WorldWideScience

Sample records for independent older chinese

  1. Older Chinese-Australian and Chinese community music engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Sicong

    2017-01-01

    This research study will investigate community music engagement by both Chinese-Australians and Chinese older people at two different older people’s organizations with the aim of exploring the affects of music engagement on older people. The study seeks to explore cultural differences between Chinese-Australian older people and Chinese older people as they relate to their music engagement. The research contentions were that (1) active music engagement can enhance the quality of the life of ol...

  2. Effectiveness of a community-based multifaceted fall-prevention intervention in active and independent older Chinese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Q H; Jiang, Y; Niu, C J; Tang, C X; Xia, Z L

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of an 18-month multifaceted intervention designed to reduce the incidence of falls in community-living older adults in China. Methods: A population-based community trial evaluated by before-and-after cross-sectional surveys. Four residential communities were randomised to either a multifaceted intervention or a control condition. Baseline information was collected from a sample of older adults in each community. A 1-year annual fall rate was calculated...

  3. Assessing shyness in Chinese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kee-Lee

    2005-09-01

    The Shyness Scale (SS) is a brief instrument for assessing shyness as a personality trait. The psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the SS were investigated in a random sample of 192 Macau Chinese older adults. The Chinese version of the SS possesses high internal consistency and exhibited satisfactory short-term test-retest reliability. The Chinese version of the SS exhibited acceptable convergent validity with other negative measures of psychological well-being including negative emotional states (assessed by the Negative Affect Scale), loneliness (assessed by the UCLA Loneliness Scale), and state anxiety and trait anxiety (assessed by STAI). The divergent validity of the Chinese version of the SS was demonstrated by the negative but significant association between the SS and self esteem (assessed by Rosenberg Self Esteem Inventory).

  4. Depression in older Chinese migrants to Auckland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Max W; Wong, Sai; Giles, Lynne C; Wong, Sue; Young, Wilson; Au, Ming

    2003-08-01

    This study was conducted to identify risk factors for depressive symptomatology among older Chinese migrants. One hundred and sixty-two Chinese migrants aged 55 years or older, living in the community and recruited via Chinese community organizations and general practitioners, were interviewed using a Chinese version of the Geriatric Depression Scale and measures of stressful life events, morbid conditions, self-rated health, acculturation, social support and service utilization. Twenty-six percent of participants met the criteria for depressive symptomatology. No recent migrants showed symptoms of depression. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that lower emotional support, greater number of visits to a doctor, difficulties in accessing health services and low New Zealand cultural orientation increased the risk of showing symptoms of depression. Significant numbers of older Chinese migrants appear to be depressed or at risk for depression and, while participants with depressive symptoms consulted general practitioners more than their counterparts without such symptoms, they reported greater difficulty in accessing health services. The findings point to the need for further epidemiological study of this growing sector of the population and investigation of the nature of its engagement with health services. Social support and aspects of acculturation may play a significant role in preventing depression. This also requires further investigation.

  5. Fuzzy 5F Analysis of an Independent Chinese Auto Company

    OpenAIRE

    陳, 法恩; 古殿, 幸雄; チン, ホウオン; コドノ, ユキオ; Faen, Chen; Yukio, Kodono

    2014-01-01

     The Chinese market is indispensable to international automobile companies, who are thus expanding investment in the country’s automotive industry. To increase their market share in China, automobile manufacturers and independent automotive enterprises have implemented a series of management strategies. Consequently, competition in China is becoming increasingly intense. At the same time, Chinese automobile companies have no international brand recognition.  In this paper, an independent auto...

  6. Independent older adults perspectives on oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabra, K K; Compton, S M; Keenan, L P

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore oral health experiences from the perspective of older adults' living in community dwellings. The two objectives of this study were to identify facilitators and barriers to oral health care, and to determine how utilization of oral health services compares to utilization of other healthcare services. An interpretive descriptive methodology was employed with a purposive sample of 12 adults, aged 70 years or older. The inclusion criterion was English-speaking seniors residing in community dwellings. Community dwellings were defined as any housing outside of long-term care or other supportive living facilities. Semi-structured interviews were 30-80 min, audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three researchers participated in the comparative analysis process to develop codes, generate categories, interpret patterns and construct themes. Three central themes surfacing from the data were as follows: life course influences on oral health, transparency in delivery of oral health services and interrelationships between oral health and overall health. Older adults in this study emphasized the value of establishing collaborative and trusting relationships between oral health practitioners and older adults. Oral health practitioners should be clear and transparent when communicating information about oral health costs and be cognizant of different circumstances from childhood to older adulthood that inhibit or promote routine utilization of oral health services. Including oral health services as part of interdisciplinary care teams could help promote understandings of the reciprocal relationship between oral health and general health and improve oral health status for older adults. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Older Chinese Immigrants' Relationships With Their Children: A Literature Review From a Solidarity-Conflict Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoping; Bryant, Christina; Boldero, Jennifer; Dow, Briony

    2015-12-01

    Older Chinese immigrants are one of the largest and fastest growing groups in Western societies. This article used the solidarity-conflict model to synthesize current research examining parent-child relationships in this group. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in the CINAHL, Medline, and PubMed databases to identify relevant articles. A narrative approach was used to review the literature. Thirty-six articles were identified. Compared with Caucasians, older Chinese immigrants are more likely to live with children and have higher filial expectations. However, considerable numbers live independently. Of these, most live in public housing and rely on the community rather than their children for instrumental help. Many older Chinese immigrants have adjusted their filial expectations and valued being independent. They also provide extensive household help to their children. There are indications of intergenerational conflict, probably due to generational differences in attitudes toward life and limited intergenerational contact. This review suggests that although filial piety continues to influence older parent-child relationship in Chinese immigrant families, many changes have occurred. These findings have important implications for service planning and delivery for this cultural group. This review also provides evidence for the utility of the solidarity-conflict model. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Chinese older adults' Internet use for health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carmen K M; Yeung, Dannii Y; Ho, Henry C Y; Tse, Kin-Po; Lam, Chun-Yiu

    2014-04-01

    Technological advancement benefits Internet users with the convenience of social connection and information search. This study aimed at investigating the predictors of Internet use to search for online health information among Chinese older adults. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was applied to examine the predictiveness of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and attitudes toward Internet use on behavioral intention to search for health information online. Ninety-eight Chinese older adults were recruited from an academic institute for older people and community centers. Frequency of Internet use and physical and psychological health were also assessed. Results showed that perceived ease of use and attitudes significantly predicted behavioral intention of Internet use. The potential influences of traditional Chinese values and beliefs in health were also discussed.

  9. Retirement planning and work-related variables in Chinese older nurses: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng-Cheng; Zhang, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Mei-Ling; Ying, Jie; Shi, Ying; Wang, Shou-Qi; Sun, Jiao

    2018-03-01

    To explore the situation of older nurses approaching retirement with regard to their retirement planning, and the relationship of their retirement planning behaviour with the job environment and job satisfaction under their current employment arrangements and other work-related variables. Nurse shortage has become a global phenomenon that can be alleviated by retaining older nurses in service. The Chinese government proposed the "Incremental Delay Retirement Age Policy." However, older nurses face delayed retirement but lack retirement plans. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among a convenience sample of older retiring nurses (n = 152; 84.92% response rate) recruited from every department of four large general hospitals in Changchun, Jilin Province from June to August 2016. The majority of the respondents presented poor retirement planning (n = 122, 80.3%). The independent variables of information exchange with patients, teamwork and personal growth and development explained approximately 16.6% of the variance in retirement planning. Nurse-patient communication and personal growth and development can promote retirement planning, but teamwork is negatively related to retirement planning. Retirement planning by Chinese older nurses is related to certain work-related variables. However, many other work-related variables were not associated with retirement planning and require further research. Overall, Chinese older retiring nurses must improve their retirement planning practices. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Measuring acculturation and enculturation among Chinese Canadian older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieu, Yvonne; Konnert, Candace

    2015-03-01

    Cultural adaptation is important to assess; however, most acculturation measures are unidimensional with little psychometric data for older immigrants. This study assessed a bidimensional measure, the Vancouver Index of Acculturation (VIA; Ryder, Alden, & Paulhus, 2000), among 149 (mean age: 73.92 years) Chinese Canadians. Internal consistencies were .84 and .83 for the Mainstream and Heritage subscales respectively, and they were orthogonal. Convergent and discriminant validity were demonstrated by predicted correlations between the VIA subscales and age at immigration, years in Canada, English fluency, and the Belief in Chinese Culture and Values Scale (BCCV; Lai & Chau, 2007). The VIA accounted for significantly more variance in language ability than the BCCV, above and beyond acculturation proxies. Exploratory factor analysis replicated the two-factor structure reported by Ryder et al. (2000). A confirmatory factor analysis indicated poor fit. This study supports a bidimensional model of cultural adaptation among older Chinese Canadians.

  11. Healthcare Communication Barriers and Self-Rated Health in Older Chinese American Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoh, Janice Y; Sentell, Tetine; Gildengorin, Ginny; Le, Gem M; Chan, Elaine; Fung, Lei-Chun; Pasick, Rena J; Stewart, Susan; Wong, Ching; Woo, Kent; Burke, Adam; Wang, Jun; McPhee, Stephen J; Nguyen, Tung T

    2016-08-01

    Older Chinese immigrants are a growing population in the United States who experience multiple healthcare communication barriers such as limited English proficiency and low health literacy. Each of these obstacles has been associated with poor health outcomes but less is known about their effects in combination. This study examined the association between healthcare communication barriers and self-rated health among older Chinese immigrants. Cross-sectional survey data were obtained from 705 Chinese American immigrants ages 50-75 living in San Francisco, California. Communication barriers examined included spoken English proficiency, medical interpreter needs, and health literacy in written health information. The study sample (81 % females, mean age = 62) included 67 % who spoke English poorly or not at all, 34 % who reported needing a medical interpreter, and 37 % who reported "often" or "always" needing assistance to read health information. Two-thirds reported poor self-rated health; many reported having access to racial-concordant (74 %) and language-concordant (86 %) healthcare services. Both poor spoken English proficiency and low health literacy were associated with poor self-rated health, independent of other significant correlates (unemployment, chronic health conditions, and having a primary doctor who was ethnic Chinese). Results revealed that spoken English proficiency and print health literacy are independent communication barriers that are directly associated with health status among elderly Chinese American immigrants. Access to racial- or language-concordant health care services did not appear to resolve these barriers. These findings underscore the importance of addressing both spoken and written healthcare communication needs among older Chinese American immigrants.

  12. Perceptions of Breast Cancer Screening in Older Chinese Women: A Meta-Ethnography

    OpenAIRE

    Banning, M; Shia, N

    2014-01-01

    In Eastern Asia, as the incidence of breast cancer continues to increase yet compliance with breast cancer screening in older Chinese women who are at risk of early stage breast cancer is poor. This meta-ethnography explored breast cancer awareness, attitudes and breast screening behaviour in older Chinese women. Nine qualitative studies were appraised using CASP tools. Many Chinese women believed that illness is preordained, therefore mammography was a futile exercise. Older Chinese women he...

  13. Knowledge and perceptions of hospice care of Chinese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enguidanos, Susan; Yonashiro-Cho, Jeanine; Cote, Sarah

    2013-06-01

    Despite dramatic increases in hospice enrollment, ethnic disparities persist. With rapidly growing populations of Asian Americans, research is needed to elucidate factors that contribute to hospice underenrollment in subgroups of Asian populations. The purpose of this study was to explore older Chinese Americans' knowledge, understanding, and perceptions of hospice care. Three focus groups were conducted, one each in English, Mandarin, and Cantonese, all recruited from a Chinese social service agency. Focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed and then coded for themes. Thirty-four Chinese Americans participated in the groups, all but one reporting primary language other than English. Themes included lack of knowledge, death timing, burden (financial, emotional, physical toward family or government), peaceful death (relief of suffering), and quality of care (and its influence on perception of best care location). Findings indicate the need for hospice education and outreach to Chinese Americans. Additionally, to address concerns about burden and death in the home, efforts to improve access to hospice facilities are needed. Findings from this study provide direction for healthcare providers to address potential barriers to increasing access to hospice of Chinese Americans. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. Please Ask Gently: Using Culturally Targeted Communication Strategies to Initiate End-of-Life Care Discussions With Older Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Han-Lin; Cataldo, Janine; Ho, Evelyn Y; Rehm, Roberta S

    2018-01-01

    Health-care providers (HCPs) find facilitating end-of-life (EOL) care discussions challenging, especially with patients whose ethnicities differ from their own. Currently, there is little guidance on how to initiate and facilitate such discussions with older Chinese Americans (≥55 years) and their families. To explore communication strategies for HCPs to initiate EOL care discussions with older Chinese Americans in the San Francisco Bay Area. This qualitative (focused) ethnographic study included field observations and individual semistructured interviews with 14 community-dwelling older Chinese Americans who lived independently at home, 9 adult children, and 7 HCPs. Responses were analyzed using open coding, memos, and comparison across participants. The study participants emphasized the importance of assessing readiness for early EOL care discussions. All recommended using indirect communication approaches to determine older Chinese Americans' readiness. Indirect communication can be culturally targeted and applied at both system-wide (ie, health-care system) and individual (ie, HCP) levels. To institutionalize the practice, health-care facilities should implement EOL care discussion inquiries as part of routine during check-in or intake questionnaires. In individual practice, using depersonalized communication strategies to initiate the discussion was recommended to determine older Chinese Americans' readiness. Assessing readiness should be an essential and necessary action for early EOL care discussions. Culturally targeted assessment of older Chinese Americans includes using indirect communication approaches to initiate an EOL care discussion to determine their readiness. In addition to health-care system integration, providers should implement and evaluate proposed EOL discussion initiation prompts with their older Chinese American patients.

  15. The changing meaning of family support among older Chinese and Korean immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sabrina T; Yoo, Grace J; Stewart, Anita L

    2006-01-01

    Our objective in this study was to examine how family social-support expectations have changed among older Chinese and Korean U.S. immigrants. Fifty-two Cantonese- and Korean-speaking immigrants older than 60 years participated in eight focus groups. Transcripts were translated into English. Themes were developed based on a coding structure and compared to past research. Participants discussed changed perspectives of family social support and the need to integrate both American and Chinese or Korean culture, thus becoming bicultural. Three distinct perspectives of family emerged: (1) participants felt they had become peripheral family members, (2) parents were no longer authority figures in families, and (3) participants were more independent. Finally, participants described how factors such as a changed economic environment, living alone, and extending their social network beyond family, promoted a move to biculturalism. These results suggest that the integration of two cultures, or biculturalism, is an indicator of successful adaptation to immigration later in life; older Chinese and Korean immigrants are adjusting to living in the United States and blending multiple cultures simultaneously. Thus, acculturation frameworks implying a linear process may not be theoretically valid as ethnic identity, particularly for those who immigrate to different countries, changes over the life course.

  16. Psychological well-being of older Chinese immigrants living in Australia: a comparison with older Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoping; Bryant, Christina; Boldero, Jennifer; Dow, Briony

    2016-10-01

    Few current studies explore psychological well-being among older Chinese immigrants in Australia. The study addressed this gap and provided preliminary data on psychological well-being among this group. Four indicators, namely depression, anxiety, loneliness, and quality of life, were used to present a comprehensive picture of psychological well-being. Participants were two groups of community-dwelling older people, specifically 59 Chinese immigrants and 60 Australian-born people (median age=77 and 73, respectively). Data were collected through standardized interviews. The Geriatric Depression Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the de Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale and the WHO Quality of Life questionnaire were used to measure depression, anxiety, loneliness, and quality of life, respectively. Chinese participants' median quality of life score was higher than the scale mid-point, indicating relatively high levels of quality of life. However, 10% exhibited symptoms of depression, 6% had symptoms of anxiety, and 49% felt lonely. Compared to Australian participants, Chinese participants reported poorer quality of life and higher levels of loneliness. Importantly, the difference in quality of life remained when the impact of socio-demographic factors was controlled for. This study was the first to use multiple indicators to explore psychological well-being among older Chinese immigrants in Australia. Its results suggest that their psychological well-being might be worse than that of Australian-born people when using loneliness and quality of life as indicators. In particular, loneliness is a common psychological problem among this group, and there is a need for public awareness of this problem.

  17. Elder abuse and its medical outcomes in older Chinese people with cognitive and physical impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Boye; Yan, Elsie; Chan, Ko Ling; Ip, Partick

    2018-05-04

    Elder abuse poses a major public health threat considering the ongoing rapid aging of the global population. This study investigates the association between elder abuse by family caregivers and medical outcomes among older Chinese patients with cognitive and physical impairments in the People's Republic of China. Using cross-sectional design, 1002 older patients (aged 55 y and older) and their family caregivers were recruited from 3 grade A hospitals in Guangdong Province. The major independent variable is caregiver-reported elder abuse, while outcome variables include cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, peptic ulcer, digestive disorder, chronic hepatic disease, chronic renal disease, metabolic disease, acute inflammation, joint disease, tumor, and general injury. The prevalence of these medical conditions among patients who were abused and those who were not were compared using descriptive analyses and chi-square tests, and logistic regression was used to establish the relevant independent associations. A total of 429 (42.8%) older persons have experienced physical or psychological abuse over the past 12 months. After adjusting for potential confounders, abused older persons were more susceptible to cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, peptic ulcer, digestive disorder, metabolic disease, acute inflammation, tumor, and injuries. Elder abuse is associated with various major medical morbidities. Interdisciplinary cooperation is necessary to identify and reduce the adverse physiological consequences in victims. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Potential early biomarkers of sarcopenia among independent older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coto Montes, Ana; Boga, José Antonio; Bermejo Millo, Carlos; Rubio González, Adrián; Potes Ochoa, Yaiza; Vega Naredo, Ignacio; Martínez Reig, Marta; Romero Rizos, Luis; Sánchez Jurado, Pedro Manuel; Solano, Juan Jose; Abizanda, Pedro; Caballero, Beatriz

    2017-10-01

    There are no tools or biomarkers for a quantitative analysis of sarcopenia. Cross-sectional study of the diagnosis of sarcopenia in 200 independent adults aged 70 years or over. Sarcopenia was defined as loss of muscle mass together with low strength and/or loss of physical performance. We considered different clinical parameters and assayed potential blood biomarkers (cell energetic metabolism, muscle performance, inflammation, infection and oxidative stress). The prevalence of sarcopenia was 35.3% in women and 13.1% in men, and it was significantly associated with advanced age, a low functional performance in the lower extremities, deficient weekly consumption of kilocalories, risk of malnutrition, and drug use for the digestive system. A close relationship was found between sarcopenia, pre-frailty and depressed mood. With these confounding variables, we observed that products of lipid peroxidation were closely associated with sarcopenia in independent older adults (frail participants and those with severe dependence had been excluded from the sample). The best multivariate model proposed was able to predict 67.6% of the variance in sarcopenia, with a power of discrimination of 93.5%. Additional analyses considering lipid levels, fat mass, dyslipidemia, use of lipid-lowering drugs and hypertension confirmed this close association between lipid peroxidation and sarcopenia. Given the difficulty in the diagnosis of sarcopenia in clinical practice, we suggest the use of blood circulating products of lipid peroxidation as potential biomarkers for an early diagnosis of sarcopenia in independent older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms in Chinese older adults: A population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, J.; Li, J.; Cuijpers, P.; Wu, S.; Wu, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Objective In China, the rapid socioeconomic transition and the consequential traditional culture change had significant influences on Chinese older-adult depression. In the present study, the prevalence, the potential risk, and the protective factors of depression in the Chinese older population

  20. Older Chinese women immigrants and their leisure experiences: before and after emigration to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching-Hua Ho; Jaclyn A. Card

    2002-01-01

    The concept of leisure has generally focused on men. This is especially true in Chinese society where women seldom have the right to speak about leisure or mention leisure activities. For many Chinese women, the integration of household and leisure has been necessary to find meaning in life. Based on this concept, we explored older Chinese women immigrants'...

  1. Coping experience of health concerns and physical disability for older Chinese people: A qualitative, descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, He; Turale, Sue

    2017-12-01

    In this qualitative, descriptive study, we explored the perspectives of older, community-dwelling Chinese people regarding their experiences of coping with a physical disability and their health concerns. Twenty participants were interviewed in-depth, and data were analyzed using content analysis. Five themes with 13 subthemes emerged that described older people's experiences of coping with health concerns and disability: (i) ignoring health concerns; (ii) managing self; (iii) seeking medical help; (iv) living with physical disability; and (v) relying on limited resources. Most participants did not have sufficient access to health services due to physical disability and financial deficits, so they tended to ignore their health conditions or tackle them independently before seeking medical help. At the same time, they were impacted on by social and cultural factors. Policies are required that offer more resources to community-dwelling people with disabilities in China. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Levels of Acculturation of Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area - The Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi; Bergren, Stephanie M; Chang, E-Shien

    2015-09-01

    Acculturation is a difficult process for minority older adults for a variety of reasons, including access and exposure to mainstream culture, competing ethnic identities, and linguistic ability and preference. There is a paucity of research regarding overall level of acculturation for Chinese older adults in the United States. This study aimed to provide an overall estimate of level of acculturation of Chinese older adults in the United States and to examine correlations between sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health measures, and level of acculturation. Data were collected through the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE) study. This community-based participatory research study surveyed 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 and older. The PINE Study Acculturation Scale was used to assess level of acculturation in three dimensions: language preference, media use, and ethnic social relations. Mean acculturation level for all items was 15.3 ± 5.1, indicating low levels of acculturation. Older age, more offspring, lower income, fewer years living in the United States, lower overall health status, and lower quality of life were associated with lower levels of acculturation. Level of acculturation was low in Chinese older adults, and certain subsets of the population were more likely to have a lower level of acculturation. Future research should investigate causality and effects of level of acculturation. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Poor sleep quality is independently associated with physical disability in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Meng-Yueh; Chen, Hsi-Chung

    2015-03-15

    We aimed to evaluate the association between sleep quality and physical disability in community-dwelling older adults. There were 213 community-dwelling adults (76 men and 137 women) aged 65 years and above participated into this investigation. The Groningen Activity Restriction Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were utilized to evaluate physical disability and subjective sleep quality, respectively. Global functional capacity was measured by the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). The Mini Mental State Examination and the Chinese Geriatric Depression Screening Scale were used to evaluate cognitive function and depression. Univariate analysis revealed a correlation between physical disability and poor sleep quality, older age, 2 or more comorbidities, depression, functional capacity, and poor cognitive function. However, in the multivariate analyses, depression failed to show significant association with physical disability. In contrast, an independent association was observed between poor sleep quality and physical disability (OR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.02-4.05). In community-dwelling older adults, subjective poor sleep was significantly associated with physical disability, even after controlling for the effects of other established risk factors. © 2014 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  4. Back to School in Later Life: Older Chinese Adults' Perspectives on Learning Participation Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renfeng; De Donder, Liesbeth; De Backer, Free; Shihua, Li; Honghui, Pan; Thomas, Valerie; Vanslambrouck, Silke; Lombaerts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim: Even though the beneficial effects of elderly learning are widely acknowledged, many older Chinese people are still not involved. This paper aims to examine the barriers that affect the level of educational participation of older adults in China. Methodology: Using a focus group methodology, 43 older participants (aged 55 years…

  5. Self-mastery among Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqi Dong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-mastery is an important psychological resource to cope with stressful situations. However, we have limited understanding of self-mastery among minority aging populations. Objective: This study aims to examine the presence and levels of self-mastery among U.S. Chinese older adults. Methods: Data were drawn from the PINE study, a population-based survey of U.S. Chinese older adults in the Greater Chicago area. Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, a total of 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 and above were surveyed. A Chinese version of the Self-Mastery Scale was used to assess self-mastery. Results: Out of the 7-item Chinese Self-Mastery Scale, approximately 42.8% to 87.5% of Chinese older adults experienced some degree of self-mastery in their lives. Older adults with no formal education and the oldest-old aged 85 and over had the lowest level of self-mastery in our study. A higher mastery level was associated with being married, having fewer children, better self-reported health status, better quality of life, and positive health changes. Conclusion: Although self-mastery is commonly experienced among the Chinese aging population in the Greater Chicago area, specific subgroups are still vulnerable. Future longitudinal studies are needed to improve the understanding of risk factors and outcomes associated with self-mastery among Chinese older adults.

  6. Insomnia Severity Index: psychometric properties with Chinese community-dwelling older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Doris S F

    2010-10-01

    This paper is a report of a study to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Insomnia Severity Index. Despite the high prevalence of insomnia in older people and its detrimental impact on well-being and healthcare costs, this problem is almost always undetected and consequently under-treated. The Insomnia Severity Index is psychometrically sound in measuring perceived insomnia severity. However, it has had very limited application in non-White populations. An instrument validation study was carried out between October 2008 and April 2009. The Insomnia Severity Index was translated into Chinese using Brislin's model and administered to a convenience sample of 585 older Chinese people recruited from three community centres for elders. Other instruments were also administered, including the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Geriatric Depression Scale. Cronbach's alpha of the Chinese version of the Insomnia Severity Index was 0.81, with item-to-total correlations in the range of 0.34-0.67. Construct validity was supported by its moderate relationship with the Chinese Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and sleep efficiency. The Chinese version of the Insomnia Severity Index also indicated more severe level of insomnia in older people who reported depressed mood on the Geriatric Depression Scale. Discriminant validity was supported as the Chinese version of the Insomnia Severity Index could discriminate poorer sleepers from normal sleepers. Exploratory factor analysis identified a two-factor structure for the Chinese version of the Insomnia Severity Index in measuring the severity and impacts of insomnia on the Chinese older people. The Chinese version of the Insomnia Severity Index is a culturally-relevant and psychometrically-sound instrument for assessing severity and impact of insomnia in Chinese community-dwelling older people. Nurses can use this tool to assess older people's perceptions of insomnia. © 2010 The

  7. Post-retirement voluntary work and psychological functioning among older Chinese in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M S; Tang, Catherine S K; Yan, Elsie C W

    2005-03-01

    This study examined demographic and psychosocial differences between older Chinese volunteers and non-volunteers. The influences of work-related factors on older Chinese volunteers' post-retirement psychological functioning and life satisfaction were also explored. A total of 501 older Chinese in Hong Kong were individually interviewed. About 65% of them were involved in community voluntary work since their retirement, with an average of four hours per week. Compared to those without voluntary work experiences, older Chinese volunteers had higher educational attainment and reported better physical health, higher self-efficacy, greater life satisfaction, and less psychological distress. Results from hierarchical regression analyses showed that salient correlates of a low level of psychological distress in older Chinese volunteers were high educational attainment, high self-efficacy, perceived good physical health, and high levels of perceived rewards and satisfaction from voluntary work. Self-efficacy and perceived rewards from voluntary work were also salient correlates of life satisfaction for older Chinese volunteers. As hypothesized, work-related factors of perceived rewards and work satisfaction remained significant correlates of older volunteers' psychological well-being, even after controlling for demographic and individual psychosocial factors. Limitations and implications of the study were also discussed.

  8. Self-reported Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms Among Older Chinese Adults in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lydia W; Dong, XinQi

    2017-07-01

    Discrimination is part of life for many Americans, especially ethnic minorities. Focusing on older Chinese Americans, this study examines the association between self-reported discrimination and depressive symptoms and identifies subgroups that are more likely to report experiencing discrimination. We conducted cross-sectional analysis of data collected from adults (age 60+ years) of Chinese origin residing in the Greater Chicago area (N = 3,004). Self-reported discrimination was assessed by the Experiences of Discrimination instrument and was dichotomized (yes vs no). Depressive symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Logistic regression of self-reported discrimination and negative binominal regression of depressive symptoms were conducted. About 21.5% of the sample reported having experienced discrimination. The odds of reporting discrimination are higher for those who are younger, have higher education and income, are more acculturated, have been in the United States longer, live outside Chinatown, and have higher levels of neuroticism and conscientiousness. Self-reported discrimination is significantly and positively associated with depressive symptoms, independent of sociodemographic characteristics, migration-related variables, and personality factors. Findings suggest a robust relationship between self-reported discrimination and depressive symptoms in older Chinese Americans. They further suggest that the relatively advantaged groups-younger, higher socioeconomic status, more acculturated, and living outside Chinatown-are more likely to report experiencing discrimination. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Older Chinese people's views on food: implications for supportive cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Sheila Alison; Seymour, Jane E; Chapman, Alice; Holloway, Margaret

    2008-11-01

    As people face cancer and the end of life, the social, cultural and therapeutic role of food takes on an increasing significance. As part of a larger study involving older Chinese people resident in the UK, we investigated their beliefs about the influence of food on cancer and its role in supportive cancer care. A two-phase qualitative research study involved older Chinese people identified via Chinese community groups. In phase one, 46 older Chinese people participated in seven focus group discussions. In phase two, semi-structured interviews were conducted in Cantonese or Mandarin with 46 different older Chinese people to elicit their understandings of the role of food in health and illness generally and specifically for those with cancer. The analyses revealed four main themes: (1) food as 'therapeutic'; (2) food as 'risky'; (3) food as supportive and comforting; and (4) beliefs about the lack of culturally appropriate and acceptable food in hospitals. Expectations about the lack of Chinese food and the poor quality and perceived unsuitability of 'western' food were regarded as major concerns in relation to hospital admission. Understanding the perceived cultural and therapeutic significance of food and its functions in social exchange is one important aspect of promoting supportive and end-of-life cancer care for minority communities. These views helped explain the diversity and salience of food use in illness for older Chinese people resident in the UK.

  10. Mental health help-seeking attitudes, utilization, and intentions among older Chinese immigrants in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieu, Yvonne; Konnert, Candace A

    2014-03-01

    This study had three objectives. First, to determine the extent to which demographic factors, perceived social support, and Chinese cultural beliefs predict attitudes toward mental health help seeking; second, to assess mental health utilization; and third, to assess intentions to utilize mental health services among older Chinese immigrants in Canada aged 55 and above. A total of 149 older Chinese adults (M = 73.92 years, SD = 9.99, range = 55-95 years) completed a semi-structured interview protocol in Cantonese or Mandarin. Demographic and health information were collected, and questionnaires assessing perceived social support, mental health help-seeking attitudes, and belief in Chinese culture and values were administered. Demographic and health information, perceived social support, Chinese cultural beliefs and values accounted for 21.8% of the variance in help-seeking attitudes. Descriptive data related to mental health utilization and intentions are provided. Older Chinese participants exhibited less positive attitudes that were significantly associated with Chinese cultural beliefs and values. Implications for practice with older Chinese adults are also discussed.

  11. Factors affecting institutionalization in older Hong Kong Chinese patients after recovery from acute medical illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, James Ka Hay; Chiu, Patrick Ka Chun; Chu, Leung Wing

    2009-01-01

    Older patients with medical illnesses are at risk of institutionalization. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors leading to institutionalization in older patients after recovery from medical illnesses. We studied 535 older patients in two convalescence hospitals in Hong Kong. Of them, 116 patients (21.7%) needed to move to nursing homes upon discharge. Univariate analysis showed that age, single/divorced/widowed status, longer length of stay, pressure sores, urinary incontinence, urinary catheterization, falls, dementia, diabetes mellitus, Barthel index (100), Elderly Mobility Score (EMS), Chinese version of the mini-mental state examination (C-MMSE) and albumin levels were significant factors associated with institutionalization. Multivariate analysis showed that being single/divorced/widowed (odds ratio=OR=2.74, 95% confidence interval=CI=1.36-5.53, p=0.0048), having urinary incontinence on discharge (OR=5.13, CI=2.66-10.6, p<0.001) and admission due to falls (OR=2.4, CI=1.03-5.57, p=0.04) were independent risk factors for nursing home admission. Higher admission EMS (OR=0.91, CI=0.84-0.97, p=0.009), admission C-MMSE (OR=0.93, CI=0.87-0.98, p=0.019), and discharge albumin levels (OR=0.93, CI=0.88-0.99, p=0.02) were independent protecting factors against nursing home admission. Knowledge of these factors can allow us to predict accommodation outcome and develop intervention strategy to reduce institutionalization in the older patients.

  12. Physical Activity and Psychological Well-Being among Hong Kong Chinese Older Adults: Exploring the Moderating Role of Self-Construal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Cecilia Y. M.; Fung, Helene H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between physical activity (PA) and psychological well-being--self-esteem and relatedness satisfaction--among 102 Hong Kong Chinese older adults. It also tested whether independent-interdependent self-construal moderated the association. Physical activity, self esteem, relatedness satisfaction, and self-construal…

  13. Psychometric validation of the Chinese version of the Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool for older Chinese inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhong; Wang, Min; Liu, Yu

    2016-10-01

    To culturally adapt and evaluate the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool among older inpatients in the mainland of China. Patient falls are an important safety consideration within hospitals among older inpatients. Nurses need specific risk assessment tools for older inpatients to reliably identify at-risk populations and guide interventions that highlight fixable risk factors for falls and consequent injuries. In China, a few tools have been developed to measure fall risk. However, they lack the solid psychometric development necessary to establish their validity and reliability, and they are not widely used for elderly inpatients. A cross-sectional study. A convenient sampling was used to recruit 201 older inpatients from two tertiary-level hospitals in Beijing and Xiamen, China. The Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool was translated using forward and backward translation procedures and was administered to these 201 older inpatients. Reliability of the tool was calculated by inter-rater reliability and Cronbach's alpha. Validity was analysed through content validity index and construct validity. The Inter-rater reliability of Chinese version of Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool was 97·14% agreement with Cohen's Kappa of 0·903. Cronbach's α was 0·703. Content of Validity Index was 0·833. Two factors represented intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors were explored that together explained 58·89% of the variance. This study provided evidence that Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool is an acceptable, valid and reliable tool to identify older inpatients at risk of falls and falls with injury. Further psychometric testing on criterion validity and evaluation of its advanced utility in geriatric clinical settings are warranted. The Chinese version of Johns Hopkins Fall Risk Assessment Tool may be useful for health care personnel to identify older Chinese inpatients at risk of falls and falls

  14. Strengthening Social Capital Through Residential Environment Development for Older Chinese in a Canadian Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Among Canada's visible-minority population 65 years of age or older, nearly four out of ten are Chinese. However, little research has been devoted to the examination of the role of the housing environment in building social capital for older Chinese despite the increase in this population and related social issues. The purpose of this paper is to examine Chinese elders' experience of social capital and how it is affected by their residential environment in a Canadian context. In this qualitative study, forty-three Chinese elders in a Canadian context were interviewed with a focus group approach. Findings indicate that the environments in which these older adults lived either hindered or assisted them in building or increasing their social capital. A culturally and linguistically homogeneous residential environment does not necessarily provide positive support to older Chinese for their acquisition of social capital. Adversities in the environment, such as maltreatment or lack of support from their immediate micro environment (family), tended to motivate older adults to improve their social capital for problem-solving. The study offers implications from research findings to social work practice and concludes with an analysis of limitations.

  15. Beliefs in advance care planning among Chinese Americans: Similarities and differences between the younger and older generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Ching Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to explore behavioral, normative, and control beliefs in the discussion of advance care planning (ACP among older and younger Chinese Americans. Ethnic minority groups have been identified as less engaged in ACP and this represents an ethnic and cultural gap. Older Chinese American adults often have different beliefs and values compared to the younger generation who are more acculturated to American mainstream culture. These differences may hinder the discussion of ACP with Chinese older adults. A qualitative design was used. The Theory of Planned Behavior guided the development of the interview guide. We recruited 60 Chinese Americans. Prior experience was identified as a theme that influenced attitudes about ACP. We found that older and younger Chinese participants had different beliefs in the norm and control related to ACP discussions, but not in the belief of attitudes about ACP discussions. Both younger and older Chinese American participants believed that ACP was important and necessary. Participants in both clusters expressed that they were ready and willing to engage in ACP discussions with their family members but hesitant to initiate these discussions. The reluctance in discussing ACP with Chinese older adults may be related to the expectations and obligations of Xiao (filial piety in Chinese culture. This study describes the similarities and differences of beliefs in ACP between older and younger Chinese Americans. We identified barriers and facilitators in behavioral, normative, and control beliefs that can be used to promote ACP for Chinese Americans.

  16. Validation of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) among Chinese Children *

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jing Jing.; Baranowski, Tom.; Lau, W C Patrick.; Chen, Tzu An.; Pitkethly, Amanda Jane.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study initially validates the Chinese version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), which has been identified as a potentially valid instrument to assess moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in children among diverse racial groups. Methods The psychometric properties of the PAQ-C with 742 Hong Kong Chinese children were assessed with the scale's internal consistency, reliability, test-retest reliability, confirmatory factory analysis (CFA) ...

  17. "Tangled wires in the head": older migrant Chinese's perception of mental illness in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Li, S.; Hatzidimitriadou, E.; Psoinos, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors explored Cantonese-speaking older Chinese migrants knowledge, attitudes and expectations regarding mental illness. They obtained verbatim data from semi-structured interviews with eight participants recruited from London-based Chinese and church communities in Britain. They analyzed the data using the principles of Grounded Theory and in-depth content analysis. They examined cultural idioms in participants' accounts. Findings suggested that Western diagnostic cate...

  18. Depressive symptoms predict cognitive decline and dementia in older people independently of cerebral white matter changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdelho, Ana; Madureira, Sofia; Moleiro, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Depressive symptoms (DS) have been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the longitudinal influence of DS on cognition in independent older people, accounting for the severity of white matter changes (WMC).......Depressive symptoms (DS) have been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the longitudinal influence of DS on cognition in independent older people, accounting for the severity of white matter changes (WMC)....

  19. Age-related positivity enhancement is not universal: older Chinese look away from positive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Helene H; Lu, Alice Y; Goren, Deborah; Isaacowitz, Derek M; Wadlinger, Heather A; Wilson, Hugh R

    2008-06-01

    Socioemotional selectivity theory postulates that with age, people are motivated to derive emotional meaning from life, leading them to pay more attention to positive relative to negative/neutral stimuli. The authors argue that cultures that differ in what they consider to be emotionally meaningful may show this preference to different extents. Using eye-tracking techniques, the authors compared visual attention toward emotional (happy, fearful, sad, and angry) and neutral facial expressions among 46 younger and 57 older Hong Kong Chinese. In contrast to prior Western findings, older but not younger Chinese looked away from happy facial expressions, suggesting that they do not show attentional preferences toward positive stimuli.

  20. The impact of social capital on depression among older Chinese and Korean immigrants: similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum Jung; Auh, Erica; Lee, Yeon Jung; Ahn, Joonhee

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine similarities and differences in terms of the influence of social capital on depression among older Chinese and Korean immigrants. The study used data collected from both 172 Chinese and 210 Korean immigrants living in Los Angeles County. The variables included depression Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form, (GDS-SF), social capital (five indices of norms, trust, partnership in community, information sharing, and political participation), and demographics. The study found that partnership in community was significantly associated with a lower level of depression for both the groups. On the other hand, political participation was only associated with a lower level of depression for older Chinese immigrants. Also, norms and information sharing were only associated with a lower level of depression for older Korean immigrants. There was an evidence for the correlation between social capital and depression in older Chinese and Korean immigrant population. It suggests the needs to develop social programs and service in order to build more social capital for older immigrants.

  1. Predicting influenza vaccination intent among at-risk chinese older adults in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Doris S F; Low, Lisa P L; Lee, Iris F K; Lee, Diana T F; Ng, Wai Man

    2014-01-01

    Older adults with major chronic illnesses are very susceptible to influenza and its serious complications, but many do not obtain vaccinations. Little is known about factors associated with intention to obtain influenza vaccination among at-risk Chinese older adults in Hong Kong. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with intent to obtain influenza vaccination among at-risk Chinese older adults in Hong Kong. This multicenter descriptive correlational study recruited a convenience sample of 306 Chinese older adults with medical risk factors for influenza and its serious complications from the general outpatient clinics in Hong Kong. Interviews were conducted to assess intent to obtain influenza vaccination for the coming year, health beliefs about influenza, and discomfort following past vaccinations. The current influenza vaccination rate was 58.5%; only 36.3% intended to get vaccinated the following year. After controlling for clinical and demographic factors in a logistic regression model, perceived susceptibility predicted intention to obtain future vaccination (OR = 1.42, 95% CI [1.14, 1.78]), whereas postvaccination discomfort was negatively associated with intention (OR = 0.063, 95% CI [0.006, 0.63]). Intention to obtain influenza vaccination was low among at-risk Chinese older adults. Strengthening health beliefs and creating strategies to provide positive influenza vaccination experiences are possible approaches to interventions to improve uptake of influenza vaccination rates.

  2. Effects of Tai Ji Quan training on gait kinematics in older Chinese women with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingguang Zhu

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Among older Chinese women with knee OA, a tailored Tai Ji Quan intervention improved gait outcomes. The intervention also improved overall function as indexed by the WOMAC and SPPB. These results support the use of Tai Ji Quan for older Chinese adults with knee OA to both improve their functional mobility and reduce pain symptomatology.

  3. Carotid stenosis and cognitive impairment amongst older Chinese adults living in a rural area: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Z; Liang, Y; Shi, J; Cai, C; Jiang, H; Song, A; Qiu, C

    2016-01-01

    The possible association between carotid stenosis and cognitive impairment in the Chinese population has been rarely investigated. The association between the severity of carotid stenosis and cognitive impairment amongst older Chinese people living in a rural area was assessed. This cross-sectional study included 1375 participants (age ≥60 years) from the Confucius Hometown Aging Project in Shandong. In 2010-2011, data were collected through interviews and clinical examinations. Carotid stenosis was assessed using ultrasonography. Cognitive impairment was defined according to the education-specific cutoff scores of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Data were analyzed using multinomial logistic models. The overall prevalence was 7.0% for moderate carotid stenosis, 2.0% for severe stenosis and 6.0% for cognitive impairment. The multi-adjusted odds ratio of cognitive impairment was 1.43 (95% confidence interval 0.63-3.22) for moderate carotid stenosis and 3.75 (1.24-11.40) for severe carotid stenosis (P(trend) = 0.023). Similar results were obtained in people without a history of cerebrovascular disease. Severe carotid stenosis, even asymptomatic, is associated with cognitive impairment independent of atherosclerotic risk factors and disorders amongst older Chinese people. © 2015 EAN.

  4. Development and Validation of the Elder Learning Barriers Scale Among Older Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renfeng; De Donder, Liesbeth; De Backer, Free; He, Tao; Van Regenmortel, Sofie; Li, Shihua; Lombaerts, Koen

    2017-12-01

    This study describes the development and validation of the Elder Learning Barriers (ELB) scale, which seeks to identify the obstacles that affect the level of educational participation of older adults. The process of item pool design and scale development is presented, as well as the testing and scale refinement procedure. The data were collected from a sample of 579 older Chinese adults (aged over 55) in the Xi'an region of China. After randomly splitting the sample for cross-validation purposes, the construct validity of the ELB scale was confirmed containing five dimensions: dispositional, informational, physical, situational, and institutional barriers. Furthermore, developmental differences in factor structure have been examined among older age groups. The results indicated that the scale demonstrated good reliability and validity. We conclude in general that the ELB scale appears to be a valuable instrument for examining the learning barriers that older Chinese citizens experience for participating in organized educational activities.

  5. Statin Safety in Chinese: A Population-Based Study of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daniel Q; Kim, Richard B; McArthur, Eric; Fleet, Jamie L; Hegele, Robert A; Shah, Baiju R; Weir, Matthew A; Molnar, Amber O; Dixon, Stephanie; Tu, Jack V; Anand, Sonia; Garg, Amit X

    2016-01-01

    Compared to Caucasians, Chinese achieve a higher blood concentration of statin for a given dose. It remains unknown whether this translates to increased risk of serious statin-associated adverse events amongst Chinese patients. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of older adults (mean age, 74 years) newly prescribed a statin in Ontario, Canada between 2002 and 2013, where 19,033 Chinese (assessed through a validated surname algorithm) were matched (1:3) by propensity score to 57,099 non-Chinese. This study used linked healthcare databases. The follow-up observation period (mean 1.1, maximum 10.8 years) was similar between groups, as were the reasons for censoring the observation period (end of follow-up, death, or statin discontinuation). Forty-seven percent (47%) of Chinese were initiated on a higher than recommended statin dose. Compared to non-Chinese, Chinese ethnicity did not associate with any of the four serious statin-associated adverse events assessed in this study [rhabdomyolysis hazard ratio (HR) 0.61 (95% CI 0.28 to 1.34), incident diabetes HR 1.02 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.30), acute kidney injury HR 0.90 (95% CI 0.72 to 1.13), or all-cause mortality HR 0.88 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.05)]. Similar results were observed in subgroups defined by statin type and dose. We observed no higher risk of serious statin toxicity in Chinese than matched non-Chinese older adults with similar indicators of baseline health. Regulatory agencies should review available data, including findings from our study, to decide if a change in their statin dosing recommendations for people of Chinese ethnicity is warranted.

  6. Disability associated with obesity, dynapenia and dynapenic-obesity in Chinese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Ding, Xiang; Luo, Li; Hao, Qiukui; Dong, Birong

    2014-02-01

    Whether the combination of obesity and low muscle strength (dynapenic-obesity) would cause greater impairment of the activities of daily living (ADL)/instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) than obesity alone and low muscle strength alone (dynapenia) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to reveal the possible independent and additive effects of dynapenia and obesity on ADL/IADL disability in an older Chinese population. A cross-sectional study, including 616 community-dwelling older adults, was conducted in China from 2010 to 2012. Based on the World Health Organization Asian Criteria of Obesity and handgrip strength tertiles, 4 independent groups were identified as follows: nondynapenia/nonobesity, dynapenia alone, obesity alone, and dynapenic-obesity. The Katz Index of Independence in ADL was used to assess ADL disability, whereas 6 IADL items of the Older Americans Resources and Services (OARS) multidimensional functional assessment questionnaire were used to assess IADL disability. The prevalence of ADL and IADL disability was 21.1% and 28.9% in the dynapenic-obesity group, 15.5% and 22.6% in the dynapenia alone group, 13.1% and 19.6% in the obesity alone group, and 11.9% and 12.9% in the nondynapenia/nonobesity group, respectively. After adjusting for the covariates, in comparison with the dynapenic-obesity group, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for ADL disability were 0.36 (0.13-0.73) in the nondynapenia/nonobesity group, 0.51 (0.20-0.78) in the dynapenia-alone group, and 0.40 (0.11-0.61) in the obesity-alone group. The corresponding data for IADL disability were 0.55 (0.20-0.93), 0.82 (0.39-0.98), and 0.61 (0.30-0.91), respectively. Dynapenia, obesity, and dynapenic-obesity were associated with an increased risk of ADL/IADL disability. Dynapenic-obesity was associated with a greater risk of ADL/IADL disability in comparison with dynapenia or obesity alone. Copyright © 2014 American Medical Directors Association, Inc

  7. Family and social aspects associated with depression among older persons in a Chinese context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wen; North, Nicola; Kent, Bridie

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to explore the factors associated with depression among older persons in Macau, in relation to family and social aspects. Depression among community-dwelling older persons in Macau has been shown to be present at high rates. In Chinese culture, depression leads to social stigmatisation, suggesting a need to better understand depression as a sociocultural phenomenon. A mixed methods study was undertaken to identify the key influences on depression among Chinese older persons in Macau. Quantitative (standardised tests) and qualitative (collection of narratives) data were collected from 31 purposively selected participants, all community-dwelling older persons with depression. Depression was common among the participants. The paper reports on the family and social aspects, one of the findings of the study. Informants readily described their thoughts and judgements of themselves in graphic language. As they explored their life stories, family and social aspects emerged as significant influences that associated with depression. In a society and culture that relies on and values filial support, experiences of being widowed, having poor family support and weak social networks appeared to compound and exacerbate depression. These findings highlight that filial support, valued in Chinese culture, is seriously strained by the realities of contemporary society. Yet current government policies rely on and confirm the role of family support. Findings from this study suggest a need for such policies to be reviewed to address the realities of family and social support. The findings have several implications for clinical practice. Firstly, the cultural context of Chinese older persons should be considered and emphasised in nursing practice. Secondly, the root of depression among Chinese older persons is seen to lie in their social, family, cultural and day-to-day living issues. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Independence through social networks: bridging potential among older women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, Benjamin

    2011-11-01

    Most studies of older adults' social networks focus on their access to dense networks that yield access to social support. This paper documents gender differences in the extent to which older adults maintain a related, but distinct, form of social capital-bridging potential, which involves serving as a tie between two unconnected parties and thus boosts independence and control of everyday social life. I use egocentric social network data from a national sample of 3,005 older adults--collected in 2005-2006 by the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project--to compare older men's and women's network bridging potential using multivariate regression analysis. Older women are more likely than older men to have bridging potential in their networks-between both kin and non-kin contacts. These gender differences increase with age. Older women are also more likely to have network members who are not connected to or monopolized by their spouse or partner. Some, but not all, of these gender differences are due to the fact that older women have larger social networks and maintain more ties to people outside of the household. These findings raise important questions about the relational advantages older women have over older men, including greater autonomy, and contradict stereotypes about women having more closely knit, kin-centered networks than men.

  9. Do Reincarnation Beliefs Protect Older Adult Chinese Buddhists against Personal Death Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Victoria Ka-Ying; Coleman, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory survey study was to develop and validate a Buddhist reincarnation beliefs scale and explore the relation between Buddhist reincarnation beliefs and personal death anxiety in 141 older adult Hong Kong Chinese Buddhists. Buddhist reincarnation beliefs were unrelated to personal death anxiety. This suggests that not all…

  10. Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Disease–Related Risks in Chinese Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eSun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractStudies of Western populations demonstrate a relationship between dietary patterns and cardiovascular-related risk factors. Simiar research regarding Chinese populations is limited. This study explored the dietary patterns of Chinese older adults and their association with cardiovascular-related risk factors, including hypertension, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected using a 34-item Chinese food frequency questionnaire from 750 randomly selected older adults aged 50–88 who participated in the study in 2012. Factor analysis revealed four dietary patterns: a ‘traditional food pattern’, consisting of vegetable, fruit, rice, pork and fish; a ‘fast and processed food pattern’ consisting of fast or processed food products, sugar and confectionery; a ‘soybean, grain and flour food pattern’; and a ‘dairy, animal liver and other animal food pattern’. These patterns explained 17.48%, 9.52%, 5.51% and 4.80% of the variances in food intake, respectively. This study suggests that specific dietary patterns are evident in Chinese older adults. Moderate intake of ‘traditional Chinese food’ is associated with decreased blood pressure and cholesterol level. A dietary pattern rich in soybeans, grains, potatoes and flour is associated with reduced metabolic factors including reduced triglycerides, fasting glucose, waist circumference, and waist–hip ratio, and a high level of dairy, animal liver and other animal intake food pattern is associated with increased level of Body Mass Index. In conclusion, this study revealed identifiable dietary patterns among Chinese older adults that are significantly related to blood pressure and metabolic biomarkers. Further study using prospective cohort or intervention study should be used to confirm the association between dietary patterns and blood pressure and metabolic factors.

  11. The Prevalence of Perceived Stress among U.S. Chinese Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manrui Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perceived stress is an important indicator of well-being. However, we have limited understanding of the experience of stress in minority aging populations. Methods: This study aims to identify the stress level among U.S. Chinese older adults. Results: Our findings indicated that 74% of PINE participants have experienced some level of daily stress. Of the 10-items in the stress scale, the prevalence of individual items ranged from 11.4% to 31.8%. Higher levels of perceived stress were more likely to present among older adults with an older age, female gender, lower education and income level, and poorer health status and quality of life. Participants with zero years of education showed the highest level of perceived stress, with a mean score of 12.2. Conclusions: This study indicates that Chinese older adults in the U.S are experiencing stress in their daily lives. Future longitudinal studies are needed to improve the understanding of risk factors and outcomes associated with perceived stress in Chinese older adults.

  12. The Association Between Social Capital and Depression Among Chinese Older Adults Living in Public Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tat Leong; Hall, Brian J; Canham, Sarah L; Lam, Agnes Iok Fong

    2016-10-01

    Social capital is a critical resource for physical and mental health among older adults, but few studies have investigated this relationship in Chinese populations, and specifically among those with low socioeconomic status. This study examined the association between depression and cognitive social capital (reciprocity and trust) and structural social capital (social participation) in a community sample of older adults living in public housing in Macau (SAR), China (N = 366). Multivariable linear regressions estimated the associations between dimensions of social capital and depression, while adjusting for potential confounders. Significant inverse associations were found between reciprocity and trust and depression. No association was found between social participation and depression. Poor self-reported health was a robust correlate of depression in all models tested. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether enhancing social capital may reduce depression among Chinese older adults living in poverty.

  13. Independence and shared decision making: the role of smart home technology in empowering older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiris, George

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explore the concepts of independence and shared decision making in the context of smart home technologies for older adults. We conducted a Delphi study with three rounds involving smart home designers, and researchers as well as community dwelling older adults. While there were differences in the way different stakeholders define these concepts, the study findings provide clear implications for the design, implementation and evaluation of smart home applications.

  14. Personal and other factors affecting acceptance of smartphone technology by older Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qi; Chan, Alan H S; Chen, Ke

    2016-05-01

    It has been well documented that in the 21st century, there will be relatively more older people around the world than in the past. Also, it seems that technology will expand in this era at an unprecedented rate. Therefore, it is of critical importance to understand the factors that influence the acceptance of technology by older people. The positive impact that the use of mobile applications can have for older people was confirmed by a previous study (Plaza et al., 2011). The study reported here aimed to explore and confirm, for older adults in China, the key influential factors of smartphone acceptance, and to describe the personal circumstances of Chinese older adults who use smartphone. A structured questionnaire and face to face individual interviews were used with 120 Chinese older adults (over 55). Structural Equation Modeling was used to confirm a proposed smartphone acceptance model based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). The results showed that those who were younger, with higher education, non-widowed, with better economic condition related to salary or family support were more likely to use smartphone. Also, cost was found to be a critical factor influencing behavior intention. Self-satisfaction and facilitating conditions were proved to be important factors influencing perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Sexual activity, erectile dysfunction and their correlates among 1,566 older Chinese men in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Samuel Yeung Shan; Leung, Jason Chi Shun; Woo, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Few studies on sexuality and its correlates in adults have been conducted in Asia; most studies in Asia have focused instead on erectile dysfunction in men rather than sexuality or sexual activities. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with sexual activity and erectile dysfunction in elderly Chinese men aged 65 years and above. Sexual activity and sexual functions were assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function-5. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Chinese version of the Geriatric Depression Scale. Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were measured by the International Prostatic Symptom Score. Cross-sectional data from a large prospective cohort study of Chinese elderly men were used in this study. A questionnaire that included demographic, lifestyle, and medical risk factors and physical examination were administered to 1566 Chinese men aged between 65 to 92 years in Hong Kong. Only 30.7% of men were sexually active in the previous 6 months in this sample and among those who were sexually active, 88% had some form of erectile dysfunction. Being sexually inactive in the previous 6 months was associated with being older (odds ratio [OR] = 1.80; confidence interval [CI]: 1.56-2.09), single (OR = 1.87; CI = 1.19-2.94) and the presence of peripheral arterial disease (OR = 2.43; CI: 1.25-4.71). In multiple multinomial logistic regression, having clinically relevant depressive symptoms (OR = 3.37; CI: 1.31-8.70) and having moderate to severe LUTS (OR = 1.63; CI: 1.01-2.64) were independently associated with increased risk of having erectile dysfunction. We showed that a large proportion of elderly men were not sexually active in Hong Kong. For those who were sexually active, most suffered from some degree of erectile dysfunction. Having clinically relevant depressive symptoms and LUTS were independently associated with increased risk of erectile dysfunction.

  16. Comparing the loss of functional independence of older adults in the U.S. and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Joelle H; Feng, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Functional loss among older adults is known to follow a hierarchical sequence, but little is known about whether such sequences differ across socio-cultural contexts. The aim of this study is to construct activities of daily livings (ADL) scales for oldest-old adults in the United States and China so as to compare their functional loss sequences. We use data from the Asset and Health Dynamics of the Oldest Old (n=1607) and Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (n=5570) for years 1998-2008. ADL items are calibrated within a scale using the Rasch measurement model. Rasch scores are averaged across survey waves to identify the ADL loss sequence for each study population. We also assess scale stability over measurement periods. Factor analyses confirm that the ADL items in each study population can be combined meaningfully to form a hierarchical sequence. Internal consistency assessed by Cronbach's alpha is high (0.81 to 0.95). We find that bathing is the first activity that both older Americans and Chinese have difficulty with, while eating is the last activity. There are, however, differences in the rank order for toileting (ranked more challenging in the Chinese sample) and dressing (ranked more challenging in the U.S. sample). Item orderings are stable over time. The results highlight the relative importance of bathing in the functional loss sequence for older adults, regardless of socio-cultural context. Health interventions are needed to address deficits in the bathroom environment, especially in developing countries like China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Potential of Three Computer-Based Communication Activities for Supporting Older Adult Independent Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Heinz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Technology has become an increasingly integral part of life. For example, technology allows individuals to stay in touch with loved ones, obtain medical services through telehealthcare, and enjoy an overall higher quality of life. Particularly for older adults, using technology increases the likelihood that they will maintain their independence and autonomy. Long-distance caregiving has recently become a feasible option where caregivers for older adults can access reports and information about their loved one’s patterns that day (e.g., food and medication intake. Technology may be able to offset age-related challenges (e.g., caregiving, accessing healthcare, decreased social networks by applying technology to the needs of older adults. Solutions for meeting such challenges, however, have been less targeted. In addition, the healthcare system is evolving to focus on providing options and services in the home. This has direct implications for older adults, as the majority of healthcare services are utilized by older adults. Research is still at the beginning stages of developing successful technology tools that are compatible with older adult users. Therefore, the design, implementation, and outcome of such computer-based communication activities will be discussed in this paper in order to guide future endeavors in technology marketed for older adults.

  18. Psychological distress of older Chinese: exploring the roles of activities, social support, and subjective social status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Min

    2014-03-01

    The goal of this research is to examine if the long neglected correlates such as social and leisure activities, social support, and subjective social status contribute to variations in psychological distress among older Chinese. Using data collected in one of the most developed areas in China-Suzhou city, Jiangsu province, the authors find that engaging in various exercises, living with both spouse and adult children, perceived availability of social support from others as well as believing in the importance of caring for other family members are particularly beneficial for mental health whereas the perception of relative deprivation and low life quality is detrimental to mental health for older Chinese. This work is among the first studies that comprehensively examined various important correlates of psychological distress and indicate the unique patterns of distress among the elderly in the most developed area in the contemporary China.

  19. Sleep Duration and Patterns in Chinese Older Adults: a Comprehensive Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li; Wang, Shi-Bin; Rao, Wen-Wang; Ungvari, Gabor S; Ng, Chee H; Chiu, Helen F K; Zhang, Juan; Kou, Changgui; Jia, Fu-Jun; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2017-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the mean sleep duration and patterns in Chinese older adult population. A literature search was systematically conducted covering major English (PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO) and Chinese (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang and SinoMed) databases. Data in studies with the mean and standard deviation of sleep duration and/or the proportion of short and long sleep durations in Chinese older adults were extracted and pooled using random-effects models. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to gender, region, area, survey time and sample size. A total of 36 studies with 150,616 subjects were included for analyses. The pooled mean sleep duration of 21 studies with available data was 6.82 hours/day (95% CI: 6.59-7.05 hours/day). The estimated proportions of sleep duration 8 hours/day) and 17.6% (95% CI: 12.4%-22.9%) (>9 hours/day). Given the adverse effects of unhealthy sleep patterns, health professionals should pay more attention to sleep patterns in this population in China.

  20. Older women's perceptions of independence versus dependence in food-related work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Kerstin; Andersson, Ingegerd; Andersson, Jenny; Fjellström, Christina; Sidenvall, Birgitta

    2003-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to explore the cultural meaning of accomplishing food-related work by older women, when disease has diminished their abilities and threatens to make them dependent. Seventy-two women with stroke, rheumatoid arthritis, and Parkinson's disease, as well as women without those diseases, were interviewed. All were living at home. Results showed that older women valued independence and feared dependence when declining ability threatened performance of food-related work. They also had strong beliefs about living a "normal life," managing by oneself as long as possible, and becoming their own masters again. To remain independent, participants used three kinds of strategies: Public Health Service Support, self-managing, and adaptation. Their beliefs about dependence included not becoming a burden, retaining self-determination, and maintaining order in life. Implications for nursing include supporting independent cooking, developing care plans with the care recipient, and demonstrating respect for the women's self-determination.

  1. Conscientiousness Moderates the Relationship Between Perceived Stress and Depressive Symptoms Among U.S. Chinese Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiwei; Peng, Yisheng; Ma, Xiaodong; Dong, Xinqi

    2017-07-01

    The present study examined whether individuals' personality traits, Neuroticism and Conscientiousness, moderated the relationship between perceived stress and depressive symptoms among U.S. Chinese older adults. Data analysis was based on the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE). Three thousand one hundred and fifty-nine Chinese adults aged 60 years and older participated in the PINE study. They completed scales that assessed their personality (ie, Neuroticism and Conscientiousness of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory), perceived stress (the Chinese Perceived Stress Scale), and depressive symptoms (the Patient Health Questionnaire). Perceived stress was positively related to depressive symptoms among U.S. Chinese older adults. No moderation effects were found for Neuroticism. Conscientiousness significantly moderated the perceived stress-depressive symptom relationship. The positive relationship between perceived stress and depressive symptoms was weaker for people who were higher in Conscientiousness than those who were lower in Conscientiousness. Conscientiousness mitigated the stress-depressive symptom relationship among U.S. Chinese older adults. Future research is needed to identify the psychological and sociocultural profiles of individuals who show stress resilience and those who are vulnerable. Social services and psychological interventions are needed to promote health and well-being among U.S. Chinese older adults. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Family care: an exploratory study of experience and expectations among older Chinese immigrants in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Meihan; Russell, Cherry

    2007-01-01

    Family caregiving in East Asian cultures is traditionally based on the Confucian ethic of filial piety that mandates total, holistic care for elders. While research suggests changes in 'family care' are occurring in Asian countries themselves, remarkably little is known about immigrant Asian families in Australia. The study aimed to explore the experience of 'family care' among Chinese-speaking older people who have migrated to Australia in later life. In-depth interviews were conducted in Cantonese with a convenience sample of five cases, including six older Chinese and analysed inductively for dominant themes. Although no single model of 'family care' emerged, findings reveal significant departures from the norms of filial piety and an overall 'westernisation' of care practices, both in relation to what families actually do for their parents and what the older people themselves expect. Transformation of filial culture has implications for policy, service planning and professional practice. It cannot be assumed that elderly Chinese immigrants' needs are being met through traditional family structures.

  3. Demographic and psychosocial correlates of sexual activity in older Chinese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuyan; Yan, Elsie

    2016-03-01

    This study examines sexual activity and associated psychosocial factors in older Chinese people. Sexuality continues to play a pivotal role in our lives even as we grow old. There is, however, very limited research on the topic in older populations. Cross-sectional survey. A representative sample of 688 older Chinese people (>60 years old) were individually interviewed on their demographic characteristics; their interest in, knowledge of and perceived control over sexual activities; and their engagement in sexual activity. The results show that 51·32% of men and 41·26% of women reported engaging in some form of sexual activity. Sexual intercourse and caressing were commonly reported. A multiple regression analysis also showed that a higher level of sexual activity was associated with being younger, living with a spouse, having a strong interest in sex, having sufficient knowledge of elder sexuality and a high perceived control over sex. Distinct predictive factors in each gender were observed. A high level of perceived control was associated with a higher level of sexual activity in males but not females. A series of binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the demographic and psychosocial correlates of sexual activity. With the exception of the use of objects (sex toys), sexual activities were consistently associated with being younger; living with a spouse; and having high levels of interest, knowledge and perceived control. A sizable amount of older Chinese people engage in varying degrees of sexual activity, and most are still interested in sex. Frontline health professionals need to be aware of the growing needs for sex education in older persons, particular attention should be paid to discuss the limitations brought about by various chronic conditions associated with ageing and their relevance to elder sexuality. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The health benefits following regular ongoing exercise lifestyle in independent community-dwelling older Taiwanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Yi; Yeh, Chih-Jung; Wang, Chia-Wei; Wang, Chun-Feng; Lin, Yen-Ling

    2011-03-01

    To examine the effect of regular ongoing exercise lifestyle on mental and physical health in a group of independent community-dwelling Taiwanese older adults over a 2-year period. 197 older adults (mean age 72.5 years; 106 men and 91 women) who were independent in walking, instrumental and basic activities of daily living completed the baseline and a 2-year follow-up assessment. Older adults regularly performing exercises during the 2-year study period were grouped into regular exercise group; otherwise in the irregular exercise group. Baseline and follow-up assessments included a face-to-face interview and a battery of performance tests. The regular exercise group showed significantly less depression (P = 0.03) and tended to regress less on the performance tests (P = 0.025-0.410) across 2 years compared to the irregular exercise group. Regular exercise is important for maintaining or even improving mental and functional health, even for independent community-dwelling older adults. © 2010 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2010 ACOTA.

  5. Physical Activity, Adiposity, and Diabetes Risk in Middle-Aged and Older Chinese Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Li; Corpeleijn, Eva; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Thomas, G. Neil; Schooling, C. Mary; Zhang, Weisen; Cheng, Kar Keung; Leung, Gabriel M.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Lam, Tai Hing

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE- Physical activity may modify the association of adiposity with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the independent and joint association of adiposity and physical activity with fasting plasma glucose, impaired fasting glucose, and type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND

  6. Social marketing strategies for reaching older people with disabilities: findings from a survey of centers for independent living participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moone, Rajean Paul; Lightfoot, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Centers for independent living (CILs) provide critical supports, services, and advocacy for assisting people with disabilities in living independently. As there is a rapidly increasing population of older people with disabilities, many CILs are now considering how to actively engage older adults in their organizations. This study utilized a survey of older people with disabilities to help identify social marketing techniques that community organizations like CILs can use to effectively reach older people with disabilities. Utilizing the components of the social marketing mix in designing outreach efforts, including a critical examination of product, place, price, participants, and partnering, CILs and other community agencies can better reach older adults with disabilities.

  7. Lifestyle and lifestyle-related comorbidities independently associated with colorectal adenoma recurrence in elderly Chinese people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiken, Adake; Gu, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the lifestyle and lifestyle-related comorbidities independently associated with colorectal adenoma (CRA) recurrence in elderly Chinese people. Methods During the 5-year follow-up after the initial colonoscopy, participants aged >60 years with the diagnosis and removal of CRA underwent a complete surveillance colonoscopy, and 152 participants with CRA recurrence plus 152 participants free of recurrence were included in this analysis. Results Participants with CRA recurrence were more likely to consume less vegetables and fruits, and more red meats compared with the control group (PCRA recurrence than in the control group (PCRA recurrence (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03; PCRA recurrence, as was eating more red meats (OR: 1.01; PCRA recurrence (OR: 2.44; PCRA recurrence (OR: 3.43; Pmeats, low intake of fruits and vegetables, and the presence of hypertension and NAFLD were independently associated with an increased CRA recurrence in elderly Chinese people. This conclusion helps elderly Chinese people to make effective behavioral changes, such as smoking cessation, substitution of fruits and vegetables for red meats, and timely treatment of hypertension and NAFLD, to reduce CRA recurrence and colorectal cancer risk. PMID:27382263

  8. Lifestyle and lifestyle-related comorbidities independently associated with colorectal adenoma recurrence in elderly Chinese people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiken A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adake Saiken, Fang Gu Department of Gastroenterology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the lifestyle and lifestyle-related comorbidities independently associated with colorectal adenoma (CRA recurrence in elderly Chinese people. Methods: During the 5-year follow-up after the initial colonoscopy, participants aged >60 years with the diagnosis and removal of CRA underwent a complete surveillance colonoscopy, and 152 participants with CRA recurrence plus 152 participants free of recurrence were included in this analysis. Results: Participants with CRA recurrence were more likely to consume less vegetables and fruits, and more red meats compared with the control group (P<0.05 for all. Lifestyle-related comorbidities, including hypertension and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, were more common in participants with CRA recurrence than in the control group (P<0.05 for all. In the multivariate analysis, pack-years of smoking were independently associated with an increased CRA recurrence (odds ratio [OR]: 1.03; P<0.05. Eating less vegetables (OR: 099; P<0.05 and fruits (OR: 0.98; P<0.05 was identified as a statistically independent factor influencing CRA recurrence, as was eating more red meats (OR: 1.01; P<0.05. Hypertension was also found to be a factor independently associated with an increased CRA recurrence (OR: 2.44; P<0.05. NAFLD had an independent association, with an increased CRA recurrence (OR: 3.43; P<0.05. Conclusion: Smoking cigarettes, high consumption of red meats, low intake of fruits and vegetables, and the presence of hypertension and NAFLD were independently associated with an increased CRA recurrence in elderly Chinese people. This conclusion helps elderly Chinese people to make effective behavioral changes, such as smoking cessation, substitution of fruits and vegetables for red meats, and timely treatment of hypertension and NAFLD

  9. Examining the Types of Social Support and the Actual Sources of Support in Older Chinese and Korean Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sabrina T.; Yoo, Grace J.; Stewart, Anita L.

    2005-01-01

    This study explored social support domains and actual sources of support for older Chinese and Korean immigrants and compared them to the traditional domains based on mainly White, middle class populations. Fifty-two older Cantonese and Korean speaking immigrants participated in one of eight focus groups. We identified four similar domains:…

  10. Associations between individual and environmental factors and habitual physical activity among older Chinese adults: A social–ecological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangren Yi

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The findings provide an initial validation of a social–ecological approach to the study of HPA in China, suggesting that strategies aimed at promoting physical activity in older adults should address multiple levels of factors that may contribute to the likelihood of older Chinese adults being physically active.

  11. Knowledge About and Perceptions of Advance Care Planning and Communication of Chinese-American Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonashiro-Cho, Jeanine; Cote, Sarah; Enguidanos, Susan

    2016-09-01

    Although advance care planning (ACP) is associated with better care at the end of life, better quality of death, and less psychological distress in survivors, ethnic disparities in ACP completion rates have been documented and may be attributable to lack of knowledge about ACP or differences in cultural values and preferences. Despite rapid increases in the size of the Asian-American population, little is known about ACP preferences of Chinese Americans. The purpose of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and preferences of older Chinese Americans toward ACP. Focus groups with Chinese older adults (n = 34) were conducted in Mandarin, Cantonese, and English, and transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Identified themes included knowledge and experience with ACP and end-of-life care options, health as a factor in timing of ACP and communication, and communication of end-of-life care preferences. Knowledge of and experience with ACP and end-of-life decision-making varied according to focus group, although few participants had an advance directive. Findings suggest that Chinese older adults prefer to use indirect communication strategies, such as commenting on the circumstances of others rather than directly stating their wishes, and informal contexts, such as during a family dinner rather than formal meeting, to convey their care preferences to loved ones and may employ similar tactics when communicating with clinicians. This is particularly important given the recent decision by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to provide reimbursement to physicians for engaging in advance care planning conversations. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. 34 CFR 367.1 - What is the Independent Living Services for Older Individuals Who Are Blind program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Individuals Who Are Blind program? 367.1 Section 367.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... EDUCATION INDEPENDENT LIVING SERVICES FOR OLDER INDIVIDUALS WHO ARE BLIND General § 367.1 What is the Independent Living Services for Older Individuals Who Are Blind program? This program supports projects that...

  13. Cultivation-independent comprehensive investigations on bacterial communities in serofluid dish, a traditional Chinese fermented food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Serofluid dish (or Jiangshui, in Chinese, a traditional food in the Chinese culture, is made from vegetables by fermentation. In this study, bacterial community of the fermented serofluid dish was assessed by Illumina amplicon sequencing. The metagenome comprised of 49,589 average raw reads with an average 11,497,917 bp and G+C content is 52.46%. This is the first report on V4 hyper-variable region of the 16S rRNA metagenome sequence employing Illumina platform to profile the microbial community of this little known fermented food from Gansu Province, China. The metagenome sequence can be accessed at NCBI, SRA database accession no. SRP065370. Keywords: Serofluid dish, Jiangshui, 16S rRNA, Cultivation-independent, Microbial diversity

  14. Development of a multidimensional balance scale for use with functionally independent older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Debra J; Lucchese, Nicole; Wiersma, Lenny D

    2006-11-01

    To develop and evaluate the validity and reliability of a multidimensional balance scale-the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) scale-suitable for use with functionally independent older adults. Psychometric evaluation of the scale's content and convergent validity, test-retest and intra- and interrater reliability, and internal rater consistency. Urban community. Forty-six community-residing older adults (mean +/- standard deviation, 75 +/- 6.2 y), with (n = 31) and without identified balance problems (n = 15), participated in the study. Four physical therapists with expertise in the assessment and treatment of balance disorders in older adults also participated in the content validity and/or reliability phases of the study. Not applicable. Spearman rank correlation coefficients for convergent validity, test-retest, intra- and interrater reliability, and homogeneity coefficient values for rater consistency. Test-retest reliability for the total balance scale score was high (rho = .96). Interrater reliability for total score ranged from .94 to .97 whereas intrarater reliability coefficients ranged from .97 to 1.00. Homogeneity (H) coefficients were greater than .90 for 6 of the 10 individual test items and all 10 test items had H coefficients of greater than .75 for both rating sessions. Preliminary results suggest that the FAB scale is a valid and reliable assessment tool that is suitable for use with functionally independent older adults residing in the community.

  15. Care and support for older adults in The Netherlands living independently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verver, Didi; Merten, Hanneke; Robben, Paul; Wagner, Cordula

    2018-05-01

    The growth in the numbers of older adults needing long-term care has resulted in rising costs which have forced the Dutch government to change its long-term care system. Now, the local authorities have greater responsibility for supporting older adults and in prolonging independent living with increased support provided by the social network. However, it is unclear whether these older adults have such a network to rely upon. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the providers of formal and informal care to older adults, and to assess possible differences between older adults who are frail and those who are not. In addition, we investigated their care and support needs. We used data from a quantitative survey using a cross-sectional design in different regions of the Netherlands from July until September 2014 (n = 181). Frailty was measured using the Tilburg Frailty indicator. To analyse the data chi-square tests, crosstabs and odds ratios were used for dichotomous data and the Mann-Whitney U-Test for nominal data. The number of formal care providers involved was significantly higher (median = 2) for those deemed frail than for those not deemed frail (median = 1), U = 2,130, p older adults deemed to be frail did not have their needs sufficiently addressed by their care network. For a substantial part of this group of older adults, the informal network seems to be unable to support them sufficiently. Additional attention for their needs and wishes is required to implement the policy reforms successfully. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A systematic review of recruitment for older Chinese immigrants into clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Wen Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this systematic review was to identify barriers and discuss strategies for recruitment of older Chinese immigrants into clinical research studies. A review was conducted using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA. PubMed, WEB of Science, CINAHL Plus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for articles published between 2001 and 2014. Empirical studies with Chinese immigrants aged 60 years or older were identified and analyzed. Numerical analysis, such as calculation of response rates as indexes for recruitment outcomes, was conducted. Content analyses for recruitment barriers were abstracted. Thirteen studies of 4,753 subjects were analyzed. Response rates ranged from 39% to 99%. Recruitment barriers included age (i.e., 60-70 years old, low health literacy, longer length of stay (LOS in the United States, limited English speaking ability, low acculturation, time constraints, inadequate transportation, social stigma about diseases, and mistrust of researchers. Recruitment can be facilitated by overcoming the aforementioned barriers, which included the following strategies: 1 using convenience sampling methods, particularly personal referral; 2 using special techniques to recruit a younger subgroup of Chinese elders, such as doing outreach on holidays or weekends; 3 communicating effectively using participants’ native language; 4 exercising cultural competency; 5 establishing relationships of trust with participants and community leaders; 6 answering misconceptions about clinical trials; 7 providing incentives for participation; and 8 proper selection of research and interview locations.

  17. Difficulty and independence in shopping among older Americans: more than just leaving the house.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Allison B; Clarke, Philippa J

    2017-11-09

    The built, social and economic environments are associated with disability, but knowledge of how these environmental characteristics simultaneously influence older adults' ability to shop independently is limited. We investigated cross-sectional associations between the outdoor home, local neighborhood and macrosocioeconomic levels of the environment and shopping difficulty and interactions between environmental factors and shopping difficulty. Using nationally representative data from a study of Medicare-eligible adults, we conducted a cross-sectional secondary data analysis to examine associations between the environment and difficulty shopping (N = 5504). Sidewalk conditions, broken steps, neighborhood social cohesion and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage were associated with more difficulty shopping, although health factors partially accounted for associations between broken steps and disadvantage and shopping difficulty. The association between social cohesion and shopping difficulty also depended on the degree of socioeconomic disadvantage in the neighborhood. Overall, results suggest that factors in the outdoor and local neighborhood environment influence the ability to shop independently for older adults, but that it also may depend on the socioeconomic context of the neighborhood. Interventions aimed at improving the built environment directly outside of older adults' homes and helping increase social cohesion among neighbors, has the potential to reduce difficulty in carrying out this important activity. Implications for rehabilitation Built features of the outdoor home environment including sidewalks and broken steps influence whether older adults are able to safely leave their home to conduct daily activities such as shopping, so it is important that clinicians and rehabilitation professionals are aware of these challenges when helping their patients resume daily activities such as shopping. The physical condition and safety of the immediate

  18. Collaborative Evaluation of the Healthy Habits Program: An Effective Community Intervention to Improve Mobility and Cognition of Chinese Older Adults Living in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, C; Reid, K F; Wong, K F; Chin, R J; Botto, T J; Eliasziw, M; Bermudez, O I; Fielding, R A

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing demand to reduce ethnic health disparities. The Healthy Habits Program (HHP) was implemented to provide a community-based physical activity and education intervention for Chinese older adults living in Boston, Massachusetts. This study evaluated the HHP by assessing outcomes that are critical for maintaining independence of older persons. Quantitative evaluation was performed on 50 Chinese older adults enrolled in the HHP. The community members were trained in data collection and management. Cognition (Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Trail Making Test and Complex Walking Task), mobility (Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and maximal gait speed), depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), perceived disability (World Health Organization Disability Assessment 2.0), nutritional status (Mini Nutrition Assessment®), and strength (grip and leg strength) were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. All tests were translated into Chinese. Of the 50 participants (mean age 68.4 years; 68% female), 78% achieved the goal of performing exercise ≥3 times/week. After 6 months, clinically meaningful improvements were observed in mobility (mean SPPB score changed from 10.3 to 11.1 points; p=0.01) and cognition (mean MMSE score changed from 26.0 to 27.8 points; p=0.001). There were also statistically significant improvements in executive function, depressive symptoms and perceived disability (p<0.05). Culturally sensitive community interventions, such as the HHP, are effective for improving mobility and cognition of Chinese older adults. This reveals the potential of promoting successful aging in minority populations through community settings, and should be advocated to reduce ethnic health disparities in the U.S.

  19. "Tangled wires in the head": older migrant Chinese's perception of mental illness in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sarah; Hatzidimitriadou, Eleni; Psoinos, Maria

    2014-08-01

    In this article, the authors explored Cantonese-speaking older Chinese migrants knowledge, attitudes and expectations regarding mental illness. They obtained verbatim data from semi-structured interviews with eight participants recruited from London-based Chinese and church communities in Britain. They analyzed the data using the principles of Grounded Theory and in-depth content analysis. They examined cultural idioms in participants' accounts. Findings suggested that Western diagnostic categories of mental illness were alien to participants. They had a culturally constructed way of defining and characterizing mental illness. Participants used idioms of 'nerve', 'mood', 'behavior', 'personality', 'normal life', 'compassion' and the idiom of 'others' to construct an alternative world for stigma management. They erected an invisible but permeable barrier to limit access to their normal world. The role of traditional Chinese culture of Confucianism was significant in shaping perceptions and conceptions of mental illness. This article offered another perspective on the alternative world of Chinese migrants' cultural understandings of mental illness, an area with limited understanding at present. The authors discussed important implications for future research and social policy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reliability and validity of the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI) among Chinese community-dwelling older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lijuan; Liu, Na; Tian, Xiaoyu; Qiao, Xiaoxia; Gobbens, Robbert J J; Kane, Robert L; Wang, Cuili

    2017-11-01

    To translate the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI) into Chinese and assess its reliability and validity. A sample of 917 community-dwelling older people, aged ≥60 years, in a Chinese city was included between August 2015 and March 2016. Construct validity was assessed using alternative measures corresponding to the TFI items, including self-rated health status (SRH), unintentional weight loss, walking speed, timed-up-and-go tests (TUGT), making telephone calls, grip strength, exhaustion, Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), Geriatric Depression scale (GDS-15), emotional role, Adaptability Partnership Growth Affection and Resolve scale (APGAR) and Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS). Fried's phenotype and frailty index were measured to evaluate criterion validity. Adverse health outcomes (ADL and IADL disability, healthcare utilization, GDS-15, SSRS) were used to assess predictive (concurrent) validity. The internal consistency reliability was good (Cronbach's α=0.71). The test-retest reliability was strong (r=0.88). Kappa coefficients showed agreements between the TFI items and corresponding alternative measures. Alternative measures correlated as expected with the three domains of TFI, with an exclusion that alternative psychological measures had similar correlations with psychological and physical domains of the TFI. The Chinese TFI had excellent criterion validity with the AUCs regarding physical phenotype and frailty index of 0.87 and 0.86, respectively. The predictive (concurrent) validities of the adverse health outcomes and healthcare utilization were acceptable (AUCs: 0.65-0.83). The Chinese TFI has good validity and reliability as an integral instrument to measure frailty of older people living in the community in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lower leg muscle density is independently associated with fall status in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank-Wilson, A W; Farthing, J P; Chilibeck, P D; Arnold, C M; Davison, K S; Olszynski, W P; Kontulainen, S A

    2016-07-01

    Muscle density is a risk factor for fractures in older adults; however, its association with falls is not well described. After adjusting for biologically relevant confounding factors, a unit decrease in muscle density was associated with a 17 % increase in odds of reporting a fall, independent of functional mobility. Falls are the leading cause of injury, disability, and fractures in older adults. Low muscle density (i.e., caused by muscle adiposity) and functional mobility have been identified as risk factors for incident disability and fractures in older adults; however, it is not known if these are also independently associated with falls. The purpose of this study was to explore the associations of muscle density and functional mobility with fall status. Cross-sectional observational study of 183 men and women aged 60-98 years. Descriptive data, including a 12-month fall recall, Timed Up and Go (TUG) test performance, lower leg muscle area, and density. Odds ratio (OR) of being a faller were calculated, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, general health status, diabetes, and comorbidities. Every mg/cm(3) increase in muscle density (mean 70.2, SD 2.6 mg/cm(3)) independently reduced the odds of being a faller by 19 % (OR 0.81 [95 % CI 0.67 to 0.97]), and every 1 s longer TUG test time (mean 9.8, SD 2.6 s) independently increased the odds by 17 % (OR 1.17 [95 % CI 1.01 to 1.37]). When both muscle density and TUG test time were included in the same model, only age (OR 0.93 [95 % CI 0.87 to 0.99]) and muscle density (OR 0.83 [95 % CI 0.69 to 0.99]) were independently associated with fall status. Muscle density was associated with fall status, independent of functional mobility. Muscle density may compliment functional mobility tests as a biometric outcome for assessing fall risk in well-functioning older adults.

  2. Fall risk in Chinese community-dwelling older adults: A physiological profile assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siong, Kar-Ho; Kwan, Marcella Mun-San; Lord, Stephen R; Lam, Andrew Kwok-Cheung; Tsang, William Wai-Nam; Cheong, Allen Ming-Yan

    2016-02-01

    The short-form Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA) is increasingly used in clinical practice for assessing fall risk in older people. However, a normative database is only available for Caucasian populations. The purpose of the present study was to develop a normative database for Hong Kong Chinese older people and examine the fall risk profile of this population. A total of 622 participants aged 60-95 years were recruited. Participants underwent the PPA (containing tests of contrast sensitivity, proprioception, quadriceps strength, reaction time and sway), and composite fall risk scores were computed. Participants were then followed up for falls for 1 year. Quadriceps strength and lower limb proprioception scores were comparable with those reported for Caucasian populations. However, contrast sensitivity, simple reaction time and postural sway scores were relatively poor. The average composite fall risk score was 1.7 ± 1.5, showing a "moderate" fall risk when compared with the Caucasian norms. Despite the relatively poor physical performances and moderately high fall risk scores, the incidence of one plus falls in the 1-year follow-up period was just 16.4%, with just 2.6% reporting two plus falls. The area under the curve for composite fall risk scores in discriminating fallers from non-fallers was 0.53 (95% CI 0.45-0.60). Despite poorer performance in PPA tests, the incidence of prospective falls in a Hong Kong Chinese population was low. In consequence, the PPA could not discriminate well between fallers and non-fallers. The present study provided normality data for short-form PPA measures for older Chinese people as a reference for further studies. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  3. Prevalence and Factors Associated With Sarcopenia in Suburb-dwelling Older Chinese Using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peipei; Kang, Li; Guo, Qi; Wang, Jiazhong; Zhang, Wen; Shen, Suxing; Wang, Xiuyang; Dong, Renwei; Ma, Yixuan; Shi, Yu; Shi, Zhiyang; Li, Hongquan; Li, Chen; Ma, Yige; Wang, Liancheng; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-04-01

    Sarcopenia is a common condition in older people. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence and factors associated with sarcopenia in an elderly Chinese suburb-dwelling population. This study was conducted on 1,069 Chinese suburb-dwelling participants aged ≥60 years to evaluate sarcopenia using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria. Sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, as well as medical conditions, were considered independent variables to determine factors associated with sarcopenia using a logistic regression model. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 6.4% in men and 11.5% in women. Age was a significant factor in both sexes. In addition, presence of sarcopenia was inversely associated with BMI for both sexes. The odds ration and 95% confidence interval for factors statistically significantly associated with sarcopenia were 5.04 (1.70-14.89) and 2.36 (1.06-5.25) for diabetes in males and females, respectively; 10.60 (1.75-64.24) for daily consumption of alcohol (daily drinkers), 5.58 (2.13-14.59) for peptic ulcer in female (not statistically significant in males). The Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criterion is useful for defining sarcopenia, and our data suggest that the prevalence of sarcopenia in the general elderly suburb-dwelling Chinese population is high. Moreover, we find that high body mass index is inversely associated with the likelihood of being sarcopenic and that several others factors such as diabetes, peptic ulcer, and drinking habits increase the prevalence of sarcopenia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Prevalence of dementia-associated disability among Chinese older adults: results from a national sample survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Zhang, Lei; Du, Wei; Pang, Lihua; Guo, Chao; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2015-03-01

    Due to rapid population aging and a tidal wave of dementia, dementia has become an urgent public health issue in China. Few large-scale surveys on dementia have been conducted in China and little was known about the magnitude of dysfunction and disability caused by dementia. In this study, using national sample survey data, we aimed to describe the prevalence rate of dementia-associated disability, its associated factors, and daily activities and social functions of people with dementia-associated disability in Chinese older adults. We used the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, comprising 2,526,145 persons from 771,797 households. Identification for dementia was based on consensus manuals. Standard weighting procedures were used to construct sample weights considering the multistage stratified cluster sampling survey scheme. Population weighted numbers, weighted prevalence, and the odd ratios (ORs) were calculated. The prevalence rate of dementia-associated disability was 4.64% (95% CI: 4.26-5.01) and it accounted for 41.03% of mental disability among Chinese older adults. Urban residence (OR: 1.33 [1.12-1.57]), older age (80+ years) (OR: 4.12 [3.38-.03]), illiteracy (OR: 1.79 [1.27-2.53]), and currently not married (OR: 1.15 [1.00-1.32]) were associated with increased risk of dementia-associated disability. Compared with those with mental disability of other causes and those with other types of disabilities, older adults with dementia-asscoiated disability were more likely to have severe or extreme difficulty in daily activities and social functions. Countermeasures are warranted to obtain a more precise overview of dementia in China, and strategies on enhancing early identification, treatment, and rehabilitation should be developed for people with dementia. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Chinese Chan-based Mind-Body Intervention Improves Memory of Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes S. Chan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in the adoption of lifestyle interventions to remediate age-related declines in memory functioning and physical and psychological health among older adults. This study aimed to investigate whether a Chinese Chan-based lifestyle intervention, the Dejian Mind-Body Intervention (DMBI, leads to positive benefits for memory functioning in older adults. Fifty-six adults aged 60 years or older with subjective memory complaints (SMC were randomly assigned to receive the DMBI or a control intervention (i.e., a conventional memory intervention; MI once a week for 10 weeks; 48 of the adults completed the intervention. Participants’ verbal and visual memory functioning before and after the intervention were compared. In addition, changes in the participants’ subjective feelings about their memory performance and physical and psychological health after the intervention were examined. The results showed that both the DMBI and MI resulted in significant improvements in both verbal and visual memory functioning and that the extent of the improvements was correlated with participants’ level of performance at baseline. In addition, compared to the MI group, the DMBI group had significantly greater improvements in subjective physical and psychological health after the intervention. In summary, the present findings support the potential of the DMBI as an alternative lifestyle intervention for improving memory functioning, subjective physical and psychological health of older adults with SMC.

  6. How Older Persons Perceive the Loss of Independence: The Need of a Holistic Approach to Frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escourrou, E; Cesari, M; Chicoulaa, B; Fougère, B; Vellas, B; Andrieu, S; Oustric, S

    2017-01-01

    Since 2004, the definition of the frailty syndrome has shifted from purely physical criteria to a more comprehensive consideration of the individual, including their psychosocial criteria. In this study, qualitative research methods were used as a complementary approach in order to enrich the existing quantitative results in this area. To understand the views of older persons on the risk of loss of independence. The study population comprised people over 75 years of age who were living at home in the south-west of France and were considered to be at risk of losing their independence. Data were collected using individual semi-structured in-depth interviews, accompanied by observations. Inductive analysis was carried out according to grounded theory methods. Fifteen individual interviews were conducted to achieve theoretical data saturation. Analysis of the content of the interviews revealed seven risk factors for the loss of independence: poor mental health, poor physical health, social isolation, no longer leaving the home, an unsuitable environment, unsuitable living conditions, and few resources. These results complement the purely physical approach to screening for the frailty syndrome and lead us to reconsider our screening approach to include a more holistic view of the older person and their circumstances.

  7. Multimodal and ubiquitous computing systems: supporting independent-living older users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mark; Dowdall, Alan; Lines, Lorna; Hone, Kate

    2004-09-01

    We document the rationale and design of a multimodal interface to a pervasive/ubiquitous computing system that supports independent living by older people in their own homes. The Millennium Home system involves fitting a resident's home with sensors--these sensors can be used to trigger sequences of interaction with the resident to warn them about dangerous events, or to check if they need external help. We draw lessons from the design process and conclude the paper with implications for the design of multimodal interfaces to ubiquitous systems developed for the elderly and in healthcare, as well as for more general ubiquitous computing applications.

  8. The Association between Elder Mistreatment and Suicidal Ideation among Community-Dwelling Chinese Older Adults in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi; Chen, Ruijia; Wu, Bei; Zhang, Ning Jackie; Mui, Ada Chan Yuk-Sim; Chi, Iris

    2015-01-01

    Background Elder mistreatment and suicidal ideation are important public health concerns among aging populations. However, very few studies have been conducted to explore the association between elder mistreatment and suicidal ideation. Objectives To examine the association between elder mistreatment and suicidal ideation among Chinese older adults in the U.S. Methods Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, this study conducted in-person interviews with Chinese older adults aged 60 years and older in the Greater Chicago Area from 2011–2013. Elder mistreatment was assessed by a 10-item instrument derived from the Hwalek-Sengstok Elder Abuse Screening Test (H-S/EAST) and the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale (VASS). Suicidal ideation was assessed by the ninth item of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Geriatric Mental State Examination-Version A (GMS-A). Results Overall, 3,159 Chinese older adults participated in this study and the mean age was 72.8. After controlling for age, gender, education, income, medical comorbidities, depressive symptoms, and social support, elder mistreatment was significantly associated with increased risk for 2-week suicidal ideation (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.52 – 4.01) and 12-month suicidal ideation (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.62 – 3.73). With respect to gender differences, the study found that the association remained significant in older women but not in older men after adjusting for all confounding factors. Conclusion As the largest epidemiology study conducted among Chinese older adults in the U.S., this study suggests that elder mistreatment was a risk factor for 2-week and 12-month suicidal ideation in older women but not in older men. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to explore the mechanisms through which elder mistreatment links with suicidal ideation. PMID:26336817

  9. Cultural factors influencing dietary and fluid restriction behaviour: perceptions of older Chinese patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xiaoshan; Peng, Youqing; Yu, Hai-Ping; Li, Dan

    2017-03-01

    To explore the cultural factors related to dietary and fluid restriction behaviours among older Chinese patients. Excess dietary sodium and fluid intake are risk factors contributing to the worsening and rehospitalisation for heart failure in older patients. Managing the complex fluid and diet requirements of heart failure patients is challenging and is made more complicated by cultural variations in self-management behaviours in response to a health threat. Qualitative study using semi-structured in interviews and framework analysis. The design of this study is qualitative descriptive. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 heart failure patients. Data were analysed through content analysis. Seven cultural themes emerged from the qualitative data: the values placed on health and illness, customary way of life, preference for folk care and the Chinese healthcare system, and factors related to kinship and social ties, religion, economics and education. Dietary change and management in response to illness, including heart failure, is closely related to individuals' cultural background. Healthcare providers should have a good understanding of cultural aspects that can influence patients' conformity to medical recommendations. Heart failure patients need support that considers their cultural needs. Healthcare providers must have a good understanding of the experiences of people from diverse cultural backgrounds. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. From hope to hope: the experience of older Chinese people with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Komaromy, Carol; Valentine, Christine

    2015-03-01

    In our study that explored the current end-of-life care provision for Chinese older people with advanced/terminal cancer, hope emerged as a significant aspect of coping with their condition. Drawing on data from in-depth interviews with a group of older people, their family carers and health professionals, this article explores participants' constructions of hope in terms of what they were hoping for, how their hopes helped them cope with their illness and what sociocultural resources they drew on to build and sustain these hopes. While acknowledging similarities to Western studies of hope in terminal illness, this article identifies significant divergences in terms of the impact of different sociocultural values and their implications for clinical practice in light of an unfavourable health care environment for patients with advanced cancer and a social support system sustained mainly by Chinese families. It argues that hope represents an important resource for coping with terminal illness among these patients. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Validation of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) among Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing Jing; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Wc Patrick; Chen, Tzu An; Pitkethly, Amanda Jane

    2016-03-01

    This study initially validates the Chinese version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), which has been identified as a potentially valid instrument to assess moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in children among diverse racial groups. The psychometric properties of the PAQ-C with 742 Hong Kong Chinese children were assessed with the scale's internal consistency, reliability, test-retest reliability, confirmatory factory analysis (CFA) in the overall sample, and multistep invariance tests across gender groups as well as convergent validity with body mass index (BMI), and an accelerometry-based MVPA. The Cronbach alpha coefficient (α=0.79), composite reliability value (ρ=0.81), and the intraclass correlation coefficient (α=0.82) indicate the satisfactory reliability of the PAQ-C score. The CFA indicated data fit a single factor model, suggesting that the PAQ-C measures only one construct, on MVPA over the previous 7 days. The multiple-group CFAs suggested that the factor loadings and variances and covariances of the PAQ-C measurement model were invariant across gender groups. The PAQ-C score was related to accelerometry-based MVPA (r=0.33) and inversely related to BMI (r=-0.18). This study demonstrates the reliability and validity of the PAQ-C in Chinese children. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of olfactory impairment in vital, independently living older persons on their eating behaviour and foodliking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.; Holthuysen, N.T.E.; Boesveldt, S.

    2014-01-01

    These two studies investigated eating behaviour and food liking of independently living Dutch older people with and without olfactory impairment. In the first study, an internet survey was conducted in relation to their olfactory status (n = 512; age 55–91). Hyposmic older people reported eating the

  13. Elder mistreatment, culture, and help-seeking: a cross-cultural comparison of older Chinese and Korean immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon-Shim; Moon, Ailee; Gomez, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    This study explored and compared the salient sociocultural characteristics that influenced elder mistreatment and help-seeking behaviors among older Chinese and Korean immigrants. Results from qualitative, in-depth focus groups with 30 participants revealed that elder mistreatment is a culturally laden construct, and core values of traditional culture and acculturation are significant contextual factors that profoundly affect the perceptions of elder abuse and receptivity of interventions. Older Korean participants, compared to their Chinese counterparts, demonstrated stronger influence of hierarchy and cultural beliefs in exclusive family ties and gender norms, and were less likely to disclose abuse. Implications for culturally based interventions are also discussed.

  14. Association between oral health status and nutritional status in south Brazilian independent-living older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Renato José; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot; Padilha, Dalva Maria Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Evidence suggests that older people with partial tooth loss and edentulism change their diet and lack specific nutrients, but few studies have assessed whether poor oral status is associated with risk of malnutrition and malnutrition in independent-living older people. We evaluated if poor oral status was associated with risk of malnutrition and malnutrition in this population. A random sample of 471 south Brazilians > or =60 y of age was evaluated. Measurements included a questionnaire to assess sociodemographic, behavioral, general, and oral health data; nutritional status assessment, according to the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA); and oral status assessment, by means of oral examinations assessing the number of teeth and use of dental prostheses. Correlates of risk of malnutrition/malnutrition according to the MNA were assessed by means of multivariate logistic regression. Participants who reported dissatisfaction with their gingival health and edentulous persons wearing only one denture were more likely to be at risk of malnutrition, according to the screening MNA. Dissatisfaction with gingival health was a risk indicator, whereas having one to eight natural teeth was protective against the risk of malnutrition/malnutrition according to the full MNA. In the present study, older people with a compromised oral status had higher odds for risk of malnutrition. The maintenance of a few teeth had a crucial role in increasing the chance of maintaining an adequate nutritional status in the studied population. In cases where edentulism was present, complete dental prosthetic use was associated with better nutritional status.

  15. The Impact of Fear of Falling on Functional Independence Among Older Adults Receiving Home Health Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Lawson OTR, LMSSW, PhD

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls are the fifth leading cause of death for adults aged 65 years and older. Several intrinsic and extrinsic fall risk factors have been identified, butthere is less understanding of the impact of a fear of falling on falls. Seventy percent of recent fallers and 40% percent of non-fallers report a fear of falling. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between a fear of falling and a history of falls, as well as the impact on the functional independence of community-dwelling older adults receiving home health services. Methods: The participants completed the Falls Efficacy Scale, the Modified Timed Up and Go Test, self- reported fear of falling, and the KATZ ADL-staircase. The participants were primarily Hispanic females. Results: There was not a significant correlation between a fear of falling and a history of falls. Only participants' age, gender, and the number of medical diagnoses were predictive of past falls. There was a moderate correlation between impaired functional mobility and dependence with activities of daily living (ADL. Additionally, a fear of falling was associated with dependence to perform ADLs as measured objectively. Conclusion: Future studies need to examine the effectiveness of interventions that include dual-task challenges during therapeutic interventions and ADL retraining to reduce fall risk among older adults.

  16. An investigation of predictors of successful aging in the workplace among Hong Kong Chinese older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Francis; Wu, Anise M S

    2012-03-01

    We examined associations between successful aging in the workplace (adaptability and health, positive relationship, occupational growth, personal security, and continuous focus on goals) and two major factors of work stressors (work family conflict and discrimination against older workers) and coping resources (perceived organizational support, supportive human resource policies, and social support from friends and family) among Chinese older workers in Hong Kong. Furthermore, we also examined whether coping resources moderate the negative effect derived from work stressors on successful aging. A total of 242 Chinese full-time workers aged 40 years or above were recruited in a self-administered questionnaire survey study in Hong Kong. Hierarchical regression results showed that family-to-work conflict was significantly related to successful aging, except the dimension of personal security. Work-to-family conflict and discrimination, however, were not related to successful aging in the workplace. In terms of coping resources, perceived organizational support was related to all dimensions of successful aging in the workplace. We also found that training and development was a significant correlate of occupational growth. Social support from friends and family was positively related to three successful aging dimensions, including adaptability and health, personal security and continuous focus on goals. Finally, when facing discrimination in the workplace, support from organizations and from friends and family were particularly important for old-older workers (aged 55 years or above) to achieve better adaptability and health. Perceived organizational support and social support from friends and family were important correlates of successful aging in the workplace. Limitation and recommendations for organizational intervention were discussed.

  17. Leisure activities, education, and cognitive impairment in Chinese older adults: a population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinyi; Qiu, Chengxuan; Zeng, Yi; Li, Juan

    2017-05-01

    We examine the association between leisure-time activities and the risk of developing cognitive impairment among Chinese older people, and further investigate whether the association varies by educational level. This follow-up study included 6,586 participants (aged 79.5 ± 9.8 years, range 65-105 years, 51.7% female) of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey who were aged ≥65 years and were free of cognitive impairment in 2002. Incident cognitive impairment was defined at the 2005 or 2008/2009 survey following an education-based cut-off on the adapted Chinese version of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Participation in cognitive activities (e.g. reading) and non-exercise physical activity (e.g. housework) was assessed by a self-reported scale. Cox proportional hazard models were employed to examine the association of leisure activities with incident cognitive impairment while controlling for age, gender, education, occupation, residence, physical exercise, smoking, drinking, cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, negative well-being, and physical functioning, and baseline MMSE score. During a five-year follow-up, 1,448 participants developed incident cognitive impairment. Overall, a high level of participation in leisure activities was associated with a 41% decreased risk of cognitive impairment compared to low-level engagement in leisure activities after controlling for age, gender, education, and other confounders. Moreover, there was a significant interaction between leisure activity and educational level, such that the beneficial effect of leisure activities on cognitive function was larger in educated elderly than their uneducated counterparts, and only educated elderly benefited from cognitive activities. Late-life leisure activities protect against cognitive impairment among elderly Chinese people, and the protective effects are more profound for educated elderly.

  18. Impact of cognitive function on oral perception in independently living older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutake, Motoyoshi; Ogawa, Taiji; Ikebe, Kazunori; Mihara, Yusuke; Inomata, Chisato; Takeshita, Hajime; Matsuda, Kenichi; Hatta, Kodai; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Masui, Yukie; Inagaki, Hiroki; Arai, Yasumichi; Kamide, Kei; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2018-04-10

    Oral tactile perception is important for better mastication, appetite, and enjoyment of food. However, previous investigations have not utilized comprehensible variables thought to have negative effect on oral perception, including aging, denture wearing, and cognitive function. The aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of cognitive function on oral perception in independently living older individuals. The study sample was comprised of 987 participants (466 males, 521 females; age 69-71 years). Oral examinations, assessments of cognitive function in preclinical level by Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)-J, and determination of oral stereognostic ability as an indicator of oral perception were performed. Related variables were selected by univariate analyses; then, multivariate logistic regression model analysis was conducted. Univariate analyses revealed that number of teeth, removable dentures usage, and cognitive function respectively had a significant relationship with stereognostic score. Next, the subjects were classified into good and poor perception groups (lowest 17.4%) according to oral stereognostic ability. Logistic regression analysis revealed that lower cognitive function was significantly associated with poor oral perception (OR = 0.934, p = 0.017) after controlling for other variables. Cognitive decline even in preclinical stage was associated with reduced oral perception after controlling for gender, tooth number and denture use in independent living older people. This study suggested that preclinical level of change in cognitive function affected oral perception. Dental practitioners and caregivers may need to pay attention to reduced oral perception among older people even if they do not have trouble in daily life.

  19. Symptom burden predicts hospitalization independent of comorbidity in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salanitro, Amanda H; Hovater, Martha; Hearld, Kristine R; Roth, David L; Sawyer, Patricia; Locher, Julie L; Bodner, Eric; Brown, Cynthia J; Allman, Richard M; Ritchie, Christine S

    2012-09-01

    To determine whether cumulative symptom burden predicts hospitalization or emergency department (ED) visits in a cohort of older adults. Prospective, observational study with a baseline in-home assessment of symptom burden. Central Alabama. Nine hundred eighty community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older (mean 75.3 ± 6.7) recruited from a random sample of Medicare beneficiaries stratified according to sex, race, and urban/rural residence. Symptom burden score (range 0-10). One point was given for each symptom reported: shortness of breath, tiredness or fatigue, problems with balance or dizziness, leg weakness, poor appetite, pain, stiffness, constipation, anxiety, and loss of interest in activities. Dependent variables were hospitalizations and ED visits, assessed every 6 months during the 8.5-year follow-up period. Using Cox proportional hazards models, time from the baseline in-home assessment to the first hospitalization and first hospitalization or ED visit was determined. During the 8.5-year follow-up period, 545 (55.6%) participants were hospitalized or had an ED visit. Participants with greater symptom burden had higher risk of hospitalization (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-1.14) and hospitalization or ED visit (HR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.06-1.14) than those with lower scores. Participants living in rural areas had significantly lower risk of hospitalization (HR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.69-0.99) and hospitalization or ED visit (HR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.70-0.95) than individuals in urban areas, independent of symptom burden and comorbidity. Greater symptom burden was associated with higher risk of hospitalization and ED visits in community-dwelling older adults. Healthcare providers treating older adults should consider symptom burden to be an additional risk factor for subsequent hospital utilization. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  20. Physical activity and psychological well-being among Hong Kong Chinese older adults: exploring the moderating role of self-construal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Cecilia Y M; Fung, Helene H

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between physical activity (PA) and psychological well-being--self-esteem and relatedness satisfaction--among 102 Hong Kong Chinese older adults. It also tested whether independent-interdependent self-construal moderated the association. Physical activity, self esteem, relatedness satisfaction, and self-construal were measured by the Yale Physical Activity Scale, the Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, the Relatedness Satisfaction subscale of the Basic Need Satisfaction in General Questionnaire, and Gudykunst, Matsunoto, Ting-Toomey, and Nishida's (1996) Self-Construal Scale respectively. Findings revealed a positive association between PA and relatedness satisfaction, but not self-esteem. Interdependent self-construal moderated the relationship between physical exercise and relatedness satisfaction. These findings suggest that PA may be psychologically beneficial to older adults across cultures, but its benefits may depend on cultural emphasis and individual self-construal.

  1. The independent contribution of executive functions to health related quality of life in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marra Carlo A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognition is a multidimensional construct and to our knowledge, no previous studies have examined the independent contribution of specific domains of cognition to health related quality of life. To determine whether executive functions are independently associated with health related quality of life assessed using Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs calculated from the EuroQol EQ-5D (EQ-5D in older women after adjusting for known covariates, including global cognition. Therefore, we conducted a secondary analysis of community-dwelling older women aged 65-75 years who participated in a 12-month randomized controlled trial of resistance training. We assessed global cognition using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and executive functions using the: 1 Stroop Test; 2 Trail Making Test (Part B and 3 Digits Verbal Span Backwards Test. We calculated QALYs from the EQ-5D administered at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Results Our multivariate linear regression model demonstrated the specific executive processes of set shifting and working memory, as measured by Trail Making Test (Part B and Digits Verbal Span Backward Test (p Conclusions Our study highlights the specific executive processes of set shifting and working memory were independently associated with QALYs -- a measure of health related quality of life. Given that executive functions explain variability in QALYs, clinicians may need to consider assessing executive functions when measuring health related quality of life. Further, the EQ-5D may be used to track changes in health status over time and serve as a screening tool for clinicians. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00426881.

  2. Living and dying with dignity in Chinese society: perspectives of older palliative care patients in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Andy Hau Yan; Chan, Cecilia Lai Wan; Leung, Pamela Pui Yu; Chochinov, Harvey Max; Neimeyer, Robert A; Pang, Samantha Mei Che; Tse, Doris Man Wah

    2013-07-01

    the empirical Dignity Model has profoundly influenced the provision of palliative care for older terminally ill patients in the West, as it provides practical guidance and intervention strategies for promoting dignity and reducing distress at the end-of-life. to examine the concept of 'living and dying with dignity' in the Chinese context, and explore the generalisability of the Dignity Model to older terminal patients in Hong Kong. using qualitative interviews, the concept of dignity was explored among 16 older Chinese palliative care patients with terminal cancer. Framework analysis with both deductive and inductive methods was employed. the three major categories of themes of the Dignity Model were broadly supported. However, the subtheme of death anxiety was not supported, while two subthemes of generativity/legacy and resilience/fighting spirit manifested differently in the Chinese context. Furthermore, four new emergent themes have been identified. They include enduring pain, moral transcendence, spiritual surrender and transgenerational unity. these findings highlight both a cultural and a familial dimension in the construct of dignity, underline the paramount importance of cultural awareness and competence for working with ethnically diverse groups, and call for a culturally sensitive and family oriented approach to palliative care interventions with older Chinese terminal patients.

  3. Understanding Falls Risk and Impacts in Chinese American Older Patients at a Community Health Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Susan; Duong, Thomas; Ieong, Liss; Quach, Thu

    2017-08-01

    While falls are highly prevalent and costly for older adults, little is known about falls for Asian Americans. Using a custom, evidence-based, bilingual fall risk assessment and management tool, our study examined the prevalence of falls among older Chinese-speaking patients at a community health center. We identified the risks for falls and explored an association of fall risk with emergency room (ER) and hospital use in this population. The setting was at a community health center in Oakland, CA. Participants included 839 older Asian American adults (ages 65-80 years) who spoke Cantonese/Mandarin. Primary care clinic staff administered a fall risk assessment and management tool at the time of clinic visits to assess patients' risk factors for falls. Of the total, 173 (20.6%) reported having fallen in the past year, with women comprising a majority (71.7%). 362 patients in the cohort (43.1%) reported fear of falling. For the subset of Medicaid managed care patients (n = 455, 54.3% of total) for whom we were able to obtain ER and hospital utilization data, 31 patients (14.5%) who reported a fall risk had an ER/hospital episode compared to 15 (6.2%) of those who did not self-report fall risks (statistically significant, p cultural competence to focus on Asian American older adults, can help establish the prevalence of falls in this understudied population and effectively identify those at higher risk for falls and subsequent ER/hospital utilization. More research is needed to understand the risk and impacts of falls in understudied populations and identify ways to prevent these costly falls.

  4. Gender, childhood and adult socioeconomic inequalities in functional disability among Chinese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yaqin; Wang, Jian; Nicholas, Stephen

    2017-09-02

    Gender difference and life-course socioeconomic inequalities in functional disability may exist among older adults. However, the association is less well understood among Chinese older population. The objective is to provide empirical evidences on this issue by exploring the association between gender, childhood and adult socioeconomic inequalities in functional disability. Data from the 2013 wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) was utilized. Functional disability was assessed by the activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by birthplace, father's education and occupation. Adult SES was measured in terms of education and household income. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to assess the association between gender, childhood and adult SES and functional disability. Based on a sample of 18,448 older adults aged 45 years old and above, our results showed that the prevalence of ADL and IADL disability was higher among women than men, but gender difference disappeared after adult SES and adult health were controlled. Harsh conditions during childhood were associated with functional disability but in multivariate analyses only father's education was associated with IADL disability (OR for no education = 1.198; 95% CI = 1.062-1.353). Current SES such as higher education and good economic situation are protective factors of functional disability. Childhood and adult SES were both related to functional disability among older adults. Our findings highlight the need for policies and programs aimed at decreasing social inequalities during childhood and early adulthood, which could reduce socioeconomic inequalities in functional disability in later life.

  5. The Prevalence and Correlates of Gambling Participation among Community-Dwelling Chinese Older Adults in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijia Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the prevalence and correlates of gambling participation and problems among community-dwelling Chinese older adults in the U.S. Based on a community-based participatory research approach, the study enrolled 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 years and above in the greater Chicago area. Among the participants, 58.9% were women and the average age was 72.8 years. Overall, 467 older adults had engaged in gambling in the past twelve months and 65 older adults had experienced any risk of problem gambling. Visiting a casino was the most commonly reported type of gambling, whereas betting on Mahjong had the highest frequency. Being male, lower educational levels, higher income levels, having more children, living in the U.S. for a longer period of time, living in the community for a longer period of time, better health status, lower quality of life, and improved health over the past year were significantly correlated with any gambling in the past year. Younger age, being male, and living with more people were significantly correlated with experiencing any risk of problem gambling in the past year. Future studies should be conducted to better examine the health effects of gambling and problem gambling among Chinese older adults.

  6. A Chinese Chan-based lifestyle intervention improves memory of older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes S. eChan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the potential benefits of a Chinese Chan-based lifestyle intervention on enhancing memory in older people with lower memory function. Forty-four aged 60 to 83 adults with various level of memory ability participated in the study. Their memories (including verbal and visual components were assessed before and after a 3-month intervention. The intervention consisted of 12 sessions, with one 90-minute session per week. The intervention involved components of adopting a special vegetarian diet, practicing a type of mind-body exercises and learning self-realization. Elderly with lower memory function at the baseline (i.e., their performance on standardized memory tests was within 25th percentile showed a significant memory improvement after the intervention. Their verbal and visual memory performance has showed 50% and 49% enhancement respectively. In addition, their improvement can be considered as a reliable and clinically significant change as reflected by their significant pre-post differences and reliable change indices. Such robust treatment effect was found to be specific to memory functions, but less influencing on the other cognitive functions. These preliminary encouraging results have shed some light on the potential applicability of the Chinese Chan-based lifestyle intervention as a method for enhancing memory in the elderly population.

  7. Optic Neuritis in the Older Chinese Population: A 5-Year Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqing Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aims to describe the clinical manifestations and outcomes in a cohort of older Chinese patients. Method. A retrospective study of patients aged ≥ 45 years who had a first episode of optic neuritis (ON between May 2008 and November 2012. Clinical features at onset and last follow-up were analyzed within subgroups (age 45–65 years and age ≥ 65 years. Results. 76 patients (99 eyes were included, of which 58% were females. The mean age at presentation was 55.53 ± 8.29 years (range: 45–83 years. Vision loss was severe at presentation, with initial best corrected vision activity (BCVA < 20/200 in 93% and final BCVA < 20/200 in 53% of patients at 5-year follow-up. Final BCVA significantly correlated with the initial BCVA and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer. At last follow-up, 14.5% were diagnosed with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD, 1.3% were diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS, 5.2% with chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy, 1.3% with infectious ON, and 19.7% with autoimmune ON. None of the elderly group (≥65 years developed NMOSD or MS. Conclusion. Chinese patients in the age group ≥ 65 years with ON are less likely to develop NMOSD or MS. Notwithstanding, they had more severe visual loss at onset and poor recovery.

  8. Association between late-onset depression and incident dementia in Chinese older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, C W C; Lam, L C W

    2013-12-01

    OBJECTIVE. Previous studies have shown that depression is a precursor / prodrome or susceptible state for the development of dementia. This study aimed to examine the relationship between late-onset depression and subsequent cognitive and functional decline in a cohort of non-demented older Chinese persons at their 2-year follow-up and investigate for possible predictors of cognitive decline. METHODS. A total of 81 depressed subjects and 468 non-depressed community controls were recruited. RESULTS. Subjects with late-onset depression showed significantly more incident Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale decline (odds ratio = 3.87, 95% confidence interval = 2.23-6.70) and dementia (odds ratio = 3.44, 95% confidence interval = 1.75-6.77) than those without depression. A higher proportion of depressed CDR 0 subjects had CDR and functional decline than their non-depressed counterparts. Depressed CDR 0.5 subjects had significantly higher rates of functional decline and lower rates of improvement in CDR than their non-depressed counterparts. CONCLUSION. Diagnosis of depression was a robust predictor of incident very mild dementia (i.e. CDR of 0.5) and depression severity was a predictor of progression to dementia from CDR of 0.5. The association between depression and the risk of CDR decline and dementia was observed in non-demented Chinese subjects. Depression was also associated with persistent mild cognitive deficits in CDR 0.5 subjects.

  9. Smoking and hemorrhagic stroke mortality in a prospective cohort study of older Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Schooling, Catherine Mary; Chan, Wai Man; Lee, Siu Yin; Leung, Gabriel M; Lam, Tai Hing

    2013-08-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke is more common in non-Western settings and does not always share risk factors with other cardiovascular diseases. The association of smoking with hemorrhagic stroke subtypes has not been established. We examined the association of cigarette smoking with hemorrhagic stroke, by subtype (intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage), in a large cohort of older Chinese from Hong Kong. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to assess the adjusted associations of smoking at baseline with death from hemorrhagic stroke and its subtypes, using a population-based prospective cohort of 66 820 Chinese aged>65 years enrolled from July 1998 to December 2001 at all the 18 Elderly Health Centers of the Hong Kong Government Department of Health and followed until May 31, 2012. After follow-up for an average of 10.9 years (SD=3.1), 648 deaths from hemorrhagic stroke had occurred, of which 530 (82%) were intracerebral hemorrhage. Current smoking was associated with a higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke (hazard ratio, 2.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.49-3.22), intracerebral hemorrhage (1.94; 1.25-3.01), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (3.58; 1.62-7.94), adjusted for age, sex, education, public assistance, housing type, monthly expenditure, alcohol use, and exercise. Further adjustment for hypertension and body mass index slightly changed the estimates. Smoking is strongly associated with hemorrhagic stroke mortality, particularly for subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  10. Sarcopenia is an independent risk factor of dysphagia in hospitalized older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Keisuke; Akagi, Junji

    2016-04-01

    Sarcopenia can cause varying physical function disorders, including dysphagia. Malnutrition, a potential result of dysphagia, can also cause sarcopenia. However, the association between sarcopenia and dysphagia is not fully understood, despite evidence suggesting correlations between deglutition disorders and degenerative loss of muscle mass. The present study investigated the prevalence of dysphagia among patients with sarcopenia, and the association between the two conditions. We included 224 older adults (mean age 82.5 ± 8.4 years; 37.9% men). Individuals who had a stroke or other diseases that could directly cause dysphagia were excluded. Logistic regression analyses were carried out after adjusting for potential causes of sarcopenia, including malnutrition, a low activity of daily living levels and aging, to investigate the relationship between the skeletal muscle index (SMI), prevalence of sarcopenia diagnosed based on a low SMI and grip strength, and swallowing functions. The Mini-Nutritional Assessment short form was used to assess their nutritional status, and the Barthel Index was used to evaluate their activities of daily living. The prevalences of sarcopenia and dysphagia were 76.8% and 30.0%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that Barthel Index, SMI and presence of sarcopenia were significant independent factors for the prevalence of dysphagia, after adjusting for sex, age and nutritional status. Furthermore, subgroup analysis showed that SMI in males, and both hand-grip strength and SMI in females were lower in dysphagic subjects than in non-dysphagic subjects (P ≤ 0.01). Sarcopenia was an independent risk factor for dysphagia among older individuals. However, further studies are required to define causality. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. Psychologicai study on independence consciousness of chinese female university students : Applying Cinderella Complex Scales and of Women's Social Roles

    OpenAIRE

    鄭, 艶花; Zheng, Yanhua

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze and clarify the independence consciousness of female university students of China applying psychological research methods. In the course of the study a questionnaire research was conducted on eighty three Chinese female university students with regard to the scales of Cinderella complex and the social role attitudes. Firstly the results indicate positive correlations between the independent variable of "defend-family-traditionalism factor" with three fa...

  12. An Empirical Study on the Application of Cooperative Learning to Comprehensive English Classes in a Chinese Independent College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ji

    2017-01-01

    This research investigated a comparison between the effect of cooperative learning and lecture teaching on Comprehensive English classes in a Chinese Independent College. An empirical study for two semesters was carried out in the forms of pretest, posttest, questionnaire and interviews. While control class was taught in the conventional way,…

  13. Factors influencing integrated wellbeing in older Chinese outpatients with chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fei; Li, Hongyu

    2018-03-16

    To evaluate wellbeing and its determinants among older Chinese outpatients with non-communicable diseases (NCDs), outpatients (aged ≥60 years) with NCDs between September 2012 and September 2014 were enrolled in the study by convenience sampling. Each subject completed an integrated wellbeing questionnaire for subjective, psychological and social dimensions of wellbeing. Statistical analyses were performed using t-test, ANOVA, Spearman rank correlation and multivariate regression analysis to identify correlates of wellbeing status. The average integrated wellbeing score was 52.57 out of 98, with maximum of 72. Educational background and monthly income were positively associated with wellbeing (Spearman r=0.226 and 0.394 respectively; all Pwellbeing (Spearman r=-0.373 and -0.538 respectively; all PLack of access to health insurance, being single and presence of complications were associated with lower wellbeing (all P≤0.001). As the first study using an integrated wellbeing model, the results suggested wellbeing promotion among older outpatients with chronic diseases, especially those with lower income, lower education level, those who lack health insurance, single individuals, those with co-morbid conditions, longer disease duration and those with complications.

  14. Presbycusis among older Chinese people in Taipei, Taiwan: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Pin; Chou, Pesus

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and severity of presbycusis in older Chinese people in Taipei, Taiwan. Pure-tone audiometry and a questionnaire were administered to a randomly-recruited cohort of people > 65 years old (n=1221) from a community in Taipei. The study cohort showed pure-tone thresholds worsening, especially at frequencies >2 kHz, with increasing age. The mean pure-tone average at speech frequencies (0.5, 1, and 2 kHz) of the better ear of subjects stratified by five-year age groups ranged from 34.9 dB hearing level (HL) to 46.4 dB HL. The pure-tone average at speech frequency in women was slightly higher than that in men in all age groups. The prevalence of presbycusis (M3 > or = 55 dBHL) was 1.6% (65-69 years), 3.2% (70-74 years), 7.5% (75-79 years), and 14.9% (> or =80 years). Persistent tinnitus was present in 13.9% of subjects, and 18.8% of subjects had a history of vertigo. Of subjects with a clinically evident hearing impairment (M3 > or = 55 dB HL), 18.4% used hearing aids. These data provide estimates of the prevalence and severity of presbycusis in community-dwelling older persons in Taiwan.

  15. Number of rib fractures thresholds independently predict worse outcomes in older patients with blunt trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulzhenko, Nikita O; Zens, Tiffany J; Beems, Megan V; Jung, Hee Soo; O'Rourke, Ann P; Liepert, Amy E; Scarborough, John E; Agarwal, Suresh K

    2017-04-01

    There have been conflicting reports regarding whether the number of rib fractures sustained in blunt trauma is associated independently with worse patient outcomes. We sought to investigate this risk-adjusted relationship among the lesser-studied population of older adults. A retrospective review of the National Trauma Data Bank was performed for patients with blunt trauma who were ≥65 years old and had rib fractures between 2009 and 2012 (N = 67,695). Control data were collected for age, sex, injury severity score, injury mechanism, 24 comorbidities, and number of rib fractures. Outcome data included hospital mortality, hospital and intensive care unit durations of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and the occurrence of pneumonia. Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were performed. Sustaining ≥5 rib fractures was associated with increased intensive care unit admission (odds ratio: 1.14, P rib fractures was associated with an increased incidence of pneumonia (odds ratio: 1.32, P rib fractures was associated with increased mortality (odds ratio: 1.51, P rib fractures is a significant predictor of worse outcomes independent of patient characteristics, comorbidities, and trauma burden. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Successful Aging: Advancing the Science of Physical Independence in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D.; Woods, Adam J.; Ashizawa, Tetso; Barb, Diana; Buford, Thomas W.; Carter, Christy S.; Clark, David J.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Corbett, Duane B.; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Dotson, Vonetta; Ebner, Natalie; Efron, Philip A.; Fillingim, Roger B.; Foster, Thomas C.; Gundermann, David M.; Joseph, Anna-Maria; Karabetian, Christy; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Manini, Todd M.; Marsiske, Michael; Mankowski, Robert T.; Mutchie, Heather L.; Perri, Michael G.; Ranka, Sanjay; Rashidi, Parisa; Sandesara, Bhanuprasad; Scarpace, Philip J.; Sibille, Kimberly T.; Solberg, Laurence M.; Someya, Shinichi; Uphold, Connie; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie; Wu, Samuel Shangwu; Pahor, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The concept of ‘Successful Aging’ has long intrigued the scientific community. Despite this long-standing interest, a consensus definition has proven to be a difficult task, due to the inherent challenge involved in defining such a complex, multi-dimensional phenomenon. The lack of a clear set of defining characteristics for the construct of successful aging has made comparison of findings across studies difficult and has limited advances in aging research. The domain in which consensus on markers of successful aging is furthest developed is the domain of physical functioning. For example, walking speed appears to be an excellent surrogate marker of overall health and predicts the maintenance of physical independence, a cornerstone of successful aging. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview and discussion of specific health conditions, behavioral factors, and biological mechanisms that mark declining mobility and physical function and promising interventions to counter these effects. With life expectancy continuing to increase in the United States and developed countries throughout the world, there is an increasing public health focus on the maintenance of physical independence among all older adults. PMID:26462882

  17. Frailty transitions and types of death in Chinese older adults: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao-yan; Wang, Xiao-feng; Shi, Yan; Hai, Hua

    2018-01-01

    Background Little is known about the adverse effects of frailty transitions. In this study, we aimed to characterize the transitions between frailty states and examine their associations with the type of death among older adults in China, a developing country with a rapidly growing aging population. Methods We used data of 11,165 older adults (aged 65–99 years) from the 2002 and 2005 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). Overall, 44 health deficits were used to construct frailty index (FI; range: 0–1), which was then categorized into a three-level variable: nonfrail (FI ≤0.10), prefrail (0.100.21). Outcome was four types of death based on bedridden days and suffering state (assessed in the 2008 wave of CLHLS). Results During the 3-year period, 3,394 (30.4%) participants had transitioned between different frailty states (nonfrail, prefrail, and frail), one-third transitioned to death, and one-third remained in previous frailty states. Transitions to greater frailty (ie, “worsening”) were more common than transitions to lesser frailty (ie, “improvement”). Among four categories of frailty transitions, “worsening” and “remaining frail” had increased risks of painful death, eg, with odds ratios of 1.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] =1.41, 2.62) and 4.75 (95% CI =3.32, 6.80), respectively, for type 4 death (ie, ≥30 bedridden days with suffering before death). Conclusion This large sample of older adults in China supports that frailty is a dynamic process, characterized by frequent types of transitions. Furthermore, those who remained frail had the highest likelihood of experiencing painful death, which raises concerns about the quality of life in frail populations. PMID:29805253

  18. Sustainable fisheries in shallow lakes: an independent empirical test of the Chinese mitten crab yield model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haijun; Liang, Xiaomin; Wang, Hongzhu

    2017-07-01

    Next to excessive nutrient loading, intensive aquaculture is one of the major anthropogenic impacts threatening lake ecosystems. In China, particularly in the shallow lakes of mid-lower Changjiang (Yangtze) River, continuous overstocking of the Chinese mitten crab ( Eriocheir sinensis) could deteriorate water quality and exhaust natural resources. A series of crab yield models and a general optimum-stocking rate model have been established, which seek to benefit both crab culture and the environment. In this research, independent investigations were carried out to evaluate the crab yield models and modify the optimum-stocking model. Low percentage errors (average 47%, median 36%) between observed and calculated crab yields were obtained. Specific values were defined for adult crab body mass (135 g/ind.) and recapture rate (18% and 30% in lakes with submerged macrophyte biomass above and below 1 000 g/m2) to modify the optimum-stocking model. Analysis based on the modified optimum-stocking model indicated that the actual stocking rates in most lakes were much higher than the calculated optimum-stocking rates. This implies that, for most lakes, the current stocking rates should be greatly reduced to maintain healthy lake ecosystems.

  19. Grandparent Caregiving and Psychological Well-Being Among Chinese American Older Adults-The Roles of Caregiving Burden and Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling; Tang, Fengyan; Li, Lydia W; Dong, Xin Qi

    2017-07-01

    Though ample research on grandparent caregiving and psychological well-being outcomes exist in Western literature, little attention has been focused on Chinese American grandparents. Based on role enhancement and role strain theories, this study examined grandparent caregiving and psychological well-being among Chinese American older adults and tested whether caregiving burden or pressure from adult children moderated such association. We used the data from the Population Study of ChINese Elderly in Chicago (PINE), a population-based survey of community-dwelling Chinese older adults in the Greater Chicago area. Grandparents with grandchildren younger than 16 years old were selected for present study (N = 2,775). Negative binominal regression and logistic regression models were used to test the relationships of grandparent caregiving time and psychological well-being measured by depressive symptoms and quality of life. Grandparents reported an average of 11.96 hours a week for caring for grandchildren. Caregiving time had a significantly negative association with depressive symptoms, but not with quality of life. The association between grandparent caregiving and depressive symptoms was moderated by the perception of caregiving burden. No moderating effect of caregiving pressure from adult children was found. More time spending on grandparent caregiving is generally beneficial to Chinese American grandparents' psychological well-being, thus supporting role enhancement theory. However, this association depends on whether this experience is a burden to the grandparents, therefore role strain theory is also supported. Policies and programs are discussed to address the grandparenting experience in the Chinese American older adults. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. 中国老年人增龄性记忆改变%Aging-rlated memory changes of older Chinese adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程灶火; 郑虹; 耿铭; 王力

    2002-01-01

    Objective Explore the characteristics of age related memory changes of older Chinese adults living in the community and memory changes relative to age,education,gender,and occupation.Methods The Multi dimensional Memory Assessment Scale(MMAS) was administered 50 young adults aged between 20 and 30,as well as 280 older adults between 50 and 91 years of age and from three counties and Changsha city of Hunan province,China.Results Comparing with young adults,the memory functions of Chinese adults over 50 decreased with aging and went down abruptly after 65 years old,except for everyday life memory.The explicit memory of older adults declined with age more significantly than implicit memory.For explicit memory,the impairment of associate learning occurred more early and severely than free recall and recognition.The age,education,occupation,and gender were significant predictors of the explicit memory,the implicit memory was predicted only by age,and education and gender were significant predictors of the everyday life memory.Conclusion The older Chinese adults perform poorly on the memory tests as compared with young adults,the rates of decline of different memory functions are different,and the age,education,occupation,and gender have effects on the different types of memory.

  1. In Search of an Alternative Feminist Cinema: Gender, Crisis, and the Cultural Discourse of Nation Building in Chinese Independent Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinese feminist cinema in the postsocialist era is shaped by the grand narrative of nation building that glamorizes urban professional career women and their contributions to economic marketization and globalization. Such cinematic overemphasis on urban women proves inadequate as it creates a disturbing silence about the diasporic existence of non-urban women. This uneven condition demands the creation of an alternative cinematic feminism that visualizes the diversity of Chinese women and represents the heterogeneity of feminist cinematic expressions and female experiences. Using Li Yu’s 'Lost in Beijing' (2007, 'Pingguo' 苹果 and Li Yang’s 'Blind Mountain' (2007, 'Mang shan' 盲山 as case studies, this essay investigates how Chinese independent films re-negotiate female gender identity and crisis through commercialized visual realism and social intervention while in reality the postsocialist grand narrative of nation building redefines the living conditions of female migrant workers and women of limited resources.

  2. Social change and birth cohort increase in loneliness among Chinese older adults: a cross-temporal meta-analysis, 1995-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhimin; Yang, Xun; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Yuhan; Yu, Lin

    2014-11-01

    In China, rapid economic growth and increasing social problems constitute the two basic characteristics underlying contemporary social change. With dramatic social change, loneliness in older adults may have changed across birth cohorts, thus altering older adults' mental health. The present study aims to identify birth cohort changes in Chinese older adults' loneliness and the social indicators underlying these changes. Cross-temporal meta-analysis was utilized to investigate changes in Chinese older adults' loneliness from 1995 to 2011. We analyzed 25 studies (N = 13,280 adults; age ≥ 60 years) employing the University of California at Los Angeles Loneliness Scale. We correlated loneliness scores with social indicators and matched these correlations for three periods: ten years before the data collection, five years before data collection, and during the year of data collection. Loneliness levels in Chinese older adults have increased by 1.02 standard deviations from 1995 to 2011. Social indicators such as increased urbanization level, personal medical expenditure, divorce rate, the Gini coefficient, and unemployment rate significantly predicted loneliness in Chinese older adults. Decrease in social connectedness and increase in levels of health threat may be responsible for the observed increase in levels of loneliness. Cross-temporal meta-analysis revealed a birth cohort increase in loneliness among Chinese older adults. We conclude that changes in social connectedness and levels of health threat likely play an important role in predicting loneliness in the population of Chinese elderly adults.

  3. Independent value added by diffusion MRI for prediction of cognitive function in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A Scott

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether white matter microstructure measured by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI provides independent information about baseline level or change in executive function (EF or memory (MEM in older adults with and without cognitive impairment. Longitudinal data was acquired from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI study from phases GO and 2 (2009–2015. ADNI participants included were diagnosed as cognitively normal (n = 46, early mild cognitive impairment (MCI (n = 48, late MCI (n = 29, and dementia (n = 39 at baseline. We modeled the association between dMRI-based global white matter mean diffusivity (MD and baseline level and change in EF and MEM composite scores, in models controlling for baseline bilateral hippocampal volume, regional cerebral FDG PET metabolism and global cerebral AV45 PET uptake. EF and MEM composite scores were measured at baseline, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months. In the baseline late MCI and dementia groups, greater global MD was associated with lesser baseline EF, but not EF change nor MEM baseline or change. As expected, lesser hippocampal volume and lesser FDG PET metabolism was associated with greater rates of EF and MEM decline. In ADNI-GO/2 participants, white matter integrity provided independent information about current executive function, but was not sensitive to future cognitive change. Since individuals experiencing executive function declines progress to dementia more rapidly than those with only memory impairment, better biomarkers of future executive function decline are needed.

  4. Associations between individual and environmental factors and habitual physical activity among older Chinese adults:A social-ecological perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangren Yi; Rui Wang; Zachary Pope; Zan Gao; Shumei Wang; Fang Pan; Jingpeng Yan; Meng Liu; Peipei Wu; Jingjing Xu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine, within a social–ecological framework, associations between multifaceted individual and environmental factors and habitual physical activity (HPA) among older Chinese adults. Methods: Through a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods, a survey instrument assessing various factors underlying 3 social–ecological dimensions of intrapersonal, interpersonal, and community and environmental resources was developed. Using a cross-sectional design, older adults (n=1580, aged 67 ± 7 years) recruited from 10 communities in Shandong province completed the social–ecological survey of HPA. Data were analyzed using Partial Least Squares Path Modeling. Results: Factors related to intrapersonal (medical knowledge, motivation, physical function, sport skills, socioeconomic status, and education), interpersonal (social support, social activity, and social norms), and community and physical environmental resources (safety, capacity, availability of and access to physical activity facilities) were found to be significantly associated with older adults’ participation in HPA. Conclusion: The findings provide an initial validation of a social–ecological approach to the study of HPA in China, suggesting that strategies aimed at promoting physical activity in older adults should address multiple levels of factors that may contribute to the likelihood of older Chinese adults being physically active. © 2016 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Shanghai University of Sport. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  5. A case study on the perception of aging and participation in physical activities of older Chinese immigrants in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Fung Kuen

    2011-10-01

    This qualitative study explores how older Hong Kong ChineseAustralians perceive aging and to what extent this perception affects their participation in physical activities. The main methods used were in-depth interviews with 22 participants ranging in age from 60 to 91 years. Interviews were translated from Chinese (Cantonese) and transcribed into English. Content analysis was used to find recurring themes from the interview data. The main findings indicate that the perception of aging is to some extent influenced by culture. Some participants defined aging as being measured in years, and others defined it by the state of one's physical health, appearance, and capacity to continue fulfilling one's social roles. These perceptions strongly influenced their preferences for and participation in physical activities. Acknowledging the fact that Chinese-speaking people are not culturally homogeneous, this article makes some recommendations to health service providers with regard to the development of appropriate physical activity programs.

  6. The effects of Tai-Chi-Soft-Ball training on physical functional health of Chinese older adult

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Michael Huen Sum; Cheung, Siu Yin; Chow, Bik Chu

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate a 10-week training effects of Tai-Chi-Soft-Ball (TCSB), a novel Chinese exercise which combined the elements of Tai Chi and badminton, on physical functional health of private institutionalized older adults. Thirty-four participants were recruited in the training group with 60 minutes per session and two sessions per week TCSB training. Thirty-two participants were recruited simultaneously in the control group (no training). The measurements included the...

  7. Nut Consumption and Cardiovascular Risk in Older Chinese: The Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangbo Sun

    Full Text Available In Western contexts nut consumption is associated with better health. We examined the associations of nut consumption with cardiovascular disease risk in the non-Western setting of Southern China.In the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study we used multivariable linear regression to examine the associations of baseline nut (mainly peanuts consumption (none (n = 6688, <3 portions/week (n = 2596 and ≥3 portions/week (n = 2444 with follow-up assessment of Framingham cardiovascular disease score (excluding smoking and its components in older Chinese (≥50 years (follow-up 57.8%.Nut consumption was not associated with Framingham score (≥3 portions/week compared to none: 0.02 95% confidence interval (CI -0.11 to 0.15, systolic blood pressure (-0.66 mmHg 95% CI -1.94, 0.62, diastolic blood pressure (-0.69 mmHg 95% CI -1.44, 0.07, HDL-cholesterol (-0.01 mmol/L 95% CI -0.02, 0.005, LDL-cholesterol (-0.01 mmol/L 95% CI -0.05, 0.02 or fasting glucose (0.04 mmol/L 95% CI -0.02, 0.09, adjusted for baseline values, energy intake, age, sex, phase of recruitment, socio-economic position, lifestyle and baseline health status.Observations concerning the benefits of nut consumption may be contextually specific, perhaps depending on the type of nut consumed.

  8. Leisure, functional disability and depression among older Chinese living in residential care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Zheng; Chong, Alice M L; Ng, Ting Kin; Liu, Susu

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has rarely examined the intervening and buffering effects of leisure on the relationship between age-related stress and health among institutionalized elders, especially in the Chinese context. This study thus examines the extent to which participation in leisure activities mediates and moderates the impact of functional disability on depression among older adults living in residential care homes in China. A total of 1429 participants (858 men) aged over 60 living in residential care homes, of which 46.1% experienced depression using a cut-off score ≥ 5 on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, were selected from a national survey across China by using the probability proportional to size sampling method. The findings showed that depression was positively predicted by functional disability and negatively predicted by participation in leisure activities. The results of the mediation analysis showed that participation in leisure activities partially mediated the relationship between functional disability and depression. Functional disability predicted depression both directly and indirectly through its negative influence on participation in leisure activities. Participation in leisure activities also significantly buffered the relationship between functional disability and depression such that the impact of functional disability was weaker for those who participated in leisure activities more frequently. These results provide support for the mediating and moderating roles of leisure in the stress-health relationship among institutionalized elders. To enhance residents' psychological health, residential care homes are recommended to organize more leisure activities.

  9. Common Crime and Domestic Violence Victimization of Older Chinese in Urban China: The Prevalence and Its Impact on Mental Health and Constrained Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Nan; Yan, Elsie

    2018-03-01

    This article examines the prevalence of victimization among older Chinese living in urban China and its psychological and behavioral impacts. A representative sample of 453 older adults aged 60 or above was recruited from Kunming, the People's Republic of China, using multistage sampling method. Participants were individually interviewed on their demographic characteristics, experience of common crime and domestic violence victimization, fear of common crime and domestic violence, mental health, and constrained behavior. Results showed that 254 participants (56.1%) reported one or more types of common crime and 21 (4.6%) reported experiencing domestic violence in the past. Seventeen participants (3.8%) reportedly experienced both common crime and domestic violence victimization. There was no gender difference in the overall incidence of victimization but in some subtypes. Regression analyses indicated that past experience of common crime victimization was significantly associated with greater fear of common crime (β = .136, p = .004), poorer mental health (β = .136, p = .003), and more constrained behavior (β = .108, p = .025). Fear of common crime predicted increased constrained behavior (β = .240, p < .001) independent of gender, age, education, household finances, living arrangement, and physical health. Domestic violence victimization was not significant in predicting poor mental health and constrained behavior but was significant in predicting fear of domestic violence (β = .266, p < .001), which was related to poorer mental health (β = .102, p = .039). The study suggests the importance of taking older people's risk and experience of victimization into consideration in gerontological research, practice, and policymaking.

  10. Is Traditional Chinese Exercise Associated With Lower Mortality Rates in Older People? Evidence From a Prospective Chinese Elderly Cohort Study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Lee, Siu Yin; Lam, Tai Hing; Schooling, C Mary

    2016-01-01

    The inverse association of aerobic exercise with death has been well documented. However, evidence on traditional Chinese exercise (TCE) and rate of death in older Chinese is limited. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to assess the associations of TCE and other types of physical activity with death from all causes and specific causes in a population-based prospective cohort of 66,820 Chinese persons (≥65 years of age) who were enrolled between July 1998 and December 2001 at all 18 Elderly Health Centers in Hong Kong and followed up until May 31, 2012. During an average of 10.9 years of follow-up, 19,845 deaths occurred. TCE was inversely associated with death from all causes (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74, 0.82), cardiovascular disease (HR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.70, 0.85), cancer (HR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.92), and respiratory disease (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.80) but was not associated with death from accidents (excluding falls) (HR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.44, 1.42), after adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic position, alcohol use, smoking, body mass index, and health status. The associations did not vary by amount of TCE. Aerobic exercise had similar inverse associations as TCE, but associations for stretching exercises and walking slowly were less marked. Further studies of TCE are warranted in older Chinese. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in independent community-dwelling older adults: The Fujiwara-kyo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masanori; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Tomoda, Koichi; Fujita, Yukio; Yamauchi, Motoo; Osa, Takao; Uyama, Hiroki; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kurumatani, Norio; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2017-12-01

    As the Japanese population ages, the number of older patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is expected to increase, but the prevalence of COPD in patients aged ≥80 years remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of COPD in independent community-dwelling older adults aged ≥80 years. We investigated the prevalence of COPD in 2862 independent community-dwelling older adults (1504 men, 1358 women, mean age 77.7 ± 7.0 years) who underwent spirometry in the Fujiwara-kyo study, a study of successful aging in older adults. Those participants with airflow limitation (forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity dwelling older adults aged ≥80 years. However, the benefits of the spirometric screening and treatment for these patients needs to be determined. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2421-2426. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. Afternoon Napping and Cognition in Chinese Older Adults: Findings from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study Baseline Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junxin; Cacchione, Pamela Z; Hodgson, Nancy; Riegel, Barbara; Keenan, Brendan T; Scharf, Mathew T; Richards, Kathy C; Gooneratne, Nalaka S

    2017-02-01

    To examine the cross-sectional associations between self-reported postlunch napping and structured cognitive assessments in Chinese older adults. Cross-sectional cohort study. China. Individuals aged 65 and older from the baseline national wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) (N = 2,974). Interview-based cognitive assessments of orientation and attention, episodic memory, visuospatial abilities, and a combined global cognition score incorporating these assessments. Other self-reported or interview-based assessments included postlunch napping duration, nighttime sleep duration, demographic characteristics, health habits, comorbidities, functional status and social activities. According to reported napping duration, older adults were categorized as non-nappers (0 minutes), short nappers (90 minutes). Postlunch napping was reporting in 57.7% of participants for a mean of 63 minutes. Cognitive function was significantly associated with napping (P napping was significantly associated with better cognition than non- (P = .004), short (P = .04), and extended napping (P = .002), after controlling for demographic characteristics, body mass index, depression, instrumental activities of daily living, social activities, and nighttime sleep duration. A cross-sectional association was found between moderate postlunch napping and better cognition in Chinese older adults. The cross-sectional design and self-reported measures of sleep limited the findings. Longitudinal studies with objective napping measures are needed to further test this hypothesis. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Similar Representations of Sequence Knowledge in Young and Older Adults: A Study of Effector Independent Transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnhoorn, Jonathan Sebastiaan; Döhring, Falko R.; van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; Verwey, Willem B.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults show reduced motor performance and changes in motor skill development. To better understand these changes, we studied differences in sequence knowledge representations between young and older adults using a transfer task. Transfer, or the ability to apply motor skills flexibly, is

  14. Low Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Levels Associate with Prediabetes in Chinese Men Independent of Total Testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Li, Qin; Chen, Yi; Zhu, Chunfang; Chen, Yingchao; Xia, Fangzhen; Cang, Zhen; Lu, Meng; Chen, Chi; Lin, Dongping; Lu, Yingli

    2016-01-01

    Objective The association ns between prediabetes and androgens have been rarely reported, especially in Chinese men. We aimed to investigate whether androgens were associated with the prevalence of prediabetes diagnosed with new American Diabetes Association criteria in Chinese men and then to assess which androgen value was the most relevant factor. Methods A total of 2654 men (52.6±13.4 years old) were selected. Serum total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and free testosterone (FT) were measured. Covariance analysis of different androgen values were performed in age subgroups. Multinomial logistic regression was used for the association of TT, SHBG and FT with prediabetes and diabetes, as well as prediabetes in age subgroups. Results According to ADA new criteria, normoglycemia, prediabetes, and diabetes were diagnosed in 1405, 907 and 342 men, respectively. In covariance analysis, SHBG of prediabetes were found lower than that of normoglycemia but higher than that of diabetes (P prediabetes and diabetes. While, after full adjustment for age, residence area, economic status, waist circumference, metabolic factors, other two androgen values and HOMA-IR, only the associations of SHBG with prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes persisted statistically significant, especially in the elderly with prediabetes (all P for trend prediabetes and diabetes in Chinese men. Low serum SHBG was the most relevant factor for prediabetes and diabetes. Whether it is an independent predictor for incident prediabetes in Chinese men needs further explorations. PMID:27583401

  15. Is Social Network a Protective Factor for Cognitive Impairment in US Chinese Older Adults? Findings from the PINE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengting; Dong, Xinqi

    2018-01-01

    Social network has been identified as a protective factor for cognitive impairment. However, the relationship between social network and global and subdomains of cognitive function remains unclear. This study aims to provide an analytic framework to examine quantity, composition, and quality of social network and investigate the association between social network, global cognition, and cognitive domains among US Chinese older adults. Data were derived from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly (PINE), a community-engaged, population-based epidemiological study of US Chinese older adults aged 60 and above in the greater Chicago area, with a sample size of 3,157. Social network was assessed by network size, volume of contact, proportion kin, proportion female, proportion co-resident, and emotional closeness. Cognitive function was evaluated by global cognition, episodic memory, executive function, working memory, and Chinese Mini-Mental State Examination (C-MMSE). Linear regression and quantile regression were performed. Every 1-point increase in network size (b = 0.048, p cognition. Similar trends were observed in specific cognitive domains, including episodic memory, working memory, executive function, and C-MMSE. However, emotional closeness was only significantly associated with C-MMSE (b = 0.076, p cognitive function. Quantitative and structural aspects of social network were essential to maintain an optimal level of cognitive function. Qualitative aspects of social network were protective factors for C-MMSE. It is necessary for public health practitioners to consider interventions that enhance different aspects of older adults' social network. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Association between Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Risk in Chinese Youth Independent of Age and Pubertal Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Joseph TF

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood and adolescence are critical periods of habit formation with substantial tracking of lifestyle and cardiovascular risk into adulthood. There are various guidelines on recommended levels of physical activity in youth of school-age. Despite the epidemic of obesity and diabetes in China, there is a paucity of data in this regard in Chinese youth. We examined the association of self-reported level of physical activity and cardiovascular risk in Hong Kong Chinese youth of school-age. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2007-8 in a school setting with 2119 Hong Kong Chinese youth aged 6-20 years. Physical activity level was assessed using a validated questionnaire, CUHK-PARCY (The Chinese University of Hong Kong: Physical Activity Rating for Children and Youth. A summary risk score comprising of waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and lipids was constructed to quantify cardiovascular risk. Results In this cohort, 21.5% reported high level of physical activity with boys being more active than girls (32.1% versus 14.1%, p Conclusion Self-reported level of physical activity is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in Chinese youth after adjusting for sex and pubertal stage.

  17. Frailty transitions and types of death in Chinese older adults: a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu ZY

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Zu-yun Liu,1,* Yin-zhi Wei,2,* Li-qing Wei,3,* Xiao-yan Jiang,4 Xiao-feng Wang,5 Yan Shi,6 Hua Hai7 1Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 2Department of Geriatrics, Huangshi Central Hospital, Edong Healthcare Group, Huangshi, China; 3Department of Medical Laboratory, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China; 4Key Laboratory of Arrhythmias of the Ministry of Education of China, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; 5Unit of Epidemiology, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; 6Department of Emergency, Huai’an Second People’s Hospital and the Affiliated Huai’an Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Huai’an, China; 7Department of Intensive Care Unit, Xuyi People’s Hospital, Xuyi, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Little is known about the adverse effects of frailty transitions. In this study, we aimed to characterize the transitions between frailty states and examine their associations with the type of death among older adults in China, a developing country with a rapidly growing aging population. Methods: We used data of 11,165 older adults (aged 65–99 years from the 2002 and 2005 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS. Overall, 44 health deficits were used to construct frailty index (FI; range: 0–1, which was then categorized into a three-level variable: nonfrail (FI ≤0.10, prefrail (0.10< FI ≤0.21, and frail (FI >0.21. Outcome was four types of death based on bedridden days and suffering state (assessed in the 2008 wave of CLHLS. Results: During the 3-year period, 3,394 (30.4% participants had transitioned between different frailty states (nonfrail, prefrail, and frail, one-third transitioned to death, and one-third remained in previous frailty states

  18. Insulin resistance in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes is associated with C-reactive protein independent of abdominal obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xiaocheng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is debate as to whether the association between C-reactive protein (CRP and insulin resistance is independent of body fatness, particularly central obesity. Therefore, the association among CRP, insulin resistance and obesity was analyzed in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods The study included 520 Chinese patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes with CRP levels not exceeding 10 mg/L. The degree of insulin resistance was determined with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. The CRP levels were categorized into quartiles from the lowest to the highest concentrations (Q1-Q4. Results Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC were both higher in Q4, Q3 and Q2 than those in Q1. HOMA-IR was higher in Q2, Q3 and Q4 than that in Q1 (Q1 vs Q4, P Conclusion These findings showed that insulin resistance was associated with CRP levels independent of abdominal obesity in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes, suggesting that abdominal obesity could only partly explain the link between subclinical inflammation and insulin resistance.

  19. Similar representations of sequence knowledge in young and older adults: A study of effector independent transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sebastiaan Barnhoorn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Older adults show reduced motor performance and changes in motor skill development. To better understand these changes, we studied differences in sequence knowledge representations between young and older adults using a transfer task. Transfer, or the ability to apply motor skills flexibly, is highly relevant in day-to-day motor activity and facilitates generalization of learning to new contexts. By using movement types that are completely unrelated in terms of muscle activation and response location, we focused on transfer facilitated by the early, visuospatial system.We tested 32 right-handed older adults (65 – 74 and 32 young adults (18 – 30. During practice of a discrete sequence production task, participants learned two 6-element sequences using either unimanual key-presses (KPs or by moving a lever with lower arm flexion-extension (FE movements. Each sequence was performed 144 times. They then performed a test phase consisting of familiar and random sequences performed with the type of movements not used during practice. Both age groups displayed transfer from FE to KP movements as indicated by faster performance on the familiar sequences in the test phase. Only young adults transferred their sequence knowledge from KP to FE movements. In both directions, the young showed higher transfer than older adults. These results suggest that the older participants, like the young, represented their sequences in an abstract visuospatial manner. Transfer was asymmetric in both age groups: there was more transfer from FE to KP movements than vice versa. This similar asymmetry is a further indication that the types of representations that older adults develop are comparable to those that young adults develop. We furthermore found that older adults improved less during FE practice, gained less explicit knowledge, displayed a smaller visuospatial working memory capacity and had lower processing speed than young adults. Despite the many differences

  20. Stimulus-independent semantic bias misdirects word recognition in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Chad S; Wingfield, Arthur

    2015-07-01

    Older adults' normally adaptive use of semantic context to aid in word recognition can have a negative consequence of causing misrecognitions, especially when the word actually spoken sounds similar to a word that more closely fits the context. Word-pairs were presented to young and older adults, with the second word of the pair masked by multi-talker babble varying in signal-to-noise ratio. Results confirmed older adults' greater tendency to misidentify words based on their semantic context compared to the young adults, and to do so with a higher level of confidence. This age difference was unaffected by differences in the relative level of acoustic masking.

  1. Six weeks of unsupervised Nintendo Wii Fit gaming is effective at improving balance in independent older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Vaughan Patrick; McKean, Mark; Lowe, John; Fawcett, Christine; Burkett, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of unsupervised Nintendo Wii Fit balance training in older adults. Forty-one older adults were recruited from local retirement villages and educational settings to participate in a six-week two-group repeated measures study. The Wii group (n = 19, 75 ± 6 years) undertook 30 min of unsupervised Wii balance gaming three times per week in their retirement village while the comparison group (n = 22, 74 ± 5 years) continued with their usual exercise program. Participants' balance abilities were assessed pre- and postintervention. The Wii Fit group demonstrated significant improvements (P balance, lateral reach (left and right), and gait speed compared with the comparison group. Reported levels of enjoyment following game play increased during the study. Six weeks of unsupervised Wii balance training is an effective modality for improving balance in independent older adults.

  2. Can smart home technology deliver on the promise of independent living? : a critical reflection based on the perspectives of older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eveline J.M. Wouters; Sil Aarts; Sebastiaan T. M. Peek

    2009-01-01

    Expectations are high with regards to smart home technology. In particular, smart home technology is expected to support or enable independent living by older adults. This raises the question: can smart home technology contribute to independent living, according to older adults themselves? This

  3. Psychometric integrity of the Chinese Happiness Inventory among retired older people in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hui-Hsun; Lin, Lin; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien

    2016-07-01

    Happiness is an important indicator of mental and physical health. It has been emphasized as one kind of well-being, and its definition varies from culture to culture. The main objective of the present study was to examine the psychometric integrity and dimensions of the Chinese Happiness Inventory (CHI) in relation to scores on Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scale among retired older people in Taiwan. A cross-sectional study was carried out at social service centers in Taipei, Taiwan. Retired adults gave informed consent from September to November 2010, and completed a package of structured questionnaires measuring happiness and psychological well-being. Internal consistency, the factor structure of the CHI and criterion validity were assessed. Results from an exploratory factor analysis showed a three-factor solution for the CHI. These factors were named Positive Affect, Life Satisfaction and Interpersonal Relationships. Internal consistency coefficients were 0.95 (Positive Affect), 0.91 (Life Satisfaction), 0.85 (Interpersonal Relationships) and 0.97 (total scale). The results of a canonical correlation analysis showed the presence of a strong relationship between CHI and Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scale (r = 0.69), and that two canonical variates could be derived from the relationship between them. The results show that the CHI is a three-dimensional scale with high reliability and validity. The construct of happiness emphasizes relationships in relation to others and environment rather than autonomy in this sample. Although the components of happiness might be similar for Positive Affect and Life Satisfaction, their weights for Interpersonal Relationships should be considered when measuring happiness in different cultures. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 865-872. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Choices for Mobility Independence: Transportation Options for Older Adults and People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are the requirements to qualify for the service? Cost: The fees for transportation services will vary and may include a reduced rate or no-cost service for older adults and people with disabilities. ...

  5. Educational Interventions to Promote Healthy Nutrition and Physical Activity Among Older Chinese Americans: A Cluster-Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jih, Jane; Le, Gem; Woo, Kent; Tsoh, Janice Y; Stewart, Susan; Gildengorin, Ginny; Burke, Adam; Wong, Ching; Chan, Elaine; Fung, Lei-Chun; Yu, Filmer; Pasick, Rena; McPhee, Stephen J; Nguyen, Tung T

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of an in-language intervention of 2 lectures plus printed materials versus printed materials alone on knowledge and adherence to nutrition and physical activity guidelines among older Chinese Americans in San Francisco, California. From August 2010 to September 2013, we randomized 756 Chinese Americans aged 50 to 75 years to either lectures plus print (n = 361) or print (n = 357). Clusters were the participants recruited by each lay health worker. Intervention outcomes were changes in knowledge of recommended vegetable intake, fruit intake, and physical activity level and adherence to those recommendations from pre- to 6 months postintervention. The retention rate was 99%. At baseline, knowledge and adherence to recommendations were low. Print yielded increases in knowledge of recommended vegetable intake and physical activity level and adherence to fruit intake and physical activity recommendations. Lectures plus print had significant increases in all 6 outcomes. In multivariable models, lectures plus print was superior to print for knowledge of vegetable (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 12.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.50, 24.45) and fruit (AOR = 16.16; 95% CI = 5.61, 46.51) intake recommendations and adherence to vegetable intake recommendations (AOR = 5.53; 95% CI = 1.96, 15.58). In-language print materials, alone and combined with lectures, increased nutrition and physical activity knowledge and behaviors among older Chinese Americans.

  6. Depressive symptoms predict cognitive decline and dementia in older people independently of cerebral white matter changes: the LADIS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdelho, Ana; Madureira, Sofia; Moleiro, Carla; Ferro, José M; O'Brien, John T; Poggesi, Anna; Pantoni, Leonardo; Fazekas, Franz; Scheltens, Philip; Waldemar, Gunhild; Wallin, Anders; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Inzitari, Domenico

    2013-11-01

    Depressive symptoms (DS) have been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the longitudinal influence of DS on cognition in independent older people, accounting for the severity of white matter changes (WMC). The LADIS (Leukoaraiosis And DISability in the elderly) prospective study evaluated the impact of WMC on the transition of independent older subjects into disability. Subjects were evaluated annually over a 3 year period with a comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological evaluation. Previous episodes of depression and current DS were assessed during each interview. Severity of DS was assessed using the self-rated 15 item Geriatric Depression Scale. A neuropsychological battery and clinical criteria for cognitive impairments were applied in all clinical visits, and cognitive compound measures were made based on neuropsychological results. MRI was performed at baseline and at year 3. 639 subjects were included (74.1 ± 5 years old, 55% women, 9.6 ± 3.8 years of schooling). Dementia was diagnosed in 90 patients and cognitive impairment not dementia in 147 patients at the last clinical evaluation. DS were an independent predictor of cognitive impairment (dementia and not dementia) during follow-up, independent of the effect of the severity of WMC, medial temporal lobe atrophy, age, education or global cognitive function at baseline. DS are associated with an increase risk of cognitive decline, independent of the effect of WMC, probably due to an additive or synergistic effect. In this context, DS probably represent a subtle ongoing organic dysfunction.

  7. Long sleep duration and afternoon napping are associated with higher risk of incident diabetes in middle-aged and older Chinese: the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Liu, Bing; Wang, Jing; Pan, An; Li, Yaru; Hu, Hua; Li, Xiulou; Yang, Kun; Yuan, Jing; Yao, Ping; Miao, Xiaoping; Wei, Sheng; Wang, Youjie; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Yang, Handong; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Tangchun; He, Meian

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the independent and combined effects of sleep duration and afternoon napping on the risk of incident diabetes among a cohort of middle-aged and older Chinese adults. Information of sleep and napping was obtained by questionnaires during face-to-face interviews. We categorized sleep duration into napping was divided into no napping (0 min) (reference), 1-30 min, 31-60 min, 61-90 min, and > 90 min. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used. Compared with referential sleeping group, subjects sleeping ≥10 h had a 42% higher risk of developing diabetes. The HR was 1.28 for napping > 90 min when compared with no napping. These associations were more pronounced in individuals without hypertension. Combined effects of long sleep duration and afternoon napping were further identified. Individuals with both sleep duration ≥ 10 h and napping > 60 min had a 72% higher risk of incident diabetes than those with sleeping 7∼napping 0 min (all above p napping were independently and jointly associated with higher risk of incident diabetes. Key messages Sleep duration was associated with diabetes, but whether it is a real cause of incident diabetes especially in Chinese still remains to be elucidated. The association of afternoon napping and diabetes was not consistent and definite, we clarified this association in a large prospective study. Long sleep duration and afternoon napping were independently and jointly associated with higher risk of incident diabetes.

  8. Exploring the relation between positive emotions and the functional status of older adults living independently: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrita, Miriam; Lamers, Sanne M A; Trompetter, Hester R; Tabak, Monique; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam M R

    2017-11-01

    Literature suggests that positive emotions positively influence physiological parameters but their relation to functioning in the daily life of older adults living independently remains unclear. The present work aims to investigate the relation between positive emotions and functional status in daily life of older people living independently. A systematic literature review was conducted using the PubMed, PsycINFO and Scopus electronic databases. Included works were peer-reviewed empirical studies that analysed the relation between positive emotions and ability to perform activities of daily living with older adults living independently. After removal of duplicates, 10 out of 963 papers met the inclusion criteria. Cross-sectional studies (n = 6) provided limited evidence about a relation between positive emotions and functioning in daily life. However, longitudinal studies (n = 4) provide significant evidence for an interaction between the two factors, suggesting that time influences this interaction. The variety on the design and samples of the studies included in this review does not allow a cohesive conclusion of the results. Nevertheless, limited evidence suggests that higher frequency in the experience of positive emotions might be associated with lower functional limitations. The issue of causality in emotions-functioning remains unclear from the review. Further observational studies are highly recommended, supported by innovative technologies.

  9. Independent and inverse association of healthcare utilisation with physical activity in older adults with multiple chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu-Ambrose, T Y L; Ashe, M C; Marra, C

    2010-11-01

    In this study, whether physical activity is independently associated with direct healthcare costs in community-dwelling older adults with multiple chronic conditions was examined. Cross-sectional analysis. Research laboratory. 299 community-dwelling men and women volunteers aged 65 years and older with chronic conditions. None. Primary dependent variable was direct healthcare costs incurred in the previous 3 months. Participants completed the Health Resource Utilisation (HRU) questionnaire. To estimate HRU, direct costs in the previous 3 months were calculated using the three-party payer perspective of the British Columbia Ministry of Health, deemed representative of the Canadian healthcare system costs. For medications, the Retail Pharmacy Dispensed prescription cost tables were used. Primary independent variables were (1) self-report current level of physical activity as assessed by the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) and (2) general balance and mobility as assessed by the National Institute on Aging Balance Scale. The mean number of chronic conditions per participant was six. Current level of physical activity was independently and inversely associated with HRU. Age, sex, number of chronic conditions, global cognitive function, body mass index, and general balance and mobility together accounted for 24.3% of the total variance. Adding the PASIPD score resulted in an R2 change of 3.3% and significantly improved the model. The total variance accounted by the final model was 27.6%. Physical activity promotion may reduce healthcare costs in older adults with chronic conditions.

  10. Characterization of Na+-linked and Na+-independent Cl-/HCO3- exchange systems in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassel, D.; Scharf, O.; Rotman, M.; Cragoe, E.J. Jr.; Katz, M.

    1988-01-01

    The PS120 variant of Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts which lacks Na + /H + exchange activity was used to investigate bicarbonate transport systems and their role in intracellular pH (pH/sub i/) regulation. When pH/sub i/ was decreased by acid load, bicarbonate caused pH/sub i/ increase and stimulated 36 Cl - efflux from the cells, both in a Na + -dependent manner. These results together with previous findings that bicarbonate stimulates 22 Na + uptake in PS120 cells demonstrate the presence of a Na + -linked Cl - /HCO 3 - exchange system. In cells with normal initial pH/sub i/, bicarbonate caused Na + -independent pH/sub i/ increase in Cl - -free solutions and stimulated Na + -independent 36 Cl - efflux, indicating that a Na + -independent Cl - /HCO 3 - exchanger is also present in the cell. Na + -linked and Na + -independent Cl - /HCO 3- exchange is apparently mediated by two distinct systems, since a [(tetrahydrofluorene-7-yl)oxy]acetic acid derivative selectively inhibits the Na + -independent exchanger. An additional distinctive features is a 10-fold lower affinity for chloride of the Na + -linked exchanger. The Na + -linked and Na + -independent Cl - /HCO 3 - exchange systems are likely to protect the cell from acid and alkaline load, respectively

  11. Functional Independence in Late-Life: Maintaining Physical Functioning in Older Adulthood Predicts Daily Life Function after Age 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Leslie; Leng, Xiaoyan; La Monte, Michael J; Tindle, Hilary A; Cochrane, Barbara B; Shumaker, Sally A

    2016-03-01

    We examined physical functioning (PF) trajectories (maintaining, slowly declining, and rapidly declining) spanning 15 years in older women aged 65-80 and protective factors that predicted better current levels and less decline in functional independence outcomes after age 80. Women's Health Initiative extension participants who met criteria (enrolled in either the clinical trial or observational study cohort, >80 years at the data release cutoff, PF survey data from initial enrollment to age 80, and functional independence survey data after age 80) were included in these analyses (mean [SD] age = 84.0 [1.4] years; N = 10,478). PF was measured with the SF-36 (mean = 4.9 occasions). Functional independence was measured by self-reported level of dependence in basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADLs and IADLs) (mean = 3.4 and 3.3 occasions). Maintaining consistent PF in older adulthood extends functional independence in ADL and IADL in late-life. Protective factors shared by ADL and IADL include maintaining PF over time, self-reported excellent or very good health, no history of hip fracture after age 55, and no history of cardiovascular disease. Better IADL function is uniquely predicted by a body mass index less than 25 and no depression. Less ADL and IADL decline is predicted by better self-reported health, and less IADL decline is uniquely predicted by having no history of hip fracture after age 55. Maintaining or improving PF and preventing injury and disease in older adulthood (ages 65-80) has far-reaching implications for improving late-life (after age 80) functional independence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Association between Serum Uric Acid Level and Carotid Atherosclerosis in Chinese Individuals Aged 75 Years or Older: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, L; Hua, C; Sun, H; Qin, L-Y; Niu, P-P; Guo, Z-N; Yang, Y

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the association between serum uric acid level and the presence and progression of carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese individuals aged 75 years or older. Case-control study. In a teaching hospital. Five hundred and sixty-four elderlies (75 years or above) who underwent general health screening in our hospital were enrolled. The detailed carotid ultrasound results, physical examination information, medical history, and laboratory test results including serum uric acid level were recorded, these data were used to analyze the relationship between serum uric acid level and carotid atherosclerosis. Then, subjects who underwent the second carotid ultrasound 1.5-2 years later were further identified to analyzed the relationship between serum uric acid and the progression of carotid atherosclerosis. A total of 564 subjects were included, carotid plaque was found in 482 (85.5%) individuals. Logistic regression showed that subjects with elevated serum uric acid (expressed per 1 standard deviation change) had significantly higher incidence of carotid plaque (odds ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.75; P= 0.012) after controlling for other factors. A total of 236 subjects underwent the follow-up carotid ultrasound. Linear regression showed that serum uric acid level (expressed per 1 standard deviation change; 1 standard deviation = 95.5 μmol/L) was significantly associated with percentage of change of plaque score (P = 0.008). Multivariable linear regression showed that 1 standard deviation increase in serum uric acid levels was expected to increase 0.448% of plaque score (P = 0.023). The elevated serum uric acid level may be independently and significantly associated with the presence and progression of carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese individuals aged 75 years or older.

  13. Group cognitive behavioral therapy targeting intolerance of uncertainty: a randomized trial for older Chinese adults with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chen; Zhihui, Yang

    2017-12-01

    China has entered the aging society, but the social support systems for the elderly are underdeveloped, which may make the elderly feel anxiety about their health and life quality. Given the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in the elderly, it is very important to pay more attention to the treatment for old adults. Although cognitive behavioral therapy targeting intolerance of uncertainty (CBT-IU) has been applied to different groups of patients with GAD, few studies have been performed to date. In addition, the effects of CBT-IU are not well understood, especially when applied to older adults with GAD. Sixty-three Chinese older adults with a principal diagnosis of GAD were enrolled. Of these, 32 were randomized to receive group CBT-IU (intervention group) and 31 were untreated (control group). GAD and related symptoms were assessed using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-Chinese Version, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Why Worry-II scale, Cognitive Avoidance Questionnaire, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-IV, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale across the intervention. The changes between pre and after the intervention were collected, as well as the six-month follow-up. F test and repeated-measures ANOVA were conducted to analyze the data. Compared to control group, the measures' scores of experimental group decreased significantly after the intervention and six-month follow-up. Besides the main effects for time and group were significant, the interaction effect for group × time was also significant. These results indicated the improvement of the CBT-IU group and the persistence of effect after six months. Group CBT-IU is effective in Chinese older adults with GAD. The effects of CBT-IU on GAD symptoms persist for at least six months after treatment.

  14. Trends in disability of instrumental activities of daily living among older Chinese adults, 1997-2006: population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yajun; Welmer, Anna-Karin; Möller, Jette; Qiu, Chengxuan

    2017-08-28

    Data on trends for disability in instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) are sparse in older Chinese adults. To assess trends in prevalence and incidence of IADL disability among older Chinese adults and to explore contributing factors. Population based study. 15 provinces and municipalities in China. Participants (age ≥60) were from four waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, conducted in 1997 (n=1533), 2000 (n=1581), 2004 (n=2028) and 2006 (n=2256), and from two cohorts constructed within the national survey: cohort 1997-2004 (n=712) and cohort 2000-2006 (n=823). IADL disability was defined as inability to perform one or more of the following: shopping, cooking, using transportation, financing and telephoning. Data were analysed with logistic regression and generalised estimating equation models. The prevalence of IADL disability significantly decreased from 1997 to 2006 in the total sample and in all of the subgroups by age, sex, living region and IADL items (all p trend 0.10). The recovery rate from IADL disability significantly increased over time in those aged 60-69 years (p=0.03). Living in a rural area or access to local clinics for healthcare was less disabling over time (p trend <0.02). The prevalence of IADL disability decreased among older Chinese adults during 1997-2006, whereas the incidence remained stable. The declining prevalence of IADL disability might be partly due to the decreased duration of IADL disability, and to improvements in living conditions and healthcare facilities over time. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Subjective Well-Being in Older Chinese and Korean Immigrants in the United States: Effects of Self-Rated Health and Employment Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum Jung; Jun, Hyeyoun; Lee, Jisun; Linton, Kristen; Kim, Meehye; Browne, Colette

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of association between self-rated health and employment status on subjective well-being among older Chinese and Korean immigrants in the United States. Data were collected from 171 Chinese and 205 Korean older adult immigrants living in Los Angeles County. The primary variables included demographic data, subjective index of well-being, self-rated health, and employment status. Data support the association between self-rated health and subjective well-being for both groups. Employment, education, and age were associated with the level of subjective well-being only for older Korean immigrants. Similarities and differences were noted in these two Asian American subgroups. Findings suggest the need to develop health promotion services for both populations and employment opportunities targeted more so for Korean older immigrants to further support their subjective well-being. Results may have implications for other for older immigrants.

  16. Lower risk of incident dementia among Chinese older adults having three servings of vegetables and two servings of fruits a day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Allen T C; Richards, Marcus; Chan, Wai C; Chiu, Helen F K; Lee, Ruby S Y; Lam, Linda C W

    2017-09-01

    dietary modification can potentially reduce dementia risk, but the importance of fruits and the amount of vegetables and fruits required for cognitive maintenance are uncertain. We examined whether the minimal daily requirement of vegetables and fruits recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) would independently lower dementia risk. in this population-based observational study, we examined the diet of 17,700 community-living dementia-free Chinese older adults who attended the Elderly Health Centres in Hong Kong at baseline and followed their cognitive status for 6 years. In line with the WHO recommendation, we defined the cutoff for minimal intake of vegetables and fruits as at least three and two servings per day, respectively. The study outcome was incident dementia in 6 years. Dementia was defined by presence of clinical dementia in accordance with the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) or Clinical Dementia Rating of 1-3. multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the estimated odds ratios for incident dementia were 0.88 (95% confidence interval 0.73-1.06; P = 0.17) for those consuming at least three servings of vegetables per day, 0.86 (0.74-0.99; P dementia in older adults. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Mental health service user participation in Chinese culture: a model of independence or interdependence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jessica Pui-Shan; Tse, Samson Shu-Ki; Davidson, Larry; Cheng, Patrick

    2017-12-22

    Current models of user participation in mental health services were developed within Western culture and thus may not be applicable to Chinese communities. To present a new model of user participation, which emerged from research within a Chinese community, for understanding the processes of and factors influencing user participation in a non-Western culture. Multiple qualitative methods, including focus groups, individual in-depth interviews, and photovoice, were applied within the framework of constructivist grounded theory and collaborative research. Diverging from conceptualizations of user participation with emphasis on civil rights and the individual as a central agent, participants in the study highlighted the interpersonal dynamics between service users and different players affecting the participation intensity and outcomes. They valued a reciprocal relationship with their caregivers in making treatment decisions, cooperated with staff to observe power hierarchies and social harmony, identified the importance of peer support in enabling service engagement and delivery, and emphasized professional facilitation in advancing involvement at the policy level. User participation in Chinese culture embeds dynamic interdependence. The proposed model adds this new dimension to the existing frameworks and calls for attention to the complex local ecology and cultural consistency in realizing user participation.

  18. Factors associated with increasing functional decline in multimorbid independently living older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, W.; Bleijenberg, N.; Drubbel, I.; Numans, M.E.; De Wit, N.J.; Schuurmans, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives With increasing age the levels of activities of daily living (ADL) deteriorate. In this study we aimed to investigate which demographic characteristics and disorders are associated with ADL disabilities in multi-morbid older people. Study design We performed a cross-sectional study with

  19. Low Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Levels Associate with Prediabetes in Chinese Men Independent of Total Testosterone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhu

    Full Text Available The association ns between prediabetes and androgens have been rarely reported, especially in Chinese men. We aimed to investigate whether androgens were associated with the prevalence of prediabetes diagnosed with new American Diabetes Association criteria in Chinese men and then to assess which androgen value was the most relevant factor.A total of 2654 men (52.6±13.4 years old were selected. Serum total testosterone (TT, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG and free testosterone (FT were measured. Covariance analysis of different androgen values were performed in age subgroups. Multinomial logistic regression was used for the association of TT, SHBG and FT with prediabetes and diabetes, as well as prediabetes in age subgroups.According to ADA new criteria, normoglycemia, prediabetes, and diabetes were diagnosed in 1405, 907 and 342 men, respectively. In covariance analysis, SHBG of prediabetes were found lower than that of normoglycemia but higher than that of diabetes (P <0.05. In multinomial logistic regression, serum TT and SHBG were inversely associated with prediabetes and diabetes. While, after full adjustment for age, residence area, economic status, waist circumference, metabolic factors, other two androgen values and HOMA-IR, only the associations of SHBG with prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes persisted statistically significant, especially in the elderly with prediabetes (all P for trend <0.05.Serum androgen was inversely associated with prediabetes and diabetes in Chinese men. Low serum SHBG was the most relevant factor for prediabetes and diabetes. Whether it is an independent predictor for incident prediabetes in Chinese men needs further explorations.

  20. Effects of Promotional Materials on Attitudes and Fear towards Colorectal Cancer Screening among Chinese Older Adults: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Doris Y P; Chen, Joanne M T; Lou, Vivian W Q; Wong, Eliza M L; Chan, Aileen W K; So, Winnie K W; Chan, Carmen W H

    2017-07-13

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is a cost-effective prevention and control strategy. However, the promotion of CRC screening for older adults may be difficult because reading CRC prevention information may evoke embarrassment, fear, and anxiety towards the screening procedure and cancer diagnosis. This study aims to (1) examine the effects of three promotional materials for CRC screening on the attitudes toward CRC screening tests (screening interest, screening effectiveness, and trust in the screening results) and cancer fear, and (2) to explore the interaction effect of cancer fear with screening effectiveness and trust in the screening results on screening interest of the three screening tests (fecal occult blood test (FOBT), flexible sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy) among Chinese older adults. A total of 114 community-dwelling older adults were asked to look at the corresponding promotional materials (pamphlet, cartoon, and video) of one of the three study groups. The pamphlet and video represent convention strategies and the cartoon represents an innovative strategy. No significant difference was observed in the screening interest and cancer fear across groups. FOBT was the most preferred screening modality. The video group has a large proportion agreed screening effectiveness of flexible sigmoidoscopy than pamphlet and cartoon groups and trusted in the screening results for FOBT and flexible sigmoidoscopy than the pamphlet group. Logistic regression results showed that the effect of trust in the screening results on screening interest for colonoscopy was greater among participants with higher cancer fear than those with lower cancer fear level. In conclusion, the three promotional groups had produced similar results in their attitudes toward CRC screening and cancer fear. The use of cartoons may be a comparable approach with conventional methods in the promotion of CRC screening. Additional components that can arouse fear and boost response efficacy

  1. Perceived health status is associated with hours of exercise per week in older adults independent of physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Joanna Edel; Lawlor, Brian A

    2013-11-01

    Perceived health status does not always reflect actual health status. We investigated the association between objective and self-rated measures of health status and hours of exercise per week in older adults. As part of the TRIL clinic assessment, we gathered information from 473 community dwelling adults over the age of 65, regarding hours spent per week exercising, depression, personality, perceived health status, and objective health status (in the form of a comorbidity count). Regression analyses were performed on these data to investigate whether perceived health status, objective health status, personality and mood are associated with hours of exercise per week. Perceived and objective health status were significantly but weakly correlated. Both perceived and objective health status, as well as depression, were independently associated with hours of exercise per week. We conclude that exercise uptake in older adults is contingent on both perceived and objective health status, as well as depression. Perceived health status has a stronger association with exercise uptake in older adults with lower depression levels. The current findings have implications for designing exercise interventions for older adults.

  2. Social Capital and Health Among Older Chinese Immigrants: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of a Sample in a Canadian Prairie City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hai; Menec, Verena

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between social capital and health among Chinese immigrants. The sample included 101 older Chinese immigrants aged 60 to 96 who were recruited in 2013 in a city on the Canadian prairies. Participant completed a questionnaire assessing their structural and cognitive social capital (views on community, trust and reciprocity, civic participation, social networks and support, and social participation), physical and mental health status (SF-36), and sociodemographic characteristics. Findings indicate that Chinese seniors overall obtained low levels of social capital on all social capital dimensions. Social networks and support (a structural social capital indicator) was significantly positively associated with mental health (β = .31, p social capital is potentially more promising than ensuring cognitive social capital in terms of providing physical and mental health benefits to older adults from Chinese background.

  3. How is palliative care delivered for older Chinese people in Australia?

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Chiung-Yin

    2017-01-01

    Palliative care has developed as a specialised health care field in Australia since the 1980s and has been part of a worldwide movement to address the needs of people who are dying and their families. While in recent years a number of research projects have contributed to the body of knowledge about palliative care provision in Australia, there is little application of these studies to the particular needs of Chinese immigrants. Despite Chinese people having become one of the largest ethni...

  4. Reliability and Validity of the Floor Transfer Test as a Measure of Readiness for Independent Living Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardali, Gunay; Brody, Lori T; States, Rebecca A; Godwin, Ellen M

    2017-10-20

    The ability to get up from the floor after a fall is a basic skill required for functional independence. Consequently, the inability to safely get down and up from the floor or to perform a floor transfer (FT) may indicate decreased mobility and/or increased frailty. A reliable and valid test of FT ability is a critical part of the clinical decision-making process. The FT test is a simple, performance-based test that can be administered quickly and easily to determine a patient's ability to safely and successfully get down and up from the floor using any movement strategy and without time restriction. The primary purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the intrarater reliability and validity of the FT test as a practical alternative to several widely used yet time-consuming measures of physical disability, frailty, and functional mobility. A total of 61 community-dwelling older adults (65-96 years of age) participated in the study divided into 2 separate subsamples: 15 of them in the intrarater reliability part, while the other 46 in the concurrent validity one. In both subsamples, the participants were stratified on the basis of the self-reported levels of FT ability as independent, assisted, and dependent. Intrarater reliability was assessed in 2 separate occasions and scores were analyzed by intraclass correlation coefficient and κ statistics. Concurrent validity of the FT test was assessed against the self-reported FT ability questionnaire, Physical Functioning Scale, Phenotype of Physical Frailty, and the Short Physical Performance Battery. Known-groups validity was tested by determining whether the FT test distinguished between (1) community-dwelling older adults with physical disabilities versus those who without physical disabilities; and (2) community-dwelling older adults who were functionally dependent versus those who were independent. Participants were also categorized on the basis of FT test outcome as independent, assisted, or

  5. Does a Wii-based exercise program enhance balance control of independently functioning older adults? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Yocheved; Dar, Gali; Kodesh, Einat

    2014-01-01

    Exercise programs that challenge an individual's balance have been shown to reduce the risk of falls among older adults. Virtual reality computer-based technology that provides the user with opportunities to interact with virtual objects is used extensively for entertainment. There is a growing interest in the potential of virtual reality-based interventions for balance training in older adults. This work comprises a systematic review of the literature to determine the effects of intervention programs utilizing the Nintendo Wii console on balance control and functional performance in independently functioning older adults. STUDIES WERE OBTAINED BY SEARCHING THE FOLLOWING DATABASES: PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, EMBASE, SPORTdiscus, and Google Scholar, followed by a hand search of bibliographic references of the included studies. Included were randomized controlled trials written in English in which Nintendo Wii Fit was used to enhance standing balance performance in older adults and compared with an alternative exercise treatment, placebo, or no treatment. Seven relevant studies were retrieved. The four studies examining the effect of Wii-based exercise compared with no exercise reported positive effects on at least one outcome measure related to balance performance in older adults. Studies comparing Wii-based training with alternative exercise programs generally indicated that the balance improvements achieved by Wii-based training are comparable with those achieved by other exercise programs. The review indicates that Wii-based exercise programs may serve as an alternative to more conventional forms of exercise aimed at improving balance control. However, due to the great variability between studies in terms of the intervention protocols and outcome measures, as well as methodological limitations, definitive recommendations as to optimal treatment protocols and the potential of such an intervention as a safe and effective home-based treatment cannot be made at this

  6. Does a Wii-based exercise program enhance balance control of independently functioning older adults? A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Yocheved; Dar, Gali; Kodesh, Einat

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise programs that challenge an individual’s balance have been shown to reduce the risk of falls among older adults. Virtual reality computer-based technology that provides the user with opportunities to interact with virtual objects is used extensively for entertainment. There is a growing interest in the potential of virtual reality-based interventions for balance training in older adults. This work comprises a systematic review of the literature to determine the effects of intervention programs utilizing the Nintendo Wii console on balance control and functional performance in independently functioning older adults. Methods Studies were obtained by searching the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, EMBASE, SPORTdiscus, and Google Scholar, followed by a hand search of bibliographic references of the included studies. Included were randomized controlled trials written in English in which Nintendo Wii Fit was used to enhance standing balance performance in older adults and compared with an alternative exercise treatment, placebo, or no treatment. Results Seven relevant studies were retrieved. The four studies examining the effect of Wii-based exercise compared with no exercise reported positive effects on at least one outcome measure related to balance performance in older adults. Studies comparing Wii-based training with alternative exercise programs generally indicated that the balance improvements achieved by Wii-based training are comparable with those achieved by other exercise programs. Conclusion The review indicates that Wii-based exercise programs may serve as an alternative to more conventional forms of exercise aimed at improving balance control. However, due to the great variability between studies in terms of the intervention protocols and outcome measures, as well as methodological limitations, definitive recommendations as to optimal treatment protocols and the potential of such an intervention as a safe and effective home

  7. Grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults: the role of the grandparent-parent relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Vivian W Q; Lu, Nan; Xu, Ling; Chi, Iris

    2013-07-01

    This study tested the relationship between grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults and the mediating role of the grandparent-parent relationship in terms of grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health. Data were derived from a random sample of 1,027 adults aged 60 and older who were interviewed in the rural Chaohu region in 2009. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the direct effect of grandparent-grandchild family capital in terms of relations with the first child's family on self-rated health among respondents, as well as the mediating effect of the grandparent-parent relationship. The results showed the direct effect of grandparent-grandchild family capital on self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults. The grandparent-parent relationship had a partial mediation effect on the relationship between grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health of respondents. Grandparent-grandchild family capital had a unique direct effect on the self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults, enriching our theoretical understanding of sources of family capital and their impacts in a collectivist cultural context that emphasizes intergenerational interaction and exchange. The findings also highlighted the mediation effects of grandparent-parent relationships on the relationship between grandparent-grandchild family capital and self-rated health of older rural Chinese adults, supporting the "grandchild-as-linkage" hypothesis in understanding the social determination of self-rated health in China.

  8. Sleep duration and its association with demographics, lifestyle factors, poor mental health and chronic diseases in older Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shibin; Wu, Yanhua; Ungvari, Gabor S; Ng, Chee H; Forester, Brent P; Gatchel, Jennifer R; Chiu, Helen F K; Kou, Changgui; Fu, Yingli; Qi, Yue; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the total sleep time (TST) and its associated factors in an older Chinese adult population. Multistage stratified cluster sampling was used in this cross-sectional study. A total of 4,115 older adults aged 60 to 79 years were selected and interviewed. Sleep duration was classified as short (8h per day) and medium sleep (7-8h per day). The total mean sleep time was 6.86±1.75h. Short and long sleepers accounted for 45.2% and 14.8% of the sample, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that inadequate fruit intake and poor mental health were positively associated with short sleep, and married/cohabitation status and living in rural areas was negatively associated with short sleep. In addition, aged 75-79 years old, inadequate fruit intake, poor mental health and multi-morbidity were positively associated with long sleep. Ischemic heart disease, COPD and chronic gastroenteritis/peptic ulcer were positively associated with short sleep duration, while hyperlipidemia, hypertension, cerebrovascular diseases, and urolithiasis were positively associated with long sleep duration. Given the high frequency of aberrant sleep duration and its negative health impact, health professionals should pay more attention to sleep patterns in older people. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Urban and rural factors associated with life satisfaction among older Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengbo; Chi, Iris; Zhang, Xu; Cheng, Zhaowen; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Gong

    2015-01-01

    This study compared urban and rural factors associated with life satisfaction among older adults in mainland China. Study data were extracted at random from 10% of the Sample Survey on Aged Population in urban/rural China in 2006 for 1980 participants aged 60 and older, including 997 from urban cities and 983 from rural villages. In this study, 54.6% of urban older adults and 44.1% of rural older adults reported satisfaction with their lives. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that financial strain, depressive symptoms, filial piety, and accessibility of health services were significantly associated with life satisfaction for both urban and rural participants, but age and financial exchange with children were only associated with life satisfaction among urban older adults. Findings are consistent with some previous studies that indicated the importance of financial strain, depressive symptoms, filial piety, and accessibility of health services to life satisfaction among the older adults in both urban and rural areas. This study also demonstrated the importance of age and family financial exchange to the life satisfaction of urban older adults.

  10. Oral Health Status of Independent Older Adults in Texas: An observational study comparing urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julie L; Boyd, Linda D; Tapias-Perdigón, Helena; LaSpina, Lisa M

    2017-10-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the oral health needs of community-dwelling older adults participating in congregate meal centers and to determine whether differences exist in the oral health needs of older adult populations residing in urban versus rural communities in the state of Texas. Methods: Study participants were recruited at 6 congregate meal centers located in identified rural and urban communities in the greater metropolitan area of Austin, Texas. (N=78) Participants completed a validated, modified questionnaire containing 20 items on the following topics: self-reported oral health, tooth loss, dental insurance, frequency of dental visits, time since last dental visit, access to dental care, dry mouth, and oral cancer screening. Each participant received an oral health screening based on the Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors Basic Screening Survey for Older Adults. The examiners received hands-on training prior to the study to ensure the validity of their findings and to test for inter-examiner reliability.The chi-square test of independence was performed to analyze the participants' responses on the Basic Screening Survey to identify any relationships between the variables. Results: There were no significant differences in oral health conditions of older adults residing in urban versus rural communities. Over 50% of the participants (64.9% urban; 56.1% rural) reported incomes below $15,000 and lacked dental insurance to cover all or a portion of their oral health care needs. Eighty-seven percent of the participants reported tooth loss due to dental caries, 35% required periodontal care, and 37% reported occasional and 43% reported frequent oral pain over the last 12 months. Conclusions: Oral health promotion and disease prevention is an emergent need for older adult populations residing in urban and rural communities of the state of Texas. Analysis revealed that the majority of the older adult populations in both

  11. Cognitive impairment is independently associated with definitive and possible sarcopenia in hospitalized older adults: The prevalence and impact of comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Keisuke; Akagi, Junji

    2017-07-01

    Older adults often present with several comorbidities, including sarcopenia. However, the prevalence of sarcopenia and its associations with other comorbidities in hospitalized older adults are unknown. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia, and its associations with other comorbidities in hospitalized older adults. The present cross-sectional study included 619 patients admitted to a geriatric hospital. The prevalence of comorbidities in the presence and absence of sarcopenia, nutritional status (according to body mass index and the Mini-Nutritional Assessment-Short Form), and activities of daily living (according to the Barthel Index) were assessed. Sarcopenia was defined as skeletal muscle loss evaluated by both bioelectrical impedance and handgrip strength analyses. Of the 619 participants (mean age 83.0 ± 8.2 years), 417 (67.4%) and 87 (14.1%) had definitive and possible sarcopenia, respectively. The prevalence rates of cognitive impairment and stroke were significantly higher in patients with definitive sarcopenia and those with possible sarcopenia than in those without sarcopenia (cognitive impairment 54.4%, 70.1% and 20.9%, respectively, P sarcopenia after adjusting for age, sex, the Mini-Nutritional Assessment-Short Form score, Barthel Index and primary disease (adjusted odds ratio 1.98, 95% confidence interval 1.06-3.71; P = 0.032). Sarcopenia might be highly prevalent among hospitalized older adults. Furthermore, cognitive impairment might be an independent explanatory variable of sarcopenia. Therefore, further studies on sarcopenia in patients with cognitive impairment are warranted. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1048-1056. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. Muscle strength rather than muscle mass is associated with osteoporosis in older Chinese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixuan Ma

    2018-02-01

    Conclusion: Based on our study, muscle strength rather than muscle mass is negatively associated with OS in older people; thus, we should pay more attention to muscle strength training in the early stage of the OS.

  13. Neck circumference as an independent indicator of visceral obesity in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Huang, Guolan; Xia, Fangzhen; Li, Qin; Han, Bing; Chen, Yi; Chen, Chi; Lin, Dongping; Wang, Ningjian; Lu, Yingli

    2018-04-17

    Neck circumference (NC) was reported to be associated with visceral obesity in some specific subjects. However, no studies have reported whether NC could identify visceral obesity in the general population. Here, we mainly aimed to explore whether NC is suitable to identify visceral obesity in the general population. Our data were from a cross-sectional survey on the prevalence of metabolic diseases and risk factors in East China from 2014 to 2015. A total of 9366 participants aged 18-93 were identified for analysis. Anthropometric indices, biochemical parameters and clinical characteristics were measured. The NC values were quartered according to sex. Spearman's correlation coefficient was employed to test the correlations between different variables. Linear regression and logistic regression were conducted to explore the relationship of NC with visceral adiposity indices and visceral obesity. Among the 9366 participants, 3938 (42.05%) were male and 5428 (57.95%) were female. NC had a positive correlation with the visceral adiposity indices, regardless of sex. In all quartiles of NC, in both men and women, as NC values increased, the values of all the fatness indices showed a tendency to increase (all P < 0.001). After full adjustment for demographic variables and metabolic factors, linear regression showed that NC was still associated with the fatness indices for visceral obesity (all P < 0.001). In addition, logistic analysis showed that a larger NC was associated with a higher risk of visceral obesity in both males (OR 32.34, 95% CI 24.02-43.53; P < 0.001) and females (OR 21.43, 95% CI 17.30-26.55; P < 0.001) after adjusting for potential confounding factors. NC can be a supplemental indicator for identifying visceral obesity in the general Chinese population.

  14. Endometriosis is the independent prognostic factor for survival in Chinese patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tong; Wang, Shu; Sun, Jian; Qu, Ji-Min; Xiang, Yang; Shen, Keng; Lang, Jing He

    2017-10-03

    Clinico-pathological characteristics and possible prognostic factors among women with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) with or without concurrent endometriosis were explored. We retrospectively identified 304 patients with EOC treated primarily at Peking Union Medical College Hospital with median follow-up time of 60 months. Of 304 patients with EOC, concurrent endometriosis was identified in 69 (22.7%). The patients with concurrent endometriosis were younger and more probably post-menopausal at onset, were less likely to have abdominal distension, with significantly lower level of pre-surgery serum Ca125 and less possibility of having the history of tubal ligation. The women with concurrent endometriosis group were more likely to have early stage tumors (88.41% versus 52.77%), receive optimal cytoreductive surgery (92.75% versus 71.06%), and less likely to have lymph node metastasis or to develop platinum resistance disease (7.25% versus 14.89%, and 7.35% versus 20%), when compared with women without coexisting endometriosis. The univariate analysis showed that concurrent endometriosis was a prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS), but this association just remained in the DFS by multivariate analysis. Besides, multivariate analysis also showed that FIGO stage, residual disease, chemotherapy cycles, chemotherapy resistance and concomitant hypertension were the independent impact factors of OS for EOC patients; whereas FIGO stage, lymphadenectomy, residual disease, coexisting endometriosis and chemoresistance were independent impact factors of DFS for those patients. EOC patients with concurrent endometriosis showed distinct characteristics and had longer overall survival and disease-free survival when compared with those without endometriosis. Endometriosis was the independent prognostic factor for DFS for patients in this series.

  15. Does a Wii-based exercise program enhance balance control of independently functioning older adults? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laufer Y

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yocheved Laufer, Gali Dar, Einat Kodesh Physical Therapy Department, Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel Background: Exercise programs that challenge an individual’s balance have been shown to reduce the risk of falls among older adults. Virtual reality computer-based technology that provides the user with opportunities to interact with virtual objects is used extensively for entertainment. There is a growing interest in the potential of virtual reality-based interventions for balance training in older adults. This work comprises a systematic review of the literature to determine the effects of intervention programs utilizing the Nintendo Wii console on balance control and functional performance in independently functioning older adults.Methods: Studies were obtained by searching the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, EMBASE, SPORTdiscus, and Google Scholar, followed by a hand search of bibliographic references of the included studies. Included were randomized controlled trials written in English in which Nintendo Wii Fit was used to enhance standing balance performance in older adults and compared with an alternative exercise treatment, placebo, or no treatment.Results: Seven relevant studies were retrieved. The four studies examining the effect of Wii-based exercise compared with no exercise reported positive effects on at least one outcome measure related to balance performance in older adults. Studies comparing Wii-based training with alternative exercise programs generally indicated that the balance improvements achieved by Wii-based training are comparable with those achieved by other exercise programs.Conclusion: The review indicates that Wii-based exercise programs may serve as an alternative to more conventional forms of exercise aimed at improving balance control. However, due to the great variability between studies in terms of the intervention protocols and outcome measures, as

  16. The association of depressive symptoms with inflammatory factors and adipokines in middle-aged and older Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Pan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies in Western populations find that depression is associated with inflammation and obesity. The present study aimed to evaluate the relation of depressive symptoms with inflammatory factors and adipose-derived adipokines in middle-aged and older Chinese.Data were from 3289 community residents aged 50-70 from Beijing and Shanghai who participated in the Nutrition and Health of Aging Population in China project. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D score of 16 or higher. Plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, adiponectin, resistin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4 were measured. Of the 3289 participants, 312 (9.5% suffered from current depressive symptoms. IL-6 level was higher in participants with depressive symptoms compared to their counterparts in the crude analyses (1.17 vs. 1.05 pg/mL, p = 0.023 and this association lost statistical significance after multiple adjustments (1.13 vs. 1.10 pg/mL, p = 0.520. Depressive symptoms were not associated with increased mean levels of any other inflammatory factors or adipokines in the unadjusted or adjusted analyses.We found no evidence that depressive symptoms were associated with inflammatory factors and adipokines in the middle-aged and older Chinese populations. Prospective studies and studies in clinically diagnosed patients are needed to confirm our results and clarify the relation of depression with inflammatory factors and adipokines.

  17. Independence, institutionalization, death and treatment costs 18 months after rehabilitation of older people in two different primary health care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Inger; Lindbak, Morten; Stanghelle, Johan K; Brekke, Mette

    2012-11-14

    The optimal setting and content of primary health care rehabilitation of older people is not known. Our aim was to study independence, institutionalization, death and treatment costs 18 months after primary care rehabilitation of older people in two different settings. Eighteen months follow-up of an open, prospective study comparing the outcome of multi-disciplinary rehabilitation of older people, in a structured and intensive Primary care dedicated inpatient rehabilitation (PCDIR, n=202) versus a less structured and less intensive Primary care nursing home rehabilitation (PCNHR, n=100). 302 patients, disabled from stroke, hip-fracture, osteoarthritis and other chronic diseases, aged ≥65years, assessed to have a rehabilitation potential and being referred from general hospital or own residence. Primary: Independence, assessed by Sunnaas ADL Index(SI). Secondary: Hospital and short-term nursing home length of stay (LOS); institutionalization, measured by institutional residence rate; death; and costs of rehabilitation and care. Statistical tests: T-tests, Correlation tests, Pearson's χ2, ANCOVA, Regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses. Overall SI scores were 26.1 (SD 7.2) compared to 27.0 (SD 5.7) at the end of rehabilitation, a statistically, but not clinically significant reduction (p=0.003 95%CI(0.3-1.5)). The PCDIR patients scored 2.2points higher in SI than the PCNHR patients, adjusted for age, gender, baseline MMSE and SI scores (p=0.003, 95%CI(0.8-3.7)). Out of 49 patients staying >28 days in short-term nursing homes, PCNHR-patients stayed significantly longer than PCDIR-patients (mean difference 104.9 days, 95%CI(0.28-209.6), p=0.05). The institutionalization increased in PCNHR (from 12%-28%, p=0.001), but not in PCDIR (from 16.9%-19.3%, p= 0.45). The overall one year mortality rate was 9.6%. Average costs were substantially higher for PCNHR versus PCDIR. The difference per patient was 3528€ for rehabilitation (prehabilitation and care were 18702€ (=1

  18. Independence, institutionalization, death and treatment costs 18 months after rehabilitation of older people in two different primary health care settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansen Inger

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal setting and content of primary health care rehabilitation of older people is not known. Our aim was to study independence, institutionalization, death and treatment costs 18 months after primary care rehabilitation of older people in two different settings. Methods Eighteen months follow-up of an open, prospective study comparing the outcome of multi-disciplinary rehabilitation of older people, in a structured and intensive Primary care dedicated inpatient rehabilitation (PCDIR, n=202 versus a less structured and less intensive Primary care nursing home rehabilitation (PCNHR, n=100. Participants: 302 patients, disabled from stroke, hip-fracture, osteoarthritis and other chronic diseases, aged ≥65years, assessed to have a rehabilitation potential and being referred from general hospital or own residence. Outcome measures: Primary: Independence, assessed by Sunnaas ADL Index(SI. Secondary: Hospital and short-term nursing home length of stay (LOS; institutionalization, measured by institutional residence rate; death; and costs of rehabilitation and care. Statistical tests: T-tests, Correlation tests, Pearson’s χ2, ANCOVA, Regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses. Results Overall SI scores were 26.1 (SD 7.2 compared to 27.0 (SD 5.7 at the end of rehabilitation, a statistically, but not clinically significant reduction (p=0.003 95%CI(0.3-1.5. The PCDIR patients scored 2.2points higher in SI than the PCNHR patients, adjusted for age, gender, baseline MMSE and SI scores (p=0.003, 95%CI(0.8-3.7. Out of 49 patients staying >28 days in short-term nursing homes, PCNHR-patients stayed significantly longer than PCDIR-patients (mean difference 104.9 days, 95%CI(0.28-209.6, p=0.05. The institutionalization increased in PCNHR (from 12%-28%, p=0.001, but not in PCDIR (from 16.9%-19.3%, p= 0.45. The overall one year mortality rate was 9.6%. Average costs were substantially higher for PCNHR versus PCDIR. The difference per patient

  19. Social Support, Social Strain, and Cognitive Function Among Community-Dwelling U.S. Chinese Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shaoqing; Wu, Bei; Bailey, Donald E; Dong, XinQi

    2017-07-01

    Limited research is available on the relationship between social support, social strain, and cognitive function among community-dwelling U.S. Chinese older adults. This study aims to examine the associations between social support/strain and cognitive outcomes. Data were drawn from the Population-Based Study of Chinese Elderly (N = 3,159). Cognitive function was measured by a battery of tests including the East Boston Memory Test, the Digit Span Backwards assessment, and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test. Social support and strain were measured by the scales drawn from the Health and Retirement study. Multiple regression analyses were conducted. Social support was significantly associated with global cognitive function (β = .11, SE = .02, p function (β = 1.44, SE = .37, p cognitive function (β = .23, SE = .05, p function (β = 2.75, SE = .85, p cognitive function (β = .04, SE = .02, p function (β = .71, SE = .29, p cognitive function (β = .10, SE = .03, p function (β = 1.28, SE = .49, p function (β = 3.59, SE = 1.17, p cognitive outcomes. Future longitudinal studies should be conducted. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Under-reporting of food intake and body fatness in independent older people: a doubly labelled water study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfrimer, Karina; Vilela, Mariana; Resende, Cristina Maria; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza; Marchini, Julio Sergio; Lima, Nereida K C; Moriguti, Julio Cesar; Ferriolli, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    there are no accurate methods for the assessment of food intake in older populations, under-reporting of intake being highly prevalent. There is controversy about which dietary assessment method and what person's characteristics are associated with greater under-reporting rates. to assess the correlation between under-reporting of energy intake (EI) and different percentages of body fat in independent older people. cross-sectional study. area assisted by the Family Health Program of the Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Brazil. one hundred volunteers aged 60-70 years. all volunteers had their body composition assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. In second phase, 41 volunteers were evaluated, representing the four quartiles of fat percentage. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured by the doubly labelled water method, and EI was assessed by 24-h recalls and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). TEE and EI values, EI-to-TEE ratios and EI-TEE values were compared. TEE was 2,220 ± 601 kcal, while the EI was 1,919 ± 602 kcal (24-h recall) and 2,119 ± 670 kcal (FFQ). The proportion of under-reporters was 31 and 40.5%, respectively. Under-reporting was more frequent in subjects with higher percentage of body fat and in females (P food intake. Older persons follow the same profile of under-reporting as younger adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Increasing mental health awareness and appropriate service use in older Chinese Americans: a pilot intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ellen J; Friedman, Lois C

    2009-07-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a community intervention in increasing awareness of mental health issues and available resources among elderly Chinese Americans. Twenty-seven members of a community church received a 1-h didactic presentation, in English and Mandarin, and completed surveys regarding their help-seeking preferences before and after the intervention. Results were analyzed using a series of Wilcoxon matched-pair signed rank tests and comparing pre- and post-test scores. Findings indicated an increase (pmental health professional for psychiatric symptoms at post-test. A significant increase also was found in preference for consulting a physician for physical symptoms. The pilot educational intervention increased awareness of mental health and treatment issues and the role of mental health professionals, lending support to evaluate the intervention on a larger scale. Greater awareness of mental health among Chinese Americans can be promoted via education forums provided through faith-based organizations. Stigma of mental illness leads many Chinese individuals to seek help for psychiatric problems from primary care physicians. Integrating mental health practitioners in primary care settings may help decrease stigma and encourage appropriate help-seeking behavior.

  2. Is self-rated health an independent index for mortality among older people in Indonesia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawi Ng

    Full Text Available Empirical studies on the association between self-rated health (SRH and subsequent mortality are generally lacking in low- and middle-income countries. The evidence on whether socio-economic status and education modify this association is inconsistent. This study aims to fill these gaps using longitudinal data from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS site in Indonesia.In 2010, we assessed the mortality status of 11,753 men and women aged 50+ who lived in Purworejo HDSS and participated in the INDEPTH WHO SAGE baseline in 2007. Information on self-rated health, socio-demographic indicators, disability and chronic disease were collected through face-to-face interview at baseline. We used Cox-proportional hazards regression for mortality and included all variables measured at baseline, including interaction terms between SRH and both education and socio-economic status (SES.During an average of 36 months follow-up, 11% of men and 9.5% of women died, resulting in death rates of 3.1 and 2.6 per 1,000 person-months, respectively. The age-adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR for mortality was 17% higher in men than women (HR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.04-1.31. After adjustment for covariates, the hazard ratios for mortality in men and women reporting bad health were 3.0 (95% CI = 2.0-4.4 and 4.9 (95% CI = 3.2-7.4, respectively. Education and SES did not modify this association for either sex.This study supports the predictive power of bad self-rated health for subsequent mortality in rural Indonesian men and women 50 years old and over. In these analyses, education and household socio-economic status do not modify the relationship between SRH and mortality. This means that older people who rate their own health poorly should be an important target group for health service interventions.

  3. The independent roles of cardiorespiratory fitness and sedentary time on chronic conditions and Body Mass Index in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathokostas, L; Dogra, S; Paterson, D H

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine the independent influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and sedentary behavior on chronic disease incidence and body composition in older adults. A sample of 292 community dwelling men and women (mean 69.3±8.1 years) underwent maximal treadmill testing and completed questionnaires relating to their leisure-time physical activity, sedentary time, and health. The average V O2 of the sample was approximately 21 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) with the average sedentary time being over 3 hours per day. Cardiorespiratory fitness was found to be a stronger predictor of number of chronic conditions and BMI than total physical activity and sedentary. Those with a higher cardiorespiratory fitness had fewer chronic conditions and a lower BMI. No such associations were seen for either total physical activity levels or sedentary time. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a stronger predictor of health among older adults and further highlights the importance of promoting public health guidelines for cardiorespiratory fitness.

  4. Cognitive abilities and functional capacity in older adults: results from the modified Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jing Ee; Hultsch, David F; Strauss, Esther

    2009-04-01

    The relationship between cognitive and functional abilities was examined in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. Self and informant (e.g., spouse) reports of participants' functional status were obtained on the modified Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (mSIB-R). Participants also completed measures of processing speed, episodic memory, executive functioning, and verbal ability. Results showed that the mSIB-R correlated positively with cognitive variables. Hierarchical regression analyses suggested that each mSIB-R factor is predicted by somewhat different cognitive variables, after adjusting for demographic, health, and motor variables. This report-based measure was as accurate as a performance-based measure in classifying cognitive groups. Informant social/cognitive engagement and self physical/environment engagement factors showed the most promise in this regard. The findings reveal links between cognitive and functional abilities in a sample with varying degrees of cognitive impairment.

  5. Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent predictor of long-term clinical outcomes in Chinese octogenarians with acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Z

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Zhenhong Fu,1,* Geng Qian,1,* Hao Xue,1,* Jun Guo,1 Lian Chen,1 Xia Yang,1 Mingzhi Shen,2 Wei Dong,1 Yundai Chen11Department of Cardiology, Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Cardiology, Hainai Branch of Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital, Sanya, Hainan, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: To evaluate the prognostic value of homocysteine (Hcy in Chinese acute coronary syndrome (ACS octogenarians.Methods: The study cohort comprised 660 consecutive ACS octogenarians who underwent coronary angiography. We classified the patients into three groups according to Hcy tertiles. Kaplan–Meier method was performed for survival and major adverse cardiac events (MACE rates. Multivariate Cox regression was performed to identify mortality predictors. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to predict the cutoff value of Hcy for all-cause mortality.Results: The follow-up period was 28 (inter-quartile range: 16–38 months. Diastolic blood pressure, ratios of male, renal failure and old myocardial infarction in high plasma level Hcy (H-Hcy group were higher than those in low (L-Hcy and middle (M-Hcy plasma level of Hcy groups (P<0.05. The Hcy level was positively correlated with uric acid level (r=0.211, P=0.001 and Cystatin C (Cys C level (r=0.212, P=0.001 and negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (r=−0.148, P=0.018. For the long-term outcomes, the cumulative survival rate of H-Hcy group was significantly lower than that of L-Hcy and M-Hcy groups (P=0.006. All-cause mortality and MACE of H-Hcy group were higher than those of L-Hcy and M-Hcy group (P=0.0001, P=0.0008. Hcy is an independent predictor for long-term all-cause mortality (odds ratio =2.26, 95% CI=1.23–4.16, P=0.023 and MACE (odds ratio =1.91, 95% CI=1.03–3.51, P=0.039. Receiver operating characteristic

  6. A study of depression, perceived loneliness, cognitive function and independence in daily activities in home and institution based older people: A cross sectional comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riddhi Desai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Old age homes are on the rise in India. Older people staying in such institutions have specific psychosocial issues that may affect their cognitive performance and daily living. Materials and Methods: 71 older people, 39 institution based and 32 community-based were recruited with serial sampling after screening on mini-mental state examination and were evaluated with geriatric depression scale, University of California, Los Angeles scale, Lawton′s instrumental activities of daily living scale and montreal cognitive assessment scale. Results: Prevalence of depression was significantly higher in older people who were institution based, widowers and females. The severity of perceived loneliness was higher in females, institution based and depressed older people. The severity of depression correlated with independence in daily activities, cognition, and perceived loneliness only in institution based older people. Discussion: Older people in institutions have a higher psychosocial burden than the community-based older people. Family support prevents the attrition effect of depression on cognition and independence in daily activities in the community-based older people.

  7. Leisure Experiences and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Older People: A National Survey in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luo

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to explore older people's subjective leisure experiences and to further examine associations of such experiences with their depressive symptoms in Taiwan. Known correlates of depression, such as demographics, physical health, and social support, were taken into account. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect data using…

  8. Physical and social activities mediate the associations between social network types and ventilatory function in Chinese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Leung, Edward M F; Chan, Trista Wai Sze

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the associations between social network types and peak expiratory flow (PEF), and whether these associations were mediated by social and physical activities and mood. Nine hundred twenty-four community-dwelling Chinese older adults, who were classified into five network types (diverse, friend-focused, family-focused, distant family, and restricted), provided data on demographics, social and physical activities, mood, smoking, chronic diseases, and instrumental activities of daily living. PEF and biological covariates, including blood lipids and glucose, blood pressure, and height and weight, were assessed. Two measures of PEF were analyzed: the raw reading in L/min and the reading expressed as percentage of predicted normal value on the basis of age, sex, and height. Diverse, friend-focused, and distant family networks were hypothesized to have better PEF values compared with restricted networks, through higher physical and/or social activities. No relative advantage was predicted for family-focused networks because such networks tend to be associated with lower physical activity. Older adults with diverse, friend-focused, and distant family networks had significantly better PEF measures than those with restricted networks. The associations between diverse network and PEF measures were partially mediated by physical exercise and socializing activity. The associations between friend-focused network and PEF measures were partially mediated by socializing activity. No significant PEF differences between family-focused and restricted networks were found. Findings suggest that social network types are associated with PEF in older adults, and that network-type differences in physical and socializing activity is partly responsible for this relationship. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Emergency Department Presentations for Injuries in Older Adults Independently Known to be Victims of Elder Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Tony; Bloemen, Elizabeth M; LoFaso, Veronica M; Clark, Sunday; Flomenbaum, Neal E; Lachs, Mark S

    2016-03-01

    Elder abuse is under-recognized by emergency department (ED) providers, largely due to challenges distinguishing between abuse and accidental trauma. To describe patterns and circumstances surrounding elder abuse-related and potentially abuse-related injuries in ED patients independently known to be physical elder abuse victims. ED utilization of community-dwelling victims of physical elder abuse in New Haven, CT from 1981-1994 was analyzed previously. Cases were identified using Elderly Protective Services data matched to ED records. Sixty-six ED visits were judged to have high probability of being related to elder abuse and 244 were of indeterminate probability. We re-examined these visits to assess whether they occurred due to injury. We identified and analyzed in detail 31 injury-associated ED visits from 26 patients with high probability of being related to elder abuse and 108 visits from 57 patients with intermediate probability and accidental injury. Abuse-related injuries were most common on upper extremities (45% of visits) and lower extremities (32%), with injuries on head or neck noted in 13 visits (42%). Bruising was observed in 39% of visits, most commonly on upper extremities. Forty-two percent of purportedly accidental injuries had suspicious characteristics, with the most common suspicious circumstance being injury occurring more than 1 day prior to presentation, and the most common suspicious injury pattern being maxillofacial injuries. Victims of physical elder abuse commonly have injuries on the upper extremities, head, and neck. Suspicious circumstances and injury patterns may be identified and are commonly present when victims of physical elder abuse present with purportedly accidental injuries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A battery of tests for assessing cognitive function in U.S. Chinese older adults--findings from the PINE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, E-Shien; Dong, XinQi

    2014-11-01

    Existing methodological challenges in aging research has dampened our assessment of cognitive function among minority older adults. We aim to report the composite scores of five cognitive function tests among U.S. Chinese older adults, and examine the association between cognitive function and key sociodemographic characteristics. The Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago Study enrolled an epidemiological cohort of 3,159 community-dwelling Chinese older adults. We administered five cognitive function tests, including the Chinese Mini-Mental State Examination, the immediate and delayed recall of the East Boston Memory Test, the Digit Span Backwards assessment, and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test. We used Spearman correlation coefficients to examine the correlation between cognitive function and sociodemographic variables. Linear regression models were used to report the effect of sociodemographic and health variables including age, sex, education on cognitive function. Our multivariate analysis suggested that performance in each domain of cognitive function was inversely associated with age and positively related to education. With respect to sex, after adjusted for age, education and all key variables presented in the model, being male was positively related to global cognitive score and working memory. Being married, having fewer children, having been in the United States for fewer years, having been in the community for fewer years, and better self-reported health were positively correlated with all cognitive function domains. This population-based study of U.S. Chinese older adults is among the first to examine a battery of five cognitive function tests, which in aggregate enables researchers to capture a wide range of cognitive performance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Examination of Chronic Smoking Behavior and Eligibility for Low-Dose Computed Tomography for Lung Cancer Screening Among Older Chinese Male Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chien-Ching; Matthews, Alicia K; Dong, XinQi

    2017-07-01

    Low-dose computed tomography lung cancer (LDCT) screening is an effective way to decrease lung cancer mortality. Both Medicare and private insurers offer coverage of LDCT screening to beneficiaries who are at high risk of developing lung cancer. In this study, we examined rates and predictors of chronic smoking behavior and eligibility for coverage of LDCT screening among older Chinese men living in the greater Chicago area. Data were obtained from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago, a population-based survey of community-dwelling, older Chinese adults in the Chicago metropolitan area. Eligibility criteria according to Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) for LDCT screening were used. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to determine predictors of chronic smoking behavior which was operationalized as meeting criteria for LDCT screening. A quarter of the sample were current smokers and 42.5% reported a prior history of smoking. Eighteen percent and 22% of older Chinese men met the eligibility criteria for appropriateness for CMS and USPSTF LDCT screening, respectively. Furthermore, education, marital status, and number of children were significantly associated with chronic smoking behavior. Older Chinese men with chronic smoking behavior are at high risk of developing lung cancer and nearly one in five meet eligibility for LDCT screening. Increased outreach and education regarding early detection of lung cancer and smoking cessation are needed for this vulnerable and high-risk population. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Associations and impact factors between living arrangements and functional disability among older Chinese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of living arrangements with functional disability among older persons and explore the mediation of impact factors on the relationship. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis using data from Healthy Aging study in Zhejiang Province. PARTICIPANTS: Analyzed sample was drawn from a representative rural population of older persons in Wuyi County, Zhejiang Province, including 1542 participants aged 60 and over in the second wave of the study. MEASUREMENTS: Living arrangements, background, functional disability, self-rated health, number of diseases, along with contemporaneous circumstances including income, social support (physical assistance and emotional support. Instrument was Activities of Daily Living (ADL scale, including Basic Activities Daily Living (BADL and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL. RESULTS: Living arrangements were significantly associated with BADL, IADL and ADL disability. Married persons living with or without children were more advantaged on all three dimensions of functional disability. Unmarried older adults living with children only had the worst functional status, even after controlling for background, social support, income and health status variables (compared with the unmarried living alone, ß for BADL: -1.262, ß for IADL: -2.112, ß for ADL: -3.388; compared with the married living with children only, ß for BADL: -1.166, ß for IADL: -2.723, ß for ADL: -3.902. In addition, older adults without difficulty in receiving emotional support, in excellent health and with advanced age had significantly better BADL, IADL and ADL function. However, a statistically significant association between physical assistance and functional disability was not found. CONCLUSION: Functional disabilities vary by living arrangements with different patterns and other factors. Our results highlight the association of unmarried elders living with children only and functioning decline comparing with

  13. Association between sarcopenia with lifestyle and family function among community-dwelling Chinese aged 60 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Shan; Wang, Hui; Cao, Li; Liu, Ping; Zhou, Jianghua; Yang, Ying; Dong, Birong

    2017-08-18

    Sarcopenia is defined as the age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass and function. The risk factors and causes of sarcopenia must be identified to develop prevention and treatment strategies for this syndrome. Our aim was to examine the association between sarcopenia with lifestyle and family function among community-dwelling Chinese people aged 60 years and older. We conducted this study to evaluate sarcopenia among 834 community-dwelling Chinese individuals aged ≥60 years using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) criteria. The sociodemographic characteristics, food consumption patterns, habits of smoking, and alcohol consumption of the participants were collected using a general questionnaire, whereas physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ; long-form version). Family function was assessed using the Family APGAR scale. In addition, the association of sarcopenia with lifestyle and family function was examined using univariate and multivariate analyses. The total prevalence rate of sarcopenia was 10.6%. Female participants with sarcopenia had a lower frequency per week of nut consumption than those without sarcopenia (p sarcopenia versus those without sarcopenia were not significant. Among the participants, the mean Family APGAR score was 8 (standard deviation [SD] = 0.92). For both sexes, participants with sarcopenia had lower family function scores than those without sarcopenia. In the multivariate model, after adjustment for all covariates, frequency per week of nut consumption (adjusted OR 0.724, 95% CI 0.532-0.985, P sarcopenia. The relationship between other lifestyle habits and sarcopenia was not significant. There was significant association between sarcopenia with intake of nuts and family function. Further studies should evaluate if adequate intake of nuts and a well-functioning family may be effective in lowering the risk of sarcopenia.

  14. Role of physical activity, physical fitness, and chronic health conditions on the physical independence of community-dwelling older adults over a 5-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Catarina; Baptista, Fátima; Cruz-Ferreira, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The variability in the individual characteristics and habits could help determine how older adults maintain independence. The impact of the variability in physical activity, physical fitness, body composition, and chronic health conditions (co-morbidities) on the independence of older adults, especially over time, is seldom examined. This study aims to analyze quantitatively the impact of baseline values and changes in physical activity, physical fitness, body composition, and co-morbidities on the physical independence of community-dwelling, older adults over a 5-year period. Data from 106 and 85 community-dwelling adults (≥60 years) were collected at baseline and after five years, respectively. Linear regression selected the main predictors of changes in physical independence as follows: the baseline physical independence (β=0.032, R(2)=9.9%) and co-morbidities (β=-0.191, R(2)=6.3%) and the changes in co-morbidities (β=-0.244, R(2)=10.8%), agility (β=-0.288, R(2)=6.7%), aerobic endurance (β=0.007, R(2)=3.2%), and walking expenditure (β=0.001, R(2)=5.1%) (page and gender. Gains of up to 8.3% in physical independence were associated with improvements in these variables, which corresponds to regaining independence for performing one or two activities of daily living. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. An Analysis of Independent, Non-Academic Characteristics of Chinese and American Business Students Associated with Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margavio, Thomas M.; Margavio, Geanie W.; Hignite, Michael A.; Moses, Duane R.

    2014-01-01

    In a continuation of their prior research which focused on the differences in Emotional Intelligence (EI) levels between Chinese and American business students and the academic variables associated with those scores, the authors extend their efforts to investigate those personal (non-academic) characteristics of both American and Chinese business…

  16. Associations between Perceived Neighborhood Walkability and Walking Time, Wellbeing, and Loneliness in Community-Dwelling Older Chinese People in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruby; Cheung, Osbert; Lau, Kevin; Woo, Jean

    2017-10-09

    This study examined the cross-sectional associations between perceived neighborhood walkability and walking time, physical activity, wellbeing, and loneliness, and examined which components of walkability were most strongly associated with better wellbeing and less loneliness in older adults. Participants were community-dwelling Chinese adults aged 60+ ( n = 181). Walkability was measured using nine items selected from the Chinese version of the abbreviated Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scales (NEWS) and NEWS for Chinese Seniors. Outcomes were walking time, physical activity, wellbeing (life satisfaction, happiness, sense of purpose and meaning in life), and loneliness. The mean age of the participants was 71.7 ± 7.8 years. Walkability was positively associated with walking time ( p = 0.001, p for trend walkable had higher scores for life satisfaction ( p = 0.002) and happiness ( p = 0.002), and lower scores for loneliness ( p = 0.019), compared with those who perceived their neighborhoods as less walkable. However, perceived neighborhood walkability was not associated with sense of purpose and meaning in life. Among components of walkability, land use mix-access, infrastructure and safety for walking, and traffic safety showed the strongest associations with the measures of wellbeing. The results of this study support the importance of neighborhood walkability for health behavior and wellbeing of older adults. The wellbeing of older adults may be enhanced through the improvement of land use mix-access, infrastructure for walking, and traffic safety.

  17. Bioavailable 25(OHD but Not Total 25(OHD Is an Independent Determinant for Bone Mineral Density in Chinese Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguang Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Total 25(OHD levels were determined to assess bone health in elderly populations; however, the bioavailability of 25(OHD is regulated by the albumin and vitamin D binding protein (DBP levels and DBP variations. Whether bioavailable 25(OHD level is a superior biomarker for vitamin D than total 25(OHD level regarding the BMD and the bone metabolism were not yet fully understood. With a community based cross-sectional study of 967 postmenopausal women, we found that the variant rs7041, but not rs4588, of DBP was significantly associated with the blood DBP level, which was positively correlated with the total 25(OHD level but negatively associated with bioavailable 25(OHD levels. Both total and bioavailable 25(OHD levels were significantly correlated with the BMD value in postmenopausal women; however, only the bioavailable 25(OHD level was an independent determinant of the BMD values when adjusted for age, body mass index and bone turnover biomarkers (OST and β-CTX. The bioavailable and total 25(OHD were negatively correlated with bone formation biomarkers (OST, PINP and ALP and PTH levels, while they were positively correlated with osteoprotegerin (OPG level; however, the bone resorption biomarker (β-CTX was not correlated with the 25(OHD levels. An increment of PTH level, along with reduced bioavailable 25(OHD levels, was evident when the bioavailable 25(OHD level was <5 ng/mL, which may be the optimal cutpoint for sufficient vitamin D in Chinese elderly women. The blood calcium, magnesium, ALP, TSH, FGF23, and phosphorus levels were not correlated with the total or the bioavailable 25(OHD levels. These results suggested that high bioavailable 25(OHD levels were correlated with reduced bone turnover processes and were a biomarker superior to total 25(OHD for vitamin D in assessing the risks of bone-related diseases. The results indicate that the bioavailable 25(OHD level should be determined in assessing the bone health.

  18. Sensor monitoring to measure and support daily functioning for independently living older people: A systematic review and road map for further development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, M.C.; Poerbodipoero, S.; Robben, S.; Daams, J.; van Hartingsveldt, M.; de Vos, R.; de Rooij, S.E.; Kröse, B.; Buurman, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To study sensor monitoring (use of a sensor network placed in the home environment to observe individuals' daily functioning (activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living)) as a method to measure and support daily functioning for older people living independently

  19. Sensor monitoring to measure and support daily functioning for independently living older people: a systematic review and road map for further development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, Margriet C.; Poerbodipoero, Soemitro; Robben, Saskia; Daams, Joost; van Hartingsveldt, Margo; de Vos, Rien; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Kröse, Ben; Buurman, Bianca M.

    2013-01-01

    To study sensor monitoring (use of a sensor network placed in the home environment to observe individuals' daily functioning (activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living)) as a method to measure and support daily functioning for older people living independently at home.

  20. Time-limited home-care reablement services for maintaining and improving the functional independence of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Andy; Furlong, Mairead; McGilloway, Sinead; Molloy, David W; Stevenson, Michael; Donnelly, Michael

    2016-10-11

    Reablement, also known as restorative care, is one possible approach to home-care services for older adults at risk of functional decline. Unlike traditional home-care services, reablement is frequently time-limited (usually six to 12 weeks) and aims to maximise independence by offering an intensive multidisciplinary, person-centred and goal-directed intervention. To assess the effects of time-limited home-care reablement services (up to 12 weeks) for maintaining and improving the functional independence of older adults (aged 65 years or more) when compared to usual home-care or wait-list control group. We searched the following databases with no language restrictions during April to June 2015: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE (OvidSP); Embase (OvidSP); PsycINFO (OvidSP); ERIC; Sociological Abstracts; ProQuest Dissertations and Theses; CINAHL (EBSCOhost); SIGLE (OpenGrey); AgeLine and Social Care Online. We also searched the reference lists of relevant studies and reviews as well as contacting authors in the field. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster randomised or quasi-randomised trials of time-limited reablement services for older adults (aged 65 years or more) delivered in their home; and incorporated a usual home-care or wait-list control group. Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data, assessed the risk of bias of individual studies and considered quality of the evidence using GRADE. We contacted study authors for additional information where needed. Two studies, comparing reablement with usual home-care services with 811 participants, met our eligibility criteria for inclusion; we also identified three potentially eligible studies, but findings were not yet available. One included study was conducted in Western Australia with 750 participants (mean age 82.29 years). The second study was conducted in Norway (61 participants; mean age 79 years).We are very uncertain as to

  1. Older people's dependence on caregivers' help in their own homes and their lived experiences of their opportunity to make independent decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitholtz, Agneta; Snellman, Ingrid; Fagerberg, Ingegerd

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to illuminate the meaning of older people's dependence on caregivers' help, and of their opportunity to make independent decisions. Throughout the world, the older population is growing, and in Sweden, the system of care for older people is currently undergoing change. Older people in the need of care are expected to live at home for as long as possible. A qualitative and life world approach was used. Audio-taped interviews were conducted with twelve older persons living at home, dependent on daily municipal home help service. A phenomenological hermeneutic method was utilised to disclose the meanings of lived experiences. The findings revealed three themes: being facilitated to make one's own decisions, being hindered from making one's own decisions, struggling for vs. resigning oneself to losing the opportunity to make one's own decisions. The comprehensive understanding revealed that as older people become more dependent on caregivers' help, their opportunity to self-determine is challenged and this is stressful for them. The older persons assess their opportunity to self-determine differently, depending on who they are as a person. The caregivers need an awareness of this, and further research is needed to gain knowledge and understanding of how caregivers can improve the way they support and enhance older people's opportunity to decide for themselves. The findings revealed older persons need to exercise more self-determination and caregivers' need for knowledge to enable this. Further, it indicates a move towards a person-centred approach to focus on persons as individuals and see them as interdependent. The findings contribute to improvements in similar contexts worldwide. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Different physical activity subtypes and risk of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older Chinese people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS is growing rapidly in China. Tai chi and dancing are common types of exercise among middle-aged and elderly Chinese. It remains unclear whether these activities are associated with a lower risk of MetS. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 15,514 individuals (6,952 men, 8,562 women aged 50 to 70 years from the Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort in Shiyan, China participated in a cross-sectional study. Physical activity and other lifestyle factors were assessed with semi-structured questionnaires during face-to-face interviews. MetS was defined by the current National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult treatment Panel III criteria for Asian Americans. The prevalence of MetS was 33.2% in the study population. In the multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses, total physical activity levels were monotonically associated with a lower odds of MetS [OR 0.75 comparing extreme quintiles, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.66-0.86, P<0.001]. Compared with non-exercisers in a specific exercise type, jogging (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68-1.00, P = 0.046, tai chi (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.60-0.88, P<0.001, and dancing (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.47-0.67, P<0.001 were associated with significantly lower odds of MetS. Furthermore, each 1-h/week increment in tai chi and dancing was associated with a 5% (95% CI 2%-9% and a 9% (95% CI 6%, 12% lower risk of MetS. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Jogging, tai chi and dancing are associated with a significantly lower risk of having MetS in middle-aged and older Chinese. Future intervention studies should consider the role of jogging, tai chi and dancing in preventing MetS.

  3. Associations of dietary protein intake on subsequent decline in muscle mass and physical functions over four years in ambulant older Chinese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R; Leung, J; Woo, J; Kwok, T

    2014-01-01

    To examine the association of dietary protein intake with 4-year change in physical performance measures and muscle mass in Chinese community-dwelling older people aged 65 and older in Hong Kong. Prospective cohort study design. Hong Kong, People's of Republic of China. There were 2,726 (1411 male, 1315 female) community-dwelling older people aged 65 and older. Baseline total, animal and vegetable protein intakes were collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Relative protein intake expressed as g/kg body weight was calculated and divided into quartiles for data analysis. Baseline and 4-year physical performance measures (normal and narrow 6-meters walking speed and step length in a 6-meters walk) were measured and 4-year change in appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) from baseline was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Univariate analysis identified age and sex as significant factors associated with change in physical performance measures or ASM, thus adjustments for these factors were made for subsequent analysis of covariance. Median relative total protein intake was 1.3 g/kg body weight in men and 1.1 g/kg body weight in women. After adjustment for age and sex, relative total protein intake and animal protein intake were not associated with change in physical performance measures and ASM. In contrast, participants in the highest quartile (>0.72 g/kg body weight) of relative vegetable protein intake lost significantly less ASM over 4-year than those in the lowest quartile of relative vegetable protein intake (physical performance measures. Higher protein intake from vegetable source was associated with reduced muscle loss in Chinese community-dwelling older people in Hong Kong whereas no association between total and animal protein intake and subsequent decline in muscle mass or physical performance measures was observed in this sample.

  4. Factors associated with health-related quality of life among Chinese caregivers of the older adults living in the community: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiaoshi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Under the culture of filial piety and due to the Confucianism spirit in China, family caregivers usually undertake the responsibilities of caring for the older adults. They usually suffer from a heavy burden which is believed to impair their mental and physical health. Thus this study aims to describe the health-related quality of life (HRQOL among Chinese caregivers of the older adults living in the community and explore the predictors of caregivers’ HRQOL. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted through convenience sampling. The study population was composed of 1,144 caregivers of older adults who suffered from one or more types of chronic diseases in 15 communities in 3 eastern cities of China. Family caregivers were interviewed face-to-face using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 and the ZARIT Caregiver Burden interview (ZBI scales. The Antonovsky's Sense of coherence (SOC scale was also used to measure personal coping capability of the caregivers. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis (HMR was performed to explore the predictors of caregivers’ HRQOL. Results The majority of the caregivers were females (60.0% or adult children (66.5%. Mental QOL was significantly lower than physical QOL. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that Demographic Characteristics of Caregivers, Patients’ Characteristics, and Subjective Caregiver Burden explained most of the total variance of all aspects of HRQOL. While, Objective Caregiving Tasks was only associated with physical QOL. Subjective Caregiver Burden was the strongest predictor of both physical and mental QOL. SOC was also a strong predictor of physical and mental QOL. Conclusions The mental QOL of the caregivers of older adults was disrupted more seriously than physical QOL. Additionally, Subjective Caregiver Burden might decrease caregiver’ health. A decrease in caregiver burden could promote better management of caregiving tasks, and improve

  5. Sources and directions of social support and life satisfaction among solitary Chinese older adults in Hong Kong: the mediating role of sense of loneliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai X

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Xue Bai,1 Shuyan Yang,2 Martin Knapp3 1Department of Applied Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Social Work, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; 3Personal Social Services Research Unit, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK Abstract: Based on survey data collected from 151 community-dwelling solitary Chinese older adults in Hong Kong, the present study used path analysis to examine the mediating role of sense of loneliness in the relationship between different sources and directions of social support and life satisfaction. The results showed that sense of loneliness mediated the effects of support from families, friends, and support for others on life satisfaction. In addition, a formal source of social support was not associated with life satisfaction among solitary older adults, although those with a more secure financial status had greater overall life satisfaction. These findings highlight the importance of enhancing awareness among social and health care service providers about the negative effects of insufficient social support on older adults’ sense of loneliness and life satisfaction. Family and friendship networks should be expanded for solitary older adults. Keywords: life satisfaction, path analysis, solitary older adults, sense of loneliness, social support

  6. Sarcopenia Is Independently Associated with Cardiovascular Disease in Older Korean Adults: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Sang Ouk; Rhee, Sang Youl; Chon, Suk; Hwang, You-Cheol; Jeong, In-Kyung; Oh, Seungjoon; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon; Woo, Jeong-taek; Kim, Sung-Woon; Kim, Jin-Woo; Kim, Young Seol; Ahn, Hong-Yup

    2013-01-01

    Background The association between sarcopenia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in elderly people has not been adequately assessed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CVD is more prevalent in subjects with sarcopenia independent of other well-established cardiovascular risk factors in older Korean adults. Method This study utilized the representative Korean population data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) which was conducted in 2009. Subjects older than 65 years of age with appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry were selected. The prevalence of sarcopenia in the older Korean adults was investigated, and it was determined whether sarcopenia is associated with CVD independent of other well-known risk factors. Results 1,578 subjects aged 65 years and older with the data for ASM were selected, and the overall prevalence of sarcopenia was 30.3% in men and 29.3% in women. Most of the risk factors for CVD such as age, waist circumference, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose and total cholesterol showed significant negative correlations with the ratio between appendicular skeletal muscle mass and body weight. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that sarcopenia was associated with CVD independent of other well-documented risk factors, renal function and medications (OR, 1.768; 95% CI, 1.075–2.909, P = 0.025). Conclusions Sarcopenia was associated with the presence of CVD independent of other cardiovascular risk factors after adjusting renal function and medications. PMID:23533671

  7. Sarcopenia is independently associated with cardiovascular disease in older Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES from 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ouk Chin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between sarcopenia and cardiovascular disease (CVD in elderly people has not been adequately assessed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CVD is more prevalent in subjects with sarcopenia independent of other well-established cardiovascular risk factors in older Korean adults. METHOD: This study utilized the representative Korean population data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES which was conducted in 2009. Subjects older than 65 years of age with appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry were selected. The prevalence of sarcopenia in the older Korean adults was investigated, and it was determined whether sarcopenia is associated with CVD independent of other well-known risk factors. RESULTS: 1,578 subjects aged 65 years and older with the data for ASM were selected, and the overall prevalence of sarcopenia was 30.3% in men and 29.3% in women. Most of the risk factors for CVD such as age, waist circumference, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose and total cholesterol showed significant negative correlations with the ratio between appendicular skeletal muscle mass and body weight. Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that sarcopenia was associated with CVD independent of other well-documented risk factors, renal function and medications (OR, 1.768; 95% CI, 1.075-2.909, P = 0.025. CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenia was associated with the presence of CVD independent of other cardiovascular risk factors after adjusting renal function and medications.

  8. Associations between Perceived Neighborhood Walkability and Walking Time, Wellbeing, and Loneliness in Community-Dwelling Older Chinese People in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the cross-sectional associations between perceived neighborhood walkability and walking time, physical activity, wellbeing, and loneliness, and examined which components of walkability were most strongly associated with better wellbeing and less loneliness in older adults. Participants were community-dwelling Chinese adults aged 60+ (n = 181. Walkability was measured using nine items selected from the Chinese version of the abbreviated Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scales (NEWS and NEWS for Chinese Seniors. Outcomes were walking time, physical activity, wellbeing (life satisfaction, happiness, sense of purpose and meaning in life, and loneliness. The mean age of the participants was 71.7 ± 7.8 years. Walkability was positively associated with walking time (p = 0.001, p for trend <0.001 but not with physical activity. After adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, health conditions, lifestyle, and negative life events, those who perceived their neighborhoods as walkable had higher scores for life satisfaction (p = 0.002 and happiness (p = 0.002, and lower scores for loneliness (p = 0.019, compared with those who perceived their neighborhoods as less walkable. However, perceived neighborhood walkability was not associated with sense of purpose and meaning in life. Among components of walkability, land use mix-access, infrastructure and safety for walking, and traffic safety showed the strongest associations with the measures of wellbeing. The results of this study support the importance of neighborhood walkability for health behavior and wellbeing of older adults. The wellbeing of older adults may be enhanced through the improvement of land use mix-access, infrastructure for walking, and traffic safety.

  9. APOC3 rs2070666 Is Associated with the Hepatic Steatosis Independently of PNPLA3 rs738409 in Chinese Han Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Nan; Zheng, Rui-Dan; Mi, Yu-Qiang; Zhou, Da; Shen, Feng; Chen, Guang-Yu; Zhu, Chan-Yan; Pan, Qin; Fan, Jian-Gao

    2016-08-01

    The association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and apolipoprotein C3 gene (APOC3) promoter region single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs2854117 and rs2854116 is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between other polymorphisms of APOC3 and NAFLD in Chinese. Fifty-nine liver biopsy-proven NAFLD patients and 72 healthy control subjects were recruited to a cohort representing Chinese Han population. The polymorphisms in the exons and flanking regions of APOC3 and patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) rs738409 polymorphisms were genotyped. Among the five SNPs (rs4225, rs4520, rs5128, rs2070666, and rs2070667) in APOC3, only rs2070666 (c.179 + 62 T/A) was significantly different in genotype and allele frequency (both p steatosis (OR 4.986, 95 % CI 1.020-24.371), but neither to liver stiffness measurement values nor to hepatic histological activity and fibrosis in NAFLD patients. The APOC3 rs2070666 A allele is a risk factor for NAFLD independent of obesity, dyslipidemia, and PNPLA3 rs738409, and it might contribute to increased liver fat content in Chinese Han population.

  10. Single-leg squats identify independent stair negotiation ability in older adults referred for a physiotherapy mobility assessment at a rural hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockings, Rowena L; Schmidt, David D; Cheung, Christopher W

    2013-07-01

    To determine whether single-leg squats identify ability to negotiate stairs in older adults at a rural hospital. Cross-sectional analytical study. Acute wards and emergency department of a rural hospital in Australia. A systematic sample of 143 older adults (72 men, 71 women, 80.0 ± 6.8 years) from the emergency department or acute wards of Shoalhaven Hospital referred for a physiotherapy mobility assessment. Ability to complete up to three single-leg squats and negotiate up to three steps were measured. Covariates and demographic variables were collected. The squat test had 86% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, and 49% negative predictive value in correctly identifying stair negotiation ability. Participants who could complete single-leg squats were 57 times more likely to be able to independently negotiate stairs than participants who could not complete squats. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that walker use, pain severity and whether participants lived alone were significant and independent predictors of ability to negotiate stairs independently. Single-leg squats may be an accurate identifier of stair negotiation ability in older adults admitted to the hospital for an acute illness or injury. A traditional stairs assessment would be required if older adults were unable to complete the squat test or had moderate to severe pain, used a walker to ambulate, or did not live alone. The squat test is a potentially more-efficient assessment tool than traditional stair assessments in determining an individual's ability to negotiate stairs and suitability for discharge where poor mobility is a problem. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. Health Insurance and Health Care among the Mid-Aged and Older Chinese: Evidence from the National Baseline Survey of CHARLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanchuan; Lei, Xiaoyan; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui

    2017-04-01

    We document the recent profile of health insurance and health care among mid-aged and older Chinese using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study conducted in 2011. Overall health insurance coverage is about 93%. Multivariate regressions show that respondents with lower income as measured by per capita expenditure have a lower chance of being insured, as do the less-educated, older, and divorced/widowed women and rural-registered people. Premiums and reimbursement rates of health insurance vary significantly by schemes. Inpatient reimbursement rates for urban people increase with total cost to a plateau of 60%; rural people receive much less. Demographic characteristics such as age, education, marriage status, per capita expenditure, and self-reported health status are not significantly associated with share of out-of-pocket cost after controlling community effects. For health service use, we find large gaps that vary across health insurance plans, especially for inpatient service. People with access to urban health insurance plans are more likely to use health services. In general, Chinese people have easy access to median low-level medical facilities. It is also not difficult to access general hospitals or specialized hospitals, but there exists better access to healthcare facilities in urban areas. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Fractures as an independent predictor of functional decline in older people: a population-based study with an 8-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piirtola, Maarit; Löppönen, Minna; Vahlberg, Tero; Isoaho, Raimo; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa; Räihä, Ismo

    2012-01-01

    Fractures among older people are common, but there is scant evidence about the impact of fractures on functional decline in an unselected older population. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of lower and upper body fractures on functional performance among older adults during an 8-year follow-up. A population-based cohort of 616 Finnish persons aged 65 and over was followed for up to 8 years, and the association between fractures and the risk of short-term (0-2 years) and long-term (up to 8 years) functional decline was analyzed. Fractures were categorized according their functional influence on mobility and activities of daily living (ADL) into lower and upper body fractures. Multivariate cumulative logistic regression model was used in the analyses. During the 8-year follow-up, 112 (18%) persons sustained at least one fracture. In the multivariate analyses, lower body fractures predicted both short-term and long-term decline in mobility [cumulative odds ratio (COR) 4.7, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.9-11.7 and COR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.2, respectively] and in ADL performance (COR 3.1, 95% CI 1.3-7.6 and COR 4.7, 95% CI 2.0-11.4, respectively). Upper body fractures predicted decline in ADL performance during the long-term follow-up (COR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3-4.8). Pre-fracture functional decline and inactivity in leisure time physical exercise were independently associated with the risk of decline in extensive activities. Fractures have an independent influence on the development of functional decline in older persons regardless of the pre-fracture health. Prevention of falls and fractures and improvement of treatment, rehabilitation and follow-up process after fractures are needed. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. A promoter polymorphism (rs17222919, -1316T/G of ALOX5AP gene is associated with decreased risk of ischemic stroke in two independent Chinese populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujia Fan

    Full Text Available No coding sequence variants of the gene encoding 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (ALOX5AP leading to amino acid substitutions have been identified. Therefore, variants in the ALOX5AP promoter region have received attention recently. The purpose of this study was to explore whether the promoter polymorphism rs17222919 is involved in the etiology of ischemic stroke (IS in the Chinese Han population. We investigated the rs17222919 polymorphism by TaqMan genotyping in two independent Chinese Han samples: the first comprised 910 IS patients and 925 healthy inhabitants from the northern Henan Province, while the second included 1003 IS patients and 889 healthy controls from the southern Henan Province. Functional characterization of rs17222919 was performed by an in vitro luciferase assay. After adjusting for conventional risk factors, the G allele frequencies in the IS groups were significantly lower than that in the control groups of the two independent Chinese cohorts (19.0% vs. 22.9%, P = 0.004, odds ratio (OR = 0.792, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.675-0.929; 18.8% vs. 22.9%, P = 0.002, OR = 0.782, 95% CI = 0.668-0.915, respectively. This was also observed in the large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA and stroke of other undetermined etiology (SUE subtypes (P = 0.019, OR = 0.815, 95% CI = 0.687-0.967; P = 0.021, OR = 0.815, 95% CI = 0.685-0.970, respectively. Additionally, the TG genotype and G allele frequencies were significantly lower in the IS compared with the control group in two female cohorts (P<0.05. Finally, the in vitro luciferase assay demonstrated that the G allele has a significantly lower transcription activity than the T allele (P = 0.031. Our study provides evidence that the promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs17222919 is a potential genetic protective factor for IS in the Chinese Han population.

  14. On the Prototyping of an ICT-Enhanced Toilet System for Assisting Older Persons Living Independently and Safely at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, Paul; Fazekas, Gabor; Lüftenegger, Theresa; Mayer, Peter; Pilissy, Tamas; Raffaelli, Matteo; Rist, Atilla; Rosenthal, Ramona; Savanovic, Arso; Sobjak, Anna; Sonntag, Franziska; Toth, Andras; Unger, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Standard toilets often do not meet the needs of a significant number of older persons and persons with disabilities. The EU funded iToilet project aims at design and development of a new type of ICT enhanced modular toilet system which shall be able to support autonomy, dignity and safety of older persons living at home. Methodologically the project started with gathering user requirements by means of questionnaires, interviews and focus group discussion involving a total of 74 persons, thereof 41 subjects with movement disorders (primary users), 21 caregivers (secondary users) and 12 healthcare managers (tertiary users). Most important wishes were bilateral removable handrails, height and tilt adjustment, emergency detection, simplicity. In parallel to the ongoing technical development participatory design activities have been carried out at user test sites in order to continuously involve users into the design process and to allow quick feedback with regards to early prototype parts. The project currently is working on the finalization of the first prototype ready to enter the lab trial stage in spring 2017. The experiences will be used for redesigning a prototype 2 which is planned to be tested in real life settings early 2018.

  15. The psychometric properties of the Chinese version-reintegration to normal living index (C-RNLI) for identifying participation restriction among community-dwelling frail older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Justina Yat-Wa; Ma, Ka Wai

    2017-01-31

    The Reintegration to Normal Living Index (RNLI) was developed to measure reintegration to normal living after major traumas/illnesses. Its psychometric properties remain unknown when used to measure participation restriction under the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (WHO-ICF) framework. This study examines the psychometric properties of the Chinese version-RNLI to measure WHO-ICF participation restriction among community-dwelling pre-frail and frail older people. A cross-sectional study was conducted in community and day-care centres in Hong Kong between May 2015 and January 2016. Through face-to-face interviews, information was collected on the participants' demographic background, medical history, frailty status, depressive mood, functional performance in daily activities, and participation restriction. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct and convergent validity of the C-RNLI were assessed. Two hundred and ninety-nine pre-frail or frail community-dwelling older people with a mean age of 79.53 were recruited. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the C-RNLI has a two-factor structure comprised of "participation in physical activities" and "participation in social events". The test-retest coefficient was 0.71. The Cronbach's alpha of the total C-RNLI score, and those of the factors "participation in physical activities" and "participation in social events" were 0.88, 0.82 and 0.84, respectively. Pre-frail older people had significantly higher scores for the factors "participation in physical activities" (z = -5.05, older people. Older people from community centres had significantly higher scores for the factors "participation in physical activities" (z = -4.48, older people from day-care centres. The factors "participation in physical activities" and "participation in social events" of the C-RNLI were significantly convergent with depressive mood (r s  = -0

  16. Executive functioning independently predicts self-rated health and improvement in self-rated health over time among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Joanna Edel; Lawlor, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Self-rated health, as distinct from objective measures of health, is a clinically informative metric among older adults. The purpose of our study was to examine the cognitive and psychosocial factors associated with self-rated health. 624 participants over the age of 60 were assessed at baseline, and of these, 510 were contacted for a follow-up two years later. Measures of executive function and self-rated health were assessed at baseline, and self-rated health was assessed at follow-up. We employed multiple linear regression analyses to investigate the relationship between executive functioning and self-rated health, while controlling for demographic, psychosocial and biological variables. Controlling for other relevant variables, executive functioning independently and solely predicted self-rated health, both at a cross-sectional level, and also over time. Loneliness was also found to cross-sectionally predict self-rated health, although this relationship was not present at a longitudinal level. Older adults' self-rated health may be related to their executive functioning and to their loneliness. Self-rated health appeared to improve over time, and the extent of this improvement was also related to executive functioning at baseline. Self-rated health may be a judgement made of one's functioning, especially executive functioning, which changes with age and therefore may be particularly salient in the reflections of older adults.

  17. Changes in executive functions and self-efficacy are independently associated with improved usual gait speed in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Chun

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improved usual gait speed predicts substantial reduction in mortality. A better understanding of the modifiable factors that are independently associated with improved gait speed would ensure that intervention strategies are developed based on a valid theoretical framework. Thus, we examined the independent association of change in executive functions and change in falls-related self-efficacy with improved gait speed among community-dwelling senior women. Methods A secondary analysis of the 135 senior women aged 65 to 75 years old who completed a 12-month randomized controlled trial of resistance training. Usual gait speed was assessed using a 4-meter walk. Three executive processes were assessed by standard neuropsychological tests: 1 set shifting; 2 working memory; and 3 selective attention and response inhibition. A linear regression model was constructed to determine the independent association of change in executive functions and falls-related self-efficacy with change in gait speed. Results Improved selective attention and conflict resolution, and falls-related self-efficacy, were independently associated with improved gait speed after accounting for age, global cognition, baseline gait speed, and change in quadriceps strength. The total variance explained was 24%. Conclusions Interventions that target executive functions and falls-related self-efficacy, in addition to physical functions, to improve gait speed may be more efficacious than those that do not. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00426881

  18. Evaluation of Community Health Education Workshops among Chinese Older Adults in Chicago: A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xinqi; Li, Yawen; Chen, Ruijia; Chang, E-Shien; Simon, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health education is one of the proven ways to improve knowledge and change health attitudes and behaviors. This study is intended to assess the effectiveness of five health workshops in a Chinese community, focusing on depression, elder abuse, nutrition, breast cancer and stroke. Methods: A community-based participatory research…

  19. An Exploratory Study on the Quality of Life of Older Chinese People Living Alone in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jik Joen

    2005-01-01

    This study successfully interviewed 109 randomly selected Chinese people aged 60 and over living alone in two public housing estates in an urban area of Hong Kong. The results show that mental health status, number of days staying in hospital, life satisfaction, age, and self-esteem are significant factors in predicting the life quality of older…

  20. The Design of New Technology Supporting Wellbeing, Independence and Social Participation, for Older Adults Domiciled in Residential Homes and/or Assisted Living Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Cahill

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify and validate the requirements for new technology supporting wellness, independence and social participation for older people domiciled in residential homes and/or assisted-living communities. Method: This research adopts a stakeholder evaluation approach to requirements elicitation and user interface design. Specifically, the study design combines several qualitative human–machine interaction (HMI design frameworks/methods, including realist ethnography, scenario-based design, persona-based design, and participatory design. Findings: New technology should reflect positive values around ageing and link to psychosocial models of successful ageing, and biopsychosocial models of health and wellbeing. Resident autonomy, wellness and social participation cannot be conceptualized outside an understanding of the relationships older adults have with others. The design remit for this technology is to enable a resident experience that is similar to living at home. New technologies should facilitate wellness and communication/connection, and not simply risk assessment. New technology provides an opportunity to bridge existing information gaps between care planning, care assessments and daily care. Overall this technology needs to be intuitive and uphold the resident’s dignity and rights. Person-to-person interaction is central to care delivery. The introduction of new technology should enhance this interaction, and not threaten it. Conclusions: Future assisted-living (AL technology should be premised by biopsychosocial models of wellness and support relationships between older adults and members of the personal and professional community. New assisted-living technology affords the possibility for improved social relationships, enhanced wellbeing, better quality of care, and independence. Such technologies require careful consideration in relation to adapting to age/condition and managing issues

  1. A Chinese Herbal Medicine, Tokishakuyakusan, Reduces the Worsening of Impairments and Independence after Stroke: A 1-Year Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirozo Goto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In post-stroke patients, the recurrence of stroke and progression of impairments lead to a bedridden state and dementia. As for their treatments, only anti-hypertension and anti-coagulation therapies to prevent the recurrence of stroke are available. In Asia, post-stroke patients with impairments are often treated with herbal medicine. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of tokishakuyakusan (TS in improving the impairment and independence in post-stroke patients. Thirty-one post-stroke patients (mean age = 81.4 years were recruited and enrolled. Participants were randomly assigned to the TS group (n = 16 or non-treatment (control group (n = 15 and treated for 12 months. Impairments were assessed using the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set (SIAS. Independence was evaluated using the functional independence measure (FIM. For each outcome measure, mean change was calculated every 3 months. The results were that impairments according to SIAS did not significantly change in the TS group. In contrast, SIAS significantly worsened in the control group. There was a significant difference between the two groups. In each term of SIAS, affected lower extremity scores, abdominal muscle strength, function of visuospatial perception, and so forth. in the TS group were better than those in the control group. Independence according to FIM did not change significantly in the TS group. In contrast, FIM significantly worsened in the control group. There was also a significant difference between the two groups. In conclusion, TS was considered to suppress the impairments of lower limbs and to exert a favorable effect on cerebral function for post-stroke patients.

  2. Development of a new risk score for incident type 2 diabetes using updated diagnostic criteria in middle-aged and older chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwang Ye

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM reaches an epidemic proportion among adults in China. However, no simple score has been created for the prediction of T2DM incidence diagnosed by updated criteria with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c ≥ 6.5% included in Chinese. In a 6-year follow-up cohort in Beijing and Shanghai, China, we recruited a total of 2529 adults aged 50-70 years in 2005 and followed them up in 2011. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG, HbA1c, and C-reactive protein (CRP were measured and incident diabetes was identified by the recently updated criteria. Of the 1912 participants without T2DM at baseline, 924 were identified as having T2DM at follow-up, and most of them (72.4% were diagnosed using the HbA1c criterion. Baseline body mass index, FPG, HbA1c, CRP, hypertension, and female gender were all significantly associated with incident T2DM. Based upon these risk factors, a simple score was developed with an estimated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.714 (95% confidence interval: 0.691, 0.737, which performed better than most of existing risk score models developed for eastern Asian populations. This simple, newly constructed score of six parameters may be useful in predicting T2DM in middle-aged and older Chinese.

  3. Availability, use, and cultivation of support networks as predictors of the well-being of middle-aged and older Chinese: a panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Alice Ming Lin; Cheung, Chau-kiu; Woo, Jean; Kwan, Alex Yui-Huen

    2012-01-01

    To examine the impact of the availability, use, and cultivation of a support network on the well-being of community-dwelling, middle-aged, and older Chinese. A total of 2,970 Hong Kong Chinese aged 40-74 years were interviewed using a structured questionnaire in 2004. Out of the original group of interviewees, 2,120 (71.4%) were interviewed again in 2005. Structural equation modeling revealed a good fit of the model employing Wave 1 support network data and demographic characteristics to predict Wave 2 well-being. As hypothesized, the availability of important social ties and the cultivation of one's support networks were found to predict well-being one year later, but not the use of support networks to meet emotional, financial, or companion needs after controlling for demographic variables and baseline well-being. Cultivating support networks can be interpreted as positive and active coping. Such cultivation is in line with what socioemotional selectivity theory predicts; specifically, when people age, they become more selective and concentrate on strengthening their relationship with those they are emotionally close to. We argue that network cultivation deserves more attention in theory, practice, and research to strengthen the resilience and adaptability of individuals approaching and experiencing old age.

  4. Availability, Use, and Cultivation of Support Networks as Predictors of the Well-Being of Middle-Aged and Older Chinese: A Panel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Ming Lin Chong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine the impact of the availability, use, and cultivation of a support network on the well-being of community-dwelling, middle-aged, and older Chinese. Methods. A total of 2,970 Hong Kong Chinese aged 40–74 years were interviewed using a structured questionnaire in 2004. Out of the original group of interviewees, 2,120 (71.4% were interviewed again in 2005. Results. Structural equation modeling revealed a good fit of the model employing Wave 1 support network data and demographic characteristics to predict Wave 2 well-being. As hypothesized, the availability of important social ties and the cultivation of one’s support networks were found to predict well-being one year later, but not the use of support networks to meet emotional, financial, or companion needs after controlling for demographic variables and baseline well-being. Discussion. Cultivating support networks can be interpreted as positive and active coping. Such cultivation is in line with what socioemotional selectivity theory predicts; specifically, when people age, they become more selective and concentrate on strengthening their relationship with those they are emotionally close to. We argue that network cultivation deserves more attention in theory, practice, and research to strengthen the resilience and adaptability of individuals approaching and experiencing old age.

  5. An in-depth analysis identifies two new independent signals in 11q23.3 associated with vitiligo in the Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Suli; Fang, Fang; Tang, Xianfa; Dou, Jinfa; Wang, Wenjun; Zheng, Xiaodong; Sun, Liangdan; Zhang, Anping

    2017-10-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease, characterized by progressive loss of skin pigmentation, which is caused by the interactions of multiple factors, such as heredity, immunity and environment. Recently, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs638893 at 11q23.3 region was identified as a risk factor for vitiligo in genome-wide association studies and multiple SNPs in this region have been associated with other autoimmune diseases. This study aims to identify additional susceptibility variants associated with vitiligo at 11q23.3 in the Chinese Han population. We selected and genotyped 26 SNPs at 11q23.3 in an independent cohort including 2924 cases and 4048 controls using the Sequenom MassArray iPLEX ® system. Bonferroni adjustment was used for multiple comparisons and P value vitiligo (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.11-1.31, P=1.20×10 -5 ; OR=1.14, 95% CI: 1.07-1.23, P=1.90×10 -4 , respectively). The C allele of rs638893 (a previously reported one) located upstream of DDX6 was also significantly associated with vitiligo (OR=1.25, 95% CI: 1.12-1.38, P=3.04×10 -5 ). The genotypes distribution of 3 SNPs also showed significant differences between case and control (rs613791: P=7.00×10 -6 , rs523604: P=4.00×10 -3 , rs638893: P=1.20×10 -5 , respectively). The two newly identified SNPs (rs613791 and rs523604) showed independent associations with vitiligo by linkage disequilibrium analysis and conditional logistic regression. The study identified two new independent signals in the associated locus 11q23.3 for vitiligo. The presence of multiple independent variants emphasizes an important role of this region in disease susceptibility. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence, diagnosis, and management of diabetes mellitus among older Chinese: results from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaohui; Crimmins, Eileen M; Hu, Peifeng; Shen, Yang; Smith, James P; Strauss, John; Wang, Yafeng; Zhang, Yuan

    2016-04-01

    To estimate prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), success in diagnosing, and methods of diabetes management in China. China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, a representative survey of the Chinese population at least 45 years old, is used to estimate diabetes and prediabetes prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment and their associations with residence, socioe-conomic, and demographic factors. Almost 60 % of middle-aged and elderly Chinese have prediabetes or diabetes in 2011-2012. DM prevalence increases with age, but the oldest group is least likely to be diagnosed. Prevalence is higher with higher body mass index, fasting cholesterol, and larger waist circumference. Higher prevalence is found in urban areas among residents with urban registration status (the Chinese administrative registration system or hukou), especially in coastal regions. Better rates of diagnosis, management, and education regarding diabetes are strongly associated with urban hukou, living in coastal areas, and in families with higher per capita expenditures, the appropriate economic resources measure in China. Diagnosis and management of diabetes is highly differential within China but recent efforts to improve health systems are succeeding in reducing undiagnosed disease. Current high prevalence of prediabetes suggests a more intensive effort is required in the future.

  7. A prospective cohort study to examine the association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms in older Chinese people in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Chan

    Full Text Available Dietary patterns are culturally specific and there is limited data on the association of dietary patterns with late-life depression in Chinese. This study examined the associations between dietary patterns and baseline and subsequent depressive symptoms in community-dwelling Chinese older people in Hong Kong.Participants aged ≥65 year participating in a cohort study examining the risk factors for osteoporosis completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline between 2001 and 2003. Factor analysis was used to identify three dietary patterns: "vegetables-fruits" pattern, "snacks-drinks-milk products" pattern, and "meat-fish" pattern. Depressive symptoms were measured at baseline and 4-year using the validated Geriatric Depression Scale. Multiple logistic regression was used for cross-sectional analysis (n = 2,902 to assess the associations between dietary patterns and the presence of depressive symptoms, and for longitudinal analysis (n = 2,211 on their associations with 4-year depressive symptoms, with adjustment for socio-demographic and lifestyle factors.The highest quartile of "vegetables-fruits" pattern score was associated with reduced likelihood of depressive symptoms [Adjusted OR = 0.55 (95% CI: 0.36-0.83, ptrend = 0.017] compared to the lowest quartile at baseline. Similar inverse trend was observed for the highest quartile of "snacks-drinks-milk products" pattern score [Adjusted OR = 0.41 (95% CI: 0.26-0.65, ptrend<0.001] compared to the lowest quartile. There was no association of "meat-fish" pattern with the presence of depressive symptoms at baseline. None of the dietary patterns were associated with subsequent depressive symptoms at 4-year.Higher "vegetables-fruits" and "snacks-drinks-milk products" pattern scores were associated with reduced likelihood of baseline depressive symptoms in Chinese older people in Hong Kong. The longitudinal analyses failed to show any causal relationship between

  8. Unconditional and Conditional Standards Using Cognitive Function Curves for the Modified Mini-Mental State Exam: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analyses in Older Chinese Adults in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yin Bun; Xu, Ying; Feng, Lei; Feng, Liang; Nyunt, Ma Shwe Zin; Chong, Mei Sian; Lim, Wee Shiong; Lee, Tih Shih; Yap, Philip; Yap, Keng Bee; Ng, Tze Pin

    2015-09-01

    The conventional practice of assessing cognitive status and monitoring change over time in older adults using normative values of the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) based on age bands is imprecise. Moreover, population-based normative data on changes in MMSE score over time are scarce and crude because they do not include age- and education-specific norms. This study aims to develop unconditional standards for assessing current cognitive status and conditional standards that take prior MMSE score into account for assessing longitudinal change, with percentile curves as smooth functions of age. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data of a modified version of the MMSE for 2,026 older Chinese adults from the Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study, aged 55-84, in Singapore were used to estimate quantile regression coefficients and create unconditional standards and conditional standards. We presented MMSE percentile curves as a smooth function of age in education strata, for unconditional and conditional standards, based on quantile regression coefficient estimates. We found the 5th and 10th percentiles were more strongly associated with age and education than were higher percentiles. Model diagnostics demonstrated the accuracy of the standards. The development and use of unconditional and conditional standards should facilitate cognitive assessment in clinical practice and deserve further studies. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Feldenkrais Method(®) can enhance cognitive function in independent living older adults: A case-series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Gerhild; Williams, Harriet G

    2016-07-01

    Poor cognitive health a major concern of aging individuals, can compromise independent living. More than 16 million people in the United States are affected by cognitive impairment. We have studied the effects of the Feldenkrais Method(®) on cognitive function. In this case series with three participants cognitive function was assessed with the Trail Making Test A and B at baseline and after the Feldenkrais intervention. All participants improved performance on Trail Making Test A and B after completing the Feldenkrais intervention indicating that Feldenkrais lessons may offset age-related decline in cognitive function. The results of this case series warrant larger scale studies on cognitive outcomes of Feldenkrais interventions in clinical and non-clinical populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The self-construal of nurses and doctors: beliefs on interdependence and independence in the care of older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Benjamin G; Reader, Tom

    2013-12-01

    To compare the self-construal of nurses and doctors and establish whether their roles affect perceptions of independence and interdependence. Previous research has identified that errors in patient care occur when health professionals do not work cohesively as a team and have divergent beliefs about collaboration. Thus, it is important to understand factors shaping these beliefs. Although these are usually explained by aspects of group norms, the concept of self-construal may serve as an underlying explanation. A quasi-experimental design was used. One hundred and two nurses and doctors working in three nursing homes in Belgium took part in this study in 2009. Nurses' and doctors' self-construal was measured at their workplace, using Singelis' self-construal scale. Statistical differences between nurses and doctors were investigated using analysis of covariance. Results showed statistically significant differences between doctors' and nurses' self-construal. Doctors reported higher and dominant levels of 'independent self-construal' compared with nurses. There were no differences between nurses and doctors for interdependence. However, gender differences emerged with male doctors reporting lower levels of interdependent self-construal than male nurses. Conversely, female doctors reported higher levels of interdependent self-construal than female nurses. Differences in the roles and training of nurses and doctors and in knowledge of their interdependencies may explain differences in self-construal. This might be useful for understanding why nurses and doctors develop divergent attitudes towards teamwork. Training that focuses on sharing knowledge on team interdependencies may positively influence teamwork attitudes and behaviour. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Dietary pattern transitions, and the associations with BMI, waist circumference, weight and hypertension in a 7-year follow-up among the older Chinese population: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyue Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies explored the effects of nutritional changes on body mass index (BMI, weight (Wt, waist circumference (WC and hypertension, especially for the older Chinese population. Methods By using China Health and Nutrition Survey 2004-2011 waves, a total of 6348 observations aged ≥ 60 were involved in the study. The number of participants dropped from 2197 in 2004, to 1763 in 2006, 1303 in 2009, and 1085 in 2011. Dietary information was obtained from participants using 24 hour-recall over three consecutive days. Height, Wt, WC, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were also measured in each survey year. The dietary pattern was derived by exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis methods. Linear Mixed Models were used to investigate associations of dietary patterns with BMI, Wt and WC. Generalized Estimating Equation models were used to assess the associations between dietary patterns and hypertension. Results Over time, older people’s diets were shifting towards a modern dietary pattern (high intake of dairy, fruit, cakes and fast food. Traditional and modern dietary patterns had distinct associations with BMI, Wt and WC. Participants with a diet in the highest quartile for traditional composition had a β (difference in mean of −0.23 (95 % CI: −0.44; −0.02 for BMI decrease, β of −0.90 (95 % CI: −1.42; −0.37 for Wt decrease; and β of −1.57 (95 % CI: −2.32; −0.83 for WC decrease. However, participants with a diet in the highest quartile for modern diet had a β of 0.29 (95 % CI: 0.12; 0.47 for BMI increase; β of 1.02 (95 % CI: 0.58; 1.46 for Wt increase; and β of 1.44 (95 % CI: 0.78; 2.10 for Wt increase. No significant associations were found between dietary patterns and hypertension. Conclusions We elucidate the associations between dietary pattern and change in BMI, Wt, WC and hypertension in a 7-year follow-up study. The strong association between favourable body

  12. Dietary pattern transitions, and the associations with BMI, waist circumference, weight and hypertension in a 7-year follow-up among the older Chinese population: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyue; Byles, Julie; Shi, Zumin; McElduff, Patrick; Hall, John

    2016-08-08

    Few studies explored the effects of nutritional changes on body mass index (BMI), weight (Wt), waist circumference (WC) and hypertension, especially for the older Chinese population. By using China Health and Nutrition Survey 2004-2011 waves, a total of 6348 observations aged ≥ 60 were involved in the study. The number of participants dropped from 2197 in 2004, to 1763 in 2006, 1303 in 2009, and 1085 in 2011. Dietary information was obtained from participants using 24 hour-recall over three consecutive days. Height, Wt, WC, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were also measured in each survey year. The dietary pattern was derived by exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis methods. Linear Mixed Models were used to investigate associations of dietary patterns with BMI, Wt and WC. Generalized Estimating Equation models were used to assess the associations between dietary patterns and hypertension. Over time, older people's diets were shifting towards a modern dietary pattern (high intake of dairy, fruit, cakes and fast food). Traditional and modern dietary patterns had distinct associations with BMI, Wt and WC. Participants with a diet in the highest quartile for traditional composition had a β (difference in mean) of -0.23 (95 % CI: -0.44; -0.02) for BMI decrease, β of -0.90 (95 % CI: -1.42; -0.37) for Wt decrease; and β of -1.57 (95 % CI: -2.32; -0.83) for WC decrease. However, participants with a diet in the highest quartile for modern diet had a β of 0.29 (95 % CI: 0.12; 0.47) for BMI increase; β of 1.02 (95 % CI: 0.58; 1.46) for Wt increase; and β of 1.44 (95 % CI: 0.78; 2.10) for Wt increase. No significant associations were found between dietary patterns and hypertension. We elucidate the associations between dietary pattern and change in BMI, Wt, WC and hypertension in a 7-year follow-up study. The strong association between favourable body composition and traditional diet, compared with an increase in BMI, WC and Wt

  13. Exploring the experiences of older Chinese adults with comorbidities including diabetes: surmounting these challenges in order to live a normal life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho HY

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hsiu-Yu Ho,1,2 Mei-Hui Chen,2,3 Meei-Fang Lou1 1School of Nursing, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, 2Department of Nursing, Yuanpei University of Medical Technology, 3National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Background: Many people with diabetes have comorbidities, even multimorbidities, which have a far-reaching impact on the older adults, their family, and society. However, little is known of the experience of older adults living with comorbidities that include diabetes. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the experience of older adults living with comorbidities including diabetes. Methods: A qualitative approach was employed. Data were collected from a selected field of 12 patients with diabetes mellitus in a medical center in northern Taiwan. The data were analyzed by Colaizzi’s phenomenological methodology, and four criteria of Lincoln and Guba were used to evaluate the rigor of the study. Results: The following 5 themes and 14 subthemes were derived: 1 expecting to heal or reduce the symptoms of the disease (trying to alleviate the distress of symptoms and trusting in health practitioners combining the use of Chinese and Western medicines; 2 comparing complex medical treatments (differences in physician practices and presentation, conditionally adhering to medical treatment, and partnering with medical professionals; 3 inconsistent information (inconsistent health information and inconsistent medical advice; 4 impacting on daily life (activities are limited and hobbies cannot be maintained and psychological distress; and 5 weighing the pros and cons (taking the initiative to deal with issues, limiting activity, adjusting mental outlook and pace of life, developing strategies for individual health regimens, and seeking support. Surmounting these challenges in order to live a normal life was explored. Conclusion: This study found that the experience of older adults

  14. Violet stimulated luminescence dating of quartz from Luochuan (Chinese loess plateau): Agreement with independent chronology up to ∼600 ka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankjærgaard, C.; Guralnik, B.; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Luminescence dating at the Luochuan loess type (China) section is at present limited to ∼0.1 Ma using quartz blue light stimulated luminescence (BLSL), but can be extended back in time to ∼0.5 Ma by resorting to the more developmental post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (post-IR IRSL...... demonstrate that the Multi-Aliquot Additive-Dose (MAAD) protocol produces a VSL chronology at Luochuan which is in agreement with independent ages up to ∼0.6 Ma. For a more representative environmental dose rate of ∼2 Gy/ka (∼35% lower than at Luochuan), the documented range of MAAD-VSL sensitivity (200...

  15. Change in body fat mass is independently associated with executive functions in older women: a secondary analysis of a 12-month randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Dao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the independent contribution of change in sub-total body fat and lean mass to cognitive performance, specifically the executive processes of selective attention and conflict resolution, in community-dwelling older women. METHODS: This secondary analysis included 114 women aged 65 to 75 years old. Participants were randomly allocated to once-weekly resistance training, twice-weekly resistance training, or twice-weekly balance and tone training. The primary outcome measure was the executive processes of selective attention and conflict resolution as assessed by the Stroop Test. Sub-total body fat and lean mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA to determine the independent association of change in both sub-total body fat and sub-total body lean mass with Stroop Test performance at trial completion. RESULTS: A multiple linear regression model showed reductions in sub-total body fat mass to be independently associated with better performance on the Stroop Test at trial completion after accounting for baseline Stroop performance, age, baseline global cognitive state, baseline number of comorbidities, baseline depression, and experimental group. The total variance explained was 39.5%; change in sub-total body fat mass explained 3.9% of the variance. Change in sub-total body lean mass was not independently associated with Stroop Test performance (P>0.05. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that reductions in sub-total body fat mass - not sub-total lean mass - is associated with better performance of selective attention and conflict resolution.

  16. Independent Versus Co-occurring Substance Use in Relation to Gambling Outcomes in Older Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronce, Jessica M; Bittinger, Joyce N; Di Lodovico, Cory M; Liu, Junny

    2017-05-01

    Gambling is prevalent among college students and can be associated with significant negative consequences. Students who report gambling also tend to report use of alcohol and cannabis, but little research has explored the associated risks of using these substances in relation to gambling episodes. This study explored associations between the independent and co-occurring use of alcohol and cannabis before/during gambling episodes and gambling outcomes. Students (n = 1,834) completed an online survey that included measures of gambling frequency, amount lost, negative gambling consequences, gambling problem severity, and substance use. As hypothesized, individuals who reported using either alcohol or cannabis alone or both substances before/while gambling endorsed greater gambling quantity, frequency, negative consequences, and problem severity than individuals who used alcohol and cannabis in general but denied use of either substance before/while gambling. Use of both substances compared to use of alcohol alone was associated with greater gambling quantity, frequency, and negative consequences, although these groups did not differ on gambling problem severity. Cannabis use alone was no different on any outcome than use of both substances, and alcohol use alone was no different than cannabis use alone on any outcome. Use of cannabis alone before/while gambling may confer the same level of risk for negative gambling outcomes as use of both cannabis and alcohol. Prevention efforts may, therefore, benefit from targeting cannabis use in relation to gambling. Additional investigation is needed in light of recent and upcoming state legislation on the legalization of cannabis. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Preventing Loss of Independence through Exercise (PLIÉ): qualitative analysis of a clinical trial in older adults with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Eveline; Barnes, Deborah E; Ackerman, Sara L; Lee, Jennifer; Chesney, Margaret; Mehling, Wolf E

    2015-01-01

    Preventing Loss of Independence through Exercise (PLIÉ) is a novel, integrative exercise program for individuals with dementia that combines elements of different conventional and complementary exercise modalities (e.g. tai-chi, yoga, Feldenkrais, and dance movement therapy) and focuses on training procedural memory for basic functional movements (e.g., sit-to-stand) while increasing mindful body awareness and facilitating social connection. This study presents analyses of qualitative data collected during a 36-week cross-over pilot clinical trial in 11 individuals. Qualitative data included exercise instructors' written notes, which were prepared after each class and also following biweekly telephone calls with caregivers and monthly home visits; three video-recorded classes; and written summaries prepared by research assistants following pre- and post-intervention quantitative assessments. Data were extracted for each study participant and placed onto a timeline for month of observation. Data were coded and analyzed to identify themes that were confirmed and refined through an iterative, collaborative process by the entire team including a qualitative researcher (SA) and the exercise instructors. Three overarching themes emerged: (1) Functional changes included increasing body awareness, movement memory and functional skill. (2) Emotional changes included greater acceptance of resting, sharing of personal stories and feelings, and positive attitude toward exercise. (3) Social changes included more coherent social interactions and making friends. These qualitative results suggest that the PLIÉ program may be associated with beneficial functional, emotional, and social changes for individuals with mild to moderate dementia. Further study of the PLIÉ program in individuals with dementia is warranted.

  18. Psychosocial adaptation status and health-related quality of life among older Chinese adults with visual disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2009-09-01

    To examine the association of psychosocial adaptation status with vision-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and the role of psychosocial adaptation in the linkage between visual impairment and vision-specific HRQOL outcomes among older adults with visual disorders. In this cross-sectional study, older urban adults with visual problems (N = 167) were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to assess their self-reported visual function, general health, psychosocial adaptation status, and vision-specific HRQOL. Performance-based measure of visual function marked by distance visual acuity was clinically conducted by ophthalmologists. It was found in the study that psychosocial adaptation status was significantly associated with vision-specific HRQOL, including the domains of mental health symptoms due to vision and dependency on others due to vision. The results also showed that psychosocial adaptation status could buffer the effect of visual impairment on vision-specific HRQOL, including the domains of social function, mental health, and dependency. Psychosocial adaptation status is significantly associated with multiple domains of vision-specific HRQOL. The findings have significant implications for health education and psychosocial intervention for older adults with age-related vision loss.

  19. Cultural perspectives of older nursing home residents regarding signing their own DNR directives in Eastern Taiwan: a qualitative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-Tzu Sophie; Cheng, Shu-Chen; Dai, Yu-Tzu; Chang, Mei; Hu, Wen-Yu

    2016-05-06

    Chinese tradition and culture developed from Taoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism and have influenced ethnic Chinese for thousands of years, particularly thoughts on death. Many ethnic Chinese, particularly older people, refrain from discussing death-related concerns, making it difficult to obtain advance directives, including do-not-resuscitate (DNR) directives, signed independently by older people. This study explored the attitudes of older nursing home residents in Taiwan toward signing their own DNR directives. This study adopted purposive sampling and collected data through in-depth interviews. The data were analysed using qualitative inductive content analysis, and the study location was a nursing home in Eastern Taiwan. A total of 11participants were recruited from a sample of 12 eligible participants. Most of the older residents in this study refused to make decisions independently regarding DNR directives. Content analysis of the interviews revealed four themes concerning refusing to sign DNR directives independently: not going against nature, accepting the results of cause and effect, viewing the family as a decision-making system, and practising self-effacement. Chinese cultural aspects, including Taoist, Buddhist, and Confucian philosophy, affected the autonomy of the older residents, and they relied on others to make decisions for them. Professionals must respect this family-oriented decision-making thinking of older residents because it reflects personal choice. Otherwise, healthcare providers may play a mediating role in coordinating and communicating between older residents and their families regarding EOL-care-related concerns, replacing the traditional practice of holding a family meeting.

  20. Exploring the experiences of older Chinese adults with comorbidities including diabetes: surmounting these challenges in order to live a normal life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsiu-Yu; Chen, Mei-Hui

    2018-01-01

    Background Many people with diabetes have comorbidities, even multimorbidities, which have a far-reaching impact on the older adults, their family, and society. However, little is known of the experience of older adults living with comorbidities that include diabetes. Aim The aim of this study was to explore the experience of older adults living with comorbidities including diabetes. Methods A qualitative approach was employed. Data were collected from a selected field of 12 patients with diabetes mellitus in a medical center in northern Taiwan. The data were analyzed by Colaizzi’s phenomenological methodology, and four criteria of Lincoln and Guba were used to evaluate the rigor of the study. Results The following 5 themes and 14 subthemes were derived: 1) expecting to heal or reduce the symptoms of the disease (trying to alleviate the distress of symptoms and trusting in health practitioners combining the use of Chinese and Western medicines); 2) comparing complex medical treatments (differences in physician practices and presentation, conditionally adhering to medical treatment, and partnering with medical professionals); 3) inconsistent information (inconsistent health information and inconsistent medical advice); 4) impacting on daily life (activities are limited and hobbies cannot be maintained and psychological distress); and 5) weighing the pros and cons (taking the initiative to deal with issues, limiting activity, adjusting mental outlook and pace of life, developing strategies for individual health regimens, and seeking support). Surmounting these challenges in order to live a normal life was explored. Conclusion This study found that the experience of older adults living with comorbidities including diabetes was similar to that of a single disease, but the extent was greater than a single disease. The biggest difference is that the elderly think that their most serious problem is not diabetes, but rather, the comorbidities causing life limitations

  1. The ERP Effects of Combined Cognitive Training on Intention-based and Stimulus-based Actions in Older Chinese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Nan Niu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Age-related decreases in action are caused by neuromuscular weakness and cognitive decline. Although physical interventions have been reported to have beneficial effects on cognitive function in older adults, whether cognitive training improves action-related function remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of combined cognitive training on intention-based and stimulus-based actions in older adults using event-related potentials (ERPs. A total of 26 healthy older adults (16 in the training group and 10 in the control group participated in the study. The training group received 16 sessions of cognitive training, including 8 sessions of executive function training and 8 sessions of memory strategy training. Before and after training, both groups of participants underwent cognitive assessments and ERP recordings during both the acquisition and test phases with a motor cognitive paradigm. During the acquisition phase, subjects were asked to press one of two keys, either using a self-selected (intention-based method or based on the preceding stimulus (stimulus-based. During the test phase, subjects were asked to respond to the pre-cues with either congruent or incongruent tasks. Using ERP indices—including readiness potential, P3 and contingent negative variation to identify motor preparation, stimulus processing and interference effect, respectively—we revealed the effects of training on both intention-based and stimulus-based actions. The correlations were also computed between the improved cognitive performance and the ERP amplitudes. It was shown that the improved executive function might extend substantial benefits to both actions, whereas associative memory may be specifically related to the bidirectional action-effect association of intention-based action, although the training effect of memory was absent during the insufficient training hours. In sum, the present study provided empirical evidence demonstrating that

  2. A validation study of the Hong Kong version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (HK-MoCA) in Chinese older adults in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, P Y; Wong, L L; Chan, C C; Leung, Jess L M; Yung, C Y

    2014-12-01

    To validate the Hong Kong version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (HK-MoCA) in identification of mild cognitive impairment and dementia in Chinese older adults. Cross-sectional study. Cognition clinic and memory clinic of a public hospital in Hong Kong. A total of 272 participants (dementia, n=130; mild cognitive impairment, n=93; normal controls, n=49) aged 60 years or above were assessed using HK-MoCA. The HK-MoCA scores were validated against expert diagnosis according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed) criteria for dementia and Petersen's criteria for mild cognitive impairment. Statistical analysis was performed using receiver operating characteristic curve and regression analyses. Additionally, comparison was made with the Cantonese version of Mini-Mental State Examination and Global Deterioration Scale. The optimal cutoff score for the HK-MoCA to differentiate cognitive impaired persons (mild cognitive impairment and dementia) from normal controls was 21/22 after adjustment of education level, giving a sensitivity of 0.928, specificity of 0.735, and area under the curve of 0.920. Moreover, the cutoff to detect mild cognitive impairment was 21/22 with a sensitivity of 0.828, specificity of 0.735, and area under the curve of 0.847. Score of the Cantonese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination to detect mild cognitive impairment was 26/27 with a sensitivity of 0.785, specificity of 0.816, and area under the curve of 0.857. At the optimal cutoff of 18/19, HK-MoCA identified dementia from controls with a sensitivity of 0.923, specificity of 0.918, and area under the curve of 0.971. The HK-MoCA is a useful cognitive screening instrument for use in Chinese older adults in Hong Kong. A score of less than 22 should prompt further diagnostic assessment. It has comparable sensitivity with the Cantonese version of Mini-Mental State Examination for detection of mild cognitive impairment. It is brief and feasible to conduct in the

  3. Higher Prevalence of Frailty Among a Sample of HIV-Infected Middle-aged and Older Chinese Adults Is Associated With Neurocognitive Impairment and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yingying; Lin, Haijiang; Liu, Xing; Wong, Frank Y; Sun, Yan V; Marconi, Vincent C; He, Na

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the prevalence and correlates of prefrailty/frailty, determined on the basis of the Fried criteria, in Chinese patients with and those without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. HIV-infected patients were more likely to be frail or prefrail than controls, and this association remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders (odds ratio, 3.79). After additional adjustment for neurocognitive impairment and depressive and insomnia symptoms, this association remained significant but attenuated (odds ratio, 2.16). In the HIV-infected group, these 3 variables were independently associated with prefrailty/frailty. These findings suggest that neurocognitive impairment and depressive and/or insomnia symptoms may account for a higher prevalence of prefrailty/frailty in HIV-infected patients but require further longitudinal investigation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Associations Between the Differential Definitions of Elder Mistreatment and Suicidal Ideation Outcomes in U.S. Chinese Older Adults: Do the Definitions Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi

    2017-07-01

    Elder mistreatment (EM) prevalence varies greatly according to definitional criteria. However, little is known regarding the significance of different EM definitions with respect to health outcome. This paper explores the association between different definitions of EM and their subtypes and suicidal ideation (SI) in an U.S. Chinese aging population. The Population Study of ChINese Elderly in Chicago Study was conducted from 2011 to 2013 of 3157 community-dwelling Chinese older adults aged 60 years. Psychological, physical mistreatment (PM), caregiver neglect (CN), financial exploitation (FE), and overall EM were measured by different definitional approaches varying in the strictness. SI in the past 2 weeks and 12 months were assessed. After adjusting for confounders, the least restrictive EM definition (odds ratio [OR], 2.10 [1.34-3.28]; OR, 2.43 [1.66-3.55]), moderately restrictive EM definition (OR, 2.87 [1.80-4.56]; OR, 2.71 [1.82-4.04]), and most restrictive EM definition (OR, 2.24 [1.36-3.66]; OR, 2.34 [1.54-3.56]) were associated with increased risk for 2-week and 12-month SI. For subtypes of EM, psychological mistreatment (the least and most restrictive definitions, 2-week SI: OR, 2.83 [1.71-4.68]; OR, 3.13 [1.10-8.91]; 12-month SI: OR, 2.43 [1.56-3.78]; OR, 2.88 [1.10-7.54]), PM (2-week SI: OR, 5.12 [1.83-14.29]; 12-month SI: OR, 3.45 [1.30-9.13]), and FE was not associated with 2-week SI, only the broadly defined FE (OR, 1.73 [1.01-2.96]) was associated with higher odds of reporting 12-month SI. CN was only associated with higher odds of reporting 12-month SI (OR, 2.17 [1.19-3.96]; OR, 1.94 [1.24-3.04]) but not 2-week SI. EM and its subtypes were significantly associated with SI; some associations varied by definitions and subtypes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. An Age-Friendly Living Environment as Seen by Chinese Older Adults: A “Photovoice” Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen W.K. Chan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available “Ageing in place” is a policy initiative strongly advocated by the World Health Organization to face the challenge of an ageing population. This pilot study used a “photovoice” approach, aiming to explore aspects of the housing environment considered by older people as important in facilitating ageing in place. It enabled participants to express their ideas through photographs. Each participant was asked to take photos that illustrated age-friendly features they considered crucial for supporting their lives in the community. A total of 44 older people participated in the pilot study, and 300 photos were collected. Participants were invited to describe the reasons for taking these photos by filling in a journal sheet. A semi-structured interview was then conducted with individual participants, who were asked to elaborate on the meaning of their photos. The analysis revealed three themes: (1 age-friendly housing design; (2 supportive neighborhood; and (3 connection to family and the community. These three themes are pillars of an age-friendly city, which are important to seniors to facilitate ageing in place.

  6. Self-assessment of independence in older people: First results from an open-access website for senior citizens and caregivers in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskas, Pierre; Wolfowicz, B

    2018-05-01

    E-health initiatives on the Internet can be used to provide support to people with chronic diseases and to their caregivers. In 2014/2015, we created a free website called jesuisautonome.fr where older people, or their carers on their behalf, can assess their independence in daily living by filling out a simple questionnaire. To evaluate the interest of the public in websites of this kind, by analysing home care plans obtained via the self-assessment questionnaire. We also describe patterns of use and visitor behaviour. Over a period of 6 months, we analysed data from the website in terms of the basic characteristics of the user; the number of questionnaires completed; the main types of needs in terms of home support; and data from Google Analytics about the number of visitors, user behaviour and behaviour flow. During the 6-month study period, 439 visitors to the site either viewed, part-completed or fully completed the questionnaire. A total of 190 users completed the questionnaire. Seventy-one per cent of the completed questionnaires were from family caregivers, and 29% were from senior citizens. The mean age of those receiving care was 78 ± 10.46 years. Their main needs were for domiciliary care (29.3%). Data from Google Analytics showed about 420 visits per month. Approximately 7.5% completed a questionnaire, approximately 5.3% downloaded a home care plan and there was a bounce rate of about 62%. First results from this website tend to endorse its use as a means of making practical solutions available to caregivers and older people.

  7. Association of Accelerometry-Measured Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Events in Mobility-Limited Older Adults: The LIFE (Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Shannon K; Chen, Shyh-Huei; Fitzgerald, Jodi D; Dodson, John A; Fielding, Roger A; King, Abby C; McDermott, Mary M; Manini, Todd M; Marsh, Anthony P; Newman, Anne B; Pahor, Marco; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Ambrosius, Walter T; Buford, Thomas W

    2017-12-02

    Data are sparse regarding the value of physical activity (PA) surveillance among older adults-particularly among those with mobility limitations. The objective of this study was to examine longitudinal associations between objectively measured daily PA and the incidence of cardiovascular events among older adults in the LIFE (Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders) study. Cardiovascular events were adjudicated based on medical records review, and cardiovascular risk factors were controlled for in the analysis. Home-based activity data were collected by hip-worn accelerometers at baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 months postrandomization to either a physical activity or health education intervention. LIFE study participants (n=1590; age 78.9±5.2 [SD] years; 67.2% women) at baseline had an 11% lower incidence of experiencing a subsequent cardiovascular event per 500 steps taken per day based on activity data (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-0.96; P =0.001). At baseline, every 30 minutes spent performing activities ≥500 counts per minute (hazard ratio, 0.75; confidence interval, 0.65-0.89 [ P =0.001]) were also associated with a lower incidence of cardiovascular events. Throughout follow-up (6, 12, and 24 months), both the number of steps per day (per 500 steps; hazard ratio, 0.90, confidence interval, 0.85-0.96 [ P =0.001]) and duration of activity ≥500 counts per minute (per 30 minutes; hazard ratio, 0.76; confidence interval, 0.63-0.90 [ P =0.002]) were significantly associated with lower cardiovascular event rates. Objective measurements of physical activity via accelerometry were associated with cardiovascular events among older adults with limited mobility (summary score >10 on the Short Physical Performance Battery) both using baseline and longitudinal data. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01072500. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  8. The relation between cigarette taxes and older adult smoking in Zhejiang and Gansu: what happened following the 2009 Chinese Tax adjustments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing

    2017-04-04

    In May 2009, the Chinese government raised cigarette excise tax rates and adjusted standards for Grade A cigarettes and Grade B cigarettes. The present study aimed to examine the effects of the tax adjustments in 2009 on smoking behaviors and health outcomes among smokers aged above 45. Data from the 2008 and 2012 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study of Zhejiang and Gansu provinces were used to estimate the influence of tax increase on the number of cigarettes smoked daily and health capital. The sample included 706 smokers who were 45 years old and older at the time of data collection in 2008. The sample group was surveyed again in 2012. The final sample size was 1366. Logit model was applied. Cigarette tax adjustment in 2009 resulted in the decrease in the likelihood of smoking 0-10 cigarettes per day by 1.06%; the increase in the likelihood of those smoking 11-20 cigarettes per day by 0.44%; and, those smoking 20 cigarettes or more by 0.63%; the decrease in the likelihood of good health by 0.47%; the increase in the prevalence of chronic disease by 1.34%. The smoke tax adjustment in 2009 worsened individual unhealthy smoking behaviors and health outcomes. The proposed cigarette tax levied at the retail level can reduce the State Tobacco Monopoly Administration's control overall and each price and increase the influence of the market on cigarette consumption in China.

  9. Sleep Duration and Midday Napping with 5-Year Incidence and Reversion of Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged and Older Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liangle; Xu, Zengguang; He, Meian; Yang, Handong; Li, Xiulou; Min, Xinwen; Zhang, Ce; Xu, Chengwei; Angileri, Francesca; Légaré, Sébastien; Yuan, Jing; Miao, Xiaoping; Guo, Huan; Yao, Ping; Wu, Tangchun; Zhang, Xiaomin

    2016-11-01

    Prospective evidence on the association of sleep duration and midday napping with metabolic syndrome (MetS) is limited. We aimed to examine the associations of sleep duration and midday napping with risk of incidence and reversion of MetS and its components among a middle-aged and older Chinese population. We included 14,399 subjects from the Dongfeng-Tongji (DFTJ) Cohort Study (2008-2013) who were free of coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer at baseline. Baseline data were obtained by questionnaires and health examinations. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were derived from multivariate logistic regression models. After controlling for potential covariates, longer sleep duration (≥ 9 h) was associated with a higher risk of MetS incidence (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.08-1.55) and lower reversion of MetS (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.66-0.96) compared with sleep duration of 7 to napping, subjects with longer napping (≥ 90 min) was also associated with a higher risk of MetS incidence and a lower risk of MetS reversion compared with those with napping of 1 to napping categories. Both longer sleep duration and longer midday napping were potential risk factors for MetS incidence, and concurrently exert adverse effects on MetS reversion. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  10. Longer Sleep Duration and Midday Napping Are Associated with a Higher Risk of CHD Incidence in Middle-Aged and Older Chinese: the Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liangle; Yang, Handong; He, Meian; Pan, An; Li, Xiulou; Min, Xinwen; Zhang, Ce; Xu, Chengwei; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Jing; Wei, Sheng; Miao, Xiaoping; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Tangchun; Zhang, Xiaomin

    2016-03-01

    To analyze the independent and combined relations of sleep duration and midday napping with coronary heart diseases (CHD) incidence along with the underlying changes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Chinese adults. We included 19,370 individuals aged 62.8 years at baseline from September 2008 to June 2010, and they were followed until October 2013. Cox proportional hazards models and general linear models were used for multivariate longitudinal analyses. Compared with sleeping 7- napping > 90 min compared with 1-30 min. When sleep duration and midday napping were combined, individuals having sleep duration ≥ 10 h and midday napping > 90 min were at a greater risk of CHD than those with sleeping 7- napping 1-30 min: the HR was 1.67 (95% CI = 1.04 to 2.66; P for trend = 0.017). In addition, longer sleep duration ≥ 10 h was significantly associated with increases in triglycerides and waist circumference, and a reduction in HDL-cholesterol; while longer midday napping > 90 min was related to increased waist circumference. Both longer sleep duration and midday napping were independently and jointly associated with a higher risk of CHD incidence, and altered lipid profile and waist circumference may partially explain the relationships. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  11. Effectiveness of Aromatherapy Massage and Inhalation on Symptoms of Depression in Chinese Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Mei; Li, Yanzhang; Tang, Ping; Zhang, Yuping; Cao, Min; Ni, Junwei; Xing, Mengmeng

    2018-03-22

    Geriatric depression is a major public health problem in China. The study compared the intervention and follow-up effects of aromatherapy massage and inhalation on symptoms of depression in community-dwelling older adults after an 8-week intervention. A prospective, randomized controlled trial was conducted on community-dwelling adults ≥60 years old, with symptoms of depression. Participants were randomly assigned, by Latin Square, to aromatherapy massage, inhalation, or control groups (each n = 20). The aromatherapy massage group received 30 min of aromatherapy massage with 5 mL oil, twice weekly for 8 weeks. The oil contained 50 μL (one drop) of compound essential oils (lavender [Lavandula angustifolia], sweet orange [Citrus sinensis], and bergamot (Citrus bergamia in a 2:1:1 ratio)], diluted in sweet almond oil to a concentration of 1%. The aromatherapy inhalation group received 30 min of nasal inhalation of 50 μL of the compound essential oils blended in 10 mL of purified water, twice weekly for 8 weeks. The control group received no intervention. The Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form (GDS-SF) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) were used for assessment at pretest, posttest, and 6- and 10-week follow-ups in all groups. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration was assessed pretest and posttest. Postintervention, the aromatherapy massage and inhalation groups demonstrated significantly lower GDS-SF and PHQ-9 scores than control participants. Compared with the pretest, the GDS-SF and PHQ-9 scores for depressive symptoms in both experimental groups remained lower at posttest (8 weeks), 6-week (14 weeks), and 10-week (18 weeks) follow-ups. However, the GDS-SF and PHQ-9 scores did not differ among the four time points in the control group. The posttest 5-HT concentrations in the aromatherapy massage and inhalation groups were increased over pretest values. Both aromatherapy massage and aromatherapy inhalation may have important

  12. Later Age at Onset of Independent Walking Is Associated With Lower Bone Strength at Fracture-Prone Sites in Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Alex; Muthuri, Stella; Rittweger, Joern; Adams, Judith E; Ward, Kate A; Kuh, Diana; Cooper, Rachel

    2017-06-01

    Later age at onset of independent walking is associated with lower leg bone strength in childhood and adolescence. However, it is unknown whether these associations persist into older age or whether they are evident at axial (central) or upper limb sites. Therefore, we examined walking age obtained at age 2 years and bone outcomes obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) scans at ages 60 to 64 years in a nationally representative cohort study of British people, the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. It was hypothesized that later walking age would be associated with lower bone strength at all sites. Later independent walking age was associated with lower height-adjusted hip (standardized regression coefficients with 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.179 [-0.251 to -0.107]), spine (-0.157 [-0.232 to -0.082]), and distal radius (-0.159 [-0.245 to -0.073]) bone mineral content (BMC, indicating bone compressive strength) in men (all p lower lean mass and adolescent sporting ability in later walkers. These associations were also evident for a number of hip geometric parameters (including cross-sectional moment of inertia [CSMI], indicating bone bending/torsional strength) assessed by hip structural analysis (HSA) from DXA scans. Similar height-adjusted associations were also observed in women for several hip, spine, and upper limb outcomes, although adjustment for fat or lean mass led to complete attenuation for most outcomes, with the exception of femoral shaft CSMI and spine bone area (BA). In conclusion, later independent walking age appears to have a lifelong association with bone strength across multiple skeletal sites in men. These effects may result from direct effects of early life loading on bone growth and mediation by adult body composition. Results suggest that late walking age may represent a novel risk factor for subsequent low bone strength. Existing interventions effective in

  13. Associations between dietary patterns and demographics, lifestyle, anthropometry and blood pressure in Chinese community-dwelling older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ruth; Chan, Dicken; Woo, Jean

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined dietary patterns, and the associations of these patterns with demographics, lifestyle, anthropometry and blood pressure in 3707 Chinese people aged 65 years and above taking part in a population-based cohort study investigating the risk factors for osteoporosis. Baseline dietary data were collected using a validated FFQ. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis. Scores were calculated for each pattern. Demographics, lifestyle factors and self-reported hypertension history were collected through a questionnaire. BMI, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. Three dietary patterns were identified, namely 'vegetables-fruit', 'snacks-drinks-milk products' and 'meat-fish'. Participants who were more physically active, more educated, non-smokers and non-drinkers were more likely to have higher 'vegetables-fruit' dietary pattern scores. Current smoking habit and alcohol use were associated with higher 'snacks-drinks-milk products' dietary pattern scores and 'meat-fish' dietary pattern scores. 'Vegetables-fruit' dietary pattern scores were inversely (unstandardised regression coefficient B = -0·60 mmHg, 95 % CI -1·04, -0·16) and 'snacks-drinks-milk products' dietary pattern scores were positively (B = 0·50 mmHg, 95 % CI 0·08, 0·92) associated with DBP in men in multiple regressions. Higher 'meat-fish' dietary pattern scores were associated with higher BMI (B = 0·19 kg/m(2), 95 % CI 0·06, 0·33), waist-to-hip ratio (B = 0·004, 95 % CI 0·002, 0·007) and WC (B = 0·57 cm, 95 % CI 0·18, 0·97) in men, and higher BMI (B = 0·40 kg/m(2), 95 % CI 0·22, 0·57), WC (B = 0·87 cm, 95 % CI 0·39, 1·36) and HC (B = 0·61 cm, 95 % CI 0·26, 0·96) in women in multiple regressions. The influence of demographic and lifestyle characteristics on dietary patterns and the health risks associated

  14. MultiComponent Exercise and theRApeutic lifeStyle (CERgAS) intervention to improve physical performance and maintain independent living among urban poor older people--a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Debbie Ann; Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Choo, Wan Yuen; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Peramalah, Devi; Kandiben, Shathanapriya; Lee, Pek Ling; Gani, Norlissa; Madzlan, Mohamed Faris; Abd Hamid, Mohd Alif Idham; Akram, Zohaib; Chu, Ai Sean; Bulgiba, Awang; Cumming, Robert G

    2015-02-11

    The ability of older people to function independently is crucial as physical disability and functional limitation have profound impacts on health. Interventions that either delay the onset of frailty or attenuate its severity potentially have cascading benefits for older people, their families and society. This study aims to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a multiComponent Exercise and theRApeutic lifeStyle (CERgAS) intervention program targeted at improving physical performance and maintaining independent living as compared to general health education among older people in an urban poor setting in Malaysia. This cluster randomised controlled trial will be a 6-week community-based intervention programme for older people aged 60 years and above from urban poor settings. A minimum of 164 eligible participants will be recruited from 8 clusters (low-cost public subsidised flats) and randomised to the intervention and control arm. This study will be underpinned by the Health Belief Model with an emphasis towards self-efficacy. The intervention will comprise multicomponent group exercise sessions, nutrition education, oral care education and on-going support and counselling. These will be complemented with a kit containing practical tips on exercise, nutrition and oral care after each session. Data will be collected over four time points; at baseline, immediately post-intervention, 3-months and 6-months follow-up. Findings from this trial will potentially provide valuable evidence to improve physical function and maintain independence among older people from low-resource settings. This will inform health policies and identify locally acceptable strategies to promote healthy aging, prevent and delay functional decline among older Malaysian adults. ISRCTN22749696.

  15. Efficacy of dexamethasone suppression test during the diagnosis of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease in Chinese adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi; Li, Ran; Lu, Lin; Duan, Lian; Zhang, Xuebin; Tong, Anli; Pan, Hui; Zhu, Huijuan; Lu, Zhaolin

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the cut-off value of the ratio of 24 h urinary free cortisol (24 h UFC) levels post-dexamethasone to prior-dexamethasone in dexamethasone suppression test (DST) during the diagnosis of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease in Chinese adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing syndrome. Retrospective study. The patients diagnosed with primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD, n = 25), bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (BMAH, n = 27), and adrenocortical adenoma (ADA, n = 84) were admitted to the Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2001 to 2016. Serum cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and 24 h UFC were measured before and after low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDST) and high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST). After LDDST and HDDST, 24 h UFC elevated in patients with PPNAD (paired t-test, P = 0.007 and P = 0.001), while it remained unchanged in the BMAH group (paired t-test, P = 0.471 and P = 0.414) and decreased in the ADA group (paired t-test, P = 0.002 and P = 0.004). The 24 h UFC level after LDDST was higher in PPNAD and BMAH as compared to ADA (P < 0.017), while no significant difference was observed between PPNAD and BMAH. After HDDST, 24 h UFC was higher in patients with PPNAD as compared to that of ADA and BMAH (P < 0.017). The cut-off value of 24 h UFC (Post-L-Dex)/(Pre-L-Dex) was 1.16 with 64.0% sensitivity and 77.9% specificity, and the cut-off value of 24 h UFC (Post-H-Dex)/(Pre-H-Dex) was 1.08 with 84.0% sensitivity and 75.6% specificity. The ratio of post-dexamethasone to prior-dexamethasone had a unique advantage in distinguishing PPNAD from BMAH and ADA.

  16. Health-Related Quality of Life and Health Behaviors in a Population-Based Sample of Older, Foreign-Born, Chinese American Adults Living in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Laura C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Islam, Nadia S.; Kwon, Simona C.

    2014-01-01

    Although the New York City Chinese population aged =65 years increased by 50% between 2000 and 2010, the health needs of this population are poorly understood. Approximately 3,001 Chinese individuals from high-density Asian American New York City areas were included in the REACH U.S. Risk Factor Survey; 805 (26.8%) were aged =65 years and…

  17. Complex microbiota of a Chinese "Fen" liquor fermentation starter (Fen-Daqu), revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Zheng, Y.; Han, B.; Zwietering, M.H.; Samson, R.A.; Boekhout, T.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Daqu is a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor production. Although partly mechanized, its manufacturing process has remained traditional. We investigated the microbial diversity of Fen-Daqu, a starter for light-flavour liquor, using combined culture-dependent and

  18. Changes in white matter as determinant of global functional decline in older independent outpatients: three year follow-up of LADIS (leukoaraiosis and disability) study cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inzitari, Domenico; Pracucci, Giovanni; Poggesi, Anna

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the impairment in daily living activities in older people with age related changes in white matter according to the severity of these changes. DESIGN: Observational data collection and follow-up of a cohort of older people undergoing brain magnetic resonance imaging after non-disabling...... complaints. SETTING: 11 European centres. PARTICIPANTS: 639 non-disabled older patients (mean age 74.1 (SD 5.0), 45.1% men) in whom brain magnetic resonance imaging showed mild, moderate, or severe age related changes in white matter (Fazekas scale). Magnetic resonance imaging assessment also included...... cerebral infarcts and atrophy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Transition from no disability (defined as a score of 0 or 1 on the instrumental activities of daily living scale) to disability (score >/=2) or death over three year follow-up. Secondary outcomes were incident dementia and stroke. RESULTS: Over a mean...

  19. Strikingly different penetrance of LHON in two Chinese families with primary mutation G11778A is independent of mtDNA haplogroup background and secondary mutation G13708A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huawei; Jia Xiaoyun; Ji Yanli; Kong Qingpeng; Zhang Qingjiong; Yao Yonggang; Zhang Yaping

    2008-01-01

    The penetrance of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) in families with primary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations is very complex. Matrilineal and nuclear genetic background, as well as environmental factors, have been reported to be involved in different affected pedigrees. Here we describe two large Chinese families that show a striking difference in the penetrance of LHON, in which 53.3% and 15.0% of members were affected (P < 0.02), respectively. Analysis of the complete mtDNA genome of the two families revealed the presence of the primary mutation G11778A and several other variants suggesting the same haplogroup status G2a. The family with higher penetrance contained a previously described secondary mutation G13708A, which presents a polymorphism in normal Chinese samples and does not affect in vivo mitochondrial oxidative metabolism as described in a previous study. Evolutionary analysis failed to indicate any putatively pathogenic mutation that cosegregated with G11778A in these two pedigrees. Our results suggest that the variable penetrance of LHON in the two Chinese families is independent of both their mtDNA haplotype background and a secondary mutation G13708A. As a result, it is likely that unknown nuclear gene involvement and/or other factors contribute to the strikingly different penetrance of LHON

  20. Strikingly different penetrance of LHON in two Chinese families with primary mutation G11778A is independent of mtDNA haplogroup background and secondary mutation G13708A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Huawei [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223 (China)]|[Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resource, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Jia Xiaoyun; Ji Yanli [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060 (China); Kong Qingpeng [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223 (China); Zhang Qingjiong [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060 (China)], E-mail: qingjiongzhang@yahoo.com; Yao Yonggang [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223 (China)]|[State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223 (China)], E-mail: ygyaozh@yahoo.com; Zhang Yaping [Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resource, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China)]|[State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223 (China)

    2008-08-25

    The penetrance of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) in families with primary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations is very complex. Matrilineal and nuclear genetic background, as well as environmental factors, have been reported to be involved in different affected pedigrees. Here we describe two large Chinese families that show a striking difference in the penetrance of LHON, in which 53.3% and 15.0% of members were affected (P < 0.02), respectively. Analysis of the complete mtDNA genome of the two families revealed the presence of the primary mutation G11778A and several other variants suggesting the same haplogroup status G2a. The family with higher penetrance contained a previously described secondary mutation G13708A, which presents a polymorphism in normal Chinese samples and does not affect in vivo mitochondrial oxidative metabolism as described in a previous study. Evolutionary analysis failed to indicate any putatively pathogenic mutation that cosegregated with G11778A in these two pedigrees. Our results suggest that the variable penetrance of LHON in the two Chinese families is independent of both their mtDNA haplotype background and a secondary mutation G13708A. As a result, it is likely that unknown nuclear gene involvement and/or other factors contribute to the strikingly different penetrance of LHON.

  1. Association of fall history with the Timed Up and Go test score and the dual task cost: A cross-sectional study among independent community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tsuyoshi; Oshima, Kensuke; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro; Yonezawa, Yuri; Matsuo, Asuka; Misu, Shogo

    2018-05-21

    To investigate the associations between fall history and the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test (single-TUG test), TUG test while counting aloud backwards from 100 (dual-TUG test) and the dual-task cost (DTC) among independent community-dwelling older adults. This cross-sectional study included 537 older adults who lived independently in the community. Data on fall history in the previous year were obtained by self-administrated questionnaire. The single- and dual-TUG tests were carried out, and the DTC value was computed from these results. Associations between fall history and these TUG-related values were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models. The participants were divided into fall risk groups using the cut-off values of those significantly associated with falling, and the odds ratios (OR) were computed. Slower single-TUG test scores and lower DTC values were significantly associated with fall history after adjusting for potential confounders (single-TUG test score: OR 1.133, 95% CI 1.029-1.249; DTC value: OR 0.984, 95% CI 0.968-0.998). Older adults with slower single-TUG test scores and lower DTC values reported a fall history more often than those in other categories (OR compared with the lower-risk single-TUG and lower-risk DTC groups: 3.474, 95% CI 1.881-6.570). Slower single-TUG test scores and lower DTC values are associated with fall history among independent community-dwelling older adults. To some extent, dual task performance might provide added value for fall assessment, compared with administering the TUG test alone. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; ••: ••-••. © 2018 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  2. Multimorbidity and Polypharmacy Are Independently Associated with Mortality in Older People with Intellectual Disabilities: A 5-Year Follow-Up from the HA-ID Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoufour, Josje D.; Oppewal, Alyt; van der Maarl, Hanne J. K.; Hermans, Heidi; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Festen, Dederieke A.

    2018-01-01

    We studied the association between multimorbidity, polypharmacy, and mortality in 1,050 older adults (50+) with intellectual disability (ID). Multimorbidity (presence of = 4 chronic health conditions) and polypharmacy (presence = 5 chronic medication prescriptions) were collected at baseline. Multimorbidity included a wide range of disorders,…

  3. Ankle brachial index values, leg symptoms, and functional performance among community-dwelling older men and women in the lifestyle interventions and independence for elders study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence and significance of low normal and abnormal ankle brachial index (ABI) values in a community dwelling population of sedentary, older individuals is unknown. We describe the prevalence of categories of definite peripheral artery disease (PAD), borderline ABI, low-normal ABI and no PAD...

  4. The effects of a walking program on older Chinese American immigrants with hypertension: a pretest and posttest quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chun-Ying; Sun, Fan-Ko

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is known to have high rates among Chinese Americans. Identifying culturally specific interventions to reduce sedentary behavior may be effective in reducing hypertension. This study examines the effects of an 8-week walking program with and without cultural modification. The study used a 2-group, pretest and posttest, quasi-experimental design. A total sample of 128 Chinese American immigrants with hypertension were assigned to walking groups. The results showed that the walking program had no significant effects upon participant blood pressure or walking endurance. The results also revealed that individuals in the maintenance stage walked longer than those in the preparation stage. A comparison of demographic data showed that subjects with a lower level of education walked more minutes per week, which contributed to lower systolic blood pressures among this group as compared with those with a higher level of education. These results suggest that this walking protocol, when translated into Chinese and when accompanied by a weekly telephone reminder and other interactions with a Chinese-speaking nurse, is appropriate to use without additional cultural modification. Future research should examine other components of Chinese culture or should apply this protocol for a longer period of time.

  5. Perceived Effectiveness of Elder Abuse Interventions in Psychological Distress and the Design of Culturally Adapted Interventions: A Qualitative Study in the Chinese Community in Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinQi Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study examines US Chinese older adults’ views on the perceived effectiveness, challenges, and cultural adaptations of elder abuse interventions to psychological distress in the Chinese community in Chicago. A community-based participatory research approach was implemented to partner with the Chinese community. A total of 37 community-dwelling Chinese older adults (age 60+ participated in focus group discussions. Data analysis was based on grounded theory framework. Our findings suggest that older adults perceived social support, empowerment, and community-based interventions design as most effective to promote psychological well-being of victims. The perceived preferences were similar between elder abuse victims and non-victims. Strategies to culturally adapt evidence-based interventions were proposed with respect to nurturing filial piety values, familial integrations, and increased independence. Research and educational outreach initiatives were also discussed. This study has wide policy and practice implications for designing and deploying interventions to reduce psychological distress with respect to elder abuse outcome. Cultural relevancy of health interventions is important in the context of the Chinese communities. Collective federal, state, and community efforts are needed to support the culturally appropriate design and implementation of interventions suitable for the needs of the Chinese older adults.

  6. Promoting ADL independence in vulnerable, community-dwelling older adults: a pilot RCT comparing 3-Step Workout for Life versus resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu C

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Chiung-ju Liu,1,2 Huiping Xu,3,4 NiCole R Keith,2,4,5 Daniel O Clark2,4,6 1Department of Occupational Therapy, Indiana University School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, 2Indiana University Center for Aging Research, 3Department of Biostatistics, Indiana University Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health, 4Regenstrief Institute, Inc., 5Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University School of Physical Education and Tourism Management, 6Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA Background: Resistance exercise is effective to increase muscle strength for older adults; however, its effect on the outcome of activities of daily living is often limited. The purpose of this study was to examine whether 3-Step Workout for Life (which combines resistance exercise, functional exercise, and activities of daily living exercise would be more beneficial than resistance exercise alone. Methods: A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted. Fifty-two inactive, community-dwelling older adults (mean age =73 years with muscle weakness and difficulty in activities of daily living were randomized to receive 3-Step Workout for Life or resistance exercise only. Participants in the 3-Step Workout for Life Group performed functional movements and selected activities of daily living at home in addition to resistance exercise. Participants in the Resistance Exercise Only Group performed resistance exercise only. Both groups were comparable in exercise intensity (moderate, duration (50–60 minutes each time for 10 weeks, and frequency (three times a week. Assessment of Motor and Process Skills, a standard performance test on activities of daily living, was administered at baseline, postintervention, and 6 months after intervention completion.Results: At postintervention, the 3-Step Workout for Life Group showed improvement on the outcome measure (mean change from baseline =0.29, P=0.02, but the improvement was not greater than

  7. Promoting independence, health and well-being for older people: a feasibility study of computer-aided health and social risk appraisal system in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Kate; Kharicha, Kalpa; Goodman, Claire; Handley, Melanie; Manthorpe, Jill; Cattan, Mima; Morris, Steve; Clarke, Caroline S; Round, Jeff; Iliffe, Steve

    2017-03-24

    With population ageing, research is needed into new low-cost, scalable methods of effective promotion of health and wellbeing for older people. We aimed to assess feasibility, reach and costs of implementing a new tailored computer-aided health and social risk appraisal system in primary care. Design: Feasibility study. Five General Practices in London (Ealing) and Hertfordshire, United Kingdom (UK) Participants: Random sample of patients aged 65 + years. The Multi-dimensional Risk Appraisal for Older people (MRA-O) system includes: 1) Postal questionnaire including health, lifestyle, social and environmental domains; 2) Software system generating a personalised feedback report with advice on health and wellbeing; 3) Follow-up of people with new concerning or complex needs by GPs or practice nurses. Feasibility of implementation; participant wellbeing, functional ability and quality of life; social needs, health risks, potential lifestyle changes; and costs of implementation. Response rates to initial postal invitations were low (526/1550, 34%). Of these, 454/526 (86%) completed MRA-O assessments. Compared to local UK Census data on older people, participants were younger, more were owner-occupiers and fewer were from ethnic minority groups than expected. A range of problems was identified by participants, including pain in last week (269/438, 61.4%), low physical activity (173/453, 38.2%), sedentary lifestyle (174/447, 38.3%), falls (117/439, 26.7%), incontinence (111/441 25.2%), impaired vision 116/451 (25.7%), impaired hearing (145/431, 33.6%), depressed mood (71/451, 15.7%), impaired memory (44/444 9.9%), social isolation (46/449, 10.2%) and loneliness (31/442, 7.0%). Self-rated health was good/excellent in 312/437 (71.4%), and quality of life and well-being were slightly above age-specific population norms. Implementation costs were low. Practices reviewed medical records of 143/454 (31.5%) of participants as a consequence of their responses, and actively

  8. Impaired mobility, depressed mood, cognitive impairment and polypharmacy are independently associated with disability in older cancer outpatients: The prospective Physical Frailty in Elderly Cancer patients (PF-EC) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamoukdjian, Frederic; Aparicio, Thomas; Zelek, Laurent; Boubaya, Marouane; Caillet, Philippe; François, Veronique; de Decker, Laure; Lévy, Vincent; Sebbane, Georges; Paillaud, Elena

    2017-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of disability and the oncologic factors associated with disability in older outpatients with cancer. The Physical Frailty in Elderly Cancer patients (PF-EC) study (France) is a prospective bicentric observational cohort study. Two hundred and ninety outpatients with cancer were included. A cross-sectional analysis of oncologic factors and geriatric variables associated with disability that were collected using a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) was conducted. Disability was defined as impairment in activities of daily living (ADL) and/or instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), simplified to four items. Univariate and multivariate logistic models of disabled patients were performed. The three final multivariate models were compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC/ROC) of the logistic model. The mean age was 80.6years, and 51% of the patients were women with various types of cancer. The prevalence of disability was 67.6%. No oncologic factors (cancer site, cancer extension) were associated with disability. Impaired mobility, poor functional status, depressive mood, cognitive impairment and polypharmacy were independently associated with disability (PDisability was highly prevalent in older cancer outpatients before cancer treatment but was not associated with oncologic factors. Impaired mobility, depressed mood, cognitive impairment and polypharmacy were the geriatric variables significantly and independently associated with disability. Identifying these factors prior to cancer treatment could enable the implementation of corrective actions to improve patient autonomy before treatment and during follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Physical Exercise Helped to Maintain and Restore Functioning in Chinese Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment: A 5-Year Prospective Study of the Hong Kong Memory and Ageing Prospective Study (HK-MAPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Duan Yang; Wong, Candy H Y; Leung, Grace T Y; Fung, Ada W T; Chan, Wai Chi; Lam, Linda C W

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the potential of physical exercise habit as a lifestyle modification against cognitive and functional decline at the community level. A total of 454 community-dwelling Chinese older adults without dementia participated in the Hong Kong Memory and Ageing Prospective Study at baseline and follow-up at 5 years. Their cognitive and functional performances were assessed by the Cantonese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (CMMSE) and the Chinese version of Disability Assessment in Dementia (DAD). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to examine whether physical exercise was a significant predictor of the follow-up CMMSE and DAD scores after controlling for the covariates. Subgroup analyses were performed with a group of 127 participants with mild cognitive impairment at baseline. Physical exercise habit was a significant predictor for both the follow-up CMMSE scores and DAD scores. Participants with exercise habits of 5 years or more showed better cognitive and functional performances at follow-up. Participants who picked up exercise habits only after the baseline assessment also demonstrated better functioning at follow-up. The same patterns were observed in the subgroup analyses with the mild cognitive impairment group. Results suggested that prolonged exercise habit is required for positive effects on cognition to emerge, but benefits on functioning can be observed when individuals take up an exercise habit later in life or even after the beginning of cognitive decline. These findings are encouraging in promoting an exercise habit among older adults living in the community. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Validation of three tools for identifying painful new osteoporotic vertebral fractures in older Chinese men: bone mineral density, Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians, and fracture risk assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, JiSheng; Yang, Yong; Fei, Qi; Zhang, XiaoDong; Ma, Zhao; Wang, Qi; Li, JinJun; Li, Dong; Meng, Qian; Wang, BingQiang

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study compared three tools for predicting painful new osteoporotic vertebral fractures (PNOVFs) in older Chinese men: bone mineral density (BMD), the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA), and the World Health Organization fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) (without BMD). Men aged ≥50 years were apportioned to a group for men with fractures who had undergone percutaneous vertebroplasty (n=111), or a control group of healthy men (n=385). Fractures were verified on X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging. BMD T-scores were determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Diagnosis of osteoporosis was determined by a BMD T-score of ≤2.5 standard deviations below the average for a young adult at peak bone density at the femoral neck, total hip, or L1-L4. Demographic and clinical risk factor data were self-reported through a questionnaire. BMD, OSTA, and FRAX scores were assessed for identifying PNOVFs via receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Optimal cutoff points, sensitivity, specificity, and areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) were determined. Between the men with fractures and the control group, there were significant differences in BMD T-scores (at femoral neck, total hip, and L1-L4), and OSTA and FRAX scores. In those with fractures, only 53.15% satisfied the criteria for osteoporosis. Compared to BMD or OSTA, the FRAX score had the best predictive value for PNOVFs: the AUC of the FRAX score (cutoff =2.9%) was 0.738, and the sensitivity and specificity were 82% and 62%, respectively. FRAX may be a valuable tool for identifying PNOVFs in older Chinese men.

  11. The relation between cigarette taxes and older adult smoking in Zhejiang and Gansu: what happened following the 2009 Chinese Tax adjustments?

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Background In May 2009, the Chinese government raised cigarette excise tax rates and adjusted standards for Grade A cigarettes and Grade B cigarettes. The present study aimed to examine the effects of the tax adjustments in 2009 on smoking behaviors and health outcomes among smokers aged above 45. Methods Data from the 2008 and 2012 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study of Zhejiang and Gansu provinces were used to estimate the influence of tax increase on the number of cigarettes smo...

  12. Exploring the experiences of older Chinese adults with comorbidities including diabetes: surmounting these challenges in order to live a normal life

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Hsiu-Yu; Chen, Mei-Hui; Lou, Meei-Fang

    2018-01-01

    Hsiu-Yu Ho,1,2 Mei-Hui Chen,2,3 Meei-Fang Lou1 1School of Nursing, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, 2Department of Nursing, Yuanpei University of Medical Technology, 3National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Background: Many people with diabetes have comorbidities, even multimorbidities, which have a far-reaching impact on the older adults, their family, and society. However, little is known of the experience of older adult...

  13. C-reactive protein and serum creatinine, but not haemoglobin A1c, are independent predictors of coronary heart disease risk in non-diabetic Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Agus; Tai, E Shyong; Tan, Vincent Y; Welsh, Alan H; Liew, Reginald; Naidoo, Nasheen; Wu, Yi; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon P; van Dam, Rob M

    2016-08-01

    In western populations, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and to a lesser degree serum creatinine and haemoglobin A1c, predict risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, data on Asian populations that are increasingly affected by CHD are sparse and it is not clear whether these biomarkers can be used to improve CHD risk classification. We conducted a nested case-control study within the Singapore Chinese Health Study cohort, with incident 'hard' CHD (myocardial infarction or CHD death) as an outcome. We used data from 965 men (298 cases, 667 controls) and 528 women (143 cases, 385 controls) to examine the utility of hsCRP, serum creatinine and haemoglobin A1c in improving the prediction of CHD risk over and above traditional risk factors for CHD included in the ATP III model. For each sex, the performance of models with only traditional risk factors used in the ATP III model was compared with models with the biomarkers added using weighted Cox proportional hazards analysis. The impact of adding these biomarkers was assessed using the net reclassification improvement index. For men, loge hsCRP (hazard ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.05; 1.49) and loge serum creatinine (hazard ratio 4.82, 95% confidence interval: 2.10; 11.04) showed statistically significantly associations with CHD risk when added to the ATP III model. We did not observe a significant association between loge haemoglobin A1c and CHD risk (hazard ratio 1.83, 95% confidence interval: 0.21; 16.06). Adding hsCRP and serum creatinine to the ATP III model improved risk classification in men with a net gain of 6.3% of cases (p-value = 0.001) being reclassified to a higher risk category, while it did not significantly reduce the accuracy of classification for non-cases. For women, squared hsCRP was borderline significantly (hazard ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval: 1.00; 1.03) and squared serum creatinine was significantly (hazard ratio 1.81, 95% confidence interval: 1.49; 2

  14. Effects of bioDensity Training and Power Plate Whole-Body Vibration on Strength, Balance, and Functional Independence in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derek T; Judge, Stacey; Malone, Ashley; Moynes, Rebecca C; Conviser, Jason; Skinner, James S

    2016-01-01

    Reduced strength, balance, and functional independence diminish quality of life and increase health care costs. Sixty adults (82.2 ± 4.9 years) were randomized to a control or three 12-week intervention groups: bioDensity (bD); Power Plate (PP) whole-body vibration (WBV); or bD+PP. bD involved one weekly 5-s maximal contraction of four muscle groups. PP involved two 5-min WBV sessions. Primary outcomes were strength, balance, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM). No groups differed initially. Strength significantly increased 22-51% for three muscle groups in bD and bD+PP (P Balance significantly improved in PP and bD+PP but not in control or bD. bD, PP, and bD+PP differentially improved FIM self-care and mobility. Strength improvements from weekly 5-min sessions of bD may impart health/clinical benefits. Balance and leg strength improvements suggest WBV beneficially impacts fall risk and incidence. Improved FIM scores are encouraging and justify larger controlled trials on bD and bD+PP efficacy.

  15. Nivel de Actividad Física, Autoeficacia, Beneficios y Barreras Percibidas en Mujeres Mayores Mexicanas Independientes (Physical Activity Level, Exercise Self-Efficacy, Benefits and Perceived Barriers of Independent Mexican Older Women).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez-Reyna, María Cristina; Cruz-Castruita, Rosa María; Zamarripa, Jorge; Ceballos-Gurrola, Oswaldo; Guevara-Valtier, Milton Carlos

    2016-03-01

    This descriptive comparative study examined differences in personal characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, benefits and barriers of independent elderly women to perform physical activity (PA) according with the PA level. Two hundred three women older than 60 years of age, from a community located in Nuevo Leon, Mexico participated in the study. Data was collected using: a) A personal data questionnaire, b) Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale, c) Exercise Benefits/ Barriers Scale and d) Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly were completed. Age was similar in participants with low and acceptable PA level. Participants with lower levels of PA reported consuming more medications, fewer years of education and lower values of exercise self-efficacy, benefits and barriers. In this sample, exercise self-efficacy and benefits were positively associated with the PA level. © 2016. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Ving Tsun Chinese martial art training on musculoskeletal health, balance performance, and self-efficacy in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lip, Ryan W T; Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Liu, Karen P Y; Guo, X

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ving Tsun (VT) Chinese martial art training on radial bone strength, upper- and lower-limb muscular strength, shoulder joint mobility, balance performance, and self-efficacy in elderly participants. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve seniors voluntarily joined the VT training group, and twenty-seven seniors voluntarily joined the control group. The VT group received VT training for three months, while the control group received no training. The bone strength of the distal radius was assessed using an ultrasound bone sonometer. Muscular strength in the limbs was evaluated using a Jamar handgrip dynamometer and the five times sit-to-stand test. Shoulder joint mobility was examined using a goniometer. Balance performance and self-efficacy were evaluated using the Berg Balance Scale and the Chinese version of the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, respectively. [Results] The results revealed a nonsignificant group-by-time interaction effect, group effect, and time effect for all outcome variables. However, general trends of maintenance or improvement in all outcome parameters were observed to a greater extent in the VT group than in the control group. [Conclusion] VT training might be a potential fall-prevention exercise that can be used to maintain general physique, balance, and confidence in the elderly population. A further randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm this postulation.

  17. A Comparison of Child-Rearing Practices among Chinese, Immigrant Chinese, and Caucasian-American Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Yau Cindy; Fu, Victoria R.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated differences and similarities in child-rearing practices among three groups of parents. Chinese and immigrant Chinese parents rated higher than Caucasian-American parents on parental control, encouragement of independence, and emphasis on achievement. (PCB)

  18. Phylogeography and Demographic History of Chinese Black-Spotted Frog Populations (Pelophylax nigromaculata: Evidence for Independent Refugia Expansion and Secondary Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Kaiya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pleistocene glaciations had considerable impact on phylogeographic patterns within and among closely related species of many vertebrates. Compared to Europe and North America, research on the phylogeography of vertebrates in East Asia, particularly in China, remains limited. The black-spotted frog (Pelophylax nigromaculata is a widespread species in East Asia. The wide distribution of this species in China makes it an ideal model for the study of palaeoclimatic effects on vertebrates in East Asia. Our previous studies of P. nigromaculata revealed significant subdivisions between the northeast China populations and populations in other regions of the mainland. In the present study, we aim to see whether the deepest splits among lineages and perhaps subsequent genealogical divisions are temporally consistent with a Pleistocene origin and whether clade geographic distributions, with insight into expansion patterns, are similarly spatially consistent with this model. Results Using 1143 nucleotides of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from 262 individuals sampled from 28 localities, two main clades (clade A and clade B differing by c. 7.72% sequence divergence were defined from parsimony analyses. The corresponding timing of lineage divergence, 0.92 Mya, indicates a most likely Pleistocene split. The A clade is further subdivided into two sub-clades, A1 and A2 with 1.22% sequence divergence. Nested clade phylogeographical and population demographic analyses suggested that the current distribution of this frog species was the result of range expansion from two independent refugia during the last interglacial period. We discovered a population within which haplotype lineages A and B of P. nigromaculata coexist in the Dongliao area of China by nucleotide sequences, PCR-RFLP and ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat patterns. The ISSR result in particular supported divergence between the mitochondrial clades A and B and implied

  19. Cognitive Function in Normal-Weight, Overweight, and Obese Older Adults: An Analysis of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hsu-Ko; Jones, Richard N.; Milberg, William P.; Tennstedt, Sharon; Talbot, Laura; Morris, John N.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess how elevated body mass index (BMI) affects cognitive function in elderly people. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Data for this cross-sectional study were taken from a multicenter randomized controlled trial, the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly trial. PARTICIPANTS The analytic sample included 2,684 normal-weight, overweight, or obese subjects aged 65 to 94. MEASUREMENTS Evaluation of cognitive abilities was performed in several domains: global cognition, memory, reasoning, and speed of processing. Cross-sectional association between body weight status and cognitive functions was analyzed using multiple linear regression. RESULTS Overweight subjects had better performance on a reasoning task (β = 0.23, standard error (SE) = 0.11, P = .04) and the Useful Field of View (UFOV) measure (β = −39.46, SE = 12.95, P = .002), a test of visuospatial speed of processing, after controlling for age, sex, race, years of education, intervention group, study site, and cardiovascular risk factors. Subjects with class I (BMI 30.0–34.9 kg/m2) and class II (BMI>35.0 kg/m2) obesity had better UFOV measure scores (β = −38.98, SE = 14.77, P = .008; β = −35.75, SE = 17.65, and P = .04, respectively) in the multivariate model than normal-weight subjects. The relationships between BMI and individual cognitive domains were nonlinear. CONCLUSION Overweight participants had better cognitive performance in terms of reasoning and visuospatial speed of processing than normal-weight participants. Obesity was associated with better performance in visuospatial speed of processing than normal weight. The relationship between BMI and cognitive function should be studied prospectively. PMID:16420204

  20. Synergistic or independent impacts of low frequency of going outside the home and social isolation on functional decline: A 4-year prospective study of urban Japanese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Nishi, Mariko; Fukaya, Taro; Hasebe, Masami; Nonaka, Kumiko; Koike, Takashi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Murayama, Yoh; Saito, Masashige; Kobayashi, Erika

    2017-03-01

    Decreased frequency of going outside the home and being socially isolated are regarded as predictors of poor health. The object of the present study was to clarify whether these factors have synergistic or independent impacts on future functional decline. We examined a prospective cohort of 2427 community-dwelling persons, aged ≥65 years, who responded to the baseline mail survey in Wako City, in 2008. Participants were asked about the frequency of going outside the home, social isolation status (having contact less than once a week with anyone outside household), functional capacity (Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology-Index of Competence), age, sex, annual income, self-rated health, depressive mood and mobility. Of 1575 persons (72.1%) who completely responded to the follow-up survey (T2) in 2012, we defined the groups as follows: group 1, not isolated and going outside the home every day (n = 897); group 2, not isolated and going outside the home less than every day (n = 311); group 3, isolated and going outside the home every day (n = 224); and group 4, isolated and going outside the home less than every day (n = 143). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the variables identifying group 3 for men and group 2 for women with reference to group 1 were predictors of subsequent functional decline even after adjustment for confounders (odds ratios 2.01, 1.63; 95% CI 1.20-3.38, 1.03-2.56, respectively). Social isolation regardless of going outside the home every day for men and going outside the home less than every day regardless of being not socially isolated for women might predict functional decline. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 500-508. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  1. Opposite associations of trunk and leg fat depots with plasma ferritin levels in middle-aged and older Chinese men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few data have been published on the associations of ferritin with trunk and leg fat depots. We aimed to investigate these associations in a Chinese population. METHODOLOGY: Trunk fat mass and leg fat mass were determined in a cross-sectional sample of 1,150 Chinese (479 men and 671 women aged 50-70 years by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Fasting plasma ferritin was measured. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plasma ferritin was positively correlated with waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, total body fat and trunk fat mass, but inversely correlated with leg fat mass in men (r = 0.16, 0.26, 0.19, 0.22 and -0.12, respectively, all P<0.05 and women (r = 0.16, 0.16, 0.08, 0.17 and -0.12, respectively, all P<0.05. Multivariate regression analysis showed that ferritin levels increased with larger trunk fat mass (β = 0.33 ± 0.08 for men and β = 0.21 ± 0.05 for women, both P<0.001 while decreased with larger leg fat mass (β = -0.12 ± 0.09, P = 0.15 for men; and β = -0.14 ± 0.05, P = 0.005 for women. Moreover, plasma ferritin levels decreased with increasing tertile of leg fat mass among each tertile of trunk fat mass. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to report the opposite associations of trunk and leg fat depots with plasma ferritin levels.

  2. No association between dietary vitamin K intake and fracture risk in chinese community-dwelling older men and women: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R; Leung, J; Woo, J

    2012-05-01

    Data on the association between dietary vitamin K intake and fracture risk are limited among Chinese. This study examined such an association in community-dwelling elderly in Hong Kong. We present data from 2,944 subjects (1,605 men, 1,339 women) who participated in a prospective cohort study. Baseline dietary intakes of energy, protein, calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin K were assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. Data on incident hip fracture and nonvertebral fracture during a median of 6.9 follow-up years were collected from a hospital database. Cox regression analyses were performed with adjustments for age, education attainment, smoking status, alcohol use, body mass index, hip bone mineral density, physical activity, use of calcium supplement, and energy-adjusted nutrient intakes. There were 29 (1.8 %) men and 19 (1.4 %) women with incident hip fractures and 97 (6.0 %) men and 88 (6.6 %) women with nonvertebral fractures. The median (interquartile range) of dietary vitamin K intake was 241.8 (157.5-360.8) and 238.9 (162.4-343.6) μg/day in men and women, respectively. Similar dietary vitamin K intakes were observed between subjects with hip or nonvertebral fractures and subjects without hip or nonvertebral fractures. In both men and women, dietary vitamin K intake was not associated with fracture risks at all measured sites in either crude or adjusted models. In Chinese community-dwelling elderly, hip or nonvertebral fracture risk was not associated with dietary vitamin K intake. The high dietary vitamin K intake of the studied group may have limited the ability to detect the association between vitamin K intake and fracture risk.

  3. Prevalence and impacts of poor sleep on quality of life and associated factors of good sleepers in a sample of older Chinese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Catherine MH

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep disturbance is a complex health problem in ageing global populations decreasing quality of life among many older people. Geographic, cultural, and ethnic differences in sleep patterns have been documented within and between Western and Asian populations. The aim of this study was to explore sleep problems among Hong Kong seniors by examining the prevalence of poor sleep quality, the relationship between sleep quality and health-related quality of life, and associated factors of good sleepers in different age groups. Methods This cross-sectional study used convenience sampling and gathered data during face-to-face interviews. Older community-dwelling individuals (n = 301 were recruited in community centres in 2010. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 were used to measure sleep quality and health-related quality of life. The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 domain scores were compared between good and bad sleepers and between long and short sleepers using Hotelling’s T-Square test. SF-36 domain scores were placed into a logistic regression model that controlled for significant demographic variables (gender, educational level, perceived health. Results Most (77.7% participants were poor sleepers. Participants who had global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores Conclusions This study found a strong negative association between sleep deprivation (poor quality, short duration and health-related quality of life. Associated factors for good sleep quality in later life differ among age groups in relation to universal age-related changes, and should be addressed by social policies and health-care programmes.

  4. Chinese Calligraphy Writing for Augmenting Attentional Control and Working Memory of Older Adults at Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sam C C; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Derbie, Abiot Y; Hui, Irene; Tan, Davynn G H; Pang, Marco Y C; Lau, Stephen C L; Fong, Kenneth N K

    2017-01-01

    Nonpharmacological intervention for individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) needs further investigation. Test efficacy of an eight-week Chinese calligraphy writing training course in improving attentional control and working memory. Ninety-nine participants with MCI were randomized into the eight-week calligraphy writing (n = 48) or control (tablet computer) training (n = 51). Outcomes of the interventions were attentional control, working memory, visual scan and processing speed. They were measured at baseline, post-training, and six-month follow-up. Calligraphy writing, when compared with control, significantly improved working memory as reflected from DST-Backward sequence (p = 0.009) and span scores (p = 0.002), and divided attention as reflected from CTT2 (p memory (span: p cognitive approach would improve working memory and to a lesser extent attentional control functions of patients with early MCI. They also demonstrate the usefulness of using mind-and-body practice for improving specific cognitive functions.

  5. The Effects of Combinations of Cognitive Impairment and Pre-frailty on Adverse Outcomes from a Prospective Community-Based Cohort Study of Older Chinese People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruby; Morley, John E; Kwok, Timothy; Leung, Jason; Cheung, Osbert; Woo, Jean

    2018-01-01

    To examine how various combinations of cognitive impairment (overall performance and specific domains) and pre-frailty predict risks of adverse outcomes; and to determine whether cognitive frailty may be defined as the combination of cognitive impairment and the presence of pre-frailty. Community-based cohort study. Chinese men and women ( n  = 3,491) aged 65+ without dementia, Parkinson's disease and/or frailty at baseline. Frailty was characterized using the Cardiovascular Health Study criteria. Overall cognitive impairment was defined by a Cantonese Mini-Mental Status Examination (CMMSE) total score (impairment by a CMMSE delayed recall score (impairment by a CMMSE language and praxis score (impaired were more likely to develop pre-frailty/frailty after 4 years ( P  impairment had lower grip strength ( P  without cognitive impairment at baseline. Similar results were obtained with delayed recall and language and praxis impairments. Robust and cognitively impaired participants had higher risks of becoming pre-frail/frail over 4 years compared with those with normal cognition. Cognitive impairment characterized by the CMMSE overall score or its individual domain score improved the predictive power of pre-frailty for poor quality of life, incident physical limitation, increased cumulative hospital stay, and mortality. Our findings support to the concept that cognitive frailty may be defined as the occurrence of both cognitive impairment and pre-frailty, not necessarily progressing to dementia.

  6. Self-medication practices with antibiotics among Chinese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X; Pan, H; Yang, Z; Cui, B; Zhang, D; Ba-Thein, W

    2016-01-01

    Self-medication with antibiotics (SMA) is a serious global health problem. We sought to investigate SMA behaviors and risk factors among Chinese university students, and further explore the association between SMA practices and adverse drug events (ADEs). Cross-sectional study. An online survey was conducted at Jiangsu University (JSU) in eastern China in July 2011 using a pretested questionnaire. Out of 2608 website visitors, 1086 participated in the survey (response rate: 41.6%), 426 respondents were excluded for not being a JSU student or repeat participation, 660 (2.2% of JSU students) were included in analysis, and 316 students (47.9%) had a lifetime history of SMA. Among self-treated students, 43.5% believed that antibiotic was suitable for viral infections, 65.9% had more than one SMA episode in the previous year, 73.5% self-medicated with at least two different antibiotics, 57.1% and 64.4% changed antibiotic dosage and antibiotics during the course, respectively. Female gender, older age, and prior knowledge of antibiotics (PKA) were identified as independent risk factors of SMA. There was no difference between students with and without PKA regarding SMA frequency, use of polyantibiotics, and switching antibiotic dosage or antibiotics. ADEs happened to 13.3% of self-medicated students. Frequent change of dosage and simultaneous use of the same antibiotic with different names were independent risk practices associated with an ADE. Our findings substantiate high SMA prevalence among Chinese university students. Older age and PKA are independent SMA risk factors common to Chinese university students and female gender is exclusive SMA risk factor for JSU students. Poor SMA practices are associated with ADEs. Strict regulations on antibiotic sales and public education reinforced by further health care reform are recommended. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of Corneal Biomechanical Properties between Indian and Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Jacqueline; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Zhao, Wanting; Tham, Yih Chung; Gupta, Preeti; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Aung, Tin; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the difference in corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) between Indian and Chinese populations. Population-based cross-sectional study. Three hundred eighty-two Singaporean Indian persons and 764 Singaporean Chinese 50 years of age or older were included from the Singapore Indian Eye Study and Singapore Chinese Eye Study, respectively. Participants underwent standardized systemic and ocular examinations and interviewer-administered questionnaires for risk factor assessment. The CH and CRF were measured with the Ocular Response Analyzer (Reichert Ophthalmic Instruments, Buffalo, NY). Information on genetic ancestry was derived using principal component analysis. Linear regression models were used to investigate the association of CH and CRF with potential risk factors. Corneal hysteresis and CRF. After excluding participants with a history of intraocular surgery, a diagnosis of glaucoma suspect or glaucoma, refractive surgery, or presence of corneal abnormalities, CH and CRF readings were available for 382 Indian persons. For each Indian participant, 2 Chinese participants were selected and matched for age and gender (n = 764). There were no differences in the clinical measurements of CH (10.6±1.6 mmHg; P = 0.670) or CRF (10.3±1.7 mmHg; P = 0.103) between the ethnic groups. However, after adjusting for covariates, Indian persons had, on average, 0.18-mmHg higher CH levels than in Chinese (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.02-0.38; P = 0.031). Consistently, CH level was correlated significantly with genetic ancestry in the Southeast Asian population. Corneal resistance factor level was not associated independently with self-reported ethnicity (95% CI, -0.10 to 0.29; P = 0.335). Chinese have lower CH than Indian persons, and this disparity may reflect biomechanical differences of the cornea. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-Term Effects of Ambient PM2.5 on Hypertension and Blood Pressure and Attributable Risk Among Older Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hualiang; Guo, Yanfei; Zheng, Yang; Di, Qian; Liu, Tao; Xiao, Jianpeng; Li, Xing; Zeng, Weilin; Cummings-Vaughn, Lenise A; Howard, Steven W; Vaughn, Michael G; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Ma, Wenjun; Wu, Fan

    2017-05-01

    Long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate pollution (PM 2.5 ) has been associated with cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, has also been hypothesized to be linked to PM 2.5 However, epidemiological evidence has been mixed. We examined long-term association between ambient PM 2.5 and hypertension and blood pressure. We interviewed 12 665 participants aged 50 years and older and measured their blood pressures. Annual average PM 2.5 concentrations were estimated for each community using satellite data. We applied 2-level logistic regression models to examine the associations and estimated hypertension burden attributable to ambient PM 2.5 For each 10 μg/m 3 increase in ambient PM 2.5 , the adjusted odds ratio of hypertension was 1.14 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.22). Stratified analyses found that overweight and obesity could enhance the association, and consumption of fruit was associated with lower risk. We further estimated that 11.75% (95% confidence interval, 5.82%-18.53%) of the hypertension cases (corresponding to 914, 95% confidence interval, 453-1442 cases) could be attributable to ambient PM 2.5 in the study population. Findings suggest that long-term exposure to ambient PM 2.5 might be an important risk factor of hypertension and is responsible for significant hypertension burden in adults in China. A higher consumption of fruit may mitigate, whereas overweight and obesity could enhance this effect. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Gender-specific independent and combined dose-response association of napping and night sleep duration with type 2 diabetes mellitus in rural Chinese adults: the RuralDiab study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruihua; Li, Yuqian; Mao, Zhenxing; Liu, Xiaotian; Zhang, Haiqing; Yang, Kaili; Zhang, Honglei; Tu, Runqi; Qian, Xinling; Jiang, Jingjing; Bie, Ronghai; Wang, Chongjian

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the independent and combined dose-response association of napping and night sleep duration with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among different genders in the rural Chinese population. For this research, a total of 19,257 participants were enrolled in the Rural Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (RuralDiab) study. Napping and night sleep duration were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Restricted cubic splines and logistic regression were used to estimate the relationship between napping and night sleep duration with T2DM. A linear dose-response relationship between napping duration and T2DM as well as a U-shaped relationship between night sleep duration and T2DM were found. Compared with those who reported no napping, participants who had a napping duration of ≥91 min were associated with a 19% increase in prevalence of T2DM. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) for T2DM were 1.48 (1.03, 2.14) and 1.50 (1.22, 1.85) for shorter (≤5 h) and longer (>9 h) night sleep duration compared with the referential group. Additionally, the combination of longer napping duration (≥91 min) and night sleep duration (>9 h) increased 104% (95% CI: 45%, 128%) prevalence for T2DM. These associations were not found in males but were evident in females. Longer napping duration and extreme night sleep duration increased the prevalence of T2DM. Meanwhile, longer napping and night sleep duration might be jointly associated with a higher prevalence of T2DM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors Affecting School Choice: What Do Malaysian Chinese Parents Want?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, Poh Chua; Christina Ong, Sook Beng; Tan, Swee Mee; Sim, Chzia Poaw; Xian Thoo, Raphael Yi

    2018-01-01

    Aiming to explore factors affecting Malaysian Chinese parents in sending their children to either national secondary schools or Chinese independent schools, 494 parents were surveyed using a questionnaire. Results showed that parents who sent their children to Chinese independent schools have different priorities compared to those who sent theirs…

  11. The Effects of Combinations of Cognitive Impairment and Pre-frailty on Adverse Outcomes from a Prospective Community-Based Cohort Study of Older Chinese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Yu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesTo examine how various combinations of cognitive impairment (overall performance and specific domains and pre-frailty predict risks of adverse outcomes; and to determine whether cognitive frailty may be defined as the combination of cognitive impairment and the presence of pre-frailty.DesignCommunity-based cohort study.ParticipantsChinese men and women (n = 3,491 aged 65+ without dementia, Parkinson’s disease and/or frailty at baseline.MeasurementsFrailty was characterized using the Cardiovascular Health Study criteria. Overall cognitive impairment was defined by a Cantonese Mini-Mental Status Examination (CMMSE total score (<21/24/27, depending on participants’ educational levels; delayed recall impairment by a CMMSE delayed recall score (<3; and language and praxis impairment by a CMMSE language and praxis score (<9. Adverse outcomes included poor quality of life, physical limitation, increased cumulative hospital stay, and mortality.ResultsCompared to those who were robust and cognitively intact at baseline, those who were robust but cognitively impaired were more likely to develop pre-frailty/frailty after 4 years (P < 0.01. Compared to participants who were robust and cognitively intact at baseline, those who were pre-frail and with overall cognitive impairment had lower grip strength (P < 0.05, lower gait speed (P < 0.01, poorer lower limb strength (P < 0.01, and poorer delayed recall at year 4 [OR, 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.2–2.3]. They were also associated with increased risks of poor quality of life (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1–2.2 and incident physical limitation at year 4 (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3–2.5, increased cumulative hospital stay at year 7 (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1–2.1, and mortality over an average of 12 years (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0–2.1 after adjustment for covariates. There was no significant difference in risks of adverse outcomes between participants who were pre-frail, with

  12. Impact of Culture on Breast Cancer Screening in Chinese American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Judy H

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and use culturally appropriate and stage-tailored Chinese language breast cancer brochures to promote older Chinese American women's intentions to obtain mammography...

  13. Impact of Culture on Breast Cancer Screening in Chinese American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Judy H

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and use culturally appropriate and stage-tailored Chinese language breast cancer brochures to promote older Chinese-American women's intentions to obtain mammography...

  14. Impact of Culture on Breast Cancer Screening in Chinese American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Judy

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and use culturally appropriate and stage-tailored Chinese language breast cancer brochures to promote older Chinese-American women's intentions to obtain mammography...

  15. Impact of Culture on Breast Cancer Screening in Chinese American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huei-Yu Wang, Judy

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and use culturally appropriate and stage-tailored Chinese language breast cancer brochures to promote older Chinese-American women's intentions to obtain mammography...

  16. Are Independent Probes Truly Independent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Gino; Pecher, Diane; Schmidt, Henk G.; Zeelenberg, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The independent cue technique has been developed to test traditional interference theories against inhibition theories of forgetting. In the present study, the authors tested the critical criterion for the independence of independent cues: Studied cues not presented during test (and unrelated to test cues) should not contribute to the retrieval…

  17. Analysis of Chinese Communist Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    Confucianism, Legalism, Taoism and ancestral beliefs have been superseded by the dialectical materialism of the Commu- nists’ doctrine; and the mutual...developing individualism or independence. Chinese cosmology existed long before Christianity or Confu- cianism; it survived as a principal religious belief ...harmonious. With these beliefs , the Chinese nature religion included both ancestral and nonances- tral worship. These forces and the Lord on High

  18. Hip Fractures among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out some of our online STEADI resources for older adults. These resources include: Stay Independent brochure What You Can Do to Prevent Falls brochure Check for Safety brochure Postural Hypotension brochure Chair Rise Exercise Related Pages Important ...

  19. Older people. Courtesy entitles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calnan, Michael; Woolhead, Gillian; Dieppe, Paul

    2003-02-20

    A study of 72 people, with an average age of 72, showed that dignity--and lack of it--were key issues in their estimation of care. Concerns about lack of dignity centred on lack of privacy, mixed sex wards, forms of address and loss of independence. The study suggested that older people do not complain about care for fear of retaliation.

  20. Complete Blood Count Reference Intervals for Healthy Han Chinese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Runqing; Guo, Wei; Qiao, Rui; Chen, Wenxiang; Jiang, Hong; Ma, Yueyun; Shang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete blood count (CBC) reference intervals are important to diagnose diseases, screen blood donors, and assess overall health. However, current reference intervals established by older instruments and technologies and those from American and European populations are not suitable for Chinese samples due to ethnic, dietary, and lifestyle differences. The aim of this multicenter collaborative study was to establish CBC reference intervals for healthy Han Chinese adults. Methods A total of 4,642 healthy individuals (2,136 males and 2,506 females) were recruited from six clinical centers in China (Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu, and Xi’an). Blood samples collected in K2EDTA anticoagulant tubes were analyzed. Analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in consensus intervals according to the use of data from the combined sample and selected samples. Results Median and mean platelet counts from the Chengdu center were significantly lower than those from other centers. Red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), and hematocrit (HCT) values were higher in males than in females at all ages. Other CBC parameters showed no significant instrument-, region-, age-, or sex-dependent difference. Thalassemia carriers were found to affect the lower or upper limit of different RBC profiles. Conclusion We were able to establish consensus intervals for CBC parameters in healthy Han Chinese adults. RBC, HGB, and HCT intervals were established for each sex. The reference interval for platelets for the Chengdu center should be established independently. PMID:25769040

  1. Light intensity physical activity and sedentary behavior in relation to body mass index and grip strength in older adults: cross-sectional findings from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Identifying modifiable determinants of fat mass and muscle strength in older adults is important given their impact on physical functioning and health. Light intensity physical activity and sedentary behavior are potential determinants, but their relations to these outcomes are poorly un...

  2. Independent preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    1991-01-01

    A simple mathematical result characterizing a subset of a product set is proved and used to obtain additive representations of preferences. The additivity consequences of independence assumptions are obtained for preferences which are not total or transitive. This means that most of the economic ...... theory based on additive preferences - expected utility, discounted utility - has been generalized to preferences which are not total or transitive. Other economic applications of the theorem are given...

  3. Development and Validation of a Life Satisfaction Scale for Chinese Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, W. Q. Vivian; Chi, Iris; Mjelde-Mossey, Lee Ann

    2008-01-01

    This study reports the development and validation of a culturally sensitive, domain-specific measure of life satisfaction for Chinese Elders--The Life Satisfaction Scale-Chinese ("LSS-C"). The "LSS-C" was administered to 1,502 randomly-selected older Chinese persons in three newly developed towns in Mainland China. Confirmatory…

  4. Independent Directors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    2013-01-01

    This paper re-evaluates the corporate governance concept of ‘board independence’ against the disappointing experiences during the 2007-08 financial crisis. Independent or outside directors had long been seen as an essential tool to improve the monitoring role of the board. Yet the crisis revealed...... that they did not prevent firms' excessive risk taking; further, these directors sometimes showed serious deficits in understanding the business they were supposed to control, and remained passive in addressing structural problems. A closer look reveals that under the surface of seemingly unanimous consensus...

  5. Coffee Intake and Risk of Colorectal Cancer Among Chinese in Singapore: The Singapore Chinese Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Sabrina; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; Sun, Can-Lan; Wang, Renwei; Turesky, Robert J.; Yu, Mimi C.

    2010-01-01

    We prospectively investigated whether coffee consumption was associated with decreased risk of colorectal cancer and whether cigarette smoking and stage of disease modify the association in the Singapore Chinese Health Study. During the first 12 years of follow-up, 961 colorectal cancer cases occurred in the cohort of over 60,000 middle-aged or older Chinese men and women living in Singapore. Baseline dietary exposures were assessed through in-person interviews using a validated food frequenc...

  6. Gender Differences in Cognition among Older Adults in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Hu, Yuqing; McArdle, John J.; Smith, James P.; Zhao, Yaohui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Modeled after the American Health and Retirement Study (HRS), the CHARLS Pilot survey respondents are 45 years and older in two quite distinct provinces--Zhejiang, a high-growth industrialized province on the…

  7. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  8. Central corneal thickness and related factors in an elderly American Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dandan; Singh, Kuldev; Weinreb, Robert; Kempen, John; He, Mingguang; Lin, Shan

    2011-07-01

    To assess central corneal thickness and related factors in an elderly American Chinese population residing in San Francisco. Cross-sectional community based study. American Chinese aged 40 years and older were enrolled using random cluster sampling and volunteer screening in the Chinatown district of San Francisco. The following data were obtained: central corneal thickness by ultrasound pachymetry, intraocular pressure by Goldmann applanation tonometry, axial length by A-scan biometry, refractive status and corneal curvature by autorefractor. History of systemic and ocular diseases was collected via standard questionnaire. Central corneal thickness. Of 311 eligible subjects, 274 consented to study participation, and 228 phakic eyes were analyzed. Mean corneal thickness was 524.1 ± 31.1 µm, 545.5 ± 30.9 µm and 538.9 ± 31.8 µm in the sampling cluster, volunteer group and all subjects, respectively. A multiple linear regression model showed corneal thickness to be negatively associated with age (standardized regression coefficient [SRC] = -0.21; P = 0.016) and corneal curvature (SRC = -0.19; P = 0.018) but positively correlated with intraocular pressure (SRC = 0.20; P = 0.023). The distribution of central corneal thickness among this American Chinese population is similar to that reported in studies from East Asia. The independent factors associated with thinner corneas included older age, lower intraocular pressure and greater corneal curvature. While descendents of Chinese immigrants in America have, on average, thicker corneas than their ancestors, this phenomenon is potentially impacted by the level of intraocular pressure. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  9. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...

  10. Older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema,J.F.; Giesen, F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to an ageing population and global economic competition, there is a societal need for people to extend their working lives while maintaining high work productivity. This article presents an overview of the labour participation, job performance, and job characteristics of older workers in the

  11. Cognitive-behavioural therapy-based intervention to reduce fear of falling in older people: therapy development and randomised controlled trial - the Strategies for Increasing Independence, Confidence and Energy (STRIDE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Steve W; Bamford, Claire; Deary, Vincent; Finch, Tracy L; Gray, Jo; MacDonald, Claire; McMeekin, Peter; Sabin, Neil J; Steen, I Nick; Whitney, Sue L; McColl, Elaine M

    2016-07-01

    Falls cause fear, anxiety and loss of confidence, resulting in activity avoidance, social isolation and increasing frailty. The umbrella term for these problems is 'fear of falling', seen in up to 85% of older adults who fall. Evidence of effectiveness of physical and psychological interventions is limited, with no previous studies examining the role of an individually delivered cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) approach. Primary objective To develop and then determine the effectiveness of a new CBT intervention (CBTi) delivered by health-care assistants (HCAs) plus usual care compared with usual care alone in reducing fear of falling. Secondary objectives To measure the impact of the intervention on falls, injuries, functional abilities, anxiety/depression, quality of life, social participation and loneliness; investigate the acceptability of the intervention for patients, family members and professionals and factors that promote or inhibit its implementation; and measure the costs and benefits of the intervention. Phase I CBTi development. Phase II Parallel-group patient randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the new CBTi plus usual care compared with usual care alone. Multidisciplinary falls services. Consecutive community-dwelling older adults, both sexes, aged ≥ 60 years, with excessive or undue fear of falling per Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) score of > 23. Phase I Development of the CBTi. The CBTi was developed following patient interviews and taught to HCAs to maximise the potential for uptake and generalisability to a UK NHS setting. Phase II RCT. The CBTi was delivered by HCAs weekly for 8 weeks, with a 6-month booster session plus usual care. These were assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, 6 months and 12 months. Primary outcome measure Fear of falling measured by change in FES-I scores at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures These comprised falls, injuries, anxiety/depression [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS

  12. Exploring Older Adults' Health Information Seeking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…

  13. Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out some of our online STEADI resources for older adults. These resources include: Stay Independent brochure What You Can Do to Prevent Falls brochure Check for Safety brochure Postural Hypotension brochure Chair Rise Exercise Related Pages Costs ...

  14. Prevalence and associated factors of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in Chinese hypertensive adults aged 45 to 75 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhui Qin

    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG and diabetes and their associated factors in 17,184 Chinese hypertensive adults aged 45-75 years.A cross-sectional investigation was carried out in a rural area of Lianyungang, China. Previously undiagnosed diabetes [fasting plasma glucose (FPG ≥ 7.0 mmol/l] and IFG (6.1-6.9 mmol/l were defined based on FPG concentration. Previously diagnosed diabetes was determined on the basis of self-report. Total diabetes included both previously diagnosed diabetes and previously undiagnosed diabetes.The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and IFG were 3.4%, 9.8%, and 14.1%, respectively. About 74.2% of the participants with diabetes had not previously been diagnosed. In the multivariable logistic-regression model, older age, men, antihypertensive treatment, obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2, abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women, non-current smoking, a family history of diabetes, higher heart rate, lower physical activity levels, and inland residence (versus coastal were significantly associated with both total diabetes and previously undiagnosed diabetes. Furthermore, methylene- tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677 TT genotype was an independent associated factor for total diabetes, and current alcohol drinking was an independent associated factor for previously undiagnosed diabetes. At the same time, older age, men, abdominal obesity, non-current smoking, current alcohol drinking, a family history of diabetes, higher heart rate, and inland residence (versus coastal were important independent associated factors for IFG.In conclusion, we found a high prevalence of diabetes in Chinese hypertensive adults. Furthermore, about three out of every four diabetic adults were undiagnosed. Our results suggest that population-level measures aimed at the prevention, identification (even if only based on the FPG evaluation, and

  15. Current situation of asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) in Chinese patients older than 40 years with airflow limitation: rationale and design for a multicenter, cross-sectional trial (study protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Yao, Wanzhen; Cai, Baiqiang; Chen, Ping; Ling, Xia; Shang, Hongyan

    2016-12-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are the frequently occurring chronic airway diseases, and the overlapping syndrome observed in the majority of patients has been recently defined as asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung (GOLD, 2014) and Global initiative for Asthma (GINA, 2015). The proportion, features, and clinical practice of ACOS still remain elusive in China. We are conducting this multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study (NCT02600221) to investigate the distributions of chronic obstructive diseases in patients >40 years of age with chronic airflow limitation in China along with determination of the main clinical practice and features of these diseases. The study will also explore the factors that may influence the exacerbations and severity of ACOS in Chinese patients (>40 years of age). A total of 2,000 patients (age, ≥40 years; either sex) who are clinically diagnosed as having asthma, COPD/chronic bronchitis/emphysema, or ACOS for at least 12 months with airflow limitation [post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV 1 /FVC): current situation, main clinical practice, and features of ACOS, asthma, and COPD conditions in Chinese patients. The insights will be helpful in designing optimal management strategies for ACOS and redefining the healthcare development programs.

  16. Small wins big: analytic pinyin skills promote Chinese word reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dan; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Shu, Hua; Zhang, Yuping; Li, Hong; Zhang, Juan; Aram, Dorit; Levin, Iris

    2010-08-01

    The present study examined invented spelling of pinyin (a phonological coding system for teaching and learning Chinese words) in relation to subsequent Chinese reading development. Among 296 Chinese kindergartners in Beijing, independent invented pinyin spelling was found to be uniquely predictive of Chinese word reading 12 months later, even with Time 1 syllable deletion, phoneme deletion, and letter knowledge, in addition to the autoregressive effects of Time 1 Chinese word reading, statistically controlled. These results underscore the importance of children's early pinyin representations for Chinese reading acquisition, both theoretically and practically. The findings further support the idea of a universal phonological principle and indicate that pinyin is potentially an ideal measure of phonological awareness in Chinese.

  17. Chinese letterkunde. Een inleiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idema, Wilt; Haft, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    De Chinese cultuur mag zich verheugen in een groeiende belangstelling. Chinese films bereiken in Nederland een steeds omvangrijker publiek en ook de moderne Chinese literatuur, die sinds de jaren tachtig een grote bloei doormaakt, wordt door veel liefhebbers op de voet gevolgd. Chinese Letterkunde

  18. Medieval Chinese syntax

    OpenAIRE

    Anderl, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    “Medieval Chinese Syntax” aims to provide a sketch of the development of function words and syntactic structures during the Chinese Medieval period, including Early Medieval Chinese (ca. 0-700 A.D.) and Late Medieval Chinese (ca. 700-1100).

  19. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  20. Attitudes of neurology specialists toward older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seferoğlu, Meral; Yıldız, Demet; Pekel, Nilüfer Büyükkoyuncu; Güneş, Aygül; Yıldız, Abdülmecit; Tufan, Fatih

    2017-08-01

    Attitude of healthcare providers toward older people is very important in the aging world. Neurologists contact older adults very frequently. We aimed to investigate the attitudes of neurologists toward older adults. We recorded participants age; sex; duration of clinical practice in neurology; existence of older adult relatives; and history of geriatrics education, nursing home visits, older adult patient density in their clinical practice, and participation in voluntary public activities. UCLA Geriatrics Attitude Scale was used to evaluate participants' attitudes. A total of 100 neurologists participated in this study. Seventy-seven percent had positive, 3 % had neutral, and 20 % had negative attitudes. Twenty-seven percent of the participants had history of geriatrics education, and these participants tended to have a higher rate of positive attitudes. Neurologists with positive attitudes tended to be older than those with negative attitudes. Participants with history of living with older adult relatives had lower rates of positive attitudes. The most common diagnoses of the patients the participants encountered were stroke and dementia. Independent factors associated with positive attitudes were history of geriatrics education and older age. History of living with older relatives tended to have a negative effect. Most of the negative items of the attitude scale were associated with the natural course and behavior of the common diseases in neurology practice. Generalization of geriatrics education may translate into a better understanding and improved care for older patients. Development of instruments and implementation of qualitative studies to assess attitudes of neurologists toward older adults are needed.

  1. Association of blood glucose level and hypertension in Elderly Chinese Subjects: a community based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qun; Sun, Dongmei; Li, Xu; Chen, Guoliang; Zheng, Qinghu; Li, Lun; Gu, Chenhong; Feng, Bo

    2016-07-13

    There is a scarcity of epidemiological researches examining the relationship between blood pressure (BP) and glucose level among older adults. The objective of the current study was to investigate the association of high BP and glucose level in elderly Chinese. A cross-sectional study of a population of 2092 Chinese individuals aged over 65 years was conducted. Multiple logistic analysis was used to explore the association between hypertension and hyperglycemia. Independent risk factors for systolic and diastolic BP were analyzed using stepwise linear regression. Subjects in impaired fasting glucose group (IFG) (n = 144) and diabetes (n = 346), as compared with normal fasting glucose (NFG) (n = 1277), had a significant higher risk for hypertension, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.81 (95 % CI, 1.39-2.35) (P = 0.000) and 1.40 (95 % CI, 1.09-1.80) (P = 0.009), respectively. Higher fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels in the normal range were still significantly associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension in both genders, with ORs of 1.24 (95 % CI, 0.85-1.80), R (2) = 0.114, P = 0.023 in men and 1.61 (95 % CI, 1.12-2.30), R (2) = 0.082, P = 0.010 in women, respectively, when compared with lower FPG. Linear regression analysis revealed FPG was an independent factor of systolic and diastolic BP. Our findings suggest that hyperglycemia as well as higher FPG within the normal range is associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension independent of other cardiovascular risk factors in elderly Chinese. Further studies are needed to explore the relationship between hyperglycemia and hypertension in a longitudinal setting.

  2. The Use of Gemstones in the Chinese Community

    OpenAIRE

    Badaruddin Mohamed; Salasiah Che Lah; Noor Azam Azmi

    2016-01-01

    This article aimed to provide documentation of information relating to local intelligence from the older generations, specifically the local intelligence of the Chinese community on gemstones.To better understand this issue, an informal interview had been conducted on an informant from the Chinese community who has vast experiences dealing with gemstone crafting. Literature reviews were also carried out to further understand the issue under discussion. It can be assumed that religion is the m...

  3. Patterns of venturing financing: The case of Chinese entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Jianwen; Welsch, Harold; Pistrui, David

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the sources of venture financing of Chinese entrepreneurs in Wuhan, China. Based on a sample of 222, we found that Chinese entrepreneurs in Wuhan mainly rely on venture financing on their own or parties that are within their close social networks such as parents, relatives and friends. External financing sources are notably missing. We also found that entrepreneurs who use significantly more personal saving in venture financing are older (>37 years), female, with high scho...

  4. Effects of Ving Tsun Chinese Martial Art Training on Upper Extremity Muscle Strength and Eye-Hand Coordination in Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shamay S. M.; Cheng, Yoyo T. Y.; Yu, Esther Y. T.; Chow, Gary C. C.; Chak, Yvonne T. C.; Chan, Ivy K. Y.; Zhang, Joni; Macfarlane, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effects of Ving Tsun (VT) martial art training on the upper extremity muscle strength and eye-hand coordination of middle-aged and older adults. Methods. This study used a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Forty-two community-dwelling healthy adults participated in the study; 24 (mean age ± SD = 68.5 ± 6.7 years) underwent VT training for 4 weeks (a supervised VT session twice a week, plus daily home practice), and 18 (mean age ± SD = 72.0 ± 6.7 years) received no VT training and acted as controls. Shoulder and elbow isometric muscle strength and eye-hand coordination were evaluated using the Lafayette Manual Muscle Test System and a computerized finger-pointing test, respectively. Results. Elbow extensor peak force increased by 13.9% (P = 0.007) in the VT group and the time to reach peak force decreased (9.9%) differentially in the VT group compared to the control group (P = 0.033). For the eye-hand coordination assessment outcomes, reaction time increased by 2.9% in the VT group and decreased by 5.3% in the control group (P = 0.002). Conclusions. Four weeks of VT training could improve elbow extensor isometric peak force and the time to reach peak force but not eye-hand coordination in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. PMID:27525020

  5. Effects of Ving Tsun Chinese Martial Art Training on Upper Extremity Muscle Strength and Eye-Hand Coordination in Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Cheng, Yoyo T Y; Wong, Janet Y H; Yu, Esther Y T; Chow, Gary C C; Chak, Yvonne T C; Chan, Ivy K Y; Zhang, Joni; Macfarlane, Duncan; Chung, Louisa M Y

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the effects of Ving Tsun (VT) martial art training on the upper extremity muscle strength and eye-hand coordination of middle-aged and older adults. Methods. This study used a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Forty-two community-dwelling healthy adults participated in the study; 24 (mean age ± SD = 68.5 ± 6.7 years) underwent VT training for 4 weeks (a supervised VT session twice a week, plus daily home practice), and 18 (mean age ± SD = 72.0 ± 6.7 years) received no VT training and acted as controls. Shoulder and elbow isometric muscle strength and eye-hand coordination were evaluated using the Lafayette Manual Muscle Test System and a computerized finger-pointing test, respectively. Results. Elbow extensor peak force increased by 13.9% (P = 0.007) in the VT group and the time to reach peak force decreased (9.9%) differentially in the VT group compared to the control group (P = 0.033). For the eye-hand coordination assessment outcomes, reaction time increased by 2.9% in the VT group and decreased by 5.3% in the control group (P = 0.002). Conclusions. Four weeks of VT training could improve elbow extensor isometric peak force and the time to reach peak force but not eye-hand coordination in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults.

  6. Effects of Ving Tsun Chinese Martial Art Training on Upper Extremity Muscle Strength and Eye-Hand Coordination in Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley S. M. Fong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the effects of Ving Tsun (VT martial art training on the upper extremity muscle strength and eye-hand coordination of middle-aged and older adults. Methods. This study used a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Forty-two community-dwelling healthy adults participated in the study; 24 (mean age ± SD = 68.5±6.7 years underwent VT training for 4 weeks (a supervised VT session twice a week, plus daily home practice, and 18 (mean age ± SD = 72.0±6.7 years received no VT training and acted as controls. Shoulder and elbow isometric muscle strength and eye-hand coordination were evaluated using the Lafayette Manual Muscle Test System and a computerized finger-pointing test, respectively. Results. Elbow extensor peak force increased by 13.9% (P=0.007 in the VT group and the time to reach peak force decreased (9.9% differentially in the VT group compared to the control group (P=0.033. For the eye-hand coordination assessment outcomes, reaction time increased by 2.9% in the VT group and decreased by 5.3% in the control group (P=0.002. Conclusions. Four weeks of VT training could improve elbow extensor isometric peak force and the time to reach peak force but not eye-hand coordination in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults.

  7. Environment and Subjective Well-Being of Rural Chinese Elderly: A Multilevel Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dale E. Yeatts; Cynthia M. Cready; Xiaomei Pei; Yuying Shen; Hao Luo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of environment on the subjective well-being (SWB) of older Chinese villagers after controlling for personal and social characteristics.

  8. Access to mobile communications by older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Toan; Irizarry, Carol; Garrett, Rob; Downing, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    To investigate how older people effectively identify, select and learn to use mobile communications technologies to enhance communication and safety, and support independent living. One hundred and fifty-three older South Australians participated in a purpose-designed survey questionnaire. Older people relied on family and friends for information and advice (76%), and their children's assistance with buying (45%) and learning to use (48%) new technology. The most preferred learning method was face-to-face training (56%). Less than half (44%) were interested in trying out new designs/applications, functions and capabilities that could assist with independent living. The highest need was for personal security and emergencies (88%). Findings suggest that the family and friends of older people play an important role in identifying, selecting and learning to use mobile communication technologies. The safety and emergency capabilities of mobile communications technologies were more important than having functions that could assist with independent living. © 2014 ACOTA.

  9. A Comparison of Child-Rearing Practices among Chinese, Immigrant-Chinese and Caucasian-American Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Yau Cindy; Fu, Victoria R.

    Differences and similarities in child rearing practices among Chinese, immigrant Chinese, and Caucasian American parents were investigated. Subjects were mothers and fathers of 138 kindergarteners and first and second graders in Taiwan and the U.S. The child rearing variables of parental control, encouragement of independence, expression of…

  10. Single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging-assessed stress perfusion defect severity is associated with mortality independent of ethnicity in an Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Chee Tang; Gao, Fei; Keng, Felix Y J; Shah, Bimal R; Koh, Angela S; Tan, Ru San; Chua, Terrance S J

    2014-12-01

    Ischemic heart disease is growing by epidemic proportions in Asia. Among patients in Western populations with similar myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) ischemia severity, ethnicity is independently associated with mortality. We aimed to determine the differential prognostic value of MPI abnormality severity among three major Asian ethnic groups. From 16,921 consecutive patients, we used summed stress score to define increasing abnormal scan severity groups (minimal, mild, moderate, and severe) among Chinese, Indian, and Malay patients. We determined mortality from the national death registry. Using multivariable Cox regression models, we examined the association between ethnicity and mortality. Chinese patients were older than Indians or Malays. Annual all-cause death rates increased with increasing abnormal scan severity in all three ethnicities. After adjustment, ethnicity was not associated with mortality. With Chinese as the reference group, adjusted hazard ratio and 95% CI for Malays and Indians were 1.29 (0.95-1.77) and 1.06 (0.74-1.50) in the minimally abnormal scan group, and 1.20 (0.75-1.91) and 0.82 (0.47-1.45) in the severely abnormal scan group, respectively. Mortality risk is related to the severity of scan abnormality and is independent of ethnicity in Asians. Our findings emphasize the continued utility of MPI in guiding risk stratification in Asia.

  11. Cross-cultural adaptation and Chinese students in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This contribution goes into the experiences of Chinese students studying at universities abroad. In the host societies they find themselves having to deal with major cultural confusion, which frustrates their education. Individualism and independence are characteristics strongly embedded in modern

  12. Adherence to gout management recommendations of Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Feng; Fang, Weigang; Zhang, Bingqing; Sha, Yue; Zeng, Xuejun

    2017-11-01

    Though efficacious and affordable treatments for gout are widely available, gout is still not well controlled in many countries of the world including China.To investigate patient adherence to gout management recommendations and potential barriers in Chinese male gout patients, a survey was carried out by telephone interview in male patients registered in the gout clinic at Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Adherence to dietary and medication recommendations was measured by a food frequency questionnaire and proportion of cumulative time adherent to chemical urate-lowering therapy (ULT), respectively. Dietary adherence was defined as consumption of alcohol, seafood and animal organs less than once per month, and reduced red meat after dietary counseling. Medication adherence was defined as ULT ≥80% of time in the past 12 months for patients with indications. Logistic regression models were used to identify patient characteristics associated with management adherence. Reasons for nonadherence were also sought by open-end questions.Dietary and medication adherence were 44.2% and 21.9%, respectively. Older age (odds ratio [OR] 7.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.49-25.04 for age ≥60), higher serum uric acid (sUA) levels (OR 3.53, 95% CI 1.42-8.75 for the highest quartile), and tophi (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.12-4.77) were associated with dietary adherence independently, while tophi (OR 14.05, 95% CI 2.67-74.08) and chronic kidney disease (OR 16.66, 95% CI 2.63-105.37) were associated with medication adherence independently. Reasons that patients reported for nonadherence to medication included remission after treatment (35.3%), concerns for potential side effects (22.7%), insufficient patient education (8.7%), and adverse events (8.2%).Patient adherence to gout management recommendations is poor in China. Older age, increased disease burden, and specific comorbidities were associated with management adherence.

  13. Association of Sarcopenic Obesity with Higher Serum High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Levels in Chinese Older Males--A Community-Based Study (Taichung Community Health Study-Elderly, TCHS-E.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Wei Yang

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity and sarcopenia is high among the elderly. The simultaneous occurrence of these two disorders results in sarcopenic obesity. Research suggests that inflammation has an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity and sarcopenia. This study explores the impact of sarcopenic obesity on inflammatory markers, including interleukin-6 (IL-6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α. This study is a community-based cross-sectional study. The study sample consisted of 844 community-dwelling people aged 65 years and older (448 men and 396 women. Sarcopenia was characterized by low muscle mass (skeletal muscle index < 6.87 and 5.46 kg/m2 for men and women, respectively, and obesity was characterized by excess body fat (body fat percentage greater than the 60th percentile of the study sample by sex [27.82% in men and 37.61% in women]. Older individuals identified with sarcopenic obesity were those who had both sarcopenia and obesity. Inflammatory markers such as IL-6, hs-CRP, and TNF-α were measured. The prevalence rates of obesity only, sarcopenia only, and sarcopenic obesity were 32.94%, 11.85%, and 7.23%, respectively. No difference was observed in the serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α among the four groups of combined sarcopenia and obesity status. After multivariate adjustment, the serum hs-CRP levels in the obesity only and in the sarcopenic obesity groups were 0.14 and 0.16 mg/dL among males, respectively, which were significantly higher than that in the normal group (P=0.012 and 0.036. Our results provide evidence that obesity and sarcopenic obesity are associated with increased levels of serum hs-CRP among males.

  14. Family Support and Loneliness among Older Persons in Multiethnic Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Teh, Jane Kimm Lii; Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates factors affecting older persons' state of loneliness in multiethnic Malaysia using data from the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey, the first nationally representative sample in Malaysia. The study sample was extracted to include Malays, Chinese, Indians and other Indigenous groups aged 60 and above, and who had children (n = 1791). Cross tabulations and ordinal logistic regression methods were used in the analysis. Among the ethnic groups, older Malays were ...

  15. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Explain Use of Traditional Chinese Medicine among Hong Kong Chinese in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina L. Rochelle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The UK Chinese are known for their underutilisation of western healthcare services. Reasons for this underutilisation are complex. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB is a widely used model of social cognition, which in the present study is being applied to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM utilisation and satisfaction with TCM services. Two hundred and seventy-two UK Chinese aged between 15 and 91 years (M=46.55; SD = 18.53 enrolled in the study. TCM utilisation was associated with gender, age, cultural attachment, and subjective norms. TCM users were more likely to be female and older and have a strong attachment to Chinese culture, and be influenced by the views of important others. Findings highlight the potential of the TPB in exploring TCM utilisation, whilst also throwing light on other factors influential in the use of TCM and satisfaction with TCM service provision among Chinese in the UK.

  16. Depression in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Depression In Older Adults: More Facts Depression In Older Adults: More Facts Depression affects more ... combination of both. [8] Older Adult Attitudes Toward Depression: According to a Mental Health America survey [9] ...

  17. Cancer in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Navigating Cancer Care > For Older Adults For Older Adults A full-text transcript is available. More than ... Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young Adults For Older Adults Aging and Cancer Cancer Care Decisions for ...

  18. Older Adults and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Older Adults A national 2008 survey found that about 40 ... of adults ages 65 and older drink alcohol. Older adults can experience a variety of problems from drinking ...

  19. Acupoint Massage for Managing Cognitive Alterations in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Shen, Cuiling; Yao, Liqun; Li, Zhuangmiao

    2018-06-01

    Cognitive disorders pose a major problem in the aging population across the globe. Acupoint massage has been used to improve cognitive functions in older adults. In this study, the authors performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the usefulness of acupoint massage in preventing cognitive declines in older adults. The authors searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting on the effectiveness of acupoint massage on cognition in older adults in the following literature databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Foreign Medical Journal Service, Cochrane Library, VIP Information, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, WANFANG, and Chinese Biomedical. Two reviewers independently extracted the data related to the study and participants' characteristics and the cognitive impairment outcomes. Only RCTs meeting the inclusion criteria were used in the present meta-analysis. Eight RCTs with 657 participants in total (age ≥60 years) were included. It is actually 8 for synthetic and 6 in the meta-analysis. The authors calculated the pooled estimates of the random effects of changes in the Mini-Mental State Examination to compare the groups with and without acupoint massage. The merged mean difference (MD) was 1.94 (95% confidence interval, C.I., [1.41-2.47], p < 0.00001) after 3 months of acupoint massage treatment and 3.04 (95% C.I. [2.43-3.64], p < 0.00001) after 6 months of treatment. They also calculated the merged MD of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Chinese version after 6 months of acupoint massage. Visual Reproduction was 2.95 (95% C.I. [1.30-4.60], p = 0.0005), Associate Learning was 1.89 (95% C.I. [1.41-2.37], p < 0.00001), Logical Memory was 2.85 (95% C.I. [2.06-3.63], p < 0.00001), and Digit Span was 3.16 (95% C.I. [2.59-3.73], p < 0.00001). The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions was used to rate the quality of the studies, which was moderate overall. The findings suggested that

  20. Creating Political Space To Defend Chinese Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongfang, Han

    2002-01-01

    Presents comments spoken at a human rights conference by Han Dongfang, a Chinese activist who was jailed after an attempt to organize China's first independent union from a tent in Tiananmen Square during the democracy movement. Today, he is barred from the mainland but works from Hong Kong through Radio Free Asia. Comments focus on foreign…

  1. Web Services for Telegeriatric and Independent Living of the Elderly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... models. The platform design follows a patient centric philosophy along with the ... aging population in the World). ... independent living environment for older people at home ...... impact scope. .... Configuring a Trusted Cloud.

  2. Psychometric Evaluation of Chinese-Language 44-Item and 10-Item Big Five Personality Inventories, Including Correlations with Chronotype, Mindfulness and Mind Wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciofo, Richard; Yang, Jiaoyan; Song, Nan; Du, Feng; Zhang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18-82), assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-.807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44), and .515-.873 (BFI-10). The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism), and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness). Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness), mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness), and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism). Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research.

  3. MANDARIN CHINESE DICTIONARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, FRED FANGYU

    IN RESPONSE TO THE NEEDS OF THE GROWING NUMBER OF AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE STUDENTS LEARNING CHINESE, SETON HALL UNIVERSITY UNDERTOOK A CONTRACT WITH THE U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION TO COMPILE A BILINGUAL POCKET-SIZE DICTIONARY FOR BEGINNING STUDENTS OF SPOKEN MANDARIN CHINESE. THE PRESENT WORK IS THE CHINESE TO ENGLISH SECTION IN PRELIMINARY…

  4. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the

  5. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Balachandran C; Srinivas C; Shenoy S

    1991-01-01

    A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  6. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  7. National stereotypes of older people's competence are related to older adults' participation in paid and volunteer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Catherine E; Skirbekk, Vegard

    2013-11-01

    Why are older people perceived as more competent in some countries relative to others? In the current study, we investigate the extent to which national variation in perceptions of older people's competence is systematically related to national variation in the extent to which older people participate in paid and volunteer work. We used multilevel regression to analyze data from the European Social Survey and test the relationship between perceptions of older people's competence and older people's participation in paid and volunteer work across 28 countries. We controlled for a number of potentially confounding variables, including life expectancy as well as the gender ratio and average education of the older population in each country. We controlled for the average objective cognitive abilities of the older population in a subsample of 11 countries. Older people were perceived as more competent in countries in which more older people participated in paid or volunteer work, independent of life expectancy and the average education, gender makeup, and average cognitive abilities of the older population. The results suggest that older people's participation in paid and volunteer work is related to perceptions of older people's competence independent of older people's actual competence.

  8. Chinese herbal medicine for diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhang, Yin; Li, Xinxue; Yang, Guoyan; Liu, Jian Ping

    2013-10-06

    Chinese herbal medicine is frequently used for treating diabetic peripheral neuropathy in China. Many controlled trials have been undertaken to investigate its efficacy.This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in the year 2011. To assess the beneficial effects and harms of Chinese herbal medicine for people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. On 14 May 2012, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register CENTRAL (2012, Issue 4 in The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2012), AMED (January 1985 to May 2012) and in October 2012, the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1979 to October 2012), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI) (1979 to October 2012), and VIP Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database (1989 to October 2012). We searched for unpublished literature in the Chinese Conference Papers Database, and Chinese Dissertation Database (from inception to October 2012). There were no language or publication restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicine (with a minimum of four weeks treatment duration) for people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions. Trials of herbal medicine plus a conventional drug versus the drug alone were also included. Two authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. We contacted study authors for additional information. Forty-nine randomised trials involving 3639 participants were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Thirty-eight different herbal medicines were tested in these trials, including four single herbs (extracts from a single herb), eight traditional Chinese patent medicines, and 26 self concocted Chinese herbal compound prescriptions. The trials reported on global symptom improvement (including improvement in numbness or pain) and changes in nerve conduction

  9. Predictors of Physical Functioning Trajectories among Chinese Oldest Old Adults: Rural and Urban Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Park, Nan Sook; Klemmack, David L.; Roff, Lucinda L.; Li, Zhihong

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the differences between rural/urban older adults in their trajectories of activities of daily living (ADL) over a 4-year period. The sample included 2,490 community dwelling older adults who completed three waves (1998, 2000, and 2002) of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. Among them, 63.5% were from rural…

  10. Communication through Foreign Languages: An Economic Force in Chinese Enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Herbert W.; Liu, Jinyun

    1991-01-01

    Second-language use by Chinese business managers illustrates that second-language competence is driven partly by economic and political forces. Although Russian language knowledge is typical of the older managers, English and Japanese are favored by younger managers, reflecting the wane of Russian political influence and the growing importance of…

  11. Measuring Older Adults’ Individual Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Bai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that maintaining high individual modernity level can enable the shaping of positive self-image and boost life satisfaction for older people along with better adaptation to the process of societal modernization. This study examined the factorial structure and evaluated the psychometric properties of the adapted Multidimensional Scale of Chinese Individual Modernity (MS-CIM in a sample of 445 elders (the finalized version is named “MS-CIME” and added a self-constructed nine-item behavioral modernity domain. Principal component analysis suggested a conceptually meaningful seven-factor model, which was further supported by the results of the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. The final 25-item MS-CIME indicated an acceptable level of reliability. The convergent validity was demonstrated by its associations with socio-economic status, participation in daily activities, self-image, and life satisfaction in expected directions.

  12. Independence and Product Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Skeide, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Starting from elementary considerations about independence and Markov processes in classical probability we arrive at the new concept of conditional monotone independence (or operator-valued monotone independence). With the help of product systems of Hilbert modules we show that monotone conditional independence arises naturally in dilation theory.

  13. Civic Engagement of Older Adults in Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiping; Adamek, Margaret

    2017-07-01

    Due to great challenges resulting from China's rapid population aging, Chinese elders are mobilized to address problems caused by this demographic trend through civic engagement. Based on an integrative review of policy, research, and practice, this article reveals that today's Chinese elders have a higher level and wider scope of civic engagement than previous cohorts. A set of factors contributing to such improvement are further identified, including the reform of the national economy, transformation of governmental functions, and the use of effective strategies applied to concrete programs. However, several constraints limiting Chinese elders' equal, active engagement in civic life remain, including the social stratification of older adults, preferential selection of participants due to the nation's socioeconomic development strategy, and family care work competing with other types of civic activities. Finally, future directions for policy, research, and practice are proposed in order to increase Chinese elders' civic engagement.

  14. Are Independent Fiscal Institutions Really Independent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Franek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the number of independent fiscal institutions (known also as fiscal councils has tripled. They play an important oversight role over fiscal policy-making in democratic societies, especially as they seek to restore public finance stability in the wake of the recent financial crisis. Although common functions of such institutions include a role in analysis of fiscal policy, forecasting, monitoring compliance with fiscal rules or costing of spending proposals, their roles, resources and structures vary considerably across countries. The aim of the article is to determine the degree of independence of such institutions based on the analysis of the independence index of independent fiscal institutions. The analysis of this index values may be useful to determine the relations between the degree of independence of fiscal councils and fiscal performance of particular countries. The data used to calculate the index values will be derived from European Commission and IMF, which collect sets of information about characteristics of activity of fiscal councils.

  15. Evaluating Older Drivers' Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Research has demonstrated that older drivers pose a higher risk of involvement in fatal crashes at intersections than : younger drivers. Age-triggered restrictions are problematic as research shows that the majority of older people : have unimpaired ...

  16. Central Bank independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  17. Independent directors’ board networks and controlling shareholders’ tunneling behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yunsen; Wang, Yutao; Lin, Le

    2014-01-01

    As one of the channels by which board directors build important relationships, board networks can affect the governance role of independent directors. Defining director board networks as their connections based on direct ties they establish when serving on at least one common board, this paper explores the role of the network centrality of independent directors in restraining tunneling behavior by controlling shareholders in the Chinese capital market. Our empirical evidence shows that tunnel...

  18. The Risk of Hemorrhagic Transformation After Thrombolysis for Acute Ischemic Stroke in Chinese Versus North Americans: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaomeng; Wang, Deren; Wang, Fang; Norton, Casey; Liu, Xinfeng; Selim, Magdy

    2018-05-16

    There is a widespread belief that Asians are more susceptible to hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after receiving recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). However, this has not been examined in clinical practice. This study aims to compare the incidence of symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation (SHT) among thrombolysis-treated AIS patients in China and in the United States. We compared 212 consecutive patients receiving thrombolysis within 4.5 hours of onset ± endovascular therapy from an American (n = 86) and a Chinese Stroke Center (n = 126). SHT was defined using various definitions based on the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator (NINDS rt-PA) trials, European-Australian Cooperative Acute Stroke Study 2 (ECASS2), and a modified version of Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-Monitoring Study (mSITS-MOST) study criteria. We used Firth logistic regression to adjust for confounding variables and to identify potential predictors. American patients were older, and had higher prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, cardiac disease, and prestroke use of antithrombotics. They also had higher baseline serum glucose, shorter onset-to-treatment time, and fewer endovascular treatments. The rates of SHT were higher in the American cohort compared to the Chinese cohort: 18.6% versus 14.3% based on NINDS definition of SHT; 15.1% versus 12.7% based on ECASS2; and 11.6% versus 7.2% based on mSITS-MOST. However, none of these differences were significant (unadjusted and adjusted P values > .05). Fatal HT was comparable in Americans versus Chinese (8.1% versus 8.7%). Serum glucose emerged as an independent predictor of SHT (P = .024). In our cohorts, the rate of SHT after thrombolysis is equivalent between Chinese and North American stroke patients. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Organizing Independent Student Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhadyra T. Zhumasheva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses issues in organizing independent student work. The author defines the term “independence”, discusses the concepts of independent learner work and independent learner work under the guidance of an instructor, proposes a classification of assignments to be done independently, and provides methodological recommendations as to the organization of independent student work. The article discusses the need for turning the student from a passive consumer of knowledge into an active creator of it, capable of formulating a problem, analyzing the ways of solving it, coming up with an optimum outcome, and proving its correctness. The preparation of highly qualified human resources is the primary condition for boosting Kazakhstan’s competitiveness. Independent student work is a means of fostering the professional competence of future specialists. The primary form of self-education is independent work.

  20. Relations of Maternal Style and Child Self-Concept to Autobiographical Memories in Chinese, Chinese Immigrant, and European American 3-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi

    2006-01-01

    The relations of maternal reminiscing style and child self-concept to children's shared and independent autobiographical memories were examined in a sample of 189 three-year-olds and their mothers from Chinese families in China, first-generation Chinese immigrant families in the United States, and European American families. Mothers shared…

  1. Chinese Foods; Teacher's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a…

  2. Prevalence and clinical correlation of dysphagia in Parkinson disease: a study on Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, X; Gao, J; Xie, C; Xiong, B; Wu, S; Cen, Z; Lou, Y; Lou, D; Xie, F; Luo, W

    2018-01-01

    Dysphagia is relatively common in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and can have a negative impact on their quality of life; therefore, it is imperative that its prevalence in PD patients is studied. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and clinical correlation of dysphagia in Chinese PD patients. We recruited 116 Chinese PD patients. A videofluoroscopic study of swallowing (VFSS) was used to identify dysphagia. Assessments, including water drinking test, relative motor symptoms, non-motor symptoms (NMS) and quality of life, were performed to analyze the risks of dysphagia. The prevalence of dysphagia was 87.1%. The comparison of demographic and clinical features between patients with and without dysphagia included sex, education level, disease course, Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE), Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA), Question 6, 7 of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS Part II), Hoehn-Yahr stage (H&Y), water drinking test, 39-item Parkinson Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39) and Non-Motor Symptoms Quest (NMSQ). We found significant correlations between dysphagia and age. Using age, disease course, and H&Y stage as the independent variable in our regression analysis for assessing the risk factors of dysphagia in PD patients, age and H&Y stage displayed a strong correlation as the risk factors. The risk of dysphagia in elderly PD patients is 1.078 times greater than that of younger PD patients. Also, the risk of dysphagia in PD patients of a greater H&Y staging is 3.260 times greater than that of lower staging PD patients. Our results suggest that dysphagia is common in Chinese PD patients. Older patients or those in higher H&Y stages are more likely to experience dysphagia. There is no correlation between dysphagia and PD duration.

  3. Physical Activity in Relation to Sleep Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junxin; Yang, Binbin; Varrasse, Miranda; Ji, Xiaopeng; Wu, MaoChun; Li, Manman; Li, Kun

    2018-02-27

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to describe physical activity and sleep in 290 community-dwelling Chinese older adults and to examine the association between physical activity and poor sleep outcomes. Almost half of the sample were poor sleepers. The majority of the sample regularly participated in walking, some household activity and light sports; yet, only a small portion were involved in work-related activity or in strenuous sports. A greater level of overall physical activity [Odds Ratio (OR) =0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) = (0.73,0.86)], leisure-time exercise [OR=0.77, 95%CI=(0.68,0.85)], and household activity [OR=0.66, 95%CI= (0.56,0.78)] were associated with reduced likelihood of being poor sleepers and other poor sleep outcomes, independent of covariates including age, sex, education, family income, the number of children, drinking, and sleep hygiene. Future larger scale studies that incorporate both objective and subjective measures are needed to further examine the association and to explore the effects of different types of activity on sleep and other well-beings in older adults.

  4. Risk of Falling in Older Women

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Armas; Joan Lappe; Veronica J. Slavik; Kellan Slattery; Shih-Chuan Cheng; Davender S. Malik; John N. Mordeson

    2015-01-01

    We propose a weighted average approach to measure the risk of falling in older women. We consider four causal variables of falling, namely serum 25-OHD levels, medication use, fracture, and age. We use five methods to derive linear equations with these four factors as independent variables in the linear equations with risk of falling as the dependent variable.

  5. 77 FR 26651 - Older Americans Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... in grants to ensure the health and independence of America's older adults, including $20 million... trials and heralded defining triumphs over the course of the 20th century, and the men and women who saw us through that time remain among our Nation's greatest assets. Through their guiding wisdom...

  6. Chinese Companies in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kessler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.

  7. Translation: an example from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X; Hoede, C.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we gave an idea of translation by means of knowledge graph theory from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese, by using an example story. Actually, we give the details of the method of translation from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese step by step as carried out by hand. From the example,

  8. Chinese nuclear insurance and Chinese nuclear insurance pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Zhiqi

    2000-01-01

    Chinese Nuclear Insurance Started with Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, PICC issued the insurance policy. Nuclear insurance cooperation between Chinese and international pool's organizations was set up in 1989. In 1996, the Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was prepared. The Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was approved by The Chinese Insurance Regulatory Committee in May of 1999. The principal aim is to centralize maximum the insurance capacity for nuclear insurance from local individual insurers and to strengthen the reinsurance relations with international insurance pools so as to provide the high quality insurance service for Chinese nuclear industry. The Member Company of Chinese Nuclear Pool and its roles are introduced in this article

  9. Singapore Healthy Older People Everyday (HOPE) Study: Prevalence of Frailty and Associated Factors in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Reshma A; Chen, Matthew Zhixuan; Tan, Linda Wei Lin; Lim, Moses YiDong; Ho, Han Kwee; van Dam, Rob M

    2017-08-01

    In the context of a rapidly ageing population, Singapore is anticipating a rise in multimorbidity, disability, and dependency, which are driven by physical frailty. Healthy Older People Everyday (HOPE) is an epidemiologic population-based study on community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older in Singapore. To investigate the prevalence of frail and prefrail states and their association with polypharmacy, multimorbidity, cognitive and functional status, and perceived health status among community-dwelling older adults in Singapore. Participants for HOPE were older adults aged 65 years and older recruited from a cohort study on the northwest region of Singapore. Analysis was performed on data collected from a combination of interviewer-administered questionnaires (including FRAIL scale, EQ-5D, Mini Mental State Examination, Barthel index, and Lawton IADL scale), clinical assessments, and physical measurements (including hand grip strength and Timed-Up-and-Go [TUG] test). A total of 1051 older adults (mean age 71.2 years) completed the study. More than half (57.2%) were female. The prevalence of frailty and prefrailty was 6.2% and 37%, respectively. Frailty was associated with older age, female gender, Indian (instead of Chinese) ethnicity, multimorbidity, polypharmacy, cognitive and functional impairment, weaker hand grip strength, longer TUG times, and poor perceived health status. Those with underlying cognitive impairment and frailty were at greater risk of adverse health outcome. Frailty is a complex health state with multiple domains and dimensions. In our study in a multiethnic Asian population, we identified nonmodifiable factors and modifiable risk factors (multimorbidity, polypharmacy, cognitive and functional impairment) that were associated with frailty. Interventions will have to be multipronged and will require a collaborated effort in order to effect change and improve the health span in rapidly ageing populations. Copyright © 2017 AMDA

  10. Fear of intimacy with helping professionals and its impact on elderly Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying; Chow, Aloysius; Chan, Sally; Wang, Wenru

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the attitudes of Chinese older adults toward seeking help from healthcare professionals, and its impact on their self-care ability and medication adherence. A cross-sectional study using a questionnaire survey was carried out. A convenience sample of 301 older adults was recruited from six health centers in Macao, People's Republic of China. The Chinese versions of Fear of Intimacy with Helping Professionals (C-FIHP), Exercise of Self-care Agency (C-ESCA) and Morisky 4-Item Self-Report Measure of Medication-Taking Behavior (C-MMAS) were used to measure the study variables. Chinese older adults who were married and had comorbidity with arthritis showed significantly negative attitudes toward seeking help form healthcare professional than those who were not married (P Chinese older adults' fear of intimacy with helping professionals impacts their perceived self-care ability and medication adherence. The three predictive factors identified in the present study might provide useful pointers for healthcare professionals to customize an effective approach to encourage and engage older adults. This might improve the self-care ability and medication adherence of older adults, which will result in a better quality of life and psychosocial well-being. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. Sense of Community and Depressive Symptoms among Older Earthquake Survivors Following the 2008 Earthquake in Chengdu China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yawen; Sun, Fei; He, Xusong; Chan, Kin Sun

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the impact of an earthquake as well as the role of sense of community as a protective factor against depressive symptoms among older Chinese adults who survived an 8.0 magnitude earthquake in 2008. A household survey of a random sample was conducted 3 months after the earthquake and 298 older earthquake survivors participated…

  12. Depressive symptoms of elderly Chinese in Guangzhou, Hong Kong, and Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Daniel W L

    2009-09-01

    Understanding the socio-cultural context is an important pre-requisite for understanding global aging and mental health. This study aimed to examine the variation in the types of depressive symptoms of aging Chinese in three ethnic Chinese societies. Data were based on a mixed purposive and random sample of aging Chinese in Guangzhou, Hong Kong, and Taipei. The 891 Chinese participants of 65 years or older were included. Depressive symptoms were measured by a Chinese 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Factor analysis was used to identify the factor structure of the scale when used with elderly Chinese in the three cities. There are 'within-ethnic group' differences in manifestation of depressive symptoms. Symptoms of the elderly Chinese in Guangzhou and Hong Kong were similarly related to items that indicate uncertainty and disinterest in living. The ones in Taipei expressed symptoms indicating disinterest and a negative mood. These differences were probably due to the variations in the socio-cultural, demographic, and structural characteristics among the three cities. Depressive symptoms can be culturally related and manifested differently by people sharing a similar ethnicity. The same ethnicity does not mean homogeneity. The findings should be useful for mental health practitioners in Western societies working with older Chinese immigrants. Knowing the mental health characteristics of these client groups will facilitate the designing of appropriate assessment and intervention tools to fit the culturally unique mental health needs of different subgroups in these ethno-cultural communities.

  13. The Danger of Chinese Exceptionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In the movement of Chinese indigenous management research, a sort of ‘Chinese exceptionalism’ (as critiqued by Peng, 2005: 133) seems to have been emerging, namely, some Chinese scholars see Chinese culture, philosophy, and way of thinking are unique and cannot be accounted for by some...

  14. Cognitive Social Capital and Formal Volunteering Among Older Adults in Urban China: Does Gender Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Nan; Peng, Changmin; Jiang, Nan; Lou, Vivian W Q

    2018-03-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of gender on the relationship between cognitive social capital and formal volunteering among older adults in urban China. Cognitive social capital refers to individuals' perceptions of their social relationships in local communities. We used quota sampling to recruit 456 older adults aged 60 years and older from 16 communities of Gusu district, Suzhou city, in late 2015. Multiple group analysis was used to examine the proposed model. Gender had a moderating effect on the relationship between cognitive social capital and volunteering. The associations between cognitive social capital and volunteering were higher among older men than older women. The findings highlight the important role of cognitive social capital in influencing formal volunteering among older adults in urban Chinese contexts. The findings are particularly important for enhancing volunteering among older adults across different social and economic backgrounds. Policy and intervention implications are discussed.

  15. Self-perceived Age and Attitudes Toward Marketing of Older Consumers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Understanding consumer psychological characteristics and their impact on consumer behavior is an important foundation for business marketing strategies. Self-perceived age has a great impact on older consumers’ behavior. This article defines the gray market in China, investigates the factors that affect the differences between older consumers’ self-perceived age and life age, and analyzes the influence of self-perceived age on older Chinese consumers’ behavior. In this study, 1,120 older consumers were randomly selected from six cities in China. Findings show that over half of the respondents feel younger than their actual life age. Related marketing strategies are discussed. PMID:20835378

  16. Application of Toxic Chinese Medicine in Chinese Pharmacopoeia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Feng, Yu; Mao, Mingsan

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Explore the application characteristics of proprietary Chinese medicine prescriptions containing toxic herbs in pharmacopoeia. Methods: In this paper, according to the clinical application of pharmacopoeia proprietary Chinese medicine is divided into table agent, Qushu agent, diarrhea agent, heat agent, Wen Li agent, cough and asthma agents, resuscitation agent, Gutian agent, Fuzheng agent, Anshen agent, hemostatic agent, The traditional Chinese medicine prescription and the clinical application of the Chinese herbal medicine containing the toxic Chinese medicine were analyzed and sorted out., Summed up the compatibility of toxic herbs and application characteristics. Results: Toxic Chinese herbal medicine in the cure of traditional Chinese medicine to play a long-standing role, through the overall thinking, dialectical thinking, and thinking of toxic Chinese medicine in the analysis of Chinese medicine that [2], toxic Chinese medicine in the application of proprietary Chinese medicine can not lack. Conclusion: Pharmacopoeia included proprietary Chinese medicine not only in the clinical treatment of good, but also the application of its toxic traditional Chinese medicine and its understanding of the enrichment of the toxic characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine and treatment-related disease pathology between the points of contact for patients with clinical applications Based on and theoretical guidance of Chinese medicine [3].

  17. Performing "Chinese-ness" in Singkawang

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, C.E.; Ormond, M.E.; Sulianti, Dian

    2017-01-01

    Through an examination of two festivals – Qing Ming and Cap Go Meh – in the town of Singkawang in Indonesian Borneo (Kalimantan), we show how Singkawang-bound Chinese Indonesian tourists and their Singkawang-based relatives produce a diasporic heritage network through ‘moorings’ generated by both

  18. Accounting for Independent Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonenstein, Burton

    The diversity of independent schools in size, function, and mode of operation has resulted in a considerable variety of accounting principles and practices. This lack of uniformity has tended to make understanding, evaluation, and comparison of independent schools' financial statements a difficult and sometimes impossible task. This manual has…

  19. Older adults' reasons for using technology while aging in place : a qualitative field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katrien G. Luijkx; Maurice D. Rijnaard; Marianne E. Nieboer; Claire S. van der Voort; Sil Aarts; Joost van Hoof; Hubertus J.M. Vrijhoef; Eveline J.M. Wouters; Sebastiaan T.M. Peek

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most older adults prefer to age in place, and supporting older adults to remain in their own homes and communities is also favored by policy makers. Technology can play a role in staying independent, active and healthy. However, the use of technology varies considerably among older

  20. Family Support and Loneliness among Older Persons in Multiethnic Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Jane Kimm Lii; Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates factors affecting older persons' state of loneliness in multiethnic Malaysia using data from the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey, the first nationally representative sample in Malaysia. The study sample was extracted to include Malays, Chinese, Indians and other Indigenous groups aged 60 and above, and who had children (n = 1791). Cross tabulations and ordinal logistic regression methods were used in the analysis. Among the ethnic groups, older Malays were more likely than their Chinese and Indian counterparts to experience loneliness. Loneliness was found to be associated with age, marital status, education level, sources of income, health status, and physical limitations. Among older people, feelings of loneliness were inversely related with coresidence with adult children and participation in religious activities. Sociodemographic changes have eroded the traditional family support system for the elderly, while social security remains inadequate. This study shows the important role of family in alleviating loneliness among older people. Hence the need to promote and facilitate coresidence, as well as participation in religious activities, and a healthy lifestyle as a priority strategy is in line with the objectives of the National Policy for the Older People. PMID:25383374

  1. Family Support and Loneliness among Older Persons in Multiethnic Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Kimm Lii Teh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates factors affecting older persons’ state of loneliness in multiethnic Malaysia using data from the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey, the first nationally representative sample in Malaysia. The study sample was extracted to include Malays, Chinese, Indians and other Indigenous groups aged 60 and above, and who had children (n = 1791. Cross tabulations and ordinal logistic regression methods were used in the analysis. Among the ethnic groups, older Malays were more likely than their Chinese and Indian counterparts to experience loneliness. Loneliness was found to be associated with age, marital status, education level, sources of income, health status, and physical limitations. Among older people, feelings of loneliness were inversely related with coresidence with adult children and participation in religious activities. Sociodemographic changes have eroded the traditional family support system for the elderly, while social security remains inadequate. This study shows the important role of family in alleviating loneliness among older people. Hence the need to promote and facilitate coresidence, as well as participation in religious activities, and a healthy lifestyle as a priority strategy is in line with the objectives of the National Policy for the Older People.

  2. Family support and loneliness among older persons in multiethnic Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Jane Kimm Lii; Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates factors affecting older persons' state of loneliness in multiethnic Malaysia using data from the 2004 Malaysian Population and Family Survey, the first nationally representative sample in Malaysia. The study sample was extracted to include Malays, Chinese, Indians and other Indigenous groups aged 60 and above, and who had children (n = 1791). Cross tabulations and ordinal logistic regression methods were used in the analysis. Among the ethnic groups, older Malays were more likely than their Chinese and Indian counterparts to experience loneliness. Loneliness was found to be associated with age, marital status, education level, sources of income, health status, and physical limitations. Among older people, feelings of loneliness were inversely related with coresidence with adult children and participation in religious activities. Sociodemographic changes have eroded the traditional family support system for the elderly, while social security remains inadequate. This study shows the important role of family in alleviating loneliness among older people. Hence the need to promote and facilitate coresidence, as well as participation in religious activities, and a healthy lifestyle as a priority strategy is in line with the objectives of the National Policy for the Older People.

  3. Gender Differences in Cognition among Older Adults in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Hu, Yuqing; McArdle, John J.; Smith, James P.; Zhao, Yaohui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Modeled after the American Health and Retirement Study (HRS), the CHARLS Pilot survey respondents are 45 years and older in two quite distinct provinces—Zhejiang, a high-growth industrialized province on the East Coast, and Gansu, a largely agricultural and poor province in the West—in a sense new and old China. Our cognition measures proxy for two differen...

  4. Gender Differences in Cognition among Older Adults in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyan Lei; Yuqing Hu; James P. Smith; Yahao Zhao

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Modeled after the American Health and Retirement Survey (HRS), the CHARLS Pilot survey respondents are 45 years and older in two quite distinct provinces—Zhejiang a high growth industrialized province on the East Coast, and Gansu, a largely agricultural and poor Province in the West. Their measures of cognition in CHARLS relies on two measures th...

  5. Depressive symptoms and health problems among Chinese immigrant elders in the US and Chinese elders in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bei; Chi, Iris; Plassman, Brenda L; Guo, Man

    2010-08-01

    Researchers speculate that depression tends to be more prevalent among immigrant elders due to their lack of resources, acculturation stress, language problems, and social isolation. However, other characteristics of elderly immigrants, such as the healthy immigrant effect, may counteract these potential risk factors. This study examined whether depressive symptoms differed between Chinese immigrant elders and their counterparts in China and whether health conditions were similarly associated with depressive symptoms in these two samples. Depression and health information was collected from 177 Chinese immigrant elders in Boston, the US in 2000 and from 428 education and gender-matched elders in Shanghai, China in 2003. Chinese immigrants had a significantly lower score on the modified Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and its subscales: somatic symptoms and depressive affect. The association remained for the subscale depressive affect in multivariate analyses. Arthritis and back or neck problems were associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms among Chinese immigrants, while problems in walking were associated with depression among their counterparts in China. Pain was an underlying contributor to the association between depression and these health problems in both the groups. This study suggests that Chinese immigrant elders might be more resilient than their counterparts despite many challenges they face after moving abroad. With the growing number of older Chinese immigrants in the US, a better understanding of depressive symptoms is essential to provide culturally competent services to better serve this population.

  6. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  7. Chinese implicit leadership theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, W; Chia, R C; Fang, L

    2000-12-01

    In a 1st attempt to identify an implicit theory of leadership among Chinese people, the authors developed the Chinese Implicit Leadership Scale (CILS) in Study 1. In Study 2, they administered the CILS to 622 Chinese participants from 5 occupation groups, to explore differences in perceptions of leadership. Factor analysis yielded 4 factors of leadership: Personal Morality, Goal Efficiency, Interpersonal Competence, and Versatility. Social groups differing in age, gender, education level, and occupation rated these factors. Results showed no significant gender differences, and the underlying cause for social group differences was education level. All groups gave the highest ratings to Interpersonal Competence, reflecting the enormous importance of this factor, which is consistent with Chinese collectivist values.

  8. Danish-accented Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Sloos, Marjoleine 莱娜; Zhang, Chun

    In search for a linguistic basis for the education of Chinese as a foreign language CFL in Denmark, we set up a new line of investigation into CFL. This research focuses on the phonetics and phonology of Mandarin Chinese as compared to Danish. Considering the sound systems of both languages, we......-ba /pha pa/ ta-da /tha ta/ ka-ga / kha-ka/ For L2 acquisition it is held that same and new phonemes are (relatively) easy acquired, whereas similar but not identical sounds are difficult to learn. New sounds are initially mapped onto the L1 phoneme inventory (Kuhl 1991). For Danish, this would predict...... instruction, which pitch contours do the Danish learners of Chinese use on neutral tones and to what extent does their production match that of native speakers? Future research may include Norwegian and Swedish-accented Chinese and a comparison between the different Germanic accents of CFL. Reference Kuhl, P...

  9. Probabilistic conditional independence structures

    CERN Document Server

    Studeny, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Probabilistic Conditional Independence Structures provides the mathematical description of probabilistic conditional independence structures; the author uses non-graphical methods of their description, and takes an algebraic approach.The monograph presents the methods of structural imsets and supermodular functions, and deals with independence implication and equivalence of structural imsets.Motivation, mathematical foundations and areas of application are included, and a rough overview of graphical methods is also given.In particular, the author has been careful to use suitable terminology, and presents the work so that it will be understood by both statisticians, and by researchers in artificial intelligence.The necessary elementary mathematical notions are recalled in an appendix.

  10. The Chinese nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenez, J.C.; Bettoun, G.

    2009-01-01

    This series of slides presents the organization of the Chinese nuclear industry and its perspectives for the 2 next decades. The presentation is divided into 5 parts. Part one: the energy sector in China. Due to the economic development of the country this sector is flourishing and reaches an average growth rate of 9% per year. More than fifty per cent of the power plants being built in the world, are located in China. The electricity production stems by far from fossil energies (>80%) but this part is expected to decrease to reach 70% in 2020. Part 2: the Chinese nuclear program. This program is dual: the massive deployment of chinese improved reactors of second generation (the construction of 6 CPR1000 reactors will be launched each year) and the import and assimilation of reactors of the third generation: 4 AP1000 and 2 EPR are being built. Part 3: the organization of the Chinese nuclear sector. The main actors are CNNC (China National Nuclear Corporation), CGNPC (China Guangdong Nuclear Power Corporation), CPI (China Power Investment Corporation), SNPTC (State Nuclear Power Technology Corporation). The main 5 Chinese suppliers are also presented. Part 4: The role of EDF. Today's EDF role is multiple: to be active in the Chinese nuclear program, to go beyond technical assistance to reach partnership, to invest in Chinese power plants, to promote cooperation between French and Chinese actors of the nuclear industry. A lot of joint ventures have been created. Part 5: the Taishan project. Taishan is a coastal site near Macao in the Guangdong province in which 2 EPR are being built, the first concrete was cast in october 2009, 52 months of construction are scheduled and the first unit will be commissioned in end 2013 while the second commissioning is planned for end 2014. (A.C.)

  11. Chinese students' great expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    The article focuses on Chinese students' hopes and expectations before leaving to study abroad. The national political environment for their decision to go abroad is shaped by an official narrative of China's transition to a more creative and innovative economy. Students draw on this narrative to...... system, they think of themselves as having a role in the transformation of Chinese attitudes to education and parent-child relations....

  12. Chinese Typography Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jie; Gu, Yujun

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new network architecture for Chinese typography transformation based on deep learning. The architecture consists of two sub-networks: (1)a fully convolutional network(FCN) aiming at transferring specified typography style to another in condition of preserving structure information; (2)an adversarial network aiming at generating more realistic strokes in some details. Unlike models proposed before 2012 relying on the complex segmentation of Chinese components or str...

  13. Quality of life in Chinese patients with schizophrenia treated in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Hou, Cai-Lan; Ma, Xin-Rong; Zhong, Bao-Liang; Zang, Yu; Jia, Fu-Jun; Lin, Yong-Qiang; Lai, Kelly Y C; Chiu, Helen F K; Ungvari, Gabor S; Hall, Brian J; Cai, Mei-Ying; Ng, Chee H; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2017-08-01

    In China, maintenance treatment for clinically stable patients with schizophrenia is usually provided by primary care physicians. This study examined the quality of life (QOL) in patients with schizophrenia treated in primary care and explored the demographic and clinical characteristics associated with QOL. Altogether, 612 patients with schizophrenia treated in 22 randomly selected primary care services in China formed the study sample. QOL, psychotic and depressive symptoms, extra-pyramidal symptoms and insight were assessed using standardized instruments. Data analyses were conducted with the one sample t-test and multiple linear regression analyses. Compared with the normative data for the Chinese general population, significantly lower scores in physical and mental QOL domains were found in the patient group. Older age, being unemployed, major medical conditions, no smoking, more severe depressive and negative symptoms, more frequent insomnia, and suicidality were independently associated with poor physical QOL. Male gender, more severe depressive and anxiety symptoms, more frequent insomnia, and suicidality were independently associated with poor mental QOL. Patients with schizophrenia treated in primary care had lower level of QOL in comparison with general population. Effective measures need to be implemented to improve their QOL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Use of Gemstones in The Chinese Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badaruddin Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to provide documentation of information relating to local intelligence from the older generations, specifically the local intelligence of the Chinese community on gemstones.To better understand this issue, an informal interview had been conducted on an informant from the Chinese community who has vast experiences dealing with gemstone crafting. Literature reviews were also carried out to further understand the issue under discussion. It can be assumed that religion is the main factor influencing the use of gemstones among ancient Chinese. Although other aspects such as luck, prestige, and healing may also exist, the reasons would be solely based on the teachings of Buddhism. In summary, every God’s creations possess benefits and it is up to human to utilise them in either beneficial or adverse ways 

  15. Feasibility of mobile mental wellness training for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Similä, Heidi; Immonen, Milla; Toska-Tervola, Jaana; Enwald, Heidi; Keränen, Niina; Kangas, Maarit; Jämsä, Timo; Korpelainen, Raija

    2018-03-09

    Mobile technology has been increasingly adopted in promotion of mental health among older people. This study assessed the feasibility of a mobile mental wellness training application for individual use and for group work from the perspectives of older adults and social care professionals. The older individuals recruited for the study were participants in a Circle of Friends group and family caregivers' peer support group offered by the communal senior services. The qualitative and quantitative results of interviews, questionnaires, observation, and application usage were reported. Seven older adults started using the application independently at home in parallel with the group activity. This study revealed new information regarding the barriers to the older adults' full adoption of such mobile technologies. The results indicated that there may be potential in the incorporation of mobile technologies in promotion of mental health of older people at group settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Non-Photorealistic Rendering in Chinese Painting of Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A set of algorithms is proposed in this paper to automatically transform 3D animal models to Chinese painting style. Inspired by real painting process in Chinese painting of animals, we divide the whole rendering process into two parts: borderline stroke making and interior shading. In borderline stroke making process we first find 3D model silhouettes in real-time depending on the viewing direction of a user. After retrieving silhouette information from all model edges, a stroke linking mechanism is applied to link these independent edges into a long stroke. Finally we grow a plain thin silhouette line to a stylus stroke with various widths at each control point and a 2D brush model is combined with it to simulate a Chinese painting stroke. In the interior shading pipeline, three stages are used to convert a Gouraud-shading image to a Chinese painting style image: color quantization, ink diffusion and box filtering. The color quantization stage assigns all pixels in an image into four color levels and each level represents a color layer in a Chinese painting. Ink diffusion stage is used to transfer inks and water between different levels and to grow areas in an irregular way. The box filtering stage blurs sharp borders between different levels to embellish the appearance of final interior shading image. In addition to automatic rendering, an interactive Chinese painting system which is equipped with friendly input devices can be also combined to generate more artistic Chinese painting images manually.

  17. Hand-grip strength among older adults in Singapore: a comparison with international norms and associative factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Hui Lin; Abdin, Edimansyah; Chua, Boon Yiang; Zhang, Yunjue; Seow, Esmond; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2017-08-04

    Hand-grip strength (HGS) serves as a proxy measure for muscle function and physical health. Studies have shown that low HGS is associated with common age-related disorders including frailty and sarcopenia. The aim of the present study was to establish the normative values of HGS among older adults in Singapore and to compare it with data from Western and other Asian countries. The study also aimed to explore the sociodemographic and anthropometric correlates of HGS. Data were collected from 2043 men and women aged 60 years and above who took part in the Well-being of the Singapore Elderly study in 2013. HGS was obtained using a Jamar Plus + digital hand dynamometer. Normative data were stratified by; 5-year age groups, sex and ethnicity. Relationships between the HGS with various sociodemographic and anthropometric correlates were examined using multiple linear regression analysis. The mean HGS demonstrate a decreasing trend with increased age across all ethnic groups and sexes. HGS among Singapore older adults were relatively low compared to Western and other Asian countries. Males in the youngest age group (60-64) and of Chinese ethnicity attained greater HGS values than their counterparts. When the regression analysis was stratified for sex, significant associations were found between height, upper arm circumference with HGS in the males sample, and between height, weight, waist circumference and HGS in the females sample. Older adults in Singapore have a relatively weak HGS compared to other countries. Greater height and weight, and smaller waist circumference are independently associated with greater HGS in females but not males. These results facilitate the interpretation of HGS conducting using Jamar digital-type dynamometers among the older adults in Singapore.

  18. Calibrating EASY-Care independence scale to improve accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotheeswaran, A. T.; Dias, Amit; Philp, Ian; Patel, Vikram; Prince, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background there is currently limited support for the reliability and validity of the EASY-Care independence scale, with little work carried out in low- or middle-income countries. Therefore, we assessed the internal construct validity and hierarchical and classical scaling properties among frail dependent older people in the community. Objective we assessed the internal construct validity and hierarchical and classical scaling properties among frail dependent older people in the community. Methods three primary care physicians administered EASY-Care comprehensive geriatric assessment for 150 frail and/or dependent older people in the primary care setting. A Mokken model was applied to investigate hierarchical scaling properties of EASY-Care independence scale, and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of the scale was also examined. Results we found that EASY-Care independence scale is highly internally consistent and is a strong hierarchical scale, hence providing strong evidence for unidimensionality. However, two items in the scale (unable to use telephone and manage finances) had much lower item Loevinger H coefficients than others. Exclusion of these two items improved the overall internal consistency of the scale. Conclusions the strong performance of the EASY-Care independence scale among community-dwelling frail older people is encouraging. This study confirms that EASY-Care independence scale is highly internally consistent and a strong hierarchical scale. PMID:27496925

  19. Adult Age Differences in Eye Movements During Reading: The Evidence From Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxin; Li, Lin; Li, Sha; Xie, Fang; Chang, Min; Paterson, Kevin B; White, Sarah J; McGowan, Victoria A

    2018-04-16

    Substantial evidence indicates that older readers of alphabetic languages (e.g., English and German) compensate for age-related reading difficulty by employing a more risky reading strategy in which words are skipped more frequently. The effects of healthy aging on reading behavior for nonalphabetic languages, like Chinese, are largely unknown, although this would reveal the extent to which age-related changes in reading strategy are universal. Accordingly, the present research used measures of eye movements to investigate adult age differences in Chinese reading. The eye movements of young (18-30 years) and older (60+ years) Chinese readers were recorded. The older adults exhibited typical patterns of age-related reading difficulty. But rather than employing a more risky reading strategy compared with the younger readers, the older adults read more carefully by skipping words infrequently, making shorter forward eye movements, and fixating closer to the beginnings of two-character target words in sentences. In contrast with the findings for alphabetic languages, older Chinese readers appear to compensate for age-related reading difficulty by employing a more careful reading strategy. Age-related changes in reading strategy therefore appear to be language specific, rather than universal, and may reflect the specific visual and linguistic requirements of the writing system.

  20. Chinese herbal therapy and Western drug use, belief and adherence for hypertension management in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM including Chinese herbal therapy has been widely practiced in China. However, little is known about Chinese herbal therapy use for hypertension management, which is one of the most prevalent chronic conditions in China. Thus we described Chinese herbal therapy and western drug users, beliefs, hypertension knowledge, and Chinese herbal and western drug adherence and determinants of Chinese herbal therapy use among patients with hypertension in rural areas of Heilongjiang Province, China.This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive respondents aged 30 years or older in rural areas of Heilongjiang Province, China. Of 665 respondents, 39.7% were male, 27.4% were aged 65 years or older. At the survey, 14.0% reported using Chinese herbal therapy and 71.3% reported using western drug for hypertension management. A majority of patients had low level of treatment adherence (80.6% for the Chinese herbal therapy users and 81.2% for the western drug users. When respondents felt that their blood pressure was under control, 72.0% of the Chinese herbal therapy users and 69.2% of the western drug users sometimes stopped taking their medicine. Hypertensive patients with high education level or better quality of life are more likely use Chinese herbal therapy.Majority of patients diagnosed with hypertension use western drugs to control blood pressure. Chinese herbal therapy use was associated with education level and quality of life.

  1. Older drivers : a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakamies-Blomqvist, L. Sirén, A. & Davidse, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    The proportion of senior citizens (aged 65+) will grow from about 15 per cent in the year 2000 to about 30 per cent in the year 2050. The share of older drivers in the driver population will grow even faster because of increasing licensing rates among the ageing population. Older drivers do not have

  2. Older migrants in exile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorthe Susanne; Minet, Lisbeth; Zeraiq, Lina

    2017-01-01

    , Lost in language barriers and Having a national sense of belonging. The main findings emphasise the vulnerability of older migrants in a resettlement country. With an unclear national identity and without the local language, older migrants struggle to develop a clear vision of their role in a minority...

  3. Sport for Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    The following papers were prepared for a seminar on sport for older people: (1) "Gerontological Aspects of Physical Exercise" (Eino Heikkinen); (2) "Sporting Activities in the Individual Life from the View of Older Persons" (Henning Allmer); (3) "Reasons Why Decision-Makers Should Urge Old People to Practise Physical and Sporting Activities"…

  4. Older Motorcyclists in Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, D

    2017-06-01

    Older motorcyclists are under-recognised as vulnerable road users. Using Irish data from the Central Statistics Office, the Road Safety Authority and the Healthcare Pricing Office, we explored the trend of ageing riders and factors in older motorcyclist collisions and injuries. In 2005, 17 motorcyclists ≥55 were injured compared to 31 in 2012. Motorcyclists aged between 30 and 49 years and ≥50 have longer lengths of stay compared to riders <30. The percentage of motorcycles with an engine capacity of ≥750cc increased from 39.6% in 2007 to 46.7% in 2015. Older motorcyclists are less likely to be fatally injured in single vehicle collisions. Older motorcyclists are generally safer than younger riders but the proportion of older motorcyclist injury is rising. Irish road safety strategies and trauma services need to incorporate these findings into planning and development of preventive and treatment approaches

  5. An exploratory study of older customers’ holistic supermarket shopping experience in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Song; Ranchhod, Ashokkumar

    2017-01-01

    This research investigated difficulties and challenges that older customersface in a supermarket environment in China, so as to understand the way inwhich the supermarket environment and service can improve oldercustomers’ shopping experience. An ethnographic user study, whichcombines video-based direct observations, in-depth interviews and acultural probe information gathering pack, has been employed to exploreChinese older customers’ supermarket shopping experience. 30 Chinesesenior citizen...

  6. Optimizing Tailored Health Promotion for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus-Varwijk, Anne Esther; Koopmans, Marg; Visscher, Tommy L. S.; Seidell, Jacob C.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Smits, Carolien H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study explores older adults’ perspectives on healthy living, and their interactions with professionals regarding healthy living. This perspective is necessary for health professionals when they engage in tailored health promotion in their daily work routines. Method: In a qualitative study, 18 semi-structured interviews were carried out with older adults (aged 55-98) living in the Netherlands. The framework analysis method was used to analyze the transcripts. Results: Three themes emerged from the data—(a) healthy living: daily routines and staying active, (b) enacting healthy living: accepting and adapting, (c) interaction with health professionals with regard to healthy living: autonomy and reciprocity. Discussion: Older adults experience healthy living in a holistic way in which they prefer to live active and independent lives. Health professionals should focus on building an equal relationship of trust and focus on positive health outcomes, such as autonomy and self-sufficiency when communicating about healthy living. PMID:28138485

  7. Independent technical review, handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project

  8. Independent technical review, handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project.

  9. Overseas Investments by Chinese National Oil Companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report examines inaccuracies in some commonly held views of China's National Oil Companies (NOCs). Until now, there has been little analysis to test the widely held presumption that these companies act under the instructions and in close co-ordination with the Chinese government. Nor have critics been challenged on the validity of their concerns about investments made by these NOCs, and how they could be blocking supplies of oil for other importing countries. The IEA analysis, however, finds that contrary to these views, the NOCs actually operate with a high degree of independence from the Chinese government, and their investments have in fact largely boosted global supplies of oil and gas, which other importers rely on.

  10. Developing Course Materials for Technology-Mediated Chinese Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubler, Cornelius C.

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses principles involved in developing course materials for technology-mediated Chinese language learning, with examples from a new course designed to take into account the needs of distance and independent learners. Which learning environment is most efficient for a given learning activity needs to be carefully considered. It…

  11. Model-Independent Diffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Könemann, Patrick

    just contain a list of strings, one for each line, whereas the structure of models is defined by their meta models. There are tools available which are able to compute the diff between two models, e.g. RSA or EMF Compare. However, their diff is not model-independent, i.e. it refers to the models...

  12. All Those Independent Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Merle L.

    This paper presents a case study of a sixth grade remedial math class which illustrates the thesis that only the "experimental attitude," not the "experimental method," is appropriate in the classroom. The thesis is based on the fact that too many independent variables exist in a classroom situation to allow precise measurement. The case study…

  13. Bayesian Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ole; Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an empirical Bayesian framework for independent component analysis. The framework provides estimates of the sources, the mixing matrix and the noise parameters, and is flexible with respect to choice of source prior and the number of sources and sensors. Inside the engine...

  14. Independent safety organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, W.Y.; Weinstock, E.V.; Carew, J.F.; Cerbone, R.J.; Guppy, J.G.; Hall, R.E.; Taylor, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has conducted a study on the need and feasibility of an independent organization to investigate significant safety events for the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data, USNRC. The study consists of three parts: the need for an independent organization to investigate significant safety events, alternative organizations to conduct investigations, and legislative requirements. The determination of need was investigated by reviewing current NRC investigation practices, comparing aviation and nuclear industry practices, and interviewing a spectrum of representatives from the nuclear industry, the regulatory agency, and the public sector. The advantages and disadvantages of alternative independent organizations were studied, namely, an Office of Nuclear Safety headed by a director reporting to the Executive Director for Operations (EDO) of NRC; an Office of Nuclear Safety headed by a director reporting to the NRC Commissioners; a multi-member NTSB-type Nuclear Safety Board independent of the NRC. The costs associated with operating a Nuclear Safety Board were also included in the study. The legislative requirements, both new authority and changes to the existing NRC legislative authority, were studied. 134 references

  15. Prevalence of Sarcopenia and Associated Factors in Chinese Community-Dwelling Elderly: Comparison Between Rural and Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Langli; Jiang, Jiaojiao; Yang, Ming; Hao, Qiukui; Luo, Li; Dong, Birong

    2015-11-01

    To compare the prevalence of sarcopenia in urban and rural Chinese elderly adults and to identify the risk factors related to sarcopenia. A cross-sectional study. Urban and rural communities in western China. A total of 887 community-dwelling elderly adults aged 60 years or older. Sarcopenia was defined according to the recommended algorithm of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS). Cognitive function, depression, and nutrition status were assessed using the Chinese version of the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), the Chinese version of the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30), and the revised Mini Nutritional Assessment short-form (MNA-SF), respectively. A total of 612 individuals aged 70.6 ± 6.7 years (range, 60-91 years) were included in this study. The prevalence of sarcopenia in the study population was 9.8% (women, 12.0%; men, 6.7%; P = .031). The prevalence of sarcopenia was 13.1% in rural elders and 7.0% in urban elders (P = .012). Age (odds ratio [OR] 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-1.29), women (OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.20-5.65), malnutrition or at risk for malnutrition (OR 3.53; 95% CI 1.68-7.41), rural residence (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.33-4.51), and the number of medications (OR 1.23; 95% CI 1.06-1.44) were independently associated with sarcopenia. Rural elders are more vulnerable to sarcopenia than urban elders in a sample of western China's elderly population. More attention should focus on rural populations in future sarcopenia studies. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. On Chinese Culture Curriculum Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The importance of cultural elements in foreign language teaching has been widely accepted in recent years. This applies particularly to the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language (TCFL) to non-native Chinese speakers at tertiary level in mainland China. However, there is no commonly accepted blueprint that defines the parts of Chinese culture…

  17. Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Po Keung

    2011-01-01

    Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

  18. Traditional Chinese Masks Reveal Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    CHINESE masks are undoubtedly an important component in the worldwide mask culture. Minority nationality masks are a major component of China’s mask culture. Traditional Chinese masks, or nuo, represent a cultural component which originated from religious rites in prehistoric times. Various types of nuo are highly valuable for studies of Chinese customs.

  19. The Chinese in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mérove Gijsberts; Willem Huijnk; Ria Vogels

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Chinese Nederlanders This report presents the first national picture of the position of the Chinese community in the Netherlands. A large-scale survey was conducted among persons of Chinese origin living in the Netherlands, with the aim of answering questions on a wide range of

  20. Chinese Counterspace Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    overly prideful country with “no ethical principles”151 seeking to “rule the world”152 while “spiritually polluting”153 China. The Chinese believe that...long term relationships through less direct means. The U.S. directness could also be seen as selfish and proud rather than as self-assertive, thereby...into a “ benign competition.”420 Lieutenant Colonel Troy L. Dixon described a U.S. approach to achieving increased cooperation with the Chinese.421

  1. Distribution of Chinese names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-wei

    2013-03-01

    We present a statistical model for the distribution of Chinese names. Both family names and given names are studied on the same basis. With naive expectation, the distribution of family names can be very different from that of given names. One is affected mostly by genealogy, while the other can be dominated by cultural effects. However, we find that both distributions can be well described by the same model. Various scaling behaviors can be understood as a result of stochastic processes. The exponents of different power-law distributions are controlled by a single parameter. We also comment on the significance of full-name repetition in Chinese population.

  2. The Digital Divide and urban older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, M Kay; Yarandi, Hossein N; Morrell, Roger W

    2010-01-01

    Computers and the Internet offer older adults opportunities and resources for independent living. However, many urban older adults do not use computers. This study examined the demographic, health, and social activities of urban older adults to determine variables that might predict the use and nonuse of computers in this population. A secondary data analysis was performed using the 2001 Detroit City-Wide Needs Assessment of Older Adults (n = 1410) data set. Logistic regression was used to explore potential differences in predictor variables between computer users and nonusers. Overall, computer users were younger (27%), had a higher level of education, were more likely to be employed, had an annual income greater than $20,000, and were healthier and more active than nonusers. They also were more likely to have memberships in community organizations and do volunteer work. Preferred computer activities included conducting Internet searches, playing games, writing, and communicating with family members and friends. The results suggest significant differences in demographic and health-related characteristics between computer users and nonusers among urban older adults. Although about a quarter of participants in this study used computers, the Digital Divide continues to exist in urban settings for scores of others.

  3. Positive messaging promotes walking in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notthoff, Nanna; Carstensen, Laura L

    2014-06-01

    Walking is among the most cost-effective and accessible means of exercise. Mounting evidence suggests that walking may help to maintain physical and cognitive independence in old age by preventing a variety of health problems. However, older Americans fall far short of meeting the daily recommendations for walking. In 2 studies, we examined whether considering older adults' preferential attention to positive information may effectively enhance interventions aimed at promoting walking. In Study 1, we compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and neutral messages to encourage walking (as measured with pedometers). Older adults who were informed about the benefits of walking walked more than those who were informed about the negative consequences of failing to walk, whereas younger adults were unaffected by framing valence. In Study 2, we examined within-person change in walking in older adults in response to positively- or negatively-framed messages over a 28-day period. Once again, positively-framed messages more effectively promoted walking than negatively-framed messages, and the effect was sustained across the intervention period. Together, these studies suggest that consideration of age-related changes in preferences for positive and negative information may inform the design of effective interventions to promote healthy lifestyles. Future research is needed to examine the mechanisms underlying the greater effectiveness of positively- as opposed to negatively-framed messages and the generalizability of findings to other intervention targets and other subpopulations of older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. The effect of siblings and family dog ownership on children's independent mobility to neighbourhood destinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Hayley E; Villanueva, Karen; Klinker, Charlotte D; Knuiman, Matthew W; Divitini, Mark; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effect of sibling age, gender and dog ownership on children's independent mobility and how this varies according to the destination visited. Parents reported whether their child had an older sibling; if the child and older sibling were of the same gender; the number of older siblings; if they owned a dog; and whether their child was allowed to independently travel to school, friends' or family house, park/oval/sporting field and local shop. Data were analysed for 181 children aged 8-15 years. The strongest significant sibling effect for independently mobility to school, local shop and ≥3 destinations was for having an older sibling of the same gender (p≤0.05). For independent mobility to a friend's house and park, the strongest significant sibling effect was for having one older sibling (p≤0.05). Dog ownership was associated with increased odds of being independently mobile to ≥3 destinations (OR=2.43; 95%CI=1.03-5.74). Parents may be more likely to grant children licence to travel to local places if they are accompanied by an older sibling or the family dog. Understanding the effects of siblings and dog ownership on children's independent mobility will assist in identifying strategies through which independent mobility can be encouraged. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  5. Sedentary Behavior Is Independently Related to Fat Mass among Children and Adolescents in South China

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Hongmei; Tian, Guo; Duan, Ruonan; Quan, Liming; Zhao, Li; Yang, Min; Libuda, Lars; Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Cheng, Guo

    2016-01-01

    We aim to explore the independent associations of sedentary behaviors (SB) with body mass distribution among Chinese children. Data on the screen-based sedentary time (television viewing and computer use) and doing homework, physical activities and dietary intake of 1586 Chinese children (50.3% girls) aged 7–15 years were obtained through validated questionnaires. Skin-fold thickness, body height, and weight were measured to calculate percent body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), and fat-free...

  6. Allegheny County Older Housing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Older housing can impact the quality of the occupant's health in a number of ways, including lead exposure, housing quality, and factors that may exacerbate...

  7. Older Adults and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find more information? Reprints Share Older Adults and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... depression need treatment to feel better. Types of Depression There are several types of depression. The most ...

  8. The Older Worker. Statistical Reports on Older Americans, No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Teresita; Fowles, Donald G.

    Trends in the labor force participation and unemployment of older workers were reviewed in a study. A declining rate of labor force participation by older men and a growth in participation by older women were noticed. Examination of labor force participation rates by race revealed a higher participation rate for minority women than for older white…

  9. OLDER DRIVERS AND ADAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnhild J. DAVIDSE

    2006-01-01

    Next, based on the available literature, relevant ADAS are discussed in terms of their availability, their effects on safety and the willingness of older drivers to use and buy them. One of the conclusions is that only very few of the types of support that are thought to be most beneficial to the safety of older drivers are provided by the ADAS that are currently available.

  10. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2005-01-01

    This volume is the first of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald during the period March 9 – 22, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present first volume contains the following lectures: "Lévy Processes in Euclidean Spaces and Groups" by David Applebaum, "Locally Compact Quantum Groups" by Johan Kustermans, "Quantum Stochastic Analysis" by J. Martin Lindsay, and "Dilations, Cocycles and Product Systems" by B.V. Rajarama Bhat.

  11. Quantum independent increment processes

    CERN Document Server

    Franz, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    This is the second of two volumes containing the revised and completed notes of lectures given at the school "Quantum Independent Increment Processes: Structure and Applications to Physics". This school was held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald in March, 2003, and supported by the Volkswagen Foundation. The school gave an introduction to current research on quantum independent increment processes aimed at graduate students and non-specialists working in classical and quantum probability, operator algebras, and mathematical physics. The present second volume contains the following lectures: "Random Walks on Finite Quantum Groups" by Uwe Franz and Rolf Gohm, "Quantum Markov Processes and Applications in Physics" by Burkhard Kümmerer, Classical and Free Infinite Divisibility and Lévy Processes" by Ole E. Barndorff-Nielsen, Steen Thorbjornsen, and "Lévy Processes on Quantum Groups and Dual Groups" by Uwe Franz.

  12. Independent random sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Martino, Luca; Míguez, Joaquín

    2018-01-01

    This book systematically addresses the design and analysis of efficient techniques for independent random sampling. Both general-purpose approaches, which can be used to generate samples from arbitrary probability distributions, and tailored techniques, designed to efficiently address common real-world practical problems, are introduced and discussed in detail. In turn, the monograph presents fundamental results and methodologies in the field, elaborating and developing them into the latest techniques. The theory and methods are illustrated with a varied collection of examples, which are discussed in detail in the text and supplemented with ready-to-run computer code. The main problem addressed in the book is how to generate independent random samples from an arbitrary probability distribution with the weakest possible constraints or assumptions in a form suitable for practical implementation. The authors review the fundamental results and methods in the field, address the latest methods, and emphasize the li...

  13. Association between recognizing dementia as a mental illness and dementia knowledge among elderly Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Woo, Benjamin K P

    2016-06-22

    To investigate whether older Chinese Americans perceive dementia as a mental illness and the relationship between such perception and their general understanding of dementia remains unclear. Our study aims to understand this relationship and its future implication on improving dementia literacy among ethnic minorities. Elderly Chinese American participants from the Greater Los Angeles were asked to complete an 11-item dementia questionnaire, following a community health seminar. Cross-sectional survey data was analyzed using standard statistical methods. The questionnaire received an 88.3% response rate. Among 316 responders, only 28.8% (n = 91) of elderly Chinese Americans identified dementia as a mental illness, and 71.2% (n = 225) did not recognize its mental disease origin. Furthermore, in comparison between these two groups, the first group demonstrated significantly higher level of baseline knowledge of the disease. This study reveals that only approximately 1 out of 4 older Chinese Americans recognized dementia as a mental illness, consistent with previous studies on Asian Americans. Our study however showed that when dementia was being perceived as a mental illness, such perception was associated with a higher level of baseline dementia understanding. The current study suggested the potential of improving older Chinese Americans dementia literacy by increasing awareness of its mental illness origin.

  14. International exploration by independents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagne, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller US independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. It is usually accepted that foreign finding costs per barrel are substantially lower than domestic because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved overseas requires, however, an adaptation to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic because concessions are granted by the government, or are explored in partnership with the national oil company. First, a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company, must be prepared; it must be followed by an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and a careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence on the team of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work, having had a considerable amount of onsite experience in various geographical and climatic environments. Independents that are best suited for foreign expansion are those that have been financially successful domestically, and have a good discovery track record. When properly approached foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller US independents and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; the reward, however, can be much larger and can catapult the company into the big leagues

  15. International exploration by independent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertragne, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller U.S. independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. Foreign finding costs per barrel usually are accepted to be substantially lower than domestic costs because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved in overseas exploration, however, requires the explorationist to adapt to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally, foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic exploration because concessions are granted by a country's government, or are explored in partnership with a national oil company. First, the explorationist must prepare a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company; next, is an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work. Ideally, these team members will have had a considerable amount of on-site experience in various countries and climates. Independents best suited for foreign expansion are those who have been financially successful in domestic exploration. When properly approached, foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller U.S. independents, and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; however, the reward can be much larger and can catapult the company into the 'big leagues.'

  16. Agent independent task planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

  17. International exploration by independents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagne, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller U.S. independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. The problems of communications and logistics caused by different cultures and by geographic distances must be carefully evaluated. A mid-term to long-term strategy tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company should be prepared and followed by a careful planning of the operations. This paper addresses some aspects of foreign exploration that should be considered before an independent venture into the foreign field. It also provides some guidelines for conducting successful overseas operations. When properly assessed, foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller U.S. independents and presents no greater risk than domestic exploration; the rewards, however, can be much larger. Furthermore, the Oil and Gas Journal surveys of the 300 largest U.S. petroleum companies show that companies with a consistent foreign exploration policy have fared better financially during difficult times

  18. Cognitive Dissonance Among Chinese Gamblers: Cultural Beliefs Versus Gambling Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Taormina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the extent to which cognitive dissonance exists among Chinese gamblers as a consequence of gambling while holding negative attitudes toward gambling, which are inherent in China’s traditional cultural values. Using the behavioral variable of actual gambling and an attitudinal variable of negative beliefs about gambling, a third, practical measure of cognitive dissonance was developed. By using questionnaires completed by 200 adult Chinese respondents, these measures were examined in relation to a set of relevant independent variables frequently tested in the gambling literature. Cognitive dissonance was expected to have significant negative correlations with traditional Chinese values and family support, and a significant positive correlation with neuroticism. Cognitive dissonance was also expected to be negatively correlated with two personal outcomes, i.e. self-actualization and life satisfaction. The results supported these hypotheses, which confirmed the validity of the new measures, and that cognitive dissonance does indeed exist among Chinese gamblers. The results also found that Chinese gamblers, even though they do gamble, also hold negative attitudes toward gambling, with more cognitive dissonance strongly associated with higher levels of gambling. This provides a new perspective on studying Chinese gambling, and offers a possible strategy to help pathological gamblers, for example, by advising them that their negative beliefs about gambling reflect the positive moral values of their society’s traditional culture, an approach that may be effective in reducing excessive gambling.

  19. Physical activity and cognitive function among older adults in China: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojiao Lü

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: This systematic review provides initial evidence that PA may benefit cognition in older Chinese adults. Further studies of individuals with cognitive impairments and prospective and RCT studies having high scientific rigor are needed to corroborate the findings reported in this review.

  20. Social Capital and Health Outcomes among Older Adults in China: The Urban-Rural Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norstrand, Julie A.; Xu, Qingwen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines different types of individual-level social capital (bonding, bridging, and linking) and their relationships with physical and emotional health among older Chinese living in urban and rural settings. Design and Methods: Using the 2005 China General Social Survey, physical and emotional health were regressed on social…

  1. Older parents enjoy better filial piety and care from daughters than sons in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; George, Linda; Sereny, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether older parents in China would benefit more from daughters' care than from sons' emotional care. METHOD: Analysis of the unique data sets of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey conducted in 2002, 2005, and 2008-2009 in 22 provinces. RESULTS: As compared......' health outcome could help promote gender equality and reduce traditional son preference, especially in rural China....

  2. Alcohol Consumption and Factors Associated with Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yujun; Xie, Yimeng; Brossoie, Nancy; Roberto, Karen A.; Redican, Kerry J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: High levels of alcohol consumption have been shown to be related to cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and other chronic disease and is an important variable in the global burden of disease. Purpose: This study explored the relationship between alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms among older Chinese adults in mainland…

  3. Milestone for Chinese physicists

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Chinese scientists have discovered a new particle predicted decades ago but never observed before. It could be what was once called the "multi-quark state," tiny elementary particles with a strong interaction or force that serves as the source of nuclear energy (1/2 page).

  4. SWOT ANALYSIS - CHINESE PETROLEUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article was written in early December 2013,combined with the historical development andthe latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOT- analysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factorssuch as the political environment and the marketsupply and demand, conducted a comprehensiveand profound analysis.

  5. SWOT ANALYSIS - CHINESE PETROLEUM

    OpenAIRE

    Chunlan Wang; Lei Zhang; Qi Zhong

    2014-01-01

    This article was written in early December 2013, combined with the historical development and the latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOTanalysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factors such as the political environment and the market supply and demand, conducted a comprehensive and profound analysis.

  6. Modelling Chinese Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    In this document, we consider a specific Chinese Smart Grid implementation and try to address the verification problem for certain quantitative properties including performance and battery consumption. We employ stochastic model checking approach and present our modelling and analysis study using...

  7. The Imperative in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Anne Yue

    A preliminary study of the syntactic characteristics of the imperative construction in modern Chinese is presented. The term "imperative" is used to refer to the type of syntactic construction which is marked by an implicit or explicit second person subject, and which expresses a direct command. Indirect or implied commands expressed by a…

  8. Chinese court case fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2011-01-01

    established as early as the 6th Century AD, whereas the first substantial evidence of the tradition is from 13th Century and the first Chinese crime fiction novels were written during the 17th Century. This article is, then, a corrective for the international history of crime fiction based on numerous...

  9. Chinese New Year Dragons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgemann, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)

  10. The Chinese House Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James R.

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of the use of simulations to teach international relations (IR) highlights the Chinese House Game, a computer-based decision-making game based on Inter Nation Simulation (INS). Topics discussed include the increasing role of artificial intelligence in IR simulations, multi-disciplinary approaches, and the direction of IR as a…

  11. Chinese Entrepreneurs Go Global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zhou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available China may be on the tipping point of explosive global growth. In response to changes in the global economy and an economic slowdown domestically, hundreds of thousands of Chinese SMEs are being encouraged to “go global” by their central and local governments. To a Chinese company, going global requires the expansion of its existing business in other countries or the development of new ventures with partners operating in other countries. Explosive growth in China may be possible, but it will depend on an appropriate strategy for going global. For a country that has firmly established itself as an international manufacturing hub, going global requires a shift in its entrepreneurial capacity, which is the focus of this article. We first assess the current situation in China to understand its current entrepreneurial focus and capacity, as well as the impetus for change. Next, we contrast the Kirznerian and Schumpeterian views of entrepreneurship to illustrate that – to go global – Chinese entrepreneurs must shift from an emphasis on exploiting pricing inefficiencies (i.e., Kirznerian entrepreneurship to an emphasis on innovation (i.e., Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. Finally, we examine unique characteristics of the business environment and culture in China, which are likely to impact the ability of Chinese entrepreneurs to go global.

  12. The Impact of Biculturalism on Language and Literacy Development: Teaching Chinese English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Barbara C.; Chen, Chia-I; Chang, Sara; Leclere, Judith T.

    2006-01-01

    According to the 2000 United States Census, Americans age five and older who speak a language other than English at home grew 47 percent over the preceding decade. This group accounts for slightly less than one in five Americans (17.9%). Among the minority languages spoken in the United States, Asian-language speakers, including Chinese and other…

  13. Meal-specific food patterns and the incidence of hyperglycemia in a Chinese adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zumin; Riley, Malcolm; Taylor, Anne; Noakes, Manny

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between meal-specific food patterns and incident hyperglycaemia in a Chinese adult population. Adults aged 20 years and older (n 1056) were followed from 2002 to 2007. Dietary data were collected using a 3-d food record and meal-specific (breakfast, lunch and dinner) food patterns were independently described by factor analysis based on the consumption of thirty-five food groups at each eating occasion. Each food pattern score was recoded as quartiles. Hyperglycaemia was defined as fasting plasma glucose >5·6 mmol/l at baseline and follow-up. The associated between food patterns and incident hyperglycaemia was assessed by logistic regression. During the follow-up, 125 new cases of hyperglycaemia were identified. Traditional (wheat) breakfast was inversely associated with incident hyperglycaemia, whereas traditional (rice, vegetable and pork) lunch and dinner were positively associated with the risk of incident hyperglycaemia, even after adjustment for a number of covariates including glycaemic load, carbohydrate intake and BMI. Incident hyperglycaemia occurred in 15·9, 13·6, 11·7, 6·1 % across quartiles of traditional breakfast; and 5·3, 9·1, 15·9, 17·1 % of the quartiles of traditional lunch pattern. The adjusted OR for hyperglycaemia was 0·67 (95 % CI 0·48, 0·92), 1·83 (95 % CI 1·32, 2·53) and 1·39 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·86) for 1 sd increase of traditional breakfast, lunch and dinner pattern factor score, respectively. A traditional wheat-based breakfast is associated with a decreased risk of hyperglycaemia. A rice-based traditional lunch and dinner is associated with an increased risk of hyperglycaemia in Chinese adults.

  14. Prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among Chinese schizophrenia inpatients receiving antipsychotic mono-therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Min Xu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence rate of cigarette smoking and its socio-demographic and clinical correlates in Chinese schizophrenia inpatients receiving antipsychotic mono-therapy. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional, two-site, hospital-based survey. Four hundred and twenty-nine schizophrenia patients (male/female: 66.9% vs. 33.1% were consecutively recruited from psychosis inpatient wards of two large specialty psychiatric hospitals in mainland China. Patients were assessed using a cigarette smoking questionnaire, the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale, the Simpson Angus Scale, the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale, and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale. Socio-demographic and other clinical data were also collected. We calculated the prevalence of current smoking in our sample as well as its indirectly standardized prevalence ratio (ISPR using data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey in China. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of current smoking was 40.6% in our sample, and 57.5% in males and 6.3% in females. The ISPRs of all patients, men and women were 1.11(95%CI: 0.95 ∼ 1.29, 1.07(95%CI = 0.91 ∼ 1.24 and 4.64(95% CI = 2.12 ∼ 8.82, respectively. The overall and male-specific prevalence of current smoking did not differ significantly between patients and the general population. In multiple logistic regression analysis, male sex, older age, poor marital status, alcohol use, use of first-generation antipsychotics, longer duration of illness, more frequent hospitalizations, and more severe negative symptoms were independently associated with current smoking. CONCLUSION: Male Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia who received a mono-therapy of antipsychotics were not more likely to smoke than the general population. Cigarette smoking is more common in schizophrenia patients with more severe illness.

  15. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Alan J.; Adair, Brooke; Miller, Kimberly; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E.

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effec...

  16. Falls in institutionalized older adults: risks, consequences and antecedents

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo Neto, Antonio Herculano de; Patrício, Anna Cláudia Freire de Araújo; Ferreira, Milenna Azevedo Minhaqui; Rodrigues, Brenda Feitosa Lopes; Santos, Thayná Dias dos; Rodrigues, Thays Domingos de Brito; Silva, Richardson Augusto Rosendo da

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the occurrence of falls in institutionalized elderly addressing the risks, consequences and antecedents. Method: Cross-sectional study carried out with 45 older adults in Long-Term Care Facilities for the Older adult in João Pessoa, Brazil, in June and July 2016. A socio-demographic questionnaire and the Berg Balance Scale were applied, classifying as risk of fall scores lower than 45. Descriptive statistics and tests were conducted: independent t-test, Anova ...

  17. General practitioners' knowledge of ageing and attitudes towards older people in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanni; Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Ullah, Shahid; Deng, Lanlan

    2015-06-01

    To explore general practitioners (GPs)knowledge of ageing, attitudes towards older people and factors affecting their knowledge and attitudes in a Chinese context. Four hundred GPs were surveyed using the Chinese version of the Aging Semantic Differential (CASD) and the Chinese version of the Facts on Aging Quiz (CFAQ1) scale. The CASD scores indicated that GPs had a neutral attitude towards older people. The CFAQ1 scores indicated a low level of knowledge about ageing. GPs' awareness of the mental and social facts of ageing was poorer compared to that of physical facts. Male GPs had a significantly higher negative bias score than female GPs. No other variables had a statistically significant influence on knowledge and attitudes. The findings suggest the need for education interventions for GPs regarding knowledge of ageing and also provide evidence to guide future development of continuing medical programs for this group of medical doctors. © 2013 ACOTA.

  18. Executive dysfunction is independently associated with reduced functional independence in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosco, Michael L; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Raz, Naftali; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H; Colbert, Lisa H; Josephson, Richard; van Dulmen, Manfred; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2014-03-01

    To examine the independent association between executive function with instrumental activities of daily living and health behaviours in older adults with heart failure. Executive function is an important contributor to functional independence as it consists of cognitive processes needed for decision-making, planning, organising and behavioural monitoring. Impairment in this domain is common in heart failure patients and associated with reduced performance of instrumental activities of daily living in many medical and neurological populations. However, the contribution of executive functions to functional independence and healthy lifestyle choices in heart failure patients has not been fully examined. Cross-sectional analyses. One hundred and seventy-five heart failure patients completed a neuropsychological battery and echocardiogram. Participants also completed the Lawton-Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale and reported current cigarette use. Hierarchical regressions revealed that reduced executive function was independently associated with worse instrumental activity of daily living performance with a specific association for decreased ability to manage medications. Partial correlations showed that executive dysfunction was associated with current cigarette use. Our findings suggest that executive dysfunction is associated with poorer functional independence and contributes to unhealthy behaviours in heart failure. Future studies should examine whether heart failure patients benefit from formal organisation schema (i.e. pill organisers) to maintain independence. Screening of executive function in heart failure patients may provide key insight into their ability to perform daily tasks, including the management of treatment recommendations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Aging society and gerontechnology: a solution for an independent living?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piau, A; Campo, E; Rumeau, P; Vellas, B; Nourhashémi, F

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies report that the majority of older adults wish to live in their own homes, for as long as possible. This creates a growing interest in technologies to enable older people to remain living independently at home. The purpose of this article is to provide a narrative review of current technology appropriate for older adults' home use. The key research questions were as follow: 1- What is the evidence demonstrating that gerontechnologies are effective in enabling independent living? 2- What are devices designed specifically for frail elderly persons ? Several publications were identified about devices targeting social isolation (videophonic communication, affective orthotic devices or companion-type robots, personal emergency response systems [security]), autonomy loss (technologies for maintenance of autonomy in the activities of daily living) and cognitive disorders (cognitive orthotics, wandering management systems, telemonitoring). Very few articles dealt specifically with the frail older person. In particular, there was extremely limited evidence on use and efficacy of these devices within this population. There is a need to obtain a consensus on definition of the technologies, and also to revisit work strategies and develop innovative business models. To meet this goal, we need to create a network of technological companies, aging services organizations, end-users, academics, and government representatives to explore the real needs of the frail older population and to develop and validate new devices promoting aging at home.

  20. Independence in appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming-Rasmussen, Bent; Quick, Reiner; Liempd, Dennis van

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of the financial crisis, the EU Commission has published a Green Paper on the future role of the audit function in Europe. The Green Paper lists a number of proposals for tighter rules for audits and auditors in order to contribute to stabilizing the financial system. The present...... article presents research contributions to the question whether the auditor is to continue to provide both audit and non-audit services (NAS) to an audit client. Research results show that this double function for the same audit client is a problem for stakeholders' confidence in auditor independence...

  1. Ethnic differences in quality of life in adolescents among Chinese, Malay and Indians in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tze Pin; Lim, Lionel Chee Chong; Jin, Aizhen; Shinfuku, N

    2005-09-01

    Health-related quality of life in adolescents and ethnic and cultural differences are not well characterized. We used the Quality of Life Questionnaire for Adolescents (QOLQA) to examine ethnic differences in reported QOL scores among Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicities in Singapore. The 70-item QOLQA measuring five QOL domains (physical, psychological, independence, social and environmental) was administered to a random sample of 1363 school-children aged 10-15 years, representative of the ethnic composition of Singapore adolescents (Chinese 72%, Malays 20% and Indians 8%). Indians reported the highest overall QOL (mean 3.71 +/- SD 0.54) compared to Chinese (3.59 +/- 0.43), p Malays (3.58 +/- 0.44), p Chinese (3.55 +/- 0.54), p Chinese scored highest on physical and independence domains (3.97 +/- 0.54), p Malays (3.82 +/- 0.55). There were no statistically significant gender differences in QOL scores. QOL declined significantly from age 10 to 15 for overall score, psychological, physical (p Chinese (r = 0.39) or Malays (r = 0.39), Indians showed a higher correlation of psychological scores with physical score (r = 0.59) and with other domain scores. Significant ethnic differences in reported adolescent quality of life among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore that are independent of socioeconomic and health status suggest important cultural differences.

  2. Documenting the Earliest Chinese Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-zhong (Joe Zhou

    2001-10-01

    ="mso-font-kerning: 0pt;" lang="EN-US">,a commentary on the Annals. The two sources were documented as one - Zuo's Spring and Autumn Annals (左氏春秋 by various Chinese classical works later on. It is worth noting that both the Records and the Annals were written in the same Chinese characters that are still being used in Taiwan today and in Mainland China as recent as 1949, (a simplified version of characters has been used in Mainland China since 1949, but most people can still recognize the older version characters.

  3. "My Way or Mom's Way?" The Bilingual and Bicultural Self in Hong Kong Chinese Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Shao, Yi; Li, Yexin Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relation of language to the development of a cultural self. Bilingual children ages 8-14 from Hong Kong (N = 125) were interviewed in either English or Chinese. They recalled autobiographical events and described themselves, and indicated their agreement with Chinese interdependent versus Western independent values.…

  4. Older people's adoption of e-learning services: a qualitative study of facilitators and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xue; He, Yiqin; Kohlbacher, Florian

    2018-05-14

    This research investigates the facilitators and barriers for older people to adopt e-learning services using qualitative data of older people in a Chinese city. A qualitative approach was applied to explore the perceived facilitators and obstacles toward e-learning adoption with 10 older Chinese aged over 50. The results indicate the following: (1a) Age-related changes and cohort effects were found to be the internal barriers for the adoption of e-learning. (1b) Equipment problems, lack of time, and the availability of alternatives were found to have negative effects on the acceptance of e-learning services. It is notable that alternatives including the University of the Third Age (U3A) were found to be more attractive for older Chinese. (2a) Work requirements and flexibility of e-learning services were found to have direct effects on the acceptance of services. (2b) User-friendly design and stimulation from family would facilitate older people to adopt. Practical implications of this research include that policymakers should consider investing more in education in later life and introducing e-learning services in public lectures and tutorials and that the age-related barrier should be taken into consideration in the design phase of e-learning services. U3As should consider integrating e-learning approaches and cooperating with the community.

  5. The challenge of professional identity for Chinese clinicians in the process of learning and practicing psychoanalytic psychotherapy: the discussion on the frame of Chinese culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunping

    2011-06-01

    One important element in psychoanalysis, which is derived from Western culture, is individualization: the independency and autonomy of an individual are highly valued. However, one of the significant essences in Chinese culture is that the collective interests transcend the individual interests and the interests of social groups are more important than those of families. Therefore, when learning and practicing psychoanalytic psychotherapy, Chinese clinicians inevitably experience conflicts derived from this difference of cultural values. This article attempts to use a historical perspective to discuss the current challenges of professional identity for Chinese clinicians learning and practicing psychoanalytic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. Copyright © 2011 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  6. ShopComm: Community-Supported Online Shopping for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkovenko, Katerina; Tigwell, Garreth W; Norrie, Christopher S; Waite, Miriam; Herron, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The United Kingdom has an ageing population whose members experience significant life transitions as they grow older, for example, losing mobility due to deteriorating health. For these adults, digital technology has the potential to sustain their independence and improve their quality of life. However older adults can be reluctant to use digital solutions. In this paper, we review a local charity providing a grocery shopping service for older adults who are unable to go themselves. We explore how older adults perceive the benefits and drawbacks of both physical and digital shopping. Using these insights, we designed ShopComm to enable and support older adults with mobility impairments to shop online.

  7. Using informatics to capture older adults' wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire J; Reeder, Blaine; Wilamowska, Katarzyna; Zaslavsky, Oleg

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how informatics applications can support the assessment and visualization of older adults' wellness. A theoretical framework is presented that informs the design of a technology enhanced screening platform for wellness. We highlight an ongoing pilot demonstration in an assisted living facility where a community room has been converted into a living laboratory for the use of diverse technologies (including a telehealth component to capture vital signs and customized questionnaires, a gait analysis component and cognitive assessment software) to assess the multiple aspects of wellness of older adults. A demonstration project was introduced in an independent retirement community to validate our theoretical framework of informatics and wellness assessment for older adults. Subjects are being recruited to attend a community room and engage in the use of diverse technologies to assess cognitive performance, physiological and gait variables as well as psychometrics pertaining to social and spiritual components of wellness for a period of eight weeks. Data are integrated from various sources into one study database and different visualization approaches are pursued to efficiently display potential correlations between different parameters and capture overall trends of wellness. Preliminary findings indicate that older adults are willing to participate in technology-enhanced interventions and embrace different information technology applications given appropriate and customized training and hardware and software features that address potential functional limitations and inexperience with computers. Informatics can advance health care for older adults and support a holistic assessment of older adults' wellness. The described framework can support decision making, link formal and informal caregiving networks and identify early trends and patterns that if addressed could reduce adverse health events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland

  8. Association of Age, Sex, Body Size and Ethnicity with Electrocardiographic Values in Community-based Older Asian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eugene S J; Yap, Jonathan; Xu, Chang Fen; Feng, Liang; Nyunt, Shwe Zin; Santhanakrishnan, Rajalakshmi; Chan, Michelle M Y; Seow, Swee Chong; Ching, Chi Keong; Yeo, Khung Keong; Richards, A Mark; Ng, Tze Pin; Lim, Toon Wei; Lam, Carolyn S P

    2016-07-01

    Existing electrocardiographic (ECG) reference values were derived in middle-aged Caucasian adults. We aimed to assess the association of age, sex, body size and ethnicity on ECG parameters in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Resting 12-lead ECG and anthropometric measurements were performed in a community-based cohort of 3777 older Asians (age 64.7±9.1 years, 1467 men, 88.8% Chinese, 7.7% Malay, 3.5% Indian, body mass index [BMI] 24.0±3.9kg/m(2)). Men had longer PR interval, wider QRS, shorter QTc interval and taller SV3. In both sexes, older age was associated with longer PR interval, wider QRS, larger R aVL and more leftward QRS axis, while higher BMI was associated with longer PR interval, wider QRS, larger RaVL and more negative QRS axis. There were significant inter-ethnic differences in QRS duration among men, as well as in PR and QTc intervals among women (all adjusted p<0.05). Findings were similar in a healthy subset of 1158 adults (age 61.2±9.1 years, 365 men) without cardiovascular risk factors. These first community-based ECG data in multi-ethnic older Asians highlight the independent effects of age, sex, body size and ethnicity on ECG parameters. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Gerontechnology acceptance by elderly Hong Kong Chinese: a senior technology acceptance model (STAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Chan, Alan Hoi Shou

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a senior technology acceptance model (STAM) aimed at understanding the acceptance of gerontechnology by older Hong Kong Chinese people. The proposed STAM extended previous technology acceptance models and theories by adding age-related health and ability characteristics of older people. The proposed STAM was empirically tested using a cross-sectional questionnaire survey with a sample of 1012 seniors aged 55 and over in Hong Kong. The result showed that STAM was strongly supported and could explain 68% of the variance in the use of gerontechnology. For older Hong Kong Chinese, individual attributes, which include age, gender, education, gerontechnology self-efficacy and anxiety, and health and ability characteristics, as well as facilitating conditions explicitly and directly affected technology acceptance. These were better predictors of gerontechnology usage behaviour (UB) than the conventionally used attitudinal factors (usefulness and ease of use).

  10. Adequate proverb interpretation is associated with performance on the independent living scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Fayeza S; Miller, L Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine proverb interpretation performance and functional independence in older adults. From the limited literature on proverb interpretation in aging and its conceptualization as an executive function, it was hypothesized that proverb interpretation would be related to functional independence similar to other executive functions. Tests of proverb interpretation, additional executive functions, and functional ability were administered to nondemented older adults. Results showed that proverb interpretation accounted for a significant amount of unique variance of functional ability scores. This supports including a measure of proverb interpretation to the assessment of older adults.

  11. The importance of board independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijl, N.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Although the attributed importance of board independence is high, a clear definition of independence does not exist. Furthermore, the aim and consequences of independence are the subject of discussion and empirical evidence about the impact of independence is weak and disputable. Despite this lack

  12. Picture norms for Chinese preschool children: name agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamei Wang

    Full Text Available Pictorial stimuli standardized for Chinese children are still absent although it is needed in order to test the development of children's cognitive functions. This study presents normative measures for Snodgrass and Vanderwart pictures, viewed by 4- and 6-year old Chinese children. Name agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity were obtained for each age group. The data indicate substantial differences between young and older children in name agreement based on expected name, familiarity and visual complexity. The correlation pattern of the variables collected in the present study were consistent with children's norms in other languages and norms of Chinese adults, while there are cross-age and cross-culture differences in specific variables. The obtained measures represent a useful tool for further research on Chinese children's pictorial processing and constitute the first picture normative study for children in this language.

  13. Chinese Studies and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2013-01-01

    Many different conceptual approaches and models have been used to analyze contemporary Chinese history and politics. Some of the more commonly used include "totalitarianism", "two-line struggle", "clientelism", "tendency analysis", "political culture", "interest group politics", "bureaucratic...... politics", "corporatism", "civil society", "fragmented authoritarianism", etc. (Brødsgaard, 1989; Guo 2013). This paper will survey these approaches in order to place the analysis of the contemporary Chinese politics and history in a comparative perspective. A survey of the field will remind us...... that contemporary China studies have increasingly developed into a collective effort and that no scholar conducts his/her research in a vacuum devoid of dept to other contributions in the field. The paper will focus on the period since the Cultural Revolution. Consequently, we will not attempt a discussion...

  14. Autonomy, Independence, Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Angelucci

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The living environment must not only meet the primary needs of living, but also the expectations of improvement of life and social relations and people’s work. The need for a living environment that responds to the needs of users with their different abilities, outside of standardizations, is increasingly felt as autonomy, independence and well-being are the result of real usability and adaptability of the spaces. The project to improve the inclusivity of living space and to promote the rehabilitation of fragile users need to be characterized as an interdisciplinary process in which the integration of specialized contributions leads to adaptive customization of space solutions and technological that evolve with the changing needs, functional capacities and abilities of individuals.

  15. Chinese Spacesuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croog, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, China became only the 3rd nation to perform an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) from a spacecraft. An overview of the Chinese spacesuit and life support system were assessed from video downlinks during their EVA; from those assessments, spacesuit characteristics were identified. The spacesuits were compared against the Russian Orlan Spacesuit and the U.S. Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). China's plans for future missions also were presented.

  16. Multivariable Chinese Remainder Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    to sleep. The 3rd thief wakes up and finds the rest of the coins make 7 equal piles excepting a coin which he pockets. If the total number of coins they stole is not more than 200, what is the exact number? With a bit of hit and miss, one can find that 157 is a possible number. The Chinese remainder theorem gives a systematic ...

  17. Chinese Journalism Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Laura Møller

    2014-01-01

    As important providers of information, analysis of current events and debates, journalists are subject to high expectations regarding their professional values. Journalism is considered to be more than merely a career; it is construed as a profession that builds on personal commitment to serve...... 2012 with 41 students studying journalism at People's University, Tsinghua University, China Youth University for Political Sciences, Central University for Nationalities, Beijing Foreign Languages University and Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in Beijing and at Fudan University in Shanghai....

  18. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Discoverer of the Origin of Life The origin of life on earth has long been a subject explored by scientists around the world. At the 11th International Conference on the Origin of Life held at Orleans University in France on July 9th, 1996, Chinese scientist Zhao Yufen and her partner Cao Peisheng announced the contents of the origin of the seed of life.

  19. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF CHINESE EXECUTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Lingfang Fayol-Song

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, Chinese nationals have increasingly been employed by multinational companies (MNCs) operating in China taking positions previously occupied by foreign expatriates from investor countries. The development of local managers has therefore become crucial in the field of human resource management because the success of these companies depends greatly upon the ability and competence of their executive management class. The present paper addresses the issue of how to devel...

  20. [Verruca planae Chinese medicine treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Ming

    2008-08-01

    Flat wart on the effectiveness of TCM treatment. Outpatients will be by the "People's Republic of China Chinese medicine industry standards, TCM diagnosis of dermatological diseases efficacy standards, Chen Hou State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine 1994-06-28 approved, 1995-01-01 implementation". Randomly divided into two groups. Treatment and control groups. Treatment groups treated with Chinese herbs. The control group were treated with WM. Since the preparation of the unification formula ointment, cuboiling method. Chinese herbal medicine preparation by my hospital room Producer. 5 g pre pack, after treatment for 30 days, clinical observation. The group of Chinese medicine is better than western medicine (86.7% vs 71.7% , P < 0.05). Chinese medicine has some effect flat wart.

  1. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-yok Ip

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of modern China to rethink the place of tradition in the course of modernity. Thematically we show the expansionist impulse of Chinese Buddhism: In addition to envisioning the geographical expansion of their religion, Chinese Buddhists have endeavored to enhance the significance of Buddhism in various dimensions of Chinese society in particular and human life in general.

  2. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Age as a risk factor for acute mountain sickness upon rapid ascent to 3,700 m among young adult Chinese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang XG

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Xu-gang Tang,1 Ji-hang Zhang,1 Jun Qin,1 Xu-bin Gao,1 Qian-ning Li,2 Jie Yu,1 Xiao-han Ding,1 Lan Huang1 1Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, 2Department of Neurology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Background: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between age and acute mountain sickness (AMS when subjects are exposed suddenly to high altitude.Methods: A total of 856 young adult men were recruited. Before and after acute altitude exposure, the Athens Insomnia Scale score (AISS was used to evaluate the subjective sleep quality of subjects. AMS was assessed using the Lake Louise scoring system. Heart rate (HR and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 were measured.Results: Results showed that, at 500 m, AISS and insomnia prevalence were higher in older individuals. After acute exposure to altitude, the HR, AISS, and insomnia prevalence increased sharply, and the increase in older individuals was more marked. The opposite trend was observed for SaO2. At 3,700 m, the prevalence of AMS increased with age, as did severe AMS, and AMS symptoms (except gastrointestinal symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age was a risk factor for AMS (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.13, P<0.05, as well as AISS (adjusted OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.28–1.51, P<0.001.Conclusion: The present study is the first to demonstrate that older age is an independent risk factor for AMS upon rapid ascent to high altitude among young adult Chinese men, and pre-existing poor subjective sleep quality may be a contributor to increased AMS prevalence in older subjects. Keywords: acute mountain sickness, age, Athens Insomnia Scale, rapid ascent, sleep

  4. Developmental dyslexia in Chinese and English populations: dissociating the effect of dyslexia from language differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Lee, Hwee Ling; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Tao; Geng, Li Bo; Seghier, Mohamed L.; Shakeshaft, Clare; Twomey, Tae; Green, David W.; Yang, Yi Ming

    2010-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested that developmental dyslexia has a different neural basis in Chinese and English populations because of known differences in the processing demands of the Chinese and English writing systems. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we provide the first direct statistically based investigation into how the effect of dyslexia on brain activation is influenced by the Chinese and English writing systems. Brain activation for semantic decisions on written words was compared in English dyslexics, Chinese dyslexics, English normal readers and Chinese normal readers, while controlling for all other experimental parameters. By investigating the effects of dyslexia and language in one study, we show common activation in Chinese and English dyslexics despite different activation in Chinese versus English normal readers. The effect of dyslexia in both languages was observed as less than normal activation in the left angular gyrus and in left middle frontal, posterior temporal and occipitotemporal regions. Differences in Chinese and English normal reading were observed as increased activation for Chinese relative to English in the left inferior frontal sulcus; and increased activation for English relative to Chinese in the left posterior superior temporal sulcus. These cultural differences were not observed in dyslexics who activated both left inferior frontal sulcus and left posterior superior temporal sulcus, consistent with the use of culturally independent strategies when reading is less efficient. By dissociating the effect of dyslexia from differences in Chinese and English normal reading, our results reconcile brain activation results with a substantial body of behavioural studies showing commonalities in the cognitive manifestation of dyslexia in Chinese and English populations. They also demonstrate the influence of cognitive ability and learning environment on a common neural system for reading. PMID:20488886

  5. Reduced Syntactic Processing Efficiency in Older Adults During Sentence Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zude Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have frequently reported an age-related decline in semantic processing during sentence comprehension. However, it remains unclear whether syntactic processing also declines or whether it remains constant as people age. In the present study, 26 younger adults and 20 older adults were recruited and matched in terms of working memory, general intelligence, verbal intelligence and fluency. They were then asked to make semantic acceptability judgments while completing a Chinese sentence reading task. The behavioral results revealed that the older adults had significantly lower accuracy on measures of semantic and syntactic processing compared to younger adults. Event-related potential (ERP results showed that during semantic processing, older adults had a significantly reduced amplitude and delayed peak latency of the N400 compared to the younger adults. During syntactic processing, older adults also showed delayed peak latency of the P600 relative to younger adults. Moreover, while P600 amplitude was comparable between the two age groups, larger P600 amplitude was associated with worse performance only in the older adults. Together, the behavioral and ERP data suggest that there is an age-related decline in both semantic and syntactic processing, with a trend toward lower efficiency in syntactic ability.

  6. A classification of chinese culture

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a classification of Chinese Cultural Values (CCVs). Although there exist great differences between the Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, it is still possible to identify certain core cultural values that are shared by the Chinese people no matter where they live. Based on the original list by the Chinese Cultural Connection (1987), the paper creates a new list that contains 71 core values against 40 in the old. The implications and limitations of the classification are...

  7. Assessing the Prayer Lives of Older Whites, Older Blacks and Older Mexican Americans: A Descriptive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see whether differences emerge between older whites, older blacks, and older Mexican Americans in 12 measures of prayer. These measures assess four dimensions of prayer: The social context of prayer, interpersonal aspects of prayer, beliefs about how prayer operates, and the content or focus of prayers. Data from two nationwide surveys of older adults suggest that with respect to all four dimensions, the prayer lives of older whites appear be less developed than the prayer lives of older blacks and older Mexican Americans. In contrast, relatively few differences were found in the prayer lives of older African Americans and older Mexican Americans. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22523464

  8. Chinese values, health and nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y C

    2001-10-01

    To describe the roots of Chinese values, beliefs and the concept of health, and to illustrate how these ways have influenced the development of health care and nursing among Chinese in the Republic of China (ROC) and the People's Republic of China (PRC). Scope. Based on the literature and direct observation in the PRC and ROC, this is an introduction to Chinese philosophies, religion, basic beliefs, and values with a special meaning for health and nursing. Chinese philosophies and religion include Confucian principles, Taoism, theory of "Yin" and "Yang", and Buddhism. Beliefs and values include the way of education, practice of acupuncture, herbal treatments and diet therapy. How people value traditional Chinese medicine in combination with western science, and the future direction of nursing and nursing inquiry are also briefly addressed. Chinese philosophies and religions strongly influence the Chinese way of living and thinking about health and health care. Nurses must combine information about culture with clinical assessment of the patient to provide cultural sensitive care. A better way may be to combine both western and Chinese values into the Chinese health care system by negotiating between the traditional values while at the same time, respecting an individual's choice. The foundation of China's philosophical and aesthetic tradition, in combination with western science is important to the future advancement of nursing research that will be beneficial to the Republics, Asia, and the world.

  9. Older Consumers Safety Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 한국어 Español ภาษาไทย Tiếng Việt Text Size: Decrease Font Increase Font Contact CPSC Consumers: Businesses: Report an Unsafe Product ... can become entrapped and suffocate in older, latch-type freezers, refrigerators, dryers and coolers. GFCI Fact Sheet ...

  10. Rehabilitation and older people.

    OpenAIRE

    Young, J.

    1996-01-01

    Rehabilitation is concerned with lessening the impact of disabling conditions. These are particularly common in older people and considerable health gain can be achieved by successful rehabilitation. Hospital doctors and general practitioners should be aware of the core principles of rehabilitation, be able to recognise rehabilitation need in their patients, and have sufficient knowledge of their local rehabilitation services to trigger the referral process.

  11. Falls in older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dieën, Jaap H.; Pijnappels, Mirjam

    Falls are common incidents, which can have major con-sequences. For example, falls and the interrelated category of accidents being struck by or against objects account for more than 40% of injuries and 30% of injury costs in the USA (Corso et al., 2006). Especially among older adults, falls occur

  12. Dance for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, Diane Milhan, Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Dance programs for older adults that encourage exercise and socializing are described in six articles. Program guidelines of the American Alliance Committee on Aging are explained, and other articles emphasize a movement education approach that may involve intergenerational contact. A dance program held in a worship setting is also discussed. (PP)

  13. Smoking and Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-27

    This podcast discusses the importance of older adults quitting smoking and other tobacco products. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 10/27/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/20/2008.

  14. Relationship between Health Literacy, Health-Related Behaviors and Health Status: A Survey of Elderly Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Bing; Liu, Liu; Li, Yan-Fei; Chen, Yan-Li

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008) and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452). Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points). There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the independent influencing factors of health literacy included education level, race, former occupation, household income, age, physical exercise, health examination, smoking, and health information access (p

  15. Clinical characteristics and abandonment and outcome of treatment in 67 Chinese children with medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Yuan, Xiao-Jun; Jiang, Ma-Wei; Wang, Li-Feng

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT The purpose of this study was to explore the clinical features and outcome of medulloblastoma in Chinese children. The authors analyze the reasons that treatment is abandoned and attempt to provide evidence-based recommendations for improving the prognosis of medulloblastoma in this population. METHODS A total of 67 pediatric cases of newly diagnosed medulloblastoma were included in this study. All of the children were treated at Xinhua Hospital between January 2007 and June 2013. The authors retrospectively analyzed the clinical data, treatment modalities, and outcome. The male-to-female ratio was 2:1, and the patients' median age at diagnosis was 51.96 months (range 3.96-168.24 months). The median duration of follow-up was 32 months (range 3-70 months). RESULTS At the most recent follow-up date, 31 patients (46%) were alive, 30 (45%) had died, and 6 (9%) had been lost to follow-up. The estimated 3-year overall survival and progression-free survival, based on Kaplan-Meier analysis, were 55.1% ± 6.4% and 45.6% ± 6.7%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that standard-risk group (p = 0.009), postoperative radiotherapy (RT) combined with chemotherapy (p < 0.001), older age (≥ 3 years) at diagnosis (p = 0.010), gross-total resection (p = 0.012), annual family income higher than $3000 (p = 0.033), and living in urban areas (p = 0.008) were favorable prognostic factors. Multivariate analysis revealed that postoperative RT combined with chemotherapy was an independent prognostic factor (p < 0.001). The treatment abandonment rate in this cohort was 31% (21 of 67 cases). CONCLUSIONS There was a large gap between the outcome of medulloblastoma in Chinese children and the outcome in Western children. Based on our data, treatment abandonment was the major cause of therapeutic failure. Parents' misunderstanding of medulloblastoma played a major role in abandonment, followed by financial and transportation difficulties. Establishment of multidisciplinary

  16. Lessons from independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptfuhrer, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    The recent history of Oryx provides invaluable lessons for those who plan future energy strategies, relates the author of this paper. When Oryx became an independent oil and gas company, its reserves were declining, its stock was selling below asset values, and the price of oil seemed stuck below $15 per barrel. The message from Oryx management to Oryx employees was: We are in charge of our own destiny. We are about to create our own future. Oryx had developed a new, positive corporate culture and the corporate credit required for growth. This paper points to two basic principles that have guided the metamorphosis in Oryx's performance. The first objective was to improve operational efficiency and to identify the right performance indicators to measure this improvement. It states that the most critical performance indicator for an exploration and production company must be replacement and expansion of reserves at a competitive replacement cost. Oryx has cut its finding costs from $12 to $5 per barrel, while the BP acquisition provided proven reserves at a cost of only $4 per barrel. Another performance indicator measures Oryx's standing in the financial markets

  17. Independents' group posts loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, V.; Price, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    Low oil gas prices and special charges caused the group of 50 U.S. independent producers Oil and Gas Journal tracks to post a combined loss in first half 1992. The group logged a net loss of $53 million in the first half compared with net earnings of $354 million in first half 1991, when higher oil prices during the Persian Gulf crisis buoyed earnings in spite of crude oil and natural gas production declines. The combined loss in the first half follows a 45% drop in the group's earnings in 1991 and compares with the OGJ group of integrated oil companies whose first half 1992 income fell 47% from the prior year. Special charges, generally related to asset writedowns, accounted for most of the almost $560 million in losses posted by about the third of the group. Nerco Oil and Gas Inc., Vancouver, Wash., alone accounted for almost half that total with charges related to an asset writedown of $238 million in the first quarter. Despite the poor first half performance, the outlook is bright for sharply improved group earnings in the second half, assuming reasonably healthy oil and gas prices and increased production resulting from acquisitions and in response to those prices

  18. PPARγ-Independent Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Hogan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute and chronic lung inflammation is associated with numerous important disease pathologies including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and silicosis. Lung fibroblasts are a novel and important target of anti-inflammatory therapy, as they orchestrate, respond to, and amplify inflammatory cascades and are the key cell in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ ligands are small molecules that induce anti-inflammatory responses in a variety of tissues. Here, we report for the first time that PPARγ ligands have potent anti-inflammatory effects on human lung fibroblasts. 2-cyano-3, 12-dioxoolean-1, 9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2 inhibit production of the inflammatory mediators interleukin-6 (IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, COX-2, and prostaglandin (PGE2 in primary human lung fibroblasts stimulated with either IL-1β or silica. The anti-inflammatory properties of these molecules are not blocked by the PPARγ antagonist GW9662 and thus are largely PPARγ independent. However, they are dependent on the presence of an electrophilic carbon. CDDO and 15d-PGJ2, but not rosiglitazone, inhibited NF-κB activity. These results demonstrate that CDDO and 15d-PGJ2 are potent attenuators of proinflammatory responses in lung fibroblasts and suggest that these molecules should be explored as the basis for novel, targeted anti-inflammatory therapies in the lung and other organs.

  19. Cancer: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z › Cancer › Unique to Older Adults Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Unique ... group with other older people with the same type of cancer. Researchers have found that support groups ...

  20. Alcohol and older drivers' crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Researchers have examined the effects of alcohol consumption : on older adults functioning, and some have : addressed alcohols effects on older drivers crash risk. : Generally, the findings have shown that alcohol is less : likely to be a fa...