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Sample records for india vital assessment

  1. Anochece en la India: una road movie vital

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Chema Rodríguez ha conseguido que Anochece en la India nos atrape y emocione. Esta película canta a la vida, paradójicamente, y a la superación personal. Los espectadores se pueden ver movidos a reflexiones personales, a recorridos y viajes interiores. Todo ello lo consigue con un gran trabajo, muy arriesgado y poético, cuidando la historia y los aspectos que le dan vida en la pantalla. Nominada en los premios Goya al mejor guion adaptado, Anochece en la India se basa en la novela Anochece en...

  2. Yeast vitality during cider fermentation: assessment by energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsdale, M G; Lloyd, D; McIntyre, P; Jarvis, B

    1999-03-15

    In an apple juice-based medium, an ethanol-tolerant Australian wine-yeast used for cider manufacture produced more than 10% ethanol over a 5 week period. Growth of the inoculum (10(6) organisms ml(-1)) occurred to a population of 3.1 x 10(7) ml(-1) during the first few days; at the end of the fermentation only 5 x 10(5) yeasts ml(-1) could be recovered as colony-forming units on plates. Respiratory and fermentative activities were measured by mass spectrometric measurements (O2 consumption and CO2 and ethanol production) of washed yeast suspensions taken from the cider fermentation at intervals. Both endogenous and glucose-supported energy-yielding metabolism declined, especially during the first 20 days. Levels of adenine nucleotides also showed decreases after day 1, as did adenylate energy charge, although in a prolonged (16.5 week) fermentation the lowest value calculated was 0.55. AMP was released into the medium. 31P-NMR spectra showed that by comparison with aerobically grown yeast, that from the later stages of the cider fermentation showed little polyphosphate. However, as previously concluded from studies of 'acidification power' and fluorescent oxonol dye exclusion (Dinsdale et al., 1995), repitching of yeast indicated little loss of viability despite considerable loss of vitality.

  3. Emergency nurses' decisions regarding frequency and nature of vital sign assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, Katherine; Currey, Judy; Considine, Julie

    2017-07-01

    To explore the factors emergency nurses use to inform their decisions regarding frequency and nature of vital sign assessment. Research related to clinical deterioration and vital sign assessment in the emergency department is in its infancy. Studies to date have explored the frequency of vital sign assessment in the emergency department; however, there are no published studies that have examined factors that emergency nurses use to inform their decisions regarding frequency and nature of ongoing vital sign assessment. A prospective exploratory design was used. Data were collected using a survey consisting of eight patient vignettes. The study was conducted in one emergency department in metropolitan Melbourne. Participants were emergency nurses permanently employed at the study site. A 96% response rate was achieved (n = 47/49). The most common frequency of patient reassessment nominated by participants was 15 or 30 minutely, with an equal number of participants choosing these frequency intervals. Abnormality in initial vital sign parameters was the most common factor identified for choosing either a 15- or 30-minute assessment interval. Frequency of assessment decisions was influenced by years of emergency nursing experience in one vignette and level of postgraduate qualification in three vignettes. Heart rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure were all nominated by over 80% of participants as vital signs that participants considered important for reassessment. The frequency and nature of vital signs selected varied according to vignette content. There were significant negative correlations between assessment of conscious state and years of nursing experience and assessment of respiratory rate and years of emergency nursing experience. Level of postgraduate qualification did not influence selection of parameters for reassessment. Emergency nurses are tailoring vital sign assessment to patients' clinical status, and nurses are integrating known vital sign data

  4. Wind Resource Assessment of Gujarat (India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draxl, C.; Purkayastha, A.; Parker, Z.

    2014-07-01

    India is one of the largest wind energy markets in the world. In 1986 Gujarat was the first Indian state to install a wind power project. In February 2013, the installed wind capacity in Gujarat was 3,093 MW. Due to the uncertainty around existing wind energy assessments in India, this analysis uses the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the wind at current hub heights for one year to provide more precise estimates of wind resources in Gujarat. The WRF model allows for accurate simulations of winds near the surface and at heights important for wind energy purposes. While previous resource assessments published wind power density, we focus on average wind speeds, which can be converted to wind power densities by the user with methods of their choice. The wind resource estimates in this study show regions with average annual wind speeds of more than 8 m/s.

  5. Palliative care in India: Situation assessment and future scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, S S; Subitha, L; Iswarya, S

    2015-01-01

    Palliative care is an approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problems associated with life-threatening illness, through prevention and relief of suffering by means of early identification, assessment and treatment of pain, and other problems - physical, psychosocial, and spiritual. It is estimated that in India the total number of people who need palliative care is likely to be 5.4 million people a year. Though palliative care services have been in existence for many years, India ranks at the bottom of the Quality of Death index in overall score. However there has been steady progress in the past few years through community-owned palliative care services. One of the key objectives of the National Programme for prevention and control of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and stroke is to establish and develop capacity for palliative and rehabilitative care. Community models for the provision of home-based palliative care is possible by involving community caregivers and volunteers supervised by nurses trained in palliative care. Training of medical officers and health care professionals, and sensitization of the public through awareness campaigns are vital to improve the scope and coverage of palliative care. Process of translating palliative care plan into action requires strong leadership, competent management, political support and integration across all levels of care.

  6. Palliative care in India: Situation assessment and future scope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Kar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Palliative care is an approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problems associated with life-threatening illness, through prevention and relief of suffering by means of early identification, assessment and treatment of pain, and other problems – physical, psychosocial, and spiritual. It is estimated that in India the total number of people who need palliative care is likely to be 5.4 million people a year. Though palliative care services have been in existence for many years, India ranks at the bottom of the Quality of Death index in overall score. However there has been steady progress in the past few years through community-owned palliative care services. One of the key objectives of the National Programme for prevention and control of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and stroke is to establish and develop capacity for palliative and rehabilitative care. Community models for the provision of home-based palliative care is possible by involving community caregivers and volunteers supervised by nurses trained in palliative care. Training of medical officers and health care professionals, and sensitization of the public through awareness campaigns are vital to improve the scope and coverage of palliative care. Process of translating palliative care plan into action requires strong leadership, competent management, political support and integration across all levels of care.

  7. Newborn calf vitality: risk factors, characteristics, assessment, resulting outcomes and strategies for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christine F; Leslie, Ken E

    2013-11-01

    Dystocia is a stressful and traumatic event for both the cow and calf. As the prevalence of dystocia has increased over time, attention has been focused on maintaining the health and longevity of the cow. Lack of vitality in the newborn calf may go unnoticed and result in short or long-term implications for calf health and performance. A prolonged or assisted delivery may increase birth stress in calves causing a variety of effects including injury, inflammation, hypoxia, acidosis, pain and an inability to maintain homeostasis. Each of these effects can further contribute to a reduced state of vitality in the newborn calf. Newborn vitality is essential to the health, survival and welfare of the calf. If the calf is not vital at birth, it may be unwilling or unable to get up and suckle colostrum in a timely manner. Early colostrum intake improves passive transfer of immunoglobulins, energy uptake and thermoregulation. Intervention may be required to assist these calves such as respiratory and thermal support, manual feeding of colostrum or the administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to aid health and long-term survival. However, more research is needed to determine ways in which newborn calf vitality can be assessed and improved in order to reduce the increased risk of morbidity and mortality and long-term effects on performance.

  8. Solmap: Project In India's Solar Resource Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indradip Mitra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available India launched Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission in 2009, which aims to set up 20 000 MW of grid connected solar power, besides 2 000 MW equivalent of off-grid applications and cumulative growth of solar thermal collector area to 20 million m2 by 2022. Availability of reliable and accurate solar radiation data is crucial to achieve the targets. As a result of this initiative, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE of Government of India (GoI has awarded a project to Centre for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET, Chennai in the year 2011 to set up 51 Solar Radiation Resource Assessment (SRRA stations using the state-of-the-art equipment in various parts of the country, especially the sites with high potential for solar power. The GoI project has synergy with SolMap project, which is implemented by the Deutsche GesellschaftfürInternationaleZusammenarbeit (GIZ in cooperation with the MNRE. SolMap project is contributing to SRRA project in establishing quality checks on the data obtained as per International protocols and helping data processing to generate investment grade data. The paper highlights the details of SRRA stations and an attempt has been made to present some of the important results of quality control and data analysis with respect to GHI and DNI. While our analysis of the data over one year finds that intensity and profile of the insolation are not uniform across the geographic regions, the variability in DNI is particularly high. Strong influence of monsoon is also identified. SRRA infrastructure aims to develop investment grade solar radiation resource information to assist project activities under the National Solar Mission of India.

  9. Ecocity mapping using GIS: introducing a planning method for assessing and improving neighborhood vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard; Miller, Kirstin

    2013-01-01

    Assessing neighborhood vitality is important to understanding how to improve quality of life and health outcomes. The ecocity model recognizes that cities are part of natural systems and favors walkable neighborhoods. This article introduces ecocity mapping, an innovative planning method, to the public health literature on community engagement by describing a pilot project with a new affordable housing development in Oakland, California between 2007 and 2009. Although ecocity mapping began as a paper technology, advances in geographic information systems (GIS) moved it forward. This article describes how Ecocity Builders used GIS to conduct ecocity mapping to (1) assess vitality of neighborhoods and urban centers to prioritize community health intervention pilot sites and (2) create scenario maps for use in community health planning. From fall 2007 to summer 2008, Ecocity Builders assessed neighborhood vitality using walking distance from parks, schools, rapid transit stops, grocery stores, and retail outlets. In 2008, ecocity maps were shared with residents to create a neighborhood health and sustainability plan. In 2009, Ecocity Builders developed scenario maps to show how changes to the built environment would improve air quality by reducing greenhouse gas emissions from vehicles, while increasing access to basic services and natural amenities. Community organizing with GIS was more useful than GIS alone for final site selection. GIS was useful in mapping scenarios after residents shared local neighborhood knowledge and ideas for change. Residents were interested in long-term environmental planning, provided they could meet immediate needs.

  10. The Role of Tree Mortality in Vitality Assessment of Sessile Oak Forests

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    Imre Berki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The drought-induced vitality loss of sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt. Liebl. has been continuously observed in Hungary for more than three decades. The decrease in stand density as a consequence of drought-induced mortality has not been taken into consideration in most of the monitoring methods. Materials and Methods: Forest stands without any forest intervention during the last 30 years were selected. Quadrats were designated for the analysis in 18 sessile oak stands along a climatic transect in which foliage transparency and stand density were measured. Drought stress was defined by the water balance approach. By combining the foliage transparency and the relative stand density, a new cumulative assessment method of stand level vitality was introduced to get a more realistic picture about the effects of long-term drought (lasting for several decades on the sessile oak forests in South-East Europe. Results: The calculated health status (100% - vital; 0% - dead of the sessile oak stands was between 70-90% in the moist South-West Hungary and below 50% close to its xeric limit. The individual tree-based vitality assessment method gave considerably higher values on 17 out of 18 sites. Conclusions: Forest monitoring should also consider stand level-based tree mortality in oak forests while assessing health condition especially close to its xeric limit. The proposed new method provides a more realistic picture about the effects of climate change on sessile oak stands particularly for forest managers interested in changing in the wood stock of forests.

  11. Comparison of methods used for assessing the viability and vitality of yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwolek-Mirek, Magdalena; Zadrag-Tecza, Renata

    2014-11-01

    Determination of cell viability is the most commonly used method for assessing the impact of various types of stressors in toxicity research and in industrial microbiology studies. Viability is defined as a percentage of live cells in a whole population. Although cell death is one of the consequences of toxicity, chemical or physical factors may exert their toxic effects through a number of cellular alterations that may compromise cell ability to divide without necessarily leading to cell death. This aspect represents the term 'cell vitality' defined as physiological capabilities of cells. It is important to note that cell viability and cell vitality represent two different aspects of cell functions, and both are required for the estimation of the physiological state of a cell after exposure to various types of stressors and chemical or physical factors. In this paper, we introduced a classification of available methods for estimating both viability and vitality in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells (wild-type and Δsod1 mutant) in which the effects of selected oxidants causing oxidative stress is evaluated. We present the advantages as well as disadvantages of the selected methods and assess their usefulness in different types of research.

  12. Research on vaccines during pregnancy: reference values for vital signs and laboratory assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Jeanne S; Munoz, Flor M; Beigi, Richard H; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Edwards, Kathryn M; Read, Jennifer S; Heine, R Phillips; Ault, Kevin A; Swamy, Geeta K; Jevaji, Indira; Spong, Catherine Y; Fortner, Kimberly B; Patel, Shital M; Nesin, Mirjana

    2013-09-13

    The Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health organized a series of conferences, "Enrolling Pregnant Women in Clinical Trials of Vaccines and Therapeutics", to discuss enrollment and safety assessments of pregnant women in clinical trials of vaccines. Experts in obstetrics, maternal-fetal medicine, infectious diseases, pediatrics, neonatology, genetics, vaccinology and clinical trial design were charged with identifying normal ranges for vital signs and laboratory assessments in pregnancy. A grading system for adverse events was then developed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Histopathological alterations in the vital organs of Indian Major Carps with parasitic infestation in fish farms West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kurva Raghu Ramudu; Gadadhar Dash

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the histological changes of vital organs such as kidney, gills and brain with the mixed infestation of parasites in Indian Major Carps (IMC). The parasites such as Myxobolus spp., Thelohanellus spp., Trichodina spp., Dactylogyrus spp., Gyrodactylus spp. and Nematodes were observed in three IMC. Several histological alterations were observed in the kidney of Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala, which includes vacuolar degeneration in the epith...

  14. Solmap: Project In India's Solar Resource Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Indradip Mitra; Kaushal Chhatbar; Ashvini Kumar; Godugunur Giridhar; Ramdhan Vashistha; Richard Meyer; Marko Schwandt

    2014-01-01

    India launched Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission in 2009, which aims to set up 20 000 MW of grid connected solar power, besides 2 000 MW equivalent of off-grid applications and cumulative growth of solar thermal collector area to 20 million m2 by 2022. Availability of reliable and accurate solar radiation data is crucial to achieve the targets. As a result of this initiative, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) of Government of India (GoI) has awarded a project to Centre for Win...

  15. Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Neena

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness provides valid estimates in a short period of time to assess the magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness. The study determined magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness in India in 2007 among the 50+ population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sixteen randomly selected districts where blindness surveys were undertaken 7 to 10 years earlier were identified for a follow up survey. Stratified cluster sampling was used and 25 clusters (20 rural and 5 urban were randomly picked in each district.. After a random start, 100 individuals aged 50+ were enumerated and examined sequentially in each cluster. All those with presenting vision = 50 years were enumerated, and 94.7% examined. Based on presenting vision,, 4.4% (95% Confidence Interval[CI]: 4.1,4.8 were severely visually impaired (vision<6/60 to 3/60 in the better eye and 3.6% (95% CI: 3.3,3.9 were blind (vision<3/60 in the better eye. Prevalence of low vision (<6/18 to 6/60 in the better eye was 16.8% (95% CI: 16.0,17.5. Prevalence of blindness and severe visual impairment (<6/60 in the better eye was higher among rural residents (8.2%; 95% CI: 7.9,8.6 compared to urban (7.1%; 95% CI: 5.0, 9.2, among females (9.2%; 95% CI: 8.6,9.8 compared to males (6.5%; 95% CI: 6.0,7.1 and people above 70 years (20.6%; 95% CI: 19.1,22.0 compared to people aged 50-54 years (1.3%; 95% CI: 1.1,1.6. Of all blindness, 88.2% was avoidable. of which 81.9% was due to cataract and 7.1% to uncorrected refractive errors/uncorrected aphakia. CONCLUSIONS: Cataract and refractive errors are major causes of blindness and low vision and control strategies should prioritize them. Most blindness and low vision burden is avoidable.

  16. Seismic vulnerability and risk assessment of Kolkata City, India

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    S. K. Nath

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The city of Kolkata is one of the most urbanized and densely populated regions in the world, which is a major industrial and commercial hub of the Eastern and Northeastern region of India. In order to classify the seismic risk zones of Kolkata we used seismic hazard exposures on the vulnerability components namely, landuse/landcover, population density, building typology, age and height. We microzoned seismic hazard of the City by integrating seismological, geological and geotechnical themes in GIS which in turn is integrated with the vulnerability components in a logic-tree framework to estimate both the socio-economic and structural risk of the City. In both the risk maps, three broad zones have been demarcated as "severe", "high" and "moderate". There had also been a risk-free zone in the City. The damage distribution in the City due to the 1934 Bihar-Nepal Earthquake of Mw 8.1 well matches with the risk regime. The design horizontal seismic coefficients for the City have been worked out for all the predominant periods which indicate suitability of "A", "B" and "C" type of structures. The cumulative damage probabilities in terms of "slight", "moderate", "extensive" and "complete" have also been assessed for the significant four model building types viz. RM2L, RM2M, URML and URMM for each structural seismic risk zone in the City. Both the Seismic Hazard and Risk maps are expected to play vital roles in the earthquake inflicted disaster mitigation and management of the city of Kolkata.

  17. Histopathological alterations in the vital organs of Indian Major Carps with parasitic infestation in fish farms West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurva Raghu Ramudu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the histological changes of vital organs such as kidney, gills and brain with the mixed infestation of parasites in Indian Major Carps (IMC. The parasites such as Myxobolus spp., Thelohanellus spp., Trichodina spp., Dactylogyrus spp., Gyrodactylus spp. and Nematodes were observed in three IMC. Several histological alterations were observed in the kidney of Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala, which includes vacuolar degeneration in the epithelium of renal tubules, focal areas of necrosis, proliferation of bowman′s capsule and many cases the renal tubules lost its shape and canalculi formation was observed. The gills showed focal areas of necrosis, exacerbated swelling of gill arch, deposition of distinct black melanin pigmentation at the basal point of the gill arch, loss of primary and secondary lamellae, prominent vacuolar degeneration and formation of vacuoles. The presence of protozoan parasites in brain tissue resulted necrosis of the brain tissue, black pigmentation, vacuolization of myelin sheath of nerve fibers and common degenerative changes. Aims: To study histological changes of vital organs such as kidney, gills and brain with the mixed infestation of parasites in Indian Major Carps (IMC. Settings and Design: The organs fixed in 4% formalin are transferred to 50% ethyl alcohol and stored for further analysis. Materials and Methods: Histopathological analysis was made as described by Roberts. Statistical Analysis Used: Nil. Results: Described in text. Conclusions: The present study brings about conclusion that impact of mixed infestation of the parasites on their hosts was severe. Histopathological changes were observed in vital organs which might be due to toxins released by different parasites or physical damage of tissue with the presence of parasites.

  18. Nursing assessment of continuous vital sign surveillance to improve patient safety on the medical/surgical unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Terri; Whisman, Lynn; Booker, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Evaluate continuous vital sign surveillance as a tool to improve patient safety in the medical/surgical unit. Failure-to-rescue is an important measure of hospital quality. Patient deterioration is often preceded by changes in vital signs. However, continuous multi-parameter vital sign monitoring may decrease patient safety with an abundance of unnecessary alarms. Prospective observational study at two geographically disperse hospitals in a single hospital system. A multi-parameter vital sign monitoring system was installed in a medical/surgical unit in Utah and one in Alabama providing continuous display of SpO2, heart rate, blood pressure and respiration rate on a central station. Alarm thresholds and time to alert annunciations were set based on prior analysis of the distribution of each vital sign. At the end of 4 weeks, nurses completed a survey on their experience. An average alert per patient, per day was determined retrospectively from the saved vital signs data and knowledge of the alarm settings. Ninety-two per cent of the nurses agreed that the number of alarms and alerts were appropriate; 54% strongly agreed. On average, both units experienced 10·8 alarms per patient, per day. One hundred per cent agreed the monitor provided valuable patient data that increased patient safety; 79% strongly agreed. Continuous, multi-parameter patient monitoring could be performed on medical/surgical units with a small and appropriate level of alarms. Continuous vital sign assessment may have initiated nursing interventions that prevented failure-to-rescue events. Nurses surveyed unanimously agreed that continuous vital sign surveillance will help enhance patient safety. Nursing response to abnormal vital signs is one of the most important levers in patient safety, by providing timely recognition of early clinical deterioration. This occurs through diligent nursing surveillance, involving assessment, interpretation of data, recognition of a problem and meaningful

  19. Vitality assessment of exposed lichens along different altitudes. Influence of weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Bruno J; Freitas, M C; Wolterbeek, H Th

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of the ambient climatic conditions in lichen vitality along some well oriented transect in different altitudes, lichen transplants of Parmotrema bangii were exposed approximately every 250 m starting from 50 to 1500 m during a 1-year period in 3 transects along Pico mountain at Azores; electric conductivity of leachates, elemental concentrations, and the ambient conditions such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, and altitude were the compared parameters. According to the obtained values of electric conductivity, it is credible to consider that vitality was not seriously affected under different altitudes. In accordance with previous studies, electric conductivity values in this study show high negative correlation with precipitation and humidity. The significantly high differences between minimum and maximum electric conductivity values found along the altitude transect makes that, when comparing elemental concentrations in time or spatial series, it is required a comparison with lichen vitality, because the different vitality stages could induce variability in metal uptake.

  20. Assessment of the Social Functions and Vitality of the Yi Language from the Perspective of Its Domains of Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhua, Hu

    2008-01-01

    In general, the vitality and social functions of a language are assessed in connection with such indices as the language's intergenerational transmission, the absolute number of speakers and proportion of speakers in the population, its present domains of use, its development within diverse domains of use, and the availability of its educational…

  1. Emergency Victim Care. A Training Manual for Emergency Medical Technicians. Module 4. Vital Signs, Patient Assessment. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This student manual, the fourth in a set of 14 modules, is designed to train emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in Ohio. The module contains two sections covering the following course content: vital signs (temperature, pulse, respirations, and blood pressure) and patient assessment at the scene of an emergency. Each section contains objectives,…

  2. Nuclear fuel cycle assessment of India: A technical study for U.S.-India cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Taraknath Woddi Venkat

    The recent civil nuclear cooperation proposed by the Bush Administration and the Government of India has heightened the necessity of assessing India's nuclear fuel cycle inclusive of nuclear materials and facilities. This agreement proposes to change the long-standing U.S. policy of preventing the spread of nuclear weapons by denying nuclear technology transfer to non-NPT signatory states. The nuclear tests in 1998 have convinced the world community that India would never relinquish its nuclear arsenal. This has driven the desire to engage India through civilian nuclear cooperation. The cornerstone of any civilian nuclear technological support necessitates the separation of military and civilian facilities. A complete nuclear fuel cycle assessment of India emphasizes the entwinment of the military and civilian facilities and would aid in moving forward with the separation plan. To estimate the existing uranium reserves in India, a complete historical assessment of ore production, conversion, and processing capabilities was performed using open source information and compared to independent reports. Nuclear energy and plutonium production (reactor- and weapons-grade) was simulated using declared capacity factors and modern simulation tools. The three-stage nuclear power program entities and all the components of civilian and military significance were assembled into a flowsheet to allow for a macroscopic vision of the Indian fuel cycle. A detailed view of the nuclear fuel cycle opens avenues for technological collaboration. The fuel cycle that grows from this study exploits domestic thorium reserves with advanced international technology and optimized for the existing system. To utilize any appreciable fraction of the world's supply of thorium, nuclear breeding is necessary. The two known possibilities for production of more fissionable material in the reactor than is consumed as fuel are fast breeders or thermal breeders. This dissertation analyzes a thermal

  3. Statistical assessment on a combined analysis of GRYN-ROMN-UCBN upland vegetation vital signs

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    Irvine, Kathryn M.; Rodhouse, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    As of 2013, Rocky Mountain and Upper Columbia Basin Inventory and Monitoring Networks have multiple years of vegetation data and Greater Yellowstone Network has three years of vegetation data and monitoring is ongoing in all three networks. Our primary objective is to assess whether a combined analysis of these data aimed at exploring correlations with climate and weather data is feasible. We summarize the core survey design elements across protocols and point out the major statistical challenges for a combined analysis at present. The dissimilarity in response designs between ROMN and UCBN-GRYN network protocols presents a statistical challenge that has not been resolved yet. However, the UCBN and GRYN data are compatible as they implement a similar response design; therefore, a combined analysis is feasible and will be pursued in future. When data collected by different networks are combined, the survey design describing the merged dataset is (likely) a complex survey design. A complex survey design is the result of combining datasets from different sampling designs. A complex survey design is characterized by unequal probability sampling, varying stratification, and clustering (see Lohr 2010 Chapter 7 for general overview). Statistical analysis of complex survey data requires modifications to standard methods, one of which is to include survey design weights within a statistical model. We focus on this issue for a combined analysis of upland vegetation from these networks, leaving other topics for future research. We conduct a simulation study on the possible effects of equal versus unequal probability selection of points on parameter estimates of temporal trend using available packages within the R statistical computing package. We find that, as written, using lmer or lm for trend detection in a continuous response and clm and clmm for visually estimated cover classes with “raw” GRTS design weights specified for the weight argument leads to substantially

  4. Airborne infection control in India: Baseline assessment of health facilities

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    Parmar, Malik M.; Sachdeva, K.S.; Rade, Kiran; Ghedia, Mayank; Bansal, Avi; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Willis, Matthew D.; Misquitta, Dyson P.; Nair, Sreenivas A.; Moonan, Patrick K.; Dewan, Puneet K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis transmission in health care settings represents a major public health problem. In 2010, national airborne infection control (AIC) guidelines were adopted in India. These guidelines included specific policies for TB prevention and control in health care settings. However, the feasibility and effectiveness of these guidelines have not been assessed in routine practice. This study aimed to conduct baseline assessments of AIC policies and practices within a convenience sample of 35 health care settings across 3 states in India and to assess the level of implementation at each facility after one year. Method A multi-agency, multidisciplinary panel of experts performed site visits using a standardized risk assessment tool to document current practices and review resource capacity. At the conclusion of each assessment, facility-specific recommendations were provided to improve AIC performance to align with national guidelines. Result Upon initial assessment, AIC systems were found to be poorly developed and implemented. Administrative controls were not commonly practiced and many departments needed renovation to achieve minimum environmental standards. One year after the baseline assessments, there were substantial improvements in both policy and practice. Conclusion A package of capacity building and systems development that followed national guidelines substantially improved implementation of AIC policies and practice. PMID:26970461

  5. Can Fluctuations in Vital Signs Be Used for Pain Assessment in Critically Ill Patients with a Traumatic Brain Injury?

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    Caroline Arbour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many critically ill patients with a traumatic brain injury (TBI are unable to communicate. While observation of behaviors is recommended for pain assessment in nonverbal populations, they are undetectable in TBI patients who are under the effects of neuroblocking agents. Aim. This study aimed to validate the use of vital signs for pain detection in critically ill TBI patients. Methods. Using a repeated measure within subject design, participants (N=45 were observed for 1 minute before (baseline, during, and 15 minutes after two procedures: noninvasive blood pressure: NIBP (nonnociceptive and turning (nociceptive. At each assessment, vital signs (e.g., systolic, diastolic, mean arterial pressure (MAP, heart rate (HR, respiratory rate (RR, capillary saturation (SpO2, end-tidal CO2, and intracranial pressure (ICP were recorded. Results. Significant fluctuations (P<0.05 in diastolic (F=6.087, HR (F=3.566, SpO2 (F=5.740, and ICP (F=3.776 were found across assessments, but they were similar during both procedures. In contrast, RR was found to increase exclusively during turning (t=3.933; P<0.001 and was correlated to participants’ self-report. Conclusions. Findings from this study support previous ones that vital signs are not specific for pain detection. While RR could be a potential pain indicator in critical care, further research is warranted to support its validity in TBI patients with different LOC.

  6. Life cycle assessment of rice straw utilization practices in India.

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    Soam, Shveta; Borjesson, Pal; Sharma, Pankaj K; Gupta, Ravi P; Tuli, Deepak K; Kumar, Ravindra

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to find potential utilization practice of rice straw in India from an environmental perspective. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted for four most realistic utilization practices of straw including: (1) incorporation into the field as fertilizer (2) animal fodder (3) electricity (4) biogas. The results show that processing of 1 ton straw to electricity and biogas resulted in net reduction of 1471 and 1023kg CO2 eq., 15.0 and 3.4kg SO2 eq. and 6.7 and 7.1kg C2H6 eq. emissions in global warming, acidification and photochemical oxidation creation potential respectively. Electricity production from straw replaces the coal based electricity and resulted in benefits in most of the environmental impacts whereas use as an animal fodder resulted in eutrophication benefits. The burning of straw is a harmful practice of managing straw in India which can be avoided by utilizing straw for bioenergy.

  7. Assessing pain as a fifth vital sign in long-term care facilities: Recommendations from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molony, Sheila L; Kobayashi, Mia; Holleran, Elizabeth A; Mezey, Mathy

    2005-03-01

    In long-term care facilities, pain management is complex because dementia, delirium, and other reasons for residents' altered communication ability are a significant barrier to pain assessment. The purpose of this study was to explore the status of implementation of pain as a fifth vital sign in a sample of long-term care facilities. A three-round Delphi survey was used to obtain consensus from personnel in 60 long-term care facilities in NY State. Findings are presented in terms of recommendations related to pain criteria, assessment methods, frequency of pain assessment, responsibility for pain assessment, monitoring strategies, education, documentation, and pain management education. The results of this study highlight many important considerations in the treatment of pain as a fifth vital sign in long-term care facilities. Evidence-based practice will be facilitated by further research related to underexplored aspects of pain assessment and management, and further attention to care delivery systems that support continued knowledge acquisition and the implementation of best practices.

  8. Assessment of Health Systems and Services Including Availability of Components for Mental Health Care in Industries of Kolar District, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumar, G M; Rawat, S; V H H, S; Gururaj, G

    2016-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and psychological hazards are increasingly observed in industries, necessitating the need to strengthen industrial health systems to control the same. District level data on level of functioning of industrial health systems and services with special focus on systems available for mental health care is lacking in India. This information is vital to plan need-based interventions for system strengthening. To assess the status of functioning of industrial health systems and services in Kolar district, India, with special focus on systems and services available for mental health care. This cross-sectional study was undertaken between October and December 2014 on a stratified random sample of 69 industries located in Kolar, which were stratified proportionately by their hazardous nature. Interview and observation checklist were used to assess and classify functioning of industrial health systems and services including those available for mental health care. Occupational safety and health (OSH) policy was present in 56% and health insurance in 39% of the 69 industries assessed. Pre-placement and periodical medical examination were conducted in 23% of industries. Health systems and services in hazardous industries were functioning at less than 50% level of functioning. Health systems and services for mental health care were non-existent. There is a need in Kolar district, India, to integrate the mental health components within existing industrial health systems, as per policy directives to implement setting based approaches in mental health programs.

  9. Assessment of Health Systems and Services Including Availability of Components for Mental Health Care in Industries of Kolar District, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GM Sukumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs and psychological hazards are increasingly observed in industries, necessitating the need to strengthen industrial health systems to control the same. District level data on level of functioning of industrial health systems and services with special focus on systems available for mental health care is lacking in India. This information is vital to plan need-based interventions for system strengthening. Objective: To assess the status of functioning of industrial health systems and services in Kolar district, India, with special focus on systems and services available for mental health care. Methods: This cross-sectional study was undertaken between October and December 2014 on a stratified random sample of 69 industries located in Kolar, which were stratified proportionately by their hazardous nature. Interview and observation checklist were used to assess and classify functioning of industrial health systems and services including those available for mental health care. Results: Occupational safety and health (OSH policy was present in 56% and health insurance in 39% of the 69 industries assessed. Pre-placement and periodical medical examination were conducted in 23% of industries. Health systems and services in hazardous industries were functioning at less than 50% level of functioning. Health systems and services for mental health care were non-existent. Conclusion: There is a need in Kolar district, India, to integrate the mental health components within existing industrial health systems, as per policy directives to implement setting based approaches in mental health programs.

  10. India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  11. ASSESSMENT OF PATTERN OF INJURIES TO VITAL ORGANS IN CULPABLE HOMICIDE: A SERIES OF 200 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilekh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available : Homicide, “the killing of the individual”, is the worst type of crime that a man can conceive or indulge in. It is treated as the highest level of aggression and is found in all cultures. Homicide is a crime in which one man ends another man’s life willfully and is known to mankind since the existence of man. The word Homicide has been derived from Latin word “Homo- a man and cadre (cide –to-kill or cut”, means killing of one human being by another. Homicide embraces killing by the one who plans the death of another with malice-aforethought, one who looks for a purpose to kill but means to inflict serious injury only and the one who acts in want of disregards of human life. In the selected time span 1662 cases were brought for postmortem examination of which 200 alleged case were of homicide. The incidence of homicidal deaths was observed as 12.03%. Amongst the homicidal death cases injury to vital organ (Heart, Lungs, Liver, Spleen, Kidneys, intestines and mesentery was the cause of death in 15%. Out of different injuries inflicted on chest of dead bodies, 14.46% were abrasions, bruises 14.08%, lacerated wounds 1.57%, incised wounds 9.38%, Penetrating Wounds 31.75% and Firearm Injuries 26.74 %

  12. The primacy of vital signs--acute care nurses' and midwives' use of physical assessment skills: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Sonya; Douglas, Clint; Reid, Carol; Jones, Lee; Gardner, Glenn

    2015-05-01

    Registered nurses and midwives play an essential role in detecting patients at risk of deterioration through ongoing assessment and action in response to changing health status. Yet, evidence suggests that clinical deterioration frequently goes unnoticed in hospitalised patients. While much attention has been paid to early warning and rapid response systems, little research has examined factors related to physical assessment skills. To determine a minimum data set of core skills used during nursing assessment of hospitalised patients and identify nurse and workplace predictors of the use of physical assessment to detect patient deterioration. The study used a single-centre, cross-sectional survey design. The study included 434 registered nurses and midwives (Grades 5-7) involved in clinical care of patients on acute care wards, including medicine, surgery, oncology, mental health and maternity service areas, at a 929-bed tertiary referral teaching hospital in Southeast Queensland, Australia. We conducted a hospital-wide survey of registered nurses and midwives using the 133-item Physical Assessment Skills Inventory and the 58-item Barriers to Registered Nurses' Use of Physical Assessment Scale. Median frequency for each physical assessment skill was calculated to determine core skills. To explore predictors of core skill utilisation, backward stepwise general linear modelling was conducted. Means and regression coefficients are reported with 95% confidence intervals. A p value skills used by most nurses every time they worked included assessment of temperature, oxygen saturation, blood pressure, breathing effort, skin, wound and mental status. Reliance on others and technology (F=35.77, pwork area (F=3.79, p=.002), and clinical role (F=44.24, pskill use. The increasing acuity of the acute care patient plausibly warrants more than vital signs assessment; however, our study confirms nurses' physical assessment core skill set is mainly comprised of vital signs. The

  13. Statistical assessment of groundwater resources in Washim district (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajankar, P N; Tambekar, D H; Ramteke, D S; Wate, S R

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality of Washim district of Maharashtra (India) was assessed using quality parameters and water quality index (WQI). In this study, the WQI was analyzed by using pH, turbidity, temperature, nitrates, total phosphates, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total solids, total coliforms and faecal coliforms, respectively for residential and commercial uses. All the parameters were analyzed both in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons to assess the groundwater quality and seasonal variations. The parameters like turbidity, solids and coliforms showed the seasonal variations. The WQI varied from 72 to 88 in pre-monsoon season and 64 to 88 in post-monsoon season. The results indicate that all groundwater samples in the study area have good water quality in pre-monsoon season but in post-monsoon season 9 percent samples indicated the change in water quality from good to medium, which reveals seasonal variation and groundwater quality deterioration.

  14. Environmental Risk Assessment for a Developing Country like India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shamsuzzaman; Saha, Indranil

    2017-04-01

    The developing world is facing an increased risk of accelerating disaster losses. A concrete risk assessment along with subsequent management program involving identification, mitigation and preparedness will assist in rehabilitation and reconstruction once the disaster has struck is critical to subvert the magnitude of the loss incurred. A developing country like India has been taken as an example to highlight the elements mentioned. Most countries like India in the developing world is facing a mounting challenge to promote economic growth and bring down poverty. In this scenario, significant climatic changes will not only impact key economic sectors but also add to the existing conundrum. Sudden onset of natural calamities pose an increasing problem to the developing countries for which risk management strategies need to be forged in order to deal with such hazards. If this is not the case, then a substantial diversion of financial resources to reconstruction in the post disaster phase severely messes up the budget planning process. This compromises economic growth in the long run. Envisaging cost effective mitigation measures to minimize environmental and socio economic toll from natural disasters is the immediate requirement. Often it has been found that an apparent lack of historical data on catastrophic events makes hazard assessment an extremely difficult process. For this it is useful to establish preliminary maps to identify high risk zones and justify the utilization of funds. Vulnerability studies assess the physical, social and economic consequences that result from the occurrence of a severe natural phenomenon. Also they take into account public awareness of risk and the consequent ability to cope with such risks. Risk analysis collates information from hazard assessment and vulnerability studies in the form of an estimation of probable future losses in the face of similar hazards. Promoting different governmental schemes to catastrophe risk absorption

  15. Vulnerability of Forests in India: A National Scale Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jagmohan; Upgupta, Sujata; Jayaraman, Mathangi; Chaturvedi, Rajiv Kumar; Bala, Govindswamy; Ravindranath, N. H.

    2017-09-01

    Forests are subjected to stress from climatic and non-climatic sources. In this study, we have reported the results of inherent, as well as climate change driven vulnerability assessments for Indian forests. To assess inherent vulnerability of forests under current climate, we have used four indicators, namely biological richness, disturbance index, canopy cover, and slope. The assessment is presented as spatial profile of inherent vulnerability in low, medium, high and very high vulnerability classes. Fourty percent forest grid points in India show high or very high inherent vulnerability. Plantation forests show higher inherent vulnerability than natural forests. We assess the climate change driven vulnerability by combining the results of inherent vulnerability assessment with the climate change impact projections simulated by the Integrated Biosphere Simulator dynamic global vegetation model. While 46% forest grid points show high, very high, or extremely high vulnerability under future climate in the short term (2030s) under both representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5, such grid points are 49 and 54%, respectively, in the long term (2080s). Generally, forests in the higher rainfall zones show lower vulnerability as compared to drier forests under future climate. Minimizing anthropogenic disturbance and conserving biodiversity can potentially reduce forest vulnerability under climate change. For disturbed forests and plantations, adaptive management aimed at forest restoration is necessary to build long-term resilience.

  16. Cyclic Vitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halse, Sven

    2014-01-01

    of taking such a unilateral view of what constituted a Vitalist concept of life. It could lead to a misunderstanding of Vitalist way of thinking, Rasch said, if the focus were only set upon the enthusiastic surplus, the worshipping of youth and health. To Vitalists, life is more than that. It is a totality...... that also encompasses notions of destruction, decay and death. “All life symbols in literature around 1900 are at the same time symbols of death”. (Rasch, W. 1967:24) Through the analyses of three poems, this article aims to show concrete examples of how cyclic Vitalist thinking is embedded in poetry...... of the era. The analyses include a further sub-categorisation to capture the different types of Life Force dealt with in the texts. By way of an introduction, Vitalism is discussed within the context of the scientific and social developments of the 19th Century....

  17. Ecological and socio-economic assessment of Varthur wetland, Bengaluru (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, T V; Alakananda, B; Rani, Ali; Khan, M A

    2011-01-01

    Wetlands are the most productive ecosystems, recognized globally for their vital role in sustaining a wide array of biodiversity and provide goods and services. But presently increased anthropogenic activities such as intense agriculture practices, indiscriminate disposal of industrial effluents and sewage wastes have altered the physical, chemical as well as biological processes of wetlands, which is evident from the present study carried out to assessVarthur wetland in India. Coastal wetland ecosystem in the world has 14,785/ha US$ annual economic value. An earlier study of relatively pristine wetland in Bengaluru revealed the value of ? 10,435/ha/day while the polluted wetland showed the value of ? 20/ha/day. On the contrary Varthur, a sewage fed wetland has a value of ? 118.9/ha/day. The pollutants and subsequent contamination of the wetland-Varthur has telling effects such as disappearance of native species, dominance of invasive exotic species (such as African catfish), in addition to profuse breeding of disease vectors and pathogens. Water quality analysis revealed high phosphate (4.22-5.76 ppm) level in addition to the enhanced BOD (119-140 ppm) and decreased DO (0-1.06 ppm). The amplified decline of ecosystem goods and services with degradation of water quality necessitates the implementation of sustainable management strategies to recover the lost wetland benefits of Varthur.

  18. An Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, K. S.

    2009-09-01

    adaptation, mitigation and post-hazard recovery and resettlement measures. Providing basic necessities such as water, food and power, maintaining public health, implementing protective measures in the coastal zones and modifications in the urban infrastructure, especially in the coastal megacities become expensive. Impact of extremes on rails, roads and building are also becoming a major issue in the coastal zones and urban centres. Industrial sector is facing a threat from the falling reliable supply of water and power. However, procedure for the implementation of the strategies to mitigate the climate change impact and of the policy for the adaptation to climate change is slow. There are several hurdles for this, including various ecological, socio-economic, technical and political issues, alterations of the physical environment, inability of certain habitats and species to adapt to a new environment, abject poverty, lack of awareness, and the inefficient administrative mechanism. A comprehensive assessment of the shifts in regional climate and the impact of climate change on different facets of life in India, and of the current strategies and polices to face such challenges is made in this study. Suggestions for the improvement of the climate policy and adaptation strategy have been provided.

  19. Life cycle assessment of sugarcane ethanol production in India in comparison to Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiropoulos, Ioannis; Faaij, André P C; Seabra, Joaquim E A; Lundquist, Lars; Schenker, Urs; Briois, Jean François; Patel, Martin K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: India's biofuel programme relies on ethanol production from sugarcane molasses. However, there is limited insight on environmental impacts across the Indian ethanol production chain. This study closes this gap by assessing the environmental impacts of ethanol production from sugarcane

  20. Electric vehicles and India's low carbon passenger transport: A long-term co-benefits assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhar, Subash; Pathak, Minal; Shukla, Priyadarshi

    2017-01-01

    Electric vehicles have attracted the attention of India's policy makers as clean technology alternatives due to their multiple advantages like higher efficiency and lower air pollution in short to medium term and reduced CO2 emissions as electricity gets decarbonized in the long-run under low...... carbon scenarios. This paper uses an energy system model ANSWER-MARKAL to analyse the role of electric vehicles (EV) in India. The modelling assessment spans the period 2010 to 2050 and analyses future EV demand in India under three scenarios: i) a ‘Reference’ scenario which includes the continuation...

  1. CHP and District Cooling: An Assessment of Market and Policy Potential in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report contains an assessment of India's CHP/DC status and recommendations for addressing barriers to allow India to meet its energy efficiency targets. Such barriers include a lack of governmental emphasis on CHP, the absence of a clear methodology for calculating CO2 emission reductions from CHP/DHC, and a tax and duty structure for CHP capital equipment that is not as attractive as for other renewable energy technologies.

  2. EU-India free trade agreement : a quantitative assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbosch, T.J.; Kuiper, M.H.; Roza, P.

    2008-01-01

    This report analyses the effects of a regional trade agreement (FTA) between the EU and India, for which negotiations are underway. The study starts with abrief overview of the key insights from the existing literature on FTAs and their relationship with multilateral negotiations. The remainder of

  3. EU-India free trade agreement : a quantitative assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbosch, T.J.; Kuiper, M.H.; Roza, P.

    2008-01-01

    This report analyses the effects of a regional trade agreement (FTA) between the EU and India, for which negotiations are underway. The study starts with abrief overview of the key insights from the existing literature on FTAs and their relationship with multilateral negotiations. The remainder of t

  4. PRE-WORKOUT CARBOHYDRATE SUPPLEMENTATION DOES NOT AFFECT MEASURES OF SELF-ASSESSED VITALITY AND AFFECT IN COLLEGE SWIMMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M. Hill

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of dietary carbohydrate (CHO on physical and psychological parameters have been demonstrated in athletes. Because affect, or mood, can predict athletic performace, the main objective of this study was to determine the effect of pre-workout CHO on affect in swimmers. College swimmers (n = 37 participated in a randomized crossover experiment of the effects of a pre-workout CHO supplement on vitality and affect. Subjects consumed a CHO supplement or placebo for two days before morning practice. After each morning practice, swimmers completed measures of affect and feelings of vitality. Pearson correlations were performed to describe relationships among variables. Differences in means between the CHO and placebo conditions were determined by paired t-tests. Independent t-tests were used to determine differences in variables between the highest and lowest tertiles of breakfast consumption frequency. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.1.3 (Cary, NC and statistical signficance was set at α = 0.05. There were no significant differences in affect or feelings of vitality between the CHO supplement and placebo conditions (all p > 0.15. Our results do not support a beneficial effect of CHO supplementation before morning swim practice on affect or feelings of vitality in swimmers

  5. Reliability of Bracken School Readiness Assessment, Third Edition Scores with Young Children in Mumbai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mira B.; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Clark, Teresa P.

    2013-01-01

    To effectively provide early interventions to children, identifying those who are in need of these interventions is essential. In India, several problems hinder the process of early identification, including a lack of standardized measures for assessment. This study investigates the utility of the Bracken School Readiness Assessment, Third Edition…

  6. Wetland assessment, monitoring and management in India using geospatial techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, J K

    2015-01-15

    Satellite remote sensing and GIS have emerged as the most powerful tools for inventorying, monitoring and management of natural resources and environment. In the special context of wetland ecosystems, remotely sensed data from orbital platforms have been extensively used in India for the inventory, monitoring and preparation of action plans for conservation and management. First scientific inventory of wetlands in India was carried out in 1998 by Space Applications Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad using indigenous IRS (Indian Remote Sensing Satellite) data of 1992-93 timeframe, which stimulated extensive use of geospatial techniques for wetland conservation and management. Subsequently, with advances in GIS, studies were carried out for development of Wetland Information System for a state (West Bengal) and for Loktak lake wetland (a Ramsar site) as a prelude to National Wetland Information System. Research has also been carried out for preparation of action plans especially for Ramsar sites in the country. In a novel research, use of the geospatial technology has also been demonstrated for biodiversity conservation using landscape ecological metrics. A country-wide estimate of emission of methane, a Green House Gas, from wetlands has also been made using MODIS data. Present article critically reviews the work carried out in India for wetland conservation and management using geospatial techniques.

  7. Water Quality Index for Assessment of Rudrasagar Lake Ecosystem, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyanta pal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water quality of lakes, rivers and reservoirs in developing countries like India is being degraded because of the contaminated inflows and surrounding influence. There is a serious need for appropriate water quality monitoring for future planning and management of Lake and other type of water resources. Quality of water in Rudrasagar Lake, Tripura, India has been investigated in this paper. Water Quality Index (WQI was applied in Rudrasagar Lake India using water quality parameters like pH, Turbidity, Conductivity, Hardness, Alkalinity, Dissolved Oxygen, Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Nitrate. Based on the importance of the parameter for aquatic life the relative weight is assigned to each water quality parameter ranged from 1 to 4. Tests were performed on site using electronic measuring device as well as on Laboratory with samples of water collected from different locations of Rudrasagar Lake. It shows that water quality of Rudrasagar Lake falls within the ‗good water‘ category but marginally. Continuous monitoring of Rudrasagar lake is suggested for proper management.

  8. Qualitative assessment of tectonic lineaments over the coastal and innershelf of Kakinada and Kalingapatnam, central east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Murty, G.P.S.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Rao, K.M.; Reddy, N.P.C.; Rao, M.M.M.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Rani, P.S.; Anuradha, A.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    -1 JOURNAL GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF INDIA Vol.69, June 2007, pp.1328-1334 Qualitative Assessment of Tectonic Lineaments Over the Coastal and Innershelf of Kakinada and Kalingapatnam, Central East Coast of India A.S.SUBRAHMANYAM, G. P. S. MURTY, K.V.L.N.S. SARMA... off 0016-7622/2007-69-6-1328/$ 1.00 ? GEOL. SOC. INDIA QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TECTONIC LINEAMENTS OVER COASTAL REGIONS, VISAKHAPATNAM, A.P. 1329 Fig.l. Earthquake distribution map of East Coast of India. Vizianagaram (18 Dec.1995...

  9. Life cycle assessment of sugarcane ethanol production in India in comparison to Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiropoulos, Ioannis; Faaij, André P C; Seabra, Joaquim E A; Lundquist, Lars; Schenker, Urs; Briois, Jean François; Patel, Martin K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: India's biofuel programme relies on ethanol production from sugarcane molasses. However, there is limited insight on environmental impacts across the Indian ethanol production chain. This study closes this gap by assessing the environmental impacts of ethanol production from sugarcane molas

  10. Assessing niche development of Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs) in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, Mansi; Hoppe, Thomas; Bressers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Large scale development of Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs) is seen as a potential solution to deal with future energy challenges of the Indian building sector. This paper aims to assess the current status of NZEB niche development in India and identifies barriers that obstruct wide scale uptake of

  11. Life-Cycle Assessment of Cookstove Fuels in India and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to compare the environmental footprint of current and possible fuels used for cooking within China and India. Current fuel mix profiles are compared to scenarios of projected differences in and/or cleaner cooking fuels. Results are repo...

  12. A review and re-assessment of sediment transport along the Goa Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.; Yasuhiro Sugimori

    Although, a variety of methods have been employed to determine sediment transport along Goa coast, India, the results differ in some sections. Fifteen studies have been reviewed, compared, re-assessed and a corrected shore drift map of the Goa coast...

  13. Performance Assessment of Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP Product over India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh S. Nair

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Error characterization is vital for the advancement of precipitation algorithms, the evaluation of numerical model outputs, and their integration in various hydro-meteorological applications. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA has been a benchmark for successive Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM based products. This has given way to the evolution of many multi-satellite precipitation products. This study evaluates the performance of the newly released multi-satellite Multi-Source Weighted-Ensemble Precipitation (MSWEP product, whose temporal variability was determined based on several data products including TMPA 3B42 RT. The evaluation was conducted over India with respect to the IMD-gauge-based rainfall for pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post monsoon seasons at daily scale for a 35-year (1979–2013 period. The rainfall climatology is examined over India and over four geographical extents within India known to be subject to uniform rainfall. The performance evaluation of rainfall time series was carried out. In addition to this, the performance of the product over different rainfall classes was evaluated along with the contribution of each class to the total rainfall. Further, seasonal evaluation of the MSWEP products was based on the categorical and volumetric indices from the contingency table. Upon evaluation it was observed that the MSWEP products show large errors in detecting the higher quantiles of rainfall (>75th and > 95th quantiles. The MSWEP precipitation product available at a 0.25° × 0.25° spatial resolution and daily temporal resolution matched well with the daily IMD rainfall over India. Overall results suggest that a suitable region and season-dependent bias correction is essential before its integration in hydrological applications. While the MSWEP was observed to perform well for daily rainfall, it suffered from poor detection capabilities for higher quantiles, making

  14. Assessing the risk of foliar injury from ozone on vegetation in parks in the U.S. National Park Service's Vital Signs Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohut, Robert [Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)], E-mail: rjk9@cornell.edu

    2007-10-15

    The risk of ozone injury to plants was assessed in support of the National Park Service's Vital Signs Monitoring Network program. The assessment examined bioindicator species, evaluated levels of ozone exposure, and investigated soil moisture conditions during periods of exposure for a 5-year period in each park. The assessment assigned each park a risk rating of high, moderate, or low. For the 244 parks for which assessments were conducted, the risk of foliar injury was high in 65 parks, moderate in 46 parks, and low in 131 parks. Among the well-known parks with a high risk of ozone injury are Gettysburg, Valley Forge, Delaware Water Gap, Cape Cod, Fire Island, Antietam, Harpers Ferry, Manassas, Wolf Trap Farm Park, Mammoth Cave, Shiloh, Sleeping Bear Dunes, Great Smoky Mountains, Joshua Tree, Sequoia and Kings Canyon, and Yosemite. - An assessment of the risk of foliar ozone injury on plants was conducted for 269 parks in support of the U.S. National Park Service's Vital Signs Monitoring Network Program.

  15. Micropropagation and cytogenetic assessment of Zingiber species of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Archana; Kesari, Vigya; Rangan, Latha

    2013-12-01

    An improved micropropagation protocol was developed for Zingiber moran and Z. zerumbet, two wild species of the genus Zingiber, found in Northeast India. The effects of growth regulators, sugar concentrations, and nutrients were tested on the rate of shoot initiation and multiplication. An increase in proliferation and multiplication occurred in modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with benzyladenine and kinetin. About 2 % sucrose and 0.7 % agar were found to be the optimum for shoot multiplication and regeneration. Naphthalene acetic acid at 0.5 mg/L produced the best rooting response for both the species. Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized successfully and cytogenetic stability was confirmed by RAPD profiling and ploidy checks.

  16. An assessment of groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    I Nanda Balan; Shivakumar, M.; Madan Kumar, P. D.

    2012-01-01

    Context : Water, the elixir of life, is a prime natural resource. Due to rapid urbanization in India, the availability and quality of groundwater have been affected. According to the Central Groundwater Board, 80% of Chennai′s groundwater has been depleted and any further exploration could lead to salt water ingression. Hence, this study was done to assess the groundwater quality in Chennai city. Aim : To assess the groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai city. Materials and ...

  17. Assessing the Agricultural Vulnerability for India under Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Tarul; Vardhan Murari, Harsha; Karmakar, Subhankar; Ghosh, Subimal; Singh, Jitendra

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change has proven to show majorly negative impacts for the far future. These negative impacts adversely affect almost all the fields including agriculture, water resources, tourism, and marine ecosystem. Among these, the effects on agriculture are considered to be of prime importance since its regional impacts can directly affect the global food security. Under such lines, it becomes essential to understand how climate change directs agricultural production for a region along with its vulnerability. In India, rice and wheat are considered as major staple diet and hence understanding its production loss/gain due to regional vulnerability to climate change becomes necessary. Here, an attempt has been made to understand the agricultural vulnerability for rice and wheat, considering yield as a function of temperature and precipitation during growing period. In order to accomplish this objective, the ratio of actual to potential evapo-transpiration has been considered which serves as a reliable indicator; with more this ratio towards unity, less vulnerable will be the region. The current objective needs an integration of climatic, hydrological and agricultural parameters; that can be achieved by simulating a climate data driven hydrologic (Variable Infiltration Capacity, VIC) model and a crop (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer, DSSAT) model. The proposed framework is an attempt to derive a crop vulnerability map that can facilitate in strategizing adaption practices which can reduce the adverse impacts of climate change in future.

  18. Heat wave over India during summer 2015: an assessment of real time extended range forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanaik, D. R.; Mohapatra, M.; Srivastava, A. K.; Kumar, Arun

    2017-08-01

    Hot winds are the marked feature of summer season in India during late spring preceding the climatological onset of the monsoon season in June. Some years the conditions becomes very vulnerable with the maximum temperature ( T max) exceeding 45 °C for many days over parts of north-western, eastern coastal states of India and Indo-Gangetic plain. During summer of 2015 (late May to early June) eastern coastal states, central and northwestern parts of India experienced severe heat wave conditions leading to loss of thousands of human life in extreme high temperature conditions. It is not only the loss of human life but also the animals and birds were very vulnerable to this extreme heat wave conditions. In this study, an attempt is made to assess the performance of real time extended range forecast (forecast up to 3 weeks) of this scorching T max based on the NCEP's Climate Forecast System (CFS) latest version coupled model (CFSv2). The heat wave condition was very severe during the week from 22 to 28 May with subsequent week from 29 May to 4 June also witnessed high T max over many parts of central India including eastern coastal states of India. The 8 ensemble members of operational CFSv2 model are used once in a week to prepare the weekly bias corrected deterministic (ensemble mean) T max forecast for 3 weeks valid from Friday to Thursday coinciding with the heat wave periods of 2015. Using the 8 ensemble members separately and the CFSv2 corresponding hindcast climatology the probability of above and below normal T max is also prepared for the same 3 weeks. The real time deterministic and probabilistic forecasts did indicate impending heat wave over many parts of India during late May and early June of 2015 associated with strong northwesterly wind over main land mass of India, delaying the sea breeze, leading to heat waves over eastern coastal regions of India. Thus, the capability of coupled model in providing early warning of such killer heat wave can be very

  19. Assessment of honking impact on traffic noise in urban traffic environment of Nagpur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Sharma, Asheesh; Chakrabarti, Tapan; Gupta, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    In context of increasing traffic noise in urban India, the objective of the research study is to assess noise due to heterogeneous traffic conditions and the impact of honking on it. Traffic volume, noise levels, honking, road geometry and vehicular speed were measured on national highway, major and minor roads in Nagpur, India. Initial study showed lack of correlation between traffic volume and equivalent noise due to some factors, later identified as honking, road geometry and vehicular speed. Further, frequency analysis of traffic noise showed that honking contributed an additional 2 to 5 dB (A) noise, which is quite significant. Vehicular speed was also found to increase traffic noise. Statistical method of analysis of variance (ANOVA) confirms that frequent honking (p impact on traffic noise apart from traffic volume and type of road. The study suggests that honking must also be a component in traffic noise assessment and to identify and monitor "No Honking" zones in urban agglomerations.

  20. Histological assessment of pulp condition after apical vital root transection in one root of multirooted teeth in dogs: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmaiee, Massoud; Yavari, Amir Saeed; Mashhadiabbas, Fatemeh; Bahrami, Afshin; Farnia, Pupak; Sharifi, Davoud; Ghanavi, Jalaledin; Eslami, Behnan

    2007-09-01

    One of the most important aspects in surgery is the healing process after the periapical surgery. Past studies have shown occasional encounters with vital root resection and have noted varying degrees of pulpal response after root resection in periodontal disease. The purpose of this investigation was to observe the pulpal and periapical responses to intentional apical vital root transection in one root of multirooted teeth of German-Canadian dogs over a 6-month postoperative period. This is an experimental study performed on left maxillary and mandibular quadrants of four adult German-Canadian dogs after a 3- and 6-month period. Four teeth were assessed in each interval. One of the roots of multirooted teeth in the left quadrant of both maxillary and mandibular jaws was surgically transected. Tissue blocks were prepared by routine histological methods after 12 and 24 weeks after the surgery. The results showed a disruption of the normal pulpal architecture, with initial pulpal degeneration and subsequent early replacement by the periodontal ligament tissue after 24 weeks. Hypercementosis was seen around the apical portion of the root in all specimens. Pulpal regeneration was seen in the both upper and lower molars (p = 0.03). Resorption took place only in two specimens (p = 0.46). The inflammation in the 12th week was more than the 24th week. The pulp of multirooted teeth remains vital after transection of the apical part of the root in dogs. Longer follow-up periods are recommended because root canal therapy or extraction is indicated if resorption, necrosis, or ankylosis is seen.

  1. Teneligliptin real-world efficacy assessment of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in India (TREAT-INDIA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sujoy Ghosh,1 Shailesh Trivedi,2 Debmalya Sanyal,3 KD Modi,4 Sandeep Kharb5 1Department of Endocrinology, The Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research (IPGMER, Kolkata, West Bengal, 2Anand Hospital, Vadodara, Gujarat, 3Department of Endocrinology, KPC Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, 4Dr Modi’s Clinic (DMC, Department of Endocrinology at Medwin Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, 5ASIAN Hospital, Faridabad, Haryana, India Background and aims: Teneligliptin was introduced in India in May 2015. It has gained popularity and is already widely prescribed in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. This “real life” data collection was conducted to assess the efficacy of teneligliptin in Indian T2DM patients. Methods: Predesigned structured proforma was used to collect information from the prescribing physicians regarding the efficacy of teneligliptin when prescribed as monotherapy as well as combination therapy with other antidiabetic drugs in T2DM patients. Information on the glycemic parameters at baseline prior to starting teneligliptin and at the end of 3 months therapy was collected. The efficacy was assessed by analyzing the mean change in 3-month values of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, and postprandial plasma glucose (PPG.Results: Data of 4305 patients was available for analysis. There was statistically significant improvement in mean HbA1c, FPG, and PPG with teneligliptin therapy. Means changes in HbA1c, FPG, and PPG were −1.37%±1.15%, 51.29±35.41 mg/dL, and 80.89±54.27 mg/dL, respectively. Subgroup analysis revealed that HbA1c (% reduction with teneligliptin when used as monotherapy, add-on to metformin or add-on to metformin plus sulfonylureas combination, add-on to metformin plus alpha glucosidase inhibitor combination or add-on to insulin was 0.98±0.53, 1.07±0.83, 1.46±1.33, 1.43±0.80, and 1.55±1.05, respectively.Conclusion: Real-world data suggests that teneligliptin significantly

  2. Inpatient care of the elderly in Brazil and India: assessing social inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channon, Andrew Amos; Andrade, Monica Viegas; Noronha, Kenya; Leone, Tiziana; Dilip, T R

    2012-12-01

    The rapidly growing older adult populations in Brazil and India present major challenges for health systems in these countries, especially with regard to the equitable provision of inpatient care. The objective of this study was to contrast inequalities in both the receipt of inpatient care and the length of time that care was received among adults aged over 60 in two large countries with different modes of health service delivery. Using the Brazilian National Household Survey from 2003 and the Indian National Sample Survey Organisation survey from 2004 inequalities by wealth (measured by income in Brazil and consumption in India) were assessed using concentration curves and indices. Inequalities were also examined through the use of zero-truncated negative binomial models, studying differences in receipt of care and length of stay by region, health insurance, education and reported health status. Results indicated that there was no evidence of inequality in Brazil for both receipt and length of stay by income per capita. However, in India there was a pro-rich bias in the receipt of care, although once care was received there was no difference by consumption per capita for the length of stay. In both countries the higher educated and those with health insurance were more likely to receive care, while the higher educated had longer stays in hospital in Brazil. The health system reforms that have been undertaken in Brazil could be credited as a driver for reducing healthcare inequalities amongst the elderly, while the significant differences by wealth in India shows that reform is still needed to ensure the poor have access to inpatient care. Health reforms that move towards a more public funding model of service delivery in India may reduce inequality in elderly inpatient care in the country.

  3. VITAL NMR: Using Chemical Shift Derived Secondary Structure Information for a Limited Set of Amino Acids to Assess Homology Model Accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brothers, Michael C [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Nesbitt, Anna E [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Hallock, Michael J [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Rupasinghe, Sanjeewa [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Tang, Ming [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Harris, Jason B [ORNL; Baudry, Jerome Y [ORNL; Schuler, Mary A [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Rienstra, Chad M [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

    2011-01-01

    Homology modeling is a powerful tool for predicting protein structures, whose success depends on obtaining a reasonable alignment between a given structural template and the protein sequence being analyzed. In order to leverage greater predictive power for proteins with few structural templates, we have developed a method to rank homology models based upon their compliance to secondary structure derived from experimental solid-state NMR (SSNMR) data. Such data is obtainable in a rapid manner by simple SSNMR experiments (e.g., (13)C-(13)C 2D correlation spectra). To test our homology model scoring procedure for various amino acid labeling schemes, we generated a library of 7,474 homology models for 22 protein targets culled from the TALOS+/SPARTA+ training set of protein structures. Using subsets of amino acids that are plausibly assigned by SSNMR, we discovered that pairs of the residues Val, Ile, Thr, Ala and Leu (VITAL) emulate an ideal dataset where all residues are site specifically assigned. Scoring the models with a predicted VITAL site-specific dataset and calculating secondary structure with the Chemical Shift Index resulted in a Pearson correlation coefficient (-0.75) commensurate to the control (-0.77), where secondary structure was scored site specifically for all amino acids (ALL 20) using STRIDE. This method promises to accelerate structure procurement by SSNMR for proteins with unknown folds through guiding the selection of remotely homologous protein templates and assessing model quality.

  4. VITAL NMR: using chemical shift derived secondary structure information for a limited set of amino acids to assess homology model accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brothers, Michael C.; Nesbitt, Anna E.; Hallock, Michael J. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Chemistry (United States); Rupasinghe, Sanjeewa G. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology (United States); Tang Ming [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Chemistry (United States); Harris, Jason; Baudry, Jerome [University of Tennessee, Department of Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology (United States); Schuler, Mary A. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Cell and Developmental Biology (United States); Rienstra, Chad M., E-mail: rienstra@illinois.edu [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Homology modeling is a powerful tool for predicting protein structures, whose success depends on obtaining a reasonable alignment between a given structural template and the protein sequence being analyzed. In order to leverage greater predictive power for proteins with few structural templates, we have developed a method to rank homology models based upon their compliance to secondary structure derived from experimental solid-state NMR (SSNMR) data. Such data is obtainable in a rapid manner by simple SSNMR experiments (e.g., {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C 2D correlation spectra). To test our homology model scoring procedure for various amino acid labeling schemes, we generated a library of 7,474 homology models for 22 protein targets culled from the TALOS+/SPARTA+ training set of protein structures. Using subsets of amino acids that are plausibly assigned by SSNMR, we discovered that pairs of the residues Val, Ile, Thr, Ala and Leu (VITAL) emulate an ideal dataset where all residues are site specifically assigned. Scoring the models with a predicted VITAL site-specific dataset and calculating secondary structure with the Chemical Shift Index resulted in a Pearson correlation coefficient (-0.75) commensurate to the control (-0.77), where secondary structure was scored site specifically for all amino acids (ALL 20) using STRIDE. This method promises to accelerate structure procurement by SSNMR for proteins with unknown folds through guiding the selection of remotely homologous protein templates and assessing model quality.

  5. Assessment of water resources and seasonal prediction of rainfall in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhecha, P. R.

    2016-10-01

    From the analysis of rainfall data available at about 5000 stations, this paper is prepared to provide comprehensive assessment of water availability in different states of India as well as for the country as a whole. Changes in water availability per person are occurring mainly as a consequence of changes in population. The water availability per capita in India was over 6000 m3 per annum in 1951, it now stands at about 1900 m3 per capita. Nevertheless, this amount is nearly twice the water need by the people of developed countries. The developed countries require about 1000 m3 of freshwater per capita per year. The increasing demand for water is in the 4 states of Haryana, UP, Bihar and West Bengal in the face of increasing population and possible changes in climate, the water available in these states is to be used most economically and judiciously so that the vagaries of nature do not put any severe strain.

  6. Does Ethnolinguistic Vitality Theory Account for the Actual Vitality of Ethnic Groups? A Critical Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagmur, Kutlay

    2011-01-01

    Ethnolinguistic vitality theory asserts that Status, Demographic, Institutional Support and Control factors make up the vitality of ethnolinguistic groups. An assessment of a group's strengths and weaknesses in each of these dimensions provides a rough classification of ethnolinguistic groups into those having low, medium, or high vitality. Low…

  7. Environmental Impact Assessment: Uri hydroelectric power project on River Jhelum in Kashmir, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, L.

    1995-09-01

    This report is an Initial Aquatic Environmental Impact Assessment of the Uri Hydroelectric Power Project on River Jhelum in Kashmir, India. It includes the Terms of Reference of the assessment, a discussion on biodiversity and threats to it, the environmental indicators used to monitor and predict the impacts, a description of the physical, chemical and biological prerequisites of the River Jhelum ecosystem, a description of the survey sites chosen, and an overview of the present fish and bottom fauna. Finally, there are sections on the potential impacts on biota of the Uri Project and a list of proposals for how mitigating and enhancing measures could be enforced

  8. Ergonomic Assessment and Musculoskeletal Health of the Underprivileged School Children in Pune, India

    OpenAIRE

    Pavithra Rajan; Anand Koti

    2013-01-01

    Background: Musculoskeletal health in schoolchildren is a global health problem. The objective of the current study was to assess ergonomic be¬havior and muscu-loskeletal health in urban poor schoolchildren in Pune, India. Methods: Sixty-five (29 male students) slum dwelling schoolchildren were assessed for their ergonomics using a validated and reliable tool. Results: Average age was 13 years. Out of 65 students, 36 reported pres¬ence of musculoskeletal pain. In addition, 78.5% had bad ergon...

  9. Health and vitality assessment of two common pine species in the context of climate change in southern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicard, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.sicard@acri-st.fr [ACRI-ST, 260 route du Pin Montard, BP 234, 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France); Dalstein-Richier, Laurence [GIEFS (Groupe International d’Etudes des Forêts Sud-européennes) – 60, Avenue des Hespérides, 06300 Nice (France)

    2015-02-15

    The Mediterranean Basin is expected to be more strongly affected by ongoing climate change than most other regions of the earth. The South-eastern France can be considered as case study for assessing global change impacts on forests. Based on non-parametric statistical tests, the climatic parameters (temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, global radiation) and forest-response indicators (crown defoliation, discoloration and visible foliar ozone injury) of two pine species (Pinus halepensis and Pinus cembra) were analyzed. In the last 20 years, the trend analyses reveal a clear hotter and drier climate along the coastline and slightly rainier inland. In the current climate change context, a reduction in ground-level ozone (O{sub 3}) was found at remote sites and the visible foliar O{sub 3} injury decreased while deterioration of the crown conditions was observed likely due to a drier and warmer climate. Clearly, if such climatic and ecological changes are now being detected when the climate, in South-eastern France, has warmed in the last 20 years (+0.46–1.08 °C), it can be expected that many more impacts on tree species will occur in response to predicted temperature changes by 2100 (+1.95–4.59 °C). Climate change is projected to reduce the benefits of O{sub 3} precursor emissions controls leading to a higher O{sub 3} uptake. However, the drier and warmer climate should induce a soil drought leading to a lower O{sub 3} uptake. These two effects, acting together in an opposite way, could mitigate the harmful impacts of O{sub 3} on forests. The development of coordinated emission abatement strategies is useful to reduce both climate change and O{sub 3} pollution. Climate change will create additional challenges for forest management with substantial socio-economic and biological diversity impacts. However, the development of future sustainable and adaptive forest management strategies has the potential to reduce the vulnerability of forest species to climate

  10. Assessing musculoskeletal disorders among municipal waste loaders of Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salve, Pradeep; Chokhandre, Praveen; Bansod, Dhananjay

    2017-07-14

    The study aims to assess the impact of municipal waste loading occupation upon developing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and thereby disabilities among waste loaders. Additionally, the study has identified the potential risk factors raising MSDs and disabilities. A cross-sectional case-control design survey was conducted in 6 out of 24 municipal wards of Mumbai during March-September 2015. The study population consisted of municipal waste loaders (N = 180) and a control group (N = 180). The Standardized Modified Nordic questionnaire was adopted to measures the MSDs and thereby disabilities in the past 12 months. A Propensity Score Matching (PSM) method was applied to assess the impact of waste loading occupation on developing MSDs and disabilities. Waste loaders had a significantly higher risk of developing MSDs as well as disabilities than the control group particularly for low back, hip/ thigh upper back and shoulder. Propensity Score Matching results revealed that the MSDs were significantly higher among waste loaders for hip/thigh (22%), low back (19%), shoulder (18%), and upper back (15%) than matched control group. Likewise, MSDs-related disabilities were found to be significantly higher among waste loaders for low back (20%), hip/ thigh (18%) upper back (13%) and shoulder (8%) than the control group. Duration of work, substance use and mental health were found to be the potential psychosocial factors for developing the risk of MSDs and disabilities. The municipal waste loading occupation raised the risk of MSDs and related disabilities among waste loaders compared to the control group. The preventive and curative measures are strongly recommended to minimize the burden of MSDs and disabilities. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(6).

  11. Hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater in Kashmir Valley, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeelani, G. H.; Shah, Rouf Ahmad; Hussain, Aadil

    2014-06-01

    Groundwater samples ( n = 163) were collected across Kashmir Valley in 2010 to assess the hydrogeochemistry of the groundwater in shallow and deep aquifers and its suitability for domestic, agriculture, horticulture, and livestock purposes. The groundwater is generally alkaline in nature. The electrical conductivity (EC) which is an index to represent the total concentration of soluble salts in water was used to measure the salinity hazard to crops as it reflects the TDS in groundwater ranging from 97 to 1385 μS/cm, except one well in Sopore. The average concentration of major ions was higher in shallow aquifers than in deeper aquifers. In general, Ca2+ is the dominant cation and HCO the dominant anion. Ca-HCO3, Mg-HCO3, Ca-Mg-HCO3, Na-HCO3 were the dominant hydrogeochemical facies. High concentration of HCO3 and pH less than 8.8 clearly indicated that intense chemical weathering processes have taken place in the study area. The groundwater flow pattern in the area follows the local surface topography which not only modifies the hydrogeochemical facies but also controls their distribution. The groundwater in valley flows into four directions, i.e., SW-NE, NE-W, SE-NW and SE-NE directions. The results suggest that carbonate dissolution is the dominant source of major ions followed by silicate weathering and ion-exchange processes. The concentrations of all the major ions determined in the present study are within the permissible limits of WHO and BIS standards. The results of Total Hardness, SAR, Na%, Kelly Index, USDA classification, Magnesium absorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, and PI suggested that groundwater is good for drinking, livestock, and irrigation purposes.

  12. Hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater in Kashmir Valley, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G H Jeelani; Rouf Ahmad Shah; Aadil Hussain

    2014-07-01

    Groundwater samples ( = 163) were collected across Kashmir Valley in 2010 to assess the hydrogeochemistry of the groundwater in shallow and deep aquifers and its suitability for domestic, agriculture, horticulture, and livestock purposes. The groundwater is generally alkaline in nature. The electrical conductivity (EC) which is an index to represent the total concentration of soluble salts in water was used to measure the salinity hazard to crops as it reflects the TDS in groundwater ranging from 97 to 1385 S/cm, except one well in Sopore. The average concentration of major ions was higher in shallow aquifers than in deeper aquifers. In general, Ca2+ is the dominant cation and HCO$^{−}_{3}$ the dominant anion. Ca–HCO3, Mg–HCO3, Ca–Mg–HCO3, Na–HCO3 were the dominant hydrogeochemical facies. High concentration of HCO3 and pH less than 8.8 clearly indicated that intense chemical weathering processes have taken place in the study area. The groundwater flow pattern in the area follows the local surface topography which not only modifies the hydrogeochemical facies but also controls their distribution. The groundwater in valley flows into four directions, i.e., SW–NE, NE–W, SE–NW and SE–NE directions. The results suggest that carbonate dissolution is the dominant source of major ions followed by silicate weathering and ion-exchange processes. The concentrations of all the major ions determined in the present study are within the permissible limits ofWHO and BIS standards. The results of Total Hardness, SAR, Na%, Kelly Index, USDA classification, Magnesium absorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, and PI suggested that groundwater is good for drinking, livestock, and irrigation purposes.

  13. Climate change impact assessments on the water resources of India under extensive human interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusoodhanan, C G; Sreeja, K G; Eldho, T I

    2016-10-01

    Climate change is a major concern in the twenty-first century and its assessments are associated with multiple uncertainties, exacerbated and confounded in the regions where human interventions are prevalent. The present study explores the challenges for climate change impact assessment on the water resources of India, one of the world's largest human-modified systems. The extensive human interventions in the Energy-Land-Water-Climate (ELWC) nexus significantly impact the water resources of the country. The direct human interventions in the landscape may surpass/amplify/mask the impacts of climate change and in the process also affect climate change itself. Uncertainties in climate and resource assessments add to the challenge. Formulating coherent resource and climate change policies in India would therefore require an integrated approach that would assess the multiple interlinkages in the ELWC nexus and distinguish the impacts of global climate change from that of regional human interventions. Concerted research efforts are also needed to incorporate the prominent linkages in the ELWC nexus in climate/earth system modelling.

  14. Vitalism as Pathos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Thomas

    This paper addresses the remarkable longevity (in spite of numerous 'refutations') of the idea of vitalism in the biological sciences and beyond. If there is to be a renewed vitalism today, however, we need to ask - on what kind of original conception of life should it be based? This paper argues that recent invocations of a generalized, processual variety of vitalism in the social sciences and humanities above all, however exciting in their scope, miss much of the basic originality - and interest - of the vitalist perspective itself. The paper argues that any renewed spirit of vitalism in the contemporary era would have to base itself on the normativity of the living organism rather than on any generalized conceptions of process or becoming. In the terms of the paper, such a vitalism would have to be concrete and 'disciplinary' rather than processual or generalized. Such a vitalism would also need to accommodate, crucially, the pathic aspects of life - pathology, sickness, error; in short everything that makes us, as living beings, potentially weak, without power, at a loss. Sources for such a pathic vitalism might be found above all in the work of Georges Canguilhem - and Friedrich Nietzsche - rather than primarily in Bergson, Whitehead or Deleuze.

  15. Assessing Biodiversity from Space: an Example from the Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Ganeshaiah

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate for the first time the potential use of satellite imagery to characterize areas of high and low species richness of trees in tropical forests. Our studies, conducted in the Biligiri Rangaswamy hills in the Western Ghats, India, show a high positive correlation between species richness and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, which is an index of green biomass. We discuss the application of NDVI values for biodiversity assessment and monitoring, as well as for conservation planning. The NDVI is a rough measure of green biomass.

  16. Life cycle assessment of 50 kWp grid connected solar photovoltaic (SPV system in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Sherwani, J. A. Usmani, Varun, Siddhartha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA of a 50 kW solar photovoltaic (SPV system which is situated at Bazak (Bhatinda in Punjab state (India has been presented. Among all the components in the SPV system, PV modules are energetically and environmentally very expensive elements. The energy pay-back time (EPBT was found to be 1.85 years and the normalized greenhouse gas (GHG emissions was evaluated as 55.7 g-CO2/kWhe. These results have also been compared with the other SPV electricity generation systems.

  17. Life cycle assessment of 50 kWp grid connected solar photovoltaic (SPV) system in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwani, A.F. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Delhi 110042 (India); Usmani, J.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Varun; Siddhartha [Mechanical Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology, Hamirpur 177005 (India)

    2011-07-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) of a 50 kW solar photovoltaic (SPV) system which is situated at Bazak (Bhatinda) in Punjab state (India) has been presented. Among all the components in the SPV system, PV modules are energetically and environmentally very expensive elements. The energy pay-back time (EPBT) was found to be 1.85 years and the normalized greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions was evaluated as 55.7 g-CO2/kWhe. These results have also been compared with the other SPV electricity generation systems.

  18. Health technology assessment in India: the potential for improved healthcare decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mrityunjai; Ebrahim, Shah; Taylor, Fiona C; Chokshi, Maulik; Gabbay, John

    2014-01-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is a multidisciplinary approach that uses clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, policy and ethical perspectives to provide evidence upon which rational decisions on the use of health technologies can be made. It can be used for a single stand-alone technology (e.g. a drug, a device), complex interventions (e.g. a rehabilitation service) and can also be applied to individual patient care and to public health. It is a tool for enabling the assessment and comparison of health technologies using the same metric of cost-effectiveness. This process benefits the patient, the health service, the healthcare payer and the technology producer as only technologies that are considered cost-effective are promoted for widespread use. This leads to greater use of effective technologies and greater health gain. The decision-making process in healthcare in India is complex owing to multiplicity of organizations with overlapping mandates. Often the decision-making is not evidence-based and there is no mechanism of bridging the gap between evidence and policy. Elsewhere, HTA is a frequently used tool in informing policy decisions in both resource-rich and resource-poor countries. Despite national organizations producing large volumes of research and clinical guidelines, India has not yet introduced a formal HTA programme. The incremental growth in healthcare products, services, innovation in affordable medical devices and a move towards universal healthcare, needs to be underpinned with an evidencebase which focuses on effectiveness, safety, affordability and acceptability to maximize the benefits that can be gained with a limited healthcare budget. Establishing HTA as a formal process in India, independent of healthcare providers, funders and technology producers, together with a framework for linking HTA to policy-making, would help ensure that the population gets better access to appropriate healthcare in the future.

  19. QASI: A collaboration for implementation of an independent quality assessment programme in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne F.A. Meyers

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The HIV pandemic remains a significant global health concern. Accurate determination of CD4+ T-cells in patient samples relies on reliable CD4 enumeration. The Quality Assessment and Standardization programme for Immunological measures relevant to HIV/AIDS (QASI programme of the Public Health Agency of Canada provides clinical laboratories from resource-limited countries with a mechanism to evaluate the quality of CD4 testing and develop the implementation of an independent national External Quality Assessment (EQA programme. This study describes how QASI helped develop the capacity for managing a sustainable national CD4 EQA programme in India.Design: Supported by the Public Health Agency of Canada and Clinton Foundation HIV/AIDS Initiative, QASI engaged with the National AIDS Control Organization and the Indian National AIDS Research Institute to assist in technology transfer in preparation for the implementation/ management of an independent CD4 EQA programme. Technology transfer training was provided to support corrective actions and to improve the quality of CD4 testing. Inter- laboratory variation of EQA surveys between pre- and post-skill development was compared.Results: Prior to training, coefficient of variation values were 14.7% (mid-level CD4 count controls and 39.0% (low-level. Following training, variation was reduced to 10.3% for mid- level controls and 20.0% for low-level controls.Conclusion: This training assisted the National AIDS Control Organization and the Indian National AIDS Research Institute in identifying the information necessary for management of an EQA programme, and developed the foundation for India to provide corrective actions for sites with challenges in achieving reliable results for CD4 enumeration. This led to a demonstrable improvement in CD4 testing quality and illustrates how country-specific training significantly improved CD4 enumeration performance for better clinical management of HIV care

  20. Anthropometric and nutritional profile of people living with HIV and AIDS in India: an assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Anand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Importance of nutrition in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is well-established; however, the information regarding the diet quality of people living with HIV (PLHIV especially in India is lacking. Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the anthropometric and nutritional profile of Indian PLHIV. Material and Methods: The study was performed on 400 adult PLHIV registered at the Antiretroviral Center (ART center in New Delhi, India. Anthropometric data including height, weight, waist, hip, mid arm, and calf circumferences, were collected; 1-day 24-h dietary recall was done to gather nutrient intake from which nutrient adequacy ratios were computed. Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA was also conducted. Results: The mean body mass index (BMI of the sample was 19.73 ± 3.55 kg/m 2 with around 40% having BMI <18.5 kg/m 2 . All anthropometric measurements were found to correlate positively and significantly with CD4 count (P < 0.05. The sample consumed poor quality of diet as they could not meet even the 2/3 rd of the Indian Council of Medical Research (2010 requirements for energy, protein, calcium, iron, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, B12, copper, and zinc. Classification of subjects according to MNA indicated that more than 50% of the sample was at-risk of malnutrition and 34% were malnourished. With 40% of sample having BMI less than normal, 50% at risk of malnutrition together with poor nutrient intakes over a long period of time could contribute to further worsening of the nutritional status. Conclusion: There is a need to develop a database on nutritional profile of PLHIV in India which reinforces the need for development of effective strategies to improve their nutritional status.

  1. Earthquake Hazard and Risk Assessment Based on Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes: State of Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Nekrasova, Anastasia; Kossobokov, Vladimir

    2017-03-01

    The Gujarat state of India is one of the most seismically active intercontinental regions of the world. Historically, it has experienced many damaging earthquakes including the devastating 1819 Rann of Kachchh and 2001 Bhuj earthquakes. The effect of the later one is grossly underestimated by the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP). To assess a more adequate earthquake hazard for the state of Gujarat, we apply Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), which generalizes the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence relation taking into account naturally fractal distribution of earthquake loci. USLE has evident implications since any estimate of seismic hazard depends on the size of the territory considered and, therefore, may differ dramatically from the actual one when scaled down to the proportion of the area of interest (e.g. of a city) from the enveloping area of investigation. We cross-compare the seismic hazard maps compiled for the same standard regular grid 0.2° × 0.2° (1) in terms of design ground acceleration based on the neo-deterministic approach, (2) in terms of probabilistic exceedance of peak ground acceleration by GSHAP, and (3) the one resulted from the USLE application. Finally, we present the maps of seismic risks for the state of Gujarat integrating the obtained seismic hazard, population density based on India's Census 2011 data, and a few model assumptions of vulnerability.

  2. Assessing cold chain status in a metro city of India: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, S; Mandal, P K; Chatterjee, C; Ghosh, P; Manna, N; Chakrabarty, D; Bagchi, S N; Dasgupta, S

    2011-03-01

    Cold chain maintenance is an essential activity to maintain the potency of vaccines and to prevent adverse events following immunization. One baseline study highlighted the unsatisfactory cold chain status in city of Kolkata in India. To assess the changes which occurred in the cold chain status after the intervention undertaken to improve the status and also to assess the awareness of the cold chain handlers regarding cold chain maintenance. Intervention consisted of reorganization of cold chain points and training of health manpower in Kolkata Municipal area regarding immunization and cold chain following the guidelines as laid by Govt of India. Reevaluation of cold chain status was done at 20 institutions selected by stratified systematic random sampling after the intervention. The results were compared with baseline survey. Significant improvement had been observed in correct placing of cold chain equipment, maintenance of stock security, orderly placing of ice packs, diluents and vaccines inside the equipment, temperature recording and maintenance. But awareness and skill of cold chain handlers regarding basics of cold chain maintenance was not satisfactory. The success of intervention included significant improvement of cold chain status including creation of a designated cold chain handler. The gaps lay in non-availability of non-electrical cold chain equipment and separate cold chain room, policy makers should stress. Cold chain handlers need reorientation training regarding heat & cold sensitive vaccines, preventive maintenance and correct contingency plan.

  3. Accuracy of Assessment of Eligibility for Early Medical Abortion by Community Health Workers in Ethiopia, India and South Africa.

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    Heidi Bart Johnston

    Full Text Available To assess the accuracy of assessment of eligibility for early medical abortion by community health workers using a simple checklist toolkit.Diagnostic accuracy study.Ethiopia, India and South Africa.Two hundred seventeen women in Ethiopia, 258 in India and 236 in South Africa were enrolled into the study. A checklist toolkit to determine eligibility for early medical abortion was validated by comparing results of clinician and community health worker assessment of eligibility using the checklist toolkit with the reference standard exam.Accuracy was over 90% and the negative likelihood ratio <0.1 at all three sites when used by clinician assessors. Positive likelihood ratios were 4.3 in Ethiopia, 5.8 in India and 6.3 in South Africa. When used by community health workers the overall accuracy of the toolkit was 92% in Ethiopia, 80% in India and 77% in South Africa negative likelihood ratios were 0.08 in Ethiopia, 0.25 in India and 0.22 in South Africa and positive likelihood ratios were 5.9 in Ethiopia and 2.0 in India and South Africa.The checklist toolkit, as used by clinicians, was excellent at ruling out participants who were not eligible, and moderately effective at ruling in participants who were eligible for medical abortion. Results were promising when used by community health workers particularly in Ethiopia where they had more prior experience with use of diagnostic aids and longer professional training. The checklist toolkit assessments resulted in some participants being wrongly assessed as eligible for medical abortion which is an area of concern. Further research is needed to streamline the components of the tool, explore optimal duration and content of training for community health workers, and test feasibility and acceptability.

  4. Infection control in delivery care units, Gujarat state, India: A needs assessment

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    Ramani KV

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasingly, women in India attend health facilities for childbirth, partly due to incentives paid under government programs. Increased use of health facilities can alleviate the risks of infections contracted in unhygienic home deliveries, but poor infection control practices in labour and delivery units also cause puerperal sepsis and other infections of childbirth. A needs assessment was conducted to provide information on procedures and practices related to infection control in labour and delivery units in Gujarat state, India. Methods Twenty health care facilities, including private and public primary health centres and referral hospitals, were sampled from two districts in Gujarat state, India. Three pre-tested tools for interviewing and for observation were used. Data collection was based on existing infection control guidelines for clean practices, clean equipment, clean environment and availability of diagnostics and treatment. The study was carried out from April to May 2009. Results Seventy percent of respondents said that standard infection control procedures were followed, but a written procedure was only available in 5% of facilities. Alcohol rubs were not used for hand cleaning and surgical gloves were reused in over 70% of facilities, especially for vaginal examinations in the labour room. Most types of equipment and supplies were available but a third of facilities did not have wash basins with "hands-free" taps. Only 15% of facilities reported that wiping of surfaces was done immediately after each delivery in labour rooms. Blood culture services were available in 25% of facilities and antibiotics are widely given to women after normal delivery. A few facilities had data on infections and reported rates of 3% to 5%. Conclusions This study of current infection control procedures and practices during labour and delivery in health facilities in Gujarat revealed a need for improved information systems

  5. Assessment of radiological protection systems among diagnostic radiology facilities in North East India.

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    Singh, Thokchom Dewan; Jayaraman, T; Arunkumar Sharma, B

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to assess the adequacy level of radiological protection systems available in the diagnostic radiology facilities located in three capital cities of North East (NE) India. It further attempts to understand, using a multi-disciplinary approach, how the safety codes/standards in diagnostic radiology framed by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to achieve adequate radiological protection in facilities, have been perceived, conceptualized, and applied accordingly in these facilities. About 30 diagnostic radiology facilities were randomly selected from three capitals of states in NE India; namely Imphal (Manipur), Shillong (Meghalaya) and Guwahati (Assam). A semi-structured questionnaire developed based on a multi-disciplinary approach was used for this study. It was observed that radiological practices undertaken in these facilities were not exactly in line with safety codes/standards in diagnostic radiology of the AERB and the IAEA. About 50% of the facilities had registered/licensed x-ray equipment with the AERB. More than 80% of the workers did not use radiation protective devices, although these devices were available in the facilities. About 85% of facilities had no institutional risk management system. About 70% of the facilities did not carry out periodic quality assurance testing of their x-ray equipment or surveys of radiation leakage around the x-ray room, and did not display radiation safety indicators in the x-ray rooms. Workers in these facilities exhibited low risk perception about the risks associated with these practices. The majority of diagnostic radiology facilities in NE India did not comply with the radiological safety codes/standards framed by the AERB and IAEA. The study found inadequate levels of radiological protection systems in the majority of facilities. This study suggests a need to establish firm measures that comply with the radiological safety codes/standards of the

  6. ICT in Universities of the Western Himalayan Region in India: Status, Performance- An Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, D

    2009-01-01

    The present paper describes a live project study carried out for the universities located in the western Himalayan region of India in the year 2009. The objective of this study is to undertake the task of assessment regarding initiative, utilization of ICT resources, its performance and impact in these higher educational institutions/universities. In order to answer these, initially basic four- tier framework was prepared. Followed by a questionnaire containing different ICT components 18 different groups like vision, planning, implementation, ICT infrastructure and related activities exhibiting performance. Primary data in the form of feedback on the five point scale, of the questionnaire, was gathered from six universities of the region. A simple statistical analysis was undertaken using weighted mean, to assess the ICT initiative, status and performance of various universities. In the process, a question related to Performance Indicator was identified from each group, whose Coefficient of Correlation was c...

  7. Assessment and quantification of plastics waste generation in major 60 cities of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalini, R; Srinivasulu, B; Shit, Subhas C; Nigam, Suneel Kumar; Akolkar, A B; Dwivedfi, R K

    2013-04-01

    Polymers or plastics materials registered rapid growth in 1970s, 1980s and 1990s at the rate of 2-2.5 times the GDP growth in India. The demand for plastic raw material got more than doubled from 3.3 Million Metric Ton to 6.8 Million Metric Tons in 2010 attributed mainly to rapid urbanization, spread of retail chains, plastics based packaging from grocery to food and vegetable products to cosmetics and consumer items. Plastics packages have its merits over many of conventional materials in the related sector but unless they are collected back effectively after their use to go into recycling process, they become an eyesore in the stream of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) due to high visibility. As the synthetic and conventional plastics are non-biodegradable in nature, these remain in the dump yards/ landfills for several years, if not collected properly. Due to non- biodegradability, plastics waste remains in the environment for several years, if not collected and disposing plastics wastes at landfills are unsafe since toxic chemicals leach out into the soil and as they contaminate soil and underground water quality. The municipal solid waste also increasing day-by-day due to the inefficient source collection, segregation and transmission of plastics waste for recycling and reusing. In order to find out the realistic plastics waste generation, a study on assessment and quantification of plastics waste has been carried out by CPCB in collaboration with CIPET on selected 60 major cities of India.

  8. Intersectional inequalities in immunization in India, 1992-93 to 2005-06: a progress assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, William

    2015-05-01

    Immunization in India is marked with stark disparities across gender, caste, wealth and place of residence with severe shortfalls among those disadvantaged in more than one dimension. In this regard, an explicit recognition of intersectionality and intersectional inequalities has 2-fold relevance; one, being the pathway of health inequality and the other being its role as a deterrent of progress particularly at higher (better) levels of health. Against this backdrop, this study examines intersectional inequalities in immunization in India and also suggests a level-sensitive progress assessment method. The study uses group analogue of Gini coefficient for highlighting the magnitude of intersectional inequality and for comprehending its association with immunization level. The results unravel the plight of vulnerable intersectional groups and draw attention to disquieting shortfalls among female SCST (scheduled castes and tribes) children from rural areas. There is also some evidence to indicate leveraging among rural males in matters of immunization and it is further discerned that such gender advantage is greater among rural non-SCST community than the rural SCST group. In concluding, the study calls for intensive immunization planning to improve coverage among vulnerable communities in both rural and urban areas.

  9. Insecticide susceptibility of Phlebotomus argentipes & assessment of vector control in two districts of West Bengal, India

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    Vijay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Kala-azar or visceral leishmanisis (VL is known to be endemic in several States of India including West Bengal (WB. Only meager information is available on the vector dynamics of its vector species, Phlebotomus argentipes particularly in relation to control measure from this State. Hence, a pilot study was undertaken to assess the control strategy and its impact on vector in two endemic districts of WB, India. Methods: Two villages each from the two districts, Maldah and Burdwan, were selected for the study. Seasonal variation of sandflies was observed during pre-monsoon, post-monsoon and winter seasons. Susceptibility test of P. argentipes against DDT and bioassay on DDT sprayed wall and on long lasting insecticide nets (LN Perma Net [®] 2.0 were conducted as per the WHO standard methods. Results: P. argentipes density was high during March to October. Susceptibility status of P. argentipes ranged from 40 to 61.54 per cent. Bioassay test showed 57.89 per cent mortality against LN PermaNet [®] -2.0. and 50 per cent against DDT on wall within 30 min of exposure. Interpretation & conclusions: Despite the integrated vector management approach, the sandfly population was high in the study area. The reason could be development of resistance in P. argentipes against DDT and low effectiveness of LN PermaNet [®] -2.0. The more pragmatic step will be to conduct large studies to monitor the susceptibility level in P. argentipes against DDT.

  10. Assessment of the lung function status of the goldsmiths working in an unorganized sector of India

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    Subhashis Sahu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Exposure to various types of fumes and gases are very common in Jewelery industries. No Report is available regarding the effects of those fumes and gases on the respiratory functions of the goldsmiths. Due to lack of proper monitoring of the workplace environments in these unorganized sectors, workers get very much affected by the occupational exposures to those irritants. Aims: The present study aimed to investigate whether the occupational exposures to fumes and gases might alter the lung functions of the goldsmiths. Materials and Methods: A total of 118 goldsmiths and 66 unexposed control subjects were taken randomly for the study. The goldsmiths were further classified in 3 groups according to duration (year of exposures in the work environment, ETA 1 (less than 5 years, ETA 2 (more than 5 years but less than 10 years, and ETA 3 (more than 10 years. Peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR, forced vital capacity (FVC, and forced expiratory flow rates of different intervals (FEF 25% , FEF 50% , FEF 75% , FEF 25-75% were measured using computerized Spirometer (Maestros Mediline, India. The statistical analyses were carried out using Minitab software version 3. Results: Lung functions of the goldsmiths significantly (P < 0.01 decreased from that of the control group. Inter-group comparison also showed the deteriorations of lung functions was associated with exposure time, and more exposed workers had significantly less (P < 0.01 efficiencies of lung functions. Conclusions: Workplace fumes and gases were responsible for deterioration of the lung function status of the goldsmiths.

  11. In Search of Vitality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens Lohfert; Ebbesen Nielsen, Louise

    2010-01-01

    concepts such as vitalism (Hans Driesch) and degeneration (Max Nordau) can be conceived as different reactions to Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of the Species in the light of bio-power. Even though both Driesch and Nordau use Darwin’s theories to produce positive ideas about respectively the strong...

  12. Assessment of the effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on postoperative sensitivity associated with in-office vital tooth whitening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghaireh, G A; Alzraikat, H; Guidoum, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tooth mousse containing 10% casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) in reducing tooth sensitivity associated with in-office vital tooth whitening. In-office tooth whitening was performed for 51 participants using 35% hydrogen peroxide gel in a single visit. After the procedure, each participant was randomly assigned to one of three groups: gel without desensitizing agent (n=17), gel with 2% sodium fluoride (n=17), gel with 10% CPP-ACP (n=17). A small amount of the desensitizing gel assigned for each participant was applied directly on the labial surfaces of teeth and left undisturbed for three minutes. The participants were asked to apply the gel assigned to them for three minutes twice daily after brushing their teeth, and to continue this for 14 days. The participants were asked to return for follow-up visits after 24 hours and on days 3, 7, and 14, at which time teeth shade changes were assessed by one evaluator using a value-oriented Vita classic shade guide. The incidence, duration, and intensity of tooth sensitivity experienced was self-assessed on a daily basis for the 14-day study period using a visual analog scale (VAS). The effect of the three gels on tooth sensitivity was assessed using one-way analysis of variance and a χ (2) test (α=0.05). The general linear model was used to compare intensity-level differences in the three studied groups and for shade stability over the follow-up period. The results of this study showed that all three gels decreased the intensity of sensitivity associated with tooth whitening. The intensity of sensitivity was lower in the fluoride group than in the other two groups; however, it was not statistically significant (p=0.112 and p=0.532 on day 1 and day 2, respectively). The average shade change was 6.8. None of the tested materials affected the efficacy of tooth whitening, but the shade change among the fluoride group showed more color stability

  13. Assessment of potential shale gas resources of the Bombay, Cauvery, and Krishna-Godavari Provinces, India, 2011

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    ,

    2012-01-01

    Using a performance-based geologic assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a technically recoverable mean volume of 6.1 trillion cubic feet of potential shale gas in the Bombay, Cauvery, and Krishna-Godavari Provinces of India.

  14. Assessment of stress due to hot ambience in donkeys from arid tracts in India

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    Kataria N.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available To assess the stress due to hot ambience in donkeys from arid tracts in Rajasthan state, India, serum prolactin and cortisol levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. The blood samples to harvest the serum were collected from the same animals during moderate (maximum temperature of 28 C - 29 C and hot (maximum temperature of 45 C- 46 C ambiences. During hot ambience the animals showed significantly (p0.05 higher levels of serum prolactin and cortisol when compared to the moderate ambience. The mean rise in prolactin was 4.42 times whereas cortisol levels were 4.22 times higher. Further a multiple fold rise in serum prolactin clearly suggested that it can also be used as an indicator of stress in donkeys along with the cortisol.

  15. Assessment of parasitic contamination of raw vegetables in Mannuthy, Kerala state, India

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    B. Sunil

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the parasitic contamination of raw vegetables retailed at Mannuthy in Thrissur district of Kerala state, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 112 samples, viz. cabbage (17, mint (11, coriander leaves (11, spinach (15, onion (10, carrot (10, potato (10, ginger (15, beet root (7 and tomato (6 were collected from retail market at Mannuthy, Kerala. Collected samples were washed with physiological saline solution. The washings were collected and examined under light microscopy. Results: Helminthic eggs were detected in three (2.7% of 112 samples. Two samples of cabbage (1.8% and one sample of onion (0.9% was positive for ova of Ascaris spp. Conclusion: Vegetables can act as potential source of gastrointestinal parasitic infections. The study emphasizes the need for proper washing of vegetables before they are consumed or cooked.

  16. Assessment of soil and ground water quality in Rewa district of Vindhyan Plateau (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, A P; Tripathi, I P; Kumar, M Suresh

    2013-01-01

    A systematic seasonal study has been carried out to assess the physico-chemical characteristics of ground water and soils in Rewa district of India. The drinking water in the study area is supplied mainly through Public Health Engineering (PHE) department from river (Bichhia, Bihar) and ground water. Water and soil samples were collected from different locations in the Rewa district, i.e. 10 hand pumps and 10 bore wells around all over the district. Regular monitoring was carried out during summer, rainy and winter seasons, to study the seasonal variation in physico-chemical parameters and metals concentration. The parameters like pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate, nitrite, chloride, sulphate, phosphate and heavy metals were estimated for water and soil samples collected from the Rewa district. The results obtained are discussed, correlated with probable sources of contamination and suggested the measures to minimize the pollution.

  17. Assessment of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate in surface water - Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunantha, Ganesan; Vasudevan, Namasivayam

    2016-08-15

    As an emerging class of environmentally persistent organic pollutants, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), particularly perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS); have been universally found in the environment. Wastewater and untreated effluents are likely the major causes for the accumulation of PFCs in surface water. There are very few reports on the contamination of PFCs in the developing countries, particularly in India. This study reports the quantitative analysis of PFOA and PFOS in Noyyal, Cauvery, and also lakes in and around Chennai, using Ultra-Fast liquid chromatograph. The concentration of PFOA and PFOS ranged from 4 to 93ng/L and 3 to 29ng/L, respectively. The concentration of PFOS was below detectable limit in Cauvery River. A reliable concentration of PFOA was recorded at all sites of River Cauvery (5ng/L). The present study could be useful for the assessment of future monitoring programs of PFOA and PFOS in the surface water.

  18. An assessment of groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

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    I Nanda Balan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Water, the elixir of life, is a prime natural resource. Due to rapid urbanization in India, the availability and quality of groundwater have been affected. According to the Central Groundwater Board, 80% of Chennai′s groundwater has been depleted and any further exploration could lead to salt water ingression. Hence, this study was done to assess the groundwater quality in Chennai city. Aim : To assess the groundwater quality using water quality index in Chennai city. Materials and Methods: Chennai city was divided into three zones based on the legislative constituency and from these three zones three locations were randomly selected and nine groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physiochemical properties. Results: With the exception of few parameters, most of the water quality assessment parameters showed parameters within the accepted standard values of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS. Except for pH in a single location of zone 1, none of the parameters exceeded the permissible values for water quality assessment as prescribed by the BIS. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that in general the groundwater quality status of Chennai city ranged from excellent to good and the groundwater is fit for human consumption based on all the nine parameters of water quality index and fluoride content.

  19. Dissipation pattern and risk assessment of flubendiamide on chili at different agro-climatic conditions in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K K; Mukherjee, Irani; Singh, Balwinder; Sahoo, Sanjay K; Mandal, Kousik; Mohapatra, Soudamini; Ahuja, A K; Sharma, Debi; Parihar, N S; Sharma, B N; Kale, V D; Walunj, A R

    2015-05-01

    Dissipation pattern and risk assessment of flubendiamide and its metabolite (desiodo flubendiamide) on chili were studied at four different agro-climatic locations of India at the standard and double dose at 60 and 120 g a.i. ha(-1) at 10 days interval. Quantification of residues was done on a high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) with a photo diode array detector. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of this method was found to be 0.01 mg kg(-1) while limit of detection (LOD) being 0.003 mg kg(-1). Residues of flubendiamide were found to be below the determination limit in 15 days at both the dosages in all locations. Half-life of flubendiamide when applied at 60 and 120 g a.i. ha(-1) ranged from 0.85 to 1.80 and from 0.95 to 2.79 days, respectively. On the basis of data generated under the All India Network Project on Pesticide Residues, a preharvest interval (PHI) of 1 day has been recommended and the flubendiamide 480 SC has been registered for use on chili in India by the Central Insecticide Board and Registration Committee, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. The maximum residue limit (MRL) of flubendiamide on chili has been fixed by the Food Safety Standard Authority of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, as 0.02 μg g(-1) after its risk assessment.

  20. Planetary Vital Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, Charles; Briggs, Stephen; Victor, David

    2016-07-01

    The climate is beginning to behave in unusual ways. The global temperature reached unprecedented highs in 2015 and 2016, which led climatologists to predict an enormous El Nino that would cure California's record drought. It did not happen the way they expected. That tells us just how unreliable temperature has become as an indicator of important aspects of climate change. The world needs to go beyond global temperature to a set of planetary vital signs. Politicians should not over focus policy on one indicator. They need to look at the balance of evidence. A coalition of scientists and policy makers should start to develop vital signs at once, since they should be ready at the entry into force of the Paris Agreement in 2020. But vital signs are only the beginning. The world needs to learn how to use the vast knowledge we will be acquiring about climate change and its impacts. Is it not time to use all the tools at hand- observations from space and ground networks; demographic, economic and societal measures; big data statistical techniques; and numerical models-to inform politicians, managers, and the public of the evolving risks of climate change at global, regional, and local scales? Should we not think in advance of an always-on social and information network that provides decision-ready knowledge to those who hold the responsibility to act, wherever they are, at times of their choosing?

  1. A Desk Review to Assess the Impact of Janani Suraksha Yojna on Various MCH Indicators in District Gwalior, India

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    Neeraj Gour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mothers who have always been succumbed by various physical, mental and social problems since long. It’s the one group of society who always been on the edge of sward. This all above leaded to various maternal problems included high maternal mortality ratio and deprived health services, especially in developing countries like India. But over the time government has made lot of efforts to revert this pathetic condition of mothers. And in pursuance of this govt. has started number of programmes and schemes to make the mothers counted. One of such scheme is Janani Suraksha Yojna (JSY a safe motherhood intervention started in 2005 with the objective to bring down the MMR by promoting institutional deliveries, decline in domiciliary delivery, increase in ANC registration & checkups, TT immunization etc. so they are the performance (MCH indicators of the scheme which if anytime get analyzed can provide us at least some sort of clue about the performance of scheme over the time. Same was tried to pave out in this study with the objective of: • To desk review various secondary data which is directly or indirectly related with JSY. • To assess the impact of JSY on various MCH indicators. Material and Methods: A desk review was done by collecting various secondary data and later on it was processed and analyzed by manually along with suitable statistical software. Results: There has been significant rise in the No. of institutional deliveries after inception of JSY which was around 32744 (48.8% in 2003-04 on the other hand it was counted around 36589 (50% and 36045 (73.1% in year 2006-07 & 2007-08 respectively. In the same way like above ANC registrations have got increased and MMR brought down. Conclusion: JSY has worked in accordance with objectives it was started in 2005 then. It played vital role in the reduction of MMR. So Govt. should try to launch more and more schemes like JSY to make the mothers life safe and fruitful.

  2. Assessing the Impact of Population Growth, Climate Change, and Land Use Change on Water Resources in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N.; Cherkauer, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    India is poised to become the most populous country in the world by 2019 and reach a population of over 2 billion by 2050 based on current growth rates. It is also a region which will be under severe socio-economic and environmental stress if mitigation efforts are not adapted. In the past 10 years the population of India has grown by an average rate of 17 million people per year. In addition to unprecedented population growth, rapid urbanization and industrialization are straining the overburdened environmental system. This rapid growth in population, urbanization and industrialized will result in increased demand for food, requiring expansion of agricultural resources. Since total agricultural land in India has been relatively constant over the past 10 years the demand for additional food has to be partly met by enhanced production on existing land. Arable land in India has declined by around 3% according to FAOSTAT while the total agricultural area under irrigation has increased by about 9% thus further straining its water resources. In addition projections for future climate indicate that India is one of the regions where water resources are expected to be negatively impacted. Total agriculture water withdrawal in India increased by approximately 18 % from 2000-2010 while the total per capita water withdrawal increased by over 9% from 2000-2010. Total freshwater withdrawal as percentage of renewable water resources was around 40% in 2010. In addition, recent mandates of biofuel policies in India are also expected to impact its water resources. The combined impact of these various factors on future water availability in India could be one of the most severe globally due its unprecedented increase in population, food production and industrialization. In this study we assess the impact of land use and climate change on water resources over southern India in the face of a growing population and interest in development of national biofuel supplies. We use

  3. Evaluación de la Inteligencia Emocional, la Satisfacción Vital y el Potencial Resiliente en una muestra de estudiantes de psicología Emotional Intelligence, Vital Satisfaction and Resilient Potential Assessment in a sample of students of psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel María Mikulic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas décadas el interés por estudiar la influencia que la Inteligencia Emocional presenta en la Satisfacción Vital y el Bienestar específicamente en los estudiantes ha dado paso a diversos desarrollos teóricos e investigativos. Dado que la Inteligencia Emocional comprende las habilidades para percibir, comprender y manejar adecuadamente las propias emociones, su estudio ha impactado fuertemente en el campo educativo. El presente estudio tiene por objetivo evaluar la relación existente entre los constructos Inteligencia Emocional, Satisfacción Vital y Potencial Resiliente, en una muestra de estudiantes universitarios de Psicología. Asimismo, interesa conocer el papel que la Inteligencia Emocional tiene como predictor de la Satisfacción con la Vida y el Potencial Resiliente. Se realizó un estudio correlacional, con una muestra intencional conformada por 96 estudiantes de la carrera de Psicología de una universidad pública de Buenos Aires. Los resultados obtenidos permiten afirmar la presencia de relaciones positivas significativas entre Inteligencia Emocional, Satisfacción Vital y Potencial Resiliente. Los participantes con altos niveles de Inteligencia Emocional muestran mayor Satisfacción Vital, así como mayores Factores de Protección Personales, Familiares y Fuentes de Resiliencia. La dimensión Bienestar Psicológico de la Inteligencia Emocional resultó ser el mejor predictor tanto de la Satisfacción con la Vida como de la escala de Factores de Protección Personales.In the last decades the interest to study the influence that the Emotional Intelligence has towards Vital Satisfaction and Welfare specifically among students has led to several theoretical and research developments. Considering that Emotional Intelligence involves the abilities to perceive, understand and manage the emotions in a proper way, its study has had a strong impact on the educational field. The objetive of the present study is to assess the

  4. A Europe-wide experiment for assessing the impact of genotype-environment interactions on the vitality and performance of honey bee colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Cecilia; Büchler, Ralph; Berg, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    An international experiment to estimate the importance of genotype-environment interactions on vitality and performance of honey bees and on colony losses was run between July 2009 and March 2012. Altogether 621 bee colonies, involving 16 different genetic origins of European honey bees, were tes...

  5. Objective structured clinical examination for undergraduates: Is it a feasible approach to standardized assessment in India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita R Bhatnagar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been a growing concern among medical educators about the quality of medical graduates trained in various medical colleges in our country. Data based on the faculty and student perceptions of undergraduate curriculum indicate a need for laying more stress on practical skills during their training and assessment. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE is a reliable and an established and effective multistation test for the assessment of practical skills in an objective and a transparent manner. The aim of this article is to sensitize universities, examiners, organizers, faculty, and students across India to OSCE. Materials and Methods: We designed an assessment based on 22-station OSCE and administered it to 67 students during their final year, integrating all the domains of learning, that is higher order cognitive domain, psychomotor domain, and affective domain. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 15. Results: The OSCE was feasible to conduct and had high perceived construct validity. There was a significant correlation between the station score and total examination score for 19 stations. The reliability of this OSCE was 0.778. Both students and faculty members expressed a high degree of satisfaction with the format. Conclusion: Integrating a range of modalities into an OSCE in ophthalmology appears to represent a valid and reliable method of examination. The biggest limitation with this format was the direct expenditure of time and energy of those organizing an OSCE; therefore, sustaining the motivation of faculty might pose a challenge.

  6. Assessment of Groundwater quality in Krishnagiri and Vellore Districts in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundharam, A.; Kalpana, G.; Mahapatra, S. R.; Sudharson, E. R.; Jayaprakash, M.

    2015-11-01

    Groundwater quality is important as it is the main factor determining its suitability for drinking, domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. The suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation has been assessed in north and eastern part of Krishnagiri district, South-western part of Vellore district and contiguous with Andhra Pradesh states, India. A total of 31 groundwater samples were collected in the study area. The groundwater quality assessment has been carried out by evaluating the physicochemical parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, HCO3^{ - } , Cl-, SO4^{2 - } , Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+. The dominant cations are in the order of Na+ > K+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ while the dominant anions have the trends of Cl- > HCO3^{ - } > SO4^{2 - } > CO3. The quality of the water is evaluated using Wilcox diagram and the results reveals that most of the samples are found to be suitable for irrigation. Based on these parameters, groundwater has been assessed in favor of its suitability for drinking and irrigation purpose.

  7. Importance of language skill learning of dental undergraduates: need assessment and remediation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchbhai, Arati

    2016-03-01

    For students entering health education, it is essential to learn the languages that are native to the place of education. The study is undertaken with purpose to assess language skill of undergraduate students at Sharad Pawar Dental College in India so that remedying can be planned at their entry to the new course. This cross-sectional study was done from September 2014 to February 2015. The 157 dental undergraduates were subjected to structured questionnaire that has items on their assessment of three languages i.e., Marathi, Hindi and English. Later, the need assessment to develop language skills of students was done through focus group discussions. Students` perception about language classes was obtained through interviews. The correct response rate of study participants to test items on three languages ranged from 69.4%-81.05% and 82.5%-91.59% for first and second year, respectively. There were significant differences in response rate among three language item groups. The language classes brought out appreciable changes in their understanding of local languages. Study brought out need to address language gaps to aid to smooth out their transitions in new institute.

  8. Life cycle assessment of Jatropha biodiesel as transportation fuel in rural India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achten, Wouter M.J. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Celestijnenlaan 200 E-2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Regional Office for South Asia, CG Block, 1st Floor, National Agricultural Science Centre, Dev Prakash Shastri Marg, Pusa, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Almeida, Joana [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Celestijnenlaan 200 E-2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Grupo de Disciplinas da Ecologia da Hidrosfera, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Fobelets, Vincent; Bolle, Evelien; Muys, Bart [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Celestijnenlaan 200 E-2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Mathijs, Erik [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Agricultural and Food Economics, Celestijnenlaan 200 E-2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Singh, Virendra P. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Regional Office for South Asia, CG Block, 1st Floor, National Agricultural Science Centre, Dev Prakash Shastri Marg, Pusa, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Tewari, Dina N. [Utthan NGO, Centre for Sustainable Development and Poverty Alleviation, 18-A, Auckland Road, Civil Lines, Allahabad 211 001 (India); Verchot, Louis V. [Centre for International Forestry Research, P.O. Box 0113 BOCBD, Bogor 16000 (Indonesia)

    2010-12-15

    Since 2003 India has been actively promoting the cultivation of Jatropha on unproductive and degraded lands (wastelands) for the production of biodiesel suitable as transportation fuel. In this paper the life cycle energy balance, global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and land use impact on ecosystem quality is evaluated for a small scale, low-input Jatropha biodiesel system established on wasteland in rural India. In addition to the life cycle assessment of the case at hand, the environmental performance of the same system expanded with a biogas installation digesting seed cake was quantified. The environmental impacts were compared to the life cycle impacts of a fossil fuel reference system delivering the same amount of products and functions as the Jatropha biodiesel system under research. The results show that the production and use of Jatropha biodiesel triggers an 82% decrease in non-renewable energy requirement (Net Energy Ratio, NER = 1.85) and a 55% reduction in global warming potential (GWP) compared to the reference fossil-fuel based system. However, there is an increase in acidification (49%) and eutrophication (430%) from the Jatropha system relative to the reference case. Although adding biogas production to the system boosts the energy efficiency of the system (NER = 3.40), the GWP reduction would not increase (51%) due to additional CH{sub 4} emissions. For the land use impact, Jatropha improved the structural ecosystem quality when planted on wasteland, but reduced the functional ecosystem quality. Fertilizer application (mainly N) is an important contributor to most negative impact categories. Optimizing fertilization, agronomic practices and genetics are the major system improvement options. (author)

  9. Hygiene on maternity units: lessons from a needs assessment in Bangladesh and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Cross

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the proportion of deliveries in health institutions increases in low- and middle-income countries, so do the challenges of maintaining standards of hygiene and preventing healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs in mothers and babies. Adequate water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH and infection prevention and control (IPC in these settings should be seen as integral parts of the broader domain of quality care. Assessment approaches are needed which capture standards for both WASH and IPC, and so inform quality improvement processes. Design: A needs assessment was conducted in seven maternity units in Gujarat, India, and eight in Dhaka Division, Bangladesh in 2014. The WASH & CLEAN study developed and applied a suite of tools – a ‘walkthrough checklist’ which included the collection of swab samples, a facility needs assessment tool and document review, and qualitative interviews with staff and recently delivered women – to establish the state of hygiene as measured by visual cleanliness and the presence of potential pathogens, and individual and contextual determinants or drivers. Results: No clear relationship was found between visually assessed cleanliness and the presence of pathogens; findings from qualitative interviews and the facility questionnaire found inadequacies in IPC training for healthcare providers and no formal training at all for ward cleaners. Lack of written policies and protocols, and poor monitoring and supervision also contributed to suboptimal IPC standards. Conclusions: Visual assessment of cleanliness and hygiene is an inadequate marker for ‘safety’ in terms of the presence of potential pathogens and associated risk of infection. Routine environmental screening of high-risk touch sites using simple microbiology could improve detection and control of pathogens. IPC training for both healthcare providers and ward cleaners represents an important opportunity for quality improvement. This should

  10. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF "TREATING VITALITY" AND "RESERVING VITALITY"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    "Treating vital ity "and" reserving vital ity"are very important manipulations during acupuncture treatment of diseases. "Treating vitality" comprises adjusting and treating both the acupuncture doctor's and the patient's vitality; while "reserving vitality" demands the acupuncture doctor carefully to experience the sponses, and then perform reducing or reinforcing needling manipulations in accordance with the state of excess- or deficiency- syndrome. "Treating vitality" and "reserving vitality" impenetrate the whole process of acupuncture treatment all along. Through years' clinical practice, the author of the present paper discusses the functions of the two aspects in every stage of acupuncture treatment, including before acupuncture, during needle insertion, during retention and withdrawal of the needle. The purpose of this paper is to explain the clinical significance of treating and reserving vitality and arouse many acupuncture doctors' attention.

  11. Veterinary pharmacovigilance in India: A need of hour

    OpenAIRE

    Rishi Kumar; Vivekanandan Kalaiselvan; Ravendra Verma; Ismeet Kaur; Pranay Kumar; Singh, G. N.

    2017-01-01

    Veterinary pharmacovigilance (PV) is important for the Medicine which are used for treating disease in animals. It becomes more important when these animals are further used for producing food. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) have a direct impact on animals and indirect impact on human beings, for example, through milk products, other animal producing food products. Currently, PV program of India is playing a vital role in assessing the safety of medicines in Indian Population. The safety of me...

  12. A comparative study to assess the effect of oral alprazolam as premedication on vital parameters of patients during surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Joshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate and monitor the changes in vital parameters of patients during surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars. Methods: This was an in vivo study conducted in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of Terna Dental College. Sixty patients were randomly selected. Thirty patients were given a preoperative single dose of oral tablet alprazolam 0.5 mg as premedication (test group, whereas the other thirty were treated without any premedication (control group. Results: It was found that the mean systolic blood pressure during surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar was raised in the control group and exhibited minimal fluctuation in the test group. Conclusion: The use of tablet alprazolam as premedication before surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars resulted in stability of vital parameters, secondary to reduced patient anxiety.

  13. A novel risk assessment method for landfill slope failure: Case study application for Bhalswa Dumpsite, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanfar, Ali; Amirmojahedi, Mohsen; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Dubey, Brajesh; McBean, Edward; Kumar, Dinesh

    2017-03-01

    Rapid population growth of major urban centres in many developing countries has created massive landfills with extraordinary heights and steep side-slopes, which are frequently surrounded by illegal low-income residential settlements developed too close to landfills. These extraordinary landfills are facing high risks of catastrophic failure with potentially large numbers of fatalities. This study presents a novel method for risk assessment of landfill slope failure, using probabilistic analysis of potential failure scenarios and associated fatalities. The conceptual framework of the method includes selecting appropriate statistical distributions for the municipal solid waste (MSW) material shear strength and rheological properties for potential failure scenario analysis. The MSW material properties for a given scenario is then used to analyse the probability of slope failure and the resulting run-out length to calculate the potential risk of fatalities. In comparison with existing methods, which are solely based on the probability of slope failure, this method provides a more accurate estimate of the risk of fatalities associated with a given landfill slope failure. The application of the new risk assessment method is demonstrated with a case study for a landfill located within a heavily populated area of New Delhi, India.

  14. Assessment of exposure to chemical agents and ergonomic stressors in tanneries in Kanpur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ory, F G; Rahman, F U; Katagade, V; Shukla, A; Burdorf, A

    1997-10-01

    In developing countries qualitative assessment of exposure at the workplace may be an essential tool in evaluating hazardous working conditions. This survey reports on qualitative assessment of exposure to chemicals, dust, and ergonomic stressors among 298 workers in 15 tanneries in Kanpur, India. In general, chemical exposure and dermal exposure were highest among beamhouse workers, less for workers involved in dry finishing activities, and lowest for those performing the wet finishing of hides. Dermal exposure was rated as high to very high during beamhouse activities, reflecting direct contact with wet hides and manual handling of hides in soak tanks. Relevant dust exposure was observed only during dry finishing activities. Most workers experienced severe postural load due to working in trunk flexion and rotation for more than 50% of their daily work time. In addition, manual materials handling with loads over 20 kg frequently occurred. The size of the tannery, in general a reflection of state of technology, showed no systematic influence on exposure profiles. The survey suggested that mechanization of material transfer and application of trolleys reduced the work time with trunk flexion and rotation and implied less manual lifting. The presence of local exhaust ventilation in large tanneries seemed to reduce the chemical exposure. This survey has demonstrated the importance of rapid appraisal techniques for evaluating hazardous conditions at the workplace. In developing countries this approach may facilitate occupational hygiene research and practice.

  15. ICT in Universities of the Western Himalayan Region in India: Status, Performance- An Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirendra Sharma

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes a live project study carried out for the universities located in the western Himalayan region of India in the year 2009. The objective of this study is to undertake the task of assessment regarding initiative, utilization of ICT resources, its performance and impact in these higher educational institutions/universities. In order to answer these, initially basic four- tier framework was prepared. Followed by a questionnaire containing different ICT components 18 different groups like vision, planning, implementation, ICT infrastructure and related activities exhibiting performance. Primary data in the form of feedback on the five point scale, of the questionnaire, was gathered from six universities of the region. A simple statistical analysis was undertaken using weighted mean, to assess the ICT initiative, status and performance of various universities. In the process, a question related to Performance Indicator was identified from each group, whose Coefficient of Correlation was calculated. This study suggests that a progressive vision, planning and initiative regarding academic syllabi, ICT infrastructure, used in training the skilled human resource, is going to have a favourable impact through actual placement, research and play a dominant role at the National and International level.

  16. Assessment of fluoride level in groundwater and prevalence of dental fluorosis in Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, M; Husain, I; Hussain, J; Kumar, S

    2013-10-01

    In India, for the high concentration of fluoride in groundwater, people are at risk of dental fluorosis. The problem is common in various states of India. The condition in Rajasthan is worse where all districts have such a problem. To study the fluoride concentration in groundwater and prevalence of dental fluorosis in Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India. The fluoride concentration in water of 54 villages was measured electrochemically, using fluoride ion selective electrode. Dental fluorosis was assessed in 1136 people residing in study area by Dean's classification for dental fluorosis. The fluoride concentration in groundwater in studied sites ranged from 0.5 to 8.5 mg/L. The concentration of fluoride was more than the maximum permissible limit set by WHO and Bureau of Indian Standards (1 mg/L) in 48 groundwater sources. Of 1136 people studied, 788 (69.4%; 95% CI: 66.7%-72.1%) had dental fluoros---252 had mild and 74 had severe dental fluorosis. High level of fluoride in drinking water of Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India, causes dental fluorosis in most people in the region and is an important health problem that needs prompt attention.

  17. Assessment of Fluoride Level in Groundwater and Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis in Didwana Block of Nagaur District, Central Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, for the high concentration of fluoride in groundwater, people are at risk of dental fluorosis. The problem is common in various states of India. The condition in Rajasthan is worse where all districts have such a problem.Objective: To study the fluoride concentration in groundwater and prevalence of dental fluorosis in Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India.Methods: The fluoride concentration in water of 54 villages was measured electrochemically, using fluoride ion selective electrode. Dental fluorosis was assessed in 1136 people residing in study area by Dean's classification for dental fluorosis.Results: The fluoride concentration in groundwater in studied sites ranged from 0.5 to 8.5 mg/L. The concentration of fluoride was more than the maximum permissible limit set by WHO and Bureau of Indian Standards (1 mg/L in 48 groundwater sources. Of 1136 people studied, 788 (69.4%; 95% CI: 66.7%–72.1% had dental fluorosis—252 had mild and 74 had severe dental fluorosis.Conclusion: High level of fluoride in drinking water of Didwana block of Nagaur district, Central Rajasthan, India, causes dental fluorosis in most people in the region and is an important health problem that needs prompt attention.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF DROUGHT TOLERANCE IN FEW CLONES OF NATURAL RUBBER (Hevea brasiliensis UNDER DRY HOT CLIMATE OF ODISHA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan B

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to assess the drought tolerance at the early stages of growth in different clones of natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis at the Regional Research Station of Rubber Research Institute of India at Kadalipal, Dhenkanal, Odisha in eastern region of India. Poly bag plants of five clones RRII 430, RRII 105, RRIM 600, RRII 208 and IRCA 111 were assessed for the drought tolerance and compared drought injury indices status with same clones growing naturally in the adjoining field. Results of drought injury indicated scorching, leaf yellowing, drying and leaf fall at regular intervals, since imposition of drought stress conditions. Among various tested clones RRIM 600 and RRII 430 have comparatively higher drought tolerant. Plants under field condition showed drought injury symptoms much later than the poly bag plants. Drought indices, tolerance of drought of different clones and possible reasons have been also discussed

  19. Vitalism, purpose and superstition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Saher, Marieke

    2007-02-01

    Developmental studies have shown that children assign purpose to objects more liberally than adults, and that they explain biological processes in terms of vitalistic causality. This study tested the hypothesis that similar misconceptions can be found among superstitious adults. The results from 116 superstitious and 123 sceptical individuals showed that more than sceptics, superstitious individuals attributed purpose to objects, and explained biological processes in terms of organ intentionality and energy transmission. In addition, they thought of energy as a vital force, attributing life and mental properties to it. These conceptual confusions were positively associated to all types of superstitions as well as belief in alternative medicine. The results support the argument that category mistakes and ontological confusions underlie superstitious and vitalistic thinking.

  20. Ethnolinguistic Vitality and Intergroup Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehala, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The paper argues that ethnolinguistic vitality depends on four crucial social psychological factors: perceived strength differential, intergroup distance, utilitarianism and intergroup discordance. The influence of these factors on the vitality of subordinate and dominant groups is outlined. It is proposed that the vitality of both types of groups…

  1. Ethnolinguistic Vitality and Intergroup Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehala, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The paper argues that ethnolinguistic vitality depends on four crucial social psychological factors: perceived strength differential, intergroup distance, utilitarianism and intergroup discordance. The influence of these factors on the vitality of subordinate and dominant groups is outlined. It is proposed that the vitality of both types of groups…

  2. Nuclear Deterrence in South Asia - an Assessment of Deterrence and Stability in the India-Pakistan Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Westh, Mark; Juel Giorgio, Maia; Wiegersma, Jakob; Madsen, Tina

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers a coherent assessment of the stability created by nuclear deterrence between India and Pakistan. Our examination posits the neorealist understanding of the stability created by nuclear deterrence in relation to alternative frameworks. To unfold the varying theoretical presuppositions upon which the concept of stability is based, three logically constructed analyses will be undertaken where the theories are explored in relation to empirical data. The Kargil Crisis in 1999 an...

  3. Ergonomic Assessment and Musculoskeletal Health of the Underpri¬vileged School Children in Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithra Rajan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal health in schoolchildren is a global health problem. The objective of the current study was to assess ergonomic be¬havior and muscu-loskeletal health in urban poor schoolchildren in Pune, India. Methods: Sixty-five (29 male students slum dwelling schoolchildren were assessed for their ergonomics using a validated and reliable tool. Results: Average age was 13 years. Out of 65 students, 36 reported pres¬ence of musculoskeletal pain. In addition, 78.5% had bad ergonomics when lifting books. Sitting posture was poor in 67.7%, while 50.8% dem¬onstrated bad posture while using a computer. As far as the female stu¬dents were concerned, it was seen that out of 36 students, 55.6% com¬plained of presence of pain. Out of the 20 students who reported pain, 70% had a score lower than 7.5 on ergonomic score assessment (indicative of bad ergonomics. When the male students were considered, out of 29 students, 65.5% reported presence of pain. Out of the 19 students who reported pain, close to 79% demonstrated bad ergonomics. Conclusion: There is presence of musculoskeletal aches and pains in this under-privileged section of the society, including demonstration of bad er¬gonomics and postures while performing activities in school. Thus, mus¬culoskeletal health prob-lems exist in urban slum schoolchildren. It is im¬portant to identify health problems at an early stage in both boys and girls. Children are the future of the nation and hence, identification of health issues early in life and preventing them from becoming chronic is of utmost importance.

  4. Groundwater quality in Ghaziabad district, Uttar Pradesh, India: Multivariate and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabukdhara, Mayuri; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Kotecha, Yatharth; Nema, Arvind K

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the quality of groundwater and potential health risk due to ingestion of heavy metals in the peri-urban and urban-industrial clusters of Ghaziabad district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Furthermore, the study aimed to evaluate heavy metals sources and their pollution level using multivariate analysis and fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA), respectively. Multivariate analysis using principle component analysis (PCA) showed mixed origin for Pb, Cd, Zn, Fe, and Ni, natural source for Cu and Mn and anthropogenic source for Cr. Among all the metals, Pb, Cd, Fe and Ni were above the safe limits of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and World Health Organization (WHO) except Ni. Health risk in terms of hazard quotient (HQ) showed that the HQ values for children were higher than the safe level (HQ = 1) for Pb (2.4) and Cd (2.1) in pre-monsoon while in post-monsoon the value exceeded only for Pb (HQ = 1.23). The health risks of heavy metals for the adults were well within safe limits. The finding of this study indicates potential health risks to the children due to chronic exposure to contaminated groundwater in the region. Based on FCA, groundwater pollution could be categorized as quite high in the peri-urban region, and absolutely high in the urban region of Ghaziabad district. This study showed that different approaches are required for the integrated assessment of the groundwater pollution, and provides a scientific basis for the strategic future planning and comprehensive management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High resolution multi model Climate change scenario over India including first uncertainty assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Wiltshire, A.; Asharaf, S.; Ahrens, B.; Lucas-Picher, P.; Christensen, J. H.; Gobiet, A.; Saeed, F.; Hagemann, S.; Jacob, D.

    2011-12-01

    This study presents the possible regional climate change over SA with a focus over India as simulated by three very-high-resolution regional climate models. The models are driven by the same lateral boundary conditions from two global models (ECHAM5-MPIOM and HadCM3) under the IPCC AR4 SRES A1B scenario at horizontal resolution of ~25km, except one model which is simulated for only one GCM. The results are presented for two time slices 2021-2050 and 2070-2099. The analysis concentrates along precipitation and temperature over land and focuses mainly on the monsoon season. The circulation parameter is also discussed. In general all models show a clear signal of gradual wide-spread warming throughout the 21st century. The ensemble-mean warming evident at the end of 2050 is 1-2K, whereas it is 3-5K at the end of century. The projected pattern of the precipitation change shows spatial variability. The increase in precipitation is noticed over peninsular and coastal areas and no change or decrease over areas away from the ocean. The influence of the driving GCM on projected precipitation change simulated with each RCM is as strong as the variability among the RCMs driven with one GCM. Some results of the first uncertainties assessment are also presented.

  6. Multi-Hazard Vulnerability Assessment Along the Coast of Visakhapatnam, North-East Coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, G.; Grinivasa Kumar, T.

    2016-08-01

    The current study area is coastal zone of Visakhapatnam, district of Andhra Pradesh along the coast of India. This area is mostly vulnerable to many disasters such as storms, cyclone, flood, tsunami and erosion. This area is considered as cyclone prone area because of frequently occurrence of the cyclones in this area. Recently the two tropical cyclones that formed in the Bay of Bengal are Hudhud (October 13, 2014) and Phylin (October 11, 2013), has caused devastating impacts on the eastern coast and shows that the country has lack of preparedness to cyclone, storm surge and related natural hazards. The multi-hazard vulnerability maps prepared here are a blended and combined overlay of multiple hazards those affecting the coastal zone. The present study aims to develop a methodology for coastal multi-hazard vulnerability assessment. This study carried out using parameters like probability of coastal slope, tsunami arrival height, future sea level rise, coastal erosion and tidal range. The multi-hazard vulnerability maps prepared by overlaying of multi hazards those affecting the coastal zone. Multi-hazard vulnerability maps further reproduced as risk maps with the land use information. The decision making tools presented here can provide a useful information during the disaster for the evacuation process and to evolve a management strategy.

  7. Deterministic Seismic Hazard Assessment at Bed Rock Level: Case Study for the City of Bhubaneswar, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanti Rout

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study an updated deterministic seismic hazard contour map of Bhubaneswar (20°12'0"N to 20°23'0"N latitude and 85°44'0"E to 85° 54'0"E longitude one of the major city of India with tourist importance, has been prepared in the form of spectral acceleration values. For assessing the seismic hazard, the study area has been divided into small grids of size 30˝×30˝ (approximately 1.0 km×1.0 km, and the hazard parameters in terms of spectral acceleration at bedrock level, PGA are calculated as the center of each of these grid cells by considering the regional Seismo-tectonic activity within 400 km radius around the city center. The maximum credible earthquake in terms of moment magnitude of 7.2 has been used for calculation of hazard parameter, results in PGA value of 0.017g towards the northeast side of the city and the corresponding maximum spectral acceleration as 0.0501g for a predominant period of 0.05s at bedrock level.

  8. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of Ranipet industrial area, Tamil Nadu, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Tamma Rao; V V S Gurunadha Rao; K Ranganathan

    2013-06-01

    One of the highly polluted areas in India located at Ranipet occupies around 200 tanneries and other small scale chemical industries. Partially treated industrial effluents combined with sewage and other wastes discharged on the surface cause severe groundwater pollution in the industrial belt. This poses a problem of supply of safe drinking water in the rural parts of the country. A study was carried out to assess the groundwater pollution and identify major variables affecting the groundwater quality in Ranipet industrial area. Twenty five wells were monitored during pre- and post-monsoon in 2008 and analyzed for the major physico-chemical variables. The water quality variables such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Iron (Fe2+), Hexavalent Chromium (Cr6+), at most of the sampling locations exceeded the ISI and WHO guideline levels for drinking water. Multivariate statistical techniques such as factor analysis were applied to identify the major factors (variables) corresponding to the different source of variation in groundwater quality. The water quality of groundwater is influenced by both anthropogenic and chemical weathering. The most serious pollution threat to groundwater is from TDS, Cr6+ and Fe2+, which are associated with sewage and pollution of tannery waste. The study reveals that the groundwater quality changed due to anthropogenic and natural influences such as agricultural, natural weathering process.

  9. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality assessment of Ranipet industrial area, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G. Tamma; Rao, V. V. S. Gurunadha; Ranganathan, K.

    2013-06-01

    One of the highly polluted areas in India located at Ranipet occupies around 200 tanneries and other small scale chemical industries. Partially treated industrial effluents combined with sewage and other wastes discharged on the surface cause severe groundwater pollution in the industrial belt. This poses a problem of supply of safe drinking water in the rural parts of the country. A study was carried out to assess the groundwater pollution and identify major variables affecting the groundwater quality in Ranipet industrial area. Twenty five wells were monitored during pre- and post-monsoon in 2008 and analyzed for the major physico-chemical variables. The water quality variables such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Iron (Fe2 + ), Hexavalent Chromium (Cr6 + ), at most of the sampling locations exceeded the ISI and WHO guideline levels for drinking water. Multivariate statistical techniques such as factor analysis were applied to identify the major factors (variables) corresponding to the different source of variation in groundwater quality. The water quality of groundwater is influenced by both anthropogenic and chemical weathering. The most serious pollution threat to groundwater is from TDS, Cr6 + and Fe2 + , which are associated with sewage and pollution of tannery waste. The study reveals that the groundwater quality changed due to anthropogenic and natural influences such as agricultural, natural weathering process.

  10. Drinking Water Quality Assessment Studies for an Urbanized Part of the Nagpur District, Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varade, Abhay M; Yenkie, Rajshree; Shende, Rahul; Kodate, Jaya

    2014-01-01

    The water quality of Hingna area of Nagpur district, Central India was assessed for its suitability as drinking water. 22 water samples, representing both the surface and groundwater sources, were collected and analysed for different inorganic constituents by using the standard procedures. The result depicted abundance of major ions; Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+ > K+ = HCO3- > Cl- > SO4(2-) > NO3-. The concentrations of different elements in water were compared with the drinking water standards defined by World Health Organization (WHO). The hydro-chemical results reveal that most of the samples were within the desirable limits of the drinking water quality. However, few samples of the area, showed higher values of total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), and magnesium (Mg) indicating their 'hard water type' nature and found to be unfit for the drinking purpose. Such poor water quality of these samples is found due to the combined effect of urbanization and industrial activities. The potential health risks associated with various water parameters have also been documented in this paper.

  11. Drinking water quality assessment of rain water harvested in ferrocement tanks in Alappuzha District, Kerala (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Jainy; Jaya, D S

    2008-04-01

    The study was conducted to assess the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of stored rain water in the ferrocement tanks of Alappuzha District, Kerala (India). Representative water samples were collected on random basis from ten stations (S1 to S10) with rain water harvesting facility during the periods January 2006 and April 2006. The present study revealed that the physico-chemical characteristics of stored rain water analysed during the winter and summer seasons were within the permissible drinking water standard limits prescribed by W.H.O. Microbiological analysis showed that most of the stored rainwater samples had microbial contamination in both winter and summer seasons and the bacterial count was above the permissible standards for drinking water. Faecal coliforms were also detected in the stored rain water samples collected from eight stations during the summer season. The present study revealed that the quality of stored rain water is suitable for drinking purpose in terms of physical and chemical characteristics. However, disinfection is necessary to make the water microbially safe for drinking purposes.

  12. Assessing knowledge of primary school teachers on specific learning disabilities in two schools in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingeswaran, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of fund of knowledge about SLD among kindergarten and primary school teachers is essential to avoid misdiagnosis of SLD and to plan for specific teacher education to enable early identification of SLD among children. To assess the knowledge of learning disability among primary school teachers in India and to investigate its psychometric properties. An observational study was carried out 34 primary school teachers from 2 different schools in Puducherry town agreed to participate in this study with informed consent. We used a multiple choice questionnaire format with a total of 50 questions, 5 choices for each question and a total score of 50. The study was held at the schools where these teachers were employed using pen and paper testing method and data were entered into the computer for statistical analysis. Total scores on the questionnaire of all teachers were calculated. Content validity, reliability coefficient, discrimination factor, and facility factor were analyzed using SPSS software. 29% of the questions were correctly answered by all 34 teachers. The mean total score for this sample was 14.50 ± 9 and total item score for the 50 items was 9.90 ± 4. Cronbach's (α) reliability was 0.89. Overall discrimination index was + 0.2 and facility factor analysis score was 0.26. Validation of this new screening questionnaire was successful in Indian setting. It has to be used in other settings to extrapolate our findings.

  13. Statistical assessment of seafront and beach water quality of Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Kamble, Swapnil R; Dhage, S S; Sohony, R A; Wate, S R

    2011-01-01

    The water quality of seafronts and beaches of Mumbai is under pressure and deteriorating due to discharge of partially treated sewage and wastewater through point and nonpoint sources. The objective of the study was to assess the water quality and to correlate physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters for establishing relationship, association and dependence on each other. The water quality parameters were selected as per SW II standards specified by Central Pollution Control Board, India and nutrient parameters as strong indicators of sewage pollution. Box and whisker plots were generated for evaluating spatio temporal variation of water quality which suggest influence of organic pollution mostly at Mahim and Dadar in the form of outliers and extremes. Pearson's correlations were estimated between parameters and found significant correlation with each other indicating influence of sewage on water quality. The water quality of beaches and seafronts were found unsafe for recreational purposes. The study suggested that designated water quality can be achieved by restricting nonpoint source through improvement in wastewater collection systems, appropriate level of treatment and proper disposal.

  14. Improving the estimation of the tuberculosis burden in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, Krycia; Dandona, Rakhi; Dandona, Lalit

    2014-11-01

    Although India is considered to be the country with the greatest tuberculosis burden, estimates of the disease's incidence, prevalence and mortality in India rely on sparse data with substantial uncertainty. The relevant available data are less reliable than those from countries that have recently improved systems for case reporting or recently invested in national surveys of tuberculosis prevalence. We explored ways to improve the estimation of the tuberculosis burden in India. We focused on case notification data - among the most reliable data available - and ways to investigate the associated level of underreporting, as well as the need for a national tuberculosis prevalence survey. We discuss several recent developments - i.e. changes in national policies relating to tuberculosis, World Health Organization guidelines for the investigation of the disease, and a rapid diagnostic test - that should improve data collection for the estimation of the tuberculosis burden in India and elsewhere. We recommend the implementation of an inventory study in India to assess the underreporting of tuberculosis cases, as well as a national survey of tuberculosis prevalence. A national assessment of drug resistance in Indian strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis should also be considered. The results of such studies will be vital for the accurate monitoring of tuberculosis control efforts in India and globally.

  15. Environmental Assessment on the Operative Mode of Tanneries And Brickfields In India Using Water Footprint Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zareena Begum Irfan

    2016-07-01

    India is getting serious day-by-day. Water scarcity is fast becoming urban India's number one woe, with government's own data revealing that residents in 22 out of 32 major cities have to deal with daily shortages. In this paper the authors calculate the water footprint in Indian brick manufacturing industry and leather industry to assess their water intensity.

  16. Economics, energy, and environmental assessment of diversified crop rotations in sub-Himalayas of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman Jeet; Meena, Roshan Lal; Sharma, N K; Kumar, Suresh; Kumar, Kuldeep; Kumar, Dileep

    2016-02-01

    Reducing the carbon footprint and increasing energy use efficiency of crop rotations are the two most important sustainability issues of the modern agriculture. Present study was undertaken to assess economics, energy, and environmental parameters of common diversified crop rotations (maize-tomato, and maize-toria-wheat) vis-a-vis traditional crop rotations like maize-wheat, maize + ginger and rice-wheat of the north-western Himalayan region of India. Results revealed that maize-tomato and maize + ginger crop rotations being on par with each other produced significantly higher system productivity in terms of maize equivalent yield (30.2-36.2 t/ha) than other crop rotations (5.04-7.68 t/ha). But interestingly in terms of energy efficiencies, traditional maize-wheat system (energy efficiency 7.9, human energy profitability of 177.8 and energy profitability of 6.9 MJ/ha) was significantly superior over other systems. Maize + ginger rotation showed greater competitive advantage over other rotations because of less consumption of non-renewable energy resources. Similarly, maize-tomato rotation had ability of the production process to exploit natural resources due to 14-38% less use of commercial or purchased energy sources over other crop rotations. Vegetable-based crop rotations (maize + ginger and maize-tomato) maintained significantly the least carbon footprint (0.008 and 0.019 kg CO2 eq./kg grain, respectively) and the highest profitability (154,322 and 274,161 Rs./ha net return, respectively) over other crop rotations. As the greatest inputs of energy and carbon across the five crop rotations were nitrogen fertilizer (15-29% and 17-28%, respectively), diesel (14-24% and 8-19%, respectively) and irrigation (10-27% and 11-44%, respectively), therefore, alternative sources like organic farming, conservation agriculture practices, soil and water conservation measures, rain water harvesting etc. should be encouraged to reduce dependency of direct energy and external

  17. Assessing young unmarried men's access to reproductive health information and services in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saavala Minna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the accessibility of reproductive health information and contraceptives in a relatively less developed area of rural central India and assessed the risks facing young unmarried men. Methods This cross-sectional study used both qualitative and quantitative methods. Participants included 38 unmarried rural men in four focus-group discussions and a representative sample of 316 similarly profiled men, aged 17-22 years, in a survey. Information was collected on the men's socioeconomic characteristics; awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of family planning; attitudes toward future contraceptive use; intra-family communication; knowledge about STIs/HIV/AIDS; and access and use of condoms. Content analysis for qualitative information and descriptive analysis for survey data were used to draw conclusions. Results Young unmarried rural Indian men's sexual and reproductive health (SRH knowledge is limited, although the majority is familiar with condoms (99%. The young men identified electronic mass media (67% as the prime source of reproductive health information, yet they lacked detailed knowledge of various contraceptives and felt ignored by health providers, who, they felt, would be capable of providing SRH information through interpersonal communication. Young men are more concerned about avoiding infections and securing sexual pleasure and less concerned about avoiding potential pregnancies. For example, 68% of the young men were aware of condoms and their HIV/AIDS preventive role, but only about two-fifths mentioned condom use to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Although most young men (96% knew where to access a condom, they felt uncomfortable or embarrassed doing so in their own villages or close by because of socio-cultural norms that prevented them from using contraceptives. Very few respondents (4% disclosed using condoms themselves, but 59% said they knew someone from their peer group who had used them

  18. Assessing young unmarried men's access to reproductive health information and services in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Char, Arundhati; Saavala, Minna; Kulmala, Teija

    2011-06-17

    We investigated the accessibility of reproductive health information and contraceptives in a relatively less developed area of rural central India and assessed the risks facing young unmarried men. This cross-sectional study used both qualitative and quantitative methods. Participants included 38 unmarried rural men in four focus-group discussions and a representative sample of 316 similarly profiled men, aged 17-22 years, in a survey. Information was collected on the men's socioeconomic characteristics; awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of family planning; attitudes toward future contraceptive use; intra-family communication; knowledge about STIs/HIV/AIDS; and access and use of condoms. Content analysis for qualitative information and descriptive analysis for survey data were used to draw conclusions. Young unmarried rural Indian men's sexual and reproductive health (SRH) knowledge is limited, although the majority is familiar with condoms (99%). The young men identified electronic mass media (67%) as the prime source of reproductive health information, yet they lacked detailed knowledge of various contraceptives and felt ignored by health providers, who, they felt, would be capable of providing SRH information through interpersonal communication. Young men are more concerned about avoiding infections and securing sexual pleasure and less concerned about avoiding potential pregnancies. For example, 68% of the young men were aware of condoms and their HIV/AIDS preventive role, but only about two-fifths mentioned condom use to prevent unwanted pregnancies. Although most young men (96%) knew where to access a condom, they felt uncomfortable or embarrassed doing so in their own villages or close by because of socio-cultural norms that prevented them from using contraceptives. Very few respondents (4%) disclosed using condoms themselves, but 59% said they knew someone from their peer group who had used them. Young unmarried men in rural India are underserved with

  19. Changes in metal contamination levels in estuarine sediments around India – An assessment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Ramteke, D.; Chakraborty, S.; Nath, B.N.

    range median analysis were used to evaluate the quality of the estuarine sediments (by using the available literature data). This study suggests that estuarine sediments from the east coast of India were comparatively less contaminated by metals than...

  20. Local climate assessments in data scarce mountain areas; for example Kullu district, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsbauer, Andreas; Salzmann, Nadine; Rohrer, Mario

    2016-04-01

    High-mountain regions like the Himalayas and their adjacent downstream areas are often highly affected by climate change, climate variability and/or related extremes. As a result of cascading effects of rising air temperatures, melting glaciers, thawing permafrost - as well as anthropogenic water usage or changes in forest and agro-biodiversity - potential impacts on people's livelihood has broadened and increased. However, climate impacts assessments on physical and societal systems are often limited due to the scarcity of reliable long-term observations, particularly in remote high-mountain regions, which additionally also hampers robustness of future projections. Since livelihoods in remote high-mountain regions are particularly vulnerable to climate related impacts, and have typically only low adaptive capacities, studies assessing climate variability pattern of the past and for the future (climate baselines) are a fundamental requirement for sound impact assessments, and as such for preparing and planning adequate adaptation measures. Within the Indian Himalayas Climate Adaptation Programme (IHCAP) an integrated vulnerability and hazard and risk assessment is being conducted for the Kullu district in Himachal Pradesh, India, for the sake of supporting adaptation planning there. Related to these studies, the present work aims to provide an approach and according results for climatological baseline generation for regions without respective observations available or accessible. Here, we use observational gridded data sets (CRU, Delaware) and Reanalyses (ERA-20C, JRA-55, NCEP CFSR, ERA-i, NCEP/NCAR-R1) to provide spatially and temporally continuous data. For the grid boxes covering the area of interest, the time series for temperature are analysed and possible trends and variations are assessed for the time window 1981-2010, as well as the entire time line of the respective gridded dataset. The analyses reveal that the mean annual air temperatures over all levels

  1. Rapid assessment of trachoma in underserved population of Car-Nicobar Island, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashist, Praveen; Gupta, Noopur; Rathore, Abhilakh S; Shah, Anita; Singh, Suman

    2013-01-01

    To determine the burden of trachoma and its related risk factors amongst the native population of Car-Nicobar Island in India. Rapid assessment for trachoma was conducted in ten villages of Car-Nicobar Island according to standard WHO guidelines. An average of 50 children aged 1-9 years were assessed clinically for signs of active trachoma and facial cleanliness in each village. Additionally, all adults above 15 years of age in these households were examined for evidence of trachomatous trichiasis and corneal opacity. Environmental risk factors contributing to trachoma like limited access to potable water & functional latrine, presence of animal pen and garbage within the Nicobari hut were also noted in all villages. Out of a total of fifteen villages in Car-Nicobar Island, ten villages were selected for trachoma survey depending on evidence of socio-developmental indicators like poverty and decreased access to water, sanitation and healthcare facilities. The total population of the selected clusters was 7277 in the ten villages. Overall, 251 of 516 children (48.6%;CI: 46.5-55.1) had evidence of follicular stage of trachoma and 11 children (2.1%;CI:1.0-3.4) had evidence of inflammatory stage of trachoma. Nearly 15%(CI:12.1-18.3) children were noted to have unclean faces in the ten villages. Trachomatous trichiasis was noted in 73 adults (1.0%;CI:0.8-1.2). The environmental sanitation was not found to be satisfactory in the surveyed villages mainly due to the co-habitance of Nicobari people with domestic animals like pigs, hens, goats, dogs, cats etc in most (96.4%) of the households. Active trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis was observed in all the ten villages surveyed, wherein trachoma control measures are needed.

  2. Rapid assessment of trachoma in underserved population of Car-Nicobar Island, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Vashist

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the burden of trachoma and its related risk factors amongst the native population of Car-Nicobar Island in India. METHODS: Rapid assessment for trachoma was conducted in ten villages of Car-Nicobar Island according to standard WHO guidelines. An average of 50 children aged 1-9 years were assessed clinically for signs of active trachoma and facial cleanliness in each village. Additionally, all adults above 15 years of age in these households were examined for evidence of trachomatous trichiasis and corneal opacity. Environmental risk factors contributing to trachoma like limited access to potable water & functional latrine, presence of animal pen and garbage within the Nicobari hut were also noted in all villages. RESULTS: Out of a total of fifteen villages in Car-Nicobar Island, ten villages were selected for trachoma survey depending on evidence of socio-developmental indicators like poverty and decreased access to water, sanitation and healthcare facilities. The total population of the selected clusters was 7277 in the ten villages. Overall, 251 of 516 children (48.6%;CI: 46.5-55.1 had evidence of follicular stage of trachoma and 11 children (2.1%;CI:1.0-3.4 had evidence of inflammatory stage of trachoma. Nearly 15%(CI:12.1-18.3 children were noted to have unclean faces in the ten villages. Trachomatous trichiasis was noted in 73 adults (1.0%;CI:0.8-1.2. The environmental sanitation was not found to be satisfactory in the surveyed villages mainly due to the co-habitance of Nicobari people with domestic animals like pigs, hens, goats, dogs, cats etc in most (96.4% of the households. CONCLUSION: Active trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis was observed in all the ten villages surveyed, wherein trachoma control measures are needed.

  3. Assessment of LULC and climate change on the hydrology of Ashti Catchment, India using VIC model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Narendra Hengade; T I Eldho

    2016-12-01

    The assessment of land use land cover (LULC) and climate change over the hydrology of a catchment has become inevitable and is an essential aspect to understand the water resources-related problems within the catchment. For large catchments, mesoscale models such as variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model are required for appropriate hydrological assessment. In this study, Ashti Catchment (sub-catchment of Godavari Basin in India) is considered as a case study to evaluate the impacts of LULC changes and rainfall trends on the hydrological variables using VIC model. The land cover data and rainfall trends for 40 years (1971−2010) were used as driving input parameters to simulate the hydrological changes over the Ashti Catchment and the results are compared with observed runoff. The good agreement between observed and simulated streamflows emphasises that the VIC model is able to evaluate the hydrological changes within the major catchment, satisfactorily. Further, the study shows that evapotranspiration is predominantly governed by the vegetation classes. Evapotranspiration is higher for the forest cover as compared to the evapotranspiration for shrubland/grassland, as the trees with deeper roots draws the soil moisture from the deeper soil layers. The results show that the spatial extent of change in rainfall trends is small as compared to the total catchment. The hydrological response of the catchment shows that small changes in monsoon rainfall predominantly contribute to runoff, which results in higher changes in runoff as the potential evapotranspiration within the catchments is achieved. The study also emphasises that the hydrological implications of climate change are not very significant on the Ashti Catchment, during the last 40 years (1971−2010).

  4. Assessment of the availability of technology for trauma care in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mihir Tejanshu; Joshipura, Manjul; Singleton, Jered; LaBarre, Paul; Desai, Hem; Sharma, Eliza; Mock, Charles

    2015-02-01

    We sought to assess the status of availability of technology for trauma care in a state in India and to identify factors contributing to both adequate levels of availability and to deficiencies. We also sought to identify potential solutions to deficiencies in terms of health system management and product development. Thirty-two technology-related items were selected from the World Health Organization's Guidelines for Essential Trauma Care. The status of these items was assessed at 43 small and large hospitals in Gujarat State. Site visits utilized direct inspection and interviews with administrative, clinical, and bioengineering staff. Many specific individual items could be better supplied, including many that were very low cost (e.g., chest tubes). Many deficiencies arose because of mismatch of resources, such as availability of equipment in the absence of personnel trained to use it. Several locally manufactured items were fairly well supplied: pulse oximetry, image intensification, and X-ray machines. Ventilators were often deficient because of inadequate numbers of units and frequent breakdowns. Availability of a range of lower-cost items could be improved by better organization and planning, such as: better procurement and stock management; eliminating mismatch of resources, including optimizing training for use of existing resources; and by strengthening service contracts and in-house repair capabilities. From a product development viewpoint, there is a need for lower cost, more durable, and easier to repair ventilators. Promoting increased capacity for local manufacturing should also be considered as a potential method to decrease cost and increase availability of a range of equipment.

  5. Rapid assessment of visual impairment in urban population of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Noopur; Vashist, Praveen; Malhotra, Sumit; Senjam, Suraj Singh; Misra, Vasundhara; Bhardwaj, Amit

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence, causes and associated demographic factors related to visual impairment amongst the urban population of New Delhi, India. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in East Delhi district using cluster random sampling methodology. This Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI) survey involved examination of all individuals aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of the district. Visual acuity (VA) assessment and comprehensive ocular examination were done during the door-to-door survey. A questionnaire was used to collect personal and demographic information of the study population. Blindness and Visual Impairment was defined as presenting VA visual impairment. Of 2421 subjects enumerated, 2331 (96.3%) were available for ophthalmic examination. Among those examined, 49.3% were males. The prevalence of visual impairment (VI) in the study population, was 11.4% (95% C.I. 10.1, 12.7) and that of blindness was 1.2% (95% C.I. 0.8, 1.6). Uncorrected refractive error was the leading cause of VI accounting for 53.4% of all VI followed by cataract (33.8%). With multivariable logistic regression, the odds of having VI increased with age (OR = 24.6[95% C.I.: 14.9, 40.7]; p visual impairment is considerable in this region despite availability of adequate eye care facilities. Awareness generation and simple interventions like cataract surgery and provision of spectacles will help to eliminate the major causes of blindness and visual impairment in this region.

  6. Assessment of a tool for measuring non-profit advocacy efforts in India, Uganda and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalwani, Tanya; Rajaratnam, Julie Knoll; McOwen, Jordan; Gordis, Deborah J; Bowen, Lisa A; Bernson, Jeff

    2016-03-01

    To improve maternal and child health, the White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood (WRA) implemented an innovative policy advocacy project in India, Uganda and Yemen from 2009 to 2011. PATH assisted WRA in designing an approach to measure the short- and long-term results of WRA's advocacy efforts.Expert rating instruments have been widely used since 1970s to track country-level program efforts focusing on family planning, maternal and neonatal health, and HIV/AIDS. This article assesses and establishes the strength and applicability of an expert rating tool, the Maternal Health Policy Score (MHPS), in measuring and guiding a non-profit's advocacy efforts.The tool was assessed using five criteria: validity of results, reproducibility of results, acceptability to respondents, internal consistency and cost. The tool proved effective for measuring improvements in the policy environment at both the national and subnational levels that the non-profit intended to effect and useful for identifying strong and weak policy domains. The results are reproducible, though ensuring fidelity in implementation during different rounds of data collection may be difficult. The acceptability of the tool was high among respondents, and also among users of the information.MHPS provides a quick, low-cost method to measure overall changes in the policy environment, giving advocacy organizations and grant makers timely information to gauge the influence of their work and take corrective action. WRA demonstrated the use of MHPS at multiple points in the project: at the onset of a project to identify and strategize around policy domains that need attention, during and at the end of the project to monitor progress made and redirect efforts.

  7. Assessment of mangroves from Goa, west coast India using DNA barcode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddhe, Ankush Ashok; Jamdade, Rahul Arvind; Kumar, Kundan

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves are salt-tolerant forest ecosystems of tropical and subtropical intertidal regions. They are among most productive, diverse, biologically important ecosystem and inclined toward threatened system. Identification of mangrove species is of critical importance in conserving and utilizing biodiversity, which apparently hindered by a lack of taxonomic expertise. In recent years, DNA barcoding using plastid markers rbcL and matK has been suggested as an effective method to enrich traditional taxonomic expertise for rapid species identification and biodiversity inventories. In the present study, we performed assessment of available 14 mangrove species of Goa, west coast India based on core DNA barcode markers, rbcL and matK. PCR amplification success rate, intra- and inter-specific genetic distance variation and the correct identification percentage were taken into account to assess candidate barcode regions. PCR and sequence success rate were high in rbcL (97.7 %) and matK (95.5 %) region. The two candidate chloroplast barcoding regions (rbcL, matK) yielded barcode gaps. Our results clearly demonstrated that matK locus assigned highest correct identification rates (72.09 %) based on TaxonDNA Best Match criteria. The concatenated rbcL + matK loci were able to adequately discriminate all mangrove genera and species to some extent except those in Rhizophora, Sonneratia and Avicennia. Our study provides the first endorsement of the species resolution among mangroves using plastid genes with few exceptions. Our future work will be focused on evaluation of other barcode markers to delineate complete resolution of mangrove species and identification of putative hybrids.

  8. Assessment of morphometric characteristics of Chakrar watershed in Madhya Pradesh India using geospatial technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Sandeep

    2017-09-01

    The quantitative analysis of the watershed is important for the quantification of the channel network and to understand its geo-hydrological behaviour. Assessment of drainage network and their relative parameters have been quantitatively carried out for the Chakrar watershed of Madhya Pradesh, India, to understand the prevailing geological variation, topographic information and structural setup of the watershed and their interrelationship. Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) has been used for the delineation and calculation of the morphometric parameters of the watershed. The Chakrar watershed is sprawled over an area of 415 km2 with dendritic, parallel and trellis drainage pattern. It is sub-divided into nine sub-watersheds. The study area is designated as sixth-order basin and lower and middle order streams mostly dominate the basin with the drainage density value of 2.46 km/km2 which exhibits gentle to steep slope terrain, medium dense vegetation, and less permeable with medium precipitation. The mean bifurcation value of the basin is 4.16 and value of nine sub-watersheds varies from 2.83 to 4.44 which reveals drainage networks formed on homogeneous rocks when the influences of geologic structures on the stream network is negligible. Form factor, circularity ratio and elongation ratio indicate an elongated basin shape having less prone to flood, lower erosion and sediment transport capacities. The results from the morphometric assessment of the watershed are important in water resources evaluation and its management and for the selection of recharge structure in the area for future water management.

  9. Life cycle assessment of potential municipal solid waste management strategies for Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhupendra K; Chandel, Munish K

    2017-01-01

    Dumping of municipal solid waste into uncontrolled dumpsites is the most common method of waste disposal in most cities of India. These dumpsites are posing a serious challenge to environmental quality and sustainable development. Mumbai, which generates over 9000 t of municipal solid waste daily, also disposes of most of its waste in open dumps. It is important to analyse the impact of municipal solid waste disposal today and what would be the impact under integrated waste management schemes. In this study, life cycle assessment methodology was used to determine the impact of municipal solid waste management under different scenarios. Six different scenarios were developed as alternatives to the current practice of open dumping and partially bioreactor landfilling. The scenarios include landfill with biogas collection, incineration and different combinations of recycling, landfill, composting, anaerobic digestion and incineration. Global warming, acidification, eutrophication and human toxicity were assessed as environmental impact categories. The sensitivity analysis shows that if the recycling rate is increased from 10% to 90%, the environmental impacts as compared with present scenario would reduce from 998.43 kg CO2 eq t(-1) of municipal solid waste, 0.124 kg SO2 eq t(-1), 0.46 kg PO4(-3) eq t(-1), 0.44 kg 1,4-DB eq t(-1) to 892.34 kg CO2 eq t(-1), 0.121 kg SO2 eq t(-1), 0.36 kg PO4(-3) eq t(-1), 0.40 kg 1,4-DB eq t(-1), respectively. An integrated municipal solid waste management approach with a mix of recycling, composting, anaerobic digestion and landfill had the lowest overall environmental impact. The technologies, such as incineration, would reduce the global warming emission because of the highest avoided emissions, however, human toxicity would increase.

  10. Assessment of LULC and climate change on the hydrology of Ashti Catchment, India using VIC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengade, Narendra; Eldho, T. I.

    2016-12-01

    The assessment of land use land cover (LULC) and climate change over the hydrology of a catchment has become inevitable and is an essential aspect to understand the water resources-related problems within the catchment. For large catchments, mesoscale models such as variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model are required for appropriate hydrological assessment. In this study, Ashti Catchment (sub-catchment of Godavari Basin in India) is considered as a case study to evaluate the impacts of LULC changes and rainfall trends on the hydrological variables using VIC model. The land cover data and rainfall trends for 40 years (1971-2010) were used as driving input parameters to simulate the hydrological changes over the Ashti Catchment and the results are compared with observed runoff. The good agreement between observed and simulated streamflows emphasises that the VIC model is able to evaluate the hydrological changes within the major catchment, satisfactorily. Further, the study shows that evapotranspiration is predominantly governed by the vegetation classes. Evapotranspiration is higher for the forest cover as compared to the evapotranspiration for shrubland/grassland, as the trees with deeper roots draws the soil moisture from the deeper soil layers. The results show that the spatial extent of change in rainfall trends is small as compared to the total catchment. The hydrological response of the catchment shows that small changes in monsoon rainfall predominantly contribute to runoff, which results in higher changes in runoff as the potential evapotranspiration within the catchments is achieved. The study also emphasises that the hydrological implications of climate change are not very significant on the Ashti Catchment, during the last 40 years (1971-2010).

  11. Rapid assessment of visual impairment (RAVI in marine fishing communities in South India - study protocol and main findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madala Sreenivas R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable data are a pre-requisite for planning eye care services. Though conventional cross sectional studies provide reliable information, they are resource intensive. A novel rapid assessment method was used to investigate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and presbyopia in subjects aged 40 years and older. This paper describes the detailed methodology and study procedures of Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI project. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using cluster random sampling in the coastal region of Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh in India, predominantly inhabited by fishing communities. Unaided, aided and pinhole visual acuity (VA was assessed using a Snellen chart at a distance of 6 meters. The VA was re-assessed using a pinhole, if VA was Results The data collection was completed in Conclusion There is a high prevalence of visual impairment in marine fishing communities in Prakasam district in India. The data from this rapid assessment survey can now be used as a baseline to start eye care services in this region. The rapid assessment methodology (RAVI reported in this paper is robust, quick and has the potential to be replicated in other areas.

  12. Enhancing nursing students' skills in vital signs assessment by using multimedia computer-assisted learning with integrated content of anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveevivitchai, Chularuk; Chuengkriankrai, Benchaporn; Luecha, Yuwadee; Thanooruk, Rujires; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

    2009-01-01

    Due to constraints of increasing number of nursing students and a disproportionate shortfall of faculty members in nursing schools, it was necessary to supplement traditional lecture or lecture-demonstration with on-line multimedia materials and/or multimedia compact discs for enhancing learning. The authors have developed a computer-assisted learning (CAL) multimedia on vital signs with animation and audio features for teaching in the classroom based on the 5Es inquiry cycle. When the CAL was tried on second-year undergraduates in two comparable schools, all groups of students gained significantly higher performance skills regardless of whether the groups were subjected to CAL/lecture or CAL/lecture/demonstration. However, they did not gain in factual knowledge.

  13. The vital signs of chronic disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Anthony D; Zachariah, Rony; Kapur, Anil; Jahn, Andreas; Enarson, Donald A

    2009-06-01

    The vital signs of pulse rate, blood pressure, temperature and respiratory rate are the 'nub' of individual patient management. At the programmatic level, vital signs could also be used to monitor the burden and treatment outcome of chronic disease. Case detection and treatment outcome constitute the vital signs of tuberculosis control within the WHO's 'DOTS' framework, and similar vital signs could be adapted and used for management of chronic diseases. The numbers of new patients started on therapy in each month or quarter (new incident cases) are sensitive indicators for programme performance and access to services. Using similar reporting cycles, treatment outcomes for all patients can be assessed, the vital signs being: alive and retained on therapy at the respective facility; died; stopped therapy; lost to follow-up; and transferred out to another facility. Retention on treatment constitutes the prevalent number of cases, the burden of disease, and this provides important strategic information for rational drug forecasting and logistic planning. If case numbers and outcomes of chronic diseases were measured reliably and consistently as part of an integrated programmatic approach, this would strengthen the ability of resource-poor countries to monitor and assess their response to these growing epidemics.

  14. Ambient Air Quality Assessment With Particular Reference to Particulates in Western Part of Jharia Coalfield, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available India is in the list of fastest growing countries of the world. India's energy needs are also increasing due to population and industrial growth for improving quality of living style. In India, coal is major input infrastructure industries for example Power plants, Steel plants and Cement industries. India’s 52% of primary energy is coal dependent1. 66% of India's power generation depends upon coal production1. Jharia Coalfield (JCF is falling in the Lower Gondwana Coalfields of India. The area of the JCF is about 450 km2. It is important for the major supply of precious coking coal required for steel plants in India. It is located in Dhanbad district of Jharkhand state of India, The latitude is 23° 39' to 23° 48' N and longitude is 86° 11' to 86° 27' E for the Jharia coalfield. Based on environmental parameters, all the 103 mines of BCCL have been grouped under 17 Clusters. A cluster consists of a group of mines with mine lease boundary lying in close vicinity and includes-Operating mines, Abandoned/ closed mines and proposed projects.The focused study area is in the western part of the Jharia coalfield is named as Cluster XV group of mines of BCCL consists of four mines, Kharkharee Colliery (UG, Dharmaband Colliery (UG, Madhuband Colliery (UG and Phularitand Colliery (UG .The present study was carried out with the objective to measure the ambient air quality of the study area with reference to particulate matter (SPM, PM10 & PM2.5. Ambient air monitoring results have shown that the observe air quality were found within the limit prescribed by MoEF / CPCB. It may due to Underground mines as there are pollution causing lesser activities involved in the UG mining process compared to opencast mining. Implementation of Master plan for Jharia coalfields for environmental management has also improve the air quality in the area10,11.

  15. Integrated hydrochemical and geophysical studies for assessment of groundwater pollution in basaltic settings in Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, Paras R; Padmakar, C; SuriNaidu, L; Vaijnath, V U; Kachawe, Bhusan; Gurunadha Rao, V V S; Labhasetwar, P K

    2012-05-01

    The Pithampur Industrial sectors I, II, and III, located approximately, 45 km from Indore in Central India have emerged as one of the largest industrial clusters in the region. Various types of industries ranging from automobiles to chemicals and pharmaceuticals have been set up in the region since 1990. Most of the industries have effluent treatment plants (ETP) for treating wastewater before its disposal on land and/or in water body. The present study is an attempt to assess the groundwater quality in the watersheds surrounding these industrial sectors to develop the baseline groundwater quality in order to enable the policy makers to facilitate decisions on the development of industries in this region. The industries are located in two sub-watersheds, namely, Gambhir river sub-watershed and Chambal river sub-watershed. Geologically, the study area is located in the Deccan traps of Cretaceous to Paleocene age. The different basaltic flow units underlie clayey soils varying in thickness from 2-3 m. The aquifer is mostly of unconfined nature. Samples have been collected from a network of observation wells set up in the watersheds. The water quality analysis of the groundwater samples has been carried out six times during three hydrological cycles of 2004, 2005, and 2006. The results indicate that a few observation wells in the vicinity of the industrial clusters have very high TDS concentration and exceed the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) guideline for TDS concentration. The contamination of groundwater has been more severe in the Gambhir watershed as compared to the Chambal watershed. The presence of the impermeable clay layers has resulted in a slow migration of contaminants from the sources. The findings reveal that there is no significant groundwater contamination in the Pithampur industrial sectors except in the vicinity of the industrial clusters, which indicates that there is good environmental space available for the expansion of industrial units in

  16. Assessment of Land Degradation and Greening in Ken River Basin of Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ashish; Palmate, Santosh S.

    2017-04-01

    Natural systems have significant impact of land degradation on biodiversity loss, food and water insecurity. To achieve the sustainable development goals, advances in remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS) are progressively utilized to combat climate change, land degradation and poverty issues of developing country. The Ken River Basin (KRB) has dominating land cover pattern of agriculture and forest area. Nowadays, this pattern is affected due to climate change and anthropogenic activity like deforestation. In this study, land degradation and greening status of KRB of Central India during the years 2001 to 2013 have been assessed using MODIS land cover (MCD12Q1) data sets. International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP) land cover data has been extracted from the MCD12Q1 data product. Multiple rasters of MODIS landcover were analyzed and compared for assigning unique combination of land cover dynamics employing ArcGIS software. Result reveals that 14.38% natural vegetation was degraded, and crop land and woody savannas were greened by 9.68% to 6.94% respectively. Natural vegetation degradation have been observed in the upper KRB area, and resulted to increase in crop land (3418.87 km2) and woody savannas (1242.23 km2) area. Due to transition of 1043.6 km2 area of deciduous broadleaf forest to woody savannas greening was also observed. Moreover, both crop land and woody savannas showed inter-transitions of 669.31 km2 into crop land to woody savannas, and 874.09 km2 into woody savannas to crop land. The present analysis reveals that natural vegetation has more land conversions into woody savannas and crop land in the KRB area. Further, Spatial change analysis shows that land degradation and greening has occurred mostly in the upper part of the KRB. The study reveals that the land transition information can be useful for proper planning and management of natural resources.

  17. Groundwater quality assessment in the village of Lutfullapur Nawada, Loni, District Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vinod K; Bikundia, Devendra Singh; Sarswat, Ankur; Mohan, Dinesh

    2012-07-01

    The groundwater quality for drinking, domestic and irrigation in the village Lutfullapur Nawada, Loni, district Ghaziabad, U.P., India, has been assessed. Groundwater samples were collected, processed and analyzed for temperature, pH, conductivity, salinity, total alkalinity, carbonate alkalinity, bicarbonate alkalinity, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, total solids, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, nitrate-nitrogen, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate, silica, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, total chromium, cadmium, copper, iron, nickel, lead and zinc. A number of groundwater samples showed levels of electrical conductivity (EC), alkalinity, chloride, calcium, sodium, potassium and iron exceeding their permissible limits. Except iron, the other metals (Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were analyzed below the permissible limits. The correlation matrices for 28 variables were performed. EC, salinity, TS and TDS had significant positive correlations among themselves and also with NO (3) (-) , Cl(-), alkalinity, Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+). Fluoride was not significantly correlated with any of the parameters. NO (3) (-) was significantly positively correlated with Cl(-), alkalinity, Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+). Chloride also correlated significantly with alkalinity, Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+). Sodium showed a strong and positive correlation with K(+) and Ca(2+). pH was negatively correlated with most of the physicochemical parameters. This groundwater is classified as a normal sulfate and chloride type. Base-exchange indices classified 73% of the groundwater sources as the Na(+)-SO (4) (2-) type. The meteoric genesis indices demonstrated that 67% of groundwater sources belong to a deep meteoric water percolation type. Hydrochemical groundwater evaluations revealed that most of the groundwaters belong to the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO (4) (2-) type followed by Na(+)-K(+)-HCO (3) (-) type. Salinity, chlorinity and SAR indices indicated that majority

  18. Assessment of ground water quality for drinking purpose, District Nainital, Uttarakhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, C K; Bandyopadhyay, A; Bhadra, A

    2010-07-01

    The ground water quality of District Nainital (Uttarakhand, India) has been assessed to see the suitability of ground water for drinking and irrigation applications. This is a two-part series paper and this paper examines the suitability of ground water including spring water for drinking purposes. Forty ground water samples (including 28 spring samples) were collected during pre- and post-monsoon seasons and analyzed for various water quality constituents. The hydrochemical and bacteriological data was analyzed with reference to BIS and WHO standards and their hydrochemical facies were determined. The concentration of total dissolved solids exceeds the desirable limit of 500 mg/L in about 10% of the samples, alkalinity values exceed the desirable limit of 200 mg/L in about 30% of the samples, and total hardness values exceed the desirable limit of 300 mg/L in 15% of the samples. However, no sample crosses the maximum permissible limit for TDS, alkalinity, hardness, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and fluoride. The concentration of chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and fluoride are well within the desirable limit at all the locations. The bacteriological analysis of the samples does not show any sign of bacterial contamination in hand pump and tube-well water samples. However, in the case of spring water samples, six samples exceed the permissible limit of ten coliforms per 100 ml of sample. It is recommended that water drawn from such sources should be properly disinfected before being used for drinking and other domestic applications. Among the metal ions, the concentration of iron and lead exceeds the permissible limit at one location whereas the concentration of nickel exceeds the permissible limit in 60 and 32.5% of the samples during pre- and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. The grouping of samples according to their hydrochemical facies indicates that majority of the samples fall in Ca-Mg-HCO(3) hydrochemical facies.

  19. Assessment of underground water potential zones using modern geomatics technologies in Jhansi district, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, N. K.; Shukla, A. K.; Shukla, S.; Pandey, M.

    2014-11-01

    Ground water is a distinguished component of the hydrologic cycle. Surface water storage and ground water withdrawal are traditional engineering approaches which will continue to be followed in the future. The uncertainty about the occurrence, distribution and quality aspect of the ground water and the energy requirement for its withdrawal impose restriction on exploitation of ground water. The main objective of the study is assessment of underground water potential zones of Jhansi city and surrounding area, by preparing underground water potential zone map using Geographical Information System (GIS), remote sensing, and validation by underground water inventory mapping using GPS field survey done along the parts of National Highway 25 and 26 and some state highway passing through the study area. Study area covers an area of 1401 km2 and its perimeter is approximate 425 km. For this study Landsat TM (0.76-0.90 um) band data were acquired from GLCF website. Sensor spatial resolution is 30 m. Satellite image has become a standard tool aiding in the study of underground water. Extraction of different thematic layers like Land Use Land Cover (LULC), settlement, etc. can be done through unsupervised classification. The modern geometics technologies viz. remote sensing and GIS are used to produce the map that classifies the groundwater potential zone to a number of qualitative zone such as very high, high, moderate, low or very low. Thematic maps are prepared by visual interpretation of Survey of India topo-sheets and linearly enhanced Landsat TM satellite image on 1 : 50,000 scale using AutoCAD, ArcGIS 10.1 and ERDAS 11 software packages.

  20. Assessment of the core and support functions of the Integrated Disease Surveillance system in Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalkey, Revati K; Shukla, Sharvari; Shardul, Savita; Ashtekar, Nutan; Valsa, Sapna; Awate, Pradip; Marx, Michael

    2013-06-13

    Monitoring the progress of the Integrated Disease Surveillance (IDS) strategy is an important component to ensure its sustainability in the state of Maharashtra in India. The purpose of the study was to document the baseline performance of the system on its core and support functions and to understand the challenges for its transition from an externally funded "project" to a state owned surveillance "program". Multi-centre, retrospective cross-sectional evaluation study to assess the structure, core and support surveillance functions using modified WHO generic questionnaires. All 34 districts in the state and randomly identified 46 facilities and 25 labs were included in the study. Case definitions were rarely used at the periphery. Limited laboratory capacity at all levels compromised case and outbreak confirmation. Only 53% districts could confirm all priority diseases. Stool sample processing was the weakest at the periphery. Availability of transport media, trained staff, and rapid diagnostic tests were main challenges at the periphery. Data analysis was weak at both district and facility levels. Outbreak thresholds were better understood at facility level (59%) than at the district (18%). None of the outbreak indicator targets were met and submission of final outbreak report was the weakest. Feedback and training was significantly better (p challenges exist. Support functions (laboratory, transport and communication equipment, training, supervision, human and other resources) are particularly weak at the district level. Structural integration and establishing permanent state and district surveillance officer positions will ensure leadership; improve performance; support continuity; and offer sustainability to the program. Institutionalizing the integrated disease surveillance strategy through skills based personnel development and infrastructure strengthening at district levels is the only way to avoid it from ending up isolated! Improving surveillance

  1. Assessing the Play Provisions for Children in Urban Neighborhoods of India: Case Study Nagpur, Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti D. Bhonsle

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The creation of satisfying urban environments calls for the planners, designers and policy makers to understand the structures that cause residents to feel satisfied with their environments. The paper focuses on qualitative aspects of the childrens play spaces in the urban neighborhoods of Nagpur which were analysed with the background of their daily activity schedule survey, their assement of the existing play provisions and their aspirations from their neighborhood environment quality. Apart from these studies, the childrens and their parents perceptions of the quality of urban residential environments was also studied. The literature review gave an extract of relevant attributes of environmental quality (EQ which became the theoritical basis for the work. The research generates an approach to assessing the child friendliness of our urban neighborhoods, which in certain ways is not even catering to the most fundamental right of the child to play; it also generates a matrix of children’s needs and parameters relevant to Indian context. A theoretical model of the residents satisfaction is also generated which forms the base for the qualitative questionnaire analysis in SPSS 20 with a set of dependent and independent variables which shows the correlation of the resident’s satisfaction with child friendliness of neighborhoods in the Indian context. The regression model and mathematical equation as an outcome of the qualitative analysis was also validated upon two other urban neighborhoods of the city of Nagpur. The research with all its tools used and the approach adopted can help in undertaking such child-centered researches in other cities of India which have their own unique issues and characteristics of urban growth.

  2. Quantitative assessment of direct and indirect landslide risk along transportation lines in southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, P.; van Westen, C. J.; Jetten, V.

    2010-06-01

    A quantitative approach for landslide risk assessment along transportation lines is presented and applied to a road and a railway alignment in the Nilgiri hills in southern India. The method allows estimating direct risk affecting the alignments, vehicles and people, and indirect risk resulting from the disruption of economic activities. The data required for the risk estimation were obtained from historical records. A total of 901 landslides were catalogued initiating from cut slopes along the railway and road alignment. The landslides were grouped into three magnitude classes based on the landslide type, volume, scar depth, run-out distance, etc and their probability of occurrence was obtained using frequency-volume distribution. Hazard, for a given return period, expressed as the number of landslides of a given magnitude class per kilometre of cut slopes, was obtained using Gumbel distribution and probability of landslide magnitude. In total 18 specific hazard scenarios were generated using the three magnitude classes and six return periods (1, 3, 5, 15, 25, and 50 years). The assessment of the vulnerability of the road and railway line was based on damage records whereas the vulnerability of different types of vehicles and people was subjectively assessed based on limited historic incidents. Direct specific loss for the alignments (railway line and road), vehicles (train, bus, lorry, car and motorbike) was expressed in monetary value (US), and direct specific loss of life of commuters was expressed in annual probability of death. Indirect specific loss (US) derived from the traffic interruption was evaluated considering alternative driving routes, and includes losses resulting from additional fuel consumption, additional travel cost, loss of income to the local business, and loss of revenue to the railway department. The results indicate that the total loss, including both direct and indirect loss, from 1 to 50 years return period, varies from US 90 840 to US

  3. Quantitative assessment of direct and indirect landslide risk along transportation lines in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jaiswal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative approach for landslide risk assessment along transportation lines is presented and applied to a road and a railway alignment in the Nilgiri hills in southern India. The method allows estimating direct risk affecting the alignments, vehicles and people, and indirect risk resulting from the disruption of economic activities. The data required for the risk estimation were obtained from historical records. A total of 901 landslides were catalogued initiating from cut slopes along the railway and road alignment. The landslides were grouped into three magnitude classes based on the landslide type, volume, scar depth, run-out distance, etc and their probability of occurrence was obtained using frequency-volume distribution. Hazard, for a given return period, expressed as the number of landslides of a given magnitude class per kilometre of cut slopes, was obtained using Gumbel distribution and probability of landslide magnitude. In total 18 specific hazard scenarios were generated using the three magnitude classes and six return periods (1, 3, 5, 15, 25, and 50 years. The assessment of the vulnerability of the road and railway line was based on damage records whereas the vulnerability of different types of vehicles and people was subjectively assessed based on limited historic incidents. Direct specific loss for the alignments (railway line and road, vehicles (train, bus, lorry, car and motorbike was expressed in monetary value (US$, and direct specific loss of life of commuters was expressed in annual probability of death. Indirect specific loss (US$ derived from the traffic interruption was evaluated considering alternative driving routes, and includes losses resulting from additional fuel consumption, additional travel cost, loss of income to the local business, and loss of revenue to the railway department. The results indicate that the total loss, including both direct and indirect loss, from 1 to 50 years return period, varies from

  4. Critical assessment of day time traffic noise level at curbside open-air microenvironment of Kolkata City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu Chowdhury, Anirban; Debsarkar, Anupam; Chakrabarty, Shibnath

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the research work is to assess day time traffic noise level at curbside open-air microenvironment of Kolkata city, India under heterogeneous environmental conditions. Prevailing traffic noise level in terms of A-weighted equivalent noise level (Leq) at the microenvironment was in excess of 12.6 ± 2.1 dB(A) from the day time standard of 65 dB(A) for commercial area recommended by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) of India. Noise Climate and Traffic Noise Index of the microenvironment were accounted for 13 ± 1.8 dB(A) and 88.8 ± 6.1 dB(A) respectively. A correlation analysis explored that prevailing traffic noise level of the microenvironment had weak negative (-0.21; p microenvironment of Kolkata City was higher than the standard recommended by CPCB of India. It was highly annoying also. Air temperature and relative humidity had little influence and the peak noise component had the most significant influence on the prevailing traffic noise level at curbside open-air microenvironment. Therefore, traffic noise level at the microenvironment of the city can be reduced with careful honking and driving.

  5. Disaster resilience assessment and the global agenda: A journey from India to South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanchiotti, Margherita; Torres, Jair; Burton, Christopher; Makarigakis, Alexandros

    2016-04-01

    Governments and stakeholders worldwide are placing great emphasis on fostering the resilience of communities to natural hazards and disasters. This is partially because communities that can increase their resilience are in a better position to withstand the adverse effects of damaging hazard events when they occur. With disaster risk reduction having emerged as a global challenge, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 has recognised the need to invest in enhancing disaster resilience as a priority on the international agenda. In order to successfully build community resilience to natural hazards, it then becomes essential to first understand, identify and assess all sets of conditions that contribute to resilience. The ability to measure resilience is increasingly being identified as a key step towards disaster risk reduction as a result. Relatively few studies, however, have been conducted to develop guidelines for measuring the concept, and more research is needed to develop effective tools for assessment of resilience in developing countries. This is because various environmental, built-environment, and social factors will operate and interact differentially across disaster and development contexts. This paper presents preliminary findings from two large projects in which the authors have been involved, namely the 'Enhancing Natural HAzards resilience iN South America' (ENHANS) and 'Deltas, Vulnerability & Climate Change: Migration & Adaptation' (DECCMA) projects. In collaboration with the Global Earthquake Model (GEM), the Understanding and Managing Extremes (UME) School of the Institute for Advanced Study (IUSS) of Pavia and the University of Southampton, UNESCO is working on the development of methods for disaster resilience measurement in developing nations. The studies build on the available literature to provide an ad-hoc conceptual framework for the quantification of community resilience in each study site by means of a bottom

  6. India's Perspective of Information and Communication Technologies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    India's Perspective of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) for ... Information is a vital resource for the national development and ensuring ... manner and the role of ICT in the rapid growth of economic transactions over the past ...

  7. Distracted Antagonists, Wary Partners: China and India Assess their Security Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    or social change, our analysts adhere to the same spirit of non-partisanship, objectivity, and empiricism that is the hallmark of CNA research...countries. Since India has long had a strong psychology of competition with China, concerns over this situation continue to exist.” (See page 68

  8. Remote assessment of net shore drift along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.; Sugimori, Y.

    Space borne images were analyzed to examine direction, amount and behavior of long-shore drift and its contribution towards deciding areas vulnerable to coastal erosion and accretion along the West Coast of India. Long-term net shore drift direction...

  9. A Comparative Assessment of the Performance of Select Higher Education Institutes in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahney, Sangeeta; Thakkar, Jitesh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance of select technical higher education institutes of national importance in India. This helps to judge the efficiency and effectiveness of an institute to provide valuable insights on performance measurement and effectiveness not only to the respective institute but also to…

  10. Application of geoinformatics for landscape assessment and conserving forest biodiversity in northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish Kumar; Bruce G. Marcot; Gautam Talukdar; P.S. Roy

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we summarize our work, within forest ecosystems of Garo Hills in northeast India, on mapping vegetation and land cover conditions, delineating wildlife habitat corridors among protected areas, evaluating forest conservation values of influence zones bordering protected areas, analyzing dispersion patterns of native forests, and determining potential effects of...

  11. Role of water quality assessments in hospital infection control: Experience from a new oncology center in eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkrishna Bhalchandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water quality assessment and timely intervention are essential for health. Microbiology, total dissolved solids (TDS and free residual chlorine were measured for water quality maintenance in an oncology center in India. Impact of these interventions over a period of 22 months has been demonstrated with four cardinal events. Pseudomonas in hospital water was controlled by adequate chlorination, whereas high TDS in the central sterile supply department water was corrected by the installation of electro-deionization plant. Contaminated bottled water was replaced using quality controlled hospital supply. Timely detection and correction of water-related issues, including reverse osmosis plant was possible through multi-faceted approach to water quality.

  12. Assessment of quality of life in children with nephrotic syndrome at a teaching hospital in South India

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Agrawal; Sriram Krishnamurthy; Bijaya Nanda Naik

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the quality of life (QOL) in children between 2 and 18 years of age with primary idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS) using Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales). This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in South India between December 2014 and February 2015. In this questionnaire-based study, 50 children with primary idiopathic NS and an equal number of age-matched controls with other chro...

  13. 'Oorja' in India: Assessing a large-scale commercial distribution of advanced biomass stoves to households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Mark C; Phadke, Himani; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Shrimali, Gireesh; Zerriffi, Hisham

    2014-04-01

    Replacing traditional stoves with advanced alternatives that burn more cleanly has the potential to ameliorate major health problems associated with indoor air pollution in developing countries. With a few exceptions, large government and charitable programs to distribute advanced stoves have not had the desired impact. Commercially-based distributions that seek cost recovery and even profits might plausibly do better, both because they encourage distributors to supply and promote products that people want and because they are based around properly-incentivized supply chains that could more be scalable, sustainable, and replicable. The sale in India of over 400,000 "Oorja" stoves to households from 2006 onwards represents the largest commercially-based distribution of a gasification-type advanced biomass stove. BP's Emerging Consumer Markets (ECM) division and then successor company First Energy sold this stove and the pelletized biomass fuel on which it operates. We assess the success of this effort and the role its commercial aspect played in outcomes using a survey of 998 households in areas of Maharashtra and Karnataka where the stove was sold as well as detailed interviews with BP and First Energy staff. Statistical models based on this data indicate that Oorja purchase rates were significantly influenced by the intensity of Oorja marketing in a region as well as by pre-existing stove mix among households. The highest rate of adoption came from LPG-using households for which Oorja's pelletized biomass fuel reduced costs. Smoke- and health-related messages from Oorja marketing did not significantly influence the purchase decision, although they did appear to affect household perceptions about smoke. By the time of our survey, only 9% of households that purchased Oorja were still using the stove, the result in large part of difficulties First Energy encountered in developing a viable supply chain around low-cost procurement of "agricultural waste" to make

  14. Assessment of optimum thermal humidity index for crossbred dairy cows in Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Kohli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Uttarakhand is a relatively new state and many cross bred cattle were introduced to boost the milk yield of the state. Despite all efforts the milk yield of dairy in Uttarakhand is comparatively low. In our study, we assessed the effect of heat stress on milk production, using thermal humidity index (THI in high (cross bred cattle and low milk producing (LMP cows (native cows in Dehradun district of Uttarakhand, India. Materials and Methods: Effect of heat stress was measured on high and LMP cross bred cows using THI maintained on standard feeding and nutritional value. Daily ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded to calculate the THI. Daily milk production was noted to verify the effect of heat stress. Furthermore, profile the thyroid hormones using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Low yielding cows did not show any significant change when the THI was above 72 from month June to October during stress condition. But high yielding cows shows a significant decrease (p<0.05 in milk yield when THI was above 80 (severe stress zone in the month of June to October and milk production decrease from an average of 18±1.4 to 10.9±0.92 L whereas in November-December when THI declines in the zone of comfort the milk yield did not show significant rise. The thyroid hormones (T3 and T4 level were found lower in summer heat stress condition for a high yielding cattle. Conclusion: Summer heat stress significantly decreased milk yield in high milk producing (HMP crossbred cows. As THI rises from comfort zone to stress zone milk yield decreased by 30-40% and this loss in milk production is irreversible. Management strategies should be needed as environmental control housing is suggested for the HMP crossbred cattle to minimize the heat stress. If all the dairies with cross bred cattle implement these small modifications in housing of cattle, there would be a huge increase in milk production.

  15. Rainfall and crop modeling-based water stress assessment for rainfed maize cultivation in peninsular India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivasagam, V. S.; Nagarajan, R.

    2017-03-01

    Water stress due to uneven rainfall distribution causes a significant impact on the agricultural production of monsoon-dependent peninsular India. In the present study, water stress assessment for rainfed maize crop is carried out for kharif (June-October) and rabi (October-February) cropping seasons which coincide with two major Indian monsoons. Rainfall analysis (1976-2010) shows that the kharif season receives sufficient weekly rainfall (28 ± 32 mm) during 26th-39th standard meteorological weeks (SMWs) from southwest monsoon, whereas the rabi season experiences a major portion of its weekly rainfall due to northeast monsoon between the 42nd and 51st SMW (31 ± 42 mm). The later weeks experience minimal rainfall (5.5 ± 15 mm) and thus expose the late sown maize crops to a severe water stress during its maturity stage. Wet and dry spell analyses reveal a substantial increase in the rainfall intensity over the last few decades. However, the distribution of rainfall shows a striking decrease in the number of wet spells, with prolonged dry spells in both seasons. Weekly rainfall classification shows that the flowering and maturity stages of kharif maize (33rd-39th SMWs) can suffer around 30-40% of the total water stress. In the case of rabi maize, the analysis reveals that a shift in the sowing time from the existing 42nd SMW (16-22 October) to the 40th SMW (1-7 October) can avoid terminal water stress. Further, AquaCrop modeling results show that one or two minimal irrigations during the flowering and maturity stages (33rd-39th SMWs) of kharif maize positively avoid the mild water stress exposure. Similarly, rabi maize requires an additional two or three lifesaving irrigations during its flowering and maturity stages (48th-53rd SMWs) to improve productivity. Effective crop planning with appropriate sowing time, short duration crop, and high yielding drought-resistant varieties will allow for better utilization of the monsoon rain, thus reducing water stress with

  16. Comparative Assessment of Intelligence Quotient among Children Living in High and Low Fluoride Areas of Kutch, India- a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Nagarajappa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term ingestion of large amounts of fluoride can lead to potentially severe skeletal problems and neurological consequences. The study was conducted to assess and compare intelligence quotient of children living in high and low fluoride areas in Kutch, Gujarat, India.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted among 100 school children aged 8 to 10 years, living in Kutch District, Gujarat, India during July 2012. Mundra (2.4 to 3.5 mg/L and Bhuj (0.5mg/L were the two villages randomly selected to represent the high and low water fluoride areas respectively. Seguin Form Board Test was used to assess the intelligence quotient (IQ level of children. Descriptive statistics and independent sample t-test was used for analysis.Results: Mean scores for average, shortest and total timing category were found to be significantly higher (P0.05.Conclusion: Chronic exposure to high levels of fluoride in water was observed to be associated with lower intelligence quotient.

  17. Socio-technical assessment of solar photovoltaic systems implemented for rural electrification in selected villages of Sundarbans region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Murali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The power situation in rural India continues to remain poor with around one-third of the rural population without access to any form of electricity. The consequence of which is kerosene being used as a major source of lighting for un-electrified households as well as households with intermittent access to electricity in rural areas. While grid based electrification has been the most common approach, decentralized renewable energy options especially, solar PV systems have also been adopted as a cost effective mode of electrification. This paper presents the results of socio-technical assessment of solar photovoltaic interventions namely, solar home systems, solar mini-grid and solar AC pico-grids, which have been used to electrify selected villages in Sundarbans region of India. The study is focused on technical, financial, and institutional aspects along with the social impact assessment of PV based electrification in the Sundarbans region. The results of the study elucidate that, in general, the impacts of the solar PV solutions used for electrification have been largely positive, especially benefits of reduced kerosene consumption, ease in studying and cooking and reduced health effects. The study also finds that technology is not the only factor on which the viability of a program depends, but institutional and financial aspects also play a significant role. The need of the hour is to develop a strong institutional framework and enabling policies for achieving higher success rates in PV programs.

  18. Bioluminescent bioreporter for assessment of arsenic contamination in water samples of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pratima Sharma; Shahzada Asad; Arif Ali

    2013-06-01

    In the present study the most efficient -factor controlling the ars operon was selected after screening of 39 Escherichia coli isolates by minimum inhibitory concentration test (MIC) studies from water samples of different geographical locations of India. Among all, strain isolated from Hooghly River (West Bengal) was found to have maximum tolerance towards arsenic and was further used for the development of bioreporter bacteria. Cloning of the ars regulatory element along with operator-promotor and luxCDABE from Photobacteria into expression vector has been accomplished by following recombinant DNA protocols. The bioreporter sensor system developed in this study can measure the estimated range of 0.74–60 g of As/L and is both specific and selective for sensing bioavailable As. The constructed bacterial biosensor was further used for the determination of arsenic ion concentration in different environmental samples of India.

  19. Bioluminescent bioreporter for assessment of arsenic contamination in water samples of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pratima; Asad, Shahzada; Ali, Arif

    2013-06-01

    In the present study the most efficient R-factor controlling the ars operon was selected after screening of 39 Escherichia coli isolates by minimum inhibitory concentration test (MIC) studies from water samples of different geographical locations of India. Among all, strain isolated from Hooghly River (West Bengal) was found to have maximum tolerance towards arsenic and was further used for the development of bioreporter bacteria. Cloning of the ars regulatory element along with operator-promotor and luxCDABE from Photobacteria into expression vector has been accomplished by following recombinant DNA protocols. The bioreporter sensor system developed in this study can measure the estimated range of 0.74-60 mu g of As/L and is both specific and selective for sensing bioavailable As. The constructed bacterial biosensor was further used for the determination of arsenic ion concentration in different environmental samples of India.

  20. Vitalism in naive biological thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, S C; Taplin, J E; Gelman, S A

    2000-09-01

    Vitalism is the belief that internal bodily organs have agency and that they transmit or exchange a vital force or energy. Three experiments investigated the use of vitalistic explanations for biological phenomena by 5- and 10-year-old English-speaking children and adults, focusing on 2 components: the notion that bodily organs have intentions and the notion that some life force or energy is transmitted. The original Japanese finding of vitalistic thinking was replicated in Experiment 1 with English-speaking 5-year-olds. Experiment 2 indicated that the more active component of vitalism for these children is a belief in the transfer of energy during biological processes, and Experiment 3 suggested an additional, albeit lesser, role for organ intentionality. A belief in vital energy may serve a causal placeholder function within a naive theory of biology until a more precisely formulated mechanism is known.

  1. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MMWR Science Clips Error processing SSI file Preventing Melanoma Communities Play a Vital Role Language: English Español ( ... and use of indoor tanning by minors. Problem Melanoma is increasing. Melanoma skin cancer is common and ...

  2. Multi-hazards coastal vulnerability assessment of Goa, India, using geospatial techniques.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Jauhari, N.; Mehrotra, U.; Kotha, M.; Hursthouse, A.S.; Gagnon, A.S.

    development. Similarly, Reyes and Blanco (2012) computed their SVI using population and demographic data (i.e., age and gender), employment, and household size, but obtained it from questionnaires distributed to households in the study area. The index..., population and tourist density data can be can be interpreted as a direct ‘erosion- inducing variable’ and therefore exert a negative pressure on the coastal system (McLaughlin et al., 2002). In India, Joevivek et al (2013) noted that sand dunes were...

  3. Assessment of impacts and vulnerability to India's coastline due to climate change

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    from infrastructure development, pollution, etc. threatening this sector. Climate change will enhance such already existing problems. One of the impacts of global warming is the increase in sea level. Estimates of sea-level rise along the Indian...- ence, impacts and vulnerability along the Indian coasts has been low. India has a long coastline of about 7500 km and the livelihood of many depends on the activities related to the coast. There are already many anthropogenic problems varying...

  4. An assessment of bryozoan (Phylactolaemata fauna of Kagzipura Lake, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India

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    Pavan S. Swami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater Bryozoa is one of the less explored or ignored animal groups from India.  Kagzipura Lake, a rainwater fed water body was surveyed for three years to understand the diversity and distribution of bryozoan fauna.  The present study depicts four Phylactolaemata bryozoans species as Rumarcanella vorstmani, Plumatella casmiana, Lophopodella carteri and Swarupella divina.  The manuscript provides brief descriptions of these species, photomicrographs of statoblasts using scanning electron microscopy and colony characteristics. 

  5. Pharmaceutical Patents and Prices : A Preliminary Empirical Assessment Using Data from India

    OpenAIRE

    Duggan, Mark; Goyal, Aparajita

    2012-01-01

    The enforcement of stringent intellectual property rights in the pharmaceutical sector of developing countries generates considerable controversy, due to both the extensive research investment and the public policy importance of this sector. This paper explores the likely effects of enforcing product patents on prices and utilization of drugs in the Central Nervous System market in India. The Central Nervous System segment is the second largest therapeutic category in terms of retail sales in...

  6. India's "Democracy"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Dao: After independence, India basically inherited the political system set up by British colonial rule. After half century's transformation, a "democratic" political system with "India's characteristics" has gradually taken shape in India.

  7. Maternal hormonal interventions as a risk factor for Autism Spectrum Disorder: An epidemiological assessment from India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu Poornima Mamidala; Anupama Polinedi; P T V Praveen Kumar; N Rajesh; Omsai Ramesh Vallamkonda; V Rajesh Udani; Nidhi Singhal; Vidya Rajesh

    2013-12-01

    Globalization and women empowerment have led to stressful life among Indian women. This stress impairs women’s hormonal makeup and menstrual cycle, leading to infertility. National Family Health Survey-3 (NFHS-3) reports a decline in fertility status in India, indicating a rise in various infertility treatments involving hormonal interventions. No studies are available from India on the risk association link between maternal hormonal treatments and ASD. Hence, this study explores the association of maternal hormonal interventions with risk for ASD. Parents of 942 children (471 ASD and 471 controls) across 9 cities in India participated in the questionnaire-based study. The questionnaire was pilot tested and validated for its content and reliability as a psychometric instrument. Data collection was done at 70 centres through direct interaction with parents and with the help of trained staff. Statistical analysis of data was carried out using SAS 9.1.3. Out of the 471 ASD cases analysed, 58 mothers had undergone hormonal interventions (12.3%) while there were only 22 mothers among controls who underwent hormonal interventions (4.6%). According to logistic regression analysis maternal hormonal intervention (OR=2.24) was a significant risk factor for ASD.

  8. Comparação entre o uso de bocal e máscara facial na avaliação de volumes pulmonares e capacidade vital em indivíduos saudáveis Comparison between the use of mouthpiece and facemask in assessing lung volumes and vital capacity in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Fregadolli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Testes de função pulmonar são usados para determinar a gravidade, as conseqüências funcionais e o progresso de disfunções pulmonares e neuromusculares. As variações metodológicas com o bocal e a máscara facial e a cooperação do paciente podem interferir no desempenho das manobras e afetar as medidas. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar os valores de volumes pulmonares (volume corrente [Vc], volume-minuto [Vm], freqüência respiratória (FR e capacidade vital (CV em indivíduos saudáveis quando avaliados por meio do bocal e da máscara facial. Participaram do estudo 60 voluntários saudáveis, 14 homens e 46 mulheres, com média de idade de 22,9±7,1 anos. Para a avaliação com bocal, utilizou-se uma peça semirrígida descartável e clipe nasal; a máscara usada foi facial plástica com borda pneumática inflável. As medidas obtidas foram comparadas estatisticamente (nível de significância 5%. Os valores obtidos com o bocal e com a máscara facial foram, respectivamente: FR, 15 rpm x 13 rpm (pRespiratory function tests are used to determinate severity, functional consequences and progress of pulmonary and neuromotor dysfunctions. Methodological variations - by means of a mouthpiece or a facemask - and patient's cooperation may interfere in manoeuvre performance and affect measures. The aim of this study was to compare lung volume values (tidal volume [VT] and minute volume [Vm], respiratory rate (RR, and vital capacity (VC in healthy individuals when assessed by using a mouthpiece and a facemask. A total of 60 healthy subjects (14 men and 46 women, mean aged 22.86±7.14 years, were evaluated. Items used were a disposable, semi-rigid mouthpiece, with a nose clip, and a plastic facemask with pneumatic inflatable sealing. Measures obtained were statistically compared, with significance level set at 5%. Mean values obtained with the mouthpiece and the facemask were, respectively: RR, 15 rpm x 13 rpm (p<0.01; Vm, 14.87 l/min x 10

  9. Developing a tool to assess motivation among health service providers working with public health system in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Bhaskar; Maneskar, Abhishek; Saxena, Deepak

    2016-04-14

    Addressing the shortage of health service providers (doctors and nurses) in rural health centres remains a huge challenge. The lack of motivation of health service providers to serve in rural areas is one of the major reasons for such shortage. While many studies have aimed at analysing the reasons for low motivation, hardly any studies in India have focused on developing valid and reliable tools to measure motivation among health service providers. Hence, the objective of the study was to test and develop a valid and reliable instrument to assess the motivation of health service providers working with the public health system in India and the extent to which the motivation factors included in the study motivate health service providers to perform better at work. The present study adapted an already developed tool on motivation. The reliability and validity of the tool were established using different methods. The first stage of the tool development involved content development and assessment where, after a detailed literature review, a predeveloped tool with 19 items was adapted. However, in light of the literature review and pilot test, the same tool was modified to suit the local context by adding 7 additional items so that the final modified tool comprised of 26 items. A correlation matrix was applied to check the pattern of relationships among the items. The total sample size for the study was 154 health service providers from one Western state in India. To understand the sampling adequacy, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy and Bartlett's test of sphericity were applied and finally factor analysis was carried out to calculate the eigenvalues and to understand the relative impact of factors affecting motivation. A correlation matrix value of 0.017 was obtained narrating multi-co-linearity among the observations. Based on initial factor analysis, 8 out of 26 study factors were excluded from the study components with a cutoff range of less than

  10. Assessment of knowledge and perception regarding male sterilization (Non-Scalpel Vasectomy among community health workers in Jharkhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Mahapatra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In India, community health workers are the main source of information for family planning services and male population want to interact and discuss with them to clear their doubts about male oriented family planning methods. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and perception of community health workers regarding the modern male sterilization method. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Simdega district of Jharkhand. The target population was the community health workers and randomly selected from four randomly selected from blocks out of total seven in the district. A self-administered quantitative questionnaire was used for data collection comprising questions related to knowledge and perception of community health workers about modern male sterilization method. Results: 43% CHWs didn’t know that this method is different from traditional male sterilization method and around 62% thought man’s sexual performance get affected after NSV and 77% did not have any idea about time required to resume normal work. Conclusions: The poor knowledge and wrong perception could be one of the main reasons for poor male participation in family planning process in India.

  11. Assessment of Knowledge and Attitude of Dentists Toward Bioterrorism Awareness in Dhule (Maharashtra, India: A Cross-sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minal M Kshirsagar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bioterrorism, as a major health problem, has received lots of attention in the recent years. It is the intentional use of microorganisms and toxins to produce disease and death in humans, livestock, and crops; their attraction in war and their use in terrorist attacks are attributed to various unique features. Aim: To assess the knowledge and attitude of graduate dentists and postgraduate dentists toward bioterrorism in Dhule city, Maharashtra (India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study included graduate dentists and postgraduate dentists in Dhule, Maharashtra, India. The list of dentists of Dhule city was obtained from the Indian Dental Association office, Dhule branch. Among 110 dentists practicing in Dhule city, 97 responded. A structured, self-administered questionnaire consisting of 15 closed-ended questions was employed. The information regarding age, gender, and profession (specialty branch was collected. The data were tabulated and subjected to analysis using Pearson’s chi-square test. Results: Statistically significant difference was seen when knowledge and attitude of dentists and dentists with postgraduate qualification toward bioterrorism were compared (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Dentists with postgraduate qualification have better knowledge and attitude toward bioterrorism as compared to graduate dentists. Most of the dentists felt the need to educate the public regarding suspected bioterrorist attack, and they were willing to do so and had the confidence that it was preventable.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF SO2 CONCENTRATION IN AMBIENT AIR AND ITS IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH IN THE CITY OF GWALIOR, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishfaq Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gwalior is a historical and major city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. It is located south of Delhi the capital city of India, and 423 kilometers north of Bhopal, the state capital. Gwalior is being called as The Heart of Incredible India. Gwalior is surrounded by industrial and commercial zones of neighboring districts (Malanpur – Bhind, Banmor – Morena on all three main directions. Rapid increase in urbanization with vehicle congestion has increased enormously on the roads of Gwalior city. As a result of this, gaseous pollutants (SOx, NOx and Respirable and suspended particulate matter pollutants are continuously increasing in the ambient air of Gwalior city. Levels of SO2 were monitored at 4 locations of Gwalior city by using high volume air sampler (Envirotech APM 415 and 411. The average ambient air concentration of SO2 was found below the permissible limits of NAAQS of CPCB at all the sites. Comparatively somewhat higher concentration of SO2 was observed during these months. A health survey was also carried out which demonstrated that symptoms were developed such as sneezing, sore throat, shortness of breath, wheezing, chest tightness, skin irritation, nausea etc. In this study, an exposure–response assessment (aged 10 to 60 years was carried out related to health problems due to vehicular pollution between the months of November-2013 to May-2014 (winter. The main objectives of this study are to investigate the state of vehicular emission in Gwalior and to investigate the impact of vehicular emission on people.

  13. The Assessment of Indoor Air Pollution associated with household fuel use in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Gopal Parajuli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available India is one of the developing countries with high incidence of traditional fuel use in the rural areas such as Wood, Dung cakes, Agricultural residues and so on. The available literature shows the traditional fuels as a major contributor for increased levels of indoor air pollution in the developing countries. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of traditional fuel use and the exposure time among people in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India. Settings and Design: Sirur Village, Bagalkot District. A Cross-Sectional Study. Methods and Material: The sample size N=185 was calculated according to the prevalence of traditional fuel use in rural India, Prevalence=86% shown by National Sample Survey report in 2001. The total households surveyed were 215. Statistical analysis used :Data collected was analyzed using SPSS (version 16.0 package. Results: The total population in 215 houses was 1,177. The prevalence of traditional fuel use was 100%. None of the kitchen had improved stoves with the presence of outlet pipeline (flue. The average cooking hours for a day was 5.6 hours divided into three sessions (Morning- 2.5 hours, Afternoon- 1 hour and Evening- 2.1 hours. There was a significant difference found between the prevalence of tuberculosis among adults and the type of the house. (Fisher’s exact test, at 0.05 level of significance. Conclusions: Women primarily cook in the rural houses using the traditional fuel and children in the age group of 0-15 years accounted for more than half of total people who were present in kitchen while cooking.

  14. Assessment of 'accredited social health activists'-a national community health volunteer scheme in Karnataka State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathima, Farah N; Raju, Mohan; Varadharajan, Kiruba S; Krishnamurthy, Aditi; Ananthkumar, S R; Mony, Prem K

    2015-03-01

    About 700,000 Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) have been deployed as community health volunteers throughout India over the last few years. The objective of our study was to assess adherence to selection criteria in the recruitment of ASHA workers and to assess their performance against their job descriptions in Karnataka state, India. A cross-sectional survey, using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, was undertaken in 2012. Three districts, 12 taluks (subdistricts), and 300 villages were selected through a sequential sampling scheme. For the quantitative survey, 300 ASHAs and 1,800 mothers were interviewed using sets of structured questionnaire. For the qualitative study, programme officers were interviewed via in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. Mean ± SD age of ASHAs was 30.3 ± 5.0 years, and about 90% (261/294) were currently married, with eight years of schooling. ASHAs were predominantly (>80%) involved in certain tasks: home-visits, antenatal counselling, delivery escort services, breastfeeding advice, and immunization advice. Performance was moderate (40-60%) for: drug provision for tuberculosis, caring of children with diarrhoea or pneumonia, and organizing village meetings for health action. Performance was low (<25%) for advice on: contraceptive-use, obstetric danger sign assessment, and neonatal care. This was self-reported by ASHAs and corroborated by mothers. In conclusion, ASHA workers were largely recruited as per preset selection criteria with regard to age, education, family status, income, and residence. The ASHA workers were found to be functional in some areas with scope for improvement in others. The role of an ASHA worker was perceived to be more of a link-worker/facilitator rather than a community health worker or a social activist.

  15. Operational Assessment of ICDS Scheme at Grass Root Level in a Rural Area of Eastern India: Time to Introspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Jyotiranjan; Mahajan, Preetam B; Bhatia, Vikas; Patra, Abhinash K; Hembram, Dilip Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS), a flagship program of Government of India (GoI) for early childhood development hasn’t delivered the desired results since its inception four decades ago. This could be due to infrastructural problems, lack of awareness and proper utilization by the local people, inadequate program monitoring and corruption in food supplies, etc. This study is an audit of 36 Anganwadi centres at Khordha district, Odisha, to evaluate the implementation of the ICDS. Aim To assess operational aspects of ICDS program in a rural area of Odisha, in Eastern India. Materials and Methods A total of 36 out of 50 Anganwadi Centres (AWCs) were included in the study. We interviewed the Anganwadi Workers (AWW) and carried out observations on the AWCs using a checklist. We gathered information under three domains manpower resource, material resource and functional aspects of the AWC. Results Most of the AWCs were adequately staffed. Most of the AWWs were well educated. However, more than 85% of the AWCs did not have designated building for daily functioning which resulted in issues related to implementation of program. Water, toilet and electricity facilities were almost non-existent. Indoor air pollution posed a serious threat to the health of the children. Lack of play materials; lack of health assessment tools for promoting, monitoring physical and mental development; and multiple de-motivating factors within the work environment, eventually translated into lack of faith among the beneficiaries in the rural community. Conclusion Inadequate infrastructure and logistic supply were the most prominent issues found, which resulted in poor implementation of ICDS program. Strengthening of grass root level facilities based on need assessment, effective monitoring and supervision will definitely help in revamping the ICDS program in rural areas. PMID:28208890

  16. Forest fire risk assessment in parts of Northeast India using geospatial tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kanchan Puri; G. Areendran; Krishna Raj; Sraboni Mazumdar; P.K. Joshi

    2011-01-01

    Forest fire is a major cause of changes in forest structure and function.Among various floristic regions,the northeast region of India suffers maximum from the fires due to age-old practice of shifting cultivation and spread of fires from jhum fields.For proper mitigation and management,an early warning of forest fires through risk modeling is required.The study results demonstrate the potential use of remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) in identifying forest fire prone areas in Manipur,southeastern part of Northeast India.Land use land cover (LULC),vegetation type,Digital elevation model (DEM),slope,aspect and proximity to roads and settlements,factors that influence the behavior of fire,were used to model the forest fire risk zones.Each class of the layers was given weight according to their fire inducing capability and their sensitivity to fire.Weighted sum modeling and ISODATA clustering was used to classify the fire zones.To validate the results,Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR),the historical fire hotspots data was used to check the occurrence points and modeled forest fire locations.The forest risk zone map has 55-63% of agreement with ATSR datsset.

  17. Assessment of bio-energy potential in tea industries of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonu Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tea production is an energy intensive agro-processing trade. Since high demand of energy and increased in fuel prices, tea waste can be utilized to supplement part of energy required in tea processing. This study was conducted in tea estates of Assam (North Lakhimpur, Sonitpur, and Silchar, India. The total energy consumption in tea manufacturing was found to be 4.2-8.5 kWh/kg of made tea. Thus, total energy consumption (5 kWh/kg of tea for manufacturing of 1197 million kg of tea from 564 thousand hectare tea plantation in India (during 2014-2015 was 5.985×109 kWh. The total obtainable energy from tea waste was estimated and the conversion efficiency of calorific value to electrical energy was assumed to be 10%, which is the least value of conversion efficiency. Energy potential in processing and garden waste was found to be 11.999×107 kWh and 3.492×1010kWh, respectively, and corresponding electrical energy was estimated to be 1.1999×107 kWh and 3.492×109 kWh, respectively. Thus, comparing the energy that could be generated from wastes in tea estate and that required in tea manufacturing, it can be concluded that the huge amount of energy could be saved with the utilization of tea waste.

  18. Water Quality Assessment of River Beas During Winter Season in Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Sharma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Present investigation was carried out in 256 km stretch of river Beas in Himachal Pradesh for analysis of important physical, chemical and biological water quality parameters during winter season. Parameters such as temperature, pH, conductivity, turbidity, alkalinity, total dissolved solids (TDS, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, biological oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, Colliform and Escherichia coli were analyzed from six sampling stations i.e. Beaskund , Shamshi, Pandohdam, Dharampur, Nadaun and Pongdam in the study area. The analysis of data reveals that turbidity, cadmium and lead, were found to be higher than the acceptable limit prescribed by Bureau of Indian standards (BIS, 2012 for drinking water in India. Colliform and E.coli were present in all the sampling stations of river Beas except at SS-1 and SS-2. All the other physicochemical parameters excepting pH at SS-5 (8.98±0.057 were within the limit prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO, 2011 and BIS, 2012 for drinking water in India.

  19. Application of a new methodology for coastal multi-hazard-assessment and management on the state of Karnataka, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelquist, Lars Rosendahl; Balstrom, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    of Kamataka's coastline has a high or very high inherent hazard of erosion, making erosion the most prevalent coastal hazard. The hazards of flooding and salt water intrusion are also relatively widespread as 39 percent of Karnataka's coastline has a high or very high inherent hazard for both of these hazard......This paper presents the application of a new Methodology for coastal multi-hazard assessment & management under a changing global climate on the state of Karnataka, India. The recently published methodology termed the Coastal Hazard Wheel (CHW) is designed for local, regional and national hazard...... screening in areas with limited data availability, and covers the hazards of ecosystem disruption, gradual inundation, salt water intrusion, erosion and flooding. The application makes use of published geophysical data and remote sensing information and is showcasing how the CHW framework can be applied...

  20. Assessment of water quality index of bore well water samples from some selected locations of South Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, S; Patel, H M; Srivastava, P K; Bafna, A M

    2013-10-01

    The present study calculates the water quality index (WQI) of some selected sites from South Gujarat (India) and assesses the impact of industries, agriculture and human activities. Chemical parameters were monitored for the calculation of WQI of some selected bore well samples. The results revealed that the WQI of the some bore well samples exceeded acceptable levels due to the dumping of wastes from municipal, industrial and domestic sources and agricultural runoff as well. Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) was implemented for interpolation of each water quality parameter (pH, EC, alkalinity, total hardness, chloride, nitrate and sulphate) for the entire sampled area. The bore water is unsuitable for drinking and if the present state of affairs continues for long, it may soon become an ecologically dead bore.

  1. Reproductive risk factors assessment for anaemia among pregnant women in India using a multinomial logistic regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Vanamail

    2014-07-01

    To assess reproductive risk factors for anaemia among pregnant women in urban and rural areas of India. The International Institute of Population Sciences, India, carried out third National Family Health Survey in 2005-2006 to estimate a key indicator from a sample of ever-married women in the reproductive age group 15-49 years. Data on various dimensions were collected using a structured questionnaire, and anaemia was measured using a portable HemoCue instrument. Anaemia prevalence among pregnant women was compared between rural and urban areas using chi-square test and odds ratio. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors. Anaemia prevalence was assessed among 3355 pregnant women from rural areas and 1962 pregnant women from urban areas. Moderate-to-severe anaemia in rural areas (32.4%) is significantly more common than in urban areas (27.3%) with an excess risk of 30%. Gestational age specific prevalence of anaemia significantly increases in rural areas after 6 months. Pregnancy duration is a significant risk factor in both urban and rural areas. In rural areas, increasing age at marriage and mass media exposure are significant protective factors of anaemia. However, more births in the last five years, alcohol consumption and smoking habits are significant risk factors. In rural areas, various reproductive factors and lifestyle characteristics constitute significant risk factors for moderate-to-severe anaemia. Therefore, intensive health education on reproductive practices and the impact of lifestyle characteristics are warranted to reduce anaemia prevalence. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Understanding and Forecasting Ethnolinguistic Vitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Forecasting of ethnolinguistic vitality can only be done within a well-functioning descriptive and explanatory model of the dynamics of language stability and shift. It is proposed that the Perceived Benefit Model of Language Shift, used with a taxonomy of language shift motivations, provides that model. The model, based on individual language…

  3. Understanding and Forecasting Ethnolinguistic Vitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Forecasting of ethnolinguistic vitality can only be done within a well-functioning descriptive and explanatory model of the dynamics of language stability and shift. It is proposed that the Perceived Benefit Model of Language Shift, used with a taxonomy of language shift motivations, provides that model. The model, based on individual language…

  4. Vitalism in Naive Biological Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Suzanne C.; Taplin, John E.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2000-01-01

    Three experiments investigated use of vitalistic explanations for biological phenomena by 5- and 10-year-olds and by adults. Results replicated the original Japanese finding of vitalistic thinking among English-speaking 5-year-olds, identified the more active component of vitalism as a belief in the transfer of energy during biological processes,…

  5. A mini-OSCE for formative assessment of diagnostic and radiographic skills at a dental college in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lele, Shailesh M

    2011-12-01

    The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is being widely used for assessment of skills in dental education around the world. In India, OSCE awareness is rising, and a few exploratory attempts have been made in its implementation. This article describes use of a five-station mini-OSCE for formative assessment of dental diagnostic and radiographic skills in an undergraduate curriculum. Besides gaining experience in OSCEs, the purpose of this project was to study their validity, objectivity, feasibility, acceptability to students and faculty, and impact on student performance. The mini-OSCE was found to be a fairly valid and reliable tool for formative assessment, though it required more planning, preparation, and resources than other means of assessment. A specially developed orientation module improved its feasibility. The nineteen students perceived it to be a meaningful examination and a fair method due to uniformity of tasks and time allocation; they found the scoring to be transparent and objective. The specific and immediate feedback received was appreciated by both students and faculty members.

  6. Forced vital capacity, slow vital capacity, or inspiratory vital capacity: which is the best measure of vital capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, S K

    1998-01-01

    Vital capacity can be measured as forced vital capacity (FVC), slow vital capacity (SVC), and inspiratory vital capacity (IVC). Although it is well known that the latter two are generally greater, a systematic comparison of the three in subjects with different degrees of airways obstruction has not been made. Sixty asthmatics and 20 normal subjects performed maneuvers for measurement of FVC, SVC, and IVC on a dry, rolling-seal spirometer. The severity of airways obstruction in asthmatics was classified as mild, moderate, and severe. There was no significant difference between FVC, SVC, and IVC in normal subjects. However, the three measurements of vital capacity were significantly different in all subgroups of asthmatics. FVC was smaller than both SVC and IVC. The differences were more marked in patients with moderate and severe degrees of airways obstruction. The differences between SVC and IVC were small and clinically not important. Forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) expressed as percent of FVC, SVC, and IVC, was not different in normals and asthmatics with mild airways obstruction. The ratios were significantly different in asthmatics with moderate and severe airways obstruction. FEV1/IVC ratio was the lowest in both the groups followed by FEV1/SVC and FEV1/FVC. IVC and SVC are greater than FVC in patients with airways obstruction. This difference increases as the degree of obstruction increases. The difference between SVC or IVC and FVC serves as an indicator of air trapping. Both FVC and IVC could be measured and the largest VC used to calculate the FEV1/VC ratio because this increases the sensitivity of spirometry in detecting airways obstruction.

  7. Comparative assessment of dentition status among poliomyelitis children in Udaipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Tak, Mridula; Sharda, Archana J; Asawa, Kailash; Ramesh, Gayathri; Sandesh, Nagarajappa

    2013-01-01

    To determine and compare the dental caries experience and treatment needs of children with Poliomyelitis at Udaipur, India. Total sample comprised of 344 children with Poliomyelitis (upper limb disability: 33.4%; lower limb disability: 33.7%; both upper and lower limb disability: 32.8%) in the age group of 12-15 years. Clinical examination included recording Dentition Status and Treatment Needs. Chi-square test, Analysis of variance (ANOVA), multiple logistic and stepwise linear regressions were used for statistical analysis. The mean decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) score (4.47 ± 3.09) was found to be highest among children with Poliomyelitis having both upper and lower limb impairment (p < .05). Stepwise and logistic regression analysis showed that the best predictors for dental caries were disability, socioeconomic status and snacks in between meals. A significant relationship of dental caries with limb involved in impairment draws immediate attention for a planned approach in improving the oral health.

  8. Assessment of Water Pollution in Tipparthy Revenue Sub-Division, Nalgonda (District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medikondu Kishore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study has been carried out to explore the physicochemical characteristics of drinking water sources of Tipparthy revenue sub-division, Nalgonda (District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Totally 49 water samples were collected from the different locations (22 villages of the study area including bore well, open well and hand pump water and analyzed for pH, EC, TDS, turbidity, total hardness, fluoride, chloride, nitrate, nitrite, sulphate, phosphates, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, Iron and dissolved oxygen. On an average, in almost all the samples, one or the other chemical constituent was beyond the permissible limits it was also concluded that water sources in the study area not fit for potability. Sodium absorption ratio (SAR and water quality (WQI studies indicate water available from all sources not fit for irrigation also. The study indicates the need for periodic monitoring of ground water in the study area.

  9. Assessment of microcystin concentration in carp and catfish: a case study from Lakshmikund pond, Varanasi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shweta; Asthana, Ravi Kumar

    2014-06-01

    The present study was conducted to analyse microcystin concentrations in Lakshmikund pond, Varanasi, India, as well as in carp and catfish of the pond. The concentrations of microcystin were found well above the WHO guidelines (1 µg/L) both for the dissolved and particulate fractions of bloom samples. The microcystin concentrations in different organs of carp and catfish were in the following sequence; liver > gut > kidney > gall bladder > gills > muscles and gut > liver > kidney > gall bladder > gills > muscles, respectively. The bioaccumulation of microcystin in carp and catfish was negatively correlated with body weight, and showed species specificity. The higher bioaccumulation of microcystin in muscles of catfish (>tenfold) over carp indicates a possible threat to human beings on consumption of catfish. Therefore, to avoid animal and human intoxication, routine analyses of microcystin in pond water as well as fishes are strongly recommended.

  10. Assessment of trace metal toxicity in soils of Raniganj Coalfield, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.K.; Chakrapani, G.J. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geological & Earth Science

    2011-06-15

    Soil, rock and water samples were collected from India's oldest coalfield Raniganj to investigate trace metal contamination from mining activity. Our data reveal that trace metal concentration in soil samples lies above the average world soil composition; especially, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn concentrations exceed the maximum allowable concentration proposed by the European Commission for agricultural soils. In particular, Cr, Cu and Ni exceed the ecotoxicological limit, and Ni exceeds the typical value for cultivated soils. Mineral dissolution from overburden material and high adsorption capacity of laterite soil are responsible for the elevated concentrations. This is evident from enrichment factor (E{sub f}), geoaccumulation index (I{sub geo}) and metal pollution index values. Sediment quality guideline index indicates toxicity to local biota although enrichment index suggests no threat from consuming crops cultivated in the contaminated soil.

  11. Assessment of alpha activity of building materials commonly used in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Bera, Sukumar; Sengupta, Rosalima; Patra, Kanchan Kumar

    2008-02-01

    This paper, reports for the first time, an extensive study of alpha activity of all widely used building materials (plaster of Paris, stone chips, marble, white cement, mosaic stone, limestone, sand, granite, cement brick, asbestos, red brick, cement tile, ceramic tile and ceramics) in West Bengal, India. The alpha activities have been measured using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD), a very sensitive detector for alpha particles. The samples were collected from local markets of Kolkata. The measured average alpha activities ranged from 22.7+/-2.5 to 590.6+/-16.8Bqkg(-1). The alpha activity of ceramic tiles was highest and provides additional data to estimate the effect of environmental radiation exposure on human health.

  12. Assessment of biomethanation potential of selected industrial organic effluents in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lata, Kusum; Kansal, Arun; Balakrishnan, Malini; Rajeshwari, K.V.; Kishore, V.V.N. [Tata Energy Research Institute, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, 110 003 New Delhi (India)

    2002-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion is gaining wider acceptance in the present scenario over aerobic treatment due to production of biogas, which can be further used for meeting a part of energy demand. On the basis of primary and secondary data, the energy potential by the anaerobic digestion of the effluent from some of the polluting industries has been estimated in this paper. The pulp and paper industry has been found to have the maximum potential among others of the order of 1131 GWh{sub e}/a followed by distillery with a contribution of 830 GWh{sub e}/a to a total potential of 2963 GWh{sub e}/a equivalent electric energy. A total potential of 565 MW plant installation with anaerobic digestion technology has been estimated. The paper also describes the nature of wastewater generated by each sector, status of technologies for that sector in India and policy measures, which should be adopted for their large-scale adoption.

  13. Water Quality Assessment of Groundwater Resources in Nagpur Region (India Based on WQI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Rajankar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water quality index (WQI has been calculated for different groundwater sources i.e. dug wells, bore wells and tube wells at Khaperkheda region, Maharashtra (India. Twenty two different sites were selected in post monsoon, winter and summer season. And water quality index was calculated using water quality index calculator given by National Sanitation Foundation (NSF information system. The calculated WQI showed fair water quality rating in post monsoon season which then changed to medium in summer and winter seasons for dug wells, but the bore wells and hand pumps showed medium water quality rating in all seasons where the quality was slightly differs in summer and winter season than post monsoon season, so the reasons to import water quality change and measures to be taken up in terms of groundwater quality management are required.

  14. Musculoskeletal disorders among municipal solid waste workers in India: A cross-sectional risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endreddy Manikanta Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Waste management is a necessary activity around the world, but involves a variety of health hazards. In a developing country like India, municipal solid waste is collected manually requiring heavy physical activity. Among all occupational health issues, musculoskeletal problems are common among waste collectors in the form of nonfatal injuries because of the presence of such risk factors (lifting, carrying, pulling, and pushing. We have thus conducted this study to evaluate musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs among municipal solid waste (MSW workers. Methodology: A cross-sectional study using probability proportionate to size sampling, recruited 220 MSW workers from the Chennai Municipal Corporation, India for this study. A pretested validated questionnaire has been used to collect data on demographic and occupational history and information on musculoskeletal pain. Data analysis was performed using R software (3.0.1 version. Results: 70% of the participants reported that they had been troubled with musculoskeletal pain in one or more of the 9 defined body regions during the last 12 months, whereas 91.8% had pain during the last 7 days. Higher prevalence of symptoms in knees, shoulders, and lower back was found to be 84.5%, 74.5%, and 50.9% respectively. Female illiterate workers with lower socioeconomic status were found to have higher odds for MSDs. Similarly, higher body mass index having no physical activity increases the chance of odds having MSDs. Conclusion: The higher percentage of musculoskeletal symptoms among MSW workers could be attributed to the long duration of employment, the low job control, and the nature of their job, which is physically demanding. A workplace of health promotion model integration can minimize the reported high prevalence, and a prospective cohort study could be recommended further.

  15. Assessment of particulate matter variation during 2011-2015 over a tropical station Agra, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogikar, Priyanjali; Tyagi, Bhishma

    2016-12-01

    Air quality over Agra is deteriorating and causing a serious threat to people residing in the city as well as to World heritage site- Tajmahal. In the present study, daily average concentrations of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM) were analysed over a period of 2011-2015 at four stations in Agra city, namely: Taj, Itmad-Ud-Daula, Rambagh and Nunhai. The concentrations are above threshold values when compared to specify standards for a healthy environment (by India, US, WHO, EU and China - Class I and Class II) for all the seasons except monsoon and the values are highest in the month of November and lowest in the month of August and September. Variation of RSPM and SPM were found to be positively correlated with each other with values of 0.76 (Taj), 0.72 (Itmad-Ud-Daula), 0.69 (Rambagh), 0.77 (Nunhai). The study illustrates that the levels of SPM and RSPM are not showing any decreasing trend over Agra even after closing of industries and taking other precautions inside the city by Government of India. The study clearly identifies that local control of pollution sources are not enough and pollution is being transported from nearby regions to keep the daily pollution value higher than threshold. Source regions of transported pollutants over Agra have been analysed by using Weighted Potential Source Contribution Function (WPSCF) for both SPM and RSPM. Wavelet analysis of monthly averaged values of RSPM and SPM data sets has shown the existence of semi-annual and annual periodicity over the study region.

  16. An evaluation of So language vitality in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Tehan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the vitality and endangerment of So [sss] speech communities in Thailand. Beginning with a review of sociolinguistic survey results for five So communities in Thailand to ascertain the likely need for vernacular language development in So, additional data to cover the rest of the So community are provided. The language vitality of the So communities in Thailand is then assessed using Expanded GIDS and the Sustainable Use Model (SUM, Lewis & Simons 20152, an expansion of the Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (GIDS, Fishman 1991. This vitality model indicates that many So villages display vigorous language vitality whereas other villages are threatened by language shift. Some initial efforts at revitalization and language development show promise. Several additional activities are suggested to enhance the vitality of the language and help the So to resist the regional trend towards language shift to Northeastern Thai (Isaan.

  17. ASSESSING CUSTOMERS’ PERCEIVED SERVICE QUALITY IN PRIVATE SECTOR BANKS IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Panda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at constructing a measure of service quality for Indian private sector banks. The SERVQUAL model was used. In total 28 variables were considered to find their relative importance from customers’ point of view. Factor analysis was used to reduce redundant variables and finally four dimensions were identified that are the dependability with facility, guarantee, security with value added services and compassion with cordialness. Then RIDIT test was done to identify the prioritization pattern that customers assign to different variables. The result shows that customers believe that bank’s effort in instill confidence in customers, the bank’s concern for customers’ best interest and safety standards in transactions are vital factors for improving customer satisfaction.

  18. Environmental monitoring and assessment of antibacterial metabolite producing actinobacteria screened from marine sediments in south coastal regions of Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Garka, Shruthi; Puttaswamy, Sushmitha; Shanbhogue, Shobitha; Devaraju, Raksha; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2017-06-01

    Assessment of the therapeutic potential of secondary metabolite producing microorganisms from the marine coastal areas imparts scope and application in the field of environmental monitoring. The present study aims to screen metabolites with antibacterial potential from actionbacteria associated with marine sediments collected from south coastal regions of Karnataka, India. The actinobacteria were isolated and characterized from marine sediments by standard protocol. The metabolites were extracted, and antibacterial potential was analyzed against eight hospital associated bacteria. The selected metabolites were partially characterized by proximate analysis, SDS-PAGE, and FTIR-spectroscopy. The antibiogram of the test clinical isolates revealed that they were emerged as multidrug-resistant strains (P ≤ 0.05). Among six actinobacteria (IS1-1S6) screened, 100 μl(-1) metabolite from IS1 showed significant antibacterial activities against all the clinical isolates except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. IS2 demonstrated antimicrobial potential towards Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli. The metabolite from IS3 showed activity against Strep. pyogenes and E. coli. The metabolites from IS4, IS5, and IS6 exhibited antimicrobial activities against Ps. aeruginosa (P ≤ 0.05). The two metabolites that depicted highest antibacterial activities against the test strains were suggested to be antimicrobial peptides with low molecular weight. These isolates were characterized and designated as Streptomyces sp. strain mangaluru01 and Streptomyces sp. mangaloreK01 by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. This study suggests that south coastal regions of Karnataka, India, are one of the richest sources of antibacterial metabolites producing actinobacteria and monitoring of these regions for therapeutic intervention plays profound role in healthcare management.

  19. Assessment of Historic Trend in Mobility and Energy Use in India Transportation Sector Using Bottom-up Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; McNeil, Michael A.

    2009-05-01

    Transportation mobility in India has increased significantly in the past decades. From 1970 to 2000, motorized mobility (passenger-km) has risen by 888%, compared with an 88% population growth (Singh,2006). This contributed to many energy and environmental issues, and an energy strategy incorporates efficiency improvement and other measures needs to be designed. Unfortunately, existing energy data do not provide information on driving forces behind energy use and sometime show large inconsistencies. Many previous studies address only a single transportation mode such as passenger road travel; did not include comprehensive data collection or analysis has yet been done, or lack detail on energy demand by each mode and fuel mix. The current study will fill a considerable gap in current efforts, develop a data base on all transport modes including passenger air and water, and freight in order to facilitate the development of energy scenarios and assess significance of technology potential in a global climate change model. An extensive literature review and data collection has been done to establish the database with breakdown of mobility, intensity, distance, and fuel mix of all transportation modes. Energy consumption was estimated and compared with aggregated transport consumption reported in IEA India transportation energy data. Different scenarios were estimated based on different assumptions on freight road mobility. Based on the bottom-up analysis, we estimated that the energy consumption from 1990 to 2000 increased at an annual growth rate of 7% for the mid-range road freight growth case and 12% for the high road freight growth case corresponding to the scenarios in mobility, while the IEA data only shows a 1.7% growth rate in those years.

  20. Refining the Notion of Ethnolinguistic Vitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehala, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The paper argues that the notion of ethnolinguistic vitality has been used ambiguously in the vitality theory, denoting three distinct theoretical concepts: sustainability (Su), strength (S) and vitality (V). It is hypothesised that sustainability is a group's ability to continue existing as a group while vitality is its ability to act as a…

  1. Professional Vitality: Do You Have It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Tom; Donaldson, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    Examines professional vitality (passion, vigor, facility, and satisfaction) among Maine elementary school principals. Finds three variables related to level of principal vitality: Tenure in the same school (longer tenure results in lower vitality), gender (women have more vitality than men), and support (more faculty and staff support equals…

  2. Physical activity and cognitive vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Voss, Michelle W; Erickson, Kirk I; Kramer, Arthur F

    2015-01-01

    We examine evidence supporting the associations among physical activity (PA), cognitive vitality, neural functioning, and the moderation of these associations by genetic factors. Prospective epidemiological studies provide evidence for PA to be associated with a modest reduction in relative risk of cognitive decline. An evaluation of the PA-cognition link across the life span provides modest support for the effect of PA on preserving and even enhancing cognitive vitality and the associated neural circuitry in older adults, with the majority of benefits seen for tasks that are supported by the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. The literature on children and young adults, however, is in need of well-powered randomized controlled trials. Future directions include a more sophisticated understanding of the dose-response relationship, the integration of genetic and epigenetic approaches, inclusion of multimodal imaging of brain-behavior changes, and finally the design of multimodal interventions that may yield broader improvements in cognitive function.

  3. Vital Signs-Secondhand Smoke

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-03

    This podcast is based on the February 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Secondhand smoke kills more than 400 infants and 41,000 adult nonsmokers every year. Learn what can be done to prevent secondhand smoke exposure.  Created: 2/3/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/3/2015.

  4. Vital Signs - Child Passenger Safety

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    This podcast is based on the February 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Over the past 10 years, more than 9,000 children 12 and under died in motor vehicle crashes, and a third who died in 2011 weren't buckled up. Buckling up is the best way to reduce injuries and save lives.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 2/4/2014.

  5. Plan de mercadeo Vitality Lunch

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Muestra la estructura del plan de mercadeo para la fabricación y comercialización de comidas saludables customizadas para personas que busquen cuidar su salud o para personas que padecen algún tipo de enfermedad que deba ser tratado bajo una dieta alimenticia especial, el plan busca crear la mezcla correcta para dar a conocer, posicionar y comercializar los almuerzos 100% naturales y frescos de Vitality Lunch.

  6. SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS OF AYUSH: AN ASSESSMENT THROUGH FIVE YEAR PLANS OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janmejaya Samal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AYUSH is an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy. These are the six indigenous systems of medicine practiced in India. A department called department of Indian system of medicine was created in March 1995 and renamed to AYUSH in Nov.2003 with a focus to provide increased attention for the development of these systems. Very recently, in 2014, a separate ministry was created under the union Govt. of India which is headed by a minister of state. Planning regarding these systems of medicine was a part of five year planning process since 1951. Since then many developments have happened in this sector albeit the system was struggling with a great degree of uncertainty at the time of first five year plan. A progressive path of development could be observed since the first to the 12th five year plan. It was up to the seventh plan the growth was little sluggish and from eighth plan onwards the growth took its pace and several innovative development processes could be observed thereafter. The system is gradually progressing ahead with a vision to be a globally accepted system, as envisaged in 11th five year plan. Currently AYUSH system is a part of mainstream health system implemented under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM. NRHM came in to play in 2005 but implemented at ground level in 2006 and introduced the scheme of and lsquo;Mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health traditions' to strengthen public health services. This scheme is currently in operation in its second phase, since 1st April 2012, with the 12th five year plan. The scheme was primarily brought in to operation with three important objectives; choice of treatment system to the patients, strengthen facility functionally and strengthen the implementation of national health programmes however in some places it seems to be a forced medical pluralism owing to a top-down approach by the union government without considerable involvement of

  7. Situational analysis and future directions of AYUSH: An assessment through 5-year plans of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Janmejaya

    2015-01-01

    AYUSH is an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy. These are the six indigenous systems of medicine practiced in India. A department called Department of Indian System of medicine was created in March 1995 and renamed to AYUSH in November 2003 with a focus to provide increased attention for the development of these systems. Very recently, in 2014, a separate ministry was created under the union Government of India, which is headed by a minister of state. Planning regarding these systems of medicine was a part of 5-year planning process since 1951. Since then many developments have happened in this sector albeit the system was struggling with a great degree of uncertainty at the time of 1st5-year plan. A progressive path of development could be observed since the first to the 12th5-year plan. It was up to the 7thplan the growth was little sluggish and from 8thplan onward the growth took its pace and several innovative development processes could be observed thereafter. The system is gradually progressing ahead with a vision to be a globally accepted system, as envisaged in 11th5-year plan. Currently, AYUSH system is a part of mainstream health system implemented under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). NRHM came into play in 2005 but implemented at ground level in 2006 and introduced the scheme of “Mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health traditions” to strengthen public health services. This scheme is currently in operation in its second phase, since 1stApril 2012, with the 12th5-year plan. The scheme was primarily brought in to operation with three important objectives; choice of treatment system to the patients, strengthen facility functionally and strengthen the implementation of national health programmes, however, in some places it seems to be a forced medical pluralism owing to a top-down approach by the union government without considerable involvement of the concerned community. In this study, the

  8. Situational analysis and future directions of AYUSH: An assessment through 5-year plans of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Janmejaya

    2015-01-01

    AYUSH is an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy. These are the six indigenous systems of medicine practiced in India. A department called Department of Indian System of medicine was created in March 1995 and renamed to AYUSH in November 2003 with a focus to provide increased attention for the development of these systems. Very recently, in 2014, a separate ministry was created under the union Government of India, which is headed by a minister of state. Planning regarding these systems of medicine was a part of 5-year planning process since 1951. Since then many developments have happened in this sector albeit the system was struggling with a great degree of uncertainty at the time of 1(st)5-year plan. A progressive path of development could be observed since the first to the 12(th)5-year plan. It was up to the 7(th)plan the growth was little sluggish and from 8(th)plan onward the growth took its pace and several innovative development processes could be observed thereafter. The system is gradually progressing ahead with a vision to be a globally accepted system, as envisaged in 11(th)5-year plan. Currently, AYUSH system is a part of mainstream health system implemented under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). NRHM came into play in 2005 but implemented at ground level in 2006 and introduced the scheme of "Mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health traditions" to strengthen public health services. This scheme is currently in operation in its second phase, since 1(st)April 2012, with the 12(th)5-year plan. The scheme was primarily brought in to operation with three important objectives; choice of treatment system to the patients, strengthen facility functionally and strengthen the implementation of national health programmes, however, in some places it seems to be a forced medical pluralism owing to a top-down approach by the union government without considerable involvement of the concerned community. In this

  9. A strategic assessment of cervical cancer prevention and treatment services in 3 districts of Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzuba Ilana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite being a preventable disease, cervical cancer claims the lives of almost half a million women worldwide each year. India bears one-fifth of the global burden of the disease, with approximately 130,000 new cases a year. In an effort to assess the need and potential for improving the quality of cervical cancer prevention and treatment services in Uttar Pradesh, a strategic assessment was conducted in three of the state's districts: Agra, Lucknow, and Saharanpur. Methods Using an adaptation of stage one of the World Health Organization's Strategic Approach to Improving Reproductive Health Policies and Programmes, an assessment of the quality of cervical cancer services was carried out by a multidisciplinary team of stakeholders. The assessment included a review of the available literature, observations of services, collection of hospital statistics and the conduct of qualitative research (in-depth interviews and focus group discussions to assess the perspectives of women, providers, policy makers and community members. Results There were gaps in provider knowledge and practices, potentially attributable to limited provider training and professional development opportunities. In the absence of a state policy on cervical cancer, screening of asymptomatic women was practically absent, except in the military sector. Cytology-based cancer screening tests (i.e. pap smears were often used to help diagnose women with symptoms of reproductive tract infections but not routinely screen asymptomatic women. Access to appropriate treatment of precancerous lesions was limited and often inappropriately managed by hysterectomy in many urban centers. Cancer treatment facilities were well equipped but mostly inaccessible for women in need. Finally, policy makers, community members and clients were mostly unaware about cervical cancer and its preventable nature, although with information, expressed a strong interest in having services

  10. Objective standardized clinical assessment with feedback: Adapting the objective structured clinical examination for postgraduate psychiatry training in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Prabha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE is used commonly for assessment of psychiatry trainees but has been used less for teaching. Aim and Setting: This study describes the adaptation of the OSCE method for training purposes in a postgraduate psychiatry training center in India and the initial findings with regard to trainee performance. Materials and Methods : The adapted method was called the objective structured clinical assessment with feedback (OSCAF. The adaptation included several steps - modifying existing OSCE patterns for language and cultural appropriateness, using supervised roleplaying instead of standardized or simulated patients and evolving an assessment method (14-item checklist that would generate feedback. This exercise was conducted in front of a group of multidisciplinary peers and supervisors. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics and ANOVA were used. Results: Analysis of the performance based on the 14-item checklist assessing common elements of any patient-related interaction in 34 different OSCAF tasks indicated the following: less-than-satisfactory (< 75% performances in the following areas - assuring confidentiality (73.5%, assessing comfort (62%, summarizing (60%, closure (62% and checking whether the ′patient′ had understood what was being communicated (42%. Based on the nature of clinical situations, performances on some specific and difficult OSCAF situations were found to be inadequate and indicated need for further training. Conclusions: We have been able to demonstrate OSCAF to be a convenient, cost-effective training method in psychiatry, with limited demands on resources; however, further refinements in ratings and feedback methods and studies on effectiveness may enhance its utility.

  11. Assessment of genetic diversity in indigenous turmeric (Curcuma longa) germplasm from India using molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sushma; Singh, Shweta; Sharma, Suresh; Tewari, S K; Roy, R K; Goel, A K; Rana, T S

    2015-04-01

    Curcuma longa L., commonly known as turmeric, is one of the economically and medicinally important plant species. It is predominantly cultivated in the tropical and sub tropical countries. India is the largest producer, and exporter of turmeric in the world, followed by China, Indonesia, Bangladesh and Thailand. In the present study, Directed Amplification of Minisatellite DNA (DAMD) and Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR), methods were used to estimate the genetic variability in indigenous turmeric germplasm. Cumulative data analysis for DAMD (15) and ISSR (13) markers resulted into 478 fragments, out of which 392 fragments were polymorphic, revealing 82 % polymorphism across the turmeric genotypes. Wide range of pairwise genetic distances (0.03-0.59) across the genotypes revealed that these genotypes are genetically quite diverse. The UPGMA dendrogram generated using cumulative data showed significant relationships amongst the genotypes. All 29 genotypes studied grouped into two clusters irrespective of their geographical affiliations with 100 % bootstrap value except few genotypes, suggesting considerable diversity amongst the genotypes. These results suggested that the current collection of turmeric genotypes preserve the vast majority of natural variations. The results further demonstrate the efficiency and reliability of DAMD and ISSR markers in determining the genetic diversity and relationships among the indigenous turmeric germplasm. DAMD and ISSR profiling have identified diverse turmeric genotypes, which could be further utilized in various genetic improvement programmes including conventional as well as marker assisted breeding towards development of new and desirable turmeric genotypes.

  12. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing based microbial diversity assessment of Lasundra hot spring, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit V. Mangrola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report on the metagenomic approach for unveiling the microbial diversity of Lasundra hot spring, Gujarat State, India. High-throughput sequencing of community DNA was performed on an Ion Torrent PGM platform. Metagenome consisted of 606,867 sequences represent 98,567,305 bps size with an average length of 162 bps and 46% G + C content. Metagenome sequence information is available at EBI under EBI Metagenomic database with accession no. ERP009313. MG-RAST assisted community analysis revealed that 99.21% sequences were bacterial origin, 0.43% was fit to eukaryotes and 0.11% belongs to archaea. A total of 29 bacterial, 20 eukaryotic and 4 archaeal phyla were detected. Abundant genera were Bacillus (86.7%, Geobacillus (2.4%, Paenibacillus (1.0%, Clostridium (0.7% and Listeria (0.5%, that represent 91.52% in metagenome. In functional analysis, Cluster of Orthologous Group (COG based annotation revealed that 45.4% was metabolism connected and 19.6% falls in poorly characterized group. Subsystem based annotation approach suggests that the 14.0% was carbohydrates, 7.0% was protein metabolism and 3.0% genes for various stress responses together with the versatile presence of commercially useful traits.

  13. Library Collection Assessment: A Case Study of Two Universities in the Region of Punjab, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Har Singh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Collection development is one of the important activities in academic libraries. The purpose of this study is to investigate the perception and the needs of users’ from library collections of print and electronic resources, including users’ awareness of library collection development policy and procedure. The study highlighted various library resources used by the respondents and their degrees of satisfaction. The scope of the study was limited to two universities in the region of Punjab, India, i.e., Panjab University, Chandigarh and Punjabi University, Patiala. The respondents were postgraduate students from all disciplines of these two universities. A stratified random sampling technique was used. The data was collected through a questionnaire and personal discussions with the respondents about their opinions in collection development of university libraries. The major findings of the study are: the majority of the respondents are not aware of library collection development policy and procedures. Hence, it is recommended that libraries should involve users in collection development, seeking users’ feedback and suggestions and evaluating collections on a regular basis.

  14. An assessment of boiling as a method of household water treatment in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juran, Luke; MacDonald, Morgan C

    2014-12-01

    This article scrutinizes the boiling of water in Tamil Nadu and Puducherry, India. Boiling, as it is commonly practiced, improves water quality, but its full potential is not being realized. Thus, the objective is to refine the method in practice, promote acceptability, and foster the scalability of boiling and household water treatment (HWT) writ large. The study is based on bacteriological samples from 300 households and 80 public standposts, 14 focus group discussions (FGDs), and 74 household interviews. Collectively, the data fashion both an empirical and ethnographic understanding of boiling. The rate and efficacy of boiling, barriers to and caveats of its adoption, and recommendations for augmenting its practice are detailed. While boiling is scientifically proven to eliminate bacteria, data demonstrate that pragmatics inhibit their total destruction. Furthermore, data and the literature indicate that a range of cultural, economic, and ancillary health factors challenge the uptake of boiling. Fieldwork and resultant knowledge arrive at strategies for overcoming these impediments. The article concludes with recommendations for selecting, introducing, and scaling up HWT mechanisms. A place-based approach that can be sustained over the long-term is espoused, and prolonged exposure by the interveners coupled with meaningful participation of the target population is essential.

  15. Isotopic and Hydrogeochemical Assessment of Groundwater quality of Punjab and Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, V.; Douglas, E. M.; Hannigan, R.; Schaaf, C.; Moore, J.

    2016-12-01

    Punjab and Haryana lie in the semi-arid region of northwestern India and are characterized by a limited access to freshwater resources and an increasing dependence on groundwater resources to meet human demand, resulting in overexploitation. The objectives of the present study was to characterize groundwater recharge sources using stable isotopes of (δ2H) and (δ18O) and to trace geochemical evolution of groundwater using rare earth elements (REEs). Samples were collected from 30 different locations including shallow domestic handpumps, deep irrigation wells, surface water and rainwater. Samples were analyzed for stable isotopes of (δ2H) and (δ18O) using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) and trace elements using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) at University of Massachusetts Boston. Precipitation, surface water and irrigation return flow were identified as the primary sources of recharge to groundwater. Sustainability of recharge sources is highly dependent on the glacier-fed rivers from the Himalayas that are already experiencing impacts from climate change. Geochemistry of REEs revealed geochemically evolved groundwater system with carbonate subsurface weathering as major hydrological processes. Enhanced dissolution of carbonates in the future can be a serious issue with extremely hard groundwater leaving scaly deposits inside pipes and wells. This would not only worsen the groundwater quality but would impose financial implications on the groundwater users in the community. If irrigated culture is to survive as an economically viable and environmentally sustainable activity in the region, groundwater management activities have to be planned at the regional scale.

  16. An ecological assessment of Hispid Hare Caprolagus hispidus (Mammalia: Lagomorpha: Leporidae in Manas National Park, Assam, India

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    Naba K. Nath

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study of the Hispid Hare Caprolagus hispidus in the tall grassland habitat of Manas National Park, Assam during 2009–2010 is the first detailed assessment in northeastern India.  We assessed the status, distribution, habitat use and key threats to this rare and little studied lagomorph species.  After interviewing local forest staff, 20 grassland patches within a survey area of 2.65ha were selected and transects (50x2 m laid randomly to determine the presence/absence of Hispid Hare by recording pellets and other indirect evidence.  Hare presence was recorded in 17 grassland patches within transects dominated by Imperata cylindrica and Saccharum narenga.  Hispid Hare preferred dry savannah grasslands to wet alluvial grasslands during winter and avoided recently burned patches due to lack of cover and food.  The distribution pattern observed was clumped (s2/a = 6.2, with more evidence of Hispid Hare presence in areas where ground cover was dense, dry and away from water sources. Population density was estimated at 381.55 individuals/km2, which in comparison with other studies indicates that Manas National Park currently holds the highest density of Hispid Hare.  Habitat loss due to overgrazing, unsustainable thatch harvesting, burning of grassland, weed invasion, encroachment and hunting were identified as key threats which must be addressed to ensure survival of this threatened species in the Park.  

  17. Assessment of oral mucosal lesions among eunuchs residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Arjun Torwane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present cross-sectional study following the STROBE guidelines was conducted to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions among males, females, and eunuchs residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh India. Materials and Methods: Based on convenient non-probability snowball sampling technique, all the self-identified eunuchs residing in the city of Bhopal who were present at the time of examination and who fulfilled the selection criteria were examined. A cross section of the general population (males and females residing in the same locality where these eunuchs live was also examined. The World Health Organization (WHO oral health assessment proforma (1997 was used to collect the information on oral mucosal lesions. All the obtained data were analyzed by using a Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20. Results: Overall prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was 127 (19.9% among the study subjects. Fifty-nine (28.5% eunuchs, 56 (25.7% males, and 12 (5.6% females were observed to have some oral mucosal lesions. Oral submucous fibrosis (6.4%, leukoplakia (5.5%, and traumatic ulceration (4.2% were the major oral mucosal conditions observed. Conclusion: The information presented in this study adds to our understanding of the common oral mucosal lesions occurring in the eunuch population. Efforts to increase patient awareness of the oral effects of tobacco use and to eliminate the habit are needed to improve the oral and general health of eunuchs.

  18. Environmental monitoring and assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments at Coleroon River Estuary in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatramanan, S; Chung, S Y; Ramkumar, T; Selvam, S

    2015-08-01

    The combined studies on grain size distribution, organic matter contents of sediments, sequential extraction and bulk concentration of heavy metals, statistical analysis, and ecological risk assessments were carried out to investigate the contamination sources and ecological risks of surface sediments at Coleroon River Estuary in Tamil Nadu, India. The sequential extraction of metals showed that a larger portion of the metals was associated with the residual phase and also in other fractions. The low concentrations of heavy metals were found in exchangeable and carbonate bounds (bioavailable phases). It revealed that sediments of Coleroon River Estuary were relatively unpolluted and were influenced mainly by natural sources. The observed order of bulk concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments was as follows: Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Ni > Co. Factor analyses represented that the enrichment of heavy metals was mostly resulted from lithogenic origins associated with anthropogenic sources. These sources were reconfirmed by cluster analysis. Risk assessment code (RAC) suggested that all metals were not harmful in monsoon season. However, Fe was in medium risk, and Mn and Cu were in low risk in summer. According to pollution load index (PLI) of sediments, all heavy metals were toxic. Cu might be related with adverse biological effects on the basis of sediment quality guidelines (SQG) in both seasons. These integrated approaches were very useful to identify the contamination sources and ecological risks of sediments in estuarine environment. It is expected that this research can give a useful information for the remediation of heavy metals in sediments.

  19. Assessment of oral mucosal lesions among eunuchs residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh, India: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torwane, Nilesh Arjun; Hongal, Sudhir; Goel, Pankaj; Chandrashekar, Byarakele; Saxena, Vrinda

    2015-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study following the STROBE guidelines was conducted to assess the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions among males, females, and eunuchs residing in Bhopal city, Madhya Pradesh India. Based on convenient non-probability snowball sampling technique, all the self-identified eunuchs residing in the city of Bhopal who were present at the time of examination and who fulfilled the selection criteria were examined. A cross section of the general population (males and females) residing in the same locality where these eunuchs live was also examined. The World Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment proforma (1997) was used to collect the information on oral mucosal lesions. All the obtained data were analyzed by using a Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20. Overall prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was 127 (19.9%) among the study subjects. Fifty-nine (28.5%) eunuchs, 56 (25.7%) males, and 12 (5.6%) females were observed to have some oral mucosal lesions. Oral submucous fibrosis (6.4%), leukoplakia (5.5%), and traumatic ulceration (4.2%) were the major oral mucosal conditions observed. The information presented in this study adds to our understanding of the common oral mucosal lesions occurring in the eunuch population. Efforts to increase patient awareness of the oral effects of tobacco use and to eliminate the habit are needed to improve the oral and general health of eunuchs.

  20. India and The Arab World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Ivanovich Lounev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that Indian-Arab relations are very complex and are affected by many positive and negative factors. From a political point of view, the Middle East does not rank high in the priorities of India’s modern foreign policy. In the bipolar period, India tried to strengthen ties with all developing countries with the aim of becoming a leader of the South. In this respect, the region (especially Egypt in the 1950-1970s played a special role. Now India pays attention mainly to vital actors. Policy of non-interference in regional conflicts is typical for India. Delhi has focused on the developing of ties with the countries of the Persian Gulf, due mainly to economic reasons that are of primary importance to India. This subregion is a major supplier of hydrocarbons to India, that is extremely vital for further rapid economic growth of the country (oil and gas account for about a third of India’s imports. In addition to this, millions of Indian citizens live in the Persian Gulf, and India (due to them has become the world leader by the volume of migrant remittances. The largest semi-peripheral countries, among which India should be mentioned particularly, began to play a special role in the new world system. However, the politics of balancing is characteristic for India both on global level as well as on regional one. But a real great power (and the desire to obtain such high status was always the main goal for an Asian giant should demonstrate a clear vision of global and regional issues, play an active role and offer its own solution of different conflicts and contradictions.

  1. Hydrochemical characterization and pollution assessment of groundwater in Jammu Siwaliks, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romshoo, Shakil A; Dar, Reyaz Ahmad; Murtaza, Khalid Omar; Rashid, Irfan; Dar, Farooq A

    2017-03-01

    Physico-chemical groundwater (GW) parameters were evaluated to understand the hydrogeochemical processes in the Siwalik plains of Jammu and Kashmir, India. During the 2012-2013 post-monsoon (POM) and pre-monsoon (PRM) seasons, GW samples (n = 207) from deep bore wells and shallow open wells were chemically analysed. Cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+) and Fe(2+)) and anions (HCO3(-), Cl(-), SO4(2-) and F(-)) showed a wide spatio-temporal variation. Results suggest that weathering and dissolution of carbonates and silicate rocks is the main source of water mineralization. The major hydrochemical facies is characterized by Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Ca-HCO3 during the PRM and POM seasons respectively. The presence of sulphate-bearing water in a large number of the samples indicates a significant role of gypsum dissolution and anthropogenic contamination of the GW. Factor analysis (FA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) revealed that the variability of hydrochemistry is mainly related to rock-water interaction, dissolution of carbonates and other lithological units as well as the influence of anthropogenic activities in the area. Overall, it was found that the GW quality is within the limits of human consumption. The higher concentration of a few chemicals indicates an increasing trend of industrial contamination of the GW. For sustainable development of the portable GW in Siwaliks, it is necessary to minimize the adverse impacts of the anthropogenic and industrial contamination on the GW resources through best management practices and prevent its further contamination to a level that could make GW unsuitable for human uses.

  2. Assessment of air pollution tolerance levels of selected plants around cement industry, Coimbatore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhapriya, P; NavaneethaGopalakrishnan, A; Malini, P; Ramachandran, A

    2012-05-01

    Being the second largest manufacturing industry in India, cement industry is one of the major contributors of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Since plants are sensitive to air pollution, introducing suitable plant species as part of the greenbelt around cement industry was the objective of the present study. Suitable plant species were selected based on the Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) calculated by analyzing ascorbic acid (AA), pH, relative water content (RWC) and total chlorophyll (TChl) of the plants occuring in the locality. Plants were selected within a 6 km radius from the industry and were graded as per their tolerance levels by analyzing the biochemical parameters. From the statistical analysis at 0.05 level of significance a difference in the APTI values among the 27 plant species was observed, but they showed homogenous results when analysed zone wise using one-way analyses of variance. Analyses of individual parameters showed variation in the different zones surrounding the cement industry, whereas the APTI value (which is a combination of the parameter viz. AA, RWC, TChl, pH) showed more or less same gradation. Significant variation in individual parameters and APTI was seen with in the species. All the plants surrounding the cement industry are indicative of high pollution exposure comparable to the results obtain for control plants. Based on the APTI value, it was observed that about 37% of the plant species were tolerant. Among them Mangifera indica, Bougainvillea species, Psidum quajava showed high APTI values. 33% of the species were highly susceptible to the adverse effects of SPM, among which Thevetia neriifolia, Saraca indica, Phyllanthus emblica and Cercocarpus ledifolius showed low APTI values. 15% each of the species were at the intermediary and moderate tolerance levels.

  3. Assessing the Ecological and Socio-Economic Impacts of Extensive Small Hydropower Development in the Western Ghats of Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumani, S.

    2016-12-01

    The growth of small hydro-power projects (SHPs) is being widely encouraged as they are believed to be environmentally sustainable and socially equitable sources of energy. Easy policies, carbon credits and government sponsored monetary incentives have led to the mushrooming of SHPs along most tropical rivers, especially in developing countries. Our field study conducted between December, 2013 and September, 2014 assessed the social and ecological impacts of a cluster of SHPs in the biodiversity hotspot of the Western Ghats in India. Ecological impacts were studied with respect to freshwater fish assemblages, river water parameters, forest fragmentation and spread of invasive species. Social surveys were conducted to understand impacts on SHPs on socio-economic activities, resource access and human-animal conflict. Ecological impacts were found to be substantial. Freshwater fish species richness was significantly higher in un-dammed sites, and this variation in richness was explained by dam-related variables. Within dammed streams, spatial sections that were particularly damaging were identified. Fish species and guilds that were particularly susceptible to be adversely impacted were identified as indicator species. Four SHPs having a cumulative capacity of 45MW led to a direct loss of 14.5ha of forest land. Resultant loss in canopy cover and spread of invasive plant species was quantified. More than 10% of the river stretch was left de-watered due to the dams. Socially, SHPs were not as beneficial as they are believed to be. Respondents claimed that human-elephant conflict began only after SHP construction began. This relationship was examined with secondary data, and found to be true. In light of our findings, we suggest that the policy regarding SHPs be revised. Given that 6474 sites have been identified for SHP development in India, all without any individual or cumulative impact assessments or public consultations, studies to understand their impacts at the

  4. Vital Signs-Trucker Safety

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-03

    This podcast is based on the March 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In 2012 in the United States, about 317,000 motor vehicle crashes involved a large truck. Twenty-six thousand truck drivers and their passengers were injured in these crashes, and about 700 died. Learn what can be done to help truck drivers stay safe.  Created: 3/3/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/3/2015.

  5. Vitality of optical vortices (Presentation)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Roux3_2014.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3018 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Roux3_2014.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Title Vitality of optical vortices F Stef... Roux Presented at Complex Light and Optical Force VIII SPIE Photonics West 2014 Moscone Center, San Francisco, California USA 5 February 2014 CSIR National Laser Centre, Pretoria, South Africa – p. 1/11 Speckle Amplitude Phase – p. 2/11 Vortex...

  6. Assessing the impact of ambient ozone on growth and productivity of two cultivars of wheat in India using three rates of application of ethylenediurea (EDU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Supriya; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Manning, William J

    2005-11-01

    Three rates of ethylenediurea were used to assess the impact of ambient ozone on growth and productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars "Malviya 533" (M 533) and "Malviya 234" (M 234) at a suburban site near Varanasi, India, beginning in December. Wheat plants were treated with EDU at 0, 150, 300 and 450 ppm as soil drenches at 10-day intervals. EDU treatment affected plant growth, with effects varying with cultivar, age, and EDU concentration. Seed yield was improved for M 533 at 150 ppm EDU, while yield improved for M 234 at 300 and 450 ppm EDU. M 533 appears to be more resistant to ozone than M 234. Overall results confirmed that EDU is very useful in assessing the effect of ambient ozone in India.

  7. Vital phase of space science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, E.N. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Space science began with the indirect phase where the activity in space was inferred from such terrestrial phenomena as geomagnetic storms, ionospheric variations, and fluctuations in the cosmic ray intensity. The direct phase was initiated with spaceflight placing instruments directly in space and permitting the direct observation of UV and X rays, as well as precision observations of solar luminosity variations. The evidence from these many direct studies, together with the historical record of terrestrial conditions, shows that the variations of the luminosity of the Sun affect the terrestrial atmosphere at all levels, with devastating changes in climate tracking the major changes in the activity level and luminosity of the Sun. The quantification and understanding of this vital connection should be the first priority of space science and geophysics, from oceans and atmosphere through the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and all the way to the convective zone of the Sun. It becomes the vital phase of space science, focused on the basic science of the changing habitability of Earth. 13 refs.

  8. Assessment of Water Quality of Lakes for Drinking and Irrigation Purposes in Raipur City, Chhattisgarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumant Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lake water is an important source for drinking, domestic and irrigation purposes in rural and urban India. The present study aims at evaluating the water quality of various lakes in Raipur city, Chhatisgarh. There existed 154 lakes in the city but it shrinked to 85 in number due to encroachment or drying up of lakes. Twenty seven prominent lakes are selected to study and evaluate the water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes. The water samples were collected and analysed for pH, Turbidity, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Alkalinity, Hardness, Sodium(Na+ , Potassium(K+ , Calcium(Ca2+ , Magnesium(Mg2+ , Bicarbonate(HCO3- , Sulphate (SO4 2- , Nitrate (NO3 − ,Phosphate(PO4 3- Fluoride(F- , Chloride (Cl− , Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Total Coliform (TC and Fecal Coliform (FC. There are variations for pH (6.59-8.29, EC (382-2330μS/cm, Turbidity (1-232 NTU, TDS (244-1491 mg/L, Alkalinity (120-600 mg/L, Hardness (66-330mg/L, Na+ (37-430 mg/L, K+ (8- 253 mg/L, Ca2+ (9-90 mg/L, Mg2+ (3-26 mg/L, SO4 2- (5-200 mg/L, NO3 - (0-19 mg/L, PO4 3- (0.19-5.3 mg/L, F -( 0.18-1.41 mg/L and Cl- (46-388 mg/L, DO(1-8.6 mg/L, BOD (0.1-11.3 mg/L, COD (8-118 mg/L, Total Coliform( 15-3600 MPN/100ml and Fecal Coliform (4-240 MPN/100 ml. The results have been compared with the drinking water standard prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS. All the physiochemical parameters are within the prescribed limit except turbidity, fecal & total coliform. The Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR and salinity hazards are studied to classify the water for irrigation uses. It is found that lake water is suitable for irrigation purposes.

  9. Assessment of potential shale oil and tight sandstone gas resources of the Assam, Bombay, Cauvery, and Krishna-Godavari Provinces, India, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    Using a well performance-based geologic assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a technically recoverable mean volume of 62 million barrels of oil in shale oil reservoirs, and more than 3,700 billion cubic feet of gas in tight sandstone gas reservoirs in the Bombay and Krishna-Godavari Provinces of India. The term “provinces” refer to geologically defined units assessed by the USGS for the purposes of this report and carries no political or diplomatic connotation. Shale oil and tight sandstone gas reservoirs were evaluated in the Assam and Cauvery Provinces, but these reservoirs were not quantitatively assessed.

  10. Nutritional status at presentation, comparison of assessment tools, and importance of arm anthropometry in children with cancer in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, P; Jhaveri, U; Idhate, T B; Dhingra, S; Arolkar, P; Arora, B

    2015-01-01

    In India, approximately 40,000 new cases of cancer in children are diagnosed each year. However, there are no good studies analyzing their nutritional status. Also, since accurate and sensitive nutritional assessment is critical for optimal clinical outcomes through timely remediation of malnutrition, it is important to assess the relative sensitivity and feasibility of commonly used nutritional screening tools. This observational study analyzed height/length (cm), weight (kg), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSFT) as well as their Z-scores or percentiles, albumin levels and history of weight loss at diagnosis in children aged 2-15 years being treated for cancer between November 2008 to December 2013. Body mass index (BMI) and arm muscle circumference (AMC) were calculated respectively from height and weight, and MUAC and TSFT. A total of 1693 new patients were enrolled; 1187 had all anthropometric measurements performed. The prevalence of malnutrition was 38%, 57%, 76%, 69% and 81% on the basis of BMI, TSFT, MUAC, AMC, and arm TSFT + MUAC respectively with the highest prevalence in solid abdominal tumours. Addition of BMI and serum albumin to arm anthropometry increased the proportion classified as severely nutritionally depleted by a mere 2% & 1.5% respectively. Positive history of significant weight loss additionally identified 16.5% at nutritional risk over arm anthropometry. The prevalence of malnutrition in Indian children with cancer at presentation is very high ranging from 40% and 80% depending on the method used for assessment, being higher with MUAC and lowest with BMI. Either MUAC alone or TSFT + MUAC (wherever feasible) should be used for screening for malnutrition in children with cancer at diagnosis to plan timely nutritional interventions, reduce the treatment-related morbidity and optimise their chance of long-term cure.

  11. Impacts of a participatory approach to assess sustainable sewage treatment technologies for urban fringe of Surat city in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashi, A N; Shah, N C

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the assessment of the sustainability of a number of different sewage treatment technologies by means of a multi-criteria, participatory method for a scattered settlement of urban fringe of Surat. The special efforts have been made for the broad participation to achieve stronger democracy, better quality of the end product, and a more effective process. The mere participation of technocrats and bureaucrats certainly lead to the greater efficiency in working methods. However, the ultimate goal of sustainable developments of such technologies could not be reached in absence of democratic participation and social learning. Keeping this important aspect in view for assessment of sustainability, the detailed study was conducted in the presence of policy makers and stakeholders, academicians, technical experts, finance managers and NGO, to find out sustainability criteria and indicators for three different sewage treatment technologies: (A) Conventional Activated Sludge Process (B) Extended Aeration System, and (C) Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Reactor followed by Aerated Lagoon and Polishing Pond. Technologies were compared according to four criteria subdivided into twenty operational indicators. Criteria and indicators were evaluated as in a weighted-scale matrix. In India, sustainability criteria used in this type of comparisons are often restricted to a limited set of environmental impacts and financial costs but in this study additional criteria were evaluated including economic, social, and technical aspects. Based on the values assigned by the panel, the Sustainability Index (SI) was calculated for each technology. According to the SI and a predefined scale, sustainability was medium for options A and B, whereas high for option C. The purpose of this study is to provide a basis for the selection of a particular technology based on a rational and democratic assessment of its contribution to sustainability in the local and global context.

  12. An observational, cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes patients in India (START -India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Prasannakumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients in India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, observational, epidemiological, multi-center, study is enrolling T2DM patients of either gender aged 30 years or above. This study aimed to enroll a total of 3000 T2DM patients at 30 participating hospitals/clinics across India and the data from a planned interim analysis of 1500 patients are presented here. The primary endpoint of the study is to estimate proportion of T2DM patients with CKD (glomerular filtration rate [GFR] <60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 or albumin creatinine ratio [ACR] ≥30 mg/g or ≥3 mg/mmol or both. Routine treatment, as administered by the treating physician, was continued without any study specific intervention. Patients′ data pertaining to demographic characteristics, medical history, current medication and physical examination were recorded. The blood/plasma and urine samples, were collected for estimation of hemoglobin A1c, microalbuminuria, serum creatinine, urine creatinine, and routine urine analysis. ACR was calculated from urine creatinine and albumin while GFR was estimated by using a modification of diet in the renal disease equation. Results: Study recruited 1500 patients from 18 centers across India. The study population included 840 (56.05% males. Mean age, body mass index and systolic blood pressure were 55.1 years, 27.4 kg/m 2 and 134.5 mmHg respectively. The mean duration of diabetes was 102.2 months. History of co-morbid diseases such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, microvascular complications and macrovascular complications was present in 657 (43.8%, 655 (43.7%, 268 (17.9% and 104 (6.93%, respectively. This interim analysis revealed that about 46% of the T2DM patients had CKD (urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR ≥30 mg/g and/or estimated GFR [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . The renal dysfunction as per e

  13. A risk assessment study on work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dentists in Bhopal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetna Batham

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This risk assessment study found that there is a high prevalence of MSDs and WMSDs among dentists. Ergonomic awareness and health promotion need to be integrated with the professional practice for dentists.

  14. 'Zoonoses? Not sure what that is...' An assessment of knowledge of zoonoses among medical students in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Manish; Ramani, Sudha; Menon, Geetha; Sankhe, Lalit; Gaidhane, Abhay; Krishnan, Sampath

    2011-05-01

    This study focuses on estimating knowledge of zoonoses among medical students and recent graduates, with an aim of understanding critical gaps in medical education with respect to zoonoses. A semi-structured tool for knowledge assessment, having nine principal domains of knowledge and five domains of practice, was developed and validated. Using this tool, cross-sectional data was collected from 364 medical students and recent graduates and knowledge scores were calculated based on pre-defined guidelines. Out of the 364 respondents, only 10 defined zoonoses accurately (2.8%). Only 33.7% of the respondents in the public college (62 out of 184) and 3.3% in the private college (6 out of 180) could correctly name three common parasitic zoonoses in India. Only 5.5% of respondents (20 out of 361) were able to identify rabies as a disease transmitted by animals other than dogs. Knowledge on all emerging and new infectious diseases was poor. The average knowledge score was 64% in the public medical college and 41.4% in the private medical college. These poor scores imply that, on average, a student knows only 40-60% of what is needed to diagnose, treat and report zoonotic diseases effectively. Considering the changing landscape of infectious diseases, the current medical curriculum needs to be revised to improve understanding of existing zoonoses and also include emerging diseases.

  15. AN ASSESSMENT OF LEGALLY PROTECTED MARINE FAUNA IN CURIO TRADE – A MARKET STUDY FROM TAMIL NADU, INDIA

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    Sajan JOHN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In an endeavor to prioritize the conservation of marine environment, species that are threatened were given protection under various Schedules of the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act, 1972. Though the protection is sturdy on paper, marine fauna, such as sea shells, corals and sea horses are often illegally collected from their natural environment and are traded as marine curiosities. To assess those protected marine species in the curio trade in the state of Tamil Nadu, South India, certain major tourist and pilgrimage hot spots were surveyed during 2007. Among surveyed curio markets, Kanyakumari was found to have an alarming number of protected species being traded through huge number of marine curio shops. 15 species of legally protected mollusks, 10 species of corals and one sea horse species were found, along with other non-protected marine taxa in curio trade. Species protected through Schedule I were often highly priced than those under Schedule IV. The present survey suggests that protected marine species are an integral part in the growing marine curio business. High market demand, coupled with a lack of awareness and an inadequate enforcement were found to be major driving forces for the illegal marine curio trade. Awareness campaigns, along with a promotion of viable and alternate sources of income for seashell / coral collectors and strengthening of law enforcement may curtail the illegal marine curio trade.

  16. Prevalence and Assessment of Clinical Management of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Female Sex Workers in Two Cities of India

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    A. Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs among female sex workers (FSWs is an important strategy to reduce HIV transmission. A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and assess the current clinical management of STIs in India. Methods. FSWs attending three clinics for regular checkups or symptoms were screened for study eligibility. A behavioral questionnaire was administered, clinical examination performed, and laboratory samples collected. Results. 417 study participants reported a mean number of 4.9 (SD 3.5 commercial clients in the last week. 14.6% reported anal sex in the last three months. Consistent condom use with commercial and regular partners was 70.1% and 17.5%, respectively. The prevalence of gonorrhea was 14.1%, chlamydia 16.1%, and trichomoniasis 31.1% with a third of all infections being asymptomatic. Syphilis seropositivity was 10.1%. Conclusions. At study sites, presumptive treatment for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis screening should continue. Presumptive treatment for trichomoniasis should be considered. Consistent condom use and partner treatment need to be reemphasized.

  17. Growth assessment of popular clones of natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis under warm dry climatic conditions of Chattisgarh state, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan B

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis most popular and widely planted clones RRIM 600 and RRII 105 in the traditional region of India, were evaluated for immature growth performance in warm dry climate of Bastar region in chattisgarh state. The state is a non-tradional rubber growing region and the crop experiences severe drought in the summer months. Prolonged high temperature, low rainfall and soil moisture are the major environmental constraints affecting the performance of clones in the region. Growth performance, effect of seasonal changes on the growth in terms of girth and morphological characters of the clones was assessed. Both the clones observed satisfactory growth in the region. RRIM 600 showed over all superiority and better adaptability in the region. The mean annual girth increment of clones was 6.2 cm. highest girth contribution for both clones was recorded in the wet season, while the lowest was observed during the summer. RRIM 600 also showed more vigorous morphological growth in terms of stem height and canopy structure. Clones attain a tappable girth after the nine years of field planting in the region. Various growth parameter, overall clones performance and adaptability in the region has been discussed. The present study may provide information on the feasibility of rubber cultivation and performance of clones under adverse climate with further support in the identification of suitable best clones for such nontraditional regions.

  18. Assessment of air quality after the implementation of compressed natural gas (CNG) as fuel in public transport in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra, Khaiwal; Wauters, Eric; Tyagi, Sushil K; Mor, Suman; Van Grieken, René

    2006-04-01

    Public transport in Delhi was amended by the Supreme Court of India to use Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) instead of diesel or petrol. After the implementation of CNG since April 2001, Delhi has the highest fraction of CNG-run public vehicles in the world and most of them were introduced within 20 months. In the present study, the concentrations of various criteria air pollutants (SPM, PM(10), CO, SO(2) and NO(x)) and organic pollutants such as benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed before and after the implementation of CNG. A decreasing trend was found for PAHs, SO(2) and CO concentrations, while the NO(x) level was increased in comparison to those before the implementation of CNG. Further, SPM, PM(10), and BTX concentrations showed no significant change after the implementation of CNG. However, the BTX concentration demonstrated a clear relation with the benzene content of gasoline. In addition to the impact of the introduction of CNG the daily variation in PAHs levels was also studied and the PAHs concentrations were observed to be relatively high between 10 pm to 6 am, which gives a proof of a relation with the limited day entry and movement of heavy vehicles in Delhi.

  19. Water Quality Assessment Using Physico-Chemical Parameters and Heavy Metals of Gobind Sagar Lake, Himachal Pradesh (India

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    Vandana Sharma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the environment has become harmful for the health of living organisms due to excessive pollution and contamination of natural resources. The present investigation has been carried out with the objective to assess the water quality of the Gobind Sagar Lake, Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh (India using physico-chemical parameters with heavy metals of the lake. For this study, three sampling sites were identified and samples from different sites were collected in summer season and important parameters [Water Temperature , pH, Total Hardness, Dissolved Carbon Dioxide (CO2, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD, Chloride, Total Alkalinity, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS] with heavy metals [ Lead (P, Copper (Co, Iron (Fe, Cadmium (Cd, Nickel (Ni and Manganese (Mn, Chromium (Cr were analyzed. The results revealed that the different conditions of Gobind Sagar Lake in different sampling stations showed fluctuations in some physico-chemical parameters and also in heavy metals. These result depicted that water of lake was polluted in the form of nutrient enrichment which is due to agricultural activities and its runoff in and around catchment area of the lake. There are other many ways that things can end up in the lake as the free style way of disposal of industrial and domestic effluents etc. Results of studies on heavy metals in pollution are well documented revealing the toxic effects of these metals on aquatic organisms.

  20. Development Of Index To Assess Drought Conditions Using Geospatial Data A Case Study Of Jaisalmer District, Rajasthan, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhajer, Vaidehi; Prabhakar, Sumati; Rama Chandra Prasad, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan province of India was known to suffer with frequent drought due to poor and delayed monsoon, abnormally high summer-temperature and insufficient water resources. However flood-like situation prevails in the drought prone Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan as torrential rains are seen to affect the region in the recent years. In the present study, detailed analysis of meteorological, hydrological and satellite data of the Jaisalmer district has been carried out for the years 2006-2008. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Consecutive Dry Days (CDD) and Effective Drought Index (EDI) have been used to quantify the precipitation deficit. Standardized Water-Level Index (SWI) has been developed to assess ground-water recharge-deficit. Vegetative drought indices like Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI), Vegetation Health Index (VHI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Modified Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index 2 have been calculated. We also introduce two new indices Soil based Vegetation Condition Index (SVCI) and Composite Drought Index (CDI) specifically for regions like Jaisalmer where aridity in soil and affects vegetation and water-level.

  1. Assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation: a case study from Bandalamottu lead mining area, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, A.; Sunil Kumar, K.; Thejaswi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Quality of water resources in the Bandalamottu area of Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh in South India is facing a serious challenge due to Pb mining. Therefore, 40 groundwater samples were collected from this area to assess their hydrogeochemistry and suitability for irrigation purposes. The groundwater samples were analyzed for distribution of chemical elements Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3 -, CO3 2-, F-, Cl-, and SO4 2-. It also includes pH, electrical conductivity, total hardness, non-carbonate hardness and total alkalinity. The parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio (SAR), adjusted SAR, sodium percentage, potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, non-carbonate hardness, Kelly's ratio, magnesium ratio, permeability index, indices of base exchange (IBE) and Gibbs ratio were also calculated. The major hydrochemical facieses were Ca-HCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-Cl types. The result of saturation index calculated by Visual MINTEQ software combined with Gibbs diagram and IBE findings indicate that, dolomite and calcite dissolution and reverse ion exchange can be a major process controlling the water chemistry in the study area. The results also showed that the salinity (85 %, C3 class) and alkalinity due to high concentration of HCO3 - and CO3 - and low Ca:Mg molar ratio (97.5 %, <1), are the major problems with water for irrigation usage. As a result, the quality of the groundwater is not suitable for sustainable crop production and soil health without appropriate remediation.

  2. Assessment of potential hazards of fluoride contamination in drinking groundwater of an intensively cultivated district in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Manik Chandra; Mandal, Biswapati

    2009-05-01

    We assessed the potential of fluoride (F) contamination in drinking groundwater of an intensively cultivated district in India as a function of its lithology and agricultural activities. Three hundred and eight groundwater samples were collected at different depths from various types of wells and analyzed for pH, EC, NO(3)-N load and F content. A typical litholog was constructed and database on fertilizer and pesticide uses were also recorded for the district. The water samples were almost neutral in reaction and non-saline in nature with low NO(3)-N content (0.02 to 4.56 microg mL(-1)). Fluoride content in water was also low (0.01 to 1.18 microg mL(-1)) with only 2.27% of them exceeding 1.0 microg mL(-1) posing a potential threat of fluorosis. On average, its content varied little spatially and along depth of sampling aquifers because of homogeneity in lithology of the district. The F content in these samples showed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.12, P < or = 0.05) with the amount of phosphatic fertilizer (single super phosphate) used for agriculture but no such relation either with the anthropogenic activities of pesticide use or NO(3)-N content, pH and EC values of the samples was found. The results suggest that the use of phosphatic fertilizer may have some role to play in F enrichment of groundwater.

  3. Assessing Sustainability of Mixed Use Neighbourhoods through Residents’ Travel Behaviour and Perception: The Case of Nagpur, India

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    Sarika Bahadure

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mixed land-use development is the integration of different land-use functions like residential, commercial, recreational, and institutional in an urban sector or a neighbourhood. Integrating transport and land-use mix is one of the goals of planning policies around the world. Prior studies mention the benefits of mixed land-use development towards creating sustainable environment, but do not specify the proportion of the mix of compatible land uses. This study attempts to assess the sustainability of the neighbourhoods with mixed land-use in the context of the Nagpur city, India. Residents’ travel behaviour in twelve neighbourhoods is studied by means of indicators namely trip lengths, mode of travel, vehicle ownership, and travel expenses. To investigate the users’ insight, the study further examines residents’ perception with the help of parameters such as safety, satisfaction, pollution, and mix. The sustainability indices are computed for both residents’ travel behaviour and perception, for each neighbourhood. The study revealed that neighbourhoods with high and moderate land-use mix are sustainable with travel behaviour. Residents’ perception sustainability index indicates neighbourhoods with moderate land-use mix are more sustainable than those with high and low land-use mixed neighbourhoods. This study advocates stakeholders’ insight and the proportion of mix in land-use planning decisions.

  4. Use of standardised patients to assess antibiotic dispensing for tuberculosis by pharmacies in urban India: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Srinath; Kwan, Ada; Daniels, Benjamin; Subbaraman, Ramnath; McDowell, Andrew; Bergkvist, Sofi; Das, Ranendra K; Das, Veena; Das, Jishnu; Pai, Madhukar

    2016-11-01

    India's total antibiotic use is the highest of any country. Patients often receive prescription-only drugs directly from pharmacies. Here we aimed to assess the medical advice and drug dispensing practices of pharmacies for standardised patients with presumed and confirmed tuberculosis in India. In this cross-sectional study in the three Indian cities Delhi, Mumbai, and Patna, we developed two standardised patient cases: first, a patient presenting with 2-3 weeks of pulmonary tuberculosis symptoms (Case 1); and second, a patient with microbiologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (Case 2). Standardised patients were scheduled to present each case once to sampled pharmacies. We defined ideal management for both cases a priori as referral to a health-care provider without dispensing antibiotics or steroids or both. Between April 1, 2014, and Nov 29, 2015, we sampled 622 pharmacies in Delhi, Mumbai, and Patna. Standardised patients completed 1200 (96%) of 1244 interactions. We recorded ideal management (defined as referrals without the use of antibiotics or steroids) in 80 (13%) of 599 Case 1 interactions (95% CI 11-16) and 372 (62%) of 601 Case 2 interactions (95% CI 58-66). Antibiotic use was significantly lower in Case 2 interactions (98 [16%] of 601, 95% CI 13-19) than in Case 1 (221 [37%] of 599, 95% CI 33-41). First-line anti-tuberculosis drugs were not dispensed in any city. The differences in antibiotic or steroid use and number of medicines dispensed between Case 1 and Case 2 were almost entirely attributable to the difference in referral behaviour. Only some urban Indian pharmacies correctly managed patients with presumed tuberculosis, but most correctly managed a case of confirmed tuberculosis. No pharmacy dispensed anti-tuberculosis drugs for either case. Absence of a confirmed diagnosis is a key driver of antibiotic misuse and could inform antimicrobial stewardship interventions. Grand Challenges Canada, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Knowledge for

  5. Vital Stats (Vital Statistics Tables and files- Births, Infant Deaths, Fetal Deaths)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — VitalStats: A collection of vital statistics products including tables, data files, and reports that allow users to access and examine vital statistics and...

  6. India`s nuclear weapons posture: The end of ambiguity. Master`s thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.D.

    1996-12-01

    This thesis examines the future of India`s nuclear weapons posture. Since testing a nuclear device in 1974, India been able to produce weapons material within its civilian nuclear power program. Despite having this nuclear weapons capability, India prefers to maintain an ambiguous nuclear posture. New pressures in the post-cold war era -- the loss of the Soviet Union as a strategic ally, the indefinite extension of the nuclear nonproliferation treaty, the rise of Hindu nationalism, and India`s growing participation in the global economy -- have the potential to derail India`s current nuclear policy. This thesis identifies the domestic and international pressures on India, and assesses the prospects for India to retain its ambiguous policy, renounce the nuclear option, or assemble an overt nuclear arsenal.

  7. Moral Vitalism: Seeing Good and Evil as Real, Agentic Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Brock; Bain, Paul; Buhrmester, Michael D; Gómez, Ángel; Vázquez, Alexandra; Knight, Clinton G; Swann, William B

    2015-08-01

    Moral vitalism refers to a tendency to view good and evil as actual forces that can influence people and events. We introduce a scale designed to assess the belief in moral vitalism. High scorers on the scale endorse items such as "There are underlying forces of good and evil in this world." After establishing the reliability and criterion validity of the scale (Studies 1, 2a, and 2b), we examined the predictive validity of the moral vitalism scale, showing that "moral vitalists" worry about being possessed by evil (Study 3), being contaminated through contact with evil people (Study 4), and forfeiting their own mental purity (Study 5). We discuss the nature of moral vitalism and the implications of the construct for understanding the role of metaphysical lay theories about the nature of good and evil in moral reasoning.

  8. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... government is Tracking the nation’s progress in reducing crash injuries and deaths. www.cdc.gov/psr/national-summary/ ... Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries Vital Signs: Child Passenger Safety CDC: Child Passenger ...

  9. Vitalism and the Darwin Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, James

    2012-08-01

    There are currently both scientific and public debates surrounding Darwinism. In the scientific debate, the details of evolution are in dispute, but not the central thesis of Darwin's theory; in the public debate, Darwinism itself is questioned. I concentrate on the public debate because of its direct impact on education in the United States. Some critics of Darwin advocate the teaching of intelligent design theory along with Darwin's theory, and others seek to eliminate even the mention of evolution from science classes altogether. Many of these critics base their objections on the claim that non-living matter cannot give rise to living matter. After considering some of the various meanings assigned to `vitalism' over the years, I argue that a considerable portion of Darwin deniers support a literal version of vitalism that is not scientifically respectable. Their position seems to be that since life cannot arise naturally, Darwin's theory accomplishes nothing: If it can only account for life forms changing from one to another (even this is disputed by some) but not how life arose in the first place, what's the point? I argue that there is every reason to believe that living and non-living matter differ only in degree, not in kind, and that all conversation about Darwinism should start with the assumption that abiogenesis is possible unless or until compelling evidence of its impossibility is presented. That is, I advocate a position that the burden of proof lies with those who claim "Life only comes from life." Until that case is made, little weight should be given to their position.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL STATUS OF GROUND WATER SAMPLES OF PARBHANI DISTRICT (M.S., INDIA

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    D.A. Dhale et al.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ground water is the most preferred water source in recent day. Once believed to be safe from pollution as it is available many strata below the surface, is now provided to be prone to pollution by many researchers across the world. The contamination of ground water may be due to improper disposal of domestic and industrial west water. A study was carried out to assess the ground water quality of Parbhani District, one of the most important agro plantation areas of Maharashtra State (India. The present work was undertaken to assess the ground water quality and discus the potability of ground water by collecting data of physio-chemical characters of ground water. The study was carried out in years 2007 by selecting 10 spots, situated in Parbhani District. Nineteen water quality parameters of water of all sites were estimated following standard methods and procedures of sampling and estimation. Comparison of estimated values with W.H.O. The physio-chemical parameter such as Temperature, colour, odour, pH, electrical conductivity (EC, total dissolved solids (TDS, turbidity, total hardness (TH, calcium (Ca++, magnesium (Mg++, total alkalinity (TA, bicarbonate (HCO3-, sodium (Na+, potassium (K+, chloride (Cl-, fluoride (F- nitrate (NO-3 and sulphate (SO--4 were studied. Variations in these values were observed. The sampling point S6 and S7 showed high total hardness content indicating the need of some treatment for minimization of the parameters. Other sites water under investigation was found physicochemical parameters within the water quality standards and the quality of water is good and it is fit for drinking purpose.

  11. Informal e-waste recycling: environmental risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Jatindra Kumar; Kumar, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, e-waste is a major source of environmental problems and opportunities due to presence of hazardous elements and precious metals. This study was aimed to evaluate the pollution risk of heavy metal contamination by informal recycling of e-waste. Environmental risk assessment was determined using multivariate statistical analysis, index of geoaccumulation, enrichment factor, contamination factor, degree of contamination and pollution load index by analysing heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater samples collected from and around informal recycling workshops in Mandoli industrial area, Delhi, India. Concentrations of heavy metals like As (17.08 mg/kg), Cd (1.29 mg/kg), Cu (115.50 mg/kg), Pb (2,645.31 mg/kg), Se (12.67 mg/kg) and Zn (776.84 mg/kg) were higher in surface soils of e-waste recycling areas compared to those in reference site. Level exceeded the values suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). High accumulations of heavy metals were also observed in the native plant samples (Cynodon dactylon) of e-waste recycling areas. The groundwater samples collected form recycling area had high heavy metal concentrations as compared to permissible limit of Indian Standards and maximum allowable limit of WHO guidelines for drinking water. Multivariate analysis and risk assessment studies based on total metal content explains the clear-cut differences among sampling sites and a strong evidence of heavy metal pollution because of informal recycling of e-waste. This study put forward that prolonged informal recycling of e-waste may accumulate high concentration of heavy metals in surface soils, plants and groundwater, which will be a matter of concern for both environmental and occupational hazards. This warrants an immediate need of remedial measures to reduce the heavy metal contamination of e-waste recycling sites.

  12. Assessment and Availability of Trauma Care Services in a District Hospital of South India; A Field Observational Study

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    Pallavi Sarji Uthkarsh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the availability of trauma care services in a district referral hospital of Southern India. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study being performed during 2013 in a tertiary healthcare centre in Southern Indian. A detailed assessment of trauma care services was done in a 400 bed speciality hospital which is an apex referral hospital in the public health system using a check list based on WHO guidelines for evaluation of essential trauma care services, along with in-depth interviews of hospital stake holders and key informants. Results: The hospital had physical infrastructure in terms of emergency room, inpatient wards, operation theatres, intensive care unit and blood bank facilities. The recently constructed designated building for trauma care services was not operational and existing facilities were used beyond capacity. A designated trauma team was lacking and speciality services for managing polytrauma were deficient and thus, existing personnel were performing multiple tasks. Neurosurgeons and rehabilitative nursing staff were unavailable, and a radiographer was not available on a 24/7 basis. Existing nursing personnel had not received any formal training in trauma care and standard operating protocols were not available for trauma care. Resources for acute resuscitation were partially adequate. The hospital lacked adequate resources to manage head, abdomen, chest and spine injuries, and most of the polytrauma cases were referred to nearby city hospitals. Conclusion: District hospital, the only referral hospital in public health system for trauma victims of that region, had inadequate resources to manage trauma victims, which was probably responsible for delay in trauma care, improper referrals, high cost of care and poor outcomes.

  13. LASTRIG -A Multiple Parametric Method of Assessment of Salinization Vulnerability of a Coastal Aquifer in Pennar Delta, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesireddy, K.; Mareddy, A.

    2007-05-01

    Coastal populations are critically dependent upon the coastal aquifers for their freshwater requirements. Excessive withdrawal of groundwater leads to saline incursion and the consequent degradation of quality and quantity of freshwater. The paper describes a multiple parametric method of assessment of vulnerability of the coastal aquifer in Pennar delta, south India, in the context of the hydrogeological, biophysical, geochemical and socioeconomic environments of the delta. Seven parameters, forming the acronym LASTRIG viz. landuse, aquifer type, soil depth, groundwater table, rainfall, soil infiltration and geomorphology are made use in the assessment, and involve the use of remote sensing, GIS and modeling tools. The parameters are weighted, and a suitable ranking system has been designed to quantify the degree of vulnerability of the aquifer for salinization. It has been found that zones with high vulnerability index correlate well with zones of high TDS and chloride contents of groundwater. This observation thus validates the geochemical basis of the proposed LASTRIG system. The new system has been found useful in the management of the groundwater resources of the delta region. It has been made use of identify the aquifer segments which are in danger of being degraded, to enable the decision- makers to design counter measures to avoid further deterioration in water quality. Where the groundwater has already been rendered non-potable because of saline incursion, the LASTRIG index could be made use to identify possible use of that water for drinking by cattle, and for growing of salt-tolerant vegetables (e.g. beetroot and lettuce), and trees (e.g. casuarinas obese, Prosopis juliflora)

  14. Dimensions of nutritional vulnerability: Assessment of women and children in Sahariya tribal community of Madhya Pradesh in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparna Ghosh-Jerath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tribal communities are "at risk" of undernutrition due to geographical isolation and suboptimal utilization of health services. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of Sahariya tribes of Madhya Pradesh (MP, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in villages inhabited by Sahariya tribal community (specifically women in reproductive age group and children under 5 years in three districts of MP. Dietary surveys, anthropometric and biochemical assessments were carried out and descriptive statistics on the socio-economic and nutritional profile were reported. Association between household (HH food security and nutritional status of children was carried out using the logistic regression. Strength of effects were summarized by odd′s ratio. Results: Chronic energy deficiency and anemia was observed in 42.4% and 90.1% of women respectively. Underweight, stunting and wasting among under five children were 59.1%, 57.3% and 27.7% respectively. Low food security was found in 90% of HHs and the odds of children being underweight and stunted when belonging to HHs with low and very low food security was found to be significant (P = 0.01 and 0.04 respectively. Calorie, fat, vitamin A, riboflavin, vitamin C and folic acid intake among women was lower than recommended dietary allowance. Infant and young child feeding practices were suboptimal. Awareness on nutritional disorders and utilization of nutrition and health services was poor. Conclusion: A high prevalence of undernutrition and dietary deficiency exists among Sahariyas. System strengthening, community empowerment and nutrition education may play a pivotal role in addressing this.

  15. 46 CFR 169.642 - Vital systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vital systems. 169.642 Section 169.642 Shipping COAST... Electrical Piping Systems § 169.642 Vital systems. For the purpose of this part, the following are considered vital systems— (a) A marine engineering system identified by the OCMI as being crucial to the survival...

  16. Vitalism, complexity and the concept of spin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, L R

    2002-01-01

    Vital Force is a concept that has suffered at the hands of the current medical model. An attempt is made to show how it might be possible to explain Vital Force in terms of complexity theory. A metaphor is introduced for the operation of Vital Force in terms of gyroscopic motion.

  17. Assessment of Ganga river ecosystem at Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India with reference to water quality indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutiani, R.; Khanna, D. R.; Kulkarni, Dipali Bhaskar; Ruhela, Mukesh

    2016-06-01

    The river Ganges is regarded as one of the most holy and sacred rivers of the world from time immemorial. The evaluation of river water quality is a critical element in the assessment of water resources. The quality/potability of water that is consumed defines the base line of protection against many diseases and infections. The present study aimed to calculate Water Quality Index (WQI) by the analysis of sixteen physico-chemical parameters on the basis of River Ganga index of Ved Prakash, weighted arithmetic index and WQI by National sanitation foundation (NSF) to assess the suitability of water for drinking, irrigation purposes and other human uses. These three water quality indices have been used to assess variation in the quality of the River Ganga at monitored locations over an 11-year period. Application of three different indexes to assess the water quality over a period of 11 years shows minor variations in water quality. Index values as per River Ganga Index by Ved Prakash et al. from 2000 to 2010 ranged between medium to good, Index values as per NSF Index for years 2000-2010 indicate good water quality, while Index values as per the weighted arithmetic index method for the study period indicate poor water quality.

  18. Climate change and forests: Impacts and adaption. A regional assessment for the Western Ghats, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Sukumar, R. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences; Deshingkar, P. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Potential climate change over the next 50 to 100 years could have major impacts on tropical forests. Forests, particularly in the tropics, are subjected to anthropogenic pressures leading to degradation and loss of forest ecosystems. Given the significant dependence of local people and economies on forests in tropical and temperate countries, there is a need to assess the possible impacts of climate change and to develop adaption measures. The diversity of forest types in the Western Ghats ranges from wet evergreen and deciduous forest to dry thorn and montane forests with a wide range of annual rainfall regimes (from less than 65 cm to over 300 cm). The study was conducted in two regions of the Western Ghats; the Uttara Kannada district and the Nilgiris. Climate change projections for 2020 and 2050 were used in assessing the possible impacts on forests. In general, the `most likely` projections of climate change were an increase in mean temperature in the range of 0.3-1.0 deg C and an increase in precipitation of 3-8% over the study regions by the year 2050. The `worst case` scenario was an increase in temperature of 1 deg C and a decrease in precipitation by 8% by 2050. To assess the vegetational responses to climate change, a simple model based on present-day correlations between climatic (mean annual temperature and precipitation) and vegetation types for these regions was developed. Likely changes in the areas under different forest types were assessed for `moderate climate` sensitivity and central scaling factor (referred to as the `most likely scenario`) for the years 2020 and 2050, and `high climate` sensitivity and a lower scaling factor (the `worst case scenario`) for 2050 90 refs, 15 figs, 15 tabs

  19. Assessment of nutritional status of HIV-infected patients at a tertiary centre in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Sunita; Wanchu, Ajay; Khurana, Sudha

    2007-07-01

    Infection with HIV has an adverse effect on nutritional status, and can result in progressive involuntary weight loss. We assessed the nutritional status of our patients with HIV infection and found that HIV-infected patients had significantly low nutrient intake and body mass index as compared with controls. Involuntary weight loss, altered body composition and reduced nutritional status were present throughout the stages of HIV infection.

  20. Environmental sensitivity mapping and risk assessment for oil spill along the Chennai Coast in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankara, R S; Arockiaraj, S; Prabhu, K

    2016-05-15

    Integration of oil spill modeling with coastal resource information could be useful for protecting the coastal environment from oil spills. A scenario-based risk assessment and sensitivity indexing were performed for the Chennai coast by integrating a coastal resource information system and an oil spill trajectory model. The fate analysis of spilled oil showed that 55% of oil out of a total volume of 100m(3) remained in the water column, affecting 800m of the shoreline. The seasonal scenarios show major impact during the southwest (SW) and northeast (NE) monsoons and more fatal effects on marine pelagic organisms during SW monsoon. The Oil Spill Risk Assessment Modeler tool was constructed in a geographic information systems (GIS) platform to analyze the risks, sensitivity mapping, and priority indexing of resources that are likely to be affected by oil spills along the Chennai coast. The results of sensitivity mapping and the risk assessment results can help organizations take measures to combat oil spills in a timely manner.

  1. Capability and quality assessment of rice growing hydric soils in majuli river island, assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskara Phaneendra Bhaskar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The  wetland soils in  majuli island is a unique in maintaining rice ecology and geoenvironment in Brahmaputra valley of Assam  due to increasing  rate of  bankline erosion in southern bank  and expansion of channel bars on northern banks. These hydric soils in the subgroups of aquents and aquepts are  saturated throughout year as assessed from depleted matrix with hue 10YR, 2.5Y and 5Y, chroma less than 2, stratified textures, neutral to slightly alkaline reaction, low cation exchange capacity  and poor exchangeable base status. The  assessment of land capability and soil quality  for rice production in   hydric soils  was conducted on twenty four soil mapping units derived from reconnaissance soil survey done on 1:50000 scale.  As per  land capability  assessment, these soils are  good(classII to fairly good(IV for arable use with limitations of low fertility status, moderate to severe wetness and moderate to rapid permeability. The soil quality rating with  multiple variable indicator transform(MVIT technique  of  twenty hydric soil units in active and old floodplains was  medium (35 to 65per cent with six indicators(pH, organic carbon, base saturation, effective rooting depth , structure and texture meeting the thresh hold value  above 65 per cent.  Thirty five  per cent of total area is suitable for rice cultivation as against the current cropped area of 7.2 per cent with potassium and zinc deficiency. The determination of soil quality in relation to land capability was found useful to design best management practices for wetlands in the region that ensure sustainable land use.

  2. Development of a remote vital signs sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladd, M.D.; Pacheco, M.S.; Rivas, R.R.

    1997-06-01

    This paper describes the work at Sandia National Laboratories to develop sensors that remotely detect unique life-form characteristics, such as breathing patterns or heartbeat patterns. This paper will address the Technical Support Working Group`s (TSWG) objective: to develop a remote vital signs detector which can be used to assess someone`s malevolent intent. The basic concept of operations for the projects, system development issues, and the preliminary results for a radar device currently in-house and the implications for implementation are described. A survey that identified the in-house technology currently being evaluated is reviewed, as well as ideas for other potential technologies to explore. A radar unit for breathing and heartbeat detection is being tested, and the applicability of infrared technology is being explored. The desire for rapid prototyping is driving the need for off-the-shelf technology. As a conclusion, current status and future directions of the effort are reviewed.

  3. A comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) of Jatropha biodiesel production in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Jasvinder; Nanoti, S M; Garg, M O

    2012-04-01

    A life cycle approach was adopted for energy, green house gas (GHG) emissions and renewability assessment for production of 1ton of Jatropha biodiesel. Allocation and displacement approaches were applied for life cycle inventory, process energy and process GHG emission attribution to co-products. The results of process energy and GHG emission analyses revealed that the amount of process energy consumption and GHG emission in the individual stages of the life cycle assessment (LCA) were a strong function of co-product handling and irrigation. The GHG emission reduction with respect to petroleum diesel for generating 1GJ energy varied from 40% to 107% and NER values from 1.4 to 8.0 depending upon the methodology used for energy and emission distribution between product and co-products as well as irrigation applied. However, GHG emission reduction values of 54 and 40 and NER (net energy ratio) values of 1.7 and 1.4 for irrigated and rain-fed scenarios, respectively indicate the eco-friendly nature and renewability of biodiesel even in the worst scenario where total life cycle inventory (LCI), process energy and GHG emission were allocated to biodiesel only. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of screening practices for gestational hyperglycaemia in public health facilities: a descriptive study in Bangalore, India

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    Giridhara R. Babu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Screening and timely treatment of gestational hyperglycaemia (GH is proved to be beneficial and improves maternal and foetal health outcomes. To understand screening practices, we explored the knowledge and perceptions of doctors working in public health facilities in Bangalore, India. We also studied participation factors by examining whether undergoing glucose estimation tests affects morning sickness in pregnant women. Design and Methods. We aimed to understand the screening practices and knowledge of doctors. A semi-structured questionnaire was self-administered by the 50 participant doctors, selected from the sampling frame comprising of all the doctors working in public health facilities. We included 105 pregnant women for baseline assessment, in whom a well-structured questionnaire was used. Results. We reported that gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM screening was done in nearly all the health centres (96%. However, only 12% of the doctors could provide all components of GDM diagnosis and management correctly and 46% would diagnose by using a random blood glucose test. A majority (92% of the doctors had poor knowledge (68% about the cut-off values of glucose tests. More than 80% of pregnant women experienced some discomfort mostly due to rapid ingestion glucose in short span of time. Conclusions. Our study established that screening for GH is done in most public health facilities. Nonetheless, knowledge of doctors on the glucose tests and their interpretation needs improvement. Re-orientation trainings of the doctors can improve their knowledge and thereby can efficiently screen for GH. Further, adequate planning prior to the tests can aid successful completion of them.

  5. An assessment of groundwater quality for agricultural use: a case study from solid waste disposal site SE of Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. G. Sayyed

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater pollution around the improperly constructed landfill areas of the growing cities has always been in the rising trend and hence its effects on the environment warrant a thorough monitoring. The seasonal variations in the quality of groundwater from the dug wells surrounding the solid waste disposal site from the SE of Pune city (India has been assessed by calculating the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR. The results indicate that the groundwater from the wells nearing the waste disposal site show consistent increase in the pollution from monsoon to summer through winter. The study further demonstrates that the wells near the site are severely polluted and the source is mainly the leachates emerging out of the decaying solid wastes. The recurrent addition of the solid waste in the dump site in the coming years would result in further exponential deterioration of the groundwater quality of the dug wells from the area and hence adequate steps are urgently needed to prevent further aggravation of the problem. Based upon the SAR values it is evident that most of the wells from the Hadapsar area have excellent groundwater for irrigation throughout the year; from Manjari area it is excellent to good; the Fursungi area has sub-equal proportions of excellent, good and fair groundwater, while in Mantarwadi, although most of the wells have excellent to good water, few wells have fair to poor quality water for irrigation purpose. In Uruli-Devachi about 50% wells have poor quality of water and hence can not be used for irrigation. Hence this study strongly suggests that most of the abstracted groundwater samples from the study area were suitable for irrigation except from Uruli Devachi area.

  6. Prevalence of disability among adults using Rapid Assessment of Disability tool in a rural district of South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Srikrishna Sulgodu; Allagh, Komal Preet; Kumar, Hemanth; Grills, Nathan; Marella, Manjula; Pant, Hira; Mahesh, D; Soji, Fairlene; Mani, Srinivasan; Murthy, G V S

    2016-10-01

    There are different estimates of disability prevalence reported in India due to the differences in definitions and methodologies. Reliable data is needed to plan effective disability inclusive strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with disability among adults ≥18 years of age in Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh using the Rapid Assessment of Disability (RAD) tool. The RAD survey was conducted in 50 villages (clusters) of Ongole division of Prakasam district. A two-stage cluster random sampling was used. Within each village 80 participants were surveyed. Compact segment sampling was used to determine the houses included. A person was reported as disabled based on their responses to the functioning section of the RAD tool. A total of 4134 adults were included. The overall prevalence of disability was 10.4% (431 adults). The highest prevalence of functional impairment was related to mobility (4.7%) followed by vision (2.1%) and fine motor (1.8%). The prevalence of psychological distress was 2.3%. Disability was significantly more prevalent in the poor socio economic group (OR 2.8; 95% CI: 1.5; 5.0) and among unemployed (OR 3.6; 95% CI: 2.3, 5.5). The prevalence of disability was strongly associated with age where, participants aged 70 years and over were eleven times more likely to report disability than younger age groups. The high prevalence of disability in the region points to disability being of public health concern and as a health condition needing urgent attention and specific interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of Ground Water Quality by Using Water Quality Index Method of Berhampur Town in Odisha, India

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    Ejaz Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Berhampur, the silk city of Odisha (India is under the process of rapid urbanization with human population exceeding more than four lacks. Such growth in population of Berhampur Municipal Corporation has increased the requirement of water for human activities. Due to this reason the huge amount of waste water is generated which is discharged to the Bay of Bengal through small sewage system. The present study is carried out the impact of ground water quality status of Berhampur town. The water samples collected from ten different locations have been chosen separately across Berhampur Municipal Corporation depending on pollution load and water logging. The samples were collected in three different seasons i.e monsoon (MN, June-September, post monsoon (PM, November-January and pre monsoon (PRM, March-May and to determine the physical, chemical and biological parameters. The WQI reflects a composite influence of contributing factors on the quality of water for any type of water system. So WQI is an important parameter for assessment and management of ground water. Now a day’s water quality of different water system has been communicated on the basis of calculated WQI. The presents study revels that water quality index is 1 to 10 sampling station (S-1, S-2, S-4, S-5, S-6, S-7, S-8 come under good water quality and station (S-3, S-9, S-10 belongs to poor water. This may be due the sewage water logging in those study area which will definitely put serious impact up on socio-economic development of the people in this area in future.

  8. An Assessment Of Physicochemical Properties, Heavy Metal Enrichment And Fungal Characterization Of Refined Kerosene Impacted Soil In Anand, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamiyan R Khan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to assess the physico-chemical properties, heavy metal enrichment and fungal isolation and characterization of the top soil samples collected in-situ from aged refined kerosene contaminated as well as uncontaminated garden soil sites in Anand, Gujarat, India. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH concentrations were 17,510 mg/kg in kerosene contaminated soil against 142.65 mg/kg for uncontaminated soils. The contamination increased the soil organic carbon, nitrogen and clay to 2.95 %, 0.612 %, 36.22 % as compared to 1.5%, 0.153%, 32.4% respectively in the uncontaminated soil. Increased concentration of heavy metals like Cobalt, Copper, Iron, Zinc and Lead against the uncontaminated soil was encountered. Ten native fungal speciesbelonging to a total of five genera include Aspergillus (A. terreus, A. versicolor, A. niger; Fusarium oxysporum; Penicilliumjanthinellum from the uncontaminated garden soil, whereas the contaminated soil included Aspergillus (A. terreus, A. versicolor , A. niger Candida tropicalis,Cladosporiumbruhnei and Fusarium oxysporum, identified based on 18S rRNA and the nucleotide sequences were submitted to the NCBI, GenBank database. The changes created by kerosene contamination resulted in variation in individual concentrations of physicochemical properties, soil conductivity, pH and soil fertility indices probably dwindle the growth of fungal strains causing a reduction in the fungal population in the kerosene contaminated soil. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 164-174 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9219

  9. An Assessment of Vulnerability and Trade-offs of Dairy Farmers of India to Climate Variability and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Gupta, Jancy; Ravindran, Dileepkumar

    2017-04-01

    The study aims at assessing the vulnerability and tradeoffs of dairy based livelihoods to Climate Variability and Change (CVC) in the Western Ghats ecosystem, India. For this purpose; data were aggregated to an overall Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI) to CVC underlying the principles of IPCC, using 40 indicators under 7 LVI components. Fussel framework was used for the nomenclature of vulnerable situation and trade-off between vulnerability components and milk production was calculated. Data were collected through participatory rural appraisal and personal interviews from 360 randomly selected dairy farmers of nine blocks from three states of Western Ghat region, complemented by thirty years of gridded weather data and livestock data. The LVI score of dairy based livelihoods of six taluks were negative. The data were normalized and then combined into three indices of sensitivity, exposure and adaptive capacity, which were then averaged with weights given using principal component analysis, to obtain the overall vulnerability index. Mann Whitney U test was used to find the significant difference between the taluks in terms of LVI and cumulative square root frequency method was used to categorise the farmers. Even though the taluks are geographically closer, there is significant difference in the LVI values of the regions. Results indicated that the Lanja taluks of Maharashtra is the most vulnerable having an overall LVI value -4.17 with 48% farmers falling in highly vulnerable category. Panel regression analysis reveals that there is significant synergy between average milk production and livestock, social network component and trade-off between natural disasters climate variability component of LVI. Policies for incentivizing the 'climate risk adaptation' costs for small and marginal farmers and livelihood infrastructure for mitigating risks and promoting grass root level innovations are necessary to sustain dairy farming of the region. Thus the research will

  10. A Cross Sectional Study to Assess Socio Economic Complications of Adolescent Pregnancy in a Metropolitan City of Central India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Dubey, Sanjay Dixit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available "Background: Teenage pregnancy is not new to this century which is pregnancy in a female under the age of 20 (when the pregnancy ends. Half of all the teenage births occur in just 7 countries, namely Bangladesh, Brazil, Congo, Ethiopia, Nigeria, India and USA. Present study assessed the prevalence of adolescent pregnancies and correlate with their social background, also to study the possible socio-economic problems specific to pregnant adolescents. Methods: The cross sectional study is conducted at Hukumchand hospital, District hospital and MGM medical college from 1st October 2011 to 1st September 2012. The delivered mothers were visited daily and detailed history was taken in a pre-designed, semi-open pro-forma. Study Group include Adolescent mothers (Study group 14-20 years & Mothers 20-28 years (Control group. Result: 12.05% of the total deliveries were teenage pregnancy. 31.74% were adolescent deliveries out of the total primi-gravida. 77 (43.75% adolescent mothers were found in the age group of 17-19 years. In non-adolescent mothers 68 (38.64% beneficiaries were in 21-23 years. Mean age of delivery in adolescent age was 18.45 years as compared to 22.28 years in control group. Only 41 (11.65% beneficiaries were graduates and above. Most beneficiaries were in the Socio Economic Status Class III and IV. 101 (57.39% adolescent mothers had alcoholic/addict fathers as compared to 54 (30.68% in non-adolescent mothers. Conclusion: Most of adolescent mothers had low education, rural background and belonged to low socioeconomic status with history of both pre and post marital sex discrimination."

  11. Assessment of nutritional risk in community-dwelling older adults (65 to 75 years) in Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Mondrita; Saha, Indranil; Chaudhuri, Debnath

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to profile nutritional risk factors in a population of community-dwelling older adults in Kolkata, India. We applied the short version of the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF) questionnaire among 500 participants (65 to 75 years)--263 males and 237 females. The prevalence of undernutrition was 8.8% in females and 4.9% in males; a risk of undernutrition was found in 24.5% females and 17.5% males. All those with undernutrition or at-risk were studied further using the full version of the MNA. Data regarding education, occupation, socioeconomic status, and food intake pattern were also collected. Females had a significantly lower (P < 0.01) education level than males; 73.4% males were financially independent, whereas 72.7% females were financially dependent on others. Moderate appetite loss was commonly found (64.9%), and in 24.3% of the participants appetite loss was severe. Digestive and chewing problems were present in 32.4% and 21.6% of study participants, respectively. The rate of psychological stress and/or acute disease 3 months prior to study was 47%, and 62.2% of the study population were taking 3 or more medicines per day. Weight loss of greater than 3 kg and of 1 to 3 kg during past 3 months of the study period was observed in 27% and 32.5% of the population, respectively. Undernourished individuals were also found to consume fewer protein-rich foods. We hypothesize that low education levels and lack of financial independence were the strongest underlying causes of high undernutrition in this population, particularly, among females.

  12. Geospatial assessment and monitoring of historical forest cover changes (1920-2012) in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, K V; Saranya, K R L; Reddy, C Sudhakar; Krishna, P Hari; Jha, C S; Rao, P V V Prasada

    2014-12-01

    Deforestation in the biosphere reserves, which are key Protected Areas has negative impacts on biodiversity, climate, carbon fluxes and livelihoods. Comprehensive study of deforestation in biosphere reserves is required to assess the impact of the management effectiveness. This article assesses the changes in forest cover in various zones and protected areas of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, the first declared biosphere reserve in India which forms part of Western Ghats-a global biodiversity hotspot. In this study, we have mapped the forests from earliest available topographical maps and multi-temporal satellite data spanning from 1920's to 2012 period. Mapping of spatial extent of forest cover, vegetation types and land cover was carried out using visual interpretation technique. A grid cell of 1 km × 1 km was generated for time series change analysis to understand the patterns in spatial distribution of forest cover (1920-1973-1989-1999-2006-2012). The total forest area of biosphere reserve was found to be 5,806.5 km(2) (93.8 % of total geographical area) in 1920. Overall loss of forest cover was estimated as 1,423.6 km(2) (24.5 % of the total forest) with reference to 1920. Among the six Protected Areas, annual deforestation rate of >0.5 was found in Wayanad wildlife sanctuary during 1920-1973. The deforestation in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is mainly attributed to conversion of forests to plantations and agriculture along with submergence due to construction of dams during 1920 to 1989. Grid wise analysis indicates that 851 grids have undergone large-scale negative changes of >75 ha of forest loss during 1920-1973 while, only 15 grids have shown >75 ha loss during 1973-1989. Annual net rate of deforestation for the period of 1920 to 1973 was calculated as 0.5 followed by 0.1 for 1973 to 1989. Our analysis shows that there was large-scale deforestation before the declaration of area as biosphere reserve in 1986; however, the deforestation has drastically

  13. ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR GROUNDWATER OF VALSAD DISTRICT OF SOUTH GUJARAT (INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shroff

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims the assessment of the water quality index (WQI for the groundwater of Valsad district of South Gujarat. Total fifteen sampling stations from five talukas of Valsad district were selected and groundwater samples were collected for two years (from August 2007 to July 2009. In this present study, WQI created by Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME was used. For calculating the WQI, groundwater samples were analyzed for seventeen physico-chemical parameters like pH, Colour, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Hardness (TH, Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg, Total Alkalinity (TA, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Silica, Chloride, Sulphate, Fluoride, Sodium, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and metals like Copper (Cu, Lead (Pb and Manganese (Mn.  The WQI for Valsad district suggests that the groundwater quality is marginal.  

  14. ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR GROUNDWATER OF VALSAD DISTRICT OF SOUTH GUJARAT (INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shroff

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims the assessment of the water quality index (WQI for the groundwater of Valsad district of South Gujarat. Total fifteen sampling stations from five talukas of Valsad district were selected and groundwater samples were collected for two years (from August 2007 to July 2009. In this present study, WQI created by Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME was used. For calculating the WQI, groundwater samples were analyzed for seventeen physico-chemical parameters like pH, Colour, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Hardness (TH, Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg, Total Alkalinity (TA, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Silica, Chloride, Sulphate, Fluoride, Sodium, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and metals like Copper (Cu, Lead (Pb and Manganese (Mn. The WQI for Valsad district suggests that the groundwater quality is marginal.

  15. Assessment of Cadmium Contamination of Soils in Sewage Disposal Areasof Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India

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    R. Vinu Radha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium is a naturally occurring minor element, one of the metallic components in the earth’s crust and oceans and present everywhere. Agricultural soils may also be enriched by cadmium which causes it’s accumulation in plants and pose a potential threat to human health. Also high concentrations of cadmium in soil have detrimental effects on ecosystem as it enters the food chain. Soil samples were collected from different places near sewage disposal areas in Coimbatore where the source of cadmium is likely to be threatening the public. Twenty six samples were collected, their physiochemical properties and total cadmium content were determined. Five soil samples that showed high levels of more than 3 mg kg-1of cadmium were identified as hotspots and their Arbuscularmycorrhizal spore count were assessed.

  16. Groundwater quality assessment using geospatial and statistical tools in Salem District, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulbalaji, P.; Gurugnanam, B.

    2016-11-01

    The water quality study of Salem district, Tamil Nadu has been carried out to assess the water quality for domestic and irrigation purposes. For this purpose, 59 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), major anions (HCO3 -, CO3 -, F-, Cl-, NO2 - + NO3 -, and SO4 2-), major cations (Ca2+ Mg2+, Na+, and K+), alkalinity (ALK), and hardness (HAR). To assess the water quality, the following chemical parameters were calculated based on the analytical results, such as Piper plot, water quality index (WQI), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), magnesium hazard (MH), Kelly index (KI), and residual sodium carbonate (RSC). Wilcox diagram represents that 23% of the samples are excellent to good, 40% of the samples are good to permissible, 10% of the samples are permissible to doubtful, 24% of the samples are doubtful unsuitable, and only 3% of the samples are unsuitable for irrigation. SAR values shows that 52% of the samples indicate high-to-very high and low-to-medium alkali water. KI values indicate good quality (30%) and not suitable (70%) for irrigation purposes. RSC values indicate that 89% of samples are suitable for irrigation purposes. MH reveals that 17% suitable and 83% samples are not suitable for irrigation purposes and for domestic purposes the excellent (8%), good (48%), and poor (44%). The agricultural waste, fertilizer used, soil leaching, urban runoff, livestock waste, and sewages are the sources of poor water quality. Some samples are not suitable for irrigation purposes due to high salinity, hardness, and magnesium concentration. In general, the groundwater of the Salem district was polluted by agricultural activities, anthropogenic activities, ion exchange, and weathering.

  17. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of prescription writing as per Medical Council of India guidelines among interns in a Medical College

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    Sumalatha R

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of prescription writing among interns in medical college.Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the interns in a Medical College, after taking approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee. Participants were asked to write prescription for a common ailment in a given prescription blank page. A structured questionnaire was designed based on new Medical Council of India (MCI prescription writing pattern to analyse the prescription. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics.Results: Among 84 interns, most of the participants had written the drug by generic name (95.2% and have signed in the prescription sheet (98%. None of them were aware of the latest prescription writing pattern recommended by Medical Council of India (MCI. The writing of generic name in capital letter was not done by 97.6% of interns.    Conclusion: Our study concluded that interns were not aware of new Medical Council of India (MCI prescription writing pattern. Majority of interns have made errors while writing the prescription. Thus there is a need for regular formal education regarding prescription writing, before the start of internship. They can be given training under medical education unit regarding the recent updates of prescription writing.

  18. Geospatial tools for assessing land degradation in Budgam district, Kashmir Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mehnaz; Lone, Mahjoor Ahmad; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad

    2011-06-01

    Land degradation reduces the ability of the land to perform many biophysical and chemical functions. The main aim of this study was to determine the status of land degradation in the Budgam area of Kashmir Himalaya using remote sensing and geographic information system. The satellite data together with other geospatial datasets were used to quantify different categories of land degradation. The results were validated in the field and an accuracy of 85% was observed. Land use/land cover of the study area was determined in order to know the effect of land use on the rate of land degradation. Normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI) and slope of the area were determined using LANDSAT-enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) data, advanced space borne thermal emission and reflection radiometer, and digital elevation model along with other secondary data were analysed to create various thematic maps, viz., land use/land cover, geology, NDVI and slopes used in modelling land degradation in the Kashmir Himalayan region. The vegetation condition, elevation and land use/land cover information of the area were integrated to assess the land degradation scenario in the area using the ArcGIS `Spatial Analyst Module'. The results reveal that about 13.19% of the study area has undergone moderate to high degradation, whereas about 44.12% of the area has undergone slight degradation.

  19. Geospatial tools for assessing land degradation in Budgam district, Kashmir Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehnaz Rashid; Mahjoor Ahmad Lone; Shakil Ahmad Romshoo

    2011-06-01

    Land degradation reduces the ability of the land to perform many biophysical and chemical functions. The main aim of this study was to determine the status of land degradation in the Budgam area of Kashmir Himalaya using remote sensing and geographic information system. The satellite data together with other geospatial datasets were used to quantify different categories of land degradation. The results were validated in the field and an accuracy of 85% was observed. Land use/land cover of the study area was determined in order to know the effect of land use on the rate of land degradation. Normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI) and slope of the area were determined using LANDSAT-enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) data, advanced space-borne thermal emission and reflection radiometer, and digital elevation model along with other secondary data were analysed to create various thematic maps, viz., land use/land cover, geology, NDVI and slopes used in modelling land degradation in the Kashmir Himalayan region. The vegetation condition, elevation and land use/land cover information of the area were integrated to assess the land degradation scenario in the area using the ArcGIS ‘Spatial Analyst Module’. The results reveal that about 13.19% of the study area has undergone moderate to high degradation, whereas about 44.12% of the area has undergone slight degradation.

  20. GIS Based Approach for Vulnerability Assessment of the Karnataka Coast, India

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    Akshaya Beluru Jana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coastal zones are highly resourceful and dynamic. In recent times, increased events of tropical cyclones and the devastating impact of the December 2004 tsunami have brought forth the importance of assessing the vulnerability of the coast to hazard-induced flooding and inundation in coastal areas. This study intends to develop coastal vulnerability index (CVI for the administrative units, known as talukas of the Karnataka state. Seven physical and geologic risk variables characterizing the vulnerability of the coast, including rate of relative sea level change, historical shoreline change, coastal slope, coastal regional elevation, mean tidal range, and significant wave height derived using conventional and remotely sensed data, along with one socioeconomic parameter “population,” were used in the study. A total of 298 km of shoreline are ranked in the study. It was observed that about 68.65 km of the shoreline is under very high vulnerable category and 79.26 km of shoreline is under high vulnerable category. Of the remaining shoreline, 59.14 km and 91.04 km are of moderate and low vulnerable categories, respectively.

  1. Ambient Air Quality Assessment with Particular Reference to Particulates in Jharia Coalfield, Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurdeep; Roy, Debananda; Sinha, Sweta

    2014-01-01

    Jharia Coalfield is the critically polluted area with the intense mining and associated industrial activities. There has been widespread concern of particulate pollution with the alarming levels of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Respirable Particulate Matter (PM10 & PM2.5). Coke oven plants, coal washing, thermal power stations and associated activities coupled with the transportation activities, give rise to critical air pollution levels in the region. This study envisages the assessment of air pollution of the region with particular reference to SPM, PM10 and PM2.5. Eighteen monitoring stations were selected considering various sources of pollution such as mining, industrial, commercial and residential areas apart from siting criteria as per IS: 5182 Part XIV. Air quality monitoring was carried out following standard methodologies and protocols as per Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)/ National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) norms using Respirable Dust Samplers (RDS) and Fine Particulate Samplers (PM2.5 Samplers). This study reveals considerable load of particulates (SPM, PM10, PM 2.5) which exceed not only the NAAQS but also the coal mining areas standards of Jharia coalfield, thus falling under the category of critically polluted area. Air Quality Indexing has also been developed which provides a clear map of the deterioration of air quality and also presenting comparative ranking of all the monitoring locations with respect to air quality status in the study area.

  2. Assessment of water quality and suitability analysis of River Ganga in Rishikesh, India

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    Haritash, A. K.; Gaur, Shalini; Garg, Sakshi

    2016-11-01

    The water samples were collected from River Ganga in Rishikesh during December 2008 to assess its suitability for drinking, irrigation, and industrial usages using various indices. Based on the values obtained and suggested designated best use, water in upper segment can be used for drinking but after disinfection (Class A); organized outdoor bathing in middle segment (Class B); and can be used as drinking water source (Class C) in lower segment in Rishikesh. All the parameters were within the specified limits for drinking water quality except E. coli. The indices of suitability for irrigation and industrial application were also evaluated. The irrigation quality ranged from good to excellent at almost all places with the exception of percent sodium. The abundance of major ions followed K+> Ca2+> Cl- > HCO3 - > Na+> Mg2+> CO3 2- trend. The major cations suggested that the water is alkaline (Na + K) than alkaline earth (Ca + Mg) type. The heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni) were found either absent or within the limits specified. There was no specific industrial input of pollutants. Industrial applications of the river water should be limited since the water was found to be aggressive, based on Langelier saturation index (0.3) and Ryznar stability index (8.8), with the problem of heavy to intolerable corrosion. Water quality of Ganga in Rishikesh was good with exception of most probable number (MPN) which needs regular monitoring and measures to control.

  3. Microbiological Hazard Identification and Exposure Assessment of Poultry Products Sold in Various Localities of Hyderabad, India

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    Rao V. Sudershan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to identify microbiological hazards and assess their exposure associated with consumption of poultry based street food served in different localities of Hyderabad. The study indicated that chicken 65, chicken fried rice, chicken noodles, chicken Manchuria and chilly chicken are the most common recipes. A process flow diagram was developed to identify critical control points in the food item. After analysis of the samples at each level of preparation, it was observed that rice and noodles were kept at room temperature for about 5-6 hrs which was a critical control point. A total of 376 samples including chicken fried rice, chicken noodles, boiled noodles and boiled rice were collected from circle 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 of Greater Hyderabad municipal corporation (GHMC and analyzed for microbiological examination. The most prevalent pathogenic bacteria isolated were S. aureus (3.4 log 10 cfu/g and B. cereus (3.4 log 10 cfu/g. Salmonella spp. was present in salads (3.2 log 10 cfu/g and hand washings of the food handler (3.5 log 10 cfu/g. Salmonella contamination was found in salads served along with chicken fried rice and chicken noodles than in the food.

  4. Multivariate statistical approach for the assessment of groundwater quality in Ujjain City, India.

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    Vishwakarma, Vikas; Thakur, Lokendra Singh

    2012-10-01

    Groundwater quality assessment is an essential study which plays important role in the rational development and utilization of groundwater. Groundwater quality greatly influences the health of local people. The variations of water quality are essentially the combination of both anthropogenic and natural contributions. In order to understand the underlying physical and chemical processes this study analyzes 8 chemical and physical-chemical water quality parameters, viz. pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total alkalinity, total hardness, chloride and fluoride recorded at the 54 sampling stations during summer season of 2011 by using multivariate statistical techniques. Hierarchical clustering analysis (CA) is first applied to distinguish groundwater quality patterns among the stations, followed by the use of principle component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) to extract and recognize the major underlying factors contributing to the variations among the water quality measures. The first three components were chosen for interpretation of the data, which accounts for 72.502% of the total variance in the data set. The maximum number of variables, i.e. turbidity, EC, TDS and chloride were characterized by first component, while second and third were characterized by total alkalinity, total hardness, fluoride and pH respectively. This shows that hydro chemical constituents of the groundwater are mainly controlled by EC, TDS, and fluoride. The findings of the cluster analysis are presented in the form of dendrogram of the sampling stations (cases) as well as hydro chemical variables, which produced four major groupings, suggest that groundwater monitoring can be consolidated.

  5. Assessment of trace metal contamination in a historical freshwater canal (Buckingham Canal), Chennai, India.

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    Jayaprakash, M; Nagarajan, R; Velmurugan, P M; Sathiyamoorthy, J; Krishnamurthy, R R; Urban, B

    2012-12-01

    The present study was done to assess the sources and the major processes controlling the trace metal distribution in sediments of Buckingham Canal. Based on the observed geochemical variations, the sediments are grouped as South Buckingham Canal and North Buckingham Canal sediments (SBC and NBC, respectively). SBC sediments show enrichment in Fe, Ti, Mn, Cr, V, Mo, and As concentrations, while NBC sediments show enrichment in Sn, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Hg. The calculated Chemical Index of Alteration and Chemical Index of Weathering values for all the sediments are relatively higher than the North American Shale Composite and Upper Continental Crust but similar to Post-Archaean Average Shale, and suggest a source area with moderate weathering. Overall, SBC sediments are highly enriched in Mo, Zn, Cu, and Hg (geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) class 4-6), whereas NBC sediments are enriched in Sn, Cu, Zn, and Hg (I(geo) class 4-6). Cu, Ni, and Cr show higher than Effects-Range Median values and hence the biological adverse effect of these metals is 20%; Zn, which accounts for 50%, in the NBC sediments, has a more biological adverse effect than other metals found in these sediments. The calculated I(geo), Enrichment Factor, and Contamination Factor values indicate that Mo, Hg, Sn, Cu, and Zn are highly enriched in the Buckingham Canal sediments, suggesting the rapid urban and industrial development of Chennai Metropolitan City have negatively influenced on the surrounding aquatic ecosystem.

  6. STANDARD PRECAUTIONS: AN ASSESSMENT OF AWARENESS AMONG HEALTH CARE PERSONNEL IN A TEACHING HOSPITAL, SOUTH INDIA.

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    Sangeetha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Standard precautions ar e crucial in the prevention and transmission of Healthcare associated infections ( HAI and transmission of blood - borne pathogens like Hepatitis B, Human Immunodeficiency Virus & Hepatitis C. They are not well u nderstood or implemented by health care practitioners. Hence this study was taken up to determine and compare knowledge, attitude of standard precautions among health care personnel at a teaching hospital, Bangalore. OBJECTIVE : To assess knowledge, attitud e, practices and compliance of Standard precautions among health care workers at a teaching hospital. METHODOLOGY : One hundred and fifty seven health care personnel participated in this study. A pretest and post test was administered to the study group. A pre - structured questionnaire on standard precautions was prepared which included knowledge, attitude and practices. RESULTS : 116 ( 73.88% nurses had knowledge about hand hygiene, but only 82 ( 52.2% nurses practiced hand hygiene before and after patient care. Knowledge about PPE measures like gloves, face mask & goggles, gowns were known to 101(64.33%, 56 ( 35.66% & 69 ( 43.94% nurses respectively. 117 ( 74.52% nurses discarded needles & sharps in correct puncture proof containers, but their correct knowled ge regarding colour coding of hospital waste segregation was comparatively less i.e. 104 ( 66.24%. 119 ( 75.79% of the nurses had practice of recapping the needles after use. CONCLUSION : There was significant improvement in the knowledge and practice of stan dard precautions in the present study after incorporating good training practices

  7. Studies on assessment of traffic noise level in Aurangabad city, India

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    B J Bhosale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid rate of urbanization of Aurangabad city due to the expanding industrialization, the problem of noise pollution has become a concern for urban dwellers and government authority too. Noise pollution due to vehicular traffic is one of the growing environmental problems of urban centers. The study deals with the assessment of traffic noise levels in Aurangabad city. With respect to the total number of vehicles passing the road in unit time, which was surveyed by direct count method, six different sites from Aurangabad city, viz., Nagar Naka, Kranti Chowk, CIDCO bus stand, Railway station area, Dhoot Hospital and Baba petrol pump were selected to study the vehicular noise level. Noise measurements were carried out at these six locations on both working day and holiday during the peak traffic hours, i.e. 8:00 a.m. - 11:a.m., 1:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m. and 5:00 p.m. - 8:00 p.m., in the morning, afternoon and evening sessions, respectively, after 5 minutes time interval. The noise level was monitored using noise level meter. The results obtained from this investigation showed that the Nagar Naka, Kranti chowk and CIDCO bus stand area have dense traffic zones when compared with the Railway station area, Dhoot Hospital and Baba petrol pump. The minimum and the maximum noise levels are 74 and 86 dB, respectively, on working day and 70 and 81 dB, respectively, on holiday. The measured noise level values exceed the prescribed noise level.

  8. Evaluation and assessment of 25 years of environmental radioactivity monitoring data at Tarapur (India) nuclear site.

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    Rao, D D; Baburajan, A; Sudheendran, V; Verma, P C; Hegde, A G

    2010-08-01

    The evaluation and assessment of monitoring data generated over a period of 1983-2007 (25 years) of a nuclear facility is presented. Time trends of particulate radioactivity, correlation between (137)Cs in discharge canal seawater and station discharged activity and correlation of (137)Cs, (60)Co, and (131)I in marine species such as sponge and Nerita (gastropod) and corresponding discharged activity are discussed. The concentration of (137)Cs and (131)I in seawater versus biota are discussed. A good correlation between (137)Cs in seawater and (137)Cs in liquid waste discharged was observed (R(2) = 0.8, p < 0.001). Similarly, correlation was good for Nerita and discharged concentration of (137)Cs, (131)I and (60)Co (R(2) = 0.55-0.73 and p < 0.001). The measurements over the years indicated that there is no accumulation of radionuclides in either the terrestrial or aquatic environments. The mean (137)Cs decreased from the pre-operational levels: 7.0-3.6 Bq kg(-1) in soil, 0.91-0.016 Bq L(-1) in milk and 0.28-0.036 Bq kg(-1) in vegetation. Similarly, the mean (90)Sr in these matrixes decreased from 3.9 to 0.26 Bq kg(-1); 0.37-0.011 Bq L(-1) and 0.34-0.022 Bq kg(-1) respectively. Cesium-137 of about 700 microBq m(-3) was measured in the air filter disks during 1986 and there was a decrease of three orders of magnitude in concentration over the 25 years. The evaluation of environmental data indicated that the radionuclide concentrations and potential impacts, in terms of effective dose to the members of public, have significantly reduced since 1969.

  9. Assessment of heavy metal contamination of road dusts from industrial areas of Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Ramavati; Balaram, V; Satyanarayanan, M; Sawant, S S

    2016-09-01

    Road dust in industrial areas carries high levels of toxic heavy metals. Exposure to such polluted dust significantly affects the health of people residing in these areas, which is of major concern. The present study was taken up with an aim to highlight the magnitude and potential sources of accumulation of heavy metals in 32 road dust samples collected from six industrial areas of Hyderabad. Acid-digested sample solutions were analyzed by ICP-MS for Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, Pb, Ni, V, Zr, Ce, Y, and Hf. The road dusts exhibit significantly high mean metal levels which are much above their crustal abundances. The relative ordering of mean metal contents is Zr > Zn > Pb > Cr > Ce > Cu > V > Ni > Y > Co > Hf. Elevated pollution indices (I geo, EF, C (i) f, and C deg) reveal that the road dusts are pollution impacted showing varying degree of heavy metal contamination. Strong positive correlations exhibited by metal pairs Cu-Zn, Cr-Ni, Ce-V, Y-Ce, and Hf-Zr imply their origin from common anthropogenic sources. Principal component analysis grouped the metals according to the sources which contributed to their accumulation. The present study confirms to an intensive anthropogenic impact on the accumulation of heavy metals in the studied road dusts attributable mainly to strong influences of vehicular and industrial activity and partly to domestic and natural processes. The results obtained imply the need for further investigations to assess their ecological implications and human health risks.

  10. Urban air pollution & its assessment in Lucknow City--the second largest city of North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Alfred; Fatima, Nishat

    2014-08-01

    Investigations were carried out during the summer season (March-June 2012) to observe the quality of indoor air by monitoring the levels of some selected air pollutants at 15 different houses covering the urban areas of Lucknow City. Concentrations of CO2, CO, PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 were monitored indoors and outdoors simultaneously and I/O ratios were calculated. Regression analysis for I/O relationship was performed to assess the contribution of outdoor sources to indoor air quality. Air Quality Index (AQI) for indoor air was also calculated to have an idea about the quality of indoor air and their health effects. In collaboration with the medical college doctors of the city, we surveyed 197 persons to find out different diseases/symptoms being faced due to indoor air pollution. Results of the study revealed that the average levels of PM10 and PM2.5 were above the permissible limits laid by WHO at densely populated and roadside sites with 189 μg/m(3) (PM2.5 76 μg/m(3)) and 226 μg/m(3) (PM2.5 91 μg/m(3)) respectively. Correlation analysis showed positive results. At sites like Alambagh and Chowk, the indoor AQI range was alarming with the values of 302 and 209. Survey results also showed that 46% of urban people suffered from acute respiratory infections like bronchial asthma, headache, depression and dizziness and these people were mostly from Roadside colonies.

  11. Assessment of air pollution tolerance index of some trees in Moradabad city, India.

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    Tripathi, Anamika; Tiwari, P B; Mahima; Singh, Dharmveer

    2009-07-01

    To see the relative tolerance of the plant species, ten different plant species i.e. Ficus rumphii, Pongamia pinnata, Alstonia scholaris, Holoptelea integrifolia, Saraca indica, Pithecolobium dulcis, Cassia simea, Bauhinia variegata, Azadirachta indica and Grewelia robusta was taken from residential (SI), industrial (SII) and commercial (SIII) area of the city as this florais very much common to the Brass city and is planted on the roadside. The quality of air with respect to SPM, SO2 and NO2 has been also assessed on respective sites to see its effect on biochemical parameters of the leaves i.e. pH, total water content, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid and evaluate the (air pollution tolerance index (APTI) of various plants. It was concluded that Pongamia pinnata 15.8, Pithecolobium dulcis 34.8, Holoptelea integrifolia 55.8 and Saraca indica 52.0 have very high APTI value over control so these are considered as high tolerant tree species, Ficus rumphii 35.7, Azadirachta indica 30.5 and Grewelia robusta 34.3 have slightlymoreAPTI value over control so these are considered as moderately tolerant tree species and Alstonia scholaris 21.5, Cassia simea 6.09 and Bauhinia variegata 18.22 have lessAPTI value than control, so these are sensitive species respectively. One way ANOVA finds the obtained values to be highly significant (p < 0.001) at the industrial site. Thus present findings show that Brass and allied industries are the prominent sources responsible for the elevated level of air pollutants at the industrial site.

  12. Groundwater quality assessment using chemometric analysis in the Adyar River, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, T; Giridharan, L; Jayaprakash, M

    2008-08-01

    A multivariate statistical technique has been used to assess the factors responsible for the chemical composition of the groundwater near the highly polluted Adyar River. Basic chemical parameters of the groundwater have been pooled together for evaluating and interpreting a few empirical factors controlling the chemical nature of the water. Twenty-three groundwater samples were collected in the vicinity of the Adyar River. Box-whisker plots were drawn to evaluate the chemical variation and the seasonal effect on the variables. R-mode factor analysis and cluster analysis were applied to the geochemical parameters of the water to identify the factors affecting the chemical composition of the groundwater. Dendograms of both the seasons gives two major clusters reflecting the groups of polluted and unpolluted stations. The other two minor clusters and the movement of stations from one cluster to another clearly bring out the seasonal variation in the chemical composition of the groundwater. The results of the R-mode factor analysis reveal that the groundwater chemistry of the study area reflects the influence of anthropogenic activities, rock-water interactions, saline water intrusion into the river water, and subsequent percolation into the groundwater. The complex geochemical data of the groundwater were interpreted by reducing them to seven major factors, and the seasonal variation in the chemistry of water was clearly brought out by these factors. The higher concentration of heavy metals such as Fe and Cr is attributed to the rock-water interaction and effluents from industries such as tanning, chrome-plating, and dyeing. In the urban area, the Pb concentration is high due to industrial as well as urban runoff of the atmospheric deposition from automobile pollution. Factor score analysis was used successfully to delineate the stations under study with the contributing factors, and the seasonal effect on the sample stations was identified and evaluated.

  13. An assessment of human-elephant conflict in Manas National Park, Assam, India

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    N.K. Nath

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of human-elephant conflict was carried out in the fringe villages around Manas National Park, Assam during 2005-06. The available forest department conflict records since 1991 onwards were also incorporated during analysis. Conflict was intense in the months of July-August and was mostly concentrated along the forest boundary areas, decreasing with distance from the Park. Crop damage occurred during two seasons; paddy (the major crop suffered the most due to raiding. Crop maturity and frequency of raiding were positively correlated. Single bull elephants were involved in conflicts more frequently (59% than female herds (41%, while herds were involved in majority of crop raiding cases. Of the single elephants, 88% were makhnas and 11.9% were tuskers. The average herd size recorded was 8 individuals, with group size ranging up to 16. Mitigation measures presently adopted involve traditional drive-away techniques including making noise by shouting, drum beating, bursting fire crackers and firing gun shots into the air, and using torch light, pelting stones and throwing burning torches. Kunkis have been used in severe cases. Machans are used for guarding the crops. Combinations of methods are most effective. Family herds were easily deflected, while single bulls were difficult to ward off. Affected villagers have suggested methods like regular patrolling (39% by the Forest Department officials along the Park boundary, erection of a concrete wall (18% along the Park boundary, electric fencing (13%, simply drive away (13%, culling (11% and lighting the Park boundary during night hours (6%. Attempts to reduce conflict by changing the traditional cropping pattern by introducing some elephant-repellent alternative cash crops (e.g. lemon and chilli are under experiment.

  14. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Water Samples of Certain Locations Situated Around Tumkur, Karnataka, India

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    C. Vijaya Bhaskar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface water and groundwater samples of certain locations namely Kallambella, Bugudanahalli, Maidala, Honnudike, Kunigal, Kadaba and Hebbur, situated around Tumkur were assessed in the month of September 2008 for pH, EC and heavy metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Zn and Ni. The pH vales of surface waters were in alkaline range of 7.8-8.2 and are well within safe limits for crop production. The pH of ground- water was in the range of 7.6-8.4. The conductivity was in the range of 0.20-0.68 mS/cm and 0.34-2.44 mS/cm for surface and groundwaters respectively. High EC value of Kallambella groundwater accounts for its salinity. All surface waters except Honnudike and Hebbur samples contain low concentrations of these metals and are ideal for irrigation. Though the samples from Honnudike, Kadaba and Hebbur have high iron concentration, only Honnudike and Hebbur samples have exceeded the limit of 5 mg/L required for irrigation. In groundwaters the concentrations of all these heavy metals except copper are also well in permissible limits and suitable for drinking. Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn were detected in all the samples and found in the range of 0.094-0.131, 0.958-12.537, 0.020-0.036 and 0.082-1.139 mg/L respectively in surface waters and these are in the range of 0.132-0.142, 0.125-1.014, 0.028-0.036 and 0.003-0.037 mg/L in ground- waters. The elements cadmium, mercury and manganese are absent in all the samples.

  15. Qualitative assessment of student-teacher communication using focus group discussion in a Dental College in India

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    Mahasweta Joshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The communication between faculty and students is a vital component of optimal facilitation of knowledge and learning. Various factors influence this dynamic. Aim: To assess communication levels between students and teachers in a dental college scenario via focus group discussion. Materials and Methods: The focus group discussion consisted of 10 groups; 5 groups representing the teachers, and 5 groups representing the students. Each group consisted of 6 participants. Hence there were a total of 30 teacher and 30 student participants. Focus group discussion was conducted for each of the groups for 30–45 min duration in the presence of a moderator and a note-taker. Open-ended questions were put across by the moderator to initiate and continue the discussions. The hand-written data taken by the note-taker were transcribed onto a computer on the same day of the discussion. Based on the transcription, domains were created for the student and teacher groups. Results: The issues raised by both the teacher and student groups in this focus group discussion were broadly classified into the following themes: (1 Past versus current scenario, (2 attitudes toward communication and learning, (3 hindrances to effective communication, and (4 potential solutions. Conclusions: Focus group discussion exposed many differences in the perceptions of teachers and students to communication. Each group, however, felt that bridging the teacher-student communication barrier was crucial to improve the teaching-learning experience. Many constructive solutions were provided by both the groups which can help to improve the quality of teaching-learning experience resulting in better quality of education.

  16. Assessment of pack animal welfare in and around Bareilly city of India

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    Probhakar Biswas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the welfare of pack animal: Pony, Horse, Mule and Donkey in and around Bareilly city. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in Bareilly city and Izatnagar area of Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh in the year 2009. Representative sample of 100 pack animal owners were selected to get the information regarding various social, personal and economic attributes of the pack animal. Further during interviewing different health and behavior pattern of animals was keenly examined. Analysis has been done as per standard procedures. Results: Most of the pack animal owners (98% were aware of the freedom from hunger and thirst. Majority of respondents (96, 93, 81 & 85 percent were aware of freedom from injury and disease, pain and discomfort, to express normal behavior and adequate space and freedom from fear and distress. Respondents (85% believed that they themselves were responsible for the welfare of the animals. Most of the owners (48.8% employed their animals for work for 9-10 hrs with rest (96.5% in between work and most (88.3% indulged into beating to compel the animals to work. All pregnant animals were put to work in the first two trimesters of pregnancy. Upon physical examination, pack animals showed abnormality in eyes (49%, abnormality in gait (40% and limb deformity (39%. Most animals (75% had tether lesions and 34 percent animals avoided or were aggressive to observer. Majority (74.1% of the owners housed their animals in a part of their own residence with improper drainage and cleaning. Most of the owners (82% consulted Veterinary doctors for treatment and believed in allopathic medicine (57%. Vaccination was not carried out on most (96% of the animals. All the animals were feed green fodder but practice of supplementation of minerals to animals was only among 11 percent owners. Conclusions: Present findings provide baseline information on welfare activities followed by pack animal owners and status of pack

  17. Comparison of BTX Profiles and Their Mutagenicity Assessment at Two Sites of Agra, India

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    Vyoma Singla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the concentrations of three volatile organic compounds (VOCs, namely, acronym for benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX were assessed because of their role in the tropospheric chemistry. Two representative sites, a roadside and a petrol pump, were chosen for sample collection. VOCs were collected using SKC-activated charcoal tubes and SKC personal sampler and characterized by gas chromatograph using flame ionization detector. Among BTX, benzene had the highest concentration. At the roadside, mean concentration of benzene, toluene, o-,m-xylene, and p-xylene were 14.7 ± 2.4 μgm−3, 8.1 ± 1.2 μgm−3, 2.1 ± 0.8 μgm−3, and 5.1 ± 1.2 μgm−3, respectively. At the petrol pump, the mean concentrations of benzene, toluene, o-,m-xylene and p-xylene were 19.5 ± 3.7 μgm−3, 12.9 ± 1.1 μgm−3, 3.6 ± 0.5 μgm−3 and 11.1 ± 1.5 μgm−3, respectively, and were numerically higher by a fraction of 2. Monthly variation of BTX showed maximum concentration in winter. Inter-species ratios and inter-species correlation indicated traffic as the major source of BTX. Extracts of samples were positive in both Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 without metabolic activation suggesting the presence of direct mutagens in ambient air that can cause both frame-shift and base-pair mutation. The mutagenic response was greater for TA100 than TA98 suggesting greater activity for base-pair mutagenicity than frame-shift mutagenicity and was found to be statistically significant.

  18. [The intraoperative determination of intestinal vitality with a fluorescent indicator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A; Terziev, I

    1997-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction due to strangulation is induced in dogs under experimental conditions, with intestinal wall vitality assessment done on the ground of standard clinical criteria, using fluorescence dye and UV rays, as well as histological study. Sensitivity, specificity and prognostic value of each of the methods employed are determined. The fluorescence method advantages are recorded, and the prospects of its clinical implementation are estimated.

  19. An assessment of hepatitis B vaccine introduction in India: Lessons for roll out and scale up of new vaccines in immunization programs

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    Chandrakant Lahariya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis B vaccine was introduced in the Universal Immunization Program (UIP of 10 states of India in the year 2007-08. This assessment was planned and conducted to ascertain the reasons for low reported coverage of Hepatitis B (Hep B vaccine in comparison of similarly timed diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT vaccine; to identify operational and programmatic challenges in new vaccine introductions, and to derive lessons for further scale up of Hep B vaccination (or for introduction of any new vaccine in UIP of India. Materials and Methods: Purposive sampling with both quantitative and qualitative data collection. Two districts each were purposively selected from 5 of the 10 states, which introduced Hep B vaccine, in the year 2007-08. A protocol was devised and data was collected through desk review, in-depth interviews and on-site observation at state, districts and facility levels. The assessment was completed in December 2009. Results: Coverage with three doses of Hep B vaccine was lower than similarly timed three doses of DPT vaccine. Poor stock management ("stock outs or nil stocks" at various levels, incomplete recording and reporting, perceived high cost & related fear of wastage of vaccine in 10 dose vial, and incomplete knowledge amongst health functionaries about vaccination schedule were the main reasons cited for reported lower coverage. Hep B vaccine birth dose was introduced in only 3 of 5 states evaluated. The additional reasons for low Hep B birth dose coverage were lack of knowledge amongst Health Workers about birth dose administration, no mechanism for recording birth dose, and insufficient trainings, official communications, and coordination at various levels. Conclusions: This assessment documents challenges faced in the introduction of hepatitis B vaccine in UIP in India and summarizes the lessons learnt. It is concluded that for successful introduction and scale up of any new vaccine in national or state

  20. Lifestyle change in Kerala, India: needs assessment and planning for a community-based diabetes prevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daivadanam, Meena; Absetz, Pilvikki; Sathish, Thirunavukkarasu; Thankappan, K R; Fisher, Edwin B; Philip, Neena Elezebeth; Mathews, Elezebeth; Oldenburg, Brian

    2013-02-01

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has become a major public health challenge in India. Factors relevant to the development and implementation of diabetes prevention programmes in resource-constrained countries, such as India, have been under-studied. The purpose of this study is to describe the findings from research aimed at informing the development and evaluation of a Diabetes Prevention Programme in Kerala, India (K-DPP). Data were collected from three main sources: (1) a systematic review of key research literature; (2) a review of relevant policy documents; and (3) focus groups conducted among individuals with a high risk of progressing to diabetes. The key findings were then triangulated and synthesised. Prevalence of risk factors for diabetes is very high and increasing in Kerala. This situation is largely attributable to rapid changes in the lifestyle of people living in this state of India. The findings from the systematic review and focus groups identified many environmental and personal determinants of these unhealthy lifestyle changes, including: less than ideal accessibility to and availability of health services; cultural values and norms; optimistic bias and other misconceptions related to risk; and low expectations regarding one's ability to make lifestyle changes in order to influence health and disease outcomes. On the other hand, there are existing intervention trials conducted in India which suggests that risk reduction is possible. These programmes utilize multi-level strategies including mass media, as well as strategies to enhance community and individual empowerment. India's national programme for the prevention and control of major non-communicable diseases (NCD) also provide a supportive environment for further community-based efforts to prevent diabetes. These findings provide strong support for undertaking more research into the conduct of community-based diabetes prevention in the rural areas of Kerala. We aim to develop, implement and

  1. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health fol

  2. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health

  3. Assessment of prevalence of tobacco consumption among psychiatric inmates residing in Central Jail, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Arjun Torwane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of tobacco consumption among psychiatric jail patients residing in Central Jail, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: The study subjects consisted of prediagnosed psychiatric patients residing in Central Jail, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. A matched control consisting of cross-section of the population, that is, jail inmates residing in the same Central Jail locality was also assessed to compare the psychiatric subjects. An 18 item questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of tobacco consumption among study subjects. Results: The total number of subjects examined was 244, which comprised of 122 psychiatric inmates and 122 nonpsychiatric inmates. Among all psychiatric inmates, about 57.4% of inmates had a diagnosis of depression, 14.8% had psychotic disorders (such as schizophrenia, and 12.3% had anxiety disorder. A total of 77% study inmates, which comprised of 87.7% psychiatrics and 66.4% nonpsychiatrics had a habit of tobacco consumption (smokeless or smoking. Conclusion: The information presented in this study adds to our understanding of the common tobacco related practices among psychiatric inmate population. Efforts to increase patient awareness of the hazards of tobacco consumption and to eliminate the habit are needed to improve oral and general health of the prison population.

  4. An assessment of the impact of the JSY cash transfer program on maternal mortality reduction in Madhya Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Indian Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY program is a demand-side program in which the state pays women a cash incentive to deliver in an institution, with the aim of reducing maternal mortality. The JSY has had 54 million beneficiaries since inception 7 years ago. Although a number of studies have demonstrated the effect of JSY on coverage, few have examined the direct impact of the program on maternal mortality. Objective: To study the impact of JSY on maternal mortality in Madhya Pradesh (MP, one of India's largest provinces. Design: By synthesizing data from various sources, district-level maternal mortality ratios (MMR from 2005 to 2010 were estimated using a Bayesian spatio-temporal model. Based on these, a mixed effects multilevel regression model was applied to assess the impact of JSY. Specifically, the association between JSY intensity, as reflected by 1 proportion of JSY-supported institutional deliveries, 2 total annual JSY expenditure, and 3 MMR, was examined. Results: The proportion of all institutional deliveries increased from 23.9% in 2005 to 55.9% in 2010 province-wide. The proportion of JSY-supported institutional deliveries rose from 14% (2005 to 80% (2010. MMR declines in the districts varied from 2 to 35% over this period. Despite the marked increase in JSY-supported delivery, our multilevel models did not detect a significant association between JSY-supported delivery proportions and changes in MMR in the districts. The results from the analysis examining the association between MMR and JSY expenditure are similar. Conclusions: Our analysis was unable to detect an association between maternal mortality reduction and the JSY in MP. The high proportion of institutional delivery under the program does not seem to have converted to lower mortality outcomes. The lack of significant impact could be related to supply-side constraints. Demand-side programs like JSY will have a limited effect if the supply side is unable

  5. ‘Oorja’ in India: Assessing a large-scale commercial distribution of advanced biomass stoves to households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Mark C.; Phadke, Himani; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Shrimali, Gireesh; Zerriffi, Hisham

    2015-01-01

    Replacing traditional stoves with advanced alternatives that burn more cleanly has the potential to ameliorate major health problems associated with indoor air pollution in developing countries. With a few exceptions, large government and charitable programs to distribute advanced stoves have not had the desired impact. Commercially-based distributions that seek cost recovery and even profits might plausibly do better, both because they encourage distributors to supply and promote products that people want and because they are based around properly-incentivized supply chains that could more be scalable, sustainable, and replicable. The sale in India of over 400,000 “Oorja” stoves to households from 2006 onwards represents the largest commercially-based distribution of a gasification-type advanced biomass stove. BP's Emerging Consumer Markets (ECM) division and then successor company First Energy sold this stove and the pelletized biomass fuel on which it operates. We assess the success of this effort and the role its commercial aspect played in outcomes using a survey of 998 households in areas of Maharashtra and Karnataka where the stove was sold as well as detailed interviews with BP and First Energy staff. Statistical models based on this data indicate that Oorja purchase rates were significantly influenced by the intensity of Oorja marketing in a region as well as by pre-existing stove mix among households. The highest rate of adoption came from LPG-using households for which Oorja's pelletized biomass fuel reduced costs. Smoke- and health-related messages from Oorja marketing did not significantly influence the purchase decision, although they did appear to affect household perceptions about smoke. By the time of our survey, only 9% of households that purchased Oorja were still using the stove, the result in large part of difficulties First Energy encountered in developing a viable supply chain around low-cost procurement of “agricultural waste” to

  6. A socio-hydrological comparative assessment explaining regional variances in suicide rate amongst farmers in Maharashtra, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Besten, Nadja I.; Pande, Saket; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2016-05-01

    Maharashtra is one of the states in India that has witnessed one of the highest rates of farmer suicides as proportion of total number of suicides. Most of the farmer suicides in Maharashtra are from semi-arid divisions such as Marathwada where cotton has been historically grown. Other dominant crops produced include cereals, pulses, oilseeds and sugarcane. Cotton (fibers), oilseeds and sugarcane providing highest value addition per unit cultivated area and cereals and pulses the least. Hence it is not surprising that smallholders take risks growing high value crops without "visualising" the risks it entails such as those corresponding to price and weather shocks.We deploy recently developed smallholder socio-hydrology modelling framework to understand the underlying dynamics of the crisis. It couples the dynamics of six main variables that are most relevant at the scale of a smallholder: water storage capacity (root zone storage and other ways of water storage), capital, livestock, soil fertility and fodder biomass. The hydroclimatic variability is accounted for at sub-annual scale and influences the socio-hydrology at annual scale. The model incorporates rule-based adaptation mechanisms (e.g., adjusting expenditures on food and fertilizers, selling livestocks) of smallholders when they face adverse conditions, such as high variability in rainfall or in agricultural prices. The model is applied to two adjoining divisions of Maharashtra: Marathwada and Desh. The former is the division with relatively higher farmer suicide rates than the latter. Diverse spatial data sets of precipitation, potential evaporation, soil, agricultural census based farm inputs, cropping pattern and prices are used to understand the dynamics of small farmers in these divisions, and to attribute farmer distress rates to soil types, hydroclimatic variability and crops grown.Comparative socio-hydrologic assessment across the two regions confirms existing narratives: low (soil) water storage

  7. Vital soil; function, value and properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doelman, P.; Eijsackers, H.J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Healthy soil, with active soil life, deters long-term soil degradation and ensures that geo-physical processes are undisturbed. Is the vitality of soil under threat due to human civilization? Or is it due to contamination, intensification, and deforestation? Vital Soil aims to look at the effects so

  8. Vital Soil: Function, Value and Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article is a review of the book, Vital Soil: Function, Value and Properties. Soil vitality has been defined as the ability of soil ecosystems to stay in balance in a changing world. The soil environment and the life that it supports developed over centuries and millennia, but careless human ac...

  9. Vital exhaustion and risk for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Prescott, Eva;

    2005-01-01

    Vital exhaustion, defined as feelings of depression and fatigue, has previously been investigated mainly as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The authors investigated the association between depressive feelings and fatigue as covered by the concept of vital exhaustion and the risk...

  10. Vital soil; function, value and properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doelman, P.; Eijsackers, H.J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Healthy soil, with active soil life, deters long-term soil degradation and ensures that geo-physical processes are undisturbed. Is the vitality of soil under threat due to human civilization? Or is it due to contamination, intensification, and deforestation? Vital Soil aims to look at the effects

  11. A framework for assessment and characterisation of municipal solid waste landfill leachate: an application to the Turbhe landfill, Navi Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Harshit; Rathod, Merwan; Karmakar, Subhankar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-06-01

    Rapid industrialisation, growing population and changing lifestyles are the root causes for the generation of huge amounts of solid waste in developing countries. In India, disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) through open dumping is the most common waste disposal method. Unfortunately, leachate generation from landfill is high due to the prolonged and prominent monsoon season in India. As leachate generation rate is high in most of the tropical countries, long-term and extensive monitoring efforts are expected to evaluate actual environmental pollution potential due to leachate contamination. However, the leachate characterisation involves a comprehensive process, which has numerous shortcomings and uncertainties possibly due to the complex nature of landfilling process, heterogeneous waste characteristics, widely varying hydrologic conditions and selection of analytes. In order to develop a sustainable MSW management strategy for protecting the surface and ground water resources, particularly from MSW landfill leachate contamination, assessment and characterisation of leachate are necessary. Numerous studies have been conducted in the past to characterise leachate quality from various municipal landfills; unfortunately, none of these propose a framework or protocol. The present study proposes a generic framework for municipal landfill leachate assessment and characterisation. The proposed framework can be applied to design any type of landfill leachate quality monitoring programme and also to facilitate improved leachate treatment activities. A landfill site located at Turbhe, Navi Mumbai, India, which had not been investigated earlier, has been selected as a case study. The proposed framework has been demonstrated on the Turbhe landfill site which is a comparatively new and the only sanitary landfill in Navi Mumbai.

  12. Sharing Vital Signs between mobile phone applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlen, Walter; Dumont, Guy A; Scheffer, Cornie

    2014-01-01

    We propose a communication library, ShareVitalSigns, for the standardized exchange of vital sign information between health applications running on mobile platforms. The library allows an application to request one or multiple vital signs from independent measurement applications on the Android OS. Compatible measurement applications are automatically detected and can be launched from within the requesting application, simplifying the work flow for the user and reducing typing errors. Data is shared between applications using intents, a passive data structure available on Android OS. The library is accompanied by a test application which serves as a demonstrator. The secure exchange of vital sign information using a standardized library like ShareVitalSigns will facilitate the integration of measurement applications into diagnostic and other high level health monitoring applications and reduce errors due to manual entry of information.

  13. Lifestyle change in Kerala, India: needs assessment and planning for a community-based diabetes prevention trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daivadanam Meena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM has become a major public health challenge in India. Factors relevant to the development and implementation of diabetes prevention programmes in resource-constrained countries, such as India, have been under-studied. The purpose of this study is to describe the findings from research aimed at informing the development and evaluation of a Diabetes Prevention Programme in Kerala, India (K-DPP. Methods Data were collected from three main sources: (1 a systematic review of key research literature; (2 a review of relevant policy documents; and (3 focus groups conducted among individuals with a high risk of progressing to diabetes. The key findings were then triangulated and synthesised. Results Prevalence of risk factors for diabetes is very high and increasing in Kerala. This situation is largely attributable to rapid changes in the lifestyle of people living in this state of India. The findings from the systematic review and focus groups identified many environmental and personal determinants of these unhealthy lifestyle changes, including: less than ideal accessibility to and availability of health services; cultural values and norms; optimistic bias and other misconceptions related to risk; and low expectations regarding one’s ability to make lifestyle changes in order to influence health and disease outcomes. On the other hand, there are existing intervention trials conducted in India which suggests that risk reduction is possible. These programmes utilize multi-level strategies including mass media, as well as strategies to enhance community and individual empowerment. India’s national programme for the prevention and control of major non-communicable diseases (NCD also provide a supportive environment for further community-based efforts to prevent diabetes. Conclusion These findings provide strong support for undertaking more research into the conduct of community-based diabetes prevention

  14. Direct anterior composite veneers in vital and non-vital teeth: A retrospective clinical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho-de-Souza, F.H.; Goncalves, D.S.; Sales, M.P.; Erhardt, M.C.; Correa, M.B.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Demarco, F.F.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This retrospective, longitudinal clinical study investigated the performance of direct veneers using different composites (microfilledxuniversal) in vital or non-vital anterior teeth. METHODS: Records from 86 patients were retrieved from a Dental School clinic, comprising 196 direct vene

  15. Assessing the implications of baseline climate uncertainty on simulated water yield within the Himalayan Beas river basin in NW India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, I.; Remesan, R.; Adeloye, A.; Ojha, C. S.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the impacts of the changing water cycle on future water resources and society is one of the most important issues surrounding anthropogenic climate change, especially in regions with limited adaptive capacity or highly water-dependent economies. One such region is the north western Himalayan region of India, where supplementary irrigation is used in the non-monsoon seasons and where over 90% of the population are reliant on agriculture for their livelihoods. This paper focuses on the transboundary 12,560km2 Beas catchment in Himachal Pradesh, which is one of the case study catchments of the Mitigating the Impacts of Climate Change in Indian agriculture (MICCI) project of the UK NERC Changing Water Cycle Programme. However, understanding of the impacts of changes in the water cycle in such regions is dependent on the quality of available observational climate datasets- a challenge given the relative paucity of ground-based observations in mountainous terrains. River flows in the Beas, which support both irrigation and hydropower, are highly seasonal, being dependent on the Indian Monsoon augmented by seasonal snow and ice melt from the Himalayas. This paper describes the uncertainty in simulating water yield in the Beas catchment, using the HySim hydrological model, associated with the use of a diverse range of public domain and governmental observed and derived precipitation and evapo-transpiration datasets (including gridded ground-based data from the Indian Meteorological Department; TRMM, NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) and the APHRODITE project). For example, basin annual average precipitation (2000-07) ranges from 1476 mm/yr (CFSR), 2093mm/yr (APHRODITE) to 2357 mm/yr (TRMM), whilst basin annual average reference evapotranspiration ranges from 1320 mm/yr (with a minimum to maximum sub-basin range of 136-4680 mm/yr) using the Priestley Taylor to 2296 mm/yr (190-6954 mm/yr) with Penman-Monteith. The selection of datasets affects

  16. 三种方法对受创牙进行牙髓活力测试结果的比较%Comparsion of three different methods for assessing pulp vitality in recently traumatized teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张林; 黄辉; 刘向辉; 孙卫革; 应雪霞; 章键

    2013-01-01

    目的:用三种不同方法对近期外伤前牙进行牙髓活力测试,比较其准确性.方法:选择2008~2011年在解放军81医院口腔科就诊的64例上前牙创伤的82颗患牙,分别用冷测、电活力测试、血氧饱和度测试其牙髓活力,并于4、7、14、21、28 d、2、3、6月进行复查,与前期结果进行比较分析.结果:0~28 d,所有受试牙对冷测及电测均无反应.28 d~6月,受试牙对冷测呈阳性反应由31颗上升至75颗,电测组为29颗上升至73颗.0 d~6月,血氧饱和度值正常的受试牙数保持不变,为77颗.结论:血氧饱和度测试法对外伤牙的牙髓活力判断准确、可靠.%Objective: This study was designed to evaluate and compare the efficacy of a custom—made pulse oximeter dental probe with electric pulp testing and thermal testing for measuring pulp vitality status of recently traumatized teeth. Method: From 2008 to 2011,64 patients with 82 recently traumatized maxillary incisors were treated in Department of Stomatology, The PLA 81st Hospital. Readings for pulp vitality from thermal testing, eletrical pulp testing and pulse oximetry testing, over a 6 month. Result: From day 0~day 21, all teeth showing no response to thermal test and eletrical test, day 28~6 month, the teeth showing a positive responsiveness in thermal pulp test increased form 31~75,and eletical tests was 29~73. However pulse oximeter gave a positive vitality readings that remained constant over the study period,from day 0~6 month in 77 teeth. Conclusion: Pulse oximetry is an effective, objective method of evaluating pulp vitality, especially applicable to recently traumatized teeth.

  17. 46 CFR 119.710 - Piping for vital systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping for vital systems. 119.710 Section 119.710... Piping Systems § 119.710 Piping for vital systems. (a) Vital systems are those systems that are vital to...-vital system. (c) Piping used in a vital system must meet § 56.60 in subchapter F of this...

  18. Forms of vitality play in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Español, Silvia; Martínez, Mauricio; Bordoni, Mariana; Camarasa, Rosario; Carretero, Soledad

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we report a qualitative study based on the constant comparative method to initiate the systematic study of forms of vitality play. This is an unnoticed non-figurative play frame linked to early social play and temporal arts in which child and adult elaborate the dynamics of their own movements and sounds in a repetition-variation form. In the introduction we present the theoretical underpinnings and the sporadic observations we have done in previous studies. Then, by the iterative observations of the recorded material of a longitudinal case study on play during the third year of life, we generated the general category of forms of vitality play and four subcategories of display modes of forms of vitality play (improvised forms of vitality play, ritualized forms of vitality play, forms of vitality play combined with pretend play, and forms of vitality play combined with role playing) which are illustrated with descriptive narratives. We discuss the properties of the developed categories, the limits of the present study, and the need to continue systematizing the research on this playful activity.

  19. Impaired vitality form recognition in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, Magali J; Veroni, Vania; Bruschweiler-Stern, Nadia; Pieraccini, Cinzia; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Barthélémy, Catherine; Malvy, Joëlle; Sinigaglia, Corrado; Stern, Daniel N; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2013-08-01

    Along with the understanding of the goal of an action ("what" is done) and the intention underlying it ("why" it is done), social interactions largely depend on the appraisal of the action from the dynamics of the movement: "how" it is performed (its "vitality form"). Do individuals with autism, especially children, possess this capacity? Here we show that, unlike typically developing individuals, individuals with autism reveal severe deficits in recognizing vitality forms, and their capacity to appraise them does not improve with age. Deficit in vitality form recognition appears, therefore, to be a newly recognized trait marker of autism.

  20. Vitalism and vital normativeness: Hahnemann and Canguilhem Vitalismo y normatividad vital: Hahnemann and Canguilhem Vitalismo e normatividade vital: Hahnemann and Canguilhem

    OpenAIRE

    Luz,Madel T; Denise Scofano

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reviews Vitalism as the basis for S. Hahnemann’s initial formulation of Homeopathy through the lens of the notions of Vitalism and vital normativeness formulated in the 20th century by French physician and historian of science Georges Canguilhem. Hahnemann described disease as a disarrangement of the organism as a whole, carrying the mark of the individual affected. Similarly, Canguilhem stated that symptoms only have meaning within their specific context and express...

  1. Monitoring, modeling, and management: why base avian management on vital rates and how should it be done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David F. DeSante; M. Philip Nott; Danielle R. Kaschube

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we argue that effective management of landbirds should be based on assessing and monitoring their vital rates (primary demographic parameters) as well as population trends. This is because environmental stressors and management actions affect vital rates directly and usually without time lags, and because monitoring vital rates provides a) information on...

  2. Earthquake induced liquefaction hazard, probability and risk assessment in the city of Kolkata, India: its historical perspective and deterministic scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Sankar Kumar; Srivastava, Nishtha; Ghatak, Chitralekha; Adhikari, Manik Das; Ghosh, Ambarish; Sinha Ray, S. P.

    2017-09-01

    Liquefaction-induced ground failure is one amongst the leading causes of infrastructure damage due to the impact of large earthquakes in unconsolidated, non-cohesive, water saturated alluvial terrains. The city of Kolkata is located on the potentially liquefiable alluvial fan deposits of Ganga-Bramhaputra-Meghna Delta system with subsurface litho-stratigraphic sequence comprising of varying percentages of clay, cohesionless silt, sand, and gravel interbedded with decomposed wood and peat. Additionally, the region has moderately shallow groundwater condition especially in the post-monsoon seasons. In view of burgeoning population, there had been unplanned expansion of settlements in the hazardous geological, geomorphological, and hydrological conditions exposing the city to severe liquefaction hazard. The 1897 Shillong and 1934 Bihar-Nepal earthquakes both of M w 8.1 reportedly induced Modified Mercalli Intensity of IV-V and VI-VII respectively in the city reportedly triggering widespread to sporadic liquefaction condition with surface manifestation of sand boils, lateral spreading, ground subsidence, etc., thus posing a strong case for liquefaction potential analysis in the terrain. With the motivation of assessing seismic hazard, vulnerability, and risk of the city of Kolkata through a consorted federal funding stipulated for all the metros and upstart urban centers in India located in BIS seismic zones III, IV, and V with population more than one million, an attempt has been made here to understand the liquefaction susceptibility condition of Kolkata under the impact of earthquake loading employing modern multivariate techniques and also to predict deterministic liquefaction scenario of the city in the event of a probabilistic seismic hazard condition with 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years and a return period of 475 years. We conducted in-depth geophysical and geotechnical investigations in the city encompassing 435 km2 area. The stochastically

  3. National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) Mortality data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2001 to 2013. NVSS is a secure, web-based data management system that collects and disseminates the Nation's official vital statistics. Data for this dataset has...

  4. Vital directions for mathematics education research

    CERN Document Server

    Leatham, Keith R

    2013-01-01

    In this book, experts discuss vital issues in mathematics education and what they see as viable directions for research in mathematics education to address them. Their recommendations take the form of overarching principles and ideas that cut across the field.

  5. CDC Vital Signs: Recipe for Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... VitalSigns RSS Error processing SSI file Recipe for Food Safety Protecting people from deadly Listeria food poisoning Recommend ... for food production, like those included in the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) , so that food doesn't ...

  6. Vitality and storage condition of Syringa pollen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOULi; LUOFeng-xia; DAILi-min; ZHANGHui-hua

    2003-01-01

    The fresh pollen vitality,the effect of different storage conditions on the pollen vitality,and the difference of vitality among the species of seven species of Syringa were determined in Shenyang,China.The results indicated that the pollen vitality (81.5%) of Syringa villosa was the highest among the seven tested species,followed by S.microphylla and S.meyeri,and that of S.oblata var.affinis was the lowest.The low temperature was the best condition for storage of pollen of Syringa,and the most proper temperature for the storage was 0-2℃.The storability of S.microphylla was the best of all,and it could be stored over 60 days at the temperature of 0-2℃,next was S.villosa and S.meyeri.

  7. Assessing product adulteration in natural health products for laxative yielding plants, Cassia, Senna, and Chamaecrista, in Southern India using DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethapathy, Gopalakrishnan Saroja; Ganesh, Doss; Santhosh Kumar, Jayanthinagar Urumarudappa; Senthilkumar, Umapathy; Newmaster, Steven G; Ragupathy, Subramanyam; Uma Shaanker, Ramanan; Ravikanth, Gudasalamani

    2015-07-01

    Medicinal plants such as Cassia, Senna, and Chamaecrista (belonging to the family Fabaceae) are well known for their laxative properties. They are extensively used within indigenous health care systems in India and several other countries. India exports over 5000 metric tonnes per year of these specific herbal products, and the demand for natural health product market is growing at approximately 10-15% annually. The raw plant material used as active ingredients is almost exclusively sourced from wild populations. Consequently, it is widely suspected that the commercial herbal products claiming to contain these species may be adulterated or contaminated. In this study, we have attempted to assess product authentication and the extent of adulteration in the herbal trade of these species using DNA barcoding. Our method includes four common DNA barcode regions: ITS, matK, rbcL, and psbA-trnH. Analysis of market samples revealed considerable adulteration of herbal products: 50% in the case of Senna auriculata, 37% in Senna tora, and 8% in Senna alexandrina. All herbal products containing Cassia fistula were authentic, while the species under the genus Chamaecrista were not in trade. Our results confirm the suspicion that there is rampant herbal product adulteration in Indian markets. DNA barcodes such as that demonstrated in this study could be effectively used as a regulatory tool to control the adulteration of herbal products and contribute to restoring quality assurance and consumer confidence in natural health products.

  8. Rapid Assessment for Coexistence of Vitamin B12 and Iron Deficiency Anemia among Adolescent Males and Females in Northern Himalayan State of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coexistence of folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency has been observed among adolescents with iron deficiency anemia, but limited evidence is available from India. So, a rapid assessment was done to study the prevalence of iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12 deficiency among adolescent males and females in northern Himalayan state in India. Methods. Total 885 (female: 60.9% adolescents (11 to 19 completed years were surveyed from 30-cluster village from two community development blocks of Himachal Pradesh. Serum ferritin, folic acid, and vitamin B12 were estimated among randomly selected 100 male and 100 female adolescents. Results. Under-nutrition (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 was observed among 68.9% of adolescents (male: 67.1%; female: 70.7; . Anemia was observed to be prevalent among 87.2% males and 96.7% females (. Mild form of anemia was observed to be the most common (53.9% form followed by moderate (29.7% anemia. Strikingly, it was found that all the adolescents were deficient in vitamin B12 and none of the adolescents was observed to be deficient in folic acid. Conclusion. Among both male and female adolescents anemia with vitamin B12 deficiency was observed to be a significant public health problem. Folic acid deficiency was not observed as a problem among surveyed adolescents.

  9. Assessment of village-wise groundwater draft for irrigation: a field-based study in hard-rock aquifers of central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. K.; Syed, T. H.; Saha, Dipankar; Sarkar, B. C.; Patre, A. K.

    2017-07-01

    Extracted groundwater, 90% of which is used for irrigated agriculture, is central to the socio-economic development of India. A lack of regulation or implementation of regulations, alongside unrecorded extraction, often leads to over exploitation of large-scale common-pool resources like groundwater. Inevitably, management of groundwater extraction (draft) for irrigation is critical for sustainability of aquifers and the society at large. However, existing assessments of groundwater draft, which are mostly available at large spatial scales, are inadequate for managing groundwater resources that are primarily exploited by stakeholders at much finer scales. This study presents an estimate, projection and analysis of fine-scale groundwater draft in the Seonath-Kharun interfluve of central India. Using field surveys of instantaneous discharge from irrigation wells and boreholes, annual groundwater draft for irrigation in this area is estimated to be 212 × 106 m3, most of which (89%) is withdrawn during non-monsoon season. However, the density of wells/boreholes, and consequent extraction of groundwater, is controlled by the existing hydrogeological conditions. Based on trends in the number of abstraction structures (1982-2011), groundwater draft for the year 2020 is projected to be approximately 307 × 106 m3; hence, groundwater draft for irrigation in the study area is predicted to increase by ˜44% within a span of 8 years. Central to the work presented here is the approach for estimation and prediction of groundwater draft at finer scales, which can be extended to critical groundwater zones of the country.

  10. HEALTH, VITAL GOALS, AND CENTRAL HUMAN CAPABILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or ‘central human capabilities and functionings’. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings—or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings. PMID:22420910

  11. Health, vital goals, and central human capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-06-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or 'central human capabilities and functionings'. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings-or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings.

  12. Downscaled climate change projections with uncertainty assessment over India using a high resolution multi-model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Wiltshire, Andrew; Mathison, Camilla; Asharaf, Shakeel; Ahrens, Bodo; Lucas-Picher, Philippe; Christensen, Jens H; Gobiet, Andreas; Saeed, Fahad; Hagemann, Stefan; Jacob, Daniela

    2013-12-01

    This study presents the possible regional climate change over South Asia with a focus over India as simulated by three very high resolution regional climate models (RCMs). One of the most striking results is a robust increase in monsoon precipitation by the end of the 21st century but regional differences in strength. First the ability of RCMs to simulate the monsoon climate is analyzed. For this purpose all three RCMs are forced with ECMWF reanalysis data for the period 1989-2008 at a horizontal resolution of ~25 km. The results are compared against independent observations. In order to simulate future climate the models are driven by lateral boundary conditions from two global climate models (GCMs: ECHAM5-MPIOM and HadCM3) using the SRES A1B scenario, except for one RCM, which only used data from one GCM. The results are presented for the full transient simulation period 1970-2099 and also for several time slices. The analysis concentrates on precipitation and temperature over land. All models show a clear signal of gradually wide-spread warming throughout the 21st century. The ensemble-mean warming over India is 1.5°C at the end of 2050, whereas it is 3.9°C at the end of century with respect to 1970-1999. The pattern of projected precipitation changes shows considerable spatial variability, with an increase in precipitation over the peninsular of India and coastal areas and, either no change or decrease further inland. From the analysis of a larger ensemble of global climate models using the A1B scenario a wide spread warming (~3.2°C) and an overall increase (~8.5%) in mean monsoon precipitation by the end of the 21st century is very likely. The influence of the driving GCM on the projected precipitation change simulated with each RCM is as strong as the variability among the RCMs driven with one.

  13. Loss of Olfactory Function and Nutritional Status in Vital Older Adults and Geriatric Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toussaint, N.; Roon, de M.; Campen, van J.P.C.M.; Kremer, S.; Boesveldt, S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the association of olfactory function and nutritional status in vital older adults and geriatric patients. Three hundred forty-five vital (mean age 67.1 years) and 138 geriatric older adults (mean age 80.9 years) were included. Nutritional status w

  14. Identification of a rare blood group, "Bombay (Oh) phenotype," in Bhuyan tribe of Northwestern Orissa, India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balgir, R S

    2007-01-01

    Blood group serology plays a vital role in transfusion medicine. The Bombay (Oh) phenotype is characterized by the absence of A, B, and H antigens on red cells and occurs rarely, especially in tribal populations of India...

  15. Dental pulp vitality measurement based on multiwavelength photoplethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkela, Ville; Kopola, Harri K.; Oikarinen, Kyosti; Herrala, Esko

    1995-01-01

    Observation of the intradental blood supply is important in cases of dental trauma, but difficult. As the methods used by dentists to measure pulp vitality are not very reliable, a dental pulp vitalometer based on fiberoptic reflectance measurement and measurement of the absorption of blood has been designed and built. In addition to the fiber optic probe and reflectance sensor electronics, the vitalometer includes a data acquisition card, a PC and data processing programs. The thick dentin and enamel layers and the small amount of blood in a tooth are major problems for optical measurement of its vitality, and scattered light from the enamel and the dentin surrounding the pulpa also causes a problem in measurements based on reflectance. These problems are assessed here by means of theoretical models and calculations. The advantage of reflectance measurement is that only one probe is used, which is easy to put against the tooth. Thus measurements are simple to make. Three wavelengths (560 nm, 650 nm, 850 nm) are used to measure photoplethysmographic signals, and these should allow the oxygen saturation of the blood in a tooth to be measured as well in the future. Series of measurements have been performed on vital and non-vital teeth by recording photoplethysmographic signals, using the vitalometer and using a commercial laser-Doppler instrument. Verifications of the laser-Doppler and vitalometer results are presented and deduced here.

  16. Electromagnetic Education in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajpai Shrish

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Out of the four fundamental interactions in nature, electromagnetics is one of them along with gravitation, strong interaction and weak interaction. The field of electromagnetics has made much of the modern age possible. Electromagnets are common in day-to-day appliances and are becoming more conventional as the need for technology increases. Electromagnetism has played a vital role in the progress of human kind ever since it has been understood. Electromagnets are found everywhere. One can find them in speakers, doorbells, home security systems, anti-shoplifting systems, hard drives, mobiles, microphones, Maglev trains, motors and many other everyday appliances and products. Before diving into the education system, it is necessary to reiterate its importance in various technologies that have evolved over time. Almost every domain of social life has electromagnetic playing its role. Be it the mobile vibrators you depend upon, a water pump, windshield wipers during rain and the power windows of your car or even the RFID tags that may ease your job during shopping. A flavor of electromagnetics is essential during primary level of schooling for the student to understand its future prospects and open his/her mind to a broad ocean of ideas. Due to such advancements this field can offer, study on such a field is highly beneficial for a developing country like India. The paper presents the scenario of electromagnetic education in India, its importance and numerous schemes taken by the government of India to uplift and acquaint the people about the importance of EM and its applications.

  17. Assessing the consistency between AVHRR and MODIS NDVI datasets for estimating terrestrial net primary productivity over India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Nayak; N Mishra; V K Dadhwal; N R Patel; M Salim; K H Rao; C B S Dutt

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the consistency between the AVHRR and MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) datasets in estimating net primary productivity (NPP) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) over India during 2001–2006 in a terrestrial ecosystem model. Harmonic analysis is employed to estimate seasonal components of the time series. The stationary components (representing long-termmean) of the respective NDVI time series are highly coherent and exhibit inherent natural vegetation characteristics with high values over the forest, moderate over the cropland, and small over the grassland. Both data exhibit strong semi-annual oscillations over the cropland dominated Indo-Gangetic plains while annual oscillations are strong over most parts of the country. MODIS has larger annual amplitude than that of the AVHRR. The similar variability exists on the estimates of NPP and NEP across India. In an annual scale, MODIS-based NPP budget is 1.78 PgC, which is 27% higher than the AVHRR-based estimate. It revealed that the Indian terrestrial ecosystem remained the sink of atmospheric CO$_2$during the study period with 42 TgC y$^{−1}$ NEP budget associated with MODIS-based estimate against 18 TgC y$^{−1}$ for the AVHRR-based estimate.

  18. Probabilistic assessment of surface level seismic hazard in India using topographic gradient as a proxy for site condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.G. Sitharam; Sreevalsa Kolathayar; Naveen James

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents spatial variation of seismic hazard at the surface level for India, covering 6e38? N and 68e98? E. The most recent knowledge on seismic activity in the region has been used to evaluate the hazard incorporating uncertainties associated with the seismicity parameters using different modeling methodologies. Three types of seismic source models, viz. linear sources, gridded seismicity model and areal sources, were considered to model the seismic sources and different sets of ground motion pre-diction equations were used for different tectonic provinces to characterize the attenuation properties. The hazard estimation at bedrock level has been carried out using probabilistic approach and the results obtained from various methodologies were combined in a logic tree framework. The seismic site char-acterization of India was done using topographic slope map derived from Digital Elevation Model data. This paper presents estimation of the hazard at surface level, using appropriate site amplification factors corresponding to various site classes based on VS30 values derived from the topographic gradient. Spatial variation of surface level peak horizontal acceleration (PHA) for return periods of 475 years and 2475 years are presented as contour maps.

  19. Probabilistic assessment of surface level seismic hazard in India using topographic gradient as a proxy for site condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.G. Sitharam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents spatial variation of seismic hazard at the surface level for India, covering 6–38° N and 68–98° E. The most recent knowledge on seismic activity in the region has been used to evaluate the hazard incorporating uncertainties associated with the seismicity parameters using different modeling methodologies. Three types of seismic source models, viz. linear sources, gridded seismicity model and areal sources, were considered to model the seismic sources and different sets of ground motion prediction equations were used for different tectonic provinces to characterize the attenuation properties. The hazard estimation at bedrock level has been carried out using probabilistic approach and the results obtained from various methodologies were combined in a logic tree framework. The seismic site characterization of India was done using topographic slope map derived from Digital Elevation Model data. This paper presents estimation of the hazard at surface level, using appropriate site amplification factors corresponding to various site classes based on VS30 values derived from the topographic gradient. Spatial variation of surface level peak horizontal acceleration (PHA for return periods of 475 years and 2475 years are presented as contour maps.

  20. Assessment of the HRM Practices and Quality Initiatives from the Academic and Managerial Viewpoint (A Study of NAAC Accredited Institutions in Hyderabad-India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajedeh Sadeghizadeh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this study is on the HRM practices and quality initiatives in the institutions accredited by National Assessment and Accreditation Council in India. This is a Post Facto study. The sample size taken up for the study consists of 260 faculty members and 100 managements. The collected data were analyzed by using ‘t’ test, Chi-square analysis, ANOVA and Pearson correlation method. The major findings of this study have indicated that regarding the professional knowledge, there is significant difference between regional and state university. There is a high correlation among all aspects of HRM practices, HRM Qualities and competencies (Professional Knowledge- Professional Skills-Personal attitude and values and all of the components play an important role as HRM practices and Quality Initiatives in Higher Education. In case of the HRM practices, Qualities and Competencies, there is no significant difference in the Institutes.

  1. Assessing the impact of a school-based safe water intervention on household adoption of point-of-use water treatment practices in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Matthew C; Clasen, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    We assessed a pilot project by UNICEF and Hindustan Unilever Limited to improve the quality of drinking water for children in schools through adoption of improved drinking water practices among households in southern India. The intervention consisted of providing classrooms of 200 schools a commercial water purifier, and providing basic hygiene and water treatment information to students, parents, and teachers. We found no evidence that the intervention was effective in improving awareness or uptake of effective water treatment practices at home. A similar proportion of household members in the intervention and control groups boiled their water (P = 0.60), used a ceramic filtration system (P = 0.33), and used a cloth filter (P = 0.89). One year after the launch of the campaign, household ownership of the commercial purifier promoted at schools was higher in the intervention group (26%) than the control group (19%), but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.53).

  2. Competence of birth attendants at providing emergency obstetric care under India's JSY conditional cash transfer program for institutional delivery: an assessment using case vignettes in Madhya Pradesh province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Sarika; Upadhyay, Sourabh; De Costa, Ayesha

    2014-05-24

    Access to emergency obstetric care by competent staff can reduce maternal mortality. India has launched the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) conditional cash transfer program to promote institutional births. During implementation of the JSY, India witnessed a steep increase in the proportion of institutional deliveries-from 40% in 2004 to 73% in 2012. However, maternal mortality reduction follows a secular trend. Competent management of complications, when women deliver in facilities under the JSY, is essential for reduction in maternal mortality and therefore to a successful program outcome. We investigate, using clinical vignettes, whether birth attendants at institutions under the program are competent at providing appropriate care for obstetric complications. A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in three districts of Madhya Pradesh (MP) province. Written case vignettes for two obstetric complications, hemorrhage and eclampsia, were administered to 233 birth attendant nurses at 73 JSY facilities. Their competence at (a) initial assessment, (b) diagnosis, and (c) making decisions on appropriate first-line care for these complications was scored. The mean emergency obstetric care (EmOC) competence score was 5.4 (median = 5) on a total score of 20, and 75% of participants scored below 35% of the maximum score. The overall score, although poor, was marginally higher in respondents with Skilled Birth Attendant (SBA) training, those with general nursing and midwifery qualifications, those at higher facility levels, and those conducting >30 deliveries a month. In all, 14% of respondents were competent at assessment, 58% were competent at making a correct clinical diagnosis, and 20% were competent at providing first-line care. Birth attendants in the JSY facilities have low competence at EmOC provision. Hence, births in the JSY program cannot be considered to have access to competent EmOC. Urgent efforts are required to effectively increase the

  3. 46 CFR 182.710 - Piping for vital systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping for vital systems. 182.710 Section 182.710... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Piping Systems § 182.710 Piping for vital systems. (a) Vital systems are... section is a non-vital system. (c) Piping used in a vital system must: (1) Be composed of...

  4. An Examination of the Validity of the Subjective Vitality Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Jessica R.; Barker, Valerie; Giles, Howard

    2009-01-01

    The concept of group "vitality" was developed over 30 years ago to assist in understanding of power relations between language groups. However, vitality has also been an important consideration when attempting to understand intergroup relations more generally. Vitality researchers distinguish "subjective" vitality from "objective" vitality. This…

  5. Vitality and time course of wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehmichen, M

    2004-09-10

    The term "wound" describes the morphologic-functional disruption of the continuity of a tissue structure. A wound can be inflicted during life--when the cardiovascular and respiratory system is still intact--or after death, i.e. after cardiac and respiratory arrest. Traumatization during life triggers vital reactions that do not occur in postmortem wounds. Three types of vital reactions in wound healing can be distinguished: Reactions of the scavenger type, which are almost exclusively mediated by blood cells. Reactions by complex signal transduction pathways, which involves cascade-like release of chemokines, cytokines and adhesion molecules and may influence type 1 and type 3 reactions. Reactions of the scarring type, which involve the final repair of the damaged tissue and are carried out primarily by cells residing at the wound edges, i.e. partly concerning mesenchymal cells and partly tissue-specific cells dependent on the involved organ system. The three different types of reaction follow roughly parallel temporal courses that include cascade-like interactions among themselves. Whereas demonstration of a vital reaction suffices to differentiate an intravital wound from a postmortem wound, the vital reactions themselves follow strictly temporal courses. The regular time-dependent occurrence of each phenomenon allows--in limits--a reliable temporal classification of wound healing. A review will be given especially demonstrating the actual German scientific research in vitality and in skin wound timing as well as in timing of mechanical injury of the brain.

  6. Dust Quantization and Effects on Agriculture Over Uttar Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Pavel; Tiwari, Shubhansh

    2017-01-01

    Dust plays a very important role in the atmosphere and the biosphere. In this communication, the effect of atmospheric dust on the yields of certain crops grown in Uttar Pradesh, India is assessed. Coherent physical and thermodynamic fingerprints of dust parameters such as from Satellite data- KALPANA-1, MODIS, OMI, CALIPSO; Model data- DREAM, HYSPLIT, ECMWF; have been considered to run the APSIM model to derive the impacts. This paper assesses dust as a physical atmospheric phenomenon including its Long Range Transport (LRT) and dispersion along with considerable variations of Aerosol Optical Depths (AODs) over the subcontinent of India. While AODs significantly increase by more dust concentration, the local dispersion of pollutants is a major concern with deposition of atmospheric dust such as sulphates and other chemical constituents that affect agricultural land. An approach in atmospheric physics is also taken to parameterize the model outputs. This communication indicates dust to be a positive factor for the cultivation of certain crops such as wheat, maize in the experimental location. Initial results suggest that LRT dust is a viable counterpart to decrease the concentration of soil acidity and related parameters thus enhancing the vitality of crops.

  7. From Vitality to Vital Exhaustion and Other States of "Tense Tiredness": A New Biopsychosocial Risk Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Alan; Cohen, Randy

    2017-04-01

    Fatigue is a common prodromal symptom for various medical conditions, including acute myocardial infarction. Fatigue is also the core component of vital exhaustion, which consists of a specific triad: excessive fatigue, increased irritability, and feelings of demoralization. In this issue of Psychosomatic Medicine, Frestad and Prescott present a meta-analysis of 16 studies, involving 53,337 participants, which found vital exhaustion to be associated with an increased risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and recurrent cardiac events among individuals with established CHD. After discussing methodological limitations of the studies included in this meta-analysis, we describe these findings in terms of a larger genre of risk that is biopsychosocial in origin and tied to two types of tiredness: "calm tiredness" and "tense tiredness." The former is regenerative, while the latter enhances disease risk. We propose that besides vital exhaustion, other symptoms of negative affect may combine with tiredness to produce increased clinical risk, such as the presence of depressed mood, an inability to relax or recover after work, and symptoms of burnout. We further propose that vital exhaustion can be considered as part of a larger paradigm, ranging from a positive state of vitality to a negative state of exhaustion of vitality. We conclude this editorial by emphasizing the importance of improving vitality and the need to clarify biobehavioral mechanisms that play a role in the association between vital exhaustion and adverse CHD outcomes. New interventions are needed that target reducing exhaustion and improving vitality for individuals at high risk of CHD.

  8. Internet India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews a number of Internet sites containing information on every aspect of life in Modern India. The various sites provide information on such diverse topics as the Indian film industry, politics, the booming Indian computer industry, changing status of women, and financial and political issues. (MJP)

  9. Self-assessed and clinically diagnosed periodontal health status among patients visiting the outpatient department of a dental school in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarajan Sripriya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to assess the extent of agreement between clinical and self-assessed periodontal health status among patients visiting the outpatient department of M.S. Ramaiah Dental College, Bangalore, India. Materials and Methods: The study population included 216 patients aged between 20 and 44 years who attended the outpatient department of the M.S. Ramaiah Dental College, Bangalore. The study population was subjected to a self-administered questionnaire (questions regarding bleeding gums, deposits on teeth, receding gums, swelling of gums, loose teeth, which was followed by periodontal examination. The clinical examination included an assessment of the periodontal condition, using the criteria of Loe and Silness Gingival Index, the Community Periodontal Index, and Mobility, respectively. Conclusion: The present study showed that the perceived periodontal health status was low and the discrepancy between the subjectively and objectively assessed needs was very distinct. The awareness of the periodontal problems has been reported to increase with increasing severity of the disease due to the destructive changes that set in.

  10. Assessment of air pollution stress on some commonly grown tree species in industrial zone of Durgapur, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayek, S; Satpati, S; Gupta, S; Saha, R N; Datta, J K

    2011-01-01

    The present study deals with the biochemical responses of some selected tree species with respect to increased air pollution in Durgapur industrial city in India. Areas in vicinity to industries possess very high concentrations of suspended particulate matter (571 microg/m3), SOx (132 microg/m3) and NOx (97 microg/m3) which shows significant correlations (p Air Pollution Toblerance Index (APTI) and Tectona grandis (6.13 +/- 0.276), Lagerstroemia speciosa (7.075 +/- 0.18) and Delonix regia (6.87 +/- 0.079) were sensitive with lower APTI values. Therefore, plant species with higher APTI value, being more resistant, can be used as pollutant absorbent to reduce the pollution level and are suitable for plantations in industrial areas.

  11. Impact assessment of chromite mining on groundwater through simulation modeling study in Sukinda chromite mining area, Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakate, Ratnakar; Singh, V S; Hodlur, G K

    2008-12-30

    The pre-Cambrian chromites ore deposits in Sukinda valley, Jajpur District, Orissa, India, are well known for chromite ore deposits. The exploitation of the ore is carried out through open cast mining method since the last few decades. In the process, the overburden and ore dumps are stored on ground surface, where leaching of chromite and other toxic element takes place particularly during monsoon seasons. This leachate may cause threat to groundwater in the vicinity. An integrated approach has been adopted to evaluate possibility of pollution due to mine seepage and leachate migration on groundwater regime. The approach involves geophysical, hydrogeological, hydro-chemical and aquifer modeling studies. The investigation has the significance as many habitats surround the mining area facing groundwater problems.

  12. Assessment of natural radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in some building materials used in Kilpenathur, Tiruvannamalai dist, Tamilnadu, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghu, Y. [Department of Physics, AarupadaiVeedu Institute of Technology, Paiyanoor, Chennai 603 104, Tamilnadu (India); Harikrishnan, N.; Ravisankar, R., E-mail: ravisankarphysics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Government Arts College, Tiruvannamalai 606603, Tamilnadu (India); Chandrasekaran, A. [Departement of physics, SSN College of Engineering, Chennai- 603110, Tamilnadu India (India)

    2015-08-28

    The present study aimed to measure the radioactivity concentration of naturally occuring radionuclides in the locally used building materials from Kilpenthaur, Tiruvannmalai Dist, Tamilnadu, India. This study will also evaluate the radiation hazard arising due to the use of these materials in the construction of dwellings. The concentrations of natural radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in five types of building materials have been measured by gamma spectrometry using NaI (Tl) 3” x 3”detector. The estimated radium equivalent activities (Ra{sub eq}), indoor absorbed gamma dose rate (D{sub R}), annual effective dose rate (H{sub R}) and the external hazard indexes(H{sub ex}) were lower than the recommended safe limit and are comparable with results from similar studies conducted in other countries. Therefore, the use of these building material samples under investigation in the construction of dwellings is considered to be safe for inhabitants.

  13. TESTING OF PULP VITALITY BY PULSOXIMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela CIOBANU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The methods applied for diagnosing the health condition of the pulp tissue are numerous, however, nowadays, an increasingly higher number of conventional tests are replaced by some objective, non-invasive, painless and reliable tests. Among them, pulse oximetry is a method for the investigation of pulp vitality based on oxygen saturation (SaO2 of the hemoglobin from the blood present in the pulp vascular bed, as a means of differentiating among the vital and the non-vital teeth. In the present study, registrations were made on a group of 120 frontal maxillary teeth, in patients with ages between 20 and 40 years, on using a digital sensor modified by the pulse oximeter with which the pulse and the values of oxygen saturation were measured at the level of both teeth and right hand finger. The mean SaO2 value in the pulp blood of the vital teeth was of 83.30% for the central incisor, of 78.51% for the lateral one and of 84.56%, respectively, for the canine; the value recorded at finger level was of 97%. In the non-vital teeth, the SaO2 value measured on the pulse oximeter was of 0%. Pulse registration showed mean values of 70.56 beatings/min at tooth level and of 70.88 beatings/min, respectively, at finger level. The results of the present study may confirm that pulse oximetry represents a simple, non-traumatic, efficient and objective method for testing the vitality condition of the dental pulp.

  14. Vulnerability assessment of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods using Remote Sensing and GIS in North Sikkim (India), Eastern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Suruchi; Probha Devi, Juna; Thakur, Praveen Kumar; Rai, Suresh Chand

    2016-04-01

    Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) occur when glacier melt water dammed by a moraine is released in short time. Such floods may lead to disastrous events posing, therefore, a huge threat to human lives and infrastructure. A devastating GLOF in Uttarakhand, India, on 17 July 2013 has led to the loss of all villages in a stretch of 18 km downstream the lake and the loss of more than 5000 lives. The present study evaluates all 16 glacial lakes (with an area >0.1 km²) in the Thangu valley, northern Sikkim (India), eastern Himalaya, with respect to potential threats for the downstream areas. The hazard criteria for the study include slope, aspect and distance of the respective parent glacier, change in the lake area, dam characteristics and lake depth. For the most hazardous lakes, the socio-economic conditions in the downstream areas (settlements and infrastructure) are analysed regarding the impact of potential GLOFs. For the vulnerability analysis, we used various satellite products including LANDSAT, RESOUCESAT-1 and 2, RISAT-1 imageries and ASTER GDEM covering the period from 1977 to 2014. For lake mapping, we applied the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI). A Land Use Land Cover (LULC) map of the study area showing in-situ observations is serving as driving factor for the vulnerability analysis. The results of the study show that almost all evaluated glacial lakes were expanding during the study period (1977-2014). Combining the hazard criteria for the lakes, 5 of the 16 studied glacial lakes are identified as highly hazardous. In the downstream area, there are two villages with 200 inhabitants and an army camp within the zone of highest vulnerability. The identified vulnerability zones may be used by the local authorities to take caution of the threatened villages and infrastructure and for risk analysis for planned future hydropower plants.

  15. Heading towards the Safer Highways: an assessment of the Avahan prevention programme among long distance truck drivers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Arvind; Mishra, Ram Manohar; Sahu, Damodar; Benara, Sudhir Kumar; Sengupta, Uttpal; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Gautam, Abhishek; Lenka, Satya Ranjan; Adhikary, Rajatshurva

    2011-12-29

    Using data from two rounds of a cross-sectional, national-level survey of long-distance truck drivers, this paper examines the extent and trend of sexual risk behavior, prevalence of STI/HIV, and the linkage between exposure to HIV prevention programs and safe sex behavior. Following the time location cluster sampling approach, major transshipment locations covering the bulk of India's transport volume along four routes, North-East (NE), North-South (NS), North-West (NW) and South-East (SE) were surveyed. First round of the survey was conducted in 2007 (sample size 2066) whereas the second round was undertaken in 2009-2010 (sample size 2085). Long distance truck drivers were interviewed about their sexual behaviors, condom use practices, exposure to different HIV prevention interventions, and tested for HIV, reactive syphilis serology, Neiserria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. The key variable of this evaluation study - exposure to HIV prevention interventions was divided into three categories - no exposure, less intensive exposure and intensive exposure. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression methods to understand the relationship between risk behavior and exposure to intervention and between program exposure and condom use. The proportion of truckers exposed to HIV prevention interventions has increased over time with much significant increase in the intensive exposure across all the four routes (NE: from 14.9% to 28%, P study results highlight the ability of intensive program to reach truckers who have sex outside marriage with HIV prevention interventions and promote safe sex behaviors among them. Truckers who practice safe sex behaviors with an exposure to intensive program are less likely to suffer from STIs and HIV, which has implications for HIV prevention program with truckers' population in India and elsewhere. The simultaneous targeted interventions among female sex workers appeared to have contributed to safe sexual practices among

  16. An assessment of progress towards universal health coverage in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marten, Robert; McIntyre, Diane; Travassos, Claudia; Shishkin, Sergey; Longde, Wang; Reddy, Srinath; Vega, Jeanette

    2014-12-13

    Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) represent almost half the world's population, and all five national governments recently committed to work nationally, regionally, and globally to ensure that universal health coverage (UHC) is achieved. This analysis reviews national efforts to achieve UHC. With a broad range of health indicators, life expectancy (ranging from 53 years to 73 years), and mortality rate in children younger than 5 years (ranging from 10·3 to 44·6 deaths per 1000 livebirths), a review of progress in each of the BRICS countries shows that each has some way to go before achieving UHC. The BRICS countries show substantial, and often similar, challenges in moving towards UHC. On the basis of a review of each country, the most pressing problems are: raising insufficient public spending; stewarding mixed private and public health systems; ensuring equity; meeting the demands for more human resources; managing changing demographics and disease burdens; and addressing the social determinants of health. Increases in public funding can be used to show how BRICS health ministries could accelerate progress to achieve UHC. Although all the BRICS countries have devoted increased resources to health, the biggest increase has been in China, which was probably facilitated by China's rapid economic growth. However, the BRICS country with the second highest economic growth, India, has had the least improvement in public funding for health. Future research to understand such different levels of prioritisation of the health sector in these countries could be useful. Similarly, the role of strategic purchasing in working with powerful private sectors, the effect of federal structures, and the implications of investment in primary health care as a foundation for UHC could be explored. These issues could serve as the basis on which BRICS countries focus their efforts to share ideas and strategies.

  17. [Evaluation of vital constants. 18th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez González, Natividad; Ortega Martínez, Carmen

    2002-05-01

    The evaluation of patients' vital statistics is part of health care and in many cases this is the first step in knowing what is the health status of a patient. Therefore, we are interested in analysing what knowledge nurses had regarding these vital statistics during the 18th century, how they evaluated these statistics and what treatment they applied in order to maintain or balance them whenever they became unstable. A manual written by a nurse in the 18th century in order to aid her colleagues in their treatment of patients is the source of the authors' research material.

  18. Implant-Root Proximity and Pulp Vitality of the Tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasharoie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background When dental implants are applied in partially edentulous patients, there is the risk of placing the implants in close proximity or in direct contact with the adjacent roots. In this situation assurance of pulp vitality of the adjacent tooth is neessary. Objectives The current study aimed to assess pulp response of the tooth after root proximity with dental implant. Patients and Methods After investigating 2800 records of patients, 31 implants in 29 patients were included in this study. A parallel peri-apical radiography was taken and pulp vitality tests (cold, heat and electrical pulp tests were conducted for each patient. Results Among the 31 assessed implants and the adjacent intact teeth, 13 implants had direct contact and 18 implants had proximity of less than 1 mm with the adjacent root. All of the teeth had positive (normal pulp response to all tests. The most prevalent areas for proximity of implant-tooth were upper first premolar implants and upper canine teeth. The most approximation area was apical third of root of the teeth. Conclusions Based on the clinical and radiographic examinations, implant-tooth approximation (less than 1 mm or direct contact is not related to pulp vitality of the tooth. Further studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to confirm the results of the study.

  19. Vital sign monitoring using human patient simulators at pharmacy schools in Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tokunaga, Jin; Takamura, Norito; Ogata, Kenji; Yoshida, Hiroki; Setoguchi, Nao; Matsuoka, Toshikazu; Hirokane, Taminori; Yamaoka, Akihiro; Sato, Keizo

    2010-01-01

    To develop, implement, and assess an experience-based education program using human patient simulators to instruct pharmacy students in monitoring vital signs to identify drug treatment effects and adverse events...

  20. Vital Sign Monitoring Using Human Patient Simulators at Pharmacy Schools in Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jin Tokunaga; Norito Takamura; Kenji Ogata; Hiroki Yoshida; Nao Setoguchi; Toshikazu Matsuoka; Taminori Hirokane; Akihiro Yamaoka; Keizo Sato

    2010-01-01

      To develop, implement, and assess an experience-based education program using human patient simulators to instruct pharmacy students in monitoring vital signs to identify drug treatment effects and adverse events...

  1. Objective Local Vitality and Linguistic Networks as Predictors of Perceived Vitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, László; Harwood, Jake

    2014-01-01

    The present paper investigates the relationship between objective ethnolinguistic vitality, individual networks of linguistic contacts (INLCs) and perceived vitality among German-speaking (N = 415) and Italian-speaking (N = 379) adolescents in South Tyrol, Italy. Supporting our hypothesis, we found that INLC has a greater effect on perceived…

  2. Review: Satellite-based remote sensing and geographic information systems and their application in the assessment of groundwater potential, with particular reference to India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmin, Ismail; Mallikarjuna, P.

    2011-06-01

    Various hydrological, geological and geomorphological factors play a major role in the occurrence and movement of groundwater in different terrains. With advances in space technology and the advent of powerful personal computers, techniques for the assessment of groundwater potential have evolved, of which remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) are of great significance. The application of these methods is comprehensively reviewed with respect to the exploration and assessment of groundwater potential in consolidated and unconsolidated formations in semi-arid regions, and specifically in India. The process of such assessment includes the collection of remotely sensed data from suitable sensors and the selection of thematic maps on rainfall, geology, lithology, geomorphology, soil, land use/land cover, drainage patterns, slope and lineaments. The data are handled according to their significance with the assignment of appropriate weights and integrated into a sophisticated GIS environment. The requisite remote sensing and GIS data, in conjunction with necessary field investigations, help to identify the groundwater potential zones effectively.

  3. Feasibility of Development of a Cohort in a Rural Area of Sub-Himalayan Region of India to Assess the Emergence of Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, Dinesh; Raina, Sunil Kumar; Bhushan, Satya; Chander, Vishav; Sharma, Sushant

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Rural area of India is facing epidemiological transitions due to growth and development, warranting a longitudinal study to assess the development of CVDs risk factors. Objective. Feasibility of setting up a rural cohort for the assessment and development of biochemical risk factors for CVDs. Methodology. In Himachal Pradesh, house-to-house surveys were carried out in six villages for anthropometry and assessment of lipid profile. All the information was stored in specifically designed web-based software, which can be retrieved at any time. Results. A total of 2749 individuals of more than 20 years of age were recruited with a 14.3% refusal rate. According to Asian criteria, measured overweight and obesity (BMI > 27.5 kg/m(2)) were 44.9% and 10.5%, respectively. Obesity was significantly more (P = 0.01) among females (11.7%) as compared to males (8.4%). The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension was observed to be 16.3% and 37.4%, respectively. Eighty percent of individuals had borderline (46.5%) to high (35.4%) level of triglycerides (TGs). Elevated total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) level were observed among 30.0% and 11.0% individuals only. Conclusion. A high prevalence of biochemical risk factors for CVDs in a rural area urges establishment of an effective surveillance system.

  4. Climate change impact and vulnerability assessment of forests in the Indian Western Himalayan region: A case study of Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Upgupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impact and vulnerability assessment at state and regional levels is necessary to develop adaptation strategies for forests in the biogeographically vital Himalayan region. The present study assesses forest ecosystem vulnerability to climate change across Himachal Pradesh and presents the priority districts for vulnerability reduction under ‘current climate’ and ‘future climate’ scenarios. Vulnerability of forests under ‘current climate’ scenario is assessed by adopting indicator-based approach, while the vulnerability under ‘future climate’ scenario is assessed using climate and vegetation impact models. Based on the vulnerability index estimated to present the vulnerability of forests under current and projected climate change impacts representing climate driven vulnerability, five districts – Chamba, Kangra, Kullu, Mandi and Shimla are identified as priority forest districts for adaptation planning. Identifying vulnerable forest districts and forests will help policy makers and forest managers to prioritize resource allocation and forest management interventions, to restore health and productivity of forests and to build long-term resilience to climate change.

  5. Assessment of the scale, coverage and outcomes of the Avahan HIV prevention program for female sex workers in Tamil Nadu, India: is there evidence of an effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilakavathi S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative, a large-scale HIV prevention program, using peer-mediated approaches and STI services, was implemented for high-risk groups for HIV in six states in India. This paper describes the assessment of the program among female sex workers (FSWs in the southern state of Tamil Nadu. Methods An analytical framework based on the Avahan impact evaluation design was used. Routine program monitoring data, two rounds of cross-sectional biological and behavioural surveys among FSWs in 2006 (Round 1 and 2009 (Round 2 and quality assessments of clinical services for sexually transmitted infections (STIs were used to assess trends in coverage, condom use and prevalence of STIs, HIV and their association with program exposure. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine trends in intermediate outcomes and their associations with intervention exposure. Results The Avahan program in Tamil Nadu was scaled up and achieved monthly reported coverage of 79% within four years of implementation. The cross-sectional survey data showed an increasing proportion of FSWs being reached by Avahan, 54% in Round 1 and 86% in Round 2 [AOR=4.7;p=0.001]. Quality assessments of STI clinical services showed consistent improvement in quality scores (3.0 in 2005 to 4.5 in 2008. Condom distribution by the program rose to cover all estimated commercial sex acts. Reported consistent condom use increased between Round 1 and Round 2 with occasional (72% to 93%; AOR=5.5; p=0.001 and regular clients (68% to 89%; AOR=4.3; p=0.001 while reactive syphilis serology declined significantly (9.7% to 2.2% AOR=0.2; p=0.001. HIV prevalence remained stable at 6.1% between rounds. There was a strong association between Avahan exposure and consistent condom use with commercial clients; however no association was seen with declines in STIs. Conclusions The Avahan program in Tamil Nadu achieved high coverage of FSWs, resulting in outcomes of improved

  6. The survival of vital and non-vital deciduous molar teeth following pulpotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M W

    2007-09-01

    There is scant evidence supporting the criteria for establishing the suitability of a deciduous molar for a pulpotomy. Although some criteria, such as patient age, are logical the importance of other factors on tooth survival has not been established. All pulpotomies performed at 20 school dental clinics over a period of 15 months were reported together with date of birth, gender, tooth treated, presenting signs and symptoms, pulp status and date and method of treatment. Operators performed the treatment according to their usual procedures. Data were analysed statistically using Statview 5.0 (SAS Institute). The outcome of pulpotomy of 465 deciduous teeth in 403 patients was evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 7.4 +/- 0.1 years. Two hundred and seventy-two teeth were vital and 193 were non-vital. One hundred and ninety-six teeth were treated with the one-step formocresol method and 269 with the two-step formocresol method. The age and gender of the patients did not differ between the vital and non-vital groups. There was no influence of mode of treatment on the asymptomatic survival of the teeth in the mouth. The median survival times were significantly longer in vital (32.7 +/- 1.4 months) than non-vital teeth (20.4 +/- 3.0 months; p < 0.0001). The only factors significantly influencing the survival of pulpotomized teeth were the age of the patient (p < 0.0001), the non-vitality of the pulp (p < 0.0001) and the presence of a radiolucency (p = 0.031). Both vital and non-vital teeth were able to survive for extended periods following pulpotomy but the presence of an associated radiolucency or a non-vital pulp at the time of treatment is negatively associated with time of survival.

  7. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Teen Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 0:60 seconds] On Other Web Sites MedlinePlus - Teenage Pregnancy MedlinePlus - Birth Control The Doctor's Channel: CDC Vital Signs Long Acting Reversible Contraception [VIDEO - 3:30 minutes] Top of ... HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  8. Vital Signs-Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-03

    This podcast is based on the June 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Norovirus infects about 20 million Americans each year. Learn how to protect yourself and your family from this very contagious, potentially serious illness.  Created: 6/3/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 6/3/2014.

  9. 命门探究%Vital Traceability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 戴小华; 孙孟林

    2012-01-01

    On vital gate, documented different opinions, there are prostate theory, gonads theory , brain theory, the sinus node theory, adrenal theory, the control system theory, the endocrine system theory, the vital and kidney one theory,the innate instinct vigor hypothesis , the world and yin and yang of the human body bipolar hypothesis, and so on. In this paper, regardless of anatomical localization, physiological functions and pathological features, vital gate and the adrenal surprisingly similar, so we speculated that adrenal may be known as the vital gate.%关于命门,文献记载不一,众说纷纭,有前列腺论、生殖腺论、脑论、窦房结论、肾上腺论、调控系统论、内分泌系统论、命门与肾一体论、先天本能活力假说、人体内天地阴阳两极假说等多种理论.作者研究发现命门不论是在解剖定位上,还是在生理功能及病理特征上,都与肾上腺有惊人的相似,因此我们推测肾上腺很可能就是所说的命门.

  10. Vital Signs-Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-07

    This podcast is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.  Created: 10/7/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/7/2014.

  11. The Economic Vitality Formula of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopnicki, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    An economic vitality formula of success can be accomplished by creating partnerships between local career and technical education (CTE), and workforce development and economic development entities. Student industry certifications; dynamic partnerships; programs and projects focused on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); and…

  12. "A Vital Role in Uncertain Times"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    The adult learning and skills sector is a diverse world, encompassing adult and community learning, apprenticeships, Train to Gain, and contracted employment programmes. The learning and skills sector plays a vital role in uncertain times by giving greater opportunities for social mobility, for example by supporting progression to further and…

  13. Entrepreneurship Education: A Vital Instrument for Youth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    of entrepreneurial education as a vital tool for youth empowerment in Nigeria to ... one is at the apex of one's physical strength, undergoing significant changes in ... of processes through which disenfranchised social groups work to change ... to social cohesion and democratic values, EE must be seen as is a crucial tool for.

  14. The Economic Vitality Formula of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopnicki, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    An economic vitality formula of success can be accomplished by creating partnerships between local career and technical education (CTE), and workforce development and economic development entities. Student industry certifications; dynamic partnerships; programs and projects focused on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); and…

  15. Rating the Vitality of Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, J. Albert; Lewis, M. Paul; Simons, Gary F.

    2015-01-01

    The Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (EGIDS), developed by Lewis and Simons and based on work by Fishman, provides a means of rating "language vitality"--the level of development or endangerment--where "development" is understood as adding or preserving functions and "endangerment" as loss of…

  16. Assessment of groundwater pollution from ash ponds using stable and unstable isotopes around the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (Maharashtra, India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voltaggio, M.; Spadoni, M. [CNR — Istituto di Geologia Ambientale e Geoingegneria, Via Salaria km. 29.300, 00010 Montelibretti, Roma (Italy); Sacchi, E. [Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pavia and CNR-IGG, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Sanam, R.; Pujari, P.R.; Labhasetwar, P.K. [CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440020 (India)

    2015-06-15

    The impact on local water resources due to fly ash produced in the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (district of Nagpur, Maharashtra — India) and disposed in large ponds at the surface was assessed through the study of environmental variation of ratios of stable and unstable isotopes. Analyses of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes suggest scarce interaction between the water temporarily stored in the ponds and the groundwater in the study area. Data also highlight that the high salinity of groundwater measured in the polluted wells is not due to evaporation, but to subsequent infiltration of stream waters draining from the ponds to the local aquifer. {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values, when associated with Sr/Ca ratios, demonstrate the dominant role of waste waters coming from tens of brick kilns surrounding the pond sulfate pollution. Uranium isotopic analyses clearly show evidence of the interaction between groundwater and aquifer rocks, and confirm again the low influence of ash ponds. A new conceptual model based on the study of the isotopes of radium is also proposed and used to estimate residence times of groundwater in the area. This model highlights that high salinity cannot be in any case attributed to a prolonged water–rock interaction, but is due to the influence of untreated waste water of domestic or brick kiln origin on the shallow and vulnerable aquifers. - Highlights: • Ash ponds have wide environmental and social impact in India. • Isotope ratios can be used as tracers for possible pollution of groundwater. • Isotopes of O, H, Sr, U and Ra have been used to investigate the area of Koradi. • Salinity of groundwater is not due to fly ash but linked to local brick kilns. • A model for the residence time of water based on Ra isotopes is described.

  17. The private sector: Cautiously interested in distribution in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, J.P. [Stone and Webster Management Consultants, Washington, DC (United States); Bowman, C.D.; Guy, J. [International Resources Group, Washington, DC (United States); Gross, T.P. [Morley Caskin, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-06-01

    As privatization and liberalization proceed in India--the world`s second largest growth market for electricity--sensible experimentation by the states on the rules of the game is vital. A new joint venture approach in Rajasthan may be a helpful model. This article provides an overview of the principal challenges confronting US utilities interested in investing in distribution in India as well as a summary of two mechanisms developed to facilitate private investment. These challenges also should be considered in view of the changing political conditions in India owing to the recent election of the coalition government led by the Bharatiya Janata Party.

  18. Assessment of Universal Healthcare Coverage in a District of North India: A Rapid Cross-Sectional Survey Using Tablet Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tarundeep; Roy, Pritam; Jamir, Limalemla; Gupta, Saurav; Kaur, Navpreet; Jain, D K; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    A rapid survey was carried out in Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar District of Punjab state in India to ascertain health seeking behavior and out-of-pocket health expenditures. Using multistage cluster sampling design, 1,008 households (28 clusters x 36 households in each cluster) were selected proportionately from urban and rural areas. Households were selected through a house-to-house survey during April and May 2014 whose members had (a) experienced illness in the past 30 days, (b) had illness lasting longer than 30 days, (c) were hospitalized in the past 365 days, or (d) had women who were currently pregnant or experienced childbirth in the past two years. In these selected households, trained investigators, using a tablet computer-based structured questionnaire, enquired about the socio-demographics, nature of illness, source of healthcare, and healthcare and household expenditure. The data was transmitted daily to a central server using wireless communication network. Mean healthcare expenditures were computed for various health conditions. Catastrophic healthcare expenditure was defined as more than 10% of the total annual household expenditure on healthcare. Chi square test for trend was used to compare catastrophic expenditures on hospitalization between households classified into expenditure quartiles. The mean monthly household expenditure was 15,029 Indian Rupees (USD 188.2). Nearly 14.2% of the household expenditure was on healthcare. Fever, respiratory tract diseases, gastrointestinal diseases were the common acute illnesses, while heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and respiratory diseases were the more common chronic diseases. Hospitalizations were mainly due to cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal problems, and accidents. Only 17%, 18%, 20% and 31% of the healthcare for acute illnesses, chronic illnesses, hospitalizations and childbirth was sought in the government health facilities. Average expenditure in government health facilities was 16.6% less

  19. Water quality index development for groundwater quality assessment of Greater Noida sub-basin, Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The water quality index (WQI is an important parameter for determining the drinking water quality for the end users. The study for the same has been carried on the groundwater by collecting 47 groundwater samples from 25 blocks of Greater Noida city, India. In order to develop WQI the samples were subjected to a comprehensive physicochemical and biological analysis of 11 parameters such as pH, calcium, magnesium, chloride, nitrate, sulphate, total dissolved solids, fluorides, bicarbonate, sodium and potassium. Geographical information system has been used to map the sampling area. The coordinates in terms of latitude and longitude of the sampling locations were recorded with the help of global positioning system. Piper plots and cation–anion correlation matrix were plotted from the values obtained by the analysis of various parameters. The WQI index for the same has been calculated and the values ranged from 53.69 to 267.85. The WQI values from present study indicate the very poor quality water in the area dominated by industrial and construction activities. Poor water quality has been observed in commercial zone of the study area. The analysis reveals the fact that the ground water of the Greater Noida needs a degree of treatment before consumption and needs to be protected from further contamination.

  20. Assessment of native plant species for phytoremediation of heavy metals growing in the vicinity of NTPC sites, Kahalgaon, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Alka; Lal, Brij; Rai, Upendra Nath

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to screen native plants growing in fly ash (FA) contaminated areas near National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC), Kahalgaon, Bihar, India with a view to using them for the eco-restoration of the area. A total number of 30 plant species (5 aquatic and 25 terrestrial including 6 ferns) were collected and their diversity status and dominance were also studied. After screening of dominant species at highly polluted site, 8 terrestrial and 5 aquatic plants were analyzed for heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Si, Al, Pb, Cr, and Cd). Differential accumulations of various heavy metals by different species of plants were observed. Typha latifolia was found to be most efficient metal accumulator of Fe (927), Cu (58), Zn (87), Ni (57), Al (67), Cd (95), and Pb (69), and Azolla pinnata as Cr (93) hyper-accumulator among aquatic species in µg g(-1). In terrestrial species the maximum levels of Fe (998), Zn (81), Ni (93), Al (121), and Si (156) were found in Croton bonplandium. However, there was high spatial variability in total metal accumulation in different species indicated by coefficient of variation (CV%). These results suggest that various aquatic, some dominant terrestrial plants including fern species may be used in a synergistic way to remediate and restore the FA contaminated wastelands.

  1. Assessment of land use/land cover dynamics of Tso Moriri Lake, a Ramsar site in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sharad Kumar; Shukla, Dericks Praise

    2016-12-01

    Wetlands accounts for 6% area of the Earth's land cover and nearly 17% of the Hindu Kush Himalayan region. They are of utmost importance to climate dynamics and are critical links between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Despite the need of high attention towards conserving and managing wetland resources, mapping them is a least practiced activity. This study shows the temporal change in land use and land cover pattern of Tso Moriri Lake, the highest altitude lake in India and designated as Ramsar site in year 2002, using multi-sensor and multi-date imagery. Due to change in hydro-meteorological conditions of the region, this lake area has been reduced. Since the lake recharge is dependent on snowmelt, hence change in climatic conditions (less snowfall in winters), to a certain extent, is also responsible for the decrease in water level and water spread of the lake. The result shows that the lake area has reduced approximately 2 km(2) in the last 15 years, and also, agriculture, grasslands, and vegetation cover have increased to a significant extent. Agricultural land and grasslands have doubled while the vegetation cover has increased more than six times, showing the coupled effect of climate change and anthropogenic activities. Trend of temperature and precipitation corroborates the effects of climate change in this region.

  2. Biomonitoring fallout 137Cs in resident and migratory fishes collected along the southern coast of India and assessment of dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohan Feroz; Wesley, Samuel Godwin

    2012-05-01

    The globally distributed fallout radionuclide (137)Cs was monitored in 25 resident and 22 migratory fish species collected from some regions of west and east coast of southern India to establish a baseline data. The samples were collected during June 2008 to June 2009. Higher level of (137)Cs was noted in planktivorous fishes and lower level in herbivores. A significant variation in (137)Cs was observed between fishes with different feeding habits and different migratory pattern. Oceanodromic migratory fishes displayed higher cesium levels than other migratory types. Similarly, migratory fishes displayed higher (137)Cs concentration compared to resident fishes. The overall range of (137)Cs varied from 0.06 to 0.3 Bq/kg in fishes. The biological concentration varied from 55 to 250. The average external dose rate to fishes was calculated to be 2.7 × 10(-7) μGy/h, while the internal dose rate varied from 8.50 × 10(-6) to 5.27 × 10(-5) μGy/h. The hazard quotient for fishes was found to be less than 1. The average intake of (137)Cs via fishes to the public was calculated to be 3.5 Bq/year and subsequently the committed effective dose was 0.05 μSv/year. The data obtained were less than global average and comparable to those of many regions.

  3. Financing of SME firms in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Thampy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A major bottleneck to the growth of the vital Indian small and medium enterprises (SME sector is its lack of adequate access to finance. This paper examines the major issues in the financing of SMEs in the Indian context, such as the information asymmetry facing banks and the efficacy of measures such as credit scoring for SMEs; whether transaction lending would be adequate to address the information issues or would lending have to be based on a relationship with the SME, using both ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ information; and whether the size and origin of the bank affect the availability of credit to SMEs. Ranjana Kumar, a prominent Indian banker who also served, till recently, as the Vigilance Commissioner in the Central Vigilance Commission, speaks on some aspects that are raised in the paper, such as the importance of the credit appraisal and risk assessment processes in today’s banking landscape and the role that banks can play in developing the SME sector in India.

  4. Swertia chirayta, a Threatened High-Value Medicinal Herb: Microhabitats and Conservation Challenges in Sikkim Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Kumar Pradhan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of threats, identifying favorable growing conditions, and predicting future population scenarios are vital for the conservation and management of threatened species. This study investigated the availability, microhabitat characteristics, threat status, and community associations of Swertia chirayta, a highly threatened Himalayan medicinal herb, in 22 populations in Sikkim, India, using the vertical belt transect method. Of the 14 microhabitats identified, open grassy slope emerged as the most favorable and wet grassy slope as the least favorable for S. chirayta. The species was dominant in 8 of the 10 major plant communities identified. Among 9 major types of disturbance identified, human movement and collection of non-timber forest products appeared as the biggest threats to S. chirayta. Disturbances significantly affected the availability of the species. S. chirayta, though under high anthropogenic threat, maintains high microhabitat pliability, which is vital for its conservation and management, provided immediate conservation measures are taken.

  5. Future Scenario of Renewable Energy in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review about future scenario of renewable energy in India.Energy is a vital input for economic and social development of any country. With increasing industrialand agricultural activities in the country, the demand for energy is also rising. Solar, wind and biomassare accepted as dependable and widely available renewable sources of energy. To meet the energy requirement for such a fast growingeconomy, India will require an assured supply of 3–5 times more energy than the total energy consumedtoday. The renewable energy is one of the options to meet this requirement Energy is the prime mover of economic growth and is vital to the sustenance of a modern economy. Future economic growth crucially depends on the long-term availability of energy from sources that are affordable, accessible and environmentally friendly. India has obtained application of a variety of renewable energy technologies for use in different sectors too. This paper presents current status, major achievements and future aspects of renewable energy in India. In this paper evaluation of current energy policies for conquering the obstructions and implementing renewables for the future is also been presented.

  6. Assessment of natural radioactivity and function of minerals in soils of Yelagiri hills, Tamilnadu, India by Gamma Ray spectroscopic and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques with statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, A; Ravisankar, R; Rajalakshmi, A; Eswaran, P; Vijayagopal, P; Venkatraman, B

    2015-02-01

    Gamma Ray and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic techniques were used to evaluate the natural radioactivity due to natural radionuclides and mineralogical characterization in soils of Yelagiri hills, Tamilnadu, India. Various radiological parameters were calculated to assess the radiation hazards associated with the soil. The distribution pattern of activity due to natural radionuclides is explained by Kriging method of mapping. Using FTIR spectroscopic technique the minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, orthoclase feldspar, kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite, and organic carbon were identified and characterized. The extinction coefficient values were calculated to know the relative distribution of major minerals such as quartz, microcline feldspar, orthoclase feldspar and kaolinite. The calculated values indicate that the amount of quartz is higher than orthoclase feldspar, microcline feldspar and much higher than kaolinite. Crystallinity index was calculated to know the crystalline nature of quartz. The result indicates that the presence of disordered crystalline quartz in soils. The relation between minerals and radioactivity was assessed by multivariate statistical analysis (Pearson's correlation and cluster analysis). The statistical analysis confirms that the clay mineral kaolinite and non-clay mineral quartz is the major factor than other major minerals to induce the important radioactivity variables and concentrations of uranium and thorium.

  7. Assessment of Crop Damage by Protected Wild Mammalian Herbivores on the Western Boundary of Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve (TATR), Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayani, Abhijeet; Tiwade, Dilip; Dongre, Ashok; Dongre, Aravind P.; Phatak, Rasika; Watve, Milind

    2016-01-01

    Crop raiding by wild herbivores close to an area of protected wildlife is a serious problem that can potentially undermine conservation efforts. Since there is orders of magnitude difference between farmers’ perception of damage and the compensation given by the government, an objective and realistic estimate of damage was found essential. We employed four different approaches to estimate the extent of and patterns in crop damage by wild herbivores along the western boundary of Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve in the state of Maharashtra, central India. These approaches highlight different aspects of the problem but converge on an estimated damage of over 50% for the fields adjacent to the forest, gradually reducing in intensity with distance. We found that the visual damage assessment method currently employed by the government for paying compensation to farmers was uncorrelated to and grossly underestimated actual damage. The findings necessitate a radical rethinking of policies to assess, mitigate as well as compensate for crop damage caused by protected wildlife species. PMID:27093293

  8. Assessment of 2-(4-morpholinyl) benzothiazole (24MoBT) and N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolamine (NCBA) as traffic tracers in metropolitan cities of China and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Suhong; Sun, Yali; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Xie, Qilai; Chakraborty, Paromita

    2012-09-01

    2-(4-Morpholinyl) benzothiazole (24MoBT) and N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolamine (NCBA), which are present in automobile tires, are impurities of the vulcanisation accelerators OBS and CBS, respectively, as defined by the Japan Industrial Standard. To assess 24MoBT and NCBA as markers to trace the usage patterns of OBS and CBS in developing countries, urban dusts were collected from five representative cities of China and India for the analysis of 24MoBT and NCBA. The concentrations in these dust samples were found to be within the range of 3.40-151 ng g-1 for 24MoBT and nd-56.9 ng g-1 for NCBA. The higher levels of 24MoBT may indicate that the traditional accelerator OBS is still used in vehicle tires, whereas the relatively lower contents of NCBA are mainly related to the lesser use of CBS tires. The individual fractions of 24MoBT and NCBA in BTs (24MoBT + NCBA) are compared among cities, and the results show that the fraction sequence is consistent with the number of vehicles and the cities' economic development. This study indicates not only that 24MoBT is presently more suitable for tracing tire wear emissions than NCBA in China but also that there is a potential to assess the impact of traffic sources on urban environments using BTs.

  9. Role of ethylene diurea (EDU) in assessing impact of ozone on Vigna radiata L. plants in a suburban area of Allahabad (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, S B; Singh, Anoop; Rathore, Dheeraj

    2005-10-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of ethylene diurea (N-[2-(2-oxo-1-imidazolidinyl)ethyl]-N'-phenylurea; EDU) in assessing the impact of O3 on mung bean plants (Vigna radiata L. var. Malviya Jyoti) grown in suburban area of Allahabad city situated in a dry tropical region of India. EDU is a synthetic chemical having anti-ozonant property. Mean monthly O3 concentration varied between 64 and 69 microg m(-3) during the experimental period. In comparison to EDU-treated plants, non-EDU-treated plants showed significant reductions in plant growth and yield under ambient conditions. Significant favourable effects of EDU-application were observed with respect to photosynthetic pigments, soluble protein, ascorbic acid and phenol contents. EDU-treated plants maintained higher levels of pigments, protein and ascorbic acid in foliage as compared to non-EDU-treated ones. The study clearly demonstrated that EDU alleviates the unfavourable effects of O3 on mung bean plants, and therefore can be used as a tool to assess the growth and yield losses in areas having higher O3 concentrations.

  10. Assessment of oral health-related quality of life in 9-15 year old children with visual impairment in Uttarakhand, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditi; Dhawan, Preeti; Gaurav, Vivek; Rastogi, Pradeep; Singh, Shilpi

    2017-01-01

    Background: To assess the prevalence of dental diseases among 9–15-year-old visually impaired children and find out its impact on their daily activities using the Child-Oral Impact on Daily Performance (C-OIDP) questionnaire in districts of Uttarakhand, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 423 visually impaired institutionalized children between the age group of 9–15 years were included in the study. Stratified random sampling technique was used to obtain the study population. Dental caries was recorded using dmft for primary dentition and DMFT for permanent dentition, traumatic dental injuries were assessed using traumatic dental injury index, and dentofacial anomalies were recorded using Angle's classification of malocclusion. The Hindi braille version of C-OIDP questionnaire was used to gather information regarding oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Results: There was a high dental caries prevalence of 57.7% in visually impaired children. The prevalence of traumatic dental injuries was 50.6%. Crowding (61.5%) was the most commonly seen dentofacial anomaly and the most commonly perceived oral health problem was toothache. There was less favorable OHRQoL in males as compared to females. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of dental diseases in this group and higher C-OIDP scores suggestive of unfavorable OHRQoL.

  11. Hot and Cold Ethnicities: Modes of Ethnolinguistic Vitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehala, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the summary of the special issue of "JMMD" "Ethnolinguistic vitality". The volume shows convincingly that ethnolinguistic vitality perceptions as measured by standard methodology such as the Subjective Ethnolinguistic Vitality Questionnaires (SEVQ) are not reliable indicators of actual vitality. Evidence that ethnolinguistic…

  12. Computer analysis of slow vital capacity spirograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primiano, F P; Bacevice, A E; Lough, M D; Doershuk, C F

    1982-01-01

    We have developed a digital computer program which evaluates the vital capacity and its subdivisions, expiratory reserve volume and inspiratory capacity. The algorithm examines the multibreath spirogram, a continuous record of quiet breathing interspersed among repeated slow, large volume maneuvers. Quiet breaths are recognized by comparing features of each breath to the respective average and variation of these features for all breaths. A self-scaling, iterative procedure is used to identify those end-tidal points that most likely represent the subject's functional residual capacity. A least-squared error baseline is then fit through these points to partition the vital capacity. Twenty-three spirograms from patients with documented pulmonary disease were independently analyzed by the computer, a pulmonary function technician, and the laboratory supervisor. No practical differences were found among the results. However, the computer's values, in contrast to those of the technician, were reproducible on repeated trials and free of computational and transcriptional errors.

  13. Ansiedad y acontecimientos vitales en adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Moreno

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se examina la posible relación entre acontecimientos vitales (AV y ansiedad en población adolescente. Para la evaluación de AV se ha usado el AV.I.A (Inventarlo de Acontecimeintos Vitales en Infancia y Adolescencia (adaptado de P. Morató y para la evaluación de la ansiedad, el S.T.A.I.C. (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory of Children (Spielberger, 1973. La muestra consta de 695 adolescentes de 14 a 15 años de edad. Los resultados muestran que un mayor número de AV negativos repercute en la elevación de las tasas de ansiedad.

  14. Vital nodes identification in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Linyuan; Chen, Duanbing; Ren, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Tao

    2016-09-01

    Real networks exhibit heterogeneous nature with nodes playing far different roles in structure and function. To identify vital nodes is thus very significant, allowing us to control the outbreak of epidemics, to conduct advertisements for e-commercial products, to predict popular scientific publications, and so on. The vital nodes identification attracts increasing attentions from both computer science and physical societies, with algorithms ranging from simply counting the immediate neighbors to complicated machine learning and message passing approaches. In this review, we clarify the concepts and metrics, classify the problems and methods, as well as review the important progresses and describe the state of the art. Furthermore, we provide extensive empirical analyses to compare well-known methods on disparate real networks, and highlight the future directions. In spite of the emphasis on physics-rooted approaches, the unification of the language and comparison with cross-domain methods would trigger interdisciplinary solutions in the near future.

  15. Vital nodes identification in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lü, Linyuan; Ren, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Real networks exhibit heterogeneous nature with nodes playing far different roles in structure and function. To identify vital nodes is thus very significant, allowing us to control the outbreak of epidemics, to conduct advertisements for e-commercial products, to predict popular scientific publications, and so on. The vital nodes identification attracts increasing attentions from both computer science and physical societies, with algorithms ranging from simply counting the immediate neighbors to complicated machine learning and message passing approaches. In this review, we clarify the concepts and metrics, classify the problems and methods, as well as review the important progresses and describe the state of the art. Furthermore, we provide extensive empirical analyses to compare well-known methods on disparate real networks, and highlight the future directions. In despite of the emphasis on physics-rooted approaches, the unification of the language and comparison with cross-domain methods would trigger int...

  16. CDC Vital Signs-Heroin Epidemic

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-07-07

    This podcast is based on the July 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Heroin use and heroin-related overdose deaths are increasing. Most people are using it with other drugs, especially prescription opioid painkillers. Learn what can be done to prevent and treat the problem.  Created: 7/7/2015 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 7/7/2015.

  17. Vital Signs-Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    This podcast is based on the January 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In the United States, an average of six people die every day from alcohol poisoning. Learn what you can do to prevent binge drinking and alcohol poisoning.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  18. Vital Signs-Preventing Prescription Drug Overdose

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-01

    This podcast is based on the July 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every day, 46 people in the U.S. die from an overdose of prescription opioid painkillers. Learn what can be done to make painkiller prescribing safer and help prevent overdoses.  Created: 7/1/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/1/2014.

  19. Vital Signs-Preventing Teen Pregnancy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-07

    This podcast is based on the April 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Teen births in the U.S. have declined, but still, more than 273,000 infants were born to teens ages 15 to 19 in 2013. Learn about the most effective types of birth control.  Created: 4/7/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/7/2015.

  20. CDC Vital Signs-Preventing Melanoma

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-02

    This podcast is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  1. Digital literacy: A vital competence for 2010?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    International audience; People are living in a fast changing world today in both their business and personal lives. With the rate of change in technology continuing at Gordon Moore's 1965 predictions [1], what competencies are needed to take full advantage of today's Knowledge Society? The EU has recognised the need for digital literacy and has included this in the definition of eInclusion [2]. This paper defines digital literacy as a competence which is vital for all citizens, examines the c...

  2. Characterizing System Failure Curves with Vitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Salinger et al. (2006). ⎤ ⎥ (2) The vitality model based on Eq. (2) assumes all individuals are initially identical, which is in fact violated...coefficients The coefficients in Eq. (4) can be estimated with maximum likelihood techniques developed by Salinger et al. (2003) and modified by Li...with special reference to chronic radiation mortality. Radiology, 76, 250–257. Salinger , D. H., J. J. Anderson, and O. S. Hamel, 2003: A parameter

  3. Extracting vital signs with smartphone camera

    OpenAIRE

    GARCÍA PLO, MIGUEL

    2017-01-01

    Desarrollo de una app para sistema operativo Android. Hallar mediante la cámara de un dispositivo móvil el pulso de un paciente. Se utilizarán técnicas de procesado de imagen y la librería openCV. García Plo, M. (2016). Extracting vital signs with smartphone camera. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/80419. TFGM

  4. Hydrogeochemistry for the assessment of groundwater quality in Varanasi: a fast-urbanizing center in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhana Raju, Nandimandalam; Shukla, U K; Ram, Prahlad

    2011-02-01

    The hydrogeochemical parameters for groundwater samples of the Varanasi area, a fast-urbanizing region in India, were studied to evaluate the major ion chemistry, weathering and solute acquisition processes controlling water composition, and suitability of water quality for domestic and irrigation uses. Sixty-eight groundwater samples were collected randomly from dug wells and hand pumps in the urban Varanasi area and analyzed for various chemical parameters. Geologically, the study area comprises Quaternary alluvium made up of an alternating succession of clay, silty clay, and sand deposits. The Total dissolved solids classification reveals that except two locations, the groundwater samples are desirable for drinking, and all are useful for irrigation purposes. The cationic and anionic concentrations indicated that the majority of the groundwater samples belong to the order of Na>Ca>Mg>K and HCO3>Cl>SO4 types, respectively. Geochemical classification of groundwater based on the Chadha rectangular diagram shows that the majority (81%) of groundwater samples belong to the calcium-bicarbonate type. The HCO3/(HCO3+SO4) ratio (0.87) indicates mostly carbonic acid weathering process due to presence of kankar carbonate mixed with clay/fine sand. The high nitrate concentration (>45 mg/l) of about 18% of the groundwater samples may be due to the local domestic sewage, leakage of septic tanks, and improper management of sanitary landfills. In general, the calculated values of sodium adsorption ratio, percent sodium, residual sodium carbonate, and permeability index indicate good to permissible use of water for irrigation, and only a few locations demand remedial measures for better crop yields.

  5. Biomass Resource Assessment and Existing Biomass Use in the Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu States of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Natarajan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available India is experiencing energy crisis and a widening gap between energy supply and demand. The country is, however, endowed with considerable, commercially and technically available renewable resources, from which surplus agro-biomass is of great importance and a relatively untapped resource. In the policy making process, knowledge of existing biomass use, degree of social reliance, and degree of biomass availability for energy production is unequivocal and pre-conditional. Field observations, documentation, and fill-in sheet tools were used to investigate the potential of biomass resources and the existing domestic, commercial, and industrial uses of biomass in selected Indian states. To do so, a team of field observers/supervisors visited three Indian states namely: Maharashtra (MH, Madhya Pradesh (MP, and Tamil Nadu (TN. Two districts from each state were selected to collect data regarding the use of biomass and the extent of biomass availability for energy production. In total, 471 farmers were interviewed, and approximately 75 farmers with various land holdings have been interviewed in each district. The existing uses of biomass have been documented in this survey study and the results show that the majority of biomass is used as fodder for domestic livestock followed by in-site ploughing, leaving trivial surplus quantities for other productive uses. Biomass for cooking appeared to be insignificant due to the availability and access to Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG cylinders in the surveyed districts. Opportunities exist to utilize roadside-dumped biomass, in-site burnt biomass, and a share of biomass used for ploughing. The GIS-based maps show that biomass availability varies considerably across the Taluks of the surveyed districts, and is highly dependent on a number of enviromental and socio-cultural factors. Developing competitive bioenergy market and enhancing and promoting access to more LPG fuel connections seem an appropriate socio

  6. Water quality assessment in terms of water quality index (WQI): case study of the Kolong River, Assam, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Minakshi; Goswami, Dulal C.

    2016-07-01

    The Kolong River of Nagaon district, Assam has been facing serious degradation leading to its current moribund condition due to a drastic human intervention in the form of an embankment put across it near its take-off point from the Brahmaputra River in the year 1964. The blockage of the river flow was adopted as a flood control measure to protect its riparian areas, especially the Nagaon town, from flood hazard. The river, once a blooming distributary of the mighty Brahmaputra, had high navigability and rich riparian biodiversity with a well established agriculturally productive watershed. However, the present status of Kolong River is highly wretched as a consequence of the post-dam effects thus leaving it as stagnant pools of polluted water with negligible socio-economic and ecological value. The Central Pollution Control Board, in one of its report has placed the Kolong River among 275 most polluted rivers of India. Thus, this study is conducted to analyze the seasonal water quality status of the Kolong River in terms of water quality index (WQI). The WQI scores shows very poor to unsuitable quality of water samples in almost all the seven sampling sites along the Kolong River. The water quality is found to be most deteriorated during monsoon season with an average WQI value of 122.47 as compared to pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season having average WQI value of 85.73 and 80.75, respectively. Out of the seven sampling sites, Hatimura site (S1) and Nagaon Town site (S4) are observed to be the most polluted sites.

  7. Neonatal encephalopathic cerebral injury in South India assessed by perinatal magnetic resonance biomarkers and early childhood neurodevelopmental outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Lally

    Full Text Available Although brain injury after neonatal encephalopathy has been characterised well in high-income countries, little is known about such injury in low- and middle-income countries. Such injury accounts for an estimated 1 million neonatal deaths per year. We used magnetic resonance (MR biomarkers to characterise perinatal brain injury, and examined early childhood outcomes in South India.We recruited consecutive term or near term infants with evidence of perinatal asphyxia and a Thompson encephalopathy score ≥6 within 6 h of birth, over 6 months. We performed conventional MR imaging, diffusion tensor MR imaging and thalamic proton MR spectroscopy within 3 weeks of birth. We computed group-wise differences in white matter fractional anisotropy (FA using tract based spatial statistics. We allocated Sarnat encephalopathy stage aged 3 days, and evaluated neurodevelopmental outcomes aged 3½ years using Bayley III.Of the 54 neonates recruited, Sarnat staging was mild in 30 (56%; moderate in 15 (28% and severe in 6 (11%, with no encephalopathy in 3 (6%. Six infants died. Of the 48 survivors, 44 had images available for analysis. In these infants, imaging indicated perinatal rather than established antenatal origins to injury. Abnormalities were frequently observed in white matter (n = 40, 91% and cortex (n = 31, 70% while only 12 (27% had abnormal basal ganglia/thalami. Reduced white matter FA was associated with Sarnat stage, deep grey nuclear injury, and MR spectroscopy N-acetylaspartate/choline, but not early Thompson scores. Outcome data were obtained in 44 infants (81% with 38 (79% survivors examined aged 3½ years; of these, 16 (42% had adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes.No infants had evidence for established brain lesions, suggesting potentially treatable perinatal origins. White matter injury was more common than deep brain nuclei injury. Our results support the need for rigorous evaluation of the efficacy of rescue hypothermic

  8. Assessment of applicability index for better management of municipal solid waste: a case study of Dhanbad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Pooja; Samadder, S R

    2017-06-01

    Selection of suitable municipal solid waste management (MSWM) options is one of the major challenges in urban areas of the developing countries. Success of MSWM requires accurate data of generation rate, composition and physico-chemical characteristics of solid wastes. Improper handling of solid waste can have significant environmental and aesthetical impacts. The present study proposes a new method (applicability index - Pik values) for identifying the most appropriate disposal option with the help of applicability values of Composting-CP, Incineration-IP and Landfill-LP for individual components of MSW based on the results of the physico-chemical analysis of the collected representative solid waste samples from the study area, Dhanbad, India. The mean values of moisture content, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, volatile organic carbon, fixed carbon, ash content, density and calorific values (CV) of individual components were used as input values in this process. Based on the proposed applicability index (Pik), the highest Pik values were obtained for incineration (IP) for plastics, polythene, paper, coconut shell, wood, cardboard, textile, thermocol (polystyrene), rubber, sugarcane bagasse, cow dung and leather wastes (IP > CP > LP) due to high CV of these solid waste components; the highest Pik values were obtained for composting (CP) of kitchen waste (CP > IP > LP); and the highest Pik values for inert wastes were obtained for landfill option (LP > IP > CP). The highest Pik value for a particular waste for a specific treatment option signifies that the waste is suitable for treatment/disposal using that option.

  9. Heavy metal contaminations in the groundwater of Brahmaputra flood plain: an assessment of water quality in Barpeta District, Assam (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haloi, Nabanita; Sarma, H P

    2012-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the heavy metal contamination status of groundwater in Brahmaputra flood plain Barpeta District, Assam, India. The Brahmaputra River flows from the southern part of the district and its many tributaries flow from north to south. Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn are estimated by using atomic absorption spectrometer, Perkin Elmer AA 200. The quantity of heavy metals in drinking water should be checked time to time; as heavy metal accumulation will cause numerous problems to living being. Forty groundwater samples were collected mainly from tube wells from the flood plain area. As there is very little information available about the heavy metal contamination status in the heavily populated study area, the present work will help to be acquainted with the suitability of groundwater for drinking applications as well as it will enhance the database. The concentration of iron exceeds the WHO recommended levels of 0.3 mg/L in about 80% of the samples, manganese values exceed 0.4 mg/L in about 22.5% of the samples, and lead values also exceed limit in 22.5% of the samples. Cd is reported in only four sampling locations and three of them exceed the WHO permissible limit (0.003 mg/L). Zinc concentrations were found to be within the prescribed WHO limits. Therefore, pressing awareness is needed for the betterment of water quality; for the sake of safe drinking water. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using Special Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 16).

  10. Heading towards the Safer Highways: an assessment of the Avahan prevention programme among long distance truck drivers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Arvind

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using data from two rounds of a cross-sectional, national-level survey of long-distance truck drivers, this paper examines the extent and trend of sexual risk behavior, prevalence of STI/HIV, and the linkage between exposure to HIV prevention programs and safe sex behavior. Methods Following the time location cluster sampling approach, major transshipment locations covering the bulk of India’s transport volume along four routes, North-East (NE, North-South (NS, North-West (NW and South-East (SE were surveyed. First round of the survey was conducted in 2007 (sample size 2066 whereas the second round was undertaken in 2009-2010 (sample size 2085. Long distance truck drivers were interviewed about their sexual behaviors, condom use practices, exposure to different HIV prevention interventions, and tested for HIV, reactive syphilis serology, Neiserria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. The key variable of this evaluation study - exposure to HIV prevention interventions was divided into three categories - no exposure, less intensive exposure and intensive exposure. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression methods to understand the relationship between risk behavior and exposure to intervention and between program exposure and condom use. Results The proportion of truckers exposed to HIV prevention interventions has increased over time with much significant increase in the intensive exposure across all the four routes (NE: from 14.9% to 28%, P Conclusions These evaluation study results highlight the ability of intensive program to reach truckers who have sex outside marriage with HIV prevention interventions and promote safe sex behaviors among them. Truckers who practice safe sex behaviors with an exposure to intensive program are less likely to suffer from STIs and HIV, which has implications for HIV prevention program with truckers’ population in India and elsewhere. The simultaneous targeted interventions

  11. Assessment and monitoring of long-term forest cover changes in Odisha, India using remote sensing and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C Sudhakar; Jha, C S; Dadhwal, V K

    2013-05-01

    Deforestation and fragmentation are important concerns in managing and conserving tropical forests and have global significance. In the Indian context, in the last one century, the forests have undergone significant changes due to several policies undertaken by government as well as increased population pressure. The present study has brought out spatiotemporal changes in forest cover and variation in forest type in the state of Odisha (Orissa), India, during the last 75 years period. The mapping for the period of 1924-1935, 1975, 1985, 1995 and 2010 indicates that the forest cover accounts for 81,785.6 km(2) (52.5 %), 56,661.1 km(2) (36.4 %), 51,642.3 km(2) (33.2 %), 49,773 km(2) (32 %) and 48,669.4 km(2) (31.3 %) of the study area, respectively. The study found the net forest cover decline as 40.5 % of the total forest and mean annual rate of deforestation as 0.69 % year(-1) during 1935 to 2010. There is a decline in annual rate of deforestation during 1995 to 2010 which was estimated as 0.15 %. Forest type-wise quantitative loss of forest cover reveals large scale deforestation of dry deciduous forests. The landscape analysis shows that the number of forest patches (per 1,000) are 2.463 in 1935, 10.390 in 1975, 11.899 in 1985, 12.193 in 1995 and 15.102 in 2010, which indicates high anthropogenic pressure on the forests. The mean patch size (km(2)) of forest decreased from 33.2 in 1935 to 5.5 in 1975 and reached to 3.2 by 2010. The study demonstrated that monitoring of long term forest changes, quantitative loss of forest types and landscape metrics provides critical inputs for management of forest resources.

  12. Assessment of fuel resource diversity and utilization patterns in Askot Wildlife Sanctuary in Kumaun Himalaya, India, for conservation and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samant, Sher S.; Dhar, Uppeandra; Rawal, Ranbeer S. [G.B. Pant Inst. of Himalayan Environment and Development, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2000-07-01

    A general decrease in abundance of wood plant species used as sources of fuel suggests that more detailed information is urgently needed on species-level trends and their conservation. Such studies have not been carried out so far in India and elsewhere; we therefore quantified the species-wise extraction of fuel from a site (Gori Ganga Valley) in Askot Wildlife Sanctuary in the Kumaun Himalaya. In all, 31 species (26 trees and 5 shrubs) were used as fuel, of which 14 were native to the Himalaya. Utilisation patterns, distributions, probabilities of use (PU), resources use indices (RUI), preferences and availabilities in forest communities of these species were determined. Use pattern did not vary much amongst low altitude villages (Similarity: 52-74%), whereas along the vertical (elevational) gradient it varied considerably (Similarity: 15-31%). Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz, Pinus roxburghii Sarg., Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus, Macaranga pustulata King ex Hk. F., Quercus lanuginosa Don, Engelhardtia spicata Bl. and Mallotus philippensis (Lamk.) Muell. contributed most to collections, while Pyracantha crenulata (Don) Roem., Syzygium cuminii (L.) Skeels, Alnus nepalensis Don and Bauhinia vahlii Wt. and Arn. were in lesser demand. W. fruticosa, P. roxburghii, M. pustulata, Casearia elliptica Willd., E. spicata, M. philippensis, Q. leucotrichophora and Phoebe lanceolata (Nees) Nees showed high values of PU and RUI, indicating high pressure. Higher density of P. roxburghii, Rhododendron arboreum Sm., Q. lanuginosa, Q. leucotrichophora, Lyonia ovalifolia (Wall.) Drude, C. elliptica and M. pustulata amongst trees and Maesa indica A.DC., P. crenulata and W. fruticosa amongst shrubs exhibited high density but the remaining species showed low density indicating the possible depletion. Intensive management of natural habitats of species highly-referred for fuel, diversification of choice of species from natives to non-natives, large scale propagation of highly

  13. Assessment of Culturable Tea Rhizobacteria Isolated from Tea Estates of Assam, India for Growth Promotion in Commercial Tea Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Jintu; Handique, Pratap J.; Thakur, Debajit

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, 217 rhizobacterial isolates were obtained from six different tea estates of Assam, India and subjected to preliminary in vitro plant growth promotion (PGP) screening for indole acetic acid (IAA) production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production and ammonia production. Fifty isolates showed all the PGP traits and five isolates did not exhibit any PGP traits. These 50 potential isolates were further analyzed for quantitative estimation of the PGP traits along with the aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, protease and cellulose production. After several rounds of screening, four rhizobacteria were selected based on their maximum ability to produce in vitro PGP traits and their partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that they belong to Enterobacter lignolyticus strain TG1, Burkholderia sp. stain TT6, Bacillus pseudomycoides strain SN29 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain KH45. To evaluate the efficacy of these four rhizobacteria as plant growth promoters, three different commercially important tea clones TV1, TV19, and TV20 plants were inoculated with these rhizobacteria in greenhouse condition and compared to the uninoculated control plants. Though, all the rhizobacterial treatments showed an increase in plant growth compared to control but the multivariate PCA analysis confirmed more growth promotion by TG1 and SN29 strains than the other treatments in all three clones. To validate this result, the fold change analysis was performed and it revealed that the tea clone TV19 plants inoculated with the E. lignolyticus strain TG1 showed maximum root biomass production with an increase in 4.3-fold, shoot biomass with increase in 3.1-fold, root length by 2.2-fold and shoot length by 1.6-fold. Moreover, two way ANOVA analysis also revealed that rhizobacterial treatment in different tea clones showed the significant increase (P biofertilizer for growth promotion of tea crops. PMID:26617590

  14. A rapid assessment and response approach to review and enhance Advocacy, Communication and Social Mobilisation for Tuberculosis control in Odisha state, India

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    Satyanarayana Srinath

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in India with the country accounting for 1 in 5 of all TB cases reported globally. An advocacy, communication and social mobilisation project for Tuberculosis control was implemented and evaluated in Odisha state of India. The purpose of the study was to identify the impact of project interventions including the use of 'Interface NGOs' and involvement of community groups such as women's self-help groups, local government bodies, village health sanitation committees, and general health staff in promoting TB control efforts. Methods The study utilized a rapid assessment and response (RAR methodology. The approach combined both qualitative field work approaches, including semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with empirical data collection and desk research. Results Results revealed that a combination of factors including the involvement of Interface NGOs, coupled with increased training and engagement of front line health workers and community groups, and dissemination of community based resources, contributed to improved awareness and knowledge about TB in the targeted districts. Project activities also contributed towards improving health worker and community effectiveness to raise the TB agenda, and improved TB literacy and treatment adherence. Engagement of successfully treated patients also assisted in reducing community stigma and discrimination. Conclusion The expanded use of advocacy, communication and social mobilisation activities in TB control has resulted in a number of benefits. These include bridging pre-existing gaps between the health system and the community through support and coordination of general health services stakeholders, NGOs and the community. The strategic use of 'tailored messages' to address specific TB problems in low performing areas also led to more positive behavioural outcomes and improved efficiencies in service delivery

  15. Child maltreatment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem.

  16. Vital sign monitoring using human patient simulators at pharmacy schools in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Jin; Takamura, Norito; Ogata, Kenji; Yoshida, Hiroki; Setoguchi, Nao; Matsuoka, Toshikazu; Hirokane, Taminori; Yamaoka, Akihiro; Sato, Keizo

    2010-09-10

    To develop, implement, and assess an experience-based education program using human patient simulators to instruct pharmacy students in monitoring vital signs to identify drug treatment effects and adverse events. Medical emergency care programs using human patient simulators were prepared and facilitated practical clinical training in resuscitation, which required selecting drugs while monitoring changes in blood pressure, pulse, and arterial blood oxygen saturation. Training encompassed the monitoring of routes of drug administration, drawing of simulated blood, vital-sign monitoring based on a pharmaceutical universal training model, vital-sign monitoring devices and simulators, and medical emergency education using biological simulators. Before and after bedside training, students were asked to complete a questionnaire to assess their understanding of vital sign monitoring and emergency care. Students successfully learned how to monitor routes of drug administration, vital signs, and pathological conditions. There was a significant increase in students' recognition of the importance of vital-sign monitoring. Experienced-based training using patient simulators successfully prepared pharmacy students to monitor vitals signs and identify drug treatment effects and adverse events.

  17. Moisture source for summer monsoon rainfall over India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Rao, D.P.

    Southwest monsoon plays a vital role in India's economy as the major income comes from agriculture. What could be the moisture source for this copious amount of rainfall over the Indian sub-continent?. This has been studied in detail and noticed...

  18. Assessment of drinking water quality using ICP-MS and microbiological methods in the Bholakpur area, Hyderabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, Rasheed M; Mutnuri, Lakshmi; Dattatreya, Patil J; Mohan, Dayal A

    2012-03-01

    A total of 16 people died and over 500 people were hospitalized due to diarrhoeal illness in the Bholakpur area of Hyderabad, India on 6th May 2009. A study was conducted with immediate effect to evaluate the quality of municipal tap water of the Bholakpur locality. The study consists of the determination of physico-chemical properties, trace metals, heavy metals, rare earth elements and microbiological quality of drinking water. The data showed the variation of the investigated parameters in samples as follows: pH 7.14 to 8.72, EC 455 to 769 μS/cm, TDS 303.51 to 515.23 ppm and DO 1.01 to 6.83 mg/L which are within WHO guidelines for drinking water quality. The water samples were analyzed for 27 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Ba and Pb) using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concentrations of Fe (0.12 to 1.13 mg/L), Pb (0.01 to 0.07 mg/L), Cu (0.01 to 0.19 mg/L), Ni (0.01 to 0.15 mg/L), Al (0.16 to 0.49 mg/L), and Na (38.36 to 68.69 mg/L) were obtained, which exceed the permissible limits of the World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water quality guidelines. The remaining elements were within the permissible limits. The microbiological quality of water was tested using standard plate count, membrane filtration technique, thermotolerant coliform (TTC), and most probable number (MPN) methods. The total heterotrophic bacteria ranged from 1.0 × 10(5) to 18 × 10(7 )cfu/ml. Total viable bacteria in all the water samples were found to be too numerable to count and total number of coliform bacteria in all water samples were found to be of order of 1,100 to >2,400 MPN index/100 ml. TTC tested positive for coliform bacteria at 44.2°C. All the water samples of the study area exceeded the permissible counts of WHO and that (zero and minimal counts) of the control site (National Geophysical Research Institute) water samples. Excessively high colony numbers indicate

  19. Assessment of culturable tea rhizobacteria isolated from tea estates of Assam, India for growth promotion in commercial tea cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintu eDutta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 217 rhizobacterial isolates were obtained from six different tea estates of Assam, India and subjected to preliminary in vitro plant growth promotion (PGP screening for indole acetic acid (IAA production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production and ammonia production. 50 isolates showed all the PGP traits and 5 isolates did not exhibit any PGP traits. These 50 potential isolates were further analyzed for quantitative estimation of the PGP traits along with the aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase, protease and cellulose production. After several rounds of screening, four rhizobacteria were selected based on their maximum ability to produce in vitro PGP traits and their partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that they belong to Enterobacter lignolyticus strain TG1, Burkholderia sp. stain TT6, Bacillus pseudomycoides strain SN29 and Psedumonas aeruginosa strain KH45. To evaluate the efficacy of these four rhizobacteria as plant growth promoters, three different commercially important tea clones TV1, TV19 and TV20 plants were inoculated with these rhizobacteria in greenhouse condition and compared to the uninoculated control plants. Though, all the rhizobacterial treatments showed an increase in plant growth compared to control but the multivariate PCA analysis confirmed more growth promotion by TG1 and SN29 strains than the other treatments in all three clones. To validate this result, the fold change analysis was performed and it revealed that the tea clone TV19 plants inoculated with the E. lignolyticus strain TG1 showed maximum root biomass production with an increase in 4.3 fold, shoot biomass with increase in 3.1 fold, root length by 2.2 fold and shoot length by 1.6 fold. Moreover, two way ANOVA analysis also revealed that rhizobacterial treatment in different tea clones showed the significant increase (p<0.05 in growth promotion compared to the control. Thus, this study indicates that the

  20. Assessment of Culturable Tea Rhizobacteria Isolated from Tea Estates of Assam, India for Growth Promotion in Commercial Tea Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Jintu; Handique, Pratap J; Thakur, Debajit

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, 217 rhizobacterial isolates were obtained from six different tea estates of Assam, India and subjected to preliminary in vitro plant growth promotion (PGP) screening for indole acetic acid (IAA) production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production and ammonia production. Fifty isolates showed all the PGP traits and five isolates did not exhibit any PGP traits. These 50 potential isolates were further analyzed for quantitative estimation of the PGP traits along with the aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, protease and cellulose production. After several rounds of screening, four rhizobacteria were selected based on their maximum ability to produce in vitro PGP traits and their partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that they belong to Enterobacter lignolyticus strain TG1, Burkholderia sp. stain TT6, Bacillus pseudomycoides strain SN29 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain KH45. To evaluate the efficacy of these four rhizobacteria as plant growth promoters, three different commercially important tea clones TV1, TV19, and TV20 plants were inoculated with these rhizobacteria in greenhouse condition and compared to the uninoculated control plants. Though, all the rhizobacterial treatments showed an increase in plant growth compared to control but the multivariate PCA analysis confirmed more growth promotion by TG1 and SN29 strains than the other treatments in all three clones. To validate this result, the fold change analysis was performed and it revealed that the tea clone TV19 plants inoculated with the E. lignolyticus strain TG1 showed maximum root biomass production with an increase in 4.3-fold, shoot biomass with increase in 3.1-fold, root length by 2.2-fold and shoot length by 1.6-fold. Moreover, two way ANOVA analysis also revealed that rhizobacterial treatment in different tea clones showed the significant increase (P growth promotion compared to the control. Thus, this study indicates that the potential of these

  1. Development of the SAFE Checklist Tool for Assessing Site-Level Threats to Child Protection: Use of Delphi Methods and Application to Two Sites in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa S Betancourt

    Full Text Available The child protection community is increasingly focused on developing tools to assess threats to child protection and the basic security needs and rights of children and families living in adverse circumstances. Although tremendous advances have been made to improve measurement of individual child health status or household functioning for use in low-resource settings, little attention has been paid to a more diverse array of settings in which many children in adversity spend time and how context contributes to threats to child protection. The SAFE model posits that insecurity in any of the following fundamental domains threatens security in the others: Safety/freedom from harm; Access to basic physiological needs and healthcare; Family and connection to others; Education and economic security. Site-level tools are needed in order to monitor the conditions that can dramatically undermine or support healthy child growth, development and emotional and behavioral health. From refugee camps and orphanages to schools and housing complexes, site-level threats exist that are not well captured by commonly used measures of child health and well-being or assessments of single households (e.g., SDQ, HOME.The present study presents a methodology and the development of a scale for assessing site-level child protection threats in various settings of adversity. A modified Delphi panel process was enhanced with two stages of expert review in core content areas as well as review by experts in instrument development, and field pilot testing.Field testing in two diverse sites in India-a construction site and a railway station-revealed that the resulting SAFE instrument was sensitive to the differences between the sites from the standpoint of core child protection issues.

  2. Vital status of trees plantations of the Shevchenko park in Zaporizhzhya city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Yalovenko

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The tree plantation’s vital status of the Shevchenko Park in Zaporizhzhya city was estimated according to N. P. Krasinsky’s method modified by Y. Z. Kulagin. The vitality of individual plants and stands as a whole was assessed according to V. A. Alekseev. The growth class of tree stands and the influence of the age class on the forest capacity class were determined. The defectiveness of tree stems in the park was estimated.

  3. Assessment of groundwater pollution from ash ponds using stable and unstable isotopes around the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (Maharashtra, India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltaggio, M; Spadoni, M; Sacchi, E; Sanam, R; Pujari, P R; Labhasetwar, P K

    2015-06-15

    The impact on local water resources due to fly ash produced in the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (district of Nagpur, Maharashtra - India) and disposed in large ponds at the surface was assessed through the study of environmental variation of ratios of stable and unstable isotopes. Analyses of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes suggest scarce interaction between the water temporarily stored in the ponds and the groundwater in the study area. Data also highlight that the high salinity of groundwater measured in the polluted wells is not due to evaporation, but to subsequent infiltration of stream waters draining from the ponds to the local aquifer. (87)Sr/(86)Sr values, when associated with Sr/Ca ratios, demonstrate the dominant role of waste waters coming from tens of brick kilns surrounding the pond sulfate pollution. Uranium isotopic analyses clearly show evidence of the interaction between groundwater and aquifer rocks, and confirm again the low influence of ash ponds. A new conceptual model based on the study of the isotopes of radium is also proposed and used to estimate residence times of groundwater in the area. This model highlights that high salinity cannot be in any case attributed to a prolonged water-rock interaction, but is due to the influence of untreated waste water of domestic or brick kiln origin on the shallow and vulnerable aquifers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of levels in ambient air near sources of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Kanpur, India, and risk assessment due to inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Anubha; Upadhyay, Kritika; Chakraborty, Mrinmoy

    2016-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic compounds listed as persistent organic pollutant and have been banned for use under Stockholm Convention (1972). They were used primarily in transformers and capacitors, paint, flame retardants, plasticizers, and lubricants. PCBs can be emitted through the primary and secondary sources into the atmosphere, undergo long-range atmospheric transport, and hence have been detected worldwide. Reported levels in ambient air are generally higher in urban areas. Active sampling of ambient air was conducted in Kanpur, a densely populated and industrialized city in the Indo-Gangetic Plain, for detection of 32 priority PCBs, with the aim to determine the concentration in gas/particle phase and assess exposure risk. More than 50 % of PCBs were detected in air. Occurrence in particles was dominated by heavier congeners, and levels in gas phase were below detection. Levels determined in this study are lower than the levels in Coastal areas of India but are at par with other Asian countries where majority of sites chosen for sampling were urban industrial areas. Human health risk estimates through air inhalation pathway were made in terms of lifetime average daily dose (LADD) and incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR). The study found lower concentrations of PCBs than guideline values and low health risk estimates through inhalation within acceptable levels, indicating a minimum risk to the adults due to exposure to PCBs present in ambient air in Kanpur.

  5. Assessment of groundwater quality at a MSW landfill site using standard and AHP based water quality index: a case study from Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shubhrasekhar; Kumar, R Naresh

    2016-06-01

    Landfill leachate generated from open MSW dumpsite can cause groundwater contamination. The impact of open dumping of MSW on the groundwater of adjacent area was studied. To assess the spatial and temporal variations in groundwater quality, samples were collected around an open MSW dumping site in Ranchi city, Jharkhand, India. Groundwater samples were analysed for various physicochemical and bacteriological parameters for 1 year. Results indicated that the groundwater is getting contaminated due to vertical and horizontal migration of landfill leachate. Extent of contamination was higher in areas closer to the landfill as indicated by high alkalinity, total dissolved solids and ammonia concentration. Metals such as lead, iron, and manganese were present at concentrations of 0.097, 0.97 and 0.36 mg/L, respectively exceeding the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) 10,500 for drinking water. Enterobacteriaceae were also detected in several groundwater samples and highest coliform count of 2.1×10(4) CFU/mL was recorded from a dug well. In order to determine the overall groundwater quality, water quality index (WQI) was calculated using weighted arithmetic index method and this index was further modified by coupling with the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to get specific information. WQI values indicated that the overall groundwater quality of the region came under "poor" category while zone wise classification indicated the extent of impact of landfill leachate on groundwater.

  6. IMPACT OF JUTE RETTING ON NATIVE FISH DIVERSITY AND AQUATIC HEALTH OF ROADSIDE TRANSITORY WATER BODIES: AN ASSESSMENT IN EASTERN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Ghosh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Roadside transitory water bodies being manmade depressions have a great ecological and socio-economic importance from years. The effects of agricultural runoffs, jute retting, macro-phytes infestations and inadequate rainfall in changed climate often degrade transitory water bodies’ environment while the biodiversity have impacted severely because of population pressure, over exploitation and indiscriminate use of fine meshed fishing gears as a whole. Physico-chemical and biological analysis with fish species composition, relative abundance, diversity indices like species richness, evenness and Shannon-Wiener index were carried out for pre-, during and post-jute retting season and for year mean as a whole to assess impact of jute retting on the roadside transitory water body’s environmental health and indigenous fish diversity at Sahebnagar village in Nadia District, India. All the physico-chemical parameters barring biochemical oxygen demand and water transparency remained more or less same or marginally got little changed during those three seasons. As much as 19 native fish species with varied relative abundances and dominances were identified. Jute retting impacted lower native fish diversity indices like Shannon-Wiener index values (1.94 to 2.68 clearly indicated poor to moderate pollution status of the transitory water body in that area during monsoon in particular and throughout the year in general. So we opined there should be some control over the intense jute retting in the road side transitory water bodies for sustainable management of these manmade resources.

  7. Assessment of the Water Quality of Hussain Sagar, Fox Sagar and Kattamysamma Lakes of Hyderabad, Telangana State, India: Using Water Quality Index (WQI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manchala Lingaswamy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to assess the water quality of three lakes of Hyderabad, Telangana State, India viz., Hussain Sagar, Fox Sagar and Kattamysamma Lake by using water quality index (WQI. For this study systematic sampling has been carried out by collecting sixteen samples from each lake. The collected samples were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters like pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Total Hardness (TH, Total Alkalinity (TA, Sodium (Na+, Potassium (K+, Calcium (Ca2+, Magnesium (Mg2+, Nitrates (NO32-, Sulphates (SO42-, Fluoride (F- and Chloride (Cl- according to Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (APHA 2005 and Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB guide manual: Water and Waste water analysis. The results were compared with water quality guidelines for drinking purpose (BIS 2012. The mean values of most water quality parameters were significantly higher than the accept limits in all three lakes. Ten important water variables were chosen to calculate Water Quality Index (WQI. All the three lakes fall under unsuitable for drinking purpose (>100 according to WQI scale.

  8. An assessment of QOL and its determining factors of post menopausal women in a rural area of West Bengal, India: A multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeshna Ray

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim was to assess QOL and its determining factors among postmenopausal women of a rural area of West- Bengal in India. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 315 postmenopausal women and the data were collected using the modified menopause quality of life questionnaire of Hilditch. (Hilditch MENQOL. Results: Out of the 315 women who have been interviewed 243 (77% had poor quality of life. Multivariate analysis revealed that poor QOL was more among those who did not live with their own children [AOR (95% C.I. 4.26 (2.1–8.6], did not undertake regular exercise, [AOR (95% C.I. 2.88 (1.38–6.03], were literate [AOR (95% C.I. 2.5 (1.13–4.8], were monetarily dependent on their children [AOR (95% C.I. 2.5 (1.32–4.88], not living under one roof with children [AOR (95% C.I. 4.26 (2.1–8.6] and had attained menopause >5 years. [AOR (95% C.I. 4.82 (2.47–9.41]. Conclusion: Different stakeholders are required to mobilize the post-menopausal women through IEC activities to cope up with the stress of the post-menopausal phase and acquire a better quality of life beyond their reproductive age.

  9. Comparative assessment of Azolla pinnata and Vallisneria spiralis in Hg removal from G.B. Pant Sagar of Singrauli Industrial region, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar; Tripathi, B D

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to monitor the Hg pollution in water and sediments of G.B. Pant Sagar located in Singrauli Industrial Region, India and to suggest the efficient aquatic plants for its phytoremediation. The study assessed the comparative potential of a free floating water fern Azolla pinnata and submerged aquatic macrophyte Vallisneria spiralis to purify waters polluted by Hg. Six days laboratory experiments have been conducted to mark the percentage removal of Hg at initial concentration of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 mg L(-1). The percentage removal of Hg was higher for A. pinnata (80-94%) than V. spiralis (70-84%). Likewise, the Hg accumulated in dry mass was much higher for A. pinnata and a high correlation (R(2) = 0.91 for A. pinnata and 0.99 for V. spiralis) was obtained between applied Hg doses and accumulated amounts in biomass. A concentration dependent decrease in chlorophyll a, protein, RNA, DNA and nutrients (NO(3-) and PO(4)(3-)) uptake was detected in A. pinnata and V. spiralis due to Hg toxicity. The decrease was more prominent in Azolla than Vallisneria. The results recommended the use of A. pinnata and V. spiralis to ameliorate the industrial effluents (thermal power, chlor-alkali and coal mine effluent) contaminated with Hg.

  10. Groundwater assessment in Salboni Block, West Bengal (India) using remote sensing, geographical information system and multi-criteria decision analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Madan K.; Chowdary, V. M.; Chowdhury, Alivia

    2010-11-01

    An approach is presented for the evaluation of groundwater potential using remote sensing, geographic information system, geoelectrical, and multi-criteria decision analysis techniques. The approach divides the available hydrologic and hydrogeologic data into two groups, exogenous (hydrologic) and endogenous (subsurface). A case study in Salboni Block, West Bengal (India), uses six thematic layers of exogenous parameters and four thematic layers of endogenous parameters. These thematic layers and their features were assigned suitable weights which were normalized by analytic hierarchy process and eigenvector techniques. The layers were then integrated using ArcGIS software to generate two groundwater potential maps. The hydrologic parameters-based groundwater potential zone map indicated that the `good' groundwater potential zone covers 27.14% of the area, the `moderate' zone 45.33%, and the `poor' zone 27.53%. A comparison of this map with the groundwater potential map based on subsurface parameters revealed that the hydrologic parameters-based map accurately delineates groundwater potential zones in about 59% of the area, and hence it is dependable to a certain extent. More than 80% of the study area has moderate-to-poor groundwater potential, which necessitates efficient groundwater management for long-term water security. Overall, the integrated technique is useful for the assessment of groundwater resources at a basin or sub-basin scale.

  11. Prepared to react? Assessing the functional capacity of the primary health care system in rural Orissa, India to respond to the devastating flood of September 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalkey, Revati; Dash, Shisir R; Mukhopadhyay, Alok; Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; Marx, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Early detection of an impending flood and the availability of countermeasures to deal with it can significantly reduce its health impacts. In developing countries like India, public primary health care facilities are frontline organizations that deal with disasters particularly in rural settings. For developing robust counter reacting systems evaluating preparedness capacities within existing systems becomes necessary. The objective of the study is to assess the functional capacity of the primary health care system in Jagatsinghpur district of rural Orissa in India to respond to the devastating flood of September 2008. An onsite survey was conducted in all 29 primary and secondary facilities in five rural blocks (administrative units) of Jagatsinghpur district in Orissa state. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was administered face to face in the facilities. The data was entered, processed and analyzed using STATA(®) 10. Data from our primary survey clearly shows that the healthcare facilities are ill prepared to handle the flood despite being faced by them annually. Basic utilities like electricity backup and essential medical supplies are lacking during floods. Lack of human resources along with missing standard operating procedures; pre-identified communication and incident command systems; effective leadership; and weak financial structures are the main hindering factors in mounting an adequate response to the floods. The 2008 flood challenged the primary curative and preventive health care services in Jagatsinghpur. Simple steps like developing facility specific preparedness plans which detail out standard operating procedures during floods and identify clear lines of command will go a long way in strengthening the response to future floods. Performance critiques provided by the grass roots workers, like this one, should be used for institutional learning and effective preparedness planning. Additionally each facility should maintain contingency funds for

  12. Accelerating Improvements in the Energy Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners (RACs) in India: Potential, Cost-Benefit, and Policies (Interim Assessment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhyankar, Nikit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Falling AC prices, increasing incomes, increasing urbanization, and high cooling requirements due to hot climate are all driving increasing uptake of Room Air Conditioners (RACs) in the Indian market. Air conditioning already comprises 40-60% of summer peak load in large metropolitan Indian cities such as Delhi and is likely to contribute 150 GW to the peak demand in 2030. Standards and labeling policies have contributed to improving the efficiency of RACs in India by about 2.5% in the last 10 years (2.5% per year) while inflation adjusted RAC prices have continued to decline. In this paper, we assess the technical feasibility, cost-benefit, and required policy enhancements by further accelerating the efficiency improvement of RACs in India. We find that there are examples of significantly more accelerated improvements such as those in Japan and Korea where AC efficiency improved by more than 7% per year resulting in almost a doubling of energy efficiency in 7 to 10 years while inflation adjusted AC prices continued to decline. We find that the most efficient RAC sold on the Indian market is almost twice as efficient as the typical AC sold on the market and hence see no technology constraints in a similar acceleration of improvement of efficiency. If starting 2018, AC efficiency improves at a rate of 6% instead of 3%, 40-60 GW of peak load (equivalent to connected load of 5-6 billion LED bulbs), and over 75 TWh/yr (equivalent to 60 million consumers consuming 100 kWh/month) will be saved by 2030; total peak load reduction would be as high as 50 GW. The net present value (NPV) of the consumer benefit between 2018-2030 will range from Rs 18,000 Cr in the most conservative case (in which prices don’t continue to decline and increase based estimates of today’s cost of efficiency improvement) to 140,000 Cr in a more realistic case (in which prices are not affected by accelerated efficiency improvement as shown by historical experience). This benefit is achievable by

  13. Prepared to react? Assessing the functional capacity of the primary health care system in rural Orissa, India to respond to the devastating flood of September 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marx

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early detection of an impending flood and the availability of countermeasures to deal with it can significantly reduce its health impacts. In developing countries like India, public primary health care facilities are frontline organizations that deal with disasters particularly in rural settings. For developing robust counter reacting systems evaluating preparedness capacities within existing systems becomes necessary. Objective: The objective of the study is to assess the functional capacity of the primary health care system in Jagatsinghpur district of rural Orissa in India to respond to the devastating flood of September 2008. Methods: An onsite survey was conducted in all 29 primary and secondary facilities in five rural blocks (administrative units of Jagatsinghpur district in Orissa state. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was administered face to face in the facilities. The data was entered, processed and analyzed using STATA® 10. Results: Data from our primary survey clearly shows that the healthcare facilities are ill prepared to handle the flood despite being faced by them annually. Basic utilities like electricity backup and essential medical supplies are lacking during floods. Lack of human resources along with missing standard operating procedures; pre-identified communication and incident command systems; effective leadership; and weak financial structures are the main hindering factors in mounting an adequate response to the floods. Conclusion: The 2008 flood challenged the primary curative and preventive health care services in Jagatsinghpur. Simple steps like developing facility specific preparedness plans which detail out standard operating procedures during floods and identify clear lines of command will go a long way in strengthening the response to future floods. Performance critiques provided by the grass roots workers, like this one, should be used for institutional learning and effective preparedness

  14. Mechatronics Engineering Education in India

    OpenAIRE

    Bajpai Shrish; Khare Sushant

    2015-01-01

    Present paper aims to give an insight in the field of Mechatronics, specifically its standard of education in India. We have investigated this field right from its origin. We have analyzed how it expanded as a proper discipline of engineering and in which direction the development in this field is going now and, at the same time, its status of education in India and where we are in addressing the industry’s need both in terms of quality and quantity of students. We have also assessed why Mech...

  15. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  16. CDC Vital Signs-Heart Age

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-09-01

    This podcast is based on the September 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Your heart age is the age of your heart and blood vessels as a result of your risk factors for heart attack and stroke. If you smoke or have high blood pressure, your heart age will be much higher than your actual age. Learn what you can do to lower your heart age and keep it low.  Created: 9/1/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/1/2015.

  17. CDC Vital Signs-Hispanic Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-05-05

    This podcast is based on the May 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. About one in six people living in the U.S. are Hispanic. The two leading causes of death in this group are heart disease and cancer, accounting for two out of five deaths. Unfortunately, many Hispanics face considerable barriers to getting high quality health care, including language and low income. Learn what can be done to reduce the barriers.  Created: 5/5/2015 by Office of Minority Health & Health Equity (OMHHE).   Date Released: 5/5/2015.

  18. Vital Exhaustion and Coronary Heart Disease Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frestad, Daria; Prescott, Eva

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The construct of vital exhaustion has been identified as a potential independent psychological risk factor for incident and recurrent coronary heart disease (CHD). Despite several decades of research, no systematic review or meta-analysis has previously attempted to collate.......22-1.85) for prospective studies, and 2.61 (95% CI = 1.66-4.10) for case-control studies using hospital controls. Risk of recurrent events in patients with CHD was 2.03 (95% CI = 1.54-2.68). The pooled adjusted risk of chronic heart failure in healthy populations was 1.37 (95% CI = 1.21-1.56), but this was based...

  19. TIROTOXICOSIS GESTACIONAL: PATOLOGIA CON RIESGO VITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Valdés R.,Enrique; PILASI M,CARLOS; Núñez U.,Tatiana

    2003-01-01

    Se presenta un caso clínico con diagnóstico final de Tirotoxicosis gestacional que debuta con una complicación excepcional, insuficiencia cardíaca congestiva e hipertensión pulmonar severa. Se presenta la experiencia del Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile, proponiendo que su diagnóstico y tratamiento oportunos son la base del pronóstico de esta patología de riesgo vital para el binomio madre-hijo

  20. Development and Assessment of Traditional and Innovative Media to Reduce Individual HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma Attitudes and Beliefs in India

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Catalani, Caricia; Castaneda, Diego; Spielberg, Freya

    2013-01-01

    .... This media intervention took place among key HIV-vulnerable communities in Southern India. Two HIV stigma videos were created using techniques from traditional film production and new media digital storytelling...

  1. Vitalism and vital normativeness: Hahnemann and Canguilhem Vitalismo y normatividad vital: Hahnemann and Canguilhem Vitalismo e normatividade vital: Hahnemann and Canguilhem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madel T. Luz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reviews Vitalism as the basis for S. Hahnemann’s initial formulation of Homeopathy through the lens of the notions of Vitalism and vital normativeness formulated in the 20th century by French physician and historian of science Georges Canguilhem. Hahnemann described disease as a disarrangement of the organism as a whole, carrying the mark of the individual affected. Similarly, Canguilhem stated that symptoms only have meaning within their specific context and express a global disturb. Hahnemann gave health a positive definition as the state of equilibrium of the vital force – the latter understood as an essential quality of matter composing living beings and corresponding to a conception of Vitalism that holds totality as self-organized. Canguilhem would define Vitalism as the simple acknowledgement of the originality of life regarding lifeless matter, and described life as a dynamic polarity. In this context, illness is seen as a way to compel the organism to seek a new equilibrium to maintain homeostasis, health and healing are both integral parts of the self-organization of living beings and dichotomy of the process health/disease is a mere linguistic artifact. Keywords:  Vitalism; Medical rationalities; Homeopathy; Vital normativeness; Georges Canguilhem.   Vitalismo e normatividade vital: Hahnemann and Canguilhem Resumo Este trabalho revê o Vitalismo como base da inicial formulação da Homeopatia por Hahnemann através das noções de Vitalismo e normatividade vital formulada no século XX pelo médico e historiador da ciência francês George Canquilhem. Hahneman descreve a doença como um desequilíbrio no organismo como um todo, carregando a marca da afecção individual. Similarmente, Canguilhem afirma que os sintomas somente têm siginificado dentro de seu espec

  2. A comparative ergonomics postural assessment of potters and sculptors in the unorganized sector in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Subhashis; Moitra, Subhabrata; Maity, Santigopal; Pandit, Asis K; Roy, Biswajit

    2013-01-01

    Potters and sculptors perform their work in very awkward postures. The purpose of this study was to analyse these postures. The modified Nordic questionnaire was used to analyse musculoskeletal discomfort. Rapid entire body assessment (REBA) and rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) were used to evaluate the subjects' postures. There were no significant differences between times of discomfort and the group of subjects. However, there were significant differences in discomfort in different body parts. The analysis indicated that various body postures were harmful to the subjects and that there were profound deviations from natural curvature of various body parts due to awkward body postures. Ergonomics intervention was required to improve the quality of life.

  3. Development and assessment of traditional and innovative media to reduce individual HIV/AIDS-related stigma attitudes and beliefs in India

    OpenAIRE

    Caricia eCatalani; Diego eCastaneda; Freya eSpielberg

    2013-01-01

    Although stigma is considered a major barrier to effective response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, there is a lack of evidence on effective interventions. This media intervention took place among key HIV-vulnerable communities in Southern India. Two HIV stigma videos were created using techniques from traditional film production and new media digital storytelling. A series of 16 focus group discussions were held in 4 rural and 4 urban sites in South India, with specific groups for sex workers, m...

  4. Avaliação da vitalidade fetal e resultados perinatais em gestações após gastroplastia com derivação em Y de Roux Assessment of fetal vitality and perinatal results in pregnancies after gastroplasty with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Mieko Yamamoto Nomura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os resultados da avaliação da vitalidade fetal de gestações após gastroplastia com derivação em Y de Roux, verificando as complicações maternas e os resultados perinatais. MÉTODOS: No período de julho de 2001 a setembro de 2009, foram analisados, retrospectivamente, dados de prontuário de pacientes com gestação após gastroplastia com derivação em Y de Roux, acompanhadas em pré-natal especializado e cujo parto foi realizado na instituição. Foram analisados os exames de avaliação da vitalidade fetal (cardiotocografia, perfil biofísico fetal e dopplervelocimetria das artérias umbilicais realizada na semana anterior ao parto. As variáveis maternas investigadas foram: dados demográficos, complicações clínicas maternas, tipo de parto, complicações no parto e pós-parto, exames hematimétricos maternos e resultados perinatais. RESULTADOS: Trinta gestações após gastroplastia com derivação em Y de Roux foram identificadas e 24 delas foram submetidas à avaliação da vitalidade fetal. Todas as pacientes apresentaram resultados normais na cardiotocografia, no perfil biofísico fetal e na dopplervelocimetria das artérias umbilicais. Houve um caso de oligohidrâmnio. A principal complicação observada foi anemia materna (Hb OBJECTIVE: To study fetal vitality assessed in pregnancies after gastroplasty with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass'and verify maternal complications and perinatal results. METHODS: Hospital charts of all pregnancies after gastroplasty with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass were reviewed retrospectively. All cases followed at the specialized prenatal care that gave birth in this institution, between July 2001 and September 2009, were reviewed. The assessment of fetal vitality (cardiotocography, fetal biophysical profile and umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry performed in the last week before delivery were analyzed. The maternal variables investigated were: demographic data, maternal complications

  5. Vitality Forms Processing in the Insula during Action Observation: A Multivoxel Pattern Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cesare, Giuseppe; Valente, Giancarlo; Di Dio, Cinzia; Ruffaldi, Emanuele; Bergamasco, Massimo; Goebel, Rainer; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    Observing the style of an action done by others allows the observer to understand the cognitive state of the agent. This information has been defined by Stern "vitality forms". Previous experiments showed that the dorso-central insula is selectively active both during vitality form observation and execution. In the present study, we presented participants with videos showing hand actions performed with different velocities and asked them to judge either their vitality form (gentle, neutral, rude) or their velocity (slow, medium, fast). The aim of the present study was to assess, using multi-voxel pattern analysis, whether vitality forms and velocities of observed goal-directed actions are differentially processed in the insula, and more specifically whether action velocity is encoded per se or it is an element that triggers neural populations of the insula encoding the vitality form. The results showed that, consistently across subjects, in the dorso-central sector of the insula there were voxels selectively tuned to vitality forms, while voxel tuned to velocity were rare. These results indicate that the dorso-central insula, which previous data showed to be involved in the vitality form processing, contains voxels specific for the action style processing.

  6. Health of the healthcare professionals: A risk assessment study on work-related musculoskeletal disorders in a tertiary hospital, Chennai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandul Yasobant

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthcare profession is known to be at high risk for work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs. It is estimated that almost one-third of all cases of sick leave among healthcare workers are related to WMSDs. Many studies are conducted, which measured the variety of factors across a range of occupations at different levels of risk. However, relation of current exposure to the risk of developing WMSDs is indeed an area to be looked into. Hence, the current study evaluated current exposure and risk of developing WMSDs among different groups of healthcare professionals. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional exposure-risk assessment study, conducted on 140 healthcare professionals, including dentists, laboratory technicians, nurses, physicians and physiotherapists of various clinical departments in a tertiary care hospital in Chennai, India from January to June 2013. Face-to-face interviews and observational analysis of various job tasks were employed. Different combinations of validated and standardized questionnaires were used for collecting different types of data. Results: The exposure and risk assessment on occurrence of WMSDs indicates that nurses are at the highest risk for developing WMSDs, followed by dentists and physiotherapists whereas laboratory technicians and physicians have the least. Among the participants who reported MSDs pain, more than half of the cases were related to work. Conclusion: Among all the healthcare professions, nurses were found to be the high risk group, whereas physicians were found to be the low risk group. We recommend that education, awareness, and training programs on prevention and coping strategies for MSDs be made mandatory for healthcare professionals.

  7. Assessing the effects of multiple stressors on the recruitment of fruit harvested trees in a tropical dry forest, Western Ghats, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Varghese

    Full Text Available The harvest of non-timber forest products (NTFPs, together with other sources of anthropogenic disturbance, impact plant populations greatly. Despite this, conservation research on NTFPs typically focuses on harvest alone, ignoring possible confounding effects of other anthropogenic and ecological factors. Disentangling anthropogenic disturbances is critical in regions such as India's Western Ghats, a biodiversity hotspot with high human density. Identifying strategies that permit both use and conservation of resources is essential to preserving biodiversity while meeting local needs. We assessed the effects of NTFP harvesting (fruit harvest from canopy and lopping of branches for fruit in combination with other common anthropogenic disturbances (cattle grazing, fire frequency and distance from village, in order to identify which stressors have greater effects on recruitment of three tropical dry forest fruit tree species. Specifically, we assessed the structure of 54 populations of Phyllanthus emblica, P. indofischeri and Terminalia chebula spread across the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats to ask: (1 How are populations recruiting? and (2 What anthropogenic disturbance and environmental factors, specifically forest type and elevation, are the most important predictors of recruitment status? We combined participatory research with an information-theoretic model-averaging approach to determine which factors most affect population structure and recruitment status. Our models illustrate that for T. chebula, high fire frequency and high fruit harvest intensity decreased the proportion of saplings, while lopping branches or stems to obtain fruit increased it. For Phyllanthus spp, recruitment was significantly lower in plots with more frequent fire. Indices of recruitment of both species were significantly higher for plots in more open-canopy environments of savanna woodlands than in dry forests. Our research illustrates an approach for

  8. Assessing the effects of multiple stressors on the recruitment of fruit harvested trees in a tropical dry forest, Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Anita; Ticktin, Tamara; Mandle, Lisa; Nath, Snehlata

    2015-01-01

    The harvest of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), together with other sources of anthropogenic disturbance, impact plant populations greatly. Despite this, conservation research on NTFPs typically focuses on harvest alone, ignoring possible confounding effects of other anthropogenic and ecological factors. Disentangling anthropogenic disturbances is critical in regions such as India's Western Ghats, a biodiversity hotspot with high human density. Identifying strategies that permit both use and conservation of resources is essential to preserving biodiversity while meeting local needs. We assessed the effects of NTFP harvesting (fruit harvest from canopy and lopping of branches for fruit) in combination with other common anthropogenic disturbances (cattle grazing, fire frequency and distance from village), in order to identify which stressors have greater effects on recruitment of three tropical dry forest fruit tree species. Specifically, we assessed the structure of 54 populations of Phyllanthus emblica, P. indofischeri and Terminalia chebula spread across the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats to ask: (1) How are populations recruiting? and (2) What anthropogenic disturbance and environmental factors, specifically forest type and elevation, are the most important predictors of recruitment status? We combined participatory research with an information-theoretic model-averaging approach to determine which factors most affect population structure and recruitment status. Our models illustrate that for T. chebula, high fire frequency and high fruit harvest intensity decreased the proportion of saplings, while lopping branches or stems to obtain fruit increased it. For Phyllanthus spp, recruitment was significantly lower in plots with more frequent fire. Indices of recruitment of both species were significantly higher for plots in more open-canopy environments of savanna woodlands than in dry forests. Our research illustrates an approach for identifying which

  9. A study to assess the psychological impact of fetal loss among the postnatal mothers admitted in selected hospitals of district Faridkot, Punjab, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anmol Bhatia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Miscarriage, spontaneous abortion of a fetus and the loss of an infant through stillbirth, or neonatal death is recognized as a traumatic life event before the expected point of viability. Women's response ranges from relief to devastation. Predictors of development of complicated grief after prenatal loss include lack of social support, pre-existing relationship difficulties, or absence of surviving children, as well as ambivalent attitudes or heightened perception of the reality of the pregnancy. The study aimed to assess the psychological impact of fetal loss among the postnatal mothers. Methods: The research design selected for the study was non-experimental descriptive design. Study was conducted from Dec 2014 to Jan 2015 in obstetrics and gynaecology unit of G.G.S medical hospital, Faridkot, Punjab, India. 60 postnatal women were selected by convenience sampling. The perinatal grief scale (standardized tool was used to assess fetal loss. Results: The majority of women i.e. 76.7% had more psychological impact, 23.3% women had less psychological impact of fetal loss. The range of score varies from 62-129 with mean score 102.82 ,SD 15.21 ,standard error mean 1.963, and median 103.50 and a statistically significant relation was found between psychological impact of fetal loss and gravida, Number of fetal loss, Number of live births and period of gestation at p<0.05. Conclusion: Hence it can be concluded that majority of women had more psychological impact of fetal loss and association of psychological impact of fetal loss was found between number of previous loss, number of live births, gravida and period of gestation. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(5.000: 1607-1612

  10. Design and Development of Rubrics to Improve Assessment Outcomes: A Pilot Study in a Master's Level Business Program in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Malini Y.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to discuss the characteristics that describe a rubric. It aims to propose a systematic method for developing curriculum wide rubrics and to discuss their potential utility for program quality assessment. Design/methodology/approach: Implementation of rubrics is a recent phenomenon in higher education. Prior research and…

  11. Nutritional assessment of patients with head and neck cancer in North-East India and dietary intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinandan Bhattacharjee

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Nutritional Assessment Index has been found to be the best index to evaluate malnutrition. The daily requirement of nutrients for HNCA patients can be satisfactorily met by adopting specific diet chart presented in our study. As no structured diet plan are available in literature, our diet chart can act as a template diet appropriate for HNCA patients of this region.

  12. Wearable system for vital signs monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Rita; Loriga, Gianni; Taccini, Nicola

    2004-01-01

    A new concept in healthcare, aimed at providing continuous remote monitoring of user's vital signs, is emerging. An innovative system named WEALTHY is presented, where conducting and piezoresistive materials in the form of fiber and yarn are integrated and used as sensor and electrode elements. The simultaneous recording of vital signs allows parameter extrapolation and inter-signal elaboration that contribute to producing alert messages and synoptic patient tables. Cardiac patients in the rehabilitation phase can be continuously monitored during selected time intervals, such as during physical activity or occurrence of symptoms, to discover potential threats and generate appropriate alerts to the patient and/or to an emergency center. The core of the system sensing is a textile interface, in which the sensing components are elements of the fabric: the sensorized garment is comfortable like a common article of clothing and is made with knitting machines; furthermore, the position of the electrodes and sensors is fixed and the elasticity of the fabric allows a good fitting to the body. The system is provided with a portable electronic unit, where signals are acquired, elaborated and transmitted. A monitoring system allows extrapolation of a new physiological index and data flow coordination as well as alarm management and database creation.

  13. Electronic Medical Record Tobacco Use Vital Sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norris John W

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Determination of the prevalence of tobacco use and impact of tobacco prevention/treatment efforts in an electronic medical record enabled practice utilizing a defined tobacco vital sign variable. Design and Measurements Retrospective cohort study utilizing patient data recorded in an electronic medical record database between July 15, 2001, and May 31, 2003. Patient-reported tobacco use status was obtained for each of 6,771 patients during the pre-provider period of their 24,824 visits during the study period with the recorder blinded to past tobacco use status entries. Results An overall current tobacco use prevalence of 27.1% was found during the study period. Tobacco use status was recorded in 96% of visits. Comparison of initial to final visit tobacco use status demonstrates a consistency rate of 75.0% declaring no change in tobacco status in the 4,522 patients with two or more visits. An 8.6% net tobacco use decline was seen for the practice (p value Conclusion Self reported tobacco use status as a vital sign embedded within the workflow of an electronic medical record enabled practice was a quantitative tool for determination of tobacco use prevalence and a measuring stick of risk prevention/intervention impact.

  14. Geographical Information System based assessment of spatiotemporal characteristics of groundwater quality of upland sub-watersheds of Meenachil River, parts of Western Ghats, Kottayam District, Kerala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijith, H.; Satheesh, R.

    2007-09-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in upland sub-watersheds of Meenachil river, parts of Western Ghats, Kottayam, Kerala, India was used to assess the quality of groundwater for determining its suitability for drinking and agricultural purposes. The study area is dominated by rocks of Archaean age, and Charnonckite is dominated over other rocks. Rubber plantation dominated over other types of the vegetation in the area. Though the study area receives heavy rainfall, it frequently faces water scarcity as well as water quality problems. Hence, a Geographical Information System (GIS) based assessment of spatiotemporal behaviour of groundwater quality has been carried out in the region. Twenty-eight water samples were collected from different wells and analysed for major chemical constituents both in monsoon and post-monsoon seasons to determine the quality variation. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness (TH), chloride (Cl), nitrate (NO3) and phosphate (PO4) were determined. A surface map was prepared in the ArcGIS 8.3 (spatial analyst module) to assess the quality in terms of spatial variation, and it showed that the high and low regions of water quality varied spatially during the study period. The influence of lithology over the quality of groundwater is negligible in this region because majority of the area comes under single lithology, i.e. charnockite, and it was found that the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides in the rubber, tea and other agricultural practices influenced the groundwater quality of the region. According to the overall assessment of the basin, all the parameters analysed are below the desirable limits of WHO and Indian standards for drinking water. Hence, considering the pH, the groundwater in the study area is not suitable for drinking but can be used for irrigation, industrial and domestic purposes. The spatial analysis of groundwater quality patterns of the study area shows

  15. Neuropsychology in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J Keshav; Sadasivan, Akila

    2016-11-01

    This is an invited paper for a special issue with the objective to provide information on neuropsychology in India. Information was gathered from a literature search and personal communication with professionals working in the field of neuropsychology. Neuropsychology as a specialization started in India approximately 40 years ago. The early years witnessed the use of Western tools for assessing patients with organic brain damage. Subsequent years saw the development of indigenous tools for use with the vast majority of the Indian population and also a few Western tests adapted to suit the needs of the unique Indian clientele. The starting of the Neuropsychology unit at the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) in Bangalore in 1975 resulted in changing of the course of training and practice of Neuropsychology. The field of assessments has witnessed indigenous tests being developed, while rehabilitation programs have brought about a decline in cognitive deficits in several clinical conditions. Currently, work within the field of neuropsychology has focused on child, geriatric, acquired brain injury, and forensic populations with a development of unique rehabilitations to suit needs of several clinical conditions. However, there are very few neuropsychologists in the country, and only one nodal training center, which limits the availability of training to the large population of the country. Despite the shortcomings, the field of neuropsychology has received much attention in the recent years with the number of referrals and professionals increasing.

  16. An attitude assessment of human-elephant conflict in a critical wildlife corridor within the Terai Arc Landscape, India

    OpenAIRE

    Biba Jasmine; Dipankar Ghose; Sanjay Keshari Das

    2015-01-01

    This study entails an attitude assessment of the local people living at Mankanthpur Village, one of the bottlenecks in the Bailparao-Kotabagh corridor, Terai West Forest Division, on the issue of elephant conservation, human-(wildlife) elephant conflict, and the measures to mitigate it.  Data was collected through a questionnaire survey and several group discussions among the villagers.  The frequency of crop raids and group size of elephants were calculated.  Sixty-two crop raids took place ...

  17. Detecting vital signs with wearable wireless sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Tuba; Foster, Robert; Hao, Yang

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of wireless technologies and advancements in on-body sensor design can enable change in the conventional health-care system, replacing it with wearable health-care systems, centred on the individual. Wearable monitoring systems can provide continuous physiological data, as well as better information regarding the general health of individuals. Thus, such vital-sign monitoring systems will reduce health-care costs by disease prevention and enhance the quality of life with disease management. In this paper, recent progress in non-invasive monitoring technologies for chronic disease management is reviewed. In particular, devices and techniques for monitoring blood pressure, blood glucose levels, cardiac activity and respiratory activity are discussed; in addition, on-body propagation issues for multiple sensors are presented.

  18. Biotelemetry Applications for Three Vital Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Juan Ramírez López

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies recently have allowed the complex design of transmission system, and the reception and analysis of biological signal. The monitoring of biological signals and the establishment of a continuous monitoring of different physiological parameters of the patient and the prevention of diseases characterize these kinds of systems. The biotelemetry system due to its complexity and cost has the disadvantage of not being affordable for communities isolated from health services. This reason has caught the attention of researchers of the group TIGUM, who have developed biotelemetry architecture that is functional and operational at short-range. Using Arduino® Mega ADK platform, useful for the diagnosis and prevention of diseases through the data registration and traceability of three vital signs. The architecture uses Bluetooth and ZigBee technologies to facilitate the transmission and the visualization of signals in different electronic devices.

  19. Ley de urgencia y riesgo vital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Leoncio Tay, Dr.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El artículo expone las disposiciones vigentes que deben ser observadas en las Unidades de Emergencias en el momento de atender pacientes que están cursando una urgencia médica con compromiso vital o riesgo de la pérdida total la función de un órgano o extremidad, que requiere una atención médica inmediata e impostergable, condición que debe presentarse simultáneamente. Se detalla el marco jurídico administrativo y el proceso operativo que se debe considerar para el buen desarrollo de la aplicación de la Ley de Urgencia. La Ley comporta beneficios para los pacientes, como el acceso a la atención sin mediar garantía previa y el respaldo económico, para lo cual se deben cumplir ciertas condiciones.

  20. Re-vitalizing an indigenous language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    languages to match standards defined in nation-building and, thereby, enabled latent possibilities for indigenous populations to re-vitalize their languages in connection with the United Nations Year for Indigenous Peoples in 1993, and the first United Nations Decade for Indigenous Peoples, 1995......–2004. This article focuses on dictionaries of the languages of the Ainu populations in the borderlands between the nation-states Japan and Russia. The main argument is that the Ainu Cultural Promotion Act promulgated in 1997 had a significant impact on the production and purpose of Ainu dictionaries....... The dictionaries prior to 1997 functioned, predominantly, as records, which contributed to the increased visibility of Ainu populations inside and outside Japan in the immediate national interests of Japan, whereas the dictionaries published after 1997 are intended to enable the active use of Ainu language today...

  1. [Vitality loss: influence of orthodontic process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard-Granger, Chloé; Gebeile-Chauty, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Vitality loss is an unusual event that can occur before, during or after an orthodontic treatment. It can lead to loss of sensitivity, color change or necrosis of the pulp tissue. Before starting the orthodontic treatment, we have to identify the tooth's risk (injured tooth, included occlusal trauma...). Knowing that, if an endodontic treatment has to be done, it is better to do it before starting orthodontic forces. Lamps do not provide problems except high intensity halogen ones. RPE on children, Le Fort I and mandibular osteotomies, corticotomies, genioplasties are responsible of a transitory ischemia without reaching a pathogen level. Mini-screws or mini-plates may be iatrogenic, if they impact the root. The repair options depend on the delay before removing the miniscrew and the nature of injured tissue.

  2. Detecting Vital Signs with Wearable Wireless Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of wireless technologies and advancements in on-body sensor design can enable change in the conventional health-care system, replacing it with wearable health-care systems, centred on the individual. Wearable monitoring systems can provide continuous physiological data, as well as better information regarding the general health of individuals. Thus, such vital-sign monitoring systems will reduce health-care costs by disease prevention and enhance the quality of life with disease management. In this paper, recent progress in non-invasive monitoring technologies for chronic disease management is reviewed. In particular, devices and techniques for monitoring blood pressure, blood glucose levels, cardiac activity and respiratory activity are discussed; in addition, on-body propagation issues for multiple sensors are presented.

  3. Assessment of agricultural drought in Rajasthan (India using remote sensing derived Vegetation Condition Index (VCI and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipanwita Dutta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Owing to its severe effect on productivity of rain-fed crops and indirect effect on employment as well as per capita income, agricultural drought has become a prime concern worldwide. The occurrence of drought is mainly a climatic phenomenon which cannot be eliminated. However, its effects can be reduced if actual spatio-temporal information related to crop status is available to the decision makers. The present study attempts to assess the efficiency of remote sensing and GIS techniques for monitoring the spatio-temporal extent of agricultural drought. In the present study, NOAA-AVHRR NDVI data were used for monitoring agricultural drought through NDVI based Vegetation Condition Index. VCI was calculated for whole Rajasthan using the long term NDVI images which reveals the occurrence of drought related crop stress during the year 2002. The VCI values of normal (2003 and drought (2002 year were compared with meteorological based Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, Rainfall Anomaly Index and Yield Anomaly Index and a good agreement was found among them. The correlation coefficient between VCI and yield of major rain-fed crops (r > 0.75 also supports the efficiency of this remote sensing derived index for assessing agricultural drought.

  4. Assessment of heavy metals in the industrial effluents, tube-wells and municipal supplied water of Dehradun, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshrestha, Shail; Awasthi, Alok; Dabral, S K

    2013-07-01

    The bio-geochemical cycles of metals involve the lands, rivers, oceans and the atmosphere. Although a large number of metals are introduced to the water bodies during their mining and extraction processes and geochemical weathering of rocks, but the role of domestic and industrial wastes is predominant and of much concern. Increased industrial activities has increased the incidence of percolation of toxic metal ions to the soil and water bodies and presently their presence in ecosystem, have reached to an alarming level that environmentalists are finding it difficult to enforce control measures. Human activities and large number of small and big industrial units are increasingly discharging deleterious metals present in the effluents and wastes, to the environment and aquatic systems and have contaminated heavily even the ground water. The toxic metals have a great tendency of bioaccumulation through which they enter the food chain system and ultimately affect adversely the life on this planet Earth in various ways. Further, due to contamination of irrigation system by the harmful Chemicals and toxic metals, the farm products, vegetables, fruits, potable water and even milk is not spared. This paper describes the assessment of the heavy metal concentration in various industrial effluents of the surrounding area. Various physico-chemical characteristics of the effluents collected from various sites are also reported. To assess the status of ground water quality, water samples from four tube wells of different localities of the area and four drinking water samples supplied by Municipal Distribution System were also analyzed.

  5. 36 CFR 1223.16 - How are vital records identified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are vital records identified? 1223.16 Section 1223.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... identify vital records in the context of the emergency management function. Vital records are those...

  6. Vitality of Complex Water Governance Systems: Condition and Evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Edelenbos (Jurian); I.F. van Meerkerk (Ingmar); C. van Leeuwen (Corniel)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractIn this article the evolution of vitality of social systems in water governance processes, approached as social-ecological systems, is studied. Vitality as well as conditions for vitality are theorized and measured in two cases of the Dutch southwest Delta region. Different patterns

  7. 46 CFR 111.60-9 - Segregation of vital circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segregation of vital circuits. 111.60-9 Section 111.60-9...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-9 Segregation of vital circuits. (a) General. A branch circuit that supplies equipment vital to the propulsion, control, or safety of the vessel must...

  8. Importancia de los acontecimientos vitales como factores de cambio en el ciclo vital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis MELERO MARCOS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: A lo largo del ciclo vital, los individuos experimentan una serie de acontecimientos que, sin duda, influyen en su desarrollo individual y colectivo. Tales acontecimientos parecen introducir cambios en la vida de los sujetos. El presente trabajo pretende analizar la importancia de los acontecimientos vitales como factores de cambio, desde la consideración de que el estudio de los mismos es consustancial con el estudio del ciclo vital. Desde este punto de partida, se ha establecido la existencia de diversos tipos de clasificaciones de acontecimientos, como la aportada por Rodrigo (1985, que plantea la existencia de tres tipos de eventos, eventos normativos relacionados con la edad, eventos normativos relacionados con el tiempo histórico, y finalmente, un tercer tipo de acontecimientos considerados como no normativos, que solamente son experimentados por algunos sujetos a lo largo de su vida. Analizaremos aquellos factores que adquieren significado en el desarrollo de los acontecimientos vitales y en la forma como los perciben los individuos que los experimentan, desde la revisión de los principales modelos explicativos, polarizados en dos grandes paradigmas, organicista y mecanicista, así como el intento de aproximación a través de modelos contextúales-dialécticos a una posición intermedia entre el paradigma organicista y el paradigma mecanicista.ABSTRACT: Throughout the vital cycle, individuals undergo experiences which no doubt exert an influence on their development. The present article analyzes the importance of vital events as change factors. We assume their inseparability. Adopting the classification established by Rodrigo (1985 we distinguish three classes of events, namely, normative events related to age, normative events related to historical time and non normative events which are not universally experienced by all subjects. We will analyze those factors which have relevant meaning in the development of vital events

  9. Biomonitoring of selected freshwater macrophytes to assess lake trace element contamination: a case study of Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita N. KUMAR

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A biomonitoring study was carried out at Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, a proposed Ramsar site, Gujarat State, India, to ascertain the degree of trace element contamination. The study focused on assessment of trace element contamination in certain aquatic macrophytes to be used as biomonitors, in comparison with the sediments (abiotic monitor for heavy metal pollution. Good information was provided by analyzing roots, stems and leaves of native aquatic plants (biomonitors represented by eight species: Bergia odorata, Hydrilla verticillata, Ipomoea aquatica, Najas graminea, Nelumbo nucifera, Phragmites karka, Typha angustata and Vellisnaria spiralis, alongwith surface sediments and water, were analyzed for Cd, Co, Cu, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn contamination. The highest concentrations of the trace elements were measured in Ipomoea aquatica and the lowest in Bergia odorata. Based on the concentration and toxicity status observed in the lake's vegetation, the six metals are arranged in the following decreasing order: Zn > Cu > Ni > Co > Pb > Cd. Compared with the standard, normal and critical toxicity range in plants, the detected values of Cd and Pb falls within normal range, while that of Co, Ni and Cu were within the critical range. However, Zn showed the highest concentration and alarming toxicity levels, which is considered as one of the most hazardous pollutants in Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary. Certain aquatic macrophytes species are also proposed as biomonitors for the investigated heavy metal pollutants. Such result was significant in the plant species such as Ipomoea aquatica and Phragmites karka, which are the two most useful species in biomonitoring studies due to their ability to accumulate elements in high concentration in the roots and their availability throughout the year. The results showed the significant difference in accumulation rate of some metals like Zn, Cu and Ni in different plant organs, which showed more accumulation in root than

  10. A study of trace element contamination using multivariate statistical techniques and health risk assessment in groundwater of Chhaprola Industrial Area, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Ramanathan, A L; Tripathi, Ritu; Farswan, Sandhya; Kumar, Devendra; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2017-01-01

    This study is an investigation on spatio-chemical, contamination sources (using multivariate statistics), and health risk assessment arising from the consumption of groundwater contaminated with trace and toxic elements in the Chhaprola Industrial Area, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. In this study 33 tubewell water samples were analyzed for 28 elements using ICP-OES. Concentration of some trace and toxic elements such as Al, As, B, Cd, Cr, Mn, Pb and U exceeded their corresponding WHO (2011) guidelines and BIS (2012) standards while the other analyzed elements remain below than those values. Background γ and β radiation levels were observed and found to be within their acceptable limits. Multivariate statistics PCA (explains 82.07 cumulative percent for total 6 of factors) and CA indicated (mixed origin) that natural and anthropogenic activities like industrial effluent and agricultural runoff are responsible for the degrading of groundwater quality in the research area. In this study area, an adult consumes 3.0 L (median value) of water therefore consuming 39, 1.94, 1461, 0.14, 11.1, 292.6, 13.6, 23.5 μg of Al, As, B, Cd, Cr, Mn, Pb and U from drinking water per day respectively. The hazard quotient (HQ) value exceeded the safe limit of 1 which for As, B, Al, Cr, Mn, Cd, Pb and U at few locations while hazard index (HI) > 5 was observed in about 30% of the samples which indicated potential health risk from these tubewells for the local population if the groundwater is consumed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of musculoskeletal pain among postgraduate students and faculties of dental colleges in Bengaluru city, India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Vanishree

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are problems of the musculoskeletal system that significantly cost workplace problems thus affecting occupational health, productivity, and career of the working population. Dentists are prone to many work related occupational hazards. Aim: To assess the prevalence and distribution of symptoms of MSD among postgraduates and faculties attached to dental colleges in Bengaluru city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among all the postgraduate students and faculties working in various dental colleges of Bengaluru city, India. A self-administered questionnaire was used for recording demographic data and to collect information related to musculoskeletal symptoms and the location of musculoskeletal pain among dentists in Bengaluru city. The data were collected compiled and analyzed using SPSS software version 21. Descriptive statistics was done. The findings were compared across study subjects using Chi-square test and Spearman correlation. Results: The prevalence of MSD among males was 40.25% and females were 59.75% and this difference was statistically significant (P = 0.03. The symptoms were higher in dentists practicing for more than 10 years. Lower back pain and shoulder pain were the most commonly reported complaints by dentists. The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was 41.35% for dentists in the age group of 26–30 years. The frequency of musculoskeletal pain among female dentists was nearly double that of males (P = 0.009. Conclusion: This study suggests that dentists in Bengaluru do experience a certain amount of occupation-related health problems. The study found overall high prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms (64% among dentists in Bengaluru city.

  12. A combined deficit index for regional agricultural drought assessment over semi-arid tract of India using geostationary meteorological satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Swapnil S.; Bhattacharya, Bimal K.; Nigam, Rahul; Guhathakurta, Pulak; Ghosh, Kripan; Chattopadhyay, N.; Gairola, R. M.

    2015-07-01

    The untimely onset and uneven distribution of south-west monsoon rainfall lead to agricultural drought causing reduction in food-grain production with high vulnerability over semi-arid tract (SAT) of India. A combined deficit index (CDI) has been developed from tri-monthly sum of deficit in antecedent rainfall and deficit in monthly vegetation vigor with a lag period of one month between the two. The formulation of CDI used a core biophysical (e.g., NDVI) and a hydro-meteorological (e.g., rainfall) variables derived using observation from Indian geostationary satellites. The CDI was tested and evaluated in two drought years (2009 and 2012) within a span of five years (2009-2013) over SAT. The index was found to have good correlation (0.49-0.68) with standardized precipitation index (SPI) computed from rain-gauge measurements but showed lower correlation with anomaly in monthly land surface temperature (LST). Significant correlations were found between CDI and reduction in agricultural carbon productivity (0.67-0.83), evapotranspiration (0.64-0.73), agricultural grain yield (0.70-0.85). Inconsistent correlation between CDI and ET reduction was noticed in 2012 in contrast to consistent correlation between CDI and reduction in carbon productivity both in 2009 and 2012. The comparison of CDI-based drought-affected area with those from existing operational approach showed 75% overlapping regions though class-to-class matching was only 40-45%. The results demonstrated that CDI is a potential indicator for assessment of late-season regional agricultural drought based on lag-response between water supply and crop vigor.

  13. Scope for animal welfare education in open and distance learning: findings from a needs assessment study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidhar, P V K; Jayasimha, N G

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were twofold: to assess the demand for animal welfare education by open and distance learning (ODL) and to identify content to be covered in an ODL animal welfare programme. Through email, personal interviews and online surveys, data were collected from 161 respondents. The key survey questions were on: the need and reasons for providing animal welfare education through ODL; entry-level qualifications; job/career prospects; duration of the programme, and suggestions on course content. The majority of respondents felt that there was a need for a one-year ODL academic programme on animal welfare. In the light of the findings of this study and related discussions, the authors recommend that online and ODL programmes in animal welfare be developed to meet the continuing educational needs of veterinary students, working veterinarians, para-veterinarians and other stakeholders closely related to animal welfare.

  14. Water Quality Index Assessment ofGroundwater in Todaraisingh Tehsil of Rajasthan State, India-A Greener Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Yadav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the statistical analysis and study of water quality index to assess hardness of groundwater in Todaraisingh tehsil of Tonk district of Rajasthan state. The study has been carried out to examine its suitability for drinking, irrigation and industrial purpose. The presence of problematic salts contains in groundwater due to local pollutants and affected the groundwater quality adversely. The estimated values were compared with drinking water quality standards prescribed by B.I.S. It was found that drinking water is severely polluted with hardness causing salts. This study reveals that people dependent on water sources of the study area are prone to health hazards of contaminated water and quality managements to hardness urgently needed.

  15. A STUDY TO ASSESS KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS ABOUT THE HEPATITIS B AND C AMONG NURSING COLLEGE STUDENTS OF CENTRAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramniwas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND: The lives of millions of adolescents worldwide are at risk because they do not have the information; skills, health services and support which they need to go through sexual development during adolescence. The epidemic of Hepatitis B/HCV is now progressin g at a rapid pace among young people. AIMS& OBJECTIVE: To assess knowledge of nursing students towards Hepatitis B/HCV Awareness, Prevention & Control . T o assess knowledge increase after educational intervention by means of lectures and discussions among n ursing students. MATERIAL& METHOD: An educational interventional study was conducted in Kushabhau Thakre Nursing College, Kolar Road, Bhopal. Study population included all Nursing students. Sample size was 200 students. Inclusion Criteria included all Nursing students present at the time of pre intervention interview and who gave informed consent. The data was analyzed using appropriate statistical software (MS excel and SPSS version 20. Mc Nemar test was applied for statistical significance of knowledge improvement by intervention. RESULT: Most of the Nursing students (95% were correctly known that Hepatitis B/HCV is a viral disease and an effective vaccine against Hepatitis B is available in the market but they are not able to differentiate between Hepatitis B and C, in fact they have a m is - conception that both are the same entity. After intervention 87% of the students were aware about preventive measures against Hepatitis B/HCV. Health care providers (55%, Teaching (25 and Mass media (22% were main source of knowledge for them. More t han two thirds of students had positive attitude towards Hepatitis B/HCV infected patients. CONCLUSION: The study revealed that although a significant proportion of students were aware of Hepatitis B/HCV, their knowledge on prevention modalities was low as majority of them are unable to differentiate Hepatitis B from Hepatitis C. Students also harbored misconceptions on the

  16. Assessment of morbidity pattern, quality of life and awareness of government facilities among elderly population in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was done to assess the determinants of morbidity pattern, quality of life (QoL and awareness of elderly about various government schemes and social security legislations. Materials and Methods: Data was collected by house to house survey among participants aged 60 years and above using a structured interview schedule. The QoL was assessed using Kannada version of WHOQOL-BREF instrument following language validation. Results: Mean age of 206 participants was 69.6±6.7 years. Half of them were males and majority were graduates 54 (26.2%. Morbidity was present among 194 (94.2% participants (95% CI 89.5-98.9%, most common being hypertension 96 (46.6%. Morbid conditions were seen more among less educated (P = 0.007. Only 68 (33% were under medical insurance coverage, 17 (8.3% were under old age government pension and 7