 pp 133-143 Proceedings of the Conference on Perspectives in Nonlinear Dynamics - 2016. Grad-type fourteen-moment theory for ...

  20. Indian Academy of Sciences Conference Series | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Indian Academy of Sciences Conference Series. SERGEY P KUZNETSOV. Articles written in Indian Academy of Sciences Conference Series. Volume 1 Issue 1 December 2017 pp 117-132 Proceedings of the Conference on Perspectives in Nonlinear Dynamics - 2016. Chaos in three coupled rotators: ...