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Sample records for indepth hdss sites

  1. A role for INDEPTH Asian sites in translating research to action for non-communicable disease prevention and control: a case study from Ballabgarh, India.

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    Krishnan, Anand; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne; Kapoor, Suresh Kumar; Pandav, Chandrakant

    2009-09-28

    The International Network of field sites with continuous Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health (INDEPTH) has 34 Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in 17 different low and middle-income countries. Of these, 23 sites are in Africa, 10 sites are in Asia, and one in Oceania. The INDEPTH HDSS sites in Asia identified chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) as a neglected area of attention. As a first step, they conducted NCD risk factor surveys within nine sites in five countries. These sites are now looking to broaden the agenda of research on NCDs using the baseline data to inform policy and practice. A conceptual framework for translating research into action for NCDs at INDEPTH sites was developed. This had five steps - assess the problem, understand the nature of the problem, evaluate different interventions in research mode, implement evidence-based interventions in programme mode, and finally, share knowledge and provide leadership to communities and countries. Ballabgarh HDSS site in India has successfully adopted these steps and is used as a case study to demonstrate how this progress was achieved and what factors were responsible for a successful outcome. Most of the HDSS sites are in the second step of the process of translating research to action (understand the problem). The conduct of NCD risk factor surveys has enabled an assessment of the burden of NCD risk together with determinants in order to understand the burden at the population level. The experience from Ballabgarh HDSS exemplifies that the following steps - pilot testing the interventions, implementing activities in programme mode, and finally, share knowledge and provide leadership - are also possible in rural settings in low-income countries. The critical success factors identified were involvement of a premier medical institution, pre-existing links to policy makers and programme managers, strong commitment of the HDSS team and adequate human resource capacity

  2. Ageing and adult health status in eight lower-income countries: the INDEPTH WHO-SAGE collaboration

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    Paul Kowal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, ageing impacts all countries, with a majority of older persons residing in lower- and middle-income countries now and into the future. An understanding of the health and well-being of these ageing populations is important for policy and planning; however, research on ageing and adult health that informs policy predominantly comes from higher-income countries. A collaboration between the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE and International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health in developing countries (INDEPTH, with support from the US National Institute on Aging (NIA and the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research (FAS, has resulted in valuable health, disability and well-being information through a first wave of data collection in 2006–2007 from field sites in South Africa, Tanzania, Kenya, Ghana, Viet Nam, Bangladesh, Indonesia and India. Objective: To provide an overview of the demographic and health characteristics of participating countries, describe the research collaboration and introduce the first dataset and outputs. Methods: Data from two SAGE survey modules implemented in eight Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSS were merged with core HDSS data to produce a summary dataset for the site-specific and cross-site analyses described in this supplement. Each participating HDSS site used standardised training materials and survey instruments. Face-to-face interviews were conducted. Ethical clearance was obtained from WHO and the local ethical authority for each participating HDSS site. Results: People aged 50 years and over in the eight participating countries represent over 15% of the current global older population, and is projected to reach 23% by 2030. The Asian HDSS sites have a larger proportion of burden of disease from non-communicable diseases and injuries relative to their African counterparts. A pooled sample of over 46,000 persons

  3. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Birbhum population project (Birbhum HDSS).

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    Ghosh, Saswata; Barik, Anamitra; Majumder, Saikat; Gorain, Ashoke; Mukherjee, Subrata; Mazumdar, Saibal; Chatterjee, Kajal; Bhaumik, Sunil Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Susanta Kumar; Satpathi, BiswaRanjan; Majumder, Partha P; Chowdhury, Abhijit

    2015-02-01

    The Birbhum HDSS was established in 2008 and covers 351 villages in four administrative blocks in rural areas of Birbhum district of West Bengal, India. The project currently follows 54 585 individuals living in 12557 households. The population being followed up is economically underprivileged and socially marginalized. The HDSS, a prospective longitudinal cohort study, has been designed to study changes in population demographic, health and healthcare utilization. In addition to collecting data on vital statistics and antenatal and postnatal tracking, verbal autopsies are being performed. Moreover, periodic surveys capturing socio-demographic and economic conditions have been conducted twice. Data on nutritional status (children as well as adults), non-communicable diseases, smoking etc. have also been collected in special surveys. Currently, intervention studies on anaemia, undernutrition and common preschool childhood morbidities through behavioural changes are under way. For access to the data, a researcher needs to send a request to the Data Manager [suri.shds@gmail.com]. Data are shared in common formats like comma-separated files (csv) or Microsoft Excel (xlsx) or Microsoft Access Database (mdb).The HDSS will soon upgrade its data management system to a more integrated platform, coordinated and guided by INDEPTH data sharing policy. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  4. Do Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems benefit local populations? Maternal care utilisation in Butajira HDSS, Ethiopia

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    Mesganaw Fantahun Afework

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The benefits of Health and Demographic Surveillance sites for local populations have been the topic of discussion as countries such as Ethiopia take efforts to achieve their Millennium Development Goal targets, on which they lag behind. Ethiopia's maternal mortality ratio is very high, and in the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (2011 EDHS it was estimated to be 676/100,000 live births. Recent Global Burden of Disease (GBD and estimates based on the United Nations model reported better, but still unacceptably high, figures of 497/100,000 and 420/100,000 live births for 2013. In the 2011 EDHS, antenatal care (ANC utilization was estimated at 34%, and delivery in health facilities was only 10%. Objectives: To compare maternal health service utilization among populations in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS to non-HDSS populations in Butajira district, south central Ethiopia. Design: A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in January and February 2012 among women who had delivered in the 2 years before the survey. Results: A total of 2,296 women were included in the study. One thousand eight hundred and sixty two (81.1% had attended ANC at least once, and 37% of the women had attended ANC at least four times. A quarter of the women delivered their last child in a health facility. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, 715 (75.3% attended ANC at least once compared to 85.1% of women living in the HDSS areas [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.59; 95% CI 0.46, 0.74]. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, only 170 (17.9% delivered in health facilities and were assisted by skilled attendants during delivery, whereas 30.0% of those living in HDSS areas delivered in health facilities (AOR 0.66; 95% CI 0.48, 0.91. Conclusion: This paper provides possible evidence that living in an HDSS site has a positive influence on maternal health. In addition, there may be a positive influence on

  5. Do Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems benefit local populations? Maternal care utilisation in Butajira HDSS, Ethiopia.

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    Afework, Mesganaw Fantahun; Gebregiorgis, Seifu Hagos; Roro, Meselech Assegid; Lemma, Alemayehu Mekonnen; Ahmed, Saifuddin

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of Health and Demographic Surveillance sites for local populations have been the topic of discussion as countries such as Ethiopia take efforts to achieve their Millennium Development Goal targets, on which they lag behind. Ethiopia's maternal mortality ratio is very high, and in the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (2011 EDHS) it was estimated to be 676/100,000 live births. Recent Global Burden of Disease (GBD) and estimates based on the United Nations model reported better, but still unacceptably high, figures of 497/100,000 and 420/100,000 live births for 2013. In the 2011 EDHS, antenatal care (ANC) utilization was estimated at 34%, and delivery in health facilities was only 10%. To compare maternal health service utilization among populations in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) to non-HDSS populations in Butajira district, south central Ethiopia. A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in January and February 2012 among women who had delivered in the 2 years before the survey. A total of 2,296 women were included in the study. One thousand eight hundred and sixty two (81.1%) had attended ANC at least once, and 37% of the women had attended ANC at least four times. A quarter of the women delivered their last child in a health facility. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, 715 (75.3%) attended ANC at least once compared to 85.1% of women living in the HDSS areas [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.59; 95% CI 0.46, 0.74]. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, only 170 (17.9%) delivered in health facilities and were assisted by skilled attendants during delivery, whereas 30.0% of those living in HDSS areas delivered in health facilities (AOR 0.66; 95% CI 0.48, 0.91). This paper provides possible evidence that living in an HDSS site has a positive influence on maternal health. In addition, there may be a positive influence on those living nearby or in the same district where an HDSS is

  6. Social autopsy: INDEPTH Network experiences of utility, process, practices, and challenges in investigating causes and contributors to mortality

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    Yevoo Lucy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective implementation of child survival interventions depends on improved understanding of cultural, social, and health system factors affecting utilization of health care. Never the less, no standardized instrument exists for collecting and interpreting information on how to avert death and improve the implementation of child survival interventions. Objective To describe the methodology, development, and first results of a standard social autopsy tool for the collection of information to understand common barriers to health care, risky behaviors, and missed opportunities for health intervention in deceased children under 5 years old. Methods Under the INDEPTH Network, a social autopsy working group was formed to reach consensus around a standard social autopsy tool for neonatal and child death. The details around 434 child deaths in Iganga/Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS in Uganda and 40 child deaths in Dodowa HDSS in Ghana were investigated over 12 to 18 months. Interviews with the caretakers of these children elicited information on what happened before death, including signs and symptoms, contact with health services, details on treatments, and details of doctors. These social autopsies were used to assess the contributions of delays in care seeking and case management to the childhood deaths. Results At least one severe symptom had been recognized prior to death in 96% of the children in Iganga/Mayuge HDSS and in 70% in Dodowa HDSS, yet 32% and 80% of children were first treated at home, respectively. Twenty percent of children in Iganga/Mayuge HDSS and 13% of children in Dodowa HDSS were never taken for care outside the home. In both countries most went to private providers. In Iganga/Mayuge HDSS the main delays were caused by inadequate case management by the health provider, while in Dodowa HDSS the main delays were in the home. Conclusion While delay at home was a main obstacle to prompt and

  7. Human capital on the move: Education as a determinant of internal migration in selected INDEPTH surveillance populations in Africa

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    Carren Ginsburg

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Education, as a key indicator of human capital, is considered one of the major determinants of internal migration, with previous studies suggesting that human capital accumulates in urban areas at the expense of rural areas. However, there is fragmentary evidence concerning the educational correlates of internal migration in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective: The study questions whether more precise measures of migration in Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS populations support the hypothesis that migrants are self-selected on human capital and more educated people are more likely to leave rural areas or enter urban areas within a geographical region. Methods: Using unique longitudinal data representing approximately 900,000 people living in eight sub-Saharan African HDSS sites that are members of the INDEPTH Network, the paper uses Event History Analysis techniques to examine the relationship between formal educational attainment and in- and out-migration, over the period 2009 to 2011. Results: Between 7Š and 27Š of these local populations are moving in or out of the HDSS area over this period. Education is positively associated with both in- and out-migration in the Kenyan HDSS areas; however, the education effect has no clear pattern in the HDSS sites in Burkina Faso, Mozambique, and South Africa. Conclusions: Empirical results presented in this paper confirm a strong age profile of migration consistent with human capital expectation, yet the results point to variability in the association of education and the propensity to migrate. In particular, the hypothesis of a shift of human capital from rural to urban areas is not universally valid.

  8. Health & demographic surveillance system profile: the Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Northern Nigeria (Nahuche HDSS).

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    Alabi, Olatunji; Doctor, Henry V; Jumare, Abdulazeez; Sahabi, Nasiru; Abdulwahab, Ahmad; Findley, Sally E; Abubakar, Sani D

    2014-12-01

    The Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) study site, established in 2009 with 137 823 individuals is located in Zamfara State, north western Nigeria. North-West Nigeria is a region with one of the worst maternal and child health indicators in Nigeria. For example, the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey estimated an under-five mortality rate of 185 deaths per 1000 live births for the north-west geo-political zone compared with a national average of 128 deaths per 1000 live births. The site comprises over 100 villages under the leadership of six district heads. Virtually all the residents of the catchment population are Hausa by ethnicity. After a baseline census in 2010, regular update rounds of data collection are conducted every 6 months. Data collection on births, deaths, migration events, pregnancies, marriages and marriage termination events are routinely conducted. Verbal autopsy (VA) data are collected on all deaths reported during routine data collection. Annual update data on antenatal care and household characteristics are also collected. Opportunities for collaborations are available at Nahuche HDSS. The Director of Nahuche HDSS, M.O. Oche at [ochedr@hotmail.com] is the contact person for all forms of collaboration. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  9. The Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS in Nouna, Burkina Faso, 1993–2007

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    Ali Sié

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nouna1 Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS is located in rural Burkina Faso and has existed since 1992. Currently, it has about 78,000 inhabitants. It is a member of the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health in Developing Countries (INDEPTH, a global network of memberswho conducts longitudinal health and demographic evaluation of populations in low- and middle-income countries. The health facilities consist of one hospital and 13 basic health centres (locally known as CSPS. The Nouna HDSS has been used as a sampling frame for numerous studies in the fields of clinical research, epidemiology, health economics, and health systems research. In this paper we review some of the main findings, and we describe the effects that almost 20 years of health research activities have shown in the population in general and in terms of the perception, economic implications, and other indicators. Longitudinal data analyses show that childhood, as well as overall mortality, has significantly decreased over the observation period 1993–2007. The under-five mortality rate dropped from about 40 per 1,000 person-years in the mid-1990s to below 30 per 1,000 in 2007. Further efforts are needed to meet goal four of the Millennium Development Goals, which is to reduce the under-five mortality rate by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015.

  10. Causes of Death among Children Aged 5 to 14 Years Old from 2008 to 2013 in Kersa Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Kersa HDSS), Ethiopia.

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    Dedefo, Melkamu; Zelalem, Desalew; Eskinder, Biniyam; Assefa, Nega; Ashenafi, Wondimye; Baraki, Negga; Damena Tesfatsion, Melake; Oljira, Lemessa; Haile, Ashenafi

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of mortality among children is still very huge though its trend has started declining following the improvements in the living standard. It presents serious challenges to the well-being of children in many African countries. Today, Sub-Saharan Africa alone accounts for about 50% of global child mortality. The overall objective of this study was to determine the magnitude and distribution of causes of death among children aged 5 to 14 year olds in the population of Kersa HDSS using verbal autopsy method for the period 2008 to 2013. Kersa Health and Demographic Surveillance System(Kersa HDSS) was established in September 2007. The center consists of 10 rural and 2 urban kebeles which were selected randomly from 38 kebeles in the district. Thus this study was conducted in Kersa HDSS and data was taken from Kersa HDSS database. The study population included all children aged 5 to 14 years registered during the period of 2008 to 2013 in Kersa HDSS using age specific VA questionnaires. Data were extracted from SPSS database and analyzed using STATA. A total of 229 deaths were recorded over the period of six years with a crude death rate of 219.6 per 100,000 population of this age group over the study period. This death rate was 217.5 and 221.5 per 100,000 populations for females and males, respectively. 75% of deaths took place at home. The study identified severe malnutrition(33.9%), intestinal infectious diseases(13.8%) and acute lower respiratory infections(9.2%) to be the three most leading causes of death. In broad causes of death classification, injuries have been found to be the second most cause of death next to communicable diseases(56.3%) attributing to 13.1% of the total deaths. In specific causes of death classification severe malnutrition, intestinal infectious diseases and acute lower respiratory infections were the three leading causes of death where, in broad causes of death communicable diseases and injuries were among the leading

  11. Causes of Death among Children Aged 5 to 14 Years Old from 2008 to 2013 in Kersa Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Kersa HDSS, Ethiopia.

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    Melkamu Dedefo

    Full Text Available The global burden of mortality among children is still very huge though its trend has started declining following the improvements in the living standard. It presents serious challenges to the well-being of children in many African countries. Today, Sub-Saharan Africa alone accounts for about 50% of global child mortality. The overall objective of this study was to determine the magnitude and distribution of causes of death among children aged 5 to 14 year olds in the population of Kersa HDSS using verbal autopsy method for the period 2008 to 2013.Kersa Health and Demographic Surveillance System(Kersa HDSS was established in September 2007. The center consists of 10 rural and 2 urban kebeles which were selected randomly from 38 kebeles in the district. Thus this study was conducted in Kersa HDSS and data was taken from Kersa HDSS database. The study population included all children aged 5 to 14 years registered during the period of 2008 to 2013 in Kersa HDSS using age specific VA questionnaires. Data were extracted from SPSS database and analyzed using STATA.A total of 229 deaths were recorded over the period of six years with a crude death rate of 219.6 per 100,000 population of this age group over the study period. This death rate was 217.5 and 221.5 per 100,000 populations for females and males, respectively. 75% of deaths took place at home. The study identified severe malnutrition(33.9%, intestinal infectious diseases(13.8% and acute lower respiratory infections(9.2% to be the three most leading causes of death. In broad causes of death classification, injuries have been found to be the second most cause of death next to communicable diseases(56.3% attributing to 13.1% of the total deaths.In specific causes of death classification severe malnutrition, intestinal infectious diseases and acute lower respiratory infections were the three leading causes of death where, in broad causes of death communicable diseases and injuries were among the

  12. A systematic review of the status of children's school access in low- and middle-income countries between 1998 and 2013: using the INDEPTH Network platform to fill the research gaps.

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    Kamanda, Mamusu; Sankoh, Osman

    2015-01-01

    The framework for expanding children's school access in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has been directed by universal education policies as part of Education for All since 1990. In measuring progress to universal education, a narrow conceptualisation of access which dichotomises children's participation as being in or out of school has often been assumed. Yet, the actual promise of universal education goes beyond this simple definition to include retention, progression, completion, and learning. Our first objective was to identify gaps in the literature on children's school access using the zones of exclusion of the Consortium for Research on Educational Access, Transition, and Equity as a framework. Second, we gave consideration to how these gaps can be met by using longitudinal and cross-country data from Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) sites within the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Population and Their Health (INDEPTH) in LMICs. Using Web of Science, we conducted a literature search of studies published in international peer-reviewed journals between 1998 and 2013 in LMICs. The phrases we searched included six school outcomes: school enrolment, school attendance, grade progression, school dropout, primary to secondary school transition, and school completion. From our search, we recorded studies according to: 1) school outcomes; 2) whether longitudinal data were used; and 3) whether data from more than one country were analysed. The area of school access most published is enrolment followed by attendance and dropout. Primary to secondary school transition and grade progression had the least number of publications. Of 132 publications which we found to be relevant to school access, 33 made use of longitudinal data and 17 performed cross-country analyses. The majority of studies published in international peer-reviewed journals on children's school access between 1998 and 2013 were focused on three outcomes

  13. A systematic review of the status of children's school access in low- and middle-income countries between 1998 and 2013: using the INDEPTH Network platform to fill the research gaps

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    Mamusu Kamanda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The framework for expanding children's school access in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs has been directed by universal education policies as part of Education for All since 1990. In measuring progress to universal education, a narrow conceptualisation of access which dichotomises children's participation as being in or out of school has often been assumed. Yet, the actual promise of universal education goes beyond this simple definition to include retention, progression, completion, and learning. Objective: Our first objective was to identify gaps in the literature on children's school access using the zones of exclusion of the Consortium for Research on Educational Access, Transition, and Equity as a framework. Second, we gave consideration to how these gaps can be met by using longitudinal and cross-country data from Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS sites within the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Population and Their Health (INDEPTH in LMICs. Design: Using Web of Science, we conducted a literature search of studies published in international peer-reviewed journals between 1998 and 2013 in LMICs. The phrases we searched included six school outcomes: school enrolment, school attendance, grade progression, school dropout, primary to secondary school transition, and school completion. From our search, we recorded studies according to: 1 school outcomes; 2 whether longitudinal data were used; and 3 whether data from more than one country were analysed. Results: The area of school access most published is enrolment followed by attendance and dropout. Primary to secondary school transition and grade progression had the least number of publications. Of 132 publications which we found to be relevant to school access, 33 made use of longitudinal data and 17 performed cross-country analyses. Conclusions: The majority of studies published in international peer-reviewed journals on children

  14. Cause-specific childhood mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance system sites

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    P. Kim Streatfield

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood mortality, particularly in the first 5 years of life, is a major global concern and the target of Millennium Development Goal 4. Although the majority of childhood deaths occur in Africa and Asia, these are also the regions where such deaths are least likely to be registered. The INDEPTH Network works to alleviate this problem by collating detailed individual data from defined Health and Demographic Surveillance sites. By registering deaths and carrying out verbal autopsies to determine cause of death across many such sites, using standardised methods, the Network seeks to generate population-based mortality statistics that are not otherwise available. Objective: To present a description of cause-specific mortality rates and fractions over the first 15 years of life as documented by INDEPTH Network sites in sub-Saharan Africa and south-east Asia. Design: All childhood deaths at INDEPTH sites are routinely registered and followed up with verbal autopsy (VA interviews. For this study, VA archives were transformed into the WHO 2012 VA standard format and processed using the InterVA-4 model to assign cause of death. Routine surveillance data also provided person-time denominators for mortality rates. Cause-specific mortality rates and cause-specific mortality fractions are presented according to WHO 2012 VA cause groups for neonatal, infant, 1–4 year and 5–14 year age groups. Results: A total of 28,751 childhood deaths were documented during 4,387,824 person-years over 18 sites. Infant mortality ranged from 11 to 78 per 1,000 live births, with under-5 mortality from 15 to 152 per 1,000 live births. Sites in Vietnam and Kenya accounted for the lowest and highest mortality rates reported. Conclusions: Many children continue to die from relatively preventable causes, particularly in areas with high rates of malaria and HIV/AIDS. Neonatal mortality persists at relatively high, and perhaps sometimes under-documented, rates

  15. Profile: Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System

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    Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark A; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Mokoena, Obed; Twine, Rhian; Mee, Paul; Afolabi, Sulaimon A; Clark, Benjamin D; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W; Khosa, Audrey; Khoza, Simon; Shabangu, Mildred G; Silaule, Bernard; Tibane, Jeffrey B; Wagner, Ryan G; Garenne, Michel L; Clark, Samuel J; Tollman, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    The Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system (HDSS), located in rural northeast South Africa close to the Mozambique border, was established in 1992 to support district health systems development led by the post-apartheid ministry of health. The HDSS (90 000 people), based on an annual update of resident status and vital events, now supports multiple investigations into the causes and consequences of complex health, population and social transitions. Observational work includes cohorts focusing on different stages along the life course, evaluation of national policy at population, household and individual levels and examination of household responses to shocks and stresses and the resulting pathways influencing health and well-being. Trials target children and adolescents, including promoting psycho-social well-being, preventing HIV transmission and reducing metabolic disease risk. Efforts to enhance the research platform include using automated measurement techniques to estimate cause of death by verbal autopsy, full ‘reconciliation’ of in- and out-migrations, follow-up of migrants departing the study area, recording of extra-household social connections and linkage of individual HDSS records with those from sub-district clinics. Fostering effective collaborations (including INDEPTH multi-centre work in adult health and ageing and migration and urbanization), ensuring cross-site compatibility of common variables and optimizing public access to HDSS data are priorities. PMID:22933647

  16. Tackling malnutrition: a systematic review of 15-year research evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance systems

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    Samuelina S. Arthur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutrition is the intake of food in relation to the body's dietary needs. Malnutrition results from the intake of inadequate or excess food. This can lead to reduced immunity, increased susceptibility to disease, impaired physical and mental development, and reduced productivity. Objective: To perform a systematic review to assess research conducted by the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health (INDEPTH of health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSSs over a 15-year period on malnutrition, its determinants, the effects of under and over nutrition, and intervention research on malnutrition in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Methods: Relevant publication titles were uploaded onto the Zotero research tool from different databases (60% from PubMed. Using the keywords ‘nutrition’, ‘malnutrition’, ‘over and under nutrition’, we selected publications that were based only on data generated through the longitudinal HDSS platform. All titles and abstracts were screened to determine inclusion eligibility and full articles were independently assessed according to inclusion/exclusion criteria. For inclusion in this study, papers had to cover research on at least one of the following topics: the problem of malnutrition, its determinants, its effects, and intervention research on malnutrition. One hundred and forty eight papers were identified and reviewed, and 67 were selected for this study. Results: The INDEPTH research identified rising levels of overweight and obesity, sometimes in the same settings as under-nutrition. Urbanisation appears to be protective against under-nutrition, but it heightens the risk of obesity. Appropriately timed breastfeeding interventions were protective against malnutrition. Conclusions: Although INDEPTH has expanded the global knowledge base on nutrition, many questions remain unresolved. There is a need for more investment in nutrition research

  17. Tackling malnutrition: a systematic review of 15-year research evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance systems

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    Arthur, Samuelina S.; Nyide, Bongiwe; Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi; Kahn, Kathleen; Weston, Mark; Sankoh, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Background Nutrition is the intake of food in relation to the body's dietary needs. Malnutrition results from the intake of inadequate or excess food. This can lead to reduced immunity, increased susceptibility to disease, impaired physical and mental development, and reduced productivity. Objective To perform a systematic review to assess research conducted by the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health (INDEPTH) of health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSSs) over a 15-year period on malnutrition, its determinants, the effects of under and over nutrition, and intervention research on malnutrition in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods Relevant publication titles were uploaded onto the Zotero research tool from different databases (60% from PubMed). Using the keywords ‘nutrition’, ‘malnutrition’, ‘over and under nutrition’, we selected publications that were based only on data generated through the longitudinal HDSS platform. All titles and abstracts were screened to determine inclusion eligibility and full articles were independently assessed according to inclusion/exclusion criteria. For inclusion in this study, papers had to cover research on at least one of the following topics: the problem of malnutrition, its determinants, its effects, and intervention research on malnutrition. One hundred and forty eight papers were identified and reviewed, and 67 were selected for this study. Results The INDEPTH research identified rising levels of overweight and obesity, sometimes in the same settings as under-nutrition. Urbanisation appears to be protective against under-nutrition, but it heightens the risk of obesity. Appropriately timed breastfeeding interventions were protective against malnutrition. Conclusions Although INDEPTH has expanded the global knowledge base on nutrition, many questions remain unresolved. There is a need for more investment in nutrition research in LMICs in order to

  18. Health and demographic surveillance systems: a step towards full civil registration and vital statistics system in sub-Sahara Africa?

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    Ye Yazoume

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the developed world, information on vital events is routinely collected nationally to inform population and health policies. However, in many low-and middle-income countries, especially those in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, there is a lack of effective and comprehensive national civil registration and vital statistics system. In the past decades, the number of Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs has increased throughout SSA. An HDSS monitors births, deaths, causes of death, migration, and other health and socio-economic indicators within a defined population over time. Currently, the International Network for the Continuous Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health (INDEPTH brings together 38 member research centers which run 44 HDSS sites from 20 countries in Africa, Asia and Oceana. Thirty two of these HDSS sites are in SSA. Discussion This paper argues that, in the absence of an adequate national CRVS, HDSSs should be more effectively utilised to generate relevant public health data, and also to create local capacity for longitudinal data collection and management systems in SSA. If HDSSs get strategically located to cover different geographical regions in a country, data from these sites could be used to provide a more complete national picture of the health of the population. They provide useful data that can be extrapolated for national estimates if their regional coverage is well planned. HDSSs are however resource-intensive. Efforts are being put towards getting them linked to local or national policy contexts and to reduce their dependence on external funding. Increasing their number in SSA to cover a critical proportion of the population, especially urban populations, must be carefully planned. Strategic planning is needed at national levels to geographically locate HDSS sites and to support these through national funding mechanisms. Summary The paper does not suggest that HDSSs should be

  19. Health and demographic surveillance systems: a step towards full civil registration and vital statistics system in sub-Sahara Africa?

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    Ye, Yazoume; Wamukoya, Marilyn; Ezeh, Alex; Emina, Jacques B O; Sankoh, Osman

    2012-09-05

    In the developed world, information on vital events is routinely collected nationally to inform population and health policies. However, in many low-and middle-income countries, especially those in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), there is a lack of effective and comprehensive national civil registration and vital statistics system. In the past decades, the number of Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs) has increased throughout SSA. An HDSS monitors births, deaths, causes of death, migration, and other health and socio-economic indicators within a defined population over time. Currently, the International Network for the Continuous Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health (INDEPTH) brings together 38 member research centers which run 44 HDSS sites from 20 countries in Africa, Asia and Oceana. Thirty two of these HDSS sites are in SSA. This paper argues that, in the absence of an adequate national CRVS, HDSSs should be more effectively utilised to generate relevant public health data, and also to create local capacity for longitudinal data collection and management systems in SSA. If HDSSs get strategically located to cover different geographical regions in a country, data from these sites could be used to provide a more complete national picture of the health of the population. They provide useful data that can be extrapolated for national estimates if their regional coverage is well planned. HDSSs are however resource-intensive. Efforts are being put towards getting them linked to local or national policy contexts and to reduce their dependence on external funding. Increasing their number in SSA to cover a critical proportion of the population, especially urban populations, must be carefully planned. Strategic planning is needed at national levels to geographically locate HDSS sites and to support these through national funding mechanisms. The paper does not suggest that HDSSs should be seen as a replacement for civil registration systems

  20. Socioenvironmental factors associated with heat and cold-related mortality in Vadu HDSS, western India: a population-based case-crossover study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingole, Vijendra; Kovats, Sari; Schumann, Barbara; Hajat, Shakoor; Rocklöv, Joacim; Juvekar, Sanjay; Armstrong, Ben

    2017-10-01

    Ambient temperatures (heat and cold) are associated with mortality, but limited research is available about groups most vulnerable to these effects in rural populations. We estimated the effects of heat and cold on daily mortality among different sociodemographic groups in the Vadu HDSS area, western India. We studied all deaths in the Vadu HDSS area during 2004-2013. A conditional logistic regression model in a case-crossover design was used. Separate analyses were carried out for summer and winter season. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for total mortality and population subgroups. Temperature above a threshold of 31 °C was associated with total mortality (OR 1.48, CI = 1.05-2.09) per 1 °C increase in daily mean temperature. Odds ratios were higher among females (OR 1.93; CI = 1.07-3.47), those with low education (OR 1.65; CI = 1.00-2.75), those owing larger agricultural land (OR 2.18; CI = 0.99-4.79), and farmers (OR 1.70; CI = 1.02-2.81). In winter, per 1 °C decrease in mean temperature, OR for total mortality was 1.06 (CI = 1.00-1.12) in lag 0-13 days. High risk of cold-related mortality was observed among people occupied in housework (OR = 1.09; CI = 1.00-1.19). Our study suggests that both heat and cold have an impact on mortality particularly heat, but also, to a smaller degree, cold have an impact. The effects may differ partly by sex, education, and occupation. These findings might have important policy implications in preventing heat and cold effects on particularly vulnerable groups of the rural populations in low and middle-income countries with hot semi-arid climate.

  1. Health and demographic surveillance systems: contributing to an understanding of the dynamics in migration and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, Annette; Bocquier, Philippe; White, Michael; Mbacké, Cheikh; Alam, Nurul; Beguy, Donatien; Odhiambo, Frank; Sacoor, Charfudin; Phuc, Ho Dang; Punpuing, Sureeporn; Collinson, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Migration is difficult to measure because it is highly repeatable. Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs) provide a unique opportunity to study migration as multiple episodes of migration are captured over time. A conceptual framework is needed to show the public health implications of migration. Objective/design Research conducted in seven HDSS centres [International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health (INDEPTH) Network], published in a peer-reviewed volume in 2009, is summarised focussing on the age–sex profile of migrants, the relation between migration and livelihoods, and the impact of migration on health. This illustrates the conceptual structure of the implications of migration. The next phase is described, the Multi-centre Analysis of the Dynamics In Migration And Health (MADIMAH) project, consisting of workshops focussed on preparing data and conducting the analyses for comparative studies amongst HDSS centres in Africa and Asia. The focus here is on the (standardisation of) determinants of migration and the impact of migration on adult mortality. Results The findings in the volume showed a relatively regular age structure for migration among all HDSS centres. Furthermore, migration generally contributes to improved living conditions at the place of origin. However, there are potential negative consequences of migration on health. It was concluded that there is a need to compare results from multiple centres using uniform covariate definitions as well as longitudinal analysis techniques. This was the starting point for the on-going MADIMAH initiative, which has increased capacity at the participating HDSS centres to produce the required datasets and conduct the analyses. Conclusions HDSS centres brought together within INDEPTH Network have already provided strong evidence of the potential negative consequences of migration on health, which contrast with the beneficial impacts of migration on

  2. Off-Line High-pH Reversed-Phase Fractionation for In-Depth Phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batth, Tanveer S; Francavilla, Chiara; Olsen, Jesper V

    2014-01-01

    thousands of phosphorylation sites. However, in-depth phosphoproteomics often require off-line enrichment and fractionation techniques. In this study, we provide a detailed analysis of the physicochemical characteristics of phosphopeptides, which have been fractionated by off-line high-pH chromatography (Hp...... phosphorylated peptides over that with SCX. Further optimizations in the pooling and concatenation strategy increased the total number of multiphosphorylated peptides detected after HpH fractionation. In conclusion, we provide a basic framework and resource for performing in-depth phosphoproteome studies...

  3. Establishing a health demographic surveillance site in Bhaktapur district, Nepal: initial experiences and findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryal Umesh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A health demographic surveillance system (HDSS provides longitudinal data regarding health and demography in countries with coverage error and poor quality data on vital registration systems due to lack of public awareness, inadequate legal basis and limited use of data in health planning. The health system in Nepal, a low-income country, does not focus primarily on health registration, and does not conduct regular health data collection. This study aimed to initiate and establish the first HDSS in Nepal. Results We conducted a baseline survey in Jhaukhel and Duwakot, two villages in Bhaktapur district. The study surveyed 2,712 households comprising a total population of 13,669. The sex ratio in the study area was 101 males per 100 females and the average household size was 5. The crude birth and death rates were 9.7 and 3.9/1,000 population/year, respectively. About 11% of births occurred at home, and we found no mortality in infants and children less than 5 years of age. Various health problems were found commonly and some of them include respiratory problems (41.9%; headache, vertigo and dizziness (16.7%; bone and joint pain (14.4%; gastrointestinal problems (13.9%; heart disease, including hypertension (8.8%; accidents and injuries (2.9%; and diabetes mellitus (2.6%. The prevalence of non-communicable disease (NCD was 4.3% (95% CI: 3.83; 4.86 among individuals older than 30 years. Age-adjusted odds ratios showed that risk factors, such as sex, ethnic group, occupation and education, associated with NCD. Conclusion Our baseline survey demonstrated that it is possible to collect accurate and reliable data in a village setting in Nepal, and this study successfully established an HDSS site. We determined that both maternal and child health are better in the surveillance site compared to the entire country. Risk factors associated with NCDs dominated morbidity and mortality patterns.

  4. Measuring population health: costs of alternative survey approaches in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System in rural Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Lietz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are more than 40 Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS sites in 19 different countries. The running costs of HDSS sites are high. The financing of HDSS activities is of major importance, and adding external health surveys to the HDSS is challenging. To investigate the ways of improving data quality and collection efficiency in the Nouna HDSS in Burkina Faso, the stand-alone data collection activities of the HDSS and the Household Morbidity Survey (HMS were integrated, and the paper-based questionnaires were consolidated into a single tablet-based questionnaire, the Comprehensive Disease Assessment (CDA. Objective: The aims of this study are to estimate and compare the implementation costs of the two different survey approaches for measuring population health. Design: All financial costs of stand-alone (HDSS and HMS and integrated (CDA surveys were estimated from the perspective of the implementing agency. Fixed and variable costs of survey implementation and key cost drivers were identified. The costs per household visit were calculated for both survey approaches. Results: While fixed costs of survey implementation were similar for the two survey approaches, there were considerable variations in variable costs, resulting in an estimated annual cost saving of about US$45,000 under the integrated survey approach. This was primarily because the costs of data management for the tablet-based CDA survey were considerably lower than for the paper-based stand-alone surveys. The cost per household visit from the integrated survey approach was US$21 compared with US$25 from the stand-alone surveys for collecting the same amount of information from 10,000 HDSS households. Conclusions: The CDA tablet-based survey method appears to be feasible and efficient for collecting health and demographic data in the Nouna HDSS in rural Burkina Faso. The possibility of using the tablet-based data collection platform to improve the quality

  5. A training manual for event history data management using Health and Demographic Surveillance System data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquier, Philippe; Ginsburg, Carren; Herbst, Kobus; Sankoh, Osman; Collinson, Mark A

    2017-06-26

    The objective of this research note is to introduce a training manual for event history data management. The manual provides a first comprehensive guide to longitudinal Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) data management that allows for a step-by-step description of the process of structuring and preparing a dataset for the calculation of demographic rates and event history analysis. The research note provides some background information on the INDEPTH Network, and the iShare data repository and describes the need for a manual to guide users as to how to correctly handle HDSS datasets. The approach outlined in the manual is flexible and can be applied to other longitudinal data sources. It facilitates the development of standardised longitudinal data management and harmonization of datasets to produce a comparative set of results.

  6. Decreasing child mortality, spatial clustering and decreasing disparity in North-Western Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Heiko; Müller, Olaf; Dambach, Peter; Gabrysch, Sabine; Niamba, Louis; Sankoh, Osman; Simboro, Seraphin; Schoeps, Anja; Stieglbauer, Gabriele; Yé, Yazoume; Sié, Ali

    2016-04-01

    Within relatively small areas, there exist high spatial variations of mortality between villages. In rural Burkina Faso, with data from 1993 to 1998, clusters of particularly high child mortality were identified in the population of the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), a member of the INDEPTH Network. In this paper, we report child mortality with respect to temporal trends, spatial clustering and disparity in this HDSS from 1993 to 2012. Poisson regression was used to describe village-specific child mortality rates and time trends in mortality. The spatial scan statistic was used to identify villages or village clusters with higher child mortality. Clustering of mortality in the area is still present, but not as strong as before. The disparity of child mortality between villages has decreased. The decrease occurred in the context of an overall halving of child mortality in the rural area of Nouna HDSS between 1993 and 2012. Extrapolated to the Millennium Development Goals target period 1990-2015, this yields an estimated reduction of 54%, which is not too far off the aim of a two-thirds reduction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Distribution of cause of death in rural Bangladesh during 2003-2010: evidence from two rural areas within Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nurul; Chowdhury, Hafizur R; Ahmed, Ali; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Streatfield, P Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study used the InterVA-4 computerised model to assign probable cause of death (CoD) to verbal autopsies (VAs) generated from two rural areas, with a difference in health service provision, within the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site (HDSS). This study aimed to compare CoD by gender, as well as discussing possible factors which could influence differences in the distribution of CoD between the two areas. Data for this study came from the Matlab the HDSS maintained by the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) since 1966. In late 1977, icddr,b divided HDSS and implemented a high-quality maternal, newborn and child health and family planning (MNCH-FP) services project in one half, called the icddr,b service area (SA), in addition to the usual public and private MNCH-FP services that serve the other half, called the government SA. HDSS field workers registered 12,144 deaths during 2003-2010, and trained interviewers obtained VA for 98.9% of them. The probabilistic model InterVA-4 probabilistic model (version 4.02) was used to derive probable CoD from VA symptoms. Cause-specific mortality rates and fractions were compared across gender and areas. Appropriate statistical tests were applied for significance testing. Mortality rates due to neonatal causes and communicable diseases (CDs) were lower in the icddr,b SA than in the government SA, where mortality rates due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) were lower. Cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) due to CDs (23.2% versus 18.8%) and neonatal causes (7.4% versus 6%) were higher in the government SA, whereas CSMFs due to NCDs were higher (58.2% versus 50.7%) in the icddr,b SA. The rank-order of CSMFs by age group showed marked variations, the largest category being acute respiratory infection/pneumonia in infancy, injury in 1-4 and 5-14 years, neoplasms in 15-49 and 50-64 years, and stroke in 65+ years. Automated InterVA-4 coding of VA to determine probable Co

  8. Performance of the lot quality assurance sampling method compared to surveillance for identifying inadequately-performing areas in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiya, Abbas; Hanifi, S M A; Roy, Nikhil; Streatfield, P Kim

    2007-03-01

    This paper compared the performance of the lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method in identifying inadequately-performing health work-areas with that of using health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) data and examined the feasibility of applying the method by field-level programme supervisors. The study was carried out in Matlab, the field site of ICDDR,B, where a HDSS has been in place for over 30 years. The LQAS method was applied in 57 work-areas of community health workers in ICDDR,B-served areas in Matlab during July-September 2002. The performance of the LQAS method in identifying work-areas with adequate and inadequate coverage of various health services was compared with those of the HDSS. The health service-coverage indicators included coverage of DPT, measles, BCG vaccination, and contraceptive use. It was observed that the difference in the proportion of work-areas identified to be inadequately performing using the LQAS method with less than 30 respondents, and the HDSS was not statistically significant. The consistency between the LQAS method and the HDSS in identifying work-areas was greater for adequately-performing areas than inadequately-performing areas. It was also observed that the field managers could be trained to apply the LQAS method in monitoring their performance in reaching the target population.

  9. In-depth research of domestic nuclear patent information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo Dan; Gao Anna; Li Dongbin; Lu Yanjia; Ren Chao

    2014-01-01

    Based on the domestic patent information, combined with examples, this article makes an in-depth discussion on the domestic nuclear patent information. The author puts forward for the patent information research, the appropriate retrieval of patent documents is the basis,and the correct quantitative statistical analysis of patent documents is the key, and in-depth qualitative analysis of patent documents is the core. It is expected to provide information support and guarantee for the technical innovation and scientific research personnel in the nuclear field through in-depth study of domestic nuclear information. (authors)

  10. Distribution of cause of death in rural Bangladesh during 2003–2010: evidence from two rural areas within Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Alam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study used the InterVA-4 computerised model to assign probable cause of death (CoD to verbal autopsies (VAs generated from two rural areas, with a difference in health service provision, within the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site (HDSS. This study aimed to compare CoD by gender, as well as discussing possible factors which could influence differences in the distribution of CoD between the two areas. Design: Data for this study came from the Matlab the HDSS maintained by the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b since 1966. In late 1977, icddr,b divided HDSS and implemented a high-quality maternal, newborn and child health and family planning (MNCH-FP services project in one half, called the icddr,b service area (SA, in addition to the usual public and private MNCH-FP services that serve the other half, called the government SA. HDSS field workers registered 12,144 deaths during 2003–2010, and trained interviewers obtained VA for 98.9% of them. The probabilistic model InterVA-4 probabilistic model (version 4.02 was used to derive probable CoD from VA symptoms. Cause-specific mortality rates and fractions were compared across gender and areas. Appropriate statistical tests were applied for significance testing. Results: Mortality rates due to neonatal causes and communicable diseases (CDs were lower in the icddr,b SA than in the government SA, where mortality rates due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs were lower. Cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs due to CDs (23.2% versus 18.8% and neonatal causes (7.4% versus 6% were higher in the government SA, whereas CSMFs due to NCDs were higher (58.2% versus 50.7% in the icddr,b SA. The rank-order of CSMFs by age group showed marked variations, the largest category being acute respiratory infection/pneumonia in infancy, injury in 1–4 and 5–14 years, neoplasms in 15–49 and 50–64 years, and stroke in 65+ years. Conclusions

  11. Distribution of cause of death in rural Bangladesh during 2003–2010: evidence from two rural areas within Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nurul; Chowdhury, Hafizur R.; Ahmed, Ali; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Streatfield, P. Kim

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study used the InterVA-4 computerised model to assign probable cause of death (CoD) to verbal autopsies (VAs) generated from two rural areas, with a difference in health service provision, within the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance site (HDSS). This study aimed to compare CoD by gender, as well as discussing possible factors which could influence differences in the distribution of CoD between the two areas. Design Data for this study came from the Matlab the HDSS maintained by the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) since 1966. In late 1977, icddr,b divided HDSS and implemented a high-quality maternal, newborn and child health and family planning (MNCH-FP) services project in one half, called the icddr,b service area (SA), in addition to the usual public and private MNCH-FP services that serve the other half, called the government SA. HDSS field workers registered 12,144 deaths during 2003–2010, and trained interviewers obtained VA for 98.9% of them. The probabilistic model InterVA-4 probabilistic model (version 4.02) was used to derive probable CoD from VA symptoms. Cause-specific mortality rates and fractions were compared across gender and areas. Appropriate statistical tests were applied for significance testing. Results Mortality rates due to neonatal causes and communicable diseases (CDs) were lower in the icddr,b SA than in the government SA, where mortality rates due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) were lower. Cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) due to CDs (23.2% versus 18.8%) and neonatal causes (7.4% versus 6%) were higher in the government SA, whereas CSMFs due to NCDs were higher (58.2% versus 50.7%) in the icddr,b SA. The rank-order of CSMFs by age group showed marked variations, the largest category being acute respiratory infection/pneumonia in infancy, injury in 1–4 and 5–14 years, neoplasms in 15–49 and 50–64 years, and stroke in 65+ years. Conclusions Automated

  12. Performance of the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Method Compared to Surveillance for Identifying Inadequately-performing Areas in Matlab, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuiya, Abbas; Hanifi, S.M.A.; Roy, Nikhil; Streatfield, P. Kim

    2007-01-01

    This paper compared the performance of the lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method in identifying inadequately-performing health work-areas with that of using health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) data and examined the feasibility of applying the method by field-level programme supervisors. The study was carried out in Matlab, the field site of ICDDR,B, where a HDSS has been in place for over 30 years. The LQAS method was applied in 57 work-areas of community health workers i...

  13. In-depth analyses of paleolithic pigments in cave climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touron, Stéphanie; Trichereau, Barbara; Syvilay, Delphine

    2017-07-01

    Painted caves are a specific environment which preservation needs multidisciplinary studies carried out within the different actors. The actions set-up must follow national and European ethics and treaties and be as less invasive as possible to preserve the integrity of the site. Studying colorants in caves should meet these expectations and take into account on-field conditions: high humidity rate, reduced access to electricity, etc. Therefore, non-invasive analyses should be preferred. However, their limits restrict the field of application and sometimes sampling and laboratory analyses must be used to answer the problematic. It is especially true when the pigment is covered by calcite. For this purpose, the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has been assessed to identify the composition with stratigraphic analyses. This study carries out in-depth profile on laboratory samples in conditions close to the ones meet in caves. Samples were prepared on a calcareous substrate using three pigments: red ochre, manganese black and carbon black and two binding media: water and saliva. All samples have been covered by calcite. Four sets of measurements have then been done using the LIBS instrument. The in-depth profiles were obtained using the Standard Normal Variate (SNV) normalization. For all the samples, the pigment layer was identified in the second or third shot, the calcite layer being quite thin. However, the results remain promising with the carbon black pigment but not really conclusive, the carbon being generally quite difficult to quantify.

  14. In-Depth Study Of European Union Fiscal Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Roxana TOMI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents a viewpoint on the EU fiscal policy contents, advocating the need for an in-depth understanding and acceleration of the 27 national fiscal system components and the creation of the EU Tax System that would enable the Single Market operation and the enforcement of the four fundamental liberties within the European Union. In the author’s opinion, the extant common fiscal policy elements are only marginal, while the actions aimed at an in-depth understanding of a broad fiscal policy are essential to the extent they point at both direct and indirect taxation aspects whose approximation is a priority.

  15. In-Depth Case Studies of Superfund Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRI’s in-depth case studies explore Superfund reuse stories from start to finish. Their purpose is to see what redevelopment strategies worked, acknowledge reuse barriers and understand how communities overcame the barriers to create new reuse outcomes.

  16. Coding In-depth Semistructured Interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John L.; Quincy, Charles; Osserman, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Many social science studies are based on coded in-depth semistructured interview transcripts. But researchers rarely report or discuss coding reliability in this work. Nor is there much literature on the subject for this type of data. This article presents a procedure for developing coding schemes...... useful for situations where a single knowledgeable coder will code all the transcripts once the coding scheme has been established. This approach can also be used with other types of qualitative data and in other circumstances....

  17. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among young people in South Africa: A nested survey in a health and demographic surveillance site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanna C Francis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs and bacterial vaginosis (BV are associated with increased transmission of HIV, and poor reproductive and sexual health. The burden of STIs/BV among young people is unknown in many high HIV prevalence settings. We conducted an acceptability, feasibility, and prevalence study of home-based sampling for STIs/BV among young men and women aged 15-24 years old in a health and demographic surveillance site (HDSS in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.A total of 1,342 young people, stratified by age (15-19 and 20-24 years and sex were selected from the HDSS sampling frame; 1,171/1,342 (87% individuals had ≥1 attempted home visit between 4 October 2016 and 31 January 2017, of whom 790 (67% were successfully contacted. Among the 645 who were contacted and eligible, 447 (69% enrolled. Consenting/assenting participants were interviewed, and blood, self-collected urine (men, and vaginal swabs (women were tested for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, trichomoniasis, and BV. Both men and women reported that sample collection was easy. Participants disagreed that sampling was painful; more than half of the participants disagreed that they felt anxious or embarrassed. The weighted prevalence of STIs/BV among men and women, respectively, was 5.3% and 11.2% for chlamydia, 1.5% and 1.8% for gonorrhoea, 0% and 0.4% for active syphilis, 0.6% and 4.6% for trichomoniasis, 16.8% and 28.7% for HSV-2, and 42.1% for BV (women only. Of the women with ≥1 curable STI, 75% reported no symptoms. Factors associated with STIs/BV included having older age, being female, and not being in school or working. Among those who participated in the 2016 HIV serosurvey, the prevalence of HIV was 5.6% among men and 19% among women. Feasibility was impacted by the short study duration and the difficulty finding men at home.A high prevalence of STIs/BV was found in this rural setting with high HIV prevalence in South

  18. The Evolving Demographic and Health Transition in Four Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Evidence from Four Sites in the INDEPTH Network of Longitudinal Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems.

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    Ayaga Bawah

    Full Text Available This paper contributes evidence documenting the continued decline in all-cause mortality and changes in the cause of death distribution over time in four developing country populations in Africa and Asia. We present levels and trends in age-specific mortality (all-cause and cause-specific from four demographic surveillance sites: Agincourt (South Africa, Navrongo (Ghana in Africa; Filabavi (Vietnam, Matlab (Bangladesh in Asia. We model mortality using discrete time event history analysis. This study illustrates how data from INDEPTH Network centers can provide a comparative, longitudinal examination of mortality patterns and the epidemiological transition. Health care systems need to be reconfigured to deal simultaneously with continuing challenges of communicable disease and increasing incidence of non-communicable diseases that require long-term care. In populations with endemic HIV, long-term care of HIV patients on ART will add to the chronic care needs of the community.

  19. Health & Demographic Surveillance System profile: the Muzaffarpur-TMRC Health and Demographic Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaviya, Paritosh; Picado, Albert; Hasker, Epco; Ostyn, Bart; Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Rudra Pratap; Shankar, Ravi; Boelaert, Marleen; Sundar, Shyam

    2014-10-01

    The Muzaffarpur-TMRC Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), established in 2007, was developed as an enlargement of the scope of a research collaboration on the project Visceral Leishmaniasis in Bihar, which had been ongoing since 2005. The HDSS is located in a visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-endemic area in the Muzaffarpur district of Bihar state in India. It is the only HDSS conducting research on VL, which is a vector-borne infectious disease transmitted by female phlebotomine sandflies and is fatal if left untreated. Currently the HDSS serves a population of over 105,000 in 66 villages. The HDSS collects data on vital events including pregnancies, births, deaths, migration and marriages, as well as other socio-economic indicators, at regular intervals. Incident VL cases are identified. The HDSS team is experienced in conducting both qualitative and quantitative studies, sample collection and rapid diagnostic tests in the field. In each village, volunteers connect the HDSS team with the community members. The Muzaffarpur-TMRC HDSS provides opportunities for studies on VL and other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and their interaction with demographic events such as migration. Queries related to research collaborations and data sharing can be sent to Dr Shyam Sundar at [drshyamsundar@hotmail.com]. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  20. Is self-rated health an independent index for mortality among older people in Indonesia?

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    Nawi Ng

    Full Text Available Empirical studies on the association between self-rated health (SRH and subsequent mortality are generally lacking in low- and middle-income countries. The evidence on whether socio-economic status and education modify this association is inconsistent. This study aims to fill these gaps using longitudinal data from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS site in Indonesia.In 2010, we assessed the mortality status of 11,753 men and women aged 50+ who lived in Purworejo HDSS and participated in the INDEPTH WHO SAGE baseline in 2007. Information on self-rated health, socio-demographic indicators, disability and chronic disease were collected through face-to-face interview at baseline. We used Cox-proportional hazards regression for mortality and included all variables measured at baseline, including interaction terms between SRH and both education and socio-economic status (SES.During an average of 36 months follow-up, 11% of men and 9.5% of women died, resulting in death rates of 3.1 and 2.6 per 1,000 person-months, respectively. The age-adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR for mortality was 17% higher in men than women (HR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.04-1.31. After adjustment for covariates, the hazard ratios for mortality in men and women reporting bad health were 3.0 (95% CI = 2.0-4.4 and 4.9 (95% CI = 3.2-7.4, respectively. Education and SES did not modify this association for either sex.This study supports the predictive power of bad self-rated health for subsequent mortality in rural Indonesian men and women 50 years old and over. In these analyses, education and household socio-economic status do not modify the relationship between SRH and mortality. This means that older people who rate their own health poorly should be an important target group for health service interventions.

  1. Cause of death during 2009–2012, using a probabilistic model (InterVA-4: an experience from Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K. Rai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study aimed to estimate the age and cause-specific mortality in Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS site for the years 2009 to 2012, using a probabilistic model (InterVA-4. Methods: All Deaths in Ballabgarh HDSS from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2012, were included in the study. InterVA-4 model (version 4.02 was used for assigning cause of death (COD. Data from the verbal autopsy (VA tool were extracted and processed with the InterVA-4 model. Cause-specific mortality rate (CSMR per 1,000 person-years was calculated. Results: A total of 2,459 deaths occurred in the HDSS during the year 2009 to 2012. Among them, 2,174 (88.4% valid VA interviews were conducted. Crude death rate ranged from 7.1 (2009 to 6.4 (2012 per 1,000 population. The CSMR per 1,000 person-years over the years (2009–2012 for non-communicable diseases, communicable diseases, trauma, neoplasm, and maternal and neonatal diseases were 1.78, 1.68, 0.68, 0.49, and 0.48, respectively. The most common causes of death among children, adults, and the elderly were infectious diseases, trauma, and non-communicable diseases, respectively. Conclusions: Overall, non-communicable diseases constituted the largest proportion of mortality, whereas trauma was the most common COD among adults at Ballabgarh HDSS. Policy-makers ought to focus on prevention of premature CODs, especially prevention of infectious diseases in children, and intentional self-harm and road traffic accidents in the adult population.

  2. Separation and purification of hemicellulose-derived saccharides from wood hydrolysate by combined process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Zhuang, Jingshun; Jiang, Jungang; Fu, Yingjuan; Qin, Menghua; Wang, Zhaojiang

    2015-11-01

    Prehydrolysis of wood biomass prior to kraft cooking provides a stream containing hemicellulose-derived saccharides (HDSs) but also undesired non-saccharide compounds (NSCs) that were resulted from lignin depolymerization and carbohydrate degradation. In this study, a combined process consisting of lime treatment, resin adsorption, and gel filtration was developed to separate HDSs from NSCs. The macro-lignin impurities that accounted for 32.2% of NSCs were removed by lime treatment at 1.2% dosage with negligible HDSs loss. The majority of NSCs, lignin-derived phenolics, were eliminated by mixed bed ion exchange resin, elevating NSCs removal to 94.0%. The remaining NSCs, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural, were excluded from HDSs by gel filtration. Chemical composition analysis showed that xylooligosaccharides (XOS) with the degree of depolymerization from 2 to 6 accounted for 28% of the total purified HDSs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. PhosphoSiteAnalyzer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Martin V; Cox, Jürgen; Mann, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    an algorithm to retrieve kinase predictions from the public NetworKIN webpage in a semiautomated way and applies hereafter advanced statistics to facilitate a user-tailored in-depth analysis of the phosphoproteomic data sets. The interface of the software provides a high degree of analytical flexibility......Phosphoproteomic experiments are routinely conducted in laboratories worldwide, and because of the fast development of mass spectrometric techniques and efficient phosphopeptide enrichment methods, researchers frequently end up having lists with tens of thousands of phosphorylation sites...... and is designed to be intuitive for most users. PhosphoSiteAnalyzer is a freeware program available at http://phosphosite.sourceforge.net ....

  4. An In-depth Study on Semitransparent amorphous Silicon Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M. G.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Molinero, A.; Oller, J. C.; Arce, P.; Calvo, E.; Figueroa, C. F.; Garcia, N.; Rodrigo, T.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.

    1999-01-01

    Semitransparent amorphous silicon sensors have been proposed as the 2D positioning sensors for the link system of the CMS alignment: An in-depth study of the actual performance of these sensors is here reported. (Author) 8 refs

  5. Determination of in-depth contamination in concrete using a non-destructive technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, S.; Cantrel, E.

    2007-01-01

    The decommissioning of the BR3 (Belgian Reactor 3) approaches its final phase, in which the building structures are being decontaminated and either denuclearized for possible reuse or demolished. Apart from the presence of naturally occurring radionuclides in building materials, other radionuclides might be present due to activation or contamination. The BR3 bioshield has been exposed to rather high neutron leakage fluxes during the reactor operation and is therefore activated. Building structure contamination usually results from leakages during reactor operation, releases due to maintenance works or even dismantling operations. In case of in-depth contamination in concrete it is important to know the exact in-depth profile before decontamination, in order to minimize the amount of radioactive waste that will be produced during the decontamination process and to optimize both the decontamination process and the final control measurements. Common non-destructive analyses used in decommissioning are usually based on the measurement of beta radiation, using e.g. hand-held plastic scintillators. This kind of measurement technique can not be used to determine in-depth contamination. Therefore, most of the decontamination specialists currently base themselves on the results of the radiological analysis of samples taken by core drilling. The use of such a destructive method implies a number of disadvantages: it is time consuming and therefore costly and the different sample preparation steps can conceivably lead to cross-contamination. Moreover, one only receives results of a limited number of points, while the in-depth contamination is usually very inhomogeneously distributed and the relationship between in-depth contamination and surface contamination and/or dose rate (hotspot detection) is generally rather poor.The objective therefore is to test the use of the ISOCS (In Situ Object Counting System) for the determination of contamination depth

  6. High dead-space syringe use among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafful, Claudia; Zule, William; González-Zúñiga, Patricia E; Werb, Dan; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-05-01

    High dead-space syringes (HDSS) are believed to confer an elevated risk of acquiring HIV and other blood-borne infections. We identified prevalence and correlates of HDSS use among injection drug users (IDU) in Tijuana, Mexico, where syringe purchase and possession is legal without a prescription. Beginning in 2011, IDU who reported being 18 years or older and injected drugs within the last month were recruited into a prospective study. At baseline and semi-annually, 557 IDU underwent HIV-testing and interviewer-administered surveys. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of using HDSS. Of 557 IDU, 40% had ever used HDSS, mostly because no other syringe type was available (72%), or because they were easier to get (20%). Controlling for sex and age at first injection, use of HDSS was associated with cocaine as the first drug injected (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 2.68; Confidence Interval 95% [CI]: 1.15-6.22), having been stopped or arrested by police (AOR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.11-3.07), being deported from the US (AOR: 1.64; 95% CI:1.06-2.53), and believing it is illegal to carry syringes (AOR:1.78; 95% CI: 1.01-3.15). Use of HDSS is surprisingly common among IDU in Tijuana. Efforts are needed to expand coverage of low-dead space syringes through existing syringe exchange programs. Education is required to increase awareness of the harms associated with HDSS, and to inform IDU that syringe possession is legal across Mexico.

  7. Physical activity level and its sociodemographic correlates in a peri-urban Nepalese population: a cross-sectional study from the Jhaukhel-Duwakot health demographic surveillance site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Abhinav; Krettek, Alexandra

    2014-03-14

    Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular and other noncommunicable diseases in high-, low- and middle-income countries. Nepal, a low-income country in South Asia, is undergoing an epidemiological transition. Although the reported national prevalence of physical inactivity is relatively low, studies in urban and peri-urban localities have always shown higher prevalence. Therefore, this study aimed to measure physical activity in three domains-work, travel and leisure-in a peri-urban community and assess its variations across different sociodemographic correlates. Adult participants (n=640) from six randomly selected wards of the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) near Kathmandu responded to the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. To determine total physical activity, we calculated the metabolic equivalent of task in minutes/week for each domain and combined the results. Respondents were categorized into high, moderate or low physical activity. We also calculated the odds ratio for low physical activity in various sociodemographic variables and self-reported cardiometabolic states. The urbanizing JD-HDSS community showed a high prevalence of low physical activity (43.3%; 95% CI 39.4-47.1). Work-related activity contributed most to total physical activity. Furthermore, women and housewives and older, more educated and self-or government-employed respondents showed a greater prevalence of physical inactivity. Respondents with hypertension, diabetes or overweight/obesity reported less physical activity than individuals without those conditions. Only 5% of respondents identified physical inactivity as a cardiovascular risk factor. Our findings reveal a high burden of physical inactivity in a peri-urban community of Nepal. Improving the level of physical activity involves sensitizing people to its importance through appropriate multi-sector strategies that provide encouragement across all sociodemographic groups.

  8. In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline Specific CD4 T-Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0004 TITLE: In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline-Specific CD4 T - Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline-Specific CD4 T Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The goal of this project is to test the hypothesis that cit-specific CD4 T cells present in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients

  9. Initiating a participatory action research process in the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wariri, Oghenebrume; D'Ambruoso, Lucia; Twine, Rhian; Ngobeni, Sizzy; van der Merwe, Maria; Spies, Barry; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Wagner, Ryan G; Byass, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Despite progressive health policy, disease burdens in South Africa remain patterned by deeply entrenched social inequalities. Accounting for the relationships between context, health and risk can provide important information for equitable service delivery. The aims of the research were to initiate a participatory research process with communities in a low income setting and produce evidence of practical relevance. We initiated a participatory action research (PAR) process in the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance site (HDSS) in rural north-east South Africa. Three village-based discussion groups were convened and consulted about conditions to examine, one of which was under-5 mortality. A series of discussions followed in which routine HDSS data were presented and participants' subjective perspectives were elicited and systematized into collective forms of knowledge using ranking, diagramming and participatory photography. The process concluded with a priority setting exercise. Visual and narrative data were thematically analyzed to complement the participants' analysis. A range of social and structural root causes of under-5 mortality were identified: poverty, unemployment, inadequate housing, unsafe environments and shortages of clean water. Despite these constraints, single mothers were often viewed as negligent. A series of mid-level contributory factors in clinics were also identified: overcrowding, poor staffing, delays in treatment and shortages of medications. In a similar sense, pronounced blame and negativity were directed toward clinic nurses in spite of the systems constraints identified. Actions to address these issues were prioritized as: expanding clinics, improving accountability and responsiveness of health workers, improving employment, providing clean water, and expanding community engagement for health promotion. We initiated a PAR process to gain local knowledge and prioritize actions. The process was acceptable to those

  10. Assessment of the Nevada Test Site as a Site for Distributed Resource Testing and Project Plan: March 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horgan, S.; Iannucci, J.; Whitaker, C.; Cibulka, L.; Erdman, W.

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a location for performing dedicated, in-depth testing of distributed resources (DR) integrated with the electric distribution system. In this large scale testing, it is desired to operate multiple DRs and loads in an actual operating environment, in a series of controlled tests to concentrate on issues of interest to the DR community. This report includes an inventory of existing facilities at NTS, an assessment of site attributes in relation to DR testing requirements, and an evaluation of the feasibility and cost of upgrades to the site that would make it a fully qualified DR testing facility.

  11. Prediction of shape diameter undergoing coil embolization of saccular intracranial aneurysm treatment using a hybrid decision support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owasirikul, Wiwat; Tantivatana, Jaturon; Gansawat, Duangrat; Auethavekiat, Supatana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to design a hybrid decision support system (HDSS) that could simulate the embolized coil selection pattern of the radiologists in aneurysms treatment. As the longest available length of the coils should be used in most cases, therefore only the shape diameter (SD) selection was modeled and varied. Ninety-eight aneurysms successfully treated by a radiologist with coil embolization were divided into two groups (86 for training and 12 randomly selected for validating). Eight aneurysms treated by another radiologist were also used to cross validate the proposed HDSS. The HDSS was developed using the classification and the linear regression methods (LRM). The dome and the width of an aneurysm were used as the system inputs. The system outputs were the SDs of the first three coils indexed according to the insertion order. The HDSS that consisted of Bagging classification and LRM achieved the highest accuracy for all cases. The errors were within 1 mm for the SD selection of the first two coils. For the third coil, the SD selection within 1 mm bound had 80 % accuracy. The experimental results indicated the feasibility of using the HDSS as the guidance for selecting the SDs of the first two coils. The selection of the third coil required more training data for the rarely used SD. Moreover, the cross validation with another radiologist showed the feasibility of using the proposed HDSS as the guidance, however further validation with more data is recommended.

  12. Effects of Shear Fracture on In-depth Profile Modification of Weak Gels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xianjie; Song Xinwang; Yue Xiang'an; Hou Jirui; Fang Lichun; Zhang Huazhen

    2007-01-01

    Two sand packs were filled with fine glass beads and quartz sand respectively. The characteristics of crosslinked polymer flowing through the sand packs as well as the influence of shear fracture of porous media on the in-depth profile modification of the weak gel generated from the crosslinked polymer were investigated. The results indicated that under the dynamic condition crosslinking reaction happened in both sand packs,and the weak gels in these two cases became small gel particles after water flooding. The differences were:the dynamic gelation time in the quartz sand pack was longer than that in the glass bead pack. Residual resistance factor (FRR) caused by the weak gel in the quartz sand pack was smaller than that in the glass bead pack. The weak gel became gel particles after being scoured by subsequent flood water. A weak gel with uniform apparent viscosity and sealing characteristics was generated in every part of the glass bead pack,which could not only move deeply into the sand pack but also seal the high capacity channels again when it reached the deep part. The weak gel performed in-depth profile modification in the glass bead pack,while in the quartz sand pack,the weak gel was concentrated with 100 cm from the entrance of the sand pack. When propelled by the subsequent flood water,the weak gel could move towards the deep part of the sand pack but then became tiny gel particles and could not effectively seal the high capacity channels there. The in-depth profile modification of the weak gel was very weak in the quartz sand pack. It was the shear fracture of porous media that mainly affected the properties and weakened the in-depth profile modification of the weak gel.

  13. Rural households at risk of malaria did not own sufficient insecticide treated nets at Dabat HDSS site: evidence from a cross sectional re-census.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchie, Kindie Fentahun; Alemu, Kassahun; Tariku, Amare; Tsegaye, Adino Tesfahun; Abebe, Solomon Mekonnen; Yitayal, Mezgebu; Awoke, Tadesse; Biks, Gashaw Andargie

    2017-11-21

    Malaria is the leading cause of disease burden across the world, especially in African countries. Ethiopia has designed a five year (2011-2015) plan to cover 100% of the households in malarious areas with one insecticide treated net (ITN) for every two persons, and to raise consistent ITN utilization to at least 80%. However, evidence on ownership of ITN among malarious rural households in northwest Ethiopia is quite limited. Hence, the present study aimed at assessing ownership of ITN and associated factors among rural households at risk of malaria at Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site, northwest Ethiopia. A cross sectional re-census was carried out in Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site during peak malaria seasons from October to December, 2014. Data for 15,088 households at Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site were used for the analysis. Descriptive measures and binary logistic regression were carried out. Among those who owned at least one ITN, 53.4% were living at an altitude >2500 m above sea level. However, out of households living at an altitude ownership of ITN. Rural households at risk of malaria did not own a sufficient number of ITN though the utilization is promising. Moreover, prioritizing children and pregnant women to sleep under ITN remains public health problems. Programmers, partners and implementers should consider tailored intervention strategy stratified by altitude in distributing ITN. ITN distribution should also be accompanied by using exhaustive promotion strategies that consider people without access to any source of information, and educating households to prioritize pregnant and under five children to sleep under ITN.

  14. In-Depth Review of Symptoms, Triggers, and Treatment of Occipital Migraine Headaches (Site IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascha, Mona; Kurlander, David E; Sattar, Abdus; Gatherwright, James; Guyuron, Bahman

    2017-06-01

    This study reports the surgical technique and efficacy of deactivation of occipital-triggered migraine headaches. In addition, it reports the effect of surgical deactivation of occipital-triggered migraine headaches on migraine triggers and associated symptoms other than pain. One hundred ninety-five patients undergoing surgery for occipital-triggered migraine headaches performed by a single surgeon, and followed for at least 1 year, were analyzed. Median regression adjusted for age, sex, and follow-up time was used to determine postoperative reduction in occipital-specific Migraine Headache Index, which is the product of migraine duration, frequency, and severity. Reduction in migraine-days was also measured. The association between symptom or trigger resolution and occipital-specific Migraine Headache Index reduction was studied by logistic regression. Details of surgical treatment are discussed and complication rates reported. Eighty-two percent of patients (n = 160) reported successful surgery at least 12 months postoperatively (mean follow-up, 3.67 years). Eighty-six percent (n = 168) had successful surgery as measured by migraine-days. Fifty-two percent reported complete occipital-triggered migraine headaches elimination. Symptoms resolving with successful surgery beyond headache include being bothered by light and noise, feeling lightheaded, difficulty concentrating, vomiting, blurred/double vision, diarrhea, visual aura, numbness and tingling, speech difficulty, and limb weakness (p occipital-triggered migraine headaches provides long-lasting migraine relief. Successful site IV surgery is associated with changes in specific symptoms and triggers. This can assist in trigger avoidance and aid occipital-triggered migraine headache trigger-site identification. Therapeutic, IV.

  15. Isoelectric point-based fractionation by HiRIEF coupled to LC-MS allows for in-depth quantitative analysis of the phosphoproteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, Elena; Branca, Rui M M; Oliviusson, Peter; Orre, Lukas M; Lehtiö, Janne

    2017-07-03

    Protein phosphorylation is involved in the regulation of most eukaryotic cells functions and mass spectrometry-based analysis has made major contributions to our understanding of this regulation. However, low abundance of phosphorylated species presents a major challenge in achieving comprehensive phosphoproteome coverage and robust quantification. In this study, we developed a workflow employing titanium dioxide phospho-enrichment coupled with isobaric labeling by Tandem Mass Tags (TMT) and high-resolution isoelectric focusing (HiRIEF) fractionation to perform in-depth quantitative phosphoproteomics starting with a low sample quantity. To benchmark the workflow, we analyzed HeLa cells upon pervanadate treatment or cell cycle arrest in mitosis. Analyzing 300 µg of peptides per sample, we identified 22,712 phosphorylation sites, of which 19,075 were localized with high confidence and 1,203 are phosphorylated tyrosine residues, representing 6.3% of all detected phospho-sites. HiRIEF fractions with the most acidic isoelectric points are enriched in multiply phosphorylated peptides, which represent 18% of all the phospho-peptides detected in the pH range 2.5-3.7. Cross-referencing with the PhosphoSitePlus database reveals 1,264 phosphorylation sites that have not been previously reported and kinase association analysis suggests that a subset of these may be functional during the mitotic phase.

  16. Comparing causes of death between formal and informal neighborhoods in urban Africa: evidence from Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi; Lankoande, Bruno; Millogo, Roch; Bangha, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The probable coexistence of two or more epidemiological profiles in urban Africa is poorly documented. In particular, very few studies have focused on the comparison of cause-specific mortality between two types of neighborhoods that characterize contemporary southern cities: formal neighborhoods, that is, structured or delineated settlements (planned estates) that have full access to public utilities (electricity and water services), and the informal neighborhoods, that is, spontaneous and unplanned peri-urban settlements where people live in slum-like conditions, often with little or no access to public utilities. To compare the causes of death between the formal and informal neighborhoods covered by the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSS). The data used come from the INDEPTH pooled dataset which includes the contribution of Ouagadougou HDSS and are compiled for the INDEPTH Network Data repository. The data were collected between 2009 and 2011 using verbal autopsy (VA) questionnaires completed by four fieldworkers well trained in the conduction of VAs. The VA data were then interpreted using the InterVA-4 program (version 4.02) to arrive at the causes of death. Communicable diseases are the leading cause of death among children (aged between 29 days and 14 years) in both formal and informal neighborhoods, contributing more than 75% to the mortality rate. Mortality rates from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are very low before age 15 but are the leading causes from age 50, especially in formal neighborhoods. Mortality from injuries is very low, with no significant difference between the two neighborhoods. The fact that mortality from NCDs is higher among adults in formal neighborhoods seems consistent with the idea of a correlation between modern life and epidemiological transition. However, NCDs do affect informal neighborhoods as well. They consist mainly of cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms most of which are preventable and

  17. Comparing causes of death between formal and informal neighborhoods in urban Africa: evidence from Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdramane Bassiahi Soura

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The probable coexistence of two or more epidemiological profiles in urban Africa is poorly documented. In particular, very few studies have focused on the comparison of cause-specific mortality between two types of neighborhoods that characterize contemporary southern cities: formal neighborhoods, that is, structured or delineated settlements (planned estates that have full access to public utilities (electricity and water services, and the informal neighborhoods, that is, spontaneous and unplanned peri-urban settlements where people live in slum-like conditions, often with little or no access to public utilities. Objective: To compare the causes of death between the formal and informal neighborhoods covered by the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSS. Design: The data used come from the INDEPTH pooled dataset which includes the contribution of Ouagadougou HDSS and are compiled for the INDEPTH Network Data repository. The data were collected between 2009 and 2011 using verbal autopsy (VA questionnaires completed by four fieldworkers well trained in the conduction of VAs. The VA data were then interpreted using the InterVA-4 program (version 4.02 to arrive at the causes of death. Results: Communicable diseases are the leading cause of death among children (aged between 29 days and 14 years in both formal and informal neighborhoods, contributing more than 75% to the mortality rate. Mortality rates from non-communicable diseases (NCDs are very low before age 15 but are the leading causes from age 50, especially in formal neighborhoods. Mortality from injuries is very low, with no significant difference between the two neighborhoods. Conclusions: The fact that mortality from NCDs is higher among adults in formal neighborhoods seems consistent with the idea of a correlation between modern life and epidemiological transition. However, NCDs do affect informal neighborhoods as well. They consist mainly of

  18. In-depth agglomeration of d-metals at Si-on-Mo interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Tsarfati,; Zoethout, E.; van de Kruijs, R.; F. Bijkerk,

    2009-01-01

    Reflective Si/Mo multilayer mirrors with protective d-metal surfaces onto a range of upper Mo and Si layer thicknesses have been grown with physical vapor deposition and investigated on diffusion and in-depth compound formation. Laterally inhomogeneous upward Si and downward d-metal diffusion occurs

  19. [In-depth interviews and the Kano model to determine user requirements in a burns unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Revaldería, J; Holguín-Holgado, P; Lumbreras-Marín, E; Núñez-López, G

    To determine the healthcare requirements of patients in a Burns Unit, using qualitative techniques, such us in-depth personal interviews and Kano's methodology. Qualitative methodology using in-depth personal interviews (12 patients), Kano's conceptual model, and the SERVQHOS questionnaire (24 patients). All patients had been hospitalised in the last 12 months in the Burns Unit. Using Kano's methodology, service attributes were grouped by affinity diagrams, and classified as follows: must-be, attractive (unexpected, great satisfaction), and one-dimensional (linked to the degree of functionality of the service). The outcomes were compared with those obtained with SERVQHOS questionnaire. From the analysis of in-depth interviews, 11 requirements were obtained, referring to hotel aspects, information, need for closer staff relationship, and organisational aspects. The attributes classified as must-be were free television and automatic TV disconnection at midnight. Those classified as attractive were: individual room for more privacy, information about dressing change times in order to avoid anxiety, and additional staff for in-patients. The results were complementary to those obtained with the SERVQHOS questionnaire. In-depth personal interviews provide extra knowledge about patient requirements, complementing the information obtained with questionnaires. With this methodology, a more active patient participation is achieved and the companion's opinion is also taken into account. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Rural households at risk of malaria did not own sufficient insecticide treated nets at Dabat HDSS site: evidence from a cross sectional re-census

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindie Fentahun Muchie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is the leading cause of disease burden across the world, especially in African countries. Ethiopia has designed a five year (2011–2015 plan to cover 100% of the households in malarious areas with one insecticide treated net (ITN for every two persons, and to raise consistent ITN utilization to at least 80%. However, evidence on ownership of ITN among malarious rural households in northwest Ethiopia is quite limited. Hence, the present study aimed at assessing ownership of ITN and associated factors among rural households at risk of malaria at Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site, northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional re-census was carried out in Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site during peak malaria seasons from October to December, 2014. Data for 15,088 households at Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site were used for the analysis. Descriptive measures and binary logistic regression were carried out. Results Among those who owned at least one ITN, 53.4% were living at an altitude >2500 m above sea level. However, out of households living at an altitude <2000 m above sea level, 15.8% (95% CI 14.4%, 17.3% owned ITN at an average of 4.3 ± 2.1 persons per ITN. Of these, 69.5% (95% CI 64.7%, 74.1% used the ITN. Among utilizing households at malarious areas, 23.7% prioritized pregnant women and 31.4% children to use ITN. The availability of radio receiver/mobile (AOR 1.60, 95%CI 1.08, 2.35 and secondary/above educational status of household member (AOR 1.54, 95%CI 1.19, 2.04 were predictors of ownership of ITN. Conclusion Rural households at risk of malaria did not own a sufficient number of ITN though the utilization is promising. Moreover, prioritizing children and pregnant women to sleep under ITN remains public health problems. Programmers, partners and implementers should consider tailored intervention strategy stratified by altitude in distributing

  1. Anamorphic and Local Characterization of a Holographic Data Storage System with a Liquid-Crystal on Silicon Microdisplay as Data Pager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fco. Javier Martínez-Guardiola

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a method to characterize a complete optical Holographic Data Storage System (HDSS, where we identify the elements that limit the capacity to register and restore the information introduced by means of a Liquid Cristal on Silicon (LCoS microdisplay as the data pager. In the literature, it has been shown that LCoS exhibits an anamorphic and frequency dependent effect when periodic optical elements are addressed to LCoS microdisplays in diffractive optics applications. We tested whether this effect is still relevant in the application to HDSS, where non-periodic binary elements are applied, as it is the case in binary data pages codified by Binary Intensity Modulation (BIM. To test the limits in storage data density and in spatial bandwidth of the HDSS, we used anamorphic patterns with different resolutions. We analyzed the performance of the microdisplay in situ using figures of merit adapted to HDSS. A local characterization across the aperture of the system was also demonstrated with our proposed methodology, which results in an estimation of the illumination uniformity and the contrast generated by the LCoS. We show the extent of the increase in the Bit Error Rate (BER when introducing a photopolymer as the recording material, thus all the important elements in a HDSS are considered in the characterization methodology demonstrated in this paper.

  2. In-depth Cultural Studies in Multicultural Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siliņa-Jasjukeviča Gunta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is much research and educational practices at all levels of education on how to deal with promoting acceptance and understanding between different cultures. A cultural study forms an important part of shaping intercultural understanding. The aim of the research is to analyze an innovative way of incorporating cultural studies in teacher education program from the perspective of encouraging multinational students to reveal common values within diverse manifestations of different cultures. The present article describes a qualitative study of multinational students’ experiences in international project related to the learning about Nordic and Baltic cultural traditions. In the conclusion of the article, the efficiency of the structure of content and the process of in-depth cultural studies are analyzed. The discussion contains problems for further research of this topic.

  3. In-Depth Interviewing with Healthcare Corporate Elites: Strategies for Entry and Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen F. Goldman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Interviewing corporate elites has received limited attention in the methodological literature. Such elites are considered highly difficult to gain access to and, if involved, are believed to use their power asymmetry to dominate the interview. Understanding the context is considered essential to elite access, interview conduct, and interpretation of findings. The healthcare sector provides interesting challenges for in-depth elite interviewing, including historical norms regarding interview access, types, and duration. In this article, the authors report on the strategies used to gain access to and engage healthcare elites who participated in multiple personal interviews using the Seidman in-depth phenomenological interviewing method. Techniques for identifying and recruiting potential participants, scheduling and preparing for the interview, and establishing rapport are described. Concept mapping is presented as a way of fully engaging the elites in the tripartite interview process and facilitating trustworthiness. The lessons learned offer important strategies for those undertaking phenomenological research with elites.

  4. In-Depth Analysis of Handwriting Curriculum and Instruction in Four Kindergarten Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Hart, Nanho; Fitzpatrick, Paula; Cortesa, Cathryn

    2010-01-01

    The quality of handwriting curriculum and instructional practices in actual classrooms was investigated in an in-depth case study of four inner city kindergarten classrooms using quantitative and qualitative methods. The handwriting proficiency of students was also evaluated to assess the impact of the instructional practices observed. The…

  5. Using the Textpresso Site-Specific Recombinases Web server to identify Cre expressing mouse strains and floxed alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condie, Brian G; Urbanski, William M

    2014-01-01

    Effective tools for searching the biomedical literature are essential for identifying reagents or mouse strains as well as for effective experimental design and informed interpretation of experimental results. We have built the Textpresso Site Specific Recombinases (Textpresso SSR) Web server to enable researchers who use mice to perform in-depth searches of a rapidly growing and complex part of the mouse literature. Our Textpresso Web server provides an interface for searching the full text of most of the peer-reviewed publications that report the characterization or use of mouse strains that express Cre or Flp recombinase. The database also contains most of the publications that describe the characterization or analysis of strains carrying conditional alleles or transgenes that can be inactivated or activated by site-specific recombinases such as Cre or Flp. Textpresso SSR complements the existing online databases that catalog Cre and Flp expression patterns by providing a unique online interface for the in-depth text mining of the site specific recombinase literature.

  6. Competitive Advantage or Market Saturation: An In-Depth Comparison of Flash-Sale Sites Through Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Aday, J. B.; Phelan, K. V.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the representativeness of hospitality and service industry firms on flash-sale sites such as Groupon and LivingSocial. Currently, academic findings related to the frequency of offerings from these firms are nonexistent. This research relied upon a content analysis rubric and daily measurement of offerings from randomly selected cities represented by Groupon and LivingSocial for a period of 6 weeks. The daily offerings for specific cities on the Groupon and LivingSo...

  7. NN-SITE: A remote monitoring testbed facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadner, S.; White, R.; Roman, W.; Sheely, K.; Puckett, J.; Ystesund, K.

    1997-01-01

    DOE, Aquila Technologies, LANL and SNL recently launched collaborative efforts to create a Non-Proliferation Network Systems Integration and Test (NN-Site, pronounced N-Site) facility. NN-Site will focus on wide area, local area, and local operating level network connectivity including Internet access. This facility will provide thorough and cost-effective integration, testing and development of information connectivity among diverse operating systems and network topologies prior to full-scale deployment. In concentrating on instrument interconnectivity, tamper indication, and data collection and review, NN-Site will facilitate efforts of equipment providers and system integrators in deploying systems that will meet nuclear non-proliferation and safeguards objectives. The following will discuss the objectives of ongoing remote monitoring efforts, as well as the prevalent policy concerns. An in-depth discussion of the Non-Proliferation Network Systems Integration and Test facility (NN-Site) will illuminate the role that this testbed facility can perform in meeting the objectives of remote monitoring efforts, and its potential contribution in promoting eventual acceptance of remote monitoring systems in facilities worldwide

  8. SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] site evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    With this report, the SSC Site Task Force forwards to the Director, Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE), its evaluation of the technical criteria and life-cycle costs for the proposed SSC sites judged to be the best qualified. The criteria against which each site was evaluated are those set forth in the Invitation for Site Proposals for the Superconducting Super Collider (DOE/ER-0315) (Invitation) which was prepared by the Task Force and issued in April 1987. The methodology followed by the Task Force in this report and in all other phases of the proposal evaluation has been consistent with the SSC site selection process approved by DOE's Energy System Acquisition Advisory Board (ESAAB). The goal of the site selection process is to identify a site that will permit the highest level of research productivity and overall effectiveness of the SSC at a reasonable cost of construction and operation and with minimial impact on the environment. The Task Force acknowledges that all seven sites are, indeed, highly qualified locations for the construction and operation of the SSC on the basis of technical and cost considerations. In performing its evaluation, which is presented in this paper, the Task Force took an in-depth look at each site on the basis of site visits and extensive technical analyses. A consensus rating for each technical evaluation criterion and subcriterion was developed for each site

  9. In-depth morphological study of mesiobuccal root canal systems in maxillary first molars: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Woo Chang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A common failure in endodontic treatment of the permanent maxillary first molars is likely to be caused by an inability to locate, clean, and obturate the second mesiobuccal (MB canals. Because of the importance of knowledge on these additional canals, there have been numerous studies which investigated the maxillary first molar MB root canal morphology using in vivo and laboratory methods. In this article, the protocols, advantages and disadvantages of various methodologies for in-depth study of maxillary first molar MB root canal morphology were discussed. Furthermore, newly identified configuration types for the establishment of new classification system were suggested based on two image reformatting techniques of micro-computed tomography, which can be useful as a further 'Gold Standard' method for in-depth morphological study of complex root canal systems.

  10. In-depth characterisation of the lamb meat proteome from longissimus lumborum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzer-Yang Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lamb is one of the major red meats consumed globally, both as a key component in the diet of some countries, and as a niche meat product in others. Despite this relatively wide consumption, an in-depth description of the global protein composition of lamb has not been reported. In this study, we investigated the proteome of the 48 h post-mortem lamb longissimus lumborum through separation of the samples into sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar and insoluble fractions, followed by an in-depth shotgun proteomic evaluation and bioinformatic analysis. As a result, 388 ovine-specific proteins were identified and characterised. The 207 proteins found in the sarcoplasmic fraction were dominated by glycolytic enzymes and mitochondrial proteins. This fraction also contained several sarcomeric proteins, e.g., myosin light chains and titin. Some of them might be the degradation products from the post-mortem proteolysis. Actin, myosin and tropomyosin were abundant in the myofibrillar fraction while nebulin and titin were also present. Collagen type I, III and IV were found in the insoluble fraction but there were also sequences from myosin and titin. The present study also confirms the existence of at least 300 predicted protein sequences obtained from the latest issue of the sheep genome (version 3 with high confidence.

  11. Quantitative and qualitative proteome characteristics extracted from in-depth integrated genomics and proteomics analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Low, T.Y.; van Heesch, S.; van den Toorn, H.; Giansanti, P.; Cristobal, A.; Toonen, P.; Schafer, S.; Hubner, N.; van Breukelen, B.; Mohammed, S.; Cuppen, E.; Heck, A.J.R.; Guryev, V.

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative protein characteristics are regulated at genomic, transcriptomic, and posttranscriptional levels. Here, we integrated in-depth transcriptome and proteome analyses of liver tissues from two rat strains to unravel the interactions within and between these layers. We

  12. Off-Site Prefabrication: What Does it Require from the Trade Contractor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekdik, Baris; Hall, Daniel; Aslesen, Sigmund

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to show what is required to industrialize a building process from the standpoint of the trade contractor. Rationalization of building processes has, over the years, caught the attention of numerous IGLC papers. Although significant contributions have been made to further...... understand and improve existing construction processes, relatively few contributions have focused on the opportunities for industrialization from the trade contractor’s perspective. This paper uses an in-depth case study to address the deployment strategy for off-site fabrication techniques and processes...... at only one case study, the conclusions are limited in generalizability to other prefabrication operations. However, it represents an important in-depth case from the trade contractors’ perspective and will contribute to the growing body of research focused on industrialization and prefabrication in lean...

  13. Quantitative and Qualitative Proteome Characteristics Extracted from In-Depth Integrated Genomics and Proteomics Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Low, Teck Yew; van Heesch, Sebastiaan; van den Toorn, Henk; Giansanti, Piero; Cristobal, Alba; Toonen, Pim; Schafer, Sebastian; Huebner, Norbert; van Breukelen, Bas; Mohammed, Shabaz; Cuppen, Edwin; Heck, Albert J. R.; Guryev, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative protein characteristics are regulated at genomic, transcriptomic, and post-transcriptional levels. Here, we integrated in-depth transcriptome and proteome analyses of liver tissues from two rat strains to unravel the interactions within and between these layers. We

  14. Web vulnerability study of online pharmacy sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Consumers are increasingly using online pharmacies, but these sites may not provide an adequate level of security with the consumers' personal data. There is a gap in this research addressing the problems of security vulnerabilities in this industry. The objective is to identify the level of web application security vulnerabilities in online pharmacies and the common types of flaws, thus expanding on prior studies. Technical, managerial and legal recommendations on how to mitigate security issues are presented. The proposed four-step method first consists of choosing an online testing tool. The next steps involve choosing a list of 60 online pharmacy sites to test, and then running the software analysis to compile a list of flaws. Finally, an in-depth analysis is performed on the types of web application vulnerabilities. The majority of sites had serious vulnerabilities, with the majority of flaws being cross-site scripting or old versions of software that have not been updated. A method is proposed for the securing of web pharmacy sites, using a multi-phased approach of technical and managerial techniques together with a thorough understanding of national legal requirements for securing systems.

  15. Modeling Site Heterogeneity with Posterior Mean Site Frequency Profiles Accelerates Accurate Phylogenomic Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huai-Chun; Minh, Bui Quang; Susko, Edward; Roger, Andrew J

    2018-03-01

    Proteins have distinct structural and functional constraints at different sites that lead to site-specific preferences for particular amino acid residues as the sequences evolve. Heterogeneity in the amino acid substitution process between sites is not modeled by commonly used empirical amino acid exchange matrices. Such model misspecification can lead to artefacts in phylogenetic estimation such as long-branch attraction. Although sophisticated site-heterogeneous mixture models have been developed to address this problem in both Bayesian and maximum likelihood (ML) frameworks, their formidable computational time and memory usage severely limits their use in large phylogenomic analyses. Here we propose a posterior mean site frequency (PMSF) method as a rapid and efficient approximation to full empirical profile mixture models for ML analysis. The PMSF approach assigns a conditional mean amino acid frequency profile to each site calculated based on a mixture model fitted to the data using a preliminary guide tree. These PMSF profiles can then be used for in-depth tree-searching in place of the full mixture model. Compared with widely used empirical mixture models with $k$ classes, our implementation of PMSF in IQ-TREE (http://www.iqtree.org) speeds up the computation by approximately $k$/1.5-fold and requires a small fraction of the RAM. Furthermore, this speedup allows, for the first time, full nonparametric bootstrap analyses to be conducted under complex site-heterogeneous models on large concatenated data matrices. Our simulations and empirical data analyses demonstrate that PMSF can effectively ameliorate long-branch attraction artefacts. In some empirical and simulation settings PMSF provided more accurate estimates of phylogenies than the mixture models from which they derive.

  16. Synthesis of core-shell magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers and detection of sildenafil and vardenafil in herbal dietary supplements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Meijuan; Wu Xiaoli; Yuan Lihua; Wang Shu; Li Yun; Wang Ruoyu; Wen Tingting; Du Shuhu; Zhou, Xuemin

    2011-01-01

    An analytical procedure for selective extraction of sildenafil and vardenafil in herbal dietary supplements (HDSs) has been set up by using the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) as the extraction and clean-up materials, followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV). The MMIPs were prepared by a surface molecular imprinting technique, using Fe 3 O 4 magnetite as a magnetically susceptible component, sildenafil as template molecule, 2-(trifluoromethyl) acrylic acid (TFMAA) as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as polymeric matrix components. The MMIPs were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), respectively. The heterogeneity of the MMIPs was modeled with the Freundlich isotherm equation. The resulting MMIPs had high recognition ability and fast binding kinetics for sildenafil. The MMIPs were used as dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) materials to selectively extract sildenafil and vardenafil from HDSs, the contents of sildenafil and vardenafil were found to be 8.05 and 3.86 μg g -1 , respectively, and the average recoveries in spiked HDSs were 70.91-91.75% with a relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) below 7%. The MMIPs were successfully used to selectively enrich and determine sildenafil and vardenafil from HDSs.

  17. Analysis of ILRS Site Ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, V. S.; Long, J. L.; Pearlman, M.

    2001-12-01

    By the end of 2000, 94% of ILRS stations had completed station and site information forms (i.e. site logs). These forms contain six types of information. These six categories include site identifiers, contact information, approximate coordinates, system configuration history, system ranging capabilities, and local survey ties. The ILRS Central Bureau, in conjunction with the ILRS Networks and Engineering Working Group, has developed procedures to quality control site log contents. Part of this verification entails data integrity checks of local site ties and is the primary focus of this paper. Local survey ties are critical to the combination of space geodetic network coordinate solutions (i.e. GPS, SLR, VLBI, DORIS) of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Approximately 90% of active SLR sites are collocated with at least one other space geodetic technique. The process used to verify these SLR ties, at collocated sites, is identical to the approach used in ITRF2000. Local vectors (X, Y, Z) from each ILRS site log are differenced from its corresponding ITRF2000 position vectors (i.e. no transformations). These X, Y, and Z deltas are converted into North, East, and Up. Any deltas, in any component, larger than 5 millimeter is flagged for investigation. In the absence of ITRF2000 SLR positions, CSR positions were used. To further enhance this comparison and to fill gaps in information, local ties contained in site logs from the other space geodetic services (i.e. IGS, IVS, IDS) were used in addition to ITRF2000 ties. Case studies of two collocated sites (McDonald/Ft. Davis and Hartebeeshtoek) will be explored in-depth. Recommendations on how local site surveys should be conducted and how this information should be managed will also be presented.

  18. Dutch in-depth accident investigation: first experiences and analysis results for motorcycles and mopeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi, H.G.; Galliano, F.

    2001-01-01

    In September 1999 the Dutch Accident Research Team (DART) within TNO Automotive started with the in-depth investigation of traffic accidents. In this paper, the methodology, working procedures and experiences of the team are described and explained in detail. Furthermore, an elaborate description of

  19. Social Capital, Self-Esteem, and Use of Online Social Network Sites: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfield, Charles; Ellison, Nicole B.; Lampe, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    A longitudinal analysis of panel data from users of a popular online social network site, Facebook, investigated the relationship between intensity of Facebook use, measures of psychological well-being, and bridging social capital. Two surveys conducted a year apart at a large U.S. university, complemented with in-depth interviews with 18 Facebook…

  20. Report of the Peer Review Panel on the early site suitability evaluation of the Potential Repository Site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Yucca mountain Site Characterization Project Office (YMPO) assigned Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Technical and Management Support Services (T&MSS) contractor to the YmPo, the task of conducting an Early Site Suitability Evaluation (ESSE) of the Yucca mountain site as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. First, the assignment called for the development of a method to evaluate a single site against the DOE General Guidelines for Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories, 10 CFR Part 960. Then, using this method, an evaluation team, the ESSE Core Team, of senior YMP scientists, engineers, and technical experts, evaluated new information obtained about the site since publication of the final Environmental Assessment (DOE, 1986) to determine if new suitability/unsuitability findings could be recommended. Finally, the Core Team identified further information and analyses needed to make final determinations for each of the guidelines. As part of the task, an independent peer review of the ESSE report has been conducted. Expertise was solicited that covered the entire spectrum of siting guidelines in 10 CFR Part 960 in order to provide a complete, in-depth critical review of the data evaluated and cited in the ESSE report, the methods used to evaluate the data, and the conclusions and recommendations offered by the report. Fourteen nationally recognized technical experts (Table 2) served on the Peer Review Panel. The comments from the Panel and the responses prepared by the ESSE Core Team, documented on formal Comment Response Forms, constitute the body of this document.

  1. In-depth survey report of Scoular Elevator, Salina, Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaebst, D.D.

    1987-06-01

    An in/depth industrial hygiene survey of exposures to phosphine during the use of aluminum phosphide was conducted as part of a survey on exposure to grain fumigants. Area monitoring and breathing-zone sampling for phosphine were conducted during the addition of aluminum phosphide to grain during turning operations; source samples and peak personal exposures were also analyzed. Major sources of personal exposure included the escape of air from the bin headspace during filling with treated grain, filling and emptying of the phosphide pellet dispenser, and infiltration from the treated grain bin and from the pellet dispenser itself into adjacent air space. Relatively good dust control was indicated by the total dust samples collected during the survey. Measures recommended by the author are in the report.

  2. The Family as a Site for Gendered Ethnic Identity Work among Asian Indian Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Meeta; Calasanti, Toni M.

    2010-01-01

    Research on immigrants often points to the family as a source of support and a location for oppression. Using in-depth interviews with 38 first-generation immigrant Indians, this study adds to this literature by exploring families as sites of identity work where first-generation immigrants manage their gendered ethnic identities. Relocation into a…

  3. Vividness and Control of Mental Imagery and the Components of In-Depth Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Fabello, María José; Campos, Alfredo; Meana, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of control and vividness of mental imagery on performance in several components of in-depth drawing in a sample of fine arts undergraduates. The sample consisted of 56 second-year undergraduates (44 women and 12 men, mean age = 21.18 years) from the Fine Arts Faculty of Vigo University,…

  4. Social Networking Sites Use and Cross Cultural Adaptation of Muslim Indonesian Students in Australian Universities: Valuing Cultural Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Nuraryo, Imam

    2016-01-01

    Muslim Asian students have diverse specific needs when undertaking education in western country universities. Many international students use social networking sites as media for distance communication and helping in their adjustment.This study attempts to investigate the impact of using new social networking sites on the cross cultural adaptation process. Qualitative methodology was used for the study. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted for data collection. The study investigates ...

  5. Leak on a steam generator tube: in-depth analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, J.; Deotto, G.; Mathon, C.; Madurel, A.; Pitner, P.; Gay, N.; Guivarch, M.

    2015-01-01

    A circumferential through crack was observed on a steam generator tube of the unit 2 of the Fessenheim plant. Destructive tests showed that the crack was due to cycle fatigue combined with the presence of inter-granular corrosion zones. An in-depth analysis based on simulations shows that the combination of 5 elements caused the crack. First, a specific position of the anti-vibration bar near this tube, secondly, a local presence of fouling, these 2 first elements led to an increase of the tube vibratory level. Thirdly, the 600 MA alloy used is known to be susceptible to corrosion. Fourthly, the trapping of chemical species on the secondary circuit side due to the presence of interstices on the crosspiece and fifthly, the presence of spots where inter-granular corrosion developed. (A.C.)

  6. Treatment of primary axillary hyperhidrosis by fractional microneedle radiofrequency: Is it still effective after long-term follow-up?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Abtahi-Naeini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary axillary hyperhidrosis (PAH is a chronic idiopathic disorder causing major stress in patients. Among the common therapies for PAH, only surgical interventions have proven feasible as a permanent solution. Objective and Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fractional microneedle radiofrequency (FMR as an alternative permanent treatment for PAH with long-term follow-up. Materials and Methods: This was a single-blind, sham-controlled comparative study. Twenty-five patients with severe PAH were provided three treatments of FMR at 3-week intervals (the treatment group, and a control group was provided the sham treatment. Clinical efficacy was evaluated using the hyperhidrosis disease severity scale (HDSS at baseline and the end of the study, as well as during the 1 year follow-up phase. Results: HDSS demonstrated significant improvement after treatment in the treatment group compared to the sham control. The mean (±standard deviation of HDSS in the group being treated with radiofrequency was 2.50 (±0.88 after 1 year follow-up, and that of the control group was 3.38 (±0.49; P < 0.001. Follow-up results show that there were 10 patients (41.6% with no relapse and 11 patients (45.9% with relapse after 1 year. There was a significant correlation between HDSS changes in relapse and body mass index (BMI (P = 0.03. Conclusion: Treatment of PAH with FMR is a safe and noninvasive procedure with a positive therapeutic effect on HDSS. It is recommended, however, that sessions of FMR be repeated after 1 year, particularly in overweight patients with high BMIs. Clinical Trial Registration: IRCT2013111915455N1. Level of Evidences: Level II-1.

  7. Visiting the Site of Death: Experiences of the Bereaved after the 2004 Southeast Asian Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Pal; Tonnessen, Arnfinn; Weisaeth, Lars; Heir, Trond

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined how many bereaved relatives of Norwegian tourists who perished in the 2004 Southeast Asian Tsunami had visited the site of death and the most important outcome from the visit. We conducted in-depth interviews (n = 110) and used self-report questionnaires (Impact of Event Scale--Revised, Inventory of Complicated Grief, and…

  8. Collaboration in sensor network research: an in-depth longitudinal analysis of assortative mixing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Alberto; Rodriguez, Marko A

    2010-09-01

    Many investigations of scientific collaboration are based on statistical analyses of large networks constructed from bibliographic repositories. These investigations often rely on a wealth of bibliographic data, but very little or no other information about the individuals in the network, and thus, fail to illustrate the broader social and academic landscape in which collaboration takes place. In this article, we perform an in-depth longitudinal analysis of a relatively small network of scientific collaboration (N = 291) constructed from the bibliographic record of a research centerin the development and application of wireless and sensor network technologies. We perform a preliminary analysis of selected structural properties of the network, computing its range, configuration and topology. We then support our preliminary statistical analysis with an in-depth temporal investigation of the assortative mixing of selected node characteristics, unveiling the researchers' propensity to collaborate preferentially with others with a similar academic profile. Our qualitative analysis of mixing patterns offers clues as to the nature of the scientific community being modeled in relation to its organizational, disciplinary, institutional, and international arrangements of collaboration.

  9. An in-depth longitudinal analysis of mixing patterns in a small scientific collaboration network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Marko A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pepe, Alberto [UCLA

    2009-01-01

    Many investigations of scientific collaboration are based on large-scale statistical analyses of networks constructed from bibliographic repositories. These investigations often rely on a wealth of bibliographic data, but very little or no other information about the individuals in the network, and thus, fail to illustate the broader social and academic landscape in which collaboration takes place. In this article, we perform an in-depth longitudinal analysis of a small-scale network of scientific collaboration (N = 291) constructed from the bibliographic record of a research center involved in the development and application of sensor network technologies. We perform a preliminary analysis of selected structural properties of the network, computing its range, configuration and topology. We then support our preliminary statistical analysis with an in-depth temporal investigation of the assortativity mixing of these node characteristics: academic department, affiliation, position, and country of origin of the individuals in the network. Our qualitative analysis of mixing patterns offers clues as to the nature of the scientific community being modeled in relation to its organizational, disciplinary, institutional, and international arrangements of collaboration.

  10. Music Genre Classification Revisited: An In-Depth Examination Guided by Music Experts

    OpenAIRE

    Pálmason, Haukur; Jónsson, Björn Thór; Schedl, Markus; Knees, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Despite their many identified shortcomings, music genres are still often used as ground truth and as a proxy for music similarity. In this work we therefore take another in-depth look at genre classification, this time with the help of music experts. In comparison to existing work, we aim at including the viewpoint of different stakeholders to investigate whether musicians and end-user music taxonomies agree on genre ground truth, through a user study among 20 professional and semi-profession...

  11. In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline-Specific CD4 T-Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    be used to identify and characterize CD4+T cells specific for influenza A, West Nile, Yellow fever , Dengue and Japanese Encephalitis viruses. The...four difference species of Flavivirus using the TGEM approach. These will include: Yellow Fever Virus, West Nile Virus, Dengue Virus and Japanese...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0004 TITLE: In-Depth Analysis of Citrulline-Specific CD4 T-Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  12. An in-depth analysis of theoretical frameworks for the study of care coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Van Houdt

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Complex chronic conditions often require long-term care from various healthcare professionals. Thus, maintaining quality care requires care coordination. Concepts for the study of care coordination require clarification to develop, study and evaluate coordination strategies. In 2007, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality defined care coordination and proposed five theoretical frameworks for exploring care coordination. This study aimed to update current theoretical frameworks and clarify key concepts related to care coordination. Methods: We performed a literature review to update existing theoretical frameworks. An in-depth analysis of these theoretical frameworks was conducted to formulate key concepts related to care coordination.Results: Our literature review found seven previously unidentified theoretical frameworks for studying care coordination. The in-depth analysis identified fourteen key concepts that the theoretical frameworks addressed. These were ‘external factors’, ‘structure’, ‘tasks characteristics’, ‘cultural factors’, ‘knowledge and technology’, ‘need for coordination’, ‘administrative operational processes’, ‘exchange of information’, ‘goals’, ‘roles’, ‘quality of relationship’, ‘patient outcome’, ‘team outcome’, and ‘(interorganizational outcome’.Conclusion: These 14 interrelated key concepts provide a base to develop or choose a framework for studying care coordination. The relational coordination theory and the multi-level framework are interesting as these are the most comprehensive.

  13. Shared Communications: Volume 2. In-Depth Systems Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, LF

    2004-09-22

    This report is the second of two documents that examine the literature for actual examples of organizations and agencies that share communications resources. While the primary emphasis is on rural, intelligent transportation system (ITS) communications involving transit, examples will not be limited to rural activities, nor to ITS implementation, nor even to transit. In addition, the term ''communication'' will be broadly applied to include all information resources. The first document of this series, ''Shared Communications: Volume I. A Summary and Literature Review'', defines the meaning of the term ''shared communication resources'' and provides many examples of agencies that share resources. This document, ''Shared Communications: Volume II. In-Depth Systems Research'', reviews attributes that contributed to successful applications of the sharing communication resources concept. A few examples of each type of communication sharing are provided. Based on the issues and best practice realworld examples, recommendations for potential usage and recommended approaches for field operational tests are provided.

  14. Mastering Search Analytics Measuring SEO, SEM and Site Search

    CERN Document Server

    Chaters, Brent

    2011-01-01

    Many companies still approach Search Engine Optimization (SEO) and paid search as separate initiatives. This in-depth guide shows you how to use these programs as part of a comprehensive strategy-not just to improve your site's search rankings, but to attract the right people and increase your conversion rate. Learn how to measure, test, analyze, and interpret all of your search data with a wide array of analytic tools. Gain the knowledge you need to determine the strategy's return on investment. Ideal for search specialists, webmasters, and search marketing managers, Mastering Search Analyt

  15. Ethical issues in the use of in-depth interviews: literature review and discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Allmark, Peter; Boote, Jonathan; Chambers, E.; Clarke, Amanda; McDonnell, A.; Thompson, Andrew; Tod, Angela

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a literature review on the topic of ethical issues in in-depth interviews. The review returned three types of article: general discussion, issues in particular studies, and studies of interview-based research ethics. Whilst many of the issues discussed in these articles are generic to research ethics, such as confidentiality, they often had particular manifestations in this type of research. For example, privacy was a significant problem as interviews sometimes probe unexpe...

  16. Music Genre Classification Revisited: An In-Depth Examination Guided by Music Experts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pálmason, Haukur; Jónsson, Björn Thór; Schedl, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Despite their many identified shortcomings, music genres are still often used as ground truth and as a proxy for music similarity. In this work we therefore take another in-depth look at genre classification, this time with the help of music experts. In comparison to existing work, we aim...... at including the viewpoint of different stakeholders to investigate whether musicians and end-user music taxonomies agree on genre ground truth, through a user study among 20 professional and semi-professional music protagonists. We then compare the results of their genre judgments with different commercial...

  17. THE IMPACT OF IFRS ON REPORTING FOR BUSINESS COMBINATIONS: AN IN-DEPTH ANALYSIS USING THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Garry M.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The mandatory use of IFRS by all publicly listed companies in the European Union created challenges for accounting and reporting of business combinations, goodwill impairment and disclosures for these items. Major issues are allocation of amounts to goodwill and specific intangible assets arising from acquisition. This study presents an in-depth exploration of compliance with IFRS 3 and IAS 36 using content analysis methodology of annual reports of eight European telecommunications that were chose because the industry is well known for significant acquisitions involving intangibles. The results show only partial compliance with little change over the four year period since mandatory IFRS adoption. While results cannot be generalized outside this group, the in-depth analysis yielded important insights for continued research using broader research methods.

  18. Reactor safety under design basis flood condition for inland sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajela, S.; Bajaj, S.S.; Samota, A.; Verma, U.S.P.; Warudkar, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In June 1994, there was an incident of flooding at Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) due to combination of heavy rains and mechanical failure in the operation of gates at the adjoining weir. An indepth review of the incident was carried out and a number of flood protection measures were recommended and were implemented at site. As part of this review, a safety analysis was also done to demonstrate reactor safety with a series of failures considered in the flood protection features. For each inland NPP site, as part of design, different flood scenarios are analysed to arrive at design basis flood (DBF) level. This level is estimated based on worst combination of heavy local precipitation, flooding in river, failure of upstream/downstream water control structures

  19. Uncovering Market Positioning Coordinates Using In-Depth Interviews. Evidence from the Romanian Modern Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negricea Iliuta Costel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Market positioning is not anymore just an outcome of the marketing endeavour but actually the essence of it. Organisations must develop and implement proper market positioning plans if they want to pursue an enduring existence. In this direction, an organisation must perform a brand situation analysis, its results being the starting point of a successful market positioning. This analysis entails collecting data about the brand and its competitors being performed through various qualitative and quantitative research methods. The current study focuses on the use of in-depth interviews, a very important qualitative research instrument, in collecting data necessary to build a market position in the form of inconspicuous consumer behaviour factors, such as perceptions, attitudes and motivations. The peculiarities and advantages of this tool are detailed in an analysis of the Romanian modern retail. The findings through their richness made possible configuring market positions for several companies under study. There is no doubt about the effectiveness of this tool in collecting essential data for an effective market positioning. However, in some instances an organisation might need data of quantitative nature in making market positioning decisions, situations in which the use of the indepth interview should be complemented with a survey.

  20. Differential in-depth characterization of co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinkert, Torben; Jubault, Marie; Donsanti, Frédérique; Lincot, Daniel; Guillemoles, Jean-François

    2014-05-02

    In this paper we report an alternative approach to perform in-depth characterisation of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) absorber layers. While usually groups stop their co-evaporation process at different points and analyse the precursor or intermediate phases, we perform in-depth analysis on the finished absorber layer as it will be used in the solar cell. A co-evaporated CIGS layer was cut to several samples, which then were chemically etched to different thicknesses. Compared to sputtering ablation techniques, this avoids the selective abrasion of atoms with different binding energies. The samples were analysed by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. In-depth information is obtained by differentiating the signals of samples with different thicknesses after etching and a first order correction for absorption losses was executed. The Ga/(Ga + In) ratio extracted from X-ray diffraction measurements is in good agreement with the double gradient observed by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy. A slight variation might indicate residual stress in the CIGS layer. A preferred (112) orientation across the whole film together with changing (220), (116) and (312) orientation preferences is reported and explained on the basis of the CIGS crystal structure. Raman signals attributed to ordered vacancy compounds are found throughout the whole sample thickness and not only close to the surface, as often reported in the literature. - Highlights: • Co-evaporated CIGS with double Ga gradient was chemically etched to different thicknesses. • X-ray diffractograms were differentiated to gain in-depth information. • (116)-oriented grains are found to tend to grow on (312)-oriented grains. • Change of preferred orientation was linked to crystal structure at grain boundaries. • Ga gradient from Vegard's law of XRD peaks is in agreement with GDOES measurement.

  1. Report of the Peer Review Panel on the early site suitability evaluation of the Potential Repository Site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Yucca mountain Site Characterization Project Office (YMPO) assigned Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Technical and Management Support Services (T ampersand MSS) contractor to the YmPo, the task of conducting an Early Site Suitability Evaluation (ESSE) of the Yucca mountain site as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. First, the assignment called for the development of a method to evaluate a single site against the DOE General Guidelines for Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories, 10 CFR Part 960. Then, using this method, an evaluation team, the ESSE Core Team, of senior YMP scientists, engineers, and technical experts, evaluated new information obtained about the site since publication of the final Environmental Assessment (DOE, 1986) to determine if new suitability/unsuitability findings could be recommended. Finally, the Core Team identified further information and analyses needed to make final determinations for each of the guidelines. As part of the task, an independent peer review of the ESSE report has been conducted. Expertise was solicited that covered the entire spectrum of siting guidelines in 10 CFR Part 960 in order to provide a complete, in-depth critical review of the data evaluated and cited in the ESSE report, the methods used to evaluate the data, and the conclusions and recommendations offered by the report. Fourteen nationally recognized technical experts (Table 2) served on the Peer Review Panel. The comments from the Panel and the responses prepared by the ESSE Core Team, documented on formal Comment Response Forms, constitute the body of this document

  2. Clashing Validities in the Comparative Method? Balancing In-Depth Understanding and Generalizability in Small-N Policy Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2013-01-01

    The comparative method receives considerable attention in political science. To some a main advantage of the method is that it allows for both in-depth insights (internal validity), and generalizability beyond the cases studied (external validity). However, others consider internal and external

  3. Individual Differences in Students' Knowing and Learning about Fractions: Evidence from an In-Depth Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bempeni, Maria; Vamvakoussi, Xenia

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of an in-depth qualitative study that examined ninth graders' conceptual and procedural knowledge of fractions as well as their approach to mathematics learning, in particular fraction learning. We traced individual differences, even extreme, in the way that students combine the two kinds of knowledge. We also provide…

  4. Using health and demographic surveillance for the early detection of cholera outbreaks: analysis of community- and hospital-based data from Matlab, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, Dell D; Persson, Lars-Åke; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Faruque, A S G; Rahman, Anisur

    2016-01-01

    Cholera outbreaks are a continuing problem in Bangladesh, and the timely detection of an outbreak is important for reducing morbidity and mortality. In Matlab, the ongoing Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) data records symptoms of diarrhea in children under the age of 5 years at the community level. Cholera surveillance in Matlab currently uses hospital-based data. The objective of this study is to determine whether increases in cholera in Matlab can be detected earlier by using HDSS diarrhea symptom data in a syndromic surveillance analysis, when compared to hospital admissions for cholera. HDSS diarrhea symptom data and hospital admissions for cholera in children under 5 years of age over a 2-year period were analyzed with the syndromic surveillance statistical program EARS (Early Aberration Reporting System). Dates when significant increases in either symptoms or cholera cases occurred were compared to one another. The analysis revealed that there were 43 days over 16 months when the cholera cases or diarrhea symptoms increased significantly. There were 8 months when both data sets detected days with significant increases. In 5 of the 8 months, increases in diarrheal symptoms occurred before increases of cholera cases. The increases in symptoms occurred between 1 and 15 days before the increases in cholera cases. The results suggest that the HDSS survey data may be able to detect an increase in cholera before an increase in hospital admissions is seen. However, there was no direct link between diarrheal symptom increases and cholera cases, and this, as well as other methodological weaknesses, should be taken into consideration.

  5. Site Specific Probable Maximum Precipitation Estimates and Professional Judgement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, B. D.; Kao, S. C.; Kanney, J. F.; Quinlan, K. R.; DeNeale, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    State and federal regulatory authorities currently rely upon the US National Weather Service Hydrometeorological Reports (HMRs) to determine probable maximum precipitation (PMP) estimates (i.e., rainfall depths and durations) for estimating flooding hazards for relatively broad regions in the US. PMP estimates for the contributing watersheds upstream of vulnerable facilities are used to estimate riverine flooding hazards while site-specific estimates for small water sheds are appropriate for individual facilities such as nuclear power plants. The HMRs are often criticized due to their limitations on basin size, questionable applicability in regions affected by orographic effects, their lack of consist methods, and generally by their age. HMR-51 for generalized PMP estimates for the United States east of the 105th meridian, was published in 1978 and is sometimes perceived as overly conservative. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), is currently reviewing several flood hazard evaluation reports that rely on site specific PMP estimates that have been commercially developed. As such, NRC has recently investigated key areas of expert judgement via a generic audit and one in-depth site specific review as they relate to identifying and quantifying actual and potential storm moisture sources, determining storm transposition limits, and adjusting available moisture during storm transposition. Though much of the approach reviewed was considered a logical extension of HMRs, two key points of expert judgement stood out for further in-depth review. The first relates primarily to small storms and the use of a heuristic for storm representative dew point adjustment developed for the Electric Power Research Institute by North American Weather Consultants in 1993 in order to harmonize historic storms for which only 12 hour dew point data was available with more recent storms in a single database. The second issue relates to the use of climatological averages for spatially

  6. Ethical issues in the use of in-depth interviews: literature review and discussion\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Allmark, P.; Boote, J.; Chambers, E.; Clarke, A.; McDonnell, A.; Thompson, A.R.; Tod, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a literature review on the topic of ethical issues in in-depth interviews. The review returned three\\ud types of article: general discussion, issues in particular studies, and studies of interview-based research ethics. Whilst\\ud many of the issues discussed in these articles are generic to research ethics, such as confidentiality, they often had particular\\ud manifestations in this type of research. For example, privacy was a significant problem as interviews sometimes\\ud ...

  7. Preface Special issue: Monitoring and Seismic Characterization of Archaeological Sites and Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Clemente

    2017-07-01

    In this perspective a team composed by researchers of ENEA, INGV and Sapienza University of Rome has recently carried out geophysical and structural investigations on the Amphiteatrum Flavium in Rome, better known as Colosseum, which is the symbol of monumental heritage in Italy and well-known all over the world. The experimental campaign was only a preliminary analysis of the very famous archaeological site that allowed outlining the state of knowledge about the characteristics of the site and the structure and should be considered as a starting point for an in-depth investigation of the monument vulnerability. In our opinion, the benefits of such an integrated approach can steer the political and social choices related with the preservation of the cultural heritage at National or European level.

  8. Development of site remediation technologies in European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunno, T.J.; Hyman, J.A.; Pheiffer, T.

    1988-01-01

    Site remediation is a pressing issue in European countries due to limited availability of land. Therefore, much progress is being made in the development of effective technologies for remediating contaminated sites. The purpose of this program was to investigate the most successful and innovative technologies for potential application into US markets. This EPA-sponsored project was based on a 9-month research effort which identified 95 innovative technologies in use or being researched in foreign countries. The most promising technologies were studied in-depth through personal interviews with the engineers who research and apply these technologies, and tours of laboratory models and full-scale installations. The most successful full-scale technologies investigated were developed in Holland, West Germany and Belgium. These technologies include vacuum extraction of hydrocarbons from soil, in situ washing of cadmium-polluted soil, rotating biocontractors for treating pesticides in ground water, high-temperature slagging incineration of low-level radioactive wastes, in situ steam stripping, and a number of landfarming and soil washing operations. The paper provides description of 13 site remediation techniques that have shown such promise in laboratory studies or in practice to warrant consideration of their use in the US

  9. Team Regulation in a Simulated Medical Emergency: An In-Depth Analysis of Cognitive, Metacognitive, and Affective Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Melissa C.; Azevedo, Roger; Sun, Ning-Zi; Griscom, Sophia E.; Stead, Victoria; Crelinsten, Linda; Wiseman, Jeffrey; Maniatis, Thomas; Lachapelle, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the nature of cognitive, metacognitive, and affective processes among a medical team experiencing difficulty managing a challenging simulated medical emergency case by conducting in-depth analysis of process data. Medical residents participated in a simulation exercise designed to help trainees to develop medical expertise,…

  10. In-depth investigation of escalator riding accidents in heavy capacity MRT stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chia-Fen; Chang, Tin-Chang; Tsou, Chi-Lin

    2006-07-01

    In 2000, the accident rate for escalator riding was about 0.815 accidents per million passenger trips through Taipei Metro Rapid Transit (MRT) heavy capacity stations. In order to reduce the probability and severity of escalator riding accidents and enhance the safety of passengers, the Drury and Brill model [Drury, C.G., Brill, M., 1983. Human factors in consumer product accident investigation. Hum. Factors 25 (3), 329-342] for in-depth investigation was adopted to analyze the 194 escalator riding accidents in terms of victim, task, product and environment. Prevention measures have been developed based on the major causes of accidents and other related contributing factors. The results from the analysis indicated that the majority of the escalator riding accidents was caused by passengers' carrying out other tasks (38 cases, including carrying luggage 24 cases, looking after accompany persons 9 cases, and 5 others), loss of balance (26 cases, 13.4%), not holding the handrail (20 cases, 10.3%), unhealthy passengers (18 cases, 9.3%), followed by people struck by other passenger (16 cases, 8.2%). For female passengers aged 15-64 years, their rushing for trains accidents could have been prevented by wearing safer footwear or by appropriate signing being provided indicating the location and traveling direction of escalators. Female passengers aged 65 years and above whose accidents were caused by loss of balance, should be encouraged to take the elevator instead. To prevent entrapment injuries, following a stricter design code can be most effective. Further in-depth accident investigation is suggested to cover the activity of the victim prior to the accident, any involved product, the location of the accident on the escalator, any medical treatment, what went wrong, opinion of the respondent on the causes of the accident, and personal characteristics of the passengers. Also, management must trade off productivity and safety appropriately to prevent "Organizational

  11. Factors associated with antenatal care adequacy in rural and urban contexts-results from two health and demographic surveillance sites in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Antenatal Care (ANC) is universally considered important for women and children. This study aims to identify factors, demographic, social and economic, possibly associated with three ANC indicators: number of visits, timing of visits and content of services. The aim is also to compare the patterns of association of such factors between one rural and one urban context in northern Vietnam. Methods Totally 2,132 pregnant women were followed from identification of pregnancy until birth in two Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites (HDSS). Information was obtained through quarterly face to face interviews. Results Living in the rural area was significantly associated with lower adequate use of ANC compared to living in the urban area, both regarding quantity (number and timing of visits) and content. Low education, living in poor households and exclusively using private sector ANC in both sites and self employment, becoming pregnant before 25 years of age and living in poor communities in the rural area turned out to increase the risk for overall inadequate ANC. High risk pregnancy could not be demonstrated to be associated with ANC adequacy in either site. The medical content of services offered was often inadequate, in relation to the national recommendations, especially in the private sector. Conclusion Low education, low economic status, exclusive use of private ANC and living in rural areas were main factors associated with risk for overall inadequate ANC use as related to the national recommendations. Therefore, interventions focussing on poor and less educated women, especially in rural areas should be prioritized. They should focus the importance of early attendance of ANC and sufficient use of core services. Financial support for poor and near poor women should be considered. Providers of ANC should be educated and otherwise influenced to provide sufficient core services. Adherence to ANC content guidelines must be improved through enhanced

  12. The effect of looming and receding sounds on the perceived in-depth orientation of depth-ambiguous biological motion figures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Schouten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The focus in the research on biological motion perception traditionally has been restricted to the visual modality. Recent neurophysiological and behavioural evidence, however, supports the idea that actions are not represented merely visually but rather audiovisually. The goal of the present study was to test whether the perceived in-depth orientation of depth-ambiguous point-light walkers (plws is affected by the presentation of looming or receding sounds synchronized with the footsteps. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1 orthographic frontal/back projections of plws were presented either without sound or with sounds of which the intensity level was rising (looming, falling (receding or stationary. Despite instructions to ignore the sounds and to only report the visually perceived in-depth orientation, plws accompanied with looming sounds were more often judged to be facing the viewer whereas plws paired with receding sounds were more often judged to be facing away from the viewer. To test whether the effects observed in Experiment 1 act at a perceptual level rather than at the decisional level, in Experiment 2 observers perceptually compared orthographic plws without sound or paired with either looming or receding sounds to plws without sound but with perspective cues making them objectively either facing towards or facing away from the viewer. Judging whether either an orthographic plw or a plw with looming (receding perspective cues is visually most looming becomes harder (easier when the orthographic plw is paired with looming sounds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present results suggest that looming and receding sounds alter the judgements of the in-depth orientation of depth-ambiguous point-light walkers. While looming sounds are demonstrated to act at a perceptual level and make plws look more looming, it remains a challenge for future research to clarify at what level in the processing hierarchy receding sounds

  13. Phosphor-Doped Thermal Barrier Coatings Deposited by Air Plasma Spray for In-Depth Temperature Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Peng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ-based thermal barrier coating (TBC has been integrated with thermographic phosphors through air plasma spray (APS for in-depth; non-contact temperature sensing. This coating consisted of a thin layer of Dy-doped YSZ (about 40 µm on the bottom and a regular YSZ layer with a thickness up to 300 µm on top. A measurement system has been established; which included a portable; low-cost diode laser (405 nm; a photo-multiplier tube (PMT and the related optics. Coating samples with different topcoat thickness were calibrated in a high-temperature furnace from room temperature to around 900 °C. The results convincingly showed that the current sensor and the measurement system was capable of in-depth temperature sensing over 800 °C with a YSZ top layer up to 300 µm. The topcoat thickness was found to have a strong effect on the luminescent signal level. Therefore; the measurement accuracy at high temperatures was reduced for samples with thick topcoats due to strong light attenuation. However; it seemed that the light transmissivity of YSZ topcoat increased with temperature; which would improve the sensor’s performance at high temperatures. The current sensor and the measurement technology have shown great potential in on-line monitoring of TBC interface temperature.

  14. Co-constructing stories : a participatory design technique to elicit in-depth user feedback and suggestions about design concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcelik, D.; Terken, J.M.B.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a participatory design technique for early, formative concept evaluations to elicit in-depth user feedback and suggestions, revealing attitudes and motivations of users. The technique is motivated by the link between memories, experiences and dreams, and is based on the

  15. Safety inspections in construction sites: A systems thinking perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurin, Tarcisio Abreu

    2016-08-01

    Although safety inspections carried out by government officers are important for the prevention of accidents, there is little in-depth knowledge on their outcomes and processes leading to these. This research deals with this gap by using systems thinking (ST) as a lens for obtaining insights into safety inspections in construction sites. Thirteen case studies of sites with prohibited works were carried out, discussing how four attributes of ST were used in the inspections. The studies were undertaken over 6 years, and sources of evidence involved participant observation, direct observations, analysis of documents and interviews. Two complementary ways for obtaining insights into inspections, based on ST, were identified: (i) the design of the study itself needs to be in line with ST; and (ii) data collection and analysis should focus on the agents involved in the inspections, the interactions between agents, the constraints and opportunities faced by agents, the outcomes of interactions, and the recommendations for influencing interactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mothers' education and ANC visit improved exclusive breastfeeding in Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System Site, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariku, Amare; Alemu, Kassahun; Gizaw, Zemichael; Muchie, Kindie Fentahun; Derso, Terefe; Abebe, Solomon Mekonnen; Yitayal, Mezgebu; Fekadu, Abel; Ayele, Tadesse Awoke; Alemayehu, Geta Asrade; Tsegaye, Adino Tesfahun; Shimeka, Alemayehu; Biks, Gashaw Andargie

    2017-01-01

    Despite its proven benefit in reducing child mortality and morbidity, the coverage of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) remains sub-optimal. In Ethiopia, about 52% of infants under six months of age were exclusively breastfed, implying the need for further identification of the barriers to optimal EBF practice. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate EBF and its determinants in the predominantly rural northwest Ethiopia. The study was conducted at the Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site, which is located in Dabat District, northwest Ethiopia. A total of 5,227 mothers with children under five years of age were included for analysis. Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with EBF. The Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was estimated to show the strength of association. A P-value of ANC visit [AOR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.23,1.61], initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth [AOR = 1.32; 95% CI: 1.15,1.50], richer household [AOR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.65], and withholding prelacteal feeds [AOR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.53] were found important determinants of EBF. In this study area, the prevalence of EBF is lower than the national as well as the global recommendation for universal coverage of EBF. Therefore, strengthening the implementation of Infant and Young Child Feeding strategy (IYCF) and maternal health care utilization are essential for stepping up EBF coverage. Moreover, attention should be given to uneducated, rural resident, and adolescent mothers.

  17. An In-Depth Analysis of Tags and Controlled Metadata for Book Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Petras, Vivien

    2017-01-01

    Book search for information needs that go beyond standard bibliographic data is far from a solved problem. Such complex information needs often cover a combination of di erent aspects, such as specific genres or plot elements, engagement or novelty. By design, subject information in controlled...... vocabularies is not always adequate in covering such complex needs, and social tags have been proposed as an alternative. In this paper we present a large-scale empirical comparison and in-depth analysis of the value of controlled vocabularies and tags for book retrieval using a test collection of over 2....... Finally, we perform a detailed failure analysis and show, using tags and controlled vocabulary terms, that some request types are inherently more di cult to solve than others....

  18. SiteChar. Characterisation of European CO2 storage. Deliverable 8.4. Quantitative social site characterisations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsting, S.; Mastop, E.A. [ECN Policy Studies, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaiser, M.; Zimmer, R. [Unabhaengiges Institut fuer Umweltfragen UfU, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    This report describes the results of the last stage of the in-depth social site characterisation activities at two prospective CCS sites as part of the SiteChar project: a CCS onshore site and a CCS offshore site. The onshore site is the Zalecze and Zuchlow site application (Poland - WP5) and the offshore site is the North Sea Moray Firth site (UK - WP3). This deliverable describes the results from a repeated quantitative measurement of local awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of CCS at both sites using representative surveys. For comparison and discussion of all SiteChar WP8 results we refer to the final summary report D8.5. The 2nd survey showed some interesting results. First of all, awareness of CCS was still very low. While in the UK around half of the respondents had at least heard of local plans for CCS, in Poland this was only 21%. It seems that awareness in the UK was mostly induced by specific plans in the area that were abandoned in the course of the SiteChar project. Second, it seems that on the whole the local publics were rather positive about CCS. Most respondents expected a positive impact of CCS on the region. In the UK, arguments for that were mainly economic, while in Poland arguments were mainly related to environmental concerns. Although there are some worries about risks of leakage, especially at the onshore site in Poland, people think that authorities will properly regulate CCS and monitor the safety of CCS. Expectations were mostly that it would be good for the country and that it will help reach international targets for CO2 reduction and buy time to develop renewable energy. Respondents seemed uncertain about the costs of using CCS and whether the technique is ready for widespread use. Especially in Poland people seemed to agree that CCS is essential for tackling climate change. Most differences between the two sites may be attributed to the proximity of the site to the local community. The Polish site is onshore and therefore much

  19. Practical In-Depth Analysis of IDS Alerts for Tracing and Identifying Potential Attackers on Darknet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungsuk Song

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The darknet (i.e., a set of unused IP addresses is a very useful solution for observing the global trends of cyber threats and analyzing attack activities on the Internet. Since the darknet is not connected with real systems, in most cases, the incoming packets on the darknet (‘the darknet traffic’ do not contain a payload. This means that we are unable to get real malware from the darknet traffic. This situation makes it difficult for security experts (e.g., academic researchers, engineers, operators, etc. to identify whether the source hosts of the darknet traffic are infected by real malware or not. In this paper, we present the overall procedure of the in-depth analysis between the darknet traffic and IDS alerts using real data collected at the Science and Technology Cyber Security Center (S&T CSC in Korea and provide the detailed in-depth analysis results. The ultimate goal of this paper is to provide practical experience, insight and know-how to security experts so that they are able to identify and trace the root cause of the darknet traffic. The experimental results show that correlation analysis between the darknet traffic and IDS alerts is very useful to discover potential attack hosts, especially internal hosts, and to find out what kinds of malware infected them.

  20. Host-guest chemistry of dendrimer-drug complexes. 4. An in-depth look into the binding/encapsulation of guanosine monophosphate by dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingjing; Fang, Min; Cheng, Yiyun; Zhang, Jiahai; Wu, Qinglin; Xu, Tongwen

    2010-06-03

    In the present study, we investigated the host-guest chemistry of dendrimer/guanosine monophosphate (GMP) and present an in-depth look into the binding/encapsulation of GMP by dendrimers using NMR studies. (1)H NMR spectra showed a significant downfield shift of methylene protons in the outmost layer of the G5 dendrimer, indicating the formation of ion pairs between cationic amine groups of dendrimer and anionic phosphate groups of GMP. Chemical shift titration results showed that the binding constant between G5 dendrimer and GMP is 17,400 M(-1) and each G5 dendrimer has 107 binding sites. The binding of GMP to dendrimers prevents its aggregation in aqueous solutions and thereby enhances its stability. Nuclear Overhauser effect measurements indicated that a GMP binding and encapsulation balance occurs on the surface and in the interior of dendrimer. The binding/encapsulation transitions can be easily tailored by altering the surface and interior charge densities of the dendrimer. All these findings provide a new insight into the host-guest chemistry of dendrimer/guest complexes and may play important roles in the study of dendrimer/DNA aggregates by a "bottom-up" strategy.

  1. 'I do the best I can': an in-depth exploration of the aphasia management pathway in the acute hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Abby M; Worrall, Linda E; Rose, Miranda L; O'Halloran, Robyn

    2016-09-01

    While research has begun to explore the management of aphasia across the continuum of care, to date there is little in-depth, context specific knowledge relating to the speech pathology aphasia management pathway. This research aimed to provide an in-depth understanding of the current aphasia management pathway in the acute hospital setting, from the perspective of speech pathologists. Underpinned by a social constructivist paradigm, the researchers implemented an interpretive phenomenological method when conducting in-depth interviews with 14 Australian speech pathologists working in the acute hospital setting. Interview transcripts and interviewer field notes were subjected to a qualitative content analysis. Analysis identified a single guiding construct and five main categories to describe the management of aphasia in the acute hospital setting. The guiding construct, First contact with the profession, informed the entire management pathway. Five additional main categories were identified: Referral processes; Screening and assessment; Therapeutic intervention; Educational and affective counselling; and Advocacy. Findings suggest significant diversity in the pathways of care for people with aphasia and their families in the acute hospital setting. Additional support mechanisms are required in order to support speech pathologists to minimise the evidence-practice gap. Implications for Rehabilitation Significant diversity exists in the current aphasia management pathway for people with acute post-stroke aphasia and their families in the acute hospital setting. Mechanisms that support speech pathologists to minimise the evidence-practice gap, and consequently reduce their sense of professional dissonance, are required.

  2. Weather and mortality: a 10 year retrospective analysis of the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Sauerborn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A growing body of evidence points to the emission of greenhouse gases from human activity as a key factor in climate change. This in turn affects human health and wellbeing through consequential changes in weather extremes. At present, little is known about the effects of weather on the health of sub-Saharan African populations, as well as the related anticipated effects of climate change partly due to scarcity of good quality data. We aimed to study the association between weather patterns and daily mortality in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS area during 1999–2009. Methods: Meteorological data were obtained from a nearby weather station in the Nouna HDSS area and linked to mortality data on a daily basis. Time series Poisson regression models were established to estimate the association between the lags of weather and daily population-level mortality, adjusting for time trends. The analyses were stratified by age and sex to study differential population susceptibility. Results: We found profound associations between higher temperature and daily mortality in the Nouna HDSS, Burkina Faso. The short-term direct heat effect was particularly strong on the under-five child mortality rate. We also found independent coherent effects and strong associations between rainfall events and daily mortality, particularly in elderly populations. Conclusion: Mortality patterns in the Nouna HDSS appear to be closely related to weather conditions. Further investigation on cause-specific mortality, as well as on vulnerability and susceptibility is required. Studies on local adaptation and mitigation measures to avoid health impacts from weather and climate change is also needed to reduce negative effects from weather and climate change on population health in rural areas of the sub-Saharan Africa.

  3. Influence of the nitrogen gas addition in the Ar shielding gas on the erosion-corrosion of tube-to-tube sheet welds of hyper duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Jeon, Soon-Hyeok; Kim, Soon-Tae; Lee, In-Sung; Park, Yong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Duplex stainless steels with nearly equal fraction of the ferrite(α) phase and austenite(γ) phase have been increasingly used for various applications such as power plants, desalination facilities due to their high resistance to corrosion, good weldability, and excellent mechanical properties. Hyper duplex stainless steel (HDSS) is defined as the future duplex stainless steel with a pitting resistance equivalent (PRE= wt.%Cr+3.3(wt.%Mo+0.5wt.%W)+30wt.%N) of above 50. However, when HDSS is welded with gas tungsten arc (GTA), incorporation of nitrogen in the Ar shielding gas are very important because the volume fraction of α-phase and γ-phase is changed and harmful secondary phases can be formed in the welded zone. In other words, the balance of corrosion resistance between two phases and reduction of Cr 2 N are the key points of this study. The primary results of this study are as follows. The addition of N 2 to the Ar shielding gas provides phase balance under weld-cooling conditions and increases the transformation temperature of the α-phase to γ-phase, increasing the fraction of γ-phase as well as decreasing the precipitation of Cr2N. In the anodic polarization test, the addition of nitrogen gas in the Ar shielding gas improved values of the electrochemical parameters, compared to the Pure Ar. Also, in the erosion-corrosion test, the HDSS welded with shielding gas containing N 2 decreased the weight loss, compared to HDSS welded with the Ar pure gas. This result showed the resistance of erosion-corrosion was increased due to increasing the fraction of γ-phase and the stability of passive film according to the addition N 2 gas to the Ar shielding gas. As a result, the addition of nitrogen gas to the shielding gas improved the resistance of erosion-corrosion

  4. Influence of the nitrogen gas addition in the Ar shielding gas on the erosion-corrosion of tube-to-tube sheet welds of hyper duplex stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Jeon, Soon-Hyeok; Kim, Soon-Tae; Lee, In-Sung; Park, Yong-Soo [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Duplex stainless steels with nearly equal fraction of the ferrite(α) phase and austenite(γ) phase have been increasingly used for various applications such as power plants, desalination facilities due to their high resistance to corrosion, good weldability, and excellent mechanical properties. Hyper duplex stainless steel (HDSS) is defined as the future duplex stainless steel with a pitting resistance equivalent (PRE= wt.%Cr+3.3(wt.%Mo+0.5wt.%W)+30wt.%N) of above 50. However, when HDSS is welded with gas tungsten arc (GTA), incorporation of nitrogen in the Ar shielding gas are very important because the volume fraction of α-phase and γ-phase is changed and harmful secondary phases can be formed in the welded zone. In other words, the balance of corrosion resistance between two phases and reduction of Cr{sub 2}N are the key points of this study. The primary results of this study are as follows. The addition of N{sub 2} to the Ar shielding gas provides phase balance under weld-cooling conditions and increases the transformation temperature of the α-phase to γ-phase, increasing the fraction of γ-phase as well as decreasing the precipitation of Cr2N. In the anodic polarization test, the addition of nitrogen gas in the Ar shielding gas improved values of the electrochemical parameters, compared to the Pure Ar. Also, in the erosion-corrosion test, the HDSS welded with shielding gas containing N{sub 2} decreased the weight loss, compared to HDSS welded with the Ar pure gas. This result showed the resistance of erosion-corrosion was increased due to increasing the fraction of γ-phase and the stability of passive film according to the addition N{sub 2} gas to the Ar shielding gas. As a result, the addition of nitrogen gas to the shielding gas improved the resistance of erosion-corrosion.

  5. Influence of lateral and in-depth metal segregation on the patterning of ohmic contacts for GaN-based devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo-Cubero, A; Alves, L C; Corregidor, V; Vázquez, L; Romero, M F; Muñoz, E; Pantellini, A; Lanzieri, C

    2014-01-01

    The lateral and in-depth metal segregation of Au/Ni/Al/Ti ohmic contacts for GaN-based high electron mobility transistors were analysed as a function of the Al barrier's thickness (d). The surface of the contacts, characterized by atomic force and scanning electron microscopy, shows a transition from a fractal network of rough and complex island-like structures towards smoother and cauliflower-like fronts with increasing d. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) at different energies were used to confirm the in-depth intermixing of the metals relevant for the final contact resistance. EDXS mapping reveals a significant lateral segregation too, where the resulting patterns depend on two competing NiAl x and AuAl x phases, the intermixing being controlled by the available amount of Al. The optimum ohmic resistance is not affected by the patterning process, but is mainly dependent on the partial interdiffusion of the metals. (paper)

  6. Development and testing of a scale to assess physician attitudes about handheld computers with decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Midge N; Houston, Thomas K; Yu, Feliciano B; Menachemi, Nir; Maisiak, Richard S; Allison, Jeroan J; Berner, Eta S

    2006-01-01

    The authors developed and evaluated a rating scale, the Attitudes toward Handheld Decision Support Software Scale (H-DSS), to assess physician attitudes about handheld decision support systems. The authors conducted a prospective assessment of psychometric characteristics of the H-DSS including reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Participants were 82 Internal Medicine residents. A higher score on each of the 14 five-point Likert scale items reflected a more positive attitude about handheld DSS. The H-DSS score is the mean across the fourteen items. Attitudes toward the use of the handheld DSS were assessed prior to and six months after receiving the handheld device. Cronbach's Alpha was used to assess internal consistency reliability. Pearson correlations were used to estimate and detect significant associations between scale scores and other measures (validity). Paired sample t-tests were used to test for changes in the mean attitude scale score (responsiveness) and for differences between groups. Internal consistency reliability for the scale was alpha = 0.73. In testing validity, moderate correlations were noted between the attitude scale scores and self-reported Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) usage in the hospital (correlation coefficient = 0.55) and clinic (0.48), p DSS scale was reliable, valid, and responsive. The scale can be used to guide future handheld DSS development and implementation.

  7. An In-Depth Look At the Lunar Crater Copernicus: Exposed Mineralogy by High-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Highlights ?We present an in-depth study of Copernicus crater. ? First publication based on new NIR data from the SIR-2 mission to the Moon. ? New NIR spectral classification of surface materials within the crater. ? Highly detailed mapping of spectrally-prominent mineral species. Abstract Newly acquired, sequentially spaced, high resolution near-infrared spectra across the central section of crater Copernicus? interior have been analysed using a r...

  8. Procedures for evaluation of vibratory ground motions of soil deposits at nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    According to USNRC requirements set forth in Appendix A, 10 CFR, Part 100, vibratory ground motion criteria for a nuclear plant must be based on local soil conditions, as well as on the seismicity, geology, and tectonics of the region. This report describes how such criteria can be developed by applying the latest technology associated with analytical predictions of site-dependent ground motions and with the use of composite spectra obtained from the current library of strong motion records. Recommended procedures for defining vibratory ground motion criteria contain the following steps: (1) geologic and seismologic studies; (2) site soils investigations; (3) site response sensitivity studies; (4) evaluation of local site response characteristics; (5) selection of site-matched records; and (6) appraisal and selection of seismic input criteria. An in-depth discussion of the engineering characteristics of earthquake ground motions including parameters used to characterize earthquakes and strong motion records, geologic factors that influence ground shaking, the current strong motion data base, and case histories of the effects of past earthquake events is presented. Next, geotechnical investigations of the seismologic, geologic, and site soil conditions required to develop vibratory motion criteria are briefly summarized. The current technology for establishing vibratory ground motion criteria at nuclear plant sites, including site-independent and site-dependent procedures that use data from strong motion records and from soil response analyses is described. (auth)

  9. The novel programmable riometer for in-depth ionospheric and magnetospheric observations (PRIAMOS) using direct sampling DSP techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Dekoulis, G.; Honary, F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the feasibility study and simulation results for the unique multi-frequency, multi-bandwidth, Programmable Riometer for in-depth Ionospheric And Magnetospheric ObservationS (PRIAMOS) based on direct sampling digital signal processing (DSP) techniques. This novel architecture is based on sampling the cosmic noise wavefront at the antenna. It eliminates the usage of any intermediate frequency (IF) mixer stages (-6 dB) and the noise balancing technique (-3 dB), providing a m...

  10. "Disruptive Technologies", "Pedagogical Innovation": What's New? Findings from an In-Depth Study of Students' Use and Perception of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conole, Grainne; de Laat, Maarten; Dillon, Teresa; Darby, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes the findings from a study of students' use and experience of technologies. A series of in-depth case studies were carried out across four subject disciplines, with data collected via survey, audio logs and interviews. The findings suggest that students are immersed in a rich, technology-enhanced learning environment and that…

  11. SITEX 2.0: Projections of protein functional sites on eukaryotic genes. Extension with orthologous genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedeva, Irina V; Demenkov, Pavel S; Ivanisenko, Vladimir A

    2017-04-01

    Functional sites define the diversity of protein functions and are the central object of research of the structural and functional organization of proteins. The mechanisms underlying protein functional sites emergence and their variability during evolution are distinguished by duplication, shuffling, insertion and deletion of the exons in genes. The study of the correlation between a site structure and exon structure serves as the basis for the in-depth understanding of sites organization. In this regard, the development of programming resources that allow the realization of the mutual projection of exon structure of genes and primary and tertiary structures of encoded proteins is still the actual problem. Previously, we developed the SitEx system that provides information about protein and gene sequences with mapped exon borders and protein functional sites amino acid positions. The database included information on proteins with known 3D structure. However, data with respect to orthologs was not available. Therefore, we added the projection of sites positions to the exon structures of orthologs in SitEx 2.0. We implemented a search through database using site conservation variability and site discontinuity through exon structure. Inclusion of the information on orthologs allowed to expand the possibilities of SitEx usage for solving problems regarding the analysis of the structural and functional organization of proteins. Database URL: http://www-bionet.sscc.ru/sitex/ .

  12. From Marginalized to Validated: An In-Depth Case Study of an Asian American, Native American and Pacific Islander Serving Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thai-Huy; Nguyen, Mike Hoa; Nguyen, Bach Mai Dolly; Gasman, Marybeth; Conrad, Clifton

    2018-01-01

    This article highlights the capacity of an Asian American, Native American and Pacific Islander Institution (AANAPISI) to serve as an institutional convertor--by addressing challenges commonly associated with marginalized students--for low-income, Asian American and Pacific Islander students entering college. Through an in-depth case study, we…

  13. Cavity-enhanced eigenmode and angular hybrid multiplexing in holographic data storage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bo E; Takashima, Yuzuru

    2016-12-26

    Resonant optical cavities have been demonstrated to improve energy efficiencies in Holographic Data Storage Systems (HDSS). The orthogonal reference beams supported as cavity eigenmodes can provide another multiplexing degree of freedom to push storage densities toward the limit of 3D optical data storage. While keeping the increased energy efficiency of a cavity enhanced reference arm, image bearing holograms are multiplexed by orthogonal phase code multiplexing via Hermite-Gaussian eigenmodes in a Fe:LiNbO3 medium with a 532 nm laser at two Bragg angles. We experimentally confirmed write rates are enhanced by an average factor of 1.1, and page crosstalk is about 2.5%. This hybrid multiplexing opens up a pathway to increase storage density while minimizing modification of current angular multiplexing HDSS.

  14. Using in-depth investigations to identify transportation safety issues for wheelchair-seated occupants of motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lawrence W; Klinich, Kathleen D; Moore, Jamie L; MacWilliams, Joel B

    2010-04-01

    In-depth investigations of motor-vehicle crashes involve detailed inspection, measurement, and photodocumentation of vehicle exterior and interior damage, evidence of belt-restraint use, and evidence of occupant contacts with the vehicle interior. Results of in-depth investigations thereby provide the most objective way to identify current and emerging injury problems and issues in occupant safety and crash protection, and provide important feedback on the real-world performance of the latest restraint-system and vehicle crashworthiness technologies. To provide an objective understanding of real-world transportation safety issues for wheelchair-seated travelers, the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) has been conducting and assembling data from in-depth investigations of motor-vehicle crashes and non-crash adverse moving-vehicle incidents, such as emergency vehicle braking, turning, and swerving, in which there was at least one vehicle occupant sitting in a wheelchair. The results of 39 investigations involving 42 wheelchair-seated occupants have been assembled and entered into a wheelchair-occupant crash/injury database. In addition, a biomechanical analysis of each case has been performed to identify key safety issues for wheelchair-seated travelers. The wheelchairs of 34 of the 42 occupants who were seated in wheelchairs while traveling in motor vehicles were effectively secured by either a four-point, strap-type tiedown system or a docking securement device, and all but one of these properly secured wheelchairs remained in place during the crash or non-collision event. However, 30 of the 42 occupants were improperly restrained, either because of non-use or incomplete use of available belt restraints, or because the belt restraints were improperly positioned on the occupant's body. Twenty-six of the 42 occupants sustained significant injuries and 10 of these occupants died as a direct result of injuries sustained, or from

  15. Health services for reproductive tract infections among female migrant workers in industrial zones in Ha Noi, Viet Nam: an in-depth assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Le

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural-to-urban migration involves a high proportion of females because job opportunities for female migrants have increased in urban industrial areas. Those who migrate may be healthier than those staying in the village and they may benefit from better health care services at destination, but the 'healthy' effect can be reversed at destination due to migration-related health risk factors. The study aimed to explore the need for health care services for reproductive tract infections (RTIs among female migrants working in the Sai Dong industrial zone as well as their services utilization. Methods The cross sectional study employed a mixed method approach. A cohort of 300 female migrants was interviewed to collect quantitative data. Two focus groups and 20 in-depth interviews were conducted to collect qualitative data. We have used frequency and cross-tabulation techniques to analyze the quantitative data and the qualitative data was used to triangulate and to provide more in-depth information. Results The needs for health care services for RTI were high as 25% of participants had RTI syndromes. Only 21.6% of female migrants having RTI syndromes ever seek helps for health care services. Barriers preventing migrants to access services were traditional values, long working hours, lack of information, and high cost of services. Employers had limited interests in reproductive health of female migrants, and there was ineffective collaboration between the local health system and enterprises. These barriers were partly caused by lack of health promotion programs suitable for migrants. Most respondents needed more information on RTIs and preferred to receive these from their employers since they commonly work shifts - and spend most of their day time at work. Conclusion While RTIs are a common health problem among female migrant workers in industrial zones, female migrants had many obstacles in accessing RTI care services. The findings

  16. Deformation Characteristic and Constitutive Modeling of 2707 Hyper Duplex Stainless Steel under Hot Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huabing Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hot deformation behavior and microstructure evolution of 2707 hyper duplex stainless steel (HDSS were investigated through hot compression tests in the temperature range of 900–1250 °C and strain rate range of 0.01–10 s−1. The results showed that the flow behavior strongly depended on strain rate and temperature, and flow stress increased with increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature. At lower temperatures, many precipitates appeared in ferrite and distributed along the deformation direction, which could restrain processing of discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DRX because of pinning grain boundaries. When the temperature increased to 1150 °C, the leading softening behaviors were dynamic recovery (DRV in ferrite and discontinuous DRX in austenite. When the temperature reached 1250 °C, softening behavior was mainly DRV in ferrite. The increase of strain rate was conducive to the occurrence of discontinuous DRX in austenite. A constitutive equation at peak strain was established and the results indicated that 2707 HDSS had a higher Q value (569.279 kJ·mol−1 than other traditional duplex stainless steels due to higher content of Cr, Mo, Ni, and N. Constitutive modeling considering strain was developed to model the hot deformation behavior of 2707 HDSS more accurately, and the correlation coefficient and average absolute relative error were 0.992 and 5.22%, respectively.

  17. Reporting Errors in Siblings’ Survival Histories and Their Impact on Adult Mortality Estimates: Results From a Record Linkage Study in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helleringer, Stéphane; Pison, Gilles; Kanté, Almamy M.; Duthé, Géraldine; Andro, Armelle

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of adult mortality in countries with limited vital registration (e.g., sub-Saharan Africa) are often derived from information about the survival of a respondent’s siblings. We evaluated the completeness and accuracy of such data through a record linkage study conducted in Bandafassi, located in southeastern Senegal. We linked at the individual level retrospective siblings’ survival histories (SSH) reported by female respondents (n = 268) to prospective mortality data and genealogies collected through a health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS). Respondents often reported inaccurate lists of siblings. Additions to these lists were uncommon, but omissions were frequent: respondents omitted 3.8 % of their live sisters, 9.1 % of their deceased sisters, and 16.6 % of their sisters who had migrated out of the DSS area. Respondents underestimated the age at death of the siblings they reported during the interview, particularly among siblings who had died at older ages (≥45 years). Restricting SSH data to person-years and events having occurred during a recent reference period reduced list errors but not age and date errors. Overall, SSH data led to a 20 % underestimate of 45q15 relative to HDSS data. Our study suggests new quality improvement strategies for SSH data and demonstrates the potential use of HDSS data for the validation of “unconventional” demographic techniques. PMID:24493063

  18. Reporting errors in siblings' survival histories and their impact on adult mortality estimates: results from a record linkage study in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helleringer, Stéphane; Pison, Gilles; Kanté, Almamy M; Duthé, Géraldine; Andro, Armelle

    2014-04-01

    Estimates of adult mortality in countries with limited vital registration (e.g., sub-Saharan Africa) are often derived from information about the survival of a respondent's siblings. We evaluated the completeness and accuracy of such data through a record linkage study conducted in Bandafassi, located in southeastern Senegal. We linked at the individual level retrospective siblings' survival histories (SSH) reported by female respondents (n = 268) to prospective mortality data and genealogies collected through a health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS). Respondents often reported inaccurate lists of siblings. Additions to these lists were uncommon, but omissions were frequent: respondents omitted 3.8 % of their live sisters, 9.1 % of their deceased sisters, and 16.6 % of their sisters who had migrated out of the DSS area. Respondents underestimated the age at death of the siblings they reported during the interview, particularly among siblings who had died at older ages (≥45 years). Restricting SSH data to person-years and events having occurred during a recent reference period reduced list errors but not age and date errors. Overall, SSH data led to a 20 % underestimate of 45 q 15 relative to HDSS data. Our study suggests new quality improvement strategies for SSH data and demonstrates the potential use of HDSS data for the validation of "unconventional" demographic techniques.

  19. In-depth imaging and quantification of degenerative changes associated with Achilles ruptured tendons by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnaninchi, P O; Yang, Y; Maffulli, G; El Haj, A; Maffulli, N; Bonesi, M; Meglinski, I; Phelan, C

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method based on polarization-sensitive optical coherent tomography (PSOCT) for the imaging and quantification of degenerative changes associated with Achilles tendon rupture. Ex vivo PSOCT examinations were performed in 24 patients. The study involved samples from 14 ruptured Achilles tendons, 4 tendinopathic Achilles tendons and 6 patellar tendons (collected during total knee replacement) as non-ruptured controls. The samples were imaged in both intensity and phase retardation modes within 24 h after surgery, and birefringence was quantified. The samples were fixed and processed for histology immediately after imaging. Slides were assessed twice in a blind manner to provide a semi-quantitative histological score of degeneration. In-depth micro structural imaging was demonstrated. Collagen disorganization and high cellularity were observable by PSOCT as the main markers associated with pathological features. Quantitative assessment of birefringence and penetration depth found significant differences between non-ruptured and ruptured tendons. Microstructure abnormalities were observed in the microstructure of two out of four tendinopathic samples. PSOCT has the potential to explore in situ and in-depth pathological change associated with Achilles tendon rupture, and could help to delineate abnormalities in tendinopathic samples in vivo.

  20. Estimation of fatality and injury risk by means of in-depth fatal accident investigation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Dupont, Emmanuelle; Martensen, Heike

    2010-10-01

    In this article the factors affecting fatality and injury risk of road users involved in fatal accidents are analyzed by means of in-depth accident investigation data, with emphasis on parameters not extensively explored in previous research. A fatal accident investigation (FAI) database is used, which includes intermediate-level in-depth data for a harmonized representative sample of 1300 fatal accidents in 7 European countries. The FAI database offers improved potential for analysis, because it includes information on a number of variables that are seldom available, complete, or accurately recorded in road accident databases. However, the fact that only fatal accidents are examined requires for methodological adjustments, namely, the correction for two types of effects on a road user's baseline risk: "accident size" effects, and "relative vulnerability" effects. Fatality and injury risk can be then modeled through multilevel logistic regression models, which account for the hierarchical dependences of the road accident process. The results show that the baseline fatality risk of road users involved in fatal accidents decreases with accident size and increases with the vulnerability of the road user. On the contrary, accident size increases nonfatal injury risk of road users involved in fatal accidents. Other significant effects on fatality and injury risk in fatal accidents include road user age, vehicle type, speed limit, the chain of accident events, vehicle maneuver, and safety equipment. In particular, the presence and use of safety equipment such as seat belt, antilock braking system (ABS), and electronic stability program (ESP) are protection factors for car occupants, especially for those seated at the front seats. Although ABS and ESP systems are typically associated with positive effects on accident occurrence, the results of this research revealed significant related effects on accident severity as well. Moreover, accident consequences are more severe

  1. What Motivates Student Environmental Activists on College Campuses? An In-Depth Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cadi Y. Fung

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Public concern for the natural environment continues to grow as complex environmental problems emerge. One avenue where concern for the environment has been expressed is through activism. However, research on environmental activism, often aimed at understanding the motivations behind activist behavior, has largely focused on older adults. In this study, we extend the state of knowledge on environmental activism further by focusing on college students. We use qualitative methods (in-depth interviews and observations to examine the motivations behind student involvement in environmental activism on a state university campus. Our findings underscore that young people’s activist motivations are not stand-alone phenomena; they work in tandem with other processes and factors in a dynamic way and are influenced by an individual’s history, previous experiences and passion, a sense of community, existing incentives, and self-satisfaction derived from activist behavior.

  2. Data for in-depth characterisation of the lamb meat proteome from longissimus lumborum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzer-Yang Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This Data article provides Supplementary data related to the research article titled “In-depth characterisation of the lamb meat proteome from longissimus lumborum” by Yu et al. [1]. This research article reports the proteome catalogue of the 48 h post-mortem lamb longissimus lumborum. A list of 388 ovine-specific proteins were identified and characterised after separating the samples into sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar and insoluble fractions, followed by an in-depth shotgun proteomic evaluation and bioinformatic analysis. The detailed list of identified proteins, the annotated MS/MS spectra corresponding to the proteins identified by a single peptide-spectrum match, the raw Gene Ontology annotation data and other miscellaneous files, as will be described below, were contained in this Data article. We hope the data presented here will contribute to the current knowledge of the global protein composition of lamb skeletal muscle/meat.

  3. Can the Analytical Hierarchy Process Model Be Effectively Applied in the Prioritization of Information Assurance Defense In-Depth Measures? --A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Rodney T.

    2017-01-01

    Organizational computing devices are increasingly becoming targets of cyber-attacks, and organizations have become dependent on the safety and security of their computer networks and their organizational computing devices. Business and government often use defense in-depth information assurance measures such as firewalls, intrusion detection…

  4. Trends and risk factors of stillbirths and neonatal deaths in Eastern Uganda (1982-2011): a cross-sectional, population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Sanni; Waiswa, Peter; Kadobera, Daniel; Akuze, Joseph; Pariyo, George; Hanson, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    To identify mortality trends and risk factors associated with stillbirths and neonatal deaths 1982-2011. Population-based cross-sectional study based on reported pregnancy history in Iganga-Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS) in Uganda. A pregnancy history survey was conducted among women aged 15-49 years living in the HDSS during May-July 2011 (n = 10 540). Time trends were analysed with cubic splines and linear regression. Potential risk factors were examined with multilevel logistic regression with adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). 34 073 births from 1982 to 2011 were analysed. The annual rate of decrease was 0.9% for stillbirths and 1.8% for neonatal mortality. Stillbirths were associated with several risk factors: multiple births (AOR 2.57, CI 1.66-3.99), previous adverse outcome (AOR 6.16, CI 4.26-8.88) and grand multiparity among 35- to 49-year-olds (AOR 1.97, CI 1.32-2.89). Neonatal deaths were associated with multiple births (AOR 6.16, CI 4.80-7.92) and advanced maternal age linked with parity of 1-4 (AOR 2.34, CI 1.28-4.25) and grand multiparity (AOR 1.44, CI 1.09-1.90). Education, marital status and household wealth were not associated with the outcomes. The slow decline in mortality rates and easily identifiable risk factors calls for improving quality of care at birth and a rethinking of how to address obstetric risks, potentially a revival of the risk approach in antenatal care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Temporal trends and gender differentials in causes of childhood deaths at Ballabgarh, India - Need for revisiting child survival strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Anand

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relating Information on causes of deaths to implementation of health interventions provides vital information for program planning and evaluation. This paper from Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS site in north India looks at temporal trends and gender differentials in the causes of death among under-five children. Methods Data on causes of death for 1972-74, 1982-84, 1992-94, 2002-04 were taken from existing HDSS publications and database. Physicians’ assigned causes of death were based on narratives by lay health worker till 1994 and later by verbal autopsy. Cause Specific Mortality Fractions (CSMF and Cause Specific Mortality Rates (CSMR per 1000 live births were calculated for neonatal ( Results The CSMF of prematurity and sepsis was 32% and 17.6% during neonatal period in 2002-04. The share of infections in all childhood deaths decreased from 55.2% in 1972-74 to 43.6% in 2002-04. All major causes of mortality (malnutrition, diarrhea and acute lower respiratory infection except injuries showed a steep decline among children and seem to have plateued in last decade. Most of disease specific public health interventions were launched in mid eighties. . Girls reported significantly higher mortality rates for prematurity (RR 1.52; 95% CI 1.01-2.29; diarrhea (2.29; 1.59 – 3.29, and malnutrition (3.37; 2.05 – 5.53. Conclusions The findings of the study point out to the need to move away from disease-specific to a comprehensive approach and to address gender inequity in child survival through socio-behavioural approaches.

  6. Local in-depth analysis of ceramic materials by neutral beam secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchardt, G.; Scherrer, H.; Weber, S.; Scherrer, S.

    1980-01-01

    Local microanalysis of non-conducting surfaces by means of modern physical methods which use charged low-energy primary particles brings about severe problems because of the electrostatic charge accumulated on the sample surface. This is also true of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) where ions are usually used as primary particles. In the present work the basic features for production of neutral primary beams in commercial SIMS instruments by a simple technique are described. With suitably high sputtering rates, surface analyses and in-depth profiles can be made in reasonable measuring times. Results are given for chemical concentration distributions in the near-surface regions of an oxide glass and for the isotopic diffusion of Si-30 in a crystalline silicate with olivine structure (Co 2 SiO 4 ). (orig.)

  7. Field Evaluation of the Restorative Capacity of the Aquifer Downgradient of a Uranium In-Situ Recovery Mining Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-22

    A two-part field study was conducted in Smith Ranch-Highland in-situ recovery (ISR) near Douglas, Wyoming, to evaluate the restorative capacity of the aquifer downgradient (i.e., hydrologically downstream) of a Uranium ISR mining site with respect to the transport of uranium and other potential contaminants in groundwater after mining has ceased. The study was partially conducted by checking the Uranium content and the alkalinity of separate wells, some wells had been restored and others had not. A map and in-depth procedures of the study are included.

  8. How Project Managers Really Manage: An Indepth Look at Some Managers of Large, Complex NASA Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulenburg, Gerald M.; Impaeilla, Cliff (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on a research study by the author that examined ten contemporary National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) complex projects. In-depth interviews with the project managers of these projects provided qualitative data about the inner workings of the project and the methodologies used in establishing and managing the projects. The inclusion of a variety of space, aeronautics, and ground based projects from several different NASA research centers helped to reduce potential bias in the findings toward any one type of project, or technical discipline. The findings address the participants and their individual approaches. The discussion includes possible implications for project managers of other large, complex, projects.

  9. The in-depth safety assessment (ISA) pilot projects in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    Ukraine operates pressurized water reactors of the Soviet-designed type, VVER. All Ukrainian plants are currently operating with annually renewable permits until they update their safety analysis reports (SARs). After approval of the SARS by the Ukrainian Nuclear Regulatory Authority, the plants will be granted longer-term operating licenses. In September 1995, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Government Nuclear Power Coordinating Committee of Ukraine issued a new contents requirement for the safety analysis reports of VVERs in Ukraine. It contains requirements in three major areas: design basis accident (DBA) analysis, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and beyond design-basis accident (BDBA) analysis. The DBA requirements are an expanded version of the older SAR requirements. The last two requirements, on PRA and BDBA, are new. The US Department of Energy (USDOE), through the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP), has initiated an assistance and technology transfer program to Ukraine to assist their nuclear power stations in developing a Western-type technical basis for the new SARS. USDOE sponsored In-Depth Safety Assessments (ISAs) have been initiated at three pilot nuclear reactor units in Ukraine, South Ukraine Unit 1, Zaporizhzhya Unit 5, and Rivne Unit 1. USDOE/INSP have structured the ISA program in such a way as to provide maximum assistance and technology transfer to Ukraine while encouraging and supporting the Ukrainian plants to take the responsibility and initiative and to perform the required assessments

  10. Governing and Managing Customer-initiated Engineering Change – An in-depth case study of a global industrial supplier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Anita Friis; Storbjerg, Simon Haahr; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra

    2013-01-01

    or externally by for instance customers. Managing initiated engineering changes is a vital source for improving product performance and radically reducing change costs. Customer-initiated engineering change is an area growing in importance decreasing product life cycles and increasing demand for customisation....... Through an in-depth case study, this paper investigates which process and what governance setup is appropriate to manage customer initiated engineering changes, referred to as request management. The paper includes a proposal for a request management framework and a task-based iterative process model...

  11. Decision precision or holistic heuristic?: Insights on on-site selection of student nurses and midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macduff, Colin; Stephen, Audrey; Taylor, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about quality of care delivery in the UK have led to more scrutiny of criteria and methods for the selection of student nurses. However few substantive research studies of on-site selection processes exist. This study elicited and interpreted perspectives on interviewing processes and related decision making involved in on-site selection of student nurses and midwives. Individual and focus group interviews were undertaken with 36 lecturers, 5 clinical staff and 72 students from seven Scottish universities. Enquiry focused primarily on interviewing of candidates on-site. Qualitative content analysis was used as a primary strategy, followed by in-depth thematic analysis. Students had very mixed experiences of interview processes. Staff typically took into account a range of candidate attributes that they valued in order to achieve holistic assessments. These included: interpersonal skills, team working, confidence, problem-solving, aptitude for caring, motivations, and commitment. Staff had mixed views of the validity and reliability of interview processes. A holistic heuristic for overall decision making predominated over belief in the precision of, and evidence base for, particular attribute measurement processes. While the development of measurement tools for particular attributes continues apace, tension between holism and precision is likely to persist within on-site selection procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Online community marketing of ski resorts : an in-depth best practice study of aspen/snowmass and breckenridge ski resort

    OpenAIRE

    Kráľ, Branislav

    2013-01-01

    Online brand community is a novel phenomenon that carries a number of benefits, but lack of clarity in antecedents of its effectiveness as a marketing alternative. Aspen/Snowmass and Breckenridge Ski Resort are two leading players in the ski industry, and this paper analyzes their activity in-depth in order to bring clarity by extracting implications on best practice. For the purpose, a tailor-made methodology is constructed. It consists of combining two analytical frameworks, interviews with...

  13. Perceived health after percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation: in-depth interviews of patients and next-of-kin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Brith; Andersen, Marit Helen; Lindberg, Harald; Døhlen, Gaute; Fosse, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Objective Percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation is an alternative to open heart surgery in selected patients with pulmonary outflow tract disorder. The technique may reduce the number of open-chest surgeries in these patients. This study was conducted to understand how the patients and their next-of-kin experienced this new treatment option. Design Qualitative explorative design with individual in-depth interviews. Setting Oslo University Hospital, the only cardiac centre in Norway offering advanced surgical and interventional treatment to patient with congenital heart defects, serving the whole Norwegian population. Participants During a 2-year period a total of 10 patients, median age 17 (7–30) and 18 next-of-kin were consecutively selected for individual in-depth interviews 3–6 months after the pulmonary valve implantation. The verbatim transcripts were analysed using a phenomenological methodology. Results Patients emphasised the importance of regaining independence and taking control of daily life shortly after the new interventional treatment. Renewed hope towards treatment options was described as ‘a light in the tunnel’. Next-of-kin emphasised the importance both for the patient and their family of resuming normal life quickly after the procedure. The physical burden was experienced as minor after the minimally invasive intervention, compared to their previous experience with surgical procedures. Main outcome measure The importance of maintaining normality in everyday life for a good family function. Conclusions The repeated surgeries during infancy and adolescence of patients with congenital heart disease represent a heavy burden both for the patient and their family. All families especially emphasised the importance of resuming normal life quickly after each procedure. The novel technique of pulmonary valve implantation is thus a favourable approach because of minor interference in daily life. PMID:25079930

  14. Phase Transformation and Lithiation Effect on Electronic Structure of LixFePO4 : An In-Depth Study by Soft X-ray and Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Xiaosong; Liu, Jun; Qiao, Ruimin; Yu, Yan; Li, Hong; Suo, Liumin; Hu, Yong-sheng; Chuang, Yi-De; Shu, Guojiun; Chou, Fangcheng; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Nordlund, Dennis; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Wang, Yung Jui; Lin, Hsin; Barbiellini, Bernardo; Bansil, Arun; Song, Xiangyun; Liu, Zhi; Yan, Shishen; Liu, Gao; Qjao, Shan; Richardson, Thomas J.; Prendergast, David; Hussain, Zahid; de Groot, Frank M. F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08747610X; Yang, Wanli

    2012-01-01

    Through soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy, hard X-ray Raman scattering, and theoretical simulations, we provide the most in-depth and systematic study of the phase transformation and (de)lithiation effect on electronic structure in LixFePO4 nanoparticles and single crystals. Soft X-ray reveals

  15. Cu deficiency in multi-stage co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} for solar cells applications: Microstructure and Ga in-depth alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, R., E-mail: raquel.caballero@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Izquierdo-Roca, V. [M-2E/XaRMAE/IN2UB, Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, C. Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fontane, X. [IREC, Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, C. Joseph Pla 2 B2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Kaufmann, C.A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Alvarez-Garcia, J. [Centre de Recerca i Investigacio de Catalunya (CRIC), Trav. de Gracia 108, 08012 Barcelona (Spain); Eicke, A. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung, Industriestrasse 6, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Calvo-Barrio, L. [Lab. Analisis de Superficies, SCT, Universitat de Barcelona, Lluis Sole i Sabaris 1-3, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Perez-Rodriguez, A. [M-2E/XaRMAE/IN2UB, Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, C. Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)] [IREC, Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, C. Joseph Pla 2 B2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Schock, H.W. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Morante, J.R. [M-2E/XaRMAE/IN2UB, Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, C. Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)] [IREC, Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, C. Joseph Pla 2 B2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    The objective of this work is to study the influence of the maximum Cu content during the deposition of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) by multi-stage co-evaporation on the phases present in the final film, the film structure and the electrical properties of resulting solar cell devices. The variation of the composition is controlled by the Cu content in stage 2 of the deposition process. The different phases are identified by Raman spectroscopy. The in-depth Ga gradient distribution is investigated by in-depth resolved Raman scattering and secondary neutral mass spectroscopy. The morphology of the devices is studied by scanning electron microscopy. Efficiencies of 9.2% are obtained for ordered-vacancy-compound-based cells with a Cu/(In + Ga) ratio = 0.35, showing the system's flexibility. This work supports the current growth model: a small amount of Cu excess during the absorber process is required to obtain a quality microstructure and high performance devices.

  16. Missed Opportunities: barriers to HIV testing during pregnancy from a population based cohort study in rural Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin C Larsson

    Full Text Available The aim was to assess population-level HIV-testing uptake among pregnant women, key for access to prevention-of mother to child transmission (PMTCT services, and to identify risk factors for not being HIV tested,The study was conducted May 2008-May 2010 in the Iganga/Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS, Eastern Uganda, during regular surveillance of 68,000 individuals. All women identified to be pregnant May-July 2008 (n=881 were interviewed about pregnancy-related issues and linked to the HDSS database for socio-demographic data. Women were followed-up via antenatal care (ANC register reviews at the health facilities to collect data related to ANC services received, including HIV testing. Adjusted relative risk (aRR, and 95% confidence intervals (CI for not being HIV tested were calculated using multivariable binomial regression among the 544 women who remained after record review.Despite high ANC attendance (96%, the coverage of HIV testing was 64%. Only 6% of pregnant women who sought ANC at a facility without HIV testing services were referred for testing and only 20% received counseling regarding HIV. At ANC facilities with HIV testing services, 85% were tested. Only 4% of the women tested had been couple tested for HIV. Living more than three kilometers away from a health facility with HIV testing services was associated with not being tested both among the poorest (aRR,CI; 1.44,1.02-2.04 and the least poor women (aRR,CI;1.72,1.12-2.63.The lack of on site HIV testing services and distant ANC facilities lead to missed opportunities for PMTCT, especially for the poorest women. Referral systems for HIV testing need to be improved and testing should be expanded to lower level health facilities. This is in order to ensure that the policy of HIV testing during pregnancy is implemented more effectively and that testing is accessible for all.

  17. The Application of TAPM for Site Specific Wind Energy Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlinde Kay

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The energy industry uses weather forecasts for determining future electricity demand variations due to the impact of weather, e.g., temperature and precipitation. However, as a greater component of electricity generation comes from intermittent renewable sources such as wind and solar, weather forecasting techniques need to now also focus on predicting renewable energy supply, which means adapting our prediction models to these site specific resources. This work assesses the performance of The Air Pollution Model (TAPM, and demonstrates that significant improvements can be made to only wind speed forecasts from a mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP model. For this study, a wind farm site situated in North-west Tasmania, Australia was investigated. I present an analysis of the accuracy of hourly NWP and bias corrected wind speed forecasts over 12 months spanning 2005. This extensive time frame allows an in-depth analysis of various wind speed regimes of importance for wind-farm operation, as well as extreme weather risk scenarios. A further correction is made to the basic bias correction to improve the forecast accuracy further, that makes use of real-time wind-turbine data and a smoothing function to correct for timing-related issues. With full correction applied, a reduction in the error in the magnitude of the wind speed by as much as 50% for “hour ahead” forecasts specific to the wind-farm site has been obtained.

  18. Medical students are afraid to include abortion in their future practices: in-depth interviews in Maharastra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöström, Susanne; Essén, Birgitta; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie

    2016-01-12

    Unsafe abortions are estimated to cause eight per-cent of maternal mortality in India. Lack of providers, especially in rural areas, is one reason unsafe abortions take place despite decades of legal abortion. Education and training in reproductive health services has been shown to influence attitudes and increase chances that medical students will provide abortion care services in their future practice. To further explore previous findings about poor attitudes toward abortion among medical students in Maharastra, India, we conducted in-depth interviews with medical students in their final year of education. We used a qualitative design conducting in-depth interviews with twenty-three medical students in Maharastra applying a topic guide. Data was organized using thematic analysis with an inductive approach. The participants described a fear to provide abortion in their future practice. They lacked understanding of the law and confused the legal regulation of abortion with the law governing gender biased sex selection, and concluded that abortion is illegal in Maharastra. The interviewed medical students' attitudes were supported by their experiences and perceptions from the clinical setting as well as traditions and norms in society. Medical abortion using mifepristone and misoprostol was believed to be unsafe and prohibited in Maharastra. The students perceived that nurse-midwives were knowledgeable in Sexual and Reproductive Health and many found that they could be trained to perform abortions in the future. To increase chances that medical students in Maharastra will perform abortion care services in their future practice, it is important to strengthen their confidence and knowledge through improved medical education including value clarification and clinical training.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and application of two-dimensional layered metal hydroxides for environmental remediation purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machingauta, Cleopas

    Two-dimensional layered nano composites, which include layered double hydroxides (LDHs), hydroxy double salts (HDSs) and layered hydroxide salts (LHSs) are able to intercalate different molecular species within their gallery space. These materials have a tunable structural composition which has made them applicable as fire retardants, adsorbents, catalysts, catalyst support materials, and ion exchangers. Thermal treatment of these materials results in destruction of the layers and formation of mixed metal oxides (MMOs) and spinels. MMOs have the ability to adsorb anions from solution and may also regenerate layered structures through a phenomenon known as memory effect. Zinc-nickel hydroxy nitrate was used for the uptake of a series of halogenated acetates (HAs). HAs are pollutants introduced into water systems as by-products of water chlorination and pesticide degradation; their sequestration from water is thus crucial. Optimization of layered materials for controlled uptake requires an understanding of their ion-exchange kinetics and thermodynamics. Exchange kinetics of these anions was monitored using ex-situ PXRD, UV-vis, HPLC and FTIR. It was revealed that exchange rates and uptake efficiencies are related to electronic spatial extents and the charge on carboxyl-oxygen atoms. In addition, acetate and nitrate-based HDSs were used to explore how altering the hydroxide layer affects uptake of acetate/nitrate ions. Changing the metal identities affects the interaction of the anions with the layers. From FTIR, we observed that nitrates coordinate in a D3h and Cs/C 2v symmetry; the nitrates in D3h symmetry were easily exchangeable. Interlayer hydrogen bonding was also revealed to be dependent on metal identity. Substituting divalent cations with trivalent cations produces materials with a higher charge density than HDSs and LHSs. A comparison of the uptake efficiency of zinc-aluminum, zinc-gallium and zinc-nickel hydroxy nitrates was performed using trichloroacetic

  20. Coming home to die? The association between migration and mortality in rural Tanzania before and after ART scale-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levira, Francis; Todd, Jim; Masanja, Honorati

    2014-01-01

    Prior to the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART), demographic surveillance cohort studies showed higher mortality among migrants than residents in many rural areas. This study quantifies the overall and AIDS-specific mortality between migrants and residents prior to ART, during ART scale-up, and after widespread availability of ART in Rufiji district in Tanzania. In Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), the follow-up of individuals aged 15-59 years was categorized into three periods: before ART (1998-2003), during ART scale-up (2004-2007), and after widespread availability of ART (2008-2011). Residents were those who never migrated within and beyond HDSS, internal migrants were those who moved within the HDSS, and external migrants were those who moved into the HDSS from outside. Mortality rates were estimated from deaths and person-years of observations calculated in each time period. Hazard ratios were estimated to compare mortality between migrants and residents. AIDS deaths were identified from verbal autopsy, and the odds ratio of dying from AIDS between migrants and residents was estimated using the multivariate logistic regression model. Internal and external migrants experienced higher overall mortality than residents before the introduction of ART. After widespread availability of ART overall mortality were similar for internal and external migrants. These overall mortality experiences observed were similar for males and females. In the multivariate logistic regression model, adjusting for age, sex, education, and social economic status, internal migrants had similar likelihood of dying from AIDS as residents (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.70-1.87) while external migrants were 70% more likely to die from AIDS compared to residents prior to the introduction of ART (AOR=1.70, 95% CI: 1.06-2.73). After widespread availability of ART with the same adjustment factors, the odds of dying from AIDS were similar

  1. Socioeconomic development and girl child survival in rural North India: solution or problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Anand; Dwivedi, Purva; Gupta, Vivek; Byass, Peter; Pandav, Chandrakant S; Ng, Nawi

    2013-05-01

    Socioeconomic development has been considered as a solution to the problem of sex differentials at birth and under-five mortality. This paper analyses longitudinal data from the Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site in north India to check its veracity. A cohort of children born between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2011 at Ballabgarh HDSS were followed till death, emigration, 3 years of age or end of the study. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by caste, parental combined years of schooling and wealth index and divided into low, mid and high strata for each of them. Sex ratio at birth (SRB) was reported as the number of girls per 1000 boys. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves were drawn and a Cox Proportional HR of girls over boys was estimated. A total of 12 517 native born children (25 797 child years) were enrolled of which 710 died (death rate of 56.7/1000-live births and 27.5/1000 child-years. Socioeconomically advantaged children had significantly lower death rates. The SRB (10-16% lower) and neonatal death rate were consistently adverse for girls in the advantaged groups by all the three indicators of SES. The first month survival rates were better for girls in the lower SES categories (significant only in caste (HR 0.58; 0.37 to 0.91). High SES categories consistently showed adverse survival rates for girls (HR of 1.22 to 1.59). Better socioeconomic situation worsened the sex differentials, especially at birth. Therefore, specific interventions targeting gender issues are required, at least as a short-term measure.

  2. Trends and determinants of mortality in women of reproductive age in rural Guinea-Bissau, West Africa--a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mane, Maram; Fisker, Ane B; Ravn, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    mortality between 1996-2000 followed by 14% increase in mortality [Hazard rate ratio (HRR) = 1.14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98-1.32; p = 0.08] between 2001-2003, and then in the last period from 2004-2007 a 25% decline (HRR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.64-0.87; p ...BACKGROUND: There are few studies reporting mortality of women of reproductive age (WRA) in developing countries. The trend and patterns of their mortality may be important for documenting the health status of the population in general. METHODS: We used a prospective open cohort of women aged 12...... to 49 years living in the Bandim Health Project's rural Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in 5 regions of Guinea-Bissau from 1996 to 2007. Information on in- and out-migration and deaths were collected through the HDSS routine procedures. We assessed the trends in mortality...

  3. Non-cognitive Characteristics of Gifted Students With Learning Disabilities: An In-depth Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Else; Minnaert, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Gifted students who also have learning disabilities (G/LD) are often overlooked when students are assessed either for giftedness or specific learning disabilities. The cognitive and non-cognitive characteristics of these G/LD students are habitually discussed only briefly alongside identification and intervention issues and, beyond that, the relevance of non-cognitive characteristics is often left unconsidered. Accordingly, this study aims to conduct an in-depth review of the non-cognitive characteristics of these students for identification and intervention purposes. Detailed analysis was performed on 23 publications. High levels of negative emotions, low self-perception, and adverse interpersonal relationships, as well as high levels of motivation, coping skills and perseverance were found among these students. A common characteristic was a high degree of frustration with the academic situation. The study reveals that these students show considerably duality in their non-cognitive characteristics which requires tailored counseling skills to provide effective support for their learning needs.

  4. How Irish Political Parties are Using Social Networking Sites to Reach Generation Z: an Insight into a New Online Social Network in a Small Democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Kevin; Hogan, John

    2016-01-01

    This study, using in-depth interviews and focus groups, examines perceptions of social networking sites as a means of communicating with Generation Z, from the perspectives of the major Irish political parties using these online resources and the perspective of their young target audience. There are two research questions: (1) How do political parties perceive social networking sites’ role in communicating with Generation Z? and (2) How do members of Generation Z perceive social networking si...

  5. Primary hyperhidrosis: Implications on symptoms, daily life, health and alcohol consumption when treated with botulinum toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayesteh, Alexander; Boman, Jens; Janlert, Urban; Brulin, Christine; Nylander, Elisabet

    2016-08-01

    Primary hyperhidrosis affects approximately 3% of the population and reduces quality of life in affected persons. Few studies have investigated the symptoms of anxiety, depression and hazardous alcohol consumption among those with hyperhidrosis and the effect of treatment with botulinum toxin. The first aim of this study was to investigate the effect of primary hyperhidrosis on mental and physical health, and alcohol consumption. Our second aim was to study whether and how treatment with botulinum toxin changed these effects. One hundred and fourteen patients answered questionnaires regarding hyperhidrosis and symptoms, including hyperhidrosis disease severity scale (HDSS), visual analog scale (VAS) 10-point scale for hyperhidrosis symptoms, hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT) and short-form health survey (SF-36) before treatment with botulinum toxin and 2 weeks after. The age of onset of hyperhidrosis was on average 13.4 years and 48% described heredity for hyperhidrosis. Significant improvements were noted in patients with axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis regarding mean HDSS, VAS 10-point scale, HADS, SF-36 and sweat-related health problems 2 weeks after treatment with botulinum toxin. Changes in mean AUDIT for all participants were not significant. Primary hyperhidrosis mainly impairs mental rather than physical aspects of life and also interferes with specific daily activities of the affected individuals. Despite this, our patients did not show signs of anxiety, depression or hazardous alcohol consumption. Treatment with botulinum toxin reduced sweat-related problems and led to significant improvements in HDSS, VAS, HADS and SF-36 in our patients. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  6. Beyond likes and tweets: an in-depth look at the physician social media landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelson, Nicholas S; Rubin, Zarya A; Ault, Kevin A

    2013-09-01

    Social networking sites are a popular way for physicians to communicate about clinical, professional, and social topics. These sites can be used for educational purposes, professional interaction, and for general discussion. There are many popular sites oriented toward health care professionals, each with their own functionality and style. We reviewed the top physician-oriented networking sites, as well as popular general social networking sites that can be used for physician communication. We also provide background on social media communication, as well as specific advice for online physician communication and a discussion of confidentiality.

  7. Infant Mortality in Rural Bangladesh : State Dependence vs. Unobserved Heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saha, U.R.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2009-01-01

    Using longitudinal data of the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in Matlab, Bangladesh, covering the time period 1982 – 2005, and exploiting dynamic panel data models, we analyze siblings’ death at infancy, controlling for unobserved heterogeneity and a causal effect of death of one

  8. In-depth characterization of microRNA transcriptome in melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kozubek

    Full Text Available The full repertoire of human microRNAs (miRNAs that could distinguish common (benign nevi from cutaneous (malignant melanomas remains to be established. In an effort to gain further insight into the role of miRNAs in melanoma, we applied Illumina next-generation sequencing (NGS platform to carry out an in-depth analysis of miRNA transcriptome in biopsies of nevi, thick primary (>4.0 mm and metastatic melanomas with matched normal skin in parallel to melanocytes and melanoma cell lines (both primary and metastatic (n=28. From this data representing 698 known miRNAs, we defined a set of top-40 list, which properly classified normal from cancer; also confirming 23 (58% previously discovered miRNAs while introducing an additional 17 (42% known and top-15 putative novel candidate miRNAs deregulated during melanoma progression. Surprisingly, the miRNA signature distinguishing specimens of melanoma from nevus was significantly different than that of melanoma cell lines from melanocytes. Among the top list, miR-203, miR-204-5p, miR-205-5p, miR-211-5p, miR-23b-3p, miR-26a-5p and miR-26b-5p were decreased in melanomas vs. nevi. In a validation cohort (n=101, we verified the NGS results by qRT-PCR and showed that receiver-operating characteristic curves for miR-211-5p expression accurately discriminated invasive melanoma (AUC=0.933, melanoma in situ (AUC=0.933 and dysplastic (atypical nevi (AUC=0.951 from common nevi. Target prediction analysis of co-transcribed miRNAs showed a cooperative regulation of key elements in the MAPK signaling pathway. Furthermore, we found extensive sequence variations (isomiRs and other non-coding small RNAs revealing a complex melanoma transcriptome. Deep-sequencing small RNAs directly from clinically defined specimens provides a robust strategy to improve melanoma diagnostics.

  9. In-depth analysis of eight criteria for integrated leakage rate tests for nuclear power plant containment buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, W.T.; Langan, J.P.; Norris, W.F.; Lurie, D.

    1989-01-01

    A U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Small Business Innovation research (SBIR) Contract investigated ten integrated leakage rate test (ILRT) analysis models which have been proposed for evaluation of ILRT data. This contract involved in-depth analysis of two ILRTs with data collected at accelerated rates and 80 conventional ILRTs with data collected at a frequency between 10-15 minutes. All ten methods were applied to all data. The study considered the appropriateness of each method to analyze containment data (air mass versus time), the influence of data collection frequency on ILRT duration, and the influence of collection frequency on each method. The study is described in the paper. Results are presented

  10. An in-depth characterization of the major psoriasis susceptibility locus identifies candidate susceptibility alleles within an HLA-C enhancer element.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Clop

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is an immune-mediated skin disorder that is inherited as a complex genetic trait. Although genome-wide association scans (GWAS have identified 36 disease susceptibility regions, more than 50% of the genetic variance can be attributed to a single Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC locus, known as PSORS1. Genetic studies indicate that HLA-C is the strongest PSORS1 candidate gene, since markers tagging HLA-Cw*0602 consistently generate the most significant association signals in GWAS. However, it is unclear whether HLA-Cw*0602 is itself the causal PSORS1 allele, especially as the role of SNPs that may affect its expression has not been investigated. Here, we have undertaken an in-depth molecular characterization of the PSORS1 interval, with a view to identifying regulatory variants that may contribute to disease susceptibility. By analysing high-density SNP data, we refined PSORS1 to a 179 kb region encompassing HLA-C and the neighbouring HCG27 pseudogene. We compared multiple MHC sequences spanning this refined locus and identified 144 candidate susceptibility variants, which are unique to chromosomes bearing HLA-Cw*0602. In parallel, we investigated the epigenetic profile of the critical PSORS1 interval and uncovered three enhancer elements likely to be active in T lymphocytes. Finally we showed that nine candidate susceptibility SNPs map within a HLA-C enhancer and that three of these variants co-localise with binding sites for immune-related transcription factors. These data indicate that SNPs affecting HLA-Cw*0602 expression are likely to contribute to psoriasis susceptibility and highlight the importance of integrating multiple experimental approaches in the investigation of complex genomic regions such as the MHC.

  11. Sleep problems: an emerging global epidemic? Findings from the INDEPTH WHO-SAGE study among more than 40,000 older adults from 8 countries across Africa and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranges, Saverio; Tigbe, William; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc Xavier; Thorogood, Margaret; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin

    2012-08-01

    To estimate the prevalence of sleep problems and the effect of potential correlates in low-income settings from Africa and Asia, where the evidence is lacking. Cross-sectional. Community-wide samples from 8 countries across Africa and Asia participating in the INDEPTH WHO-SAGE multicenter collaboration during 2006-2007. The participating sites included rural populations in Ghana, Tanzania, South Africa, India, Bangladesh, Vietnam, and Indonesia, and an urban area in Kenya. There were 24,434 women and 19,501 men age 50 yr and older. N/A. Two measures of sleep quality, over the past 30 days, were assessed alongside a number of sociodemographic variables, measures of quality of life, and comorbidities. Overall, 16.6% of participants reported severe/extreme nocturnal sleep problems, with a striking variation across the 8 populations, ranging from 3.9% (Purworejo, Indonesia and Nairobi, Kenya) to more than 40.0% (Matlab, Bangladesh). There was a consistent pattern of higher prevalence of sleep problems in women and older age groups. In bivariate analyses, lower education, not living in partnership, and poorer self-rated quality of life were consistently associated with higher prevalence of sleep problems (P physical functionality or greater disability and feelings of depression and anxiety were consistently strong, independent correlates of sleep problems, in both women and men, across the 8 sites (P < 0.001). A large number of older adults in low-income settings are currently experiencing sleep problems, which emphasizes the global dimension of this emerging public health issue. This study corroborates the multifaceted nature of sleep problems, which are strongly linked to poorer general well-being and quality of life, and psychiatric comorbidities.

  12. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Local Site-Specific Advisory Boards for US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, J.A.; Branch, K.M.

    1999-03-12

    In the early 1990s, the US Department of Energy (DOE) undertook a major new effort to involve community stakeholders in decisions that would affect them and their communities and interests. An important component of this effort was the establishment of local Site-Specific Advisory Boards (SSABs) at 12 DOE environmental remediation sites. These boards were a formal representation of a change in the way DOE conducts its missions, adding consideration of community concerns and values to the Department's decision-making processes. DOE's purpose in creating the SSAB Initiative was to obtain broadly based, independent, consensus advice and recommendations on issues that have the potential to affect communities surrounding DOE sites, so that it could formulate policies that could be implemented with community consent. Because the boards represented a significant commitment by DOE to change its relationships with community stakeholders, the Department has conducted several assessments of the boards. In 1996 and 1997 a survey was administered to board members and others involved in the work of the boards (DOE/EM 0311, 1996; DOE/EM, 1997). As part of the first survey, DOE and the boards established a set of performance criteria. The surveys provided data that revealed wide variations in board performance and significant change over time. To gain a better understanding of the factors affecting board performance, DOE initiated a more in-depth, qualitative study of nine of the boards across the complex. This study focused on identifying and analyzing the factors affecting board performance and presenting that information in a format that helped the boards and DOE gain insight into their strengths and weaknesses and learn from one another. This report presents the results of this in-depth study. It begins with an overview report that identifies and discusses the six factors that were found to affect board performance. The overview report provides the framework and

  13. Cavity enhanced eigenmode multiplexing for volume holographic data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bo E.; Takashima, Yuzuru

    2017-08-01

    Previously, we proposed and experimentally demonstrated enhanced recording speeds by using a resonant optical cavity to semi-passively increase the reference beam power while recording image bearing holograms. In addition to enhancing the reference beam power the cavity supports the orthogonal reference beam families of its eigenmodes, which can be used as a degree of freedom to multiplex data pages and increase storage densities for volume Holographic Data Storage Systems (HDSS). While keeping the increased recording speed of a cavity enhanced reference arm, image bearing holograms are multiplexed by orthogonal phase code multiplexing via Hermite-Gaussian eigenmodes in a Fe:LiNbO3 medium with a 532 nm laser at two Bragg angles for expedited recording of four multiplexed holograms. We experimentally confirmed write rates are enhanced by an average factor of 1.1, and page crosstalk is about 2.5%. This hybrid multiplexing opens up a pathway to increase storage density while minimizing modifications to current angular multiplexing HDSS.

  14. Youth migration, livelihood prospects and demographic dividend: A comparison of the Census 2011 and Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System in the rural northeast of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Mark A.; White, Michael J.; Ginsburg, Carren; Gómez-Olivé, F. Xavier; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The 2011 South African national census shows a cohort of young adults comprising an increasing share of the population. This finding is borne out in longitudinal data from the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). This primarily descriptive paper uses the Agincourt HDSS to examine the migration, employment and unemployment patterns in young adults. The study reveals high levels of temporary labour migration linking rural areas to metropolitan areas and secondary urban places. The type of work conducted by young adults in the Agincourt population is predominantly unskilled labour for both sexes. However, there is some evidence of female employment increasing in more educated sectors. Across all working ages there is pronounced unemployment, but the main pressure is felt by the younger adult population. Education and skills development for both sexes should be strengthened to support the country’s efforts to vastly improve labour force participation amongst the youth. PMID:28663669

  15. Controlled Release Kinetics in Hydroxy Double Salts: Effect of Host Anion Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Majoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanodimensional layered metal hydroxides such as layered double hydroxides (LDHs and hydroxy double salts (HDSs can undergo anion exchange reactions releasing intercalated anions. Because of this, these metal hydroxides have found applications in controlled release delivery of bioactive species such as drugs and pesticides. In this work, isomers of hydroxycinnamate were used as model compounds to systematically explore the effects of anion structure on the rate and extent of anion release in HDSs. Following intercalation and subsequent release of the isomers, it has been demonstrated that the nature and position of substituent groups on intercalated anions have profound effects on the rate and extent of release. The extent of release was correlated with the magnitude of dipole moments while the rate of reaction showed strong dependence on the extent of hydrogen bonding within the layers. The orthoisomer showed a more sustained and complete release as compared to the other isomers.

  16. Mothers' education and ANC visit improved exclusive breastfeeding in Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System Site, northwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amare Tariku

    Full Text Available Despite its proven benefit in reducing child mortality and morbidity, the coverage of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF remains sub-optimal. In Ethiopia, about 52% of infants under six months of age were exclusively breastfed, implying the need for further identification of the barriers to optimal EBF practice. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate EBF and its determinants in the predominantly rural northwest Ethiopia.The study was conducted at the Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS site, which is located in Dabat District, northwest Ethiopia. A total of 5,227 mothers with children under five years of age were included for analysis. Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with EBF. The Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI was estimated to show the strength of association. A P-value of <0.05 was used to declare statistical significance.About 54.5% [95% CI: 51.9, 57.1] of the mothers practiced EBF. Mothers' education [AOR = 2.10; 95% CI: 1.63, 2.71], age (20-35 years [AOR = 1.39; CI: 1.07, 1.80], urban residence [AOR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.54], at least one ANC visit [AOR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.23,1.61], initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth [AOR = 1.32; 95% CI: 1.15,1.50], richer household [AOR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.65], and withholding prelacteal feeds [AOR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.53] were found important determinants of EBF.In this study area, the prevalence of EBF is lower than the national as well as the global recommendation for universal coverage of EBF. Therefore, strengthening the implementation of Infant and Young Child Feeding strategy (IYCF and maternal health care utilization are essential for stepping up EBF coverage. Moreover, attention should be given to uneducated, rural resident, and adolescent mothers.

  17. Methodological approaches to perform a site specific PSA on the effects of comprehensive events; Methodische Ansaetze zur Durchfuehrung einer standortspezifischen PSA zu den Auswirkungen uebergreifender Einwirkungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuerschmann, Michael; Sperbeck, Silvio; Frey, Walter

    2016-12-15

    Main objective of the project 3612R01550 performed on behalf of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) is the development of an approach for systematic consideration of dependencies in case of internal and external hazards and their combinations in the probabilistic plant model for nuclear power plants. One of the major aspects of a site specific Level 1 PSA carried out for a nuclear power plant outlined in this report is taking comprehensively into account the entire risks resulting from internal and external hazards. In a first step, all the hazards which may occur at the site under investigation have to be identified. This requires a compilation of the potential hazards and their possible combinations: Based on this compilation of generic hazards a site specific list of hazards to be considered in the analysis can be derived based on a screening process taking into account regulatory requirements and insights from site and plant walk-downs. In a second step, the hazards to be considered for the specific site have to be classified with respect to the depth of the probabilistic analyses to be carried out. This classification covers three categories: hazards with a negligible contribution to the overall risk, hazards with such a low risk contribution that a rough quantitative assessment is sufficient, and hazards which need in-depth probabilistic analysis. Based on the available Level 1 PSA model for internal events, a systematic approach for in-depth probabilistic analyses of hazards and their combinations is proposed. In this context, lists of those structures, systems and components, which can be impaired in their required function resulting in a risk increase, are provided. One of these lists contains the equipment, the other one the dependencies to be considered for the corresponding hazard. In addition to the general approach for performing site specific PSA, a procedure for modelling dependencies in

  18. Injury protection and accident causation parameters for vulnerable road users based on German In-Depth Accident Study GIDAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Dietmar; Jänsch, Michael; Haasper, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Within a study of accident data from GIDAS (German In-Depth Accident Study), vulnerable road users are investigated regarding injury risk in traffic accidents. GIDAS is the largest in-depth accident study in Germany. Due to a well-defined sampling plan, representativeness with respect to the federal statistics is also guaranteed. A hierarchical system ACASS (Accident Causation Analysis with Seven Steps) was developed in GIDAS, describing the human causation factors in a chronological sequence. The accordingly classified causation factors - derived from the systematic of the analysis of human accident causes ("7 steps") - can be used to describe the influence of accident causes on the injury outcome. The bases of the study are accident documentations over ten years from 1999 to 2008 with 8204 vulnerable road users (VRU), of which 3 different groups were selected as pedestrians n=2041, motorcyclists n=2199 and bicyclists n=3964, and analyzed on collisions with cars and trucks as well as vulnerable road users alone. The paper will give a description of the injury pattern and injury mechanisms of accidents. The injury frequencies and severities are pointed out considering different types of VRU and protective measures of helmet and clothes of the human body. The impact points are demonstrated on the car, following to conclusion of protective measures on the vehicle. Existing standards of protection devices as well as interdisciplinary research, including accident and injury statistics, are described. With this paper, a summarization of the existing possibilities on protective measures for pedestrians, bicyclists and motorcyclists is given and discussed by comparison of all three groups of vulnerable road users. Also the relevance of special impact situations and accident causes mainly responsible for severe injuries are pointed out, given the new orientation of research for the avoidance and reduction of accident patterns. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Derivation of elastic stiffness formula for leaf type HDS and conceptual design of leaf type HDS of SMART FA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kee Nam; Kang, Heung Seok; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Suh, Jung Min; Lee, Jin Seok

    1997-12-01

    Based on the strain energy method and Euler beam theory, an elastic stiffness formula for the leaf type HDS, now widely used as the holddown spring for the FA of Westinghouse type PWRs, has been derived. Through comparisons with the characteristic test results of the test produced HDSs, it has been found that the derived formula is useful to reliably estimate an elastic stiffness with material properties and the geometric data of an HDS. Through sensitivity analysis of HDS`s elastic stiffness, the elastic stiffness sensitivity with respect to different design variables was identified, as well as the design variables having remarkable sensitivity. In addition, finite element analysis using surface-to-surface contact elements on the contact surface between the leaves shows that the analysis results are in good agreement with the elastic stiffness determined from the derived formula. It is therefore expected that the finite element model and the analysis method will be useful in the analysis of the elasto-plastic behavior of the leaf type HDS in the future. To both reduce the cobalt content, which is considered to be the source of radioactive contamination in the reactor core, and to design the HDS to meet the holddown requirements of the SMART FA, a conceptual design for the HDS of the SMART FA has been performed through two analyses of the elastic characteristics of the HDS : the possibility of substitution of the leaf spring`s material from Inconel 718 to Zircaloy and the effects on the HDS`s elastic characteristics according to the variation of leaf thickness and the number of leaves composing the HDS. (author). 34 refs., 33 tabs., 37 figs.

  20. Seismic investigation of the Kunlun Fault: Analysis of the INDEPTH IV 2-D active-source seismic dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelig, William George

    The Tibetan Plateau has experienced significant crustal thickening and deformation since the continental subduction and collision of the Asian and Indian plates in the Eocene. Deformation of the northern Tibetan Plateau is largely accommodated by strike-slip faulting. The Kunlun Fault is a 1000-km long strike-slip fault near the northern boundary of the Plateau that has experienced five magnitude 7.0 or greater earthquakes in the past 100 years and represents a major rheological boundary. Active-source, 2-D seismic reflection/refraction data, collected as part of project INDEPTH IV (International Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalaya, phase IV) in 2007, was used to examine the structure and the dip of the Kunlun fault. The INDEPTH IV data was acquired to better understand the tectonic evolution of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, such as the far-field deformation associated with the continent-continent collision and the potential subduction of the Asian continent beneath northern Tibet. Seismic reflection common depth point (CDP) stacks were examined to look for reflectivity patterns that may be associated with faulting. A possible reflection from the buried North Kunlun Thrust (NKT) is identified at 18-21 km underneath the East Kunlun Mountains, with an estimated apparent dip of 15°S and thrusting to the north. Minimally-processed shot gathers were also inspected for reflections off near-vertical structures such as faults and information on first-order velocity structure. Shot offset and nearest receiver number to reflection was catalogued to increase confidence of picks. Reflections off the North Kunlun (NKF) and South Kunlun Faults (SKF) were identified and analyzed for apparent dip and subsurface geometry. Fault reflection analysis found that the North Kunlun Fault had an apparent dip of approximately 68ºS to an estimated depth of 5 km, while the South Kunlun Fault dipped at approximately 78ºN to an estimated 3.5 km depth. Constraints on apparent dip and

  1. Potential Nuclear Power Plant Siting Issues in the United Arab Emirates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Hanai, Waddah T.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the need to develop additional sources of electricity to meet future demand and to ensure the rapid growth of its economy, the United Arab Emirates has embarked on a nuclear programme. The Federal Law by Decree No. 6 of 2009, Concerning the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy was signed by the President, last fall. This law created the Federal Authority for Nuclear Regulation (FANR), which is developing the framework of regulations which will guide the UAE programme. This paper reviews the development of the FANR regulation on Siting and the related environmental issues in general and those unique to the area. This will include steps being planned by the Authority to review the license application and the current concepts being looked at for the inspection programme. Among the unique aspects the author will look at are the results from a recent in-depth study performed on dust and sand storms. (author)

  2. "Why not bathe the baby today?": A qualitative study of thermal care beliefs and practices in four African sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejuyigbe, Ebunoluwa Aderonke; Bee, Margaret Helen; Amare, Yared; Omotara, Babatunji Abayomi; Iganus, Ruth Buus; Manzi, Fatuma; Shamba, Donat Dominic; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Odebiyi, Adetanwa; Hill, Zelee Elizabeth

    2015-10-14

    Recommendations for care in the first week of a newborn's life include thermal care practices such as drying and wrapping, skin to skin contact, immediate breastfeeding and delayed bathing. This paper examines beliefs and practices related to neonatal thermal care in three African countries. Data were collected in the same way in each site and included 16-20 narrative interviews with recent mothers, eight observations of neonatal bathing, and in-depth interviews with 12-16 mothers, 9-12 grandmothers, eight health workers and 0-12 birth attendants in each site. We found similarities across sites in relation to understanding the importance of warmth, a lack of opportunities for skin to skin care, beliefs about the importance of several baths per day and beliefs that the Vernix caseosa was related to poor maternal behaviours. There was variation between sites in beliefs and practices around wrapping and drying after delivery, and the timing of the first bath with recent behavior change in some sites. There was near universal early bathing of babies in both Nigerian sites. This was linked to a deep-rooted belief about body odour. When asked about keeping the baby warm, respondents across the sites rarely mentioned recommended thermal care practices, suggesting that these are not perceived as salient. More effort is needed to promote appropriate thermal care practices both in facilities and at home. Programmers should be aware that changing deep rooted practices, such as early bathing in Nigeria, may take time and should utilize the current beliefs in the importance of neonatal warmth to facilitate behaviour change.

  3. Developing an In-depth Understanding of Elderly Adult's Vulnerability to Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Jason L; Gruber, James S; Horton, Bill

    2018-05-08

    Recent reports highlight the vulnerability of elderly adults to climate change, yet limited research has focused on this topic. To address this, the purpose of this study was to develop an in-depth understanding of elderly adult's vulnerability to climate change within the context of a specific community. A case study methodology utilizing a community-based action research approach was employed to engage elderly participants living in Bridgeport, CT, in exploring their vulnerability to current and predicted climate stressors with a focus on extreme heat, flooding and storms, and air pollution. This research identifies personal characteristics that interact with contextual factors to influence elderly adult's vulnerability to climate change. Personal characteristics include health, economic, and social considerations. Contextual factors include the adequacy of emergency preparedness measures, transportation resources, and coping and recovery resources. As a result of the interplay of these characteristics and factors, predicted climate changes could have serious consequences for Bridgeport's elderly adults. This research provides a contextualized and detailed illustration of how climate change could overwhelm elderly adult's adaptive capacity and highlights the need for support services to provide safeguards. The issues and concerns raised may bear similarities to other locations, especially urban settings facing similar climate stressors with similar socioeconomic conditions. The findings suggest a need for further research to improve our understanding and serve as the basis for collaborative adaptation planning that engages elderly communities with local governments and a broad coalition of partners to keep elders safe.

  4. The In-Depth Interview as a Research Tool for Investigating the Online Intercultural Communication of Asian Internet Users in Relation to Ethics in Intercultural Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetscher, Doris

    2013-01-01

    Virtual intercultural communication is of great interest in intercultural research. How can a researcher gain access to this field of investigation if s/he does not or only partially speaks the languages used by the subjects? This study is an example of how categories relevant to research can be accessed through in-depth interviews. The interview…

  5. In-depth proteomic analysis of banana (Musa spp.) fruit with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Marina, María Luisa; García, María Concepción; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Musa ssp. is among the world's leading fruit crops. Although a strong interest on banana biochemistry exists in the scientific community, focused on metabolite composition, proteins have been scarcely investigated even if they play an important role in food allergy and stability, are a source of biologically active peptides, and can provide information about nutritional aspects of this fruit. In this work we have employed the combinatorial peptide ligand libraries after different types of protein extractions, for searching the very low-abundance proteins in banana. The use of advanced MS techniques and Musa ssp. mRNAs database in combination with the Uniprot_viridiplantae database allowed us to identify 1131 proteins. Among this huge amount of proteins we found several already known allergens such as Mus a 1, pectinesterase, superoxide dismutase, and potentially new allergens. Additionally several enzymes involved in degradation of starch granules and strictly correlated to ripening stage were identified. This is the first in-depth exploration of the banana fruit proteome and one of the largest descriptions of the proteome of any vegetable system. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A New Observational Strategy for Monitoring the Tropical Cyclone Outflow Layer and its Relationship to Intensity and Structure Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    vertical structure of outflow layer jets for Hurricanes Leslie and Nadine in 2012 and Invest 97L in 2013 has been conducted using NCAR- EOL /Vaisala mini...generation of dropsonde, the Yankee, Inc HDSS and XDD sonde was intercompared during CIRPAS Twin Otter test flights on 24-25 June, 2011 with NCAR- EOL

  7. All-optical in-depth detection of the acoustic wave emitted by a single gold nanorod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Guillet, Yannick; Ravaine, Serge; Audoin, Bertrand

    2018-04-01

    A single gold nanorod dropped on the surface of a silica substrate is used as a transient optoacoustic source of gigahertz hypersounds. We demonstrate the all-optical detection of the as-generated acoustic wave front propagating in the silica substrate. For this purpose, time-resolved femtosecond pump-probe experiments are performed in a reflection configuration. The fundamental breathing mode of the nanorod is detected at 23 GHz by interferometry, and the longitudinal acoustic wave radiated in the silica substrate is detected by time-resolved Brillouin scattering. By tuning the optical probe wavelength from 750 to 900 nm, hypersounds with wavelengths of 260-315 nm are detected in the silica substrate, with corresponding acoustic frequencies in the range of 19-23 GHz. To confirm the origin of these hypersounds, we theoretically analyze the influence of the acoustic excitation spectrum on the temporal envelope of the transient reflectivity. This analysis proves that the acoustic wave detected in the silica substrate results from the excitation of the breathing mode of the nanorod. These results pave the way for performing local in-depth elastic nanoscopy.

  8. In-Depth, Label-Free Analysis of the Erythrocyte Cytoplasmic Proteome in Diamond Blackfan Anemia Identifies a Unique Inflammatory Signature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther N Pesciotta

    Full Text Available Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA is a rare, congenital erythrocyte aplasia that is usually caused by haploinsufficiency of ribosomal proteins due to diverse mutations in one of several ribosomal genes. A striking feature of this disease is that a range of different mutations in ribosomal proteins results in similar disease phenotypes primarily characterized by erythrocyte abnormalities and macrocytic anemia, while most other cell types in the body are minimally affected. Previously, we analyzed the erythrocyte membrane proteomes of several DBA patients and identified several proteins that are not typically associated with this cell type and that suggested inflammatory mechanisms contribute to the pathogenesis of DBA. In this study, we evaluated the erythrocyte cytosolic proteome of DBA patients through in-depth analysis of hemoglobin-depleted erythrocyte cytosols. Simple, reproducible, hemoglobin depletion using nickel columns enabled in-depth analysis of over 1000 cytosolic erythrocyte proteins with only moderate total analysis time per proteome. Label-free quantitation and statistical analysis identified 29 proteins with significantly altered abundance levels in DBA patients compared to matched healthy control donors. Proteins that were significantly increased in DBA erythrocyte cytoplasms included three proteasome subunit beta proteins that make up the immunoproteasome and proteins induced by interferon-γ such as n-myc interactor and interferon-induced 35 kDa protein [NMI and IFI35 respectively]. Pathway analysis confirmed the presence of an inflammatory signature in erythrocytes of DBA patients and predicted key upstream regulators including mitogen activated kinase 1, interferon-γ, tumor suppressor p53, and tumor necrosis factor. These results show that erythrocytes in DBA patients are intrinsically different from those in healthy controls which may be due to an inflammatory response resulting from the inherent molecular defect of ribosomal

  9. Geometries of geoelectrical structures in central Tibetan Plateau from INDEPTH magnetotelluric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozar, Jan; Jones, Alan G.; Le Pape, Florian

    2013-04-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) data collected on N-S profiles crossing the Banggong-Nujiang Suture, which separates the Qiangtang and Lhasa Terranes in central Tibet, as a part of InterNational DEep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalaya project (INDEPTH) are modeled by 2D and 3D inversion codes. The 2D deep MT model of line 500 confirms previous observations concluding that the region is characterized to first-order by a resistive upper crust and a conductive, partially melted, middle to lower crust that extends from the Lhasa Terrane to the Qiangtang Terrane with varying depth. The same conductive structure setting, but in shallower depths is also present on the eastern 400 line. From deep electromagnetic sounding, supported by independent 1D integrated petro-physical investigation, we can estimate the next upper-mantle conductive layer at depths from 200 km to 250 km below the Lhasa Terrane and less resistive Tibetan lithosphere below the Qiangtang Terrane with conductive upper-mantle in depths about 120 km. The anisotropic 2D modeling reveals lower crustal anisotropy in Lhasa Terrane, which can interpreted as crustal channel flow. The 3D inversion models of all MT data from central Tibet show dominant 2D regional strike of mid and lower crustal structures equal N110E. This orientation is parallel to Shuanghu suture, BengCo Jiali strike-slip fault system and perpendicular to convergence direction. The lower crust conductor in central Lhasa Terrane can be interpreted more likely as 3D lower Indian crust structure, located to the east from line 500, than geoelectrical anisotropic crustal flow.

  10. Influence of Enamel Thickness on Bleaching Efficacy: An In-Depth Color Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Públio, Juliana do Carmo; D'Arce, Maria Beatriz Freitas; Catelan, Anderson; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Lovadino, José Roberto; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of different enamel thicknesses and bleaching agents on treatment efficacy in-depth by spectrophotometry color analysis. Eighty bovine dental fragments were previously stained in black tea solution and randomly assigned into eight groups (n=10), 1.75mm dentin thickness and different enamel thicknesses as follows: 0.5mm, 1.0mm planned, 1.0mm unplanned (aprismatic enamel), and absence of enamel. The 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) and 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) bleaching gels were applied on the enamel surface following the manufacturer's recommendations. Color of underlying dentin was evaluated at four times: after staining with tea (baseline) and after each one of the three weeks of bleaching treatment, by CIE L*a*b* system using reflectance spectrophotometer (CM 700d, Konica Minolta). The ΔE, ΔL, Δa, and Δb values were recorded and subjected to repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). The results showed an increase on lightness (L*), with decreased redness (a*) and yellowness (b*). At first and second week, bleaching with CP showed higher whitening effectiveness compared to bleaching with HP and the presence of aprismatic enamel significantly reduced ΔE for bleaching with CP. After three weeks of bleaching, few differences were observed between CP and HP groups, and outer enamel layer caused no influence on bleaching effectiveness. Overall, both at-home and in-office bleaching treatments were effective and the presence of aprismatic enamel did not interfere on the whitening efficacy.

  11. Causes of death in the Taabo health and demographic surveillance system, Côte d'Ivoire, from 2009 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koné, Siaka; Fürst, Thomas; Jaeger, Fabienne N; Esso, Emmanuel L J C; Baïkoro, Nahoua; Kouadio, Kouamé A; Adiossan, Lukas G; Zouzou, Fabien; Boti, Louis I; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Dao, Daouda; N'Goran, Eliézer K

    2015-01-01

    Current vital statistics from governmental institutions in Côte d'Ivoire are incomplete. This problem is particularly notable for remote rural areas that have limited access to the health system. To record all deaths from 2009 to 2011 and to identify the leading causes of death in the Taabo health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Deaths recorded in the first 3 years of operation of the Taabo HDSS were investigated by verbal autopsy (VA), using the InterVA-4 model. InterVA-4 is based on the World Health Organization 2012 VA tool in terms of input indicators and categories of causes of death. Overall, 948 deaths were recorded, of which 236 (24.9%) had incomplete VA data. Among the 712 deaths analyzed, communicable diseases represented the leading causes (58.9%), with most deaths attributed to malaria (n=129), acute respiratory tract infections (n=110), HIV/AIDS (n=80), and pulmonary tuberculosis (n=46). Non-communicable diseases accounted for 18.9% of the deaths and included mainly acute abdomen (n=38), unspecified cardiac diseases (n=15), and digestive neoplasms (n=13). Maternal and neonatal conditions accounted for 8.3% of deaths, primarily pneumonia (n=19) and birth asphyxia (n=16) in newborns. Among the 3.8% of deaths linked to trauma and injury, the main causes were assault (n=6), accidental drowning (n=4), contact with venomous plants/animals (n=4), and traffic-related accidents (n=4). No clear causes were determined in 10.0% of the analyzed deaths. Communicable diseases remain the predominant cause of death in rural Côte d'Ivoire. Based on these findings, measures are now being implemented in the Taabo HDSS. It will be interesting to monitor patterns of mortality and causes of death in the face of rapid demographic and epidemiological transitions in this part of West Africa.

  12. Hydroxy double salts loaded with bioactive ions: Synthesis, intercalation mechanisms, and functional performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaassis, Abdessamad Y.A.; Xu, Si-Min; Guan, Shanyue; Evans, David G.; Wei, Min; Williams, Gareth R.

    2016-01-01

    The intercalation of the anions of diclofenac (Dic), naproxen (Nap), and valproic acid (Val) into three hydroxy double salts (HDSs) has been explored in this work. Experiments were performed with [Co 1.2 Zn 3.8 (OH) 8 ](NO 3 ) 2 ·2H 2 O (CoZn-NO 3 ), [Ni 2 Zn 3 (OH) 8 ](NO 3 ) 2 ·2H 2 O (NiZn-NO 3 ) and [Zn 5 (OH) 8 ](NO 3 ) 2 ·2H 2 O (Zn-NO 3 ). It proved possible to intercalate diclofenac and naproxen into all three HDSs. In contrast, Val could be intercalated into CoZn-NO 3 but when it was reacted with Zn-NO 3 the HDS structure was destroyed, and the product comprised ZnO. Successful intercalation was verified by X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, and elemental microanalysis. Molecular dynamics simulations showed the Dic and Nap ions to arrange themselves in an “X” shape in the interlayer space, forming a bilayer. Val was found to adopt a position with its aliphatic groups parallel to the HDS layer, again in a bilayer. In situ time resolved X-ray diffraction experiments revealed that intercalation of Dic and Nap into CoZn-NO 3 and Zn-NO 3 is mechanistically complex, with a number of intermediate phases observed. In contrast, the intercalation of all three guests into NiZn-NO 3 and of Val into CoZn-NO 3 are simple one step reactions proceeding directly from the starting material to the product. The HDS-drug composites were found to have sustained release profiles. - Graphical abstract: Seven new drug intercalates of hydroxy double salts (HDSs) have been prepared and characterised. The intercalation mechanisms have been explored, and the drug release properties of the HDS/drug composites quantified. Display Omitted

  13. In-depth interviews of patients with primary immunodeficiency who have experienced pump and rapid push subcutaneous infusions of immunoglobulins reveal new insights on their preference and expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cozon GJN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Grégoire Jacques Noël Cozon,1 Pierre Clerson,2 Annaïk Dokhan,3 Yann Fardini,2 Taylor Pindi Sala,4 Jean-Charles Crave4 1Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Lyon, France; 2Soladis Clinical Studies, Roubaix, France; 3KPL, Paris, France; 4Octapharma France, Boulogne, France Purpose: Patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID often receive immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IgRT. Physicians and patients have the choice between various methods of administration. For subcutaneous immunoglobulin infusions, patients may use an automated pump (P or push the plunger of a syringe (rapid push [RP]. P infusions are performed once a week and last around 1 hour. RP decreases the duration of administration, but requires more frequent infusions.Patients and methods: Eight out of 30 patients (coming from a single center who had participated in the cross-over, randomized, open-label trial comparing P and RP participated in a focus group or underwent in-depth interviews. Patients had a long history of home-based subcutaneous immunoglobulin using P. The trial suggested that RP had slightly greater interference on daily life than P, but similar efficacy and better cost-effectiveness. When asked about the delivery method they had preferred, around one-third of patients pointed out RP rather than P. In-depth interviews may reveal unforeseen reasons for patients’ preferences. Results: Interviews underlined the complexity of the relationship that the patients maintain with their disease and IgRT. Even if they recognized the genetic nature of the disease and claimed PID was a part of them, patients tried not to be overwhelmed by the disease. IgRT by P was well integrated in patients’ routine. By contrast, RP too frequently reminded the patients of their disease. In addition, some patients pointed out the difficulty of pushing the plunger due to the viscosity of the product. Coming back too frequently, RP was not perceived

  14. Coherent scattering noise reduction method with wavelength diversity detection for holographic data storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yusuke; Hoshizawa, Taku; Takashima, Yuzuru

    2017-09-01

    A new method, wavelength diversity detection (WDD), for improving signal quality is proposed and its effectiveness is numerically confirmed. We consider that WDD is especially effective for high-capacity systems having low hologram diffraction efficiencies. In such systems, the signal quality is primarily limited by coherent scattering noise; thus, effective improvement of the signal quality under a scattering-limited system is of great interest. WDD utilizes a new degree of freedom, the spectrum width, and scattering by molecules to improve the signal quality of the system. We found that WDD improves the quality by counterbalancing the degradation of the quality due to Bragg mismatch. With WDD, a higher-scattering-coefficient medium can improve the quality. The result provides an interesting insight into the requirements for material characteristics, especially for a large-M/# material. In general, a larger-M/# material contains more molecules; thus, the system is subject to more scattering, which actually improves the quality with WDD. We propose a pathway for a future holographic data storage system (HDSS) using WDD, which can record a larger amount of data than a conventional HDSS.

  15. Community participation in mosquito breeding site control: an interdisciplinary mixed methods study in Curaçao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsinga, Jelte; van der Veen, Henry T; Gerstenbluth, Izzy; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Dijkstra, Arie; Grobusch, Martin P; Tami, Adriana; Bailey, Ajay

    2017-09-19

    As the arboviral diseases dengue, chikungunya and Zika emerge in the Americas, so does the need for sustainable vector control policies. To successfully achieve mosquito control, joint efforts of both communities and governments are essential. This study investigates this important, but by-and-large neglected topic. In June and July 2015, a cross-sectional mixed methods study applying a survey questionnaire (response rate of 82.5%; n = 339), in-depth interviews (n = 20) and focus group discussions (n = 7; 50 participants) was performed in Curaçao. The study was designed based on an integrated theoretical framework of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Participants showed a good knowledge of, and a high-level performance of mosquito breeding site control (MBSC) practices. Personal protection against mosquitoes (e.g. topical repellents) was perceived as relatively less effective thus practiced to lower extent compared to MBSC practices (i.e. larval source management). A lower intention to perform MBSC was independently associated with: (i) satisfaction on governmental MBSC (P = 0.012); (ii) barriers to perform MBSC practices, i.e. 'Government doesn't control other breeding sites' (P = 0.005), 'Don't know how to control breeding sites' (P = 0.041), and 'a mosquito does not transmit dengue' (P = 0.016), (iii) attitudes towards MBSC (P = 0.001) and self-efficacy (person's perceived ability to act) to perform MBSC (P = 0.002). Mixed-methods evidence highlights three possible ways of improving community participation in MBSC. First, it highlights the need for ongoing media coverage, targeting (i) communities' perceptions on transmission routes of dengue and chikungunya, and (ii) presence of car tires in yards. Secondly, it shows that promotion of governmental activities in MBSC can enhance MBSC of communities, if people develop a sense of responsibility to perform MBSC at their own properties. Thirdly, this study describes

  16. Critical review of decision support tools for sustainability assessment of site remediation options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huysegoms, Lies; Cappuyns, Valérie

    2017-07-01

    In Europe alone, there are more than 2,5 million potentially contaminated sites of which 14% are expected to require remediation. Contaminated soil and groundwater can cause damage to human health as well as to valuable ecosystems. Globally more attention has been paid to this problem of soil contamination in the past decades. For example, more than 58 000 sites have been remediated in Europe between 2006 and 2011. Together with this increase in remediation projects there has been a surge in the development of new remediation technologies and decision support tools to be able to match every site and its specific characteristics to the best possible remediation alternative. In the past years the development of decision support tools (DST) has evolved in a more sustainable direction. Several DSTs added the claim not only to denote effective or technologically and economically feasible remediation alternatives but also to point out the more or most sustainable remediation alternatives. These trends in the evaluation of site remediation options left users with a confusing clew of possibly applicable tools to assist them in decision making for contaminated site remediation. This review provides a structured overview on the extent decision support tools for contaminated site remediation, that claim to assist in choosing the most sustainable remediation alternative, actually include the different elements of sustainability proposed in our assessment framework. The review contains an in-depth analysis of thirteen tools specifically developed to assess the sustainability of site remediation alternatives. This analysis is based on six criteria derived from the definition of sustainable development of the Brundtland report. The six criteria were concretized by using the three pillars of sustainability, applied to site remediation according to the SuRF-UK framework, two criteria derived from Life Cycle Assessment and Cost-Benefit Analysis, and an 'User friendly' criterion

  17. In-depth assessment of the situation of the textile and clothing sector in the EU and prospects : Task 7: synthesis report for the European textile and clothing sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, M.R. (Michiel)

    2012-01-01

    The in-depth assessment of the situation of the European textile and clothing sector is composed by six independent reports with a close focus on key aspects useful to understand the dynamics and the development of the textile and clothing industry, drivers of change – most notably the impact

  18. In-depth assessment of the situation of the textile and clothing sector in the EU and prospects : Task 6: assessement of the evolution of research and innovation practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, M.R. (Michiel)

    2012-01-01

    The in-depth assessment of the situation of the European textile and clothing sector is composed by six independent reports with a close focus on key aspects useful to understand the dynamics and the development of the textile and clothing industry, drivers of change – most notably the impact

  19. In-depth interviews of patients with primary immunodeficiency who have experienced pump and rapid push subcutaneous infusions of immunoglobulins reveal new insights on their preference and expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozon, Grégoire Jacques Noël; Clerson, Pierre; Dokhan, Annaïk; Fardini, Yann; Sala, Taylor Pindi; Crave, Jean-Charles

    2018-01-01

    Patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) often receive immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IgRT). Physicians and patients have the choice between various methods of administration. For subcutaneous immunoglobulin infusions, patients may use an automated pump (P) or push the plunger of a syringe (rapid push [RP]). P infusions are performed once a week and last around 1 hour. RP decreases the duration of administration, but requires more frequent infusions. Eight out of 30 patients (coming from a single center) who had participated in the cross-over, randomized, open-label trial comparing P and RP participated in a focus group or underwent in-depth interviews. Patients had a long history of home-based subcutaneous immunoglobulin using P. The trial suggested that RP had slightly greater interference on daily life than P, but similar efficacy and better cost-effectiveness. When asked about the delivery method they had preferred, around one-third of patients pointed out RP rather than P. In-depth interviews may reveal unforeseen reasons for patients' preferences. Interviews underlined the complexity of the relationship that the patients maintain with their disease and IgRT. Even if they recognized the genetic nature of the disease and claimed PID was a part of them, patients tried not to be overwhelmed by the disease. IgRT by P was well integrated in patients' routine. By contrast, RP too frequently reminded the patients of their disease. In addition, some patients pointed out the difficulty of pushing the plunger due to the viscosity of the product. Coming back too frequently, RP was not perceived as time saving over a week. Long-lasting use of P could partly explain patients' reasonable reluctance to change to RP. In-depth interviews of PID patients highlighted unforeseen reasons for patients' preference that the physician needs to explore during the shared medical decision-making process.

  20. Understanding women's experiences with medical abortion: In-depth interviews with women in two Indian clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganatra, B; Kalyanwala, S; Elul, B; Coyaji, K; Tewari, S

    2010-01-01

    We explored women's perspectives on using medical abortion, including their reasons for selecting the method, their experiences with it and their thoughts regarding demedicalisation of part or all of the process. Sixty-three women from two urban clinics in India were interviewed within four weeks of abortion completion using a semi-structured in-depth interview guide. While women appreciated the non-invasiveness of medical abortion, other factors influencing method selection were family support and distance from the facility. The degree of medicalisation that women wanted or felt was necessary also depended on the way expectations were set by their providers. Confirmation of abortion completion was a source of anxiety for many women and led to unnecessary interventions in a few cases. Ultimately, experiences depended more on women's expectations about the method, and on the level of emotional and logistic support they received rather than on inherent characteristics of the method. These findings emphasise the circumstances under which women make reproductive choices and underscore the need to tailor service delivery to meet women's needs. Women-centred counselling and care that takes into consideration individual circumstances are needed.

  1. Indepth diagnosis of a secondary clarifier by the application of radiotracer technique and numerical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H S; Shin, M S; Jang, D S; Jung, S H

    2006-01-01

    To make an indepth diagnosis of a full-scale rectangular secondary clarifier, an experimental and numerical study has been performed in a wastewater treatment facility. Calculation results by the numerical model with the adoption of the SIMPLE algorithm of Patankar are validated with radiotracer experiments. Emphasis is given to the prediction of residence time distribution (RTD) curves. The predicted RTD profiles are in good agreement with the experimental RTD curves at the upstream and center sections except for the withdrawal zone of the complex effluent weir structure. The simulation results predict successfully the well-known flow characteristics of each stage such as the waterfall phenomenon at the front of the clarifier, the bottom density current and the surface return flow in the settling zone, and the upward flow in the exit zone. The detailed effects of density current are thoroughly investigated in terms of high SS loading and temperature difference between influent and ambient fluid. The program developed in this study shows the high potential to assist in the design and determination of optimal operating conditions to improve effluent quality in a full-scale secondary clarifier.

  2. [In-depth assessment of work-related stress in a major company undergoing restructuring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, Andrea; Pelagalli, Maria Felicia; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Livigni, Lucilla; Guidi, Stefano; Moscatelli, Maurizia; Mascioli, Marco; D'Orsi, Fulvio; Zolla, Antonella; Bagnara, Sebastiano

    2015-07-08

    An in-depth assessment of work-related stress was conducted in a major national telecommunications company undergoing major changes. The assessment was made on three homogeneous groups of workers and covered a large representative sample of the corresponding populations. To identify the main sources of stress for the three populations of workers, stimulate a discussion on the possible corrective actions, and assess the impact of the on-going organizational changes on workers' health. The assessment started with an analysis of the objective stress indicators listed in the INAIL (National Insurance Institute for Occupational Diseases and Accidents) Checklist. This was followed by a combination of qualitative and quantitative investigations on work context and tasks and on the subjective perceptions of workers, which were carried out by using: semi-structured interviews with management, field observations of work tasks, focus groups and questionnaires (GHQ-12, HSE Indicator Tool, ad-hoc questionnaire). The assessment allowed identification of the critical areas to be addressed with specific interventions: relationship with the company, work performance, work organization, and equipment. the investigation allowed to identification of specific practical actions (improvement of technological tools; professional development through training courses) as well as strategic actions ( re-establish relationship of trust with the company) so as to mitigate the workers' level of stress. Analysis of the results also showed that the three targeted populations differed in the degree of acceptance and understanding of the organizational changes.

  3. 2004 annual progress report: Stratton Sagebrush Hydrology Study Area: Establishment of a long-term research site in a high-elevation sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenecker, Kate; Lange, Bob; Calton, Mike

    2005-01-01

    In 2004 the U.S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Rawlins Field Office (RFO), began a cooperative effort to reestablish the Stratton Sagebrush Hydrology Study Area (Stratton) as a research location, with the goal of making it a site for long-term research on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecology. No other long-term research sites in high-elevation sagebrush habitat currently exist, and the Stratton area, with its 30+ year history of research and baseline data, was a logical location to restart investigations aimed at answering pertinent and timely questions about sagebrush ecology and sagebrush-obligate species. During the first year of the study, USGS scientists conducted an in-depth literature search to locate publications from research conducted at Stratton. We contacted previous researchers to acquire literature and unpublished reports of work conducted at Stratton. Collated papers and published manuscripts were presented in an annotated bibliography (Burgess and Schoenecker, 2004).

  4. Building a patient-centered hospital web site: best practices in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    In this case study, based on six criteria, four Chinese hospitals were chosen from a national sample to showcase, through content analysis and in-depth interviews, the best practices of serving patients online. The extensive findings have addressed the following three questions: what these hospitals have in common in their Web development, what problems and challenges they are facing, and how they have excelled in serving their patients online. The study concludes that, like larger hospitals, smaller hospitals can also excel in creating an outstanding Web site to serve their patients so long as they truly care about their patients, have a clear vision and strong expertise in IT development. The study also concludes that Chinese private hospitals can learn from these state-owned hospitals in establishing a good reputation through professional and responsible interaction with patients. The four hospitals studied may shed light on the Web development in many other Chinese hospitals that are going through the same healthcare new media adoption. The findings from this study can also help Chinese hospitals form their visions in serving patients online.

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Integrated Waste Heat Utilization Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants Based on In-Depth Boiler-Turbine Integration and Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwei Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To maximize the system-level heat integration, three retrofit concepts of waste heat recovery via organic Rankine cycle (ORC, in-depth boiler-turbine integration, and coupling of both are proposed, analyzed and comprehensively compared in terms of thermodynamic and economic performances. For thermodynamic analysis, exergy analysis is employed with grand composite curves illustrated to identify how the systems are fundamentally and quantitatively improved, and to highlight key processes for system improvement. For economic analysis, annual revenue and investment payback period are calculated based on the estimation of capital investment of each component to identify the economic feasibility and competitiveness of each retrofit concept proposed. The results show that the in-depth boiler-turbine integration achieves a better temperature match of heat flows involved for different fluids and multi-stage air preheating, thus a significant improvement of power output (23.99 MW, which is much larger than that of the system with only ORC (6.49 MW. This is mainly due to the limitation of the ultra-low temperature (from 135 to 75 °C heat available from the flue gas for ORC. The thermodynamic improvement is mostly contributed by the reduction of exergy destruction within the boiler subsystem, which is eventually converted to mechanical power; while the exergy destruction within the turbine system is almost not changed for the three concepts. The selection of ORC working fluids is performed to maximize the power output. Due to the low-grade heat source, the cycle with R11 offers the largest additional net power generation but is not significantly better than the other preselected working fluids. Economically, the in-depth boiler-turbine integration is the most economic completive solution with a payback period of only 0.78 year. The ORC concept is less attractive for a sole application due to a long payback time (2.26 years. However, by coupling both

  6. Immersion technique as a tool for in-depth OCT imaging through human blood and body's interior tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangqun; Tuchin, Valery V.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2001-05-01

    The concept of refractive index matching used for the enhancement of optical penetration depth of the whole blood is discussed on the basis of in vitro studies using optical coherence tomography technique. It was found that blood optical clearing is defined not only by refractive index matching effect, but also by changes of RBC size and their aggregation ability when chemicals are added. Chemical agents studied include glycerol, propylene glycol, trazograph, and dextrans. For the hyperosmotic agents, the application of 6.5% glycerol into twice diluted blood reduces the total attenuation coefficient from 4.2/mm to 2.0/mm, and correspondingly increases the optical penetration at 820 nm up to 117%. Similar effects of increase in transmittance and decrease in light scattering are also demonstrated by various molecular detrans with the light penetration enhancement within a range between 52.1% and 150.5%. We also demonstrate that the use of biocompatible agents could enhance in-depth imaging of the human esophagus and stomach tissues.

  7. 3D imaging of cleared human skin biopsies using light-sheet microscopy: A new way to visualize in-depth skin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, S; Jardet, C; Colombelli, J; Chaput, B; David, A; Grolleau, J-L; Bedos, P; Lobjois, V; Descargues, P; Rouquette, J

    2018-05-01

    Human skin is composed of the superimposition of tissue layers of various thicknesses and components. Histological staining of skin sections is the benchmark approach to analyse the organization and integrity of human skin biopsies; however, this approach does not allow 3D tissue visualization. Alternatively, confocal or two-photon microscopy is an effective approach to perform fluorescent-based 3D imaging. However, owing to light scattering, these methods display limited light penetration in depth. The objectives of this study were therefore to combine optical clearing and light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) to perform in-depth optical sectioning of 5 mm-thick human skin biopsies and generate 3D images of entire human skin biopsies. A benzyl alcohol and benzyl benzoate solution was used to successfully optically clear entire formalin fixed human skin biopsies, making them transparent. In-depth optical sectioning was performed with LSFM on the basis of tissue-autofluorescence observations. 3D image analysis of optical sections generated with LSFM was performed by using the Amira ® software. This new approach allowed us to observe in situ the different layers and compartments of human skin, such as the stratum corneum, the dermis and epidermal appendages. With this approach, we easily performed 3D reconstruction to visualise an entire human skin biopsy. Finally, we demonstrated that this method is useful to visualise and quantify histological anomalies, such as epidermal hyperplasia. The combination of optical clearing and LSFM has new applications in dermatology and dermatological research by allowing 3D visualization and analysis of whole human skin biopsies. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. In-depth, high-accuracy proteomics of sea urchin tooth organic matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Matthias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The organic matrix contained in biominerals plays an important role in regulating mineralization and in determining biomineral properties. However, most components of biomineral matrices remain unknown at present. In sea urchin tooth, which is an important model for developmental biology and biomineralization, only few matrix components have been identified. The recent publication of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome sequence rendered possible not only the identification of genes potentially coding for matrix proteins, but also the direct identification of proteins contained in matrices of skeletal elements by in-depth, high-accuracy proteomic analysis. Results We identified 138 proteins in the matrix of tooth powder. Only 56 of these proteins were previously identified in the matrices of test (shell and spine. Among the novel components was an interesting group of five proteins containing alanine- and proline-rich neutral or basic motifs separated by acidic glycine-rich motifs. In addition, four of the five proteins contained either one or two predicted Kazal protease inhibitor domains. The major components of tooth matrix were however largely identical to the set of spicule matrix proteins and MSP130-related proteins identified in test (shell and spine matrix. Comparison of the matrices of crushed teeth to intact teeth revealed a marked dilution of known intracrystalline matrix proteins and a concomitant increase in some intracellular proteins. Conclusion This report presents the most comprehensive list of sea urchin tooth matrix proteins available at present. The complex mixture of proteins identified may reflect many different aspects of the mineralization process. A comparison between intact tooth matrix, presumably containing odontoblast remnants, and crushed tooth matrix served to differentiate between matrix components and possible contributions of cellular remnants. Because LC-MS/MS-based methods directly

  9. Determining global distribution of microplastics by combining citizen science and in-depth case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosker, Thijs; Behrens, Paul; Vijver, Martina G

    2017-05-01

    Microplastics (microplastics levels. The difference in extraction procedures can especially impact study outcomes, making it difficult, and sometimes impossible, to directly compare results among studies. To address this, we recently developed a standard operating procedure (SOP) for sampling microplastics on beaches. We are now assessing regional and global variations in beach microplastics using this standardized approach for 2 research projects. Our first project involves the general public through citizen science. Participants collect sand samples from beaches using a basic protocol, and we subsequently extract and quantify microplastics in a central laboratory using the SOP. Presently, we have 80+ samples from around the world and expect this number to further increase. Second, we are conducting 2, in-depth, regional case studies: one along the Dutch coast (close to major rivers, a known source of microplastic input into marine systems), and the other on the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean (in the proximity to a hotspot of plastics in the North Atlantic Ocean). In both projects, we use our new SOP to determine regional variation in microplastics, including differences in physicochemical characteristics such as size, shape, and polymer type. Our research will provide, for the first time, a systematic comparison on levels of microplastics on beaches at both a regional and global scale. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:536-541. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  10. In-depth study of personality disorders in first-admission patients with substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langås Anne-Marit

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessment of comorbid personality disorders (PDs in patients with substance use disorders (SUDs is challenging due to symptom overlap, additional mental and physical disorders, and limitations of the assessment methods. Our in-depth study applied methods to overcome these difficulties. Method A complete catchment area sample of 61 consecutively admitted patients with SUDs, with no previous history of specialized treatment (addiction clinics, psychiatry were studied, addressing PDs and associated clinical and demographic variables. The thorough assessments included the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders. Results Forty-six percent of the SUD patients had at least one PD (16% antisocial [males only]; 13% borderline; and 8% paranoid, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive, respectively. Cluster C disorders were as prevalent as Cluster B disorders. SUD patients with PDs were younger at the onset of their first SUD and at admission; used more illicit drugs; had more anxiety disorders, particularly social phobia; had more severe depressive symptoms; were more distressed; and less often attended work or school. Conclusion The psychiatric comorbidity and symptom load of SUD patients with PDs differed from those of SUD patients without PDs, suggesting different treatment needs, and stressing the value of the assessment of PDs in SUD patients.

  11. Site specific information in site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeikaes, T.; Hautojaervi, A.

    1998-01-01

    The programme for the siting of a deep repository for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel was started already in 1983 and is carried out today by Posiva Oy which continues the work started by Teollisuuden Voima Oy. The programme aims at site selection by the end of the year 2000. The programme has progressed in successive interim stages with defined goals. After an early phase for site identification, five sites were selected in 1987 for preliminary site characterisation. Three of these were selected and judged to be best suited for the more detailed characterisation in 1992. An additional new site was included into the programme based on a separate feasibility study in the beginning of 1997. Since the year 1983 several safety assessments together with technical plans of the facility have been completed. When approaching the site selection the needs for more detailed consideration of the site specific properties in the safety assessment have been increased. The Finnish regulator STUK has published a proposal for general safety requirements for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. This set of requirements has been projected to be used in conjunction of the decision making by the end 2000. Based on the site evaluation all sites can provide a stable environment and there is evidence that the requirements for the longevity of the canister can be fulfilled at each site. In this manner the four candidate sites do not differ too much from each other. The main difference between the sites is in the salinity of the deep groundwater. The significance of differences in the salinity for the long-term safety cannot be defined yet. The differences may contribute to the discussion of the longevity of the bentonite buffer and also to the modelling of the groundwater flow and transport. The use of the geosphere as a transport barrier is basically culminated on the questions about sparse but fast flow routes and 'how bad channeling can be'. To answer these questions

  12. Site organization and site arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissonnet, B.; Macqueron, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    The present paper deals with criteria for the choice of a production unit or power plant site, the organization and development of a site in terms of its particular characteristics and takes into account personnel considerations in site organizations as well as the problem of integrating the architecture into the environment. (RW) [de

  13. In-depth investigation of high-energy arcing faults (HEAF) of electrical components with possible induced fires; Vertiefte Untersuchungen zum hochenergetischen Versagen elektrischer Komponenten (HEAF) mit moeglicher Brandfolge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roewekamp, Marina

    2015-11-15

    Main objective of the project 3611R01301 performed on behalf of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) is an in-depth investigation of fires at electrical components induced by high energy arcing faults (HEAF) according to their non-negligible significance to nuclear safety. This report provides an overview on the insights with respect to high energy arcing faults at electrical components mainly gained from investigations of the national as well as international operating experience from nuclear installations. Moreover, the insights from the international operating experience have resulted in an experimental program carried out in the frame of a task by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in order to investigate failures of electrical components, e. g. breakers, switchgears or transformers, installed in nuclear power plants of the member countries due to HEAF and potential consequential fires. The results of the in-depth analyses and experimental investigations shall be used for identifying potential areas of damage in a suitable manner. The results based on inter-national research shall also be checked with respect to their applicability to the situation in German nuclear power plants.

  14. In-depth analysis of the causal factors of incidents reported in the Greek petrochemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstandinidou, Myrto [Institute of Nuclear Technology-Radiation Protection, National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi 15310 (Greece); Nivolianitou, Zoe, E-mail: zoe@ipta.demokritos.gr [Institute of Nuclear Technology-Radiation Protection, National Center for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi 15310 (Greece); Kefalogianni, Eirini; Caroni, Chrys [School of Applied Mathematical and Physical Sciences, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytexneiou Str., Zografou Campus, 157 80 Athens (Greece)

    2011-11-15

    This paper presents a statistical analysis of all reported incidents in the Greek petrochemical industry from 1997 to 2003. A comprehensive database has been developed to include industrial accidents (fires, explosions and substance releases), occupational accidents, incidents without significant consequences and near misses. The study concentrates on identifying and analyzing the causal factors related to different consequences of incidents, in particular, injury, absence from work and material damage. Methods of analysis include logistic regression with one of these consequences as dependent variable. The causal factors that are considered cover four major categories related to organizational issues, equipment malfunctions, human errors (of commission or omission) and external causes. Further analyses aim to confirm the value of recording near misses by comparing their causal factors with those of more serious incidents. The statistical analysis highlights the connection between the human factor and the underlying causes of accidents or incidents. - Highlights: > The research work is original, based on field data collected directly from the petrochemical industry. > It deals with the in-depth statistical analysis of accident data on human-organizational causes. > It researches underlying causes of accidents and the parameters affecting them. > The causal factors that are considered cover four big taxonomies. > Near misses are worth recording for comparing their causal factors with more serious incidents.

  15. Clinical Ethics in Gabon: The Spectrum of Clinical Ethical Issues Based on Findings from In-Depth Interviews at Three Public Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Daniel; Marckmann, Georg; Ndzie Atangana, Etienne; Strech, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Unlike issues in biomedical research ethics, ethical challenges arising in daily clinical care in Sub-Saharan African countries have not yet been studied in a systematic manner. However this has to be seen as a distinct entity as we argue in this paper. Our aim was to give an overview of the spectrum of clinical ethical issues and to understand what influences clinical ethics in the Sub-Saharan country of Gabon. In-depth interviews with 18 health care professionals were conducted at three hospital sites in Gabon. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach (open and axial coding), giving a qualitative spectrum of categories for clinical ethical issues. Validity was checked at a meeting with study participants and other health care experts in Gabon after analysis of the data. Twelve main categories (with 28 further-specified subcategories) for clinical ethical issues were identified and grouped under three core categories: A) micro level: "confidentiality and information", "interpersonal, relational and behavioral issues", "psychological strain of individuals", and "scarce resources"; B) meso level: "structural issues of medical institutions", "issues with private clinics", "challenges connected to the family", and "issues of education, training and competence"; and C) macro level: "influence of society, culture, religion and superstition", "applicability of western medicine", "structural issues on the political level", and "legal issues". Interviewees reported a broad spectrum of clinical ethical issues that go beyond challenges related to scarce financial and human resources. Specific socio-cultural, historical and educational backgrounds also played an important role. In fact these influences are central to an understanding of clinical ethics in the studied local context. Further research in the region is necessary to put our study into perspective. As many participants reported a lack of awareness of ethical issues amongst other health

  16. Leveraging social networking sites for disease surveillance and public sensing: the case of the 2013 avian influenza A(H7N9 outbreak in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Xuxiao Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We conducted in-depth analysis on the use of a popular Chinese social networking and microblogging site, Sina Weibo, to monitor an avian influenza A(H7N9 outbreak in China and to assess the value of social networking sites in the surveillance of disease outbreaks that occur overseas. Two data sets were employed for our analysis: a line listing of confirmed cases obtained from conventional public health information channels and case information from Weibo posts. Our findings showed that the level of activity on Weibo corresponded with the number of new cases reported. In addition, the reporting of new cases on Weibo was significantly faster than those of conventional reporting sites and non-local news media. A qualitative review of the functions of Weibo also revealed that Weibo enabled timely monitoring of other outbreak-relevant information, provided access to additional crowd-sourced epidemiological information and was leveraged by the local government as an interactive platform for risk communication and monitoring public sentiment on the policy response. Our analysis demonstrated the potential for social networking sites to be used by public health agencies to enhance traditional communicable disease surveillance systems for the global surveillance of overseas public health threats. Social networking sites also can be used by governments for calibration of response policies and measures and for risk communication.

  17. Leveraging social networking sites for disease surveillance and public sensing: the case of the 2013 avian influenza A(H7N9) outbreak in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Emma Xuxiao; Yang, Yinping; Di Shang, Richard; Simons, Joseph John Pyne; Quek, Boon Kiat; Yin, Xiao Feng; See, Wanhan; Oh, Olivia Seen Huey; Nandar, Khine Sein Tun; Ling, Vivienne Ruo Yun; Chan, Pei Pei; Wang, Zhaoxia; Goh, Rick Siow Mong; James, Lyn; Tey, Jeannie Su Hui

    2015-01-01

    We conducted in-depth analysis on the use of a popular Chinese social networking and microblogging site, Sina Weibo, to monitor an avian influenza A(H7N9) outbreak in China and to assess the value of social networking sites in the surveillance of disease outbreaks that occur overseas. Two data sets were employed for our analysis: a line listing of confirmed cases obtained from conventional public health information channels and case information from Weibo posts. Our findings showed that the level of activity on Weibo corresponded with the number of new cases reported. In addition, the reporting of new cases on Weibo was significantly faster than those of conventional reporting sites and non-local news media. A qualitative review of the functions of Weibo also revealed that Weibo enabled timely monitoring of other outbreak-relevant information, provided access to additional crowd-sourced epidemiological information and was leveraged by the local government as an interactive platform for risk communication and monitoring public sentiment on the policy response. Our analysis demonstrated the potential for social networking sites to be used by public health agencies to enhance traditional communicable disease surveillance systems for the global surveillance of overseas public health threats. Social networking sites also can be used by governments for calibration of response policies and measures and for risk communication.

  18. In-depth statistical analysis of the use of a website providing patients' narratives on lifestyle change when living with chronic back pain or coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweier, Rebecca; Grande, Gesine; Richter, Cynthia; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Romppel, Matthias

    2018-07-01

    To investigate the use of lebensstil-aendern.de ("lifestyle change"), a website providing peer narratives of experiences with successful lifestyle change, and to analyze whether peer model characteristics, clip content, and media type have an influence on the number of visitors, dwell time, and exit rates. An in-depth statistical analysis of website use with multilevel regression analyses. In two years, lebensstil-aendern.de attracted 12,844 visitors. The in-depth statistical analysis of usage rates demonstrated that audio clips were less popular than video or text-only clips, longer clips attracted more visitors, and clips by younger and female interviewees were preferred. User preferences for clip content categories differed between heart and back pain patients. Clips about stress management drew the smallest numbers of visitors in both indication modules. Patients are interested in the experiences of others. Because the quality of information for user-generated content is generally low, healthcare providers should include quality-assured patient narratives in their interventions. User preferences for content, medium, and peer characteristics need to be taken into account. If healthcare providers decide to include patient experiences in their websites, they should plan their intervention according to the different needs and preferences of users. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Autonomous Vehicles for Smart and Sustainable Cities: An In-Depth Exploration of Privacy and Cybersecurity Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Si Min Lim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Amidst rapid urban development, sustainable transportation solutions are required to meet the increasing demands for mobility whilst mitigating the potentially negative social, economic, and environmental impacts. This study analyses autonomous vehicles (AVs as a potential transportation solution for smart and sustainable development. We identified privacy and cybersecurity risks of AVs as crucial to the development of smart and sustainable cities and examined the steps taken by governments around the world to address these risks. We highlight the literature that supports why AVs are essential for smart and sustainable development. We then identify the aspects of privacy and cybersecurity in AVs that are important for smart and sustainable development. Lastly, we review the efforts taken by federal governments in the US, the UK, China, Australia, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Germany, France, and the EU, and by US state governments to address AV-related privacy and cybersecurity risks in-depth. Overall, the actions taken by governments to address privacy risks are mainly in the form of regulations or voluntary guidelines. To address cybersecurity risks, governments have mostly resorted to regulations that are not specific to AVs and are conducting research and fostering research collaborations with the private sector.

  20. Geology of the Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal site in the Republic of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoli, M.A.G.; Andersen, N.J.B.; Levin, M.; Niemand, N.

    1987-01-01

    The Vaalputs site is underlain by an extensive veneer of Tertiary and Quaternary deposits covering a crystalline basement of Precambrian age. The geological history of the area, from the oldest to the youngest event, may be summarized as follows: 1. Polyphasic ductile/ductile-brittle deformation and 1 100 Ma old granulite facies metamorphism of a (volcano) sedimentary sequence, and of associated syntectonic to late-tectonic granitic and basic intrusions. 2. Deposition of glacial tillite after a long erosional hiatus in Karoo (Permian) times. The preservation of these rocks is limited to down-faulted structural blocks within the area investigated. 3. Lower Tertiary rejuvenation of older faults and shear zones, accompanied by kimberlitic volcanism, resulted in the uplift of the Kamiesberge mountain range west of the site. Intense erosion of these mountains shed abundant detritus, which accumulated in tectonically controlled troughs and fans. 4. From ca. 25 Ma ago to the Present, tectonic stability and (semi)arid conditions have generally prevailed, leading to an extensive thin cover of calcrete and wind-blown Kalahari sands. The unfaulted, highly impermeable nature of the Vaalputs formation renders it very suitable for the safe disposal of low- to medium-level radioactive waste in the area selected. However, the numerous faults and shear zones in the granitic and gneissic basement will need in-depth investigations should a high-level radwaste repository be required

  1. Effects of recall time on cause-of-death findings using verbal autopsy: empirical evidence from rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith Hussain-Alkhateeb

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy (VA is a widely used technique for assigning causes to non-medically certified deaths using information gathered from a close caregiver. Both operational and cultural factors may cause delays in follow-up of deaths. The resulting time lag—from death to VA interview—can influence ways in which terminal events are remembered, and thus affect cause-of-death assignment. This study investigates the impact of recall period on causes of death determined by VA. Methods A total of 10,882 deaths from the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS with complete VAs, including recall period, were incorporated in this study. To measure seasonal effect, cause specific mortality fractions (CSMFs were calculated and compared by every cause for VAs undertaken within six months of death and those undertaken from six to 12 months of death. All causes were classified into eight broad categories and entered in a multiple logistic regression to explore outcome by recall period in relation to covariates. Results The majority of deaths (83 % had VAs completed within 12 months. There was a tendency towards longer recall periods for deaths of those under one year or over 65 years of age. Only the acute respiratory, diarrhoeal and other unspecified non-communicable disease groups showed a CSMF ratio significantly different from unity at the 99 % confidence level between the two recall periods. Only neonatal deaths showed significantly different OR for recall exceeding 12 months (OR 1.69; p value = 0.004 and this increased when adjusting for background factors (OR 2.58; p value = 0.000. Conclusion A recall period of up to one year between death and VA interview did not have any consequential effects on the cause-of-death patterns derived, with the exception of neonatal causes. This is an important operational consideration given the planned widespread use of the VA approach in civil registration, HDSS sites

  2. Mental health and urban living in sub-Saharan Africa: major depressive episodes among the urban poor in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthé, Géraldine; Rossier, Clémentine; Bonnet, Doris; Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi; Corker, Jamaica

    2016-01-01

    In sub-Saharan African cities, the epidemiological transition has shifted a greater proportion of the burden of non-communicable diseases, including mental and behavioral disorder, to the adult population. The burden of major depressive disorder and its social risk factors in the urban sub-Saharan African population are not well understood and estimates vary widely. We conducted a study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, in order to estimate the prevalence of major depressive episodes among adults in this urban setting. The Ouagadougou Health and Demographic System Site (HDSS) has followed the inhabitants of five outlying neighborhoods of the city since 2008. In 2010, a representative sample of 2,187 adults (aged 15 and over) from the Ouaga HDSS was interviewed in depth regarding their physical and mental health. Using criteria from the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), we identified the prevalence of a major depressive episode at the time of the interview among respondents and analyzed its association with demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristics through a multivariate analysis. Major depressive episode prevalence was 4.3 % (95 % CI: 3.1-5.5 %) among the survey respondents. We found a strong association between major depressive episode and reported chronic health problems, functional limitations, ethnicity and religion, household food shortages, having been recently a victim of physical violence and regularly drinking alcohol. Results show a U-shaped association of the relationship between major depressive episode and standard of living, with individuals in both the poorest and richest groups most likely to suffer from major depressive disorder than those in the middle. Though, the poorest group remains the most vulnerable one, even when controlling by health characteristics. Major depressive disorder is a reality for many urban residents in Burkina Faso and likely urbanites throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Countries in the region

  3. New Professional Profiles and Skills in the Journalistic Field: A Scoping Review and In-Depth Interviews with Professionals in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Marques-Hayasaki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The professional profiles and skills related to journalism are adapting to a new paradigm as a consequence of the advent of new technologies - the web 2.0, the end of the monopoly of news production by mass media, etc. This study aims to provide a comprehensive critical mapping of new professional profiles and skills demanded in the field of journalism, based on a scoping review and in-depth interviews with professionals and academics in Spain. The results show a great variety of new profiles and nomenclatures. This is in part because of a significant overlapping in the functions emphasized by them. With regards to skills, the traditional ones are still the most valued by the market, although new competencies are becoming more and more important.

  4. Maternal health care utilization in Nairobi and Ouagadougou: evidence from HDSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine Rossier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal mortality is higher and skilled attendance at delivery is lower in the slums of Nairobi (Kenya compared to Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso. Lower numbers of public health facilities, greater distance to facilities, and higher costs of maternal health services in Nairobi could explain these differences. Objective: By comparing the use of maternal health care services among women with similar characteristics in the two cities, we will produce a more nuanced picture of the contextual factors at play. Design: We use birth statistics collected between 2009 and 2011 in all households living in several poor neighborhoods followed by the Nairobi and the Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillances Systems (n=3,346 and 4,239 births. We compare the socioeconomic characteristics associated with antenatal care (ANC use and deliveries at health facilities, controlling for demographic variables. Results: ANC use is greater in Nairobi than in Ouagadougou for every category of women. In Ouagadougou, there are few differentials in having at least one ANC visit and in delivering at a health facility; however, differences are observed for completing all four ANC visits. In Nairobi, less-educated, poorer, non-Kikuyu women, and women living in the neighborhood farther from public health services have poorer ANC and deliver more often outside of a health facility. Conclusions: These results suggest that women are more aware of the importance of ANC utilization in Nairobi compared to Ouagadougou. The presence of numerous for-profit health facilities within slums in Nairobi may also help women have all four ANC visits, although the services received may be of substandard quality. In Ouagadougou, the lack of socioeconomic differentials in having at least one ANC visit and in delivering at a health facility suggests that these practices stem from the application of well-enforced maternal health regulations; however, these regulations do not cover the entire set of four ANC visits.

  5. Determining best practices in reconnoitering sites for habitability potential on Mars using a semi-autonomous rover: A GeoHeuristic Operational Strategies Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R.A.; Berger, J.; Cohen, B.A.; Hynek, B.; Schmidt, M.E.

    2017-01-01

    We tested science operations strategies developed for use in remote mobile spacecraft missions, to determine whether reconnoitering a site of potential habitability prior to in-depth study (a walkabout-first strategy) can be a more efficient use of time and resources than the linear approach commonly used by planetary rover missions. Two field teams studied a sedimentary sequence in Utah to assess habitability potential. At each site one team commanded a human “rover” to execute observations and conducted data analysis and made follow-on decisions based solely on those observations. Another team followed the same traverse using traditional terrestrial field methods, and the results of the two teams were compared. Test results indicate that for a mission with goals similar to our field case, the walkabout-first strategy may save time and other mission resources, while improving science return. The approach enabled more informed choices and higher team confidence in choosing where to spend time and other consumable resources. The walkabout strategy may prove most efficient when many close sites must be triaged to a smaller subset for detailed study or sampling. This situation would arise when mission goals include finding, identifying, characterizing or sampling a specific material, feature or type of environment within a certain area. PMID:29307922

  6. Determining best practices in reconnoitering sites for habitability potential on Mars using a semi-autonomous rover: A GeoHeuristic Operational Strategies Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R A; Berger, J; Cohen, B A; Hynek, B; Schmidt, M E

    2017-03-01

    We tested science operations strategies developed for use in remote mobile spacecraft missions, to determine whether reconnoitering a site of potential habitability prior to in-depth study (a walkabout-first strategy) can be a more efficient use of time and resources than the linear approach commonly used by planetary rover missions. Two field teams studied a sedimentary sequence in Utah to assess habitability potential. At each site one team commanded a human "rover" to execute observations and conducted data analysis and made follow-on decisions based solely on those observations. Another team followed the same traverse using traditional terrestrial field methods, and the results of the two teams were compared. Test results indicate that for a mission with goals similar to our field case, the walkabout-first strategy may save time and other mission resources, while improving science return. The approach enabled more informed choices and higher team confidence in choosing where to spend time and other consumable resources. The walkabout strategy may prove most efficient when many close sites must be triaged to a smaller subset for detailed study or sampling. This situation would arise when mission goals include finding, identifying, characterizing or sampling a specific material, feature or type of environment within a certain area.

  7. In-Depth N-Glycosylation Reveals Species-Specific Modifications and Functions of the Royal Jelly Protein from Western (Apis mellifera) and Eastern Honeybees (Apis cerana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mao; Fang, Yu; Han, Bin; Xu, Xiang; Fan, Pei; Hao, Yue; Qi, Yuping; Hu, Han; Huo, Xinmei; Meng, Lifeng; Wu, Bin; Li, Jianke

    2015-12-04

    Royal jelly (RJ), secreted by honeybee workers, plays diverse roles as nutrients and defense agents for honeybee biology and human health. Despite being reported to be glycoproteins, the glycosylation characterization and functionality of RJ proteins in different honeybee species are largely unknown. An in-depth N-glycoproteome analysis and functional assay of RJ produced by Apis mellifera lingustica (Aml) and Apis cerana cerana (Acc) were conducted. RJ produced by Aml yielded 80 nonredundant N-glycoproteins carrying 190 glycosites, of which 23 novel proteins harboring 35 glycosites were identified. For Acc, all 43 proteins glycosylated at 138 glycosites were reported for the first time. Proteins with distinct N-glycoproteomic characteristics in terms of glycoprotein species, number of N-glycosylated sites, glycosylation motif, abundance level of glycoproteins, and N-glycosites were observed in this two RJ samples. The fact that the low inhibitory efficiency of N-glycosylated major royal jelly protein 2 (MRJP2) against Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) and the absence of antibacterial related glycosylated apidaecin, hymenoptaecin, and peritrophic matrix in the Aml RJ compared to Acc reveal the mechanism for why the Aml larvae are susceptible to P. larvae, the causative agent of a fatal brood disease (American foulbrood, AFB). The observed antihypertension activity of N-glycosylated MRJP1 in two RJ samples and a stronger activity found in Acc than in Aml reveal that specific RJ protein and modification are potentially useful for the treatment of hypertensive disease for humans. Our data gain novel understanding that the western and eastern bees have evolved species-specific strategies of glycosylation to fine-tune protein activity for optimizing molecular function as nutrients and immune agents for the good of honeybee and influence on the health promoting activity for human as well. This serves as a valuable resource for the targeted probing of the biological

  8. ON-SITE SOLID PHRASE EXTRACTION AND LABORATORY ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragrance materials, such as synthetic musks in aqueous samples, are normally analyzed by GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode to provide maximum sensitivity after liquid-liquid extraction of I -L samples. A I -L sample, however, usually provides too little analyte for full-scan data acquisition. An on-site extraction method for extracting synthetic musks from 60 L of wastewater effluent has been developed. Such a large sample volume permits high-quality, full-scan mass spectra to be obtained for various synthetic musk compounds. Quantification of these compounds was conveniently achieved from the full-scan data directly, without preparing SIM descriptors for each compound to acquire SIM data. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-sol

  9. Landing Site Selection and Surface Traverse Planning using the Lunar Mapping & Modeling Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; Chang, G.; Bui, B.; Sadaqathullah, S.; Kim, R.; Dodge, K.; Malhotra, S.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP), is a web-based Portal and a suite of interactive visualization and analysis tools for users to access mapped lunar data products (including image mosaics, digital elevation models, etc.) from past and current lunar missions (e.g., Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Apollo, etc.), and to perform in-depth analyses to support lunar surface mission planning and system design for future lunar exploration and science missions. It has been widely used by many scientists mission planners, as well as educators and public outreach (e.g., Google Lunar XPRICE teams, RESOLVE project, museums etc.) This year, LMMP was used by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI)'s Lunar Exploration internship program to perform lighting analysis and local hazard assessments, such as, slope, surface roughness and crater/boulder distribution to research landing sites and surface pathfinding and traversal. Our talk will include an overview of LMMP, a demonstration of the tools as well as a summary of the LPI Lunar Exploration summer interns' experience in using those tools.

  10. Hydroxy double salts loaded with bioactive ions: Synthesis, intercalation mechanisms, and functional performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaassis, Abdessamad Y.A. [UCL School of Pharmacy, University College London, 29-39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX (United Kingdom); Xu, Si-Min; Guan, Shanyue; Evans, David G. [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Wei, Min, E-mail: weimin@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Williams, Gareth R., E-mail: g.williams@ucl.ac.uk [UCL School of Pharmacy, University College London, 29-39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    The intercalation of the anions of diclofenac (Dic), naproxen (Nap), and valproic acid (Val) into three hydroxy double salts (HDSs) has been explored in this work. Experiments were performed with [Co{sub 1.2}Zn{sub 3.8}(OH){sub 8}](NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O (CoZn-NO{sub 3}), [Ni{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}(OH){sub 8}](NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O (NiZn-NO{sub 3}) and [Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}](NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O (Zn-NO{sub 3}). It proved possible to intercalate diclofenac and naproxen into all three HDSs. In contrast, Val could be intercalated into CoZn-NO{sub 3} but when it was reacted with Zn-NO{sub 3} the HDS structure was destroyed, and the product comprised ZnO. Successful intercalation was verified by X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, and elemental microanalysis. Molecular dynamics simulations showed the Dic and Nap ions to arrange themselves in an “X” shape in the interlayer space, forming a bilayer. Val was found to adopt a position with its aliphatic groups parallel to the HDS layer, again in a bilayer. In situ time resolved X-ray diffraction experiments revealed that intercalation of Dic and Nap into CoZn-NO{sub 3} and Zn-NO{sub 3} is mechanistically complex, with a number of intermediate phases observed. In contrast, the intercalation of all three guests into NiZn-NO{sub 3} and of Val into CoZn-NO{sub 3} are simple one step reactions proceeding directly from the starting material to the product. The HDS-drug composites were found to have sustained release profiles. - Graphical abstract: Seven new drug intercalates of hydroxy double salts (HDSs) have been prepared and characterised. The intercalation mechanisms have been explored, and the drug release properties of the HDS/drug composites quantified. Display Omitted.

  11. Indications and determinants of caesarean section delivery: Evidence from a population-based study in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmina Begum

    Full Text Available Caesarean section (C-section is a major obstetric intervention for saving lives of women and their newborns from pregnancy and childbirth related complications. Un-necessary C-sections may have adverse impact upon maternal and neonatal outcomes. In Bangladesh there is paucity of data on clinical indication of C-section at population level. We conducted a retrospective study in icddr,b Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS area of Matlab to look into the indications and determinants of C-sections. All resident women in HDSS service area who gave birth in 2013 with a known birth outcome, were included in the study. Women who underwent C-section were identified from birth and pregnancy files of HDSS and their indication for C-section were collected reviewing health facility records where the procedure took place, supplemented by face-to-face interview of mothers where data were missing. Indications of C-section were presented as frequency distribution and further divided into different groups following 3 distinct classification systems. Socio-demographic predictors were explored following statistical method of binary logistic regression.During 2013, facility delivery rate was 84% and population based C-section rate was 35% of all deliveries in icddr,b service area. Of all C-sections, only 1.4% was conducted for Absolute Maternal Indications (AMIs. Major indications of C-sections included: repeat C-section (24%, foetal distress (21%, prolonged labour (16%, oligohydramnios (14% and post-maturity (13%. More than 80% C-sections were performed in for-profit private facilities. Probability of C-section delivery increased with improved socio-economic status, higher education, lower birth order, higher age, and with more number of Antenatal Care use and presence of bad obstetric history. Eight maternal deaths occurred, of which five were delivered by C-section.C-section rate in this area was much higher than national average as well as global

  12. Indications and determinants of caesarean section delivery: Evidence from a population-based study in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Tahmina; Rahman, Aminur; Nababan, Herfina; Hoque, Dewan Md Emdadul; Khan, Al Fazal; Ali, Taslim; Anwar, Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    Caesarean section (C-section) is a major obstetric intervention for saving lives of women and their newborns from pregnancy and childbirth related complications. Un-necessary C-sections may have adverse impact upon maternal and neonatal outcomes. In Bangladesh there is paucity of data on clinical indication of C-section at population level. We conducted a retrospective study in icddr,b Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) area of Matlab to look into the indications and determinants of C-sections. All resident women in HDSS service area who gave birth in 2013 with a known birth outcome, were included in the study. Women who underwent C-section were identified from birth and pregnancy files of HDSS and their indication for C-section were collected reviewing health facility records where the procedure took place, supplemented by face-to-face interview of mothers where data were missing. Indications of C-section were presented as frequency distribution and further divided into different groups following 3 distinct classification systems. Socio-demographic predictors were explored following statistical method of binary logistic regression. During 2013, facility delivery rate was 84% and population based C-section rate was 35% of all deliveries in icddr,b service area. Of all C-sections, only 1.4% was conducted for Absolute Maternal Indications (AMIs). Major indications of C-sections included: repeat C-section (24%), foetal distress (21%), prolonged labour (16%), oligohydramnios (14%) and post-maturity (13%). More than 80% C-sections were performed in for-profit private facilities. Probability of C-section delivery increased with improved socio-economic status, higher education, lower birth order, higher age, and with more number of Antenatal Care use and presence of bad obstetric history. Eight maternal deaths occurred, of which five were delivered by C-section. C-section rate in this area was much higher than national average as well as global

  13. In-depth analysis of the causal factors of incidents reported in the Greek petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstandinidou, Myrto; Nivolianitou, Zoe; Kefalogianni, Eirini; Caroni, Chrys

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical analysis of all reported incidents in the Greek petrochemical industry from 1997 to 2003. A comprehensive database has been developed to include industrial accidents (fires, explosions and substance releases), occupational accidents, incidents without significant consequences and near misses. The study concentrates on identifying and analyzing the causal factors related to different consequences of incidents, in particular, injury, absence from work and material damage. Methods of analysis include logistic regression with one of these consequences as dependent variable. The causal factors that are considered cover four major categories related to organizational issues, equipment malfunctions, human errors (of commission or omission) and external causes. Further analyses aim to confirm the value of recording near misses by comparing their causal factors with those of more serious incidents. The statistical analysis highlights the connection between the human factor and the underlying causes of accidents or incidents. - Highlights: → The research work is original, based on field data collected directly from the petrochemical industry. → It deals with the in-depth statistical analysis of accident data on human-organizational causes. → It researches underlying causes of accidents and the parameters affecting them. → The causal factors that are considered cover four big taxonomies. → Near misses are worth recording for comparing their causal factors with more serious incidents.

  14. The concept of 'vulnerability' in research ethics: an in-depth analysis of policies and guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken-Roche, Dearbhail; Bell, Emily; Macdonald, Mary Ellen; Racine, Eric

    2017-02-07

    The concept of vulnerability has held a central place in research ethics guidance since its introduction in the United States Belmont Report in 1979. It signals mindfulness for researchers and research ethics boards to the possibility that some participants may be at higher risk of harm or wrong. Despite its important intended purpose and widespread use, there is considerable disagreement in the scholarly literature about the meaning and delineation of vulnerability, stemming from a perceived lack of guidance within research ethics standards. The aim of this study was to assess the concept of vulnerability as it is employed in major national and international research ethics policies and guidelines. We conducted an in-depth analysis of 11 (five national and six international) research ethics policies and guidelines, exploring their discussions of the definition, application, normative justification and implications of vulnerability. Few policies and guidelines explicitly defined vulnerability, instead relying on implicit assumptions and the delineation of vulnerable groups and sources of vulnerability. On the whole, we found considerable richness in the content on vulnerability across policies, but note that this relies heavily on the structure imposed on the data through our analysis. Our results underscore a need for policymakers to revisit the guidance on vulnerability in research ethics, and we propose that a process of stakeholder engagement would well-support this effort.

  15. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Siting Guide, Site selection and evaluation criteria for an early site permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In August 1991, the Joint Contractors came to agreement with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Department of Energy (DOE) on a workscope for the cost-shared Early Site Permit Demonstration Program. One task within the scope was the development of a guide for site selection criteria and procedures. A generic Siting Guide his been prepared that is a roadmap and tool for applicants to use developing detailed siting plans for their specific region of the country. The guide presents three fundamental principles that, if used, ensure a high degree of success for an ESP applicant. First, the site selection process should take into consideration environmentally diverse site locations within a given region of interest. Second, the process should contain appropriate opportunities for input from the public. Third, the process should be applied so that it is clearly reasonable to an impartial observer, based on appropriately selected criteria, including criteria which demonstrate that the site can host an advanced light water reactor (ALWR). The Siting Guide provides for a systematic, comprehensive site selection process in which three basic types of criteria (exclusionary, avoidance, and suitability) are presented via a four-step procedure. It provides a check list of the criteria for each one of these steps. Criteria are applied qualitatively, as well as presented numerically, within the guide. The applicant should use the generic guide as an exhaustive checklist, customizing the guide to his individual situation

  16. In-Depth Analysis of Human Neonatal and Adult IgM Antibody Repertoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Hong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although high-throughput sequencing and associated bioinformatics technologies have enabled the in-depth, sequence-based characterization of human immune repertoires, only a few studies on a relatively small number of sequences explored the characteristics of antibody repertoires in neonates, with contradictory conclusions. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the human IgM antibody repertoire, we performed Illumina sequencing and IMGT/HighV-QUEST analysis of IgM heavy chain repertoire of the B lymphocytes from the cord blood (CB of neonates, as well as the repertoire from peripheral blood of healthy human adults (HH. The comparative study revealed unexpectedly high levels of similarity between the neonatal and adult repertoires. In both repertoires, the VDJ gene usage showed no significant difference, and the most frequently used VDJ gene was IGHV4-59, IGHD3-10, and IGHJ3. The average amino acid (aa length of CDR1 (CB: 8.5, HH: 8.4 and CDR2 (CB: 7.6, HH: 7.5, as well as the aa composition and the average hydrophobicity of the CDR3 demonstrated no significant difference between the two repertories. However, the average aa length of CDR3 was longer in the HH repertoire than the CB repertoire (CB: 14.5, HH: 15.5. Besides, the frequencies of aa mutations in CDR1 (CB: 19.33%, HH: 25.84% and CDR2 (CB: 9.26%, HH: 17.82% were higher in the HH repertoire compared to the CB repertoire. Interestingly, the most prominent difference between the two repertoires was the occurrence of N2 addition (CB: 64.87%, HH: 85.69%, a process that occurs during V-D-J recombination for introducing random nucleotide additions between D- and J-gene segments. The antibody repertoire of healthy adults was more diverse than that of neonates largely due to the higher occurrence of N2 addition. These findings may lead to a better understanding of antibody development and evolution pathways and may have potential practical value for facilitating the generation of more

  17. Site Closure Strategy Model for Creosote Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll, F.R.; Gray, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    In conjunction with RCRA site corrective action at an active wood preserving facility, a risk-based site closure strategy was developed and incorporated the performance of a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source recovery remedy, a monitored natural attenuation (MNA) remedy for dissolved phase groundwater, and institutional controls. Innovative creosote DNAPL source recovery has been undertaken at the Site since 1998. Pooled creosote DNAPL is present 90 feet below ground within a transmissive sand and gravel aquifer with a saturated thickness of approximately 80 feet. The creosote DNAPL source is situated on the property boundary of the site and has generated a 1/2 mile off-site dissolved phase plume, creating significant NAPL management and remedial technology verification issues. To date, over 120,000 gallons of creosote DNAPL have been recovered from the subsurface utilizing a modified circulation well technology. A mass discharge flux protocol was developed to serve as a major performance metrics for the continuation of source removal efforts and to support the application of monitored natural attenuation as an associated remedial technology for groundwater. The mass removal success has supported the MNA remedy for dissolved phase groundwater and the associated development of institutional controls. The enacted site management strategy outlines the current and future risk management activities for the Site and represents an appropriate site closure strategy for the Site. (authors)

  18. Monitoring visitor satisfaction: a comparison of comment cards and more in-depth surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan R. Graefe; James D. Absher; Robert C. Burns

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares responses to comment cards and more detailed on-site surveys at selected Corps of Engineers lakes. The results shed light on the validity, reliability, and usefulness of these alternative methods of monitoring customer satisfaction.

  19. In-Depth Characterization of Sheep (Ovis aries) Milk Whey Proteome and Comparison with Cow (Bos taurus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Minh; Sabherwal, Manya; Duncan, Elizabeth; Stevens, Stewart; Stockwell, Peter; McConnell, Michelle; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; Carne, Alan

    2015-01-01

    An in-depth proteomic study of sheep milk whey is reported and compared to the data available in the literature for the cow whey proteome. A combinatorial peptide ligand library kit (ProteoMiner) was used to normalize protein abundance in the sheep whey proteome followed by an in-gel digest of a 1D-PAGE display and an in-solution digestion followed by OFFGEL isoelectric focusing fractionation. The peptide fractions obtained were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS. This enabled identification of 669 proteins in sheep whey that, to our knowledge, is the largest inventory of sheep whey proteins identified to date. A comprehensive list of cow whey proteins currently available in the literature (783 proteins from unique genes) was assembled and compared to the sheep whey proteome data obtained in this study (606 proteins from unique genes). This comparison revealed that while the 233 proteins shared by the two species were significantly enriched for immune and inflammatory responses in gene ontology analysis, proteins only found in sheep whey in this study were identified that take part in both cellular development and immune responses, whereas proteins only found in cow whey in this study were identified to be associated with metabolism and cellular growth. PMID:26447763

  20. In-Depth Characterization of Sheep (Ovis aries Milk Whey Proteome and Comparison with Cow (Bos taurus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Ha

    Full Text Available An in-depth proteomic study of sheep milk whey is reported and compared to the data available in the literature for the cow whey proteome. A combinatorial peptide ligand library kit (ProteoMiner was used to normalize protein abundance in the sheep whey proteome followed by an in-gel digest of a 1D-PAGE display and an in-solution digestion followed by OFFGEL isoelectric focusing fractionation. The peptide fractions obtained were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS. This enabled identification of 669 proteins in sheep whey that, to our knowledge, is the largest inventory of sheep whey proteins identified to date. A comprehensive list of cow whey proteins currently available in the literature (783 proteins from unique genes was assembled and compared to the sheep whey proteome data obtained in this study (606 proteins from unique genes. This comparison revealed that while the 233 proteins shared by the two species were significantly enriched for immune and inflammatory responses in gene ontology analysis, proteins only found in sheep whey in this study were identified that take part in both cellular development and immune responses, whereas proteins only found in cow whey in this study were identified to be associated with metabolism and cellular growth.

  1. An in-depth study of patent medicine sellers' perspectives on malaria in a rural Nigerian community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okafor Henrietta U

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains a major cause of mortality among under five children in Nigeria. Most of the early treatments for fever and malaria occur through self-medication with antimalarial drugs bought from medicine sellers. These have led to increasing calls for interventions to improve treatment obtained in these outlets. However, information about the current practices of these medicine sellers is needed before such interventions. This study aims to determine the medicine sellers' perspectives on malaria and the determinants that underlie their dispensing patterns of antimalarial drugs. Methods The study was conducted in Ugwugo-Nike, a rural community in south-east Nigeria. It involved in-depth interviews with 13 patent medicine sellers. Results A majority of the medicine sellers were not trained health professionals and malaria is recognized as a major health problem by them. There is poor knowledge and poor dispensing behaviour in relation to childhood malaria episodes. Although referral of severe malaria is common, there are those who will not refer. Verbal advice is rarely given to the care-givers. Conclusion More action research and interventions to improve prescription and referral practices and giving verbal advice to care-givers is recommended. Ways to integrate the drug sellers in the health system are also recommended.

  2. An in-depth examination into pharmacy technician worklife through an organizational behavior framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desselle, Shane P

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacy technicians are a vital part of the health care workforce. Little is known about perceptions of their own work environment that would engender more effective recruitment, retention, and management strategies by pharmacists and employers. The purpose of this study was to gain a greater understanding of certified pharmacy technician worklife. Specific objectives included the identification of themes of worklife phenomena to assist with the development of appropriate responses by other pharmacy stakeholders and to ascertain the contribution of various factors engendering or discouraging career commitment of pharmacy technicians. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were carried out with a convenience sample of pharmacy technicians in one U.S. state, who varied by their work settings and level of experience. The interview guide and corresponding participant responses were framed from around an organizational cultural basis rooted in organizational behavior theory. Notes from the interviews were analyzed thematically using directed content analysis. Four primary themes emerged, including: career impetus, job responsibilities, quality of work life, and equitable partnership. The data revealed pharmacy technicians' need for self-actualization and recognition of the value they bring to the organization. The participants identified primary responsibilities that contribute to their sense of worth and those that if not managed adequately potentially detract from their well-being and effectiveness. Findings in regard to rate of pay corroborate previous work on wages as both an intrinsic and extrinsic motivator. Pharmacy technicians seek equity among each other (their peers) and in a mutually beneficial relationship with their employing organization. This study provides the impetus for interventions and further study that should serve to enhance pharmacy technician effectiveness, quality of work life, and longevity in an emerging profession. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  3. Technical Analysis of Projects Being Funded by the DOE Hydrogen Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward G. Skolnik

    2006-02-10

    In July 2000, Energetics began a project in which we performed site-visit based technical analyses or evaluations on hydrogen R&D projects for the purpose of providing in-depth information on the status and accomplishments of these projects to the public, and especially to hydrogen stakeholders. Over a three year period, 32 site-visit analyses were performed. In addition two concepts gleaned from the site visits became subjects of in depth techno-economic analyses. Finally, Energetics produced a compilation document that contains each site-visit analysis that we have performed, starting in 1996 on other contracts through the end of Year One of the current project (July 2001). This included 21 projects evaluated on previous contracts, and 10 additional ones from Year One. Reports on projects visited in Years One and Two were included in their respective Annual Reports. The Year Two Report also includes the two In-depth Analyses and the Compilation document. Reports in Year three began an attempt to perform reviews more geared to hydrogen safety. This Final Report contains a summary of the overall project, all of the 32 site-visit analyses and the two In-depth Analyses.

  4. Study of site layout in the Rokkasho site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kazuyoshi; Tamura, Kousaku; Yagenji, Akira; Sekiya, Shigeki; Takahashi, Hideo; Neyatani, Yuzuru; Uehara, Masaharu; Motohashi, Keiichi; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Ogino, Shunji; Nagamatsu, Nobuhide

    2006-03-01

    The Final Design Report (FDR) of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) was published on July 2001 as a summary of the Engineering Design Activity (EDA). After the EDA, site dependent design has been investigated for the invitation of ITER toward Rokkasho Site (Iyasakadai area) in Aomori prefecture. This report describes the results of site layout of major buildings and structures of ITER in the Rokkasho-Site. The data of the ground near the site and the results of site dependent design in Japan were applied to this study. Through this study, the most appropriate site layout has been constructed with satisfaction of following conditions. (1) Bedrock level at the tokamak complex building is relatively high and it can be reduced the cost of excavation and foundation work. (2) Total amount of excavation soil for site preparation is minimized and the flexibility of the layout is ensured with flat ground level. (3) Accessibility of human and equipments, reduction of noise and vibration to the environment can be obtained. Total length of ducts and piping between buildings in site is minimized. (author)

  5. In-depth assessment of the situation of the textile and clothing sector in the EU and prospects : Task 2: assessment of the way specialised research and innovation liaise with textile/clothing enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, M.R. (Michiel)

    2011-01-01

    The in-depth assessment of the situation of the European textile and clothing sector is composed by six independent reports with a close focus on key aspects useful to understand the dynamics and the development of the textile and clothing industry, drivers of change – most notably the impact

  6. In-depth assessment of the situation of the textile and clothing sector in the EU and prospects : Task 4: assessment of past or ongoing restructuring and modernisation processes in textile/clothing enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S, M.R. (Michiel)

    2012-01-01

    The in-depth assessment of the situation of the European textile and clothing sector is composed by six independent reports with a close focus on key aspects useful to understand the dynamics and the development of the textile and clothing industry, drivers of change – most notably the impact

  7. In-depth assessment of the situation of the textile and clothing sector in the EU and prospects : Task 5: assess what type of training has been provided to textile and clothing workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, M.R. (Michiel)

    2012-01-01

    The in-depth assessment of the situation of the European textile and clothing sector is composed by six independent reports with a close focus on key aspects useful to understand the dynamics and the development of the textile and clothing industry, drivers of change – most notably the impact

  8. High-resolution cellular MRI: gadolinium and iron oxide nanoparticles for in-depth dual-cell imaging of engineered tissue constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Corato, Riccardo; Gazeau, Florence; Le Visage, Catherine; Fayol, Delphine; Levitz, Pierre; Lux, François; Letourneur, Didier; Luciani, Nathalie; Tillement, Olivier; Wilhelm, Claire

    2013-09-24

    Recent advances in cell therapy and tissue engineering opened new windows for regenerative medicine, but still necessitate innovative noninvasive imaging technologies. We demonstrate that high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows combining cellular-scale resolution with the ability to detect two cell types simultaneously at any tissue depth. Two contrast agents, based on iron oxide and gadolinium oxide rigid nanoplatforms, were used to "tattoo" endothelial cells and stem cells, respectively, with no impact on cell functions, including their capacity for differentiation. The labeled cells' contrast properties were optimized for simultaneous MRI detection: endothelial cells and stem cells seeded together in a polysaccharide-based scaffold material for tissue engineering appeared respectively in black and white and could be tracked, at the cellular level, both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, endothelial cells labeled with iron oxide nanoparticles could be remotely manipulated by applying a magnetic field, allowing the creation of vessel substitutes with in-depth detection of individual cellular components.

  9. Mosaicism in segmental darier disease: an in-depth molecular analysis quantifying proportions of mutated alleles in various tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Theresa Larriba; Willems, Patrick; Jespersgaard, Cathrine

    2011-01-01

    Darier disease is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis caused by germline mutations in the ATP2A2 gene. Clinical expression is variable, including rare segmental phenotypes thought to be caused by postzygotic mosaicism. Genetic counseling of segmental Darier patients is complex, as risk of transm......Darier disease is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis caused by germline mutations in the ATP2A2 gene. Clinical expression is variable, including rare segmental phenotypes thought to be caused by postzygotic mosaicism. Genetic counseling of segmental Darier patients is complex, as risk...... of transmitting a nonsegmental phenotype to offspring is of unknown magnitude. We present the first in-depth molecular analysis of a mosaic patient with segmental disease, quantifying proportions of mutated and normal alleles in various tissues. Pyrosequence analysis of DNA from semen, affected and normal skin......, peripheral leukocytes and hair revealed an uneven distribution of the mutated allele, from 14% in semen to 37% in affected skin. We suggest a model for segmental manifestation expression where a threshold number of mutated cells is needed for manifestation development. We further recommend molecular analysis...

  10. Theory for site-site pair distribution functions of molecular fluids. II. Approximations for the Percus--Yevick site-site direct correlation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.

    1977-01-01

    A theory for site-site pair distribution functions of molecular fluids is derived from the Ornstein-Zernike equation. Atom-atom pair distribution functions of this theory which were obtained by using different approximations for the Percus-Yevick site-site direct correlation functions are compared

  11. Emotion regulation in bereavement: searching for and finding emotional support in social network sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döveling, Katrin

    2015-04-01

    In an age of rising impact of online communication in social network sites (SNS), emotional interaction is neither limited nor restricted by time or space. Bereavement extends to the anonymity of cyberspace. What role does virtual interaction play in SNS in dealing with the basic human emotion of grief caused by the loss of a beloved person? The analysis laid out in this article provides answers in light of an interdisciplinary perspective on online bereavement. Relevant lines of research are scrutinized. After laying out the theoretical spectrum for the study, hypotheses based on a prior in-depth qualitative content analysis of 179 postings in three different German online bereavement platforms are proposed and scrutinized in a quantitative content analysis (2127 postings from 318 users). Emotion regulation patterns in SNS and similarities as well as differences in online bereavement of children, adolescents and adults are revealed. Large-scale quantitative findings into central motives, patterns, and restorative effects of online shared bereavement in regulating distress, fostering personal empowerment, and engendering meaning are presented. The article closes with implications for further analysis in memorialization practices.

  12. SitesIdentify: a protein functional site prediction tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doig Andrew J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of protein structures being deposited in the Protein Data Bank surpasses the capacity to experimentally characterise them and therefore computational methods to analyse these structures have become increasingly important. Identifying the region of the protein most likely to be involved in function is useful in order to gain information about its potential role. There are many available approaches to predict functional site, but many are not made available via a publicly-accessible application. Results Here we present a functional site prediction tool (SitesIdentify, based on combining sequence conservation information with geometry-based cleft identification, that is freely available via a web-server. We have shown that SitesIdentify compares favourably to other functional site prediction tools in a comparison of seven methods on a non-redundant set of 237 enzymes with annotated active sites. Conclusion SitesIdentify is able to produce comparable accuracy in predicting functional sites to its closest available counterpart, but in addition achieves improved accuracy for proteins with few characterised homologues. SitesIdentify is available via a webserver at http://www.manchester.ac.uk/bioinformatics/sitesidentify/

  13. Effect of structural in-depth heterogeneities on electrical properties of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48) O3 thin films as revealed by nano-beam X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaxelaire, N.; Kovacova, V.; Bernasconi, A.; Le Rhun, G.; Alvarez-Murga, M.; Vaughan, G. B. M.; Defay, E.; Gergaud, P.

    2016-09-01

    A direct quantification of a structural in-depth composition in the lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films of morphotropic composition has been conducted using the newly available X-ray nano-pencil beam (i.e., beam size of 100 nm × 1 μm) diffraction approach. We tested two samples with different Zr/Ti chemical gradients. Here, we demonstrate the presence of a significant microstructural gradient between the rhombohedral and tetragonal phases through PbZrxTi1-xO3 (PZT) films with a 100 nm in-depth resolution. The phase gradient extends over around 350 nm, and it is repeated through the PZT film three times, which corresponds to the number of thermal annealings. Moreover, this microstructural gradient is in agreement with the Zr/Ti chemical gradient observed by the secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Indeed, the quantity of tetragonal phases rises in the Ti-rich zones as revealed by SIMS, and the quantity of rhombohedral phases rises in the Zr-rich zones. We also demonstrated a huge difference in the in-depth phase variation between the two tested samples. The gradient free sample still contains 4.7% of phase variation through the film and the amplified gradient contains 9.6% of phase variation through the film. Knowing that the gradient free sample shows better electric and piezoelectric coefficients, one can draw a correlation between the chemical composition, crystallographic homogeneity, and electro-mechanical properties of the film. The more close the film is to the morphotropic composition and the more it is crystallographically homogeneous, the higher the piezoelectric coefficients of the PZT are. Finally, the adequate knowledge of phase variation and its relation to the fabrication technique are crucial for the enhancement of the PZT electro-mechanical properties. Our methodology and findings open up new perspectives in establishing a relevant quantitative feedback to reach an ultimate electro-mechanical coupling in the sol-gel PZT thin films.

  14. Accessibility of tourist sites to persons with disability: the case of Cape Coast and Elmina Castles in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorreta Offei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The term accessibility is used in the context of providing equal opportunity to enter into an environment. Much is not known about the accessibility of tourist sites such as castles and forts to people with disabilities. This study sought to examine the accessibility of the Cape Coast and Elmina Castles to people with disabilities through a qualitative approach which involved in-depth interviews and photovoice to collect data. The study revealed that the castles are inaccessible. Though ramps, spacious pathways and handrails in washrooms existed, there was however, no mutual relation between the design of the castles and the concept of accessibility as defined by the Disability Act. The creation of awareness on the rights of the disabled to participate in the tour of castles can perhaps draw the attention of local government authorities and other relevant stakeholders to effect the necessary changes.

  15. Clinical Ethics in Gabon: The Spectrum of Clinical Ethical Issues Based on Findings from In-Depth Interviews at Three Public Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Daniel; Marckmann, Georg; Ndzie Atangana, Etienne; Strech, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Unlike issues in biomedical research ethics, ethical challenges arising in daily clinical care in Sub-Saharan African countries have not yet been studied in a systematic manner. However this has to be seen as a distinct entity as we argue in this paper. Our aim was to give an overview of the spectrum of clinical ethical issues and to understand what influences clinical ethics in the Sub-Saharan country of Gabon. Materials and Methods In-depth interviews with 18 health care professionals were conducted at three hospital sites in Gabon. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach (open and axial coding), giving a qualitative spectrum of categories for clinical ethical issues. Validity was checked at a meeting with study participants and other health care experts in Gabon after analysis of the data. Results Twelve main categories (with 28 further-specified subcategories) for clinical ethical issues were identified and grouped under three core categories: A) micro level: “confidentiality and information”, “interpersonal, relational and behavioral issues”, “psychological strain of individuals”, and “scarce resources”; B) meso level: “structural issues of medical institutions”, “issues with private clinics”, “challenges connected to the family”, and “issues of education, training and competence”; and C) macro level: “influence of society, culture, religion and superstition”, “applicability of western medicine”, “structural issues on the political level”, and “legal issues”. Discussion Interviewees reported a broad spectrum of clinical ethical issues that go beyond challenges related to scarce financial and human resources. Specific socio-cultural, historical and educational backgrounds also played an important role. In fact these influences are central to an understanding of clinical ethics in the studied local context. Further research in the region is necessary to put our study into

  16. In-depth mapping of the mouse brain N-glycoproteome reveals widespread N-glycosylation of diverse brain proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Pan; Wang, Xin-Jian; Xue, Yu; Liu, Ming-Qi; Zeng, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Lei; Gao, Xing; Yan, Guo-Quan; Yao, Jun; Shen, Hua-Li; Yang, Peng-Yuan

    2016-06-21

    N-glycosylation is one of the most prominent and abundant posttranslational modifications of proteins. It is estimated that over 50% of mammalian proteins undergo glycosylation. However, the analysis of N-glycoproteins has been limited by the available analytical technology. In this study, we comprehensively mapped the N-glycosylation sites in the mouse brain proteome by combining complementary methods, which included seven protease treatments, four enrichment techniques and two fractionation strategies. Altogether, 13492 N-glycopeptides containing 8386 N-glycosylation sites on 3982 proteins were identified. After evaluating the performance of the above methods, we proposed a simple and efficient workflow for large-scale N-glycosylation site mapping. The optimized workflow yielded 80% of the initially identified N-glycosylation sites with considerably less effort. Analysis of the identified N-glycoproteins revealed that many of the mouse brain proteins are N-glycosylated, including those proteins in critical pathways for nervous system development and neurological disease. Additionally, several important biomarkers of various diseases were found to be N-glycosylated. These data confirm that N-glycosylation is important in both physiological and pathological processes in the brain, and provide useful details about numerous N-glycosylation sites in brain proteins.

  17. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Siting Guide, Site selection and evaluation criteria for an early site permit application. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-24

    In August 1991, the Joint Contractors came to agreement with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Department of Energy (DOE) on a workscope for the cost-shared Early Site Permit Demonstration Program. One task within the scope was the development of a guide for site selection criteria and procedures. A generic Siting Guide his been prepared that is a roadmap and tool for applicants to use developing detailed siting plans for their specific region of the country. The guide presents three fundamental principles that, if used, ensure a high degree of success for an ESP applicant. First, the site selection process should take into consideration environmentally diverse site locations within a given region of interest. Second, the process should contain appropriate opportunities for input from the public. Third, the process should be applied so that it is clearly reasonable to an impartial observer, based on appropriately selected criteria, including criteria which demonstrate that the site can host an advanced light water reactor (ALWR). The Siting Guide provides for a systematic, comprehensive site selection process in which three basic types of criteria (exclusionary, avoidance, and suitability) are presented via a four-step procedure. It provides a check list of the criteria for each one of these steps. Criteria are applied qualitatively, as well as presented numerically, within the guide. The applicant should use the generic guide as an exhaustive checklist, customizing the guide to his individual situation.

  18. Social capital and health during pregnancy; an in-depth exploration from rural Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala; Rheinländer, Thilde; Agampodi, Suneth Buddhika; Glozier, Nicholas; Siribaddana, Sisira

    2017-07-27

    Dimensions of social capital relevant to health in pregnancy are sparsely described in the literature. This study explores dimensions of social capital and the mechanisms in which they could affect the health of rural Sri Lankan pregnant women. An exploratory qualitative study of solicited diaries written by pregnant women on their social relationships, diary interviews and in-depth interviews with key informants was conducted. A framework approach for qualitative data analysis was used. Pregnant women (41), from eight different communities completed diaries and 38 post-diary interviews. Sixteen key informant interviews were conducted with public health midwives and senior community dwellers. We identified ten cognitive and five structural constructs of social capital relevant to health in pregnancy. Domestic and neighborhood cohesion were the most commonly expressed constructs. Social support was limited to support from close family, friends and public health midwives. A high density of structural social capital was observed in the micro-communities. Membership in local community groups was not common. Four different pathways by which social capital could influence health in pregnancy were identified. These include micro-level cognitive social capital by promoting mental wellbeing; micro-level structural social capital by reducing minor ailments in pregnancy; micro-level social support mechanisms promoting physical and mental wellbeing through psychosocial resources and health systems at each level providing focused maternal care. Current tools available may not contain the relevant constructs to capture the unique dimensions of social capital in pregnancy. Social capital can influence health during pregnancy, mainly through improved psychosocial resources generated by social cohesion in micro-communities and by the embedded neighborhood public health services.

  19. Preliminary siting characterization Salt Disposition Facility - Site B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, D.

    2000-01-01

    A siting and reconnaissance geotechnical program has been completed in S-Area at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. This program investigated the subsurface conditions for the area known as ''Salt Disposition Facility (SDF), Site B'' located northeast of H-Area and within the S-Area. Data acquired from the Site B investigation includes both field exploration and laboratory test data

  20. Automatic web site authoring with SiteGuide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, V.; Hollink, V.; van Someren, M.W.; Kłopotek, M.A.; Przepiórkowski, A.; Wierzchoń, S.T.; Trojanowski, K.

    2009-01-01

    An important step in the design process for a web site is to determine which information is to be included and how the information should be organized on the web site’s pages. In this paper we describe ’SiteGuide’, a tool that automatically produces an information architecture for a web site that a

  1. Early and late HIV-1 membrane fusion events are impaired by sphinganine lipidated peptides that target the fusion site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Yoel A; Ashkenazi, Avraham; Viard, Mathias; Porat, Ziv; Blumenthal, Robert; Shai, Yechiel

    2014-07-15

    Lipid-conjugated peptides have advanced the understanding of membrane protein functions and the roles of lipids in the membrane milieu. These lipopeptides modulate various biological systems such as viral fusion. A single function has been suggested for the lipid, binding to the membrane and thus elevating the local concentration of the peptide at the target site. In the present paper, we challenged this argument by exploring in-depth the antiviral mechanism of lipopeptides, which comprise sphinganine, the lipid backbone of DHSM (dihydrosphingomyelin), and an HIV-1 envelope-derived peptide. Surprisingly, we discovered a partnership between the lipid and the peptide that impaired early membrane fusion events by reducing CD4 receptor lateral diffusion and HIV-1 fusion peptide-mediated lipid mixing. Moreover, only the joint function of sphinganine and its conjugate peptide disrupted HIV-1 fusion protein assembly and folding at the later fusion steps. Via imaging techniques we revealed for the first time the direct localization of these lipopeptides to the virus-cell and cell-cell contact sites. Overall, the findings of the present study may suggest lipid-protein interactions in various biological systems and may help uncover a role for elevated DHSM in HIV-1 and its target cell membranes.

  2. Site description of Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the model is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model for geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site, presents an integrated understanding of the Forsmark area at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted at Forsmark during the period 2002 to 2007. It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details in data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. The Forsmark area is located in northern Uppland within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, within the north-western part of a major tectonic lens that formed between 1.87 and 1.85 billion years ago during the Svecokarelian orogeny. The candidate area is approximately 6 km long and 2 km wide. The

  3. Site description of Laxemar at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the SDM is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model of geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site Laxemar, presents an integrated understanding of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area (with special emphasis on the Laxemar subarea) at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted during the period 2002 to 2007. A summary is also provided of the abundant underlying data and the discipline specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details of the data analyses and modelling of the different disciplines. The Laxemar-Simpevarp area is located in the province of Smaaland within the municipality of Oskarshamn, about 230 km south of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of the strait of Kalmarsund, within a 1.8 billion year old suite of well preserved bedrock belonging to the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt formed during

  4. Site description of Laxemar at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the SDM is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model of geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site Laxemar, presents an integrated understanding of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area (with special emphasis on the Laxemar subarea) at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted during the period 2002 to 2007. A summary is also provided of the abundant underlying data and the discipline specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details of the data analyses and modelling of the different disciplines. The Laxemar-Simpevarp area is located in the province of Smaaland within the municipality of Oskarshamn, about 230 km south of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of the strait of Kalmarsund, within a 1.8 billion year old suite of well preserved bedrock belonging to the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt formed during

  5. Site description of Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the model is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model for geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site, presents an integrated understanding of the Forsmark area at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted at Forsmark during the period 2002 to 2007. It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details in data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. The Forsmark area is located in northern Uppland within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, within the north-western part of a major tectonic lens that formed between 1.87 and 1.85 billion years ago during the Svecokarelian orogeny. The candidate area is approximately 6 km long and 2 km wide. The

  6. On-site and off-site activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    Design principles for NPP training programs. Effects of NPP contracts. Effects of domestic industrial activities. The role of international bodies. Requirements for on-site training. Training abroad, technical, financial and social aspects. Training center on-site, an evaluation. (orig.)

  7. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NPL site POINT locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup under the Superfund program. Eligibility is determined by a scoring method called Hazard Ranking System. Sites with high scores are listed on the NPL. The majority of the locations are derived from polygon centroids of digitized site boundaries. The remaining locations were generated from address geocoding and digitizing. Area covered by this data set include Arizona, California, Nevada, Hawaii, Guam, American Samoa, Northern Marianas and Trust Territories. Attributes include NPL status codes, NPL industry type codes and environmental indicators. Related table, NPL_Contaminants contains information about contaminated media types and chemicals. This is a one-to-many relate and can be related to the feature class using the relationship classes under the Feature Data Set ENVIRO_CONTAMINANT.

  8. The role of historical operations information for supporting remedial investigation work at the former Harshaw Chemical Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.; Peterson, J.; Picel, K.; Kolhoff, A.; Devaughn, J.

    2008-01-01

    potential COI associated with recycled uranium and contaminant locations that were inconsistent with the original CSM. As part of an RI Addendum effort, the USACE reconsidered its understanding of HCS historical activities. This effort included an intensive review of available historical aerial photography, an in-depth Potentially Responsible Parties (PRP) investigation, additional analysis of the production processes in place at HCS, and targeted supplemental data collection. The result of this effort was a revised CSM that included a number of previously unidentified potential COI and a much clearer understanding of the processes and resulting waste streams potentially associated with environmental contamination. Because of their complex and often poorly documented operational histories, unexpected discoveries will always be a part of investigating sites such as HCS. Taking advantage of available resources and expending funds for thorough historical research early in the life of a project will help to reduce the chances for expensive field remobilizations and significant schedule delays. A complete and accurate site history also allows for more efficient long-term technical and budgetary planning, thus eliminating many obstacles associated with the ultimate disposition of HTRW sites.

  9. Net Mineralization Response to Fertilizer Application and Site-Specific Setting in a No-Till Dryland Wheat Agroecosystem in the Pacific Northwest (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Emily A.; Brown, David J.; Carpenter-Boggs, Lynn

    2015-04-01

    Application of nitrogen (N) fertilizers is pivotal to maintaining agricultural productivity. Nutrient management is typically guided by a combined assessment of crop yield requirements, residual soil inorganic N concentration, and predicted N supply from organic matter. However, laboratory assays employed to forecast mineralization potential do not reflect in situ processes occurring in soils, processes that can vary spatially within a field. Furthermore, fertilizer application alters biogeochemical cycles through a variety of mechanisms including priming effects and microbial community alterations. This study investigates in-situ ammonification/nitrification rates utilizing mineralization cores as part of a five-year Site-Specific Climate-Friendly Farming (SCF) project. In-depth accounting of nitrate and ammonium production and flux was possible via a six bag mixed-bed ion exchange resin system. Soil cores (7.5 cm diameter by 15 cm deep) were isolated from the surrounding soil by three resin bags sealed in the top and bottom of individual plastic cylinders. Fifteen locations were selected across a commercial direct-seed wheat field based on statistical clustering of primary and secondary topographic variables. In each location surface soil-resin cores were installed in fertilized and unfertilized plots immediately after spring planting and removed before harvest. In situ ammonification/nitrification rates will be analyzed as a function of both fertilizer application and site-specific environmental characteristics as determined from soil moisture monitoring, soil characterization, and crop analysis at each measurement location. This site-specific information on N transformations and availability can then be used to guide site-specific crop management.

  10. On-Site or Off-Site Renewable Energy Supply Options?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a Net Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) encompasses two options of supplying renewable energy, which can offset energy use of a building, in particular on-site or off-site renewable energy supply. Currently, the on-site options are much more popular than the off-site; however, taking...... into consideration the limited area of roof and/or façade, primarily in the dense city areas, the Danish weather conditions, the growing interest and number of wind turbine co-ops, the off-site renewable energy supply options could become a meaningful solution for reaching ‘zero’ energy goal in the Danish context...... five technologies, i.e., two on-site options: (1) photovoltaic, (2) micro combined heat and power, and three off-site options: (1) off-site windmill, (2) share of a windmill farm and (3) purchase of green energy from the 100% renewable utility grid. The results indicate that in case of the on...

  11. Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems Baseline Survey of Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Intestinal Protozoa among Children up to Five Years

    OpenAIRE

    Obala, A. A.; Simiyu, C. J.; Odhiambo, D. O.; Nanyu, V.; Chege, P.; Downing, R.; Mwaliko, E.; Mwangi, A. W.; Menya, D.; Chelagat, D.; Nyamogoba, H. D. N.; Ayuo, P. O.; O'Meara, W. P.; Twagirumukiza, M.; Vandenbroek, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are globally endemic, and they constitute the greatest cause of illness and disease worldwide. Transmission of IPIs occurs as a result of inadequate sanitation, inaccessibility to potable water, and poor living conditions. Objectives. To determine a baseline prevalence of IPIs among children of five years and below at Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance (HDSS) area in western Kenya. Methods. Cross-sectional survey was used to colle...

  12. Quantitative in-depth state analysis by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and its application to surface Layer of SiC coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabe, Katsumasa; Yamashina, Toshiro.

    1980-01-01

    An attempt of quantitative state analysis was made on the surface and the depth profile of inorganic compounds by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) which was combined by the sputter-etching with argon ions. A masking attachment was designed for an area of sample which is exposed to the non-uniform portion of the ion beam. Uniform sputter-etching could be attained, with the advantages on XPS observation of low background level and less impurity spectra from other origins than the sample. The photoelectron yields were examined for the quantitative analysis by XPS. The method established here was applied to analyze the surface and in-depth composition of SiC coatings onto carbon and molybdenum which are promising candidate materials as the first wall in a controlled thermonuclear reactor. (author)

  13. Department of Energy's High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), September 15--19, 1980: An independent on-site safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    The intent of this on-site safety review was to make a broad management assessment of HFBR operations, rather than conduct a detailed in-depth audit. The result of the review should only be considered as having identified trends or indications. The Team's observations and recommendations for the most part are based upon licensed reactor facility practices used to meet industry standards. These standards form the basis for many of the comments in this report. The Team believes that a uniform minimum standard of performance should be achieved in the operation of DOE reactors. In order to assure that this is accomplished, clear standards are necessary. Consistent with the past AEC and ERDA policy, the team has used the standards of the commercial nuclear power industry. It is recognized that this approach is conservative in that the HFBR reactor has a significantly greater degree of inherent safety (low pressure, temperature, power, etc.) than a licensed reactor

  14. Causes of and contributors to infant mortality in a rural community of North India: evidence from verbal and social autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sanjay Kumar; Kant, Shashi; Srivastava, Rahul; Gupta, Priti; Misra, Puneet; Pandav, Chandrakant Sambhaji; Singh, Arvind Kumar

    2017-08-11

    To identify the medical causes of death and contribution of non-biological factors towards infant mortality by a retrospective analysis of routinely collected data using verbal and social autopsy tools. The study site was Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), Ballabgarh, North India PARTICIPANTS: All infant deaths during the years 2008-2012 were included for verbal autopsy and infant deaths from July 2012 to December 2012 were included for social autopsy. Cause of death ascertained by a validated verbal autopsy tool and level of delay based on a three-delay model using the INDEPTH social autopsy tool were the main outcome measures. The level of delay was defined as follows: level 1, delay in identification of danger signs and decision making to seek care; level 2, delay in reaching a health facility from home; level 3, delay in getting healthcare at the health facility. The infant mortality rate during the study period was 46.5/1000 live births. Neonatal deaths contributed to 54.3% of infant deaths and 39% occurred on the first day of life. Birth asphyxia (31.5%) followed by low birth weight (LBW)/prematurity (26.5%) were the most common causes of neonatal death, while infection (57.8%) was the most common cause of post-neonatal death. Care-seeking was delayed among 50% of neonatal deaths and 41.2% of post-neonatal deaths. Delay at level 1 was most common and occurred in 32.4% of neonatal deaths and 29.4% of post-neonatal deaths. Deaths due to LBW/prematurity were mostly followed by delay at level 1. A high proportion of preventable infant mortality still exists in an area which is under continuous health and demographic surveillance. There is a need to enhance home-based preventive care to enable the mother to identify and respond to danger signs. Verbal autopsy and social autopsy could be routinely done to guide policy interventions aimed at reduction of infant mortality. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text

  15. Nuclear power plant site evaluation using site population-meterology factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, B.H.; Kang, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper, as a site evaluation technique, SPNF(Site Population Neteorology Factor) which is modified from SPF(Site Population Factor) of the USNRC model, is defined from site population and meteorology data in order to consider the radiological impacts to the population at large from the atmospheric dispersion of the radioactive effluents released during routine plant operation as well as accidental conditions. The SPMF model proved its propriety from the comparison of SPMF and SPF for Kori site. The relative suitability of Korean sites to the U.S. sites have been also examined using SPF. (Author)

  16. Superfund and Toxic Release Inventory Sites - MDC_ContaminatedSite

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A point feature class of open DERM Contaminated sites - see phase code for status of site. Contaminated sites identifies properties where environmental contamination...

  17. Household Exposure to Livestock and Health in the CHILILAB HDSS Cohort, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang-Xuan, Sinh; MacDonald, Lauren E; Schurer, Janna M; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Pham-Duc, Phuc

    2017-07-01

    In Vietnam, pigs and poultry are predominantly produced by small-scale farmers, creating challenges for zoonotic disease management. The objective of this study was to characterize practices related to livestock and manure management and to measure association with 3 self-reported health symptoms (coughing, fever, and diarrhea/nausea/vomiting) in a region currently undergoing health transitions. We analyzed cross-sectional survey data collected from a subset (N = 5520) of the Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System cohort in Chi Linh district, Vietnam. Bivariate analyses indicated that female gender was a significant risk factor for all 3 health symptoms, whereas age (≥60 years), suburban living, low education level, and household wealth were risk factors for 2 symptoms. Overall, we found no indication that biogas production or exposure to livestock and manure adversely affected human health. Efforts to control zoonotic disease transmission should prioritize utilization of veterinarians, enhanced farm biosecurity, and improvements to commune drinking water/wastewater infrastructure.

  18. Induced abortion in villages of Ballabgarh HDSS: rates, trends, causes and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Shashi; Srivastava, Rahul; Rai, Sanjay Kumar; Misra, Puneet; Charlette, Lena; Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2015-05-29

    Induced abortion has been legal in India on a broad range of medical and social grounds since 1980s. Often, induced abortion is resorted to as a means for contraception, and has a potential to be misused for sex selective feticide. We assessed the rates, trends, causes and determinants of induced abortions from 2008-12 in a rural community of northern India. Present study is a secondary data analysis of pregnancy outcomes at Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System from 2008-12. The data was retrieved from the Health and Management Information System maintained at Ballabgarh. Cause of abortion was self-reported by the women who underwent abortion. Of the 11,102 pregnancies, 1,226 (11%) culminated as abortions of which 425 (3.8%) were induced abortions. Spontaneous abortion rate (7.2%) was twice that of induced abortion rate (3.8%). Both abortion rates had an increasing trend during the course of the study period. Self-reported reasons for opting for induced abortions were bleeding per vaginum (23%), unwanted pregnancy (16%), and unviable fetus diagnosed by ultrasonography (11%). Eight percent of the induced abortions were due to the female sex of the fetus. About 11% of the abortions were performed beyond 20 weeks of gestation which was the upper legal permissible gestational age for performing induced abortions in India. About 10% of the abortions were performed by unqualified practitioners. Caste, wealth index, birth order and size of the village population were the factors that were significantly associated with induced abortion. Though the abortion rate was low, the proportionate contribution of induced abortion was more than what could be expected. Unsafe and sex selective abortion, though illegal, was prevalent. Upper caste and higher socio-economic status families were more likely to opt for induced abortion.

  19. Umatilla Satellite and Release Sites Project : Final Siting Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, James M.

    1992-04-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Umatilla Satellite and Release Sites Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of satellite and release facilities for the Umatilla Basin hatchery program. The Umatilla Basin hatchery program consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in the Umatilla River as defined in the Umatilla master plan approved in 1989 by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult salmon broodstock holding and spawning facilities, facilities for recovery, acclimation, and/or extended rearing of salmon juveniles, and development of river sites for release of hatchery salmon and steelhead. The historic and current distribution of fall chinook, summer chinook, and coho salmon and steelhead trout was summarized for the Umatilla River basin. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Twenty seven sites were evaluated for the potential and development of facilities. Engineering and environmental attributes of the sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  20. Site decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicker, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Among the several DOE sites that have been radiologically decontaminated under the auspices of the Nevada Operations Office are three whose physical characteristics are unique. These are the Tatum Dome Test Site (TDTS) near Hattiesburg, Mississippi; a location of mountainous terrain (Pahute Mesa) on the Nevada Test Site; and the GNOME site near Carlsbad, New Mexico. In each case the contamination, the terrain, and the climate conditions were different. This presentation includes a brief description of each site, the methods used to perform radiological surveys, the logistics required to support the decontamination (including health physics and sample analysis), and the specific techniques used to reduce or remove the contamination

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Human Pluripotency and Neural Specification by In-Depth (PhosphoProteomic Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyas Singec

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Controlled differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs can be utilized for precise analysis of cell type identities during early development. We established a highly efficient neural induction strategy and an improved analytical platform, and determined proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiles of hESCs and their specified multipotent neural stem cell derivatives (hNSCs. This quantitative dataset (nearly 13,000 proteins and 60,000 phosphorylation sites provides unique molecular insights into pluripotency and neural lineage entry. Systems-level comparative analysis of proteins (e.g., transcription factors, epigenetic regulators, kinase families, phosphorylation sites, and numerous biological pathways allowed the identification of distinct signatures in pluripotent and multipotent cells. Furthermore, as predicted by the dataset, we functionally validated an autocrine/paracrine mechanism by demonstrating that the secreted protein midkine is a regulator of neural specification. This resource is freely available to the scientific community, including a searchable website, PluriProt.

  2. Bedrock hydrogeology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling, SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has conducted site investigations at two different locations, the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a final repository for spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 concept. Site characterisation should provide all data required for an integrated evaluation of the suitability of the investigated site and an important component in the characterisation work is the development of a hydrogeological model. The hydrogeological model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It also provides input to the safety assessment. Another important use of the hydrogeological model is in the environmental impact assessment. This report presents the understanding of the hydrogeological conditions of the bedrock at Forsmark reached following the completion of the surface-based investigations and provides a summary of the bedrock hydrogeological model and the underlying data supporting its development. It constitutes the main reference on bedrock hydrogeology for the site descriptive model concluding the surface-based investigations at Forsmark, SDM-site, and is intended to describe the hydraulic properties and hydrogeological conditions of the bedrock at the site and to give the information essential for demonstrating understanding

  3. Social Media Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Media Sites Site Registration Contact Us Search AF.mil: Home > AF Sites > Social Media Sites Social Media Welcome to the Air Force social media directory! The directory is a one-stop shop of official Air Force social media pages across various social media sites. Social media is all about

  4. Unbiased in-depth characterization of CEX fractions from a stressed monoclonal antibody by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griaud, François; Denefeld, Blandine; Lang, Manuel; Hensinger, Héloïse; Haberl, Peter; Berg, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    Characterization of charge-based variants by mass spectrometry (MS) is required for the analytical development of a new biologic entity and its marketing approval by health authorities. However, standard peak-based data analysis approaches are time-consuming and biased toward the detection, identification, and quantification of main variants only. The aim of this study was to characterize in-depth acidic and basic species of a stressed IgG1 monoclonal antibody using comprehensive and unbiased MS data evaluation tools. Fractions collected from cation ion exchange (CEX) chromatography were analyzed as intact, after reduction of disulfide bridges, and after proteolytic cleavage using Lys-C. Data of both intact and reduced samples were evaluated consistently using a time-resolved deconvolution algorithm. Peptide mapping data were processed simultaneously, quantified and compared in a systematic manner for all MS signals and fractions. Differences observed between the fractions were then further characterized and assigned. Time-resolved deconvolution enhanced pattern visualization and data interpretation of main and minor modifications in 3-dimensional maps across CEX fractions. Relative quantification of all MS signals across CEX fractions before peptide assignment enabled the detection of fraction-specific chemical modifications at abundances below 1%. Acidic fractions were shown to be heterogeneous, containing antibody fragments, glycated as well as deamidated forms of the heavy and light chains. In contrast, the basic fractions contained mainly modifications of the C-terminus and pyroglutamate formation at the N-terminus of the heavy chain. Systematic data evaluation was performed to investigate multiple data sets and comprehensively extract main and minor differences between each CEX fraction in an unbiased manner.

  5. Site operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, W.B.; Ebenhack, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    This chapter is a discussion of the management and operations practices used at the Barnwell Waste Management Facility in Barnwell, SC. The following topics are discussed: (1) Waste receiving and inspection, including manifest and certificates of compliance, radiological surveys, disposition of nonconforming items, and decontamination and disposition of secondary waste streams; (2) Waste disposal, including Title 10 CFR 61 requirements, disposal area evaluations, shipment offloading, container emplacement, and radiation protection; (3) Trench closure, including trench backfilling, trench capping, and permanent markers; (4) Site maintenance and stabilization, including trench maintenance, surface water management, and site closure activities; (5) Site monitoring programs, including operational monitoring, and environmental monitoring program; (6) Personnel training and qualifications, including basic training program, safety training program, special skills training, and physical qualifications; (7) Records management, including waste records, personnel training records, personnel dosimetry records, site monitoring records, trench qualification and construction records, and site drawings and stabilization records; (8) Site security; (9) Emergency response plans; and (10) Quality assurance

  6. An Exploration of Decision-Making Processes on Infant Delivery Site from the Perspective of Pregnant Women, New Mothers, and Their Families in Northern Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Andrea Katryn; Bruce, Sharon Gail; Jayanna, Krishnamurthy; Gurav, Kaveri; Mohan, Haranahalli L; Avery, Lisa; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James Frederick; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to explore the decision-making processes regarding sites for delivery of infants among women, their husbands, and mothers-in-law in a rural area of northern Karnataka state, south India. Qualitative semi-structured, individual in-depth interviews were conducted in 2010 among 110 pregnant women, new mothers, husbands and mothers-in-law. Interviews were conducted by trained local researchers in participants' languages and then translated into English. Decisions were made relationally, as family members weighed their collective attitudes and experiences towards a home, private or public delivery. Patterns of both concordance and discordance between women and their families' preferences for delivery site were present. The voice of pregnant women and new mothers was not always subordinate to that of other family members. Still, the involvement of husbands and mothers-in-law was important in decision-making, indicating the need to consider the influence of household gender and power dynamics. All respondent types also expressed shifts in social context and cultural attitudes towards increasing preference for hospital delivery. An appreciation of the interdependence of family members' roles in delivery site decision-making, and how they are influenced by the socio-cultural context, must be considered in frameworks used to guide the development of relevant interventions to improve the utilization and quality of maternal, neonatal and child health services.

  7. Confidence assessment. Site-descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this report is to assess the confidence that can be placed in the Laxemar site descriptive model, based on the information available at the conclusion of the surface-based investigations (SDM-Site Laxemar). In this exploration, an overriding question is whether remaining uncertainties are significant for repository engineering design or long-term safety assessment and could successfully be further reduced by more surface-based investigations or more usefully by explorations underground made during construction of the repository. Procedures for this assessment have been progressively refined during the course of the site descriptive modelling, and applied to all previous versions of the Forsmark and Laxemar site descriptive models. They include assessment of whether all relevant data have been considered and understood, identification of the main uncertainties and their causes, possible alternative models and their handling, and consistency between disciplines. The assessment then forms the basis for an overall confidence statement. The confidence in the Laxemar site descriptive model, based on the data available at the conclusion of the surface based site investigations, has been assessed by exploring: - Confidence in the site characterization data base, - remaining issues and their handling, - handling of alternatives, - consistency between disciplines and - main reasons for confidence and lack of confidence in the model. Generally, the site investigation database is of high quality, as assured by the quality procedures applied. It is judged that the Laxemar site descriptive model has an overall high level of confidence. Because of the relatively robust geological model that describes the site, the overall confidence in the Laxemar Site Descriptive model is judged to be high, even though details of the spatial variability remain unknown. The overall reason for this confidence is the wide spatial distribution of the data and the consistency between

  8. Confidence assessment. Site-descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    The objective of this report is to assess the confidence that can be placed in the Laxemar site descriptive model, based on the information available at the conclusion of the surface-based investigations (SDM-Site Laxemar). In this exploration, an overriding question is whether remaining uncertainties are significant for repository engineering design or long-term safety assessment and could successfully be further reduced by more surface-based investigations or more usefully by explorations underground made during construction of the repository. Procedures for this assessment have been progressively refined during the course of the site descriptive modelling, and applied to all previous versions of the Forsmark and Laxemar site descriptive models. They include assessment of whether all relevant data have been considered and understood, identification of the main uncertainties and their causes, possible alternative models and their handling, and consistency between disciplines. The assessment then forms the basis for an overall confidence statement. The confidence in the Laxemar site descriptive model, based on the data available at the conclusion of the surface based site investigations, has been assessed by exploring: - Confidence in the site characterization data base, - remaining issues and their handling, - handling of alternatives, - consistency between disciplines and - main reasons for confidence and lack of confidence in the model. Generally, the site investigation database is of high quality, as assured by the quality procedures applied. It is judged that the Laxemar site descriptive model has an overall high level of confidence. Because of the relatively robust geological model that describes the site, the overall confidence in the Laxemar Site Descriptive model is judged to be high, even though details of the spatial variability remain unknown. The overall reason for this confidence is the wide spatial distribution of the data and the consistency between

  9. In-Depth Analysis of Simulation Engine Codes for Comparison with DOE s Roof Savings Calculator and Measured Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    New, Joshua Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Huang, Yu [White Box Technologies, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sanyal, Jibonananda [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, William A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mellot, Joe [The Garland Company, Cleveland, OH (United States); Childs, Kenneth W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kriner, Scott [Green Metal Consulting, Inc., Macungie, PA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) was developed through collaborations among Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), White Box Technologies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and the Environmental Protection Agency in the context of a California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research project to make cool-color roofing materials a market reality. The RSC website and a simulation engine validated against demonstration homes were developed to replace the liberal DOE Cool Roof Calculator and the conservative EPA Energy Star Roofing Calculator, which reported different roof savings estimates. A preliminary analysis arrived at a tentative explanation for why RSC results differed from previous LBNL studies and provided guidance for future analysis in the comparison of four simulation programs (doe2attic, DOE-2.1E, EnergyPlus, and MicroPas), including heat exchange between the attic surfaces (principally the roof and ceiling) and the resulting heat flows through the ceiling to the building below. The results were consolidated in an ORNL technical report, ORNL/TM-2013/501. This report is an in-depth inter-comparison of four programs with detailed measured data from an experimental facility operated by ORNL in South Carolina in which different segments of the attic had different roof and attic systems.

  10. In-depth assessment of the situation of the textile and clothing sector in the EU and prospects : Task 1: survey on the situation of the European textile and clothing sector and prospects for its future development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffer, M.R. (Michiel)

    2011-01-01

    The in-depth assessment of the situation of the European textile and clothing sector is composed by six independent reports with a close focus on key aspects useful to understand the dynamics and the development of the textile and clothing industry, drivers of change – most notably the impact

  11. In-depth investigation on the pyrolysis kinetics of raw biomass. Part I: kinetic analysis for the drying and devolatilization stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Zheng, Yan; Zhu, Xifeng

    2013-03-01

    An in-depth investigation was conducted on the kinetic analysis of raw biomass using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), from which the activation energy distribution of the whole pyrolysis process was obtained. Two different stages, namely, drying stage (Stage I) and devolatilization stage (Stage II), were shown in the pyrolysis process in which the activation energy values changed with conversion. The activation energy at low conversions (below 0.15) in the drying stage ranged from 10 to 30 kJ/mol. Such energy was calculated using the nonisothermal Page model, known as the best model to describe the drying kinetics. Kinetic analysis was performed using the distributed activation energy model in a wide range of conversions (0.15-0.95) in the devolatilization stage. The activation energy first ranged from 178.23 to 245.58 kJ/mol and from 159.66 to 210.76 kJ/mol for corn straw and wheat straw, respectively, then increasing remarkably with an irregular trend. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043): results from in-depth interviews with a longitudinal cohort of community members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maman, Suzanne; van Rooyen, Heidi; Stankard, Petra; Chingono, Alfred; Muravha, Tshifhiwa; Ntogwisangu, Jacob; Phakathi, Zipho; Srirak, Namtip; F Morin, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043) is a community- randomized trial to test the safety and efficacy of a community-level intervention designed to increase testing and lower HIV incidence in Tanzania, Zimbabwe, South Africa and Thailand. The evaluation design included a longitudinal study with community members to assess attitudinal and behavioral changes in study outcomes including HIV testing norms, HIV-related discussions, and HIV-related stigma. A cohort of 657 individuals across all sites was selected to participate in a qualitative study that involved 4 interviews during the study period. Baseline and 30-month data were summarized according to each outcome, and a qualitative assessment of changes was made at the community level over time. Members from intervention communities described fewer barriers and greater motivation for testing than those from comparison communities. HIV-related discussions in intervention communities were more grounded in personal testing experiences. A change in HIV-related stigma over time was most pronounced in Tanzania and Zimbabwe. Participants in the intervention communities from these two sites attributed community-level changes in attitudes to project specific activities. The Project Accept intervention was associated with more favorable social norms regarding HIV testing, more personal content in HIV discussions in all study sites, and qualitative changes in HIV-related stigma in two of five sites.

  13. Siting guidelines and their role in repository site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    The first requirement of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act was for the Secretary of Energy to issue general guidelines for siting repositories. The guidelines were to specify detailed geologic considerations that would be the primary criteria for the selection of sites in various host rocks, as well as factors that would qualify or disqualify any site from development as a repository. These guidelines were clearly intended to provide not only the framework for the siting program but also the stimulus for establishing effective communication and consultation among the parties involved in the program. The Act further required that the guidelines be a factor in the development of all future decision documents of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, including the environmental assessments that would accompany the nomination of sites for characterization, the site-characterization plans that are to be prepared before the sinking of exploratory shafts at any candidate site, and the environmental impact statement that is to support the recommendation of a site for development as a repository. More than two years after its passage, the intention of the Act for the guidelines has been realized. Concurred in by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on June 22, 1984, and issued by the Department in November 1984, the guidelines include postclosure technical guidelines that apply to conditions governing the long-term performance of the repository system; preclosure technical guidelines that apply to conditions governing the siting, construction, operation, and closure of the repository; and system guidelines whose objective is to ensure that the regulatory requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission are met

  14. SiteGuide: An example-based approach to web site development assistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollink, V.; de Boer, V.; van Someren, M.; Filipe, J.; Cordeiro, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present ‘SiteGuide’, a tool that helps web designers to decide which information will be included in a new web site and how the information will be organized. SiteGuide takes as input URLs of web sites from the same domain as the site the user wants to create. It automatically searches the pages

  15. Feedback from performance assessment to site characterisation. The SITE-94 example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dverstorp, B.; Geier, J.

    1999-01-01

    Interaction and information exchange between site characterisation and performance assessment are key features of any successful radioactive waste management programme. Some examples are presented of the types of feedback that can be offered from performance assessment to site characterisation, based on SKI's most recent performance assessment project, SITE-94. SITE-94 in Sweden was an assessment of a hypothetical repository for spent nuclear fuel, based on real data gathered in the surface-based investigation of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory site. Examples of feedback are given concerning quality control of data and site investigation procedures, identification of key parameters for the performance assessment, use of models for planning and evaluation of a site investigation, data sampling strategies, and guidance on future priorities for further development of site investigation methods. Because site characterisation serves multiple purposes, including provision of data for repository design and construction, it must account for and compromise among requirements from several lines of analyses in the performance assessment. (author)

  16. Site characterization plan:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed

  17. An In-Depth Review of the Current Practica, Associated with Early Childhood through Twelfth Grade Special Education Programs, for the Benefit of Higher Education Programs, with an Emphasis in Obtaining a M.Ed. in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In order to guide organizational growth in the Master's in Education with an emphasis in Special Education program, offered at Southwestern College, an in-depth qualitative study was conducted with participants from three specific realms located in the state of Kansas. Participants from the Kansas State Department of Education, Southwestern…

  18. The quality of Internet advertising in aesthetic surgery: an in-depth analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wendy W; Camp, Matthew C; Camp, Jennifer S; Gupta, Subhas C

    2010-09-01

    The aesthetic market is a growing business, as evidenced by the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS) reporting an increase of 147% in the number of cosmetic procedures performed by members since 1997. This market is consumer-oriented, relying heavily on advertising for survival amid the increasing provider competition. The authors evaluate trends, ethics, and efficacy of Internet advertising in aesthetic surgery. Medical cosmetic providers in Southern California and their Web sites were catalogued through sales lists from manufacturers (Medicis and Allergan) and combined with advertised providers of surgical treatments. Using the ASAPS/American Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) and American Medical Association Codes of Ethics as guidelines, scores were assigned to each Web site and evaluated with the provider's board certification. A geographical analysis determined whether the presence of high numbers of competitors had an impact on the adherence to ethical guidelines for advertising. To examine patient preferences in physician advertising, a survey was conducted online. Board-certified plastic surgeons showed the highest total ethical scores, followed by otolaryngologists, oromaxillofacial surgeons, and ophthalmologists. No decrement in the quality of the advertising was found in densely competitive environments. A consistent correlation was found between superior compliance with ethical guidelines and board certification in plastic surgery. The patient preference survey of 208 individuals demonstrated their desire for a well-trained, board-certified plastic surgeon to perform their cosmetic procedures. Although plastic surgeons demonstrate greater overall compliance with the ASAPS/ASPS Advertising Code of Ethics, they can continue to improve. With the large variety of cosmetic physicians offering the same procedures, maintaining open, honest, and forthright communication with the public is essential.

  19. The effect of simulation courseware on critical thinking in undergraduate nursing students: multi-site pre-post study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyunsook; Ma, Hyunhee; Park, Jiyoung; Ji, Eun Sun; Kim, Dong Hee

    2015-04-01

    The use of simulations has been considered as opportunities for students to enhance their critical thinking (CT), but previous studies were limited because they did not provide in-depth information on the working dynamics of simulation or on the effects of the number of simulation exposures on CT. This study examined the effect of an integrated pediatric nursing simulation used in a nursing practicum on students' CT abilities and identified the effects of differing numbers of simulation exposures on CT in a multi-site environment. The study used a multi-site, pre-test, post-test design. A total of 237 nursing students at three universities enrolled in a pediatric practicum participated in this study from February to December 2013. All three schools used the same simulation courseware, including the same simulation scenarios, evaluation tools, and simulation equipment. The courseware incorporated high-fidelity simulators and standardized patients. Students at school A completed one simulation session, whereas students at schools B and C completed two and three simulation sessions, respectively. Yoon's Critical Thinking Disposition tool (2008) was used to measure students' CT abilities. The gains in students' CT scores varied according to their numbers of exposures to the simulation courseware. With a single exposure, there were no statistically significant gains in CT, whereas three exposures to the courseware produced significant gains in CT. In seven subcategories of critical thinking, three exposures to the simulation courseware produced CT gains in the prudence and intellectual eagerness subcategories, and the overall simulation experience produced CT gains in the prudence, systematicity, healthy skepticism, and intellectual eagerness subcategories. Simulation courseware may produce positive learning outcomes for prudence in nursing education. In addition, the findings from the multi-site comparative study may contribute to greater understanding of how patient

  20. De vrouwenbeweging online

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Edwards (Arthur)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis is an in-depth study of 12 organizations: six grass-roots organizations, three umbrella organizations and three service organizations within the Dutch women's movement. Also, six 'virtual organizations' (three portal sites, a platform site and two web

  1. Social assessment of siting a low-level radioactive waste storage facility in Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffle, R.W.; Traugott, M.J.; Stone, J.V.; McIntyre, P.D.; Davidson, C.C.; Jensen, F.V.; Coover, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents findings from a social assessment of siting a low-level radioactive waste storage facility in Michigan. Social assessments derive from direct interaction between researchers and study participants. The report is organized into five chapters. Chapter One, Summary of Findings, focuses on key findings from the statewide telephone surveys and the in-depth ethnographic study conducted by the SNR/ISR study team. These and additional findings are discussed in greater detail in the three subsequent chapters. Chapter Two, Statewide Telephone Survey Findings, presents the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs statewide residents have regarding the LLRW project. Chapter Three, Statewide Demographic Findings, presents a detailed examination of differences among various demographic groups and includes regional analysis. Chapter Four, Hillsdale-area Ethnographic Study Findings, discusses perceived impacts of the proposed LLRW storage facility on local residents who mistakenly came to believe that their area had been specially selected as the location for the facility. Specifically, the chapter presents the development, spread, shape and persistence of what is termed a risk perception shadow in the greater Hillsdale area. Possible causes of the shadow also are discussed, and comparisons are made between statewide and Hillsdale-area survey populations. Chapter Five, Research Methods, presents a discussion of the social assessment research methods used to derive these findings

  2. SiteFind: A software tool for introducing a restriction site as a marker for successful site-directed mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Paul M

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Site-directed mutagenesis is a widely-used technique for introducing mutations into a particular DNA sequence, often with the goal of creating a point mutation in the corresponding amino acid sequence but otherwise leaving the overall sequence undisturbed. However, this method provides no means for verifying its success other than sequencing the putative mutant construct: This can quickly become an expensive method for screening for successful mutations. An alternative to sequencing is to simultaneously introduce a restriction site near the point mutation in manner such that the restriction site has no effect on the translated amino acid sequence. Thus, the novel restriction site can be used as a marker for successful mutation which can be quickly and easily assessed. However, finding a restriction site that does not disturb the corresponding amino acid sequence is a time-consuming task even for experienced researchers. A fast and easy to use computer program is needed for this task. Results We wrote a computer program, called SiteFind, to help us design a restriction site within the mutation primers without changing the peptide sequence. Because of the redundancy of genetic code, a given peptide can be encoded by many different DNA sequences. Since the list of possible restriction sites for a given DNA sequence is not always obvious, SiteFind automates this task. The number of possible sequences a computer program must search through increases exponentially as the sequence length increases. SiteFind uses a novel "moving window" algorithm to reduce the number of possible sequences to be searched to a manageable level. The user enters a nucleotide sequence, specifies what amino acid residues should be changed in the mutation, and SiteFind generates a list of possible restriction sites and what nucleotides must be changed to introduce that site. As a demonstration of its use, we successfully generated a single point mutation

  3. NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043: results from in-depth interviews with a longitudinal cohort of community members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Maman

    Full Text Available NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043 is a community- randomized trial to test the safety and efficacy of a community-level intervention designed to increase testing and lower HIV incidence in Tanzania, Zimbabwe, South Africa and Thailand. The evaluation design included a longitudinal study with community members to assess attitudinal and behavioral changes in study outcomes including HIV testing norms, HIV-related discussions, and HIV-related stigma.A cohort of 657 individuals across all sites was selected to participate in a qualitative study that involved 4 interviews during the study period. Baseline and 30-month data were summarized according to each outcome, and a qualitative assessment of changes was made at the community level over time.Members from intervention communities described fewer barriers and greater motivation for testing than those from comparison communities. HIV-related discussions in intervention communities were more grounded in personal testing experiences. A change in HIV-related stigma over time was most pronounced in Tanzania and Zimbabwe. Participants in the intervention communities from these two sites attributed community-level changes in attitudes to project specific activities.The Project Accept intervention was associated with more favorable social norms regarding HIV testing, more personal content in HIV discussions in all study sites, and qualitative changes in HIV-related stigma in two of five sites.

  4. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 128-B-3 Burn Pit Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-058

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-11-17

    The 128-B-3 waste site is a former burn and disposal site for the 100-B/C Area, located adjacent to the Columbia River. The 128-B-3 waste site has been remediated to meet the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results of sampling at upland areas of the site also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  5. The role of ecotourism sites: Transforming Chinese tourists’ behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Mingming; Wang, Liping; Xu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a timely update of some empirical findings of ecotourism experience in relation to Chinese tourists’ post-trip behaviors. Based on a qualitative research approach through in-depth interview with 28 Chinese domestic tourists, the authors show that Chinese tourists explicitly or implicitly have adapted environmentally friendly lifestyles after their ecotourism travel, although the level of their improvement is equivocal. The study further reveals the factors in contributing ...

  6. Site characterization plan:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in acordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and eveloping a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing prinicples, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed. 880 refs., 130 figs., 25 tabs

  7. On multi-site damage identification using single-site training data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthorpe, R. J.; Manson, G.; Worden, K.

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a methodology for developing multi-site damage location systems for engineering structures that can be trained using single-site damaged state data only. The methodology involves training a sequence of binary classifiers based upon single-site damage data and combining the developed classifiers into a robust multi-class damage locator. In this way, the multi-site damage identification problem may be decomposed into a sequence of binary decisions. In this paper Support Vector Classifiers are adopted as the means of making these binary decisions. The proposed methodology represents an advancement on the state of the art in the field of multi-site damage identification which require either: (1) full damaged state data from single- and multi-site damage cases or (2) the development of a physics-based model to make multi-site model predictions. The potential benefit of the proposed methodology is that a significantly reduced number of recorded damage states may be required in order to train a multi-site damage locator without recourse to physics-based model predictions. In this paper it is first demonstrated that Support Vector Classification represents an appropriate approach to the multi-site damage location problem, with methods for combining binary classifiers discussed. Next, the proposed methodology is demonstrated and evaluated through application to a real engineering structure - a Piper Tomahawk trainer aircraft wing - with its performance compared to classifiers trained using the full damaged-state dataset.

  8. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005, Attachment A - Site Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathy A. Wills

    2006-01-01

    This appendix to the ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005'', dated October 2006 (DOE/NV/11718--1214; DOE/NV/25946--007) expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction. Included are subsections that summarize the site?s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site which afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This appendix complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report

  9. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005, Attachment A - Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Wills

    2006-10-01

    This appendix to the ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005'', dated October 2006 (DOE/NV/11718--1214; DOE/NV/25946--007) expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction. Included are subsections that summarize the site?s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site which afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This appendix complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  10. Siting Practices and Site Licensing Process for New Reactors in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, Marcel de

    2011-01-01

    'Siting' in Canada is composed of Site Evaluation and Site Selection. As outlined in CNSC Regulatory Document RD-346 Site Evaluation for New Nuclear Power Plants (based on IAEA NS-R-3), prior to the triggering of the Environmental Assessment (EA) and licensing processes, the proponent is expected to use a robust process to characterize proposed sites over the full life cycle of the facility, and then develop a fully documented defense of the site selection case. This case forms the backbone for submissions in support of the EA and the application for a License to Prepare Site which will be reviewed by the CNSC and other applicable federal authorities. The Environmental Assessment process and License to Prepare Site in Canada do not require a proponent to select a specific design; however, CNSC does not accept a 'black box' approach to siting. CNSC balances the level of design information required with the extent of safety assurance desired for any designs being contemplated for the proposed site. Nevertheless, the design information submitted must be sufficient to justify the site as suitable for all future licensing stages. The depth of plant design information contributes significantly to the credibility of the applicant's case for both the EA and application for License to Prepare Site. The review process utilizes an assessment plan with defined review stages and timelines. The outcome of these reviews is a series of recommendations to a federal government appointed Joint Review Panel (which also serves as a panel of the 'Commission') which, following public hearings, renders a decision regarding the EA, and subsequently, the application for a License to Prepare Site. (author)

  11. De vrouwenbeweging online: Een onderzoek naar het gebruik van Internet door vrouwenorganisaties in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Edwards (Arthur)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis is an in-depth study of 12 organizations: six grass-roots organizations, three umbrella organizations and three service organizations within the Dutch women's movement. Also, six 'virtual organizations' (three portal sites, a platform site and two web organizations) were

  12. SITE-94. Site specific base data for the performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, J.; Tiren, S.; Dverstorp, B.; Glynn, P.

    1996-06-01

    This report documents the site specific base data that were available, and the utilization of these data within SITE-94. A brief summary is given of SKB's preliminary site investigations for the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), which were the main source of site-specific data for SITE-94, and an overview is given of the field methods and instrumentation for the preliminary investigations. A compilation is given of comments concerning the availability and quality of the data for Aespoe, and specific recommendations are given for future site investigations. It was found that the HRL pre-investigations produced a large quantity of data which were, for the most part, of sufficient quality to be valuable for a performance assessment. However, some problems were encountered regarding documentation, procedural consistency, positional information, and storage of the data from the measurements. 77 refs, 4 tabs

  13. Quantifying siting difficulty: a case study of US transmission line siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajjhala, S.P. [Resources for the Future, Washington DC (United States); Fischbeck, P.S. [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Departments of Social and Decision Sciences and Engineering and Public Policy

    2007-01-15

    The worldwide demand for new energy infrastructures has been paralleled in recent years by the increasing difficulty of siting major facilities. Siting difficulty is the subject of widespread discussion, but because of the complexity of the problem, potential solutions are not obvious or well understood. This paper presents a two-step policy-level framework that first develops an empirical measure of siting difficulty and then qualitatively assesses its major causes. The approach is based on the creation and aggregation of four siting indicators that are independent of the common causes and localized effects of siting problems. The proposed framework is demonstrated for the case of US transmission line siting. Results of the analyses reveal significant variations in state siting difficulty and industry experts' perceptions of its dominant causes, with implications for the long-term success of Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) and knowledge transfer among siting professionals in the deregulated industry. (author)

  14. SITE-2, Power Plant Siting, Cost, Environment, Seismic and Meteorological Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigerio, N.A.; Habegger, L.J.; King, R.F.; Hoover, L.J.; Clark, N.A.; Cobian, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: SITE2 is designed to (1) screen candidate energy facility sites or areas within an electric utility region, based on the region's physical and socioeconomic attributes, the planned facility's characteristics, and impact assessments, and (2) evaluate the cumulative regional impacts associated with alternate energy supply options and inter-regional energy import/export practices, specifically, comparison of different energy technologies and their regional distribution in clustered or dispersed patterns. 2 - Method of solution: The SITE2 methodology is based on the quantification of three major site-related vectors. A cost vector is determined which identifies site-specific costs, such as transmission costs, cooling costs as related to water availability, and costs of specific controls needed to protect the surrounding environment. An impact vector is also computed for each potential site, using models of health and environmental impacts incurred in areas adjacent to the site. Finally, a site attribute vector is developed which reflects such characteristics as population, seismic conditions, meteorology, land use, and local ecological systems. This vector can be used to eliminate certain sites because of their inability to satisfy specific constraints. These three vectors can be displayed as density maps and combined in a simple overlay approach, similar to that developed by I. L. McHarg in reference 2, to identify candidate sites. Alternatively, the vector elements can be computationally combined into a weighted sum to obtain quantitative indicators of site suitability

  15. SITE-2, Power Plant Siting, Cost, Environment, Seismic and Meteorological Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigerio, N A [Environmental Impact Studies, Argonne National Laboratory 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Habegger, L J; King, R F; Hoover, L J [Energy and Environmental Systems Division, Argonne National Laboratory 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Clark, N A [Applied Mathematics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Cobian, J M [Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60201 (United States)

    1977-08-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: SITE2 is designed to (1) screen candidate energy facility sites or areas within an electric utility region, based on the region's physical and socioeconomic attributes, the planned facility's characteristics, and impact assessments, and (2) evaluate the cumulative regional impacts associated with alternate energy supply options and inter-regional energy import/export practices, specifically, comparison of different energy technologies and their regional distribution in clustered or dispersed patterns. 2 - Method of solution: The SITE2 methodology is based on the quantification of three major site-related vectors. A cost vector is determined which identifies site-specific costs, such as transmission costs, cooling costs as related to water availability, and costs of specific controls needed to protect the surrounding environment. An impact vector is also computed for each potential site, using models of health and environmental impacts incurred in areas adjacent to the site. Finally, a site attribute vector is developed which reflects such characteristics as population, seismic conditions, meteorology, land use, and local ecological systems. This vector can be used to eliminate certain sites because of their inability to satisfy specific constraints. These three vectors can be displayed as density maps and combined in a simple overlay approach, similar to that developed by I. L. McHarg in reference 2, to identify candidate sites. Alternatively, the vector elements can be computationally combined into a weighted sum to obtain quantitative indicators of site suitability.

  16. Report of early site suitability evaluation of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younker, J.L.; Andrews, W.B.; Fasano, G.A.; Herrington, C.C.; Mattson, S.R.; Murray, R.C. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ballou, L.B.; Revelli, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Ducharme, A.R.; Shephard, L.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dudley, W.W.; Hoxie, D.T. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Herbst, R.J.; Patera, E.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Judd, B.R. [Decision Analysis Co., Portola Valley, CA (United States); Docka, J.A.; Rickertsen, L.D. [Weston Technical Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluated the technical suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of radioactive waste. The evaluation was conducted primarily to determine early in the site characterization program if there are any features or conditions at the site that indicate it is unsuitable for repository development. A secondary purpose was to determine the status of knowledge in the major technical areas that affect the suitability of the site. This early site suitability evaluation (ESSE) was conducted by a team of technical personnel at the request of the Associate Director of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Geologic Disposal, a unit within the DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The Yucca Mountain site has been the subject of such evaluations for over a decade. In 1983, the site was evaluated as part of a screening process to identify potentially acceptable sites. The site was evaluated in greater detail and found suitable for site characterization as part of the Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE, 1986) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). Additional site data were compiled during the preparation of the Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988a). This early site suitability evaluation has considered information that was used in preparing both-documents, along with recent information obtained since the EA and SCP were published. This body of information is referred to in this report as ``current information`` or ``available evidence.``

  17. One-site versus two-site phacotrabeculectomy: a prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moschos MM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Marilita M Moschos,1 Irini P Chatziralli,2 Michael Tsatsos3 1First Department of Ophthalmology, University of Athens, 2Second Department of Ophthalmology, Ophthalmiatrion Athinon, Athens, Greece; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Cambridge University Hospital NHS, Cambridge, UK Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of one-site and two-site combined phacotrabeculectomy with foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation.Methods: Thirty-four patients (41 eyes with glaucoma and cataract were randomly assigned to undergo either a one-site (22 eyes or a two-site (19 eyes combined procedure. One-site approach consisted of a standard superior phacotrabeculectomy with a limbus-based conjunctival flap, while two-site approach consisted of a clear cornea phacoemulsification and a separate superior trabeculectomy with a limbus-based conjunctival flap.Results: Mean follow-up period was 54 months (standard deviation [SD] 2.3. Mean preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP in the one-site group was 21.3 mmHg (SD 2.8 and in the two-site group was 21.8 mmHg (SD 3.0 (P>0.1. Mean postoperative IOP significantly decreased in both groups compared to the preoperative level and was 15.6 mmHg (SD 3.5 in the one-site group and 14.9 mmHg (SD 2.7 in the two-site group. Three months later, the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P=0.058. The one-site group required significantly more medications than the two-site group (P=0.03. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA improved similarly in both groups, but there was less postoperative (induced astigmatism in the two-site group in a marginal statistical level (P=0.058. Intra- and postoperative complications were comparable in the two groups.Conclusion: Both techniques yielded similar results concerning final BCVA and IOP reduction. However, the two-site group had less induced astigmatism and a better postoperative IOP control with less required

  18. Consumer preferences for sustainable aquaculture products: Evidence from in-depth interviews, think aloud protocols and choice experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risius, Antje; Janssen, Meike; Hamm, Ulrich

    2017-06-01

    Fish from aquaculture is becoming more important for human consumption. Sustainable aquaculture procedures were developed as an alternative to overcome the negative environmental impacts of conventional aquaculture procedures and wild fisheries. The objective of this contribution is to determine what consumers expect from sustainable aquaculture and whether they prefer sustainable aquaculture products. A combination of qualitative research methods, with think aloud protocols and in-depth interviews, as well as quantitative methods, using choice experiments and face-to-face interviews, was applied. Data was collected in three different cities of Germany. Results revealed that sustainable aquaculture was associated with natural, traditional, local, and small scale production systems with high animal welfare standards. Overall, participants paid a lot of attention to the declaration of origin; in particular fish products from Germany and Denmark were preferred along with local products. Frequently used sustainability claims for aquaculture products were mostly criticized as being imprecise by the participants of the qualitative study; even though two claims tested in the choice experiments had a significant positive impact on the choice of purchase. Similarly, existing aquaculture-specific labels for certified sustainable aquaculture had an impact on the buying decision, but were not well recognized and even less trusted. Overall, consumers had a positive attitude towards sustainable aquaculture. However, communication measures and labelling schemes should be improved to increase consumer acceptance and make a decisive impact on consumers' buying behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Remediation management of complex sites using an adaptive site management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, John; Spreng, Carl; Hawley, Elisabeth L; Deeb, Rula

    2017-12-15

    Complex sites require a disproportionate amount of resources for environmental remediation and long timeframes to achieve remediation objectives, due to their complex geologic conditions, hydrogeologic conditions, geochemical conditions, contaminant-related conditions, large scale of contamination, and/or non-technical challenges. A recent team of state and federal environmental regulators, federal agency representatives, industry experts, community stakeholders, and academia worked together as an Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) team to compile resources and create new guidance on the remediation management of complex sites. This article summarizes the ITRC team's recommended process for addressing complex sites through an adaptive site management approach. The team provided guidance for site managers and other stakeholders to evaluate site complexities and determine site remediation potential, i.e., whether an adaptive site management approach is warranted. Adaptive site management was described as a comprehensive, flexible approach to iteratively evaluate and adjust the remedial strategy in response to remedy performance. Key aspects of adaptive site management were described, including tools for revising and updating the conceptual site model (CSM), the importance of setting interim objectives to define short-term milestones on the journey to achieving site objectives, establishing a performance model and metrics to evaluate progress towards meeting interim objectives, and comparing actual with predicted progress during scheduled periodic evaluations, and establishing decision criteria for when and how to adapt/modify/revise the remedial strategy in response to remedy performance. Key findings will be published in an ITRC Technical and Regulatory guidance document in 2017 and free training webinars will be conducted. More information is available at www.itrc-web.org. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nuclear installations sites safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, P.; Candes, P.; Duclos, P.; Doumenc, A.; Faure, J.; Hugon, J.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-11-01

    This report is divided into ten parts bearing: 1 Safety analysis procedures for Basis Nuclear Installations sites (BNI) in France 2 Site safety for BNI in France 3 Industrial and transport activities risks for BNI in France 4 Demographic characteristics near BNI sites in France 5 Meteorologic characteristics of BNI sites in France 6 Geological aspects near the BNI sites in France 7 Seismic studies for BNI sites in France 8 Hydrogeological aspects near BNI sites in France 9 Hydrological aspects near BNI sites in France 10 Ecological and radioecological studies of BNI sites in France [fr

  1. Site locality identification study: Hanford Site. Volume II. Data cataloging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    Data compilation and cataloging for the candidate site locality identification study were conducted in order to provide a retrievable data cataloging system for the present siting study and future site evaluation and licensng processes. This task occurred concurrently with and also independently of other tasks of the candidate site locality identification study. Work in this task provided the data utilized primarily in the development and application of screening and ranking processes to identify candidate site localities on the Hanford Site. The overall approach included two steps: (1) data acquisition and screening; and (2) data compilation and cataloging. Data acquisition and screening formed the basis for preliminary review of data sources with respect to their probable utilization in the candidate site locality identification study and review with respect to the level of completeness and detail of the data. The important working assumption was that the data to be used in the study be based on existing and available published and unpublished literature. The data compilation and cataloging provided the basic product of the Task; a retrievable data cataloging system in the form of an annotated reference list and key word index and an index of compiled data. The annotated reference list and key word index are cross referenced and can be used to trace and retrieve the data sources utilized in the candidate site locality identification study

  2. Progress in the U.S. department of energy sponsored in-depth safety assessments of VVER and RBMK reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, J.L.; Petri, M.C.; Pasedag, W.F.

    2001-01-01

    Since the disastrous accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4 in 1986, there has been international recognition of the safety concerns posed by the operation of 67 Soviet-designed commercial nuclear reactors. These reactors are operated in eight countries from the former Soviet Union and its former satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe. The majority of these plants are in the Russian Federation (30 units) and Ukraine (14 units). New plants are in various stages of construction. U.S. support to improve the safety of Soviet-designed reactors over the past decade has been intended to enhance operational safety, provide for risk-reduction measures, and enhance regulatory capability. The U.S. approach to improving the safety of Soviet-designed reactors has matured into a large multi-year program known as the Soviet-Designed Reactor Safety Program that is managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE). The mission of the program is to implement a self-sustaining nuclear safety improvement program that would lead to internationally accepted safety practices at the plants. Those practices would create a safety culture that would be reflected in the operation, regulation, and professional attitudes of the designers, operators, and regulators of the nuclear facilities. A key component of this larger program has been the Plant Safety Evaluation Program, which supports in-depth safety assessments of VVER and RBMK plants. (author)

  3. In-depth evaluations of operating experiences in nuclear power plants. Annual report 2015/2016 (June 2015 - May 2016); Vertiefte Untersuchungen von Betriebserfahrungen aus Kernreaktoren. Jahresbericht 2015/2016 (Juni 2015 - Mai 2016)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mildenberger, Oliver

    2017-05-15

    A central task of GRS is the continuous evaluation of events in nuclear power plants in Germany and abroad on behalf of BMUB. GRS evaluates all reportable events from German plants as well as safety-relevant events in foreign nuclear power plants. It aims for the extraction of scientific insights and information to extend the knowledge base of GRS. Learning from operating experience is an important element for preserving and improving the safety level of nuclear power plants. Insights obtained from these in-depth evaluations form the scientific bas is for expert statements, information notices or generic reports on behalf of BMUB. This report presents major results of generic in-depth investigations on safety-relevant aspects detected during the screening of operating experience from all available sources in the reporting period. Moreover, the results of additional further works to determine and advance the state of the art in science and technology related to the evaluation of operating experience are summarized: Pilot study on evaluation of U.S. NRC Licensee Event Reports (LER); Update of knowledge base on transients; Extension of CCF checklist with CCF phenomena in valves and big machine components (pumps, emergency diesels, ventilations, heat exchangers and chillers); Generic analysis of events with errors during periodic inspections; Experiences with errors during construction and operation of nuclear concrete buildings; Assessment of results from precursor analyses.

  4. Prolonged Operative Duration Increases Risk of Surgical Site Infections: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hang; Chen, Brian Po-Han; Soleas, Ireena M; Ferko, Nicole C; Cameron, Chris G; Hinoul, Piet

    The incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) across surgical procedures, specialties, and conditions is reported to vary from 0.1% to 50%. Operative duration is often cited as an independent and potentially modifiable risk factor for SSI. The objective of this systematic review was to provide an in-depth understanding of the relation between operating time and SSI. This review included 81 prospective and retrospective studies. Along with study design, likelihood of SSI, mean operative times, time thresholds, effect measures, confidence intervals, and p values were extracted. Three meta-analyses were conducted, whereby odds ratios were pooled by hourly operative time thresholds, increments of increasing operative time, and surgical specialty. Pooled analyses demonstrated that the association between extended operative time and SSI typically remained statistically significant, with close to twice the likelihood of SSI observed across various time thresholds. The likelihood of SSI increased with increasing time increments; for example, a 13%, 17%, and 37% increased likelihood for every 15 min, 30 min, and 60 min of surgery, respectively. On average, across various procedures, the mean operative time was approximately 30 min longer in patients with SSIs compared with those patients without. Prolonged operative time can increase the risk of SSI. Given the importance of SSIs on patient outcomes and health care economics, hospitals should focus efforts to reduce operative time.

  5. Site locality identification study: Hanford Site. Volume I. Methodology, guidelines, and screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    Presented in this report are the results of the site locality identification study for the Hanford Site using a screening process. To enable evaluation of the entire Hanford Site, the screening process was applied to a somewhat larger area; i.e., the Pasco Basin. The study consisted of a series of screening steps that progressively focused on smaller areas which are within the Hanford Site and which had a higher potential for containing suitable repository sites for nuclear waste than the areas not included for further study. Five site localities, designated H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4, H-5 (Figure A), varying in size from approximately 10 to 50 square miles, were identified on the Hanford Site. It is anticipated that each site locality may contain one or more candidate sites suitable for a nuclear waste repository. The site locality identification study began with definition of objectives and the development of guidelines for screening. Three objectives were defined: (1) maximize public health and safety; (2) minimize adverse environmental and socioeconomic impacts; and (3) minimize system costs. The screening guidelines have numerical values that provided the basis for the successive reduction of the area under study and to focus on smaller areas that had a higher likelihood of containing suitable sites

  6. Qualitative Assessment of Learning Strategies among Medical Students Using Focus Group Discussions and In-depth Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anuradha Sujai; Ganjiwale, Jaishree Deepak; Varma, Jagdish; Singh, Praveen; Modi, Jyoti Nath; Singh, Tejinder

    2017-12-01

    Globally, students with top academic performance and high intellectual capacity usually opt to study medicine. However, once students get enrolled, their academic performance varies widely. Such variations appear to be determined by various factors, one of them being types of learning strategies adopted by students. The learning strategies utilized by the students with better academic performance are likely to be more effective learning strategies. The objective is to identify effective learning strategies used by medical students. This study was carried out among the MBBS students of Final Professional Part I. Students were categorized into three groups namely: high, average, and low rankers based on overall academic performance in second Professional University examination. First, a questionnaire consisting of closed- and open-ended questions was administered to students, to find their learning strategies. Subsequently, focus group discussion and in-depth interviews were conducted for high- and low-rankers. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Key statements were highlighted, collated, and categorized into general themes and sub-themes. Evident themes which emerged as effective strategies were hard work in the form of regularity of studies, meticulous preparation of notes, constructive use of time, utilization of e-learning, learning styles and deep learning approach and regular ward visits. Intrinsic motivation, family support, balancing physical activities and studies, guidance by seniors, teachers, dealing with nonacademic issues such as language barriers and stress were also identified as important strategies. Disseminating effective learning strategies in a systematic manner may be helpful to students in achieving better academic outcomes. Furthermore, educationists need to modulate their teaching strategies based on students' feedback.

  7. An in-depth analysis of the biological functional studies based on the NMR M2 channel structure of influenza A virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ribo; Du Qishi; Wang Chenghua; Chou, K.-C.

    2008-01-01

    The long-sought three-dimensional structure of the M2 proton channel of influenza A virus was successfully determined recently by the high-resolution NMR [J.R. Schnell, J.J. Chou, Structure and mechanism of the M2 proton channel of influenza A virus, Nature 451 (2008) 591-595]. Such a milestone work has provided a solid structural basis for studying drug-resistance problems. However, the action mechanism revealed from the NMR structure is completely different from the traditional view and hence prone to be misinterpreted as 'conflicting' with some previous biological functional studies. To clarify this kind of confusion, an in-depth analysis was performed for these functional studies, particularly for the mutations D44N, D44A and N44D on position 44, and the mutations on positions 27-38. The analyzed results have provided not only compelling evidences to further validate the NMR structure but also very useful clues for dealing with the drug-resistance problems and developing new effective drugs against H5N1 avian influenza virus, an impending threat to human beings.

  8. In-Depth Teaching on European Union Matters for Future Professionals Related to Industry 3.0 and Industry 4.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid MELNYK

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Future professionals in fields, which are in increasing demand on the labour market, need “Learning in Depth”. Such approach ensures that every student becomes familiar with specific EU issues they may choose to specialize on. It can be achieved via employing different teaching methodologies and technics. Developing in-depths learning materials, including hand-outs, power point presentations, tutorials materials, video-lectures, open on-line courses are part of this approach. Instead of traditional face-to-face lecturing, it implements lectures with open discussions and game simulations, targeting in particular cross-cultural peculiarities for sustainable development fostering based on achievements of Industry 3.0 and Industry 4.0. Much of the attention would be paid for the debates as a part of learning by doing methodology. The basic here is the Karl Popper format of debates. Its extended format with Government and Opposition as two confronting parties is preferable, modelled by debates with NGOs participation, local government, business, developers, and active citizens. The other type of team-work projects are round tables discussions, during which global scale issues will be simulated, where each student would need to become an expert for solving critical issues. There would be specific tasks of modelling production/consumption nets, including those achieved by social and solidarity economies.

  9. Site Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of various site features from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times...

  10. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills

    2008-09-01

    This appendix expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 (U.S. Department of Energy [DOE], 2008). Included are subsections that summarize the site's geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site which afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  11. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J.; Yancey, E.F.

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs

  12. Hanford Site Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Yancey, E.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs.

  13. In-depth nanocrystallization enhanced Li-ions batteries performance with nitrogen-doped carbon coated Fe3O4 yolk-shell nanocapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qianhui; Zhao, Rongfang; Liu, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiue; Shen, Xiao; Li, Wenlong; Diao, Guowang; Chen, Ming

    2017-03-01

    In this paper nitrogen-doped carbon-encapsulation Fe3O4 yolk-shell magnetic nanocapsules (Fe3O4@C-N nanocapsules) have been successfully constructed though a facile hydrothermal method and subsequent annealing process. Fe3O4 nanoparticles are completely enclosed in nitrogen-doped carbon shells with void space between the nanoparticle and the shell. The yolk-shell structure allows Fe3O4 nanoparticles to expand freely without breaking the outer carbon shell during the lithiation/delithiation processes. The volume expansion of Fe3O4 results in the in-depth nanocrystallization. Fortunately, the new generated small nanoparticles can increase the capability with the cycle increase due to the unique confinement effect and excellent electronic conductivity of the nitrogen-doped carbon shells. Hence, after 150 cycles, the discharge capacity of Fe3O4@C-N-700 nanocapsules still remained 832 mA h g-1 at 500 mA g-1, which corresponds to 116.7% of the lowest capacity (713 mA h g-1) at the 16th cycle. We believe that the yolk-shell structure is conducive to enhance the capacity of easy pulverization metal oxidation during the charge/discharge processes.

  14. Technical summary of groundwater quality protection program at the Savannah River Site, 1952--1986. Volume 1, Site geohydrology and waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, J.D. [ed.] [Exploration Resources, Inc., Athens, GA (United States)

    1991-11-01

    This report provides information regarding the status of and groundwater quality at the waste sites at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). Specific information provided for each waste site at SRS includes its location, size, inventory (when known), and history. Many waste sites at SRS are considered to be of little environmental concern because they contain nontoxic or inert material such as construction rubble and debris. Other waste sites, however, either are known to have had an effect on groundwater quality or are suspected of having the potential to affect groundwater. Monitoring wells have been installed at most of these sites; monitoring wells are scheduled for installation at the remaining sites. Results of the groundwater analyses from these monitoring wells, presented in the appendices, are used in the report to help identify potential contaminants of concern, if any, at each waste site. The list of actions proposed for each waste site in Christensen and Gordon`s 1983 report are summarized, and an update is provided for each site. Planned actions for the future are also outlined.

  15. New Reactor Siting in Finland, Hanhikivi Site in Pyhaejoki - STUK preliminary safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevalainen, Janne

    2013-01-01

    STUK has performed a preliminary assessment of the Decision-in-Principle on the Fennovoima application. A variety of factors must be considered in the selection of a site, including effects of the site on the plant design and the effects of the plant on the site environment. These include external hazards, both natural and human-induced. Since this is a new site, an extensive siting process is followed, that can include an EIA. A site survey is performed to identify candidate sites, after investigating a large region and rejecting unsuitable sites. The remaining sites are then screened and compared on the basis of safety and other considerations to select one or more preferred sites. Natural hazards include geology, seismology, hydrology and meteorology. Offshore ice will be a particular hazard for this plant, since the site is on average only 1.5 m above sea level. The design basis earthquake corresponds to a return frequency of 100,000 years, with 50 % confidence. The existing sites in southern Finland used a design peak ground acceleration of 0.1 g with the ground response spectrum maximum at 10 Hz. The candidate sites in northern Finland will require a peak ground acceleration of 0.2 g with the ground response spectrum maximum at 25 Hz

  16. Hydrogeological Site Descriptive Model - a strategy for its development during Site Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhen, Ingvar [SWECO VIAK AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Follin, Sven [SF GeoLogic AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    The report is to present a strategy for the development of the Site Descriptive Hydrogeological Model within the SKB Site Investigation Programme. The report, and similar reports from the Geology, Rock Mechanics, Thermal properties, Hydrogeochemistry, Transport Properties and Surface Ecosystem disciplines are intended to guide SKB Site Descriptive Modelling but also to provide the authorities with an overview of how the modelling should be performed. Thus the objectives of this report are to: provide guidelines for the modelling of different sites resulting in consistent handling of modelling issues during the Site Investigations, provide a structure for the modelling sequence that is suitable for the establishment of a Site Descriptive model and provide some necessary details that should be considered in a Site Descriptive model.

  17. Hydrogeological Site Descriptive Model - a strategy for its development during Site Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhen, Ingvar; Follin, Sven; Hermanson, Jan

    2003-04-01

    The report is to present a strategy for the development of the Site Descriptive Hydrogeological Model within the SKB Site Investigation Programme. The report, and similar reports from the Geology, Rock Mechanics, Thermal properties, Hydrogeochemistry, Transport Properties and Surface Ecosystem disciplines are intended to guide SKB Site Descriptive Modelling but also to provide the authorities with an overview of how the modelling should be performed. Thus the objectives of this report are to: provide guidelines for the modelling of different sites resulting in consistent handling of modelling issues during the Site Investigations, provide a structure for the modelling sequence that is suitable for the establishment of a Site Descriptive model and provide some necessary details that should be considered in a Site Descriptive model

  18. Computer aided site management. Site use management by digital mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chupin, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The logistics program developed for assisting the Hague site management is presented. A digital site mapping representation and geographical data bases are used. The digital site map and its integration into a data base are described. The program can be applied to urban and rural land management aid. Technical administrative and economic evaluations of the program are summarized [fr

  19. Site characterization quality assurance for the California LLRW Disposal Site Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanrahan, T.P.; Ench, J.E.; Serlin, C.L.; Bennett, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    In December of 1985 US Ecology was chosen as the license designee for the State of California's low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. In early 1987, three candidate sites were selected for characterization studies in preparation for identifying the preferred site. The geotechnical characterization activities along with studies of the ecological and archaeological attributes, as well as assessments of the socio-economic impacts and cultural resources all provide input towards selection of the proposed site. These technical studies in conjunction with comments from local citizen committees and other interested parties are used as a basis for determining the proposed site for which full site characterization as required by California licensing requirements are undertaken. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the program for Quality Assurance and Quality Control for the site characterization activities on the California LLRW Disposal Site Project. The focus is on three major perspectives: The composite QA Program and two of the primary characterization activities, the geotechnical and the meteorological investigations

  20. Site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, C.W.

    1983-07-01

    The conditions and criteria for selecting a site for a nuclear weapons test at the Nevada Test Site are summarized. Factors considered are: (1) scheduling of drill rigs, (2) scheduling of site preparation (dirt work, auger hole, surface casing, cementing), (3) schedule of event (when are drill hole data needed), (4) depth range of proposed W.P., (5) geologic structure (faults, Pz contact, etc.), (6) stratigraphy (alluvium, location of Grouse Canyon Tuff, etc.), (7) material properties (particularly montmorillonite and CO 2 content), (8) water table depth, (9) potential drilling problems (caving), (10) adjacent collapse craters and chimneys, (11) adjacent expended but uncollapsed sites, (12) adjacent post-shot or other small diameter holes, (13) adjacent stockpile emplacement holes, (14) adjacent planned events (including LANL), (15) projected needs of Test Program for various DOB's and operational separations, and (16) optimal use of NTS real estate

  1. Site-Specific Atmospheric Dispersion Characteristics of Korean Nuclear Power Plant Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, M. H.; Kim, E. H.; Suh, K. S.; Hwang, W. T.; Choi, Y. G.

    2001-01-01

    Site-specific atmospheric dispersion characteristics have been analyzed. The northwest and the southwest wind prevail on nuclear sites of Korea. The annual isobaric surface averaged for twenty years around Korean peninsula shows that west wind prevails. The prevailing west wind is profitable in the viewpoint of radiation protection because three of four nuclear sites are located in the east side. Large scale field tracer experiments over nuclear sites have been conducted for the purpose of analyzing the atmospheric dispersion characteristics and validating a real-time atmospheric dispersion and dose assessment system FADAS. To analyze the site-specific atmospheric dispersion characteristics is essential for making effective countermeasures against a nuclear emergency

  2. In-depth glycoproteomic characterization of γ-conglutin by high-resolution accurate mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Schiarea

    Full Text Available The molecular characterization of bioactive food components is necessary for understanding the mechanisms of their beneficial or detrimental effects on human health. This study focused on γ-conglutin, a well-known lupin seed N-glycoprotein with health-promoting properties and controversial allergenic potential. Given the importance of N-glycosylation for the functional and structural characteristics of proteins, we studied the purified protein by a mass spectrometry-based glycoproteomic approach able to identify the structure, micro-heterogeneity and attachment site of the bound N-glycan(s, and to provide extensive coverage of the protein sequence. The peptide/N-glycopeptide mixtures generated by enzymatic digestion (with or without N-deglycosylation were analyzed by high-resolution accurate mass liquid chromatography-multi-stage mass spectrometry. The four main micro-heterogeneous variants of the single N-glycan bound to γ-conglutin were identified as Man2(Xyl (Fuc GlcNAc2, Man3(Xyl (Fuc GlcNAc2, GlcNAcMan3(Xyl (Fuc GlcNAc2 and GlcNAc 2Man3(Xyl (Fuc GlcNAc2. These carry both core β1,2-xylose and core α1-3-fucose (well known Cross-Reactive Carbohydrate Determinants, but corresponding fucose-free variants were also identified as minor components. The N-glycan was proven to reside on Asn131, one of the two potential N-glycosylation sites. The extensive coverage of the γ-conglutin amino acid sequence suggested three alternative N-termini of the small subunit, that were later confirmed by direct-infusion Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis of the intact subunit.

  3. In-depth investigation on physicochemical and thermal properties of magnesium (II gluconate using spectroscopic and thermoanalytical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium gluconate is a classical organometallic pharmaceutical compound used for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesemia as a source of magnesium ion. The present research described the in-depth study on solid state properties viz. physicochemical and thermal properties of magnesium gluconate using sophisticated analytical techniques like PXRD, PSA, FT-IR, UV–Vis spectroscopy, TGA/DTG, and DSC. Magnesium gluconate was found to be crystalline in nature along with the crystallite size ranging from 14.10 to 47.35 nm. The particle size distribution was at d(0.1=6.552 µm, d(0.5=38.299 µm, d(0.9=173.712 µm and D(4,3=67.122 µm along with the specific surface area of 0.372 m2/g. The wavelength for the maximum absorbance was at 198.0 nm. Magnesium gluconate exhibited 88.51% weight loss with three stages of thermal degradation process up to 895.18 °C from room temperature. The TGA/DTG thermograms of the analyte indicated that magnesium gluconate was thermally stable up to around 165 °C. Consequently, the melting temperature of magnesium gluconate was found to be 169.90 °C along with the enthalpy of fusion of 308.7 J/g. Thus, the authors conclude that the achieved results from this study are very useful in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries for the identification, characterization and qualitative analysis of magnesium gluconate for preformulation studies and also for developing magnesium gluconate based novel formulation.

  4. 29 CFR 1926.752 - Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction... Steel Erection § 1926.752 Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction sequence. (a... strength or sufficient strength to support the loads imposed during steel erection. (c) Site layout. The...

  5. Contaminated Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Sites contaminated by hazardous materials or wastes. These sites are those administered by the Contaminated Sites Section of Iowa DNR. Many are sites which are...

  6. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, H.B.; Daly, K.S.; Rinne, C.A.; Seiler, S.W.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP's primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides an existing and future land use plan for the Hanford Site. The HSDP is updated annually in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B, Site Development Planning, to reflect the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans

  7. Site Calibration report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes site calibration measurements carried out on a site in Denmark. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. The site calibration is carried out before a power performance measurement on a given turbine to clarify the influence from the terrain on the ratio...

  8. Site directed recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurka, Jerzy W.

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced homologous recombination is obtained by employing a consensus sequence which has been found to be associated with integration of repeat sequences, such as Alu and ID. The consensus sequence or sequence having a single transition mutation determines one site of a double break which allows for high efficiency of integration at the site. By introducing single or double stranded DNA having the consensus sequence flanking region joined to a sequence of interest, one can reproducibly direct integration of the sequence of interest at one or a limited number of sites. In this way, specific sites can be identified and homologous recombination achieved at the site by employing a second flanking sequence associated with a sequence proximal to the 3'-nick.

  9. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011 Attachment A: Site Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011. Included are subsections that summarize the site's geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  10. Hanford Site Infrastructure Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Infrastructure Plan (HIP) has been prepared as an overview of the facilities, utilities, systems, and services that support all activities on the Hanford Site. Its purpose is three-fold: to examine in detail the existing condition of the Hanford Site's aging utility systems, transportation systems, Site services and general-purpose facilities; to evaluate the ability of these systems to meet present and forecasted Site missions; to identify maintenance and upgrade projects necessary to ensure continued safe and cost-effective support to Hanford Site programs well into the twenty-first century. The HIP is intended to be a dynamic document that will be updated accordingly as Site activities, conditions, and requirements change. 35 figs., 25 tabs

  11. Open-field test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyoda, Koichi; Shinozuka, Takashi

    1995-06-01

    An open-field test site with measurement equipment, a turn table, antenna positioners, and measurement auxiliary equipment was remodelled at the CRL north-site. This paper introduces the configuration, specifications and characteristics of this new open-field test site. Measured 3-m and 10-m site attenuations are in good agreement with theoretical values, and this means that this site is suitable for using 3-m and 10-m method EMI/EMC measurements. The site is expected to be effective for antenna measurement, antenna calibration, and studies on EMI/EMC measurement methods.

  12. Methodology of site studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caries, J.C.; Hugon, J.; Grauby, A.

    1980-01-01

    This methodology consists in an essentially dynamic, estimated and follow-up analysis of the impact of discharges on all the environment compartments, whether natural or not, that play a part in the protection of man and his environment. It applies at two levels, to wit: the choice of site, or the detailed study of the site selected. Two examples of its application will be developed, namely: at the choice of site level in the case of marine sites, and of the detailed study level of the chosen site in that of a riverside site [fr

  13. SITE: a methodology for assessment of energy facility siting patterns. Regional studies program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigerio, N.A.; Habegger, L.J.; King, R.F.; Hoover, L.J.; Clark, N.A.; Cobian, J.M.

    1975-08-01

    The timely development of the nation's energy production capacity in a manner that minimizes potential adverse local and regional impacts associated with energy facilities requires the use of sophisticated techniques for evaluation of siting alternatives and fuel cycle options. This report is a documentation of the computerized SITE methodology that has been developed for evaluating health, environmental, and socioeconomic impacts related to utilization of alternate sites for energy production within a region of interest. The cost, impact, and attribute vectors, which are generated and displayed on density maps, can be used in a multiparameter overlay process to identify preferable siting areas. The assessment of clustered facilities in energy centers is also possible within the SITE analysis framework. An application of the SITE methodology to Northern Illinois is presented. Also included is a description of the ongoing extension of SITE for the accumulative evaluation of alternative regional energy siting patterns and fuel cycle options. An appendix provides documentation and user information for the SITE computer program

  14. Site Characterization Work Plan for Gnome-Coach Site, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-02-13

    Project Gnome was the first nuclear experiment conducted under the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Plowshare Program. Gnome was part of a joint government-industry experiment focused on developing nuclear devices exclusively for peaceful purposes. The intent of the Gnome experiment was to evaluate the effects of a nuclear detonation in a salt medium. Historically, Project Gnome consisted of a single detonation of a nuclear device on December 10, 1961. Since the Gnome detonation, the AEC/DOE has conducted surface restoration, site reconnaissance, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at the site. In addition, annual groundwater sampling is performed under a long-term hydrological monitoring program begun in 1980. Coach, an experiment to be located near the Gnome project, was initially scheduled for 1963. Although construction and rehabilitation were completed for Coach, the experiment was canceled and never executed. Known collectively as Project Gnome-Coach, the site is situated within the Salado Formation approximately 25 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, in Eddy County, and is comprised of nearly 680 acres, of which 60 acres are disturbed from the combined AEC/DOE operations. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the project. The subsurface at the Gnome-Coach site has two contaminant sources that are fundamentally different in terms of both their stratigraphic location and release mechanism. The goal of this characterization is to collect data of sufficient quantity and quality to establish current site conditions and to use the data to identify and evaluate if further action is required to protect human health and the environment and achieve permanent closure of the site. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent corrective

  15. Isolation and prayer as means of solace for Arab women with breast cancer: An in-depth interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Ghada Najjar; Holroyd, Eleanor; Lopez, Violeta

    2017-11-01

    This study explored Arab women's experiences following the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 Arab women attending a public hospital in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, following a recent diagnosis of breast cancer. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the thematic method. Arab women's experiences following their breast cancer diagnoses and treatments included the themes of (1) protecting one's self from stigma, (2) facing uncertainties and prayers, and (3) getting on with life. Overall, the ways to find solace were through isolation and prayer, which are heavily influenced by religion and spiritual practices. They recommended that to help women with breast cancer, a campaign to raise awareness for early screening is needed as well the need to form a peer-led support group for women with breast cancer consisting of breast cancer survivors so that they can learn from each other's experiences. Arab women with breast cancer experienced a myriad of social, cultural, psychological, and relationship difficulties that impacted their overall health and well-being. The findings also found that these women were not passive agents. They sought to solve problem, move forward, and recreate the meanings in their lives in their own unique ways. Action is needed for possible ways to implement religion-health partnerships between breast cancer nurses, peer-led support groups, palliative care services, and religious institutions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. FeNi{sub 3} alloy nanocrystals grown on graphene: Controllable synthesis, in-depth characterization and enhanced electromagnetic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Teng; Yuan, Mengwei [Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials and College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Islam, Saiful M. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Li, Huifeng [Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials and College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Shulan, E-mail: mashulan@bnu.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials and College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Sun, Genban, E-mail: gbsun@bnu.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials and College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Department of Materials Physics and Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang, Xiaojing [Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials and College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2016-09-05

    FeNi{sub 3} nanocrystals as an ideal candidate for EM-wave-absorption material have a great advantage due to their excellent magnetic properties. However, its large permittivity and poor chemical stability confine its application. A strategy to improve electromagnetic performance of FeNi{sub 3}via phase-controlled synthesis of FeNi{sub 3} nanostructures grown on graphene networks has been employed in this work. The phases, structures, sizes and morphologies of FeNi{sub 3} nanocomposites were in-depth characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), and Raman spectroscopy. The results of electromagnetic performance tests for the as-synthesized FeNi{sub 3} nanocomposites showed excellent microwave absorbability in comparison with the corresponding FeNi{sub 3} nanocrystals, especially in the low (2–6 GHz) and middle (6–12 GHz) frequencies. The one-pot method we utilized is simple and effective, and because of its versatility, it may be extended to prepare some magnetic metal or alloy materials via this route. - Highlights: • Monodispersed FeNi{sub 3} alloy nanocrystals have been successfully assembled on 2D graphene via a one-pot strategy. • The process ensures different crystal phase and controlled morphology and size in the monodispersed particles. • The nanocomposites exhibit excellent microwave absorbability, which is stronger than the corresponding alloy monomer.

  17. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, H.B.; Daly, K.S.; Rinne, C.A.; Seiler, S.W.

    1992-05-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP's primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides a land use plan for the Hanford Site and presents a picture of what is currently known and anticipated in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B. Site Development Planning. The HSDP wig be updated annually as future decisions further shape the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans

  18. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: site screening and site evaluation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, C.C.; Brown, A.; Everitt, R.A.; Gascoyne, M.; Kozak, E.T.; Lodha, G.S.; Martin, C.D.; Soonawala, N.M.; Stevenson, D.R.; Thorne, G.A.; Whitaker, S.H.

    1994-06-01

    The concept for the disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste is to dispose of the waste in an underground vault, nominally at 500 m to 1000 m depth, at a suitable site in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The feasibility of this concept and assessments of its impact on the environment and human health, will be documented by AECL in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). This report is one of nine primary references for the EIS. It describes the approach and methods that would be used during the siting stage of the disposal project to identify a preferred candidate disposal site and to confirm its suitability for constructing a disposal facility. The siting stage is divided into two distinct but closely related substages, site screening and site evaluation. Site screening would mainly involve reconnaissance investigations of siting regions of the Shield to identify potential candidate areas where suitable vault locations are likely to exist. Site screening would identify a small number of candidate areas where further detailed investigations were warranted. Site evaluation would involve progressively more detailed surface and subsurface investigations of the candidate areas to first identify potentially suitable vault locations within the candidate areas, and then characterize these potential disposal sites to identify the preferred candidate location for constructing the disposal vault. Site evaluation would conclude with the construction of exploratory shafts and tunnels at the preferred vault location, and underground characterization would be done to confirm the suitability of the preferred candidate site. An integrated program of geological, geophysical, hydrogeological, geochemical and geomechanical investigations would be implemented to obtain the geoscience information needed to assess the suitability of the candidate siting areas and candidate sites for locating a disposal vault. The candidate siting areas and candidate disposal vault sites would be

  19. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Spook, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The Spook, Wyoming, site observational work plan proposes site-specific activities to achieve compliance with Subpart B of 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) of the final US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water protection standards 60 FR 2854 (1995) at this Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This draft SOWP presents a comprehensive summary of existing site characterization data, a conceptual site model of the nature and extent of ground water contamination, exposure pathways, and potential impact to human health and the environment. Section 2.0 describes the requirements for meeting ground water standards at UMTRA Project sites. Section 3.0 defines past and current conditions, describes potential environmental and human health risks, and provides site-specific data that supports the selection of a proposed ground water compliance strategy. Section 4.0 provides the justification for selecting the proposed ground water compliance strategy based on the framework defined in the ground water programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS)

  20. Hanford Site Composite Analysis Technical Approach Description: Hanford Site Disposition Baseline.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, M. A. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Dockter, R. E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-10-02

    The permeability of ground surfaces within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Hanford Site strongly influences boundary conditions when simulating the movement of groundwater using the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases model. To conduct site-wide modeling of cumulative impacts to groundwater from past, current, and future waste management activities, a site-wide assessment of the permeability of surface conditions is needed. The surface condition of the vast majority of the Hanford Site has been and continues to be native soils vegetated with dryland grasses and shrubs.

  1. Thioredoxin binding site of phosphoribulokinase overlaps the catalytic site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, M.A.; Hartman, F.C.

    1986-01-01

    The ATP-regulatory binding site of phosphoribulokinase was studied using bromoacetylethanolamine phosphate (BrAcNHEtOP). BrAcNHEtOP binds to the active-regulatory binding site of the protein. Following trypsin degradation of the labeled protein, fragments were separated by HPLC and sequenced. (DT)

  2. Web sites that work secrets from winning web sites

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Leading web site entrepreneur Jon Smith has condensed the secrets of his success into 52 inspiring ideas that even the most hopeless technophobe can implement. The brilliant tips and practical advice in Web sites that work will uplift and transform any website, from the simplest to the most complicated. It deals with everything from fundamentals such as how to assess the effectiveness of a website and how to get a site listed on the most popular search engines to more sophisticated challenges like creating a community and dealing with legal requirements. Straight-talking, practical and humorou

  3. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011 Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2012-09-12

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011. Included are subsections that summarize the site's geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  4. 75 FR 879 - National Semiconductor Corporation Arlington Manufacturing Site Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... engaged in activities related to the production of integrated circuits. The company reports that on-site... Corporation Arlington Manufacturing Site Including On-Site Leased Workers From GCA, CMPA (Silverleaf), Custom..., applicable to workers of National Semiconductor Corporation, Arlington Manufacturing Site, including on-site...

  5. 1994 Site environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Fernald site is a Department of Energy (DOE)-owned facility that produced high-quality uranium metals for military defense for nearly 40 years. DOE suspended production at the site in 1989 and formally ended production in 1991. Although production activities have ceased, the site continues to examine the air and liquid pathways as possible routes through which pollutants from past operations and current remedial activities may leave the site. The Site Environmental Report (SER) is prepared annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program. This 1994 SER provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site`s ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the site`s progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA). For some readers, the highlights provided in this Executive Summary may provide sufficient information. Many readers, however, may wish to read more detailed descriptions of the information than those which are presented here. All information presented in this summary is discussed more fully in the main body of this report.

  6. Site Specific Ground Response Analysis for Quantifying Site Amplification at A Regolith Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Setiawan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.4.3.159-167A numerical model has demonstrated that it can simulate reasonably well earthquake motions at the ground level during a seismic event. The most widely used model is an equivalent linear approach. The equivalent linear model was used to compute the free-field response of Adelaide regolith during the 1997 Burra earthquake. The aim of this study is to quantify the amplification at the investigated site. The model computed the ground response of horizontally layered soil deposits subjected to transient and vertically propagating shear waves through a one-dimensional-soil column. Each soil layer was assumed to be homogeneous, visco-elastic, and infinite in the horizontal extent. The results of this study were compared to other studies and forward computation of the geotechnical dynamic parameters of the investigated site. The amplification triggered by the 1997 Burra seismic event was deduced. This study reveals the amplification factor up to 3.6 at the studied site.

  7. Sexual practices of HIV-positive individuals attending antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Addis Ababa public hospitals: findings from in-depth interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessie, Yadeta; Deresa, Merga

    2012-01-01

    The rollout of Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) and improved health care services contributed in recuperating the quality of life and the functional status of HIV-positive people. These clinical effects of the treatment and cares are believed to bring a change on their sexual practices. The objective of this study was to explore the sexual practices of the HIV-positive people who were getting ART in selected Addis Ababa public hospitals. A qualitative in-depth interview was conducted. The interviews were made by trained nurse counselors of the same sex and were tape recorded. Verbatim transcription was made before the analysis. Thematic categorizations were made to present the findings. Most participants expressed regained sexual desires with initiation of ART while some others didn't appreciate the regains. Not using condoms or inconsistently using them was identified risky sexual practices. Sero-discordances and sero-status non-disclosure were common issues among the partners. Sero-status non-disclosure, non-use of condom and inconsistent using them were common sexual issues. These hinder the efforts that are being made to reduce new HIV infections and re-infections. Interventions against these problems can be made when clients come for their ART treatment and clinical care follow up.

  8. A future for nuclear sites beyond their service life. Nuclear site value development; Un avenir pour les sites nucleaires en fin de cycle. Valorisation des sites nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    As the nuclear industry moves into a new development phase, many facilities built in the fifties and sixties are reaching the end of their service life. Dismantling them and rehabilitating the sites on which they stand is a major industrial challenge which will give rise to a number of new projects. AREVA has more than 20 years' experience in these highly technical fields. As more and more sites reach the end of their service life, AREVA considers nuclear site value development as a fully-fledged industrial activity. The group's competencies in this field have been grouped together to form a dedicated entity: the Nuclear Site Value Development Business Unit, created in 2008. Several billion euros are invested in site value development projects which are far-reaching and complex, and often last for several decades. Long before work actually begins, lengthy studies and preparations are required to schedule operations, select the techniques to be used and optimize costs and deadlines. The Nuclear Site Value Development BU is currently working on four major projects involving its own facilities and those of the CEA: - La Hague: dismantling of the first generation of used fuel recycling facilities. Between 1966 and 1998, almost 5,000 tons of used fuel from graphite-moderated gas-cooled reactors, 4,500 tons of light water reactor fuel, as well as fuel from fast reactors and research reactors, were treated at UP2 400, the very first industrial recycling plant on the La Hague site. - Marcoule: first-time dismantling of a recycling plant. 1,000 rooms to be cleaned up, 30,000 tons of waste to be treated, 30 years of work. - Cadarache: first-time dismantling of a Mox fuel fabrication plant. The Cadarache plant was commissioned in 1962 to fabricate fuel for fast reactors; this was followed by MOX fuel for light water reactors, an activity which continued until the plant was shut down in 2003. - Annecy and Veurey: giving a new lease of life to former industrial sites

  9. Implementing Site-based Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielke, Catherine C.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses five questions that must be answered before implementing site-based budgeting: Why are we doing this? What budgeting decisions will be devolved to the school site? How do dollars flow from the central office to the site? Who will be involved at the site? How will accountability be achieved? (Author/PKP)

  10. EPA True NO2 ground site measurements – multiple sites, TCEQ ground site measurements of meteorological and air pollution parameters – multiple sites ,GeoTASO NO2 Vertical Column

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA True NO2 ground site measurements – multiple sites - http://www-air.larc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/ArcView/discover-aq.tx-2013; TCEQ ground site measurements of...

  11. New Site Coefficients and Site Classification System Used in Recent Building Seismic Code Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobry, R.; Borcherdt, R.D.; Crouse, C.B.; Idriss, I.M.; Joyner, W.B.; Martin, G.R.; Power, M.S.; Rinne, E.E.; Seed, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    Recent code provisions for buildings and other structures (1994 and 1997 NEHRP Provisions, 1997 UBC) have adopted new site amplification factors and a new procedure for site classification. Two amplitude-dependent site amplification factors are specified: Fa for short periods and Fv for longer periods. Previous codes included only a long period factor S and did not provide for a short period amplification factor. The new site classification system is based on definitions of five site classes in terms of a representative average shear wave velocity to a depth of 30 m (V?? s). This definition permits sites to be classified unambiguously. When the shear wave velocity is not available, other soil properties such as standard penetration resistance or undrained shear strength can be used. The new site classes denoted by letters A - E, replace site classes in previous codes denoted by S1 - S4. Site classes A and B correspond to hard rock and rock, Site Class C corresponds to soft rock and very stiff / very dense soil, and Site Classes D and E correspond to stiff soil and soft soil. A sixth site class, F, is defined for soils requiring site-specific evaluations. Both Fa and Fv are functions of the site class, and also of the level of seismic hazard on rock, defined by parameters such as Aa and Av (1994 NEHRP Provisions), Ss and S1 (1997 NEHRP Provisions) or Z (1997 UBC). The values of Fa and Fv decrease as the seismic hazard on rock increases due to soil nonlinearity. The greatest impact of the new factors Fa and Fv as compared with the old S factors occurs in areas of low-to-medium seismic hazard. This paper summarizes the new site provisions, explains the basis for them, and discusses ongoing studies of site amplification in recent earthquakes that may influence future code developments.

  12. Health information exchange technology on the front lines of healthcare: workflow factors and patterns of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin B; Lorenzi, Nancy M

    2011-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to develop an in-depth understanding of how a health information exchange (HIE) fits into clinical workflow at multiple clinical sites. Materials and Methods The ethnographic qualitative study was conducted over a 9-month period in six emergency departments (ED) and eight ambulatory clinics in Memphis, Tennessee, USA. Data were collected using direct observation, informal interviews during observation, and formal semi-structured interviews. The authors observed for over 180 h, during which providers used the exchange 130 times. Results HIE-related workflow was modeled for each ED site and ambulatory clinic group and substantial site-to-site workflow differences were identified. Common patterns in HIE-related workflow were also identified across all sites, leading to the development of two role-based workflow models: nurse based and physician based. The workflow elements framework was applied to the two role-based patterns. An in-depth description was developed of how providers integrated HIE into existing clinical workflow, including prompts for HIE use. Discussion Workflow differed substantially among sites, but two general role-based HIE usage models were identified. Although providers used HIE to improve continuity of patient care, patient–provider trust played a significant role. Types of information retrieved related to roles, with nurses seeking to retrieve recent hospitalization data and more open-ended usage by nurse practitioners and physicians. User and role-specific customization to accommodate differences in workflow and information needs may increase the adoption and use of HIE. Conclusion Understanding end users' perspectives towards HIE technology is crucial to the long-term success of HIE. By applying qualitative methods, an in-depth understanding of HIE usage was developed. PMID:22003156

  13. A Case of Hepatotoxicity Related to Kombucha Tea Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedela, Maheedhar; Potu, Kalyan Chakravarthy; Gali, Vasantha L; Alyamany, Kimberlee; Jha, Lokesh K

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal and dietary supplements (HDSs) is widespread and growing due to the popular notion that these products are of natural origins and safe. Kombucha (or "mushroom") tea is one HDS that is consumed by people for various perceived health benefits. Kombucha tea is a well-known health beverage made by fermenting sweet black tea with a round, flat, gray fungus for a week or longer. There is concern, however, from the evidence of a few case reports currently available, that it may pose life-threatening and/or adverse effects for users.

  14. #%In-depth investigation on physicochemical and thermal properties of magnesium (II) gluconate using spectroscopic and thermoanalytical techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    #

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium gluconate is a classical organometallic pharmaceutical compound used for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesemia as a source of magnesium ion. The present research described the in-depth study on solid state properties viz. physicochemical and thermal properties of magnesium gluconate using sophisticated analytical techniques like Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), particle size analysis ( PSA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)/differential thermogravimetric analysis (DTG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Magnesium gluconate was found to be crystalline in nature along with the crystallite size ranging from 14.10 to 47.35 nm. The particle size distribution was at d(0.1)=6.552 μm, d(0.5)=38.299 μm, d(0.9)=173.712 μm and D(4,3)=67.122 μm along with the specific surface area of 0.372 m2/g. The wavelength for the maximum absorbance was at 198.0 nm. Magnesium gluconate exhibited 88.51% weight loss with three stages of thermal degradation process up to 895.18 ℃ from room temperature. The TGA/DTG thermograms of the analyte indicated that magnesium gluconate was thermally stable up to around 165 ℃. Consequently, the melting temperature of magnesium gluconate was found to be 169.90 ℃ along with the enthalpy of fusion of 308.7 J/g. Thus, the authors conclude that the achieved results from this study are very useful in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries for the identification, characterization and qualitative analysis of magnesium gluconate for preformulation studies and also for developing magnesium gluconate based novel formulation.

  15. In-depth performance evaluation of PFP and ESG sequence-based function prediction methods in CAFA 2011 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitale Meghana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Automatic Function Prediction (AFP methods were developed to cope with an increasing growth of the number of gene sequences that are available from high throughput sequencing experiments. To support the development of AFP methods, it is essential to have community wide experiments for evaluating performance of existing AFP methods. Critical Assessment of Function Annotation (CAFA is one such community experiment. The meeting of CAFA was held as a Special Interest Group (SIG meeting at the Intelligent Systems in Molecular Biology (ISMB conference in 2011. Here, we perform a detailed analysis of two sequence-based function prediction methods, PFP and ESG, which were developed in our lab, using the predictions submitted to CAFA. Results We evaluate PFP and ESG using four different measures in comparison with BLAST, Prior, and GOtcha. In addition to the predictions submitted to CAFA, we further investigate performance of a different scoring function to rank order predictions by PFP as well as PFP/ESG predictions enriched with Priors that simply adds frequently occurring Gene Ontology terms as a part of predictions. Prediction accuracies of each method were also evaluated separately for different functional categories. Successful and unsuccessful predictions by PFP and ESG are also discussed in comparison with BLAST. Conclusion The in-depth analysis discussed here will complement the overall assessment by the CAFA organizers. Since PFP and ESG are based on sequence database search results, our analyses are not only useful for PFP and ESG users but will also shed light on the relationship of the sequence similarity space and functions that can be inferred from the sequences.

  16. The site selection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittel, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    One of the most arduous tasks associated with the management of radioactive wastes is the siting of new disposal facilities. Experience has shown that the performance of the disposal facility during and after disposal operations is critically dependent on the characteristics of the site itself. The site selection process consists of defining needs and objectives, identifying geographic regions of interest, screening and selecting candidate sites, collecting data on the candidate sites, and finally selecting the preferred site. Before the site selection procedures can be implemented, however, a formal legal system must be in place that defines broad objectives and, most importantly, clearly establishes responsibilities and accompanying authorities for the decision-making steps in the procedure. Site selection authorities should make every effort to develop trust and credibility with the public, local officials, and the news media. The responsibilities of supporting agencies must also be spelled out. Finally, a stable funding arrangement must be established so that activities such as data collection can proceed without interruption. Several examples, both international and within the US, are given

  17. Site environmental programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, J.W.; Hanf, R.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the site environmental programs. Effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance programs monitor for impacts from operations in several areas. The first area consists of the point of possible release into the environment. The second area consists of possible contamination adjacent to DOE facilities, and the third area is the general environment both on and off the site.

  18. Site environmental programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.W.; Hanf, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the site environmental programs. Effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance programs monitor for impacts from operations in several areas. The first area consists of the point of possible release into the environment. The second area consists of possible contamination adjacent to DOE facilities, and the third area is the general environment both on and off the site

  19. LLNL Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Potable Water System Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocampo, R. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bellah, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-14

    The existing Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 drinking water system operation schematic is shown in Figures 1 and 2 below. The sources of water are from two Site 300 wells (Well #18 and Well #20) and San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) Hetch-Hetchy water through the Thomas shaft pumping station. Currently, Well #20 with 300 gallons per minute (gpm) pump capacity is the primary source of well water used during the months of September through July, while Well #18 with 225 gpm pump capacity is the source of well water for the month of August. The well water is chlorinated using sodium hypochlorite to provide required residual chlorine throughout Site 300. Well water chlorination is covered in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Chlorination Plan (“the Chlorination Plan”; LLNL-TR-642903; current version dated August 2013). The third source of water is the SFPUC Hetch-Hetchy Water System through the Thomas shaft facility with a 150 gpm pump capacity. At the Thomas shaft station the pumped water is treated through SFPUC-owned and operated ultraviolet (UV) reactor disinfection units on its way to Site 300. The Thomas Shaft Hetch- Hetchy water line is connected to the Site 300 water system through the line common to Well pumps #18 and #20 at valve box #1.

  20. Inter-Site Consistency at a Multi-Site Psychiatry Clerkship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultes von Schlageter, Margo; Park, EunMi; Tucker, Phebe

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the effects of clinical site assignment within a multiple-site psychiatry clerkship program on the convergent outcome of the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) subject examination. Method: NBME scores, controlled for baseline pre-clerkship knowledge base as measured by second year human behavior scores, were…

  1. NRC staff site characterization analysis of the Department of Energy's Site Characterization Plan, Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    This Site Characterization Analysis (SCA) documents the NRC staff's concerns resulting from its review of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Site Characterization Plan (SCP) for the Yucca Mountain site in southern Nevada, which is the candidate site selected for characterization as the nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. DOE's SCP explains how DOE plans to obtain the information necessary to determine the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for a repository. NRC's specific objections related to the SCP, and major comments and recommendations on the various parts of DOE's program, are presented in SCA Section 2, Director's Comments and Recommendations. Section 3 contains summaries of the NRC staff's concerns for each specific program, and Section 4 contains NRC staff point papers which set forth in greater detail particular staff concerns regarding DOE's program. Appendix A presents NRC staff evaluations of those NRC staff Consultation Draft SCP concerns that NRC considers resolved on the basis of the SCP. This SCA fulfills NRC's responsibilities with respect to DOE's SCP as specified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) and 10 CFR 60.18. 192 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Argonne National Laboratory summary site environmental report for calendar year 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golchert, N. W.

    2009-05-22

    This summary of Argonne National Laboratory's Site Environmental Report for calendar year 2007 was written by 20 students at Downers Grove South High School in Downers Grove, Ill. The student authors are classmates in Mr. Howard's Bio II course. Biology II is a research-based class that teaches students the process of research by showing them how the sciences apply to daily life. For the past seven years, Argonne has worked with Biology II students to create a short document summarizing the Site Environmental Report to provide the public with an easy-to-read summary of the annual 300-page technical report on the results of Argonne's on-site environmental monitoring program. The summary is made available online and given to visitors to Argonne, researchers interested in collaborating with Argonne, future employees, and many others. In addition to providing Argonne and the public with an easily understandable short summary of a large technical document, the participating students learn about professional environmental monitoring procedures, achieve a better understanding of the time and effort put forth into summarizing and publishing research, and gain confidence in their own abilities to express themselves in writing. The Argonne Summary Site Environmental Report fits into the educational needs for 12th grade students. Illinois State Educational Goal 12 states that a student should understand the fundamental concepts, principles, and interconnections of the life, physical, and earth/space sciences. To create this summary booklet, the students had to read and understand the larger technical report, which discusses in-depth many activities and programs that have been established by Argonne to maintain a safe local environment. Creating this Summary Site Environmental Report also helps students fulfill Illinois State Learning Standard 12B5a, which requires that students be able to analyze and explain biodiversity issues, and the causes and effects of

  3. Superfund Site Information - Site Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes Superfund site-specific sampling information including location of samples, types of samples, and analytical chemistry characteristics of...

  4. First experiences in the implementation of biometric technology to link data from Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems with health facility data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwoa Serwaa-Bonsu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In developing countries, Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs provide a framework for tracking demographic and health dynamics over time in a defined geographical area. Many HDSSs co-exist with facility-based data sources in the form of Health Management Information Systems (HMIS. Integrating both data sources through reliable record linkage could provide both numerator and denominator populations to estimate disease prevalence and incidence rates in the population and enable determination of accurate health service coverage. Objective: To measure the acceptability and performance of fingerprint biometrics to identify individuals in demographic surveillance populations and those attending health care facilities serving the surveillance populations. Methodology: Two HDSS sites used fingerprint biometrics for patient and/or surveillance population participant identification. The proportion of individuals for whom a fingerprint could be successfully enrolled were characterised in terms of age and sex. Results: Adult (18–65 years fingerprint enrolment rates varied between 94.1% (95% CI 93.6–94.5 for facility-based fingerprint data collection at the Africa Centre site to 96.7% (95% CI 95.9–97.6 for population-based fingerprint data collection at the Agincourt site. Fingerprint enrolment rates in children under 1 year old (Africa Centre site were only 55.1% (95% CI 52.7–57.4. By age 5, child fingerprint enrolment rates were comparable to those of adults. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the feasibility of fingerprint-based individual identification for population-based research in developing countries. Record linkage between demographic surveillance population databases and health care facility data based on biometric identification systems would allow for a more comprehensive evaluation of population health, including the ability to study health service utilisation from a population perspective, rather than the

  5. First experiences in the implementation of biometric technology to link data from Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems with health facility data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serwaa-Bonsu, Adwoa; Herbst, Abraham J; Reniers, Georges; Ijaa, Wilfred; Clark, Benjamin; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa; Sankoh, Osman

    2010-02-24

    In developing countries, Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs) provide a framework for tracking demographic and health dynamics over time in a defined geographical area. Many HDSSs co-exist with facility-based data sources in the form of Health Management Information Systems (HMIS). Integrating both data sources through reliable record linkage could provide both numerator and denominator populations to estimate disease prevalence and incidence rates in the population and enable determination of accurate health service coverage. To measure the acceptability and performance of fingerprint biometrics to identify individuals in demographic surveillance populations and those attending health care facilities serving the surveillance populations. Two HDSS sites used fingerprint biometrics for patient and/or surveillance population participant identification. The proportion of individuals for whom a fingerprint could be successfully enrolled were characterised in terms of age and sex. Adult (18-65 years) fingerprint enrolment rates varied between 94.1% (95% CI 93.6-94.5) for facility-based fingerprint data collection at the Africa Centre site to 96.7% (95% CI 95.9-97.6) for population-based fingerprint data collection at the Agincourt site. Fingerprint enrolment rates in children under 1 year old (Africa Centre site) were only 55.1% (95% CI 52.7-57.4). By age 5, child fingerprint enrolment rates were comparable to those of adults. This work demonstrates the feasibility of fingerprint-based individual identification for population-based research in developing countries. Record linkage between demographic surveillance population databases and health care facility data based on biometric identification systems would allow for a more comprehensive evaluation of population health, including the ability to study health service utilisation from a population perspective, rather than the more restrictive health service perspective.

  6. Implementing ‘Site BIM’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Richard; Harty, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Numerous Building Information Modelling (BIM) tools are well established and potentially beneficial in certain uses. However, issues of adoption and implementation persist, particularly for on-site use of BIM tools in the construction phase. We describe an empirical case-study of the implementation...... of an innovative ‘Site BIM’ system on a major hospital construction project. The main contractor on the project developed BIM-enabled tools to allow site workers using mobile tablet personal computers to access design information and to capture work quality and progress data on-site. Accounts show that ‘Site BIM...

  7. Olkiluoto site description 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    This fourth version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2008 with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2010. A descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model, SDM), i.e. a model describing the geological and hydrogeological structure of the site, properties of the bedrock and the groundwater and its flow, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. The SDM is divided into six parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and transport properties

  8. Olkiluoto site description 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This fourth version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2008 with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2010. A descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model, SDM), i.e. a model describing the geological and hydrogeological structure of the site, properties of the bedrock and the groundwater and its flow, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. The SDM is divided into six parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and transport properties.

  9. Site Selection for Surplus Plutonium Disposition Facilities at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wike, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    A site selection study was conducted to evaluate locations for the proposed Surplus Plutonium Disposition Facilities. Facilities to be located include the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility, the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF), and the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) facility. Objectives of the study include: (1) Confirm that the Department of Energy (DOE) selected locations for the MOX and PDCF were suitable based on selected siting criteria, (2) Recommend a site in the vicinity of F Area that is suitable for the PIP, and (3) Identify alternative suitable sites for one or more of these facilities in the event that further geotechnical characterization or other considerations result in disqualification of a currently proposed site

  10. Methods for estimating on-site ambient air concentrations at disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    Currently, Gaussian type dispersion modeling and point source approximation are combined to estimate the ambient air concentrations of pollutants dispersed downwind of an areawide emission source, using the approach of virtual point source approximation. This Gaussian dispersion modeling becomes less accurate as the receptor comes closer to the source, and becomes inapplicable for the estimation of on-site ambient air concentrations at disposal sites. Partial differential equations are solved with appropriate boundary conditions for use in estimating the on-site concentrations in the ambient air impacted by emissions from an area source such as land disposal sites. Two variations of solution techniques are presented, and their predictions are compared

  11. Site Rehabilitation Completion Report with No Further Action Proposal for the Northeast Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Joe [Stoller Newport News Technology, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Tabor, Charles [Stoller Newport News Technology, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Survochak, Scott [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, CO (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this Site Rehabilitation Completion Report is to present the post-active-remediation monitoring results for the Northeast Site and to propose No Further Action with Controls. This document includes information required by Chapter 62-780.750(4)(d), 62-780.750(6), and 62-780.600(8)(a)27 Florida Administrative Code (F.A.C.). The Closure Monitoring Plan for the Northeast Site and 4.5 Acre Site (DOE 2009a) describes the approach for post-active-remediation monitoring. The Young - Rainey Science, Technology, and Research Center (STAR Center) is a former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility constructed in the mid-1950s. The 99-acre STAR Center is located in Largo, Florida. The Northeast Site is located in the northeast corner of the STAR Center. The Northeast Site meets all the requirements for an RMO II closure—No Further Action with Controls. DOE is nearing completion of a restrictive covenant for the Northeast Site. DOE has completed post-active-remediation monitoring at the Northeast Site as of September 2012. No additional monitoring will be conducted.

  12. Expedited Site Characterization: A rapid, cost-effective process for preremedial site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.C.; Walker, J.L.; Jennings, T.V.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Hastings, B.; Meyer, W.T.; Rose, C.M.; Rosignolo, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a unique, cost- and time-effective, technically innovative process for preremedial site characterization, referred to as Expedited Site Characterization (ESC). The cost of the ESC field sampling process ranges from 1/10 to 1/5 of the cost of traditional site characterization. The time required for this ESC field activity is approximately 1/30 of that for current methods. Argonne's preremedial site investigations based on this approach have been accepted by the appropriate regulatory agencies. The ESC process is flexible and neither site nor contaminant dependent. The process has been successfully tested and applied in site investigations of multiple contaminated landfills in New Mexico (for the US Department of the Interior's Bureau of Land Management [BLM]) and at former grain storage facilities in Nebraska and Kansas, contaminated with carbon tetrachloride (for the Department of Agriculture's Commodity Credit Corporation [CCC/USDA]). A working demonstration of this process was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development as a model of the methodology needed to accelerate site characterizations at DOE facilities. This report describes the application of the process in New Mexico, Nebraska and Kansas

  13. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA project site at Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This site observational work plan (SOWP) is one of the first Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project documents developed to select a compliance strategy that meets the UMTRA ground water standards for the Grand Junction site. This SOWP applies information about the Grand Junction site to the compliance strategy selection framework developed in the UMTRA Ground Water Project draft programmatic environmental impact statement. This risk-based, decision-making framework identifies the decision logic for selecting compliance strategies that could be used to meet the ground water standards. The US Department of Energy (DOE) goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. Based on an evaluation of the site characterization and risk assessment data available for the preparation of this SOWP, DOE proposes that the most likely compliance strategy for the Grand Junction site is no remediation with the application of supplemental standards. This proposed strategy is based on a conceptual site model that indicates site-related contamination is confined to a limited-use aquifer as defined in the ground water standards. The conceptual model demonstrates that the uranium processing-related contamination at the site has affected the unconfined alluvial aquifer, but not the deeper confined aquifer

  14. Searching your site`s management information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez, W.; Rollin, C. [S.M. Stoller Corp., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Department of Energy`s guidelines for the Baseline Environmental Management Report (BEMR) encourage the use of existing data when compiling information. Specific systems mentioned include the Progress Tracking System, the Mixed-Waste Inventory Report, the Waste Management Information System, DOE 4700.1-related systems, Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) data, and existing Work Breakdown Structures. In addition to these DOE-Headquarters tracking and reporting systems, there are a number of site systems that will be relied upon to produce the BEMR, including: (1) site management control and cost tracking systems; (2) commitment/issues tracking systems; (3) program-specific internal tracking systems; (4) Site material/equipment inventory systems. New requirements have often prompted the creation of new, customized tracking systems. This is a very time and money consuming process. As the BEMR Management Plan emphasizes, an effort should be made to use the information in existing tracking systems. Because of the wealth of information currently available from in-place systems, development of a new tracking system should be a last resort.

  15. Application of the Integrated Site and Environment Data Management System for LILW Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Lee, Eun Yong; Kim, Chang Lak

    2007-01-01

    During the last five years, Site Information and Total Environmental data management System(SITES) has been developed. SITES is an integrated program for overall data acquisition, environmental monitoring, and safety analysis. SITES is composed of three main modules, such as site database system (SECURE), safety assessment system (SAINT) and environmental monitoring system (SUDAL). In general, for the safe management of radioactive waste repository, the information of site environment should be collected and managed systematically from the initial site survey. For this, SECURE module manages its data for the site characterization, environmental information, and radioactive environmental information etc. The purpose of SAINT module is to apply and analyze the data from SECURE. SUDAL is developed for environmental monitoring of the radioactive waste repository. Separately, it is ready to open to the public for offering partial information

  16. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009, Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2010-09-13

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009. Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  17. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  18. Site characterization criteria (DOE-STD-1022-94) for natural phenomena hazards at DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.C.; Ueng, T.S.; Boissonnade, A.C.

    1995-12-01

    This paper briefly summarizes requirements of site characterization for Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) at DOE sites. In order to comply with DOE Order 5480.28, site characterization criteria has been developed to provide site-specific information needed for development of NPH assessment criteria. Appropriate approaches are outlined to ensure that the current state-of-the-art methodologies and procedures are used in the site characterization. General and detailed site characterization requirements are provided in the areas of meteorology, hydrology, geology, seismology and geotechnical studies

  19. Non-Invasive Seismic Methods for Earthquake Site Classification Applied to Ontario Bridge Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilson Darko, A.; Molnar, S.; Sadrekarimi, A.

    2017-12-01

    How a site responds to earthquake shaking and its corresponding damage is largely influenced by the underlying ground conditions through which it propagates. The effects of site conditions on propagating seismic waves can be predicted from measurements of the shear wave velocity (Vs) of the soil layer(s) and the impedance ratio between bedrock and soil. Currently the seismic design of new buildings and bridges (2015 Canadian building and bridge codes) requires determination of the time-averaged shear-wave velocity of the upper 30 metres (Vs30) of a given site. In this study, two in situ Vs profiling methods; Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) and Ambient Vibration Array (AVA) methods are used to determine Vs30 at chosen bridge sites in Ontario, Canada. Both active-source (MASW) and passive-source (AVA) surface wave methods are used at each bridge site to obtain Rayleigh-wave phase velocities over a wide frequency bandwidth. The dispersion curve is jointly inverted with each site's amplification function (microtremor horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio) to obtain shear-wave velocity profile(s). We apply our non-invasive testing at three major infrastructure projects, e.g., five bridge sites along the Rt. Hon. Herb Gray Parkway in Windsor, Ontario. Our non-invasive testing is co-located with previous invasive testing, including Standard Penetration Test (SPT), Cone Penetration Test and downhole Vs data. Correlations between SPT blowcount and Vs are developed for the different soil types sampled at our Ontario bridge sites. A robust earthquake site classification procedure (reliable Vs30 estimates) for bridge sites across Ontario is evaluated from available combinations of invasive and non-invasive site characterization methods.

  20. DOE site performance assessment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    Information on performance assessment capabilities and activities was collected from eight DOE sites. All eight sites either currently dispose of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or plan to dispose of LLW in the near future. A survey questionnaire was developed and sent to key individuals involved in DOE Order 5820.2A performance assessment activities at each site. The sites surveyed included: Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The questionnaire addressed all aspects of the performance assessment process; from waste source term to dose conversion factors. This report presents the information developed from the site questionnaire and provides a comparison of site-specific performance assessment approaches, data needs, and ongoing and planned activities. All sites are engaged in completing the radioactive waste disposal facility performance assessment required by DOE Order 5820.2A. Each site has achieved various degrees of progress and have identified a set of critical needs. Within several areas, however, the sites identified common needs and questions

  1. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2006 and Site Description (Volume 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills

    2007-10-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2006 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). This Executive Summary presents the purpose of the document, the major programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), NTS key environmental initiatives, radiological releases and potential doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of nonradiological releases, implementation status of the NTS Environmental Management System, a summary of compliance with environmental regulations, pollution prevention and waste minimization accomplishments, and significant environmental accomplishments. Much of the content of this Executive Summary is also presented in a separate stand-alone pamphlet titled Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2006 produced to be a more cost-effective means of distributing information contained in the NTSER to interested DOE stakeholders.

  2. Site selection - siting of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    SKB has selected Forsmark as the site for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site selection is the end result of an extensive siting process that began in the early 1990s. The strategy and plan for the work was based on experience from investigations and development work over a period of more than ten years prior to then. This document describes the siting work and SKB's choice of site for the final repository. It also presents the information on which the choice was based and the reasons for the decisions made along the way. The document comprises Appendix PV to applications under the Nuclear Activities Act and the Environmental Code for licences to build and operate an encapsulation plant adjacent to the central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in Oskarshamn, and to build and operate a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark in Oesthammar Municipality

  3. Site selection - siting of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-03-15

    SKB has selected Forsmark as the site for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site selection is the end result of an extensive siting process that began in the early 1990s. The strategy and plan for the work was based on experience from investigations and development work over a period of more than ten years prior to then. This document describes the siting work and SKB's choice of site for the final repository. It also presents the information on which the choice was based and the reasons for the decisions made along the way. The document comprises Appendix PV to applications under the Nuclear Activities Act and the Environmental Code for licences to build and operate an encapsulation plant adjacent to the central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in Oskarshamn, and to build and operate a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark in Oesthammar Municipality

  4. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2006 and Site Description (Volume 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathy Wills

    2007-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2006 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). This Executive Summary presents the purpose of the document, the major programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), NTS key environmental initiatives, radiological releases and potential doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of nonradiological releases, implementation status of the NTS Environmental Management System, a summary of compliance with environmental regulations, pollution prevention and waste minimization accomplishments, and significant environmental accomplishments. Much of the content of this Executive Summary is also presented in a separate stand-alone pamphlet titled Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2006 produced to be a more cost-effective means of distributing information contained in the NTSER to interested DOE stakeholders

  5. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Falls City, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    Produced by the US Department of Energy (DOE), this site observational work plan (SOWP) will be used to determine site-specific activities to comply with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards at this Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The purpose of the SOWP is to recommend a site-specific ground water compliance strategy at the Falls City UMTRA Project site. The Falls City SOWP presents a comprehensive summary of site hydrogeological data, delineates a conceptual model of the aquifer system, and discusses the origins of milling-related ground water contamination. It also defines the magnitude of ground water contamination, potential environmental and health risks associated with ground water contamination and data gaps, and targets a proposed compliance strategy

  6. Site-Specific Seismic Site Response Model for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, Alan C.; Reidel, Steve P.

    2005-02-24

    This interim report documents the collection of site-specific geologic and geophysical data characterizing the Waste Treatment Plant site and the modeling of the site-specific structure response to earthquake ground motions.

  7. Technical know-how of site descriptive modeling for site characterization - 59089

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Onoe, Hironori; Doke, Ryosuke; Niizato, Tadafumi; Yasue, Ken-ichi

    2012-01-01

    The site descriptive model covering the current status of characteristics of geological environment and the site evolution model for estimation of the long-term evolution of site conditions are used to integrate multi-disciplinary investigation results. It is important to evaluate uncertainties in the models, to specify issues regarding the uncertainties and to prioritize the resolution of specified issues, for the planning of site characterization. There is a large quantity of technical know-how in the modeling process. It is important to record the technical know-how with transparency and traceability, since site characterization projects generally need long duration. The transfer of the technical know-how accumulated in the research and development (R and D) phase to the implementation phase is equally important. The aim of this study is to support the planning of initial surface-based site characterizations based on the technical know-how accumulated from the underground research laboratory projects. These projects are broad scientific studies of the deep geological environment and provide a technical basis for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. In this study, a comprehensive task flow from acquisition of existing data to planning of field investigations through the modeling has been specified. Specific task flow and decision-making process to perform the tasks have been specified. (authors)

  8. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this initial site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Grand Junction, Colorado. This SOWP is one of the first UMTRA Ground Water Project documents developed to select a compliance strategy that meets the UMTRA ground water standards (40 CFR Part 192, as amended by 60 FR 2854) for the Grand Junction site. This SOWP applies information about the Grand Junction site to the compliance strategy selection framework developed in the UMTRA Ground Water Project draft programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS). This risk-based, decision-making framework identifies the decision logic for selecting compliance strategies that could be used to meet the ground water standards. The DOE goal is to use the observational method to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. Based on an evaluation of the site characterization and risk assessment data available for the preparation of this SOWP, DOE proposes that the most likely compliance strategy for the Grand Junction site is no remediation based on the application of supplemental standards. This proposed strategy is based on a conceptual site model that indicates site-related contamination is confined to a limited-use aquifer as defined in the ground water standards

  9. Site enforcement tracking system (SETS): PRP listing by site for region 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number

  10. Site enforcement tracking system (SETS): PRP listing by site for region 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number

  11. Site enforcement tracking system (SETS): PRP listing by site for region 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number

  12. Site enforcement tracking system (SETS): PRP listing by site for region 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number

  13. Site enforcement tracking system (SETS): PRP listing by site for region 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number

  14. Site enforcement tracking system (SETS): PRP listing by site for region 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number

  15. Site enforcement tracking system (SETS): PRP listing by site for region 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number

  16. Nuclear site selection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.; Zohoorian Izadpanah, A.A.; Iranmanesh, H.

    2000-01-01

    It is of special importance, especially from the nuclear safety viewpoint, to select suitable sites for different nuclear structures with the considered future activities. Site selection sometimes involves high costs not necessarily for merely selecting of site but for some preliminary measures to be taken so as the site may have the necessary characteristics. The more suitable the natural characteristics of the site for the considered project, the more successful and efficient the project, the lower the project costs and the longer the project operation period. If so, the project will cause the growth of public culture and sustainable socioeconomic development. This paper is the result of the conclusion of numerous massive reports of this activity in the preliminary phase based on theories, practices and the related safety principles on this ground as well as the application of data and information of the past and a glance to the future. The conception of need for a site for medium structures and nuclear research projects and how to perform this process are presented step by step here with a scientific approach to its selection during the investigations. In this study, it is practically described how the site is selected, by determining and defining the characteristics of research and nuclear projects with medium structures and also its fitting to the optimum site. The discovered sites typically involve the best advantages in technical and economic aspects and no particular contrast with the concerned structures

  17. Promoting Your Web Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, Aggi

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of ways to promote sites on the World Wide Web focuses on how search engines work and how they retrieve and identify sites. Appropriate Web links for submitting new sites and for Internet marketing are included. (LRW)

  18. Site selection handbook: Workshop on site selection for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide technical assistance to ''...those compact regions, host States and nonmember States determined by the Secretary to require assistance.'' Technical assistance has been defined to include, but not be limited to, ''technical guidelines for site selection.'' This site selection workshop was developed to assist States and Compacts in developing new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites in accordance with the requirements of the LLRWPAA. The workshop comprises a series of lectures, discussion topics, and exercises, supported by this Site Selection Workshop Handbook, designed to examine various aspects of a comprehensive site selection program. It is not an exhaustive treatment of all aspects of site selection, nor is it prescriptive. The workshop focuses on the major elements of site selection and the tools that can be used to implement the site selection program

  19. The voluntary siting process: The solution to siting in the Northeast Compact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshais, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The date: June 10, 1991. The decision: the announcement of three 'candidate sites' for a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) facility in Connecticut following statewide screening. The debate: the right of the citizens of the state to refuse to have this type of facility in their 'backyard' versus the State's responsibility to provide for the safe management of LLRW generated within its borders. The debacle: vigorous opposition, political involvement, no opportunity for effective dialogue with the candidate towns. The end: a legislative mandate to terminate the siting process. This series of events, familiar to those in the business of attempting to site and develop unwanted and unwelcome facilities, would have thwarted efforts to provide for disposal capacity in the Northeast Compact region. Connecticut's efforts to site a LLRW disposal facility pursuant to a traditional 'decide-announce-defend' approach had apparently failed. New Jersey, its partner in the Compact, was also ready to proceed with a similar process that would lead to the naming of several candidate sites, but suspended its efforts to review other siting alternatives. The problem: a new approach was needed. The answer: both states would pursue voluntary siting for the LLRW facilities. The result: the best chance for successful development of LLRW disposal capacity in the Northeast Compact region

  20. Site Selection for the Salt Disposition Facility at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladden, J.B.; Rueter, K.J.; Morin, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    A site selection study was conducted to identify a suitable location for the construction and operation of a new Salt Disposition Facility (SDF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The facility to be sited is a single processing facility and support buildings that could house either of three technology alternatives being developed by the High Level Waste Systems Engineering Team: Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation, Crystalline Silicotitanate Non-Elutable Ion Exchange or Caustic Side Solvent Extraction. A fourth alternative, Direct Disposal in grout, is not part of the site selection study because a location has been identified that is unique to this technology (i.e., Z-Area). Facility site selection at SRS is a formal, documented process that seeks to optimize siting of new facilities with respect to facility-specific engineering requirements, sensitive environmental resources, and applicable regulatory requirements. In this manner, the prime objectives of cost minimization, environmental protection, and regulatory compliance are achieved. The results from this geotechnical characterization indicated that continued consideration be given to Site B for the proposed SDF. Suitable topography, the lack of surface hydrology and floodplain issues, no significant groundwater contamination, the presence of minor soft zones along the northeast portion of footprint, and no apparent geological structure in the Gordon Aquitard support this recommendation

  1. Facility siting as a decision process at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wike, L.D.

    1995-01-01

    Site selection for new facilities at Savannah River Site (SRS) historically has been a process dependent only upon specific requirements of the facility. While this approach is normally well suited to engineering and operational concerns, it can have serious deficiencies in the modern era of regulatory oversight and compliance requirements. There are many issues related to the site selection for a facility that are not directly related to engineering or operational requirements; such environmental concerns can cause large schedule delays and budget impact,s thereby slowing or stopping the progress of a project. Some of the many concerns in locating a facility include: waste site avoidance, National Environmental Policy Act requirements, Clean Water Act, Clean Air Act, wetlands conservation, US Army Corps of Engineers considerations, US Fish and Wildlife Service statutes including threatened and endangered species issues, and State of South Carolina regulations, especially those of the Department of Health and Environmental Control. In addition, there are SRS restrictions on research areas set aside for National Environmental Research Park (NERP), Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Savannah River Forest Station, University of South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology, Southeastern Forest Experimental Station, and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) programs. As with facility operational needs, all of these siting considerations do not have equal importance. The purpose of this document is to review recent site selection exercises conducted for a variety of proposed facilities, develop the logic and basis for the methods employed, and standardize the process and terminology for future site selection efforts

  2. Site Environmental Report, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Site Environmental Report (SER) is prepared annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, ``General Environmental Protection Program.`` This 1993 SER provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site`s ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the site`s progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA). For some readers, the highlights provided in the Executive Summary may provide sufficient information. Many readers, however, may wish to read more detailed descriptions of the information than those which are presented here.

  3. Particle Physics Education Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    back to home page Particle Physics Education Sites quick reference Education and Information - National Laboratory Education Programs - Women and Minorities in Physics - Other Physics Sites - Physics Alliance - Accelerators at National Laboratories icon Particle Physics Education and Information sites: top

  4. Site Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of site boundaries from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  5. Description of the Northwest hazardous waste site data base and preliminary analysis of site characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, D.L.; Hartz, K.E.; Triplett, M.B.

    1988-08-01

    The Northwest Hazardous Waste RD and D Center (the Center) conducts research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) activities for hazardous and radioactive mixed-waste technologies applicable to remediating sites in the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington. To properly set priorities for these RD and D activities and to target development efforts it is necessary to understand the nature of the sites requiring remediation. A data base of hazardous waste site characteristics has been constructed to facilitate this analysis. The data base used data from EPA's Region X Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) and from Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation (PA/SI) forms for sites in Montana. The Center's data base focuses on two sets of sites--those on the National Priorities List (NPL) and other sites that are denoted as ''active'' CERCLIS sites. Active CERCLIS sites are those sites that are undergoing active investigation and analysis. The data base contains information for each site covering site identification and location, type of industry associated with the site, waste categories present (e.g., heavy metals, pesticides, etc.), methods of disposal (e.g., tanks, drums, land, etc.), waste forms (e.g., liquid, solid, etc.), and hazard targets (e.g., surface water, groundwater, etc.). As part of this analysis, the Northwest region was divided into three geographic subregions to identify differences in disposal site characteristics within the Northwest. 2 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Wills

    2009-09-01

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 (National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2009a). Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  7. Subsurface characterization and geohydrologic site evaluation West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The West Chestnut Ridge Site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is being considered for use as a repository for low-level radioactive waste. The purposes of this study were to provide a geohydrological characterization of the site for use in pathways analysis, and to provide preliminary geotechnical recommendations that would be used for development of a site utilization plan. Subsurface conditions were investigated at twenty locations and observation wells were installed. Field testing at each location included the Standard Penetration Test and permeability tests in soil and rock. A well pumping test was ocmpleted at one site. Laboratory testing included permeability, deformability, strength and compaction tests, as well as index and physical property tests. The field investigations showed that the subsurface conditions include residual soil overlying a weathered zone of dolomite which grades into relatively unweathered dolomite at depth. The thickness of residual soil is typically 80 ft (24 m) on the ridges, but can be as little as 10 ft (3 m) in the valleys. Trench excavations to depths of 30 ft (9 m) should not present serious slope stability problems above the water table. On-site soils can be used for liners or trench backfill but these soils may require moisture conditioning to achieve required densities. 19 figures, 8 tables

  8. Site Observational Work Plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Shiprock, New Mexico. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Site is one of the first documents for developing an approach for achieving ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies Shiprock site information to a regulatory compliance framework, which identifies strategies for meeting ground water compliance at the site. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA ground water programmatic environmental impact statement

  9. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. Fourth quarter, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During fourth quarter 1989 (October--December), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. An explanation of flagging criteria for the fourth quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from fourth quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  10. Small Wind Site Assessment Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Tim [Advanced Energy Systems LLC, Eugene, OR (United States); Preus, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Site assessment for small wind energy systems is one of the key factors in the successful installation, operation, and performance of a small wind turbine. A proper site assessment is a difficult process that includes wind resource assessment and the evaluation of site characteristics. These guidelines address many of the relevant parts of a site assessment with an emphasis on wind resource assessment, using methods other than on-site data collection and creating a small wind site assessment report.

  11. Construction of Site Risk Model using Individual Unit Risk Model in a NPP Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ho Gon; Han, Sang Hoon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Since Fukushima accident, strong needs to estimate site risk has been increased to identify the possibility of re-occurrence of such a tremendous disaster and prevent such a disaster. Especially, in a site which has large fleet of nuclear power plants, reliable site risk assessment is very emergent to confirm the safety. In Korea, there are several nuclear power plant site which have more than 6 NPPs. In general, risk model of a NPP in terms of PSA is very complicated and furthermore, it is expected that the site risk model is more complex than that. In this paper, the method for constructing site risk model is proposed by using individual unit risk model. Procedure for the development of site damage (risk) model was proposed in the present paper. Since the site damage model is complicated in the sense of the scale of the system and dependency of the components of the system, conventional method may not be applicable in many side of the problem.

  12. NPL Site Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Priorities List (NPL) is a list published by EPA of Superfund sites. A site must be added to this list before remediation can begin under Superfund. The...

  13. NPL Site Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Priorities List (NPL) is a list published by EPA of Superfund sites. A site must be added to this list before remediation can begin under Superfund. The...

  14. Nevada Test Site annual site environmental report, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wruble, D T; McDowell, E M [eds.

    1990-11-01

    Prior to 1989 annual reports of environmental monitoring and assessment results for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were prepared in two separate parts. Onsite effluent monitoring and environmental monitoring results were reported in an onsite report prepared by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). Results of the offsite radiological surveillance program conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada, were reported separately by that Agency. Beginning with this 1989 annual Site environmental report for the NTS, these two documents are being combined into a single report to provide a more comprehensive annual documentation of the environmental protection program conducted for the nuclear testing program and other nuclear and non-nuclear activities at the Site. The two agencies have coordinated preparation of this combined onsite and offsite report through sharing of information on environmental releases and meteorological, hydrological, and other supporting data used in dose-estimate calculations. 57 refs., 52 figs., 65 tabs.

  15. Development and Application of SITES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jo Wan; Yoon; Yoon, Jeong Hyoun; Kim, Chank Lak; Cho, Sung IL

    2008-01-01

    SITES (Site Information and Total Environmental Data Management System) has been developed for the purpose of systematically managing site characteristics and environmental data produced during the pre-operational, operational, and post-closure phases of a radioactive waste disposal facility. SITES is an integration system, which consists of 4 modules, to be available for maintenance of site characteristics data, for safety assessment, and for site/environment monitoring; site environmental data management module (SECURE), integrated safety assessment module (SAINT), site/environment monitoring module (SUDAL) and geological information module for geological data management (SITES-GIS). Each module has its database with the functions of browsing, storing, and reporting data and information. Data from SECURE and SUDAL are interconnected to be utilized as inputs to SAINT. SAINT has the functions that multi-user can access simultaneously via client-server system, and the safety assessment results can be managed with its embedded Quality Assurance feature. Comparison between assessment results and environmental monitoring data can be made and visualized in SUDAL and SITES-GIS. Also, SUDAL is designed that the periodic monitoring data and information could be opened to the public via internet homepage. SITES has applied to the Wolsong low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal center in Korea, and is expected to enhance the function of site/environment monitoring in other nuclear-related facilities and also in industrial facilities handling hazardous materials.

  16. 2016 Inspection and Annual Site Status Report for the Site A/Plot M, Illinois, Decommissioned Reactor Site July 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murl, Jeffrey [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Miller, Michele [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The Site A/Plot M, Illinois, Decommissioned Reactor Site was inspected on May 17, 2016. The site, located within Cook County forest preserve that is open to the public, was found to be in good condition with one exception. Erosion on top of the grass-covered mound at Plot M continues to be a concern as presented in previous inspections. Ruts form in the soil on top of Plot M as a result of bike traffic using the open field as a pass thru between established bike trails within the forest preserve. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) who is contracted directly from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has filled in the ruts with top soil and reseeding remains an ongoing process. Reseeded areas from 2015 are progressing nicely. No cause for a follow-up inspection was identified. In 2015, ANL plugged and abandoned 8 of 25 monitoring wells (BH41, BH51, BH52, BH54, DH9, DH10, DH13, and DH17). The 17 groundwater monitoring wells remaining at the site were inspected to confirm that they were locked and in good condition. Preliminary environmental monitoring results for 2015 are provided in a draft report titled Surveillance of Site A and Plot M, Report for 2015, prepared by ANL. The report also contains results of an independent analysis conducted by the Illinois Emergency Management Agency on some of the samples collected by ANL in 2015. The draft report states that the results of the surveillance program continue to indicate that the impact of radioactivity at Site A/Plot M is very low and does not endanger the health of those living in the area or visiting the site. The ANL monitoring report will be made available to the public on the DOE Office of Legacy Management public website when it is issued as final. A new county forest preserve campsite opened in 2015 at Bull Frog Lake, which is east of Plot M. Hiking trails connect Bull Frog Lake with Site A/Plot M. The site might receive more traffic from forest preserve visitors now that this new campsite is opened.

  17. Site investigations: Strategy for rock mechanics site descriptive model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Christiansson, Rolf; Hudson, John

    2002-05-01

    As a part of the planning work for the Site Investigations, SKB has developed a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Modelling Strategy. Similar strategies are being developed for other disciplines. The objective of the strategy is that it should guide the practical implementation of evaluating site specific data during the Site Investigations. It is also understood that further development may be needed. This methodology enables the crystalline rock mass to be characterised in terms of the quality at different sites, for considering rock engineering constructability, and for providing the input to numerical models and performance assessment calculations. The model describes the initial stresses and the distribution of deformation and strength properties of the intact rock, of fractures and fracture zones, and of the rock mass. The rock mass mechanical properties are estimated by empirical relations and by numerical simulations. The methodology is based on estimation of mechanical properties using both empirical and heroretical/numerical approaches; and estimation of in situ rock stress using judgement and numerical modelling, including the influence of fracture zones. These approaches are initially used separately, and then combined to produce the required characterisation estimates. The methodology was evaluated with a Test Case at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The quality control aspects are an important feature of the methodology: these include Protocols to ensure the structure and coherence of the procedures used, regular meetings to enhance communication, feedback from internal and external reviewing, plus the recording of an audit trail of the development steps and decisions made. The strategy will be reviewed and, if required, updated as appropriate

  18. Site investigations: Strategy for rock mechanics site descriptive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Christiansson, Rolf [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hudson, John [Rock Engineering Consultants, Welwyn Garden City (United Kingdom)

    2002-05-01

    As a part of the planning work for the Site Investigations, SKB has developed a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Modelling Strategy. Similar strategies are being developed for other disciplines. The objective of the strategy is that it should guide the practical implementation of evaluating site specific data during the Site Investigations. It is also understood that further development may be needed. This methodology enables the crystalline rock mass to be characterised in terms of the quality at different sites, for considering rock engineering constructability, and for providing the input to numerical models and performance assessment calculations. The model describes the initial stresses and the distribution of deformation and strength properties of the intact rock, of fractures and fracture zones, and of the rock mass. The rock mass mechanical properties are estimated by empirical relations and by numerical simulations. The methodology is based on estimation of mechanical properties using both empirical and heroretical/numerical approaches; and estimation of in situ rock stress using judgement and numerical modelling, including the influence of fracture zones. These approaches are initially used separately, and then combined to produce the required characterisation estimates. The methodology was evaluated with a Test Case at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The quality control aspects are an important feature of the methodology: these include Protocols to ensure the structure and coherence of the procedures used, regular meetings to enhance communication, feedback from internal and external reviewing, plus the recording of an audit trail of the development steps and decisions made. The strategy will be reviewed and, if required, updated as appropriate.

  19. Site decommissioning management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauver, D.N.; Austin, J.H.; Johnson, T.C.; Weber, M.F.; Cardile, F.P.; Martin, D.E.; Caniano, R.J.; Kinneman, J.D.

    1993-10-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has identified 48 sites contaminated with radioactive material that require special attention to ensure timely decommissioning. While none of these sites represent an immediate threat to public health and safety they have contamination that exceeds existing NRC criteria for unrestricted use. All of these sites require some degree of remediation, and several involve regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Commission before they can be released for unrestricted use and the applicable licenses terminated. This report contains the NRC staff's strategy for addressing the technical, legal, and policy issues affecting the timely decommissioning of the 48 sites and describes the status of decommissioning activities at the sites

  20. Site decommissioning management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauver, D.N.; Austin, J.H.; Johnson, T.C.; Weber, M.F.; Cardile, F.P.; Martin, D.E.; Caniano, R.J.; Kinneman, J.D.

    1993-10-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has identified 48 sites contaminated with radioactive material that require special attention to ensure timely decommissioning. While none of these sites represent an immediate threat to public health and safety they have contamination that exceeds existing NRC criteria for unrestricted use. All of these sites require some degree of remediation, and several involve regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Commission before they can be released for unrestricted use and the applicable licenses terminated. This report contains the NRC staff`s strategy for addressing the technical, legal, and policy issues affecting the timely decommissioning of the 48 sites and describes the status of decommissioning activities at the sites.

  1. The IAEA's WorldAtom Internet site: International news and information services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyd, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) provides news and public information services via the Internet through its WorldAtom home page. The page is accessible at www.iaea.org/worldatom. Following are brief highlights of the items available on the site by clicking Press Centre, Reference Centre, or other links: Daily Press Review: Summaries of selected news items pertaining to global nuclear developments and the IAEA's work are provided each day, drawing upon a wide range of global media sources. IAEA NewsBriefs: Regularly featured are updates about IAEA activities related to areas of safety, technology transfer, and nuclear safeguards. Meetings and training courses: News about IAEA-sponsored symposia, seminars, and other meetings, as well as information about international meetings on atomic energy sponsored by other organizations, are updated on a daily basis. Press releases and statements: All IAEA press releases and media advisories since 1995 are accessible on the site. Topical and feature pages: In-depth coverage and links to information resources within and outside the IAEA are regularly given to selected topics of high international interest involving the IAEA. IAEA publications: listings and overviews of IAEA technical reports, safety standards, and other publications are updated as they are issued. Scientific and technical information: WorldAtom includes links (Reference Centre) to the International Nuclear Information System, IAEA's extensive bibliographic database of references and resources, to the nuclear database, and to departmental pages at IAEA that focus on IAEA programs and activities. IAEA documents: Electronic versions of official IAEA documents are added as they are issued. These documents include the texts and status lists of international conventions under IAEA auspices; IAEA information circulars to member states; IAEA annual reports (since 1995); and background reports and documents for the IAEA General Conference related to

  2. Geo-Proxy-Based Site Classification for Regional Zonation of Seismic Site Effects in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Guk Sun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Seismic site effects and topographic effects related to ground motion occur during an earthquake due to site-specific geotechnical or geological characteristics, including the geological or geographical structure and the characteristics of near-surface sub-soil layers. Site-specific site effects due to geological conditions have been confirmed in recent earthquake events. Earthquake-induced damage has mainly occurred at accumulated soft soil layers under basins or along coasts and rivers. An alternative method has recently been proposed for evaluating regional seismic site effects and amplification factors using digital elevation models (DEM. High-quality DEMs at high resolutions may be employed to resolve finer-scale variations in topographic gradients and consequently, correlated site response parameters. Because there are many regions in South Korea lacking borehole datasets, which are insufficient for site classification only using borehole datasets, a DEM-based proxy for seismic zonation can be effective. Thus, in this study, geo-proxy-based site classification was proposed based on empirical correlations with site response parameters and conducted for regional zonation of seismic site effects to identify the amplification of characteristics in the western metropolitan areas of South Korea, depending on the site-specific geo-spatial conditions.

  3. An in-depth analysis of the physico-mechanical properties imparted by agricultural fibers and food processing residues in polypropylene biocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdy, Rachel Campbell; Mak, Michelle; Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar K.

    2015-05-01

    The use of agricultural and food processing residues as potential reinforcements in plastics has been extensively studied. However, there is a large variation in the mechanical performance of agricultural fiber-based biocomposites due to different processing materials and parameters. An in-depth comparison of the resulting effect of the agricultural filler on the matrix is often not possible given the discrepancy in processing conditions. This study seeks to determine the intrinsic properties of agricultural fibers and food processing residues for their use in polypropylene biocomposites based on a standardization of experimental design. The effect of 25wt% loading of miscanthus, fall-and spring-harvest switchgrass, wheat straw, oat hull, soy hull, soy stalk, hemp and flax on the physico-mechanical properties of polypropylene biocomposites was investigated. The addition of fiber led to an improvement in flexural strength, flexural modulus, and tensile modulus, and a general decrease in tensile strength at yield, elongation at break and Izod impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy highlighted the interfacial adhesion, orientation and distribution of the fibers within the matrix, confirming that fiber length and dispersion within the matrix are positively correlated with mechanical properties. The crystallization of the polypropylene phase and a compositional analysis of the agricultural fibers and processing residues were also compared to offer insight into the effect of the filler's intrinsic properties on the resulting material performance.

  4. An in-depth analysis of the physico-mechanical properties imparted by agricultural fibers and food processing residues in polypropylene biocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdy, Rachel Campbell; Mak, Michelle; Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of agricultural and food processing residues as potential reinforcements in plastics has been extensively studied. However, there is a large variation in the mechanical performance of agricultural fiber-based biocomposites due to different processing materials and parameters. An in-depth comparison of the resulting effect of the agricultural filler on the matrix is often not possible given the discrepancy in processing conditions. This study seeks to determine the intrinsic properties of agricultural fibers and food processing residues for their use in polypropylene biocomposites based on a standardization of experimental design. The effect of 25wt% loading of miscanthus, fall-and spring-harvest switchgrass, wheat straw, oat hull, soy hull, soy stalk, hemp and flax on the physico-mechanical properties of polypropylene biocomposites was investigated. The addition of fiber led to an improvement in flexural strength, flexural modulus, and tensile modulus, and a general decrease in tensile strength at yield, elongation at break and Izod impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy highlighted the interfacial adhesion, orientation and distribution of the fibers within the matrix, confirming that fiber length and dispersion within the matrix are positively correlated with mechanical properties. The crystallization of the polypropylene phase and a compositional analysis of the agricultural fibers and processing residues were also compared to offer insight into the effect of the filler’s intrinsic properties on the resulting material performance

  5. An in-depth analysis of the physico-mechanical properties imparted by agricultural fibers and food processing residues in polypropylene biocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdy, Rachel Campbell; Mak, Michelle [Bioproducts Discovery and Development Centre, Department of Plant Agriculture, Crop Science Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar K. [Bioproducts Discovery and Development Centre, Department of Plant Agriculture, Crop Science Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); School of Engineering, Thornbrough Building, University of Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2015-05-22

    The use of agricultural and food processing residues as potential reinforcements in plastics has been extensively studied. However, there is a large variation in the mechanical performance of agricultural fiber-based biocomposites due to different processing materials and parameters. An in-depth comparison of the resulting effect of the agricultural filler on the matrix is often not possible given the discrepancy in processing conditions. This study seeks to determine the intrinsic properties of agricultural fibers and food processing residues for their use in polypropylene biocomposites based on a standardization of experimental design. The effect of 25wt% loading of miscanthus, fall-and spring-harvest switchgrass, wheat straw, oat hull, soy hull, soy stalk, hemp and flax on the physico-mechanical properties of polypropylene biocomposites was investigated. The addition of fiber led to an improvement in flexural strength, flexural modulus, and tensile modulus, and a general decrease in tensile strength at yield, elongation at break and Izod impact strength. Scanning electron microscopy highlighted the interfacial adhesion, orientation and distribution of the fibers within the matrix, confirming that fiber length and dispersion within the matrix are positively correlated with mechanical properties. The crystallization of the polypropylene phase and a compositional analysis of the agricultural fibers and processing residues were also compared to offer insight into the effect of the filler’s intrinsic properties on the resulting material performance.

  6. Session II-A. Site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntosh, W.

    1981-01-01

    Section II-A on Site Characterization consists of the following papers which describe the progress made during the past fiscal year toward identifying sites for high-level radioactive waste repositories in deep geologic formations: (1) progress in expanded studies for repository sites; (2) evaluation of geologic and hydrologic characteristics in the Basin and Range Province relative to high-level nuclear waste disposal; (3) siting progress: Permian region; (4) Paradox Basin site exploration: a progress report; (5) progress toward recommending a salt site for an exploratory shaft; (6) status of geologic investigations for nuclear waste disposal at the Nevada Test Site; (7) geohydrologic investigation of the Hanford Site, Washington: basalt waste isolation project. Highlights include: expanding studies in crystalline rocks, both in the Appalachian and Lake Superior regions; laying the ground work with the states in the Basin and Range Province to kick off a joint USGS-state province study; narrowing areas of the Permian and Paradox bedded salt regions to a few promising locations; issuing a Gulf Coast Salt Dome Evaluation report (ONWI-109) for public review and comment; narrowing the Nevada Test Site area and Hanford Site area to locations for detailed site investigations and exploratory shafts; progress in developing the subseabed and space disposals alternatives

  7. 1994 Site environmental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The Fernald site is a Department of Energy (DOE)-owned facility that produced high-quality uranium metals for military defense for nearly 40 years. DOE suspended production at the site in 1989 and formally ended production in 1991. Although production activities have ceased, the site continues to examine the air and liquid pathways as possible routes through which pollutants from past operations and current remedial activities may leave the site. The Site Environmental Report (SER) is prepared annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program. This 1994 SER provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site's ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the site's progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA). For some readers, the highlights provided in this Executive Summary may provide sufficient information. Many readers, however, may wish to read more detailed descriptions of the information than those which are presented here. All information presented in this summary is discussed more fully in the main body of this report

  8. Report of early site suitability evaluation of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younker, J.L.; Andrews, W.B.; Fasano, G.A.; Herrington, C.C.; Mattson, S.R.; Murray, R.C.; Ballou, L.B.; Revelli, M.A.; Ducharme, A.R.; Shephard, L.E.; Dudley, W.W.; Hoxie, D.T.; Herbst, R.J.; Patera, E.A.; Judd, B.R.; Docka, J.A.; Rickertsen, L.D.

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluated the technical suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of radioactive waste. The evaluation was conducted primarily to determine early in the site characterization program if there are any features or conditions at the site that indicate it is unsuitable for repository development. A secondary purpose was to determine the status of knowledge in the major technical areas that affect the suitability of the site. This early site suitability evaluation (ESSE) was conducted by a team of technical personnel at the request of the Associate Director of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Geologic Disposal, a unit within the DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The Yucca Mountain site has been the subject of such evaluations for over a decade. In 1983, the site was evaluated as part of a screening process to identify potentially acceptable sites. The site was evaluated in greater detail and found suitable for site characterization as part of the Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE, 1986) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). Additional site data were compiled during the preparation of the Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988a). This early site suitability evaluation has considered information that was used in preparing both-documents, along with recent information obtained since the EA and SCP were published. This body of information is referred to in this report as ''current information'' or ''available evidence.''

  9. Drupal 7 Multilingual Sites

    CERN Document Server

    Pol, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    A practical book with plenty of screenshots to guide you through the many features of multilingual Drupal. A demo ecommerce site is provided if you want to practice on a sample site, although you can apply the techniques learnt in the book directly to your site too. Any Drupal users who know the basics of building a Drupal site and are familiar with the Drupal UI, will benefit from this book. No previous knowledge of localization or internationalization is required.

  10. Site Response Analysis Using DeepSoil: Case Study of Bangka Site, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iswanto, Eko Rudi; Yee, Eric [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Indonesia government declared through Act No. 17 year 2007 on the National Long-Term Development Plant Year 2005-2025 and Presidential Decree No. 5 year 2006 on the National Energy Policy (Indonesia 2007; Indonesia 2006), that nuclear energy is stated as a part of the national energy system. In order to undertake the above national policy, National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia, as the promotor for the utilization of nuclear energy will conduct site study, which is a part of infrastructure preparation for NPP construction. Thorough preparation and steps are needed to operate an NPP and it takes between 10 to 15 years from the preliminary study (site selection, financial study, etc.) up to project implementation (manufacturing, construction, commissioning). During project implementation, it is necessary to prepare various documents relevant for permit application such as Safety Evaluation Report for site permit, Preliminary Safety Analysis Report and Environment Impact Assessment Report for construction permit. Considering the continuously increasing electricity energy demand, it is necessary to prepare for alternative NPP sites. The safety requirements of NPP's are stringent; amongst the various requirements is the ability to safely shut down in the wake of a possible earthquake. Ground response analysis of a potential site therefore needs to be carried out, parameter that affect the resistance of an NPP to earthquakes such as peak strain profiles is analysed. The objective of this paper is to analyse the ground response of the selected site for a NPP, using The Mw 7.9 in Sikuai Island, West Sumatra on September 12, 2007 as present input motion. This analysis will be carried out using a ground response analysis program, DeepSoil. In addition to this, an attempt was made to define the site specific input motion characteristics of the selected site for use in DeepSoil (DeepSoil 5.0). A site investigation at the WB site was performed primarily on the PS

  11. Patient perception and the barriers to practicing patient-centered communication: A survey and in-depth interview of Chinese patients and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Xu; Yong, Bao; Yin, Liang; Mi, Tian

    2016-03-01

    To investigate patient perceptions of patient-centered communication (PCC) in doctor-patient consultations and explore barriers to PCC implementation in China. This study was conducted in public teaching hospital in Guiyang, Guizhou, China. In Phase 1, patient attitudes to PCC were quantitatively assessed in 317 outpatients using modified Patient-Practitioner Orientation Scale (PPOS). In Phase 2, we conducted in-depth interviews with 20 outpatients to explore their views on PCC and expose potential barriers to PCC implementation. Participants communicated "patient-centered" preferences, particularly with regard to their doctors' empathy, communication skills, time and information sharing. Patients were more concerned about doctors exhibiting caring perspective than power sharing. Younger and highly educated patients were more likely to prefer PCC and highly educated patients paid more attention to power sharing. Several factors including inadequate time for PCC resulting from doctors' high patient-load, doctor-patient communication difficulties and excessive treatment due to inappropriate medical payment system affected PCC implementation in China. Patients expressed moderate enthusiasm for PCC in China. They expressed strong preferences concerning physician respect for patient perspective, but less concern for power sharing. Government should improve health care system by implementing PCC in daily healthcare practice to improve patient awareness and preferences. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Assessment of candidate sites for disposal of treated effluents at the Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    A rigidly defined evaluation process was used to recommend a preferred location to dispose of treated effluents from facilities in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State. First, siting constraints were defined based on functional design considerations and siting guidelines. Then, criteria for selecting a preferred site from among several candidates were identified and their relative importance defined. Finally, the weighted criteria were applied and a site was selected for detailed characterization by subsurface investigations

  13. Near Regional and Site Investigations of the Temelin NPP Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prachar, Ivan; Vacek, Jiri; Heralecky, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    The Temelin NPP is worldwide through heated discussion with nuclear energetic opposition. In addition this discussion goes beyond a border of the Czech Republic. On the other side, results of several international supervisions shown that Temelin NPP is fully comparable with the safest nuclear power plants in the world regarding its technical design and safety functions. This presentation deals with the near regional and site investigations of the Temelin NPP Site. It must be noted that although the Temelin site is situated in the area with low seismicity, item of seismicity is a basic argument against Temelin NPP and therefore a detail seismic hazard assessment was performed

  14. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - NPL Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National Priorities List (NPL) Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access...

  15. Socioeconomic inequality in abdominal obesity among older people in Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia - a decomposition analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujilestari, Cahya Utamie; Nyström, Lennarth; Norberg, Margareta; Weinehall, Lars; Hakimi, Mohammad; Ng, Nawi

    2017-12-12

    Obesity has become a global health challenge as its prevalence has increased globally in recent decades. Studies in high-income countries have shown that obesity is more prevalent among the poor. In contrast, obesity is more prevalent among the rich in low- and middle-income countries, hence requiring different focal points to design public health policies in the latter contexts. We examined socioeconomic inequalities in abdominal obesity in Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia and identified factors contributing to the inequalities. We utilised data from the WHO-INDEPTH Study on global AGEing and adult health (WHO-INDEPTH SAGE) conducted in the Purworejo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in Purworejo District, Indonesia in 2010. The study included 14,235 individuals aged 50 years and older. Inequalities in abdominal obesity across wealth groups were assessed separately for men and women using concentration indexes. Decomposition analysis was conducted to assess the determinants of socioeconomic inequalities in abdominal obesity. Abdominal obesity was five-fold more prevalent among women than in men (30% vs. 6.1%; p < 0.001). The concentration index (CI) analysis showed that socioeconomic inequalities in abdominal obesity were less prominent among women (CI = 0.26, SE = 0.02, p < 0.001) compared to men (CI = 0.49, SE = 0.04, p < 0.001). Decomposition analysis showed that physical labour was the major determinant of socioeconomic inequalities in abdominal obesity among men, explaining 47% of the inequalities, followed by poor socioeconomic status (31%), ≤ 6 years of education (15%) and current smoking (11%). The three major determinants of socioeconomic inequalities in abdominal obesity among women were poor socio-economic status (48%), physical labour (17%) and no formal education (16%). Abdominal obesity was more prevalent among older women in a rural Indonesian setting. Socioeconomic inequality in

  16. Bald eagle site management plan for the Hanford Site, south-central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzner, R.F.; Weiss, S.G.

    1994-12-01

    The CERCLA remedial investigations of waste sites on the Hanford Site will involve lands containing or adjacent to a bald eagle nest, winter concentration areas, or communal night roost. Because these CERCLA investigations may affect bald eagles, the DOE has prepared this Bald Eagle Site Management Plan (BESMP). However, it is intended that this BESMP be used or updated so as to be also applicable to future activities that affect bald eagles on the Hanford Site. Bald eagles regularly use the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in south-central Washington State during winter months for roosting, perching, and foraging. Each of these activities requires buffer zones to protect eagles from human disturbances. Buffer zones developed in this plan follow recommended guidelines and are intended to be used in planning. If Hanford Site activities in the vicinity of identified bald eagle use areas are carried out in accordance with this plan, such actions are not likely to adversely affect the eagles or their habitat. Activities that may be exceptions will involve informal or formal (whichever is appropriate) consultation with the US Fish and Wildlife Service as required by the Endangered Species Act

  17. NRC staff site characterization analysis of the Department of Energy`s Site Characterization Plan, Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-08-01

    This Site Characterization Analysis (SCA) documents the NRC staff`s concerns resulting from its review of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Site Characterization Plan (SCP) for the Yucca Mountain site in southern Nevada, which is the candidate site selected for characterization as the nation`s first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. DOE`s SCP explains how DOE plans to obtain the information necessary to determine the suitability of the Yucca Mountain site for a repository. NRC`s specific objections related to the SCP, and major comments and recommendations on the various parts of DOE`s program, are presented in SCA Section 2, Director`s Comments and Recommendations. Section 3 contains summaries of the NRC staff`s concerns for each specific program, and Section 4 contains NRC staff point papers which set forth in greater detail particular staff concerns regarding DOE`s program. Appendix A presents NRC staff evaluations of those NRC staff Consultation Draft SCP concerns that NRC considers resolved on the basis of the SCP. This SCA fulfills NRC`s responsibilities with respect to DOE`s SCP as specified by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) and 10 CFR 60.18. 192 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action(UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1996). The DOE`s goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will be evaluated in the site-specific environmental assessment to determine potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholders a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology.

  19. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action(UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1996). The DOE's goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will be evaluated in the site-specific environmental assessment to determine potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholders a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology

  20. Ames expedited site characterization demonstration at the former manufactured gas plant site, Marshalltown, Iowa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevolo, A.J.; Kjartanson, B.H.; Wonder, J.D.

    1996-03-01

    The goal of the Ames Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) project is to evaluate and promote both innovative technologies (IT) and state-of-the-practice technologies (SOPT) for site characterization and monitoring. In April and May 1994, the ESC project conducted site characterization, technology comparison, and stakeholder demonstration activities at a former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) owned by Iowa Electric Services (IES) Utilities, Inc., in Marshalltown, Iowa. Three areas of technology were fielded at the Marshalltown FMGP site: geophysical, analytical and data integration. The geophysical technologies are designed to assess the subsurface geological conditions so that the location, fate and transport of the target contaminants may be assessed and forecasted. The analytical technologies/methods are designed to detect and quantify the target contaminants. The data integration technology area consists of hardware and software systems designed to integrate all the site information compiled and collected into a conceptual site model on a daily basis at the site; this conceptual model then becomes the decision-support tool. Simultaneous fielding of different methods within each of the three areas of technology provided data for direct comparison of the technologies fielded, both SOPT and IT. This document reports the results of the site characterization, technology comparison, and ESC demonstration activities associated with the Marshalltown FMGP site. 124 figs., 27 tabs

  1. SITE-94. Mineralogy of the Aespoe site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Karin

    1996-12-01

    The water composition has several impacts on the repository. It will influence the behaviour of the engineered materials (e.g. corrosion). It may also determine the possible solubility and speciation of released radionuclides. It also acts as a transport medium for the released elements. The groundwater composition and the potential development of the composition due to the presence of the repository as well as due to external variations is thus an important issue in a safety analysis. The development of the groundwater composition is strongly dependent on reactions with the minerals present in water bearing fractures. Here equilibrium chemistry may be of importance, but also reaction kinetics is important to the long-term behaviour. Within the SITE-94 project, a safety analysis is performed for the conditions at the Aespoe site. The mineralogy of the area has been evaluated from drill cores at various places at the site. In this report a recommendation for selection of mineralogy to be used in geochemical modelling of the repository is given. Calcite and iron containing minerals dominate the fracture filling mineralogy at the Aespoe site. Some typical fracture filling mineralogies may be identified in the fractures: epidote, chlorite, calcite, hematite, some illite/smectite + quartz, fluorite, pyrite and goethite. In addition to these a number of minor minerals are found in the fractures. Uncertainties in the fracture filling data may be due to problems when taking out the drill cores. Drilling water may remove important clay minerals and sealed fractures may be reopened mechanically and treated as water conducting fractures. The problem of determining the variability of the mineralogy along the flow paths also remains. This problem will never be solved when the investigation is performed by drilling investigation holes

  2. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Characterization and Design Parameters for the Sites of the Nuclear Power Plants of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savy, J.B.; Foxall, W.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), under the auspices of the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP) is supporting in-depth safety assessments (ISA) of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union for the purpose of evaluating the safety and upgrades necessary to the stock of nuclear power plants in Ukraine. For this purpose the Hazards Mitigation Center at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been asked to assess the seismic hazard and design parameters at the sites of the nuclear power plants in Ukraine. The probabilistic seismic hazard (PSH) estimates were updated using the latest available data and knowledge from LLNL, the U.S. Geological Survey, and other relevant recent studies from several consulting companies. Special attention was given to account for the local seismicity, the deep focused earthquakes of the Vrancea zone, in Romania, the region around Crimea and for the system of potentially active faults associated with the Pripyat Dniepro Donnetts rift. Aleatory (random) uncertainty was estimated from the available data and the epistemic (knowledge) uncertainty was estimated by considering the existing models in the literature and the interpretations of a small group of experts elicited during a workshop conducted in Kiev, Ukraine, on February 2-4, 1999

  3. Meteorology in site operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    During the site selection and design phases of a plant, meteorological assistance must be based on past records, usually accumulated at stations not actually on the site. These preliminary atadvices will be averages and extremes that might be expected. After a location has been chosen and work has begun, current and forecast weather conditions become of immediate concern. On-site meteorological observations and forecasts have many applications to the operating program of an atomic energy site. Requirements may range from observations of the daily minimum temperatures to forecasts of radiation dosages from airborne clouds

  4. A Site Wide Perspective on Uranium Geochemistry at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachara, John M.; Brown, Christopher F.; Christensen, J. N.; Davis, Jim A.; Dresel, P. Evan; Liu, Chongxuan; Kelly, S. D.; McKinley, James P.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Um, Wooyong

    2007-10-26

    Uranium (U) is an important risk-driving contaminant at the Hanford Site. Over 200,000 kg have been released to the vadose zone over the course of site operations, and a number of vadose zone and groundwater plumes containing the uranyl cation [UO22+, U(VI)] have been identified. U is recognized to be of moderate-to-high mobility, conditions dependent. The site is currently making decisions on several of these plumes with long-lasting implications, and others are soon to come. Uranium is one of nature’s most intriguing and chemically complex elements. The fate and transport of U(VI) has been studied over the long lifetime of the Hanford Site by various contractors, along with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and its collaborators. Significant research has more recently been contributed by the national scientific community with support from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Science through its Environmental Remediation Sciences Division (ERSD). This report represents a first attempt to integrate these findings into a cohesive view of the subsurface geochemistry of U at the Hanford Site. The objective is to inform all interested Hanford parties about the in-ground inventory of U and its geochemical behavior. This report also comments on the prospects for the development of a robust generic model to more accurately forecast future U(VI) migration at different Hanford waste sites, along with further research necessary to reach this goal.

  5. Young women's accounts of factors influencing their use and non-use of emergency contraception: in-depth interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free, Caroline; Lee, Raymond M; Ogden, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To explore young women's accounts of their use and non-use of emergency contraception. Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Participants 30 women aged 16-25; participants from socially deprived inner city areas were specifically included. Setting Community, service, and educational settings in England. Results Young women's accounts of their non-use of emergency contraception principally concerned evaluations of the risk conferred by different contraceptive behaviours, their evaluations of themselves in needing emergency contraception, and personal difficulties in asking for emergency contraception. Conclusions The attitudes and concerns of young women, especially those from disadvantaged backgrounds, may make them less able or willing than others to take advantage of recent increases in access to emergency contraception. Interventions that aim to increase the use of emergency contraception need to address the factors that influence young women's non-use of emergency contraception. What is already known on this topicLimited knowledge of, or poor access to, emergency contraception, and concerns about side effects and moral issues may reduce the use of emergency contraception in women at riskYoung people can be embarrassed about using contraception servicesInterventions to increase knowledge of and access to emergency contraception have had limited success among teenagersWhat this study addsPerceptions of low vulnerability to pregnancy, negative self evaluations about the need for such contraception, and concerns about what others think deter young women from using emergency contraceptionThese women find it difficult to ask for emergency contraceptionThe attitudes and concerns of young women, especially those from deprived inner city areas, may render them least willing and able to obtain emergency contraception PMID:12480855

  6. The Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program, second quarter 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring Section of the Environmental and Health Protection (EHP) Department administers the Savannah River Site`s Groundwater Monitoring Program. During second quarter 1989 (April--June), EHP conducted routine sampling of monitoring wells and drinking water locations. EHP collected the drinking water samples from Savannah River Site (SRS) drinking water systems supplied by wells. EHP established two sets of flagging criteria in 1986 to assist in the management of sample results. The flagging criteria aid personnel in sample scheduling, interpretation of data, and trend identification. The flagging criteria are based on detection limits, background levels in SRS groundwater, and drinking water standards. An explanation of flagging criteria for the second quarter is presented in the Flagging Criteria section of this document. All analytical results from second quarter 1989 are listed in this report, which is distributed to all waste-site custodians.

  7. Site development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaynor, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    Development of a low-level radioactive waste land disposal facility is little different than any industrial development of similar scope. Consideration must be made for normal business and operations management, security, facility maintenance, traffic control and necessary amenities for personnel. The item specific to the low-level waste site is the handling of radioactive waste materials and the regulatory and environmental protection procedures that must be planned for and accomodated in the site design and development. Each of these elements and the facility as a whole must be designed to be compatible with local land use plans, available transportation and support services, and the social and economic goals of the local community. Plans should also be made for quality control and orderly construction. This chapter deals with those aspects of the facility, its design and construction which are integral parts to the overall performance of the site

  8. XenoSite: accurately predicting CYP-mediated sites of metabolism with neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretzki, Jed; Matlock, Matthew; Swamidass, S Joshua

    2013-12-23

    Understanding how xenobiotic molecules are metabolized is important because it influences the safety, efficacy, and dose of medicines and how they can be modified to improve these properties. The cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are proteins responsible for metabolizing 90% of drugs on the market, and many computational methods can predict which atomic sites of a molecule--sites of metabolism (SOMs)--are modified during CYP-mediated metabolism. This study improves on prior methods of predicting CYP-mediated SOMs by using new descriptors and machine learning based on neural networks. The new method, XenoSite, is faster to train and more accurate by as much as 4% or 5% for some isozymes. Furthermore, some "incorrect" predictions made by XenoSite were subsequently validated as correct predictions by revaluation of the source literature. Moreover, XenoSite output is interpretable as a probability, which reflects both the confidence of the model that a particular atom is metabolized and the statistical likelihood that its prediction for that atom is correct.

  9. Hydroxy double salts loaded with bioactive ions: Synthesis, intercalation mechanisms, and functional performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. A. Kaassis, Abdessamad; Xu, Si-Min; Guan, Shanyue; Evans, David G.; Wei, Min; Williams, Gareth R.

    2016-06-01

    The intercalation of the anions of diclofenac (Dic), naproxen (Nap), and valproic acid (Val) into three hydroxy double salts (HDSs) has been explored in this work. Experiments were performed with [Co1.2Zn3.8(OH)8](NO3)2·2H2O (CoZn-NO3), [Ni2Zn3(OH)8](NO3)2·2H2O (NiZn-NO3) and [Zn5(OH)8](NO3)2·2H2O (Zn-NO3). It proved possible to intercalate diclofenac and naproxen into all three HDSs. In contrast, Val could be intercalated into CoZn-NO3 but when it was reacted with Zn-NO3 the HDS structure was destroyed, and the product comprised ZnO. Successful intercalation was verified by X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, and elemental microanalysis. Molecular dynamics simulations showed the Dic and Nap ions to arrange themselves in an "X" shape in the interlayer space, forming a bilayer. Val was found to adopt a position with its aliphatic groups parallel to the HDS layer, again in a bilayer. In situ time resolved X-ray diffraction experiments revealed that intercalation of Dic and Nap into CoZn-NO3 and Zn-NO3 is mechanistically complex, with a number of intermediate phases observed. In contrast, the intercalation of all three guests into NiZn-NO3 and of Val into CoZn-NO3 are simple one step reactions proceeding directly from the starting material to the product. The HDS-drug composites were found to have sustained release profiles.

  10. Changes in malaria burden and transmission in sentinel sites after the roll-out of long-lasting insecticidal nets in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Manuel W; Reimer, Lisa J; Gideon, Gibson; Koimbu, Gussy; Barnadas, Céline; Makita, Leo; Siba, Peter M; Mueller, Ivo

    2016-06-14

    Papua New Guinea exhibits a complex malaria epidemiology due to diversity in malaria parasites, mosquito vectors, human hosts, and their natural environment. Heterogeneities in transmission and burden of malaria at various scales are likely to affect the success of malaria control interventions, and vice-versa. This manuscript assesses changes in malaria prevalence, incidence and transmission in sentinel sites following the first national distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Before and after the distribution of LLINs, data collection in six purposively selected sentinel sites included clinical surveillance in the local health facility, household surveys and entomological surveys. Not all activities were carried out in all sites. Mosquitoes were collected by human landing catches. Diagnosis of malaria infection in humans was done by rapid diagnostic test, light microscopy and PCR for species confirmation. Following the roll-out of LLINs, the average monthly malaria incidence rate dropped from 13/1,000 population to 2/1,000 (incidence rate ratio = 0.12; 95 % CI: 0.09-0.17; P < 0.001). The average population prevalence of malaria decreased from 15.7 % pre-LLIN to 4.8 % post-LLIN (adjusted odds ratio = 0.26; 95 % CI: 0.20-0.33; P < 0.001). In general, reductions in incidence and prevalence were more pronounced in infections with P. falciparum than with P. vivax. Additional morbidity indicators (anaemia, splenomegaly, self-reported fever) showed a decreasing trend in most sites. Mean Anopheles man biting rates decreased from 83 bites/person/night pre-LLIN to 31 post-LLIN (P = 0.008). Anopheles species composition differed between sites but everywhere diversity was lower post-LLIN. In two sites, post-LLIN P. vivax infections in anophelines had decreased but P. falciparum infections had increased despite the opposite observation in humans. LLIN distribution had distinct effects on P. falciparum and P. vivax. Higher resilience of

  11. Site Management Guide (Blue Book)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (Department) Office of Legacy Management (LM), established in 2003, manages the Department's postclosure responsibilities and ensures the future protection of human health and the environment. During World War II and the Cold War, the Federal government developed and operated a vast network of industrial facilities for the research, production, and testing of nuclear weapons, as well as other scientific and engineering research. These processes left a legacy of radioactive and chemical waste, environmental contamination, and hazardous facilities and materials at well over 100 sites. Since 1989, the Department has taken an aggressive accelerated cleanup approach to reduce risks and cut costs. At most Departmental sites undergoing cleanup, some residual hazards will remain at the time cleanup is completed due to financial and technical impracticality. However, the Department still has an obligation to protect human health and the environment after cleanup is completed. LM fulfills DOE's postclosure obligation by providing long-term management of postcleanup sites which do not have continuing missions. LM is also responsible for sites under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Currently, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is responsible for site surveys and remediation at FUSRAP sites. Once remediation is completed, LM becomes responsible for long-term management. LM also has responsibility for uranium processing sites addressed by Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA). UMTRCA Title II sites are sites that were commercially owned and are regulated under a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license. For license termination, the owner must conduct an NRC-approved cleanup of any on-site radioactive waste remaining from former uranium ore-processing operations. The site owner must also provide full funding for inspections and, if necessary, ongoing maintenance. Once site

  12. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART Site, January--June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peppler, R.A.; Sisterson, D.L.; Lamb, P.

    1999-03-10

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site was designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This Site Scientific Mission Plan defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on January 1, 1999, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this document is to provide scientific guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, and Instrument Team [IT]) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site program manager, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM Program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  13. Site scientific mission plan for the Southern Great Plains CART site: July--December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peppler, R.A.; Lamb, P. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies; Sisterson, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

    1998-07-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site was designed to help satisfy the data needs of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team. This Site Scientific Mission Plan defines the scientific priorities for site activities during the six months beginning on July 1, 1998, and looks forward in lesser detail to subsequent six-month periods. The primary purpose of this document is to provide scientific guidance for the development of plans for site operations. It also provides information on current plans to the ARM functional teams (Management Team, Data and Science Integration Team [DSIT], Operations Team, and Instrument Team [IT]) and serves to disseminate the plans more generally within the ARM Program and among the members of the Science Team. This document includes a description of the operational status of the site and the primary site activities envisioned, together with information concerning approved and proposed intensive observation periods (IOPs). The primary users of this document are the site operator, the site program manager, the Site Scientist Team (SST), the Science Team through the ARM Program science director, the ARM program Experiment Center, and the aforementioned ARM Program functional teams. This plan is a living document that is updated and reissued every six months as the observational facilities are developed, tested, and augmented and as priorities are adjusted in response to developments in scientific planning and understanding.

  14. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has fond that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 181 figs., 175 tabs

  15. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high- level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization.

  16. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has fond that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 181 figs., 175 tabs.

  17. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considering for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

  18. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considering for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization

  19. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high- level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization

  20. Wind resource modelling for micro-siting - Validation at a 60-MW wind farm site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, J C; Gylling Mortensen, N [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Said, U S [New and Renewable Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1999-03-01

    This paper investigates and validates the applicability of the WAsP-model for layout optimization and micro-siting of wind turbines at a given site for a 60-MW wind farm at Zafarana at the Gulf of Suez in Egypt. Previous investigations show large gradients in the wind climate within the area. For the design and optimization of the wind farm it was found necessary to verify the WAsP extrapolation of wind atlas results from 2 existing meteorological masts located 5 and 10 km, respectively, from the wind farm site. On-site measurements at the 3.5 x 3.5 km{sup 2} wind farm site in combination with 7 years of near-site wind atlas measurements offer significant amounts of data for verification of wind conditions for micro-siting. Wind speeds, wind directions, turbulence intensities and guests in 47.5 m a.g.l. have been measured at 9 locations across the site. Additionally, one of the site masts is equipped as a reference mast, measuring both vertical profiles of wind speed and temperature as well as air pressure and temperature. The exercise is further facilitated by the fact that winds are highly uni-directional; the north direction accounting for 80-90% of the wind resource. The paper presents comparisons of 5 months of on-site measurements and modeled predictions from 2 existing meteorological masts located at distances of 5 and 10 km, respectively, from the wind farm site. Predictions based on terrain descriptions of the